WorldWideScience

Sample records for hf part ii

  1. HF omnidirectional spectral CW auroral radar (HF-OSCAR) at very high latitude. Part 1: Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olesen, J. K.; Jacobsen, K. E.; Stauning, P.; Henriksen, S.

    1983-12-01

    An HF system for studies of very high latitude ionospheric irregularities was described. Radio aurora from field-aligned E-region irregularities of the Slant E Condition type were discussed. The complete system combines an ionosonde, a 12 MHz pulse radar and a 12 MHz bistatic CW Doppler-range set-up. The two latter units use alternately a 360 deg rotating Yagi antenna. High precision oscillators secure the frequency stability of the Doppler system in which the received signal is mixed down to a center frequency of 500 Hz. The Doppler shift range is max + or - 500 Hz. The received signal is recorded in analog form on magnetic tape and may be monitored visually and audibly. Echo range of the CW Doppler signal is obtained by a 150 Hz amplitude modulation of the transmitted signal and phase comparison with the backscattered signal.

  2. Stiffnites. Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Pareschi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available

    The dynamics of a stiffnite are here inferred. A stiffnite is a sheet-shaped, gravity-driven submarine sediment flow, with a fabric made up of marine ooze. To infer stiffnite dynamics, order of magnitude estimations are used. Field deposits and experiments on materials taken from the literature are also used. Stiffnites can be tens or hundreds of kilometers wide, and a few centimeters/ meters thick. They move on the sea slopes over hundreds of kilometers, reaching submarine velocities as high as 100 m/s. Hard grain friction favors grain fragmentation and formation of triboelectrically electrified particles and triboplasma (i.e., ions + electrons. Marine lipids favor isolation of electrical charges. At first, two basic assumptions are introduced, and checked a posteriori: (a in a flowing stiffnite, magnetic dipole moments develop, with the magnetization proportional to the shear rate. I have named those dipoles as Ambigua. (b Ambigua are ‘vertically frozen’ along stiffnite streamlines. From (a and (b, it follows that: (i Ambigua create a magnetic field (at peak, >1 T. (ii Lorentz forces sort stiffnite particles into two superimposed sheets. The lower sheet, L+, has a sandy granulometry and a net positive electrical charge density. The upper sheet, L–, has a silty muddy granulometry and a net negative electrical charge density; the grains of sheet L– become finer upwards. (iii Faraday forces push ferromagnetic grains towards the base of a stiffnite, so that a peak of magnetic susceptibility characterizes a stiffnite deposit. (iv Stiffnites harden considerably during their motion, due to magnetic confinement. Stiffnite deposits and inferred stiffnite characteristics are compatible with a stable flow behavior against bending, pinch, or other macro instabilities. In the present report, a consistent hypothesis about the nature of Ambigua is provided.

  3. Mid-Latitude Mobile Wideband HF- NVIS Channel Analysis: Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-14

    communications (SATCOM) for beyond line-of- sight (LOS) links. However, standard HF systems operating over a 3-kHz bandwidth do not provide sufficient...wideband mid-latitude HF channel soundings and three-dimensional (3-D) ray-tracing simulations to develop a statistical model of a particular nearly...46 5 THE HF-NVIS CHANNEL SOUNDING SYSTEM ...................................................................... 47 5.1 TRANSMIT AND RECEIVE HF

  4. Exploring Water Pollution. Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rillo, Thomas J.

    1975-01-01

    This is part two of a three part article related to the science activity of exploring environmental problems. Part one dealt with background information for the classroom teacher. Presented here is a suggested lesson plan on water pollution. Objectives, important concepts and instructional procedures are suggested. (EB)

  5. Exploring Water Pollution. Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rillo, Thomas J.

    1975-01-01

    This is part two of a three part article related to the science activity of exploring environmental problems. Part one dealt with background information for the classroom teacher. Presented here is a suggested lesson plan on water pollution. Objectives, important concepts and instructional procedures are suggested. (EB)

  6. Expertise revisited, Part II: Contributory expertise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Harry; Evans, Robert; Weinel, Martin

    2016-04-01

    In Part I of this two part paper we tried to elicit the 'essence' of the notion of interactional expertise by looking at its origins. In Part II we will look at the notion of contributory expertise. The exercise has been triggered by recent discussion of these concepts in this journal by Plaisance and Kennedy and by Goddiksen.

  7. Local Area Networks: Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessy, Raymond E., Ed.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses five approaches used by industry/colleges to provide local area network (LAN) capabilities in the analytical laboratory: (1) mixed baseband bus network coupled to a star net; (2) broadband bus network; (3) ring network; (4) star network coupled to broadband net; and (5) simple multiprocessor center. Part I (September issue) focused on…

  8. Revenue cycle management, Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crew, Matt

    2007-01-01

    The proper management of your revenue cycle requires the application of "best practices" and the continual monitoring and measuring of the entire cycle. The correct technology will enable you to gain the insight and efficiencies needed in the ever-changing healthcare economy. The revenue cycle is a process that begins when you negotiate payor contracts, set fees, and schedule appointments and continues until claims are paid in full. Every single step in the cycle carries equal importance. Monitoring all phases and a commitment to continually communicating the results will allow you to achieve unparalleled success. In part I of this article, we explored the importance of contracting, scheduling, and case management as well as coding and clinical documentation. We will now take a closer look at the benefits charge capture, claim submission, payment posting, accounts receivable follow-up, and reporting can mean to your practice.

  9. Ergonomics action research II: a framework for integrating HF into work system design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, W P; Village, J

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a conceptual framework that can support efforts to integrate human factors (HF) into the work system design process, where improved and cost-effective application of HF is possible. The framework advocates strategies of broad stakeholder participation, linking of performance and health goals, and process focussed change tools that can help practitioners engage in improvements to embed HF into a firm's work system design process. Recommended tools include business process mapping of the design process, implementing design criteria, using cognitive mapping to connect to managers' strategic goals, tactical use of training and adopting virtual HF (VHF) tools to support the integration effort. Consistent with organisational change research, the framework provides guidance but does not suggest a strict set of steps. This allows more adaptability for the practitioner who must navigate within a particular organisational context to secure support for embedding HF into the design process for improved operator wellbeing and system performance. There has been little scientific literature about how a practitioner might integrate HF into a company's work system design process. This paper proposes a framework for this effort by presenting a coherent conceptual framework, process tools, design tools and procedural advice that can be adapted for a target organisation.

  10. Globalization in the pharmaceutical industry, Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casadio Tarabusi, C; Vickery, G

    1998-01-01

    This is the second of a two-part report on the pharmaceutical industry. Part II begins with a discussion of foreign direct investment and inter-firm networks, which covers international mergers, acquisitions, and minority participation; market shares of foreign-controlled firms; international collaboration agreements (with a special note on agreements in biotechnology); and licensing agreements. The final section of the report covers governmental policies on health and safety regulation, price regulation, industry and technology, trade, foreign investment, protection of intellectual property, and competition.

  11. Inaccessibility and subinaccessibility. In two parts. Part II (in Russian)

    CERN Document Server

    Kiselev, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    This work represents a translation from English into Russian of the second part of the monograph by Alexander Kiselev under the same title. It contains the proof (in ZF) of inaccessible cardinals nonexistence. The first edition of this work was published in 2000. This part II contains applications of the subinaccessible cardinals apparatus and its basic tools - theories of reduced formula spectra and matrices, disseminators and others, which are used here in this proof and are set forth now in their more transparent and refined form. Much attention is devoted to the more explicit and substantial development and cultivation of basic ideas, serving as grounds for all main constructions and reasonings. The proof of the theorem about inaccessible cardinals nonexistence is presented in its detailed exposition. Several easy consequences of this theorem and some well-known results are presented. Appropriated for specialists in Set Theory and Mathematical Logic, and also for teachers and students of faculties of the ...

  12. Zr, Hf, U, Th and REE-Fertile Lower Proterozoic Potassic Granite from Parts of Andhra Pradesh, South India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yamuna SINGH

    2004-01-01

    The medium- to coarse-grained and porphyritic granitoid of Dharmawaram, Karimnagar district, Andhra Pradesh, south India is a biotite-hornblende granite with notable contents of rare metal (Zr, Hf, Th) and rare earth (including Y) minerals like zircon, thorite, allanite, monazite and xenotime. Chemically, it is metaluminous (average A/C+N+K = 0.95)-type, potassic (ay. 5% K2O) granite, with dominantly sub-alkaline characters. It shows up to 8 times enrichment of rare metals (Zr, Hf, U, Th) and rare earths (including Y, Sc), with reference to their abundances in normal unevolved granite, and hence, fertile for some of these elements. Field, petrological, geochemical and isotopic data of potassic granite (PG) indicate involvement of silica-rich metasedimentary-basic crustal rocks (amphibole-quartzite,amphibolite, hornblende-biotite gneiss, etc.) in its genesis, at a depth range of 30 km. Further, chondrite-normalized REE patterns demonstrate that low-degree partial melting of source rocks is the major controlling factor in the genesis of PG.Mild negative Eu-anomaiy (av. Eu/Eu* = 0.48), plots of Ba-Rb-Sr in the field of anomalous granite and K/Rb ratios (av.239) in the range that is shown by normal unevolved granite together indicate less fractionated nature of the PG. Limited fractionation of metalumination-type, involving hornblende, led to occasional weak alumina saturation. Interestingly,geochemical and petrogenetic features of the studied PG broadly match with those potassic granites which are already known to host anomalously high enrichment of rare metals and rare earths in other parts of Andhra Pradesh and adjoining Kamataka.

  13. Critical appraisal: dental amalgam update--part II: biological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Michael J; Swift, Edward J

    2013-12-01

    Dental amalgam restorations have been controversial for over 150 years. In Part I of this Critical Appraisal, the clinical efficacy of dental amalgam was updated. Here in Part II, the biological effects of dental amalgam are addressed.

  14. Reclaiming Kindergarten: Part II--Questions about Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullo, Dominic F.; Hughes, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Part II of "Reclaiming Kindergarten" continues the discussion related to responding to the crisis in today's kindergarten. In Part II, two policy questions are posed, the answers to which seek to respond to this continuing crisis. The questions center on issues related to engaging families in kindergarten and the need to consider a new early…

  15. The Search for Another Earth - Part II

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-10-01

    In the first part, we discussed the various methods for thedetection of planets outside the solar system known as theexoplanets. In this part, we will describe various kinds ofexoplanets. The habitable planets discovered so far and thepresent status of our search for a habitable planet similar tothe Earth will also be discussed.

  16. Reproduce and die! Why aging? Part II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuiling, GA

    2005-01-01

    Whilst in part I of this diptych on aging the question why aging exists at all is discussed; this part deals with the question which mechanisms underly aging and, ultimately, dying. It appears that aging is not just an active process as such - although all kinds of internal (e.g., oxigen-free radica

  17. A comparative analysis of the results from 4 trials of beta-blocker therapy for heart failure: BEST, CIBIS-II, MERIT-HF, and COPERNICUS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domanski, Michael J; Krause-Steinrauf, Heidi; Massie, Barry M; Deedwania, Prakash; Follmann, Dean; Kovar, David; Murray, David; Oren, Ron; Rosenberg, Yves; Young, James; Zile, Michael; Eichhorn, Eric

    2003-10-01

    Recent large randomized, controlled trials (BEST [Beta-blocker Evaluation of Survival Trial], CIBIS-II [Cardiac Insufficiency Bisoprolol Trial II], COPERNICUS [Carvedilol Prospective Randomized Cumulative Survival Study], and MERIT-HF [Metoprolol Randomized Intervention Trial in Congestive Heart Failure]) have addressed the usefulness of beta-blockade in the treatment of advanced heart failure. CIBIS-II, COPERNICUS, and MERIT-HF have shown that beta-blocker treatment with bisoprolol, carvedilol, and metoprolol XL, respectively, reduce mortality in advanced heart failure patients, whereas BEST found a statistically nonsignificant trend toward reduced mortality with bucindolol. We conducted a post hoc analysis to determine whether the response to beta-blockade in BEST could be related to differences in the clinical and demographic characteristics of the study populations. We generated a sample from BEST to resemble the patient cohorts studied in CIBIS-II and MERIT-HF to find out whether the response to beta-blocker therapy was similar to that reported in the other trials. These findings are further compared with COPERNICUS, which entered patients with more severe heart failure. To achieve conformity with the entry criteria for CIBIS-II and MERIT-HF, the BEST study population was adjusted to exclude patients with systolic blood pressure 80 years (exclusion criteria employed in those trials). The BEST comparison subgroup (BCG) was further modified to more closely reflect the racial demographics reported for patients enrolled in CIBIS-II and MERIT-HF. The association of beta-blocker therapy with overall survival and survival free of cardiac death, sudden cardiac death, and progressive pump failure in the BCG was assessed. In the BCG subgroup, bucindolol treatment was associated with significantly lower risk of death from all causes (hazard ratio (HR)=0.77 [95% CI=0.65, 0.92]), cardiovascular death (HR=0.71 [0.58, 0.86]), sudden death (HR=0.77 [0.59, 0.999]), and pump

  18. Manganese ferrite thin films Part II: Properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulscher, W.S.

    1972-01-01

    Some properties of evaporated manganese ferrite thin films are investigated, e.g. resistivity, magnetization reversal, Curie temperature, Faraday rotation and optical absorption. The properties are partly related to the partial oxygen pressure present during a preceding annealing process.

  19. Biochemical Engineering. Part II: Process Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, B.

    1972-01-01

    Describes types of industrial techniques involving biochemical products, specifying the advantages and disadvantages of batch and continuous processes, and contrasting biochemical and chemical engineering. See SE 506 318 for Part I. (AL)

  20. Inaccessibility and Subinaccessibility. In two parts. Part II

    CERN Document Server

    Kiselev, A

    2010-01-01

    The work presents the second part of the second edition of its previous one published in 2000 under the same title, containing the proof (in $ZF$) of the inaccessible cardinals nonexistence, which is enriched and improved now. This part contains applications of the subinaccessible cardinals apparatus and its basic tools -- theories of reduced formula spectra and matrices, disseminators and others, which are used here in this proof and are set forth now in their more transparent and simplified form. Much attention is devoted to the explicit and substantial development and cultivation of basic ideas, serving as grounds for all main constructions and reasonings. The proof of the theorem about inaccessible cardinals nonexistence is presented in its detailed exposition. Several easy consequences of this theorem and some well-known results are presented.

  1. Shalom Sefarad: Una "erensya" envenenada (Parte II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARINA VARGAS GÓMEZ-URRUTIA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper focus the regulation established in the Law 12/2015, June 24 for granting the Spanish nationality to the Sephardic originating from Spain. The second part analyzes the amendments made to the bill during the parliamentary process and critically examines the most important aspects of the final text of the law. En este trabajo se da cuenta de la regulación establecida en la Ley 12/2015, de 24 de junio para la concesión de la nacionalidad española a los sefardíes originarios de España. Esta segunda parte analiza las enmiendas introducidas al Proyecto de Ley durante el proceso parlamentario y examina críticamente los aspectos más relevantes del texto final de la ley.

  2. Plasma Astrophysics, part II Reconnection and Flares

    CERN Document Server

    Somov, Boris V

    2007-01-01

    This well-illustrated monograph is devoted to classic fundamentals, current practice, and perspectives of modern plasma astrophysics. The first part is unique in covering all the basic principles and practical tools required for understanding and working in plasma astrophysics. The second part presents the physics of magnetic reconnection and flares of electromagnetic origin in space plasmas within the solar system; single and double stars, relativistic objects, accretion disks, and their coronae are also covered. This book is designed mainly for professional researchers in astrophysics. However, it will also be interesting and useful to graduate students in space sciences, geophysics, as well as advanced students in applied physics and mathematics seeking a unified view of plasma physics and fluid mechanics.

  3. Wound healing: part II. Clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janis, Jeffrey; Harrison, Bridget

    2014-03-01

    Treatment of all wounds requires adequate wound bed preparation, beginning with irrigation and débridement. Complicated or chronic wounds may also require treatment adjuncts or specialized wound healing products. An extensive body of research and development has introduced novel wound healing therapies and scar management options. In this second of a two-part continuing medical education series on wound healing, the reader is offered an update on current wound healing technologies and recommendations for obtaining optimal outcomes.

  4. Treatment of superficial mycoses: review - part II

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Superficial fungal infections of the hair, skin and nails are a major cause of morbidity in the world. Choosing the right treatment is not always simple because of the possibility of drug interactions and side effects. The first part of the article discusses the main treatments for superficial mycoses - keratophytoses, dermatophytosis, candidiasis, with a practical approach to the most commonly-used topical and systemic drugs , referring also to their dosage and duration of use. Promising new...

  5. Treatment of superficial mycoses: review - part II*

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Superficial fungal infections of the hair, skin and nails are a major cause of morbidity in the world. Choosing the right treatment is not always simple because of the possibility of drug interactions and side effects. The first part of the article discusses the main treatments for superficial mycoses - keratophytoses, dermatophytosis, candidiasis, with a practical approach to the most commonly-used topical and systemic drugs , referring also to their dosage and duration of use. Promising new...

  6. Management Plan : Parts I & II : Tamarac National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Parts I and II of the Management Plan for Tamarac NWR summarize the location, history, environment, resources, administration, land status, and current management...

  7. La urdimbre del tejido social II Parte

    OpenAIRE

    Galindo Cáceres, Jesús

    1985-01-01

    El artículo corresponde a al segunda parte del trabajo titulado "La urdimbre dle tejido social" que apareciera en el número 6 de nuestra Revista. Después de iniciar una reflexión alrededor del análisis de la composiciónsocial y su relación con elementos tales como el Estado y el poder, el autor pasa a considerar elementos como comunicación y hegemonía presentes al interior de la organización social.

  8. Drugs, money and society (Part II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walley, Tom

    2010-09-01

    Pharmacoeconomics started as marketing but has developed into a valuable tool in the fuller assessment of drug therapies. Its principles are now widely accepted, and many countries have government-funded agencies with responsibility for its application, most notably the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence in England. Many clinical pharmacologists are active in this area, and the discipline itself is part of the clinical pharmacology trainees' curriculum. Further developments will include value-based pricing and its use in cost sharing arrangements between health service and manufacturers.

  9. New particle searches in ALEPH (part II)

    CERN Document Server

    Roussarie, A

    1991-01-01

    This report is the second part of the ALEPH search report . I t covers the search for super - symmetric particles (Higgs , chargino s an d neutralinos ) withi n th e framewor k o f th e Minima l Supersymmmetri c Standar d Mode l an d th e searc h fo r composi t charge d lepton s an d neutrinos . Lowe r limit s o f masse s o f suc h ne w particle s ar e given . Mos t o f the m ar e ver y clos e t o th e LE P I kenematica l limit .

  10. Treatment of superficial mycoses: review - part II*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Maria Fernanda Reis Gavazzoni; Bernardes-Filho, Fred; Quaresma-Santos, Maria Victória Pinto; Amorim, Adriana Gutstein da Fonseca; Schechtman, Regina Casz; Azulay, David Rubem

    2013-01-01

    Superficial fungal infections of the hair, skin and nails are a major cause of morbidity in the world. Choosing the right treatment is not always simple because of the possibility of drug interactions and side effects. The first part of the article discusses the main treatments for superficial mycoses - keratophytoses, dermatophytosis, candidiasis, with a practical approach to the most commonly-used topical and systemic drugs , referring also to their dosage and duration of use. Promising new, antifungal therapeutic alternatives are also highlighted, as well as available options on the Brazilian and world markets. PMID:24474103

  11. Treatment of superficial mycoses: review. Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Maria Fernanda Reis Gavazzoni; Bernardes-Filho, Fred; Quaresma-Santos, Maria Victória Pinto; Amorim, Adriana Gutstein da Fonseca; Schechtman, Regina Casz; Azulay, David Rubem

    2013-01-01

    Superficial fungal infections of the hair, skin and nails are a major cause of morbidity in the world. Choosing the right treatment is not always simple because of the possibility of drug interactions and side effects. The first part of the article discusses the main treatments for superficial mycoses - keratophytoses, dermatophytosis, candidiasis, with a practical approach to the most commonly-used topical and systemic drugs , referring also to their dosage and duration of use. Promising new, antifungal therapeutic alternatives are also highlighted, as well as available options on the Brazilian and world markets.

  12. Simulation in Wood Industry. Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihály Varga

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this simulation is to introduce and realize a part of material flow of an international furniture manufacturing company. This simulation was made with a special process-simulation software, called SIMUL8. With SIMUL8 we could simulate the whole process under real circumstances, and obtain the actual values of specific parameters relevant for the company. This opportunity helped the company to develop its strategy - to maximize the production efficiency and to find out the possibble bottle-necks without making any investment, and to rearrange the workcenters effectively.

  13. Curriculum Redesign in Veterinary Medicine: Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macik, Maria L; Chaney, Kristin P; Turner, Jacqueline S; Rogers, Kenita S; Scallan, Elizabeth M; Korich, Jodi A; Fowler, Debra; Keefe, Lisa M

    2017-01-01

    Curricular review is considered a necessary component for growth and enhancement of academic programs and requires time, energy, creativity, and persistence from both faculty and administration. On a larger scale, a comprehensive redesign effort involves forming a dedicated faculty redesign team, developing program learning outcomes, mapping the existing curriculum, and reviewing the curriculum in light of collected stakeholder data. The faculty of the Texas A&M University College of Veterinary Medicine & Biomedical Sciences (TAMU) recently embarked on a comprehensive curriculum redesign effort through partnership with the university's Center for Teaching Excellence. Using a previously developed evidence-based model of program redesign, TAMU created a process for use in veterinary medical education, which is described in detail in the first part of this article series. An additional component of the redesign process that is understated, yet vital for success, is faculty buy-in and support. Without faculty engagement, implementation of data-driven curricular changes stemming from program evaluation may be challenging. This second part of the article series describes the methodology for encouraging faculty engagement through the final steps of the redesign initiative and the lessons learned by TAMU through the redesign process.

  14. Anomalous transport from holography: Part II

    CERN Document Server

    Bu, Yanyan; Sharon, Amir

    2016-01-01

    This is a second study of chiral anomaly induced transport within a holographic model consisting of anomalous $U(1)_V\\times U(1)_A$ Maxwell theory in Schwarzschild-$AdS_5$ spacetime. In the first part, chiral magnetic/separation effects (CME/CSE) are considered in presence of a static spatially-inhomogeneous external magnetic field. Gradient corrections to CME/CSE are analytically evaluated up to third order in the derivative expansion. Some of the third order gradient corrections lead to an anomaly-induced negative $B^2$-correction to the diffusion constant. We also find non-linear modifications to the chiral magnetic wave (CMW). In the second part, we focus on the experimentally interesting case of the axial chemical potential being induced dynamically by a constant magnetic and time-dependent electric fields. Constitutive relations for the vector/axial currents are computed employing two different approximations: (a) derivative expansion (up to third order) but fully nonlinear in the external fields, and (...

  15. Generic drugs in dermatology: part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payette, Michael; Grant-Kels, Jane M

    2012-03-01

    In part I, we discussed new drug development, reviewed the history of the generic drug industry, described how generic drugs are approved by the US Food and Drug Administration, and defined the concepts of bioequivalence and therapeutic equivalence. Herein, we explore various factors impacting generic drug use across the different parties involved: the prescriber, the pharmacist, the patient, and the payer. We also include original cost analysis of dermatologic brand name and generic drugs and show the potential cost savings that can be achieved through generic substitution. We conclude with a review of the data addressing potential differences in the effectiveness of brand name versus generic drugs in dermatology. The cost of brand name and generic medications is highly variable by pharmacy, state, and payer. We used one source (www.drugstore.com) as an example and for consistency across all medications discussed herein. Prices included here may not reflect actual retail prices across the United States.

  16. The sociogeometry of inequality: Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2015-05-01

    The study of socioeconomic inequality is of prime economic and social importance, and the key quantitative gauges of socioeconomic inequality are Lorenz curves and inequality indices - the most notable of the latter being the popular Gini index. In this series of papers we present a sociogeometric framework to the study of socioeconomic inequality. In this part we focus on the gap between the rich and the poor, which is quantified by gauges termed disparity curves. We shift from disparity curves to disparity sets, define inequality indices in terms of disparity sets, and introduce and explore a collection of distance-based and width-based inequality indices stemming from the geometry of disparity sets. We conclude with mean-absolute-deviation (MAD) representations of the inequality indices established in this series of papers, and with a comparison of these indices to the popular Gini index.

  17. Submodeling Simulations in Fusion Welds: Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifaz, E. A.

    2013-11-01

    In part I, three-dimensional transient non-linear sub modeling heat transfer simulations were performed to study the thermal histories and thermal cycles that occur during the welding process at the macro, meso and micro scales. In the present work, the corresponding non-uniform temperature changes were imposed as load conditions on structural calculations to study the evolution of localized plastic strains and residual stresses at these sub-level scales. To reach the goal, a three-dimensional finite element elastic-plastic model (ABAQUS code) was developed. The sub-modeling technique proposed to be used in coupling phase-field (and/or digital microstructures) codes with finite element codes, was used to mesh a local part of the model with a refined mesh based on interpolation of the solution from an initial, relatively coarse, macro global model. The meso-sub-model is the global model for the subsequent micro sub-model. The strategy used to calculate temperatures, strains and residual stresses at the macro, meso and micro scale level, is very flexible to be used to any number of levels. The objective of this research was to initiate the development of microstructural models to identify fusion welding process parameters for preserving the single crystal nature of gas turbine blades during repair procedures. The multi-scale submodeling approach can be used to capture weld pool features at the macro-meso scale level, and micro residual stress and secondary dendrite arm spacing features at the micro scale level.

  18. TEXTILE STRUCTURES FOR AERONAUTICS (PART II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SOLER Miquel

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional (3D textile structures with better delamination resistance and damage impact tolerance to be applied in composites for structural components is one of the main goals of the aeronautical industry. Textile Research Centre in Canet de Mar has been working since 2008 in this field. Our staff has been designing, developing and producing different textile structures using different production methods and machinery to improve three-dimensional textile structures as fiber reinforcement for composites. This paper describes different tests done in our textile labs from unidirectional structures to woven, knitted or braided 3 D textile structures. Advantages and disadvantages of each textile structure are summarized. The second part of this paper deals with our know-how in the manufacturing and assessing of three-dimensional textile structures during this last five years in the field of textile structures for composites but also in the development of structures for other applications. In the field of composites for aeronautic sector we have developed textile structures using the main methods of textile production, that is to say, weaving, warp knitting, weft knitting and braiding. Comparing the advantages and disadvantages it could be said that braided fabrics, with a structure in the three space axes are the most suitable for fittings and frames.

  19. [Conceptual Development in Cognitive Science. Part II].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierro, Marco

    2012-03-01

    Cognitive science has become the most influential paradigm on mental health in the late 20(th) and the early 21(st) centuries. In few years, the concepts, problem approaches and solutions proper to this science have significantly changed. Introduction and discussion of the fundamental concepts of cognitive science divided in four stages: Start, Classic Cognitivism, Connectionism, and Embodying / Enacting. The 2(nd) Part of the paper discusses the above mentioned fourth stage and explores the clinical setting, especially in terms of cognitive psychotherapy. The embodying/enacting stage highlights the role of the body including a set of determined evolutionary movements which provide a way of thinking and exploring the world. The performance of cognitive tasks is considered as a process that uses environmental resources that enhances mental skills and deploys them beyond the domestic sphere of the brain. On the other hand, body and mind are embedded in the world, thus giving rise to cognition when interacting, a process known as enacting. There is a close connection between perception and action, hence the interest in real-time interactions with the world rather than abstract reasoning. Regarding clinics, specifically the cognitive therapy, there is little conceptual discussion maybe due to good results from practice that may led us to consider that theoretical foundations are firm and not problem-raising. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  20. Compressor Part II: Volute Flow Predictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Tai Lee

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerical method that solves the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations is used to study an inefficient component of a shipboard air-conditioning HCFC-124 compressor system. This high-loss component of the centrifugal compressor was identified as the volute through a series of measurements given in Part I of the paper. The predictions were made using three grid topologies. The first grid closes the connection between the cutwater and the discharge diffuser. The other two grids connect the cutwater area with the discharge diffuser. Experiments were performed to simulate both the cutwater conditions used in the predictions. Surface pressures along the outer wall and near the inlet of the volute were surveyed for comparisons with the predictions. Good agreements between the predicted results and the measurements validate the calculations. Total pressure distributions and flow stream traces from the prediction results support the loss distribution through the volute. A modified volute configuration is examined numerically for further loss comparison.

  1. Adhesive-composite incompatibility, part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Ricardo M; Garcia, Fernanda Cristina P; e Silva, Safira M A; Castro, Fabrício L A

    2005-01-01

    Apart from some questions related to the repairability of resin composite restorations, dentists have always assumed that methacrylate-based resins are compatible with each other. For example, there is no clinically relevant problem in using a microfilled composite to laminate a Class IV restoration made with a hybrid composite, even if they are not of the same brand or manufacturer. In the context of adhesive systems, we have always believed that resin composites, regardless of their type or composition, bond well to all types of bonding agents. However, unexpected debonding of self-cured, core buildup composites that had been bonded with single-bottle adhesive systems was reported about 5 years ago. Subsequent studies demonstrated that there were, indeed, compatibility problems between simplified adhesive systems and self- or dual-cured resin composites. Apparently, when such combinations are used, reduced bond strengths and subsequent failures at the resin-adhesive interface can occur because of adverse reactions between the acidic resin monomers, an integral part of the simplified adhesive systems, and the chemicals involved in the polymerization mechanism of the self- or dual-cured composites, particularly the basic tertiary amines.

  2. A Physicist for All Seasons: Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheimer, Frank

    2013-06-01

    The second part of this interview covers Frank Oppenheimer's move to the University of California at Berkeley and wartime work at the Westinghouse Research Laboratories in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, at the electromagnetic-separation plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and at Los Alamos, New Mexico (1941-1945); his postwar research at Berkeley (1945-1947); his appointment at the University of Minnesota in 1947 and firing two years later after being required to testify before the House Un-American Activities Committee; his decade as a rancher in Colorado (1949-1959) and high-school science teacher toward the end of this period; his research at the University of Colorado in Boulder after 1959; his year as a Guggenheim Fellow at University College London in 1965; and his founding of the Exploratorium in San Francisco. California, in 1969. He also discusses his wartime relations with his older brother Robert and postwar events in Robert's life, including his Hearings before the Personnel Security Board of the Atomic Energy Commission in 1954.

  3. Society. Part II: moderate to severe psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Szepietowski

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease affecting about 1–3% of the general population. Recent years have seen great development in the treatment of this dermatosis, especially regarding moderate to severe psoriasis. More numerous and more widely available systemic therapies raise new challenges for all physicians treating patients with psoriasis. New questions arise about patients’ follow-up and long-term safety of such therapies. To meet the expectations of Polish dermatologists, we have prepared a second part of guidelines on the treatment of psoriasis, particularly concentrated on the therapy of severe forms of this disease. We hope that our suggestions will be valuable for physicians in their daily clinical practice. However, we would like to underline that every guideline is characterized by some vagueness, and the final decision about diagnosis and therapy should always be made individually for every patient based on the patient’s current clinical status and the most up-to-date scientific literature data.

  4. Photoprotection: part II. Sunscreen: development, efficacy, and controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Rebecca; Osterwalder, Uli; Wang, Steven Q; Burnett, Mark; Lim, Henry W

    2013-12-01

    In addition to the naturally occurring, physical, and systemic photoprotective agents reviewed in part I, topical ultraviolet radiation filters are an important cornerstone of photoprotection. Sunscreen development, efficacy, testing, and controversies are reviewed in part II of this continuing medical education article. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Calculus of Elementary Functions, Part II. Student Text. Revised Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herriot, Sarah T.; And Others

    This course is intended for students who have a thorough knowledge of college preparatory mathematics, including algebra, axiomatic geometry, trigonometry, and analytic geometry. This text, Part II, contains material designed to follow Part I. Chapters included in this text are: (6) Derivatives of Exponential and Related Functions; (7) Area and…

  6. Calculus of Elementary Functions, Part II. Teacher's Commentary. Revised Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herriot, Sarah T.; And Others

    This course is intended for students who have a thorough knowledge of college preparatory mathematics, including algebra, axiomatic geometry, trigonometry, and analytic geometry. This teacher's guide is for Part II of the course. It is designed to follow Part I of the text. The guide contains background information, suggested instructional…

  7. Correctional Training. Institution Familiarization. Part II: The Training Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Prisons (Dept. of Justice), Washington, DC.

    Designed to assist training coordinators in the initial institution familiarization training for new employees in correctional institutions, this manual consists of two documents: a training coordinator's guide (Part I - CE 017 285) and this document, the training program (Part II). Four training areas are treated: (1) an introduction consisting…

  8. Kick, Glide, Pole! Cross-Country Skiing Fun (Part II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duoos, Bridget A.

    2012-01-01

    Part I of Kick, Glide, Pole! Cross-Country Skiing Fun, which was published in last issue, discussed how to select cross-country ski equipment, dress for the activity and the biomechanics of the diagonal stride. Part II focuses on teaching the diagonal stride technique and begins with a progression of indoor activities. Incorporating this fun,…

  9. EMC of Electrical Systems - Electromagnetic Coupling ( Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KOVACOVA, I.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the general analysis of one part of the electromagnetic compatibility (EMC problem - the electromagnetic coupling applied in the field of power electrical systems. The verification simulation analyses and practical measurements of the electromagnetic coupling, which are confirming the correctness of results obtained from theoretical analyses (part I., are presented in part II. So they can be used for predictive stating of EMC quality of individual new electrotechnical products.

  10. Catalytic para-xylene maximization. Part X: Toluene disproportionation on HF promoted H-ZSM-5 catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed K. Aboul-Gheit

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available H-ZSM-5 zeolite catalysts were doped with 2%, 3% and 4%HF to be used for investigating their activities and selectivities for xylenes production and for para-xylene maximization at temperatures of 300–500 °C via toluene disproportionation. This doping caused pore size modification of the H-ZSM-5 catalyst. The reaction was carried out in a fixed bed flow type reactor. The ratio of produced para-xylene relative to its thermodynamic composition reached as high as 3.29 at 300 °C on the 4%HF doped H-ZSM-5 catalyst although this catalyst possessed the lowest amount of the largest pores (3.0–5.7 nm and the smallest pores (0.4–1.7 nm. The overall activities of the catalysts were decreased with an increase in HF doping because of diffusion restriction. The kinetics of the reaction were simply treated and found to give Ea and ΔS∗ values compatible with the characterization data of the catalysts.

  11. Recent Economic Perspectives on Political Economy, Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewan, Torun; Shepsle, Kenneth A

    2008-07-01

    In recent years some of the best theoretical work on the political economy of political institutions and processes has begun surfacing outside the political science mainstream in high quality economics journals. This two-part paper surveys these contributions from a recent five-year period. In Part I, the focus is on elections, voting and information aggregation, followed by treatments of parties, candidates, and coalitions. In Part II, papers on economic performance and redistribution, constitutional design, and incentives, institutions, and the quality of political elites are discussed. Part II concludes with a discussion of the methodological bases common to economics and political science, the way economists have used political science research, and some new themes and arbitrage opportunities.

  12. Recent Economic Perspectives on Political Economy, Part II*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewan, Torun; Shepsle, Kenneth A.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years some of the best theoretical work on the political economy of political institutions and processes has begun surfacing outside the political science mainstream in high quality economics journals. This two-part paper surveys these contributions from a recent five-year period. In Part I, the focus is on elections, voting and information aggregation, followed by treatments of parties, candidates, and coalitions. In Part II, papers on economic performance and redistribution, constitutional design, and incentives, institutions, and the quality of political elites are discussed. Part II concludes with a discussion of the methodological bases common to economics and political science, the way economists have used political science research, and some new themes and arbitrage opportunities. PMID:23606754

  13. High Performance Liquid Chromatography/Video Fluorometry. Part II. Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-30

    HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY /VIDEO FLUOROMETRY. PART...REP«T_N&:-ŗ/ High Performance Liquid Chromatography /Video Fluorometry» Part II. Applications« by | Dennis C./Shelly* Michael P./Vogarty and...Data EnlirtdJ REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE t. REPORT NUMBER 2 GOVT ACCESSION NO 4. T1TI.F (and Submit) lP-^fffsyva High Performance Liquid Chromatography

  14. Nursing Care of Patients Undergoing Chemotherapy Desensitization: Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakel, Patricia; Carsten, Cynthia; Carino, Arvie; Braskett, Melinda

    2016-04-01

    Chemotherapy desensitization protocols are safe, but labor-intensive, processes that allow patients with cancer to receive medications even if they initially experienced severe hypersensitivity reactions. Part I of this column discussed the pathophysiology of hypersensitivity reactions and described the development of desensitization protocols in oncology settings. Part II incorporates the experiences of an academic medical center and provides a practical guide for the nursing care of patients undergoing chemotherapy desensitization.
.

  15. Periodontal Disease Part II: Overview of Treatment Modalities

    OpenAIRE

    Deporter, Douglas A.

    1988-01-01

    In Part II of this article, the author looks at treatment modalities, emphasizing that the key to periodontal health is the removal of plaque and calculus from subgingival sites by means of a combination of effective home care, regular professional cleaning, and surgical treatment where necessary.

  16. High gradient magnetic filtration and separation. Part II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fletcher, D.

    The paper contains the second part of a two part paper in which the developing role of high grade magnetic filtration and separation (HGMF/S) is reviewed. Part I discussed the increasing potential for the technique and outlined the basic theory behind it. Part II describes the practical application of the technique with particular reference to the beneficiation of fine coal. Aspects considered are: a simple laboratory HGMF/S device; the matrix and its efficency; processing rates in HGMF/S; coal desulphurization and deashing - a potential application of HGMS. The paper concludes that HGMF/S is a process of high potential application as natural particles have a wide variation of magnetic character. Add to this the space saving nature of very powerful superconducting systems and their low energy consumption and it can be safely predicted that HGMF/S will, over time, gain many more applications as whole or part of whole filtration and separation processes. 19 references.

  17. Cicatrização: conceitos atuais e recursos auxiliares - Parte II Cicatrization: current concepts and auxiliary resources - Part II

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Na Parte I deste artigo, publicada na edição anterior dos Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia, foram revisados os conceitos de cicatrização e foi ressaltada a importância da atuação multidisciplinar na abordagem das feridas, compreendendo-se o paciente como um todo. Nesta Parte II são apresentados os recursos que podem auxiliar o processo de cicatrização, bem como os diversos tipos de curativos disponíveis e a sua respectiva indicação.In Part I of this article, published in the previous edition...

  18. The Nature of Reinforcement: Part I. (Volume I), Part II. (Volume II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Robert, Ed.

    Part One of this report describes the first half of a conference, designed to examine the nature of reinforcement, which was held at the University of Pittsburgh in June 1969. The topics discussed include: "Reward in Human Learning: Theoretical Issues and Strategic Choice Points"; "Are Reinforcement Concepts Able to Provide Reinforcement for…

  19. 49 CFR Appendix A-Ii to Part 541 - Lines With Antitheft Devices Which Are Exempted in-Part From the Parts-Marking Requirements of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-Part From the Parts-Marking Requirements of This Standard Pursuant to 49 CFR Part 543 A Appendix A-II... TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR VEHICLE THEFT PREVENTION STANDARD Pt. 541, App. A-II Appendix A-II to Part 541—Lines With Antitheft Devices Which Are Exempted in...

  20. Treatment of cellulite: Part II. Advances and controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Misbah H; Victor, Frank; Rao, Babar; Sadick, Neil S

    2010-03-01

    Treatments for localized adiposities range from topical creams to liposuction. Most treatments lack a substantial proof of efficacy. The unpredictable treatment outcome can be related to the fact that cellulite adipose tissue is physiologically and biochemically different from subcutaneous tissue found elsewhere in the body. Part II of this two-part series on cellulite reviews the various treatment options that are currently available for human adipose tissue including, but not limited to, cellulite. It also focuses on newer techniques that can be potentially useful in the future for the treatment of cellulite. Copyright 2010 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Recent Achievements in Simulated Moving Bed (SMB Technology. Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roje, M.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Progress in the method of simulated moving bed (SMB technology and some important achievements in separation of specific classes of racemic compounds of therapeutic interest are reported in the Part I of this review. Part II describes novel methods of SMB technology. Complex technologies,such as the combination of SMB and biocatalytic reactions, and SMB with crystallization process, are presented. VariCol variant of SMB, and its application in the separation of the racemic mixtures of commercial and academic interest are discussed. In the conclusive section, comments are given concerning the economic dimension and the market of enantiomerically pure compounds.

  2. The Value of Imaging Part II: Value beyond Image Interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Phuong-Anh T; Pastel, David A; Sadigh, Gelareh; Ballard, David; Sullivan, Joseph C; Bresnahan, Brian; Buch, Karen; Duszak, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Although image interpretation is an essential part of radiologists' value, there are other ways in which we contribute to patient care. Part II of the value of imaging series reviews current initiatives that demonstrate value beyond the image interpretation. Standardizing processes, reducing the radiation dose of our examinations, clarifying written reports, improving communications with patients and providers, and promoting appropriate imaging through decision support are all ways we can provide safer, more consistent, and higher quality care. As payers and policy makers push to drive value, research that demonstrates the value of these endeavors, or lack thereof, will become increasingly sought after and supported.

  3. Dermatoses neutrofílicas: parte II Neutrophilic dermatoses: part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Razera

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo são abordadas as dermatoses neutrofílicas, complementando o artigo anterior (parte I. São apresentadas e comentadas as seguintes dermatoses: pustulose subcórnea de Sneddon-Wilkinson, dermatite crural pustulosa e atrófica, pustulose exantemática generalizada aguda, acroder matite contínua de Hallopeau, pustulose palmoplantar, acropustulose infantil, bacteride pustular de Andrews e foliculite pustulosa eosinofílica. Uma breve revisão das dermatoses neutrofílicas em pacientes pediátricos também é realizada.This article addresses neutrophilic dermatoses, thus complementing the previous article (part I. The following dermatoses are introduced and discussed: subcorneal pustular dermatosis (Sneddon-Wilkinson disease, dermatitis cruris pustulosa et atrophicans, acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis, continuous Hallopeau acrodermatitis, palmoplantar pustulosis, infantile acropustulosis, Andrews' pustular bacteride and eosinophilic pustular folliculitis. A brief review of neutrophilic dermatoses in pediatric patients is also conducted.

  4. Mapping ionospheric backscatter measured by the SuperDARN HF radars – Part 1: A new empirical virtual height model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. K. Yeoman

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Accurately mapping the location of ionospheric backscatter targets (density irregularities identified by the Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN HF radars can be a major problem, particularly at far ranges for which the radio propagation paths are longer and more uncertain. Assessing and increasing the accuracy of the mapping of scattering locations is crucial for the measurement of two-dimensional velocity structures on the small and meso-scale, for which overlapping velocity measurements from two radars need to be combined, and for studies in which SuperDARN data are used in conjunction with measurements from other instruments. The co-ordinates of scattering locations are presently estimated using a combination of the measured range and a model virtual height, assuming a straight line virtual propagation path. By studying elevation angle of arrival information of backscatterred signals from 5 years of data (1997–2001 from the Saskatoon SuperDARN radar we have determined the actual distribution of the backscatter target locations in range-virtual height space. This has allowed the derivation of a new empirical virtual height model that allows for a more accurate mapping of the locations of backscatter targets.

  5. Cicatrização: conceitos atuais e recursos auxiliares - Parte II Cicatrization: current concepts and auxiliary resources - Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Henrique Mandelbaum

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Na Parte I deste artigo, publicada na edição anterior dos Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia, foram revisados os conceitos de cicatrização e foi ressaltada a importância da atuação multidisciplinar na abordagem das feridas, compreendendo-se o paciente como um todo. Nesta Parte II são apresentados os recursos que podem auxiliar o processo de cicatrização, bem como os diversos tipos de curativos disponíveis e a sua respectiva indicação.In Part I of this article, published in the previous edition of the Brazilian Annals of Dermatology, the cicatrization concepts were revised and the importance of the multidisciplinary approach was emphasized in the management of wounds as well as considering the global aspects of the patient. In Part II, we present the resources that can aid the cicatrization process, as well as the various types of curatives available and their respective indication.

  6. Polycystic ovary syndrome: a review for dermatologists: Part II. Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzney, Elizabeth; Sheu, Johanna; Buzney, Catherine; Reynolds, Rachel V

    2014-11-01

    Dermatologists are in a key position to treat the manifestations of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The management of PCOS should be tailored to each woman's specific goals, reproductive interests, and particular constellation of symptoms. Therefore, a multidisciplinary approach is recommended. In part II of this continuing medical education article, we present the available safety and efficacy data regarding treatments for women with acne, hirsutism, and androgenetic alopecia. Therapies discussed include lifestyle modification, topical therapies, combined oral contraceptives, antiandrogen agents, and insulin-sensitizing drugs. Treatment recommendations are made based on the current available evidence.

  7. Hf Transition Probabilities and Abundances

    CERN Document Server

    Lawler, J E; Labby, Z E; Sneden, C; Cowan, J J; Ivans, I I

    2006-01-01

    Radiative lifetimes from laser-induced fluorescence measurements, accurate to about +/- 5 percent, are reported for 41 odd-parity levels of Hf II. The lifetimes are combined with branching fractions measured using Fourier transform spectrometry to determine transition probabilities for 150 lines of Hf II. Approximately half of these new transition probabilities overlap with recent independent measurements using a similar approach. The two sets of measurements are found to be in good agreement for measurements in common. Our new laboratory data are applied to refine the hafnium photospheric solar abundance and to determine hafnium abundances in 10 metal-poor giant stars with enhanced r-process abundances. For the Sun we derive log epsilon (Hf) = 0.88 +/- 0.08 from four lines; the uncertainty is dominated by the weakness of the lines and their blending by other spectral features. Within the uncertainties of our analysis, the r-process-rich stars possess constant Hf/La and Hf/Eu abundance ratios, log epsilon (Hf...

  8. CE and nanomaterials - Part II: Nanomaterials in CE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Vojtech; Vaculovicova, Marketa

    2017-10-01

    The scope of this two-part review is to summarize publications dealing with CE and nanomaterials together. This topic can be viewed from two broad perspectives, and this article is trying to highlight these two approaches: (i) CE of nanomaterials, and (ii) nanomaterials in CE. The second part aims at summarization of publications dealing with application of nanomaterials for enhancement of CE performance either in terms of increasing the separation resolution or for improvement of the detection. To increase the resolution, nanomaterials are employed as either surface modification of the capillary wall forming open tubular column or as additives to the separation electrolyte resulting in a pseudostationary phase. Moreover, nanomaterials have proven to be very beneficial for increasing also the sensitivity of detection employed in CE or even they enable the detection (e.g., fluorescent tags of nonfluorescent molecules). © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Structure Learning and Statistical Estimation in Distribution Networks - Part II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deka, Deepjyoti [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Backhaus, Scott N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Chertkov, Michael [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-02-13

    Limited placement of real-time monitoring devices in the distribution grid, recent trends notwithstanding, has prevented the easy implementation of demand-response and other smart grid applications. Part I of this paper discusses the problem of learning the operational structure of the grid from nodal voltage measurements. In this work (Part II), the learning of the operational radial structure is coupled with the problem of estimating nodal consumption statistics and inferring the line parameters in the grid. Based on a Linear-Coupled(LC) approximation of AC power flows equations, polynomial time algorithms are designed to identify the structure and estimate nodal load characteristics and/or line parameters in the grid using the available nodal voltage measurements. Then the structure learning algorithm is extended to cases with missing data, where available observations are limited to a fraction of the grid nodes. The efficacy of the presented algorithms are demonstrated through simulations on several distribution test cases.

  10. The "Pseudocommando" mass murderer: part II, the language of revenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, James L

    2010-01-01

    In Part I of this article, research on pseudocommandos was reviewed, and the important role that revenge fantasies play in motivating such persons to commit mass murder-suicide was discussed. Before carrying out their mass shootings, pseudocommandos may communicate some final message to the public or news media. These communications are rich sources of data about their motives and psychopathology. In Part II of this article, forensic psycholinguistic analysis is applied to clarify the primary motivations, detect the presence of mental illness, and discern important individual differences in the final communications of two recent pseudocommandos: Seung-Hui Cho (Virginia Tech) and Jiverly Wong (Binghamton, NY). Although both men committed offenses that qualify them as pseudocommandos, their final communications reveal striking differences in their psychopathology.

  11. PREREM: an interactive data preprocessing code for INREM II. Part I: user's manual. Part II: code structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, M.T.; Fields, D.E.

    1981-05-01

    PREREM is an interactive computer code developed as a data preprocessor for the INREM-II (Killough, Dunning, and Pleasant, 1978a) internal dose program. PREREM is intended to provide easy access to current and self-consistent nuclear decay and radionuclide-specific metabolic data sets. Provision is made for revision of metabolic data, and the code is intended for both production and research applications. Documentation for the code is in two parts. Part I is a user's manual which emphasizes interpretation of program prompts and choice of user input. Part II stresses internal structure and flow of program control and is intended to assist the researcher who wishes to revise or modify the code or add to its capabilities. PREREM is written for execution on a Digital Equipment Corporation PDP-10 System and much of the code will require revision before it can be run on other machines. The source program length is 950 lines (116 blocks) and computer core required for execution is 212 K bytes. The user must also have sufficient file space for metabolic and S-factor data sets. Further, 64 100 K byte blocks of computer storage space are required for the nuclear decay data file. Computer storage space must also be available for any output files produced during the PREREM execution. 9 refs., 8 tabs.

  12. Blade System Design Study. Part II, final project report (GEC).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, Dayton A. (DNV Global Energy Concepts Inc., Seattle, WA)

    2009-05-01

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Low Wind Speed Turbine program, Global Energy Concepts LLC (GEC)1 has studied alternative composite materials for wind turbine blades in the multi-megawatt size range. This work in one of the Blade System Design Studies (BSDS) funded through Sandia National Laboratories. The BSDS program was conducted in two phases. In the Part I BSDS, GEC assessed candidate innovations in composite materials, manufacturing processes, and structural configurations. GEC also made recommendations for testing composite coupons, details, assemblies, and blade substructures to be carried out in the Part II study (BSDS-II). The BSDS-II contract period began in May 2003, and testing was initiated in June 2004. The current report summarizes the results from the BSDS-II test program. Composite materials evaluated include carbon fiber in both pre-impregnated and vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) forms. Initial thin-coupon static testing included a wide range of parameters, including variation in manufacturer, fiber tow size, fabric architecture, and resin type. A smaller set of these materials and process types was also evaluated in thin-coupon fatigue testing, and in ply-drop and ply-transition panels. The majority of materials used epoxy resin, with vinyl ester (VE) resin also used for selected cases. Late in the project, testing of unidirectional fiberglass was added to provide an updated baseline against which to evaluate the carbon material performance. Numerous unidirectional carbon fabrics were considered for evaluation with VARTM infusion. All but one fabric style considered suffered either from poor infusibility or waviness of fibers combined with poor compaction. The exception was a triaxial carbon-fiberglass fabric produced by SAERTEX. This fabric became the primary choice for infused articles throughout the test program. The generally positive results obtained in this program for the SAERTEX material have led to its

  13. Intelligent control of HVAC systems. Part II: perceptron performance analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan URSU

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This is the second part of a paper on intelligent type control of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning (HVAC systems. The whole study proposes a unified approach in the design of intelligent control for such systems, to ensure high energy efficiency and air quality improving. In the first part of the study it is considered as benchmark system a single thermal space HVAC system, for which it is assigned a mathematical model of the controlled system and a mathematical model(algorithm of intelligent control synthesis. The conception of the intelligent control is of switching type, between a simple neural network, a perceptron, which aims to decrease (optimize a cost index,and a fuzzy logic component, having supervisory antisaturating role for neuro-control. Based on numerical simulations, this Part II focuses on the analysis of system operation in the presence only ofthe neural control component. Working of the entire neuro-fuzzy system will be reported in a third part of the study.

  14. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 1054 - Duty Cycles for Laboratory Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Duty Cycles for Laboratory Testing II Appendix II to Part 1054 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR.... 1054, App. II Appendix II to Part 1054—Duty Cycles for Laboratory Testing (a) Test handheld...

  15. Impedance-Source Networks for Electric Power Conversion Part II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siwakoti, Yam P.; Peng, Fang Zheng; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    Impedance-source networks cover the entire spectrum of electric power conversion applications (dc-dc, dc-ac, ac-dc, ac-ac) controlled and modulated by different modulation strategies to generate the desired dc or ac voltage and current at the output. A comprehensive review of various impedance-source......-network-based power converters has been covered in a previous paper and main topologies were discussed from an application point of view. Now Part II provides a comprehensive review of the most popular control and modulation strategies for impedance-source network-based power converters/inverters. These methods...... topology at a certain power level, switching frequency and demanded dynamic response....

  16. (Parte II: análisis resistivo de la estructura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Calzadilla Dubras

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo (Parte II es comprobar la resistencia de los elementos de unión de las barras que conforman la estructura metálica de la casa de cultivo EMBA-MSC, bajo las condiciones climáticas extremas de nuestro país para el caso del azote de vientos huracanados de hasta 180 km/h, así como realizar el análisis dinámico para comprobar la ocurrencia del efecto de resonancia en la misma. El cálculo será realizado con técnicas modernas de análisis y simulación, aplicando el Método de los Elementos Finitos (MEF. En esta parte se obtienen las tensiones máximas que se producen en los diferentes elementos de las uniones, a partir del cálculo de las cargas producidas por el viento en diferentes direcciones, los cuatro primeros valores y los respectivos modos de las frecuencias propias de la estructura, así como el valor de la velocidad crítica del viento, para la cual pudiera aparecer el fenómeno de la resonancia.

  17. Primer of statistics in dental research: Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shintani, Ayumi

    2014-04-01

    The Part I of Primer of Statistics in Dental Research covered five topics that are often mentioned in statistical check list of many peer-review journals including (1) statistical graph, (2) how to deal with outliers, (3) p-value and confidence interval, (4) testing equivalence, and (5) multiplicity Adjustment. The Part II of the series covers another set of important topics in dental statistics including (1) selecting the proper statistical tests, (2) repeated measures analysis, (3) epidemiological consideration for causal association, and (4) analysis of agreement. First, a guide in selecting the proper statistical tests based on the research question will be laid out in text and with a table so that researchers choose the univariable statistical test by answering five simple questions. Second, the importance of utilizing repeated measures analysis will be illustrated. This is a key component of data analysis as in many dental studies, observations are considered repeated in a single patient (several teeth are measured in a single patient). Third, concepts of confounding and the use of regression analysis are explained by going over a famous observational cohort study. Lastly, the use of proper agreement analysis vs. correlation for study of agreement will be discussed to avoid a common pitfall in dental research.

  18. Hypoelastic Soft Tissues: Part II: In-Plane Biaxial Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freed, Alan D; Einstein, Daniel R; Sacks, Michael S

    2010-08-01

    In Part I, a novel hypoelastic framework for soft-tissues was presented. One of the hallmarks of this new theory is that the well-known exponential behavior of soft-tissues arises consistently and spontaneously from the integration of a rate based formulation. In Part II, we examine the application of this framework to the problem of biaxial kinematics, which are common in experimental soft-tissue characterization. We confine our attention to an isotropic formulation in order to highlight the distinction between non-linearity and anisotropy. In order to provide a sound foundation for the membrane extension of our earlier hypoelastic framework, the kinematics and kinetics of in-plane biaxial extension are revisited, and some enhancements are provided. Specifically, the conventional stress-to-traction mapping for this boundary value problem is shown to violate the conservation of angular momentum. In response, we provide a corrected mapping. In addition, a novel means for applying loads to in-plane biaxial experiments is proposed. An isotropic, isochoric, hypoelastic, constitutive model is applied to an in-plane biaxial experiment done on glutaraldehyde treated bovine pericardium. The experiment is comprised of eight protocols that radially probe the biaxial plane. Considering its simplicity (two adjustable parameters) the model does a reasonably good job of describing the non-linear normal responses observed in these experimental data, which are more prevalent than are the anisotropic responses exhibited by this tissue.

