Sample records for hf missile engagement

  1. Influence of Missile Fusillade Engagement Mode on Operation Efficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BU Xian-jin; REN Yi-guang; SHA Ji-chang


    Shoot efficiency is one of the most important evaluation indexes of the operation efficiency of weapon system. In this paper, based on definitions of the probability and the expected number of missed attacking missiles, the expected numbers of anti-missiles and attacking missiles hit by single anti-missile, fusillade mechanism of multi-missile is analyzed systematically. The weapon operation efficiency in various engagement patterns is also studied. The results show that double missiles fusillade is the most feasible manner for increasing the weapon operation efficiency.

  2. Key considerations in infrared simulations of the missile-aircraft engagement

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Willers, MS


    Full Text Available of these details are investigated in Section 6. The tactical missile system used against aircraft includes several subsystems: airframe, flight control, fuze, propulsion, telemetry, data link, warhead and seeker.4 The seeker of an imaging IR missile provides...:// on 12/19/2012 Terms of Use: /7 dual mode detectors view a scene in two separate bands of the spectrum. The seeker compares the spectral distribution ratio of the various targets in the field of view to a predefined threshold. If a...

  3. 高超声速巡航导弹攻防对抗仿真研究%Study about Hypersonic Cruise Missile Combat Engagement Simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑祥品; 王志刚


    在当前复杂作战环境下,对导弹武器系统进行攻防对抗研究是非常有必要的.针对攻防对抗这一复杂的动态过程,建立了高超声速巡航导弹攻防对抗仿真模型.并在此模型中,分别给出了结果评判模型、作战环境模型和对抗仿真模型.并根据所建立的仿真模型,计算出高超声速巡航导弹的突防概率.仿真算例结果表明,减小高超声速巡航导弹的雷达反射截面积RCS和增大高超声速巡航导弹的巡航速度是提高其突防效能的重要手段.%During current complex combat conditions, investigation of combat engagement of a new technology missile weapon system is necessary. Aimed at the complex dynamic course of combat engagement, a framework for hypersonic cruise missile combat engagement simulation is established. The combat engagement models of offensive side and defensive side are established in this framework, as well as combat environment models and damage probability of the hypersonic cruise missile are computed. Finally, penetration effectiveness of the hypersonic cruise missile is given. The results show that reducing the RCS and increasing the cruise velocity of the hypersonic cruise missile are two important approaches to improve the penetration effectiveness.

  4. A Simulation Model for Analyzing Reentry Vehicle/Antiballistic Missile Engagements (United States)


    allocation problem has four discrete parts according to Matlin : the weapon complex, the target complex, the engagement model, and the damage model (Ref of the system as described by Matlin , the weapon com- plex, the target complex, the engagement model, and the dam- age model (Ref 12:337). S~35...the aforementioned list of system parameters and the underlying logic flow of Matlin , the basic causal loop diagram can be expanded. Combining the

  5. 基于共生仿真的巡航导弹协同作战研究%Research on symbiotic simulation based cruise missile collaborative engagement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴红; 杨峰; 王维平


    In order to response to complex and diverse battlefield environment, cruise missile needs to carry out task through dynamic collaboration. Nowadays, domestic and international researches which focus on cruise missile collaborative engagement have presented some dynamic cooperative modes, but all they have several drawbacks to some extent. Because of this, this paper puts forward a limited autonomy of central control of distributed collaboration, designs system business logic and analyzes system function in detail, then uses it as the background to carry out system architecture design of remote control collaboration based on symbiotic simulation.%为了应对体系对抗过程中复杂多变的战场环境,巡航导弹需通过动态协同执行作战任务.目前,国内外在巡航导弹协同作战的研究过程中,提出了几种动态协同模式,但都在一定程度上存在局限性.基于此,首先提出有限中央控制的分布式自主协同,对其系统业务逻辑进行了详细的设计和系统功能进行了详细的分析,并以此为背景开展基于共生仿真的远程控制协同系统体系结构设计.

  6. Missile Aerodynamics (Aerodynamique des Missiles) (United States)


    guerre froide la production des missiles a baisse’, avec pour consequence une diminution des budgets de d6veloppement. Les nouveaux types de conflits ...Roma) Directeur - Gestion de l’information LUXEMBOURG (Recherche et developpement) - DRDGI 3 Voir Belgique Ministbre de la Difense nationale NORVEGE

  7. Infrared ship/decoy/missile encounter model (United States)

    Morin, Josee; Reid, Francoise; Morin, Andre


    Simulations of missile-ship-countermeasures engagements are used to determine the effective ways of defending a ship against infrared-guided missile threats. This paper describes one type of simulation that models the engagement of a ship deploying IR decoys by an infrared-guided seeker-head missile. This model was developed to assess the efficiency of IR decoys in protecting ships against these missiles. The simulation, Missile Infrared Decoy And Ship (MIDAS), is composed of three major blocks, the infrared scene generation, the seeker simulation and the missile dynamics simulation. The infrared scene generation block produces a three-dimensional IR scene from the target ship and flare models and transforms it into the two-dimensional IR image viewed by the seeker. The seeker simulation block is based on a generic conical scan seeker which uses a crossed-detector array for target detection. It processes the IR image to select a target and generates a steering command. The missile dynamics block computes the changes in missile trajectory according to the seeker steering command. The computations performed by each of the three blocks are explained in detail.

  8. Discrete Deterministic Modelling of Autonomous Missiles Salvos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Momcilo Milinovic


    Full Text Available The paper deals with mathematical models of sequent salvos battle, of autonomous flight missiles (AFM organized in the groups of combatants. Tactical integration of AFM system distance-controlled weapon is considered by performances of simultaneous approaches on targets, and continual battle models of guerilla and direct fire, are redesigned to the discrete-continual mixed model, for checking missiles sudden, and further salvos, attack effects. Superiority parameters, as well as losses and strengths of full, or the part of salvo battle, for the missiles groups as technology sub-systems combatants’, is expressed by mathematical and simulation examples. Targets engagements capacities of the missiles battle unit, is conducted through designed scenarios and mathematically derived in the research. Model orientated on answers about employment of rapid reaction defending tactics, by distance missiles attacks.Defence Science Journal, Vol. 64, No. 5, September 2014, pp.471-476, DOI:

  9. Countering Air and Missile Threats (United States)


    carrying the CMs. (2) SLCMs and ground-launched cruise missiles ( GLCMs ) present opportunities for detection as well as challenges for surveillance...if possible, and engage them before they can navigate to their targets. (6) Training patterns or identifiable launch sequence events for GLCMs are...rarely observed or practiced in an overt environment. Consequently, the probability is small for conclusively identifying a GLCM TEL using current

  10. Advanced Missile Signature Center (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Advanced Missile Signature Center (AMSC) is a national facility supporting the Missile Defense Agency (MDA) and other DoD programs and customers with analysis,...

  11. Minimum variation guidance laws for interceptor missiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weiss, M.; Shima, T.


    This paper introduces a new approach to guidance law design using linear quadratic optimal control theory, minimizing throughout the engagement the variation of the control input as well as the integral control effort. The guidance law is derived for arbitrary order missile dynamics and target maneu

  12. EFP Warhead Missile Fuze Analysis and Simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wei; FAN Ning-jun; WANG Zheng-jie


    The explosive formed penetrator(EFP)warhead missile projects the blast fragments in one direction normal to the missile longitudinal axis.Through analyzing on the two restrictions of EFP warhead explosion:trajectory restriction and attitude requirement,the concept of fuse time-delay tolerance is presented to be the measurement of the time of the EFP warhead explosion.The calculation models of fuze time-delaY tolerance under two restrictions are provided.Some crucial parameters playing important roles in calculation under attitude requirements are simulated.The simulation results show that the engagement plane angle,roll rate and warhead attack standoff influence the tolerance dramatically.

  13. Research on image fusion of missile team based on multi-agent cooperative blackboard model (United States)

    Sen, Guo; Munan, Li

    The target of cooperative engagement of missile teams is to furthest improve hit rate of target according to communication and cooperation among missiles. In this paper the problems of image fusion between missile teams in complex combat environment was analyzed, after which an muti-agent blackboard cooperative model was presented and a public information platform of missile team is built according to this model. Through these, the fusion of images taken from muti-sensor of missiles can be realized and the hit rate of attacking target will be improved. At last, an simulation experiment were performed, and the feasibility of the method is proved by simulation experiment.

  14. Letters: Subs, Not Missiles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tsipis, Kosta


      In a letter, MIT physicist Kosta Tsipis responds to a column in the August 1988 "Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists" and clarifies his position in regard to the MX and Trident II missile programs...

  15. The Effectiveness of the U.S. Missile Defense Capabilities as a Deterrent to the North Korean Missile Threat (United States)


    THE U.S. MISSILE DEFENSE CAPABILITIES AS A DETERRENT TO THE NORTH KOREAN MISSILE THREAT by Issac G. Gipson December 2007 Thesis Advisor...SUBJECT TERMS Missile Deterrence, Missile Defense , North Korean Missile Threat, North Korean Missile Systems, U.S. Missile Defense Capabilities, 16...19 III. CURRENT MISSILE DEFENSE ANALYSIS AGAINST NORTH KOREAN MISSILE THREAT

  16. Modeling Of Ballistic Missile Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salih Mahmoud Attiya


    Full Text Available Aerodynamic modeling of ballistic missile in pitch plane is performed and the open-loop transfer function related to the jet deflector angle as input and pitch rate, normal acceleration as output has been derived with certain acceptable assumptions. For typical values of ballistic missile parameters such as mass, velocity, altitude, moment of inertia, thrust, moment and lift coefficient show that, the step time response and frequency response of the missile is unstable. The steady state gain, damping ratio and undraped natural frequency depend on the missile parameters. To stabilize the missile a lead compensator must be added to the forward loop.

  17. The North Korean Missile Program (United States)

    Wright, David


    In recent years, the development of ballistic missiles by North Korea has been a key motivation for US efforts to stem missile proliferation and to develop defenses against intermediate and long-range missiles. In the 1980s, North Korea reverse-engineered short-range Soviet Scud missiles and began to produce and sell them. In 1993, it flight-tested a missile reported to have a range of up to 1,300 kilometers, which would allow it to target most of Japan. In 1998, it launched a multi-stage missile over Japan; it later announced that the launch had been an attempt to place a satellite in orbit. An important question is what these tests imply for its current capability and its possible future missile development. Since North Korea has sold missiles to countries in the Middle East and South Asia and is reported to be assisting Iran's missile development program, understanding its capabilities is relevant to security concerns in several parts of the world. In this talk I will discuss my analysis of the publicly available information about North Korea's missile tests, and my conclusions about possible future developments. This includes estimates of ranges and payloads of its next potential generation of missiles, and comments about their potential military utility.

  18. Missile defence : An overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weimar, P.W.L.


    At the present day, an unparalleled number of international actors, be it national governments or non-state groups, have acquired or are seeking to acquire both weapons of mass destruction and the means to deliver them. Those means of delivery can be Ballistic Missiles that can bridge vast – even

  19. Missile defence : An overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weimar, P.W.L.


    At the present day, an unparalleled number of international actors, be it national governments or non-state groups, have acquired or are seeking to acquire both weapons of mass destruction and the means to deliver them. Those means of delivery can be Ballistic Missiles that can bridge vast – even in

  20. Attacking the Cruise Missile Threat (United States)


    little warning before a strike. Cruise missiles such as Silkworm and Exocet are designed to fly at “sea-skimming” levels only a few feet above the surface...the SS-N-2 Styx missile, a surface-to-surface antiship cruise missile. Most variants of modern cruise missiles are conversions of the Styx—the Silkworm ...number of Soviet built SS-N-2 Styxes that had been dismounted from boats.23 The Silkworm , the predominant of these variants, is the “Scud” of cruise

  1. European Missile Defense and Russia (United States)


    most senior level—the only one that matters in Russian decisionmaking cul - ture—is also of significance today and will also be re- ferred to later in... org /missile-defense/us-ballistic-missile-defense/p30607. 9. Email exchange with author, July 2013. 10. “Safeguard,” Washington, DC: Federation of Ameri

  2. Cooled and uncooled infrared detectors for missile seekers (United States)

    Fraenkel, Rami; Haski, Jacob; Mizrahi, Udi; Shkedy, Lior; Shtrichman, Itay; Pinsky, Ephi


    Electro-optical missile seekers pose exceptional requirements for infrared (IR) detectors. These requirements include: very short mission readiness (time-to-image), one-time and relatively short mission duration, extreme ambient conditions, high sensitivity, fast frame rate, and in some cases small size and cost. SCD is engaged in the development and production of IR detectors for missile seeker applications for many years. 0D, 1D and 2D InSb focal plane arrays (FPAs) are packaged in specially designed fast cool-down Dewars and integrated with Joule-Thomson (JT) coolers. These cooled MWIR detectors were integrated in numerous seekers of various missile types, for short and long range applications, and are combat proven. New technologies for the MWIR, such as epi-InSb and XBn-InAsSb, enable faster cool-down time and higher sensitivity for the next generation seekers. The uncooled micro-bolometer technology for IR detectors has advanced significantly over the last decade, and high resolution - high sensitivity FPAs are now available for different applications. Their much smaller size and cost with regard to the cooled detectors makes these uncooled LWIR detectors natural candidates for short and mid-range missile seekers. In this work we will present SCD's cooled and uncooled solutions for advanced electro-optical missile seekers.

  3. Adaptive Missile Guidance Using GPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallavi Sharad Rupnar


    Full Text Available The name adaptive means we can guide any missile using GPS in any critical conditions. GPS guided missiles, using the exceptional navigational and surveying abilities of GPS, after being launched, could deliver a warhead to any part of the globe via the interface of the onboard computer in the missile with the GPS satellite system.GPS allows accurate targeting of various military weapons including ICBMs, cruise missiles and precision-guided munitions. Artillery projectiles with embedded GPS receivers able to withstand accelerations of 12,000 G have been developed for use in 155mm.GPS guided weapons, with their technological advances over previous, are the superior weapon of choice in modern days

  4. Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS) (United States)


    Estimate RDT&E - Research , Development, Test, and Evaluation SAR - Selected Acquisition Report SCP - Service Cost Position TBD - To Be Determined TY - Then...all ranges and in all phases of flight. Following guidance from the President, the Secretary of Defense approved the Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD...based Midcourse Defense (GMD) system to enhance our capability against Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles. We are currently sustaining 30

  5. ExtraHF survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piepoli, Massimo F; Binno, Simone; Corrà, Ugo


    AIMS: In heart failure (HF), exercise training programmes (ETPs) are a well-recognized intervention to improve symptoms, but are still poorly implemented. The Heart Failure Association promoted a survey to investigate whether and how cardiac centres in Europe are using ETPs in their HF patients...... of evidence on safety or benefit was cited. When implemented, an ETP was proposed to all HF patients in only 55% of the centres, with restriction according to severity or aetiology. CONCLUSIONS: With respect to previous surveys, there is evidence of increased availability of ETPs in HF in Europe, although too...

  6. Hyper Velocity Missiles For Defence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faqir Minhas


    Full Text Available The paper reviews the history of technical development in the field of hypervelocity missiles. It highlights the fact that the development of anti-ballistic systems in USA, Russia, France, UK, Sweden, and Israel is moving toward the final deployment stage; that USA and Israel are trying to sell PAC 2 and Arrow 2 to India; and that India’s Agni and Prithvi missiles have improved their accuracy, with assistance from Russia. Consequently, the paper proposes enhanced effort for development in Pakistan of a basic hypersonic tactical missile, with 300 KM range, 500 KG payload, and multi-rolecapability. The author argues that a system, developed within the country, at the existing or upgraded facilities, will not violate MTCR restrictions, and would greatly enhance the country’s defense capability. Furthermore, it would provide high technology jobs toPakistani citizens. The paper reinforces the idea by suggesting that evolution in the field of aviation and electronics favors the development of ballistic, cruise and guided missile technologies; and that flight time of short and intermediate range missiles is so short that its interception is virtually impossible.

  7. Joint Air-to-Ground Missile (JAGM) (United States)


    Navy. The JAGM mission is to develop the next generation of aviation launched fire and forget missiles to replace the HELLFIRE laser and Longbow...EMD contract to develop the next generation of aviation launched missiles to replace the HELLFIRE laser and Longbow radar missiles . JAGM December 2015...Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-355 Joint Air-to-Ground Missile (JAGM) As of FY 2017 President’s Budget Defense Acquisition

  8. Bayesian Missile System Reliability from Point Estimates (United States)


    OCT 2014 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Bayesian Missile System Reliability from Point Estimates 5a. CONTRACT...Principle (MEP) to convert point estimates to probability distributions to be used as priors for Bayesian reliability analysis of missile data, and...illustrate this approach by applying the priors to a Bayesian reliability model of a missile system. 15. SUBJECT TERMS priors, Bayesian , missile

  9. 15 CFR 742.5 - Missile technology. (United States)


    ... to the design, development, production, or use of missiles. These items are identified in ECCNs on... air vehicle systems (including cruise missile systems, target drones, and reconnaissance drones... the design, development, production, or use of missiles; (iii) The capabilities and objectives of...

  10. Impulsive control for hypervelocity missiles (United States)

    Magness, R. W.


    A hypervelocity agile interceptor/quickshot is being developed for defense of ballistic missile launch sites. A guidance and control system is required to achieve the missile guidance accuracy necessary for direct target impact. Attitude control systems evaluated for the agile interceptor included aerodynamic controls, thrust vector controls and impulsive motor controls. The solid squib impulsive control motion was selected because of high response rate, low weight and low volume. A baseline motor configuration was designed and a solid propellant squib was developed for use in the control system. Ballistic pendulum and bench tests were conducted with a test impulsive control motor to measure nominal performance, establish the standard deviation of performance, and define requirements to prevent sympathetic ignition. A dynamic control wind tunnel test was also conducted to determine the impulse augmentation due to the impulsive motor jet interaction with the missile boundary layer. The degree and direction of augmentation was measured for variations in Mach number and angle of attack.

  11. Remote control missile model test (United States)

    Allen, Jerry M.; Shaw, David S.; Sawyer, Wallace C.


    An extremely large, systematic, axisymmetric body/tail fin data base was gathered through tests of an innovative missile model design which is described herein. These data were originally obtained for incorporation into a missile aerodynamics code based on engineering methods (Program MISSILE3), but can also be used as diagnostic test cases for developing computational methods because of the individual-fin data included in the data base. Detailed analysis of four sample cases from these data are presented to illustrate interesting individual-fin force and moment trends. These samples quantitatively show how bow shock, fin orientation, fin deflection, and body vortices can produce strong, unusual, and computationally challenging effects on individual fin loads. Comparisons between these data and calculations from the SWINT Euler code are also presented.

  12. Embedded Systems - Missile Detection/Interception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Cintron


    Full Text Available Missile defense systems are often related to major military resources aimed at shielding a specific region from incoming attacks. They are intended to detect, track, intercept, and destruct incoming enemy missiles. These systems vary in cost, efficiency, dependability, and technology. In present times, the possession of these types of systems is associated with large capacity military countries. Demonstrated here are the mathematical techniques behind missile systems which calculate trajectories of incoming missiles and potential intercept positions after initial missile detection. This procedure involved the use of vector-valued functions, systems of equations, and knowledge of projectile motion concepts.

  13. Trajectory Optimization Design for Morphing Wing Missile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruisheng Sun; Chao Ming; Chuanjie Sun


    This paper presents a new particle swarm optimization ( PSO) algorithm to optimize the trajectory of morphing⁃wing missile so as to achieve the enlargement of the maximum range. Equations of motion for the two⁃dimensional dynamics are derived by treating the missile as an ideal controllable mass point. An investigation of aerodynamic characteristics of morphing⁃wing missile with varying geometries is performed. After deducing the optimizing trajectory model for maximizing range, a type of discrete method is put forward for taking optimization control problem into nonlinear dynamic programming problem. The optimal trajectory is solved by using PSO algorithm and penalty function method. The simulation results suggest that morphing⁃wing missile has the larger range than the fixed⁃shape missile when launched at supersonic speed, while morphing⁃wing missile has no obvious range increment than the fixed⁃shape missile at subsonic speed.

  14. Robust missile feedback control strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trottemant, E.J.; Scherer, C.W.; Weiss, M.; Vermeulen, A.


    The nature of the missile interception problem with two noncooperative players leads to the field of differential games. Introducing nonlinear uncertain models can potentially lead to nonexistence of game theoretic equilibrium strategies, computationally intractable problems, and/or highly reduced p

  15. Acceleration effects on missile aerodynamics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gledhill, Irvy MA


    Full Text Available Practical requirements are now arising in which significant acceleration takes place during flight; 5th generation missiles, such as A-Darter, execute turns at 100 g, where g is the acceleration due to gravity, and thrust from propulsion systems may...

  16. Countermeasure effectiveness against an intelligent imaging infrared anti-ship missile (United States)

    Gray, Greer J.; Aouf, Nabil; Richardson, Mark; Butters, Brian; Walmsley, Roy


    Ship self defense against heat-seeking anti-ship missiles is of great concern to modern naval forces. One way of protecting ships against these threats is to use infrared (IR) offboard countermeasures. These decoys need precise placement to maximize their effectiveness, and simulation is an invaluable tool used in determining optimum deployment strategies. To perform useful simulations, high-fidelity models of missiles are required. We describe the development of an imaging IR anti-ship missile model for use in countermeasure effectiveness simulations. The missile model's tracking algorithm is based on a target recognition system that uses a neural network to discriminate between ships and decoys. The neural network is trained on shape- and intensity-based features extracted from simulated imagery. The missile model is then used within ship-decoy-missile engagement simulations, to determine how susceptible it is to the well-known walk-off seduction countermeasure technique. Finally, ship survivability is improved by adjusting the decoy model to increase its effectiveness against the tracker.

  17. 78 FR 9768 - Bureau of International Security and Nonproliferation Imposition of Missile Sanctions on Two... (United States)


    ... of International Security and Nonproliferation Imposition of Missile Sanctions on Two Chinese Foreign.... SUMMARY: A determination has been made that two foreign persons in China have engaged in activities that...) . Accordingly, the following sanctions are being imposed on these foreign persons for two years: (A) Denial of...

  18. Missile vascular injuries: 19-year experience. (United States)

    Ahanger, Abdul Gani; Wani, Mohd Lateef; Lone, Reyaz Ahmad; Singh, Shyam; Hussain, Zahur; Mir, Ishtiyak A; Irshad, Ifat; Ashraf, Hakeem Zubair; Dar, Abdul Majeed; Lone, Ghulam Nabi; Bhat, Mohammad Akbar; Sharma, Mukand Lal


    Missile vascular injuries have reached an epidemic proportion in Kashmir valley since the eruption of militancy. The present study was undertaken to analyze the mode, pattern, presentation, and management of missile vascular injuries. A retrospective study of patients with missile vascular injury from January 1990 to October 2008 was undertaken. Five hundred eighty patients with missile vascular injury were studied. All patients with vascular injury due to causes other than missiles were excluded from the study. Most of the patients were treated by interpositional saphenous vein graft or end-to-end anastomosis. The most common complication was wound infection (22.7%) followed by graft occlusion (3.8%). The amputation rate was 3.3% and was higher in patients with a delay of >6 hours to revascularization and associated fractures. Missile vascular injury requires prompt resuscitation and revascularization. Preoperative angiography is seldom necessary. Doppler study may sometimes be needed to aid in the diagnosis.

  19. Electro-chemical batteries for guided missiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. S. Jaggi


    Full Text Available Electro-chemical batteries owing to their simplicity and ease of stowage form one of the sources of electrical power inside a missile. However, all batteries are not suited for this application. This article describes the special features required of a missile borne battery pack and discusses the characteristics of various types of batteries available today in the world. Conclusions have been drawn as to the most suitable types of batteries for missile applications.

  20. Soviet debate on missile defense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parrott, B.


    Although the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) is meant to cope with the danger of a Soviet nuclear attack, the recent US debate over SDI has paid surprisingly little attention to Soviet views of ballistic missile defense. Despite the existence of a substantial body of pertinent scholarship, the debate has failed to take adequate account of major changes in Soviet ballistic missile defense policy since the mid-1960s. It has also neglected the links between current Soviet military policy and broader Soviet political and economic choices. The Soviets regard SDI not as a novel undertaking to reduce the risks of nuclear war but as an extension of the geopolitical competition between the superpowers. This competition has been dominated in the 1980s, in the Soviet view, by sharply increased US assertiveness and the decline of detente. Viewing SDI as a manifestation of these general trends, Soviet decision makers find the prospect of an unregulated race in ballistic missile defenses and military space technologies deeply unsettling. The deterioration of superpower relations has raised serious doubts in Moscow about the wisdom of Soviet external policy during the 1970s and has provoked sharp internal differences over policy toward the US. Already highly suspicious of the Reagan administration, the elite is united by a general conviction that SDI is an American gambit that may ultimately undercut past Soviet strategic gains and pose a grave new threat to Soviet security. 14 references.

  1. Missile Electro-Optical Countermeasures Simulation Laboratory (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory comprises several hardware-in-the-loop missile flight simulations designed specifically to evaluate the effectiveness of electro-optical air defense...

  2. Infrared Background and Missiles Signature Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.V. Renuka


    Full Text Available The proliferation of the missile threats in the existing threat scenario for airborne platform is a serious point of consideration for any mission planning. Missile warning system is an electronic warfare support system which gives warning to the pilot when a missile is detected in the scenario. The airborne platform has to be installed with missile warning sensors to give a spherical coverage, so that the sensors can detect the IR intensity variation in the ground scenario. This IR intensity variation has to be further analysed to differentiate the raising missile intensity from the varying background clutter. In order to differentiate the threat from the background clutter, the system should have sufficient background data set for online comparison thereby having less false alarm rate. The efficiency and performance of any missile warning system is validated with respect to its probability of declaration against the false alarm rate. Hence, to realize an efficient functioning of missile warning system, building IR background data base and missile signature database are the primary task. This paper details the methodology to be adapted for the building of tactical missile IR signatures and background data.

  3. Infrared Background and Missiles Signature Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.V. Renuka


    Full Text Available The proliferation of the missile threats in the existing threat scenario for airborne platform is a serious point of consideration for any mission planning. Missile warning system is an electronic warfare support system which gives warning to the pilot when a missile is detected in the scenario. The airborne platform has to be installed with missile warning sensors to give a spherical coverage, so that the sensors can detect the IR intensity variation in the ground scenario. This IR intensity variation has to be further analysed to differentiate the raising missile intensity from the varying background clutter. In order to differentiate the threat from the background clutter, the system should have sufficient background data set for online comparison thereby having less false alarm rate. The efficiency and performance of any missile warning system is validated with respect to its probability of declaration against the false alarm rate. Hence, to realize an efficient functioning of missile warning system, building IR background data base and missile signature database are the primary task. This paper details the methodology to be adapted for the building of tactical missile IR signatures and background data.Defence Science Journal, 2013, 63(6, pp.611-615, DOI:

  4. The Cooperative Ballistic Missile Defence Game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, L.; Barros, A.I.; Monsuur, H.


    The increasing proliferation of ballistic missiles and weapons of mass destruction poses new risks worldwide. For a threatened nation and given the characteristics of this threat a layered ballistic missile defence system strategy appears to be the preferred solution. However, such a strategy involv

  5. Principles of Guided Missiles and Nuclear Weapons. (United States)

    Naval Personnel Program Support Activity, Washington, DC.

    Fundamentals of missile and nuclear weapons systems are presented in this book which is primarily prepared as the second text of a three-volume series for students of the Navy Reserve Officers' Training Corps and the Officer Candidate School. Following an introduction to guided missiles and nuclear physics, basic principles and theories are…

  6. The Cooperative Ballistic Missile Defence Game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, L.; Barros, A.I.; Monsuur, H.


    The increasing proliferation of ballistic missiles and weapons of mass destruction poses new risks worldwide. For a threatened nation and given the characteristics of this threat a layered ballistic missile defence system strategy appears to be the preferred solution. However, such a strategy

  7. Frederiksberg HF kursus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindstrøm, Maria Duclos


    Notatet bygger på et interviewmateriale med dimitterede HF-kursister 3 måneder efter endt eksamen. Notatet undersøger dels, hvad der har hjulpet til at gennemføre, dels hvad der har været negativt og vanskeligt ved uddannelsen. Endvidere belyser notatet hvad kursisterne oplever at tage med fra de...

  8. Accelerating Missile Threat Engagement Simulations Using Personal Computer Graphics Cards (United States)


    personal computer on the market today, have reached a level of power and programmability that enables them to be used as high performance stream...expected to continue at this rate for another five years, perhaps achieving tera-FLOP performance by 2005 [Mac03]. While the main, market -driven...JEFFERS // 11 nov 04 -- multiplies 1x1 scene by 8x8 reticle pallette, then does // 4:1 redux; results in RT that is quarter sized of

  9. The Role of Dyadic Confidence on Engagement in Heart Failure Care Behaviors. (United States)

    Lyons, Karen S; Gelow, Jill M; Hiatt, Shirin O; Mudd, James O; Auld, Jonathan; Chien, Christopher V; Lee, Christopher S


    Increasingly, older adults and their families are expected to manage complex conditions with little support. In the case of heart failure (HF), symptom monitoring and management are critical in preventing acute exacerbations and poor clinical outcomes. The current study examined the role of dyadic confidence on engagement in HF care behaviors by patients and their spouses. A cross-sectional design was used to examine 60 couples living with HF. Three dyadic confidence variables were created to represent average level of confidence, gap in confidence, and direction of gap within each couple. A series of multilevel models were used to examine dyadic engagement in HF maintenance, management, and consulting behaviors and the role of dyadic confidence. Patients were significantly more engaged in HF maintenance behaviors than spouses; couples were more collaborative in their engagement in HF management and consulting behaviors. Average level of confidence in the dyad was significantly associated with patient engagement in all three HF behaviors. Spouse engagement was associated with more congruence in confidence and having higher levels of confidence than their partners with HF. Women were significantly more engaged in HF behaviors than men, regardless of role. The study employed a dyadic approach to HF care and a novel approach to confidence. Findings confirm the social nature of confidence and its important role in HF. Clinicians have opportunities to optimize patient outcomes by fostering greater collaboration within couples.