  19. Bedside ultrasonography-Applications in critical care: Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Chacko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Point of care ultrasonography, performed by acute care physicians, has developed into an invaluable bedside tool providing important clinical information with a major impact on patient care. In Part II of this narrative review, we describe ultrasound guided central venous cannulation, which has become standard of care with internal jugular vein cannulation. Besides improving success rates, real-time guidance also significantly reduces the incidence of complications. We also discuss compression ultrasonography - a quick and effective bedside screening tool for deep vein thrombosis of the lower extremity. Abdominal ultrasound offers vital clues in the emergency setting; in the unstable trauma victim, a focused examination may provide immediate answers and has largely superseded diagnostic peritoneal lavage in diagnosing intraperitoneal bleed. From estimation of intracranial pressure to transcranial Doppler studies, ultrasound is becoming increasingly relevant to neurocritical care. Ultrasound may also help with airway management in several situations, including percutaneous tracheostomy. Clearly, bedside ultrasonography has become an indispensable part of intensive care practice - in the rapid assessment of critically ill-patients as well as in enhancing the safety of invasive procedures.

  20. Reforming Science Education: Part II. Utilizing Kieran Egan's Educational Metatheory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Roland M.

    2009-04-01

    This paper is the second of two parts and continues the conversation which had called for a shift in the conceptual focus of science education towards philosophy of education, with the requirement to develop a discipline-specific “philosophy” of science education. In Part I, conflicting conceptions of science literacy were identified with disparate “visions” tied to competing research programs as well as school-based curricular paradigms. The impasse in the goals of science education and thereto, the contending views of science literacy, were themselves associated with three underlying fundamental aims of education (knowledge-itself; personal development; socialization) which, it was argued, usually undercut the potential of each other. During periods of “crisis-talk” and throughout science educational history these three aims have repeatedly attempted to assert themselves. The inability of science education research to affect long-term change in classrooms was correlated not only to the failure to reach a consensus on the aims (due to competing programs and to the educational ideologies of their social groups), but especially to the failure of developing true educational theories (largely neglected since Hirst). Such theories, especially metatheories, could serve to reinforce science education’s growing sense of academic autonomy and independence from socio-economic demands. In Part II, I offer as a suggestion Egan’s cultural-linguistic theory as a metatheory to help resolve the impasse. I hope to make reformers familiar with his important ideas in general, and more specifically, to show how they can complement HPS rationales and reinforce the work of those researchers who have emphasized the value of narrative in learning science.

  1. Diagnosis of occlusal caries: Part II. Recent diagnostic technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, L E; McComb, D

    2001-09-01

    Accurate diagnosis of the presence or absence of disease is a fundamental requirement in health care. The diagnosis of non-overt occlusal decay is challenging and can be highly subjective, and its inherent uncertainties can lead to widely differing treatment decisions. The purpose of this 2-part paper is to review current knowledge concerning conventional and new diagnostic methods for occlusal caries. Part I looked at established methods for diagnosing occlusal decay. These methods have several limitations, particularly in their ability to diagnose early carious lesions. Part II examines new and emerging technologies that are being developed for the diagnosis of occlusal decay. Electrical conductance measurements and quantitative laser- or light-induced fluorescence represent significant improvements over conventional diagnostic methods, especially for in vitro applications and particularly with regard to sensitivity and reproducibility. Proponents of the DIAGNOdent laser fluorescence system claim that it evaluates the fluorescence that develops when laser light is incident on areas of demineralization. This noninvasive device is simple to use and provides quantitative data. Studies supporting its validity are limited but do suggest good sensitivity and excellent reproducibility. However, the DIAGNOdent system requires more scientific scrutiny. Although it offers a high rate of disease detection, it has little ability to indicate the extent of decay. In all treatment decisions, clinicians must be aware of the limitations of the diagnostic methods that have been used. Clinical judgment based on the patient s case history, visual cues, review of radiographs and probability of disease is still the most important aspect of optimum patient care. New technologies may provide supplemental information, but they cannot yet replace established methods for the diagnosis of occlusal caries.

  2. Repeated-sprint ability - part II: recommendations for training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, David; Girard, Olivier; Mendez-Villanueva, Alberto

    2011-09-01

    Short-duration sprints, interspersed with brief recoveries, are common during most team sports. The ability to produce the best possible average sprint performance over a series of sprints (≤10 seconds), separated by short (≤60 seconds) recovery periods has been termed repeated-sprint ability (RSA). RSA is therefore an important fitness requirement of team-sport athletes, and it is important to better understand training strategies that can improve this fitness component. Surprisingly, however, there has been little research about the best training methods to improve RSA. In the absence of strong scientific evidence, two principal training theories have emerged. One is based on the concept of training specificity and maintains that the best way to train RSA is to perform repeated sprints. The second proposes that training interventions that target the main factors limiting RSA may be a more effective approach. The aim of this review (Part II) is to critically analyse training strategies to improve both RSA and the underlying factors responsible for fatigue during repeated sprints (see Part I of the preceding companion article). This review has highlighted that there is not one type of training that can be recommended to best improve RSA and all of the factors believed to be responsible for performance decrements during repeated-sprint tasks. This is not surprising, as RSA is a complex fitness component that depends on both metabolic (e.g. oxidative capacity, phosphocreatine recovery and H+ buffering) and neural factors (e.g. muscle activation and recruitment strategies) among others. While different training strategies can be used in order to improve each of these potential limiting factors, and in turn RSA, two key recommendations emerge from this review; it is important to include (i) some training to improve single-sprint performance (e.g. 'traditional' sprint training and strength/power training); and (ii) some high-intensity (80-90% maximal oxygen

  3. Part 3: Pharmacogenetic Variability in Phase II Anticancer Drug Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deenen, Maarten J.; Cats, Annemieke; Beijnen, Jos H.

    2011-01-01

    Equivalent drug doses may lead to wide interpatient variability in drug response to anticancer therapy. Known determinants that may affect the pharmacological response to a drug are, among others, nongenetic factors, including age, gender, use of comedication, and liver and renal function. Nonetheless, these covariates do not explain all the observed interpatient variability. Differences in genetic constitution among patients have been identified to be important factors that contribute to differences in drug response. Because genetic polymorphism may affect the expression and activity of proteins encoded, it is a key covariate that is responsible for variability in drug metabolism, drug transport, and pharmacodynamic drug effects. We present a series of four reviews about pharmacogenetic variability. This third part in the series of reviews is focused on genetic variability in phase II drug-metabolizing enzymes (glutathione S-transferases, uridine diphosphoglucuronosyl transferases, methyltransferases, sulfotransferases, and N-acetyltransferases) and discusses the effects of genetic polymorphism within the genes encoding these enzymes on anticancer drug therapy outcome. Based on the literature reviewed, opportunities for patient-tailored anticancer therapy are proposed. PMID:21659608

  4. Stem cells in dentistry--Part II: Clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egusa, Hiroshi; Sonoyama, Wataru; Nishimura, Masahiro; Atsuta, Ikiru; Akiyama, Kentaro

    2012-10-01

    New technologies that facilitate solid alveolar ridge augmentation are receiving considerable attention in the field of prosthodontics because of the growing requirement for esthetic and functional reconstruction by dental implant treatments. Recently, several studies have demonstrated potential advantages for stem-cell-based therapies in regenerative treatments. Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) are now an excellent candidate for tissue replacement therapies, and tissue engineering approaches and chair-side cellular grafting approaches using autologous MSCs represent the clinical state of the art for stem-cell-based alveolar bone regeneration. Basic studies have revealed that crosstalk between implanted donor cells and recipient immune cells plays a key role in determining clinical success that may involve the recently observed immunomodulatory properties of MSCs. Part II of this review first overviews progress in regenerative dentistry to consider the implications of the stem cell technology in dentistry and then highlights cutting-edge stem-cell-based alveolar bone regenerative therapies. Factors that affect stem-cell-based bone regeneration as related to the local immune response are then discussed. Additionally, pre-clinical stem cell studies for the regeneration of teeth and other oral organs as well as possible applications of MSC-based immunotherapy in dentistry are outlined. Finally, the marketing of stem cell technology in dental stem cell banks with a view toward future regenerative therapies is introduced. Copyright © 2012 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. 5 CFR Appendix II to Part 1201 - Appropriate Regional or Field Office for Filing Appeals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... ORGANIZATION AND PROCEDURES PRACTICES AND PROCEDURES Pt. 1201, App. II Appendix II to Part 1201—Appropriate...-5109, (Arizona; Colorado; Kansas—except Kansas City; Montana; Nebraska; New Mexico; North Dakota; South...

  6. IPCC Working Group II: Impacts and Adaptation Part I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulwarty, R. S.

    2007-12-01

    The IPCC (as opposed to the UN Framework Convention) defines climate change as" any change in climate over time, whether due to natural variability or as a result of human activity". The IPCC Working Group II (Impacts, Adaptation, Vulnerability) was charged with assessing the scientific, technical, environmental, economic, and social aspects of vulnerability to climate change, and, the negative and positive consequences for ecological systems, socio-economic sectors, and human health. The Working Group II report focused on the following issues for different sectors and regions (e.g. water, agriculture, biodiversity) and communities (coastal, island, etc.): · The role of adaptation in reducing vulnerability and impacts, · Assessment of adaptation capacity, options and constraints, and · Enhancing adaptation practice and operations. This presentation will address the following questions in the context of the results of the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report WG II: · What are the barriers, knowledge gaps, and opportunities for impacts assessments? · How are decisions about adaptation being made, and what types of adaptation strategies are being undertaken? · What are good adaptation practices and how are they learned over time? Examples will be drawn from the freshwater resources, small islands and adaptation chapters to which the presenter contributed. Many lessons have been identified but few have been implemented or evaluated over time. Adaptation occurs in the context of multiple stresses. Adaptation will be important in coping with early impacts in the near-term and continue to be important as our climate changes, regardless of how that change is derived. It is important to note that unmitigated climate change could, in the long term, exceed the capacity of different natural, managed and human systems to adapt. The assessment leads to the following conclusions: · Adaptation to climate change is already taking place, but on a limited basis · Adaptation measures

  7. U-Pb ages, geochemistry, C-O-Nd-Sr-Hf isotopes and petrogenesis of the Catalão II carbonatitic complex (Alto Paranaíba Igneous Province, Brazil): implications for regional-scale heterogeneities in the Brazilian carbonatite associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarino, Vincenza; Wu, Fu-Yuan; Melluso, Leone; de Barros Gomes, Celso; Tassinari, Colombo Celso Gaeta; Ruberti, Excelso; Brilli, Mauro

    2017-09-01

    The Catalão II carbonatitic complex is part of the Alto Paranaíba Igneous Province (APIP), central Brazil, close to the Catalão I complex. Drill-hole sampling and detailed mineralogical and geochemical study point out the existence of ultramafic lamprophyres (phlogopite-picrites), calciocarbonatites, ferrocarbonatites, magnetitites, apatitites, phlogopitites and fenites, most of them of cumulitic origin. U-Pb data have constrained the age of Catalão I carbonatitic complex between 78 ± 1 and 81 ± 4 Ma. The initial strontium, neodymium and hafnium isotopic data of Catalão II (87Sr/86Sri = 0.70503-0.70599; ɛNdi = -6.8 to -4.7; 176Hf/177Hf = 0.28248-0.28249; ɛHfi = -10.33 to -10.8) are similar to the isotopic composition of the Catalão I complex and fall within the field of APIP kimberlites, kamafugites and phlogopite-picrites, indicating the provenance from an old lithospheric mantle source. Carbon isotopic data for Catalão II carbonatites (δ13C = -6.35 to -5.68 ‰) confirm the mantle origin of the carbon for these rocks. The origin of Catalão II cumulitic rocks is thought to be caused by differential settling of the heavy phases (magnetite, apatite, pyrochlore and sulphides) in a magma chamber repeatedly filled by carbonatitic/ferrocarbonatitic liquids ( s.l.). The Sr-Nd isotopic composition of the Catalão II rocks matches those of APIP rocks and is markedly different from the isotopic features of alkaline-carbonatitic complexes in the southernmost Brazil. The differences are also observed in the lithologies and the magmatic affinity of the igneous rocks found in the two areas, thus demonstrating the existence of regional-scale heterogeneity in the mantle sources underneath the Brazilian platform.

  8. The large-scale placebo-controlled beta-blocker studies in systolic heart failure revisited: results from CIBIS-II, COPERNICUS and SENIORS-SHF compared with stratified subsets from MERIT-HF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikstrand, J; Wedel, H; Castagno, D; McMurray, J J V

    2014-02-01

    The four pivotal beta-blocker trials in heart failure (HF) had different inclusion criteria, making comparison difficult without patient stratifying. The aim of this study was to compare, in similar patients, the effects of bisoprolol, metoprolol controlled release/extended release (CR/XL), carvedilol and nebivolol on (i) total mortality, (ii) all-cause mortality or hospitalization due to cardiovascular causes (time to first event), (iii) all-cause mortality or hospitalization because of HF and (iv) tolerability, defined as discontinuation of randomized treatment. We compared stratified (s ) subsets in MERIT-HF with patients in CIBIS-II [New York Heart Association (NYHA) class III/IV and ejection fraction (EF) ≤ 35%] and COPERNICUS (NYHA III/IV and EF COPERNICUS (n = 2289), 19.7% vs. 12.8% (relative risk reduction 35%, 95% CI: 19-48, P = 0.0014) and MERIT-HFs (n = 795), 19.1% vs. 11.7% (relative risk reduction 39%; 95% CI: 11-58, P = 0.0086); (iii) SENIORS-SHF (n = 1359), 11.3% vs. 9.7% (relative risk reduction 16%, NS) and MERIT-HFs (n = 985), 14.8% vs. 10.1% (relative risk reduction 32%, 95% CI: 2-53, P = 0.038). The effects on the other outcomes assessed were similar. Analyses indicated fewer discontinuations from randomized treatment on beta-blockers compared with placebo in COPERNICUS and the MERIT-HFs subsets. The efficacy and tolerability of bisoprolol, carvedilol and metoprolol CR/XL are similar in patients with systolic HF, irrespective of NYHA class or ejection fraction. Nebivolol is less effective and not better tolerated. © 2013 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  9. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 1068 - Emission-Related Parameters and Specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission-Related Parameters and Specifications II Appendix II to Part 1068 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS GENERAL COMPLIANCE PROVISIONS FOR ENGINE PROGRAMS Pt. 1068, App. II Appendix...

  10. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 600 - Sample Fuel Economy Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sample Fuel Economy Calculations II... FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Pt. 600, App. II Appendix II to Part 600—Sample Fuel Economy Calculations (a) This sample fuel economy calculation is applicable...

  11. Approach To The First Unprovoked Seizure- PART II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad GHOFRANI

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Ghofrani M. Approach To The First Unprovoked Seizure- PART II. Iran J Child Neurol. 2013 Autumn; 7(4:1-5.Abstract The approach to a child who has experienced a first unprovoked generalized tonic-clonic seizure is challenging and at the same time controversial.How to establish the diagnosis, ways and means of investigation and whether treatment is appropriate, are different aspects of this subject. In this writing the above mentioned matters are discussed. References31.Berg AT, Testa FM., Levy SR, Shinnar S. Neuroimaging in children with newly diagnosed epilepsy. A community based study. Pediatrics 2000;106:527-532.32.Shinnar S, Odell C. Treating childhood seizure; when and for how long. In: Shinnar S, Amir N, Branski D (Eds. Childhood seizure. S Karger Basel. 1995. P.100-110.33.Shinnar S, Berg AT, Moshe Sl, et al. Risk of Seizure recurrence following a first unprovoked seizure in childhood; A prospective study. Pediatrics 1990;85:1076-2085.34.Shinnar S, Berg At, Moshe SL, et al. The risk of seizure recurrence after a first unprovoked febrile seizure in childhood: An extended follow up. Pediatrics 1996:98:216-225.35.Hauser WA, Rich SS, Annegers JF, Anderson VE. Seizure recurrence after a first unprovoked seizure: An extended follow up. Neurology 1990;40:1163-1170.36.Stroink H, Brouwer O F, Arts WF, Greets AT, Peter AC, Van Donselaar CA. The First unprovoked, untreated seizure in childhood: A hospital based study of the accuracy of diagnosis, rate of recurrence, and long term outcome after recurrence. Dutch study of epilepsy in childhood. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1998;64:595-600. 37.Shinnar S, Berg AT, O’Dell C. Newstein D, et al. Predictors of multiple seizure in a cohort of children prospectively followed from the time of their first unprovoked seizure, Ann Neurol 2000; 48:140-147.38.Martinovie Z, Jovic N. Seizure recurrence after a first generalized tonic-clonic seizure in children

  12. Para-Xylene Maximization Part VIII: Promotion of H-ZSM-5 Zeolite by Pt and HF Doping for Use as Catalysts in Toluene Alkylation with Methanol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ahmed K.ABOUL-GHEIT; Ateyya A.ABOUL-ENEIN; Ahmed E.AWADALLAH; Salwa A.GHONEIM; Eman A.EMAM

    2010-01-01

    Toluene was alkylated with methanol in a flow type reactor at temperatures between 300 and 500℃ using H-ZSM-5 zeolite, 0.2%Pt/H-ZSM-5 and hydrofluorinated 0.2%Pt/H-ZSM-5 with HF concentrations of 1.0%, 2.0%, 3.0%, or 4.0%. Pt primarily enhances toluene conversion, total xylenes production, and p-xylene relative to its thermodynamic equilibrium. As the concentration of HF increases from 1.0% to 3.0%, the catalyst activity increases because of the increase in the number of acid sites and their strength. Additionally, the surface area and Pt dispersion also increases. An advantage of increased HF doping is that the formation of voluminous trimethylbenzene (TMB) byproducts is inhibited. However, at a HF concentration of 4.0%, AI and Si are partially leached and then deposited mostly in the wider catalytic pores. This was determined by evaluating the pore volume distribution and we determined that reactivity inhibition was ob-viously present and was due to diffusion restriction.

  13. In situ isotopic analyses of U and Pb in zircon by remotely operated SHRIMP II, and Hf by LA-ICP-MS: an example of dating and genetic evolution of zircon by {sup 176}Hf/{sup 177}Hf from the Ita Quarry in the Atuba Complex, SE, Brazil; Analises in situ de U e Pb em zircao por SRIMP II por controle remoto e de Hf por LA-ICP-MS: um exemplo de datacao e da evolucao genetica de zircao atraves da razao {sup 176}Hf/{sup 177} em amostra da Pedreira Ita no Complexo Atuba, SE, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, K.; Siga Junior, Oswaldo; McReath, Ian; Sproesser, Walter; Basei, Miguel Angelo Stipp [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Centro de Pesquisas Geocronologicas], e-mail: keisato@usp.br, e-mail: osigajr@usp.br, e-mail: ianmcr@usp.br, e-mail: wmspres@usp.br, e-mail: baseimas@usp.br; Silva, Josiane Aline da [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Geoquimica e Geotectonica; Dunyi, Liu [Institute of Geology, Beijing (China); Iizuka, Takafumi; Rino, Shuji; Hirata, Takafumi [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    2009-10-15

    Remotely-operated SHRIMP dating of zircon is an interesting alternative for dating of zircon crystals. Although it does not represent any technical progress of the geochronological method using the U-Pb system in zircon it is a very useful and cheap facility. The procedure was first used for mass spectrometric analyses involving two international laboratories in Sao Paulo, Brazil and Beijing, China. It was applied to samples of three gneiss-migmatitic rocks from the Ita quarry in the Atuba Complex (located between the Luis Alves and the Apiai Domain) to test previous controversial hypotheses about its evolution. The presence of important archaean and paleo proterozoic components in the complex is confirmed by analyses of zircon found in probably neo proterozoic leucosomes. Diorite intrusion also occurred during the neo proterozoic, associated with the 0.6Ga continental collisions involved in the assembly of Gondwana. The determination of Hf isotope ratios by LA-ICP/MS represents a new option for checking the relative importance of mantle ({epsilon}{sub Hf} > 0) and crustal contributions (({epsilon}{sub Hf} < 0) during the growth of the zircon crystals. While the archaean component in the complex was derived from the mantle ({epsilon}{sub Hf} + 1.5 to + 8.7) the paleo proterozoic component had a crustal contribution ({epsilon}{sub Hf} - 9.1 to -10.1). (author)

  14. Complexometric determination, Part II: Complexometric determination of Cu2+-ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajković Miloš B.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A copper-selective electrode of the coated wire type based on sulphidized copper wire was applied successfully for determining Cu(II ions by complexometric titration with the disodium salt of EDTA (complexon III. By the formation of internal complex compounds with the Cu(II ion, the copper concentration in the solution decreases, and all this is followed by a change of potential of the indicator system Cu-DWISE (or Cu-EDWISE/SCE. At the terminal point of titration, when all the Cu(II ions are already utilized for the formation of the complex with EDTA, there occurs a steep rise of potential, thus enabling us, through the first or second derivative to note the quantity of copper that is present in the solution. Copper-selective electrode showed a responsivity towards titration with EDTA as a complexing agent, with the absence of "fatigue" due to a great number of repeated measurings. Errors occurring during quantitative measurements were more a characteristic of the overall procedure which involve, because of the impossibility of the complete absence of subjectivity, a constant error, and the reproducibility of the results confirmed this fact. The disodium salt of EDTA appeared as a very efficient titrant in all titrations and with various concentrations ot Cu(II ions in the solution, with somewhat weaker response at lower concentrations in the solution.

  15. Inteligencia Artificial y Neurología: II Parte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Camacho Pinto

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Algunos comentarios sobre la primera parte me han inducido a ampliar las bases de este trabajo mediante la presentación de aspectos comunes y conceptos disímiles sobre la hipotética relación entre inteligencia artificial (lA e inteligencia humana(IH. El tema es tan complejo que un intento por resumirlo de por sí ya es atrayente además de necesario.

    Microhistoria de la lA. Ciñéndome a una cruda realidad la lA nació en la Conferencia de Darmouth, año 1956, cuando John McCarthy, profesor de ciencia de computador en Stanford Un. acuñó el término de lA. Sin embargo, especulando un poco podemos decir que cierta inquietud existió desde la antigüedad, mucho antes de los computadores y aún de la electrónica (1 cuando el ser humano irresistiblemente mostraba inquietud por crear I fuera del cerebro humano. Se encuentran algunos ejemplos en la Mitología griega: Hefestos. dios del fuego y de los metales, confeccionaba creaciones semihumanas en su forja. Pigmalión desencantado de las mujeres modeló su propia ninfa en mármol y para poder casarse con ella imploró suplicante hasta conseguir que Afrodita le diera vida.

    En la Europa medioeval al papa Silvestre II (apodado el hechicero por su sabiduría, año 909 D.C. se le atribuye que construía cabezas parlantes. En el siglo XVI Para celso clamó haber inventado un homúnculo. Y el rabino checo Jundo ben Loew esculpió un hombre en arcilla, José Golem, y lo constituyó espía en Praga. En 1854 el matemático británico George Boole propuso un sistema para describir lógica (2 -las leyes del pensamiento en términos matemáticos: “álgebra booliana”, “mathematical logics” que representa procesos lógicos con dos dígitos, 9 y 1.

    En 1937 Alan Turing demostró que una máquina binaria podía ser programada para realizar cualquier tarea algorítmica. Esta máquina de Turing sólo podía ejecutar dos acciones: dibujar y borrar. En el mismo año Claude

  16. Asclepius, Caduceus, and Simurgh as medical symbols; part II. Simurgh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayernouri, Touraj

    2010-05-01

    In part one of this article I reviewed the history of Asclepius and the Caduceus of Hermes as medical symbols and made a tentative suggestion of using the mythical bird Simurgh as an Iranian symbol of medicine. In this, the second part, I shall describe the evolution of the myth of the Simurgh and discuss the medical relevance of this bird in Iranian history.

  17. Mathematics for Junior High School, Volume II (Part 2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R. D.; And Others

    This is part two of a two-part SMSG mathematics text for junior high school students. Key ideas emphasized are structure of arithmetic from an algebraic viewpoint, the real number system as a progressing development, and metric and non-metric relations in geometry. Chapter topics include real numbers, similar triangles, variation, non-metric…

  18. Mathematics for Junior High School, Volume II (Part 1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R. D.; And Others

    This is part one of a two-part SMSG mathematics text for junior high school students. Key ideas emphasized are structure of arithmetic from an algebraic viewpoint, the real number system as a progressing development, and metric and non-metric relations in geometry. Chapter topics include number line and coordinates, equations, scientific notation,…

  19. Internal Auditing in Federal, State, and Local Governments (Part II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Susan; Wilson, Guy

    1981-01-01

    This second part of an annotated bibliography of reports, books, and journal articles concerned with internal auditing in government contexts reviews the available literature for an understanding of the types of internal audit, methods and practices, and other facets. (FM)

  20. Management Plan : Parts I and II : Shiawassee National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Part I of this plan outlines the history, background, environment, administration, land status, current management direction, and agreements/permits of Shiawassee...

  1. Management Plan : Parts I and II : Seney National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Part I of this management plan for Seney NWR includes background information on the Refuge’s history, location, resources, administration, land status, current...

  2. Internal Auditing in Federal, State, and Local Governments (Part II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Susan; Wilson, Guy

    1981-01-01

    This second part of an annotated bibliography of reports, books, and journal articles concerned with internal auditing in government contexts reviews the available literature for an understanding of the types of internal audit, methods and practices, and other facets. (FM)

  3. Guidelines for acute ischemic stroke treatment: part II: stroke treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Cristina Ouriques Martins

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The second part of these Guidelines covers the topics of antiplatelet, anticoagulant, and statin therapy in acute ischemic stroke, reperfusion therapy, and classification of Stroke Centers. Information on the classes and levels of evidence used in this guideline is provided in Part I. A translated version of the Guidelines is available from the Brazilian Stroke Society website (www.sbdcv.com.br.

  4. EL español andino. II parte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Arboleda Toro

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available En el número 13 de esta revista (nov. del 2000 se publicó una primera parte del estudio sobre el español andino. Presentamos ahora una segunda parte que comprende aspectos histórico-geográficos de Nariño y Putumayo andinos, región de Colombia donde se habla esa variedad, y una descripción general de su realidad lingüística. Esperamos que sean objeto de otra publicación la descripción de los rasgos dialectales del español andino, parte nuclear del trabajo, y la presentación de la metodología y el corpus. En esto nos encontramos trabajando. Incluimos no obstante un inventario de rasgos más amplio que el presentado en la primera parte. Pero por ahora se trata de eso, de un inventario ilustrativo, no del análisis en el que estamos empeñados, en el marco del contacto de lenguas, el cambio lingüístico y la relación entre la norma y las posibilidades del sistema. Para contextualizar esta segunda parte, incluimos, a manera de introducción, un resumen de la primera.

  5. Being prepared: bioterrorism and mass prophylaxis: part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weant, Kyle A; Bailey, Abby M; Fleishaker, Elise L; Justice, Stephanie B

    2014-01-01

    Although several biological agents have been recognized as presenting a significant threat to public health if used in a bioterrorist attack, those that are of greatest importance are known as the Category A agents: Bacillus anthracis (anthrax); variola major (smallpox); Yersinia pestis (plague); Francisella tularensis (tularemia); ribonucleic acid viruses (hemorrhagic fevers); and Clostridium botulinum (botulism toxin). In the previous issue, Part I of this review focused on the clinical presentation and treatment of anthrax, plague, and tularemia. In this second part of this 2-part review of these agents, the focus is on the clinical presentation and treatment of smallpox, viral hemorrhagic fevers, and botulism toxin. The utilization of mass prophylaxis to limit the morbidity and mortality associated with all these agents is also discussed along with the role emergency care personnel play in its implementation.

  6. An appraisal of the literature on centric relation. Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshvad, A; Winstanley, R B

    2000-12-01

    The literature directly and indirectly related to centric relation (CR) has been reviewed chronologically. More than 300 papers and quoted sections of books have been divided into three sections. The first two parts of the paper are related to CR. Studies in this group mainly compared either the position of the mandibular condyle or the mandible itself in different CR recordings. Various tools were discussed for this purpose. The third part deals with CR-centric occlusion (CO) discrepancy. CR remains one of the controversial issues in prosthodontics and orthodontics. Debates relating to mounting casts on the articulator by reproducible records for orthodontic treatment planning and end results, and whether or not orthodontic treatment based on CO causes temporomandibular joint (TMJ) dysfunction, remain unsolved. The references are listed at the end of Part III.

  7. Biomedical research ethics: an Islamic view part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Raafat Y

    2007-12-01

    In part I of this article I discussed why Islam rejects secularization and this is not because the ethical principles embedded in Islam's teachings are archaic and out of touch with current realities. In addition, I pointed out the agreement between general broad principles of research ethics and Islamic teachings concerning life; which showed clearly that Islam has addressed the regulation of ethics in research more than 14 centuries ago. In this part, I will address two controversial issues concerning women's rights and age of consent for children as possible research subjects in a Muslim community.

  8. Optimization Model for Refinery Hydrogen Networks Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique E. Tarifa

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In the first part of this work, a model of optimization was presented that minimizes the consumption of the hydrogen of a refinery. In this second part, the model will be augmented to take into account the length of the pipelines, the addition of purification units and the installation of new compressors, all features of industrial real networks. The model developed was implemented in the LINGO software environment. For data input and results output, an Excel spreadsheet was developed that interfaces with LINGO. The model is currently being used in YPFLuján de Cuyo refinery (Mendoza, Argentina

  9. Karst geomorphology: From hydrological functioning to palaeoenvironmental reconstructions. Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Waele, Jo; Gutierrez, Francisco; Audra, Philippe

    2015-10-01

    In January 2015, the first part of the special issue on karst, entitled "Karst geomorphology: From hydrological functioning to palaeoenvironmental reconstructions" was published (Geomorphology, Vol. 229). This second part of the special issue comprises seven research papers covering a broad geographical canvas including Japan, Slovenia, France, Spain, Croatia, and Poland-Ukraine. Both issues mainly emanate from the contributions presented in the Karst session of the 8th International Conference of Geomorphology (International Association of Geomorphologists), held in Paris in August 2013, enriched with some invited papers.

  10. Conformational behavior of insect pheromones and analogues. Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koča, Jaroslav; Carlsen, Per H. J.

    1992-04-01

    The conformational potential energy surface paths of the sex pheromone, Ipsenol, to the Bark Beetle, Ips typographus, and of a series of analogues have been elucidated using the program DAISY. The following structures were calculated: 2-methyl-6-methylene-7-octen-4-ol (Ipsenol, ( II)), 2-methyl-6-methylene-2,7-octadiene-4-ol acetate ( III), 2-methyl-6-methylene-3,7-octadien-2-ol ( IV), 2-methyl-6-methylene-1,7-octadien-3-ol ( V), 5-(3-furanyl)-2-methyl-1-penten-3-ol ( VI) and 1-(3-furanyl)-4-methyl-3-penten-2-ol ( VII). As a measure of the conformational flexibility of the molecules the flexibility coefficients, f, were determined. The f values for the molecules were determined to be: II, 0.145; III, 0.144; IV, 1.240; V, 0.133; VI, 0.825; and VII, 0.451. The molecular mechanics method was used for energy calculations in conjunction with DAISY. Low-energy conformations (conformational channels) together with energy barriers for conformational changes are presented.

  11. Surface anatomy and surface landmarks for thoracic surgery: Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Shona E; Darling, Gail E

    2011-05-01

    Surface anatomy is an integral part of a thoracic surgeon's armamentarium to assist with the diagnosis, staging, and treatment of thoracic pathology. As reviewed in this article, the surface landmarks of the lungs, heart, great vessels, and mediastinum are critical for appropriate patient care and should be learned in conjunction with classic anatomy.

  12. Solar Energy Education. Reader, Part II. Sun story. [Includes glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-05-01

    Magazine articles which focus on the subject of solar energy are presented. The booklet prepared is the second of a four part series of the Solar Energy Reader. Excerpts from the magazines include the history of solar energy, mythology and tales, and selected poetry on the sun. A glossary of energy related terms is included. (BCS)

  13. Curriculum Guide for Hospitality Education. Part II. Exemplary Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalani, Henry

    This second of a two-part study designed to develop a hospitality education program model for Hawaii's community colleges is based on the primary data gathered in a survey of the hospitality industry characteristics, manpower requirements, and employment demands. (Survey data is reported in volume 1 of the study.) The introductory section of this…

  14. Kids in Mental Institutions. Part II. Program 131.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George Washington Univ., Washington, DC. Inst. for Educational Leadership.

    The second of a two-part radio program on children in mental institutions presents transcripts of interviews with psychiatrists and emotionally disturbed adolescents. Subjects addressed include use of drugs, behavior modification, music, and theatre therapy in institutions. The transcript concludes with a narrated tour of Sheppard-Pratt, an…

  15. Topics in Finance: Part II--Financial Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laux, Judy

    2010-01-01

    The second article in a series designed to supplement the introductory financial management course, this essay addresses financial statement analysis, including its impact on stock valuation, disclosure, and managerial behavior. [For "Topics in Finance Part I--Introduction and Stockholder Wealth Maximization," see EJ1060345.

  16. ExtraHF survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piepoli, Massimo F; Binno, Simone; Corrà, Ugo

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: In heart failure (HF), exercise training programmes (ETPs) are a well-recognized intervention to improve symptoms, but are still poorly implemented. The Heart Failure Association promoted a survey to investigate whether and how cardiac centres in Europe are using ETPs in their HF patients...... of evidence on safety or benefit was cited. When implemented, an ETP was proposed to all HF patients in only 55% of the centres, with restriction according to severity or aetiology. CONCLUSIONS: With respect to previous surveys, there is evidence of increased availability of ETPs in HF in Europe, although too...

  17. Sentinel lymph node biopsy and melanoma: 2010 update Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stebbins, William G; Garibyan, Lilit; Sober, Arthur J

    2010-05-01

    This article will discuss the evidence for and against the therapeutic efficacy of early removal of potentially affected lymph nodes, morbidity associated with sentinel lymph node biopsy and completion lymphadenectomy, current guidelines regarding patient selection for sentinel lymph node biopsy, and the remaining questions that ongoing clinical trials are attempting to answer. The Sunbelt Melanoma Trial and the Multicenter Selective Lymphadenectomy Trials I and II will be discussed in detail. At the completion of this learning activity, participants should be able to discuss the data regarding early surgical removal of lymph nodes and its effect on the overall survival of melanoma patients, be able to discuss the potential benefits and morbidity associated with complete lymph node dissection, and to summarize the ongoing trials aimed at addressing the question of therapeutic value of early surgical treatment of regional lymph nodes that may contain micrometastases. Copyright 2010 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Lagrangian intersection Floer theory anomaly and obstruction, part II

    CERN Document Server

    Fukaya, Kenji; Ohta, Hiroshi; Ono, Kaoru

    2009-01-01

    This is a two-volume series research monograph on the general Lagrangian Floer theory and on the accompanying homological algebra of filtered A_\\infty-algebras. This book provides the most important step towards a rigorous foundation of the Fukaya category in general context. In Volume I, general deformation theory of the Floer cohomology is developed in both algebraic and geometric contexts. An essentially self-contained homotopy theory of filtered A_\\infty algebras and A_\\infty bimodules and applications of their obstruction-deformation theory to the Lagrangian Floer theory are presented. Volume II contains detailed studies of two of the main points of the foundation of the theory: transversality and orientation. The study of transversality is based on the virtual fundamental chain techniques (the theory of Kuranishi structures and their multisections) and chain level intersection theories. A detailed analysis comparing the orientations of the moduli spaces and their fiber products is carried out. A self-co...

  19. Achieving hemostasis in dermatology-Part II: Topical hemostatic agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaimie B Glick

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bleeding is a common occurrence during any dermatologic surgery that disrupts blood vessels. The complications of excess bleeding can include delayed wound healing, hematoma formation, infection, dehiscence, and necrosis. In part one of this review, we discussed the pre-operative, intra-operative, and post-operative management of patients undergoing dermatologic surgery. In Part two, we discuss traditional and new topical hemostatic agents used to achieve hemostasis in dermatological procedures and surgery. We will evaluate the caustic and non-caustic hemostatic agents as well as hemostatic dressings. The mechanisms of action, side effect profile, and advantages and disadvantages of the topical hemostatic agents are provided. Sources for this article were found searching the English literature in PubMed for the time period 1940 to March 2012. A thorough bibliography search was also performed and key references examined.

  20. Operation of industrial electrical substations. Part II: practical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Jimenez, Juan J; Zerquera Izquierdo, Mariano D; Beltran Leon, Jose S; Garcia Martinez, Juan M; Alvarez Urena, Maria V; Meza Diaz, Guillermo [Universidad de Guadalajara (Mexico)]. E-mails: cheosj@yahoo.com; mdzi@hotmail.com; beltran5601@yahoo.com.mx; jmargarmtz@yahoo.com; victory_alvarez@telmexmail.com; depmec@cucei.udg.mx

    2013-03-15

    The practical application of the methodology explained in Part 1 in a Cuban industry is the principal objective of this paper. The calculus of the economical operation of the principal transformers of the industrial plant is shown of the one very easy form, as well as the determination of the equations of the losses when the transformers operate under a given load diagram. It is calculated the state load which will be passed to the operation in parallel. [Spanish] El objetivo principal de este trabajo es la aplicacion practica de la metodologia, en una industria cubana, que se explico en la Parte 1. El calculo de la operacion economica de los principales transformadores de la planta industrial se muestra de una forma muy facil, asi como la determinacion de las ecuaciones de las perdidas cuando los transformadores operan bajo un diagrama de carga dado. Se calcula la carga de estado que se pasa a la operacion en paralelo.

  1. DOBD Algorithm for Training Neural Network:Part II. Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴建昱; 何小荣

    2002-01-01

    In the first part of the article, a new algorithm for pruning network?Dynamic Optimal Brain Damage(DOBD) is introduced. In this part, two cases and an industrial application are worked out to test the new algorithm. It is verified that the algorithm can obtain good generalization through deleting weight parameters with low sensitivities dynamically and get better result than the Marquardt algorithm or the cross-validation method. Although the initial construction of network may be different, the finial number of free weights pruned by the DOBD algorithm is similar and the number is just close to the optimal number of free weights. The algorithm is also helpful to design the optimal structure of network.

  2. Neutron detection with imaging plates Part II. Detector characteristics

    CERN Document Server

    Thoms, M

    1999-01-01

    On the basis of the physical processes described in Neutron detection with imaging plates - part I: image storage and readout [Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 424 (1999) 26-33] detector characteristics, such as quantum efficiency, detective quantum efficiency, sensitivity to neutron- and gamma-radiation, readout time and dynamic range are predicted. It is estimated that quantum efficiencies and detective quantum efficiencies close to 100% can be reached making these kind of detectors interesting for a wide range of applications.

  3. A tutorial survey of topics in wireless networking: Part II

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anurag Kumar; D Manjunath

    2007-12-01

    This is the second part of the survey of recent and emerging topics in wireless networking. We provide an overview of the area of wireless networking as that of dealing with problems of resource allocation so that the various connections that utilise the network achieve their desired performance objectives. In Part I we provided a taxonomy of wireless networks as they have been deployed. We then provided a quick survey of the main issues in the wireless 'physical' layer. We then discussed some resource allocation formulations in CDMA (code division multiple access) cellular networks and OFDMA (orthogonal frequency division multiple access) networks. In this part we begin with a discussion of random access wireless networks. We first provide an overview of the evolution of random access networks from Aloha to the currently popular 802·11 (Wi-Fi) networks. We then analyse the performance of the 802·11 random access protocol. We briefly discuss the problem of optimal association of nodes to Wi-Fi access points. Next, we consider topics in ad hoc multihop wireless networks. We first discuss topology and cross layer control. For the latter, we describe the important maximum weight link scheduling algorithm. The connectivity and capacity of randomly deployed networks are then analysed. Finally, we provide an overview of the technical issues in the emerging area of wireless sensor networks.

  4. Slag Behavior in Gasifiers. Part II: Constitutive Modeling of Slag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massoudi, Mehrdad [National Energy Technology Laboratory; Wang, Ping

    2013-02-07

    The viscosity of slag and the thermal conductivity of ash deposits are among two of the most important constitutive parameters that need to be studied. The accurate formulation or representations of the (transport) properties of coal present a special challenge of modeling efforts in computational fluid dynamics applications. Studies have indicated that slag viscosity must be within a certain range of temperatures for tapping and the membrane wall to be accessible, for example, between 1,300 °C and 1,500 °C, the viscosity is approximately 25 Pa·s. As the operating temperature decreases, the slag cools and solid crystals begin to form. Since slag behaves as a non-linear fluid, we discuss the constitutive modeling of slag and the important parameters that must be studied. We propose a new constitutive model, where the stress tensor not only has a yield stress part, but it also has a viscous part with a shear rate dependency of the viscosity, along with temperature and concentration dependency, while allowing for the possibility of the normal stress effects. In Part I, we reviewed, identify and discuss the key coal ash properties and the operating conditions impacting slag behavior.

  5. Two-World Background of Special Relativity. Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adekugbe A. O. J.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The two-world background of the Special Theory of Relativity started in part one of this article is continued in this second part. Four-dimensional inversion is shown to be a special Lorentz transformation that transforms the positive spacetime coordinates of a frame of reference in the positive universe into the negative spacetime coordinates of the symmetry-partner frame of reference in the negative universe in the two-world picture, contrary to the conclusion that four-dimensional inversion is impossible as actual trans- formation of the coordinates of a frame of reference in the existing one-world picture. By starting with the negative spacetime dimensions in the negative universe derived in part one, the signs of mass and other physical parameters and physical constants in the negative universe are derived by application of the symmetry of laws between the pos- itive and negative universes. The invariance of natural laws in the negative universe is demonstrated. The derived negative sign of mass in the negative universe is a conclu- sion of over a century-old effort towards the development of the concept of negative mass in physics.

  6. Slag Behavior in Gasifiers. Part II: Constitutive Modeling of Slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Massoudi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The viscosity of slag and the thermal conductivity of ash deposits are among two of the most important constitutive parameters that need to be studied. The accurate formulation or representations of the (transport properties of coal present a special challenge of modeling efforts in computational fluid dynamics applications. Studies have indicated that slag viscosity must be within a certain range of temperatures for tapping and the membrane wall to be accessible, for example, between 1,300 °C and 1,500 °C, the viscosity is approximately 25 Pa·s. As the operating temperature decreases, the slag cools and solid crystals begin to form. Since slag behaves as a non-linear fluid, we discuss the constitutive modeling of slag and the important parameters that must be studied. We propose a new constitutive model, where the stress tensor not only has a yield stress part, but it also has a viscous part with a shear rate dependency of the viscosity, along with temperature and concentration dependency, while allowing for the possibility of the normal stress effects. In Part I, we reviewed, identify and discuss the key coal ash properties and the operating conditions impacting slag behavior.

  7. Underwater Electromagnetic Sensor Networks, Part II: Localization and Network Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Zazo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the first part of the paper, we modeled and characterized the underwater radio channel in shallowwaters. In the second part,we analyze the application requirements for an underwaterwireless sensor network (U-WSN operating in the same environment and perform detailed simulations. We consider two localization applications, namely self-localization and navigation aid, and propose algorithms that work well under the specific constraints associated with U-WSN, namely low connectivity, low data rates and high packet loss probability. We propose an algorithm where the sensor nodes collaboratively estimate their unknown positions in the network using a low number of anchor nodes and distance measurements from the underwater channel. Once the network has been self-located, we consider a node estimating its position for underwater navigation communicating with neighboring nodes. We also propose a communication system and simulate the whole electromagnetic U-WSN in the Castalia simulator to evaluate the network performance, including propagation impairments (e.g., noise, interference, radio parameters (e.g., modulation scheme, bandwidth, transmit power, hardware limitations (e.g., clock drift, transmission buffer and complete MAC and routing protocols. We also explain the changes that have to be done to Castalia in order to perform the simulations. In addition, we propose a parametric model of the communication channel that matches well with the results from the first part of this paper. Finally, we provide simulation results for some illustrative scenarios.

  8. Underwater Electromagnetic Sensor Networks, Part II: Localization and Network Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zazo, Javier; Macua, Sergio Valcarcel; Zazo, Santiago; Pérez, Marina; Pérez-Álvarez, Iván; Jiménez, Eugenio; Cardona, Laura; Brito, Joaquín Hernández; Quevedo, Eduardo

    2016-12-17

    In the first part of the paper, we modeled and characterized the underwater radio channel in shallowwaters. In the second part,we analyze the application requirements for an underwaterwireless sensor network (U-WSN) operating in the same environment and perform detailed simulations. We consider two localization applications, namely self-localization and navigation aid, and propose algorithms that work well under the specific constraints associated with U-WSN, namely low connectivity, low data rates and high packet loss probability. We propose an algorithm where the sensor nodes collaboratively estimate their unknown positions in the network using a low number of anchor nodes and distance measurements from the underwater channel. Once the network has been self-located, we consider a node estimating its position for underwater navigation communicating with neighboring nodes. We also propose a communication system and simulate the whole electromagnetic U-WSN in the Castalia simulator to evaluate the network performance, including propagation impairments (e.g., noise, interference), radio parameters (e.g., modulation scheme, bandwidth, transmit power), hardware limitations (e.g., clock drift, transmission buffer) and complete MAC and routing protocols. We also explain the changes that have to be done to Castalia in order to perform the simulations. In addition, we propose a parametric model of the communication channel that matches well with the results from the first part of this paper. Finally, we provide simulation results for some illustrative scenarios.

  9. Hermeneutics as an approach to science: Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eger, Martin

    1993-12-01

    This paper continues the hermeneutic-phenomenological investigation of natural science, in which understanding plays a role comparable to creative construction (see ‘Hermeneutics as an Approach to Science: Part I’ in Science & Education 2(1)). The first issue treated is that of language: Is the language of science part of the equipment of the scientist, the subject, or part of the object itself — nature already linguistically encased? This issue, arising from the so-called argument of ‘the double hermeneutic’, relates the general question of the role of the subject in natural science to the role of interpretation. Examples of major interpretative developments in physics are discussed. The inquiry suggests that the role of interpretation and hermeneutics is tied to the educative or ‘study-mode’ of science; and that this mode can, apparently, be found at all levels and stages of science. The nature of this interpretive mode, and its relation to the creative mode, is then analyzed on the model of Gadamer's description of the interpretation of art.

  10. Underwater Electromagnetic Sensor Networks, Part II: Localization and Network Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zazo, Javier; Valcarcel Macua, Sergio; Zazo, Santiago; Pérez, Marina; Pérez-Álvarez, Iván; Jiménez, Eugenio; Cardona, Laura; Brito, Joaquín Hernández; Quevedo, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    In the first part of the paper, we modeled and characterized the underwater radio channel in shallow waters. In the second part, we analyze the application requirements for an underwater wireless sensor network (U-WSN) operating in the same environment and perform detailed simulations. We consider two localization applications, namely self-localization and navigation aid, and propose algorithms that work well under the specific constraints associated with U-WSN, namely low connectivity, low data rates and high packet loss probability. We propose an algorithm where the sensor nodes collaboratively estimate their unknown positions in the network using a low number of anchor nodes and distance measurements from the underwater channel. Once the network has been self-located, we consider a node estimating its position for underwater navigation communicating with neighboring nodes. We also propose a communication system and simulate the whole electromagnetic U-WSN in the Castalia simulator to evaluate the network performance, including propagation impairments (e.g., noise, interference), radio parameters (e.g., modulation scheme, bandwidth, transmit power), hardware limitations (e.g., clock drift, transmission buffer) and complete MAC and routing protocols. We also explain the changes that have to be done to Castalia in order to perform the simulations. In addition, we propose a parametric model of the communication channel that matches well with the results from the first part of this paper. Finally, we provide simulation results for some illustrative scenarios. PMID:27999309

  11. Premios nobel de quimica y filatelia. Parte II: Quimica analitica, quimica organica, productos naturales y bioquimica

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martinez-Reina, Marlon; Amado-Gonzalez, Eliseo

    2013-01-01

    En Premios Nobel de Quimica y Filatelia, Parte II, se hace una revision de los sellos postales emitidos en diferentes paises para conmemorar los Premios Nobel en quimica analitica, quimica organica...

  12. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy: Part II. Advantages of FT-IR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, W. D.

    1987-01-01

    This is Part II in a series on Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Described are various advantages of FT-IR spectroscopy including energy advantages, wavenumber accuracy, constant resolution, polarization effects, and stepping at grating changes. (RH)

  13. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 266 - Tier I Feed Rate Screening Limits for Total Chlorine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF SPECIFIC HAZARDOUS WASTES AND SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Pt. 266, App. II Appendix II to Part 266—Tier I Feed Rate Screening Limits for Total Chlorine Terrain-adjusted effective stack height (m) Noncomplex Terrain Urban (g...

  14. Cogeneration from Poultry Industry Wastes -- Part II: Economic Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bianchi, M.; Cherubini, F.; Pascale, A. D.

    2003-01-01

    of a Indirectly Fired Gas Turbine (Part I). Moreover a Steam Turbine Plant or a simplified system for the supply of the only technological steam are investigated and compared. Thermodynamic and economic analysis have been carried out for the examined configurations in order to outline the basic differences...... an existing poultry industry as fuel. Different plant configurations have been considered in order to make use of the oil and of the meat and bone meal, which are the by-products of the chicken cooking process. In particular, the process plant can be integrated with an energy supply plant which can consist...

  15. The Symmetric Group Defies Strong Fourier Sampling: Part II

    CERN Document Server

    Moore, Cristopher; Moore, Cristopher; Russell, Alexander

    2005-01-01

    Part I of this paper showed that the hidden subgroup problem over the symmetric group--including the special case relevant to Graph Isomorphism--cannot be efficiently solved by strong Fourier sampling, even if one may perform an arbitrary POVM on the coset state. In this paper, we extend these results to entangled measurements. Specifically, we show that the hidden subgroup problem on the symmetric group cannot be solved by any POVM applied to pairs of cosets states. In particular, these hidden subgroups cannot be determined by any polynomial number of one- or two-register experiments on coset states.

  16. Inteligencia Artificial y Neurología: II Parte

    OpenAIRE

    Mario Camacho Pinto

    1986-01-01

    Algunos comentarios sobre la primera parte me han inducido a ampliar las bases de este trabajo mediante la presentación de aspectos comunes y conceptos disímiles sobre la hipotética relación entre inteligencia artificial (lA) e inteligencia humana(IH). El tema es tan complejo que un intento por resumirlo de por sí ya es atrayente además de necesario.

    Microhistoria de la lA. Ciñéndome a una cruda realidad la lA nació en la Conferencia de Darmouth,...

  17. Heavy lon Reactions The Elementary Processes, Parts I and II

    CERN Document Server

    Broglia, Ricardo A

    2004-01-01

    Combining elastic and inelastic processes with transfer reactions, this two-part volume explores how these events affect heavy ion collisions. Special attention is given to processes involving the transfer of two nucleons, which are specific for probing pairing correlations in nuclei. This novel treatment provides, together with the description of surface vibration and rotations, a unified picture of heavy ion reactions in terms of the elementary modes of nuclear excitation. Heavy Ion Reactions is essential reading for beginning graduate students as well as experienced researchers.

  18. Tourette's syndrome, Part II: Contemporary approaches to assessment and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scahill, L; Ort, S I; Hardin, M T

    1993-08-01

    Clinical assessment of a child with Tourette's syndrome (TS) includes a careful review of motor and phonic tics. In addition, commonly associated problems of such as obsessive-compulsive symptoms, or symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (inattention, impulsiveness, and overactivity) should also be evaluated. Treatment almost always includes education of the child, family, and school personnel concerning the natural history and behavioral boundaries of the disorder. Other treatment interventions depend to a great extent on the primary source of impairment. This article, the second of two parts, presents three illustrative cases and reviews current treatment interventions for children and adolescents with TS.

  19. The museum maze in oral pathology demystifed: part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Shankargouda; Rao, Roopa S; Ganavi, Bs

    2013-09-01

    Museum technology is perpetually changing due to current requirements and added inventions for our comfort and furbished display of specimens. Hence numerous methods of specimen preservation have been put on trial by diverse people in the medical feld as are the inventions. But only few have caught people's interest and are popularized today. This part provides unique insights into specialized custom-made techniques, evolution of recent advances like plastination and virtual museum that have popularized as visual delights. Plastination gives handy, perennial life-like acrylic specimens, whereas virtual museum takes museum feld to the electronic era making use of computers and virtual environment.

  20. Design of multiphysics actuators using topology optimization - Part II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigmund, Ole

    2001-01-01

    -material structures. The application in mind is the design of thermally and electro thermally driven micro actuators for use in MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS). MEMS are microscopic mechanical systems coupled with electrical circuits. MEMS are fabricated using techniques known from the semi-conductor industry...... of the topology optimization method in this part include design descriptions for two-material structures, constitutive modelling of elements with mixtures of two materials, formulation of optimization problems with multiple constraints and multiple materials and a mesh-independency scheme for two...

  1. Prevention of Dealloying in Manganese Aluminium Bronze Propeller: Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Napachat Tareelap

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to the failure of manganese aluminium bronze (MAB propeller caused by dealloying corrosion as described in Part I [1], this work aims to study the prevention of dealloying corrosion using aluminium and zinc sacrificial anodes. The results indicated that both of the sacrificial anodes could prevent the propeller from dealloying. Moreover, the dealloying in seawater was less than that found in brackish water. It was possible that hydroxide ions, from cathodic reaction, reacted with calcium in seawater to form calcium carbonate film protecting the propeller from corrosion.

  2. Electromagnet Gripping in Iron Foundry Automation Part II: Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhythm Suren Wadhwa

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares the simulation and initial experimental results for robust part handling by radially symmetric cylindrical electromagnetic gripper heads, that are used in foundry manufacturing assembly operation. Knowledge of the direct holding force is essential to determine if a given electromagnet is capable of preventing part slipping during pick and place operation. Energy based model and the magnetic circuit model have been described. The latter is developed further and compared with results from a FEA software. It was found that the magnetic circuit model, although simple in form, was limited in its ability to accurately predict the holding force over the entire range of conditions investigated. The shortcomings in the model were attributed to its inability to accurately model the leakage flux and non-uniform distribution of the magnetic flux. A finite element allowed for the ability to couple the mechanical and magnetic models. The finite element model was used to predict the magnetic field based off the solutions to the mechanical (sigma and the magnetic model (B.

  3. Active flow control for a NACA-0012 Profile: Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oualli, H.; Makadem, M.; Ouchene, H.; Ferfouri, A.; Bouabdallah, A.; Gad-El-Hak, M.

    2016-11-01

    Active flow control is applied to a NACA-0012 profile. The experiments are conducted in a wind tunnel. Using a high-resolution visible-light camera and tomography, flow visualizations are carried out. LES finite-volume 3D code is used to complement the physical experiments. The symmetric wing is clipped into two parts, and those parts extend and retract along the chord according to the same sinusoidal law we optimized last year for the same profile but clipped at an angle of 60 deg, instead of the original 90 deg. The Reynolds number range is extended to 500,000, thus covering the flying regimes of micro-UAVs, UAVs, as well as small aircraft. When the nascent cavity is open and the attack angle is 30 deg, the drag coefficient is increased by 1,300%, as compared to the uncontrolled case. However, when the cavity is covered and Re <=105 , a relatively small frequency, f <= 30 Hz, is required for the drag coefficient to drop to negative values. At the maximum Reynolds number, thrust is generated but only at much higher frequencies, 12 <= f <= 16 kHz.

  4. The year's new drugs & biologics 2014 - Part II: trends & challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graul, A I; Serebrov, M; Cruces, E; Tracy, M; Dulsat, C

    2015-02-01

    2014 was a year of continued high activity in the pharma and biotech industry, as evidenced in part I of this annual two-part review article published last month in this journal (1). As of December 23, 2014, a total of 55 new chemical and biological entities had reached their first markets worldwide, together with another 29 important new line extensions. Another 19 products were approved for the first time during the year but not yet launched by December 23. Furthermore, during the now-traditional year-end sprint, several regulatory agencies issued last-minute approvals for other compounds that missed the deadline for inclusion in that article, bringing the total of new approvals for the year to a somewhat higher number. In addition to the successful development, registration and launch of new drugs and biologics, there are various other trends and tendencies that serve as indicators of the overall health and status of the industry. These include the pursuit of novel programs designed by regulators to stimulate the development of drugs for diseases that are currently under-treated; the regular and pragmatic culling by companies of their R&D pipelines; and the decision to unify pipelines, portfolios and sales forces through mergers and acquisitions.

  5. Collagenolytic (necrobiotic) granulomas: part II--the 'red' granulomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Jane M; Barrett, Terry L

    2004-07-01

    A collagenolytic or necrobiotic non-infectious granuloma is one in which a granulomatous infiltrate develops around a central area of altered collagen and elastic fibers. The altered fibers lose their distinct boundaries and exhibit new staining patterns, becoming either more basophilic or eosinophilic. Within the area of altered collagen, there may be deposition of acellular substances such as mucin (blue) or fibrin (red), or there may be neutrophils with nuclear dust (blue), eosinophils (red), or flame figures (red). These color distinctions can be used as a simple algorithm for the diagnosis of collagenolytic granulomas, i.e. 'blue' granulomas vs. 'red' granulomas. Eight diagnoses are included within these two groupings, which are discussed in this two-part article. In the previously published first part, the clinical presentation, pathogenesis and histologic features of the 'blue' collagenolytic granulomas were discussed. These are the lesions of granuloma annulare, Wegener's granulomatosis, and rheumatoid vasculitis. In this second half of the series, the 'red' collagenolytic granulomas are discussed; these are the lesions of necrobiosis lipoidica, necrobiotic xanthogranuloma, rheumatoid nodules, Churg-Strauss syndrome, and eosinophilic cellulitis (Well's Syndrome).

  6. Dynamic spreading of nanofluids on solids part II: modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kuan-Liang; Kondiparty, Kirtiprakash; Nikolov, Alex D; Wasan, Darsh

    2012-11-27

    Recent studies on the spreading phenomena of liquid dispersions of nanoparticles (nanofluids) have revealed that the self-layering and two-dimensional structuring of nanoparticles in the three-phase contact region exert structural disjoining pressure, which drives the spreading of nanofluids by forming a continuous wedge film between the liquid (e.g., oil) and solid surface. Motivated by the practical applications of the phenomenon and experimental results reported in Part I of this two-part series, we thoroughly investigated the spreading dynamics of nanofluids against an oil drop on a solid surface. With the Laplace equation as a starting point, the spreading process is modeled by Navier-Stokes equations through the lubrication approach, which considers the structural disjoining pressure, gravity, and van der Waals force. The temporal interface profile and advancing inner contact line velocity of nanofluidic films are analyzed through varying the effective nanoparticle concentration, the outer contact angle, the effective nanoparticle size, and capillary pressure. It is found that a fast and spontaneous advance of the inner contact line movement can be obtained by increasing the nanoparticle concentration, decreasing the nanoparticle size, and/or decreasing the interfacial tension. Once the nanofluidic film is formed, the advancing inner contact line movement reaches a constant velocity, which is independent of the outer contact angle if the interfacial tension is held constant.

  7. Histologic features of alopecias: part II: scarring alopecias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernárdez, C; Molina-Ruiz, A M; Requena, L

    2015-05-01

    The diagnosis of disorders of the hair and scalp can generally be made on clinical grounds, but clinical signs are not always diagnostic and in some cases more invasive techniques, such as a biopsy, may be necessary. This 2-part article is a detailed review of the histologic features of the main types of alopecia based on the traditional classification of these disorders into 2 major groups: scarring and nonscarring alopecias. Scarring alopecias are disorders in which the hair follicle is replaced by fibrous scar tissue, a process that leads to permanent hair loss. In nonscarring alopecias, the follicles are preserved and hair growth can resume when the cause of the problem is eliminated. In the second part of this review, we describe the histologic features of the main forms of scarring alopecia. Since a close clinical-pathological correlation is essential for making a correct histopathologic diagnosis of alopecia, we also include a brief description of the clinical features of the principal forms of this disorder. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  8. Complex dynamics in diatomic molecules. Part II: Quantum trajectories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, C.-D. [Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: cdyang@mail.ncku.edu.tw; Weng, H.-J. [Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: principlex@yahoo.com.tw

    2008-10-15

    The second part of this paper deals with quantum trajectories in diatomic molecules, which has not been considered before in the literature. Morse potential serves as a more accurate function than a simple harmonic oscillator for illustrating a realistic picture about the vibration of diatomic molecules. However, if we determine molecular dynamics by integrating the classical force equations derived from a Morse potential, we will find that the resulting trajectories do not consist with the probabilistic prediction of quantum mechanics. On the other hand, the quantum trajectory determined by Bohmian mechanics [Bohm D. A suggested interpretation of the quantum theory in terms of hidden variable. Phys. Rev. 1952;85:166-179] leads to the conclusion that a diatomic molecule is motionless in all its vibrational eigen-states, which also contradicts probabilistic prediction of quantum mechanics. In this paper, we point out that the quantum trajectory of a diatomic molecule completely consistent with quantum mechanics does exist and can be solved from the quantum Hamilton equations of motion derived in Part I, which is based on a complex-space formulation of fractal spacetime [El Naschie MS. A review of E-Infinity theory and the mass spectrum of high energy particle physics. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 2004;19:209-36; El Naschie MS. E-Infinity theory - some recent results and new interpretations. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 2006;29:845-853; El Naschie MS. The concepts of E-infinity. An elementary introduction to the cantorian-fractal theory of quantum physics. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 2004;22:495-511; El Naschie MS. SU(5) grand unification in a transfinite form. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 2007;32:370-374; Nottale L. Fractal space-time and microphysics: towards a theory of scale relativity. Singapore: World Scientific; 1993; Ord G. Fractal space time and the statistical mechanics of random works. Chaos, Soiltons and Fractals 1996;7:821-843] approach to quantum

  9. Planar LTCC transformers for high voltage flyback converters: Part II.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schofield, Daryl (NASCENTechnology, Inc., Watertown, SD); Schare, Joshua M., Ph.D.; Slama, George (NASCENTechnology, Inc., Watertown, SD); Abel, David (NASCENTechnology, Inc., Watertown, SD)

    2009-02-01

    This paper is a continuation of the work presented in SAND2007-2591 'Planar LTCC Transformers for High Voltage Flyback Converters'. The designs in that SAND report were all based on a ferrite tape/dielectric paste system originally developed by NASCENTechnoloy, Inc, who collaborated in the design and manufacturing of the planar LTCC flyback converters. The output/volume requirements were targeted to DoD application for hard target/mini fuzing at around 1500 V for reasonable primary peak currents. High voltages could be obtained but with considerable higher current. Work had begun on higher voltage systems and is where this report begins. Limits in material properties and processing capabilities show that the state-of-the-art has limited our practical output voltage from such a small part volume. In other words, the technology is currently limited within the allowable funding and interest.

  10. Surface grafted chitosan gels. Part II. Gel formation and characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Chao; Thormann, Esben; Claesson, Per M.

    2014-01-01

    Responsive biomaterial hydrogels attract significant attention due to their biocompatibility and degradability. In order to make chitosan based gels, we first graft one layer of chitosan to silica, and then build a chitosan/poly(acrylic acid) multilayer using the layer-by-layer approach. After...... cross-linking the chitosan present in the polyelectrolyte multilayer, poly(acrylic acid) is partly removed by exposing the multilayer structure to a concentrated carbonate buffer solution at a high pH, leaving a surface-grafted cross-linked gel. Chemical cross-linking enhances the gel stability against......-linking density. The amount of poly(acrylic acid) trapped inside the surface grafted films was found to decrease with decreasing cross-linking density, as confirmed in situ using TIRR, and ex situ by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) measurements on dried films. The responsiveness of the chitosan-based gels...

  11. Theory of edge radiation. Part II: Advanced applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geloni, Gianluca; Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni; Schneidmiller, Evgeni; Yurkov, Mikhail

    2009-08-01

    In this paper we exploit a formalism to describe edge radiation, which relies on Fourier optics techniques [G. Geloni, V. Kocharyan, E. Saldin, E. Schneidmiller, M. Yurkov, Theory of edge radiation. Part I: foundations and basic applications, submitted for publication]. First, we apply our method to develop an analytical model to describe edge radiation in the presence of a vacuum chamber. Such model is based on the solution of the field equation with a tensor Green's function technique. In particular, explicit calculations for a circular vacuum chamber are reported. Second, we consider the use of edge radiation as a tool for electron-beam diagnostics. We discuss coherent edge radiation, extraction of edge radiation by a mirror, and other issues becoming important at high electron energy and long radiation wavelength. Based on this work we also study the impact of edge radiation on X-ray Free-Electron Laser (XFEL) setups and we discuss recent results.

  12. The Mechanism of Graviton Exchange between Bodies, Part II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Javadi, Hossein; Forouzbakhsh, Farshid

    2016-01-01

    Gravitational Law by space-time curvature. Quantum gravity is a part of quantum mechanics which is expected to combine these two theories, and it describes gravity force according to the principles of quantum mechanics which has not got the desired result, yet. In CPH theory, after reconsidering and analyzing......Further to Special Relativity, modern physics includes two great theories which describe universe in a new different way. One of them is Quantum Mechanics which describes elementary particles, atoms and molecules and the other one is General Relativity which has been replaced the Newtonian...... the behavior of photon in the gravitational field, a new definition of graviton based on carrying the gravity force is given. By using this definition, graviton exchange mechanism between bodies/objects is described. As the purpose of quantum gravity is describing the force of gravity by using the principles...

  13. Gas dynamics of a supersonic radial jet. Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosarev, V. F.; Klinkov, S. V.; Zaikovskii, V. N.

    2016-05-01

    The paper presents the radial distributions of the pressure measured with a Pitot tube for the case of a radial jet with/without swirling of the input flow in the pre-chamber; the length of the supersonic part of the jet, dependency of the jet thickness as a function of the distance from the nozzle outlet, and approximating analytical formula for the jet thickness that generalizes the experimental data. Experimental data demonstrated that at the deposition distances lower than 4-6 gauges from the nozzle outlet, the solid particle velocity and temperature are almost uniform over the jet cross section. This means that the target surface can be allocated here without loss in coating quality and deposition coefficient. The maximal recommended distance where the deposition is still possible is the length of l s0 ~ 16 gauges.

  14. Pulmonary Surfactants for Acute and Chronic Lung Diseases (Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Rozenberg

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Part 2 of the review considers the problem of surfactant therapy for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS in adults and young and old children. It gives information on the results of surfactant therapy and prevention of ARDS in patients with severe concurrent trauma, inhalation injuries, complications due to complex expanded chest surgery, or severe pneumonias, including bilateral pneumonia in the presence of A/H1N1 influenza. There are data on the use of a surfactant in obstetric care and prevention of primary graft dysfunction during lung transplantation. The results of longterm use of surfactant therapy in Russia, suggesting that death rates from ARDS may be substantially reduced (to 20% are discussed. Examples of surfactant therapy for other noncritical lung diseases, such as permanent athelectasis, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, and asthma, as well tuberculosis, are also considered.

  15. Indoor Air Quality: part II--what it does.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike-Paris, Ann

    2005-01-01

    Newton, MA. A recent report indicated air quality samples taken from several rooms in the town's North High School had elevated CO2 levels of 2,000 parts per million (ppm) (Viser, 2004). State standards set 800 ppm as the optimum reading. Although not an immediate health issue, high CO2 levels are indicative of poor air circulation--clean air comes in but stale air is not vented out. Safety issues arise in the school setting when chemicals or toxic substances are in use and cannot be vented, therefore posing the health risk (Viser, 2004). Poor Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) in schools can result in decreased academic performance and days lost due to illness in the school age population (Environmental Protection Agency [EPA], 2003). As the school nurse at North High School, what would you do?

  16. Sequencing of contents and learning objects - part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Zapata Ros

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta es la segunda parte del artículo del mismo nombre publicado en el número anterior de RED. En él planteamos una visión de la selección y de la secuenciación de contenidos de enseñanza, en el contexto de la planificación curricular, desde la perspectiva de las corrientes del pensamiento constructivista. Señalamos la importancia de contar, en el campo de la formación apoyada en redes, con herramientas y criterios autónomos que guíen este proceso desde unas bases propias, externas y con preeminencia sobre las que derivan de la configuración de las herramientas tecnológicas, y desde la necesidad de contar con estándares de formato de intercambio de datos Si en general este planteamiento es importante adquiere especial relevancia en el contexto del e-learning de propósito general, tanto en el de formación como en el e-learning empresarial o en el universitario. Y por supuesto en el contexto de la formación reglada y de formación informal, o de la no reglada. También señalamos las necesidades que plantea la industria del e-learning en la actualidad en relación con el diseño instruccional de objetos de aprendizaje, necesidades que constituyen una prioridad y un desafío. En la primera parte desarrollamos la perspectiva constructivista y la conceptualización de servicios y herramientas tecnológicas como recursos educativos, así como una revisión de los conceptos vinculados con el e-learning, objetos de aprendizaje, OAR y reusabilidad. En esta parte abordaremos la fundamentación de las teorías que rigen los procedimientos de selección de contenidos, los presupuestos básicos y la descripción de las técnicas de secuenciación. En particular nos centraremos en tres de ellas: La técnica de análisis de contenidos, la técnica de análisis de la tarea y la Teoría de la Elaboración. Por último como conclusión, en la tercera parte, intentaremos abordar, no en su resolución sino solo en su propuesta como enunciado

  17. Microgrids in Active Network Management-Part II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palizban, Omid; Kauhaniemi, Kimmo; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2014-01-01

    , following planned or unplanned transitions to island mode, microgrids may develop instability. For this reason, the paper addresses the principles behind island-detection methods, black-start operation, fault management, and protection systems, along with a comprehensive review of power quality. Finally......The development of distribution networks for participation in active network management (ANM) and smart grids is introduced using the microgrid concept. In recent years, this issue has been researched and implemented by many experts. The second part of this paper describes those developed...... operational concepts of microgrids that have an impact on their participation in ANM and in the requirements for achieving targets. Power quality is the most challenging task in microgrids, especially when the system switches from normal parallel operation (grid-connection mode) to island operation. Indeed...

  18. FSW Numerical Simulation of Aluminium Plates by SYSWELD - Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jančo Roland

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Friction Stir Welding (FSW is one of the most effective solid state joining processes and has numerous potential applications in many industries. The simulation process can provide the evolution of physicals quantities such as temperature, metallurgical phase proportions, stress and strain which can be easily measured during welding. The numerical modelling requires the modelling of the complex interaction between thermal, metallurgical and mechanical phenomena. The aim of this paper is to describe the thermal-fluid simulation of FSW using the finite element method. In the theoretical part of paper heating is provided by the material flow and contact condition between the tool and the welded material. Thermal-mechanical results from the numerical simulation using SYSWELD are also presented for aluminium alloy.

  19. Fundamental Limits of Wideband Localization - Part II: Cooperative Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Yuan; Win, Moe Z

    2010-01-01

    The availability of positional information is of great importance in many commercial, governmental, and military applications. Localization is commonly accomplished through the use of radio communication between mobile devices (agents) and fixed infrastructure (anchors). However, precise determination of agent positions is a challenging task, especially in harsh environments due to radio blockage or limited anchor deployment. In these situations, cooperation among agents can significantly improve localization accuracy and reduce localization outage probabilities. A general framework of analyzing the fundamental limits of wideband localization has been developed in Part I of the paper. Here, we build on this framework and establish the fundamental limits of wideband cooperative location-aware networks. Our analysis is based on the waveforms received at the nodes, in conjunction with Fisher information inequality. We provide a geometrical interpretation of equivalent Fisher information for cooperative networks....

  20. Nonlinear Scaling Laws for Parametric Receiving Arrays. Part II. Numerical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-06-30

    8217" " .’Ml’.1 ’.■■’: ■ ’ ^ t- Nonlinear Scaling Laws for Parametric Receiving Arrays Part II Numerical Analysis » - m • o prepared ...8217 ’ ■ — Nonlinear Scaling Laws for Parametric Receiving Arrays » z Part II. Numerical Analysis prepared under: A ——^ N0ÖJ339- 7 5 - C -J02 59, //V-ARPA Order...IF ’IP ,6T, 10 .HNO. IR .I_E. £0> riELTI = LiELTrJ IF ’IP .GT. 3 0 .HMD. IP .LE. 3 0;. [ IELT I = IiELT3 IF

  1. Eponyms in cardiothoracic radiology--part II: vascular.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Tan-Lucien H; Saettele, Megan R; Saettele, Timothy; Patel, Vikas; Kanne, Jeffrey P

    2014-01-01

    Eponyms serve the purpose of honoring individuals who have made important observations and discoveries. As with other fields of medicine, eponyms are frequently encountered in radiology, particularly in chest radiology. However, inappropriate use of an eponym may lead to potentially dangerous miscommunication. Moreover, an eponym may honor the incorrect person or a person who falls into disrepute. Despite their limitations, eponyms are still widespread in the medical literature. Furthermore, in some circumstances, more than one individual may have contributed to the description or discovery of a particular anatomical structure or disease, whereas in others, an eponym may have been incorrectly applied initially and propagated for years in the medical literature. Nevertheless, radiologic eponyms are a means of honoring those who have made lasting contributions to the field of radiology, and familiarity with these eponyms is critical for proper reporting and accurate communication. In addition, the acquisition of some historical knowledge about those whose names are associated with various structures or pathologic conditions conveys a sense of humanity in the science of medicine. In this second part of a multipart series, the authors discuss a number of chest radiology eponyms as they relate to the pulmonary vasculature, including relevant clinical and imaging features, as well biographic information of the respective eponym׳s namesake. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Medicine at the crossroads. Part II. Summary of completed project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    Medicine at the crossroads (a.k.a. The Future of Medicine) is an 8-part series of one-hour documentaries which examines the scientific and social forces that have shaped the practice of medicine around the world. The series was developed and produced over a five-year period and in eleven countries. Among the major issues examined in the series are the education of medical practitioners and the communication of medical issues. The series also considers the dilemmas of modern medicine, including the treatment of the elderly and the dying, the myth of the quick fix in the face of chronic and incurable diseases such as HIV, and the far-reaching implications of genetic treatments. Finally, the series examines the global progress made in medical research and application, as well as the questions remaining to be answered. These include not only scientific treatment, but accessibility and other critical topics affecting the overall success of medical advances. Medicine at the crossroads is a co-production of Thirteen/WNET and BBC-TV in association with Television Espafiola SA (RTVE) and the Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Stefan Moore of Thirteen/WNET and Martin Freeth of BBC-TV are series producers. George Page is executive in charge of medicine at the crossroads. A list of scholarly advisors and a program synopses is attached.

  3. Imaging of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Part II: Ultrasonography and MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona Sudoł-Szopińska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile idiopathic arthritis is the most common autoimmune systemic disease of the connective tissue affecting individuals in the developmental age. Radiography, which was described in the first part of this publication, is the standard modality in the assessment of this condition. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging enable early detection of the disease which affects soft tissues, as well as bones. Ultrasound assessment involves: joint cavities, tendon sheaths and bursae for the presence of synovitis, intraand extraarticular fat tissue to visualize signs of inflammation, hyaline cartilage, cartilaginous epiphysis and subchondral bone to detect cysts and erosions, and ligaments, tendons and their entheses for signs of enthesopathies and tendinopathies. Magnetic resonance imaging is indicated in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis for assessment of inflammation in peripheral joints, tendon sheaths and bursae, bone marrow involvement and identification of inflammatory lesions in whole-body MRI, particularly when the clinical picture is unclear. Also, MRI of the spine and spinal cord is used in order to diagnose synovial joint inflammation, bone marrow edema and spondylodiscitis as well as to assess their activity, location, and complications (spinal canal stenosis, subluxation, e.g. in the atlantoaxial region. This article discusses typical pathological changes seen on ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging. The role of these two methods for disease monitoring, its identification in the pre-clinical stage and establishing its remission are also highlighted.

  4. A platform for quality management in research institutes (part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klembalska Agnieszka

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years there has been a particularly strong pressure on changing old structures and management models in research institutes. Contemporary research institutes are scientific units which are commercial in character – almost 80% of funds come from companies and contractual research activity and services. They are the basic sector of science aiming at cooperation with the economy, applied and innovative research. In order to maintain the current and start new cooperation it is necessary to pay particular attention to maintaining, improving and exposing high level of quality of conducted activity. Taking into consideration the necessity of carrying out ever more complex research projects, conducting activity requiring fast reaction to change, risk analysis, which is assessed every year by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education – it seems that it is necessary to apply tools supporting the assessment of quality. In the proposed three-aspect perspective the following scopes of activity are emphasized: implemented quality management systems, area of scientific information and the sphere of cooperation with the client. This article constitutes the continuation of the subjects discussed in the first part – an extension of issues associated with the scope of responsibilities of particular Sections of the proposed Quality Management Platform in research institutes.

  5. Cyclopentane combustion. Part II. Ignition delay measurements and mechanism validation

    KAUST Repository

    Rachidi, Mariam El

    2017-06-12

    This study reports cyclopentane ignition delay measurements over a wide range of conditions. The measurements were obtained using two shock tubes and a rapid compression machine, and were used to test a detailed low- and high-temperature mechanism of cyclopentane oxidation that was presented in part I of this study (Al Rashidi et al., 2017). The ignition delay times of cyclopentane/air mixtures were measured over the temperature range of 650–1350K at pressures of 20 and 40atm and equivalence ratios of 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0. The ignition delay times simulated using the detailed chemical kinetic model of cyclopentane oxidation show very good agreement with the experimental measurements, as well as with the cyclopentane ignition and flame speed data available in the literature. The agreement is significantly improved compared to previous models developed and investigated at higher temperatures. Reaction path and sensitivity analyses were performed to provide insights into the ignition-controlling chemistry at low, intermediate and high temperatures. The results obtained in this study confirm that cycloalkanes are less reactive than their non-cyclic counterparts. Moreover, cyclopentane, a high octane number and high octane sensitivity fuel, exhibits minimal low-temperature chemistry and is considerably less reactive than cyclohexane. This study presents the first experimental low-temperature ignition delay data of cyclopentane, a potential fuel-blending component of particular interest due to its desirable antiknock characteristics.

  6. Oral health in Brazil - Part II: Dental Specialty Centers (CEOs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius Pedrazzi

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The concepts of health promotion, self-care and community participation emerged during the 1970s and, since then, their application has grown rapidly in the developed world, showing evidence of effectiveness. In spite of this, a major part of the population in the developing countries still has no access to specialized dental care such as endodontic treatment, dental care for patients with special needs, minor oral surgery, periodontal treatment and oral diagnosis. This review focuses on a program of the Brazilian Federal Government named CEOs (Dental Specialty Centers, which is an attempt to solve the dental care deficit of a population that is suffering from oral diseases and whose oral health care needs have not been addressed by the regular programs offered by the SUS (Unified National Health System. Literature published from 2000 to the present day, using electronic searches by Medline, Scielo, Google and hand-searching was considered. The descriptors used were Brazil, Oral health, Health policy, Health programs, and Dental Specialty Centers. There are currently 640 CEOs in Brazil, distributed in 545 municipal districts, carrying out dental procedures with major complexity. Based on this data, it was possible to conclude that public actions on oral health must involve both preventive and curative procedures aiming to minimize the oral health distortions still prevailing in developing countries like Brazil.

  7. Polymers Based on Renewable Raw Materials – Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović, S.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A short review of biopolymers based on starch (starch derivatives, thermoplastic starch, lignin and hemicelluloses, chitin (chitosan and products obtained by degradation of starch and other polysaccharides and sugars (poly(lactic acid, poly(hydroxyalkanoates, as well as some of their basic properties and application area, are given in this part. The problem of environmental and economic feasibility of biopolymers based on renewable raw materials and their competitiveness with polymers based on fossil raw materials is discussed. Also pointed out are the problems that appear due to the increasing use of agricultural land for the production of raw materials for the chemical industry and energy, instead for the production of food for humans and animals. The optimistic assessments of experts considering the development perspectives of biopolymers based on renewable raw materials in the next ten years have also been pointed out.At the end of the paper, the success of a team of researchers gathered around the experts from the company Bayer is indicated. They were the first in the world to develop a catalyst by which they managed to effectively activate CO - and incorporate it into polyols, used for the synthesis of polyurethanes in semi-industrial scale. By applying this process, for the first time a pollutant will be used as a basic raw material for the synthesis of organic compounds, which will have significant consequences on the development of the chemical industry, and therefore the production of polymers.

  8. Stochastic dynamics of Arctic sea ice Part II: Multiplicative noise

    CERN Document Server

    Moon, Woosok

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the numerical solutions of a stochastic Arctic sea ice model with multiplicative noise over a wide range of external heat-fluxes, $\\Delta F_0$, which correspond to greenhouse gas forcing. When the noise is multiplicative, the noise-magnitude depends on the state-variable, and this will influence the statistical moments in a manner that differs from the additive case, which we analyzed in Part I of this study. The state variable describing the deterministic backbone of our model is the energy, $E(t)$, contained in the ice or the ocean and for a thorough comparison and contrast we choose the simplest form of multiplicative noise $\\sigma E(t) \\xi(t)$, where $\\sigma$ is the noise amplitude and $\\xi(t)$ is the noise process. The case of constant additive noise (CA) we write as $\\sigma\\overline{E_S}\\xi(t)$, in which $\\overline{E_S}$ is the seasonally averaged value of the periodic deterministic steady-state solution $E_S(t)$, or the deterministic seasonal cycle. We then treat the case of seasonally-varyi...

  9. Imaging of juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Part II: Ultrasonography and MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grochowska, Elżbieta; Gietka, Piotr; Płaza, Mateusz; Pracoń, Grzegorz; Saied, Fadhil; Walentowska-Janowicz, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis is the most common autoimmune systemic disease of the connective tissue affecting individuals in the developmental age. Radiography, which was described in the first part of this publication, is the standard modality in the assessment of this condition. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging enable early detection of the disease which affects soft tissues, as well as bones. Ultrasound assessment involves: joint cavities, tendon sheaths and bursae for the presence of synovitis, intraand extraarticular fat tissue to visualize signs of inflammation, hyaline cartilage, cartilaginous epiphysis and subchondral bone to detect cysts and erosions, and ligaments, tendons and their entheses for signs of enthesopathies and tendinopathies. Magnetic resonance imaging is indicated in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis for assessment of inflammation in peripheral joints, tendon sheaths and bursae, bone marrow involvement and identification of inflammatory lesions in whole-body MRI, particularly when the clinical picture is unclear. Also, MRI of the spine and spinal cord is used in order to diagnose synovial joint inflammation, bone marrow edema and spondylodiscitis as well as to assess their activity, location, and complications (spinal canal stenosis, subluxation, e.g. in the atlantoaxial region). This article discusses typical pathological changes seen on ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging. The role of these two methods for disease monitoring, its identification in the pre-clinical stage and establishing its remission are also highlighted. PMID:27679727

  10. Recent applications of nuclear medicine in diagnostics: II part

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Treglia

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Positron-emission tomography (PET and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT are effective diagnostic imaging tools in several clinical settings. The aim of this article (the second of a 2-part series is to examine some of the more recent applications of nuclear medicine imaging techniques, particularly in the fields of neurology, cardiology, and infection/inflammation. Discussion: A review of the literature reveals that in the field of neurology nuclear medicine techniques are most widely used to investigate cognitive deficits and dementia (particularly those associated with Alzheimer disease, epilepsy, and movement disorders. In cardiology, SPECT and PET also play important roles in the work-up of patients with coronary artery disease, providing accurate information on the state of the myocardium (perfusion, metabolism, and innervation. White blood cell scintigraphy and FDG-PET are widely used to investigate many infectious/inflammatory processes. In each of these areas, the review discusses the use of recently developed radiopharmaceuticals, the growth of tomographic nuclear medicine techniques, and the ways in which these advances are improving molecular imaging of biologic processes at the cellular level.

  11. Cosmology In Terms Of The Deceleration Parameter. Part II

    CERN Document Server

    Bolotin, Yu L; Lemets, O A; Yerokhin, D A; Zazunov, L G

    2015-01-01

    In the early seventies, Alan Sandage defined cosmology as the search for two numbers: Hubble parameter ${{H}_{0}}$ and deceleration parameter ${{q}_{0}}$. The first of the two basic cosmological parameters (the Hubble parameter) describes the linear part of the time dependence of the scale factor. Treating the Universe as a dynamical system it is natural to assume that it is non-linear: indeed, linearity is nothing more than approximation, while non-linearity represents the generic case. It is evident that future models of the Universe must take into account different aspects of its evolution. As soon as the scale factor is the only dynamical variable, the quantities which determine its time dependence must be essentially present in all aspects of the Universe' evolution. Basic characteristics of the cosmological evolution, both static and dynamical, can be expressed in terms of the parameters ${{H}_{0}}$ and ${{q}_{0}}$. The very parameters (and higher time derivatives of the scale factor) enable us to const...

  12. Medical Education: Barefoot Doctors, Health Care, Health Education, Nursing Education, Pharmacy Education, Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Franklin

    1987-01-01

    This is Part II of a two-part annotated bibliography of selected references on medical education in the People's Republic of China. The references date from 1913 to 1982. Most of the references are from the 1960's and 1970's. (RH)

  13. Surface grafted chitosan gels. Part II. Gel formation and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chao; Thormann, Esben; Claesson, Per M; Tyrode, Eric

    2014-07-29

    Responsive biomaterial hydrogels attract significant attention due to their biocompatibility and degradability. In order to make chitosan based gels, we first graft one layer of chitosan to silica, and then build a chitosan/poly(acrylic acid) multilayer using the layer-by-layer approach. After cross-linking the chitosan present in the polyelectrolyte multilayer, poly(acrylic acid) is partly removed by exposing the multilayer structure to a concentrated carbonate buffer solution at a high pH, leaving a surface-grafted cross-linked gel. Chemical cross-linking enhances the gel stability against detachment and decomposition. The chemical reaction between gluteraldehyde, the cross-linking agent, and chitosan was followed in situ using total internal reflection Raman (TIRR) spectroscopy, which provided a molecular insight into the complex reaction mechanism, as well as the means to quantify the cross-linking density. The amount of poly(acrylic acid) trapped inside the surface grafted films was found to decrease with decreasing cross-linking density, as confirmed in situ using TIRR, and ex situ by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) measurements on dried films. The responsiveness of the chitosan-based gels with respect to pH changes was probed by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) and TIRR. Highly cross-linked gels show a small and fully reversible behavior when the solution pH is switched between pH 2.7 and 5.7. In contrast, low cross-linked gels are more responsive to pH changes, but the response is fully reversible only after the first exposure to the acidic solution, once an internal restructuring of the gel has taken place. Two distinct pKa's for both chitosan and poly(acrylic acid), were determined for the cross-linked structure using TIRR. They are associated with populations of chargeable groups displaying either a bulk like dissociation behavior or forming ionic complexes inside the hydrogel film.

  14. Overactive bladder – 18 years – Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Carlos Truzzi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Traditionally, the treatment of overactive bladder syndrome has been based on the use of oral medications with the purpose of reestablishing the detrusor stability. The recent better understanding of the urothelial physiology fostered conceptual changes, and the oral anticholinergics – pillars of the overactive bladder pharmacotherapy – started to be not only recognized for their properties of inhibiting the detrusor contractile activity, but also their action on the bladder afference, and therefore, on the reduction of the symptoms that constitute the syndrome. Beta-adrenergic agonists, which were recently added to the list of drugs for the treatment of overactive bladder, still wait for a definitive positioning – as either a second-line therapy or an adjuvant to oral anticholinergics. Conservative treatment failure, whether due to unsatisfactory results or the presence of adverse side effects, define it as refractory overactive bladder. In this context, the intravesical injection of botulinum toxin type A emerged as an effective option for the existing gap between the primary measures and more complex procedures such as bladder augmentation. Sacral neuromodulation, described three decades ago, had its indication reinforced in this overactive bladder era. Likewise, the electric stimulation of the tibial nerve is now a minimally invasive alternative to treat those with refractory overactive bladder. The results of the systematic literature review on the oral pharmacological treatment and the treatment of refractory overactive bladder gave rise to this second part of the review article Overactive Bladder – 18 years, prepared during the 1st Latin-American Consultation on Overactive Bladder.

  15. Renewable energy for passive house heating - Part II. Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badescu, V. [Candida Oancea Institute of Solar Energy, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Polytechnic University of Bucharest, Bucharest (Romania); Sicre, B. [Computational Physics, Technical University of Chemnitz, Institute of Physics, Chemnitz (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    The evaluation of renewable energy used to increase the environmental friendliness of passive houses (PH) is the topic of this paper. A time-dependent model of passive house thermal behavior is developed. The heat transfer through the high thermal inertia elements is analyzed by using a one-dimensional time-dependent conduction heat-transfer equation that is solved numerically by using a standard Netlib solver (PDECHEB). Appropriate models for the conduction through the low thermal inertia elements are used, as well as a simple approach of the solar radiation transmission through the windows. The model takes into account in a detailed fashion the internal heat sources. Also, the operation of ventilation/heating system is described and common-practice control strategies are implemented. Three renewable energy sources are considered. First, there is the passive solar heating due to the large window on the facade oriented south. Second, the active solar collector system provides thermal energy for space heating or domestic hot water preparation. Third, a ground heat exchanger (GHE) increases the fresh air temperature during the cold season. The model was applied to the Pirmasens Passive House (Rhineland Palatinate, Germany). The passive solar heating system provides most part of the heating energy during November, December, February and March while in January the ground heat exchanger is the most important renewable energy source. January and February require use of additional conventional energy sources. A clever use of the active solar heating system could avoid consuming classical fuels during November, December and March. The ground heat exchanger is a reliable renewable source of energy. It provides heat during all the day and its (rather small) heat flux is increasing when the weather becomes colder. The air temperature at heater exit is normally lower than 46 {sup o}C. This is a good reason for the use of renewable energy to replace the classical fuel or the

  16. Is extreme learning machine feasible? A theoretical assessment (part II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shaobo; Liu, Xia; Fang, Jian; Xu, Zongben

    2015-01-01

    An extreme learning machine (ELM) can be regarded as a two-stage feed-forward neural network (FNN) learning system that randomly assigns the connections with and within hidden neurons in the first stage and tunes the connections with output neurons in the second stage. Therefore, ELM training is essentially a linear learning problem, which significantly reduces the computational burden. Numerous applications show that such a computation burden reduction does not degrade the generalization capability. It has, however, been open that whether this is true in theory. The aim of this paper is to study the theoretical feasibility of ELM by analyzing the pros and cons of ELM. In the previous part of this topic, we pointed out that via appropriately selected activation functions, ELM does not degrade the generalization capability in the sense of expectation. In this paper, we launch the study in a different direction and show that the randomness of ELM also leads to certain negative consequences. On one hand, we find that the randomness causes an additional uncertainty problem of ELM, both in approximation and learning. On the other hand, we theoretically justify that there also exist activation functions such that the corresponding ELM degrades the generalization capability. In particular, we prove that the generalization capability of ELM with Gaussian kernel is essentially worse than that of FNN with Gaussian kernel. To facilitate the use of ELM, we also provide a remedy to such a degradation. We find that the well-developed coefficient regularization technique can essentially improve the generalization capability. The obtained results reveal the essential characteristic of ELM in a certain sense and give theoretical guidance concerning how to use ELM.

  17. Overactive bladder – 18 years – Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truzzi, Jose Carlos; Gomes, Cristiano Mendes; Bezerra, Carlos A.; Plata, Ivan Mauricio; Campos, Jose; Garrido, Gustavo Luis; Almeida, Fernando G.; Averbeck, Marcio Augusto; Fornari, Alexandre; Salazar, Anibal; Dell’Oro, Arturo; Cintra, Caio; Sacomani, Carlos Alberto Ricetto; Tapia, Juan Pablo; Brambila, Eduardo; Longo, Emilio Miguel; Rocha, Flavio Trigo; Coutinho, Francisco; Favre, Gabriel; Garcia, José Antonio; Castaño, Juan; Reyes, Miguel; Leyton, Rodrigo Eugenio; Ferreira, Ruiter Silva; Duran, Sergio; López, Vanda; Reges, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Traditionally, the treatment of overactive bladder syndrome has been based on the use of oral medications with the purpose of reestablishing the detrusor stability. The recent better understanding of the urothelial physiology fostered conceptual changes, and the oral anticholinergics – pillars of the overactive bladder pharmacotherapy – started to be not only recognized for their properties of inhibiting the detrusor contractile activity, but also their action on the bladder afference, and therefore, on the reduction of the symptoms that constitute the syndrome. Beta-adrenergic agonists, which were recently added to the list of drugs for the treatment of overactive bladder, still wait for a definitive positioning – as either a second-line therapy or an adjuvant to oral anticholinergics. Conservative treatment failure, whether due to unsatisfactory results or the presence of adverse side effects, define it as refractory overactive bladder. In this context, the intravesical injection of botulinum toxin type A emerged as an effective option for the existing gap between the primary measures and more complex procedures such as bladder augmentation. Sacral neuromodulation, described three decades ago, had its indication reinforced in this overactive bladder era. Likewise, the electric stimulation of the tibial nerve is now a minimally invasive alternative to treat those with refractory overactive bladder. The results of the systematic literature review on the oral pharmacological treatment and the treatment of refractory overactive bladder gave rise to this second part of the review article Overactive Bladder – 18 years, prepared during the 1st Latin-American Consultation on Overactive Bladder. PMID:27176185

  18. Neuromorphic meets neuromechanics, part II: the role of fusimotor drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalaleddini, Kian; Minos Niu, Chuanxin; Chakravarthi Raja, Suraj; Sohn, Won Joon; Loeb, Gerald E.; Sanger, Terence D.; Valero-Cuevas, Francisco J.

    2017-04-01

    Objective. We studied the fundamentals of muscle afferentation by building a Neuro-mechano-morphic system actuating a cadaveric finger. This system is a faithful implementation of the stretch reflex circuitry. It allowed the systematic exploration of the effects of different fusimotor drives to the muscle spindle on the closed-loop stretch reflex response. Approach. As in Part I of this work, sensory neurons conveyed proprioceptive information from muscle spindles (with static and dynamic fusimotor drive) to populations of α-motor neurons (with recruitment and rate coding properties). The motor commands were transformed into tendon forces by a Hill-type muscle model (with activation-contraction dynamics) via brushless DC motors. Two independent afferented muscles emulated the forces of flexor digitorum profundus and the extensor indicis proprius muscles, forming an antagonist pair at the metacarpophalangeal joint of a cadaveric index finger. We measured the physical response to repetitions of bi-directional ramp-and-hold rotational perturbations for 81 combinations of static and dynamic fusimotor drives, across four ramp velocities, and three levels of constant cortical drive to the α-motor neuron pool. Main results. We found that this system produced responses compatible with the physiological literature. Fusimotor and cortical drives had nonlinear effects on the reflex forces. In particular, only cortical drive affected the sensitivity of reflex forces to static fusimotor drive. In contrast, both static fusimotor and cortical drives reduced the sensitivity to dynamic fusimotor drive. Interestingly, realistic signal-dependent motor noise emerged naturally in our system without having been explicitly modeled. Significance. We demonstrate that these fundamental features of spinal afferentation sufficed to produce muscle function. As such, our Neuro-mechano-morphic system is a viable platform to study the spinal mechanisms for healthy muscle function—and its

  19. Master plan Modoc National Wildlife Refuge [ Part I and Part II

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Master Plan, consisting of three parts, is designed to accomplish sound and orderly development of Modoc Refuge and provides for a continuing program of wildlife...

  20. Eponyms related to genetic disorders associated with gingival enlargement; part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Mohammed Al-Aboud

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There are genetic disorders associated with gingival enlargement. In our part I, we reviewed the eponyms linked to Hereditary Gingival Fibromatosis (HGF [1]. Historical Article How to cite this article: Al Aboud A, Al-Aboud NM, Barnawi H, Al Hakami A. Eponyms related to genetic disorders associated with gingival enlargement: Part II. Our Dermatol Online. 2015;6(1:114-117. Submission: 27.05.2013; Acceptance: 21.09.2014 DOI: 10.7241/ourd.20151.32 In this part II of this review, we are going to shed some light on eponyms linked to groups of genetic disorders which may feature gingival enlargement.

  1. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance physics for clinicians: Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biglands, John D; Radjenovic, Aleksandra; Ridgway, John P

    2012-09-20

    This is the second of two reviews that is intended to cover the essential aspects of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) physics in a way that is understandable and relevant to clinicians using CMR in their daily practice. Starting with the basic pulse sequences and contrast mechanisms described in part I, it briefly discusses further approaches to accelerate image acquisition. It then continues by showing in detail how the contrast behaviour of black blood fast spin echo and bright blood cine gradient echo techniques can be modified by adding rf preparation pulses to derive a number of more specialised pulse sequences. The simplest examples described include T2-weighted oedema imaging, fat suppression and myocardial tagging cine pulse sequences. Two further important derivatives of the gradient echo pulse sequence, obtained by adding preparation pulses, are used in combination with the administration of a gadolinium-based contrast agent for myocardial perfusion imaging and the assessment of myocardial tissue viability using a late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) technique. These two imaging techniques are discussed in more detail, outlining the basic principles of each pulse sequence, the practical steps required to achieve the best results in a clinical setting and, in the case of perfusion, explaining some of the factors that influence current approaches to perfusion image analysis. The key principles of contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CE-MRA) are also explained in detail, especially focusing on timing of the acquisition following contrast agent bolus administration, and current approaches to achieving time resolved MRA. Alternative MRA techniques that do not require the use of an endogenous contrast agent are summarised, and the specialised pulse sequence used to image the coronary arteries, using respiratory navigator gating, is described in detail. The article concludes by explaining the principle behind phase contrast imaging techniques

  2. Addressing future challenges for cancer services: part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Jane; Radford, Gina

    2016-02-01

    Jane Maher & Gina Radford speak to Gemma Westcott, Commissioning Editor Jane Maher has been Macmillan's Chief Medical Officer since 1999 and now shares the role as Joint Chief Medical Officer with general practitioner Rosie Loftus, reflecting the growing need for specialists and generalists to work more effectively together. She has been an National Health Service (NHS) improvement clinical leader for over 10 years and is a Consultant Clinical Oncologist at Mount Vernon Cancer Centre and Hillingdon Hospital where she has worked for more than 20 years, during which she helped develop nonsurgical oncology services in five district general hospitals. She is a senior Clinical Lecturer at University College London and Visiting Professor in Cancer and Supportive Care at the Centre for Complexity Management at the University of Hertfordshire. Jane chaired the Maher Committee for the Department of Health in 1995, led the UK National Audit of Late Effects Pelvic Radiotherapy for the Royal College of Radiologists (RCR) in 2000 and, most recently, chaired the National Cancer Survivorship Initiative Consequences of Treatment work stream. She co-founded one of the first Cancer Support and Information services in the UK, winning the Nye Bevan award in 1992 and there are now more than 60 units based on this model. She is a member of the Older People and Cancer Clinical Advisory Group. She has written more than 100 published articles and is a UK representative for cancer survivorship in Europe and advises on cancer survivorship programs in Denmark and Canada. Gina Radford is Deputy Chief Medical Officer for England, a post she took up in January 2015. Prior to that, she has held a number of roles in public health, at local and regional level. Most recently she was Centre Director for Anglia and Essex for Public Health England, and as a part of that role helped lead nationally on the public health response to Ebola. She was until very recently Chair of one of the NICE public health

  3. Nurse staffing in a decentralized organization: part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althaus, J N; Hardyck, N M; Pierce, P B; Rodgers, M S

    1982-04-01

    It must be emphasized that none of the steps described in this planning process emerged overnight. Rather, they were achieved through a process of evolution, sometimes through trial and error, and always with consultation and participation by many members of the hospital nursing staff. Participation by many in the process of planning for a workable staffing system has been essential to its success. Indeed, creative scheduling by the head nurse is possible because of the way in which the system has been organized. The fact that head nurses are responsible for staffing their own units makes it infinitely easier for them to see what they need to make their units operate effectively and efficiently. Creative scheduling includes the possibility of arranging nurses' hours outside the rigid three-shift schedule used by so many hospitals. Many El Camino nurses now report for work at different hours. In addition, the use of flexible work weeks has proven valuable. Some head nurses now allow for a ten-hour, four-day work week; in emergency staffing situations there have, on occasion, been twelve-hour days. Even as this system evolves, it faces change. Just as the requirements for staff cannot be rigid, so must problem solving be flexible and constantly under review. The fact that El Camino believes in constant monitoring of its system is essential to its success. A key philosophical foundation of decentralization is that it must be subject to change. This is no less true in staffing than in other parts of the decentralization structure. By agreeing that change is constant and necessary and that participation is required at all levels of the staffing planning process, we have constructed the outlines of a system that will work in the future as well as it does in the present. Our system centers around the head nurses. It involves their planning; thus it also involves the support of those members of the nursing staff who can provide essential information. But the decisions

  4. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance physics for clinicians: part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biglands John D

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This is the second of two reviews that is intended to cover the essential aspects of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR physics in a way that is understandable and relevant to clinicians using CMR in their daily practice. Starting with the basic pulse sequences and contrast mechanisms described in part I, it briefly discusses further approaches to accelerate image acquisition. It then continues by showing in detail how the contrast behaviour of black blood fast spin echo and bright blood cine gradient echo techniques can be modified by adding rf preparation pulses to derive a number of more specialised pulse sequences. The simplest examples described include T2-weighted oedema imaging, fat suppression and myocardial tagging cine pulse sequences. Two further important derivatives of the gradient echo pulse sequence, obtained by adding preparation pulses, are used in combination with the administration of a gadolinium-based contrast agent for myocardial perfusion imaging and the assessment of myocardial tissue viability using a late gadolinium enhancement (LGE technique. These two imaging techniques are discussed in more detail, outlining the basic principles of each pulse sequence, the practical steps required to achieve the best results in a clinical setting and, in the case of perfusion, explaining some of the factors that influence current approaches to perfusion image analysis. The key principles of contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CE-MRA are also explained in detail, especially focusing on timing of the acquisition following contrast agent bolus administration, and current approaches to achieving time resolved MRA. Alternative MRA techniques that do not require the use of an endogenous contrast agent are summarised, and the specialised pulse sequence used to image the coronary arteries, using respiratory navigator gating, is described in detail. The article concludes by explaining the principle behind phase

  5. Synchrotron X-ray CT characterization of titanium parts fabricated by additive manufacturing. Part II. Defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarlett, Nicola Vivienne Yorke; Tyson, Peter; Fraser, Darren; Mayo, Sheridan; Maksimenko, Anton

    2016-07-01

    Synchrotron X-ray tomography (SXRT) has been applied to the study of defects within three-dimensional printed titanium parts. These parts were made using the Arcam EBM(®) (electron beam melting) process which uses powdered titanium alloy, Ti64 (Ti alloy with approximately 6%Al and 4%V) as the feed and an electron beam for the sintering/welding. The experiment was conducted on the Imaging and Medical Beamline of the Australian Synchrotron. The samples represent a selection of complex shapes with a variety of internal morphologies. Inspection via SXRT has revealed a number of defects which may not otherwise have been seen. The location and nature of such defects combined with detailed knowledge of the process conditions can contribute to understanding the interplay between design and manufacturing strategy. This fundamental understanding may subsequently be incorporated into process modelling, prediction of properties and the development of robust methodologies for the production of defect-free parts.

  6. Helping Children Cope with Fears and Stress. Part I: Discussion and Activities. Part II: Facilitator's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Edward H.; And Others

    How fears, phobias, anxiety and stress develop in elementary school students and how these students can be assisted in coping with fears and stress are discussed in this book. Part 1, "Discussion and Activities," contains six sections. Section 1 presents an overview of fears, and stress in children. Section 2 presents 12 fear-specific activities…

  7. 30 CFR Appendix II to Subpart D of... - Appendix II to Subpart D of Part 18

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Part 18 LIST OF FIGURES Figure No. Title 1 Typical layout drawing of a machine. 2 Sample bill of material (to accompany layout drawing shown on figure 1) 3 Material to be included with the operating... wires shall not be used for grounding except in conjunction with diode(s) or equivalent. The operating...

  8. Part II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Song; Vollesen, Anne Luise Haulund; Hansen, Young Bae Lee

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Intravenous infusion of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide-38 (PACAP38) provokes migraine attacks in 65-70% of migraine without aura (MO) patients. We investigated whether PACAP38 infusion causes changes in the endogenous production of PACAP38, vasoactive intestinal...... polypeptide (VIP), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), S100 calcium binding protein B (S100B), neuron-specific enolase and pituitary hormones in migraine patients. METHODS: We allocated 32 previously genotyped MO patients to receive intravenous infusion PACAP38 (10...... pmol/kg/minute) for 20 minutes and recorded migraine-like attacks. Sixteen of the patients were carriers of the risk allele rs2274316 (MEF2D), which confers increased risk of MO and may regulate PACAP38 expression, and 16 were non-carriers. We collected blood samples at baseline and 20, 30, 40, 60...

  9. Command and Control Related Computer Technology. Part I. Packet Radio. Part II. Speech Compression and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-12-01

    Radio group has now assimilated the history and context of the project and has become an active and important member of the group. Resolution of...vii ^ i N - i .-.■ Si • ■ - %■ ’■:■ .". <- * ■ ’ . ■ ■ - v. .■’. parts, one for consonants and one for vowels . It is a nonsense...position, and the response set for each item is a minimal pair of English monosyllables. The Phoneme-Specific Intelligibi1ity test covers vowels

  10. Starting a hospital-based home health agency: Part II--Key success factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, P

    1993-09-01

    In Part II of a three-part series, the financial, technological and legislative issues of a hospital-based home health-agency are discussed. Beginning a home healthcare service requires intensive research to answer key environmental and operational questions--need, competition, financial projections, initial start-up costs and the impact of delayed depreciation. Assessments involving technology, staffing, legislative and regulatory issues can help project service volume, productivity and cost-control.

  11. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) test facilities study program. Final report. Volume II. Part A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-17

    Results are presented of an 8-month study to develop alternative non-site-specific OTEC facilities/platform requirements for an integrated OTEC Test Program which may include land and floating test facilities. The document, Volume II - Appendixes is bound in three parts (A, B, and C) which together comprise a compendium of the most significant detailed data developed during the study. Part A contains definitions, baseline revisions, test plans, and energy utilization sections.

  12. STATE-OF-THE-ART HUMAN GENE THERAPY: PART II. GENE THERAPY STRATEGIES AND APPLICATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    In Part I of this Review, we introduced recent advances in gene delivery technologies and explained how they have powered some of the current human gene therapy applications. In Part II, we expand the discussion on gene therapy applications, focusing on some of the most exciting clinical uses. To help readers to grasp the essence and to better organize the diverse applications, we categorize them under four gene therapy strategies: (1) gene replacement therapy for monogenic diseases, (2) gene...

  13. Title II, Part A: Don't Scrap It, Don't Dilute It, Fix It

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coggshall, Jane G.

    2015-01-01

    The Issue: Washington is taking a close look at Title II, Part A (Title IIA) of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) as Congress debates reauthorization. The program sends roughly $2.5 billion a year to all states and nearly all districts to "(1) increase student academic achievement through strategies such as improving teacher…

  14. Managing the care of health and the cure of disease--Part II: Integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glouberman, S; Mintzberg, H

    2001-01-01

    The development of appropriate levels of integration in the system of health care and disease cure will require stronger collective cultures and enhanced communication among the key actors. Part II of this paper uses this line of argument to reframe four major issues in this system: coordination of acute cure and of community care, and collaboration in institutions and in the system at large.

  15. Student Performance on the NBME Part II Subtest and Subject Examination in Obstetrics-Gynecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metheny, William P.; Holzman, Gerald B.

    1988-01-01

    Comparison of the scores of 342 third-year medical students on the National Board of Medical Examiners subject examination and the Part II subtest on obstetrics-gynecology found significantly better performance on the former, suggesting a need to interpret the scores differently. (Author/MSE)

  16. Student Performance on the NBME Part II Subtest and Subject Examination in Obstetrics-Gynecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metheny, William P.; Holzman, Gerald B.

    1988-01-01

    Comparison of the scores of 342 third-year medical students on the National Board of Medical Examiners subject examination and the Part II subtest on obstetrics-gynecology found significantly better performance on the former, suggesting a need to interpret the scores differently. (Author/MSE)

  17. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 1039 - Steady-State Duty Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... following duty cycles apply for variable-speed engines with maximum engine power below 19 kW: (1) The... variable-speed engines with maximum engine power at or above 19 kW: (1) The following duty cycle applies... Appendix II to Part 1039—Steady-State Duty Cycles (a) The following duty cycles apply for constant-speed...

  18. Cicatrização: conceitos atuais e recursos auxiliares - Parte II

    OpenAIRE

    Mandelbaum Samuel Henrique; Di Santis Érico Pampado; Mandelbaum Maria Helena Sant'Ana

    2003-01-01

    Na Parte I deste artigo, publicada na edição anterior dos Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia, foram revisados os conceitos de cicatrização e foi ressaltada a importância da atuação multidisciplinar na abordagem das feridas, compreendendo-se o paciente como um todo. Nesta Parte II são apresentados os recursos que podem auxiliar o processo de cicatrização, bem como os diversos tipos de curativos disponíveis e a sua respectiva indicação.In Part I of this article, published in the previous edition...

  19. Frederiksberg HF kursus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindstrøm, Maria Duclos

    2008-01-01

    Notatet bygger på et interviewmateriale med dimitterede HF-kursister 3 måneder efter endt eksamen. Notatet undersøger dels, hvad der har hjulpet til at gennemføre, dels hvad der har været negativt og vanskeligt ved uddannelsen. Endvidere belyser notatet hvad kursisterne oplever at tage med fra de...

  20. HfO2 Gate Dielectrics for Future Generation of CMOS Device Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H.Y.Yu; J.F.Kang; Ren Chi; M.F.Li; D.L.Kwong

    2004-01-01

    The material and electrical properties of HfO2 high-k gate dielectric are reported.In the first part,the band alignment of HfO2 and (HfO2)x(Al2O3)1-x to (100)Si substrate and their thermal stability are studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and TEM.The energy gap of (HfO2)x(Al2O3)1-x,the valence band offset,and the conduction band offset between (HfO2)x(Al2O3)1-x and the Si substrate as functions of x are obtained based on the XPS results.Our XPS results also demonstrate that both the thermal stability and the resistance to oxygen diffusion of HfO2 are improved by adding Al to form Hf aluminates.In the second part,a thermally stable and high quality HfN/HfO2 gate stack is reported.Negligible changes in equivalent oxide thickness (EOT),gate leakage,and work function (close to Si mid-gap) of HfN/HfO2 gate stack are demonstrated even after 1000℃ post-metal annealing(PMA),which is attributed to the superior oxygen diffusion barrier of HfN as well as the thermal stability of the HfN/HfO2 interface.Therefore,even without surface nitridation prior to HfO2 deposition,the EOT of HfN/HfO2 gate stack has been successfully scaled down to less than 1nm after 1000℃ PMA with excellent leakage and long-term reliability.The last part demonstrates a novel replacement gate process employing a HfN dummy gate and sub-1nm EOT HfO2 gate dielectric.The excellent thermal stability of the HfN/HfO2 gate stack enables its use in high temperature CMOS processes.The replacement of HfN with other metal gate materials with work functions adequate for n- and p-MOS is facilitated by a high etch selectivity of HfN with respect to HfO2,without any degradation to the EOT,gate leakage,or TDDB characteristics of HfO2.