  10. DDG-1000 Missile Integration: A Case Study (United States)


    Effectiveness (Pk) ‐ Platform  Environment ‐ Interface Definition Requirements Flow Interface  Definition Legend Figure 28. DDG-1000 Requirements Flow (from...development specifications and gaps that still exist in requirements. 71 Legacy Missile Requirements Legend DDG1000 Missile...Office Consolidates Programs, Cuts Costs.” Sea Power, Navy League of the United States, Arlington VA. February 2004. Accessed July 2013. http

  11. Attacking the Theater Mobile Ballistic Missile Threat (United States)


    and Record, �Theater Ballistic Missile Defense and US Contingency Operations,� 13. 43Greg Myre, Associated Press, �De Klerk Reveals South African...possession). ____. Briefing, subject: �WarBreaker.� 17 December 1992. Myre, Greg. Associated Press. �De Klerk Reveals South African Nuclear...April�3 May 1992, 1,44. Ordway, Frederick I. III and Ronald C. Wakeford. International Missile and Spacecraft Guide. New York: McGraw

  12. Ballistic Missile Defense. Past and Future (United States)


    and deployed. These are the two big questions of the anti-ballistic missile ( ABM ) debate. It must be emphasized that the extreme polarization of the opposing positions that have been taken. Consider this statement: “The whole ABM question touched off so intense...earlier that same year by the Washington Post and ABC News11 reported that 80 percent of the American population was in favor of building a missile

  13. Quality and Reliability of Missile System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Prahlada


    Full Text Available Missile system is a single-shot weapon system which requires very high quality and reliability. Therefore, quality and reliability have to be built into the system from designing to testing and evaluation. In this paper, the technological challenges encountered during development of operational missile system and the factors considered to build quality and reliability through the design, manufacture, assembly, testing and by sharing the knowledge with other aerospace agencies, industries and institutions, etc. have been presented.

  14. A qualitative analysis of future air combat with 'fire and forget' missiles (United States)

    Shinar, J.; Davidovitz, A.


    A set of previous examples have demonstrated that the two-target game formulation is adequate for modeling air-to-air combat between two aggressively motivated fighter aircraft. The present paper describes such an engagement between two aircraft of different speed but equipped with the same 'fire and forget' type guided missiles. The results of the analysis suggest a new concept of air combat tactics for future scenarios.

  15. Acquisition of the Army Tactical Missile System Anti-Personnel/Anti-Materiel Block IA Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    The Army Tactical Missile System Anti-PersonnellAnti-Materiel Block IA missile (Block IA) is a ground-launched missile system consisting of a surface-to-surface guided missile with an anti-personnel/anti-materiel warhead...

  16. Variable centroid control scheme over hypersonic tactical missile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yl; Yan(易彦); ZHOU; Fengqi(周凤岐)


    This paper presents a brand-new tactical missile control scheme--variable centroid vector control according to the international highlight in the field of missile control and the research status of hypersonic missile control in China. Four critical problems related with the new control method are included: improving phase control in the spinning missile single-channel control; establishing variable centroid controlled spinning missile attitude dynamics equations; analyzing variable centroid control strategies and analyzing the stability of the controlled missile and implementing robust control. The achievements and results obtained are valuable and helpful to the theoretical explorations and engineering applications.

  17. Variable centroid control scheme over hypersonic tactical missile (United States)

    Yi, Yan; Zhou, Fengqi


    This paper presents a brand-new tactical missile control scheme—variable centroid vector control according to the international highlight in the field of missile control and the research status of hypersonic missile control in China. Four critical problems related with the new control method are included: improving phase control in the spinning missile single-channel control; establishing variable centroid controlled spinning missile attitude dynamics equations; analyzing variable centroid control strategies and analyzing the stability of the controlled missile and implementing robust control. The achievements and results obtained are valuable and helpful to the theoretical explorations and engineering applications.

  18. Pulsed inductive HF laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Razhev, A M; Kargapol' tsev, E S [Institute of Laser Physics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Churkin, D S; Demchuk, S V [Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)


    We report the results of experimentally investigated dependences of temporal, spectral and spatial characteristics of an inductive HF-laser generation on the pump conditions. Gas mixtures H{sub 2} – F{sub 2}(NF{sub 3} or SF6{sub 6}) and He(Ne) – H{sub 2} – F{sub 2}(NF{sub 3} or SF{sub 6}) were used as active media. The FWHM pulse duration reached 0.42 μs. This value corresponded to a pulsed power of 45 kW. For the first time, the emission spectrum of an inductive HF laser was investigated, which consisted of seven groups of bands with centres around the wavelengths of 2732, 2736, 2739, 2835, 2837, 2893 and 2913 nm. The cross section profile of the laser beam was a ring with a diameter of about 20 mm and width of about 5 mm. Parameters of laser operation in the repetitively pulsed regime were sufficiently stable. The amplitude instability of light pulses was no greater than 5% – 6%. (lasers)

  19. Missile captive carry monitoring using a capacitive MEMS accelerometer (United States)

    Hatchell, Brian; Mauss, Fred; Santiago-Rojas, Emiliano; Amaya, Ivan; Skorpik, Jim; Silvers, Kurt; Marotta, Steve


    Military missiles are exposed to many sources of mechanical vibration that can affect system reliability, safety, and mission effectiveness. One of the most significant exposures to vibration occurs when the missile is being carried by an aviation platform, which is a condition known as captive carry. If the duration of captive carry exposure could be recorded during the missile's service life, several advantages could be realized. Missiles that have been exposed to durations outside the design envelop could be flagged or screened for maintenance or inspection; lightly exposed missiles could be selected for critical mission applications; and missile allocation to missions could be based on prior use to avoid overuse. The U. S. Army Aviation and Missile Research Development and Engineering Center (AMRDEC) has been developing health monitoring systems to assess and improve reliability of missiles during storage and field exposures. Under the direction of AMRDEC staff, engineers at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory have developed a Captive Carry Health Monitor (CCHM) for the HELLFIRE II missile. The CCHM is an embedded usage monitoring device installed on the outer skin of the HELLFIRE II missile to record the cumulative hours the host missile has been in captive carry mode and thereby assess the overall health of the missile. This paper provides an overview of the CCHM electrical and package design, describes field testing and data analysis techniques used to identify captive carry, and discusses the potential application of missile health and usage data for real-time reliability analysis and fleet management.

  20. HF Interference, Procedures and Tools (Interferences HF, procedures et outils) (United States)


    such sources. The existing HF background noise possibly may be increased via ground wave and/or sky wave propagation. Increase of the existing HF...télécommunications filaires à large bande. Les télécommunications via le réseau électrique courant, dites PowerLine Communications (PLT ou PLC) et diverses...cumulative de nombreuses sources de même type. Le bruit de fond HF existant risque d’être augmenté par propagation de l’onde terrestre et/ou aérienne

  1. Missile Captive Carry Monitoring using a Capacitive MEMS Accelerometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatchell, Brian K.; Mauss, Fredrick J.; Santiago-Rojas, Emiliano; Amaya, Ivan A.; Skorpik, James R.; Silvers, Kurt L.; Marotta, Steve


    Military missiles are exposed to many sources of mechanical vibration that can affect system reliability, safety, and mission effectiveness. One of the most significant exposures to vibration occurs when the missile is being carried by an aviation platform, which is a condition known as captive carry. If the duration of captive carry exposure could be recorded during the missile’s service life, several advantages could be realized. Missiles that have been exposed to durations outside the design envelop could be flagged or screened for maintenance or inspection; lightly exposed missiles could be selected for critical mission applications; and missile allocation to missions could be based on prior use to avoid overuse. The U. S. Army Aviation and Missile Research Development and Engineering Center (AMRDEC) has been developing health monitoring systems to assess and improve reliability of missiles during storage and field exposures. Under the direction of AMRDEC staff, engineers at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory have developed a Captive Carry Health Monitor (CCHM) for the HELLFIRE II missile. The CCHM is an embedded usage monitoring device installed on the outer skin of the HELLFIRE II missile to record the cumulative hours the host missile has been in captive carry mode and thereby assess the overall health of the missile. This paper provides an overview of the CCHM electrical and package design, describes field testing and data analysis techniques used to identify captive carry, and discusses the potential application of missile health and usage data for real-time reliability analysis and fleet management.

  2. Theater Ballistic Missile Defense Policy, Missions and Programs: Current Status (United States)


    destroy its target. A French-Italian program called SAMP/T (Sol-Air Moyenne Portee/ Terrestre ) is being considered for a point defense system; further...Patriot PAC-3 missile. The Multimode Missile includes semi-active track- via -missile guidance, improved propulsion and uses an aimed blast

  3. The effectiveness of the U.S. missile defense capabilities as a deterrent to the North Korean missile threat


    Gipson, Issac G.


    Over the last five years, America has placed an ever-increasing emphasis on missile defense and currently spends nearly $10 billion annually on its development. The United States' current missile Defense system is integrated; it depends on the cooperation of defensive elements aboard ships, on land, in the air and space. The objective is to provide a layered defense with multiple opportunities to destroy an incoming missile. By investing heavily in missile defense technology, the United ...

  4. The new politics of missile proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karp, A. [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States)


    The author addresses the most consequential proliferation battle of the 1990s which occurred in Washington over the interpretation of the long-term threat to the United States from ballistic missiles. In the early 1970s, the stabilization of the US-Soviet strategic relationship led to new disputes over the other side`s future intentions, seen most graphically in Western debates over the implications of the Soviet SS-18 and SS-20 missile programs. Today, in much the same way, proliferation politics has matured to the point that surprises are few and the most challenging problem is anticipating the more distant future. Washington`s ballistic missile proliferation battle was sparked by National Intelligence Estimate (NIE) 95-19, entitled {open_quotes}Emerging Threats to North America During the Next 15 Years,{close_quotes} released by the National Intelligence Council in November 1995. This document updated the evidence of regional missile programs reviewed in a similar report issued in 1993, and recapitulated the previous finding that {open_quotes}No country, other than the major declared nuclear powers, will develop or otherwise acquire a ballistic missile in the next 15 years that could threatened the contiguous 48 states or Canada.{close_quotes} The new report confirmed what several other studies of missile proliferation had already established: that besides the five nuclear-weapon states (the United States, Russia, China, France and Britain), only India, Israel and Japan are in a position to develop an ICBM during the foreseeable future, and while all have relevant capabilities, none are undertaking the steps necessary to develop an actual ICBM.

  5. Current Trends in Tactical Missile Guidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Vathsal


    Full Text Available The problem of tactical missile guidance is very challenging and has been treated using several basic metlfodologies in the past four decades. Major techniques can be grouped underclassical guidance laws, modern guidance laws, l'aws for manoeuvring targets, predictive guidance for endgame scenario, and guidance laws based on intelligent control methods. Each technique has some advantages and disadvantages while implementing in a practical system. Guidance law selection is dictated by nature of flight profile like boost, midcourse, terminal homing, etc, and also miss-distance and a single-shot kill probability. This paper presents a brief survey of the existing techniques and current trends in tactical missile guidance.

  6. Air and Missile Defense Radar (AMDR) (United States)


    March 8, 2016 11:04:34 UNCLASSIFIED 4 CAPT Seiko Okano 1333 Isaac Hull Ave , SE Washington, DC 20376-7101 Phone: 202-781-0461 Fax: the combat system. AMDR will be deployed on the Guided Missile Destroyer (DDG) 51 Flight III. AMDR December 2015 SAR March 8, 2016 11:04:34...Abbreviations Ao - Operational Availability CMS - Combat Management System DDG - Guided Missile Destroyer kW - Kilowatt TTL - Training Task List AMDR December

  7. An analysis of Common Missile and TOW 2B using the Janus combat simulation



    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. The US Army is currently developing a new close combat missile system, Common Missile, to replace the aging Tubelaunched, Optically-tracked, Wire-guided (TOW 2B) and HELLFIRE missile systems. The Common Missile will have a greater range and improved target acquisition capability over the current missile systems. The purpose of this thesis is to compare the performance of the Common Missile and the TOW 2B missile in a simulated ground ...

  8. Marburg Hemorrhagic Fever (Marburg HF) (United States)

    ... CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Marburg hemorrhagic fever (Marburg HF) Note: Javascript is disabled or is ... first recognized in 1967, when outbreaks of hemorrhagic fever occurred simultaneously in laboratories in Marburg and Frankfurt, ...

  9. Rationale for wind-borne missile criteria for DOE facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, J R; Murray, R


    High winds tend to pick up and transport various objects and debris, which are referred to as wind-borne missiles or tornado missiles, depending on the type of storm. Missiles cause damage by perforating the building envelope or by collapsing structural elements such as walls, columns or frames. The primary objectives of this study are as follows: (1) to provide a basis for wind-borne or tornado missile criteria for the design and evaluation of DOE facilities, and (2) to provide guidelines for the design and evaluation of impact-resistant missile barriers for DOE facilities The first objective is accomplished through a synthesis of information from windstorm damage documentation experience and computer simulation of missile trajectories. The second objective is accomplished by reviewing the literature, which describes various missile impact tests, and by conducting a series of impact tests at a Texas Tech University facility to fill in missing information.

  10. Hf Transition Probabilities and Abundances

    CERN Document Server

    Lawler, J E; Labby, Z E; Sneden, C; Cowan, J J; Ivans, I I


    Radiative lifetimes from laser-induced fluorescence measurements, accurate to about +/- 5 percent, are reported for 41 odd-parity levels of Hf II. The lifetimes are combined with branching fractions measured using Fourier transform spectrometry to determine transition probabilities for 150 lines of Hf II. Approximately half of these new transition probabilities overlap with recent independent measurements using a similar approach. The two sets of measurements are found to be in good agreement for measurements in common. Our new laboratory data are applied to refine the hafnium photospheric solar abundance and to determine hafnium abundances in 10 metal-poor giant stars with enhanced r-process abundances. For the Sun we derive log epsilon (Hf) = 0.88 +/- 0.08 from four lines; the uncertainty is dominated by the weakness of the lines and their blending by other spectral features. Within the uncertainties of our analysis, the r-process-rich stars possess constant Hf/La and Hf/Eu abundance ratios, log epsilon (Hf...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available A Statistical report of 912 battle casualtiesadmitted in a special unit of the neurological surgery department during 49 months of the recent war was given. Methods of their evaluation, operative categories, management poli¬cies including techniques of Missile and bullet removal, and their complications were discussed.

  12. Cruise missiles should not stop START

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsipis, K.


    A method for verifying a cruise-missile agreement that would be acceptable to the military, industrial, and intelligence communities in both nations must be as unintrusive as possible, while remaining immune to cheating of any significance. This is the goal of the technical solutions outlined here. The elements of a verification regime described do not require routine, intrusive, on-site visits to naval vessels, aircraft, air bases, or weapons magazines where missiles may be stored. They do not interfere with the operational readiness of the missiles, and they protect legitimate military secrets of the inspected nation. If supported by competent national technical means of verification such as those both sides already employ, with a small number of on-site challenge inspections, a combination of technical solutions and procedures such as these could be effective. They would adequately safeguard the national security and sovereignty of the participating nations while providing policymakers with the option of a treaty that limits the number of long-range nuclear cruise missiles or eliminates them completely. As discussed, there are problems that remain to be addressed, but they should not be allowed to block a U.S.-Soviet agreement significantly reducing strategic nuclear arsenals.

  13. Integrated Air and Missile Defense (IAMD) (United States)


    IBCS. The cruise missile surrogate, an MQM-107 Drone Target, flew a low altitude trajectory against an asset defended by an Army IAMD task force...FY 2048 The difference in the acquisition quantity of 443 and the sustainment quantity of 427 is due to 16 RDT&E prototypes that are not to be

  14. Simulating the DIRCM engagement: component and system level performance

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Willers, CJ


    Full Text Available , including the unfolding of the engagement scenario. The specific objective with this simulation is to provide an environment to support in-depth modelling of all aspects of the system, capable of supporting the subtle complexities in the missile-aircraft...

  15. A Study on: Exploring U.S. Missile Defense Requirements in 2010: What Are the Policy and Technology Challenges? (United States)


    military offi- cers, law enforcement personnel, and organized crime groups are willing to engage in illegal activ- ities for a price. This willingness...Interview with Gennady G. Yanpolsky, "A New Era for Russian Defense Export," Military Technology, December 1995, p. 33. Vago Muradian, "Russia Wants...34 that have hindered ballistic missile devel- opment in the past. For example, rocket- society papers on staging problems, discussions on guid- ance

  16. Modeling and Simulating Dynamics of Missiles with Deflectable Nose Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Yuan; Gu Liangxian; Pan Lei


    This article investigates the dynamic characteristics of deflectable nose missiles with rotary single-channel control. After introduction of effective attack and sideslip angles as well as quasi-body coordinates based on the spin characteristics of the missile's body, an integrated rigid kinetic model of missile with deflectable nose control is set up in the quasi-body coordinates considering the interaction between the missile's nose and body by using rootless multi-rigid-body system dynamics and is linearized. Then an analysis with simulation is conducted to investigate the coupling characteristics between the channels, the influences of nose deflection on the body and the dynamic characteristics of missile's body. The results indicate that various channels of missiles with deflectable nose control are coupled cross-linked; the nose deflection tends to make the body move in the opposite direction and, finally, evidences the correctness and reasonability of the kinetic model proposed by this article.

  17. Ballistic Missile Silo Door Monitoring Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This paper compares the cost and effectiveness of several potential options that may be used to monitor silo-based ballistic missiles. Silo door monitoring can be used to verify that warheads removed to deactivate or download silo-based ballistic missiles have not been replaced. A precedent for monitoring warhead replacement using reentry vehicle on site inspections (RV-OSIs) and using satellites has been established by START-I and START-II. However, other monitoring options have the potential to be less expensive and more effective. Three options are the most promising if high verification confidence is desired: random monitoring using door sensors; random monitoring using manned or unmanned aircraft; and continuous remote monitoring using unattended door sensors.

  18. Using NASTRAN to model missile inertia loads (United States)

    Marvin, R.; Porter, C.


    An important use of NASTRAN is in the area of structural loads analysis on weapon systems carried aboard aircraft. The program is used to predict bending moments and shears in missile bodies, when subjected to aircraft induced accelerations. The missile, launcher and aircraft wing are idealized, using rod and beam type elements for solution economy. Using the inertia relief capability of NASTRAN, the model is subjected to various acceleration combinations. It is found to be difficult to model the launcher sway braces and hooks which transmit compression only or tension only type forces respectively. A simple, iterative process was developed to overcome this modeling difficulty. A proposed code modification would help model compression or tension only contact type problems.

  19. Ballistic Missile Defense: New Plans, Old Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Zolotukhina


    Full Text Available On September 17, 2009—the 70th anniversary of the Soviet invasion of Poland in 1939 that marked the beginning of World War II—the Obama Administration announced its intention to shelve plans for the U.S. Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD that had been developed under former President George W. Bush. Pointing to a new intelligence assessment, President Obama argued that his predecessor's plan to deploy an X-band radar station outside of Prague, Czech Republic, and 10 two-stage interceptor missiles in Poland would not adequately protect America and its European allies from the Iranian threat and reiterated his opposition to utilizing unproven technology in any European BMD architecture.

  20. Reliability Simulation for a Missile Tank Under Random Loading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    This paper presents a Monte-Carlo simulation method to calculate intensity relia- bility for a missile tank under random loading. The cumulative damage mathematical mod- el is established, and it adopts a direct simulation method to present random loading and o-riginal intensity for a missile tank. It can effectively predict intensity reliability for a missile tank in the environment of transport and flight.

  1. The Joint Cruise Missiles Project: An Acquisition History (United States)


    his staff at the Air Force ALCM System Project Office. The authors are, of course , solely responsible for the accuracy and interpretation of the...meaning) Sea launched cruise missile (current meaning) SPOC System Project Officers Council SRAM Short range attack missile STCM Supersonic tactical...Council ( SPOC ), com- posed of the directors of the four major missile systems (consisting at that time of the GLCM, ship- and sub-launched SLCM, and the

  2. Theater Missile Defenses and U.S. Foreign Policy (United States)


    and Joseph Rotblat (London: Macmillan Press, 1987), p. 171. 11 dowry " to alleviate European fears of being left defenseless as the U.S. retreated behind...surface missile, the design of which came from reverse-engineering of U.S. Nike-Hercules surface-to-air missiles. 59 India could be on the verge of...indigenous production with the testing of its Privthi missile. India has also demonstrated successful development of an indigenous space launch capacity

  3. On the Dynamic Stability of a Missile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.C. Sharma


    Full Text Available The P-method given by Parks and Pritchard has been used to discuss the stability behaviour of a missile in free flight. General stability criteria for aerodynamic stabilisation have been obtained for slowly varying coefficients. The effect of pressure gradient on the stability of a coasting rocket has been explicitly examined. It is observed that the positive Magnus moment parameter ensures stability whereas a negative moment parameter would enhance the requirements of a larger stability margin.

  4. Cruise Missile Attack Are We Prepared (United States)


    to be met to make its air and missile defense systems interoperable with others throughout the military because the requirements for SIAP [Single...Single Integrated Air Picture ( SIAP ) and Integrated Fire Control (IFC). SIAP “is the product of fused, near real-time and real-time data from...guidance of the Assistant Secretary of the Army for Acquisition, Logistics, and Technology (ASAALT), the Joint SIAP System Engineering Organization (JSSEO

  5. Sustainability Of The 21M Missile Maintainer (United States)


    considering alternative career field models for missile maintenance officers. Benefits can include discovering lessons learned and best practices to improve...entire ICBM community in mitigating today’s problems and securing the confidence of the service and public. Introduction Mission failure has...which are applied to an alternative ICBM career field model . The paper closes in offering conclusions and recommendations about improving the health

  6. The Future of Theater Missile Defense (United States)


    withERINT) 1,500 IVf 74C 1998 3.0 Navy Lower-Tier Defense 1,820 SO4 50* 1999° 3* THAAD(withTMD-GBR) 1,313 80 14 2001e 9.1 AdvaaoedCapabflitylMD Systems...Administration cannot, by itself, provide a sufficient buffer between theater and strategic missile defenses. Other limits must be included. Finally, the

  7. The Evolution of the Cruise Missile (United States)


    device as a target in operations with the cartier Ranger in August, 1938. These and subqueat practice sessions revealed shockingly poor US Navy... market within a very short time." TIhe author speculated that the device could destroy an entire town as far as 100 miks away with no loss te the...downed 72.8 percent of the 125 missiles observed. Nevertheless, one flying bomb hit Smithfield Market on 8 March, causing 233 casualties.61 In all, the

  8. Intelligent Design and Implementation of Missile Fire Control System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Chun-si; WANG Min-qing; LI Wei-hai; LIU Xi-zuo; JIN Liang-an


    Missile fire control system is the core of ship-based missile weapon system, whose safeguard levelhas direct relation with the attack ability of naval vessels. After a long period of deep investigation and research, it was found that, in one missile fire control system, there are such problems as single safeguard system, low ratio of cost to efficiency, etc. By adopting intelligent control techniques and many measures to multiple securities, the new type of assistant system is designed, some difficult problems are solved, such as fixed project channel and unitary means of missiles, which can make the equipment carry out combat mission reliably and continuously.

  9. Absolute and contrast infrared signatures from missile noses (United States)

    Tofani, Alessandro


    The infrared radiant intensity and radiative contrast produced by the aerodynamic and solar heating of missile noses have been obtained by computer simulating the corresponding temperature distributions and by taking into account the effects of both atmosphere (absorption and self-emission) and target geometry (distance, aspect and elevation angles). Six target classes have been considered, including cruise missiles, air-to-air and surface-to-surface missiles, and ballistic missiles. The comparison between radiative quantities in the 3 to 5 μm and S to 12 μm atmospheric transmittance windows gives the optimum spectral band for target detection in each point of its trajectory.

  10. Trident II (D-5) Sea Launched Ballistic Missile UGM 133A (Trident II Missile) (United States)


    on quality training and unscheduled down time on the rocket motor precision drilling machine . Trident II Missile December 2015 SAR March 17, 2016...chocks, Third Stage (TS) dollies and TS Motor Supports and completion of machining and welding for Aerospike Protective Caps; 2) Early delivery of

  11. Common Ada Missile Packages. Phase 2. (CAMP-2). Volume 2. 11th Missile Demonstration (United States)


    bii t Ui< «i > i martial Sanaor Aaaaaibly 11th Miaaila Syatam Figure 1. 11th Missile Hardware Design TABLE 2. PROCESSORS AND THEIR FUNCTIONS...ualng Two Value Aretangant Coaputa Wander Ailauth Angle ualng Two Value Aretangant SUBTOTALS 132 14» 20 »003 North »olntlng HaTlgatlon » arta Coaputa

  12. The simulation of laser-based guided weapon engagements (United States)

    Al-Jaberi, Mubarak; Richardson, Mark; Coath, John; Jenkin, Robin


    The laser is an integrated part of many weapon systems, such as laser guided bombs, laser guided missiles and laser beam-riding missiles. These systems pose a significant threat to military assets on the modern battlefield. The lasers used in beam-riding missiles are particularly hard to detect as they typically use relatively low power lasers. Beamriders are also particularly difficult to defeat as current countermeasure systems have not been optimized against this threat. Some recent field trails conducted in the United Arab Emirates desert have demonstrated poor performance of both laser beam-riding systems and the LWRs designed to detect them. The aim of this research is to build a complete evaluation tool capable of assessing all the phases of an engagement of a main battle tank or armoured fighting vehicle with a laser based guided weapon. To this end a software model has been produced using Matlab & Simulink. This complete model has been verified using lab based experimentation and by comparison to the result of the mentioned field trials. This project will enable both the evaluation and design of any generic laser warning receiver or missile seeker and specific systems if various parameters are known. Moreover, this model will be used as a guide to the development of reliable countermeasures for laser beam-riding missiles.

  13. Introduction of Women into Titan II Missile Operations. (United States)


    areas (weapons system orientation: mnaintenance management. electronics principles , and technical publications. facility systems and missile Sfstents...Management. Electronics Principles . Technical Publications 97.00 2.63 94.04 5.27 2.31 Facility Systems 92.25 4.61 93.2) 5.80 -.62 Missile Systems 96.67 2.90

  14. Aerodynamic performances of cruise missile flying above local terrain (United States)

    Ahmad, A.; Saad, M. R.; Che Idris, A.; Rahman, M. R. A.; Sujipto, S.


    Cruise missile can be classified as a smart bomb and also Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) due to its ability to move and manoeuvre by itself without a pilot. Cruise missile flies in constant velocity in cruising stage. Malaysia is one of the consumers of cruise missiles that are imported from other nations, which can have distinct geographic factors including their local terrains compared to Malaysia. Some of the aerodynamic performances of missile such as drag and lift coefficients can be affected by the local geographic conditions in Malaysia, which is different from the origin nation. Therefore, a detailed study must be done to get aerodynamic performance of cruise missiles that operate in Malaysia. The effect of aerodynamic angles such as angle of attack and side slip can be used to investigate the aerodynamic performances of cruise missile. Hence, subsonic wind tunnel testings were conducted to obtain the aerodynamic performances of the missile at various angle of attack and sideslip angles. Smoke visualization was also performed to visualize the behaviour of flow separation. The optimum angle of attack found was at α=21° and side slip, β=10° for optimum pitching and yawing motion of cruise missile.

  15. A History of Polish Anti-Missile Defenses (United States)


    tanks, 1,750 armored personnel carriers, transport 11 aircraft, helicopters, and several naval craft.ŕ The WOPK provided air space management and...targets which included missile-related threats.90 Comunnication was an integral part of missile warning. Since Poland’s WOPK was part of the PVOS, Warsaw

  16. Situating Engagement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korn, Matthias

    can participate in the world. We experience a new participatory culture on the go. These developments offer new possibilities for civic engagement in participatory land use planning: to engage people where they are. This dissertation coins the notion of situated engagement, which seeks to ’situate......’ civic engagement activities in those spatial contexts that are at stake in land use planning. This approach enables engagement activities to be better integrated with people’s everyday lived experiences through connecting to the places that are personally meaningful and relevant to them. A ’research...... through design’ approach is applied across four participatory design experiments to explore how to design for situated engagement in land use planning. A notion of a situated engagement infrastructure made up of mobile, stationary, ubiquitous, and remote systems frames the design experiments suggesting...

  17. Environmentally friendly HF (DF) lasers (United States)

    Apollonov, V. V.


    Dedicated to the 100th anniversary of the birth of Academician A M Prokhorov, this paper reviews the physics of self-sustained volume discharge without preionization—self-initiated volume discharge (SIVD)—in the working mixtures of non-chain hydrofluoride HF (deuterofluoride (DF)) lasers. The dynamics of SIVD in discharge gaps with different geometries is thoroughly described. The mechanisms for the restriction of current density in a diffuse channel in electric discharges in SF6 and SF6 based mixtures (which determines whether SIVD is possible) are proposed and analyzed using simple models. The most probable mechanisms are the electron impact dissociation of SF6 and other mixture components, electron-ion recombination and electron attachment to vibrationally excited SF6 molecules. Starting from a comparative analysis of the rate coefficients of these processes, it is shown that electron-ion recombination is capable of compensating for electron detachment from negative ions via electron impact. It is also established that SIVD is not only observed in SF6, but also in other strongly electronegative gases. The factors that determine the uniformity of the active medium in non-chain HF (DF) lasers are analyzed. Some special features of non-chain HF (DF) lasers with different apertures operating are carefully examined. Consideration is given to the problem of increasing the aperture and discharge volume of non-chain HF (DF) lasers. Based on our experimental results, the possibility of increasing the energy of such lasers to ~1 kJ and above is shown.

  18. The science, technology, and politics of ballistic missile defense (United States)

    Coyle, Philip E.