  1. An International Round-Robin Study, Part II: Thermal Diffusivity, Specific Heat and Thermal Conductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hsin [ORNL; Porter, Wallace D [ORNL; Bottner, Harold [Fraunhofer-Institute, Freiburg, Germany; Konig, Jan [Fraunhofer-Institute, Freiburg, Germany; Chen, Lidong [Chinese Academy of Sciences; Bai, Shengqiang [Chinese Academy of Sciences; Tritt, Terry M. [Clemson University; Mayolett, Alex [Corning, Inc; Senawiratne, Jayantha [Corning, Inc; Smith, Charlene [Corning, Inc; Harris, Fred [ZT-Plus; Gilbert, Partricia [Marlow Industries, Inc; Sharp, J [Marlow Industries, Inc; Lo, Jason [CANMET - Materials Technology Laboratory, Natural Resources of Canada; Keinke, Holger [University of Waterloo, Canada; Kiss, Laszlo I. [University of Quebec at Chicoutimi

    2013-01-01

    For bulk thermoelectrics, figure-of-merit, ZT, still needs to improve from the current value of 1.0 - 1.5 to above 2 to be competitive to other alternative technologies. In recent years, the most significant improvements in ZT were mainly due to successful reduction of thermal conductivity. However, thermal conductivity cannot be measured directly at high temperatures. The combined measurements of thermal diffusivity and specific heat and density are required. It has been shown that thermal conductivity is the property with the greatest uncertainty and has a direct influence on the accuracy of the figure of merit. The International Energy Agency (IEA) group under the implementing agreement for Advanced Materials for Transportation (AMT) has conducted two international round-robins since 2009. This paper is Part II of the international round-robin testing of transport properties of bulk bismuth telluride. The main focuses in Part II are on thermal diffusivity, specific heat and thermal conductivity.

  2. Bloqueio do nervo supraescapular: procedimento importante na prática clínica. Parte II Suprascapular nerve block: important procedure in clinical practice. Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Rassi Fernandes

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available O bloqueio do nervo supraescapular é um método de tratamento reprodutível, confiável e extremamente efetivo no controle da dor no ombro. Esse método tem sido amplamente utilizado por profissionais na prática clínica, como reumatologistas, ortopedistas, neurologistas e especialistas em dor, na terapêutica de enfermidades crônicas, como lesão irreparável do manguito rotador, artrite reumatoide, sequelas de AVC e capsulite adesiva, o que justifica a presente revisão (Parte II. O objetivo deste estudo foi descrever as técnicas do procedimento e suas complicações descritas na literatura, já que a primeira parte reportou as indicações clínicas, drogas e volumes utilizados em aplicação única ou múltipla. Apresentamse, detalhadamente, os acessos para a realização do procedimento tanto direto como indireto, anterior e posterior, lateral e medial, e superior e inferior. Diversas são as opções para se realizar o bloqueio do nervo supraescapular. Apesar de raras, as complicações podem ocorrer. Quando bem indicado, este método deve ser considerado.The suprascapular nerve block is a reproducible, reliable, and extremely effective treatment method in shoulder pain control. This method has been widely used by professionals in clinical practice such as rheumatologists, orthopedists, neurologists, and pain specialists in the treatment of chronic diseases such as irreparable rotator cuff injury, rheumatoid arthritis, stroke sequelae, and adhesive capsulitis, which justifies the present review (Part II. The objective of this study was to describe the techniques and complications of the procedure described in the literature, as the first part reported the clinical indications, drugs, and volumes used in single or multiple procedures. We present in details the accesses used in the procedure: direct and indirect, anterior and posterior, lateral and medial, upper and lower. There are several options to perform suprascapular nerve block

  3. Partial covering of a circle by equal circles. Part II: The case of 5 circles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsolt Gáspár

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available How must n equal circles of given radius r be placed so that they cover as great a part of the area of the unit circle as possible? In this Part II of a two-part paper, a conjectured solution of this problem for n = 5 is given for r varying from the maximum packing radius to the minimum covering radius. Results are obtained by applying a mechanical model described in Part I. A generalized tensegrity structure is associated with a maximum area configuration of the 5 circles, and by using catastrophe theory, it is pointed out that the ''equilibrium paths'' have bifurcations, that is, at certain values of r, the type of the tensegrity structure and so the type of the circle configuration changes.

  4. Error Performance of Multidimensional Lattice Constellations-Part II: Evaluation over Fading Channels

    CERN Document Server

    Pappi, Koralia N; Chronis, Theodore N; Karagiannidis, George K

    2012-01-01

    This is the second part of a two-part series of papers, where the error performance of multidimensional lattice constellations with signal space diversity (SSD) is investigated. In Part I, following a novel combinatorial geometrical approach which is based on parallelotope geometry, we have presented an exact analytical expression and two closed-form bounds for the symbol error probability (SEP) in Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN). In the present Part II, we extend the analysis and present a novel analytical expression for the Frame Error Probability (FEP) of multidimensional lattice constellations over Nakagami-m fading channels. As the FEP of infinite lattices is lower bounded by the Sphere Lower Bound (SLB), we propose the Sphere Upper Bound (SUB) for block fading channels. Furthermore, two novel bounds for the FEP of multidimensional lattice constellations over block fading channels, named Multiple Sphere Lower Bound (MSLB) and Multiple Sphere Upper Bound (MSUB), are presented. The expressions for the...

  5. Pseudoelasticity and thermoelasticity of nickel-titanium alloys: a clinically oriented review. Part II: Deactivation forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, M; Nicolay, O F; Cangialosi, T J

    2001-06-01

    The purpose of this review was to organize a systematic reference to help orthodontists evaluate commonly used orthodontic nickel-titanium alloys. Part I of the article reviewed the data available in the literature regarding the temperature transitional ranges of the alloys. The thermomechanical behavior of these compounds is, in fact, strictly dependent upon the correlation between the temperature transitional range and the oral temperature range. Part II focuses on the mechanical characteristics of the alloys, such as the magnitude of the forces delivered and correlations with the temperature transitional range and oral temperature.

  6. Thermoelectric Generators for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Systems Part II: Parametric Evaluation and Topological Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sumeet; Heister, Stephen D.; Xu, Xianfan; Salvador, James R.; Meisner, Gregory P.

    2013-06-01

    A comprehensive numerical model has been proposed to model thermoelectric generators (TEGs) for automotive waste heat recovery. Details of the model and results from the analysis of General Motors' prototype TEG were described in part I of the study. In part II of this study, parametric evaluations are considered to assess the influence of heat exchanger, geometry, and thermoelectric module configurations to achieve optimization of the baseline model. The computational tool is also adapted to model other topologies such as transverse and circular configurations (hexagonal and cylindrical) maintaining the same volume as the baseline TEG. Performance analysis of these different topologies and parameters is presented and compared with the baseline design.

  7. Alchemical poetry in medieval and early modern Europe: a preliminary survey and synthesis. Part II - Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Didier

    2011-03-01

    This article provides a preliminary description of medieval and early modern alchemical poetry composed in Latin and in the principal vernacular languages of western Europe. It aims to distinguish the various genres in which this poetry flourished, and to identify the most representative aspects of each cultural epoch by considering the medieval and early modern periods in turn. Such a distinction (always somewhat artificial) between two broad historical periods may be justified by the appearance of new cultural phenomena that profoundly modified the character of early modern alchemical poetry: the ever-increasing importance of the prisca theologia, the alchemical interpretation of ancient mythology, and the rise of neo-Latin humanist poetry. Although early modern alchemy was marked by the appearance of new doctrines (notably the alchemical spiritus mundi and Paracelsianism), alchemical poetry was only superficially modified by criteria of a scientific nature, which therefore appear to be of lesser importance. This study falls into two parts. Part I provides a descriptive survey of extant poetry, and in Part II the results of the survey are analysed in order to highlight such distinctive features as the function of alchemical poetry, the influence of the book market on its evolution, its doctrinal content, and the question of whether any theory of alchemical poetry ever emerged. Part II is accompanied by an index of the authors and works cited in both parts.

  8. Can focusing on UPDRS Part II make assessments of Parkinson disease progression more efficient?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Cristina

    2009-03-01

    Harrison et al. have attempted to validate Part II of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS II) as a medication-independent measure of disease progression. The authors collected cross-sectional data from a cohort of 888 patients with idiopathic Parkinson disease, and they found a robust association between UPDRS II scores and disease duration. Other variables considered were the patients' levodopa status, age at disease onset, and scores on UPDRS I, II and III. The results suggest that a single UPDRS II measurement might be a good indicator of progression at a given time point, irrespective of the current disease-related circumstances. This concept is attractive in its simplicity and patient-centeredness. However, this evidence came from a single-center, retrospective study, the statistical model was constructed using a nonvalidated surrogate as an independent variable, and no external replication was conducted. Until further confirmation, therefore, Harrison et al.'s proposal can only be considered to be a working hypothesis.

  9. A Long-Term Memory Competitive Process Model of a Common Procedural Error. Part II: Working Memory Load and Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    A Long-Term Memory Competitive Process Model of a Common Procedural Error, Part II: Working Memory Load and Capacity Franklin P. Tamborello, II...00-00-2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A Long-Term Memory Competitive Process Model of a Common Procedural Error, Part II: Working Memory Load and...07370024.2011.601692 Tamborello, F. P., & Trafton, J. G. (2013). A long-term competitive process model of a common procedural error. In Proceedings of the 35th

  10. Validity of NBME Parts I and II for the Selection of Residents: The Case of Orthopaedic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Susan M.

    The predictive validity of scores on the National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) Part I and Part II examinations for the selection of residents in orthopaedic surgery was investigated. Use of NBME scores has been criticized because of the time lag between taking Part I and entering residency and because Part I content is not directly linked to…

  11. Research Papers Sponsored by the Commission on Private Philanthropy and Public Needs. Volume II: Philanthropic Fields of Interest, Part II-Additional Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of the Treasury, Washington, DC.

    Twelve papers discuss future changes and trends in philanthropic giving and activities. The report is Volume II, Part II of a five volume series examining the relationship between nonprofit institutions and their donors. The opening paper reviews the needs for better definition of the government's role in contracting and grant making, and for…

  12. Subseabed disposal program annual report, January-December 1980. Volume II. Appendices (principal investigator progress reports). Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinga, K.R. (ed.)

    1981-07-01

    Volume II of the sixth annual report describing the progress and evaluating the status of the Subseabed Disposal Program contains the appendices referred to in Volume I, Summary and Status. Because of the length of Volume II, it has been split into two parts for publication purposes. Part 1 contains Appendices A-Q; Part 2 contains Appendices R-MM. Separate abstracts have been prepared for each appendix for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  13. A hybrid phenomenological model for ferroelectroelastic ceramics. Part II: Morphotropic PZT ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, S.; Neumeister, P.; Balke, H.

    2016-10-01

    In this part II of a two part series, the rate-independent hybrid phenomenological constitutive model introduced in part I is modified to account for the material behavior of morphotropic lead zirconate titanate ceramics (PZT ceramics). The modifications are based on a discussion of the available literature results regarding the micro-structure of these materials. In particular, a monoclinic phase and a highly simplified representation of the hierarchical structure of micro-domains and nano-domains observed experimentally are incorporated into the model. It is shown that experimental data for the commercially available morphotropic PZT material PIC151 (PI Ceramic GmbH, Lederhose, Germany) can be reproduced and predicted based on the modified hybrid model.

  14. A Lagrangian variational formulation for nonequilibrium thermodynamics. Part II: Continuum systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay-Balmaz, François; Yoshimura, Hiroaki

    2017-01-01

    Part I of this paper introduced a Lagrangian variational formulation for nonequilibrium thermodynamics of discrete systems. This variational formulation extends Hamilton's principle to allow the inclusion of irreversible processes in the dynamics. The irreversibility is encoded into a nonlinear nonholonomic constraint given by the expression of entropy production associated to all the irreversible processes involved. In Part II, we develop this formulation for the case of continuum systems by extending the setting of Part I to infinite dimensional nonholonomic Lagrangian systems. The variational formulation is naturally expressed in the material representation, while its spatial version is obtained via a nonholonomic Lagrangian reduction by symmetry. The theory is illustrated with the examples of a viscous heat conducting fluid and its multicomponent extension including chemical reactions and mass transfer.

  15. A legacy of struggle: the OSHA ergonomics standard and beyond, Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delp, Linda; Mojtahedi, Zahra; Sheikh, Hina; Lemus, Jackie

    2014-11-01

    The OSHA ergonomics standard issued in 2000 was repealed within four months through a Congressional resolution that limits future ergonomics rulemaking. This section continues the conversation initiated in Part I, documenting a legacy of struggle for an ergonomics standard through the voices of eight labor, academic, and government key informants. Part I summarized important components of the standard; described the convergence of labor activism, research, and government action that laid the foundation for a standard; and highlighted the debates that characterized the rulemaking process. Part II explores the anti-regulatory political landscape of the 1990s, as well as the key opponents, power dynamics, and legal maneuvers that led to repeal of the standard. This section also describes the impact of the ergonomics struggle beyond the standard itself and ends with a discussion of creative state-level policy initiatives and coalition approaches to prevent work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) in today's sociopolitical context.

  16. Cooperation in Carrier Sense Based Wireless Ad Hoc Networks - Part II: Proactive Schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Munari, Andrea; Zorzi, Michele

    2012-01-01

    This work is the second of a two-part series of papers on the effectiveness of cooperative techniques in non-centralized carrier sense-based ad hoc wireless networks. While Part I extensively discussed reactive cooperation, characterized by relayed transmissions triggered by failure events at the intended receiver, Part II investigates in depth proactive solutions, in which the source of a packet exploits channel state information to preemptively coordinate with relays in order to achieve the optimal overall rate to the destination. In particular, this work shows by means of both analysis and simulation that the performance of reactive cooperation is reduced by the intrinsic nature of the considered medium access policy, which biases the distribution of the available relays, locating them in unfavorable positions for rate optimization. Moreover, the highly dynamic nature of interference that characterizes non-infrastructured ad hoc networks is proved to hamper the efficacy and the reliability of preemptively ...

  17. PREFACE: Part II of the Proceedings of the 25th International Conference on Low Temperature Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kes, Peter; Jochemsen, Reyer

    2009-03-01

    This Issue of Journal of Physics: Conference Series forms Part II of the Proceedings of the 25th International Conference on Low Temperature Physics (LT25) held in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 6-13 August 2008. Part II contains the papers of short oral and poster presentations. In addition, it provides general information about the LT25 conference, such as a Report from the Organizers, an Activity Report to the IUPAP of the C5 Chairs, an overview of Committees, Sponsors and Exhibitors, and some Conference Statistics. Part I of the Proceedings of LT25 is a special issue of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter. It contains the majority of the special invited lectures, such as the London Prize Lectures, the IUPAP Young Scientist Award Lectures, the Plenary and Half Plenary and Public Lectures, and the Historical Lectures presented at the conference excursion to Leiden. The JPCM LT25 special issue is available for free for a period of one year from publication (Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter). To ensure the high publication standard mandated by Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter and Journal of Physics: Conference Series, every paper was reviewed by at least one referee before it was accepted for publication. The Editors are indebted to many colleagues for invaluable assistance in the preparation and with the reviewing of the 900 papers appearing in Parts I and II of these Proceedings. In particular, we like to thank Carlo Beenakker, Jeroen van den Brink, Hans Brom, Jos de Jongh, Horst Rogalla, and Fons de Waele. Guest Editors Peter Kes and Reijer Jochemsen Leiden University, The Netherlands Conference logo

  18. Solution of the Skyrme HF+BCS equation on a 3D mesh. II. A new version of the Ev8 code

    CERN Document Server

    Ryssens, W; Bender, M; Heenen, P -H

    2014-01-01

    We describe a new version of the EV8 code that solves the nuclear Skyrme-Hartree-Fock+BCS problem using a 3-dimensional cartesian mesh. Several new features have been implemented with respect to the earlier version published in 2005. In particular, the numerical accuracy has been improved for a given mesh size by (i) implementing a new solver to determine the Coulomb potential for protons (ii) implementing a more precise method to calculate the derivatives on a mesh that had already been implemented earlier in our beyond-mean-field codes. The code has been made very flexible to enable the use of a large variety of Skyrme energy density functionals that have been introduced in the last years. Finally, the treatment of the constraints that can be introduced in the mean-field equations has been improved. The code Ev8 is today the tool of choice to study the variation of the energy of a nucleus from its ground state to very elongated or triaxial deformations with a well-controlled accuracy.

  19. Formulation, computation and improvement of steady state security margins in power systems. Part II: Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Echavarren, F.M.; Lobato, E.; Rouco, L.; Gomez, T. [School of Engineering of Universidad Pontificia Comillas, C/Alberto Aguilera, 23, 28015 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-02-15

    A steady state security margin for a particular operating point can be defined as the distance from this initial point to the secure operating limits of the system. Four of the most used steady state security margins are the power flow feasibility margin, the contingency feasibility margin, the load margin to voltage collapse, and the total transfer capability between system areas. This is the second part of a two part paper. Part I has proposed a novel framework of a general model able to formulate, compute and improve any steady state security margin. In Part II the performance of the general model is validated by solving a variety of practical situations in modern real power systems. Actual examples of the Spanish power system will be used for this purpose. The same computation and improvement algorithms outlined in Part I have been applied for the four security margins considered in the study, outlining the convenience of defining a general framework valid for the four of them. The general model is used here in Part II to compute and improve: (a) the power flow feasibility margin (assessing the influence of the reactive power generation limits in the Spanish power system), (b) the contingency feasibility margin (assessing the influence of transmission and generation capacity in maintaining a correct voltage profile), (c) the load margin to voltage collapse (assessing the location and quantity of loads that must be shed in order to be far away from voltage collapse) and (d) the total transfer capability (assessing the export import pattern of electric power between different areas of the Spanish system). (author)

  20. Novel strategies: challenge loop diuretics and sodium management in heart failure--part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pasquale, Pietro; Sarullo, Filippo M; Paterna, Salvatorew

    2007-01-01

    The conflicting results of diuretic treatments in heart failure (HF) and the importance of Na management in the context of the cardiorenal syndrome and neurohormonal activation in HF have suggested novel and counterintuitive strategies, focused primarily on the use of vasopressin antagonists and hypertonic saline solution with high doses of loop diuretics and their neurohormonal interference. The emerging novel therapies involving direct inhibition of vasopressin receptors appear to show promising results. The use of hypertonic saline solution mixed with a high dose of loop diuretics produces, probably by indirect mechanisms, a reduction or inhibition of the activated neurohormonal systems in HF patients. This treatment opens a new window on the role of sodium management in these patients and on the relation between sodium and the kidney's role and function in heart failure. The authors review the current evidence for these therapies and suggest hypothetical bases for their efficacy.

  1. Solid state chemistry of nitrogen oxides--part II: surface consumption of NO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioppolo, S; Fedoseev, G; Minissale, M; Congiu, E; Dulieu, F; Linnartz, H

    2014-05-14

    Nitrogen oxides are considered to be important astrochemical precursors of complex species and prebiotics. However, apart from the hydrogenation of solid NO that leads to the surface formation of hydroxylamine, little is known about the full solid state reaction network involving both nitrogen and oxygen. Our study is divided into two papers, hereby called Part I and Part II. In the accompanying paper, we investigate the surface reactions NO + O/O2/O3 and NO + N with a focus on the formation of NO2 ice. Here, we complement this study by measurements of the surface destruction of solid NO2, e.g., NO2 + H/O/N. Experiments are performed in two separate ultra-high vacuum setups and therefore under different experimental conditions to better constrain the experimental results. Surface reaction products are monitored by means of Fourier Transform Reflection Absorption Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-RAIRS) and Temperature Programmed Desorption (TPD) techniques using mass spectrometry. The surface destruction of solid NO2 leads to the formation of a series of nitrogen oxides such as NO, N2O, N2O3, and N2O4 as well as HNO, NH2OH, and H2O. When NO2 is mixed with an interstellar more relevant apolar (i.e., CO) ice, solid CO2 and HCOOH are also formed due to interactions between different reaction routes. The astrophysical implications of the full nitrogen and oxygen reaction network derived from Parts I and II are discussed.

  2. Optimal recombination in genetic algorithms for combinatorial optimization problems: Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eremeev Anton V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper surveys results on complexity of the optimal recombination problem (ORP, which consists in finding the best possible offspring as a result of a recombination operator in a genetic algorithm, given two parent solutions. In Part II, we consider the computational complexity of ORPs arising in genetic algorithms for problems on permutations: the Travelling Salesman Problem, the Shortest Hamilton Path Problem and the Makespan Minimization on Single Machine and some other related problems. The analysis indicates that the corresponding ORPs are NP-hard, but solvable by faster algorithms, compared to the problems they are derived from.

  3. Zn(II, Mn(II and Sr(II Behavior in a Natural Carbonate Reservoir System. Part II: Impact of Geological CO2 Storage Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auffray B.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Some key points still prevent the full development of geological carbon sequestration in underground formations, especially concerning the assessment of the integrity of such storage. Indeed, the consequences of gas injection on chemistry and petrophysical properties are still much discussed in the scientific community, and are still not well known at either laboratory or field scale. In this article, the results of an experimental study about the mobilization of Trace Elements (TE during CO2 injection in a reservoir are presented. The experimental conditions range from typical storage formation conditions (90 bar, supercritical CO2 to shallower conditions (60 and 30 bar, CO2 as gas phase, and consider the dissolution of the two carbonates, coupled with the sorption of an initial concentration of 10−5 M of Zn(II, and the consequent release in solution of Mn(II and Sr(II. The investigation goes beyond the sole behavior of TE in the storage conditions: it presents the specific behavior of each element with respect to the pressure and the natural carbonate considered, showing that different equilibrium concentrations are to be expected if a fluid with a given concentration of TE leaks to an upper formation. Even though sorption is evidenced, it does not balance the amount of TE released by the dissolution process. The increase in porosity is clearly evidenced as a linear function of the CO2 pressure imposed for the St-Emilion carbonate. For the Lavoux carbonate, this trend is not confirmed by the 90 bar experiment. A preferential dissolution of the bigger family of pores from the preexisting porosity is observed in one of the samples (Lavoux carbonate while the second one (St-Emilion carbonate presents a newly-formed family of pores. Both reacted samples evidence that the pore network evolves toward a tubular network type.

  4. Part I: Sound color in the music of Gyorgy Kurtag, Part II: "Leopard's Path," thirteen visions for chamber ensemble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iachimciuc, Igor

    The dissertation is in two parts, a theoretical study and a musical composition. In Part I the music of Gyorgy Kurtag is analyzed from the point of view of sound color. A brief description of what is understood by the term sound color, and various ways of achieving specific coloristic effects, are presented in the Introduction. An examination of Kurtag's approaches to the domain of sound color occupies the chapters that follow. The musical examples that are analyzed are selected from Kurtag's different compositional periods, showing a certain consistency in sound color techniques, the most important of which are already present in the String Quartet, Op. 1. The compositions selected for analysis are written for different ensembles, but regardless of the instrumentation, certain principles of the formation and organization of sound color remain the same. Rather than relying on extended instrumental techniques, Kurtag creates a large variety of sound colors using traditional means such as pitch material, register, density, rhythm, timbral combinations, dynamics, texture, spatial displacement of the instruments, and the overall musical context. Each sound color unit in Kurtag's music is a separate entity, conceived as a complete microcosm. Sound color units can either be juxtaposed as contrasting elements, forming sound color variations, or superimposed, often resulting in a Klangfarbenmelodie effect. Some of the same gestural figures (objets trouves) appear in different compositions, but with significant coloristic modifications. Thus, the principle of sound color variations is not only a strong organizational tool, but also a characteristic stylistic feature of the music of Gyorgy Kurtag. Part II, Leopard's Path (2010), for flute, clarinet, violin, cello, cimbalom, and piano, is an original composition inspired by the painting of Jesse Allen, a San Francisco based artist. The composition is conceived as a cycle of thirteen short movements. Ten of these movements are

  5. Biology and Mechanics of Blood Flows Part II: Mechanics and Medical Aspects

    CERN Document Server

    Thiriet, Marc

    2008-01-01

    Biology and Mechanics of Blood Flows presents the basic knowledge and state-of-the-art techniques necessary to carry out investigations of the cardiovascular system using modeling and simulation. Part II of this two-volume sequence, Mechanics and Medical Aspects, refers to the extraction of input data at the macroscopic scale for modeling the cardiovascular system, and complements Part I, which focuses on nanoscopic and microscopic components and processes. This volume contains chapters on anatomy, physiology, continuum mechanics, as well as pathological changes in the vasculature walls including the heart and their treatments. Methods of numerical simulations are given and illustrated in particular by application to wall diseases. This authoritative book will appeal to any biologist, chemist, physicist, or applied mathematician interested in the functioning of the cardiovascular system.

  6. Advances in Unsteady Boundary Layer Transition Research, Part II: Experimental Verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. T. Schobeiri

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This two-part article presents recent advances in boundary layer research into the unsteady boundary layer transition modeling and its validation. This, Part II, deals with the results of an inductive approach based on comprehensive experimental and theoretical studies of unsteady wake flow and unsteady boundary layer flow. The experiments were performed on a curved plate at a zero streamwise pressure gradient under periodic unsteady wake flow, in which the frequency of the periodic unsteady flow was varied. To validate the model, systematic experimental investigations were performed on the suction and pressure surfaces of turbine blades integrated into a high-subsonic cascade test facility, which was designed for unsteady boundary layer investigations. The analysis of the experiment's results and comparison with the model's prediction confirm the validity of the model and its ability to predict accurately the unsteady boundary layer transition.

  7. Pregnancy in women with renal disease. Part II: specific underlying renal conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidaeff, Alex C; Yeomans, Edward R; Ramin, Susan M

    2008-08-01

    The obstetric outcome in women with kidney disease has improved in recent years due to continuous progress in obstetrics and neonatology, as well as better medical management of hypertension and renal disease. However, every pregnancy in these women remains a high-risk pregnancy. When considering the interaction between renal disease and pregnancy, maternal outcomes are related to the initial level of renal dysfunction more than to the specific underlying disease. With regards to fetal outcomes, though, a distinction may exist between renal dysfunction resulting from primary renal disease and that in which renal involvement is part of a systemic disease. In part II of this review, some specific causes of renal failure affecting pregnancy are considered.

  8. Patient variation in veterinary medicine--part II--influence of physiological variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modric, S; Martinez, M

    2011-06-01

    In veterinary medicine, the characterization of a drug's pharmacokinetic properties is generally based upon data that are derived from studies that employ small groups of young healthy animals, often of a single breed. In Part I of the series, we focused on the potential influence of disease processes, stress, pregnancy and lactation on drug pharmacokinetics. In this Part II of the series, we consider other covariates, such as gender, heritable traits, age, body composition, and circadian rhythms. The impact of these factors with respect to predicting the relationship between dose and drug exposure characteristics within an animal population is illustrated through the use of Monte Carlo simulations. Ultimately, an appreciation of these potential influences will improve the prediction of situations when dose adjustments may be appropriate. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Transferring diffractive optics from research to commercial applications: Part II - size estimations for selected markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Robert

    2014-04-01

    In a series of two contributions, decisive business-related aspects of the current process status to transfer research results on diffractive optical elements (DOEs) into commercial solutions are discussed. In part I, the focus was on the patent landscape. Here, in part II, market estimations concerning DOEs for selected applications are presented, comprising classical spectroscopic gratings, security features on banknotes, DOEs for high-end applications, e.g., for the semiconductor manufacturing market and diffractive intra-ocular lenses. The derived market sizes are referred to the optical elements, itself, rather than to the enabled instruments. The estimated market volumes are mainly addressed to scientifically and technologically oriented optical engineers to serve as a rough classification of the commercial dimensions of DOEs in the different market segments and do not claim to be exhaustive.

  10. Exploring Cancer Therapeutics with Natural Products from African Medicinal Plants, Part II: Alkaloids, Terpenoids and Flavonoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwodo, Justina N; Ibezim, Akachukwu; Simoben, Conrad V; Ntie-Kang, Fidele

    2016-01-01

    Cancer stands as second most common cause of disease-related deaths in humans. Resistance of cancer to chemotherapy remains challenging to both scientists and physicians. Medicinal plants are known to contribute significantly to a large population of Africa, which is to a very large extent linked to folkloric claims which is part of their livelihood. In this review paper, the potential of naturally occurring anti-cancer agents from African flora has been explored, with suggested modes of action, where such data is available. Literature search revealed plant-derived compounds from African flora showing anti-cancer and/or cytotoxic activities, which have been tested in vitro and in vivo. This corresponds to 400 compounds (from mildly active to very active) covering various compound classes. However, in this part II, we only discussed the three major compound classes which are: flavonoids, alkaloids and terpenoids.

  11. Investigations about Starting Cracks in DC-Casting of 6063-Type Billets Part II: Modelling Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, E. K.; Schneider, W.

    Influence on starting crack tendency of varying a number of casting parameters has been studied by experiments, Part I (1), and by model calculations, Part II. Both studies point to starting block shape as a most important single factor in controlling starting cracks. By using the thermal model ALSIM-2 in analysing initial experimental results, the variable heat transfer towards the starting block was determined. This made possible a satisfactory model analysis of the starting phase and likewise the formulation of a useful cracking concept. Thus by using calculated and measured liquid pool depth curve in the starting phase of casting as a basis, an effective starting block shape was found. This new shape practically eliminates the starting crack problems in extrusion billets of the AA6063 type alloys.

  12. Mineral resources of parts of the Departments of Antioquia and Caldas, Zone II, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, R.B.; Feininger, Tomas; Barrero, L.; Dario, Rico H.; ,; Alvarez, A.

    1970-01-01

    The mineral resources of an area of 40,000 sq km, principally in the Department of Antioquia, but including small parts of the Departments of Caldas, C6rdoba, Risaralda, and Tolima, were investigated during the period 1964-68. The area is designated Zone II by the Colombian Inventario Minero Nacional(lMN). The geology of approximately 45 percent of this area, or 18,000 sq km, has been mapped by IMN. Zone II has been a gold producer for centuries, and still produces 75 percent of Colombia's gold. Silver is recovered as a byproduct. Ferruginous laterites have been investigated as potential sources of iron ore but are not commercially exploitable. Nickeliferous laterite on serpentinite near Ure in the extreme northwest corner of the Zone is potentially exploitable, although less promising than similar laterites at Cerro Matoso, north of the Zone boundary. Known deposits of mercury, chromium, manganese, and copper are small and have limited economic potentia1. Cement raw materials are important among nonmetallic resources, and four companies are engaged in the manufacture of portland cement. The eastern half of Zone II contains large carbonate rock reserves, but poor accessibility is a handicap to greater development at present. Dolomite near Amalfi is quarried for the glass-making and other industries. Clay saprolite is abundant and widely used in making brick and tiles in backyard kilns. Kaolin of good quality near La Union is used by the ceramic industry. Subbituminous coal beds of Tertiary are an important resource in the western part of the zone and have good potential for greater development. Aggregate materials for construction are varied and abundant. Deposits of sodic feldspar, talc, decorative stone, and silica are exploited on a small scale. Chrysotils asbestos deposits north of Campamento are being developed to supply fiber for Colombia's thriving asbestos-cement industry, which is presently dependent upon imported fiber. Wollastonite and andalusite are

  13. Seismic risk analysis for General Electric Plutonium Facility, Pleasanton, California. Final report, part II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-27

    This report is the second of a two part study addressing the seismic risk or hazard of the special nuclear materials (SNM) facility of the General Electric Vallecitos Nuclear Center at Pleasanton, California. The Part I companion to this report, dated July 31, 1978, presented the seismic hazard at the site that resulted from exposure to earthquakes on the Calaveras, Hayward, San Andreas and, additionally, from smaller unassociated earthquakes that could not be attributed to these specific faults. However, while this study was in progress, certain additional geologic information became available that could be interpreted in terms of the existance of a nearby fault. Although substantial geologic investigations were subsequently deployed, the existance of this postulated fault, called the Verona Fault, remained very controversial. The purpose of the Part II study was to assume the existance of such a capable fault and, under this assumption, to examine the loads that the fault could impose on the SNM facility. This report first reviews the geologic setting with a focus on specifying sufficient geologic parameters to characterize the postulated fault. The report next presents the methodology used to calculate the vibratory ground motion hazard. Because of the complexity of the fault geometry, a slightly different methodology is used here compared to the Part I report. This section ends with the results of the calculation applied to the SNM facility. Finally, the report presents the methodology and results of the rupture hazard calculation.

  14. Analysis of Radionuclide Releases from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achim, Pascal; Monfort, Marguerite; Le Petit, Gilbert; Gross, Philippe; Douysset, Guilhem; Taffary, Thomas; Blanchard, Xavier; Moulin, Christophe

    2014-03-01

    The present part of the publication (Part II) deals with long range dispersion of radionuclides emitted into the atmosphere during the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident that occurred after the March 11, 2011 tsunami. The first part (Part I) is dedicated to the accident features relying on radionuclide detections performed by monitoring stations of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization network. In this study, the emissions of the three fission products Cs-137, I-131 and Xe-133 are investigated. Regarding Xe-133, the total release is estimated to be of the order of 6 × 1018 Bq emitted during the explosions of units 1, 2 and 3. The total source term estimated gives a fraction of core inventory of about 8 × 1018 Bq at the time of reactors shutdown. This result suggests that at least 80 % of the core inventory has been released into the atmosphere and indicates a broad meltdown of reactor cores. Total atmospheric releases of Cs-137 and I-131 aerosols are estimated to be 1016 and 1017 Bq, respectively. By neglecting gas/particulate conversion phenomena, the total release of I-131 (gas + aerosol) could be estimated to be 4 × 1017 Bq. Atmospheric transport simulations suggest that the main air emissions have occurred during the events of March 14, 2011 (UTC) and that no major release occurred after March 23. The radioactivity emitted into the atmosphere could represent 10 % of the Chernobyl accident releases for I-131 and Cs-137.

  15. Pulsed inductive HF laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Razhev, A M; Kargapol' tsev, E S [Institute of Laser Physics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Churkin, D S; Demchuk, S V [Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2016-03-31

    We report the results of experimentally investigated dependences of temporal, spectral and spatial characteristics of an inductive HF-laser generation on the pump conditions. Gas mixtures H{sub 2} – F{sub 2}(NF{sub 3} or SF6{sub 6}) and He(Ne) – H{sub 2} – F{sub 2}(NF{sub 3} or SF{sub 6}) were used as active media. The FWHM pulse duration reached 0.42 μs. This value corresponded to a pulsed power of 45 kW. For the first time, the emission spectrum of an inductive HF laser was investigated, which consisted of seven groups of bands with centres around the wavelengths of 2732, 2736, 2739, 2835, 2837, 2893 and 2913 nm. The cross section profile of the laser beam was a ring with a diameter of about 20 mm and width of about 5 mm. Parameters of laser operation in the repetitively pulsed regime were sufficiently stable. The amplitude instability of light pulses was no greater than 5% – 6%. (lasers)

  16. Two-dimensional semiconductor HfSe{sub 2} and MoSe{sub 2}/HfSe{sub 2} van der Waals heterostructures by molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aretouli, K. E.; Tsipas, P.; Tsoutsou, D.; Marquez-Velasco, J.; Xenogiannopoulou, E.; Giamini, S. A.; Vassalou, E.; Kelaidis, N.; Dimoulas, A., E-mail: a.dimoulas@inn.demokritos.gr [Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, National Center for Scientific Research “Demokritos,” 15310, Aghia Paraskevi, Athens (Greece)

    2015-04-06

    Using molecular beam epitaxy, atomically thin 2D semiconductor HfSe{sub 2} and MoSe{sub 2}/HfSe{sub 2} van der Waals heterostructures are grown on AlN(0001)/Si(111) substrates. Details of the electronic band structure of HfSe{sub 2} are imaged by in-situ angle resolved photoelectron spectroscopy indicating a high quality epitaxial layer. High-resolution surface tunneling microscopy supported by first principles calculations provides evidence of an ordered Se adlayer, which may be responsible for a reduction of the measured workfunction of HfSe{sub 2} compared to theoretical predictions. The latter reduction minimizes the workfunction difference between the HfSe{sub 2} and MoSe{sub 2} layers resulting in a small valence band offset of only 0.13 eV at the MoSe{sub 2}/HfSe{sub 2} heterointerface and a weak type II band alignment.

  17. Noncardiac findings on cardiac CT. Part II: spectrum of imaging findings.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Killeen, Ronan P

    2012-02-01

    Cardiac computed tomography (CT) has evolved into an effective imaging technique for the evaluation of coronary artery disease in selected patients. Two distinct advantages over other noninvasive cardiac imaging methods include its ability to directly evaluate the coronary arteries and to provide a unique opportunity to evaluate for alternative diagnoses by assessing the extracardiac structures, such as the lungs and mediastinum, particularly in patients presenting with the chief symptom of acute chest pain. Some centers reconstruct a small field of view (FOV) cropped around the heart but a full FOV (from skin to skin in the area irradiated) is obtainable in the raw data of every scan so that clinically relevant noncardiac findings are identifiable. Debate in the scientific community has centered on the necessity for this large FOV. A review of noncardiac structures provides the opportunity to make alternative diagnoses that may account for the patient\\'s presentation or to detect important but clinically silent problems such as lung cancer. Critics argue that the yield of biopsy-proven cancers is low and that the follow-up of incidental noncardiac findings is expensive, resulting in increased radiation exposure and possibly unnecessary further testing. In this 2-part review we outline the issues surrounding the concept of the noncardiac read, looking for noncardiac findings on cardiac CT. Part I focused on the pros and cons for and against the practice of identifying noncardiac findings on cardiac CT. Part II illustrates the imaging spectrum of cardiac CT appearances of benign and malignant noncardiac pathology.

  18. Constructions of Optical Queues With a Limited Number of Recirculations--Part II: Optimal Constructions

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Xuan-Chao

    2010-01-01

    One of the main problems in all-optical packet-switched networks is the lack of optical buffers, and one feasible technology for the constructions of optical buffers is to use optical crossbar Switches and fiber Delay Lines (SDL). In this two-part paper, we consider SDL constructions of optical queues with a limited number of recirculations through the optical switches and the fiber delay lines. Such a problem arises from practical feasibility considerations. In Part I, we have proposed a class of greedy constructions for certain types of optical queues, including linear compressors, linear decompressors, and 2-to-1 FIFO multiplexers, and have shown that every optimal construction among our previous constructions of these types of optical queues under the constraint of a limited number of recirculations must be a greedy construction. In Part II, the present paper, we further show that there are at most two optimal constructions and give a simple algorithm to obtain the optimal construction(s). The main idea i...

  19. The spectrum of oculocutaneous disease: Part II. Neoplastic and drug-related causes of oculocutaneous disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Antoinette; Abramson, Amanda K; Patel, Mahir; Warren, Richard B; Menter, M Alan

    2014-05-01

    There are a multitude of diseases that commonly affect both the skin and the eye. Part II of this 2-part series reviews the oculocutaneous manifestations of neoplasms, both benign and malignant, and adverse drug reactions affecting the skin and the eye. Though rare, a number of neoplasms that primarily involve the skin, such as melanoma and basal cell carcinoma, can metastasize to the eye, leading to permanent damage if not properly treated. In addition, periocular neoplasms can irritate the conjunctiva and lid, reducing a patient's ability to see clearly. Neoplastic diseases, such as xeroderma pigmentosum, Sturge-Weber syndrome, and multiple myeloma, can also lead to permanent changes in the eye if not discovered and managed promptly. Furthermore, there are a multitude of drugs, including those commonly used by dermatologists, which can result in permanent damage to the eye. With proper knowledge of the ocular manifestations and treatment recommendations described in this 2-part series, dermatologists with the assistance of their ophthalmology colleagues can help avoid the complications, including permanent blindness, associated with infectious, inflammatory, genetic, neoplastic, and drug-related conditions. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The Mental Health Recovery Movement and Family Therapy, Part II: A Collaborative, Appreciative Approach for Supporting Mental Health Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehart, Diane R.

    2012-01-01

    A continuation of Part I, which introduced mental health recovery concepts to family therapists, Part II of this article outlines a collaborative, appreciative approach for working in recovery-oriented contexts. This approach draws primarily upon postmodern therapies, which have numerous social justice and strength-based practices that are easily…

  1. Learning Climate in Schools: Part II. Teacher Views of the Learning and Organizational Climate in Schools. Evaluation Brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Carolyn

    Part I of the Learning Climate in Schools evaluation brief looked at violence and disruptive behavior in the North Carolina public schools from several perspectives, including that of teachers expressed in an annual survey. Part II examines teacher perceptions of learning and organizational climates using another set of teacher responses to the…

  2. CERN scientists take part in the Tevatron Run II performance review committee

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2002-01-01

    Tevatron Run II is under way at Fermilab, exploring the high-energy frontier with upgraded detectors that will address some of the biggest questions in particle physics.Until CERN's LHC switches on, the Tevatron proton-antiproton collider is the world's only source of top quarks. It is the only place where we can search for supersymmetry, for the Higgs boson, and for signatures of additional dimensions of space-time. The US Department of Energy (DOE) recently convened a high-level international review committee to examine Fermilab experts' first-phase plans for the accelerator complex. Pictured here with a dipole magnet in CERN's LHC magnet test facility are the four CERN scientists who took part in the DOE's Tevatron review. Left to right: Francesco Ruggiero, Massimo Placidi, Flemming Pedersen, and Karlheinz Schindl. Further information: CERN Courier 43 (1)

  3. Implementing AORN recommended practices for a safe environment of care, part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Lynne

    2014-09-01

    Construction in and around a working perioperative suite is a challenge beyond merely managing traffic patterns and maintaining the sterile field. The AORN "Recommended practices for a safe environment of care, part II" provides guidance on building design; movement of patients, personnel, supplies, and equipment; environmental controls; safety and security; and control of noise and distractions. Whether the OR suite evolves through construction, reconstruction, or remodeling, a multidisciplinary team of construction experts and health care professionals should create a functional plan and communicate at every stage of the project to maintain a safe environment and achieve a well-designed outcome. Emergency preparedness, a facility-wide security plan, and minimization of noise and distractions in the OR also help enhance the safety of the perioperative environment.

  4. Perspectives and challenges of photon-upconversion nanoparticles - Part II: bioanalytical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorris, Hans H; Resch-Genger, Ute

    2017-07-07

    In Part II of this review series on lanthanide-doped photon-upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs), we present and critically discuss the performance and suitability of UCNPs as background-free luminescent reporters in bioimaging and bioanalytical applications. The preparation of a biocompatible nanoparticle surface is an integral step for all life - science-related applications. UCNPs have found their way into a large number of diagnostic platforms, homogeneous and heterogeneous assay formats, and sensor applications. Many bioanalytical detection schemes involve Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET), which is still debated for UCNPs and needs to be much improved. The need for dedicated and standardized instruments as well as recent studies on the dissolution and potential toxicity of UCNPs are addressed. Finally we outline future trends and challenges in the field of upconversion. Graphical Abstract Both synthesis / spectroscopy as well bioanalytical applications of UCNPs are driven by the COST Action CM1403 "The European Upconversion Network".

  5. Domestic violence perpetrator programs in Europe, Part II: A systematic review of the state of evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akoensi, Thomas D; Koehler, Johann A; Lösel, Friedrich; Humphreys, David K

    2013-10-01

    In Part II of this article, we present the results of a systematic review of European evidence on the effectiveness of domestic violence perpetrator programs. After searching through 10,446 titles, we discovered only 12 studies that evaluated the effectiveness of a perpetrator program in some systematic manner. The studies applied treatment to a total of 1,586 domestic violence perpetrators, and the sample sizes ranged from 9 to 322. Although the evaluations showed various positive effects after treatment, methodological problems relating to the evaluation designs do not allow attribution of these findings to the programs. Overall, the methodological quality of the evaluations is insufficient to derive firm conclusions and estimate an effect size. Accordingly, one cannot claim that one programmatic approach is superior to another. Evaluation of domestic violence perpetrator treatment in Europe must be improved and programs should become more tailored to the characteristics of the participants.

  6. Magnetic resonance imaging of the elbow. Part II: Abnormalities of the ligaments, tendons, and nerves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kijowski, Richard; Tuite, Michael; Sanford, Matthew [University of Wisconsin Hospital, Department of Radiology, Madison, WI (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Part II of this comprehensive review on magnetic resonance imaging of the elbow discusses the role of magnetic resonance imaging in evaluating patients with abnormalities of the ligaments, tendons, and nerves of the elbow. Magnetic resonance imaging can yield high-quality multiplanar images which are useful in evaluating the soft tissue structures of the elbow. Magnetic resonance imaging can detect tears of the ulnar collateral ligament and lateral collateral ligament of the elbow with high sensitivity and specificity. Magnetic resonance imaging can determine the extent of tendon pathology in patients with medial epicondylitis and lateral epicondylitis. Magnetic resonance imaging can detect tears of the biceps tendon and triceps tendon and can distinguishing between partial and complete tendon rupture. Magnetic resonance imaging is also helpful in evaluating patients with nerve disorders at the elbow. (orig.)

  7. Third-space fluid shift in elderly patients undergoing gastrointestinal surgery: Part II: nursing assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wotton, Karen; Redden, Maurine

    2002-08-01

    Third-space fluid shift is the mobilisation of body fluid to a non-contributory space rendering it unavailable to the circulatory system. It is a recurrent clinical phenomenon requiring swift identification to minimise deleterious effects. Nurses experience difficulties however in its early identification, diagnosis and subsequent treatment because of the lack of consensual and consistent information regarding third-spacing. This article, part II, building on the previous article, explores the clinical validly and reliability of signs and symptoms of both phases of third-space fluid shift. In addition it reinforces the use multiple patient assessment cues if nurses are to differentiate between, and accurately respond to, the various causes of both hypovolaemia and hypervolaemia. It assists nurses to increase their knowledge and uderstanding of third-space fluid shift in patients undergoing gastrointestinal surgery.

  8. Spindle cell melanocytic lesions: part II--an approach to intradermal proliferations and horizontally oriented lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sade, Shachar; Al Habeeb, Ayman; Ghazarian, Danny

    2010-05-01

    Melanocytic lesions show great morphological diversity in their architecture and the cytomorphological appearance of their composite cells. Whereas functional melanocytes show a dendritic cytomorphology and territorial isolation, lesional nevomelanocytes and melanoma cells typically show epithelioid, spindled or mixed cytomorphologies, and a range of architectural arrangements. Spindling is common to melanocytic lesions, and may either be a characteristic feature or a divergent appearance. The presence of spindle cells may mask the melanocytic nature of a lesion, and is often disconcerting, either due to its infrequent appearance in a particular lesion or its interpretation as a dedifferentiated phenotype. Spindle cell melanocytic lesions follow the full spectrum of potential biological outcomes, and difficulty may be experienced judging the nature of a lesion due to a lack of consistently reliable features to predict biological behaviour. Over time, recognition of numerous histomorphological features that may portend a more aggressive lesion have been identified; however, the translation of these features into a diagnostic entity requires a gestalt approach. Although most spindle cell melanocytic lesions may reliably be resolved through this standard approach, problem areas do exist for the surgical pathologist or dermatopathologist. With this review (part II of II), we complete our discussion of spindle cell melanocytic lesions, in order to: (1) model a systematic approach to such lesions; and (2) provide familiarity with those melanocytic lesions which either typically or occasionally display a spindled cytomorphology.

  9. Multiobjective Optimization for Fixture Locating Layout of Sheet Metal Part Using SVR and NSGA-II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fixture plays a significant role in determining the sheet metal part (SMP spatial position and restraining its excessive deformation in many manufacturing operations. However, it is still a difficult task to design and optimize SMP fixture locating layout at present because there exist multiple conflicting objectives and excessive computational cost of finite element analysis (FEA during the optimization process. To this end, a new multiobjective optimization method for SMP fixture locating layout is proposed in this paper based on the support vector regression (SVR surrogate model and the elitist nondominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II. By using ABAQUS™ Python script interface, a parametric FEA model is established. And the fixture locating layout is treated as design variables, while the overall deformation and maximum deformation of SMP under external forces are as the multiple objective functions. First, a limited number of training and testing samples are generated by combining Latin hypercube design (LHD with FEA. Second, two SVR prediction models corresponding to the multiple objectives are established by learning from the limited training samples and are integrated as the multiobjective optimization surrogate model. Third, NSGA-II is applied to determine the Pareto optimal solutions of SMP fixture locating layout. Finally, a multiobjective optimization for fixture locating layout of an aircraft fuselage skin case is conducted to illustrate and verify the proposed method.

  10. Modeling of optical spectra of the light-harvesting CP29 antenna complex of photosystem II--part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ximao; Kell, Adam; Pieper, Jörg; Jankowiak, Ryszard

    2013-06-01

    Until recently, it was believed that the CP29 protein from higher plant photosystem II (PSII) contains 8 chlorophylls (Chl's) per complex (Ahn et al. Science 2008, 320, 794-797; Bassi et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 1999, 96, 10056-10061) in contrast to the 13 Chl's revealed by the recent X-ray structure (Pan et al. Nat. Struct. Mol. Biol. 2011, 18, 309-315). This disagreement presents a constraint on the interpretation of the underlying electronic structure of this complex. To shed more light on the interpretation of various experimental optical spectra discussed in the accompanying paper (part I, DOI 10.1021/jp4004328 ), we report here calculated low-temperature (5 K) absorption, fluorescence, hole-burned (HB), and 300 K circular dichroism (CD) spectra for CP29 complexes with a different number of pigments. We focus on excitonic structure and the nature of the low-energy state using modeling based on the X-ray structure of CP29 and Redfield theory. We show that the lowest energy state is mostly contributed to by a612, a611, and a615 Chl's. We suggest that in the previously studied CP29 complexes from spinach (Pieper et al. Photochem. Photobiol.2000, 71, 574-589) two Chl's could have been lost during the preparation/purification procedure, but it is unlikely that the spinach CP29 protein contains only eight Chl's, as suggested by the sequence homology-based study (Bassi et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.1999, 96, 10056-10061). The likely Chl's missing in wild-type (WT) CP29 complexes studied previously (Pieper et al. Photochem. Photobiol. 2000, 71, 574-589) include a615 and b607. This is why the nonresonant HB spectra shown in that reference were ~1 nm blue-shifted with the low-energy state mostly localized on about one Chl a (i.e., a612) molecule. Pigment composition of CP29 is discussed in the context of light-harvesting and excitation energy transfer.

  11. HF Interference, Procedures and Tools (Interferences HF, procedures et outils)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    such sources. The existing HF background noise possibly may be increased via ground wave and/or sky wave propagation. Increase of the existing HF...télécommunications filaires à large bande. Les télécommunications via le réseau électrique courant, dites PowerLine Communications (PLT ou PLC) et diverses...cumulative de nombreuses sources de même type. Le bruit de fond HF existant risque d’être augmenté par propagation de l’onde terrestre et/ou aérienne

  12. Population-based public health interventions: innovations in practice, teaching, and management. Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Linda Olson; Strohschein, Susan; Schaffer, Marjorie A; Lia-Hoagberg, Betty

    2004-01-01

    The Intervention Wheel is a population-based practice model that encompasses three levels of practice (community, systems, and individual/family) and 17 public health interventions. Each intervention and practice level contributes to improving population health. The Intervention Wheel, previously known as the Public Health Intervention Model, was originally introduced in 1998 by the Minnesota Department of Health, Section of Public Health Nursing (PHN). The model has been widely disseminated and used throughout the United States since that time. The evidence supporting the Intervention Wheel was recently subjected to a rigorous critique by regional and national experts. This critical process, which involved hundreds of public health nurses, resulted in a more robust Intervention Wheel and established the validity of the model. The critique also produced basic steps and best practices for each of the 17 interventions. Part I describes the Intervention Wheel, defines population-based practice, and details the recommended modifications and validation process. Part II provides examples of the innovative ways that the Intervention Wheel is being used in public health/PHN practice, education, and administration. The two articles provide a foundation and vision for population-based PHN practice and direction for improving population health.

  13. Interview-based Qualitative Research in Emergency Care Part II: Data Collection, Analysis and Results Reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranney, Megan L; Meisel, Zachary F; Choo, Esther K; Garro, Aris C; Sasson, Comilla; Morrow Guthrie, Kate

    2015-09-01

    Qualitative methods are increasingly being used in emergency care research. Rigorous qualitative methods can play a critical role in advancing the emergency care research agenda by allowing investigators to generate hypotheses, gain an in-depth understanding of health problems or specific populations, create expert consensus, and develop new intervention and dissemination strategies. In Part I of this two-article series, we provided an introduction to general principles of applied qualitative health research and examples of its common use in emergency care research, describing study designs and data collection methods most relevant to our field (observation, individual interviews, and focus groups). Here in Part II of this series, we outline the specific steps necessary to conduct a valid and reliable qualitative research project, with a focus on interview-based studies. These elements include building the research team, preparing data collection guides, defining and obtaining an adequate sample, collecting and organizing qualitative data, and coding and analyzing the data. We also discuss potential ethical considerations unique to qualitative research as it relates to emergency care research.

  14. CFD analysis of the ITER first wall 06 panel. Part II: Thermal-hydraulics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanino, R.; Bonifetto, R. [Dipartimento Energia, Politecnico di Torino, 10129 Torino (Italy); Cau, F.; Portone, A. [Fusion for Energy, 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Savoldi Richard, L., E-mail: laura.savoldi@polito.it [Dipartimento Energia, Politecnico di Torino, 10129 Torino (Italy)

    2014-04-15

    The computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of the FW06 panel of the ITER shielding blanket is presented in two companion papers. In this Part II we concentrate on the thermal-hydraulics of the water coolant, driven by the nuclear volumetric and plasma surface heat loads discussed in Part I. Both the detailed steady state analysis of a single cooling channel and the coarse transient analysis of the whole panel are considered. The compatibility of the hot spots with the maximum recommended temperatures for the different materials is confirmed. The heat transfer coefficient between coolant and walls is obtained post-processing the results of the simulation and compared with the results of available correlations, which may be used for simpler analyses: in the fully developed flow regions of the cooling pipes, it turns out to be well approximated by the Sieder–Tate correlation. The operation margin with respect to the critical heat flux is also computed and turns out to be sufficiently large compared with the design limit.

  15. Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics, and Pharmacogenomics of Immunosuppressants in Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation: Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCune, Jeannine S; Bemer, Meagan J; Long-Boyle, Janel

    2016-05-01

    Part I of this article included a pertinent review of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT), the role of postgraft immunosuppression in alloHCT, and the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and pharmacogenomics of the calcineurin inhibitors and methotrexate. In this article (Part II), we review the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and pharmacogenomics of mycophenolic acid (MPA), sirolimus, and the antithymocyte globulins (ATG). We then discuss target concentration intervention (TCI) of these postgraft immunosuppressants in alloHCT patients, with a focus on current evidence for TCI and on how TCI may improve clinical management in these patients. Currently, TCI using trough concentrations is conducted for sirolimus in alloHCT patients. Several studies demonstrate that MPA plasma exposure is associated with clinical outcomes, with an increasing number of alloHCT patients needing TCI of MPA. Compared with MPA, there are fewer pharmacokinetic/dynamic studies of rabbit ATG and horse ATG in alloHCT patients. Future pharmacokinetic/dynamic research of postgraft immunosuppressants should include '-omics'-based tools: pharmacogenomics may be used to gain an improved understanding of the covariates influencing pharmacokinetics as well as proteomics and metabolomics as novel methods to elucidate pharmacodynamic responses.