    America's missile defense systems are deployed at home and abroad. This includes the Groundbased Missile Defense (GMD) system in Alaska and California, the Phased Adaptive Approach in Europe (EPAA), and regional systems in the Middle East and Asia. Unfortunately these systems lack workable architectures, and many of the required elements either don't work or are missing. Major review and reconsideration is needed of all elements of these systems. GMD performance in tests has gotten worse with time, when it ought to be getting better. A lack of political support is not to blame as the DoD spends about 10 billion per year, and proposes to add about 5 billion over the next five years. Russia objects to the EPAA as a threat to its ICBM forces, and to the extensive deployment of U.S. military forces in countries such as Poland, the Czech Republic and Romania, once part of the Soviet Union. Going forward the U.S. should keep working with Russia whose cooperation will be key to diplomatic gains in the Middle East and elsewhere. Meanwhile, America's missile defenses face an enduring set of issues, especially target discrimination in the face of attacks designed to overwhelm the defenses, stage separation debris, chaff, decoys, and stealth. Dealing with target discrimination while also replacing, upgrading, or adding to the many elements of U.S. missiles defenses presents daunting budget priorities. A new look at the threat is warranted, and whether the U.S. needs to consider every nation that possesses even short-range missiles a threat to America. The proliferation of missiles of all sizes around the world is a growing problem, but expecting U.S. missile defenses to deal with all those missiles everywhere is unrealistic, and U.S. missile defenses, effective or not, are justifying more and more offensive missiles.

  19. The science, technology, and politics of ballistic missile defense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coyle, Philip E. [Center for Arms Control and Non-Proliferation, Washington, DC (United States)


    America's missile defense systems are deployed at home and abroad. This includes the Groundbased Missile Defense (GMD) system in Alaska and California, the Phased Adaptive Approach in Europe (EPAA), and regional systems in the Middle East and Asia. Unfortunately these systems lack workable architectures, and many of the required elements either don't work or are missing. Major review and reconsideration is needed of all elements of these systems. GMD performance in tests has gotten worse with time, when it ought to be getting better. A lack of political support is not to blame as the DoD spends about $10 billion per year, and proposes to add about $5 billion over the next five years. Russia objects to the EPAA as a threat to its ICBM forces, and to the extensive deployment of U.S. military forces in countries such as Poland, the Czech Republic and Romania, once part of the Soviet Union. Going forward the U.S. should keep working with Russia whose cooperation will be key to diplomatic gains in the Middle East and elsewhere. Meanwhile, America's missile defenses face an enduring set of issues, especially target discrimination in the face of attacks designed to overwhelm the defenses, stage separation debris, chaff, decoys, and stealth. Dealing with target discrimination while also replacing, upgrading, or adding to the many elements of U.S. missiles defenses presents daunting budget priorities. A new look at the threat is warranted, and whether the U.S. needs to consider every nation that possesses even short-range missiles a threat to America. The proliferation of missiles of all sizes around the world is a growing problem, but expecting U.S. missile defenses to deal with all those missiles everywhere is unrealistic, and U.S. missile defenses, effective or not, are justifying more and more offensive missiles.

  20. Recent Advances in Antitank Guided Missile Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. R. Iyer


    Full Text Available The recent advances in tactical antitank guided missile (ATGM systems are discussed. The main driving factors for the technological advances towards realisation of third generation ATGM systems have been the more demanding operational needs of the user services and limitations of earlier generation ATGM systems. The tasks of system design, hardware realisation, integration, testing and qualification have become extremely challenging to meet these stringent operational requirements. The technologies required to be mobilised for meeting these operational requirements and performance envelope and satisfying the operational and logistics constraints are again very demanding. The high technology content and the high level of performance required out of the subsystems have led to the present generation missile systems. The evolution from the earlier generations to current systems has been briefly discussed. Imaging infrared (IIR and Millimetre wave (MMW guidance systems employed for achieving the fire and forget capability of the third generation ATGM are described with specific reference to progress achieved so far. Translating the mission requirements to preliminary system specifications is another area wherein an innovative approach only can lead to meet the multiple performance criteria. Performance growth profile and emerging trends in ATGM systems are also analysed.

  1. CT analysis of missile head injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besenski, N. [Dept. of Radiology, Zagreb Univ. Hospital Rebro (Croatia); Jadro-Santel, D. [Dept. of Neuropathology, Zagreb Univ. Hospital Rebro (Croatia); Jelavic-Koic, F. [Dept. of Radiology, General Hospital Sveti Duh, Zagreb (Croatia); Pavic, D. [Dept. of Neuropathology, Zagreb Univ. Hospital Rebro (Croatia); Mikulic, D. [Zagreb School of Medicine (Croatia); Glavina, K. [Dept. of Radiology, Clinical Hospital, Osijek (Croatia); Maskovic, J. [Dept. of Radiology, Clinical Hospital, Split (Croatia)


    Between August 1991 and December 1992, CT was performed in 154 patients who had suffered missile head injury during the war in the Republic of Croatia. In 54% CT was performed 1-24 h after injury, and in 27% follow-up CT was also obtained. The wounds were penetrating, tangential or perforating (45%, 34% and 21%, respectively). Haemorrhage was the most frequent lesion in the brain (84%). Follow-up CT evolution of haemorrhage, oedema, cerebritis, abscess, secondary vascular lesions, necrosis, encephalomalacia and hydrocephalus. The most dynamic changes occurred 7-14 days after injury. In 14% of cases, deep cerebral lesions were found in the corpus callosum, septum pellucidum periventricular region and pons, although bone and shell fragments were in a different part of the brain parenchyma. Such lesions were found in penetrating injuries only. CT proved very useful for assessing the extent and type of lesions. Although different mechanisms of brain damage in missile head injury are known, here they are, to the best of our knowledge, shown for the first time by CT. (orig.)

  2. Modelling cavitating flow around underwater missiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabien Petitpas


    Full Text Available The diffuse interface model of Saurel et al. (2008 is used for the computation of compressible cavitating flows around underwater missiles. Such systems use gas injection and natural cavitation to reduce drag effects. Consequently material interfaces appear separating liquid and gas. These interfaces may have a really complex dynamics such that only a few formulations are able to predict their evolution. Contrarily to front tracking or interface reconstruction method the interfaces are computed as diffused numerical zones, that are captured in a routinely manner, as is done usually with gas dynamics solvers for shocks and contact discontinuity. With the present approach, a single set of partial differential equations is solved everywhere, with a single numerical scheme. This leads to very efficient solvers. The algorithm derived in Saurel et al. (2009 is used to compute cavitation pockets around solid bodies. It is first validated against experiments done in cavitation tunnel at CNU. Then it is used to compute flows around high speed underwater systems (Shkval-like missile. Performance data are then computed showing method ability to predict forces acting on the system.

  3. Gauging the Influence of Technology on Tactical Missiles of the Future(Short Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark L. Bundy


    Full Text Available Tactical missiles, carrying kinetic energy, high explosives, or multiple submunitions are an integral part of the current and future US Army weapons inventory. Naturally, the number of missiles that can be stowed on any mobile launch platform depends on the size of the missile. Advances in rocket propulsion efficiency and improvements in guidance systems may make it possible to reduce missile size without a proportionate decrease in effectiveness. A primitive I-DOF computer model is used here to show how advances in missile technology might allow smaller missiles in the future to carry out the mission of today's larger missiles. A scaled-down version of a typical current generation missile is taken as the next generation missile. Hypothetical improvements in this smaller missile are then chosen in four basic areas-propellant impulse, burn time, weight fraction, and aerodynamic drag.-with the effects on lethality reported in a nondimensional format.

  4. Innovation in Aerodynamic Design Features of Soviet Missiles (United States)

    Spearman, M. Leroy


    Wind tunnel investigations of some tactical and strategic missile systems developed by the former Soviet Union have been included in the basic missile research programs of the NACA/NASA. Studies of the Soviet missiles sometimes revealed innovative design features that resulted in unusual or unexpected aerodynamic characteristics. In some cases these characteristics have been such that the measured performance of the missile exceeds what might have been predicted. In other cases some unusual design features have been found that would alleviate what might otherwise have been a serious aerodynamic problem. In some designs, what has appeared to be a lack of refinement has proven to be a matter of expediency. It is a purpose of this paper to describe some examples of unusual design features of some Soviet missiles and to illustrate the effectiveness of the design features on the aerodynamic behavior of the missile. The paper draws on the experience of the author who for over 60 years was involved in the aerodynamic wind tunnel testing of aircraft and missiles with the NACA/NASA.

  5. A Low-Visibility Force Multiplier: Assessing China’s Cruise Missile Ambitions (United States)


    and ballistic missile force will be far less effective than its numbers would indicate. 18 Forensic data may not have been collected and analyzed for...and ballistic missiles; some has focused on Chinese efforts to develop an antiship ballistic missile that might tar- get U.S. aircraft carriers. One...electronically scanned array AIP air-independent propulsion ARM antiradiation missile ASAT antisatellite ASBM antiship ballistic missile ASCM antiship

  6. Strapdown inertial systems applications for tactical missiles (stand-off missiles) (United States)



    Strapdown Inertial Systems (SDIS) are particularly well suited for tactical standoff missile applications. This certainty was made clear by several years of theoretical design work and trials. Initial theoretical work made wide use of parameters giving detailed definition of missile trajectories and motions as obtained from measurements made on weapon systems then in development or production. Sensors (principally gyroscopes) were laboratory tested. These preliminary design efforts led to selection of various technologies such as the laser gyro and the mechanical gyro, each being adapted to the weapon system in question. Share-out of functions between various equipment items was defined. Comparison of the advantages and disadvantages of these technologies shows that today the laser gyro is principally retained for high and medium range levels of precision, with the mechanical (spin-stabilized) gyro serving in the medium and low precision range. Since requirements are ever increasing in the fields of dynamic performance and robustness, it is here that most progress is expected.

  7. TOW Missile Pallet MIL-STD-1660 Tests (United States)


    0 DTICS ELECTE FEB 2 19941 FINAL REPORT C U ow AUGUST 1993 (V V Lfl3 NNE REPORT NO. 93-23 TOW MISSILE PALLET MIL- STD -1660 TESTS Prepared for...TITLE gOnakde Secwir Casaftedon) TOW Missile Pallet MIL- STD -1660 Tests 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Jason B. Solberg 13s. TYPE OF REPORT 13b. TIME COVERED...and Engineering Center (ARDEC) to test the TOW missile pallet. This report contains the procedures, results, and recommendations from the MIL- STD

  8. Research on ballistic missile laser SIMU error propagation mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Shihui; Xiao Longxu


    It is necessary that the laser inertial system is used to further improve the fire accuracy and quick reaction capability in the ballistic missile strapdown inertial navigation system. According to the guidance con-trolling method and the output and error model of ballistic missile laser SIMU, the mathematical model of error propagation mechanism is set up and any transfer environmental function of error coefficient that affects the fire accuracy is deduced. Also, the missile longitudinal/lateral impact point is calculated using MATLAB. These estab-lish the technical foundation for further researching the dispersion characteristics of impact point and reducing the laser guidance error.

  9. Missile antenna pattern coordinate system and data formats (United States)


    Antenna performance data pertains to missile, space, and aerodynamic vehicles' transmitting or receiving antennas used with range data collection, missile trajectory measurements, impact predictions, communications, or flight termination systems. As used in this document, the terms missile space vehicle, airborne, and aerodynamic vehicle are synonymous. This standard is intended to cover antennas for telemetry, pulsed radar beacons, continuous wave (CW) transponders, communication transmitters and receivers, command control/flight termination, receivers/decoders, pseudo random noise (PRN) ranging systems, and the Global Positioning System.

  10. Aerodynamic heating of ballistic missile including the effects of gravity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S N Maitra


    The aerodynamic heating of a ballistic missile due to only convection is analysed taking into consideration the effects of gravity. The amount of heat transferred to the wetted area and to the nose region has been separately determined, unlike A Miele's treatise without consideration of gravity. The peak heating ratesto the wetted area and to the nose of the missile are also investigated. Finally four numerical examples are cited to estimate the errors, in heat transfers and heating ratesto both wetted area and nose region of the missile, arising out of neglecting the gravitational forces.

  11. A thirty second isomer in Hf-171

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Campbell, P; Billowes, J; Cochrane, ECA; Cooke, JL; Cooper, TG; Dendooven, P; Evans, DE; Grant, IS; Griffith, JAR; Honkanen, A; Huhta, M; Oinonen, M; Pearson, MR; Penttila, H; Persson, B.L.; Richardson, DS; Tungate, G; Wheeler, PD; Zybert, L; Aysto, J


    An isomer has been detected in Hf-171 with a half-life of T-1/2 = 29.5(9) s. The state was populated in the Yb-170(alpha,3n)Hf-171m reaction at a beam energy of E-alpha = 50 MeV in an on-line ion guide isotope separator. The isomeric Hf-17lm(+) beam was extracted from the ion guide, mass-analysed an

  12. Regional Joint-Integrated Air and Missile Defense (RF-IAMD): An Operational Level Integrated Air and Missile Defense (IAMD) Command and Control (C2) Organization (United States)


    the Naval Air and Missile Defense Command (NAMDC). NAMDC then began training field grade officers through a Weapons and Tactics Instructor ( WTI ...49 Integrated Air and Missile Defense (IAMD) Weapons and Tactics Instructor ( WTI ), Naval Air and Missile...and Missile Defense (IAMD) Weapons and Tactics Instructor ( WTI ). Accessed April 28, 2015.

  13. Ergonomics action research II: a framework for integrating HF into work system design. (United States)

    Neumann, W P; Village, J


    This paper presents a conceptual framework that can support efforts to integrate human factors (HF) into the work system design process, where improved and cost-effective application of HF is possible. The framework advocates strategies of broad stakeholder participation, linking of performance and health goals, and process focussed change tools that can help practitioners engage in improvements to embed HF into a firm's work system design process. Recommended tools include business process mapping of the design process, implementing design criteria, using cognitive mapping to connect to managers' strategic goals, tactical use of training and adopting virtual HF (VHF) tools to support the integration effort. Consistent with organisational change research, the framework provides guidance but does not suggest a strict set of steps. This allows more adaptability for the practitioner who must navigate within a particular organisational context to secure support for embedding HF into the design process for improved operator wellbeing and system performance. There has been little scientific literature about how a practitioner might integrate HF into a company's work system design process. This paper proposes a framework for this effort by presenting a coherent conceptual framework, process tools, design tools and procedural advice that can be adapted for a target organisation.

  14. Dynamic Simulation for Missile Erection System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    In order to study the dynamic characteristics of the missile erection system, it can be considered as a rigid-flexible coupling multi-body system. Firstly, the actual system is abstracted as an equal and simplified one and then the forces applied to it are analyzed. Secondly, the rigid-flexible coupling dynamic simulation for erection system is accomplished by use of the system simulation software, for example Pro/E, ADAMS, ANSYS, MATLAB/Simulink, etc. Finally, having the aid of simulation results, the kinetic and dynamic characteristics of the flexible bodies in erection system are analyzed.The simulation considering the erection system as a rigid-flexible coupling system can provide valuable results to the research of its kinetic, dynamic and vibrational characteristics.

  15. The Study of Tactical Missile's Airframe Digital Optimization Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Zhiqing; QIAN Airong; LI Xuefeng; GAO Lin; LEI Jian


    Digital design and optimal are very important in modern design. The traditional design methods and procedure are not fit for the modern missile weapons research and development. Digital design methods and optimal ideas were employed to deal with this problem. The disadvantages of the traditional missile's airframe design procedure and the advantages of the digital design methods were discussed. A new concept of design process reengineering (DPR) was put forward. An integrated missile airframe digital design platform and the digital design procedure, which integrated the optimization ideas and methods, were developed. Case study showed that the design platform and the design procedure could improve the efficiency and quality of missile's airframe design, and get the more reasonable and optimal results.

  16. Passive Acoustic Radar for Detecting Supersonic Cruise Missile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Feng; XIAO Hui


    A Passive Acoustic Radar is presented as a necessary complement to electromagnetic wave radar, which will be expected to be an effective means for detecting cruise missiles. Acoustic characteristics of supersonic flying projectiles with diverse shapes are expounded via experiment. It is pointed out that simulation experiment could be implemented using bullet or shell instead of cruise missile. Based on theoretical analysis and experiment, the "acoustic fingerprint" character of cruise missile is illustrated to identify it in a strong noise environment. After establishing a locating mathematical model,the technique of acoustic embattling is utilized to resolve a problem of confirming the time of early-warning, considering the fact that velocity of sound is much slower than that of light. Thereby, a whole system of passive acoustic radar for detecting supersonic cruise missile is formed.

  17. Vortex development on slender missiles at supersonic speeds (United States)

    Allen, J. M.; Dillenius, M. F. E.


    A theoretical and experimental effort has been made to develop a vortex-prediction capability on circular and noncircular missiles at supersonic speeds. Predicted vortex patterns are computed by two linear-theory computer codes. One calculates the strengths and initial locations of the vortices, and the other calculates their trajectories. A short color motion picture has been produced from the calculations to illustrate the predicted vortex patterns on a typical missile. Experimental vapor-screen photographs are presented to show the longitudinal development of the vortices on a fin-control missile. Comparisons are made between these data and the predicted vortices to assess the accuracy of the theory. The theory appears to be fairly accurate in predicting the number, locations, and relative strengths of individual vortices which develop over the missile, but cannot predict vortex sheets or diffuse vorticity whenever they occur.

  18. Revolution in military affairs, missile defence and weapons in space ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Revolution in military affairs, missile defence and weapons in space: the US ... 1991 Gulf War that captured the imagination of military planners and policy makers, ... Firstly, very few countries have the financial and technological capability to ...

  19. Analysis of Nonlinear Missile Guidance Systems Through Linear Adjoint Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Gamal Eltohamy


    Full Text Available In this paper, a linear simulation algorithm, the adjoint method, is modified and employed as an efficient tool for analyzing the contributions of system parameters to the miss - distance of a nonlinear time-varying missile guidance system model. As an example for the application of the linear adjoint method, the effect of missile flight time on the miss - distance is studied. Since the missile model is highly nonlinear and a time-varying linearized model is required to apply the adjoint method, a new technique that utilizes the time-reversed linearized coefficients of the missile as a replacement for the time-varying describing functions is applied and proven to be successful. It is found that, when compared with Monte Carlo generated results, simulation results of this linear adjoint technique provide acceptable accuracy and can be produced with much less effort.

  20. 77 FR 51970 - Renewal of Missile Defense Advisory Committee (United States)


    ... configurations for the Ballistic Missile Defense System. The Committee shall be composed of not more than eleven... shall be comprised of no more than seven members. The primary focus of the Subcommittee is to conduct...

  1. Analysis and improvement of missile three-loop autopilots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Defu; Fan Junfang; Qi Zaikang; Mou Yu


    characteristics from a two-loop autopilot with PI compensator.Both the two-loop and three-loop topologies can stabilize a static unstable missile.However,the finite actuator resource is the crucial factor dominating autopilot function.

  2. Design and Manufacturing Process for a Ballistic Missile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaharia Sebastian Marian


    Full Text Available Designing a ballistic missile flight depends on the mission and the stress to which the missile is subject. Missile’s requests are determined by: the organization of components; flight regime type, engine configuration and aerodynamic performance of the rocket flight. In this paper has been developed a ballistic missile with a smooth fuselage type, 10 control surfaces, 8 directional surfaces for cornering execution, 2 for maneuvers of execution to change the angle of incidence and 4 stabilizers direction. Through the technology of gluing and clamping of the shell and the use of titanium components, mass of ballistic missile presented a significant decrease in weight and a structure with high strength.

  3. The study of multilayers Fe/Hf and Ni/Hf by slow positron beam technique (United States)

    Tashiro, Mutsumi; Nakajyo, Terunobu; Murashige, Yusuke; Koizumi, Tomoya; Kanazawa, Ikuzo; Komori, Fumio; Soe, We-Hyo; Yamamoto, Ryoichi; Ito, Yasuo


    The S-parameters versus the incident positron energy are measured in the Ni/Hf multilayer, thin Hf film, thin Fe film and the bilayer Fe/Hf. We have analyzed the change in vacancy-type defects in these multilayers and thin films with the deposition temperature in the MBE system.

  4. Density Models for Velocity Analysis of Jet Impinged CEDM Missile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Won Ho; Kang, Tae Kyo; Cho, Yeon Ho; Chang, Sang Gyoon; Lee, Dae Hee [KEPCO EnC, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    A control element drive mechanism (CEDM) can be a potential missile in the reactor head area during one of the postulated accidents. The CEDM is propelled by the high speed water jet discharged from a broken upper head nozzle. The jet expansion models to predict the missile velocity have been investigated by Kang et al. The previous work of Kang et al. showed a continuous increase in missile velocity as the CEDM missile travels. But it is not natural in that two phase flow from the nozzle break exit tends to disperse and the thrust force on the missile decreases along the distance of the travel. The jet flow also interacts with the air surrounding itself. Therefore, the density change has to be included in the estimation of the missile velocity. In this paper, two density change models of the water jet are introduced for the jet expansion models along with the distance from the nozzle break location. The first one is the direct approximation model. Two density approximation models are introduced to predict the CEDM missile velocity. For each model, the effects of the expanded jet area were included as the area ratio to the exit nozzle area. In direct approximation model, the results have showed rapid decrease in both density and missile velocity. In pressure approach model, the density change is assumed perfectly proportional to the pressure change, and the results showed relatively smooth change in both density and missile velocity comparing to the direct approximation model. Using the model developed by Kang et al.., the maximum missile velocity is about 4 times greater comparing to the pressure approach model since the density is constant as the jet density at the nozzle exit in their model. Pressure approach model has benefits in that this model adopted neither curve fitting nor extrapolation unlike the direct approximation model, and included the effects of density change which are not considered in the model developed by Kang et al. So, this model is

  5. Application of Computer Graphics to Performance Studies of Missile Warheads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Rama Rao


    Full Text Available Intercept geometry of target aircraft and missiles play an important role in determining the effectiveness of the warhead. Factors such as fragment spatial distribution profile, damage capabilities, target and missile characteristics have been considered and visualised through computer graphics and optimum intercept intercept angles have been arrived. Computer graphics has proved to be an important tool to enhance perception and conceptual design capabilities in the design environment.

  6. Patriot Advanced Capability-3 Missile Segment Enhancement (PAC-3 MSE) (United States)


    sustainment reliability will exceed 20 hours MTBCMF. Will be demonstrated during Post Deployment Build -8 and Radar Digital Processor- Configuration...Technology and Logistics) PAC-3 MSE December 2015 SAR March 21, 2016 09:42:58 UNCLASSIFIED 4 COL John M. Eggert Lower Tier Project Office Building 5250...PAC-3 MSE) is a high velocity, hit-to-kill, surface -to-air missile capable of intercepting and destroying Tactical Ballistic Missiles (TBM) and air

  7. Information Management Principles Applied to the Ballistic Missile Defense System (United States)


    of a BMDS. From this, the Army produced the Nike- Zeus system comprised of four radars, the Zeus missile, and a computer fire control system (General...made the Nike- Zeus our first National Missile Defense (NMD) system named Sentinel. The architecture was to cover 14 locations, 10 of which were...fostered the database system and representation of data in a hierarchy (Galliers & Leidner, 2003). Soon the limits of hierarchies were identified and

  8. 2014 Assessment of the Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS) (United States)


    and necessary training aids and devices are not currently available and are not scheduled to become available for several years. Analyses of data...and Evaluation ( IOT &E) flight tests for the Aegis BMD 4.0 system and SM-3 Block IB missile. Outcome. INTERCEPT. The ship detected, tracked...missiles in a raid scenario. FTX-18 was the last of the three IOT &E test missions. Outcome. THREE SIMULATED INTERCEPTS. The ship detected, tracked

  9. Missile Defense Acquisition: Failure Is Not An Option (United States)


    missile over Japan into the sea.1With the nation already possessing weapons of mass destruction (WMD), the test launch signaled their intention to...Korea stunned the world in 1998 with the launch of a Taepo Dong-1 ballistic missile over Japan into the sea.4With the nation already possessing nuclear...acquisition agility. MDA’s BMDS acquisition strategy must be timely, flexible, and agile or risk irrelevance. BMDS Layered Architecture Since the NMD

  10. The Decline of the Military Ethos and Profession of Arms: An Argument Against Autonomous Lethal Engagements (United States)


    heuristics , an ethical black box within the ALE system independently evaluates each step of the kill chain and decides when and whether to engage an...missiles to deliver punitive messages without risking the lives of any US aircrew .” Benjamin Lambeth, Transformation of American Airpower (Ithaca, NY

  11. HF radiation emitted by chaotic leader processes (United States)

    Mäkelä, J. S.; Edirisinghe, M.; Fernando, M.; Montaño, R.; Cooray, V.


    This paper presents direct measurements of narrowband 10 MHz HF radiation from so-called “chaotic leaders” associated with subsequent return strokes. Although the term is controversial and poorly defined, we find that more than 30% of subsequent strokes in close lightning flashes contain electric field characteristics that are best described as “chaotic”. In earlier studies, return strokes have consistently been observed to be the strongest sources of HF radiation, but the results for leader processes are less consistent. We also observe return strokes to be the main HF emitter, and the leaders before the first return stroke in a flash sequence also emit HF though somewhat less intensely. The leaders preceding subsequent strokes typically emit little or no HF radiation, whether they are dart or dart-stepped leaders. However, it was observed that the presence of a chaotic component increases the leader HF intensity dramatically Defining the HF intensity unequivocally can be problematic for processes like chaotic leaders which have a combination of continuous and impulsive phenomena. Two time-domain methods were used to measure the HF intensity, the peak energy and the RMS energy. In the frequency domain these correspond to the energy spectral density (ESD) and power spectral density (PSD), respectively. It was found that the methods are not necessarily compatible. Thus, it is suggested that to clarify future work, leader processes should be characterized by the PSD rather than the ESD.

  12. HfS, Hyperfine Structure Fitting Tool

    CERN Document Server

    Estalella, Robert


    HfS is a tool to fit the hyperfine structure of spectral lines, with multiple velocity components. The HfS_nh3 procedures included in HfS fit simultaneously the hyperfine structure of the NH$_3$ (J,K)= (1,1) and (2,2) transitions, and perform a standard analysis to derive $T_\\mathrm{ex}$, NH$_3$ column density, $T_\\mathrm{rot}$, and $T_\\mathrm{k}$. HfS uses a Monte Carlo approach for fitting the line parameters. Especial attention is paid to the derivation of the parameter uncertainties. HfS includes procedures that make use of parallel computing for fitting spectra from a data cube.

  13. The expectation of applying IR guidance in medium range air-to-air missiles (United States)

    Li, Lijuan; Liu, Ke


    IR guidance has been widely used in near range dogfight air-to-air missiles while radar guidance is dominant in medium and long range air-to-air missiles. With the development of stealth airplanes and advanced electronic countermeasures, radar missiles have met with great challenges. In this article, the advantages and potential problems of applying IR guidance in medium range air-to-air missiles are analyzed. Approaches are put forward to solve the key technologies including depressing aerodynamic heating, increasing missiles' sensitivity and acquiring target after launch. IR medium range air-to-air missiles are predicted to play important role in modern battle field.

  14. Peeling the onion: an heuristic overview of hit-to-kill missile defense in the 21st century (United States)

    LaCroix, Len; Kurzius, Shelby


    Researchers engaged in the development of infrared detector technologies may well benefit from a broader understanding of their products from the perspective of the end-user. An appreciation of how this technology is to be used by system designers, many of whom possess only a rudimentary understanding of quantum physics, is highly germane. Answers to questions like: "What device technology will be employed," "How will the device be used?" and "What are the impacts on signal-to-noise?" are of critical importance. In this paper, some of the fundamentals of hit-to-kill missile defense technology are examined in a largely non-mathematical context. From its "Star Wars" inception during the Reagan administration, to today"s Missile Defense Agency, the core requirement of missile defense has not changed - find the threat and destroy it before it reaches its destination. This fundamental requirement, while conceptually straightforward, is extraordinarily difficult to satisfy, and is almost exclusively dependent on our ability to detect and designate a relatively small, very fast-moving, room-temperature object, at great distances, and usually in a severe environment of shock and vibration further clouded by error and uncertainty. With an obvious bias toward passive IR detection and associated focal plane array characteristics, the flight of a fictitious interceptor is followed from launch to impact. At various points along the interceptor"s trajectory, a "peel the onion" approach is utilized to expose increasingly detailed layers of behavior, including the eventual release of the kinetic kill vehicle, and its autonomous flight to a body-to-body impact with its target. Various sources of error and their impact on the success of the mission are examined, and an overall understanding of the key features of the infrared seeker and its critical role in missile defense are ultimately developed.

  15. Aspects of HF radio propagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephane Saillant


    Full Text Available

    radio systems. From the point of view Working Group 2 of the COST 296 Action, interest lies with effects associated

    with propagation via the ionosphere of signals within the HF band. Several aspects are covered in this paper:

    a The directions of arrival and times of flight of signals received over a path oriented along the trough have

    been examined and several types of propagation effects identified. Of particular note, combining the HF observations

    with satellite measurements has identified the presence of irregularities within the floor of the trough that

    result in propagation displaced from the great circle direction. An understanding of the propagation effects that

    result in deviations of the signal path from the great circle direction are of particular relevance to the operation

    of HF radiolocation systems.

    b Inclusion of the results from the above mentioned measurements into a propagation model of the northerly

    ionosphere (i.e. those regions of the ionosphere located poleward of, and including, the mid-latitude trough

    and the use of this model to predict the coverage expected from transmitters where the signals impinge on the

    northerly ionosphere

  16. Engaging Employers? (United States)

    Hillier, Yvonne


    A key factor in the successful development of workplace learning is employer engagement (Leitch, 2006; DfES, 2007). However, despite numerous approaches by government in the United Kingdom to bring together employers, providers and learners so that economic success is generated by a skilled and flexible workforce, there continue to be challenges…

  17. Missile launch detection electric field perturbation experiment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kane, R.J.; Rynne, T.M.


    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and SARA Inc. participated in the ATMD missile launch activities that occurred at WSMR during January 1993. LLNL and SARA deployed sensors for monitoring of basic phenomena. An attempt was made to measure perturbations of the earth geo-potential during the launch of a Lance missile. The occurrence of the perturbation is expected from the conducting body of the missile and the exhaust plume. A set of voltage-probe antennas were used to monitor the local electric field perturbation from the launch at ranges of approximately 1 km. Examination of the data acquired during the launch period failed to show identifiable correlation of the field variations with the launch event. Three reasons are ascribed to this lack of event data: (1) The electric field potential variations have a limited spatial correlation length - the fields measured in one region have little correlation to measurements made at distances of a kilometer away. The potential variations are related to localized atmospheric disturbances and are generally unpredictable. A value for the spatial correlation length is also not known. (2) The conductivity of the plume and missile body are not adequate to produce a field perturbation of adequate magnitude. Phenomena related to the exhaust plume and missile may exist and be outside of the collection range of the equipment employed for these measurements. (3) The presence of 60 Hz power line noise was of sufficient magnitude to irreversibly contaminate measurements.

  18. Asia-Pacific Missile Defense Cooperation and the United States 2004-2005: A Mixed Bag (United States)


    in cooperating with the United States on various missile defense -related programs. Such close friends and allies as South Korea and Taiwan have made...many local opponents of missile defense argue that the missile threat to Australia is quite low, particularly as North Korea does not yet possess any...2004 in cooperating with the United States. Overall, South Korea does not appear to regard the North Korean missile threat as very likely. Based on

  19. A Study of Age Demographics across the Aviation and Missile Materiel Enterprise (United States)


    future Aviation and Missile ME may look like. The Defense Civilian Personnel Data System (DCPDS) Human Resource managers across the Aviation and...Missile ME use the Defense Civilian Personnel Data System (DCPDS) as the warehouse for storing employee information. Each of the five organizations...Aviation and Missile Life Cycle Management Command Public Affairs, 25 April 2016 AVIATION AND MISSILE MATERIEL ENTERPRISE DEMOGRAPHICS 2

  20. 76 FR 63541 - Design-Basis Hurricane and Hurricane Missiles for Nuclear Power Plants (United States)


    ...-2010-0288] Design-Basis Hurricane and Hurricane Missiles for Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear... Hurricane Missiles for Nuclear Power Plants.'' This regulatory guide provides licensees and applicants with... hurricane and design-basis hurricane-generated missiles that a nuclear power plant should be designed...

  1. The analysis of a generic air-to-air missile simulation model (United States)

    Kaplan, Joseph A.; Chappell, Alan R.; Mcmanus, John W.


    A generic missile model was developed to evaluate the benefits of using a dynamic missile fly-out simulation system versus a static missile launch envelope system for air-to-air combat simulation. This paper examines the performance of a launch envelope model and a missile fly-out model. The launch envelope model bases its probability of killing the target aircraft on the target aircraft's position at the launch time of the weapon. The benefits gained from a launch envelope model are the simplicity of implementation and the minimal computational overhead required. A missile fly-out model takes into account the physical characteristics of the missile as it simulates the guidance, propulsion, and movement of the missile. The missile's probability of kill is based on the missile miss distance (or the minimum distance between the missile and the target aircraft). The problems associated with this method of modeling are a larger computational overhead, the additional complexity required to determine the missile miss distance, and the additional complexity of determining the reason(s) the missile missed the target. This paper evaluates the two methods and compares the results of running each method on a comprehensive set of test conditions.

  2. HF Transverse Segmentation and Tagging Jet Capability

    CERN Document Server

    Doroshkevich, E A; Kuleshov, Sergey


    So called tagging jets and pile-up were simulated for the optimisation of the HF segmentation. The energy resolution, angular resolution and efficiency of jet reconstruction are defined for different calorimeter segmentation.

  3. Collisional quenching of highly rotationally excited HF

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Benhui; Forrey, R C; Stancil, P C; Balakrishnan, N


    Collisional excitation rate coefficients play an important role in the dynamics of energy transfer in the interstellar medium. In particular, accurate rotational excitation rates are needed to interpret microwave and infrared observations of the interstellar gas for nonlocal thermodynamic equilibrium line formation. Theoretical cross sections and rate coefficients for collisional deexcitation of rotationally excited HF in the vibrational ground state are reported. The quantum-mechanical close-coupling approach implemented in the nonreactive scattering code MOLSCAT was applied in the cross section and rate coefficient calculations on an accurate 2D HF-He potential energy surface. Estimates of rate coefficients for H and H$_2$ colliders were obtained from the HF-He collisional data with a reduced-potential scaling approach. The calculation of state-to-state rotational quenching cross sections for HF due to He with initial rotational levels up to $j=20$ were performed for kinetic energies from 10$^{-5}$ to 15000...

  4. Microhardness evaluation alloys Hf-Si-B; Avaliacao de microdureza de ligas Hf-Si-B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gigolotti, Joao Carlos Janio; Costa, Eliane Fernandes Brasil [Centro Universitario de Volta Redonda (UNIFOA), Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil); Nunes, Carlos Angelo; Rocha, Elisa Gombio; Coelho, Gilberto Carvalho, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Lorena, SP (Brazil)


    The technological advance has generated increasing demand for materials that can be used under high temperature, what includes intermetallic MR-Si-B (MR = refractory metal) alloys with multiphase structures, that can also be applied in oxide environments. Thus, this work had for objective the micro hardness study of the Hf-Si-B system alloys, heat treated at 1600 deg C, in the Hf rich region. Hf-Si-B alloys had been produced with blades of Hf (min. 99.8%), Si (min. 99.998%) and B (min. 99.5%), in the voltaic arc furnace and heat treated at 1600 deg C under argon atmosphere. The relationship of the phases had been previously identified by X-ray diffraction and contrast in backscattered electron imaging mode. The alloys had their hardness analyzed by method Vickers (micro hardness) with load of 0.05 kgf and 0.2 kgf and application time of 20 s. The results, obtained from the arithmetic mean of measurements for each alloy on the heterogeneous region, showed a mean hardness of 11.08 GPA, with small coefficient of variation of 3.8%. The borides HfB2 (19.34 GPa) e HfB - 11.76 GPa, showed the hardness higher than the silicides Hf2Si (8.57 GPa), Hf5Si3 (9.63 GPa), Hf3Si2 (11.66 GPa), Hf5Si4 (10.00 GPa), HfSi (10.02 GPa) e HfSi2 (8.61 GPa). (author)

  5. High performance infrared fast cooled detectors for missile applications (United States)

    Reibel, Yann; Espuno, Laurent; Taalat, Rachid; Sultan, Ahmad; Cassaigne, Pierre; Matallah, Noura


    SOFRADIR was selected in the late 90's for the production of 320×256 MW detectors for major European missile programs. This experience has established our company as a key player in the field of missile programs. SOFRADIR has since developed a vast portfolio of lightweight, compact and high performance JT-based solutions for missiles. ALTAN is a 384x288 Mid Wave infrared detector with 15μm pixel pitch, and is offered in a miniature ultra-fast Joule- Thomson cooled Dewar. Since Sofradir offers both Indium Antimonide (InSb) and Mercury Cadmium Telluride technologies (MCT), we are able to deliver the detectors best suited to customers' needs. In this paper we are discussing different figures of merit for very compact and innovative JT-cooled detectors and are highlighting the challenges for infrared detection technologies.

  6. Flexible missile autopilot design studies with PC-MATLAB/386 (United States)

    Ruth, Michael J.


    Development of a responsive, high-bandwidth missile autopilot for airframes which have structural modes of unusually low frequency presents a challenging design task. Such systems are viable candidates for modern, state-space control design methods. The PC-MATLAB interactive software package provides an environment well-suited to the development of candidate linear control laws for flexible missile autopilots. The strengths of MATLAB include: (1) exceptionally high speed (MATLAB's version for 80386-based PC's offers benchmarks approaching minicomputer and mainframe performance); (2) ability to handle large design models of several hundred degrees of freedom, if necessary; and (3) broad extensibility through user-defined functions. To characterize MATLAB capabilities, a simplified design example is presented. This involves interactive definition of an observer-based state-space compensator for a flexible missile autopilot design task. MATLAB capabilities and limitations, in the context of this design task, are then summarized.

  7. Engaging Faculty in Community Engagement (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Glynis A.


    Researchers endorse the integration of community engagement (CE) into higher education as a way to improve the relevance of education, address community needs, and forge university-community partnerships (Zlotkowski, 1996). CE can help create stronger ties between universities and their communities and provide students with experiential learning…

  8. Evaluation of Impact Force of Missile Filled with Fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyuk-Kee [Hyundai, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seung-Eock [Sejong University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    In this paper, the effect of the fluid on the impact force was evaluated using the commercial software LS-DYNA. In order to verify the proposed finite element (FE) models, the impact force and impulse of the missiles filled with the fluid (wet missile) were investigated, and the analysis results were compared with the force plate tests conducted by VTT laboratory in Finland. A parametric study was performed to evaluate the impulse as per the position filled with the fluid and the impact velocity. The impulses of the wet missiles obtained from the parametric study were compared with those calculated by the modified Riera function. The effect of the fluid on the impact force was evaluated in this study. Based on this study, the following conclusions have been obtained: (1) The impulse/momentum ratios of the wet missiles filled with fluid in the front part were larger than those filled with fluid in the middle part. The difference was 5.5%, 5.3%, 6.2%, 3.8%, 2.9% and 1.0% for the impact velocities of 100 m/s, 110 m/s, 120 m/s, 130 m/s, 140 m/s, and 150 m/s, respectively. (2) The impulse/momentum ratios of the wet missiles by the FE analysis was larger than those by the modified Riera function up to 23.1% and 20.8%, respectively, when the fluid was filled in the front and middle parts. The modified Riera function underestimated the impulses of the wet missiles.

  9. More Engagement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    At the end of 2008, the British Foreign and Commonwealth Office issued "The UK and China: A Framework for Engagement." It is the first such document Britain has issued on its China policy. It was designed to set out a way of thinking about China more widely. Peter Wilson, Political Counselor at the British Embassy in Beijing, recently talked with Beijing Review about the significance of the document for bilateral relations between China and Britain.

  10. Engaging complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gys M. Loubser


    Full Text Available In this article, I discuss studies in complexity and its epistemological implications for systematic and practical theology. I argue that engagement with complexity does not necessarily assurea non-reductionist approach. However, if complexity is engaged transversally, it becomes possible to transcend reductionist approaches. Moreover, systematic and practical the ologians can draw on complexity in developing new ways of understanding and, therefore, new ways of describing the focus, epistemic scope and heuristic structures of systematic and practical theology. Firstly, Edgar Morin draws a distinction between restricted and general complexity based on the epistemology drawn upon in studies in complexity. Moving away from foundationalist approaches to epistemology, Morin argues for a paradigm of systems. Secondly,I discuss Kees van Kooten Niekerk�s distinction between epistemology, methodology andontology in studies in complexity and offer an example of a theological argument that drawson complexity. Thirdly, I argue for the importance of transversality in engaging complexity by drawing on the work of Wentzel van Huyssteen and Paul Cilliers. In conclusion, I argue that theologians have to be conscious of the epistemic foundations of each study in complexity, and these studies illuminate the heart of Reformed theology.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: Therefore, this article has both intradisciplinary and interdisciplinary implications. When theologians engage studies incomplexity, the epistemological roots of these studies need to be considered seeing thatresearchers in complexity draw on different epistemologies. Drawing on transversality wouldenhance such considerations. Furthermore, Edgar Morin�s and Paul Cilliers� approach tocomplexity will inform practical and theoretical considerations in church polity and unity.

  11. Electric Loading Simulation System for Missile Wings and Rudders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Rong; LIN Hui; CHEN Ming


    The design and the realization of missile wings and rudders loading simulation system based on digital signal processor (DSP) TMS320LF2407 and direct torque control (DTC) servo driver ACS600 are discussed. The structure and opration principle for the system are presented. Speediness and elimination of superabundant torque are two key difficulties for electric loading simulation system. The method which can eliminate the superabundant torque is researched. Test results show the airflow resistance when missile wings and rudders are spreading can be rapidly simulated with high accuracy.

  12. Terrain Contour Matching (TERCOM): A Cruise Missile Guidance Aid (United States)

    Golden, Joe P.


    The Cruise Missile is guided by an inertial guidance system aided by an updating technique called Terrain Contour Matching (TERCOM). Chance-Vought first proposed the terrain correlation technique in the late 1950's. Since that time TERCOM has evolved into a reliable, accurate, all weather, day and night method of position fixing and updating for cruise missiles. A brief history of TERCOM development will be presented giving results where possible. A description of TERCOM and how is works will be discussed. A snapshot of the present TERCOM status and future planned developments will be addressed.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DaiLongcheng; XuanYimin


    Anew method in system design of ejecting devices of missiles is first presented.Some important points are dis-cussed,which guid the research and development of new ejecting devices of missileg,amd provid the foundation flr thw design of mew ejecting device is provided.The system design includes the distribution of techmology specifica-tion,3-D solid modeling of ejecting devices of missiles im-ported from abroad,the design of pmeumatic device sys-tem,the design of ejecting mechanism system,the predic-tion of reliability and the experimental analysis,etc.

  14. Heat Transfer Between a Missile's Combustion Chamber and the Warhead

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵永涛; 张奇; 白春华; 闫华


    Under higher temperatures the charge within a warhead will be subjected to physical and chemical changes, which will influence the security of the warhead launching process. In this paper the problem is studied adopting finite difference method for the case of a rocket-powered missile. Temperature distribution tables are given through quadrature experiments, and the results fit the actual measured values very well. The results also show that to ensure the launching security of rocket-powered missiles having warhead charge critical temperature close to about 60 ℃, the designer can select appropriate heat insulation structural parameters.

  15. Robust control for snake maneuver design of missile (United States)

    Kun, Ya; Chen, Xin; Li, Chuntao


    For the performance of missile with high Mach number and strongly nonlinear dynamics, this paper uses robust control to design maneuver controller. Robust servomechanism linear quadratic regulator (RSLQR) control is used to form the inner loop and proportional-plus-integral (PI) control is used to provide yawing tracking with no error. Contrast simulations under three types of deviation have been done to confirm robustness of the RSLQR-plus-PI control. Simulation results shows that RSLQR-plus-PI control would resist the disturbance and maintain the properties of the controller, guarantee the robustness and stability of missile more effectively than pure PI control.

  16. Consolidation of data base for Army generalized missile model (United States)

    Klenke, D. J.; Hemsch, M. J.


    Data from plume interaction tests, nose mounted canard configuration tests, and high angle of attack tests on the Army Generalized Missile model are consolidated in a computer program which makes them readily accessible for plotting, listing, and evaluation. The program is written in FORTRAN and will run on an ordinary minicomputer. It has the capability of retrieving any coefficient from the existing DATAMAN tapes and displaying it in tabular or plotted form. Comparisons of data taken in several wind tunnels and of data with the predictions of Program MISSILE2 are also presented.

  17. Design and Implementation of One Missile Visual Simulation System Based on OpenGL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Ying; ZHANG Pu-zhao; PENG Yu-xin; HUANG Jian-guo


    The implementation of a missile's visual simulation system is explained that is developed with OpenGL(open graphic library) and the flight path and flight carriage in different stages of the missile are displayed. The establishment problems of the 3D scene are circumstantiated including the construction and redeployment of the model, creation of the virtual scene, setting of the multi-viewports and multi-windows etc. The missile's data driver, system flow, the modules and their mutual relations of the missile visual simulation system are discussed. The missile flight simulation results and effect of the scenes are given.

  18. HfO2/SiO2 multilayer based reflective and transmissive optics from the IR to the UV (United States)

    Wang, Jue; Hart, Gary A.; Oudard, Jean Francois; Wamboldt, Leonard; Roy, Brian P.


    HfO2/SiO2 multilayer based reflective optics enable threat detection in the short-wave/middle-wave infrared and high power laser targeting capability in the near infrared. On the other hand, HfO2/SiO2 multilayer based transmissive optics empower early missile warning by taking advantage of the extremely low noise light detection in the deep-ultraviolet region where solar irradiation is strongly absorbed by the ozone layer of the earth's atmosphere. The former requires high laser damage resistance, whereas the latter needs a solar-blind property, i.e., high transmission of the radiation below 290 nm and strong suppression of the solar background from 300 nm above. The technical challenges in both cases are revealed. The spectral limits associated with the HfO2 and SiO2 films are discussed and design concepts are schematically illustrated. Spectral performances are realized for potential A and D and commercial applications.

  19. An analysis of the common missile and TOW 2B on the Stryker anti-tank guided missile platform, using the Janus simulation



    Approved for public release; distribution in unlimited. The U.S. Army is beginning to field the first of six Stryker Brigade Combat Teams (SBCTs) and equip the organic Anti-Tank (AT) Company of the Brigade with the LAV III Anti-Tank Guided Missile (ATGM) Platform and the Tube-Launched, Optically-Tracked, Wire-Guided 2B (TOW 2B) missile system. A developmental effort is currently underway to replace the aging TOW 2B and Hellfire missile systems with a common missile that meets both ground...

  20. The Joint Cruise Missiles Project: An Acquisition History--Appendixes (United States)


    21 TERCOM and Terrain Following Operation.......................22 DMA/JCMPO Organizational Interactions...50 MRASM (AGM-1091) Test Program................................52 Cruise Missile TERCOM and Survivability Flight package TEL Transporter erector launcher T&E Test and evaluation TEMP Test and evaluation master plan TERCOM Terrain contour matching UFC Unit

  1. CMC occasional papers : a missile stability regime for South Asia.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Feroz Hassan (Pakistan Army, Islamabad, Pakistan); Vannoni, Michael Geoffrey; Rajen, Gaurav (Gaia Research Consulting, Albuquerque, NM)


    India and Pakistan have created sizeable ballistic missile forces and are continuing to develop and enlarge them. These forces can be both stabilizing (e.g., providing a survivable force for deterrence) and destabilizing (e.g., creating strategic asymmetries). Missile forces will be a factor in bilateral relations for the foreseeable future, so restraint is necessary to curtail their destabilizing effects. Such restraint, however, must develop within an atmosphere of low trust. This report presents a set of political and operational options, both unilateral and bilateral, that decreases tensions, helps rebuild the bilateral relationship, and prepares the ground for future steps in structural arms control. Significant steps, which build on precedents and do not require extensive cooperation, are possible despite strained relations. The approach is made up of three distinct phases: (1) tension reduction measures, (2) confidence building measures, and (3) arms control agreements. The goal of the first phase is to initiate unilateral steps that are substantive and decrease tensions, establish missiles as a security topic for bilateral discussion, and set precedents for limited bilateral cooperation. The second phase would build confidence by expanding current bilateral security agreements, formalizing bilateral understandings, and beginning discussion of monitoring procedures. The third phase could include bilateral agreements limiting some characteristics of national missile forces including the cooperative incorporation of monitoring and verification.

  2. Joint Air-to-Surface Standoff Missile (JASSM) (United States)


    Defense Program ICE - Independent Cost Estimate IOC - Initial Operational Capability Inc - Increment JROC - Joint Requirements Oversight Council $K...penetrating warhead with a robust blast fragmentation capability. The missiles employ an IIR seeker system to attack fixed, point targets requiring precision

  3. 22 CFR 121.16 - Missile Technology Control Regime Annex. (United States)


    ... missile systems, see § 121.1, Cat. VIII (a), target drones and reconnaissance drones (see § 121.1, Cat... (see § 121.1, Cat. IV(h)); (b) Reentry vehicles (see § 121.1, Cat. IV(g)), and equipment designed or modified therefor, as follows, except as provided in Note (1) below for those designed for...

  4. Health Management and Service Life for Air Force Missiles (United States)


    prediction of performance will be conducted DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. PA# TBD 24 • Empiricism ...Strategic Missile A&S Approach Overview Empiricism DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. PA# TBD...Extrapolation Simulated Data 25 • Empiricism cannot always predict future state • Mechanistic method enables enhanced predictions • Mechanistic will not be

  5. Controlling The Spread of Land-Attack Cruise Missiles. (United States)


    Debate in the ’New’ European Community," Arms Control Today 23, no. 2 (March 1993): 12. 38 Controlling the Spread of Land-Attack Cruise Missiles...of temperature, pressures or atmosphere in autoclaves or hydro- claves when used for the production of composites or partially processed composites

  6. A robust approach to the missile defence location problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemen, A.A.F.; Evers, L.; Barros, A.I.; Monsuur, H.; Wagelmans, A.P.M.


    This paper proposes a model for determining a robust defence strategy against ballistic missile threat. Our approach takes into account a variety of possible future scenarios and different forms of robustness criteria, including the well-known absolute robustness criterion. We consider two problem

  7. White Sands Missile Range 2011 Drinking Water Quality Report (United States)


    acerca de su agua potable . Haga que alguien lo traduzca para usted, o hable con alguien que lo entienda. Main Post White Sands Missile Range 2011...standards. What is This Water Quality Report? Este informe contiene informacion importante acerca de su agua potable . Haga que alguien lo traduzca

  8. Shipborne Laser Beam Weapon System for Defence against Cruise Missiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.P. Dudeja


    Full Text Available Sea-skim~ing cruise missiles pose the greatest threat to a surface ship in the present-day war scenario. The convenitional close-in-weapon-systems (CIWSs are becoming less reliable against these new challenges requiring extremely fast reaction time. Naval Forces see a high energy laser as a feasible andjeffective directed energy weapon against sea-skimming antiship cruise missiles becauseof its .ability to deliver destructive energy at the speed of light on to a distant target. The paper comparesthe technology and capability of deuterium fluoride (DF and chemical-oxygen-iodine laser (COIL in effectively performing the role of a shipborne CIWS altainst sea-skimming missiles. Out of these twolasers, it is argued that DF laser wo.uld be more effective a,s a shipborne weapon for defence against sea-skimmin,g cruise missiles. Besides the high energy laser as the primary (killing laser, othersub-systems required in the complete weapon system would be: A beacon laser to sense phase distor'ions in the primary laser, adaptive optics to compensate the atmospheric distortions, beam-directing optics, illuminating lasers, IRST sensors, surveillance and tracking radars, interfacing system, etc.

  9. A Prototype Fibre Optic Gyroscope for Missile Guidance Applications, (United States)

    This paper describes the design of a prototype fibre optic gyro, which is intended for missile guidance applications. Important design constraints...beam-splitter. Serrodyne phase ramps are impressed on the light propagating round the fibre optic sensor coil connected to the integrated optics chip

  10. Hardware in Loop Simulation for Missile Guidance and Control Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Chaudhuri


    Full Text Available The purpose of the guidance law is to determine appropriate missile flight path dynamics to achieve mission objective in an efficient manner based on navigation information. Today, guided missiles which are aerodynamically unstable or non-linear in all or part of the flight envelopes need control systems for stability as well as for steering. Many classical guidance and control laws have been used for tactical missiles with varying degrees of performance, complexity and seeker/sensor requirements. Increased accuracy requirements and more dynamic tactics of modern warfare demand improvement of performance which is a trade-off between sophisticated hardware and more sophisticated software. To avoid increase in cost by hardware sophistication, today's trend is to exploit new theoretical methods and low cost high speed microprocessor techniques. Missile test flights are very expensive. The missile system with its sophisticated software and hardware is not reusable after a test launch. Hardware-in-loop Simulation (HILS facilities and methodology form a well integrated system aimed at transforming a preliminary guidance and control system design to flight software and hardware with trajectory right from lift-off till its impact. Various guidance and control law studies pertaining to gathering basket and stability margins, pre-flight, post-flight analyses and validation of support systems have been carried out using this methodology. Nearly full spectrum of dynamically accurate six-degrees-of-freedom (6-DOF model of missile systems has been realised in the HILS scenario. The HILS facility allows interconnection of missile hardware in flight configuration. Pre-flight HILS results have matched fairly well with actual flight trial results. It was possible to detect many hidden defects in the onboard guidance and control software as well as in hardware during HILS. Deficiencies in model, like tail-wag-dog (TWD, flexibility, seeker dynamics and defects in

  11. Joint Counterair and Theater Missile Defense Doctrine to Defend against Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and Cruise Missiles in Asymmetric Warfare (United States)


    state lasers, and a megawatt-class Chemical Oxygen Iodine Laser (COIL) to detect, track, target, and destroy ballistic missiles shortly after launch... disproportionate cost tradeoff between threat weapon systems and the proposed interceptors. With a price tag of over $1M per interceptor such as Patriot

  12. General concepts of modern HF communications (United States)

    Aarons, Jules

    Both conceptual and hardware advancements have led to substantial systems developments in military HF communications; the former encompass coding and error correction techniques for security, in order to minimize propagation and interference, while the latter prominently include digital equipment permitting the selection of a frequency for a particular path and propagation mode, as well as modulation selection. Propagation-related advancements involve better statistical models as well as advancements in short-term forecasting methods responsive to changes in solar-geophysical parameters. Adaptive HF systems have been developed for meteor-scatter radio communications.

  13. Research on Multi-Layer Distributed HF Radio Network Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Dai; Chun-Jiang Wang; Quan Yu


    High frequency (HF) transmission is an important communication techniques. However, conventional point-to-point transmission can be easily destroyed, which limits its utilization in practice. HF networking communication has the capability against demolishment. The network structure is one of the key factors for HF networking communication. In this paper, a novel analysis method of the network connectedness based on the eigenvalue is derived, and a multi-layer distributed HF radio network structure is proposed. Both the theore tical analysis and the computer simulation results verify that the application of the proposed network structure in the HF radio communication can improve the anti demolishment ability of the HF network efficiently.

  14. Systematic Comparison of HF CMOS Transconductors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Nauta, Bram


    Transconductors are commonly used as active elements in high-frequency (HF) filters, amplifiers, mixers, and oscillators. This paper reviews transconductor design by focusing on the V-I kernel that determines the key transconductor properties. Based on bandwidth considerations, simple V-I kernels wi

  15. Electron impact on vibrationally cold {{HF}}^{+} (United States)

    Cristian Stroe, Marius; Fifirig, Magda


    The dissociative recombination and vibrational excitation processes induced by electron impact on vibrationally cold {{HF}}+ are investigated in the framework of the multichannel quantum defect theory for electron energies below 1 eV. The thermal rate coefficients for the electron temperature range from 10 to 5000 K are reported.


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Kristine; Connelly, James Norman; Bizzarro, Martin


    After considerable controversy regarding the (176)Lu decay constant (lambda(176)Lu), there is now widespread agreement that (1.867 +/- 0.008) x 10(-11) yr(-1) as confirmed by various terrestrial objects and a 4557 Myr meteorite is correct. This leaves the (176)Hf excesses that are correlated with...

  17. Flight testing of the AIM/RIM-7M missile, preflight analysis (United States)

    Hicks, W.; Greenberg, E.


    The AIM/RIM-7M missile is the most recent version of the AIM-7 missile series. It is in the preproduction phase and has completed most of the preproduction flight test evaluation. A description is presented of the preflight simulation techniques used, taking into account the value of the techniques in predicting the results of actual flights. The AIM/RIM-7M is a semiactive, radar-guided homing missile with sophisticated onboard digital processing. It may be launched from either an aircraft or a surface system. To a large degree, the AIM/RIM-7M represents problems typical of all guided missiles. The described techniques are directly applicable to radar-guided missiles and generically to all types of guided missiles. Attention is given to simulation bay activities, the anechoic chamber, aspects of RF control, the target array, computer models, aspects of preflight simulations, and the test setup.

  18. The proliferation of aerospace weapons technology: Ballistic missiles and the case of Brazil (United States)

    Vossen, Terrence John


    The rationale behind the development of ballistic missile production in Brazil is examined by exploring the political, military, and economic determinants of ballistic missile demand in that country. To ascertain how Brazil developed missile production capabilities, the contributions of aerospace industries in industrialized states, the Brazilian space program, trade between less-developed countries, and illicit trade in missile technology are assessed. It is argued that missile development increasingly became a function of economic as opposed to security considerations, and that technologies transferred from developed country aerospace firms and Brazil's space program were primarily responsible for the creation of production capabilities. It is also contended that the proliferation of missile technology to Brazil was consistent with the workings of a system evident in the aerospace weapons technology market that sustains the horizontal spread of weapons production capabilities.

  19. Computer simulation of absolute and contrast infrared signatures from missile noses (United States)

    Tofani, Alessandro


    A computer simulation was performed to obtain an estimate of the infrared radiant intensity and radiative contrast produced by missile noses. The temperature distribution on the nose was computed by taking into account the effects of aerodynamic and solar heating, sky irradiance, and radiative cooling. The corresponding absolute and contrast signatures were obtained by considering the influence of both atmosphere and target geometry, for six target classes, including cruise missiles, tactical ballistic missiles, and air-to-air and surface-to-surface missiles. Both radiant intensity and radiative contrast were computed as a function of missile altitude or missile distance for all targets. A comparison of radiative quantities in the 3- to 5-micron and 8- to 12-micron bands shows that usually the spectral region that gives the strongest signal is not the one that gives the highest contrast.

  20. Application of Pontryagin’s Minimum Principle in Optimum Time of Missile Manoeuvring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sari Cahyaningtias


    Full Text Available Missile is a guided weapon and designed to protect outermost island from a thread of other country. It, commonly, is used as self defense. This research presented surface-to-surface missile in final dive manoeuvre for fixed target. Furthermore, it was proposed manoeuvring based on unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV, autopilot system, which needs accuration and minimum both time and thrust of missile while attacking object. This paper introduced pontryagin’s Minimum Principle, which is useable to solve the problem. The numerical solution showed that trajectory of the missile is split it up in three sub-intervals; flight, climbing, and diving. The numerical simulation showed that the missile must climb in order to satisfy the final dive condition and the optimum time of a missile depend on initial condition of the altitude and the terminal velocity

  1. Assessment of Containment Structures Against Missile Impact Threats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Q M


    In order to ensure the highest safety requirements,nuclear power plant structures (the containment structures,the fuel storages and transportation systems) should be assessed against all possible internal and external impact threats.The internal impact threats include kinetic missiles generated by the failure of high pressure vessels and pipes,the failure of high speed rotating machineries and accidental drops.The external impact threats may come from airborne missiles,aircraft impact,explosion blast and fragments.The impact effects of these threats on concrete and steel structures in a nuclear power plant are discussed.Methods and procedures for the impact assessment of nuclear power plants are introduced.Recent studies on penetration and perforation mechanics as well as progresses on dynamic properties of concrete-like materials are presented to increase the understanding of the impact effects on concrete containment structures.