  16. Geomagnetic Field Variations as Determined from Bulgarian Archaeomagnetic Data. Part II: The Last 8000 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacheva, Mary; Jordanova, Neli; Karloukovski, Vassil

    The knowledge about past secular variations of the geomagnetic field is achieved on the basis of archaeomagnetic researches of which the Bulgarian studies form an extended data set. In Part I (Kovacheva and Toshkov, 1994), the methodology used in the Sofia palaeomagnetic laboratory was described and the secular variation curves for the last 2000 years were shown. In Part II (this paper), the basic characteristics of the prehistoric materials used in the archaeomagnetic studies are emphasised, particularly in the context of the rock magnetic studies used in connection with palaeointensity determinations. The results of magnetic anisotropy studies of the prehistoric ovens and other fired structures are summarised, including the anisotropy correction of the palaeointensity results for prehistoric materials, different from bricks and pottery. Curves of the direction and intensity of the geomagnetic field during the last 8000 years in Bulgaria are given. The available directional and intensity values have been used to calculate the variation curve of the virtual dipole moment (VDM) for the last 8000 years based on different time interval averages. The path of virtual geomagnetic pole (VGP) positions is discussed.

  17. Polarized light scanning cryomacroscopy, part II: Thermal modeling and analysis of experimental observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feig, Justin S G; Solanki, Prem K; Eisenberg, David P; Rabin, Yoed

    2016-10-01

    This study aims at developing thermal analysis tools and explaining experimental observations made by means of polarized-light cryomacroscopy (Part I). Thermal modeling is based on finite elements analysis (FEA), where two model parameters are extracted from thermal measurements: (i) the overall heat transfer coefficient between the cuvette and the cooling chamber, and (ii) the effective thermal conductivity within the cryoprotective agent (CPA) at the upper part of the cryogenic temperature range. The effective thermal conductivity takes into account enhanced heat transfer due to convection currents within the CPA, creating the so-called Bénard cells. Comparison of experimental results with simulation data indicates that the uncertainty in simulations due to the propagation of uncertainty in measured physical properties exceeds the uncertainty in experimental measurements, which validates the modeling approach. It is shown in this study that while a cavity may form in the upper-center portion of the vitrified CPA, it has very little effect on estimating the temperature distribution within the domain. This cavity is driven by thermal contraction of the CPA, with the upper-center of the domain transitioning to glass last. Finally, it is demonstrated in this study that additional stresses may develop within the glass transition temperature range due to nonlinear behavior of the thermal expansion coefficient. This effect is reported here for the first time in the context of cryobiology, using the capabilities of polarized-light cryomacroscopy.

  18. A Model of Biocomplexity in River Networks - Part II: Tenets and Predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delong, M. D.; Thorp, J. H.; Thoms, M. C.

    2005-05-01

    We are proposing a model of lotic biocomplexity encompassing spatiotemporal scales from headwaters to large rivers and from main channels to floodplains. Part I of our presentation in the symposium discusses the general theory and predicted changes along longitudinal gradients in the river network. In Part II, we use the foundation of this theory to make predictions for the ecological behavior of the river ecosystem. These predictions are designed to stimulate research tests of these hypotheses and to obtain data allowing the continuing refinement of the overall model. Fourteen principles or model tenets are included which describe the functioning of epigean portions of lotic ecosystems on ecological time scales; they are focused more on the riverscape than the entire riverine landscape. These 14 tenets predict how patterns of individual species distributions, community regulation, lotic ecosystem processes, and floodplain interactions will vary over spatiotemporal scales, especially as they relate to the functional process zones formed by hydrogeomorphic patches. We make no claim to originality for all these tenets. Some of these ideas are well supported in the scientific literature, others may be acceptable to the scientific community but currently lack empirical support, and some may be very speculative and possibly controversial.

  19. Avicenna's Canon of Medicine and modern urology: part II: bladder calculi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madineh, Sayed Mohammad Ali

    2009-01-01

    In the previous issue of the Urology Journal, a comparison of Avicenna's Canon of Medicine with modern urologic findings was done in part I of this article, addressing bladder anatomy and physiology and bladder calculi. In part II of this review, the remaining chapters of the Canon of Medicine on bladder calculi are reviewed. Avicenna points to perineal urethrostomy (perineostomy), which is today performed as the last therapeutic line or as a temporary remedy before surgical treatment. He also describes surgery via transperineal route and warns the surgeon of the proximity of vasa deferentia, prostate gland, and neurovascular bundle and their exposure in this position. Usage of grasping forceps for removal of bladder calculus and emphasis on removing all calculus fragments are the interesting points of this chapter. Avicenna explains a technique similar to the use of a Babcock forceps for prevention of calculus migration. Complications of bladder calculus surgery and cystostomy are also addressed with scientific precision in the Canon. It is noteworthy that 8 centuries before Fournier described necrotizing fasciitis in male genitalia, Avicenna had described Fournier gangrene in his book.

  20. Interview-Based Qualitative Research in Emergency Care Part II: Data Collection, Analysis and Results Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranney, Megan L.; Meisel, Zachary; Choo, Esther K.; Garro, Aris; Sasson, Comilla; Morrow, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Qualitative methods are increasingly being used in emergency care research. Rigorous qualitative methods can play a critical role in advancing the emergency care research agenda by allowing investigators to generate hypotheses, gain an in-depth understanding of health problems or specific populations, create expert consensus, and develop new intervention and dissemination strategies. In Part I of this two-article series, we provided an introduction to general principles of applied qualitative health research and examples of its common use in emergency care research, describing study designs and data collection methods most relevant to our field (observation, individual interviews, and focus groups). Here in Part II of this series, we outline the specific steps necessary to conduct a valid and reliable qualitative research project, with a focus on interview-based studies. These elements include building the research team, preparing data collection guides, defining and obtaining an adequate sample, collecting and organizing qualitative data, and coding and analyzing the data. We also discuss potential ethical considerations unique to qualitative research as it relates to emergency care research. PMID:26284572

  1. A novel embeddable spherical smart aggregate for structural health monitoring: part II. Numerical and experimental verifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Qingzhao; Fan, Shuli; Mo, Y. L.; Song, Gangbing

    2017-09-01

    The newly developed spherical smart aggregate (SSA) based on a radially polarized spherical piezoceramic shell element has unique omnidirectional actuating and sensing capabilities that can greatly improve the detection aperture and provide additional functionalities in health monitoring applications in concrete structures. Detailed fabrication procedures and electrical characterization of the SSA have been previously studied (Part I). In this second paper (Part II), the functionalities of the SSA used in both active sensing and passive sensing approaches were investigated in experiments and numerical simulations. One SSA sample was embedded in a 1 ft3 concrete specimen. In the active sensing approach, the SSA was first utilized as an actuator to generate stress waves and six conventional smart aggregates (SA) mounted on the six faces of the concrete cube were utilized as sensors to detect the wave response. Conversely, the embedded SSA was then utilized as a sensor to successively detect the wave response from each SA. The experimentally obtained behavior of the SSA was then compared with the numerical simulation results. Further, a series of impact tests were conducted to verify the performance of the SSA in the detection of the impact events from different directions. Comparison with the wave response associated with different faces of the cube verified the omnidirectional actuating and sensing capabilities of the SSA.

  2. Elastodynamic analysis of a gear pump. Part II: Meshing phenomena and simulation results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucchi, E.; Dalpiaz, G.; Rivola, A.

    2010-10-01

    A non-linear lumped kineto-elastodynamic model for the prediction of the dynamic behaviour of external gear pumps is presented. It takes into account the most important phenomena involved in the operation of this kind of machines. Two main sources of noise and vibration can be considered: pressure and gear meshing. Fluid pressure distribution on gears, which is time-varying, is computed and included as a resultant external force and torque acting on the gears. Parametric excitations due to time-varying meshing stiffness, the tooth profile errors (obtained by a metrological analysis), the backlash effects between meshing teeth, the lubricant squeeze and the possibility of tooth contact on both lines of action were also included. Finally, the torsional stiffness and damping of the driving shaft and the non-linear behaviour of the hydrodynamic journal bearings were also taken into account. Model validation was carried out on the basis of experimental data concerning case accelerations and force reactions. The model can be used in order to analyse the pump dynamic behaviour and to identify the effects of modifications in design and operation parameters, in terms of vibration and dynamic forces. Part I is devoted to the calculation of the gear eccentricity in the steady-state condition as result of the balancing between mean pressure loads, mean meshing force and bearing reactions, while in Part II the meshing phenomena are fully explained and the main simulation results are presented.

  3. State-of-the-art human gene therapy: part II. Gene therapy strategies and clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan; Gao, Guangping

    2014-09-01

    In Part I of this Review (Wang and Gao, 2014), we introduced recent advances in gene delivery technologies and explained how they have powered some of the current human gene therapy applications. In Part II, we expand the discussion on gene therapy applications, focusing on some of the most exciting clinical uses. To help readers to grasp the essence and to better organize the diverse applications, we categorize them under four gene therapy strategies: (1) gene replacement therapy for monogenic diseases, (2) gene addition for complex disorders and infectious diseases, (3) gene expression alteration targeting RNA, and (4) gene editing to introduce targeted changes in host genome. Human gene therapy started with the simple idea that replacing a faulty gene with a functional copy can cure a disease. It has been a long and bumpy road to finally translate this seemingly straightforward concept into reality. As many disease mechanisms unraveled, gene therapists have employed a gene addition strategy backed by a deep knowledge of what goes wrong in diseases and how to harness host cellular machinery to battle against diseases. Breakthroughs in other biotechnologies, such as RNA interference and genome editing by chimeric nucleases, have the potential to be integrated into gene therapy. Although clinical trials utilizing these new technologies are currently sparse, these innovations are expected to greatly broaden the scope of gene therapy in the near future.

  4. Diagnosing DSM-IV--Part II: Eysenck (1986) and the essentialist fallacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, J C

    1997-07-01

    In Part I (Wakefield, 1997, Behaviour Research and Therapy, 35, 633-649) of this two-article series, I used the harmful dysfunction analysis of the concept of disorder (Wakefield, 1992a, American Psychologist, 47, 373-388) to 'diagnose' a problem with DSM-IV. I argued that DSM-IV diagnostic criteria often violate the 'dysfunction' requirement by invalidity classifying harms not caused by dysfunctions as disorders. In Part II, I examine Eysenck's (Eysenck, 1986, Contemporary directions in psychopathology: Toward the DSM-IV) argument that DSM commits a 'categorical fallacy' and should be replaced by dimensional diagnoses based on Eysenckian personality traits. I argue that Eysenck's proposed diagnostic criteria violate the 'harm' requirement by invalidly classifying symptomless conditions as disorders. Eysenck commits an 'essentialist fallacy'; he misconstrues 'disorder' as an essentialist theoretical concept when in fact it is a hybrid theoretical-practical or 'cause-effect' concept. He thus ignores the harmful effects essential to disorder that are captured in DSM's symptom-based categories.

  5. Gunshot residue testing in suicides: Part II: Analysis by inductive coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, D Kimberley; Castorena, Joe L; Martinez, Michael; Garcia, James; DiMaio, Vincent J M

    2007-09-01

    Several different methods can be employed to test for gunshot residue (GSR) on a decedent's hands, including scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive x-ray (SEM/EDX) and inductive coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). In part I of this 2-part series, GSR results performed by SEM/EDX in undisputed cases of suicidal handgun wounds were studied. In part II, the same population was studied, deceased persons with undisputed suicidal handgun wounds, but GSR testing was performed using ICP-AES. A total of 102 cases were studied and analyzed for caliber of weapon, proximity of wound, and the results of the GSR testing. This study found that 50% of cases where the deceased was known to have fired a handgun immediately prior to death had positive GSR results by ICP/AES, which did not differ from the results of GSR testing by SEM/EDX. Since only 50% of cases where the person is known to have fired a weapon were positive for GSR by either method, this test should not be relied upon to determine whether someone has discharged a firearm and is not useful as a determining factor of whether or not a wound is self-inflicted or non-self-inflicted. While a positive GSR result may be of use, a negative result is not helpful in the medical examiner setting as a negative result indicates that either a person fired a weapon prior to death or a person did not fire a weapon prior to death.

  6. Rare or remarkable microfungi from Oaxaca (south Mexico)--Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ale-Agha, N; Jensen, M; Brassmann, M; Kautz, S; Eilmus, S; Ballhorn, D J

    2008-01-01

    Microfungi were collected in southern Mexico in the vicinity of Puerto Escondido, Oaxaca in 2007. In 2006, samples were gathered from Acacia myrmecophytes [(Remarkable microfungi from Oaxaca of Acacia species) Part I]. In the present investigation [Part II], we collected microfungi from different parts of a variety of wild and cultivated higher plants belonging to the families Anacardiaceae, Caricaceae, Fabaceae, Moraceae, and Nyctaginacae. The microfungi found here live as parasites or saprophytes. Interestingly, the species Colletotrichum lindemuthianum (Sacc. and Magn.) Briosi and Cavara has repeatedly been used to cause fungal infections of Phaseolus lunatus leaves in laboratory experiments. We could now find the same fungus as parasite on the same host plants under field conditions showing that results obtained in the laboratory are also relevant in nature. Most of the fungal species collected belong to the classes Ascomycotina, Basidiomycotina and Deuteromycotina. Until now, some of the microfungi identified in this study have been rarely observed before or have been reported for the first time in Mexico, for example: Pestalotia acaciae Thüm. on Acacia collinsii Safford; Corynespora cassiicola (Berk. and M.A. Curtis) C.T. Wei on Carica papaya L.; Botryosphaeria ribis Grossenb. and Duggar and Cercosporella leucaenae (Raghu Ram and Mallaiah) U. Braun (new for Mexico) and Camptomeris leucaenae (F. Stevens and Dalbey) Syd. (new for Mexico) on Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit.; Oidium clitoriae Narayanas. and K. Ramakr. and Phakopsora cf. pachyrhizi Sydow and Sydow (new for Mexico) on Clitoria ternatea L.; Botryosphaeria obtusa (Schw.) Shoemaker on Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC.; Cylindrocladium scoparium Morg. on Ficus benjamina L.; Acremonium sp. on Bougainvillea sp. All specimens are located in the herbarium ESS. Mycotheca Parva collection G.B. Feige and N. Ale-Agha.

  7. Transient PVT measurements and model predictions for vessel heat transfer. Part II.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felver, Todd G.; Paradiso, Nicholas Joseph; Winters, William S., Jr.; Evans, Gregory Herbert; Rice, Steven F.

    2010-07-01

    Part I of this report focused on the acquisition and presentation of transient PVT data sets that can be used to validate gas transfer models. Here in Part II we focus primarily on describing models and validating these models using the data sets. Our models are intended to describe the high speed transport of compressible gases in arbitrary arrangements of vessels, tubing, valving and flow branches. Our models fall into three categories: (1) network flow models in which flow paths are modeled as one-dimensional flow and vessels are modeled as single control volumes, (2) CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) models in which flow in and between vessels is modeled in three dimensions and (3) coupled network/CFD models in which vessels are modeled using CFD and flows between vessels are modeled using a network flow code. In our work we utilized NETFLOW as our network flow code and FUEGO for our CFD code. Since network flow models lack three-dimensional resolution, correlations for heat transfer and tube frictional pressure drop are required to resolve important physics not being captured by the model. Here we describe how vessel heat transfer correlations were improved using the data and present direct model-data comparisons for all tests documented in Part I. Our results show that our network flow models have been substantially improved. The CFD modeling presented here describes the complex nature of vessel heat transfer and for the first time demonstrates that flow and heat transfer in vessels can be modeled directly without the need for correlations.

  8. North Atlantic simulations in Coordinated Ocean-ice Reference Experiments phase II (CORE-II). Part II: Inter-annual to decadal variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danabasoglu, Gokhan; Yeager, Steve G.; Kim, Who M.; Behrens, Erik; Bentsen, Mats; Bi, Daohua; Biastoch, Arne; Bleck, Rainer; Böning, Claus; Bozec, Alexandra; Canuto, Vittorio M.; Cassou, Christophe; Chassignet, Eric; Coward, Andrew C.; Danilov, Sergey; Diansky, Nikolay; Drange, Helge; Farneti, Riccardo; Fernandez, Elodie; Fogli, Pier Giuseppe; Forget, Gael; Fujii, Yosuke; Griffies, Stephen M.; Gusev, Anatoly; Heimbach, Patrick; Howard, Armando; Ilicak, Mehmet; Jung, Thomas; Karspeck, Alicia R.; Kelley, Maxwell; Large, William G.; Leboissetier, Anthony; Lu, Jianhua; Madec, Gurvan; Marsland, Simon J.; Masina, Simona; Navarra, Antonio; Nurser, A. J. George; Pirani, Anna; Romanou, Anastasia; Salas y Mélia, David; Samuels, Bonita L.; Scheinert, Markus; Sidorenko, Dmitry; Sun, Shan; Treguier, Anne-Marie; Tsujino, Hiroyuki; Uotila, Petteri; Valcke, Sophie; Voldoire, Aurore; Wang, Qiang; Yashayaev, Igor

    2016-01-01

    Simulated inter-annual to decadal variability and trends in the North Atlantic for the 1958-2007 period from twenty global ocean - sea-ice coupled models are presented. These simulations are performed as contributions to the second phase of the Coordinated Ocean-ice Reference Experiments (CORE-II). The study is Part II of our companion paper (Danabasoglu et al., 2014) which documented the mean states in the North Atlantic from the same models. A major focus of the present study is the representation of Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) variability in the participating models. Relationships between AMOC variability and those of some other related variables, such as subpolar mixed layer depths, the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), and the Labrador Sea upper-ocean hydrographic properties, are also investigated. In general, AMOC variability shows three distinct stages. During the first stage that lasts until the mid- to late-1970s, AMOC is relatively steady, remaining lower than its long-term (1958-2007) mean. Thereafter, AMOC intensifies with maximum transports achieved in the mid- to late-1990s. This enhancement is then followed by a weakening trend until the end of our integration period. This sequence of low frequency AMOC variability is consistent with previous studies. Regarding strengthening of AMOC between about the mid-1970s and the mid-1990s, our results support a previously identified variability mechanism where AMOC intensification is connected to increased deep water formation in the subpolar North Atlantic, driven by NAO-related surface fluxes. The simulations tend to show general agreement in their temporal representations of, for example, AMOC, sea surface temperature (SST), and subpolar mixed layer depth variabilities. In particular, the observed variability of the North Atlantic SSTs is captured well by all models. These findings indicate that simulated variability and trends are primarily dictated by the atmospheric datasets which

  9. North Atlantic Simulations in Coordinated Ocean-Ice Reference Experiments Phase II (CORE-II) . Part II; Inter-Annual to Decadal Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danabasoglu, Gokhan; Yeager, Steve G.; Kim, Who M.; Behrens, Erik; Bentsen, Mats; Bi, Daohua; Biastoch, Arne; Bleck, Rainer; Boening, Claus; Bozec, Alexandra; Canuto, Vittorio M.; Howard, Armando M.; Kelley, Maxwell

    2015-01-01

    Simulated inter-annual to decadal variability and trends in the North Atlantic for the 1958-2007 period from twenty global ocean - sea-ice coupled models are presented. These simulations are performed as contributions to the second phase of the Coordinated Ocean-ice Reference Experiments (CORE-II). The study is Part II of our companion paper (Danabasoglu et al., 2014) which documented the mean states in the North Atlantic from the same models. A major focus of the present study is the representation of Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) variability in the participating models. Relationships between AMOC variability and those of some other related variables, such as subpolar mixed layer depths, the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), and the Labrador Sea upper-ocean hydrographic properties, are also investigated. In general, AMOC variability shows three distinct stages. During the first stage that lasts until the mid- to late-1970s, AMOC is relatively steady, remaining lower than its long-term (1958-2007) mean. Thereafter, AMOC intensifies with maximum transports achieved in the mid- to late-1990s. This enhancement is then followed by a weakening trend until the end of our integration period. This sequence of low frequency AMOC variability is consistent with previous studies. Regarding strengthening of AMOC between about the mid-1970s and the mid-1990s, our results support a previously identified variability mechanism where AMOC intensification is connected to increased deep water formation in the subpolar North Atlantic, driven by NAO-related surface fluxes. The simulations tend to show general agreement in their representations of, for example, AMOC, sea surface temperature (SST), and subpolar mixed layer depth variabilities. In particular, the observed variability of the North Atlantic SSTs is captured well by all models. These findings indicate that simulated variability and trends are primarily dictated by the atmospheric datasets which include

  10. Manufacturing processes of cellular metals. Part II. Solid route, metals deposition, other processes; Procesos de fabricacion de metales celulares. Parte II: Via solida, deposicion de metales otros procesos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, P.; Cruz, L. J.; Coleto, J.

    2009-07-01

    At the first part of this paper review a description about cellular metal processes by liquid route, was made. In this second part, solid processes and metals deposition are described. In similar way, the different kind of processes in each case are reviewed; making a short description about the main parameters involved and the advantages and drawbacks in each of them. (Author) 147 refs.

  11. Sludge in the pulp and paper industry in Sweden, part II[Combustion of]; Slam fraan skogsindustrin, fas II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gyllenhammar, Marianne; Herstad Svaerd, Solvie; Kjoerk, Anders; Larsson, Sara; Wennberg, Olle [S.E.P. Scandinavian Energy Project AB, Goeteborg (Sweden); Aamand, Lars-Erik [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden); Eskilsson, David [Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Boraas (Sweden)

    2003-11-01

    During part II of this research program combustible sludge from the pulp and paper industry has been studied in detail. 560,000 tonnes of sludge per year (calculated as dry sludge) are produced in Sweden. The energy potential in the produced sludge is about 2 TWh/year. Today 1 TWh/year is produced in the pulp and paper mill's own boilers. This means that additional energy can be utilized from this material. An objective of this program has been to decide whether or not there are sludge types which are favourable respectively difficult to combust. By mixing different sludge types, or other waste products, emissions and/or problems during combustion can be minimized. These possibilities have been studied thoroughly in this program. A lot of sludge samples have been studied in laboratory scale at SP and in full-scale at Chalmers 12 MW CFB boiler. As a complement to the practical tests S.E.P. has done research regarding different aspects of sludge as a fuel; for example handling of sludge and regional drying. The results of 40 sintering tests at SP showed that the sintering temperature during combustion of sludge in a fluidised bed, with silica sand as bed material, varied between <850 deg C and >1100 deg C. The evaluation showed that the alkali content in the ash had the largest influence on the sintering temperature. Other factors were less important. During the tests at Chalmers eleven different sludge samples have been combusted together with wood pellets. Initially there were problems with the feeding to the boiler for some of the sludge samples. When the fuel feeding problems were solved the combustion took place without any problems. When sludge is co-combusted together with a 'clean' base fuel such as wood pellets the sulphur-, nitrogen- and chloride contents in the sludge have a large impact on the emissions. The normal way to reduce sulphur dioxide but also hydrogen chloride is to add lime in different positions into and after the boiler. In

  12. Marburg Hemorrhagic Fever (Marburg HF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Marburg hemorrhagic fever (Marburg HF) Note: Javascript is disabled or is ... first recognized in 1967, when outbreaks of hemorrhagic fever occurred simultaneously in laboratories in Marburg and Frankfurt, ...

  13. Neutronics and thermohydraulics of the reactor C.E.N.E. Part II; Analisis neutronico y termohidraulico del reactor C.E.N.E. Parte II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caro, R.

    1976-07-01

    In this report the analysis of neutronics thermohydraulics and shielding of the 10 HWt swimming pool reactor C.E.N.E is included. In each of these chapters is given a short description of the theoretical model used, along with the theoretical versus experimental checking carried out, whenever possible, with the reactors JEN-I and JEN-II of Junta de Energia Nuclear. (Author) 11 refs.

  14. Niacin Alternatives for Dyslipidemia: Fool's Gold or Gold Mine? Part II: Novel Niacin Mimetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Harsh; Dunbar, Richard L

    2016-04-01

    Two cardiovascular outcome trials established niacin 3 g daily prevents hard cardiac events. However, as detailed in part I of this series, an extended-release (ER) alternative at only 2 g nightly demonstrated no comparable benefits in two outcome trials, implying the alternative is not equivalent to the established cardioprotective regimen. Since statins leave a significant treatment gap, this presents a major opportunity for developers. Importantly, the established regimen is cardioprotective, so the pathway is likely beneficial. Moreover, though effective, the established cardioprotective regimen is cumbersome, limiting clinical use. At the same time, the ER alternative has been thoroughly discredited as a viable substitute for the established cardioprotective regimen. Therefore, by exploiting the pathway and skillfully avoiding the problems with the established cardioprotective regimen and the ER alternative, developers could validate cardioprotective variations facing little meaningful competition from their predecessors. Thus, shrewd developers could effectively tap into a gold mine at the grave of the ER alternative. The GPR109A receptor was discovered a decade ago, leading to a large body of evidence commending the niacin pathway to a lower cardiovascular risk beyond statins. While mediating niacin's most prominent adverse effects, GPR109A also seems to mediate anti-lipolytic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-atherogenic effects of niacin. Several developers are investing heavily in novel strategies to exploit niacin's therapeutic pathways. These include selective GPR109A receptor agonists, niacin prodrugs, and a niacin metabolite, with encouraging early phase human data. In part II of this review, we summarize the accumulated results of these early phase studies of emerging niacin mimetics.

  15. Multiscale modeling, simulations, and experiments of coating growth on nanofibers. Part II. Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buldum, A.; Clemons, C. B.; Dill, L. H.; Kreider, K. L.; Young, G. W.; Zheng, X.; Evans, E. A.; Zhang, G.; Hariharan, S. I.

    2005-08-01

    This work is Part II of an integrated experimental/modeling investigation of a procedure to coat nanofibers and core-clad nanostructures with thin-film materials using plasma-enhanced physical vapor deposition. In the experimental effort, electrospun polymer nanofibers are coated with aluminum materials under different operating conditions to observe changes in the coating morphology. This procedure begins with the sputtering of the coating material from a target. Part I [J. Appl. Phys. 98, 044303 (2005)] focused on the sputtering aspect and transport of the sputtered material through the reactor. That reactor level model determines the concentration field of the coating material. This field serves as input into the present species transport and deposition model for the region surrounding an individual nanofiber. The interrelationships among processing factors for the transport and deposition are investigated here from a detailed modeling approach that includes the salient physical and chemical phenomena. Solution strategies that couple continuum and atomistic models are used. At the continuum scale, transport dynamics near the nanofiber are described. At the atomic level, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are used to study the deposition and sputtering mechanisms at the coating surface. Ion kinetic energies and fluxes are passed from the continuum sheath model to the MD simulations. These simulations calculate sputtering and sticking probabilities that in turn are used to calculate parameters for the continuum transport model. The continuum transport model leads to the definition of an evolution equation for the coating-free surface. This equation is solved using boundary perturbation and level set methods to determine the coating morphology as a function of operating conditions.

  16. Coordinator(a) de Servicios Clinicos. Parte I (Unidad I-IV). Parte II (Unidad V-VI). Guia. Documento de Trabajo (Clinical Services Coordinator. Part I. Units I-IV. Part II. Units V-VI. Guide. Working Document).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puerto Rico State Dept. of Education, Hato Rey. Area for Vocational and Technical Education.

    This guide is intended for instructing secondary students in the occupation of clinical services coordinator in a hospital. The first part contains four units on the following subjects: the occupation of clinical services coordinator; interpersonal relationships; ethical/legal aspects; and communications (telephone, intercom, and others). For each…

  17. Coordinator(a) de Servicios Clinicos. Parte I (Unidad I-IV). Parte II (Unidad V-VI). Guia. Documento de Trabajo (Clinical Services Coordinator. Part I. Units I-IV. Part II. Units V-VI. Guide. Working Document).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puerto Rico State Dept. of Education, Hato Rey. Area for Vocational and Technical Education.

    This guide is intended for instructing secondary students in the occupation of clinical services coordinator in a hospital. The first part contains four units on the following subjects: the occupation of clinical services coordinator; interpersonal relationships; ethical/legal aspects; and communications (telephone, intercom, and others). For each…

  18. Reproduction in the space environment: Part II. Concerns for human reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, R. T.; Santy, P. A.

    1990-01-01

    Long-duration space flight and eventual colonization of our solar system will require successful control of reproductive function and a thorough understanding of factors unique to space flight and their impact on gynecologic and obstetric parameters. Part II of this paper examines the specific environmental factors associated with space flight and the implications for human reproduction. Space environmental hazards discussed include radiation, alteration in atmospheric pressure and breathing gas partial pressures, prolonged toxicological exposure, and microgravity. The effects of countermeasures necessary to reduce cardiovascular deconditioning, calcium loss, muscle wasting, and neurovestibular problems are also considered. In addition, the impact of microgravity on male fertility and gamete quality is explored. Due to current constraints, human pregnancy is now contraindicated for space flight. However, a program to explore effective countermeasures to current constraints and develop the required health care delivery capability for extended-duration space flight is suggested. A program of Earth- and space-based research to provide further answers to reproductive questions is suggested.

  19. Testing and Analysis of a Composite Non-Cylindrical Aircraft Fuselage Structure . Part II; Severe Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przekop, Adam; Jegley, Dawn C.; Lovejoy, Andrew E.; Rouse, Marshall; Wu, Hsi-Yung T.

    2016-01-01

    The Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project aimed to develop aircraft technologies enabling significant fuel burn and community noise reductions. Small incremental changes to the conventional metallic alloy-based 'tube and wing' configuration were not sufficient to achieve the desired metrics. One airframe concept identified by the project as having the potential to dramatically improve aircraft performance was a composite-based hybrid wing body configuration. Such a concept, however, presented inherent challenges stemming from, among other factors, the necessity to transfer wing loads through the entire center fuselage section which accommodates a pressurized cabin confined by flat or nearly flat panels. This paper discusses a finite element analysis and the testing of a large-scale hybrid wing body center section structure developed and constructed to demonstrate that the Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure concept can meet these challenging demands of the next generation airframes. Part II of the paper considers the final test to failure of the test article in the presence of an intentionally inflicted severe discrete source damage under the wing up-bending loading condition. Finite element analysis results are compared with measurements acquired during the test and demonstrate that the hybrid wing body test article was able to redistribute and support the required design loads in a severely damaged condition.

  20. Developing guidelines for economic evaluation of environmental impacts in EIAs. Part II: Case studies and dose-response literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This Part II of the report contains full versions of the case studies for air, water and land (Chapters 2-4), which were only summarised in Part I. In addition, during the work the research team has collected a large amount of literature and information on dose response relationships for air and water pollution relevant to China. This information is included as Chapters 5 and 6.

  1. On the Uniqueness of the Canonical Polyadic Decomposition of third-order tensors --- Part II: Uniqueness of the overall decomposition

    OpenAIRE

    Domanov, Ignat; De Lathauwer, Lieven

    2013-01-01

    Canonical Polyadic (also known as Candecomp/Parafac) Decomposition (CPD) of a higher-order tensor is decomposition in a minimal number of rank-1 tensors. In Part I, we gave an overview of existing results concerning uniqueness and presented new, relaxed, conditions that guarantee uniqueness of one factor matrix. In Part II we use these results for establishing overall CPD uniqueness in cases where none of the factor matrices has full column rank. We obtain uniqueness conditions involving Khat...

  2. Fault Detection in Gear Drives with Non-Stationary Rotational Speed - Part II: the Time-Quefrency Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, G.; Ivanov, Yu. Ye.

    2003-03-01

    This paper deals with the recognition of faults in toothing during non-stationary start up and run down of gear drives. In the first part, this task was solved by means of the time-frequency analysis. A planetary gear was used as a case study. Part II contains a new approach using the time-quefrency analysis. The same example was successfully subjected in this procedure.

  3. Tratamento sistêmico da psoríase - Parte II: Imunomoduladores biológicos Systemic treatment of psoriasis - Part II: Biologic immunomodulator agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Arruda

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Em continuidade ao capítulo da edição anterior dos Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia, nesta segunda parte da EMC-D serão discutidas as novas drogas, os imunomoduladores biológicos, que agem em determinadas fases da imunopatogênese da doença, modificando fenotipicamente sua evolução. Também serão discutidos alguns aspectos imunológicos que, atualmente, são responsáveis pelo desencadeamento da doençaAs part of its continued studies of psoriasis, this second part of the Continuing Medical Education in Dermatology segment of the Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia introduces biological immunomodulators. Also known as "biologics", these drugs act on the immunopathogenetic steps of psoriasis by changing its features and progression. This paper also reviews some of the immunologic aspects of psoriasis.

  4. "Why not stoichiometry" versus "Stoichiometry--why not?" Part II: GATES in context with redox systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michałowska-Kaczmarczyk, Anna Maria; Asuero, Agustin G; Toporek, Marcin; Michałowski, Tadeusz

    2015-01-01

    Redox equilibria and titration play an important role in chemical analysis, and the formulation of an accurate mathematical description is a challenge. This article is devoted to static and (mainly) dynamic redox systems; the dynamic systems are represented by redox titrations. An overview addresses earlier approaches to static redox systems (redox diagram plots, including Pourbaix diagrams) and to titration redox systems, thereby covering a gap in the literature. After this short review, the generalized approach to electrolytic systems (GATES) is introduced, with generalized electron balance (GEB) as its inherent part within GATES/GEB. Computer simulation, performed according to GATES/GEB, enables following the changes in potential and pH of the solution, together with chemical speciation at each step of a titration, thus providing better insight into this procedure. The undeniable advantages of GATES/GEB over earlier approaches are indicated. Formulation of GEB according to two approaches (I and II) is presented on the respective examples. A general criterion distinguishing between non-redox and redox systems is presented. It is indicated that the formulation of GEB according to Approach II does not need the knowledge of oxidation degrees of particular elements; knowledge of the composition, expressed by chemical formula of the species and its charge, is sufficient for this purpose. Approach I to GEB, known also as the "short" version of GEB, is applicable if oxidation degrees for all elements of the system are known beforehand. The roles of oxidants and reductants are not ascribed to particular components forming a system and to the species thus formed. This is the complete opposite of earlier approaches to redox titrations, based on the stoichiometric redox reaction, formulated for this purpose. GEB, perceived as a law of matter conservation, is fully compatible with other (charge and concentration) balances related to the system in question. The applicability

  5. Persantine-Aspirin Reinfarction Study. Part II. Secondary coronary prevention with persantine and aspirin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimt, C R; Knatterud, G L; Stamler, J; Meier, P

    1986-02-01

    In the Persantine-Aspirin Reinfarction Study, Part II (PARIS II), 3,128 persons who had recovered from myocardial infarction, suffered from 4 weeks to 4 months previously, were randomized into two groups: dipyridamole (Persantine) plus aspirin (n = 1,563) and placebo (n = 1,565). The average length of follow-up was 23.4 months. Prespecified primary end points were coronary incidence (definite nonfatal myocardial infarction plus death due to recent or acute cardiac event), coronary mortality (death due to recent or acute cardiac event) and total mortality, each at 1 year of patient follow-up and at the end of the study. Coronary incidence in the Persantine plus aspirin group was significantly lower than in the placebo group, both at 1 year (30% reduction) and at the end of the study (24% reduction). The statistically significant differences in coronary incidence, at 1 year and at the end of the study, in favor of the combination treatment remained after adjustment for multiple baseline variables and adjustment for multiple testing (three end points for two time periods). Although there were reductions for other end points, these differences were not statistically significant. Coronary mortality was 20% lower in the Persantine plus aspirin group compared with the placebo group at 1 year, and 6% lower overall. Total mortality in the treated group compared with the placebo group was 11% lower at 1 year and 3% lower overall. The reduced rates of coronary incidence largely reflected lower rates of definite nonfatal myocardial infarction in the Persantine plus aspirin group. Several subgroups were defined a priori and at the end of the study. The beneficial effect of Persantine plus aspirin compared with placebo for coronary incidence tended to be greater for the following groups of patients: those who had a non-Q wave infarct; those who were not taking digitalis; those who were receiving beta-receptor blocking drugs at baseline; those who were in New York Heart

  6. The Historiography of British Imperial Education Policy, Part II: Africa and the Rest of the Colonial Empire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Clive

    2005-01-01

    Part II of this historiographical study examines British education policy in Africa, and in the many crown colonies, protectorates, and mandated territories around the globe. Up until 1920, the British government took far less interest than in India, in the development of schooling in Africa and the rest of the colonial empire, and education was…

  7. Industry Wage Surveys: Banking and Life Insurance, December 1976. Part I--Banking. Part II--Life Insurance. Bulletin 1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsky, Carl

    This report presents the results of a survey conducted by the Bureau of Labor Statistics to determine wages and related benefits in (1) the banking industry and (2) for employees in home offices and regional head offices of life insurance carriers. Part 1 discusses banking industry characteristics and presents data for tellers and selected…

  8. The Design of Research Laboratories. Part I: A General Assessment. Part II: Air Conditioning and Conditioned Rooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legget, R. F.; Hutcheon, N. B.

    Design factors in the planning of research laboratories are described which include--(1) location, (2) future expansion, (3) internal flexibility, (4) provision of services, (5) laboratory furnishing, (6) internal traffic, (7) space requirements, and (8) building costs. A second part discusses air-conditioning and conditioned rooms--(1)…

  9. An assessment of the Arctic Ocean in a suite of interannual CORE-II simulations. Part II: Liquid freshwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiang; Ilicak, Mehmet; Gerdes, Rüdiger; Drange, Helge; Aksenov, Yevgeny; Bailey, David A.; Bentsen, Mats; Biastoch, Arne; Bozec, Alexandra; Böning, Claus; Cassou, Christophe; Chassignet, Eric; Coward, Andrew C.; Curry, Beth; Danabasoglu, Gokhan; Danilov, Sergey; Fernandez, Elodie; Fogli, Pier Giuseppe; Fujii, Yosuke; Griffies, Stephen M.; Iovino, Doroteaciro; Jahn, Alexandra; Jung, Thomas; Large, William G.; Lee, Craig; Lique, Camille; Lu, Jianhua; Masina, Simona; Nurser, A. J. George; Rabe, Benjamin; Roth, Christina; Salas y Mélia, David; Samuels, Bonita L.; Spence, Paul; Tsujino, Hiroyuki; Valcke, Sophie; Voldoire, Aurore; Wang, Xuezhu; Yeager, Steve G.

    2016-03-01

    The Arctic Ocean simulated in 14 global ocean-sea ice models in the framework of the Coordinated Ocean-ice Reference Experiments, phase II (CORE-II) is analyzed in this study. The focus is on the Arctic liquid freshwater (FW) sources and freshwater content (FWC). The models agree on the interannual variability of liquid FW transport at the gateways where the ocean volume transport determines the FW transport variability. The variation of liquid FWC is induced by both the surface FW flux (associated with sea ice production) and lateral liquid FW transport, which are in phase when averaged on decadal time scales. The liquid FWC shows an increase starting from the mid-1990s, caused by the reduction of both sea ice formation and liquid FW export, with the former being more significant in most of the models. The mean state of the FW budget is less consistently simulated than the temporal variability. The model ensemble means of liquid FW transport through the Arctic gateways compare well with observations. On average, the models have too high mean FWC, weaker upward trends of FWC in the recent decade than the observation, and low consistency in the temporal variation of FWC spatial distribution, which needs to be further explored for the purpose of model development.

  10. The 183-WSL Fast Rain Rate Retrieval Algorithm. Part II: Validation Using Ground Radar Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laviola, Sante; Levizzani, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    The Water vapour Strong Lines at 183 GHz (183-WSL) algorithm is a method for the retrieval of rain rates and precipitation type classification (convectivestratiform), that makes use of the water vapor absorption lines centered at 183.31 GHz of the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit module B (AMSU-B) and of the Microwave Humidity Sounder (MHS) flying on NOAA-15-18 and NOAA-19Metop-A satellite series, respectively. The characteristics of this algorithm were described in Part I of this paper together with comparisons against analogous precipitation products. The focus of Part II is the analysis of the performance of the 183-WSL technique based on surface radar measurements. The ground truth dataset consists of 2.5 years of rainfall intensity fields from the NIMROD European radar network which covers North-Western Europe. The investigation of the 183-WSL retrieval performance is based on a twofold approach: 1) the dichotomous statistic is used to evaluate the capabilities of the method to identify rain and no-rain clouds; 2) the accuracy statistic is applied to quantify the errors in the estimation of rain rates.The results reveal that the 183-WSL technique shows good skills in the detection of rainno-rain areas and in the quantification of rain rate intensities. The categorical analysis shows annual values of the POD, FAR and HK indices varying in the range 0.80-0.82, 0.330.36 and 0.39-0.46, respectively. The RMSE value is 2.8 millimeters per hour for the whole period despite an overestimation in the retrieved rain rates. Of note is the distribution of the 183-WSL monthly mean rain rate with respect to radar: the seasonal fluctuations of the average rainfalls measured by radar are reproduced by the 183-WSL. However, the retrieval method appears to suffer for the winter seasonal conditions especially when the soil is partially frozen and the surface emissivity drastically changes. This fact is verified observing the discrepancy distribution diagrams where2the 183-WSL

  11. [The history of antitobacco actions in the last 500 years. Part. II. Medical actions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzybowski, Andrzej

    2006-01-01

    Tobacco was brought to Europe by Christopher Columbus, who discovered it in Cuba in October, 1492. Spread of tobacco consumption was initiated by the French diplomat Jean Nicot de Villemain, who in 1560 recommended it in the form of powdered tobacco leaves to the French Queen Catherine de Medice to combat her migraine headaches, and introduced the term Nicotiana tobaccum. Tobacco consumption greatly rose after the I World War, and after the II World War it became very common, especially among man. In the first half of the 20th century the sale of tobacco products rose by 61%, and cigarettes dominated the market of tobacco products. At the beginning of the 20th century cigarettes constituted only 2% of the total sale of tobacco products, while in the middle of the 20th century--more than 80%. Although the first epidemiological papers indicating that "smoking is connected with the shortening of life span" were published in the first half of the 20th century, not until 1950 did Hill and Doll in Great Britain, and Wynder and Graham in USA in 1951 show a statistically significant correlation between cigarettes smoking and lung cancer occurrence. Many controversies according the use of tobacco accompanied it from the beginning of its presence in Europe. The conflicting opinions according to its influence to health coexisted in the 16th to 19th centuries. In this period, especially in the 19th century dominated moral and religious arguments against tobacco. In the 20th century however, and particularly in its second part, development in medical research was enhanced by civil voluntary actions against advertisement and passive smoking. This lead to the significant limitation of tobacco expansion in Europe, USA and Canada in the end of the 20th century.

  12. Neuro-Oftalmologia: sistema sensorial -- Parte II Revisão 1997 -- 1999 Neuro-Ophthalmology: sensorial system - Part II. Review 1997 - 1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurélio Lana-Peixoto

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Esta é a segunda parte de uma revisão da literatura do sistema visual sensorial. O autor seleciona artigos publicados na literatura entre os anos de 1997 e 1999 relacionados a neurorretinites, neuropatia óptica compressiva, tumores do nervo óptico, pseudotumor cerebral, neuropatias ópticas hereditárias, hipoplasia do nervo óptico, drusas do disco óptico, neuropatia óptica tóxica, neuropatia óptica traumática, outras neuropatias ópticas e doenças retinianas, doenças do quiasma óptico e do trato óptico, assim como alterações geniculares e retrogeniculares, incluindo os distúrbios visuais corticais. Os artigos são apresentados e comentados quanto às suas conclusões, alcance e relações com o conhecimento previamente estabelecido.This is the second part of a review of papers on the visual afferent system published from 1997 to 1999. In this part the author presents the most important contributions made to areas such as neuroretinitis, optic nerve tumors, idiopathic intracranial hypertension, hereditary optic neuropathies, optic disc drusen, optic nerve hypoplasia, traumatic and toxic optic neuropathy as well as geniculate and retrogeniculate visual disorders. Selected papers are considered in relation to their results and previously established concepts.

  13. Control of uncertain systems by feedback linearization with neural networks augmentation. Part II. Controller validation by numerical simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian TOADER

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper was conceived in two parts. Part I, previously published in this journal, highlighted the main steps of adaptive output feedback control for non-affine uncertain systems, having a known relative degree. The main paradigm of this approach was the feedback linearization (dynamic inversion with neural network augmentation. Meanwhile, based on new contributions of the authors, a new paradigm, that of robust servomechanism problem solution, has been added to the controller architecture. The current Part II of the paper presents the validation of the controller hereby obtained by using the longitudinal channel of a hovering VTOL-type aircraft as mathematical model.

  14. Interobserver reliability and diagnostic performance of Chiari II malformation measures in MR imaging-part 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerdink, Niels; van der Vliet, Ton; Rotteveel, Jan J.; Feuth, Ton; Roeleveld, Nel; Mullaart, Reinier A.

    2012-01-01

    Brain MR imaging is essential in the assessment of Chiari II malformation in clinical and research settings concerning spina bifida. However, the interpretation of MR images of the malformation is not always straightforward. Morphometric analyses of the extent of Chiari II malformation may improve t

  15. Interobserver reliability and diagnostic performance of Chiari II malformation measures in MR imaging--part 2.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerdink, N.; Vliet, T. van der; Rotteveel, J.J.; Feuth, T.; Roeleveld, N.; Mullaart, R.A.

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: Brain MR imaging is essential in the assessment of Chiari II malformation in clinical and research settings concerning spina bifida. However, the interpretation of MR images of the malformation is not always straightforward. Morphometric analyses of the extent of Chiari II malformation may

  16. Variações sazonais em águas costeiras: Brasil Lat. 24º. Parte II Seasonal variations in coastal waters: Brazil Lat. 24º. Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. de Mesquita

    1977-12-01

    Full Text Available Four years data of temperature from the coastal areas of Santos and Cananeia are analysed in continuation of part I of this work. Earlier tidal wave theories for coastal areas and some basic processes on the determination of Nz are summarized. Seasonal variations of temperature are found to obey approximately a general harmonic law of propagation with depth and from it estimates of the mean annual values of N are obtained. These estimates (preliminaries seem to indicate that mixing at the coastal areas of Santos is smaller than in the ones of Cananéia.

  17. Transient Fluid Flow during Steady Continuous Casting of Steel Slabs: Part II. Effect of Double-Ruler Electro-Magnetic Braking

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cho, Seong-Mook; Kim, Seon-Hyo; Thomas, Brian G

    2014-01-01

    ... steady steel slab casting. In Part II of this two-part article, the effect of applying a static magnetic field on stabilizing the transient flow is investigated by modeling a double-ruler Electro-Magnetic Braking (EMBr...

  18. IrII(ethene): metal or carbon radical? Part II: oxygenation via iridium or direct oxygenation at ethene?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetterscheid, Dennis G H; Bens, Mariska; de Bruin, Bas

    2005-03-07

    Treatment of [(Me3tpa)IrII(ethene)]2+ (Me(3)tpa =N,N,N-tri(6-methyl-2-pyridylmethyl)amine)(1(2+)) with dioxygen in weakly coordinating solvents results in formation of [(Me3tpa)IrIII(ethene)(superoxo)]2+ (4a2+). In the presence of DMPO (DMPO = 5,5-dimethyl-2-pyrrolidine-1-oxide) DMPO is substituted for ethene, and subsequently oxidized to DMPOX by the superoxo fragment to give [(Me3tpa)IrIII(DMPOX)]2+ (7(2+); DMPOX = 5,5-dimethyl-2-pyrrolidone-1-oxide). In acetonitrile, in the absence of DMPO, oxygenation of 1(2+) to [(Me3tpa)IrIII(formylmethyl)(MeCN)]2+ (2(2+)) is observed. In the presence of DMPO the formation of 2(2+) and 7(2+) is competing. Oxygenation of 1(2+) to 2(2+) may proceed via 4a(2+), involving an insertion mechanism at the metal. However, a mechanism based on olefin ligand non-innocence seems a reasonable alternative. This involves formation of acetonitrile adduct [(Me3tpa)Ir(ethene)(MeCN)]2+ (3(2+)), which has a significant metalla-ethyl radical (IrIII-CH2CH2*) character, allowing attack of 3O2 directly at the ethene ligand. Both pathways are discussed on the basis of experimental observations and DFT geometry optimizations.

  19. Citrus fruits. Part II. Chemistry, technology, and quality evaluation. B. Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganna, S; Govindarajan, V S; Ramana, K V

    1983-01-01

    In Part II of this review on citrus fruits, the literature on chemistry, technology, and quality evaluation are critically considered. Sweet oranges, mandarin, grapefruit, lemon, and lime are generally used for processing. The literature on chemical components of citrus fruit which include sugars, polysaccharides, organic acids, nitrogenous constituents and lipids; carotenoids which contribute to color; vitamins and minerals and flavonoids; limonoids, some of which impart bitterness to the juice; and the volatile components which contribute to aroma were reviewed in section A. Chilled and pasteurized juices, juice concentrates, and beverages are the important products manufactured commercially, and to a limited extent powdered citrus juices, canned segments, and marmalades. The literature on the manufacture of these products also as new types of juice and oil extractors; TASTE and other types of evaporators; tank farms to store juice and concentrate in bulk; aseptic filling in bulk containers and retail packs; alternate flexible and rigid containers other than glass and tin; and recovery of volatile flavoring constituents during juice processing are some of the important technological developments in the recent past and have been discussed in this section. Bitterness in citrus juices and its control, composition of cloud, and its stability and changes during storage have been reviewed. Essential oils, pectin, frozen and dried juice sacs, dried pulp and molasses, flavonoids, seed oil, and meal are the important byproducts, the manufacture of which is given in essential details. Generally, consumers judge the product on the basis of its sensory attributes. The quality of finished product is dependent upon the raw materials used and control of processes. In section C, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) standards for different products, physicochemical and microbiological parameters prescribed as indices of quality of fruit, juice, concentrate, and other

  20. Peak-summer East Asian rainfall predictability and prediction part II: extratropical East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, So-Young; Wang, Bin; Xing, Wen

    2016-07-01

    The part II of the present study focuses on northern East Asia (NEA: 26°N-50°N, 100°-140°E), exploring the source and limit of the predictability of the peak summer (July-August) rainfall. Prediction of NEA peak summer rainfall is extremely challenging because of the exposure of the NEA to midlatitude influence. By examining four coupled climate models' multi-model ensemble (MME) hindcast during 1979-2010, we found that the domain-averaged MME temporal correlation coefficient (TCC) skill is only 0.13. It is unclear whether the dynamical models' poor skills are due to limited predictability of the peak-summer NEA rainfall. In the present study we attempted to address this issue by applying predictable mode analysis method using 35-year observations (1979-2013). Four empirical orthogonal modes of variability and associated major potential sources of variability are identified: (a) an equatorial western Pacific (EWP)-NEA teleconnection driven by EWP sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies, (b) a western Pacific subtropical high and Indo-Pacific dipole SST feedback mode, (c) a central Pacific-El Nino-Southern Oscillation mode, and (d) a Eurasian wave train pattern. Physically meaningful predictors for each principal component (PC) were selected based on analysis of the lead-lag correlations with the persistent and tendency fields of SST and sea-level pressure from March to June. A suite of physical-empirical (P-E) models is established to predict the four leading PCs. The peak summer rainfall anomaly pattern is then objectively predicted by using the predicted PCs and the corresponding observed spatial patterns. A 35-year cross-validated hindcast over the NEA yields a domain-averaged TCC skill of 0.36, which is significantly higher than the MME dynamical hindcast (0.13). The estimated maximum potential attainable TCC skill averaged over the entire domain is around 0.61, suggesting that the current dynamical prediction models may have large rooms to improve

  1. Studies in transition metal chemistry ; VI. Soluble Ziegler-type catalysts based on vanadium, part II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liefde Meijer, H.J. de; Hurk, J.W.G. van den; Kerk, G.J.M. van der

    1966-01-01

    Spectrophotometric measurements in the visible region on soluble catalyst systems prepared from (i) vanadium tetrachloride, aluminium bromide and tetraphenyltin and (ii) vanadium tetrachloride or vanadium oxytrichloride and ethylaluminium dihalides are reported. The formation of hydrocarbonsoluble i

  2. Zircônia tetragonal policristalina. Parte II: Microestrutura e resistividade elétrica Tetragonal zirconia polycrystals. Part II: Microstructure and electrical resistivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Tadokoro

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Nesta segunda parte são mostrados os resultados obtidos em cerâmicas densas de ZrO2: 3% mol Y2O3 (Y-TZP e 12% mol CeO2 (Ce-TZP, analisadas por espectroscopia Raman, microscopia eletrônica de varredura, e por espectroscopia de impedância. Os resultados mostram que, para ambos tipos de amostras, é possível obter cerâmicas densas (> 95% da densidade teórica para temperaturas de sinterização inferiores a 0,45 T F (T F = temperatura de fusão. A taxa de crescimento de grãos é dependente do cátion estabilizante, sendo maior para a Ce-TZP do que para a Y-TZP. Os espectros Raman de cerâmicas sinterizadas mostram as bandas típicas associadas aos modos ativos da fase cristalográfica tetragonal. Os resultados de espectroscopia de impedância são similares aos obtidos por outros pesquisadores tanto para cerâmicas convencionais quanto nanofásicas no caso da Y-TZP. Para a Ce-TZP foi observada uma redução na condutividade extrínseca em conseqüência da maior pureza do precursor cristalizado.Results on dense ZrO2: 3 mol% Y2O3 (Y-TZP and 12 mol% CeO2 (Ce-TZP ceramics are shown in this second part. Sintered specimens were analyzed by Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and impedance spectroscopy. The main results show that both types of solid solutions may attain a high densification (> 95% of the theoretical density for sintering temperatures lower than 0.45 T F (T F = melting temperature. The rate of grain growth is governed by the stabilizing cation and is faster for Ce-TZP than for Y-TZP. Raman spectra exhibit the six characteristic bands of the tetragonal phase for both specimens. Impedance spectroscopy results for Y-TZP do not differ from those obtained for nanophase ceramics. A reduction in the extrinsic conductivity due to the high purity of the crystallized precursor was observed for Ce-TZP specimens.

  3. Characterization of sugar cane bagasse: part II: fluid dynamic characteristics; Caracterizacion del bagazo de la cana de azucar: parte II: caracteristicas fluidodinamicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alarcon, Guillermo A. Roca [Universidad de Oriente (CEEFE/UO), Santiago de Cuba (Cuba). Centro de Estudios de Eficiencia Energetica], Emails: roca@ceefe.uo.edu.cu, grocabayamon@hotmail.com; Sanchez, Caio Glauco [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEM/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica], Email: caio@fem.unicamp.br; Gomez, Edgardo Olivares [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (NIPE/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico], Emails: gomez@bioware.com.br, egomez@energiabr.org.br; Cortez, Luis Augusto Barbosa [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (NIPE/FEAGRI/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Agricola. Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico], Email: cortez@reitoria.unicamp.br

    2006-07-01

    This paper is the second part of a general study about physic-geometrical and fluid-dynamics characteristic of the sugarcane bagasse particles. These properties has relevant importance on the dimensions and operation of the equipment for transport and treatment of solid particles. Was used the transport column method for the determination of the drag velocity and later on the drag coefficient of the sugarcane bagasse particles was calculated. Both, the installation and experimental technique used for materials of these characteristics are simple and innovations tools, but rigorous conceptually, thus the results obtained are reliable. Were used several sugarcane bagasse fractions of particles of known mean diameter. The properties determined were expressed as a function of Reynolds and Archimedes a dimensional criteria. The best considered model from statistical analysis (model from equation 8) was statistically validated for determined ranges of Reynolds and Archimedes. These empirical equations can be used to determine these properties in the range and conditions specified and also for modeling some processes where these fractions are employed. (author)

  4. Overlooked Talent Sources and Corporate Strategies for Affirmative Action. Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacobelli, John L.; Muczyk, Jan P.