  2. BTT autopilot design for agile missiles with aerodynamic uncer tainty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yueyue Ma; Jie Guo; Shengjing Tang


    The approach to the synthesis of autopilot with aerody-namic uncertainty is investigated in order to achieve large maneu-verability of agile missiles. The dynamics of the agile missile with reaction-jet control system (RCS) are presented. Subsequently, the cascade control scheme based on the bank-to-turn (BTT) steering technique is described. To address the aerodynamic un-certainties encountered by the control system, the active distur-bance rejection control (ADRC) method is introduced in the autopi-lot design. Furthermore, a compound control er, using extended state observer (ESO) to online estimate system uncertainties and calculate derivative of command signals, is designed based on dynamic surface control (DSC). Nonlinear simulation results show the feasibility of the proposed approach and validate the robust-ness of the control er with severe unmodeled dynamics.

  3. Potential applications of video disc technology to missile guidance (United States)

    Ormsby, C. C.; Long, H. S.


    An assessment of video disk data storage technology suggests the possibility of a missile-borne data storage system providing real-time access to a data base consisting of approximately 10 to the 11th bits, with readout rates of up to 200 Mbits/sec and average frame access time of 2-3 sec. The Direct Read After Write (DRAW) technology currently under development will also provide a data recording capability of 10 to the 7th - 10 to the 8th bits/sec. Five cruise missile applications of this technology are discussed: (1) Terrain Contour Matching (TERCOM) data base guidance; (2) target signature data base guidance; (3) terrain/obstacle files navigation; (4) preprogrammed route storage navigation; and (5) reconnaissance data recording.

  4. Design and development of Propulsion System for Antitank Guided Missile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Mohan Reddy


    Full Text Available A Propulsion system is designed and developed for the third generation antitank guided missile (ATGM. It consists of a separate booster and sustainer. Booster is ahead of sustainer, having four nozzles canted to the missile axis. Sustainer discharges through a supersonic blast tube. Low smoke, high energy nitramine propellant for this propulsion system developed by the High Energy Materials Research Laboratory (HEMRL, Pune, has been successfully flight-tested. The booster grain is tube-in-tube configuration with end inhibition and the sustainer grain is of end burning configuration. High strength aluminium alloy, HE-15, is used for rocket motor components. Glass-phenolic composite ablative material is used for thermal protection of motors and high density graphite is used for nozzle throats. The design considerations and approach, including grain configuration, nozzle, and ignitersare briefly discussed. The propulsion system has been extensively tested in static tests and in flights, establishing the satisfactory performance of the system.

  5. A Predictive Explicit Guidance Scheme for Ballistic Missiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Prabhakar


    Full Text Available A new approach to the design of ballistic missile guidance is presented in this paper. The proposed method uses the missile model to predict the likely impact point at every guidance cycle and apply course corrections based on the predicted impact point (PIP deviations. The algorithm also estimates the in-flight thrust variation from nominal and accordingly updates the model to reduce the uncertainty in the prediction of the impact point. The performance of the algorithm is tested through 6-DOF simulation. The simulation results show excellent performance of the proposed guidance scheme in nominal & off nominal cases.Defence Science Journal, 2013, 63(5, pp.456-461, DOI:

  6. Discrete Sliding Mode Control for Hypersonic Cruise Missile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Hua Fan


    Full Text Available A discrete variable structure control (DVSC with sliding vector is presented to track the velocity and acceleration command for a hypersonic cruise missile. In the design an integrator is augmented to ensure the tracking with zero steady-state errors. Furthermore the sliding surface of acceleration is designed using the error of acceleration and acceleration rate to avoid the singularity of control matrix. A proper power rate reaching law is utilized in this proposal; therefore the state trajectory from any initial point can be driven into the sliding surface. Besides, in order to validate the robustness of controller, the unmolded dynamic and parameter disturbance of the missile are considered. Through simulation the proposed controller demonstrates good performance in tracking velocity and acceleration command.

  7. External Peer Review Report on the Missile Defense Agency Office of Internal Review (United States)


    No. DODIG-2015-123 M A Y 1 4 , 2 0 1 5 External Peer Review Report on the Missile Defense Agency Office of Internal Review Report Documentation...3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE External Peer Review Report on the Missile Defense Agency Office of Internal... REVIEW SUBJECT: External Peer Review Report on the Missile Defense Agency Office of Internal Review (Report No. DODIG-2015-123) Attached is the

  8. Sea-Based Ballistic Missile Defense - Background and Issues for Congress (United States)


    Aegis ships. The program involved modifying the SM-2 Block IV air-defense missile. The missile, as modified, was called the Block IVA version. The...system was designed to intercept descending missiles endo-atmospherically (i.e., within the atmosphere) and destroy them with the Block IVA missile’s...the SBX radar in Texas.52 SBX underwent sea trials and high- power radiation testing in the Gulf of Mexico in 2005. It was then moved by a heavy

  9. ARMS CONTROL: U.S. Efforts to Control the Transfer of Nuclear-Capable Missile Technology (United States)


    risk of diversion is an important part of its analysis, Commerce focuses its reviews on certain countries that are developing nuclear-capable missiles...ogy to countries developing nuclear-capable missile systems. Our work was conducted in the United States at the Departments of State, Commerce , and...the MTCR in halting the transfer of MTCR-related systems and technology to countries developing nuclear-capable missile systems. The objectives, scope

  10. HOMA: Israel’s National Missile Defense Strategy (Abridged Version) (United States)


    developed by Tadiran Electronics Systems), and the Hazelnut Tree launcher control center.28 Each battery is designed to track and counter —14 enemy...Communications center, (4) HAZELNUT TREE fire control center, (5) GREEN PINE radar antenna, (6) Radar control center, (7) Radar power unit, (8) Radar...cooling unit. A battery has four launch vehicles with six ready missiles each, a Tadiran Citron Tree launch control centre, a Hazelnut Tree fire

  11. Long-Range Ballistic Missile Defense in Europe (United States)


    and another transportable radar to be deployed in a country closer to Iran (which was never publicly identified). Deployment of the GMD European...former Polish President Lech Walesa and former Czech Prime Minister Mirek Topolanek criticized the Obama administration’s policy toward the region.4...the Pacific missile test range, would have been refurbished and transported to a fixed site at a military training base in the Czech Republic. The

  12. System Architecture for Anti-Ship Ballistic Missile Defense (ASBMD)


    Hobgood, Jean; Madison, Kimberly; Pawlowski, Geoffrey; Nedd, Steven.; Roberts, Michael; Rumberg, Paige


    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Recent studies suggest that China is developing a new class of ballistic missiles that can be used against moving targets, such as ships. One such technology is anticipated to cover a range of 2,000 kilometers and operate at a speed of Mach 10. The threat is also capable of maneuvering both during the midcourse and terminal flight phases for the purposes of guidance, target acquisition, and countermeasures. This threat could greatl...

  13. Missile trajectory shaping using sampling-based path planning


    Pharpatara, Pawit; Pepy, Romain; Hérissé, Bruno; Bestaoui, Yasmina


    International audience; This paper presents missile guidance as a complex robotic problem: a hybrid non-linear system moving in a heterogeneous environment. The proposed solution to this problem combines a sampling-based path planner, Dubins' curves and a locally-optimal guidance law. This algorithm aims to find feasible trajectories that anticipate future flight conditions, especially the loss of manoeuverability at high altitude. Simulated results demonstrate the substantial performance imp...

  14. 1997 Report to the Congress on Ballistic Missile Defense. (United States)


    be modified to the Block IVA TBMD configuration. This area defense program will provide a lower-tier or endoatmospheric intercept capability. The...and ADCP completed operational testing and evaluation at White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico . A successful TMD demonstration was conducted as part of...UOES FY 99) Sea Lower PAC-3 Configuration Three (FUE FY 99) Navy Theater Wide TBMD AEGIS With SM-2 Block IVA (FUE FY 02; UOES Software

  15. The U.S. Navy and the Cuban Missile Crisis (United States)


    floor of 1,200 feet, the Guidelines were photographed at Bahia Honda, Havana, La Coloma, Mariel, Matanzas , San Julian, and Cienfuegos. Photography of the...a sharp warning might deter the Soviets from deploying ballistic missiles to Cuba, but unwilling to go public with the evidence 68 available to date...p. 4; "United States Air Force Security Service: Performance During the Cuban Crisis, April- December 1962," n.d., NSACF, pp. 12, 68 ; "Air Force

  16. Space and Missile Systems Center Standard: Space Flight Pressurized Systems (United States)


    pressure and vehicle structural loads. The main propellant tank of a launch vehicle is a typical example. Pressurized System: A system that...SPACE AND MISSILE SYSTEMS CENTER STANDARD SPACE FLIGHT PRESSURIZED SYSTEMS APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE...Space Flight Pressurized Systems 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER

  17. Open Architecture as an Enabler for FORCEnet Cruise Missile Defense (United States)


    battlespace via the FORCEnet information network. Current capability gaps include a lack of common configuration and Fire Control Quality ( FCQ ...connectivity among platforms that is needed to achieve and maintain a robust cruise missile defense. FCQ is defined as data obtained with the sufficient...platform, or a combination of the two. With Fire Control Quality ( FCQ ) threat data from a remote sensor, the remote unit can initiate a launch

  18. Analyzing and designing object-oriented missile simulations with concurrency (United States)

    Randorf, Jeffrey Allen


    A software object model for the six degree-of-freedom missile modeling domain is presented. As a precursor, a domain analysis of the missile modeling domain was started, based on the Feature-Oriented Domain Analysis (FODA) technique described by the Software Engineering Institute (SEI). It was subsequently determined the FODA methodology is functionally equivalent to the Object Modeling Technique. The analysis used legacy software documentation and code from the ENDOSIM, KDEC, and TFrames 6-DOF modeling tools, including other technical literature. The SEI Object Connection Architecture (OCA) was the template for designing the object model. Three variants of the OCA were considered---a reference structure, a recursive structure, and a reference structure with augmentation for flight vehicle modeling. The reference OCA design option was chosen for maintaining simplicity while not compromising the expressive power of the OMT model. The missile architecture was then analyzed for potential areas of concurrent computing. It was shown how protected objects could be used for data passing between OCA object managers, allowing concurrent access without changing the OCA reference design intent or structure. The implementation language was the 1995 release of Ada. OCA software components were shown how to be expressed as Ada child packages. While acceleration of several low level and other high operations level are possible on proper hardware, there was a 33% degradation of 4th order Runge-Kutta integrator performance of two simultaneous ordinary differential equations using Ada tasking on a single processor machine. The Defense Department's High Level Architecture was introduced and explained in context with the OCA. It was shown the HLA and OCA were not mutually exclusive architectures, but complimentary. HLA was shown as an interoperability solution, with the OCA as an architectural vehicle for software reuse. Further directions for implementing a 6-DOF missile modeling

  19. Joint Air-to-Surface Standoff Missile (JASSM) (United States)


    Retrieval Dev Est - Development Estimate DoD - Department of Defense DSN - Defense Switched Network Econ - Economic Eng - Engineering Est...Missile Reliability (KSA) (CPD para 6.2.8) 4th Lot .91 4th Lot. 91 IOT &E .80 4th Lot .85 IOT &E .95 4th Lot .91 JASSM December 2013 SAR April 16, 2014 17...Acronyms and Abbreviations CPD - Capability Production Document IOT &E - Initial Operational Test and Evaluation KPP - Key Performance Parameter KSA - Key

  20. Quadrennial Defense Review and Ballistic Missile Defense Review (United States)


    global defense posture 3 BMDR Highlights • Outlines a strategy and policy framework to – Defend the homeland against limited ballistic missile attack...abroad – Collaborate closely with allies and partners – Pursue a cooperative and tailored global defense posture – Strengthen US civilian in 2010 – QDR and BMDR released February 1, 2010 – Nuclear Posture Review to be released this spring – Space Posture Review, with Director of

  1. Decoupling Control Method Based on Neural Network for Missiles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAN Li; LUO Xi-shuang; ZHANG Tian-qiao


    In order to make the static state feedback nonlinear decoupling control law for a kind of missile to be easy for implementation in practice, an improvement is discussed. The improvement method is to introduce a BP neural network to approximate the decoupling control laws which are designed for different aerodynamic characteristic points, so a new decoupling control law based on BP neural network is produced after the network training. The simulation results on an example illustrate the approach obtained feasible and effective.

  2. Robust Hybrid Control for Ballistic Missile Longitudinal Autopilot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAEL Mohsen Ahmed; QUAN Quana


    This paper investigates the boost phase's longitudinal autopilot of a ballistic missile equipped with thrust vector control.The existing longitudinal autopilot employs time-invariant passive resistor-inductor-capacitor (RLC) network compensator as a control strategy,which does not take into account the time-varying missile dynamics.This may cause the closed-loop system instability in the presence of large disturbance and dynamics uncertainty.Therefore,the existing controller should be redesigned to achieve more stable vehicle response.In this paper,based on gain-scheduling adaptive control strategy,two different types of optimal controllers are proposed.The first controller is gain-scheduled optimal tuning-proportional-integral-derivative (PID) with actuator constraints,which supplies better response but requires a priori knowledge of the system dynamics.Moreover,the controller has oscillatory response in the presence of dynamic uncertainty.Taking this into account,gain-scheduled optimal linear quadratic (LQ) in conjunction with optimal tuning-compensator offers the greatest scope for controller improvement in the presence of dynamic uncertainty and large disturbance.The latter controller is tested through various scenarios for the validated nonlinear dynamic flight model of the real ballistic missile system with autopilot exposed to external disturbances.

  3. Changing law of launching pitching angular velocity of rotating missile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Guang; Xu Bin; Jiao Xiaojuan; Zhen Tiesheng


    In order to provide accurate launching pitching angular velocity (LPAV) for the exterior trajectory optimization design, multi-flexible body dynamics (MFBD) technology is presented to study the changing law of LPAV of the rotating missile based on spiral guideway. An MFBD virtual prototype model of the rotating missile launching system is built using multi-body dynamics modeling technology based on the built flexible body models of key components and the special force model. The built model is verified with the frequency spectrum analysis. With the flexible body contact theory and nonlinear theory of MFBD technology, the research is conducted on the influence of a series of factors on LPAV, such as launching angle change, clearance between launching canister and missile, thrust change, thrust eccentricity and mass eccentricity, etc. Through this research, some useful values of the key design parameters which are difficult to be measured in physical tests are obtained. Finally, a simplified mathematical model of the changing law of LPAV is presented through fitting virtual test results using the linear regression method and verified by physical flight tests. The research results have important significance for the exterior trajectory optimization design.

  4. Design and Simulation of TF and TA Controller for Missile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHA Xu; GUANG Cheng-qi; CUI Ping-yuan; LIU Yong-cai


    A nonlinear terrain following(TF) and terrain avoidance(TA) controller is proposed for missile control systems.Based on classical TF algorithm (adaptive angle method), a new method for TF controller is proposed by using angle of attack. A method of obtaining terrain outline data from digital elevation map (DEM) for TF control is discussed in order to save store space. A TA algorithm is proposed by using bank-to-turn technique. The block control model, which is suitable for backstepping design, is given for nonlinear model of missile. Making full use of the characteristics of the system and combining block control principle and backstepping technique, a robust controller design method is proposed. Uncertainties in every sub-block are allowed, and can be canceled by using the idea of nonlinear damping. It is proved that the state tracking errors are converged to a neighborhood of the origin exponentially. Finally, nonlinear six-degree-of-freedom simulation results for the missile model are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control law.

  5. Study on combat effectiveness of air defense missile weapon system based on queuing theory (United States)

    Zhao, Z. Q.; Hao, J. X.; Li, L. J.


    Queuing Theory is a method to analyze the combat effectiveness of air defense missile weapon system. The model of service probability based on the queuing theory was constructed, and applied to analyzing the combat effectiveness of "Sidewinder" and "Tor-M1" air defense missile weapon system. Finally aimed at different targets densities, the combat effectiveness of different combat units of two types' defense missile weapon system is calculated. This method can be used to analyze the usefulness of air defense missile weapon system.

  6. Iranian Ballistic Missile Threat and a Phased, Adaptive Approach for Missile Defense in Europe: Perceptions, Policies and Scenarios (United States)


    critical challenges that endanger peace. The institute has offices in New York, Brussels and Moscow. In May 2009, EWI published a report titled...Program: Treading Water in Shark -Infested Seas,” The Heritage Foundation, April 8, 2010, Defense-Program-Treading-Water-in- Shark -Infested-Seas. 129 Ibid. 57 an ICBM until 2020 (using the SM-3 Block

  7. Ballistic Missile Defense System Transition and Transfer Process from Missile Defense Agency to the Army - Innovative or Dysfunctional? (United States)


    initiating development of the nuclear-capable Nike Zeus ABM interceptor, intended to destroy an incoming enemy warhead with an airborne nuclear explosion. The...intercept an incoming warhead using the nuclear-tipped Nike Zeus missile. Although DoD cancelled the Nike Zeus system due to technical and operational...budgeting, and initiate issue resolution through the Army/MDA Board of Directors to ensure adequate representation of the Service’s interests

  8. Missiles for Asia The Need for Operational Analysis of U.S. Theater Ballistic Missiles in the Pacific (United States)


    attack a skilled TEL force. During the Gulf War, Iraqi TELs were able to continue firing TBMs at Israel , Saudi Arabia, and Bahrain despite a concerted...1, 2015: family-of-stealthy-cruise-missiles-014343/ Binnie, Jeremy, “ Israel , Syria...Secretary of the Army and was conducted within the RAND Arroyo Center’s Strategy, Doctrine, and Resources Program. RAND Arroyo Center, part of the RAND

  9. The Apache Longbow-Hellfire Missile Test at Yuma Proving Ground: Ecological Risk Assessment for Missile Firing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Daniel Steven [ORNL; Efroymson, Rebecca Ann [ORNL; Hargrove, William Walter [ORNL; Suter, Glenn [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; Pater, Larry [ERDC-CERL


    A multiple stressor risk assessment was conducted at Yuma Proving Ground, Arizona, as a demonstration of the Military Ecological Risk Assessment Framework. The focus was a testing program at Cibola Range, which involved an Apache Longbow helicopter firing Hellfire missiles at moving targets, M60- A1 tanks. This paper describes the ecological risk assessment for the missile launch and detonation. The primary stressor associated with this activity was sound. Other minor stressors included the detonation impact, shrapnel, and fire. Exposure to desert mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus crooki) was quantified using the Army sound contour program BNOISE2, as well as distances from the explosion to deer. Few effects data were available from related studies. Exposure-response models for the characterization of effects consisted of human "disturbance" and hearing damage thresholds in units of C-weighted decibels (sound exposure level) and a distance-based No Observed Adverse Effects Level for moose and cannonfire. The risk characterization used a weight-of-evidence approach and concluded that risk to mule deer behavior from the missile firing was likely for a negligible number of deer, but that no risk to mule deer abundance and reproduction is expected.

  10. REMPI Spectroscopy of HfF

    CERN Document Server

    Loh, Huanqian; Yahn, Tyler S; Looser, Herbert; Field, Robert W; Cornell, Eric A


    The spectrum of electronic states at 30000--33000 cm$^{-1}$ in hafnium fluoride has been studied using (1+1) resonance-enhanced multi-photon ionization (REMPI) and (1+1$'$) REMPI. Six $\\Omega' = 3/2$ and ten $\\Pi_{1/2}$ vibronic bands have been characterized. We report the molecular constants for these bands and estimate the electronic energies of the excited states using a correction derived from the observed isotope shifts. When either of two closely spaced $\\Pi_{1/2}$ electronic states is used as an intermediate state to access autoionizing Rydberg levels, qualitatively distinct autoionization spectra are observed. The intermediate state-specificity of the autoionization spectra bodes well for the possibility of using a selected $\\Pi_{1/2}$ state as an intermediate state to create ionic HfF$^+$ in various selected quantum states, an important requirement for our electron electric dipole moment (eEDM) search in HfF$^+$.

  11. Digitally Driven Antenna for HF Transmission (United States)


    the 1-MHz carrier signal. This signal is then fed into the base terminals of an NPN/ PNP transistor pair arranged in a push–pull configura- tion. A dual...negative voltage connected to the collector terminal of the PNP transistor . Since it was not possible to explicitly simulate the radia- tion of the time...complementary pair of switching transistors is driven with a pulsewidth modulated HF signal, eliminating the requirement for a frequency-dependent

  12. RFID UHF i HF w bibliotekach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gładysz Bartłomiej


    Full Text Available The potential of the innovative Radio Frequency Identification (RFID technology to be applied for support, acceleration and automation of the circulation process of library collection is presented. Technology basics, and hardware and software components are described. Two different radio standards used in libraries are compared. The goal is to present the potential of RFID technology for libraries, to highlight the differences and to build a basis for further consideration of UHF and HF alternatives.

  13. Zero-sum versus nonzero-sum differential game approach to missile guidance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trottemant, E.J.; Vermeulen, A.; Weiss, M.


    New developments and improvements on evasive missiles have led to a situation in which the current missile guidance laws have difficulties to intercept maneuvering targets. The nature of the interception problem with 2 non-cooperative players leads to the field of differential games. Recent studies

  14. Discussion of the target-missile control scheme with supersonic speed at minimum altitude

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    An antiship missile with supersonic speed at minimum altitude is an effective weapon to break through a defense line. The former Soviet Union was a leader in this field since it had developed several kinds of antiship missiles which obtained supersonic speed at minimum altitudes. To counter this kind of missile,many countries have been developing corresponding antimissiles. For the purpose of verifing the antimissile missile's effectiveness in intercepting antiship missiles, a target-missile is needed. A target-missle is cheaper and can imitate the main characteristics of antiship missiles with supersonic speed at minimum altitude. In this paper, the control scheme of a target missile flying with supersonic speed at minimum altitude is studied. To counter the problem of hedgehopping over the sea, a control scheme utilizing a SINS + altimeter was proposed.In this scheme, both the quick response ability of altitude control and the anti-jamming problem were considered. A simulation experiment shows that when an integrated altitude control system is used, the anti-disturbance ability of the integrated altitude is good and the response speed of altitude control system can be dramatically improved.

  15. 48 CFR 225.7016 - Restriction on Ballistic Missile Defense research, development, test, and evaluation. (United States)


    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Restriction on Ballistic Missile Defense research, development, test, and evaluation. 225.7016 Section 225.7016 Federal Acquisition... Acquisition 225.7016 Restriction on Ballistic Missile Defense research, development, test, and evaluation. ...

  16. A modular ducted rocket missile model for threat and performance assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mayer, A.E.H.J.; Halswijk, W.H.C.; Komduur, H.J.; Lauzon, M.; Stowe, R.A.


    A model was developed to predict the thrust of throttled ramjet propelled missiles. The model is called DRCORE and fulfils the growing need to predict the performance of air breathing missiles. Each subsystem of the propulsion unit of this model is coded by using engineering formulae and enables the

  17. Making sense of ballistic missile defense: an assessment of concepts and systems for U.S. boost-phase missile defense in comparison to other alternatives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences; National Research Council; Naval Studies Board


    "The Committee on an Assessment of Concepts and Systems for U.S. Boost-Phase Missile Defense in Comparison to Other Alternatives set forth to provide an assessment of the feasibility, practicality, and affordability of U.S...

  18. Missile Sites, Former missile field for Whiteman., Published in 2005, 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, Whiteman Air Force Base. (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Missile Sites dataset, published at 1:12000 (1in=1000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of 2005. It is described as...

  19. Simulation Analysis of Wave Effect on Exceeding Water Gesture and Load of Submarine Launched Missile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Zhao


    Full Text Available In this study, we have a research on wave action on the submarine launched missile water trajectory and gesture angles during the process between launch and exit from water. Infinite water depth plane wave was used as the wave model, mathematics models of missile exceeding water under different wave conditions were established based on ideal potential flow theory. The flow field velocity potential was obtained by solving the Laplace equation, thus can obtain missile surface pressure. Considering free surface effects, simple Green’s function was introduced to solve boundary value problems. Three-dimensional Fortran program and finite software ABAQUS were combined to complete the fluid-structure interaction simulation. The rules that wave level and phases effects on submarine-launched missile were finally obtained, which shows wave affect cannot be neglected. Simulation methods and results of this study have a certain reference value for the submarine-launched missile launching.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mu Jianchun; Zhang Tieguang


    Impact tests at both normal and oblique angles of incidence were .conducted on thin mild tubes using a moderate size of 90° conical-nosed missiles. Tne minimum impact speed that generated cracks through the thickness of the wall, termed the speed for rupture, was measured, and various modes of rupture were identified. For a thin tube hit by a missile at a normal angle of obliquity at the speed for rupture, the contact region spreads across the nose of the missile, and the transverse shear deformation is predominant in the final failure process. If the angle of obliquity is 30°, the missile pierces a hole through the wall of the tube. At the speed for rupture, the kinetic energy of the missile for oblique angle 30° is only about 45 % that required for plugging at a normal angle of obliquity.

  1. Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS) Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (United States)


    for decommissioning the BMDS to prot(lct the Uruted ~tatoo lU.~.J . ns depbyed forces . friends. and aUlas hom b~Uistic missile throats. The...intcr~contincmal balh:. tic 7) The President would, m reaffirm the entire L’l’- de\\’cl<I•Pmcn:, human rigl:ts ~;caic. leader the ratitlcatlon...aspi."Ct’< oft he Balli~ tic Miss1k DetCnsc (BMD) pwgrarn. Acid rain; The MDA ihcl:·noti..’S i:1 the ?EIS the pn:.sibility cfa..:id rain cuuseC

  2. Reserve lithium-thionyl chloride battery for missile applications (United States)

    Planchat, J. P.; Descroix, J. P.; Sarre, G.

    A comparative performance study has been conducted for silver-zinc, thionyl chloride, and thermal batteries designed for such missile applications as ICBM guidance system power supplies. Attention is given to each of the three candidates' conformity to requirements concerning mechanical configuration, electrochemical design, electrolyte reservoir, external case, and gas generator. The silver-zinc and Li-SOCl2 candidates employ similar cell configurations and yield comparable performance. The thermal battery is found to be incapable of meeting battery case temperature-related requirements.

  3. Launch Stabilisation System for Vertical Launch of a Missile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sreekumar


    Full Text Available The launch platform stabilisation control system is a roll-pitch stabilised platform for the vertical launch of a missile from a naval ship. Stabilisation of the launch platform is achievedwith the help of embedded controllers and electro-hydraulic servo control system. The launch platform is stabilised wrt true horizontal with a 2-axis (roll and pitch stabilisation systemconsisting of a gimbal and a set of three high-pressure servo hydraulic actuators. The control system uses rate gyro and tilt sensor feedbacks for stabilising the platform. This paper outlines the details of the launch platform stabilisation control system, results of digital simulation, and the performance during sea trials.

  4. Ballistic missile precession frequency extraction by spectrogram's texture (United States)

    Wu, Longlong; Xu, Shiyou; Li, Gang; Chen, Zengping


    In order to extract precession frequency, an crucial parameter in ballistic target recognition, which reflected the kinematical characteristics as well as structural and mass distribution features, we developed a dynamic RCS signal model for a conical ballistic missile warhead, with a log-norm multiplicative noise, substituting the familiar additive noise, derived formulas of micro-Doppler induced by precession motion, and analyzed time-varying micro-Doppler features utilizing time-frequency transforms, extracted precession frequency by measuring the spectrogram's texture, verified them by computer simulation studies. Simulation demonstrates the excellent performance of the method proposed in extracting the precession frequency, especially in the case of low SNR.

  5. Thermal Battery As A Power Sources In Guided Missiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Singh


    Full Text Available The battery based on low melting eutectic salt mixture electrolyte is thermally activated by raising the temperature of the electrolyte to its melting point. The battery is capable of discharging at very high rates for short duration. The battery employs a combination of elements with low electronegativity and capable of giving higher electrode potentials such as Ca or Mg as anode, a wide variety of eutectic salt electrolytes and various oxides, sulphates, silicates, phosphates, chromates as cathode depolarizers. Only those thermally activated systems which find application as potential power sources in guided missiles are reviewed.

  6. Year 2000 small engine technology payoffs in cruise missiles (United States)

    Singh, B.; Benstein, E. H.


    A study has been conducted for advanced small (450-850 pounds thrust) gas turbine engines for a subsonic strategic cruise missile application, using projected year-2000 technology. Engine performance and configuration analyses were performed for two and three spool turbofan and propfan engine concepts. Mission and Life Cycle Cost (LCC) analyses were performed in which the candidate engines were compared to the baseline engine over a prescribed mission. The advanced technology engines reduced system LCC up to 41 percent relative to the baseline engine. The critical aerodynamic materials and mechanical systems necessary for turbine engine technology were identified.

  7. Renewable Energy Opportunities at White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chvala, William D.; Solana, Amy E.; States, Jennifer C.; Warwick, William M.; Weimar, Mark R.; Dixon, Douglas R.


    The document provides an overview of renewable resource potential at White Sands Missile Range (WSMR) based primarily upon analysis of secondary data sources supplemented with limited on-site evaluations. The effort was funded by the U.S. Army Installation Management Command (IMCOM) as follow-on to the 2005 DoD Renewable Energy Assessment. This effort focuses on grid-connected generation of electricity from renewable energy sources and also ground source heat pumps (GSHPs) for heating and cooling buildings, as directed by IMCOM.

  8. Minimum Ballistic Factor Problem of Slender Axial Symmetric Missiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Tawakley


    Full Text Available The problem of determining the geometry of slender, axisymmetric missiles of minimum ballistic factor in hypersonic flow has been solved via the calculus of variations under the assumptions that the flow is Newtonian and the surface averaged skin-friction coefficient is constant. The study has been made for conditions of given length and diameter, given diameter and surfacearea, and given surface area and length. The earlier investigations/sup 8/ where only regular shapes were determined has been extended to cover those class of bodies which consist of regular shapes followed or preceded by zero slope shapes.

  9. Improvements on Signal Processing for HF Radar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yongtan; SHEN Yiying


    In this paper improvements on signalprocessing are achieved to enhance the performancesof H-F radar system, being unobtainable by the con-ventional signal processing. Using the improved sig-nal processing both high range resolution and longcoherent integration time may be obtained for goodbenefit to the target resolution and weak signal de-tection. Modification to the unmatched correspon-dence between range delay samples and range resolu-tion ceils saves an additional accumulation loss in therange processing. Finally, comparisons between theimproved and the conventional signal processing aregiven by numerical simulation.

  10. Systematic Study on Triaxial Superdeformed Bands of Hf Isotopes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Da-Li; DING Bin-Gang


    Properties of the triaxial superdeformed (TSD) bands of Hf isotopes are investigated systematically within the supersymmetry scheme including many-body interactions and a perturbation possessing the SO(5) (or SU(5)) symmetry on the rotational symmetry. Quantitatively good results of the γ-ray energies, the dynamical moments of inertia,and the spin of the TSD bands in Hf isotopes are obtained. It shows that this approach is quite powerful in describing the properties of the triaxial superdeformation in Hf isotopes.

  11. Determining Energy Distributions of HF-Accelerated Electrons at HAARP (United States)


    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2015-0383 Determining energy distributions of HF-accelerated electrons at HAARP Christopher Fallen University of Alaska Fairbanks...2012 - 11/14/2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Determining energy distributions of HF-accelerated electrons at HAARP 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA9550-12-1-0424...transmitted from the High-frequency Active Auroral Research Program ( HAARP ) transmitter in Alaska. For a given fixed HF-plasma interaction altitude

  12. Physics of the Geospace Response to Powerful HF Radio Waves (United States)


    studies of the response of the Earth’s space plasma to high-power HF radio waves from the High-frequency Active Auroral Research Program ( HAARP ...of HF heating and explored to simulate artificial ducts. DMSP- HAARP experiments revealed that HF-created ion outflows and artificial density the topside ionosphere appeared faster than predicted by the models, pointing to kinetic (suprathermal) effects. CHAMP/GRACE- HAARP experiments


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Biyantoro


    Full Text Available ABSTRAK PEMISAHAN Zr – Hf SECARA SINAMBUNG MENGGUNAKANMIXER SETTLER. Telah dilakukan pemisahanZr – Hf secara sinambung menggunakan pengaduk pengenap (mixer settler 16 stage. Larutan umpan adalah zirkon nitrat dengan kadar Zr = 30786 ppm dan Hf = 499 ppm. Ekstraktan dipakai adalah solven 60 % TBP dalam kerosen dan larutan scrubbingyang dipakai adalah asam nitrat 1 M. Umpan masuk pada stageke 5 dikontakkan secara berlawanan arah dengan solven masuk pada stage ke 16 dan larutan scrubbing masuk pada stage ke 1. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah memisahkan unsur Zr dan Hf dari hasil olah pasir zirkon menggunakan solven TBP dengan alat mixer settler16 stage. Analisis umpan dan hasil proses pemisahan untuk zirkonium (Zr dilakukan dengan menggunakan alat pendar sinar-X, sedangkananalisis unsur hafnium (Hf menggunakan Analisis Pengaktifan Neutron (APN. Parameter penelitian dilakukan dengan variasi keasaman asam nitrat dalam umpan dan variasi waktu pada berbagai laju pengadukan. Hasil penelitian pemisahan unsur Zr dengan Hf diperolehkondisi optimum pada keasaman umpan 4 N HNO3, keseimbangan dicapai setelah 3jam dan laju pengadukan 3300 rpm. Hasil ekstrak  unsur zirkon (Zr diperoleh kadar sebesar 28577 ppm dengan efisiensi 92,76 % serta kadar pengotor hafnium (Hf sebesar 95 ppm. Kata Kunci: pemisahan Zr, Hf, ekstraksi, mixer settler, alat pendar sinar-X, APN. ABSTRACT SEPARATION of Zr - Hf CONTINUOUSLY USE THE MIXER SETTLER. Separation of Zr - Hf continuously using mixer settler 16 stage has been done. The feed solution is zircon nitrate concentration of Zr = 30786 ppm  and Hf = 499 ppm. As the solvent used extractant 60 % TBP in 40 % kerosene. Nitric acid solution used srubbing 1 M. The feed entered into stage to 5 is contacted with solvents direction on the stage to 16 and the scrubbing solution enter the stage to 1. The purpose of this study is to separate Zr and Hf of the results from the process of zircon sand using solvent TBP using 16 stage

  14. Mitigating Doppler shift effect in HF multitone data modem (United States)

    Sonlu, Yasar


    Digital communications over High Frequency (HF) radio channels are getting important in recent years. Current HF requirements are for data transmission at rates 2.4 kbps or more to accommodate computer data links and digital secure voice. HF modems which were produced to meet these speeds are, serial modems and parallel modems. On the other hand, the HF sky-wave communication medium, the ionosphere, has some propagation problems such as multipath and Doppler shift. The effect of Doppler shift in a parallel modem which employs Differential Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (DQPSK) modulation is considered and a correction method to mitigate the Doppler Shift effect is introduced.

  15. Epitaxial Thin Films of Y doped HfO2 (United States)

    Serrao, Claudy; Khan, Asif; Ramamoorthy, Ramesh; Salahuddin, Sayeef

    Hafnium oxide (HfO2) is one of a few metal oxides that is thermodynamically stable on silicon and silicon oxide. There has been renewed interest in HfO2 due to the recent discovery of ferroelectricity and antiferroelectricity in doped HfO2. Typical ferroelectrics - such as strontium bismuth tantalate (SBT) and lead zirconium titanate (PZT) - contain elements that easily react with silicon and silicon oxide at elevated temperatures; therefore, such ferroelectrics are not suited for device applications. Meanwhile, ferroelectric HfO2 offers promise regarding integration with silicon. The stable phase of HfO2 at room temperature is monoclinic, but HfO2 can be stabilized in the tetragonal, orthorhombic or even cubic phase by suitable doping. We stabilized Y-doped HfO2 thin films using pulsed laser deposition. The strain state can be controlled using various perovskite substrates and controlled growth conditions. We report on Y-doped HfO2 domain structures from piezo-response force microscopy (PFM) and structural parameters via X-ray reciprocal space maps (RSM). We hope this work spurs further interest in strain-tuned ferroelectricity in doped HfO2.

  16. Microstructural characterization of as-cast hf-b alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Jânio Gigolotti


    Full Text Available An accurate knowledge of several metal-boron phase diagrams is important to evaluation of higher order systems such as metal-silicon-boron ternaries. The refinement and reassessment of phase diagram data is a continuous work, thus the reevaluation of metal-boron systems provides the possibility to confirm previous data from an investigation using higher purity materials and better analytical techniques. This work presents results of rigorous microstructural characterization of as-cast hafnium-boron alloys which are significant to assess the liquid composition associated to most of the invariant reactions of this system. Alloys were prepared by arc melting high purity hafnium (minimum 99.8% and boron (minimum 99.5% slices under argon atmosphere in water-cooled copper crucible with non consumable tungsten electrode and titanium getter. The phases were identified by scanning electron microscopy, using back-scattered electron image mode and X-ray diffraction. In general, a good agreement was found between our data and those from the currently accepted Hafnium-Boron phase diagram. The phases identified are αHfSS and B-RhomSS, the intermediate compounds HfB and HfB2 and the liquide L. The reactions are the eutectic L ⇔ αHfSS + HfB and L ⇔ HfB2 + B-Rhom, the peritectic L + HfB2 ⇔ HfB and the congruent formation of HfB2.

  17. Active infrared systems: possible roles in ballistic missile defense? (United States)

    Paleologue, A.


    Active Infra-Red (IR) systems developed in the past ten years are now available for missile defense applications. The main purpose of this paper is to describe the advantages an active IR system could offer to a ballistic missile defense (BMD). The active IR system considered in this paper is a LIDAR (LIght Detection And Ranging) system. Historically, the Lincoln Laboratory in the USA began using lasers in the early 1960's. The initial applications included the development of a LIDAR system enabling the measurement of the distance between the earth and the moon in 1962. Satellite tracking using LIDAR began early in 1973. Today, technological developments, with the miniaturization of systems and increased performance levels, have enabled new ambitious projects such as the Discrimination Interceptor Technology Program (DITP) program started in 1998 and the use of LIDAR to help in the discrimination of future exo-atmospheric interceptors within the framework of BMD. The first part of this paper presents the possible contribution of LIDAR to BMD: the main roles, objectives, and strategic advantages. The second part gives a brief overview of the technological features of a generic LIDAR instrument, rapidly addressing laser sources, detectors, optics and electronics. Finally, a modeling of an IR LIDAR system, limited solely to direct detection, and an estimation of performance levels will be presented. A list of possible IR active discriminators will be then presented on the basis of the previous analysis and proposed as new constraints in the design of discrete objects.

  18. Missile-Borne SAR Raw Signal Simulation for Maneuvering Target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weijie Xia


    Full Text Available SAR raw signal simulation under the case of maneuver and high-speed has been a challenging and urgent work recently. In this paper, a new method based on one-dimensional fast Fourier transform (1DFFT algorithm is presented for raw signal simulation of maneuvering target for missile-borne SAR. Firstly, SAR time-domain raw signal model is given and an effective Range Frequency Azimuth Time (RFAT algorithm based on 1DFFT is derived. In this algorithm, the “Stop and Go” (SaG model is adopted and the wide radar scattering characteristic of target is taken into account. Furthermore, the “Inner Pulse Motion” (IPM model is employed to deal with high-speed case. This new RFAT method can handle the maneuvering cases, high-speed cases, and bistatic radar cases, which are all possible in the missile-borne SAR. Besides, this raw signal simulation adopts the electromagnetic scattering calculation so that we do not need a scattering rate distribution map as the simulation input. Thus, the multiple electromagnetic reflections can be considered. Simulation examples prove the effectiveness of our method.

  19. Estimation filters for missile tracking with airborne laser (United States)

    Clemons, T. M., III; Chang, K. C.


    This paper examines the use of various estimation filters on the highly non-linear problem of tracking a ballistic missile during boost phase from a moving airborne platform. The aircraft receives passive bearing data from an IR sensor and range data from a laser rangefinder. The aircraft is assumed to have a laser weapon system that requires highly accurate bearing information in order to keep the laser on target from a distance of 100-200 km. The tracking problem is made more difficult due to the changing acceleration of the missile, especially during stage drop-off and ignition. The Extended Kalman Filter (EKF), Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF), 'bootstrap' Particle Filter (PF), and the Gaussian Sum Particle Filter (GSPF) are explored using different values for sensor accuracy in bearing and range, and various degrees of uncertainty of the target and platform dynamic. Scenarios were created using Satellite Toolkit © for trajectories from a Southeast Asia launch with associated sensor observations. MATLAB © code modified from the ReBEL Toolkit © was used to run the EKF, UKF, PF, and GSPF sensor track filters. Mean Square Error results are given for tracking during the period when the target is in view of the radar and IR sensors. This paper provides insight into the accuracy requirements of the sensors and the suitability of the given estimators.

  20. A DFT study of temperature dependent dissociation mechanism of HF in HF(H2O)7 cluster

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Swatantra K Yadav; Hirdyesh Mishra; Ashwani K Tiwari


    We report a Density Functional Theoretical (DFT) study of dissociation of Hydrogen Fluoride (HF) in HF(H2O)7 cluster, using B3LYP functional and empirical exchange correlation functional M06-2X along with 6-31+G(d,p) basis set. Dissociation constant, KRP, of HF dissociation and pKa values of HF in cluster at various temperatures have been reported. It has been found that both KRP and pKa are highly dependent on temperature. The variation of pKa with temperature suggests that HF is strong acid at lower temperatures. Our study also reveals that HF is a stronger acid in water cluster than in bulk water. Further, the results obtained by DFT calculations have been compared with the earlier reported results obtained from Monte Carlo (MC) simulation. It is found that DFT results are qualitatively consistent with the results of MC simulation but quantitatively different.

  1. Hf-W chronometry of primitive achondrites (United States)

    Schulz, T.; Münker, C.; Mezger, K.; Palme, H.


    Metal segregation and silicate melting on asteroids are the most incisive differentiation events in the early evolution of planetary bodies. The timing of these events can be constrained using the short-lived 182Hf- 182W radionuclide system. Here we present new 182Hf- 182W data for major types of primitive achondrites including acapulcoites, winonaites and one lodranite. These meteorites are of particular interest because they show only limited evidence for partial melting of silicates and are therefore intermediate between chondrites and achondrites. For acapulcoites we derived a 182Hf- 182W age of Δ tCAI = 4.1 +1.2/ -1.1 Ma. A model age for winonaite separates calculated from the intercept of the isochron defines an age of Δ tCAI = 4.8 +3.1/ -2.6 Ma (assuming a bulk Hf/W ratio of ˜1.2). Both ages most likely define primary magmatic events on the respective parent bodies, such as melting of metal, although metal stayed in place and did not segregate to form a core. A later thermal event is responsible for resetting of the winonaite isochron, yielding an age of Δ tCAI = 14.3 +2.7/ -2.2 Ma, significantly younger than the model age. Assuming a co-genetic relationship between winonaites and silicates present in IAB iron meteorites (based on oxygen isotope composition) and including data by Schulz et al. (2009), a common parent body chronology can be established. Magmatic activity occurred between ˜1.5 and 5 Ma after CAIs. More than 5 Ma later, intensive thermal metamorphism has redistributed Hf-W. Average cooling rates calculated for the winonaite/IAB parent asteroid range between ˜35 and ˜4 K/Ma, most likely reflecting different burial depths. Cooling rates obtained for acapulcoites were ˜40 K/Ma to ˜720 K and then ˜3 K/Ma to ˜550 K. Accretion and subsequent magmatism on the acapulcoite parent body occurred slightly later if compared to most achondrite parent bodies (e.g., angrites, ureilites and eucrites), in this case supporting the concept of an inverse

  2. Pressure induced novel compounds in the Hf-O system from first-principles calculations



    Using first-principles evolutionary simulations, we have systematically investigated phase stability in the Hf-O system at pressure up to 120 GPa. New compounds Hf5O2, Hf3O2, HfO and HfO3 are discovered to be thermodynamically stable at certain pressure ranges and a new stable high-pressure phase is found for Hf2O with space group Pnnm and anti-CaCl2-type structure. Both P62m-HfO and P4m2-Hf2O3 show semimetallic character. Pnnm-HfO3 shows interesting structure, simultaneously containing oxide...

  3. Ferroelectricity of nondoped thin HfO2 films in TiN/HfO2/TiN stacks (United States)

    Nishimura, Tomonori; Xu, Lun; Shibayama, Shigehisa; Yajima, Takeaki; Migita, Shinji; Toriumi, Akira


    We report on the impact of TiN interfaces on the ferroelectricity of nondoped HfO2. Ferroelectric properties of nondoped HfO2 in TiN/HfO2/TiN stacks are shown in capacitance-voltage and polarization-voltage characteristics. The Curie temperature is also estimated to be around 500 °C. The ferroelectricity of nondoped HfO2 clearly appears by thinning HfO2 film down to ˜35 nm. We directly revealed in thermal treatments that the ferroelectric HfO2 film on TiN was maintained by covering the top surface of HfO2 with TiN, while it was followed by a phase transition to the paraelectric phase in the case of the open surface of HfO2. Thus, it is concluded that the ferroelectricity in nondoped HfO2 in this study was mainly driven by both of top and bottom TiN interfaces.

  4. AIM-120 Advanced Medium Range Air-to-Air Missile (AMRAAM) (United States)


    Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-185 AIM-120 Advanced Medium Range Air-to-Air Missile (AMRAAM) As of FY 2017 President’s...17, 2013 Program Information Program Name AIM-120 Advanced Medium Range Air-to-Air Missile (AMRAAM) DoD Component Air Force Joint Participants...December 2015 SAR March 23, 2016 16:04:24 UNCLASSIFIED 5 Mission and Description The Advanced Medium Range Air-to-Air Missile (AMRAAM) AIM-120

  5. Study on Missile Intelligent Fault Diagnosis System Based on Fuzzy NN Expert System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    In order to study intelligent fault diagnosis methods based on fuzzy neural network (NN) expert systemand build up intelligent fault diagnosis for a type of mis-sile weapon system, the concrete implementation of a fuzzyNN fault diagnosis expert system is given in this paper. Based on thorough research of knowledge presentation, theintelligent fault diagnosis system is implemented with artificial intelligence for a large-scale missile weapon equipment.The method is an effective way to perform fuzzy fault diagnosis. Moreover, it provides a new way of the fault diagnosisfor large-scale missile weapon equipment.

  6. Analysis Of The Infrared Emission Due To Aerodynamic Heating Of Missile Domes (United States)

    Tofani, Alessandro


    A computer simulation of head-on infrared emission from missile noses has been performed. Both cruise missiles and tactical ballistic missiles were considered; results indicate a strong dependence of the emitted radiation on physical and geometrical properties of aerodynamic surfaces, flow character in the boundary layer and atmospheric characteristics. The model allows to give an order-of-magnitude estimate of radiant intensity in the 8-12 μm and 3-5 μm spectral bands and to determine their relative merits as far as the target detection is concerned.

  7. Engaging Your Beginners (United States)

    Hill, Jane


    Teachers love to see the spark of engagement when students eagerly engage in learning. But when teachers work with English language learners in the earliest stages of language acquisition, they're often unsure how to foster challenge and engagement with students who know such sparse English. Hill shares six key do's and don'ts for classroom…

  8. International Engagement Strategy (United States)


    INTERNATIONAL ENGAGEMENT STRATEGY STATEMENT OF PURPOSE The U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Science and Technology Directorate (S&T... International Engagement Strategy is intended to establish clear goals and objectives to guide S&T’s international cooperative research, development... International Engagement Strategy, the 2015 White House National Security Strategy, the 2014 Quadrennial Homeland Security Review, and the DHS Fiscal

  9. Engaging Scholarship with Communities (United States)

    Núñez, Guillermina Gina


    A pedagogy of engagement links faculty and students to the needs of local communities while promoting academic success through higher retention and graduation rates in higher education. This work describes engaged scholarship and shares guidelines for documenting student engagement and critical reflection across the higher education curriculum.…

  10. Improving Student Engagement (United States)

    Parsons, Jim; Taylor, Leah


    This paper reviews research literature in the area of student engagement to discover curricular and pedagogical ideas educators might successfully use to better engage student learning. Student engagement has historically focused upon increasing achievement, positive behaviors, and a sense of belonging to help students remain in school. The…

  11. Synthesis of Freestanding HfO2 Nanostructures (United States)


    Tang J, Fabbri J, Robinson RD, Zhu Y, Herman IP, Steigerwald ML, Brus LE: Solid-solution nanoparticles:use of a nonhydrolytic sol-gel synthesis to...colloidal HfO2 nanorods. Adv Mater 2007, 19:2608-2612. Page 21 5. Qiu X, Howe JY, Cardoso MB, Polat O, Heller W: Size control of highly ordered HfO2

  12. Parametric excitation of whistler waves by HF heater (United States)

    Kuo, S. P.; Lee, M. C.


    Possible generation of whistler waves by Tromso HF heater is investigated. It is shown that the HF heater wave can parametrically decay into a whistler wave and a Langmuir wave. Since whistler waves may have a broad range of frequency, the simultaneously excited Langmuir waves can have a much broader frequency bandwidth than those excited by the parametric decay instability.

  13. Study of {sup 179}Hf{sup m2} excitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vishnevsky, I. N.; Zheltonozhsky, V. A., E-mail:; Savrasov, A. N. [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Institute for Nuclear Research (Ukraine); Mazur, V. M. [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Institute of Electronic Physics (Ukraine)


    Isomeric ratios of {sup 179}Hf{sup m2,g} yields in the (γ, n) reaction and the cross section for the {sup 179}Hf{sup m2} population in the (α, p) reaction are measured for the first time at the end-point energies of 15.1 and 17.5 MeV for bremsstrahlung photons and 26 MeV for alpha particles. The results are σ = (1.1 ± 0.11) × 10{sup −27} cm{sup 2} for the {sup 176}Lu(α, p){sup 179}Hf{sup m2} reaction and Y{sub m2}/Y{sub g} = (6.1 ± 0.3) × 10{sup −6} and (3.7 ± 0.2) × 10{sup −6} for the {sup 180}Hf(γ, n){sup 179}Hf{sup m22} reaction at E{sub ep} =15.1 and 17.5 MeV, respectively. The experimental data on the relative {sup 179}Hf{sup m2} yield indicate a single-humped shape of the excitation function for the {sup 180}Hf(γ, n){sup 179}Hf{sup m2} reaction. Simulation is performed using the TALYS-1.4 and EMPIRE-3.2 codes.

  14. Diffusion of Hf and Nb in Zr-19%Nb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, H. [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, ON (Canada). Chalk River Nuclear Labs.; Hood, G.M. [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, ON (Canada). Chalk River Nuclear Labs.; Schultz, R.J. [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, ON (Canada). Chalk River Nuclear Labs.; Matsuura, N. [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, ON (Canada). Chalk River Nuclear Labs.; Roy, J.A. [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, ON (Canada). Chalk River Nuclear Labs.; Jackman, J.A. [CANMET, Ottawa, Ont. (Canada). Met. Sci. and Technol.


    Diffusion of Hf and Nb in large-grained bcc Zr-19%Nb has been studied. Diffusion coefficients of Hf, D(Hf), were measured in the range 620-1173 K and D(Nb) was measured at 920 and 1167 K. The Hf diffusion profiles were determined by SIMS and the Nb profiles by microtome sectioning and radio-tracer counting. The Hf data show a smooth, temperature-dependent behaviour through the monotectoid temperature, 875 K, and may be characterised by D{approx}10{sup -9}.exp-1.4 (eV/kT) m{sup 2}/s. D(Nb) tends to be lower than the corresponding values for D(Hf). Overall, diffusion of Hf and Nb are characteristic of diffusion in bcc Zr. Surface hold-up (oxide film) at low temperatures was overcome by using ion-implanted Hf diffusion sources. The results are compared with earlier work and discussed in terms of diffusion mechanisms and the {beta}-phase transformation of commercial Zr-2.5Nb. (orig.).

  15. Standard Designations of Alloys for Aircraft and Missiles (United States)


    CG-12 ASTM A351-52T, CH-20 MIL-S-20150, CL A 60310 5365A ACI CK-20 5366A ASTM A296-55, CK-20 ASTM A297 -55, HK 3 ASTM A351-52T, CK-20 60312 5785B ACI...CE-20 5784 ASTM A296-55, CE-30 ASTM A297 -55, HE I MIL-S-867A, CL III 60316 - ACI CF-8M ASTM A296 ASTM A351-52T, CF-8M I MIL-S-867A, CL II 60347 5362C...60442 ACI CB-30 ASTM A296-55, CB-30 I 60446 ACI CC-50 ASTM A296-55, CC-50 -(See 70502) 60502 ASTM A217-55, C5 51501 70308 ACI HF ASTM A297 -55, HF

  16. Oxygen Recovery in Hf Oxide Films Fabricated by Sputtering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Ran; LI Zi-Feng


    The chemical structure of ultrathin Hf oxide films (< 10 nm) fabricated by a standard sputtering method is investigated using x-ray spectroscopy and Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy. According to the experiments,oxygen species are impacted to the HfO2/Si interface during the initial sputtering, and then released back to the upper Hf02 region driven by the oxygen concentration grads. A vacuum annealing can greatly enhance this recovery process. Additionally, significant SiO2 reduction in the interface is observed after the vacuum annealing for the thick HfO2 films in our experiment. It might be an effective method to confine the interracial layer thickness by sputtering thick HfO2 in no-oxygen ambient.

  17. Crystal structure of Si-doped HfO2 (United States)

    Zhao, Lili; Nelson, Matthew; Aldridge, Henry; Iamsasri, Thanakorn; Fancher, Chris M.; Forrester, Jennifer S.; Nishida, Toshikazu; Moghaddam, Saeed; Jones, Jacob L.


    Si-doped HfO2 was prepared by solid state synthesis of the starting oxides. Using Rietveld refinement of high resolution X-ray diffraction patterns, a substitutional limit of Si in HfO2 was determined as less than 9 at. %. A second phase was identified as Cristobalite (SiO2) rather than HfSiO4, the latter of which would be expected from existing SiO2-HfO2 phase diagrams. Crystallographic refinement with increased Si-dopant concentration in monoclinic HfO2 shows that c/b increases, while β decreases. The spontaneous strain, which characterizes the ferroelastic distortion of the unit cell, was calculated and shown to decrease with increasing Si substitution.

  18. The (178m2)Hf Controversy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, J A; Gemmell, D S; Schiffer, J P; Wilhelmy, J B


    Since its discovery in the 1960's the {sup 178m2}Hf isomer has garnered high attention from both the basic and applied communities in nuclear science. It's combination of high spin (16+), long half life (31 yrs), and high excitation energy (2.446 MeV) offer unique possibilities as an energy storage medium. Interest in the isomer was rekindled beginning in 1999 when a series of publications began to appear from a group (referred to here as the ''Texas collaboration'') primarily based at the University of Texas, Dallas [1]. They reported observations that some of the stored energy could be released (''triggered'') when the isomer was exposed to a fluence of photons in the energy range {approx}10 to {approx}60 keV. The implications of this observation are profound. Even though the claimed cross section for the process was {approx}7 orders of magnitude greater than would be predicted from the known systematics of photon absorption by nuclei in this mass range [2], such a highly efficient method for triggering the isomeric deexcitation immediately suggested applications utilizing the explosive or the controlled gradual energy release from a very compact source. The prospect of such applications has focused considerable interest on realizing the promise that is implicit in the reported observations. However, two experiments performed by a group from ANL/LANL/LLNL at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne (the ''APS collaboration'') reported negative results for the observation of any photon-triggered deexcitation of the {sup 178m2}Hf isomer [3]. This has led to a continued controversy, where both sides have adamantly defended their observations. At this point an outsider has difficulty determining whether there is indeed a triggering effect that should be pursued energetically with substantial resources, or whether the phenomenon consists of overly optimistic interpretation of data.

  19. Designing for user engagement

    CERN Document Server

    Geisler, Cheryl


    Designing for User Engagement on the Web: 10 Basic Principles is concerned with making user experience engaging. The cascade of social web applications we are now familiar with - blogs, consumer reviews, wikis, and social networking - are all engaging experiences. But engagement is an increasingly common goal in business and productivity environments as well. This book provides a foundation for all those seeking to design engaging user experiences rich in communication and interaction. Combining a handbook on basic principles with case studies, it provides readers with a ric

  20. A Game-Theoretic History of the Cuban Missile Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank C. Zagare


    Full Text Available This study surveys and evaluates previous attempts to use game theory to explain the strategic dynamic of the Cuban missile crisis, including, but not limited to, explanations developed in the style of Thomas Schelling, Nigel Howard and Steven Brams. All of the explanations were judged to be either incomplete or deficient in some way. Schelling’s explanation is both empirically and theoretically inconsistent with the consensus interpretation of the crisis; Howard’s with the contemporary understanding of rational strategic behavior; and Brams’ with the full sweep of the events that define the crisis. The broad outlines of a more general explanation that addresses all of the foundational questions associated with the crisis within the confines of a single, integrated, game-theoretic model with incomplete information are laid out.

  1. Parametric control systems design with applications in missile control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN GuangRen; YU HaiHua; TAN Feng


    This paper considers parametric control of high-order descriptor linear systems via proportional plus derivative feedback.By employing general parametric solutions to a type of so-called high-order Sylvester matrix equations,complete parametric control approaches for high-order linear systems are presented.The proposed approaches give simple complete parametric expressions for the feedback gains and the closed-loop eigenvector matrices,and produce all the design degrees of freedom.Furthermore,Important special cases are particularly treated.Based on the proposed parametric design approaches,a parametric method for the gain-scheduling controller design of a linear time-varying system is proposed and the design of a BTT missile autopilot is carried out.The simulation results show that the method is superior to the traditional one in sense of either global stability or system performance.

  2. Ballistic Missile Warhead Recognition based on Micro-Doppler Frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Hui-Xia


    Full Text Available To elucidate the spinning-precession signatures of ballistic warhead, the model of spinning precessionfor ballistic missile warhead is established and the mathematics of micro-Doppler signatures caused by spinning-precession is derived. Then the micro-Doppler features are analysed using high-resolution time-frequencytransform, and the model predictions match the experimental data well. Based on  different mass of warheadsand decoys, the feature, which can reflect the mass of the targets, is extracted from the time-frequency plane,proving a new method for recognising warheads and discriminating these from decoys. Finally the validityof the feature extracted in this study is verified by computer simulations even with low signal-to-noise ratio.Defence Science Journal, 2008, 58(6, pp.705-709, DOI:

  3. New digital-input transmitter for missile telemetry (United States)

    Rieger, J. L.; Woodworth, P. H.

    It is pointed out that telemetry for aircraft and missiles has been in use by the military and its suppliers since the 1950's, using a variety of frequencies and formats. However, the techniques used in airborne telemetry have changed as a consequence of advances in electronic technology. Use of digital pulse-code modulation instead of the analog time-sampled pulse-amptitude modulation (PAM) produced by an analog commutator has advantages in noise performance in instances where the telemetry link is performing near the threshold of noise. The present investigation is concerned with a digital-input transmitter which accepts binary format directly from a TTL source and has applicability in both standard telemetry and encrypted systems. Attention is given to telemetry modulation systems, data encryption requirements, the modulation interface, and transmitter characteristics.