    1975-01-01

    Part Two of the two-part article describes corporate strategies for affirmative action in order to obtain the most qualified individuals available for professional positions among minority and female candidates. (Author/BP)

  5. THE FOOTWEAR DESIGNING SESSION USING CRISPIN DYNAMICS ENGINEER. PART II: Creating the parts, Estimating the material consumption, Grading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IOVAN-DRAGOMIR Alina

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The diversification and customization of products are important characteristic of the modern economy and especially of the fashion industry. Because of this, the lifetime of the footwear product is very short and result the necessity to cut the design and production time. By classic methodology, designing footwear is a very complex and laborious activity. That is because classic methodology requires many graphic executions using manual means, which consume a lot of the producer’s time. With CRISPIN Dynamics, one can visualize a range of designs on-screen; work out the costs of a new style and even cut out sample shoe components. Reliance on manual skills is largely eliminated, so the staff can work creatively, but with increased accuracy and productivity. One can even send designs to a distant office or manufacturing centre in a matter of minutes. This paper presents the basic function of CRISPIN Dynamics CAD Suite Engineer for footwear design. The process of new product development has six stapes: digitized form of the medium copy, last flatting, model drawing, creation and management of individual parts, estimation of material consumption, multiplying the designed footwear product’s pattern. This product has been developed for shoemakers who wish to ensure that their business remains competitive by increasing the efficiency, speed and accuracy of pattern development and grading.

  6. Technical Information on the Carbonation of the EBR-II Reactor, Summary Report Part 2: Application to EBR-II Primary Sodium System and Related Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven R. Sherman; Collin J. Knight

    2006-03-01

    Residual sodium is defined as sodium metal that remains behind in pipes, vessels, and tanks after the bulk sodium metal has been melted and drained from such components. The residual sodium has the same chemical properties as bulk sodium, and differs from bulk sodium only in the thickness of the sodium deposit. Typically, sodium is considered residual when the thickness of the deposit is less than 5-6 cm. This residual sodium must be removed or deactivated when a pipe, vessel, system, or entire reactor is permanently taken out of service, in order to make the component or system safer and/or to comply with decontamination and decomissioning regulations. As an alternative to the established residual sodium deactivation techniques (steam-and-nitrogen, wet vapor nitrogen, etc.), a technique involving the use of moisture and carbon dioxide has been developed. With this technique, sodium metal is converted into sodium bicarbonate by reacting it with humid carbon dioxide. Hydrogen is emitted as a by-product. This technique was first developed in the laboratory by exposing sodium samples to humidifed carbon dioxide under controlled conditions, and then demonstrated on a larger scale by treating residual sodium within the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) secondary cooling system, followed by the primary cooling system, respectively. The EBR-II facility is located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in southeastern Idaho, USA. This report is Part 2 of a two-part report. This second report provides a supplement to the first report and describes the application of the humdidified carbon dioxide technique ("carbonation") to the EBR-II primary tank, primary cover gas systems, and the intermediate heat exchanger. Future treatment plans are also provided.

  7. An Interactive Activation Model of the Effect of Context in Perception. Part II. Report No. 8003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumelhart, David E.; McClelland, James L.

    This report is the second in a two-part series introducing an interactive activation model of context effects in perception. In the first part, a model for the perception of letters in words and other contexts was described and applied to a number of experiments. This second part applies the same model to a number of new experiments designed to…

  8. An Interactive Activation Model of the Effect of Context in Perception. Part II. Report No. 8003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumelhart, David E.; McClelland, James L.

    This report is the second in a two-part series introducing an interactive activation model of context effects in perception. In the first part, a model for the perception of letters in words and other contexts was described and applied to a number of experiments. This second part applies the same model to a number of new experiments designed to…

  9. Technical Information on the Carbonation of the EBR-II Reactor, Summary Report Part 1: Laboratory Experiments and Application to EBR-II Secondary Sodium System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven R. Sherman

    2005-04-01

    Residual sodium is defined as sodium metal that remains behind in pipes, vessels, and tanks after the bulk sodium metal has been melted and drained from such components. The residual sodium has the same chemical properties as bulk sodium, and differs from bulk sodium only in the thickness of the sodium deposit. Typically, sodium is considered residual when the thickness of the deposit is less than 5-6 cm. This residual sodium must be removed or deactivated when a pipe, vessel, system, or entire reactor is permanently taken out of service, in order to make the component or system safer and/or to comply with decommissioning regulations. As an alternative to the established residual sodium deactivation techniques (steam-and-nitrogen, wet vapor nitrogen, etc.), a technique involving the use of moisture and carbon dioxide has been developed. With this technique, sodium metal is converted into sodium bicarbonate by reacting it with humid carbon dioxide. Hydrogen is emitted as a by-product. This technique was first developed in the laboratory by exposing sodium samples to humidified carbon dioxide under controlled conditions, and then demonstrated on a larger scale by treating residual sodium within the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) secondary cooling system, followed by the primary cooling system, respectively. The EBR-II facility is located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in southeastern Idaho, U.S.A. This report is Part 1 of a two-part report. It is divided into three sections. The first section describes the chemistry of carbon dioxide-water-sodium reactions. The second section covers the laboratory experiments that were conducted in order to develop the residual sodium deactivation process. The third section discusses the application of the deactivation process to the treatment of residual sodium within the EBR-II secondary sodium cooling system. Part 2 of the report, under separate cover, describes the application of the technique to residual sodium

  10. Historia de la robótica: de Arquitas de Tarento al robot da Vinci (Parte II)

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    HISTORY OF ROBOTICS: FROM ARCHYTAS OF TARENTUM UNTIL DA VINCI ROBOT. (PART II) Robotic surgery is a reality. In order to to understand how new robots work is interesting to know the history of ancient (see part i) and modern robotics. The desire to design automatic machines imitating humans continued for more than 4000 years. Archytas of Tarentum (at around 400 a.C.), Heron of Alexandria, Hsieh-Fec, Al-Jazari, Bacon, Turriano, Leonardo da Vinci, Vaucanson o von Kempelen were robot inventors. ...

  11. Guidelines for the management of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (including bronchopulmonary and thymic neoplasms). Part II-specific NE tumour types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oberg, Kjell; Astrup, Lone Bording; Eriksson, Barbro;

    2004-01-01

    Part II of the guidelines contains a description of epidemiology, histopathology, clinical presentation, diagnostic procedure, treatment, and survival for each type of neuroendocrine tumour. We are not only including gastroenteropancreatic tumours but also bronchopulmonary and thymic neuroendocrine...... tumours. These guidelines essentially cover basic knowledge in the diagnosis and management of the different forms of neuroendocrine tumour. We have, however, tried to give more updated information about the epidemiology and histopathology, which is essential for the clinical management of these tumours....

  12. Programming an interim report on the SETL project. Part I: generalities. Part II: the SETL language and examples of its use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, J T

    1975-06-01

    A summary of work during the past several years on SETL, a new programming language drawing its dictions and basic concepts from the mathematical theory of sets, is presented. The work was started with the idea that a programming language modeled after an appropriate version of the formal language of mathematics might allow a programming style with some of the succinctness of mathematics, and that this might ultimately enable one to express and experiment with more complex algorithms than are now within reach. Part I discusses the general approach followed in the work. Part II focuses directly on the details of the SETL language as it is now defined. It describes the facilities of SETL, includes short libraries of miscellaneous and of code optimization algorithms illustrating the use of SETL, and gives a detailed description of the manner in which the set-theoretic primitives provided by SETL are currently implemented. (RWR)

  13. Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) oil storage cavern sulphur mines 2-4-5 certification tests and analysis. Part I: 1981 testing. Part II: 1982 testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beasley, R.R.

    1982-12-01

    Well leak tests and a cavern pressure were conducted in June through December 1981, and are described in Part I. The tests did not indicate conclusively that there was no leakage from the cavern, but the data indicate that cavern structural failure during oil storage is unlikely. The test results indicated that retesting and well workover were desirable prior to making a decision on the cavern use. Well leak tests were conducted in March through May 1982, and are described in Part II. The tests indicated that there was no significant leakage from wells 2 and 4 but that the leakage from wells 2A and 5 exceeded the DOE criterion. Because of the proximity of cavern 2-4-5 to the edge of the salt, this cavern should be considered for only one fill/withdrawal cycle prior to extensive reevaluation. 57 figures, 17 tables.

  14. DOE program guide for universities and other research groups. Part I. DOE Research and Development Programs; Part II. DOE Procurement and Assistance Policies/Procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-03-01

    This guide addresses the DOE responsibility for fostering advanced research and development of all energy resources, both current and potential. It is intended to provide, in a single publication, all the fundamental information needed by an institution to develop a potential working relationship with DOE. Part I describes DOE research and development programs and facilities, and identifies areas of additional research needs and potential areas for new research opportunities. It also summarizes budget data and identifies the DOE program information contacts for each program. Part II provides researchers and research administrators with an introduction to the DOE administrative policies and procedures for submission and evaluation of proposals and the administration of resulting grants, cooperative agreements, and research contracts. (RWR)

  15. On understanding the very different science premises meaningful to CAM versus orthodox medicine: Part II--applications of Part I fundamentals to five different space-time examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiller, William A

    2010-04-01

    In Part I of this pair of articles, the fundamental experimental observations and theoretical perspectives were provided for one to understand the key differences between our normal, uncoupled state of physical reality and the human consciousness-induced coupled state of physical reality. Here in Part II, the thermodynamics of complementary and alternative medicine, which deals with the partially coupled state of physical reality, is explored via the use of five different foci of relevance to today's science and medicine: (1) homeopathy; (2) the placebo effect; (3) long-range, room temperature, macroscopic size-scale, information entanglement; (4) an explanation for dark matter/energy plus human levitation possibility; and (5) electrodermal diagnostic devices. The purpose of this pair of articles is to clearly differentiate the use and limitations of uncoupled state physics in both nature and today's orthodox medicine from coupled state physics in tomorrow's complementary and alternative medicine.

  16. Evaluación neurofuncional del tallo cerebral Parte II: Reflejo mandibular = Neurofunctional evaluation of brain stem. II. Mandibular reflex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon Sarmiento, Fidias E.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available El reflejo mandibular o maseterino posee conexiones nerviosas únicas, diferentes de las exhi­bidas por otros reflejos monosinápticos humanos, y permite evaluar, de forma fácil y eficien­te, el tallo cerebral por medio de la estimulación mecánica, eléctrica o magnética. Diversos estudios han demostrado la participación en este reflejo de las interneuronas del tallo cerebral y su modulación por estructuras supraespinales, que hacen parte fundamental de su integra­ción motora. El reflejo mandibular es útil para evaluar la afectación trigémino-trigeminal en polineuropatías como la diabetes, neuromiopatías como la esclerosis múltiple y en pacientes con trastornos del movimiento, con o sin disfunción oromandibular. La evaluación neuro­funcional de este reflejo craneofacial ayuda a identificar la integración sensorimotora del tallo cerebral y las posibles alteraciones de estas vías reflejas, debidas a anormalidades del sistema nervioso central o del periférico. Su apropiada ejecución e interpretación, clínica y neurológica, permite aplicar de manera más personalizada diversos protocolos de neurorre­habilitación, con el fin de ayudar a mejorar la calidad de vida de los individuos con afectación de estas vías neurales.

  17. Derivados organometálicos de estanho(II - Parte 1. Compostos ciclopentadienílicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lima Geraldo M. de

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a brief review of the chemistry of cyclopentadienyl Sn(II derivatives which includes the preparation, the molecular structure and reactivity associated with such bis-sandwich tin(II species. It is compared structural and spectroscopic results and it is also discussed how the nature of the cyclopentadienyl ring bonded to the Sn centre plays an important role in the structural and stability features of the derivatives. Bulk rings such as C5HPr i4- , C5Bz5-, C5Me4SiMe2Bu t- and C5Ph5- render air-stable and parallel ring-bonded compounds.

  18. Further considerations on the evaluation of potential reduced-risk tobacco products. Part II: Re-assessment of a heuristic using the CPS-II database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murrelle, Lenn; Coggins, Christopher R E; Gennings, Chris; Carchman, Richard A; Lee, Peter N; Zedler, Barbara K; Heidbreder, Christian

    2010-06-01

    In a previous analysis (see Part I) we proposed a heuristic for assessing the efficacy of potential reduced-risk tobacco products (PRRPs) on lung cancer (LC) rates, using smoking cessation data published in a report from the Iowa Women's Health Study (IWHS) as a basis for sample size estimates. In this study, an additional analysis was performed using cessation data from the much larger Cancer Prevention Study II (CPS-II), which also provides data on different durations of cessation. Statistical methods were used to assess whether smokers switching to a PRRP would reduce their risk of LC. Furthermore, non-inferiority tests compared the LC risk in switchers to that in smokers who had quit smoking. The present work shows that similar sample size estimates were obtained whether the analysis was based on the IWHS or the CPS-II data sets, suggesting that the heuristic may be generally applicable to prospective real-life studies to evaluate PRRPs. Non-inferiority testing of switchers compared with quitters required approximately 10-fold more subjects than did superiority testing of switchers compared with smokers. Altogether, these estimates indicate that it is feasible, in terms of study duration and sample size, to clinically assess the LC risk-reducing potential of a PRRP. (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Essential features of Chiari II malformation in MR imaging : an interobserver reliability study-part 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerdink, Niels; van der Vliet, Ton; Rotteveel, Jan J.; Feuth, Ton; Roeleveld, Nel; Mullaart, Reinier A.

    2012-01-01

    Brain MR imaging is essential in the assessment of Chiari II malformation in clinical and research settings concerning spina bifida. However, the interpretation of morphological features of the malformation on MR images may not always be straightforward. In an attempt to select those features that u

  20. Essential features of Chiari II malformation in MR imaging: an interobserver reliability study--part 1.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerdink, N.; Vliet, T. van der; Rotteveel, J.J.; Feuth, T.; Roeleveld, N.; Mullaart, R.A.

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: Brain MR imaging is essential in the assessment of Chiari II malformation in clinical and research settings concerning spina bifida. However, the interpretation of morphological features of the malformation on MR images may not always be straightforward. In an attempt to select those featur

  1. Airflow analyses using thermal imaging in Arizona's Meteor Crater as part of METCRAX II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grudzielanek, A. Martina; Vogt, Roland; Cermak, Jan; Maric, Mateja; Feigenwinter, Iris; Whiteman, C. David; Lehner, Manuela; Hoch, Sebastian W.; Krauß, Matthias G.; Bernhofer, Christian; Pitacco, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    In October 2013 the second Meteor Crater Experiment (METCRAX II) took place at the Barringer Meteorite Crater (aka Meteor Crater) in north central Arizona, USA. Downslope-windstorm-type flows (DWF), the main research objective of METCRAX II, were measured by a comprehensive set of meteorological sensors deployed in and around the crater. During two weeks of METCRAX II five infrared (IR) time lapse cameras (VarioCAM® hr research & VarioCAM® High Definition, InfraTec) were installed at various locations on the crater rim to record high-resolution images of the surface temperatures within the crater from different viewpoints. Changes of surface temperature are indicative of air temperature changes induced by flow dynamics inside the crater, including the DWF. By correlating thermal IR surface temperature data with meteorological sensor data during intensive observational periods the applicability of the IR method of representing flow dynamics can be assessed. We present evaluation results and draw conclusions relative to the application of this method for observing air flow dynamics in the crater. In addition we show the potential of the IR method for METCRAX II in 1) visualizing airflow processes to improve understanding of these flows, and 2) analyzing cold-air flows and cold-air pooling.

  2. Studies on the sediments of Vembanad Lake, Kerala state: Part II - Distribution of phosphorus

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murty, P.S.N.; Veerayya, M.

    in the estuarine region has been attributed to several factors. The impoverishment of Mn and Co can be due to (i) desorption of these elements from the river borne detritus on coming into contact with saline waters, (ii) dredging operations which may lead...

  3. Human Rehabilitation Techniques. Disability Analyses: Chronic Disease Disabilities. Volume II, Part C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigelman, C.; And Others

    Volume II, Section C of a six-volume final report (which covers the findings of a research project on policy and technology related to rehabilitation of disabled individuals) presents a review of literature on six types of chronic disease disabilities--rheumatoid arthritis, coronary heart disease, emphysema, carcinoma of the colon/rectum, kidney…

  4. Human Rehabilitation Techniques. Disability Analyses: Behavioral Disabilities. Volume II, Part B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigelman, C.; And Others

    Volume II, Section B of a six-volume final report (which covers the findings of a research project on policy and technology related to rehabilitation of disabled individuals) presents a review of literature on three types of behavior disabilities--epilepsy, mental retardation, and schizophrenia. Individual chapters on each disability cover the…

  5. Water mite species of the genus Hydrodroma Koch (Acari: Hydrachnidia, Hydrodromidae) from Australia. Part II.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pesic, V.; Smit, H.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract: Two new water mite species of the genus Hydrodroma Koch (Acari: Hydrachnidia, Hydrodromidae), characterized by single or absence of swimming setae on II-L-5, are reported from Australia: Hydrodroma wilesi sp. nov. and H. cooki sp. nov. New information is provided for H. tonapii Cook from I

  6. Medical Malpractice in Dermatology-Part II: What To Do Once You Have Been Served with a Lawsuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Vidhi V; Kapp, Marshall B; Wolverton, Stephen E

    2016-12-01

    Facing a malpractice lawsuit can be a daunting and traumatic experience for healthcare practitioners, with most clinicians naïve to the legal landscape. It is crucial for physicians to know and understand the malpractice system and his or her role once challenged with litigation. We present part II of a two-part series addressing the most common medicolegal questions that cause a great deal of anxiety. Part I focused upon risk-management strategies and prevention of malpractice lawsuits, whereas part II provides helpful suggestions and guidance for the physician who has been served with a lawsuit complaint. Herein, we address the best approach concerning what to do and what not to do after receipt of a legal claim, during the deposition, and during the trial phases. We also discuss routine concerns that may arise during the development of the case, including the personal, financial, and career implications of a malpractice lawsuit and how these can be best managed. The defense strategies discussed in this paper are not a guide separate from legal representation to winning a lawsuit, but may help physicians prepare for and cope with a medical malpractice lawsuit. This article is written from a US perspective, and therefore not all of the statements made herein will be applicable in other countries. Within the USA, medical practitioners must be familiar with their own state and local laws and should consult with their own legal counsel to obtain advice about specific questions.

  7. Empirical Psycho-Aesthetics and Her Sisters: Substantive and Methodological Issues--Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konecni, Vladimir J.

    2013-01-01

    Empirical psycho-aesthetics is approached in this two-part article from two directions. Part I, which appeared in the Winter 2012 issue of "JAE," addressed definitional and organizational issues, including the field's origins, its relation to "sister" disciplines (experimental philosophy, cognitive neuroscience of art, and neuroaesthetics), and…

  8. Instrumentation: Photodiode Array Detectors in UV-VIS Spectroscopy. Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Dianna G.

    1985-01-01

    A previous part (Analytical Chemistry; v57 n9 p1057A) discussed the theoretical aspects of diode ultraviolet-visual (UV-VIS) spectroscopy. This part describes the applications of diode arrays in analytical chemistry, also considering spectroelectrochemistry, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), HPLC data processing, stopped flow, and…

  9. How Long Do International School Heads Survive? A Research Analysis (Part II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, David B.

    1995-01-01

    Part one of a 10-year study showed that international school heads remain, on average, only 2.8 years in a given position. The second part of the study analyzed why a subset of the group (83 school heads) left their positions. Reasons given included problems involving the board of directors, compensation packages, retirement issues and benefits,…

  10. Hyposplenism: a comprehensive review. Part II: clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    William, Basem M; Thawani, Nitika; Sae-Tia, Sutthichai; Corazza, Gino R

    2007-04-01

    In the first part of this review, we described the physiological basis of splenic function and hypofunction. We also described the wide spectrum of diseases that can result in functional hyposplenism. In the second part of this review, we will be discussing the clinical picture, including complications, diagnostic methods, and management of hyposplenism.

  11. A systematic review of the Indo-Australian Zosteropidae (Part II)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mees, G.F.

    1961-01-01

    INTRODUCTION In this, the second part of my revision of the Zosteropidae, 26 species are dealt with, all belonging to the genus Zosterops. The remaining 12 species of the genus and all the other genera, will be treated in the third part, the preparation of which is in progress. Unfortunately, it bec

  12. Intraosseous carcinoma of the jaws: A clinicopathologic review. part II: Odontogenic carcinomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woolgar, J.A.; Triantafyllou, A.; Ferlito, A.; Devaney, K.O.; Lewis Jr., J.S.; Rinaldo, A.; Slootweg, P.J.; Barnes, L.

    2013-01-01

    This is the second of a 3-part review of the clinicopathologic features of intraosseous carcinoma of the jaws (IOCJ). This part deals with odontogenic carcinomas, rare entities that are difficult to evaluate because of changes in classification/nomenclature, lack of standardized diagnostic criteria,

  13. Instrumentation: Photodiode Array Detectors in UV-VIS Spectroscopy. Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Dianna G.

    1985-01-01

    A previous part (Analytical Chemistry; v57 n9 p1057A) discussed the theoretical aspects of diode ultraviolet-visual (UV-VIS) spectroscopy. This part describes the applications of diode arrays in analytical chemistry, also considering spectroelectrochemistry, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), HPLC data processing, stopped flow, and…

  14. Mathematics for Junior High School. Commentary for Teachers. Volume II (Part 2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R. D.; And Others

    This is part one of a two-part manual for teachers using SMSG junior high school text materials. A chapter-by-chapter commentary on the text is given as well as answers to all the exercises. Chapter topics include: (1) number line and coordinates; (2) equations; (3) scientific notation; (4) applications of percent; and (5) congruence and the…

  15. Choque cardiogénico: Historia, fisiopatología e implicaciones terapeúticas. Parte II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Zeledón S

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El choque cardiogénico es la principal causa de muerte entre los pacientes que presentan un síndrome coronario agudo. Después de la revisión histórica y de los conceptos fisiológicos y fisiopatológicos de esta condición clínica expuesta en la primera parte, se revisa su abordaje terapéutico, principalmente la revascularización de emergencia con angioplastía o cirugía.Cardiogenic shock: History, pathophysiology and therapeutical implications. Part II. Cardiogenic shock is the first cause of death among patients with acute coronary syndromes. After a previous discussion of the history and the physiologic and pathophysiologic aspects of this clinical condition in part 1, we review the therapeutic management which predominantly involves urgent angioplasty with stenting or coronary artery bypass graft surgery.

  16. Environmentally friendly HF (DF) lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apollonov, V. V.

    2016-08-01

    Dedicated to the 100th anniversary of the birth of Academician A M Prokhorov, this paper reviews the physics of self-sustained volume discharge without preionization—self-initiated volume discharge (SIVD)—in the working mixtures of non-chain hydrofluoride HF (deuterofluoride (DF)) lasers. The dynamics of SIVD in discharge gaps with different geometries is thoroughly described. The mechanisms for the restriction of current density in a diffuse channel in electric discharges in SF6 and SF6 based mixtures (which determines whether SIVD is possible) are proposed and analyzed using simple models. The most probable mechanisms are the electron impact dissociation of SF6 and other mixture components, electron-ion recombination and electron attachment to vibrationally excited SF6 molecules. Starting from a comparative analysis of the rate coefficients of these processes, it is shown that electron-ion recombination is capable of compensating for electron detachment from negative ions via electron impact. It is also established that SIVD is not only observed in SF6, but also in other strongly electronegative gases. The factors that determine the uniformity of the active medium in non-chain HF (DF) lasers are analyzed. Some special features of non-chain HF (DF) lasers with different apertures operating are carefully examined. Consideration is given to the problem of increasing the aperture and discharge volume of non-chain HF (DF) lasers. Based on our experimental results, the possibility of increasing the energy of such lasers to ~1 kJ and above is shown.

  17. The flipped classroom for professional development: part II. making podcasts and videos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Charlene M; McDonald, Katie

    2013-11-01

    As described in Part I, podcasts and videos are educational technologies used to flip the classroom. This column describes the technology options for creating podcasts and videos and offers tips on developing podcasts and videos.

  18. Machinability of Green Powder Metallurgy Components: Part II. Sintered Properties of Components Machined in Green State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert-Perron, Etienne; Blais, Carl; Pelletier, Sylvain; Thomas, Yannig

    2007-06-01

    The green machining process is virtually a must if the powder metallurgy (PM) industries are to solve the lower machining performances associated with PM components. This process is known for lowering the rate of tool wear. Recent improvements in binder/lubricant technologies have led to high-green-strength systems that enable green machining. Combined with the optimized cutting parameters determined in Part I of the study, the green machining of PM components seems to be a viable process for fabricating high performance parts on large scale and complete other shaping processes. This second part of our study presents a comparison between the machining behaviors and the sintered properties of components machined prior to or after sintering. The results show that the radial crush strength measured on rings machined in their green state is equal to that of parts machined after sintering.

  19. Carcinogenicity of residual fuel oils by nonbiological laboratory methods: annotated bibliography. Part I. Laboratory methods of analysis. Part II. Analysis results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cichorz, R. S.

    1976-04-09

    Recent emphases have been directed by Federal government regulatory agencies and other research groups on the carcinogenic effects of certain aromatic hydrocarbon components in naturally occurring petroleum products. These are used in plant operations, and underline the importance of evaluating environments. Since Rocky Flats Plant uses large quantities of fuel oil, the author was prompted to undertake a search of the chemical literature. Articles and accounts of studies were reviewed on nonbiological laboratory methods for determining the carcinogenicity of residual fuel oils and related high-boiling petroleum fractions. The physical and chemical methods involve the separation or measurement (or both) of polynuclear aromatic constituents which generally are responsible for the carcinogenic effects. Thus, the author suggests that the total carcinogenic activity of any petroleum product may not be due to a specific potent carcinogen, but rather to the cumulative effect of several individually weak carcinogens. The literature search is presented as an annotated bibliography, current as of January 1, 1975, and includes significant parts of the studies along with the total number of other references found when the citation was examined in its entirety. Part I deals with laboratory chemical and physical methods of determining carcinogenicity or polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (or both) in residual fuel oils and contains ten entries. Part II includes the results of testing specific fuel oils for carcinogenic constituents and contains eleven entries. An author index and subject categories are included.

  20. Geometry with Coordinates, Student's Text, Part II, Unit 48. Revised Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Frank B.; And Others

    This is part two of a two-part SMSG geometry text for high school students. One of the goals of the text is the development of analytic geometry hand-in-hand with synthetic geometry. The authors emphasize that both are deductive systems and that it is useful to have more than one mode of attack in solving problems. The text begins the development…

  1. Periodic Fever: A Review on Clinical, Management and Guideline for Iranian Patients - Part II

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmadinejad, Zahra; Mansouri, Sedigeh; Ziaee, Vahid; Aghighi, Yahya; Moradinejad, Mohammad-Hassan; Fereshteh-Mehregan, Fatemeh

    2014-01-01

    Periodic fever syndromes are a group of diseases characterized by episodes of fever with healthy intervals between febrile episodes. In the first part of this paper, we presented a guideline for approaching patients with periodic fever and reviewed two common disorders with periodic fever in Iranian patients including familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) and periodic fever syndromes except for periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and cervical adenitis (PFAPA). In this part, we revi...

  2. US Integrated Ocean Observing System HF Radar Network: National Applications and International Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlan, J.

    2016-12-01

    The US Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS), a partnership of academic institutions and Federal agencies, within NOAA National Ocean Service (NOS), operates the nation's only high-frequency (HF) radar network providing near-real-time 2-D maps of ocean of surface currents speed and direction. This system supports US Coast Guard search and rescue operations, NOAA response to oil spills, port navigation and tracking of harmful algal bloom. In the research realm, the data are helping to understand oceanographic processes such as the warm water mass off of the west coast of the US and are routinely ingested into oceanographic models and are used for research into tsunami detection. A key component of the network is the data management system that ingests and distributes hourly data from radars throughout US coastal areas as well as Canada and Mexico, comprising nearly 150 radars. HF radar operators outside the US have adopted the data file formats that were developed by the US IOOS and these data are displayed publicly in near-real-time. To enhance the utility of HF radar data to end-users in all parts of the globe, operational products are needed. Recently in the US, quasi-operational products have been developed, or are under development, including: 2-D maps in AWIPS-II, tidal analysis and prediction from NOS Center for Operational Oceanographic Products & Services (CO-OPS), tsunami detection algorithms led by National Tsunami Warning Center, and significant wave height pilot project. These products will be highlighted and potential for international use discussed.

  3. Supuestos resueltos de contabilidad II. parte 2ª. curso 2013-2014

    OpenAIRE

    Osés García, Javier

    2013-01-01

    Este documento contiene ejercicios solucionados y comentados sobre los temas que componen el Plan Docente de la asignatura COMPTABILITAT II del Grau en Administració i Direcció d’Empreses que se imparte en la Facultat Economia i Empresa de la Universitat de Barcelona. Todos los ejercicios contenidos han aparecido en cursos anteriores al 2012-2013 en alguna de las pruebas de evaluación continuada o exámenes de evaluación final de la asignatura. Entendemos que esta publicación es una h...

  4. Erosive Effects of Various Pure and Combustion-Generated Gases on Metals. Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-10-01

    ii«M)iiii«< -———• --——- ~• —"•—- VMH -11- solid carbon. The interest in the carbonyl formation and in particular to the iron...Di TD ~ c c m u a do o 0 m ««* n o CH41 o «a a •H M 3 • < A O c n c o w o u Z 2 o o M M H to vo o on CM •H UQ i

  5. Project Monitor: Part II. Conservation in small business: an exploratory study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammond, P Y

    1979-08-01

    Project Monitor examined the energy conservation attitude and behavior of small samples of small business owners/operators in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, focusing on manufacturing concerns and retailers. Section I reports the findings on the energy conserving behavior of 92 smaller manufacturers and Section II identifies the factors which affect decision making concerning energy consuming activities by the owners/operators of 94 small retail establishments. In each, the impact of Project Pacesetter and of the coal strike and the general energy situation is considered. (MCW)

  6. Supuestos resueltos de contabilidad II. parte 2ª. curso 2013-2014

    OpenAIRE

    Osés García, Javier

    2013-01-01

    Este documento contiene ejercicios solucionados y comentados sobre los temas que componen el Plan Docente de la asignatura COMPTABILITAT II del Grau en Administració i Direcció d’Empreses que se imparte en la Facultat Economia i Empresa de la Universitat de Barcelona. Todos los ejercicios contenidos han aparecido en cursos anteriores al 2012-2013 en alguna de las pruebas de evaluación continuada o exámenes de evaluación final de la asignatura. Entendemos que esta publicación es una h...

  7. Supuestos resueltos de contabilidad II. parte 1ª. curso 2013-2014

    OpenAIRE

    Osés García, Javier

    2013-01-01

    Este documento contiene ejercicios solucionados y comentados sobre los temas que componen el Plan Docente de la asignatura COMPTABILITAT II del Grau en Administració i Direcció d’Empreses que se imparte en la Facultat Economia i Empresa de la Universitat de Barcelona. Todos los ejercicios contenidos han aparecido en cursos anteriores al 2012-2013 en alguna de las pruebas de evaluación continuada o exámenes de evaluación final de la asignatura. Entendemos que esta publicación es una h...

  8. Global optimization of truss topology with discrete bar areas-Part II: Implementation and numerical results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achtziger, Wolfgang; Stolpe, Mathias

    2009-01-01

    -and-bound search all have the same feasible set and differ from each other only in the objective function. This is one reason for making the resulting branch-and-bound method very efficient. The paper closes with several large-scale numerical examples. These examples are, to the knowledge of the authors, by far...... we use the theory developed in Part I to design a convergent nonlinear branch-and-bound method tailored to solve large-scale instances of the original discrete problem. The problem formulation and the needed theoretical results from Part I are repeated such that this paper is self-contained. We focus...... on the implementation details but also establish finite convergence of the branch-and-bound method. The algorithm is based on solving a sequence of continuous non-convex relaxations which can be formulated as quadratic programs according to the theory in Part I. The quadratic programs to be treated within the branch...

  9. FROM ZERO-DIMENSIONAL TO 2-DIMENSIONAL CARBON NANOMATERIALS - part II: GRAPHENE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin IANCU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available As was presented in the first part of this review paper, lately, many theoretical and experimental studies have been carried out to develop one of the most interesting aspects of the science and nanotechnology which is called carbon-related nanomaterials. In this review paper are presented some of the most exciting and important developments in the synthesis, properties, and applications of low-dimensional carbon nanomaterials. In this part of the paper are presented the synthesis techniques used to produce the two-dimensional carbon nanomaterials (including graphene, and also the most important properties and potential applications of graphene.

  10. A Quantum Computational Semantics for Epistemic Logical Operators. Part II: Semantics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrametti, Enrico; Dalla Chiara, Maria Luisa; Giuntini, Roberto; Leporini, Roberto; Sergioli, Giuseppe

    2014-10-01

    By using the abstract structures investigated in the first Part of this article, we develop a semantics for an epistemic language, which expresses sentences like "Alice knows that Bob does not understand that π is irrational". One is dealing with a holistic form of quantum computational semantics, where entanglement plays a fundamental role; thus, the meaning of a global expression determines the contextual meanings of its parts, but generally not the other way around. The epistemic situations represented in this semantics seem to reflect some characteristic limitations of the real processes of acquiring information. Since knowledge is not generally closed under logical consequence, the unpleasant phenomenon of logical omniscience is here avoided.

  11. Special report. Some new approaches to hospital parking security--Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-11-01

    In Part I, in the October 1995 issue, we reported on some new developments that were already in use or had promising applications for hospital parking security. These included radio frequency access control systems and mounted horse patrols. In this part, we'll give you details on the use of bicycle patrols. We'll review some federal recommendations for parking security for buildings of all sizes that followed the Oklahoma City bombing. And we'll give details on how a leading parking management company that operates over 30 hospital parking facilities works together with hospital security to maximize both people and asset protection.

  12. Sintering of Multilayered Porous Structures: Part II – Experiments and Model Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ni, De Wei; Olevsky, Eugene; Esposito, Vincenzo;

    2013-01-01

    Experimental analyses of shrinkage and distortion kinetics during sintering of bilayered porous and dense gadolinium-doped ceria Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95d structures are carried out, and compared with the theoretical models developed in Part I of this work. A novel approach is developed for the determinat...

  13. Elements of nonlinear quantum mechanics (Part II): Triple bracket generalization of quantum mechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Czachor, Marek

    1994-01-01

    A new version of NLQM is formulated in terms of the generalized Nambu dynamics. The generalization is free from the difficulties of earlier approaches. The paper is a second part of "Elements of NLQM (I): NL Schrodinger equation and two-level atoms".

  14. EFSUMB Guidelines on Interventional Ultrasound (INVUS), Part II Diagnostic Ultrasound-Guided Interventional Procedures (Long Version)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidhu, P. S.; Brabrand, K.; Cantisani, V.;

    2015-01-01

    This is the second part of the series on interventional ultrasound guidelines of the Federation of Societies for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology (EFSUMB). It deals with the diagnostic interventional procedure. General points are discussed which are pertinent to all patients, followed by organ-...

  15. Towards a Postmodern Theory of Moral Education. Part II: Mapping the Terrain (Zygmunt Bauman's Postmodern Ethics).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biesta, Gert J. J.; Stams, Geert-Jan J. M.

    The project of which this paper is a part consists of three steps. The first step (an American Educational Research Association (AERA) Conference 2000 paper subtitled "Clearing the Terrain") provided a critical overview of current debates on moral development and education, focusing on the relationship between empirical and theoretical…

  16. PARAFAC2 - Part II. Modeling chromatographic data with retention time shifts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bro, Rasmus; Andersson, Claus A.; Kiers, Henk A.L.

    1999-01-01

    This paper offers an approach for handling retention time shifts in resolving chromatographic data using the PARAFAC2 model. In Part I of this series an algorithm for PARAFAC2 was developed and extended to N-way arrays. It was discussed that the PARAFAC2 model has a number of attractive features. It

  17. AN ENGLISH-AMHARIC DICTIONARY OF EVERYDAY USAGE, PART II, (L-Z).

    Science.gov (United States)

    LESLAU, WOLF

    THIS VOLUME, (L-Z), COMPRISES THE SECOND HALF OF THE FIRST MODERN ENGLISH-AMHARIC DICTIONARY. THIS TWO-PART DICTIONARY HAS BEEN PREPARED FOR THE STUDENT FAMILIAR WITH THE SCRIPT AND GRAMMAR OF AMHARIC, THE NATIONAL LANGUAGE OF ETHIOPIA. THE SELECTIONS, LIMITED IN SCOPE, ARE BASED ON EDUCATED COLLOQUIAL AND ARE PRESENTED IN CONTEXTUAL SENTENCES.…

  18. Elastic and Piezoelectric Properties of Boron Nitride Nanotube Composites. Part II; Finite Element Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H. Alicia; Hardie, Robert; Yamakov, Vesselin; Park, Cheol

    2015-01-01

    This paper is the second part of a two-part series where the first part presents a molecular dynamics model of a single Boron Nitride Nanotube (BNNT) and this paper scales up to multiple BNNTs in a polymer matrix. This paper presents finite element (FE) models to investigate the effective elastic and piezoelectric properties of (BNNT) nanocomposites. The nanocomposites studied in this paper are thin films of polymer matrix with aligned co-planar BNNTs. The FE modelling approach provides a computationally efficient way to gain an understanding of the material properties. We examine several FE models to identify the most suitable models and investigate the effective properties with respect to the BNNT volume fraction and the number of nanotube walls. The FE models are constructed to represent aligned and randomly distributed BNNTs in a matrix of resin using 2D and 3D hollow and 3D filled cylinders. The homogenisation approach is employed to determine the overall elastic and piezoelectric constants for a range of volume fractions. These models are compared with an analytical model based on Mori-Tanaka formulation suitable for finite length cylindrical inclusions. The model applies to primarily single-wall BNNTs but is also extended to multi-wall BNNTs, for which preliminary results will be presented. Results from the Part 1 of this series can help to establish a constitutive relationship for input into the finite element model to enable the modeling of multiple BNNTs in a polymer matrix.

  19. Facilitating age diversity in organizations – part II: managing perceptions and interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hertel, Guido; Heijden, van der Beatrice I.J.M.; Lange, de Annet H.; Deller, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – Due to demographic changes in most industrialized countries, the average age of working people is continuously increasing, and the workforce is becoming more age-diverse. This review, together with the earlier JMP Special Issue “Facilitating age diversity in organizations – part I: challen

  20. Automatic Dictionary Construction; Part II of Scientific Report No. ISR-18, Information Storage and Retrieval...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY. Dept. of Computer Science.

    Part Two of the eighteenth report on Salton's Magical Automatic Retriever of Texts (SMART) project is composed of three papers: The first: "The Effect of Common Words and Synonyms on Retrieval Performance" by D. Bergmark discloses that removal of common words from the query and document vectors significantly increases precision and that…

  1. Uni-directional waves over slowly varying bottom, part II: Deformation of travelling waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pudjaprasetya, S.R.; Pudjaprasetya, S.R.; van Groesen, Embrecht W.C.

    1996-01-01

    A new Korteweg-de Vries type of equation for uni-directional waves over slowly varying bottom has been derived in Part I. The equation retains the Hamiltonian structure of the underlying complete set of equations for surface waves. For flat bottom it reduces to the standard Korteweg-de Vries

  2. Numerical optimization of nitrogen application to rice. Part II. Field evaluations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berge, ten H.F.M.; Qinghua, S.; Zhiming, Z.; Rao, K.S.; Riethoven, J.J.M.; Zhong, X.

    1997-01-01

    The MANAGE-N model (Part I; Ten Berge et al., this issue) was tested by comparing predicted and measured final crop biomass production for 48 rice cultivars under application of 0, 30–40, 60–80 and 90 to 120 kg urea-N per ha at Cuttack, India, during seven consecutive wet seasons. The overall coeffi

  3. Institutional Advancement: A Marketing Perspective. Part II: A Status Report, 1978-79.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarty, Daniel F.

    This follow-up report examines the status of the recruitment and retention strategies implemented by Triton College in 1978 as part of an effort to utilize the marketing concept in identifying and meeting changing educational needs. The report first provides operational definitions for "institutional advancement,""marketing concept,""promotion,"…

  4. MATLAB-based Applications for Image Processing and Image Quality Assessment – Part II: Experimental Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Krasula

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides an overview of some possible usage of the software described in the Part I. It contains the real examples of image quality improvement, distortion simulations, objective and subjective quality assessment and other ways of image processing that can be obtained by the individual applications.

  5. Effect of strong electrolytes on Edible oil Part II, Viscosity of maize oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    paras

    Effect of Strong Electrolytes on Edible Oils Part III: Viscosity of canola oil in 1,4- dioxane in the presence of HCl, ... (BDH) are used without further purification. Canola oil was ... the procedure given elsewhere (Khan et al, 2005). The viscosity of ...

  6. Sampling from a system-theoretic viewpoint: Part II - Noncausal solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meinsma, Gjerrit; Mirkin, Leonid

    This paper puts to use concepts and tools introduced in Part I to address a wide spectrum of noncausal sampling and reconstruction problems. Particularly, we follow the system-theoretic paradigm by using systems as signal generators to account for available information and system norms (L2 and L∞)

  7. Limited Feedback Multi-Antenna Quantization Codebook Design-Part II: Multiuser Channels

    CERN Document Server

    Khoshnevis, Behrouz

    2010-01-01

    This is the second part of a two-part paper on optimal design of limited feedback single-user and multiuser spatial multiplexing systems. The first part of the paper studies the single-user system and this part addresses the multiuser case. The problem is cast in form of minimizing the average transmission power at the base station subject to the outage probability constraints at the users' side. The optimization is over the power control function at the base station as well as the users' channel quantization codebooks. The base station has $M$ antennas and serves $M$ single-antenna users, which share a common feedback link with a total rate of $B$ bits per fading block. We first fix the quantization codebooks and study the optimal power control problem which leads to an upper bound for the average transmission sum power. The upper bound solution is then used to optimize the quantization codebooks and to derive the optimal bit allocation laws in the asymptotic regime of $B\\to\\infty$. The paper shows that for ...

  8. Broadcasting Stations of the World; Part II. Amplitude Modulation Broadcasting Stations According to Frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreign Broadcast Information Service, Washington, DC.

    This second part of "Broadcasting Stations of the World", which lists all reported radio broadcasting and television stations with the exception of those in the United States which broadcast on domestic channels, covers amplitude modulation broadcasting stations according to frequency in ascending order. Information included covers call letters,…

  9. Numerical optimization of nitrogen application to rice. Part II. Field evaluations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berge, ten H.F.M.; Qinghua, S.; Zhiming, Z.; Rao, K.S.; Riethoven, J.J.M.; Zhong, X.

    1997-01-01

    The MANAGE-N model (Part I; Ten Berge et al., this issue) was tested by comparing predicted and measured final crop biomass production for 48 rice cultivars under application of 0, 30–40, 60–80 and 90 to 120 kg urea-N per ha at Cuttack, India, during seven consecutive wet seasons. The overall

  10. Base cation deposition in Europe - Part II. Acid neutralization capacity and contribution to forest nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Draaijers, G.P.J.; Leeuwen, E.P. van; Jong, P.G.H. de; Erisman, J.W.

    1997-01-01

    An assessment was made of the capacity of base cations to neutralize acid deposition and of the contribution of base cation deposition to forest nutrition in Europe. In large parts of southern Europe more than 50% of the potential acid deposition was found counteracted by deposition of non-sea salt

  11. A history of the autonomic nervous system: part II: from Reil to the modern era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakes, Peter C; Fisahn, Christian; Iwanaga, Joe; DiLorenzo, Daniel; Oskouian, Rod J; Tubbs, R Shane

    2016-12-01

    The history of the study of the autonomic nervous system is rich. At the beginning of the nineteenth century, scientists were beginning to more firmly grasp the reality of this part of the human nervous system. The evolution of our understanding of the autonomic nervous system has a rich history. Our current understanding is based on centuries of research and trial and error.

  12. Facilitating age diversity in organizations – part II: managing perceptions and interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hertel, Guido; van der Heijden, Beatrice; de Lange, Annet H.; Deller, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – Due to demographic changes in most industrialized countries, the average age of working people is continuously increasing, and the workforce is becoming more age-diverse. This review, together with the earlier JMP Special Issue “Facilitating age diversity in organizations – part I: challen

  13. Facilitating age diversity in organizations ‐ part II: managing perceptions and interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beatrice van der Heijden; Guido Hertel; Annet de Lange; Jürgen Deller

    2013-01-01

    Purpose ‐ Due to demographic changes in most industrialized countries, the average age of working people is continuously increasing, and the workforce is becoming more age-diverse. This review, together with the earlier JMP Special Issue "Facilitating age diversity in organizations ‐ part I: challen

  14. Multi-scale narratives from an IA perspective: Part II Participatory local scenario development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, K.; Patel, M.; Rothman, D.; Quaranta, G.

    2006-01-01

    This paper builds on Part I, where three European and Mediterranean scenarios were introduced. Theses scenarios can be typified as qualitative, integrated narrative storylines that describe three possible directions of future change until 2030. The main purpose of the paper is to summarise the metho

  15. Supporting Educational Uses of Telecommunication in the Secondary School: Part II Strategies for Improved Implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collis, Betty

    1992-01-01

    This second article in a two-part series on telecommunications in secondary schools examines strategies for better support of telecommunications implementation. Highlights include management strategies for CMC (computer-mediated communication) use; instructional strategies for online database inquiries; teacher support strategies; simulation…

  16. Numerical optimization of nitrogen application to rice. Part II. Field evaluations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Berge, H.F.M.; Qinghua, S.; Zhiming, Z.; Rao, K.S.; Riethoven, J.J.M.; Zhong, X.

    1997-01-01

    The MANAGE-N model (Part I; Ten Berge et al., this issue) was tested by comparing predicted and measured final crop biomass production for 48 rice cultivars under application of 0, 30–40, 60–80 and 90 to 120 kg urea-N per ha at Cuttack, India, during seven consecutive wet seasons. The overall coeffi

  17. Facilitating age diversity in organizations – part II: managing perceptions and interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hertel, Guido; van der Heijden, Beatrice; de Lange, Annet H.; Deller, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – Due to demographic changes in most industrialized countries, the average age of working people is continuously increasing, and the workforce is becoming more age-diverse. This review, together with the earlier JMP Special Issue “Facilitating age diversity in organizations – part I:

  18. Facilitating age diversity in organizations ‐ part II: managing perceptions and interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beatrice van der Heijden; Guido Hertel; Annet de Lange; Jürgen Deller

    2013-01-01

    Purpose ‐ Due to demographic changes in most industrialized countries, the average age of working people is continuously increasing, and the workforce is becoming more age-diverse. This review, together with the earlier JMP Special Issue "Facilitating age diversity in organizations ‐ part I:

  19. The Multi-Disciplinary Graduate Program in Educational Research. Final Report, Part II; Methodoloqical Trilogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarsfeld, Paul F., Ed.

    Part two of a seven-section, final report on the Multi-Disciplinary Graduate Program in Educational Research, this document contains discussions of quantification and reason analysis. Quantification is presented as a language consisting of sentences (graphs and tables), words, (classificatory instruments), and grammar (rules for constructing and…

  20. Marine sponges from Curaçao and other Caribbean localities Part II. Haplosclerida

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soest, van R.W.M.

    1980-01-01

    The present paper deals with the West Indian marine Haplosclerida incorporated in the collections of the Zoological Museum of Amsterdam. A total of 36 species is described and fully illustrated. Part of the material consists of the Duchassaing & Michelotti collection housed in Amsterdam; of all the

  1. Facilitating age diversity in organizations ‐ part II: managing perceptions and interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hertel, Guido; Heijden, Beatrice van der; Lange, Annet de; Deller, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Purpose ‐ Due to demographic changes in most industrialized countries, the average age of working people is continuously increasing, and the workforce is becoming more age-diverse. This review, together with the earlier JMP Special Issue "Facilitating age diversity in organizations ‐ part I: challen

  2. On the whole spectrum of Timoshenko beams. Part II: further applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazzani, Antonio; Stochino, Flavio; Turco, Emilio

    2016-04-01

    The problem of free vibrations of the Timoshenko beam model has been addressed in the first part of this paper. A careful analysis of the governing equations has shown that the vibration spectrum consists of two parts, separated by a transition frequency, which, depending on the applied boundary conditions, might be itself part of the spectrum. Here, as an extension, the case of a doubly clamped beam is considered. For both parts of the spectrum, the values of natural frequencies are computed and the expressions of eigenmodes are provided: this allows to acknowledge that the nature of vibration modes changes when moving across the transition frequency. This case is a meaningful example of more general ones, where the wave-numbers equation cannot be written in a factorized form and hence must be solved by general root-finding methods for nonlinear transcendental equations. These theoretical results can be used as further benchmarks for assessing the correctness of the numerical values provided by several numerical techniques, e.g. finite element models.

  3. The decision to extract: part II. Analysis of clinicians' stated reasons for extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumrind, S; Korn, E L; Boyd, R L; Maxwell, R

    1996-04-01

    In a recently reported study, the pretreatment records of each subject in a randomized clinical trial of 148 patients with Class I and Class II malocclusions presenting for orthodontic treatment were evaluated independently by five experienced clinicians (drawn from a panel of 14). The clinicians displayed a higher incidence of agreement with each other than had been expected with respect to the decision as to whether extraction was indicated in each specific case. To improve our understanding of how clinicians made their decisions on whether to extract or not, the records of a subset of 72 subjects randomly selected from the full sample of 148, have now been examined in greater detail. In 21 of these cases, all five clinicians decided to treat without extraction. Among the remaining 51 cases, there were 202 decisions to extract (31 unanimous decision cases and 20 split decision cases). The clinicians cited a total of 469 reasons to support these decisions. Crowding was cited as the first reason in 49% of decisions to extract, followed by incisor protrusion (14%), need for profile correction (8%), Class II severity (5%), and achievement of a stable result (5%). When all the reasons for extraction in each clinician's decision were considered as a group, crowding was cited in 73% of decisions, incisor protrusion in 35%, need for profile correction in 27%, Class II severity in 15% and posttreatment stability in 9%. Tooth size anomalies, midline deviations, reduced growth potential, severity of overjet, maintenance of existing profile, desire to close the bite, periodontal problems, and anticipation of poor cooperation accounted collectively for 12% of the first reasons and were mentioned in 54% of the decisions, implying that these considerations play a consequential, if secondary, role in the decision-making process. All other reasons taken together were mentioned in fewer than 20% of cases. In this sample at least, clinicians focused heavily on appearance

  4. Traumatic injuries of brachial plexus: present methods of surgical treatment Part II. Treatment policy for brachial plexus injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Novikov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The task of this paper is to familiarize practicing neurologists, neurosurgeons, traumatologists, and orthopedists with the current principles of diagnosis and treatment of different brachial plexus (BP injuries. Part I describes the anatomy of BP in detail, considers the main mechanisms of its injuries, and gives their current classification (Nervno-Myshechnye Bolezni (Neuromuscular Diseases 2012;4:19–27.Part II presents the author's approach to treatment of brachial plexus injuries according to the type of lesion and period of denervation: nonoperative methods; rehabilitation; preoperative management; indications for surgical treatment. The tactics and techniques of primary brachial plexus reconstructions are discussed in detail.

  5. On the Effects of Frequency Scaling over Capacity Scaling in Underwater Networks— Part II: Dense Network Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shin, Won-Yong; Lucani Rötter, Daniel Enrique; Medard, Muriel

    2013-01-01

    This is the second in a two-part series of papers on information-theoretic capacity scaling laws for an underwater acoustic network. Part II focuses on a dense network scenario, where nodes are deployed in a unit area. By deriving a cut-set upper bound on the capacity scaling, we first show...... that there exists either a bandwidth or power limitation, or both, according to the operating regimes (i.e., path-loss attenuation regimes), thus yielding the upper bound that follows three fundamentally different information transfer arguments. In addition, an achievability result based on the multi-hop (MH......) transmission is presented for dense networks. MH is shown to guarantee the order optimality under certain operating regimes. More specifically, it turns out that scaling the carrier frequency faster than or as is instrumental towards achieving the order optimality of the MH protocol....

  6. Steady flow in a model of the human carotid bifurcation. Part II--laser-Doppler anemometer measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharadvaj, B K; Mabon, R F; Giddens, D P

    1982-01-01

    The evidence for hypothesizing a relationship between hemodynamics and atherogenesis as well as the motivation for selecting the carotid bifurcation for extensive fluid dynamic studies has been discussed in Part I of this two-paper sequence. Part II deals with velocity measurements within the bifurcation model described by Fig. 1 and Table 1 of the previous paper. A plexiglass model conforming to the dimensions of the average carotid bifurcation was machined and employed for velocity measurements with a laser-Doppler anemometer (LDA). The objective of this phase of the study was to obtain quantitative information on the velocity field and to estimate levels and directions of wall shear stress in the region of the bifurcation.

  7. Analysis of the dynamic response in the railway vehicles to the track vertical irregularities. Part II: The numerical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dumitriu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the dynamic response of a two-bogie vehicle to the symmetrical and antisymmetrical excitations, due to bounce and pitch of the axles’ planes, derived from the track vertical irregularities. Part I introduced the theoretical model and the response functions of the vehicle, as well as the theoretical elements required for the analysis of the dynamic response of the vehicle to the track stochastic irregularities. Part II comprises the results of the numerical analysis of the vehicle dynamic response in three reference points of the carbody, based on which a series of properties of the vertical vibrations behaviour of the railway vehicle is pointed out at. The excitation modes that trigger the carbody response in its reference points are identified. Hence, the influence of the geometrical filtering effect of the excitation modes upon the ride quality and ride comfort is established.

  8. The effect of Reynolds number on inertial particle dynamics in isotropic turbulence. Part II: Simulations with gravitational effects

    CERN Document Server

    Ireland, Peter J; Collins, Lance R

    2015-01-01

    In Part I of this study, we analyzed the motion of inertial particles in isotropic turbulence in the absence of gravity using direct numerical simulation (DNS). Here, in Part II, we introduce gravity and study its effect over a wide range of flow Reynolds numbers, Froude numbers, and particle Stokes numbers. We see that gravity causes particles to sample the flow more uniformly and reduces the time particles can spend interacting with the underlying turbulence. We also find that gravity tends to increase inertial particle accelerations, and we introduce a model to explain that effect. We then analyze the particle relative velocities and radial distribution functions (RDFs), which are generally seen to be independent of Reynolds number for low and moderate Kolmogorov-scale Stokes numbers $St$. We see that gravity causes particle relative velocities to decrease, and that the relative velocities have higher scaling exponents with gravity. We observe that gravity has a non-trivial effect on clustering, acting to ...

  9. Integrating model of the Project Independence Evaluation System. Volume VI. Data documentation. Part II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, B J

    1979-02-01

    This documentation describes the PIES Integrating Model as it existed on January 1, 1978. This Volume VI of six volumes is data documentation, containing the standard table data used for the Administrator's Report at the beginning of 1978, along with the primary data sources and the office responsible. It also contains a copy of a PIES Integrating Model Report with a description of its content. Following an overview chapter, Chapter II, Supply and Demand Data Tables and Sources for the Mid-range Scenario for Target Years 1985 and 1990, data on demand, price, and elasticity; coal; imports; oil and gas; refineries; synthetics, shale, and solar/geothermal; transportation; and utilities are presented. The following data on alternate scenarios are discussed: low and high demand; low and high oil and gas supply; refinery and oil and gas data assuming a 5% annual increase in real world oil prices. Chapter IV describes the solution output obtained from an execution of PIES.