  4. Ogive Nose Hard Missile Penetrating Concrete Slab Numerical Simulation Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qadir Bux


    Full Text Available Great demand exists for more efficient design to protect delicate and serious structures such as nuclear plants, Power plants, Weapon Industries, weapons storage places, water retaining structures, & etc, against impact of kinetic missiles generated both accidentally and deliberately such as dynamic loading, incident occurs in nuclear plants, terrorist attack, Natural disasters like tsunami and etc., in various impact and blast scenarios for both civilian and military activities. In many cases, projectiles can be treated as rigid bodies when their damage and erosion are not severe. Due to the intricacy of the local impact damages, investigations are generally based on experimental data. Conclusions of the experimental observations are then used to guide engineering models. Local damages studies normally fall into three categories, i.e. empirical formulae based on data fitting, idealised analytical models based on physic laws and numerical simulations based on computational mechanics and material models. In the present study, 2D asymmetrical numerical simulation have done on concrete slab against the impact of  ogive nose hard missile of 26.90mm and 76.20mm diameter with CRH ratio 2.0 and 6.0 respectively, for penetration by using Concrete Damaged Plasticity Model, and ABAQUS/Explicit dynamic analysis in ABAQUS. It is found that the strains/stresses are induced in the concrete slab and a very nicely propagation of the stresses inside the  concrete slab in the form of waves, which is a clear indication for vibrations of the concrete. The lack of failure criterion in concrete damaged plasticity model does not allow the removal of elements during the analyses. This means that spalling, scabbing, and perforation cannot be modelled with the Concrete Damage Plasticity Model. The penetration depth results shows that the deeper penetration requires higher critical impact kinetic energies, and comparison shows the simulation results are more accurate

  5. Robust Graded Sliding Mode Tracking Control for Low Speed Spinning Ballistic Missiles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Jun; WANG Zhi; ZHOU Feng-qi


    The nonlinear dynamic model of spinning ballistic missiles is established during the first boosting phase of the missile. Based on the conventional backstepping sliding mode control and the assumption of a two time-scale separation of missile dynamics, a graded sliding mode controller is designed with two sub-sliding surfaces which have invariability to external disturbances and parameter perturbations, and a matrix which comprises three first order low pass filters is introduced to prevent "explosion of terms". Owing to the upper bounds of the uncertainties are difficult to obtain in advance,adaptive laws are introduced to estimate the values of the uncertainties in real-time. Eventually, the numerical simulation results given to show the proposed controller can ensure the steady flight of missiles.

  6. Radar signal analysis of ballistic missile with micro-motion based on time-frequency distribution (United States)

    Wang, Jianming; Liu, Lihua; Yu, Hua


    The micro-motion of ballistic missile targets induces micro-Doppler modulation on the radar return signal, which is a unique feature for the warhead discrimination during flight. In order to extract the micro-Doppler feature of ballistic missile targets, time-frequency analysis is employed to process the micro-Doppler modulated time-varying radar signal. The images of time-frequency distribution (TFD) reveal the micro-Doppler modulation characteristic very well. However, there are many existing time-frequency analysis methods to generate the time-frequency distribution images, including the short-time Fourier transform (STFT), Wigner distribution (WD) and Cohen class distribution, etc. Under the background of ballistic missile defence, the paper aims at working out an effective time-frequency analysis method for ballistic missile warhead discrimination from the decoys.

  7. A Terminal Guidance Law Based on Motion Camouflage Strategy of Air-to-Ground Missiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-sheng Gao


    Full Text Available A guidance law for attacking ground target based on motion camouflage strategy is proposed in this paper. According to the relative position between missile and target, the dual second-order dynamics model is derived. The missile guidance condition is given by analyzing the characteristic of motion camouflage strategy. Then, the terminal guidance law is derived by using the relative motion of missile and target and the guidance condition. In the process of derivation, the three-dimensional guidance law could be designed in a two-dimensional plane and the difficulty of guidance law design is reduced. A two-dimensional guidance law for three-dimensional space is derived by bringing the estimation for target maneuver. Finally, simulation for the proposed guidance law is taken and compared with pure proportional navigation. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed guidance law can be applied to air-to-ground missiles.

  8. Missile injuries to the external genitalia: a five year experience in Maiduguri, North Eastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Mohammed Dogo


    Conclusions: Genital missile injuries are on the increase with militarization of civilian population. Goals of treatment still remain cosmesis, preservation of erectile and voiding function. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(7.000: 2964-2966

  9. Ferroelectricity-modulated resistive switching in Pt/Si:HfO2/HfO2-x /Pt memory (United States)

    Ran, Jiang; Xianghao, Du; Zuyin, Han


    It is investigated for the effect of a ferroelectric Si:HfO2 thin film on the resistive switching in a stacked Pt/Si:HfO2/highly-oxygen-deficient HfO2-x /Pt structure. Improved resistance performance was observed. It was concluded that the observed resistive switching behavior was related to the modulation of the width and height of a depletion barrier in the HfO2-x layer, which was caused by the Si:HfO2 ferroelectric polarization field effect. Reliable switching reproducibility and long data retention were observed in these memory cells, suggesting their great potential in non-volatile memories applications with full compatibility and simplicity. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 11374182), the Natural Science Foundation of Shandong Province (No. ZR2012FQ012), and the Jinan Independent Innovation Projects of Universities (No. 201303019).

  10. Seeing 2020: America’s New Vision for Integrated Air and Missile Defense (United States)


    the U.S. Army Air Corps began Operation Crossbow, the Anglo-American bombing campaign against Adolf Hitler’s V-1 and V-2 missile forces and of war and its weapons matured, the development of improved propulsion, guidance, and payloads in guns, artillery, rockets, mortars , aircraft...range of threats to include short- and intermediate-range ballistic missiles, bombers, and tactical weapons such as artillery, rockets, and mortars

  11. Missile Captive Carry Monitoring and Helicopter Identification Using a Capacitive Microelectromechanical Systems Accelerometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatchell, Brian K.; Mauss, Fredrick J.; Amaya, Ivan A.; Skorpik, James R.; Silvers, Kurt L.; Marotta, Steve


    Military missiles are exposed to many sources of mechanical vibration that can affect system reliability, safety, and mission effectiveness. The U. S. Army Aviation and Missile Research Development and Engineering Center (AMRDEC) has been developing missile health monitoring systems to assess and improve reliability, reduce life cycle costs, and increase system readiness. One of the most significant exposures to vibration occurs when the missile is being carried by a helicopter or other aviation platform, which is a condition known as captive carry. Recording the duration of captive carry exposure during the missile’s service life can enable the implementation of predictive maintenance and resource management programs. Since the vibration imparted by each class of helicopter varies in frequency and amplitude, tracking the vibration exposure from each helicopter separately can help quantify the severity and harmonic content of the exposure. Under the direction of AMRDEC staff, engineers at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory have developed a Captive Carry Health Monitor (CCHM) for the Hellfire II missile. The CCHM is an embedded usage monitoring device installed on the outer skin of the Hellfire II missile to record the cumulative hours the host missile has been in captive carry mode. To classify the vibration by class of helicopter, the CCHM analyzes the amplitude and frequency content of the vibration with the Goertzel algorithm to detect the presence of distinctive rotor harmonics. Cumulative usage data are accessible in theater from an external display; monthly usage histograms are accessible through an internal download connector. This paper provides an overview of the CCHM electrical and package design, describes field testing and data analysis techniques used to monitor captive carry identify and the class of helicopter, and discusses the potential application of missile health and usage data for real-time reliability analysis and fleet management.

  12. Steady Fault Characteristic Analysis of a Missile Power System Based on a Differential Evolution Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Zhi-gao; GUAN Zheng-xi; MA Jing


    The differential evolution (DE) algorithm is applied to solving the models' equations of a whole missile power system, and the steady fault characteristics of the whole system are analyzed. The DE algorithm is robust, requires few control variables, is easy to use and lends itself very well to parallel computation. Calculation results indicate that the DE algorithm simulates faults of a missile power system very well.

  13. Six-Degree-of-Freedom Digital Simulations for Missile Guidance and Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjie Xu


    Full Text Available Six-degree-of-freedom ballistic trajectory model can be used to verify design indicators, performance parameters, and correctness so they have been put forward in the missile argumentation and design process. Mathematical simulation is the basis of late semiphysical simulation and field firing testing, and it can greatly reduce the field shooting test time, which shortens the missile test cycle and so reduces costs.

  14. Defense Science Board Task Force on Defense Strategies for Advanced Ballistic and Cruise Missile Threats (United States)


    REPORT OF THE DEFENSE SCIENCE BOARD TASK FORCE ON Defense Strategies for Advanced Ballistic and Cruise Missile Threats January 2017 Office of... Science Board (DSB). The DSB is a Federal Advisory Committee established to provide independent advice to the Secretary of Defense. Statements, opinions... Science Board Task Force on Defense Strategies for Advanced Ballistic and Cruise Missile Threats completed its information-gathering in February 2016

  15. The Impact on Strategic Stability of Ballistic Missile Defense in Eastern Europe (United States)


    the final chapter of the Eastern European missile defense saga has yet to be written, this study can contribute to the field of knowledge even at...Canada at the USSR Academy of Sciences. This publication is invaluable in examining how strategic stability was viewed at the twilight of the Cold...the Czech Republic are carrying out deliberations and how Russia is reacting to each particular new wrinkle in the missile defense saga ; and

  16. A Strategic Conversation about National Missile Defense (Strategic Studies Quarterly, Winter 2008) (United States)


    they were “producing missiles like sausages .” These quotes, and the overall tone of Reagan’s speech, indicate the specific historical context in this article . LeFevre.indd 108 10/30/08 1:18:22 PM A Strategic Conversation about National Missile Defense Strategic  Studies article /0,9171,923443,00.html. 3. National Intelligence Council, “Iran: Nuclear Intentions and Capabilities,” National Intel- ligence

  17. Cooperative Monitoring Center Occasional Paper/9: De-Alerting Strategic Ballistic Missiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connell, Leonard W.; Edenburn, Michael W.; Fraley, Stanley K.; Trost, Lawrence C.


    This paper presents a framework for evaluating the technical merits of strategic ballistic missile de-alerting measures, and it uses the framework to evaluate a variety of possible measures for silo-based, land-mobile, and submarine-based missiles. De-alerting measures are defined for the purpose of this paper as reversible actions taken to increase the time or effort required to launch a strategic ballistic missile. The paper does not assess the desirability of pursuing a de-alerting program. Such an assessment is highly context dependent. The paper postulates that if de-alerting is desirable and is used as an arms control mechanism, de-alerting measures should satisfy specific cirteria relating to force security, practicality, effectiveness, significant delay, and verifiability. Silo-launched missiles lend themselves most readily to de-alerting verification, because communications necessary for monitoring do not increase the vulnerabilty of the weapons by a significant amount. Land-mobile missile de-alerting measures would be more challenging to verify, because monitoring measures that disclose the launcher's location would potentially increase their vulnerability. Submarine-launched missile de-alerting measures would be extremely challlenging if not impossible to monitor without increasing the submarine's vulnerability.

  18. Power-Stepped HF Cross Modulation Experiments at HAARP (United States)

    Greene, S.; Moore, R. C.; Langston, J. S.


    High frequency (HF) cross modulation experiments are a well established means for probing the HF-modified characteristics of the D-region ionosphere. In this paper, we apply experimental observations of HF cross-modulation to the related problem of ELF/VLF wave generation. HF cross-modulation measurements are used to evaluate the efficiency of ionospheric conductivity modulation during power-stepped modulated HF heating experiments. The results are compared to previously published dependencies of ELF/VLF wave amplitude on HF peak power. The experiments were performed during the March 2013 campaign at the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) Observatory. HAARP was operated in a dual-beam transmission format: the first beam heated the ionosphere using sinusoidal amplitude modulation while the second beam broadcast a series of low-power probe pulses. The peak power of the modulating beam was incremented in 1-dB steps. We compare the minimum and maximum cross-modulation effect and the amplitude of the resulting cross-modulation waveform to the expected power-law dependence of ELF/VLF wave amplitude on HF power.

  19. The Player Engagement Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoenau-Fog, Henrik


    Engagement is an essential element of the player experience, and the concept is described in various ways in the literature. To gain a more detailed comprehension of this multifaceted concept, and in order to better understand what aspects can be used to evaluate engaging game play and to design...... engaging user experiences, this study investigates one dimension of player engagement by empirically identifying the components associated with the desire to continue playing. Based on a description of the characteristics of player engagement, a series of surveys were developed to discover the components......, categories and triggers involved in this process. By applying grounded theory to the analysis of the responses, a process-oriented player engagement framework was developed and four main components consisting of objectives, activities, accomplishments and affects as well as the corresponding categories...

  20. HF dissociation in water clusters by computer simulations


    Elena, Alin Marin


    We perform Restrained hybrid Monte Carlo simulations to compute the equilibrium constant of the dissociation reaction of HF in HF(H2O)7. We find that, like in the bulk, hydrofluoric acid, is a weak acid also in the cubic HF(H2O)7 cluster, and that its acidity is higher at lower T. This latter phenomenon has a (vibrational) entropic origin, namely it is due to the reduction of the (negative) T∆S contribution to the variation of free energy between the reactant and product. We found also ...

  1. Constituting Public Engagement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Sarah Rachael


    understanding of science to those of public engagement with science and technology (PEST), and the histories, or genealogies, of such models. Data from two qualitative studies-a case study of one of the United Kingdom'ssix Beacons for Public Engagement and a study of contract research staff-are used...... backgrounds, suggesting that multiple and overlapping meanings around PEST are derived from particular histories that have been brought together, through the rubric of public engagement, in assemblages such as the Beacons....

  2. Surgical treatment of tibial nonunion after wounding by high velocity missile and external fixators: A case report



    Introduction. The missiles of modern firearms can cause severe fractures of the extremity. High velocity missile fractures of the tibia are characterized by massive tissue destruction and primary contamination with polymorphic bacteria. Treatment of these fractures is often complicated by delayed healing, poor position healing, nonhealing and bone tissue infection. Case Outline. We present the management of tibial nonunion after wounding by high velocity missile and primary treatment by...

  3. Ionospheric heating with oblique HF waves (United States)

    Field, Edward C., Jr.; Bloom, Ron M.


    Calculations of ionospheric electron density perturbations and ground-level signal changes produce by intense oblique high frequency (HF) transmitters are presented. This analysis considers radio field focusing at caustics, the consequent joule-heating of the surrounding plasma, heat conduction, diffusion, and recombination processes: these being the effects of a powerful oblique 'modifying' wave. It neglects whatever plasma instabilities might occur. Then effects on a secondary 'test' wave that is propagated along the same path as the first are investigated. Calculations predict ground-level field-strength reductions of several dB in the test wave for modifying waves having ERP in the 85 to 90 dBW range. These field-strength changes are similar in sign, magnitude, and location to ones measured in Soviet experiments. The results are sensitive to the model ionosphere assumed, so future experiments should employ the widest possible range of frequencies and propagation conditions. An effective power of 90 dBW seems to be a sort of threshold that, if exceeded, results in substantial rather than small signal changes. The conclusions are based solely on joule-heating and subsequent defocusing of waves passing through caustic regions.

  4. Process Simulation Analysis of HF Stripping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaer A. Abdulla


    Full Text Available    HYSYS process simulator is used for the analysis of existing HF stripping column in LAB plant (Arab Detergent Company, Baiji-Iraq. Simulated column performance and profiles curves are constructed. The variables considered are the thermodynamic model option, bottom temperature, feed temperature, and column profiles for the temperature, vapor flow rate, liquid flow rate and composition. The five thermodynamic models options used (Margules, UNIQUAC, van laar, Antoine, and Zudkevitch-Joffee, affecting the results within (0.1-58% variation for the most cases.        The simulated results show that about 4% of paraffin (C10 & C11 presents at the top stream, which may cause a problem in the LAB production plant. The major variations were noticed for the total top vapor flow rate with bottom temperature and with feed composition. The column profiles maintain fairly constants from tray 5 to tray 18. The study gives evidence about a successful simulation with HYSYS because the results correspond with the real plant operation data.

  5. The (178m2) Hf Controversy

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, J A; Schiffer, J P; Wilhelmy, J


    Since its discovery in the 1960's the sup 1 sup 7 sup 8 sup m sup 2 Hf isomer has garnered high attention from both the basic and applied communities in nuclear science. It's combination of high spin (16+), long half life (31 yrs), and high excitation energy (2.446 MeV) offer unique possibilities as an energy storage medium. Interest in the isomer was rekindled beginning in 1999 when a series of publications began to appear from a group (referred to here as the ''Texas collaboration'') primarily based at the University of Texas, Dallas [1]. They reported observations that some of the stored energy could be released (''triggered'') when the isomer was exposed to a fluence of photons in the energy range approx 10 to approx 60 keV. The implications of this observation are profound. Even though the claimed cross section for the process was approx 7 orders of magnitude greater than would be predicted from the known systematics of photon absorption by nuclei in this mass range [2], such a highly efficient method fo...

  6. Grindability of cast Ti-Hf alloys. (United States)

    Kikuchi, Masafumi; Takahashi, Masatoshi; Sato, Hideki; Okuno, Osamu; Nunn, Martha E; Okabe, Toru


    As part of our systematic studies characterizing the properties of titanium alloys, we investigated the grindability of a series of cast Ti-Hf alloys. Alloy buttons with hafnium concentrations up to 40 mass% were made using an argon-arc melting furnace. Each button was cast into a magnesia-based mold using a dental titanium casting machine; three specimens were made for each metal. Prior to testing, the hardened surface layer was removed. The specimens were ground at five different speeds for 1 min at 0.98 N using a carborundum wheel on an electric dental handpiece. Grindability was evaluated as the volume of metal removed per minute (grinding rate) and the volume ratio of metal removed compared to the wheel material lost (grinding ratio). The data were analyzed using ANOVA. A trend of increasing grindability was found with increasing amounts of hafnium, although there was no statistical difference in the grindability with increasing hafnium contents. We also found that hafnium may be used to harden or strengthen titanium without deteriorating the grindability.

  7. The magnetic properties of $^{\\rm 177}$Hf and $^{\\rm 180}$Hf in the strong coupling deformed model


    Muto, S.; Stone, N. J.; Bingham, C. R.; STONE, J.R; Walker, P. M.; Audi, G.; Gaulard, C.; Köster, U.(Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL), Grenoble, France); Nikolov, J.; Nishimura,K; Ohtsubo, T.; Podolyak, Z.; Risegari, L.; Simpson, G.S.; Veskovic, M.


    This paper reports NMR measurements of the magnetic dipole moments of two high-K isomers, the 37/2$^-$, 51.4 m, 2740 keV state in $^{\\rm 177}$Hf and the 8$^-$, 5.5 h, 1142 keV state in $^{\\rm 180}$Hf by the method of on-line nuclear orientation. Also included are results on the angular distributions of gamma transitions in the decay of the $^{\\rm 177}$Hf isotope. These yield high precision E2/M1 multipole mixing ratios for transitions in bands built on the 23/2$^+$, 1.1 s, isomer at 1315 keV ...

  8. Engaging Faculty across the Community Engagement Continuum (United States)

    Gorski, Irena; Mehta, Khanjan


    There currently exists an incompatibility between the demands of university administrators for increased community engagement and the realities facing faculty who want to integrate it into their academic coursework, research, and professional service. This article provides insight on the complex challenges preventing faculty from becoming involved…

  9. A thirty second isomer in {sup 171}Hf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, P.; Billowes, J.; Cooper, T.G.; Grant, I.S.; Pearson, M.R.; Wheeler, P.D. [Schuster Laboratory, University of Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Cochrane, E.C.A.; Cooke, J.L.; Evans, D.E.; Griffith, J.A.R.; Persson, J.R.; Richardson, D.S.; Tungate, G.; Zybert, L. [School of Physics and Space Research, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Dendooven, P.; Honkanen, A.; Huhta, M.; Oinonen, M.; Penttilae, H.; Aeystoe, J. [Accelerator Laboratory, University of Jyvaeskylae, PL 35 Jyvaeskylae SF-403 51 (Finland)


    An isomer has been detected in {sup 171}Hf with a half-life of T{sub 1/2} 29.5(9) s. The state was populated in the {sup 170}Yb({alpha},3n){sup 171m}Hf reaction at a beam energy of E{sub {alpha}} = 50 MeV in an on-line ion guide isotope separator. The isomeric {sup 171m}Hf{sup +} beam was extracted from the ion guide, mass-analysed and implanted in the surface of a microchannel-plate. The half-life of the collected activity was measured from the decay of the microchannel-plate count rate. We associate the isomer with the first excited state in {sup 171}Hf with spin 1/2{sup -} at an excitation energy of 22(2) keV. (author)

  10. HF fiber stuffing in building 186 at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Tiziano Camporesi


    Each of the 36 HF wedges comprise ca 12000 quartz fibers which are the active element of the calorimeter. The fibers are produced by Polymicro (USA), cleaved and bundled at KFKI, Budapest, Hungary and inserted at CERN.

  11. Low-Frequency Waves in HF Heating of the Ionosphere (United States)

    Sharma, A. S.; Eliasson, B.; Milikh, G. M.; Najmi, A.; Papadopoulos, K.; Shao, X.; Vartanyan, A.


    Ionospheric heating experiments have enabled an exploration of the ionosphere as a large-scale natural laboratory for the study of many plasma processes. These experiments inject high-frequency (HF) radio waves using high-power transmitters and an array of ground- and space-based diagnostics. This chapter discusses the excitation and propagation of low-frequency waves in HF heating of the ionosphere. The theoretical aspects and the associated models and simulations, and the results from experiments, mostly from the HAARP facility, are presented together to provide a comprehensive interpretation of the relevant plasma processes. The chapter presents the plasma model of the ionosphere for describing the physical processes during HF heating, the numerical code, and the simulations of the excitation of low-frequency waves by HF heating. It then gives the simulations of the high-latitude ionosphere and mid-latitude ionosphere. The chapter also briefly discusses the role of kinetic processes associated with wave generation.

  12. Near-infrared LIF spectroscopy of HfF

    CERN Document Server

    Grau, Matt; Loh, Huanqian; Sinclair, Laura C; Stutz, Russel P; Yahn, Tylser S; Cornell, Eric A


    The molecular ion HfF$^+$ is the chosen species for a JILA experiment to measure the electron electric dipole moment (eEDM). Detailed knowledge of the spectrum of HfF is crucial to prepare HfF$^+$ in a state suitable for performing an eEDM measurement\\cite{Leanhardt}. We investigated the near-infrared electronic spectrum of HfF using laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) of a supersonic molecular beam. We discovered eight unreported bands, and assign each of them unambiguously, four to vibrational bands belonging to the transition $[13.8]0.5 \\leftarrow X1.5$, and four to vibrational bands belonging to the transition $[14.2]1.5 \\leftarrow X1.5$. Additionally, we report an improved measurement of vibrational spacing of the ground state, as well as anharmonicity $\\omega_e x_e$.

  13. Theoretical Assessment of 178m2Hf De-Excitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartouni, E P; Chen, M; Descalle, M A; Escher, J E; Loshak, A; Navratil, P; Ormand, W E; Pruet, J; Thompson, I J; Wang, T F


    This document contains a comprehensive literature review in support of the theoretical assessment of the {sup 178m2}Hf de-excitation, as well as a rigorous description of controlled energy release from an isomeric nuclear state.

  14. Engagement Means Everyone (United States)

    Patton, Carol


    Employee engagement is not just HR's responsibility. While HR is responsible for the process of measuring and driving engagement, improving it is actually everyone's responsibility. And that means reducing the barriers to productivity to drive business performance. Training departments can play a pivotal role. Their job is to enhance curriculum or…

  15. The Engagement Gap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tartari, Valentina; Salter, Ammon


    Recently, debate on women in academic science has been extended to academics' engagement with industry. We suggest that women tend to engage less in industry collaboration than their male colleagues of similar status. We argue that differences are mitigated by the presence of other women and by s...

  16. Community Engagement? Let's Dance! (United States)

    Johnson, Paul


    School districts across the nation are reaching out to their communities in hopes of creating support for their programs. Toward that end, this article provides a rationale for and an overview of the elements of effective community engagement. The author outlines the need and analyzes the shift toward new approaches in community engagement. Next,…

  17. Defining Student Engagement (United States)

    Axelson, Rick D.; Flick, Arend


    Few terms in the lexicon of higher education today are invoked more frequently, and in more varied ways, than "engagement". The phrase "student engagement" has come to refer to how "involved" or "interested" students appear to be in their learning and how "connected" they are to their classes, their institutions, and each other. As measured by…

  18. Civic Learning and Engagement (United States)

    Kanter, Martha; Schneider, Carol Geary


    For decades, the US education system has failed to adequately combat a decline of civic engagement and awareness, resulting in what many are now calling a "civics recession." The good news is that there is growing awareness, at all levels, that we need new and concerted efforts to make civic learning and engagement a core component of every…

  19. On making engagement tangible

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, van den Egon L.; Spink, A.J.; Grieco, F.; Krips, O.E.; Loijens, L.W.S.; Noldus, L.P.J.J.; Zimmerman, P.H.


    In this article the complexity of the construct engagement and three theories on this topic are discussed. Csikszentmihalyi's theory of flow is taken as starting point for the measurement of engagement. The measurement of each of its eight aspects is discussed, including its pros and cons. Regrettab

  20. Engagement Means Everyone (United States)

    Patton, Carol


    Employee engagement is not just HR's responsibility. While HR is responsible for the process of measuring and driving engagement, improving it is actually everyone's responsibility. And that means reducing the barriers to productivity to drive business performance. Training departments can play a pivotal role. Their job is to enhance curriculum or…

  1. Integrated magnetics design for HF-link power converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljusev, Petar; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.


    This paper deals with the design of integrated magnetics for HF-link converters, where the integrated magnetic components do not necessarily belong to the same voltage loop. Depending on the specific HF-link converter topology, the proposed integrated magnetics can either alleviate the derivation...... of independent auxiliary supply voltages from the main transformer or integrate other magnetic structures, thus saving board space and cutting costs....

  2. Integrated magnetics design for HF-link power converters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ljusev, P.; Andersen, Michael A.E.


    This paper deals with the design of integrated magnetics for HF-link converters, where the two integrated magnetic components on the same core do not necessarily belong to the same voltage loop. Depending on the specific HF-link converter topology, the proposed integrated magnetics can either alleviate the derivation of independent auxiliary supply voltages from the main transformer or integrate other magnetic structures, thus saving board space and cutting costs. (au)

  3. Synthesis of freestanding HfO2 nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyle Kayla


    Full Text Available Abstract Two new methods for synthesizing nanostructured HfO2 have been developed. The first method entails exposing HfTe2 powders to air. This simple process resulted in the formation of nanometer scale crystallites of HfO2. The second method involved a two-step heating process by which macroscopic, freestanding nanosheets of HfO2 were formed as a byproduct during the synthesis of HfTe2. These highly two-dimensional sheets had side lengths measuring up to several millimeters and were stable enough to be manipulated with tweezers and other instruments. The thickness of the sheets ranged from a few to a few hundred nanometers. The thinnest sheets appeared transparent when viewed in a scanning electron microscope. It was found that the presence of Mn enhanced the formation of HfO2 by exposure to ambient conditions and was necessary for the formation of the large scale nanosheets. These results present new routes to create freestanding nanostructured hafnium dioxide. PACS: 81.07.-b, 61.46.Hk, 68.37.Hk.

  4. The isobutylene-isobutane alkylation process in liquid HF revisited. (United States)

    Esteves, P M; Araújo, C L; Horta, B A C; Alvarez, L J; Zicovich-Wilson, C M; Ramírez-Solís, A


    Details on the mechanism of HF catalyzed isobutylene-isobutane alkylation were investigated. On the basis of available experimental data and high-level quantum chemical calculations, a detailed reaction mechanism is proposed taking into account solvation effects of the medium. On the basis of our computational results, we explain why the density of the liquid media and stirring rates are the most important parameters to achieve maximum yield of alkylate, in agreement with experimental findings. The ab initio Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics calculations show that isobutylene is irreversibly protonated in the liquid HF medium at higher densities, leading to the ion pair formation, which is shown to be a minimum on the potential energy surface after optimization using periodic boundary conditions. The HF medium solvates preferentially the fluoride anion, which is found as solvated [FHF](-) or solvated F(-.)(HF)(3). On the other hand, the tert-butyl cation is weakly solvated, where the closest HF molecules appear at a distance of about 2.9 Angstrom with the fluorine termination of an HF chain.

  5. Hf impurity and defect interactions in helium-implanted NiHf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Govindaraj, R. E-mail:; Gopinathan, K.P.; Viswanathan, B


    TDPAC measurements on the reference and untreated sample indicate a loss in anisotropy which is attributed mainly to the association of probe atoms with defects produced by (n,{gamma}) reactions with isotopes of Ni and experiencing combined magnetic and quadrupole interactions of comparable strengths. Evolution of defect free and substitutional fraction of probe atoms experiencing Larmor frequency characteristic of Ni matrix has been studied as a function of isochronal annealing temperature in helium free {alpha}-irradiated and homogeneously helium-implanted samples. No defect associated Larmor precession frequency and/or quadrupole frequency could be deduced in these uncorrelated damage studies. Comparison of recovery stages in {alpha}-irradiated and helium-implanted samples indicates the binding of helium associated defects by Hf impurities. Segregation of Hf atoms is observed in the helium free {alpha}-irradiated sample for annealing treatment at 973 K, while no such effect is observed in the helium-implanted sample for isochronal annealing treatments up to 1273 K.