  10. Retrospective Study of Root Canal Configurations of Mandibular Third Molars Using CBCT- Part-II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somasundaram, Pavithra; Rawtiya, Manjusha; Wadhwani, Shefali; Uthappa, Roshan; Shivagange, Vinay; Khan, Sheeba

    2017-06-01

    Abnormal root canal morphologies of third molars can be diagnostically and technically challenging during root canal treatment. The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate the root and canal morphology of mandibular third molars in Central India population by using Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) analysis. CBCT images of 171 mandibular third molars were observed and data regarding number of roots, number of canals, Vertucci's classification in each root, prevalence of C shaped canal, gender and topographical relation of morphology in mandibular third molar was statistically evaluated. Majority of mandibular third molars had two roots (84.2%) and three canals (64.3%). Most mesial root had Vertucci Type II (55.6%) and Vertucci Type IV (22.2%), distal root had Type I canals (87.5%). Over all prevalence of C shaped canals in mandibular third molars was 9.4%. There was a high prevalence of two rooted mandibular third molars with three canals.

  11. Part I: In-situ fluorometric quantification of microalgal neutral lipids. Part II: Thermal degradation behavior of investment casting polymer patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongfang

    Research described in this dissertation covers two topics. Part-I is focused on in-situ determination of neutral lipid content of microalgae using a lipophilic fluorescent dye. The traditional Nile red stain-based method for detecting microalgal intracellular lipids is limited due to varying composition and thickness of rigid cell walls. In this study, the addition of dilute acid and heating of solution, were found to greatly enhance staining efficiency of Nile red for microalgal species evaluated. Oil-in-water (O/W) microemulsion stabilized by a non-ionic surfactant was employed as a pseudo-standard that mimics lipid-bearing microalgal cells suspended in water. The average neutral lipid contents determined were very close to the results obtained by traditional gravimetric method and solid phase extraction. Part II of the dissertation explores thermo-physico-chemical properties of polymeric pattern materials, including expanded polystyrene (EPS) foam, polyurethane foam, and epoxy stereolithography (SLA) patterns, that are used in investment casting. Density, elastic modulus, expansion coefficient, thermal degradation behavior, etc. were experimentally investigated for their effects on metal casting quality. The reduction in toxic hydrogen cyanide (HCN) generated during thermal decomposition of polyurethane pattern was achieved by increasing either oxidant level or residence time in heated zone. Thermal degradation kinetics of the pattern materials were examined with a thermogravimetric analysis and activation energies were determined by Kissinger and Flynn-Wall-Ozawa methods.

  12. Single layer of Ge quantum dots in HfO2 for floating gate memory capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepadatu, A M; Palade, C; Slav, A; Maraloiu, A V; Lazanu, S; Stoica, T; Logofatu, C; Teodorescu, V S; Ciurea, M L

    2017-04-28

    High performance trilayer memory capacitors with a floating gate of a single layer of Ge quantum dots (QDs) in HfO2 were fabricated using magnetron sputtering followed by rapid thermal annealing (RTA). The layer sequence of the capacitors is gate HfO 2/floating gate of single layer of Ge QDs in HfO 2/tunnel HfO 2/p-Si wafers. Both Ge and HfO2 are nanostructured by RTA at moderate temperatures of 600-700 °C. By nanostructuring at 600 °C, the formation of a single layer of well separated Ge QDs with diameters of 2-3 nm at a density of 4-5 × 10(15) m(-2) is achieved in the floating gate (intermediate layer). The Ge QDs inside the intermediate layer are arranged in a single layer and are separated from each other by HfO2 nanocrystals (NCs) about 8 nm in diameter with a tetragonal/orthorhombic structure. The Ge QDs in the single layer are located at the crossing of the HfO2 NCs boundaries. In the intermediate layer, besides Ge QDs, a part of the Ge atoms is segregated by RTA at the HfO2 NCs boundaries, while another part of the Ge atoms is present inside the HfO2 lattice stabilizing the tetragonal/orthorhombic structure. The fabricated capacitors show a memory window of 3.8 ± 0.5 V and a capacitance-time characteristic with 14% capacitance decay in the first 3000-4000 s followed by a very slow capacitance decrease extrapolated to 50% after 10 years. This high performance is mainly due to the floating gate of a single layer of well separated Ge QDs in HfO2, distanced from the Si substrate by the tunnel oxide layer with a precise thickness.

  13. Musculoskeletal disorders associated with HIV infection and AIDS. Part II: Non-infectious musculoskeletal conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tehranzadeh, Jamshid [Department of Radiological Sciences, University of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Department of Radiological Sciences, Orange, CA (United States); Ter-Oganesyan, Ramon R. [College of Medicine, University of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Steinbach, Lynne S. [Department of Radiological Sciences, University of California, San Francisco (United States)

    2004-06-01

    This section of a two-part series on musculoskeletal disorders associated with HIV infection and AIDS reviews the non-infectious musculoskeletal conditions. In the first part, the infectious conditions were reviewed. The non-infectious conditions include polymyositis, drug-induced myopathy, myositis ossificans, adhesive capsulitis, avascular necrosis, bone marrow abnormalities, and hypertrophic osteoarthropathy. Inflammatory and reactive arthropathies are more prevalent in HIV-positive individuals, and a separate section is dedicated to these conditions, including Reiter's syndrome, psoriatic arthritis, HIV-associated arthritis, painful articular syndrome, and acute symmetric polyarthritis. Lastly, we include a discussion of HIV-related neoplastic processes that affect the musculoskeletal system, namely Kaposi's sarcoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. (orig.)

  14. Visual servoing in medical robotics: a survey. Part II: tomographic imaging modalities--techniques and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizian, Mahdi; Najmaei, Nima; Khoshnam, Mahta; Patel, Rajni

    2015-03-01

    Intraoperative application of tomographic imaging techniques provides a means of visual servoing for objects beneath the surface of organs. The focus of this survey is on therapeutic and diagnostic medical applications where tomographic imaging is used in visual servoing. To this end, a comprehensive search of the electronic databases was completed for the period 2000-2013. Existing techniques and products are categorized and studied, based on the imaging modality and their medical applications. This part complements Part I of the survey, which covers visual servoing techniques using endoscopic imaging and direct vision. The main challenges in using visual servoing based on tomographic images have been identified. 'Supervised automation of medical robotics' is found to be a major trend in this field and ultrasound is the most commonly used tomographic modality for visual servoing. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Process analytical technology (PAT) for biopharmaceutical products: Part II. Concepts and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, E K; Shah, R B; Riley, B S; Park, J T; Brorson, K A; Rathore, A S

    2010-02-01

    Implementing real-time product quality control meets one or both of the key goals outlined in FDA's PAT guidance: "variability is managed by the process" and "product quality attributes can be accurately and reliably predicted over the design space established for materials used, process parameters, manufacturing, environmental, and other conditions." The first part of the paper presented an overview of PAT concepts and applications in the areas of upstream and downstream processing. In this second part, we present principles and case studies to illustrate implementation of PAT for drug product manufacturing, rapid microbiology, and chemometrics. We further present our thoughts on how PAT will be applied to biotech processes going forward. The role of PAT as an enabling component of the Quality by Design framework is highlighted. Integration of PAT with the principles stated in the ICH Q8, Q9, and Q10 guidance documents is also discussed.

  16. Communication in a Poisson Field of Interferers -- Part II: Channel Capacity and Interference Spectrum

    CERN Document Server

    Pinto, Pedro C

    2010-01-01

    In Part I of this paper, we presented a mathematical model for communication subject to both network interference and noise, where the interferers are scattered according to a spatial Poisson process, and are operating asynchronously in a wireless environment subject to path loss, shadowing, and multipath fading. We determined the distribution of the aggregate interference and the error performance of the link. In this second part, we characterize the capacity of the link subject to both network interference and noise. Then, we put forth the concept of spectral outage probability (SOP), a new characterization of the aggregate radio-frequency emission generated by communicating nodes in a wireless network. We present some applications of the SOP, namely the establishment of spectral regulations and the design of covert military networks. The proposed framework captures all the essential physical parameters that affect the aggregate network emission, yet is simple enough to provide insights that may be of value...

  17. Information theory in systems biology. Part II: protein-protein interaction and signaling networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavian, Zaynab; Díaz, José; Masoudi-Nejad, Ali

    2016-03-01

    By the development of information theory in 1948 by Claude Shannon to address the problems in the field of data storage and data communication over (noisy) communication channel, it has been successfully applied in many other research areas such as bioinformatics and systems biology. In this manuscript, we attempt to review some of the existing literatures in systems biology, which are using the information theory measures in their calculations. As we have reviewed most of the existing information-theoretic methods in gene regulatory and metabolic networks in the first part of the review, so in the second part of our study, the application of information theory in other types of biological networks including protein-protein interaction and signaling networks will be surveyed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Nanotechnology and its Relationship to Interventional Radiology. Part II: Drug Delivery, Thermotherapy, and Vascular Intervention.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Power, Sarah

    2010-09-16

    Nanotechnology can be defined as the design, creation, and manipulation of structures on the nanometer scale. This two-part review is intended to acquaint the interventionalist with the field of nanotechnology, and provide an overview of potential applications, while highlighting advances relevant to interventional radiology. Part 2 of the article concentrates on drug delivery, thermotherapy, and vascular intervention. In oncology, advances in drug delivery allow for improved efficacy, decreased toxicity, and greater potential for targeted therapy. Magnetic nanoparticles show potential for use in thermotherapy treatments of various tumours, and the effectiveness of radiofrequency ablation can be enhanced with nanoparticle chemotherapy agents. In vascular intervention, much work is focused on prevention of restenosis through developments in stent technology and systems for localised drug delivery to vessel walls. Further areas of interest include applications for thrombolysis and haemostasis.

  19. Nanotechnology and its relationship to interventional radiology. Part II: Drug Delivery, Thermotherapy, and Vascular Intervention.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Power, Sarah

    2012-02-01

    Nanotechnology can be defined as the design, creation, and manipulation of structures on the nanometer scale. This two-part review is intended to acquaint the interventionalist with the field of nanotechnology, and provide an overview of potential applications, while highlighting advances relevant to interventional radiology. Part 2 of the article concentrates on drug delivery, thermotherapy, and vascular intervention. In oncology, advances in drug delivery allow for improved efficacy, decreased toxicity, and greater potential for targeted therapy. Magnetic nanoparticles show potential for use in thermotherapy treatments of various tumours, and the effectiveness of radiofrequency ablation can be enhanced with nanoparticle chemotherapy agents. In vascular intervention, much work is focused on prevention of restenosis through developments in stent technology and systems for localised drug delivery to vessel walls. Further areas of interest include applications for thrombolysis and haemostasis.

  20. Protective clothing for pesticide operators: part II--data analysis of fabric characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Anugrah; Schiffelbein, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Development of objective measurements is an important requirement for establishing performance-based standards for protective clothing used while handling pesticide. This study, the second in a two-part series, reports on the work completed to evaluate the performance of approximately 100 fabrics that are either used or have the potential to be used for garments worn by operators while applying pesticides. Part I, published separately, provides an overview of these issues and describes research undertaken to select a test chemical for use in subsequent studies. The goals of this study were first to develop a comprehensive approach to evaluate the performance of garments currently being used by pesticide operators, and second, to use the laboratory and field data in the development of performance specifications.

  1. Probability calculus for quantitative HREM. Part II: entropy and likelihood concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möbus, G

    2000-12-01

    The technique of extracting atomic coordinates from HREM images by R-factor refinement via iterative simulation and global optimisation is described in the context of probability density estimations for unknown parameters. In the second part of this two-part paper we discuss in comparison maximum likelihood and maximum entropy techniques with respect to their suitability of application within HREM. We outline practical difficulties of likelihood estimation and present a synthesis of two point-cloud techniques as a recommendable solution. This R-factor refinement with independent Monte-Carlo error calibration is a highly versatile method which allows adaptation to the special needs of HREM. Unlike simple text-book estimation methods, there is no requirement here on the noise being additive, uncorrelated, or Gaussian. It also becomes possible to account for a subset of systematic errors.

  2. 'Forms of energy', an intermediary language on the road to thermodynamics? Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaper, Wolter H.; Goedhart, Martin J.

    2002-02-01

    In secondary education, 'energy' is often introduced by distinguishing different 'forms of energy' for different phenomena. Of these forms of energy, only kinetic and potential energy are accepted in current science. The question has been raised whether 'forms of energy' should be eliminated from secondary school science curricula. As a contribution to this discussion we have analysed 'forms of energy' language for inconsistencies and limitations of validity in Part I. In this second part, results are presented of two teaching experiments at university level, each involving five students. In these experiments attempts are made to build on students 'forms of energy' language as well as to challenge its limitations. Details of student and teacher reasoning are presented. The conclusion is drawn that 'forms of energy' language must be reformulated before it can be evaluated with reference to experience. A reformulation in terms of 'value' (cf. Scheler 1997) proved to be productive.

  3. HIERARCHICAL METHODOLOGY FOR MODELING HYDROGEN STORAGE SYSTEMS PART II: DETAILED MODELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, B; Donald L. Anton, D

    2008-12-22

    There is significant interest in hydrogen storage systems that employ a media which either adsorbs, absorbs or reacts with hydrogen in a nearly reversible manner. In any media based storage system the rate of hydrogen uptake and the system capacity is governed by a number of complex, coupled physical processes. To design and evaluate such storage systems, a comprehensive methodology was developed, consisting of a hierarchical sequence of models that range from scoping calculations to numerical models that couple reaction kinetics with heat and mass transfer for both the hydrogen charging and discharging phases. The scoping models were presented in Part I [1] of this two part series of papers. This paper describes a detailed numerical model that integrates the phenomena occurring when hydrogen is charged and discharged. A specific application of the methodology is made to a system using NaAlH{sub 4} as the storage media.

  4. Control of Heat-Resistant Steel Carburized Layer Structure. Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenov, M. Yu.

    2013-09-01

    In the first part of the article, published in the previous issue of this journal, on the basis of studying features of the process a physical and mathematical model is presented of carbide formation during heat-resistant steel vacuum carburizing based on the example of VKS-5. In the second part of this article on the basis of analyzing the calculation model physical features are presented for formation of cementite type carbide phase taking account of steel VKS-5 alloying with chromium and nickel, and also temperature. Simultaneously, features of special molybdenum, tungsten, vanadium and niobium carbide formation are considered. The expediency of increasing chromium content in a new generation of heat-resistant steels alloyed with nickel is substantiated.

  5. [Inner Ear Hearing Loss Part II: Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss, Therapeutic Options].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, Gerhard

    2016-07-01

    The great majority of hearing disorders generates from pathologies in the inner ear, mainly the outer hair cells, as mentioned in the first part of this review. Very often, however, hearing loss appears suddenly and even without external causes like noise exposure. This sudden hearing loss is mostly unilateral, recovers very often spontaneously and should be treated, if persisting. Only in this acute stage there are therapeutic options available. If the inner ear hearing loss is chronic there is no curative therapy, an effective management of the hearing disorder is only possible through rehabilitation. This is due to the fact, that hair cells of all mammals, incl. humans, have no regenerative capacity and neither pharmaceutic agents nor other means can induce regeneration and recovery of hair cells. Even a gen-therapy is not available yet. In the second part of this review the main focus lies in sudden hearing loss and general therapeutic options for inner ear hearing loss.

  6. Autonomy, consent and responsibility. Part II. Informed consent in medical care and in the law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellado, J M

    Legal recognition of patient's rights aspired to change clinical relationship and medical lex artis. However, its implementation has been hampered by the scarcity of resources and the abundance of regulations. For several years, autonomy, consent, and responsibility have formed one of the backbones of the medical profession. However, they have sparked controversy and professional discomfort. In the first part of this article, we examine the conceptual and regulatory limitations of the principle of autonomy as the basis of informed consent. We approach the subject from philosophical, historical, legal, bioethical, deontological, and professional standpoints. In the second part, we cover the viability of informed consent in health care and its relationship with legal responsibility. Copyright © 2016 SERAM. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Fever of Unknown Origin in Children: Optimization of Diagnostic Search (Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.A. Bezkaravayny

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the second part of the article according to the previously developed scheme we continued description of the most common in pediatric practice systemic inflammatory connective tissue diseases and diseases of the so-called mixed group, which initially may be undiagnosed and masked as fever of unknown origin. We suggested a phased approach in the implementation of the diagnostic search in fever of unknown origin.

  8. Surveys of complementary and alternative medicine: Part II. Use of alternative and complementary cancer therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparber, A; Wootton, J C

    2001-06-01

    The second part of this series on surveys of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in the United States provides a "point-of-information" summary of the studies on patients with cancer and their use of CAM therapies. Surveys of patients with cancer were the precursors of the recent wave of studies on CAM prevalence and use. Three tables summarize the findings from a total of 18 surveys categorized by Childhood Cancer, Adult Cancer, and Breast Cancer studies.

  9. A Review of the Prevention and Treatment of Hypertrophic Scars: Part II. Experimental Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin Karagoz

    2013-02-01

    We analyzed the researches for new hopeful treatment modalities as well as the substances that are important to wound healing in the second part of this extensive review. The researchers have tried to find a way to scarless wound healing, and it seems likely that new therapies will be available within the next few years. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2013; 2(1.000: 49-58

  10. A survey on control schemes for distributed solar collector fields. Part II: Advanced control approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camacho, E.F.; Rubio, F.R. [Universidad de Sevilla, Escuela Superior de Ingenieros, Departamento de Ingenieria de Sistemas y Automatica, Camino de Los Descubrimientos s/n, E-41092 Sevilla (Spain); Berenguel, M. [Universidad de Almeria, Departamento de Lenguajes y Computacion, Area de Ingenieria de Sistemas y Automatica, Carretera Sacramento s/n, E-04120 La Canada, Almeria (Spain); Valenzuela, L. [Plataforma Solar de Almeria - CIEMAT, Carretera Senes s/n, P.O. Box 22, E-04200 Tabernas (Almeria) (Spain)

    2007-10-15

    This article presents a survey of the different advanced automatic control techniques that have been applied to control the outlet temperature of solar plants with distributed collectors during the last 25 years. A classification of the modeling and control approaches described in the first part of this survey is used to explain the main features of each strategy. The treated strategies range from classical advanced control strategies to those with few industrial applications. (author)

  11. Treatment of the hepatorenal syndrome and hyponatremia in cirrhosis - part II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Aagaard, Niels Kristian; Schmidt, Lars Ebbe

    2012-01-01

    National guidelines for treatment of ascites, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, hepatorenal syndrome, and hyponatremia have been approved by the Danish Society of Gastroenterology and Hepatology. Ascites develops in approximately 60% of patients with cirrhosis during a 10 year period and is freq...... and is frequently associated with complications that determine the course of the disease and the prognosis. These evidence-based guidelines are divided in two parts and consider definitions, pathophysiology, diagnostic aspects, treatment, and prophylaxis....

  12. Managing Returnable Containers Logistics - A Case Study Part II - Improving Visibility through Using Automatic Identification Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Gretchen Meiser; Maleki, Reza A.

    2011-01-01

    This case study is the result of a project conducted on behalf of a company that uses its own returnable containers to transport purchased parts from suppliers. The objective of this project was to develop a proposal to enable the company to more effectively track and manage its returnable containers. The research activities in support of this project included (1) the analysis and documentation of the physical flow and the information flow associated with the container...

  13. THE FOURIER SERIES USED IN ANALYSE OF THE CAM MECHANISMS FOR THE SHOEMAKING MACHINES (PART II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IOVAN-DRAGOMIR Alina

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A computer assisted procedure for the cinematic analysis of the mechanism of a cam is essential in making a certain type of research operations. They mainly refer to the optimization of operations running on specific machinery, or to the re-design of the mechanism, in order to make the mechanism digital. This analysis seems even more important, when we consider the fact that most of the machines used in shoe industry nowadays use a cam mechanism. The paper is devided in two parts. In first part, it is elaborated a method of finding of a function G(x, belonging to a Fourier series, which approximates the numerical values {xi, yi}, with the biggest accuracy. Finding the function that approximates the most accurately the data set, for the position parameters of the follower S(ω, ( will lead to a complete kinematic and dynamic analysis of the cam mechanism. These values repeat with T = 2π period. In second part, the method is tasted using MatCAD work sessions which allow a numerical and graphical analysis of the mathematical relations involved, in order to test the reability of the method. The set of experimental data are resulted after measuring a cam mechanism of a machine used in shoemaking.

  14. Infections in hemodialysis: a concise review. Part II: blood transmitted viral infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eleftheriadis, T; Liakopoulos, V; Leivaditis, K; Antoniadi, G; Stefanidis, I

    2011-01-01

    Hemodialysis (HD) patients are particularly predisposed to infections. It seems that the HD procedure per se as well as disturbances in both innate and adaptive immunity significantly contribute to this susceptibility. Infections are the major cause of morbidity and the second cause of death following cardiovascular events in HD patients. Episodes of bacteremia and pneumonia account for the majority of severe infections in this population. In addition to these bacterial infections another common problem in HD units is the blood transmitted viral infections, particularly infections caused by hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus and Human immunodeficiency virus. A number of safety concerns exist for limiting the spread of these viral infections among HD patients and the staff of the unit. The aim of the present review is to present in a concise albeit practical form the difficult aspect of infections in HD. For practical reasons the review is separated in two parts. The previous first part covered bacteremia and respiratory infections, while the present second part covers blood transmitted viral infections. PMID:22110292

  15. The motion planning problem and exponential stabilization of a heavy chain. Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Grabowski

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This is the second part of paper [P. Grabowski, The motion planning problem and exponential stabilization of a heavy chain. Part I, to appear in International Journal of Control], where a model of a heavy chain system with a punctual load (tip mass in the form of a system of partial differential equations was interpreted as an abstract semigroup system and then analysed on a Hilbert state space. In particular, in [P. Grabowski, The motion planning problem and exponential stabilization of a heavy chain. Part I, to appear in International Journal of Control] we have formulated the problem of exponential stabilizability of a heavy chain in a given position. It was also shown that the exponential stability can be achieved by applying a stabilizer of the colocated-type. The proof used the method of Lyapunov functionals. In the present paper, we give other two proofs of the exponential stability, which provides an additional intrinsic insight into the exponential stabilizability mechanism. The first proof makes use of some spectral properties of the system. In the second proof, we employ some relationships between exponential stability and exact observability.

  16. PIO I-II tendencies case study. Part 1. Mathematical modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian TOADER

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, a study is performed from the perspective of giving a method to reduce the conservatism of the well known PIO (Pilot-Induced Oscillation criteria in predicting the susceptibility of an aircraft to this very harmful phenomenon. There are three interacting components of a PIO – the pilot, the vehicle, and the trigger (in fact, the hazard. The study, conceived in two parts, aims to underline the importance of human pilot model involved in analysis. In this first part, it is shown, following classical sources, how the LQG theory of control and estimation is used to obtain a complex model of human pilot. The approach is based on the argument, experimentally proved, that the human behaves “optimally” in some sense, subject to his inherent psychophysical limitations. The validation of such model is accomplished based on the experimental model of a VTOL-type aircraft. Then, the procedure of inserting typical saturation nonlinearities in the open loop transfer function is presented. A second part of the paper will illustrate PIO tendencies evaluation by means of a grapho-analytic method.

  17. Anti-Hypertensive Herbs and their Mechanisms of Action: Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Akhtar eAnwar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Traditional medicine has a history extending back to thousands of years, and during the intervening time, man has identified the healing properties of a very broad range of plants. Globally, the use of herbal therapies to treat and manage cardiovascular disease (CVD is on the rise. This is the second part of our comprehensive review where we discuss the mechanisms of plants and herbs used for the treatment and management of high blood pressure. Similar to the first part, PubMed and ScienceDirect databases were utilized, and the following keywords and phrases were used as inclusion criteria: hypertension, high blood pressure, herbal medicine, complementary and alternative medicine, endothelial cells, nitric oxide, vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC proliferation, hydrogen sulfide, nuclear factor kappa-B, oxidative stress and epigenetics/epigenomics. Each of the aforementioned keywords was co-joined with plant or herb in question, and where possible with its constituent molecule(s. This part deals in particular with plants that are used, albeit less frequently, for the treatment and management of hypertension. We then discuss the interplay between herbs/prescription drugs and herbs/epigenetics in the context of this disease. The review then concludes with a recommendation for more rigorous, well-developed clinical trials to concretely determine the beneficial impact of herbs and plants on hypertension and a disease-free living.

  18. Polymer electrolyte fuel cell with H{sub 2} or methanol fuel - Part II; Polymerelektrolyt Brennstoffzellen mit H{sub 2} oder Methanol als Brennstoff - Teil II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scherer, G. S.

    2006-03-15

    This report describes two topics related to the development of polymer electrolyte fuel cells. The first part deals with specific materials science oriented aspects of this technology and progress achieved within this project, namely (i) the fundamental electrochemistry of platinum in contact to a solid electrolyte, including the aspect of reducing the platinum content to allow a low cost solution for membrane-electrode-assemblies and the characterization of ageing processes, and (ii) the development of platinum-free or platinum-low catalysts on the basis of oxides for the oxygen reduction reaction. (iii) The development of low cost proton-conducting polymer membranes on the basis of the radiation grafting process, followed by sulfonation to introduce proton conductivity. The second part of the report describes the progress of the development of in situ characterization methods for polymer electrolyte fuel cells. Neutron radiography as method to visualize and quantify liquid water in polymer electrolyte fuel cells was further improved. For the first time, results of a combination of neutron radiography and locally resolved impedance measurements could be achieved and are presented. Further, for the first time a pseudo-reference electrode is introduced into a polymer electrolyte fuel cell, which allows single electrode impedances of anode and cathode. Kinetic data for the hydrogen oxidation and oxygen reduction reaction could be evaluated, respectively. (author)

  19. A thirty second isomer in Hf-171

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Campbell, P; Billowes, J; Cochrane, ECA; Cooke, JL; Cooper, TG; Dendooven, P; Evans, DE; Grant, IS; Griffith, JAR; Honkanen, A; Huhta, M; Oinonen, M; Pearson, MR; Penttila, H; Persson, B.L.; Richardson, DS; Tungate, G; Wheeler, PD; Zybert, L; Aysto, J

    1997-01-01

    An isomer has been detected in Hf-171 with a half-life of T-1/2 = 29.5(9) s. The state was populated in the Yb-170(alpha,3n)Hf-171m reaction at a beam energy of E-alpha = 50 MeV in an on-line ion guide isotope separator. The isomeric Hf-17lm(+) beam was extracted from the ion guide, mass-analysed an

  20. The three-dimensional easy morphological (3-DEMO classification of scoliosis, part II: repeatability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negrini Stefano

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the first part of this study we proposed a new classification approach for spinal deformities (3-DEMO. To be valid, a classification needs to overcome the repeatability issue which is inherent both in the used classificatory system and in the measured object. Aim The aim of this study is to present procedures and results obtained within the repeatability of 3-DEMO classification for scoliosis analysis. Method We acquired the data of 100 pathological and 20 normal spines with an optoelectronic system (AUSCAN and of two dummies with simulated spine deformity. On the obtained 3D reconstruction of the spine, we considered the coronal view with a spinal reference system (Top View and its three related parameters, defined in part I, constituting the 3-DEMO classification. We calculated the repeatability coefficient for the subjects (two acquisitions for each subject with a time interval of 26 ± 12 sec, whereas we evaluated the system measurement error calculating the standard deviation of 50 consecutive acquisitions for each dummy. Results Comparing the results of the two types of acquisition, it emerged that the main part of parameters variability was due to postural adjustments The proportion of agreement for the 3-DEMO parameters gives a k value above 0.8; almost 10% of patients changed classification because of postural adjustments, but none had a "mirror-like" variation nor a change in more of one parameter at a time Repeatability coefficient is lower than the previously calculated normative limits. Discussion The 3-DEMO classification has a high repeatability when evaluated with an optoelectronic system such as the AUSCAN System, whose systematic error is very low. This means that the implied physiological phenomenon is consistent and overcomes the postural variability inherent in the measured object (normal or pathological subject.

  1. Investigation of novel propulsion systems – the exoskeletal engine concept. Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian JUHASZ

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The exoskeletal engine represents a relatively new concept in the world of propulsion systems. It is a drum-rotor engine concept in which conventionally heavy shafts and discs are eliminated and replaced by rotating casings that support the blades in span wise compression. Thus the rotating blades are in compression rather than in tension. The resulting open channel at the engine centerline has immense potential for jet noise reduction and can also accommodate an inner combined-cycle thruster such as a ramjet. This is the second part of the article.

  2. Periodontal research: Basics and beyond - Part II (ethical issues, sampling, outcome measures and bias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haritha Avula

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A good research beginning refers to formulating a well-defined research question, developing a hypothesis and choosing an appropriate study design. The first part of the review series has discussed these issues in depth and this paper intends to throw light on other issues pertaining to the implementation of research. These include the various ethical norms and standards in human experimentation, the eligibility criteria for the participants, sampling methods and sample size calculation, various outcome measures that need to be defined and the biases that can be introduced in research.

  3. Communicating in organizations, part II: Tips for leaders when starting a team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harolds, Jay A

    2012-04-01

    Team projects are an important part of the innovative work done in large organizations. Individuals from various portions of the department or organization are chosen who have different areas of expertise, backgrounds, and personalities. In a properly functioning team, the group decisions made will be superior to those made by any individual on the team. There are many different conversations that are necessary during a team project to make sure that all goes optimally, and this article will focus on communication tips for leaders when starting a team.

  4. Cavity Quantum Electrodynamics in a wide aperture spherical resonator. Part II Vacuum-field atom trapping

    CERN Document Server

    Daul, J M; Daul, Jean-Marc; Grangier, Philippe

    2003-01-01

    We consider the situation where a two-level atom is placed in the vicinity of the center of a spherical cavity with a large numerical aperture. The vacuum field at the center of the cavity is actually equivalent to the one obtained in a microcavity, and both the dissipative and the reactive parts of the atom's spontaneous emission are significantly modified. Using an explicit calculation of the spatial dependence of the radiative relaxation rate and of the associated level shift, we show that for a weakly excitating light field, the atom can be attracted to the center of the cavity by vacuum-induced light shifts.

  5. Cutaneous involvement in the deep mycoses: A review. Part II -Systemic mycoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco-Zuber, J E; Navarrete-Dechent, C; Bonifaz, A; Fich, F; Vial-Letelier, V; Berroeta-Mauriziano, D

    2016-12-01

    In the second part of this review on the deep mycoses, we describe the main systemic mycoses-paracoccidioidomycosis, coccidioidomycosis, histoplasmosis, mucormycosis, and cryptococcosis-and their cutaneous manifestations. Skin lesions are only occasionally seen in deep systemic mycoses either directly, when the skin is the route of entry for the fungus, or indirectly, when the infection has spread from a deeper focus. These cutaneous signs are often the only clue to the presence of a potentially fatal infection. As with the subcutaneous mycoses, early diagnosis and treatment is important, but in this case, even more so.

  6. Coupled Vibration of Unshrouded Centrifugal Compressor Impellers. Part II: Computation of Vibration Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Hagelstein

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The increased use of small gas turbines and turbochargers in different technical fields has led to the development of highly-loaded centrifugal compressors with extremely thin blades. Due to high rotational speed and the correspondingly high centrifugal loads, the shape of the impeller hub must also be optimized. This has led to a reduction of the thickness of the impeller disc in the outlet region. The thin parts of the impeller are very sensitive and may be damaged by the excitation of dangerous blade vibrations.

  7. Adaptive search techniques for problems in vehicle routing, part II: A numerical comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kritzinger Stefanie

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Research in the field of vehicle routing often focused on finding new ideas and concepts in the development of fast and efficient algorithms for an improved solution process. Early studies introduce static tailor-made strategies, but trends show that algorithms with generic adaptive policies - which emerged in the past years - are more efficient to solve complex vehicle routing problems. In this first part of the survey, we present an overview of recent literature dealing with adaptive or guided search techniques for problems in vehicle routing.

  8. At-home bleaching: pulpal effects and tooth sensitivity issues, part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, Edward J

    2006-01-01

    The most common side effect of at-home bleaching is transient tooth sensitivity. Despite its high frequency, this phenomenon is not well understood. This is the second of a two-part Critical Appraisal on tooth sensitivity associated with at-home bleaching. The first installment reviewed articles that focus on the incidence of sensitivity, long-term effects of bleaching, and related pulpal concerns. This installment also covers pulpal concerns, as well as the prevention of sensitivity during at-home whitening treatments.

  9. Nutrition of preterm infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia after hospital discharge – Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hercília Guimarães

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Preterm infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia often present with severe growth failure at discharge from the neonatal intensive care unit. Catch-up growth accelerates after hospital discharge, nevertheless, feeding problems may need a specialized approach. Following the revision of the scientific literature on the most relevant aspects on nutrition of patients with bronchopulmonary dysplasia after hospital discharge in Part I, in this article the Authors present and discuss important issues such as catch up growth, swallow dysfunction, gastroesophageal reflux, and how to improve feeding competences.

  10. Policy perspectives of major nursing organizations, part II. Interview by David M Keepnews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Pamela; Corcoran, Ruth; Dickenson-Hazard, Nancy; Davis-Lewis, Bettye; Gorham, Millicent

    2005-08-01

    Understanding the roles of interest groups is an important element of examining policy change. There are a number of interest groups that affect the policy environment for nursing and that shape the profession's impact on health policy. This article, the second of a two-part series, presents interviews with executive directors and chief executive officers of major nursing organizations about their organizations' policy priorities and policy-related activities. Included in this article are the American Organization of Nurse Executives, the National League for Nursing, Sigma Theta Tau International, and the National Black Nurses Association.

  11. Investigation of mixed mode - I/II fracture problems - Part 1: computational and experimental analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Demir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, to investigate and understand the nature of fracture behavior properly under in-plane mixed mode (Mode-I/II loading, three-dimensional fracture analyses and experiments of compact tension shear (CTS specimen are performed under different mixed mode loading conditions. Al 7075-T651 aluminum machined from rolled plates in the L-T rolling direction (crack plane is perpendicular to the rolling direction is used in this study. Results from finite element analyses and fracture loads, crack deflection angles obtained from the experiments are presented. To simulate the real conditions in the experiments, contacts are defined between the contact surfaces of the loading devices, specimen and loading pins. Modeling, meshing and the solution of the problem involving the whole assembly, i.e., loading devices, pins and the specimen, with contact mechanics are performed using ANSYSTM. Then, CTS specimen is analyzed separately using a submodeling approach, in which three-dimensional enriched finite elements are used in FRAC3D solver to calculate the resulting stress intensity factors along the crack front. Having performed the detailed computational and experimental studies on the CTS specimen, a new specimen type together with its loading device is also proposed that has smaller dimensions compared to the regular CTS specimen. Experimental results for the new specimen are also presented.

  12. Inadvertent interchange of electrocardiogram limb lead connections: analysis of predicted consequences part II: double interconnection errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlands, Derek J

    2012-01-01

    Limb lead connection errors are known to be very common in clinical practice. The consequences of all possible single limb lead interconnection errors were analyzed in an earlier publication (J Electrocardiology 2008;41:84-90). With a single limb lead interconnection error, 6 combinations of limb lead connections are possible. Two of these combinations give rise to records in which the limb lead morphology is uninterpretable. Such records show a "flat line" in lead II or III. Three of the errors give rise to records that are fully interpretable once the specific interconnection error has been identified (although one of the errors cannot reliably be recognized in the absence of a previous record for comparison). One of the errors produces no change in the electrocardiogram recording. In all cases, the precordial leads are interpretable, although there are very minor changes in the voltages. This communication predicts the changes in limb lead appearances consequent upon all possible double limb lead interchanges and illustrates these with records electively taken with such double interconnection errors. There are only 3 possible double limb lead interconnection errors. In 2 of the possible combinations, interpretation of the limb leads is impossible, and each of these errors gives rise to a flat line in lead I. In the third combination, the record is fully interpretable once the abnormality has been identified. In all 3 types, the precordial leads are interpretable, although there are very minor changes in the voltages.

  13. Automatic Virtual Entity Simulation of Conceptual Design Results-Part II:Symbolic Scheme Simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yu-tong; WANG Yu-xin

    2014-01-01

    The development of new products of high quality, low unit cost, and short lead time to market are the key elements required for any enterprise to obtain a competitive advantage. This part of the paper presents a methodology to automatically simulate the conceptual design results in the virtual entity form. To the identified basic mechanisms, their kinematic analysis is carried out by matching basic Barranov trusses, and their virtual entities are modeled based on feature-based technique and encapsulated as one design object. Based on the structures of the basic mechanisms and their connections, a space layout to the mechanical system corresponding to the symbolic scheme is then fulfilled. With the preset-assembly approach, all parts in the mechanical system are put onto proper positions where the constraint equations are met according to the space layout results. In this way, the virtual entity assembly model of the mechanical system relative to the symbolic scheme is set up. The approach presented in this paper can not only obtain innovative conceptual conceptual design results, but also can evaluate their performances under 3-D enviroment efficently.

  14. [Pain sensitivity changes in schizophrenic patients and animal models--Part II].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuboly, Gábor; Horváth, Gyöngyi

    2009-05-30

    Diminished pain sensitivity in schizophrenic patients has been reported for more than 50 years, however little is known about the substrate and the basic mechanisms underlying altered pain sensitivity in this disease, therefore, relevant animal models are of decisive importance in the study of psychiatric diseases. The authors report a review consisting of two parts focusing on pain sensitivity changes in patients and in different animal models which proved the eligibility as schizophrenia models and pain sensitivities have also been determined. The second part of this article analyzed the results regarding knock out mice as schizophrenia models. These data proved that several genes have significant role in the pathomechanism of schizophrenia; therefore deficiency in one gene does not produce animals showing all signs of this disease. As regards the pain sensitivity changes, only a few data are available with controversial results. Data originated from complex chronic animal models indicate that they might be more adequate methods for studying the mechanisms of schizophrenia including the pain-sensitivity changes.

  15. A Review of CAM for Procedural Pain in Infancy: Part II. Other Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennie C. I. Tsao

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is the second in a two-part series reviewing the empirical evidence for complementary and alternative medicine (CAM approaches for the management of pain related to medical procedures in infants up to 6 weeks of age. Part I of this series investigated the effects of sucrose with or without non-nutritive sucking (NNS. The present article examines other CAM interventions for procedural pain including music-based interventions, olfactory stimulation, kangaroo care and swaddling. Computerized databases were searched for relevant studies including prior reviews and primary trials. Preliminary support was revealed for the analgesic effects of the CAM modalities reviewed. However, the overall quality of the evidence for these approaches remains relatively weak. Additional well-designed trials incorporating rigorous methodology are required. Such investigations will assist in the development of evidence-based guidelines on the use of CAM interventions either alone or in concert with conventional approaches to provide safe, reliable analgesia for infant procedural pain.

  16. Fermi Bubbles under Dark Matter Scrutiny Part II: Particle Physics Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Wei-Chih; Xue, Wei

    2013-01-01

    The analysis of the gamma-ray photons collected by the Fermi Large Area Telescope reveals, after removal of astrophysical background, the existence of an excess towards the Galactic center. This excess peaks around few GeV, and its origin is compatible with the gamma-ray flux originating from Dark Matter annihilation. In this work we take a closer look on this interpretation; we investigate which kind of Dark Matter, and which type of interactions with the Standard Model fields are able to reproduce the observed signal. The structure of the paper is twofold. In the first part, we follow an effective field theory approach considering both fermionic and scalar Dark Matter. The computation of the relic density, the constraint imposed from the null result of direct searches, and the reliability of the effective field theory description allow us to single out only two viable dim-6 operators in the case of fermionic Dark Matter. In the second part, we analyze some concrete models. In particular, we find that the sc...

  17. Fermi Bubbles under Dark Matter Scrutiny Part II: Particle Physics Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Wei-Chih; Urbano, Alfredo [SISSA, via Bonomea 265, Trieste, I-34136 (Italy); Xue, Wei, E-mail: whuang@sissa.it, E-mail: alfredo.urbano@sissa.it, E-mail: wxue@sissa.it [INFN, sezione di Trieste, Trieste, I-34136 (Italy)

    2014-04-01

    The analysis of the gamma-ray photons collected by the Fermi Large Area Telescope reveals, after removal of astrophysical background, the existence of an excess towards the Galactic center. This excess peaks around few GeV, and its origin is compatible with the gamma-ray flux originating from Dark Matter annihilation. In this work we take a closer look on this interpretation; we investigate which kind of Dark Matter, and which type of interactions with the Standard Model fields are able to reproduce the observed signal. The structure of the paper is twofold. In the first part, we follow an effective field theory approach considering both fermionic and scalar Dark Matter. The computation of the relic density, the constraint imposed from the null result of direct searches, and the reliability of the effective field theory description allow us to single out only two viable dim-6 operators in the case of fermionic Dark Matter. In the second part, we analyze some concrete models. In particular, we find that the scalar Higgs portal can provide a simple, concrete and realistic scenario able to explain the GeV excess under scrutiny.

  18. [Stress prevention programs--strategies, techniques, effectiveness. Part II. Organizational activities to prevent stress at work].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Małgorzata, W; Merecz, Dorota; Drabek, Marcin

    2010-01-01

    This is the second part of the publication on approaches to occupational stress prevention and a state of the art in different European countries. In this part, stress prevention within an organization is described and discussed. Although there is no one way of tackling stress at work, some recommendations can be formulated to increase the effectiveness of such interventions. The effective stress reducing programs should be aimed both at changes in the organization itself and empowerment of employees' coping with stress resources. It is also important to take the advantage of wide spectrum of methods and techniques (e.g., work redesign, participation, team work, cognitive behavioral methods, relaxation, etc.) remembering that one size does not fit all. The intervention should be carefully planned and adopted to the various branches, an individual organization or department and should be preceded by the identification of stress risks and risk groups. To have the stress prevention program successfully introduced one should also consider factors which may influence (positively or negatively) the process of program implementation.

  19. Periodic Fever: A Review on Clinical, Management and Guideline for Iranian Patients - Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadinejad, Zahra; Mansouri, Sedigeh; Ziaee, Vahid; Aghighi, Yahya; Moradinejad, Mohammad-Hassan; Fereshteh-Mehregan, Fatemeh

    2014-06-01

    Periodic fever syndromes are a group of diseases characterized by episodes of fever with healthy intervals between febrile episodes. In the first part of this paper, we presented a guideline for approaching patients with periodic fever and reviewed two common disorders with periodic fever in Iranian patients including familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) and periodic fever syndromes except for periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and cervical adenitis (PFAPA). In this part, we review other autoinflammatory disorders including hyper IgD, tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS), cryopyrin associated periodic syndromes, autoinflammatory bone disorders and some other rare autoinflammatory disorders such as Sweet's and Blau syndromes. In cryopyrin associated periodic syndromes group, we discussed chronic infantile neurologic cutaneous and articular (CINCA) syndrome, Muckle-Wells syndrome and familial cold autoinflammatory syndrome. Autoinflammatory bone disorders are categorized to monogenic disorders such as pyogenic arthritis, pyoderma ;gangraenosum and acne (PAPA) syndrome, the deficiency of interleukine-1 receptor antagonist (DIRA) and Majeed syndrome and polygenic background or sporadic group such as chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO) or synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis and osteitis (SAPHO) syndrome are classified in sporadic group. Other autoinflammatory syndromes are rare causes of periodic fever in Iranian system registry.

  20. Wheeler-Feynman Equations for Rigid Charges - Classical Absorber Electrodynamics Part II

    CERN Document Server

    Bauer, G; Dürr, D

    2010-01-01

    This is the second part of our mathematical survey on the equations of motion of classical absorber electrodynamics. Here we study the equations of Wheeler-Feynman (WF) electrodynamics, which describe the interaction of finitely many charges by both the advanced and retarded Li\\'enard-Wiechert fields. These equations are non-linear and involve retarded as well as advanced arguments and belong to the class of delay (or functional) differential equations. Such delayed arguments do not permit a direct application of standard PDE techniques. We introduce a general strategy to handle existence and uniqueness questions for such functional differential equations. We observe that any WF solution gives rise to a solution to the Maxwell-Lorentz equations without self-interaction (ML-SI), which are a set of non-linear PDEs without delay that have been studied in Part I. In other words, WF solutions are special solutions among all solutions of the ML-SI equations. Hence, WF solutions arise as solutions to the ML-SI equat...

  1. Conformal growth of anodic nanotubes for dye-sensitized solar cells: part II. Nonplanar electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lidong; Zhang, Sam; Wang, Qing

    2014-02-01

    Anodic titania nanotube array features highly ordered alignment as well as porous nature, and exhibits intriguing properties when employed in a variety of applications. All these profit from the continuous efforts on controlling the nanotube configurations. Recently, nonplanar electrodes have also been used to grow the nanotubes besides the conventional planar counterparts. As such, it is of great interest and significance to complete a picture to link the nanotubes grown on planar and various nonplanar electrodes for a comprehensive understanding of nanotube growing manners, in an attempt to boost their future applications. In the first part of this review, planar electrodes are focused with regard to nanotube growth and application in dye-sensitized solar cells. In this part, the nanotubes grown on patterned or curved surfaces are discussed first with reference to a similar structure of alumina nanopores, which are subsequently used to mirror the growth of nanotubes on cylindrical electrodes (i.e., titanium wires or meshes). The last section focuses on titanium tubular electrodes which are attractive for thermal fluids in view of the drastically reduced thermal conductivity in the presence of anodic nanotubes. As a recent hot topic, wire-shaped dye-sensitized solar cells are deliberated in terms of cell structure, efficiency calculation, merits, challenges and outlook.

  2. Heavy metals in urban soils of East St. Louis, IL. Part II: Leaching characteristics and modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminski, M D; Landsberger, S

    2000-09-01

    The city of East St. Louis, IL, has a history of abundant industrial activities including smelters of ferrous and non-ferrous metals, a coal-fired power plant, companies that produced organic and inorganic chemicals, and petroleum refineries. Following a gross assessment of heavy metals in the community soils (see Part I of this two-part series), leaching tests were performed on specific soils to elucidate heavy metal-associated mineral fractions and general leachability. Leaching experiments, including the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TLCP) and column tests, and sequential extractions, illustrated the low leachability of metals in East St. Louis soils. The column leachate results were modeled using a formulation developed for fly ash leaching. The importance of instantaneous dissolution was evident from the model. By incorporating desorption/adsorption terms into the source term, the model was adapted very well to the time-dependent heavy metal leachate concentrations. The results demonstrate the utility of a simple model to describe heavy metal leaching from contaminated soils.

  3. A new linear transfer theory and characterization method for image detectors. Part II: Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lubk, Axel, E-mail: Axel.Lubk@triebenberg.de [CEMES-CNRS 29, rue Jeanne Marvig B.P. 94347 F-31055 Toulouse Cedex (France); Triebenberg Laboratory, Institute of Structure Physics, Technische Universitaet Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Transpyrenean Associated Laboratory for Electron Microscopy, CEMES-INA, CNRS-Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain); Roeder, Falk [Triebenberg Laboratory, Institute of Structure Physics, Technische Universitaet Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Niermann, Tore [Institut fuer Optik und Atomare Physik, Technische Universitaet Berlin, Strasse des 17. Juni 135, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Gatel, Christophe; Joulie, Sebastien; Houdellier, Florent [CEMES-CNRS 29, rue Jeanne Marvig B.P. 94347 F-31055 Toulouse Cedex (France); Transpyrenean Associated Laboratory for Electron Microscopy, CEMES-INA, CNRS-Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain); Magen, Cesar [Laboratorio de Microscopias Avanzadas (LMA), Instituto de Nanociencia de Aragon (INA) - ARAID, and Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Transpyrenean Associated Laboratory for Electron Microscopy, CEMES-INA, CNRS-Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain); Hyetch, Martin J. [CEMES-CNRS 29, rue Jeanne Marvig B.P. 94347 F-31055 Toulouse Cedex (France); Transpyrenean Associated Laboratory for Electron Microscopy, CEMES-INA, CNRS-Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain)

    2012-04-15

    A novel generalized linear transfer theory describing the signal and noise transfer in image detectors has been developed in Part I (Niermann, this issue, ) of this paper. Similar to the existing notion of a point spread function (PSF) describing the transfer of the first statistical moment (the average), a noise spread function (NSF) was introduced to characterize the spatially resolved transfer of noise (central second moment, covariance). Following the theoretic results developed in Part I (Niermann, this issue, ), a new experimental method based on single spot illumination has been developed and applied to measure 2D point and 4D noise spread functions of CCD cameras used in TEM. A dedicated oversampling method has been used to suppress aliasing in the measured quantities. We analyze the 4D noise spread with respect to electronic and photonic noise contributions. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We present a new detector characterization method based on single spot illumination. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Highly accurate MTFs comparable to the knife-edge method are determined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 4D noise spread functions have been successfully measured for the first time.

  4. The available-enthalpy (flow-exergy) cycle. Part-II: applications to idealized baroclinic waves

    CERN Document Server

    Marquet, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    The local available-enthalpy cycle proposed in Part I of this paper is applied to document energetics of three numerical simulations, representing life cycles of idealized baroclinic waves. An improved temporal numerical scheme defined in Part I is used in this study, together with the Arpege-IFS model using a T42 triangular truncation. A 45{\\deg}N and 200 hPa dry unstable jet is constructed with the most unstable mode at zonal wave number 8. Energetic impacts of both horizontal and vertical diffusion schemes are determined separately. The role of ageostrophic winds within the Ekman layer is investigated, leading to an explanation for large observed values for the dissipation terms and to a new formulation of the potential-energy conversions. The magnitudes of these new conversion terms are compared with those of the usual barotropic and baroclinic conversions. A new version for the available-enthalpy cycle is proposed. It is suitable for open systems and it includes explicitly the potential-energy component ...

  5. Enfermedad periodontal y resultados adversos del embarazo: revisión de la literatura. Parte II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Yassin García

    Full Text Available Durante el embarazo, infecciones de diverso tipo pueden poner en riesgo el curso normal del mismo e incluso comprometer la salud del neonato, siendo los partos prematuros, el bajo peso al nacer y la combinación de ambas condiciones, los resultados adversos del embarazo que más frecuentemente se encuentran asociados con las infecciones. La importancia de la asociación de la enfermedad periodontal con los resultados adversos del embarazo se ha ido incrementando en los últimos años. Esta revisión bibliográfica analiza la evidencia científica de distintas publicaciones sobre la relación entre enfermedad periodontal, los partos prematuros y el bajo peso al nacimiento, mostrando que, factores como el diseño de los estudios y los criterios empleados para definir tanto la enfermedad periodontal como los resultados adversos del embarazo, pueden influir sobre los resultados de los estudios. La primera parte de la revisión incluye las aportaciones derivadas de los estudio de casos y controles y de los estudios de cohortes; en esta segunda parte se revisan los ensayos clínicos y las revisiones sistemáticas y metaanálisis.

  6. Biological effects of ultrasound: development of safety guidelines. Part II: general review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyborg, W L

    2001-03-01

    In the 1920s, the availability of piezoelectric materials and electronic devices made it possible to produce ultrasound (US) in water at high amplitudes, so that it could be detected after propagation through large distances. Laboratory experiments with this new mechanical form of radiation showed that it was capable of producing an astonishing variety of physical, chemical and biologic effects. In this review, the early findings on bioeffects are discussed, especially those from experiments done in the first few decades, as well as the concepts employed in explaining them. Some recent findings are discussed also, noting how the old and the new are related. In the first few decades, bioeffects research was motivated partly by curiosity, and partly by the wish to increase the effectiveness and ensure the safety of therapeutic US. Beginning in the 1970s, the motivation has come also from the need for safety guidelines relevant to diagnostic US. Instrumentation was developed for measuring acoustic pressure in the fields of pulsed and focused US employed, and standards were established for specifying the fields of commercial equipment. Critical levels of US quantities were determined from laboratory experiments, together with biophysical analysis, for bioeffects produced by thermal and nonthermal mechanisms. These are the basis for safety advice and guidelines recommended or being considered by national, international, professional and governmental organizations.

  7. Quantum groups as generalized gauge symmetries in WZNW models. Part II. The quantized model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjiivanov, L.; Furlan, P.

    2017-07-01

    This is the second part of a paper dealing with the "internal" (gauge) symmetry of the Wess-Zumino-Novikov-Witten (WZNW) model on a compact Lie group G. It contains a systematic exposition, for G = SU( n), of the canonical quantization based on the study of the classical model (performed in the first part) following the quantum group symmetric approach first advocated by L.D. Faddeev and collaborators. The internal symmetry of the quantized model is carried by the chiral WZNW zero modes satisfying quadratic exchange relations and an n-linear determinant condition. For generic values of the deformation parameter the Fock representation of the zero modes' algebra gives rise to a model space of U q ( sl( n)). The relevant root of unity case is studied in detail for n = 2 when a "restricted" (finite dimensional) quotient quantum group is shown to appear in a natural way. The module structure of the zero modes' Fock space provides a specific duality with the solutions of the Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov equation for the four point functions of primary fields suggesting the existence of an extended state space of logarithmic CFT type. Combining left and right zero modes (i.e., returning to the 2 D model), the rational CFT structure shows up in a setting reminiscent to covariant quantization of gauge theories in which the restricted quantum group plays the role of a generalized gauge symmetry.

  8. Periodic Fever: A Review on Clinical, Management and Guideline for Iranian Patients - Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadinejad, Zahra; Mansouri, Sedigeh; Ziaee, Vahid; Aghighi, Yahya; Moradinejad, Mohammad-Hassan; Fereshteh-Mehregan, Fatemeh

    2014-01-01

    Periodic fever syndromes are a group of diseases characterized by episodes of fever with healthy intervals between febrile episodes. In the first part of this paper, we presented a guideline for approaching patients with periodic fever and reviewed two common disorders with periodic fever in Iranian patients including familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) and periodic fever syndromes except for periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and cervical adenitis (PFAPA). In this part, we review other autoinflammatory disorders including hyper IgD, tumor necrosis factor receptor–associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS), cryopyrin associated periodic syndromes, autoinflammatory bone disorders and some other rare autoinflammatory disorders such as Sweet’s and Blau syndromes. In cryopyrin associated periodic syndromes group, we discussed chronic infantile neurologic cutaneous and articular (CINCA) syndrome, Muckle-Wells syndrome and familial cold autoinflammatory syndrome. Autoinflammatory bone disorders are categorized to monogenic disorders such as pyogenic arthritis, pyoderma ;gangraenosum and acne (PAPA) syndrome, the deficiency of interleukine-1 receptor antagonist (DIRA) and Majeed syndrome and polygenic background or sporadic group such as chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO) or synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis and osteitis (SAPHO) syndrome are classified in sporadic group. Other autoinflammatory syndromes are rare causes of periodic fever in Iranian system registry. PMID:25562014

  9. Field portable low temperature porous layer open tubular cryoadsorption headspace sampling and analysis part II: Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harries, Megan; Bukovsky-Reyes, Santiago; Bruno, Thomas J

    2016-01-15

    This paper details the sampling methods used with the field portable porous layer open tubular cryoadsorption (PLOT-cryo) approach, described in Part I of this two-part series, applied to several analytes of interest. We conducted tests with coumarin and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (two solutes that were used in initial development of PLOT-cryo technology), naphthalene, aviation turbine kerosene, and diesel fuel, on a variety of matrices and test beds. We demonstrated that these analytes can be easily detected and reliably identified using the portable unit for analyte collection. By leveraging efficiency-boosting temperature control and the high flow rate multiple capillary wafer, very short collection times (as low as 3s) yielded accurate detection. For diesel fuel spiked on glass beads, we determined a method detection limit below 1 ppm. We observed greater variability among separate samples analyzed with the portable unit than previously documented in work using the laboratory-based PLOT-cryo technology. We identify three likely sources that may help explain the additional variation: the use of a compressed air source to generate suction, matrix geometry, and variability in the local vapor concentration around the sampling probe as solute depletion occurs both locally around the probe and in the test bed as a whole. This field-portable adaptation of the PLOT-cryo approach has numerous and diverse potential applications.

  10. Part I. Cobalt thiolate complexes modeling the active site of cobalt nitrile hydratase. Part II. Formation of inorganic nanoparticles on protein scaffolding in Escherichia coli glutamine synthetase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Irene Yuk Man

    Part I. A series of novel cobalt dithiolate complexes with mixed imine/amine ligand systems is presented here as electronic and structural models for the active site in the bacterial enzyme class, nitrile hydratase (NHase). Pentadentate cobalt(II) complexes with S2N 3 ligand environments are first studied as precursors to the more relevant cobalt(III) complexes. Adjustment of the backbone length by removal of a methylene group increases the reactivity of the system; whereas reduction of the two backbone imine bonds to allow free rotation about those bonds may decrease reactivity. Reactivity change due to the replacement of the backbone amine proton with a more sterically challenging methyl group is not yet clear. Upon oxidation, the monocationic pentadentate cobalt(III) complex, 1b, shows promising reactivity similar to that of NHase. The metal's open coordination site allows reversible binding of the endogenous, monoanionic ligands, N 3- and NCS-. Oxygenation of the thiolate sulfur atoms by exposure to O2 and H2O 2 produces sulfenate and sulfinate ligands in complex 8, which resembles the crystal structure of "deactivated" Fe NHase. However, its lack of reactivity argues against the oxygenated enzyme structure as the active form. Six-coordinate cobalt(III) complexes with S2N4 amine/amine ligand systems are also presented as analogues of previously reported iron(III) compounds, which mimic the spectroscopic properties of Fe NHase. The cobalt complexes do not seem to similarly model Co NHase. However, the S = 0 cobalt(III) center can be spectroscopically silent and difficult to detect, making comparison with synthetic models using common techniques hard. Part II. Dodecameric Escherichia coli glutamine synthetase mutant, E165C, stacks along its six-fold axis to produce tubular nanostructures in the presence of some divalent metal ions, as does the wild type enzyme. The centrally located, engineered Cys-165 residues appear to bind to various species and may serve as

  11. Toward a molecular understanding of adaptive immunity:A chronology, Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendall A Smith

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available By 1980 it was obvious that to more fully understand adaptive immunity, one needed to somehow reduce the tremendous complexity of antigen recognition by T cell populations. Thus, there were two developments that resulted in a paradigm shift in immunology, one being the generation of monoclonal antibodies, and the other the development of monoclonal functional antigen-specific T cell lines. For the first time, the cellular reagents became available to ask new questions as to how individual cells comprising the complex cell populations recognize and respond to changes in their molecular environments. The first successful generation of monoclonal T cells depended upon the understanding that antigen renders cells responsive to the antigen non-specific T cell growth factor that came to be termed interleukin-2 (IL-2, which could then be used in propagating large numbers of the progeny of single cells, which in turn could then be used for molecular analyses. Monoclonal functional human T cells were used to immunize mice to generate clone-specific (clonotypic monoclonal antibodies, which then permitted the first biochemical characterizations of the antigen recognition elements of the T cell antigen receptor complex. Moreover, the use of monoclonal cytolytic and helper/inducer human T cell clones essentially proved that the T cell-specific molecules T4 and T8 functioned as accessory molecules in antigen recognition by defining MHC class II or class I restriction respectively. As well, the expression of the T3 molecules, found to be common to all T cells, were shown further to be obligatory for functional antigen-specific T cell signaling. The monoclonal IL-2-dependent T cells were also instrumental in the isolation and purification of the IL-2 molecule to homogeneity, the first interleukin molecule to be identified and characterized. These advances then led to the generation of pure radiolabeled IL-2 molecules that were used to identify the first

  12. Pre-earthquake signals – Part II: Flow of battery currents in the crust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. T. Freund

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available When rocks are subjected to stress, dormant electronic charge carriers are activated. They turn the stressed rock volume into a battery, from where currents can flow out. The charge carriers are electrons and defect electrons, also known as positive holes or pholes for short. The boundary between stressed and unstressed rock acts as a potential barrier that lets pholes pass but blocks electrons. One can distinguish two situations in the Earth's crust: (i only pholes spread out of a stressed rock volume into the surrounding unstressed rocks. This is expected to lead to a positive surface charge over a wide area around the future epicenter, to perturbations in the ionosphere, to stimulated infrared emission from the ground, to ionization of the near-ground air, to cloud formation and to other phenomena that have been reported to precede major earthquakes. (ii both pholes and electrons flow out of the stressed rock volume along different paths, sideward into the relatively cool upper layers of the crust and downward into the hot lower crust. This situation, which is likely to be realized late in the earthquake preparation process, is necessary for the battery circuit to close and for transient electric currents to flow. If burst-like, these currents should lead to the emission of low frequency electromagnetic radiation. Understanding how electronic charge carriers are stress-activated in rocks, how they spread or flow probably holds the key to deciphering a wide range of pre-earthquake signals. It opens the door to a global earthquake early warning system, provided resources are pooled through a concerted and constructive community effort, including seismologists, with international participation.

  13. Traumatic dental injuries during anaesthesia. Part II: medico-legal evaluation and liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudio, Rosa Maria; Barbieri, Stefania; Feltracco, Paolo; Tiano, Letizia; Galligioni, Helmut; Uberti, Manuela; Ori, Carlo; Avato, Francesco Maria

    2011-02-01

    Claims for tooth damage following intubation are increasing. An anaesthetic chart (AC) has been proposed to describe patient's pre-existent dental diseases and any possible lesions caused during intubation and extubation. We conducted a retrospective study of 235 cases of dental lesions reported in litigation files from January 2000 to June 2009. Based on preoperative oral inspection the anaesthetist decided whether or not to use a protective aid. Two different tooth protectors were applied: (i) a standard mouthguard and (ii) silicone impression putty. The study population consisted of 110 female (age 6-88 years) and 125 male patients (11-90 years) patients. In 66% of cases greater risk of perianesthetic dental injury was reported in the AC due to pre-existing poor dentition. In intubation procedures without protective devices dental subluxation/luxation occurred in 55% of patients, dental avulsion in 43%, exfoliation in 2%, and soft tissue damage in five patients. One patient suffered from transient facial nerve paralysis. The costs of treatments and of impression materials, as well as the total value of compensation for injuries are reported. Definition and demonstrability of damages on the AC is important in order to separate the cases worthy of compensation from the non-compensable ones, as to evaluate the possibility of solving the litigation by extrajudicial channels. There are cases in which, based on AC reporting and device adoption the damage resulted to be compensable, but the costs were defined on different estimates of lesions. The use of a protective device makes it possible to down-modulate the damage compensation. The analysis of litigation records and 'incident reports' has suggested that the choice of accurate proceeding and the use of protection aids could reduce the number of claims, insurance premiums and the costs of litigation process, thus improving physician-patient relationship. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  14. Development of the AGREE II, part 1: performance, usefulness and areas for improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwers, Melissa C.; Kho, Michelle E.; Browman, George P.; Burgers, Jako S.; Cluzeau, Francoise; Feder, Gene; Fervers, Béatrice; Graham, Ian D.; Hanna, Steven E.; Makarski, Julie

    2010-01-01

    Background We undertook research to improve the AGREE instrument, a tool used to evaluate guidelines. We tested a new seven-point scale, evaluated the usefulness of the original items in the instrument, investigated evidence to support shorter, tailored versions of the tool, and identified areas for improvement. Method We report on one component of a larger study that used a mixed design with four factors (user type, clinical topic, guideline and condition). For the analysis reported in this article, we asked participants to read a guideline and use the AGREE items to evaluate it based on a seven-point scale, to complete three outcome measures related to adoption of the guideline, and to provide feedback on the instrument’s usefulness and how to improve it. Results Guideline developers gave lower-quality ratings than did clinicians or policy-makers. Five of six domains were significant predictors of participants’ outcome measures (p items were rated as useful by stakeholders (mean scores > 4.0) with no significant differences by user type (p > 0.05). Internal consistency ranged between 0.64 and 0.89. Inter-rater reliability was satisfactory. We received feedback on how to improve the instrument. Interpretation Quality ratings of the AGREE domains were significant predictors of outcome measures associated with guideline adoption: guideline endorsements, overall intentions to use guidelines, and overall quality of guidelines. All AGREE items were assessed as useful in determining whether a participant would use a guideline. No clusters of items were found more useful by some users than others. The measurement properties of the seven-point scale were promising. These data contributed to the refinements and release of the AGREE II. PMID:20513780

  15. Generational influences in academic emergency medicine: structure, function, and culture (Part II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Nicholas M; Smith-Coggins, Rebecca; Larrabee, Hollynn; Dyne, Pamela L; Promes, Susan B

    2011-02-01

    Strategies for approaching generational issues that affect teaching and learning, mentoring, and technology in emergency medicine (EM) have been reported. Tactics to address generational influences involving the structure and function of the academic emergency department (ED), organizational culture, and EM schedule have not been published. Through a review of the literature and consensus by modified Delphi methodology of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine Aging and Generational Issues Task Force, the authors have developed this two-part series to address generational issues present in academic EM. Understanding generational characteristics and mitigating strategies can address some common issues encountered in academic EM. By understanding the differences and strengths of each of the cohorts in academic EM departments and considering simple mitigating strategies, faculty leaders can maximize their cooperative effectiveness and face the challenges of a new millennium.

  16. Differential geometry and mathematical physics part II fibre bundles, topology and gauge fields

    CERN Document Server

    Rudolph, Gerd

    2017-01-01

    The book is devoted to the study of the geometrical and topological structure of gauge theories. It consists of the following three building blocks:- Geometry and topology of fibre bundles,- Clifford algebras, spin structures and Dirac operators,- Gauge theory.Written in the style of a mathematical textbook, it combines a comprehensive presentation of the mathematical foundations with a discussion of a variety of advanced topics in gauge theory.The first building block includes a number of specific topics, like invariant connections, universal connections, H-structures and the Postnikov approximation of classifying spaces.Given the great importance of Dirac operators in gauge theory, a complete proof of the Atiyah-Singer Index Theorem is presented. The gauge theory part contains the study of Yang-Mills equations (including the theory of instantons and the classical stability analysis), the discussion of various models with matter fields (including magnetic monopoles, the Seiberg-Witten model and dimensional r...

  17. Molecular markers in prostate cancer.Part II:potential roles in management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sachin Agrawal; Krishnaji P.Patil; William D.Dunsmuir

    2009-01-01

    Predicting treatment responses in advanced prostate cancer (PCa) currently centres on prostate-specific antigen (PSA) kinetics and on being able to visualize measurable changes in imaging modalities.New molecular markers have emerged as potential diagnostic and prognostic indicators;these were summarized in Part I of this review in the Asian Journal of Andrology.A number of molecular markers are now being used to enhance PCa imaging and staging.However,management options for advanced and hormone-resistant PCa (HRPC) are limited and additional therapeutic options are needed.Molecular markers have been proposed as potential therapeutic targets using gene therapy and immunomodulation.Additionally,markers identified in early PCa and precursor lesions may offer novel targets for chemoprevention and vaccine development.This review summarizes the current advances regarding the roles of these markers in the management of PCa.

  18. Indo-Pacific variability on seasonal to multidecadal timescales. Part II: Multiscale atmosphere-ocean linkages

    CERN Document Server

    Giannakis, Dimitrios

    2016-01-01

    The coupled atmosphere-ocean variability of the Indo-Pacific on interannual to multidecadal timescales is investigated in a millennial control run of CCSM4 and in observations using a family of modes recovered in Part~I of this work from unprocessed SST data through nonlinear Laplacian spectral analysis (NLSA). It is found that ENSO and combination modes of ENSO with the annual cycle exhibit a seasonally synchronized southward shift of equatorial surface zonal winds and thermocline adjustment consistent with terminating El Nino and La Nina events. The surface wind patterns associated with these modes also generate teleconnections between the Pacific and Indian Oceans, leading to a pattern of SST anomalies characteristic of the Indian Ocean dipole. Fundamental and combination modes representing the tropospheric biennial oscillation (TBO) in CCSM4 are also found to be consistent with mechanisms for seasonally synchronized biennial variability of the Asian-Australian monsoon and Walker circulation. On longer tim...

  19. Waveform cross correlation for seismic monitoring of underground nuclear explosions. Part II: Synthetic master events

    CERN Document Server

    Bobrov, Dmitry; Rozhkov, Mikhail

    2013-01-01

    Waveform cross correlation is an efficient tool for detection and characterization of seismic signals. The efficiency critically depends on the availability of master events. For the purposes of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, cross correlation can globally reduce the threshold monitoring by 0.3 to 0.4 magnitude units. In seismically active regions, the optimal choice of master events is straightforward. There are two approaches to populate the global grid in aseismic areas: the replication of real masters and synthetic seismograms calculated for seismic arrays of the International Monitoring System. Synthetic templates depend on the accuracy of shape and amplitude predictions controlled by focal depth and mechanism, source function, velocity structure and attenuation along the master/station path. As in Part I, we test three focal mechanisms (explosion, thrust fault, and actual Harvard CMT solution for one of the April 11, 2012 Sumatera aftershocks) and two velocity structures (ak135 and CRUST 2.0...

  20. Population-scale assessment endpoints in ecological risk assessment part II: selection of assessment endpoint attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, Wayne G; Kaminski, Laurel A

    2007-07-01

    Because ecological services often are tied to specific species, the risk to populations is a critical endpoint and important feature of ecological risk assessments. In Part 1 of this series it was demonstrated that population scale assessment endpoints are important expressions of the valued components of ecological structures. This commentary reviews several of the characteristics of populations that can be evaluated and used in population scale risk assessments. Two attributes are evaluated as promising. The 1st attribute is the change in potential productivity of the population over a specified time period. The 2nd attribute is the change in the age structure of a population, expressed graphically or as a normalized effects vector (NEV). The NEV is a description of the change in age structure due to a toxicant or other stressor and appears to be characteristic of specific stressor effects.

  1. How Clean Are Hotel Rooms? Part II: Examining the Concept of Cleanliness Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almanza, Barbara A; Kirsch, Katie; Kline, Sheryl Fried; Sirsat, Sujata; Stroia, Olivia; Choi, Jin Kyung; Neal, Jay

    2015-01-01

    Hotel room cleanliness is based on observation and not on microbial assessment even though recent reports suggest that infections may be acquired while staying in hotel rooms. Exploratory research in the first part of the authors' study was conducted to determine if contamination of hotel rooms occurs and whether visual assessments are accurate indicators of hotel room cleanliness. Data suggested the presence of microbial contamination that was not reflective of visual assessments. Unfortunately, no standards exist for interpreting microbiological data and other indicators of cleanliness in hotel rooms. The purpose of the second half of the authors' study was to examine cleanliness standards in other industries to see if they might suggest standards in hotels. Results of the authors' study indicate that standards from other related industries do not provide analogous criteria, but do provide suggestions for further research.

  2. Nanodiamond in tellurite glass Part II: practical nanodiamond-doped fibers

    CERN Document Server

    Ruan, Yinlan; Johnson, Brett C; Ohshima, Takeshi; Greentree, Andrew D; Gibson, Brant C; Monro, Tanya M; Ebendorff-Heidepriem, Heike

    2014-01-01

    Tellurite glass fibers with embedded nanodiamond are attractive materials for quantum photonics applications. Reducing the loss of these fibers in the 600-800 nm wavelength range of nanodiamond fluorescence is essential to exploit the unique properties of nanodiamond in the new hybrid material. The first part of this study reported the origin of loss in nanodiamond-doped glass and impact of glass fabrication conditions. Here, we report the fabrication of nanodiamond-doped tellurite fibers with significantly reduced loss in the visible through further understanding of the impact of glass fabrication conditions on the interaction of the glass melt with the embedded nanodiamond. We fabricated tellurite fibers containing nanodiamond in concentrations up to 0.7 ppm-weight, while reducing the loss by more than an order of magnitude down to 10 dB/m at 600-800 nm.

  3. The Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE): AMEE Guide No. 81. Part II: organisation & administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Kamran Z; Gaunt, Kathryn; Ramachandran, Sankaranarayanan; Pushkar, Piyush

    2013-09-01

    The organisation, administration and running of a successful OSCE programme need considerable knowledge, experience and planning. Different teams looking after various aspects of OSCE need to work collaboratively for an effective question bank development, examiner training and standardised patients' training. Quality assurance is an ongoing process taking place throughout the OSCE cycle. In order for the OSCE to generate reliable results it is essential to pay attention to each and every element of quality assurance, as poorly standardised patients, untrained examiners, poor quality questions and inappropriate scoring rubrics each will affect the reliability of the OSCE. The validity will also be influenced if the questions are not realistic and mapped against the learning outcomes of the teaching programme. This part of the Guide addresses all these important issues in order to help the reader setup and quality assure their new or existing OSCE programmes.

  4. Diagnosis and treatment of portal hypertension in children (Part II: treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Trinchet Soler

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The portal hypertension is the clinical syndrome characterized by the increase of pressure in portal system. Undoubtedly the gastrointestinal bleeding due to esopagheal and gastroesophageal varices, erosive gastritis and peptic ulcers constitute the most difficult and dangerous challenge for doctors and patients. Although most patients are treated by non-surgical methods, the surgical treatment correctly realized in chosen patients according to the current protocols is the most effective method to diminish the portal pressure definitively and can be carried out in more than 88% of patients smaller than 2 years old with a near elective mortality to 0% in some countries. We presented the Second Part of Good Clinical Practices Guideline for Portal hypertension (management, approved by consensus in the 1st National Good Clinical Practices Workshop in Pediatric Surgery (Cienfuegos, Cuba, March 7 – 9, 2002.

  5. Mathematical modeling of materially nonlinear problems in structural analyses, Part II: Application in contemporary software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonić Zoran

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents application of nonlinear material models in the software package Ansys. The development of the model theory is presented in the paper of the mathematical modeling of material nonlinear problems in structural analysis (part I - theoretical foundations, and here is described incremental-iterative procedure for solving problems of nonlinear material used by this package and an example of modeling of spread footing by using Bilinear-kinematics and Drucker-Prager mode was given. A comparative analysis of the results obtained by these modeling and experimental research of the author was made. Occurrence of the load level that corresponds to plastic deformation was noted, development of deformations with increasing load, as well as the distribution of dilatation in the footing was observed. Comparison of calculated and measured values of reinforcement dilatation shows their very good agreement.

  6. Managing Returnable Containers Logistics - A Case Study Part II - Improving Visibility through Using Automatic Identification Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gretchen Meiser

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This case study is the result of a project conducted on behalf of a company that uses its own returnable containers to transport purchased parts from suppliers. The objective of this project was to develop a proposal to enable the company to more effectively track and manage its returnable containers. The research activities in support of this project included (1 the analysis and documentation of the physical flow and the information flow associated with the containers and (2 the investigation of new technologies to improve the automatic identification and tracking of containers. This paper explains the automatic identification technologies and important criteria for selection. A companion paper details the flow of information and containers within the logistics chain, and it identifies areas for improving the management of the containers.

  7. OH-initiated oxidation of benzene - Part II. Influence of elevated NOx concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klotz, B; Volkamer, R; Hurley, MD

    2002-01-01

    -containing species in high yield. The results from the present work also show that experimental studies aimed at establishing/verifying chemical mechanisms for aromatic hydrocarbons must be performed using NOx levels which are representative of those found in the atmosphere......., respectively). In contrast to results from previous studies, a pronounced dependence of the product distribution on the NOx concentration was observed. The phenol yield decreases from approximately 50-60% in the presence of low concentrations (10 000 ppb) NOx concentrations. In the presence of high......The present work represents a continuation of part I of this series of papers, in which we investigated the phenol yields in the OH-initiated oxidation of benzene under conditions of low to moderate concentrations of NOx, to elevated NOx levels. The products of the OH-initiated oxidation of benzene...

  8. EFFECT OF DENTIN TUBULES TO THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF DENTIN.PART II:EXPERIMENTAL STUDY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huo Bo; Zheng Quanshui; Zhang Qing; Wang Jiade

    2000-01-01

    To verify the theoretical models of varying transversely isotropic stress-strain relations of dentin established in the preceding work(Part I),we perform a set of experiments.Because of the very fine tooth size,it usually seems to be difficult to directly measure the inhomogeneons and anisotropic parameters of dentin.In this paper,by the digital speckle correlation method,tensile experiments are made on the small dentin samples either parallel or perpendicular to the dentin tubules.With the theoretically predicted elastic stress-strain relations,an optimization method is proposed to fit the strain curve adapted to the experimental data.The results show that the theoretical elastic stress-strain relations coincides very well with the experimental observations.The determined Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio of dentin matrix are 29.5GPa and 0.44,respectively,in the optimization sense.

  9. A Stochastic Closure for Two-Moment Bulk Microphysics of Warm Clouds: Part II, Validation

    CERN Document Server

    Collins, David

    2016-01-01

    The representation of clouds and associated processes of rain and snow formation remains one of the major uncertainties in climate and weather prediction models. In a companion paper (Part I), we systematically derived a two moment bulk cloud microphysics model for collision and coalescence in warm rain based on the kinetic coalescence equation (KCE) and used stochastic approximations to close the higher order moment terms, and do so independently of the collision kernel. Conservation of mass and consistency of droplet number concentration of the evolving cloud properties were combined with numerical simulations to reduce the parametrization problem to three key parameters. Here, we constrain these three parameters based on the physics of collision and coalescence resulting in a "region of validity." Furthermore, we theoretically validate the new bulk model by deriving a subset of the "region of validity" that contains stochastic parameters that skillfully reproduces an existing model based on an a priori dro...

  10. Managing congenitally missing lateral incisors. Part II: tooth-supported restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinzer, Greggory A; Kokich, Vincent O

    2005-01-01

    Three treatment options exist for the replacement of congenitally missing lateral incisors: canine substitution, a tooth-supported restoration, or a single-tooth implant. Selecting the appropriate treatment option depends on the malocclusion, the anterior relationship, specific space requirements, and the condition of the adjacent teeth. The ideal treatment is the most conservative alternative that satisfies individual esthetic and functional requirements. This article closely examines the three options when replacing a missing lateral incisor with a tooth-supported restoration. These options are a resin-bonded fixed partial denture, a cantilevered fixed partial denture, and a conventional full-coverage fixed partial denture. The specific criteria that must be evaluated for each option is addressed to illustrate the importance of interdisciplinary treatment planning to achieve optimal esthetics and long-term predictability. This article is the second of a three-part series discussing the three treatment alternatives for replacing congenitally missing lateral incisors.

  11. An Update on the Hazards and Risks of Forensic Anthropology, Part II: Field and Laboratory Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Lindsey G; Dabbs, Gretchen R; Spencer, Jessica R

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on potential hazards and risks to forensic anthropologists while working in the field and laboratory in North America. Much has changed since Galloway and Snodgrass published their seminal article addressing these issues. The increased number of forensic practitioners combined with new information about potential hazards calls for an updated review of these pathogens and chemicals. Discussion of pathogen hazards (Brucella, Borrelia burgdorferi, Yersinia pestis, Clostridium tetani and West Nile virus) includes important history, exposure routes, environmental survivability, early symptoms, treatments with corresponding morbidity and mortality rates, and decontamination measures. Additionally, data pertaining to the use of formaldehyde in the laboratory environment have resulted in updated safety regulations, and these are highlighted. These data should inform field and laboratory protocols. The hazards of working directly with human remains are discussed in a companion article, "An Update on the Hazards and Risks of Forensic Anthropology, Part I: Human Remains."

  12. Cardiac electrophysiological experiments in numero, Part II: Models of electrophysiological processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, M; Camm, A J

    1991-11-01

    This article is the second part of a three article series reviewing computer simulation models of the heart, in particular of cardiac electrophysiology. The previous section of the review discussed the methodological principles of the construction and application of computer models. This article overviews the development of mathematical and computer modeling studies applied to cardiology. The models are classified according to the physiological processes that were simulated; this article distinguishes models oriented to cardiac mechanics, hemodynamics, and electrophysiology. The electrophysiology models are discussed in more detail and the review classifies them into four main categories: models of cellular processes, models of tissue behavior, models of the ventricular electric field, and models of macroconduction disturbances. In each category, the historical development of the models and their key achievements are described.

  13. Rotational path partial denture design: a 10-year clinical follow-up--Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, T E

    1994-03-01

    A review of the rotational path removable partial denture design concept has been presented. The rigid direct retainers used in these designs satisfy the basic requirements of clasp designs. The reported results of a survey of the members of The Academy of Prosthodontics may provide insight into the reasons for reluctance on the part of some practitioners to use the concept more often when indicated. Possible reasons include the following: lack of sufficient understanding of the concept, difficulty in obtaining knowledgeable laboratory support, absence of documented evidence of long-term clinical success, and a general lack of confidence in the efficacy of the procedure as described in the literature. This article presents references that are available to improve the understanding of technicians and dentists with regard to the rotational path concept. In addition, several patients followed up for 10 or more years demonstrated long-term clinical success.

  14. Models for Quarks and Elementary Particles. Part II: What is Mass?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neumann U. K. W.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available It is extremely productive to give the resultant vector ( EV from the outer vector product (Part I of this article series a physical significance. The EV is assumed as electric flux < with the dimensions [Vm]. Based on Maxwell’s laws this develops into the idea of the magnetic monopole (MMP in each quark. The MMP can be brought in relation with the Dirac monopole. The massless MMP is a productive and important idea on the one hand to recognise what mass is and on the other hand to develop the quark structure of massless photon (-likes from the quark composition of the electron. Based on the experiments by Shapiro it is recognised that the sinusoidal oscillations of the quark can be spiralled in the photons. In an extreme case the spiralling of such a sinusoidal arc produces the geometric locus loop of a quark in a mass-loaded particle.

  15. Models for Quarks and Elementary Particles --- Part II: What is Mass?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neumann U. K. W.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available It is extremely productive to give the resultant vector (EV from the outer vector product (Part I of this article series a physical significance. The EV is assumed as electric flux with the dimensions [Vm]. Based on Maxwell's laws this develops into the idea of the magnetic monopole (MMP in each quark. The MMP can be brought in relation with the Dirac monopole. The massless MMP is a productive and important idea on the one hand to recognise what mass is and on the other hand to develop the quark structure of massless photon (-likes from the quark composition of the electron. Based on the experiments by Shapiro it is recognised that the sinusoidal oscillations of the quark can be spiralled in the photons. In an extreme case the spiralling of such a sinusoidal arc produces the geometric locus loop of a quark in a mass-loaded particle.

  16. The Systemic Products as a Source of Competitive Advantage on Healthcare Sector Example. Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela SZTANGRET

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the healthcare sector, different healthcare providers, such as home care, primary care, pharmacies and hospital clinics but also a financial institution, collaborate in order to increase values for patients, such as better health state, more complex services, high quality of services, and increased feeling of safety. By creating a value, flexible networks health care providers and additional actors create value through collaboration. The purpose of this article is to identify the specific character of systemic healthcare product, created in synergy relations of medical enntities in the area of new way of meeting customers’ needs. Critical analysis of literature in the field of studied category is conducted in the article; furthermore qualitative method of empirical studies (case study and quantitative (online questionnaire is applied for practical illustration of described processes and phenomena. The article is a second part of the stud.

  17. Biocompatibility evaluation in vitro. Part II: Functional expression of human and animal osteoblasts on the biomaterials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    DNA synthesis and collagen formations on the implant material by cell culture in vitro are the most important phenotypical expression to estimate the biocompatibility. In this part, DNA synthesis and collagen formation on implant materials were quantitatively and qualitatively estimated by radioactive isotope H+-thymidine to incorporate into DNA chains, H+-proline to incorporate into type I collagen proteins followed by scin-tillation counting and antibody-antigen immunocytochemistry staining, respectively. Research results demonstrate that hydroxyapatite (HA) stimulates DNA synthesis and collagen formation on the material whereas this stimulation is restricted by adding spinel to the materials. There are statistical differences between the influences of material components on both DNA synthesis and collagen formation. It is supposed that porous materials can supply more platforms for cell anchoring, and more DNA and collagen are synthesised on the porous materials. Immersion in culture medium results in new HA crystal formation on the porous HA materials.

  18. Terrorismo, barbárie e desordem: parte II Terrorism, barbarity and disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie de Mijolla-Mellor

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A partir de uma interrogação sobre as representações dos atos terroristas na imprensa e na televisão, examinaremos as noções de barbárie, de crueldade e de sadismo de um ponto de vista simultaneamente individual e coletivo. As novas formas do conflito e da destrutividade que marcam quotidianamente a atualidade incitam a uma reflexão ampla sobre a natureza, as relações e mesmo os paradoxos da oposição entre ordem e desordem. A ordem responde a uma necessidade de domínio sobre o mundo e constitui uma parte inerente à busca do sentido da vida própria a cada um. Entretanto, longe de atingir uma harmonia, ela produz contestações, revoltas e, necessita ser "mantida", confundindo-se, por sua vez, com uma violência "legítima".From an interrogation on the representation of the terrorist acts in the press and the television, we examine the notions of barbarity, cruelty and sadism, both in the individual and collective field, from a psychoanalytic point of view. The new forms of the conflict and the destructiveness which marks the quotidian of our epoch, evoke an ample reflection on the nature, the relations, and even the paradoxes of the opposition between order and clutter. Order results from the necessity of domination over the world, and constitutes an inherent part of the search for a meaning for life. However, far from leading to harmony, it produces contestations, revolts and it needs to be "maintained", being confused with a "legitimate" violence.

  19. ALTERNATIVE BINDERS TO BENTONITE FOR IRON ORE PELLETIZING : PART II : EFFECTS ON METALLURGICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Sivrikaya

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was started to find alternative binders to bentonite and to recover the low preheated and fired pellet mechanical strengths of organic binders-bonded pellets. Bentonite is considered as a chemical impurity for pellet chemistry due to acid constituents (SiO2 and Al2O3. Especially addition of silica-alumina bearing binders is detrimental for iron ore concentrate with high acidic content. Organic binders are the most studied binders since they are free in silica. Although they yield pellets with good wet strength; they have found limited application in industry since they fail to give sufficient physical and mechanical strength to preheated and fired pellets. It is investigated that how insufficient preheated and fired pellet strengths can be improved when organic binders are used as binder. The addition of a slag bonding/strength increasing constituent (free in acidic contents into pellet feed to provide pellet strength with the use of organic binders was proposed. Addition of boron compounds such as colemanite, tincal, borax pentahydrate, boric acid together with organic binders such as CMC, starch, dextrin and some organic based binders, into magnetite and hematite pellet mixture was tested. After determining the addition of boron compounds is beneficial to recover the low pellet physical and mechanical qualities in the first part of this study, in this second part, metallurgical and chemical properties (reducibility - swelling index – microstructure – mineralogy - chemical content of pellets produced with combined binders (an organic binder plus a boron compound were presented. The metallurgical and chemical tests results showed that good quality product pellets can be produced with combined binders when compared with the bentonite-bonded pellets. Hence, the suggested combined binders can be used as binder in place of bentonite in iron ore pelletizing without compromising the pellet chemistry.

  20. Modelo computacional para suporte à decisão em áreas irrigadas. Parte II: testes e aplicação Computer model for decision support in irrigated areas. Part II: tests and application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo A. Ferreira

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Apresentou-se, na Parte I desta pesquisa, o desenvolvimento de um modelo computacional denominado MCID, para suporte à tomada de decisão quanto ao planejamento e manejo de projetos de irrigação e/ou drenagem. Objetivou-se, na Parte II, testar e aplicar o MCID. No teste comparativo com o programa DRAINMOD, espaçamentos entre drenos, obtidos com o MCID, foram ligeiramente maiores ou idênticos. Os espaçamentos advindos com o MCID e o DRAINMOD foram consideravelmente maiores que os obtidos por meio de metodologias tradicionais de dimensionamento de sistemas de drenagem. A produtividade relativa total, YRT, obtida com o MCID foi, em geral, inferior à conseguida com o DRAINMOD, devido a diferenças de metodologia ao se estimar a produtividade da cultura em resposta ao déficit hídrico. Na comparação com o programa CROPWAT, obtiveram-se resultados muito próximos para (YRT e evapotranspiração real. O modelo desenvolvido foi aplicado para as condições do Projeto Jaíba, MG, para culturas perenes e anuais cultivadas em diferentes épocas. Os resultados dos testes e aplicações indicaram a potencialidade do MCID como ferramenta de apoio à decisão em projetos de irrigação e/ou drenagem.Part I of this research presented the development of a decision support model, called MCID, for planning and managing irrigation and/or drainage projects. Part II is aimed at testing and applying MCID. In a comparative test with the DRAINMOD model, drain spacings obtained with MCID were slightly larger or identical. The spacings obtained with MCID and DRAINMOD were considerably larger than those obtained through traditional methodologies of design of drainage systems. The relative crop yield (YRT obtained with MCID was, in general, lower than the one obtained with DRAINMOD due to differences in the estimate of crop response to water deficit. In comparison with CROPWAT, very close results for YRT and for actual evapotranspiration were obtained. The

  1. The study of multilayers Fe/Hf and Ni/Hf by slow positron beam technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashiro, Mutsumi; Nakajyo, Terunobu; Murashige, Yusuke; Koizumi, Tomoya; Kanazawa, Ikuzo; Komori, Fumio; Soe, We-Hyo; Yamamoto, Ryoichi; Ito, Yasuo

    1997-05-01

    The S-parameters versus the incident positron energy are measured in the Ni/Hf multilayer, thin Hf film, thin Fe film and the bilayer Fe/Hf. We have analyzed the change in vacancy-type defects in these multilayers and thin films with the deposition temperature in the MBE system.

  2. Part I. Student success in intensive versus traditional introductory chemistry courses. Part II. Synthesis of salts of the weakly coordinating trisphat anion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Mildred V.

    Part I. Intensive courses have been shown to be associated with equal or greater student success than traditional-length courses in a wide variety of disciplines and education levels. Student records from intensive and traditional-length introductory general chemistry courses were analyzed to determine the effects, of the course format, the level of academic experience, life experience (age), GPA, academic major and gender on student success in the course. Pretest scores, GPA and ACT composite scores were used as measures of academic ability and prior knowledge; t-tests comparing the means of these variables were used to establish that the populations were comparable prior to the course. Final exam scores, total course points and pretest-posttest differences were used as measures of student success; t-tests were used to determine if differences existed between the populations. ANCOVA analyses revealed that student GPA, pretest scores and course format were the only variables tested that were significant in accounting for the variance of the academic success measures. In general, the results indicate that students achieved greater academic success in the intensive-format course, regardless of the level of academic experience, life experience, academic major or gender. Part II. Weakly coordinating anions have many important applications, one of which is to function as co-catalysts in the polymerization of olefins by zirconocene. The structure of tris(tetrachlorobenzenedialato) phosphate(V) or "trisphat" anion suggests that it might be an outstanding example of a weakly coordinating anion. Trisphat acid was synthesized and immediately used to prepare the stable tributylammonium trisphat, which was further reacted to produce trisphat salts of Group I metal cations in high yields. Results of the 35Cl NQR analysis of these trisphat salts indicate only very weak coordination between the metal cations and the chlorine atoms of the trisphat anion.

  3. The Narrative Reproduction of Contemporary Montenegrin Identity in The Process of Euroatlantic Intergrations (Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branko Banović

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available If we conceptualize reality as a large narrative we “build ourselves into” as social beings, and consider social activities and identities as narratively mediated, the full extent of the capacity of narratives in the creation, shaping, transmission and reconstruction of contemporary social identities, as well as the reproduction of the concept of nation in everyday life becomes apparent. The imagined Euro- Atlantic future of Montenegro demands certain narrative interpretations of the past, which, in latter stages tend to become meta-narratives susceptible to consensus. The linkage of significant historical events to the process of Euro-Atlantic integrations of Montenegro is preformed through different meta-discursive practices, most often through ceremonial evocations of memories of significant events from the recent as well as further history of Montenegro. In this context, celebrations of Statehood Day and Independence Day are especially important, as they serve as reminders of the decisions of the Congress of Berlin, the Podgorica Assembly, the antifascist struggle of World War II and the independence of Montenegro attained through the referendum held in 2006. The clearly defined key points, along with the logical coherence the narrative is based on, provide the narrative with a certain “flexibility” which enables it to take in new elements. Narrative interpretations of the past have a significant role in the reproduction of the nation, as well as the shaping and consolidation of a desirable national identity, while the established narrative continuity between the past, present and imagined Euro-Atlantic future of Montenegro emerges as the “official” mediator in the reproduction of contemporary Montenegrin identity in the process of Euro-Atlantic integrations. In order to fully comprehend this narrative, it is advisable to conceptualize it both in a synchronic as well as a diachronic perspective, as can be shown in two charts

  4. Capsicum--production, technology, chemistry, and quality--Part II. Processed products, standards, world production and trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, V S

    1986-01-01

    Capsicums, as a spice, have been known since the beginning of civilization and historically associated with the discovery of the New World. The genus Capsicum (Fam. Solanaceae) provides many varieties and adds color, pungency, and aroma to the cuisines of most of the world. From the pungent chilli, of interest also to pharmaceuticals, to the colorful paprika and the bell capsicums with its remarkable aroma, the genus has been of great interest for its chemistry and physiological action. Pungency as a sensory attribute, its evaluation, structure-activity relationship, and its increasing acceptance and preference by diverse populations of the world are of great interest to many research disciplines. In a comprehensive review of all aspects in four sequential parts, Part I deals with History, Botany, Cultivation, and Primary Processing (CRC Critical Review, Food Science and Nutrition). The Capsicums among the spices are second only to black pepper in trades both in volume and value. The production of the different forms of this spice as ground, specialty seasonings, and as the concentrated oleoresins through technologically advanced processes, proposed newer products, the standard to control quality of the different products, world production, trade, and prospects are reviewed in detail in this, Part II.

  5. Bridge pier failure probabilities under combined hazard effects of scour, truck and earthquake. Part II: failure probabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zach; Lee, George C.

    2013-06-01

    In many regions of the world, a bridge will experience multiple extreme hazards during its expected service life. The current American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) load and resistance factor design (LRFD) specifications are formulated based on failure probabilities, which are fully calibrated for dead load and non-extreme live loads. Design against earthquake load effect is established separately. Design against scour effect is also formulated separately by using the concept of capacity reduction (or increased scour depth). Furthermore, scour effect cannot be linked directly to an LRFD limit state equation because the latter is formulated using force-based analysis. This paper (in two parts) presents a probability-based procedure to estimate the combined hazard effects on bridges due to truck, earthquake and scour, by treating the effect of scour as an equivalent load effect so that it can be included in reliability-based failure calculations. In Part I of this series, the general principle for treating the scour depth as an equivalent load effect is presented. In Part II, the corresponding bridge failure probability, the occurrence of scour as well as simultaneously having both truck load and equivalent scour load effect are quantitatively discussed. The key formulae of the conditional partial failure probabilities and the necessary conditions are established. In order to illustrate the methodology, an example of dead, truck, earthquake and scour effects on a simple bridge pile foundation is represented.

  6. Probabilistic evidential assessment of gunshot residue particle evidence (Part II): Bayesian parameter estimation for experimental count data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedermann, A; Bozza, S; Taroni, F

    2011-03-20

    Part I of this series of articles focused on the construction of graphical probabilistic inference procedures, at various levels of detail, for assessing the evidential value of gunshot residue (GSR) particle evidence. The proposed models--in the form of Bayesian networks--address the issues of background presence of GSR particles, analytical performance (i.e., the efficiency of evidence searching and analysis procedures) and contamination. The use and practical implementation of Bayesian networks for case pre-assessment is also discussed. This paper, Part II, concentrates on Bayesian parameter estimation. This topic complements Part I in that it offers means for producing estimates usable for the numerical specification of the proposed probabilistic graphical models. Bayesian estimation procedures are given a primary focus of attention because they allow the scientist to combine (his/her) prior knowledge about the problem of interest with newly acquired experimental data. The present paper also considers further topics such as the sensitivity of the likelihood ratio due to uncertainty in parameters and the study of likelihood ratio values obtained for members of particular populations (e.g., individuals with or without exposure to GSR).

  7. The Evolution of Evidence Based Library and Information Practice, Part II: The Broader Professional Purpose of EBLIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan D. Eldredge

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Part I in this series of commentaries in theDecember 2012 issue provided a consensus definition and description of EBLIP. The five steps of the EBLIP process consist of: 1. Formulating an answerable question 2. Searching for the evidence 3. Critically appraising the evidence 4. Making a decision and applying it 5. Evaluating performance Part I reviewed how answering different types of questions raised in step one require differenttypes of evidence. Competing evidence,conceptualized primarily in terms of applied research, study design, and quality of the evidence, will guide the third step of critical appraisal. The completed EBLIP process finally should lead the busy practitioner to an informed decision based on the best available evidence. Part II in this commentary series delves into the broader purpose, or function, of EBLIP within the library and information professions. The deceptively easy answer to this question hinges simplistically upon defining EBLIP as a decision making process, and that would be a technically accurate answer. This commentary explores the deeper function of EBLIP that relates to professional identity and practice, however. By exploring these deeper meanings we might be able to chart our journey toward nurturing and sustaining EBLIP in the future.

  8. Effective Thermal and Electrical Conductivities of AgSnO2 During Sintering. Part II: Constitutive Modeling and Numerical Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisson, Elodie; Desplats, Henri; Carre, Patrick; Keryvin, Vincent; Rogeon, Philippe; Feulvarch, Eric; Bonhomme, Alexandre

    2016-12-01

    During resistance sintering (RS) of a conductive porous material, effective electrical and thermal conductivities have a great influence on the thermal gradients inside the matter, which could induce heterogeneous microstructures. Part I of this investigation focused on the characterization of the effective conductivities of AgSnO2 during sintering conditions, with the understanding of the relations between their evolutions and the microstructure. In Part II, the emphasis is on the development of appropriate constitutive equations able to describe the evolutions of the effective conductivities of AgSnO2 during RS. This work proposes constitutive equations taking into account the two main mechanisms, identified in Part I, which modify the contact conditions between the particles. The first mechanism corresponds to viscoplastic deformations of particles. A creep behavior law is used to calculate the macroscopic deformation and the densification kinetics. The second one deals with bonding diffusion under the effect of temperature, which decreases the contact resistance between the particles. As no specific effect of current has been highlighted in the case of AgSnO2, the effective conductivities' behavior laws are available for RS and for hot pressing (HP). Relationships for effective conductivities are included in the numerical HP model and combined with governing laws. Finite element analyses are compared to experimental results obtained from HP tests to validate and discuss the model.

  9. An Electromagnetic Sensor for the Autonomous Running of Visually Impaired and Blind Athletes (Part II: The Wearable Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Pieralisi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the availability of technology developed to increase the autonomy of visually impaired athletes during sports is limited. The research proposed in this paper (Part I and Part II focuses on the realization of an electromagnetic system that can guide a blind runner along a race track without the need for a sighted guide. In general, the system is composed of a transmitting unit (widely described in Part I and a receiving unit, whose components and main features are described in this paper. Special attention is paid to the definition of an electromagnetic model able to faithfully represent the physical mechanisms of interaction between the two units, as well as between the receiving magnetic sensor and the body of the user wearing the device. This theoretical approach allows for an estimation of the signals to be detected, and guides the design of a suitable signal processing board. This technology has been realized, patented, and tested with a blind volunteer with successful results and this paper presents interesting suggestions for further improvements.

  10. An Electromagnetic Sensor for the Autonomous Running of Visually Impaired and Blind Athletes (Part II: The Wearable Device).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieralisi, Marco; Di Mattia, Valentina; Petrini, Valerio; De Leo, Alfredo; Manfredi, Giovanni; Russo, Paola; Scalise, Lorenzo; Cerri, Graziano

    2017-02-16

    Currently, the availability of technology developed to increase the autonomy of visually impaired athletes during sports is limited. The research proposed in this paper (Part I and Part II) focuses on the realization of an electromagnetic system that can guide a blind runner along a race track without the need for a sighted guide. In general, the system is composed of a transmitting unit (widely described in Part I) and a receiving unit, whose components and main features are described in this paper. Special attention is paid to the definition of an electromagnetic model able to faithfully represent the physical mechanisms of interaction between the two units, as well as between the receiving magnetic sensor and the body of the user wearing the device. This theoretical approach allows for an estimation of the signals to be detected, and guides the design of a suitable signal processing board. This technology has been realized, patented, and tested with a blind volunteer with successful results and this paper presents interesting suggestions for further improvements.

  11. Uncertainties in field-line tracing in the magnetosphere. Part II: the complete internal geomagnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. C. Freeman

    Full Text Available The discussion in the preceding paper is restricted to the uncertainties in magnetic-field-line tracing in the magnetosphere resulting from published standard errors in the spherical harmonic coefficients that define the axisymmetric part of the internal geomagnetic field (i.e. gn0 ± δgn0. Numerical estimates of these uncertainties based on an analytic equation for axisymmetric field lines are in excellent agreement with independent computational estimates based on stepwise numerical integration along magnetic field lines. This comparison confirms the accuracy of the computer program used in the present paper to estimate the uncertainties in magnetic-field-line tracing that arise from published standard errors in the full set of spherical harmonic coefficients, which define the complete (non-axisymmetric internal geomagnetic field (i.e. gnm ± δgnm and hnm ± δhnm. An algorithm is formulated that greatly reduces the computing time required to estimate these uncertainties in magnetic-field-line tracing. The validity of this algorithm is checked numerically for both the axisymmetric part of the internal geomagnetic field in the general case (1 ≤ n ≤ 10 and the complete internal geomagnetic field in a restrictive case (0 ≤ m ≤ n, 1 ≤ n ≤ 3. On this basis it is assumed that the algorithm can be used with confidence in those cases for which the computing time would otherwise be prohibitively long. For the complete internal geomagnetic field, the maximum characteristic uncertainty in the geocentric distance of a field line that crosses the geomagnetic equator at a nominal dipolar distance of 2 RE is typically 100 km. The corresponding characteristic uncertainty for a field line that crosses the geomagnetic equator at a nominal dipolar distance of 6 RE is typically 500 km. Histograms and scatter plots showing the characteristic uncertainties associated with magnetic-field-line tracing in the magnetosphere are presented for a range of

  12. Optically pumped planar waveguide lasers: Part II: Gain media, laser systems, and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grivas, Christos

    2016-01-01

    The field of optically pumped planar waveguide lasers has seen a rapid development over the last two decades driven by the requirements of a range of applications. This sustained research effort has led to the demonstration of a large variety of miniature highly efficient laser sources by combining different gain media and resonator geometries. One of the most attractive features of waveguide lasers is the broad range of regimes that they can operate, spanning from continuous wave and single frequency through to the generation of femtosecond pulses. Furthermore, their technology has experienced considerable advances to provide increased output power levels, deriving benefits from the relative immunity from the heat generated in the gain medium during laser operation and the use of cladding-pumped architectures. This second part of the review on optically pumped planar waveguide lasers provides a snapshot of the state-of-the-art research in this field in terms of gain materials, laser system designs, and as well as a perspective on the status of their application as real devices in various research areas.

  13. Developing a software for removable partial denture design: Part II: Introduction of RPD graph software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nejatidanesh F

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Designing removable partial dentures is one of the most important phases of prosthetic treatments. Computer can be used to facilitate and increase accuracy of removable partial denture design. The aim of this study was to develop a software for removable partial denture design.Materials and Methods: A questionnaire (discussed in part I and major textbooks, were used to determine the design rules.  The software (RPD Graph was developed using Visual C++ and Maryam program. The RPD Graph can determine the classification of partial edentulous arch. With defining the missing teeth and providing data about prognosis and conditions of abutment teeth, the removable partial design will be developed by RPD Graph. This software is a knowledge-based system which has specific characteristics. It can be used as an educational tool for teaching RPD design and as a clinical tool for supporting clinician's decision. In addition it can be developed to more complete softwares.

  14. Characterisation and optimisation of flexible transfer lines for liquid helium. Part II: Thermohydraulic modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittmar, N.; Haberstroh, Ch.; Hesse, U.; Krzyzowski, M.

    2016-10-01

    In part one of this publication experimental results for a single-channel transfer line used at liquid helium (LHe) decant stations are presented. The transfer of LHe into mobile dewars is an unavoidable process since the places of storage and usage are generally located apart from each other. The experimental results have shown that reasonable amounts of LHe evaporate due to heat leak and pressure drop. Thus, generated helium cold gas has to be collected and reliquefied, demanding a huge amount of electrical energy. Although this transfer process is common in cryogenic laboratories, no existing code could be found to model it. Therefore, a thermohydraulic model has been developed to model the LHe flow at operating conditions using published heat transfer and pressure drop correlations. This paper covers the basic equations used to calculate heat transfer and pressure drop, as well as the validation of the thermohydraulic code, and its application within the optimisation process. The final transfer line design features reduced heat leak and pressure drop values based on a combined measurement and modelling campaign in the range of 0.112 < pin < 0.148 MPa, 190 < G < 450 kg/(m2 s), and 0.04 < xout < 0.12.

  15. Low-temperature charging of lithium-ion cells Part II: Model reduction and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remmlinger, Jürgen; Tippmann, Simon; Buchholz, Michael; Dietmayer, Klaus

    2014-05-01

    Lithium-ion cells, especially when used in electric vehicles at varying operation conditions, require a sophisticated battery management to ensure an optimal operation regarding operation limits, performance, and maximum lifetime. In some cases, the best trade-off between these conflictive goals can only be reached by considering internal, non-measurable cell characteristics. This article presents a data-driven model-reduction method for a strict electrochemical model. The model describes the charging process of a lithium-ion cell and possibly occurring degradation effects in a large temperature range and is presented in Part I of this contribution. The model-reduction process is explained in detail, and the gained model is compared to the original electrochemical model showing a very high approximation quality. This reduced model offers a very low computation complexity and is therefore suitable for the implementation in a battery management system (BMS). Based on this model, an advanced charging strategy is presented and evaluated for possible reductions in charging times especially at low temperatures.

  16. Ammonia emissions in Europe, part II: How ammonia emission abatement strategies affect secondary aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backes, Anna M.; Aulinger, Armin; Bieser, Johannes; Matthias, Volker; Quante, Markus

    2016-02-01

    In central Europe, ammonium sulphate and ammonium nitrate make up a large fraction of fine particles which pose a threat to human health. Most studies on air pollution through particulate matter investigate the influence of emission reductions of sulphur- and nitrogen oxides on aerosol concentration. Here, we focus on the influence of ammonia (NH3) emissions. Emission scenarios have been created on the basis of the improved ammonia emission parameterization implemented in the SMOKE for Europe and CMAQ model systems described in part I of this study. This includes emissions based on future European legislation (the National Emission Ceilings) as well as a dynamic evaluation of the influence of different agricultural sectors (e.g. animal husbandry) on particle formation. The study compares the concentrations of NH3, NH4+, NO3 -, sulphur compounds and the total concentration of particles in winter and summer for a political-, technical- and behavioural scenario. It was found that a reduction of ammonia emissions by 50% lead to a 24% reduction of the total PM2.5 concentrations in northwest Europe. The observed reduction was mainly driven by reduced formation of ammonium nitrate. Moreover, emission reductions during winter had a larger impact than during the rest of the year. This leads to the conclusion that a reduction of the ammonia emissions from the agricultural sector related to animal husbandry could be more efficient than the reduction from other sectors due to its larger share in winter ammonia emissions.

  17. Fractals in the neurosciences, Part II: clinical applications and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Ieva, Antonio; Esteban, Francisco J; Grizzi, Fabio; Klonowski, Wlodzimierz; Martín-Landrove, Miguel

    2015-02-01

    It has been ascertained that the human brain is a complex system studied at multiple scales, from neurons and microcircuits to macronetworks. The brain is characterized by a hierarchical organization that gives rise to its highly topological and functional complexity. Over the last decades, fractal geometry has been shown as a universal tool for the analysis and quantification of the geometric complexity of natural objects, including the brain. The fractal dimension has been identified as a quantitative parameter for the evaluation of the roughness of neural structures, the estimation of time series, and the description of patterns, thus able to discriminate different states of the brain in its entire physiopathological spectrum. Fractal-based computational analyses have been applied to the neurosciences, particularly in the field of clinical neurosciences including neuroimaging and neuroradiology, neurology and neurosurgery, psychiatry and psychology, and neuro-oncology and neuropathology. After a review of the basic concepts of fractal analysis and its main applications to the basic neurosciences in part I of this series, here, we review the main applications of fractals to the clinical neurosciences for a holistic approach towards a fractal geometry model of the brain. © The Author(s) 2013.

  18. Effect of stride length on overarm throwing delivery: Part II: An angular momentum response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Dan K; Crotin, Ryan L

    2016-04-01

    This is the second component of a two-part series investigating 3D momentum profiles specific to overhand throwing, where altering stride reportedly influences throwing mechanics resulting in significantly different physiologic outcomes and linear momentum profiles. Using a randomized cross-over design, nineteen pitchers (15 collegiate and 4 high school) were assigned to pitch two simulated 80-pitch games at ±25% of their desired stride length. An 8-camera motion capture system (240Hz) integrated with two force plates (960Hz) and radar gun tracked each overhand throw. Segmental angular momentums were summed yielding throwing arm and total body momentums, from which compensation ratio's (relative contribution between the two) were derived. Pairwise comparisons at hallmark events and phases identified significantly different angular momentum profiles, in particular total body, throwing arm, and momentum compensation ratios (P⩽0.05) as a result of manipulating stride length. Sagittal, frontal, and transverse angular momentums were affected by stride length changes. Transverse magnitudes showed greatest effects for total body, throwing arm, and momentum compensation ratios. Since the trunk is the main contributor to linear and angular momentum, longer strides appear to better regulate transverse trunk momentum in double support, whereas shorter strides show increased momentum prior to throwing arm acceleration.

  19. Weighed scalar averaging in LTB dust models, part II: a formalism of exact perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    Sussman, Roberto A

    2013-01-01

    We examine the exact perturbations that arise from the q-average formalism that was applied in the preceding article (part I) to Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi (LTB) models. By introducing an initial value parametrization, we show that all LTB scalars that take a FLRW "look alike" form (frequently used in the literature dealing with LTB models) follow as q-averages of covariant scalars that are common to FLRW models. These q--scalars determine for every averaging domain a unique FLRW background state through Darmois matching conditions at the domain boundary, though the definition of this background does not require an actual matching with a FLRW region (Swiss cheese type models). Local perturbations describe the deviation from the FLRW background state through the local gradients of covariant scalars at the boundary of every comoving domain, while non-local perturbations do so in terms of the intuitive notion of a "contrast" of local scalars with respect to FLRW reference values that emerge from q-averages assigned t...

  20. UNSTEADY HEAT TRANSFER IN AN ANNULAR PIPE. PART II: SWIRLING LAMINAR FLOW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelvin Ho Choon Seng

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The   heat  transfer   problem  in   magnetocaloric regenerators  during  magnetization  has  been  described  and investigated for convective heat transfer by means of axial flow in part I of this series.   This work will focus on enhancing the unsteady heat  transfer using swirling laminar flow generated using axial vanes.   The governing parameters for this  studyare,  the  D*  ratio  (Inner  diameter/Outer  diameter  and  the swirl number, S.   The study is conducted  using  dimensional analysis and commercial CFD codes provided by ANSYS CFX. The  hydrodynamics and the  heat transfer of the  model are compared with data from similar cases found in literature and is found to be in the vicinity of good agreement.Keywords-  Annular ducts; unsteady heat transfer;  magnetic refrigeration/cooling;   swirling   laminar    flow;    dimensional analysis.