  6. Reconciliation of the excess 176Hf conundrum in meteorites: Recent disturbances of the Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd isotope systematics (United States)

    Bast, Rebecca; Scherer, Erik E.; Sprung, Peter; Mezger, Klaus; Fischer-Gödde, Mario; Taetz, Stephan; Böhnke, Mischa; Schmid-Beurmann, Hinrich; Münker, Carsten; Kleine, Thorsten; Srinivasan, Gopalan


    The long-lived 176Lu-176Hf and 147Sm-143Nd radioisotope systems are commonly used chronometers, but when applied to meteorites, they can reveal disturbances. Specifically, Lu-Hf isochrons commonly yield dates up to ∼300 Myr older than the solar system and varying initial 176Hf/177Hf values. We investigated this problem by attempting to construct mineral and whole rock isochrons for eucrites and angrites. Meteorites from different parent bodies exhibit similar disturbance features suggesting that a common process is responsible. Minerals scatter away from isochron regressions for both meteorite classes, with low-Hf phases such as plagioclase and olivine typically being most displaced above (or left of) reference isochrons. Relatively Hf-rich pyroxene is less disturbed but still to the point of steepening Lu-Hf errorchrons. Using our Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd data, we tested various Hf and Lu redistribution scenarios and found that decoupling of Lu/Hf from 176Hf/177Hf must postdate the accumulation of significant radiogenic 176Hf. Therefore early irradiation or diffusion cannot explain the excess 176Hf. Instead, disturbed meteorite isochrons are more likely caused by terrestrial weathering, contamination, or common laboratory procedures. The partial dissolution of phosphate minerals may predominantly remove rare earth elements including Lu, leaving relatively immobile and radiogenic Hf behind. Robust Lu-Hf (and improved Sm-Nd) meteorite geochronology will require the development of chemical or physical methods for removing unsupported radiogenic Hf and silicate-hosted terrestrial contaminants without disturbing parent-daughter ratios.

  7. Tracking magmatic processes through Zr/Hf ratios in rocks and Hf and Ti zoning in zircons: An example from the Spirit Mountain batholith, Nevada (United States)

    Lowery, Claiborne L.E.; Miller, C.F.; Walker, B.A.; Wooden, J.L.; Mazdab, F.K.; Bea, F.


    Zirconium and Hf are nearly identical geochemically, and therefore most of the crust maintains near-chondritic Zr/Hf ratios of ???35-40. By contrast, many high-silica rhyolites and granites have anomalously low Zr/Hf (15-30). As zircon is the primary reservoir for both Zr and Hf and preferentially incorporates Zr, crystallization of zircon controls Zr/ Hf, imprinting low Zr/Hf on coexisting melt. Thus, low Zr/Hf is a unique fingerprint of effective magmatic fractionation in the crust. Age and compositional zonation in zircons themselves provide a record of the thermal and compositional histories of magmatic systems. High Hf (low Zr/ Hf) in zircon zones demonstrates growth from fractionated melt, and Ti provides an estimate of temperature of crystallization (TTiZ) (Watson and Harrison, 2005). Whole-rock Zr/Hf and zircon zonation in the Spirit Mountain batholith, Nevada, document repeated fractionation and thermal fluctuations. Ratios of Zr/Hf are ???30-40 for cumulates and 18-30 for high-SiO2 granites. In zircons, Hf (and U) are inversely correlated with Ti, and concentrations indicate large fluctuations in melt composition and TTiZ (>100??C) for individual zircons. Such variations are consistent with field relations and ion-probe zircon geochronology that indicate a >1 million year history of repeated replenishment, fractionation, and extraction of melt from crystal mush to form the low Zr/Hf high-SiO2 zone. ?? 2006 The Mineralogical Society.

  8. Solar-blind ultraviolet optical system design for missile warning (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Huo, Furong; Zheng, Liqin


    Solar-blind region of Ultraviolet (UV) spectrum has very important application in military field. The spectrum range is from 240nm to 280nm, which can be applied to detect the tail flame from approaching missile. A solar-blind UV optical system is designed to detect the UV radiation, which is an energy system. iKon-L 936 from ANDOR company is selected as the UV detector, which has pixel size 13.5μm x 13.5 μm and active image area 27.6mm x 27.6 mm. CaF2 and F_silica are the chosen materials. The original structure is composed of 6 elements. To reduce the system structure and improve image quality, two aspheric surfaces and one diffractive optical element are adopted in this paper. After optimization and normalization, the designed system is composed of five elements with the maximum spot size 11.988μ m, which is less than the pixel size of the selected CCD detector. Application of aspheric surface and diffractive optical element makes each FOV have similar spot size, which shows the system almost meets the requirements of isoplanatic condition. If the focal length can be decreased, the FOV of the system can be enlarged further.

  9. China and ballistic missile defense: 1955 to 2002 and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brad, Roberts


    China's opposition to U.S. ballistic missile defense was forcefully articulated officially and unofficially between 1991 and 2001. Vociferous opposition gave way to near silence following U.S. ABM Treaty withdrawal, raising a question about precisely whether and how China will respond to future U.S. deployments in both the political and military-operational realms. To gauge likely future responses, it is useful to put the experience of the 1991-2001 period into historical context. China's attitudes toward BMD have passed through a series of distinct phases since the beginning of the nuclear era, as China has been concerned alternately with the problems of strategic defense by both the Soviet Union and United States (and others) around its periphery. Throughout this era it has also pursued its own strategic defense capabilities. There are important elements of continuity in China's attitudes concerns about the viability of its own force and about strategic stability. These suggest the likelihood of significant responses to U.S. BMD even in the absence of sharp rhetoric. (author)

  10. An affinity-directed protein missile system for targeted proteolysis (United States)

    Fulcher, Luke J.; Macartney, Thomas; Bozatzi, Polyxeni; Hornberger, Annika; Rojas-Fernandez, Alejandro


    The von Hippel–Lindau (VHL) protein serves to recruit the hypoxia-inducible factor alpha (HIF1α) protein under normoxia to the CUL2 E3 ubiquitin ligase for its ubiquitylation and degradation through the proteasome. In this report, we modify VHL to engineer an affinity-directed protein missile (AdPROM) system to direct specific endogenous target proteins for proteolysis in mammalian cells. The proteolytic AdPROM construct harbours a cameloid anti-green fluorescence protein (aGFP) nanobody that is fused to VHL for either constitutive or tetracycline-inducible expression. For target proteins, we exploit CRISPR/Cas9 to rapidly generate human kidney HEK293 and U2OS osteosarcoma homozygous knock-in cells harbouring GFP tags at the VPS34 (vacuolar protein sorting 34) and protein associated with SMAD1 (PAWS1, aka FAM83G) loci, respectively. Using these cells, we demonstrate that the expression of the VHL-aGFP AdPROM system results in near-complete degradation of the endogenous GFP-VPS34 and PAWS1-GFP proteins through the proteasome. Additionally, we show that Tet-inducible destruction of GFP-VPS34 results in the degradation of its associated partner, UVRAG, and reduction in levels of cellular phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. PMID:27784791

  11. Determination of isothermal section of Ni-Re-Hf ternary system at 1173 K

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王日初; 柳春雷; 金展鹏


    The phase equilibriua in the Ni-Re-Hf ternary system at 1173K were investigated by means of diffusion triple technique and electron microprobe analysis(EMPA). The experimental results indicate that two ternary intermetallics (α and β) and five binary intermetallics (Ni3Hf, Ni10Hf7, Ni11Hf9, NiHf and NiHf2) exist in the Ni-Re-Hf system at 1173 K. A tentative isothermal section of this system at 1173 K was constructed on the basis of experimental results. The isothermal section consists of nine three-phase regions, five of which are supported by the experimental data.

  12. The ABCs of Student Engagement (United States)

    Parsons, Seth A.; Nuland, Leila Richey; Parsons, Allison Ward


    Student engagement is an important consideration for teachers and administrators because it is explicitly associated with achievement. What the authors call the ABC's of engagement they outline as: Affective engagement, Behavioral engagement, and Cognitive engagement. They also present "Three Things Every Teacher Needs to Know about…

  13. Closing the RN engagement gap: which drivers of engagement matter? (United States)

    Rivera, Reynaldo R; Fitzpatrick, Joyce J; Boyle, Suzanne M


    This study focused on the relationship between RNs' perceptions of drivers of engagement and their workplace engagement. In multiple studies, mostly not in healthcare, researchers found that employees engaged in their work are in the minority. This phenomenon is referred to as the engagement gap. Drivers of engagement and levels of nurse engagement were measured among 510 RNs from a large urban academic university center. The greatest difference between engaged and not-engaged nurses was in the manager action index; the smallest difference was in the salary and benefits index. The passion-for-nursing index was the only significant driver related to RN levels of engagement when controlling for all the other drivers. Nurse managers play a critical role in promoting employee engagement. The nurses' passion for nursing is an important dimension of engagement. Salary and benefits were not primary drivers in employee engagement. Copyright © 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

  14. Spallation and fission products in the (p+{sup 179}Hf) and (p+{sup nat}Hf) reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karamian, S.A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Moscow Region, Dubna 141980 (Russian Federation); Ur, C.A. [Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, P.O. Box MG-6, Bucharest 077125 (Romania); Induced Gamma Emission Foundation, P.O. Box 34-81, Bucharest 010044 (Romania)], E-mail:; Adam, J. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Moscow Region, Dubna 141980 (Russian Federation); Institute of Nuclear Physics, Rez, Prague CZ-25068 (Czech Republic); Kalinnikov, V.G.; Lebedev, N.A.; Vostokin, G.K. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Moscow Region, Dubna 141980 (Russian Federation); Collins, C.B. [Center for Quantum Electronics, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX 75083 (United States); Popescu, I.I. [Induced Gamma Emission Foundation, P.O. Box 34-81, Bucharest 010044 (Romania)


    Production of Hf and Lu high-spin isomers has been experimentally studied in spallation reactions induced by intermediate energy protons. Targets of enriched {sup 179}Hf (91%) and {sup nat}Hf were bombarded with protons of energy in the range from 90 to 650 MeV provided by the internal beam of the Dubna Phasotron synchrocyclotron. The activation yields of the reaction products were measured by using the {gamma}-ray spectroscopy and radiochemistry methods. The production cross-sections obtained for the {sup 179m2}Hf, {sup 178m2}Hf and {sup 177m}Lu isomers are similar to the previously measured values from the spallation of Ta, Re and W targets. Therefore, the reactions involving emission of only a few nucleons, like (p,p'), (p,p'n) and (p,2pn), can transfer high enough angular momentum to the final residual nuclei with reasonable large cross-sections. A significant gain in the isomeric yields was obtained when enriched {sup 179}Hf targets were used. The mass distribution of the residual nuclei was measured over a wide range of masses and the fission-to-spallation ratio could be deduced as a function of the projectile energy. Features of the reaction mechanism are briefly discussed.

  15. Simulation Study on the Feasibility of Gun-Launched Missile Against Attack Helicopters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王狂飙; 张天桥


    The feasibility of providing the tank a limited anti-helicopterability with gun-launched missile is studied. A type of simulation model of gun-launched missile against attack helicopters is established. The simulation and the parameter optimization of missile control system under various circumstances are done. The gun-launched missile can directly hit the helicopters in the typical tracks, all the missdistances are less than 1 m and the maximum overload is less than available overload. Gun-launched missile is a feasible choice for tanks against attack helicopters.%研究通过炮射反坦克导弹赋予坦克有限反武装直升机能力的可行性.建立了一种炮射导弹与武装直升机对抗的仿真模型,并在各种情况下进行了系统仿真与导弹控制系统参数优化.经参数优化的炮射导弹在给定的武装直升机各种航迹下,均可直接命中,脱靶量均小于1m,最大过载不超过可用过载.仿真结果表明炮射导弹是坦克对抗武装直升机的一种可行的选择.

  16. Use of noise attenuation modeling in managing missile motor detonation activities. (United States)

    McFarland, Michael J; Watkins, Jeffrey W; Kordich, Micheal M; Pollet, Dean A; Palmer, Glenn R


    The Sound Intensity Prediction System (SIPS) and Blast Operation Overpressure Model (BOOM) are semiempirical sound models that are employed by the Utah Test and Training Range (UTTR) to predict whether noise levels from the detonation of large missile motors will exceed regulatory thresholds. Field validation of SIPS confirmed that the model was effective in limiting the number of detonations of large missile motors that could potentially result in a regulatory noise exceedance. Although the SIPS accurately predicted the impact of weather on detonation noise propagation, regulators have required that the more conservative BOOM model be employed in conjunction with SIPS in evaluating peak noise levels in populated areas. By simultaneously considering the output of both models, in 2001, UTTR detonated 104 missile motors having net explosive weights (NEW) that ranged between 14,960 and 38,938 lb without a recorded public noise complaint. Based on the encouraging results, the U.S. Department of Defense is considering expanding the application of these noise models to support the detonation of missile motors having a NEW of 81,000 lb. Recent modeling results suggest that, under appropriate weather conditions, missile motors containing up to 96,000 lb NEW can be detonated at the UTTR without exceeding the regulatory noise limit of 134 decibels (dB).

  17. Signature analysis of ballistic missile warhead with micro-nutation in terahertz band (United States)

    Li, Ming; Jiang, Yue-song


    In recent years, the micro-Doppler effect has been proposed as a new technique for signature analysis and extraction of radar targets. The ballistic missile is known as a typical radar target and has been paid many attentions for the complexities of its motions in current researches. The trajectory of a ballistic missile can be generally divided into three stages: boost phase, midcourse phase and terminal phase. The midcourse phase is the most important phase for radar target recognition and interception. In this stage, the warhead forms a typical micro-motion called micro-nutation which consists of three basic micro-motions: spinning, coning and wiggle. This paper addresses the issue of signature analysis of ballistic missile warhead in terahertz band via discussing the micro-Doppler effect. We establish a simplified model (cone-shaped) for the missile warhead followed by the micro-motion models including of spinning, coning and wiggle. Based on the basic formulas of these typical micro-motions, we first derive the theoretical formula of micro-nutation which is the main micro-motion of the missile warhead. Then, we calculate the micro-Doppler frequency in both X band and terahertz band via these micro-Doppler formulas. The simulations are given to show the superiority of our proposed method for the recognition and detection of radar micro targets in terahertz band.

  18. Wind Tunnel Experimental Investigation on the Aerodynamic Characteristics of the Multifin Rockets and Missiles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The transonic-supersonic wind tunnel experiment on the aerodynamics of the rockets and missiles that have four, six, eight flat or wrap-around fins is introduced. The experimental results show, while M∞<2.0, with the increase of the fins' number, the derivative of lift coefficient is increasing, the pressure center is shifting backwards, and the longitudinal static stability is augmenting. On the contrary, while the Mach number exceeds a certain supersonic value, the aerodynamic effectiveness of the eight-fin missiles would be lower than that of the six-fin missiles. For the low speed short-range missiles, by adopting six, eight or ten flat fins configuration, the lift effectiveness can be greatly increased, the pressure center can be shifted backwards, the static and dynamic stability can be obviously enhanced. For the high speed long-range large rockets and missiles launched from multi-tube launcher, the configuration adopting more than six fins can not be useful for increasing the stability but would make the rolling rate instable during the flight.

  19. An evaluation method for tornado missile strike probability with stochastic correction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eguchi, Yuzuru; Murakami, Takahiro; Hirakuchi, Hiromaru; Sugimoto, Soichiro; Hattori, Yasuo [Nuclear Risk Research Center (External Natural Event Research Team), Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Abiko (Japan)


    An efficient evaluation method for the probability of a tornado missile strike without using the Monte Carlo method is proposed in this paper. A major part of the proposed probability evaluation is based on numerical results computed using an in-house code, Tornado-borne missile analysis code, which enables us to evaluate the liftoff and flight behaviors of unconstrained objects on the ground driven by a tornado. Using the Tornado-borne missile analysis code, we can obtain a stochastic correlation between local wind speed and flight distance of each object, and this stochastic correlation is used to evaluate the conditional strike probability, QV(r), of a missile located at position r, where the local wind speed is V. In contrast, the annual exceedance probability of local wind speed, which can be computed using a tornado hazard analysis code, is used to derive the probability density function, p(V). Then, we finally obtain the annual probability of tornado missile strike on a structure with the convolutional integration of product of QV(r) and p(V) over V. The evaluation method is applied to a simple problem to qualitatively confirm the validity, and to quantitatively verify the results for two extreme cases in which an object is located just in the vicinity of or far away from the structure.

  20. Comparison of different lateral acceleration autopilots for a surface-to-surface missile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo V. Ćuk


    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparison of three lateral acceleration autopilots for a surface-to-surface missile: three-loop conventional acceleration autopilot, and gamma-dot and three-loop acceleration autopilot based upon the inverse-dynamic control. The surface-to-surface missile motion is described by nonlinear differential equations whose parameters change rapidly over a very wide range due to variable velocity and altitude. The requirement for the accurate controlling of the missile in such an environment represents a challenge for the autopilot designer. The brief review of the calculation of the autopilot gains is given using the concept of the 'point' stability for the linear time-varying system with 'frozen' dynamic coefficients. The method of the inverse-dynamic control is presented in the next section for two types of the autopilots: gamma-dot and acceleration autopilot. Both of them require the design of the estimators for the variables used as inputs to the control law. Finally, six-degree-of-freedom simulation results of the missile response to the demanded command on the typical ballistic trajectory are presented. The comparison of three autopilots considers the steady state errors and the sensitivity of the response to the highly variable environment. It was shown that the inverse-dynamic control can be very effective in the controlling of the surface-to-surface missile.

  1. Measuring user engagement

    CERN Document Server

    Lalmas, Mounia; Yom-Tov, Elad


    User engagement refers to the quality of the user experience that emphasizes the positive aspects of interacting with an online application and, in particular, the desire to use that application longer and repeatedly. User engagement is a key concept in the design of online applications (whether for desktop, tablet or mobile), motivated by the observation that successful applications are not just used, but are engaged with. Users invest time, attention, and emotion in their use of technology, and seek to satisfy pragmatic and hedonic needs. Measurement is critical for evaluating whether online

  2. Hf-Nd isotope and trace element constraints on subduction inputs at island arcs: Limitations of Hf anomalies as sediment input indicators (United States)

    Handley, Heather K.; Turner, Simon; Macpherson, Colin G.; Gertisser, Ralf; Davidson, Jon P.


    New Nd-Hf isotope and trace element data for Javanese volcanoes are combined with recently published data to place constraints on subduction inputs at the Sunda arc in Indonesia and assess the value of Hf anomalies (expressed as Hf/Hf* and Sm/Hf ratios) as tracers of such inputs. Hf anomaly does not correlate with Hf isotope ratio in Javanese lavas, however, Hf/Hf* and Sm/Hf ratios do correlate with SiO 2. Contrary to previous work, we show that Hf anomaly variation may be controlled by fractionation of clinopyroxene and/or amphibole during magmatic differentiation and does not represent the magnitude or type of subduction input in some arcs. Correlation of Sm/Hf with indices of differentiation for other arcs (e.g., Vanuatu, New Britain, and Mariana) suggests that differentiation control on Sm/Hf ratios in volcanic arc rocks may be a relatively common phenomenon. This study corroborates the use of Nd-Hf isotope co-variations in arc volcanic rocks to ascertain subduction input characteristics. The trajectories of regional volcano groups (East, Central and West Java) in Nd-Hf isotope space reveal heterogeneity in the subducted sediment input along Java, which reflects present-day spatial variations in sediment compositions on the down-going plate in the Java Trench. The high Sm/Hf ratio required in the sediment end-member for some Javanese basalts suggests that partial melting of subducted sediment occurs in the presence of residual zircon, and is inconsistent with residual monazite or allanite.

  3. Investigation and Development of Data-Driven D-Region Model for HF Systems Impacts (United States)

    Eccles, J. V.; Rice, D.; Sojka, J. J.; Hunsucker, R. D.


    Space Environment Corporation (SEC) and RP Consultants (RPC) are to develop and validate a weather-capable D region model for making High Frequency (HF) absorption predictions in support of the HF communications and radar communities. The weather-capable model will assimilate solar and earth space observations from NASA satellites. The model will account for solar-induced impacts on HF absorption, including X-rays, Solar Proton Events (SPE's), and auroral precipitation. The work plan includes: I . Optimize D-region model to quickly obtain ion and electron densities for proper HF absorption calculations. 2. Develop indices-driven modules for D-region ionization sources for low, mid, & high latitudes including X-rays, cosmic rays, auroral precipitation, & solar protons. (Note: solar spectrum & auroral modules already exist). 3. Setup low-cost monitors of existing HF beacons and add one single-frequency beacon. 4. Use PENEX HF-link database with HF monitor data to validate D-region/HF absorption model using climatological ionization drivers. 5. Develop algorithms to assimilate NASA satellite data of solar, interplanetary, and auroral observations into ionization source modules. 6. Use PENEX HF-link & HF-beacon data for skill score comparison of assimilation versus climatological D-region/HF absorption model. Only some satellites are available for the PENEX time period, thus, HF-beacon data is necessary. 7. Use HF beacon monitors to develop HF-link data assimilation algorithms for regional improvement to the D-region/HF absorption model.

  4. Serpentinization Changes Nd, but not Hf Isotopes of Abyssal Peridotites (United States)

    Bizimis, M.; Frisby, C. P.; Mallick, S.


    Serpentinization of the oceanic lithosphere is a known sink for fluid mobile elements (B, Cl, Li, Sr, etc.), while high field strength elements (HFSE: e.g., Hf, Zr, Ti, Nb) are thought to be unaffected by it. In contrast, the fate of REE during serpentinization is equivocal. Correlations between REE and HFSE concentrations in abyssal peridotites suggest control by magmatic processes (Niu, 2004, J. Pet), while some LREE enrichments in serpentinized peridotites compared to their clinopyroxene (cpx) and Nd, Sr isotope data (Delacour et al., 2008, Chem. Geol.) imply seawater-derived REE addition to the mantle protolith (Paulick et al., 2006, Chem. Geol). To further constrain peridotite-seawater interaction during serpentinization we compare bulk rock and cpx Hf and Nd isotope data in partially (up to ~70%) serpentinized abyssal peridotites (9-16°E South West Indian Ridge). We also present a new method that improves yields in Hf, Nd and Pb separations from depleted (90% of Hf, Zr, Ti are retained in the residue. LA-ICPMS data shows that serpentine after olivine typically has higher LREE/HREE ratios than cpx, pronounced negative Ce anomalies, high U, Sr concentrations and low HFSE, unlike the coexisting cpx. These data are consistent with some seawater-derived LREE addition to peridotite during serpentinization, localized in the serpentine and other secondary phases, while cpx retains the magmatic value. This process will lower the Sm/Nd relative to Lu/Hf ratio in the peridotite and can lead to decoupled radiogenic Hf and unradiogenic Nd isotopes upon recycling and aging. Our data further testifies to the fidelity of Hf isotopes in tracing mantle processes, even in serpentinized rocks.

  5. Joint Efforts Towards European HF Radar Integration (United States)

    Rubio, A.; Mader, J.; Griffa, A.; Mantovani, C.; Corgnati, L.; Novellino, A.; Schulz-Stellenfleth, J.; Quentin, C.; Wyatt, L.; Ruiz, M. I.; Lorente, P.; Hartnett, M.; Gorringe, P.


    During the past two years, significant steps have been made in Europe for achieving the needed accessibility to High Frequency Radar (HFR) data for a pan-European use. Since 2015, EuroGOOS Ocean Observing Task Teams (TT), such as HFR TT, are operational networks of observing platforms. The main goal is on the harmonization of systems requirements, systems design, data quality, improvement and proof of the readiness and standardization of HFR data access and tools. Particular attention is being paid by HFR TT to converge from different projects and programs toward those common objectives. First, JERICO-NEXT (Joint European Research Infrastructure network for Coastal Observatory - Novel European eXpertise for coastal observaTories, H2020 2015 Programme) will contribute on describing the status of the European network, on seeking harmonization through exchange of best practices and standardization, on developing and giving access to quality control procedures and new products, and finally on demonstrating the use of such technology in the general scientific strategy focused by the Coastal Observatory. Then, EMODnet (European Marine Observation and Data Network) Physics started to assemble HF radar metadata and data products within Europe in a uniform way. This long term program is providing a combined array of services and functionalities to users for obtaining free of charge data, meta-data and data products on the physical conditions of European sea basins and oceans. Additionally, the Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service (CMEMS) delivers from 2015 a core information service to any user related to 4 areas of benefits: Maritime Safety, Coastal and Marine Environment, Marine Resources, and Weather, Seasonal Forecasting and Climate activities. INCREASE (Innovation and Networking for the integration of Coastal Radars into EuropeAn marine SErvices - CMEMS Service Evolution 2016) will set the necessary developments towards the integration of existing European

  6. First-principles study of the Hf-based Heusler alloys: Hf2CoGa and Hf2CoIn (United States)

    Hu, Yan; Zhang, Jian-Min


    The electronic structures and magnetic properties of the new Heusler alloys Hf2CoGa and Hf2CoIn have been studied by using the first-principles projector augmented wave (PAW) potential within the generalized gradient approximation (GGA). Both Hf2CoGa and Hf2CoIn Heusler alloys have the half-metallic character and completely (100%) spin polarization at the Fermi level (EF) and the indirect band gaps of 0.733 eV and 0.654 eV, respectively, in the minority spin channel. The total magnetic moments μt are all 2μB per formula unit, linearly scaled with the total number of valence electrons (Zt) by μt=Zt-18 and the atomic magnetic moments have localized character due to less affected by deformations. The origin of the indirect band gaps for these two new Heusler alloys is well understood. These two new Heusler alloys are the ideal candidates for spintronic devices.

  7. A Study of the Effects of Sensor Noise and Guidance Laws on SAM Effectiveness Against Cruise Missiles (United States)


    k guidance acceleration command vector xviii THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK xix EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Cruise missile (CM) technology is...Germany, Netherlands, UK, Denmark Turkey, Romania, Poland, and Spain ) contributed to the Maritime Theatre Missile Defence Forum to obtain an impressive

  8. 15 CFR 744.3 - Restrictions on Certain Rocket Systems (including ballistic missile systems and space launch... (United States)


    ... Vehicles (including cruise missile systems, target drones and reconnaissance drones) End-Uses. 744.3... missile systems, target drones and reconnaissance drones) End-Uses. (a) General prohibition. In addition... transfer (in-country) you know that the item: (1) Will be used in the design, development, production...

  9. Digital Array Radar for Ballistic Missile Defense and Counter-Stealth Systems Analysis and Parameter Tradeoff Study (United States)


    Missile BMD Ballistic Missile Defense CAS Computer Algebra System CDD Capability Development Document CONOPS Concept of Operations CONUS Continental...this section. Analysis and calculations described in this section were conducted using Waterloo Maple® 7 Computer Algebra System (CAS). Initially...When two or more electromagnetic waves combine, their electric fields are integrated vectorially at each point in space for any

  10. 77 FR 64564 - Implementation of Regulatory Guide 1.221 on Design-Basis Hurricane and Hurricane Missiles (United States)


    ... COMMISSION Implementation of Regulatory Guide 1.221 on Design-Basis Hurricane and Hurricane Missiles AGENCY....221 on Design-Basis Hurricane and Hurricane Missiles.'' The purpose of this ISG is to supplement the guidance regarding the application of Regulatory Guide 1.221, ``Design-Basis Hurricane and...

  11. Achieving Provider Engagement (United States)

    Greenfield, Geva; Pappas, Yannis; Car, Josip; Majeed, Azeem; Harris, Matthew


    The literature on integrated care is limited with respect to practical learning and experience. Although some attention has been paid to organizational processes and structures, not enough is paid to people, relationships, and the importance of these in bringing about integration. Little is known, for example, about provider engagement in the organizational change process, how to obtain and maintain it, and how it is demonstrated in the delivery of integrated care. Based on qualitative data from the evaluation of a large-scale integrated care initiative in London, United Kingdom, we explored the role of provider engagement in effective integration of services. Using thematic analysis, we identified an evolving engagement narrative with three distinct phases: enthusiasm, antipathy, and ambivalence, and argue that health care managers need to be aware of the impact of professional engagement to succeed in advancing the integrated care agenda. PMID:25212855

  12. HF omnidirectional spectral CW auroral radar (HF-OSCAR) at very high latitude. Part 1: Technique (United States)

    Olesen, J. K.; Jacobsen, K. E.; Stauning, P.; Henriksen, S.


    An HF system for studies of very high latitude ionospheric irregularities was described. Radio aurora from field-aligned E-region irregularities of the Slant E Condition type were discussed. The complete system combines an ionosonde, a 12 MHz pulse radar and a 12 MHz bistatic CW Doppler-range set-up. The two latter units use alternately a 360 deg rotating Yagi antenna. High precision oscillators secure the frequency stability of the Doppler system in which the received signal is mixed down to a center frequency of 500 Hz. The Doppler shift range is max + or - 500 Hz. The received signal is recorded in analog form on magnetic tape and may be monitored visually and audibly. Echo range of the CW Doppler signal is obtained by a 150 Hz amplitude modulation of the transmitted signal and phase comparison with the backscattered signal.

  13. Comparison of HfAlO, HfO2/Al2O3, and HfO2 on n-type GaAs using atomic layer deposition (United States)

    Lu, Bin; Lv, Hongliang; Zhang, Yuming; Zhang, Yimen; Liu, Chen


    Different high-permittivity (high-k) gate dielectric structures of HfO2, HfAlO, and HfO2/Al2O3 deposited on HF-etched n-GaAs using ALD have been investigated. It has been demonstrated that the stacked structure of HfO2/Al2O3 has the lowest interface state density of 8.12 × 1012eV-1 cm-2 due to the "self-cleaning" reaction process, but the sample of HfAlO shows much better frequency dispersion and much higher dielectric permittivity extracted from the C-V curves. The investigation reveals that the electrical properties of gate dielectrics are improved by introducing alumina into HfO2.

  14. Guidance Law and Neural Control for Hypersonic Missile to Track Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenxing Fu


    Full Text Available Hypersonic technology plays an important role in prompt global strike. Because the flight dynamics of a hypersonic vehicle is nonlinear, uncertain, and highly coupled, the controller design is challenging, especially to design its guidance and control law during the attack of a maneuvering target. In this paper, the sliding mode control (SMC method is used to develop the guidance law from which the desired flight path angle is derived. With the desired information as control command, the adaptive neural control in discrete time is investigated ingeniously for the longitudinal dynamics of the hypersonic missile. The proposed guidance and control laws are validated by simulation of a hypersonic missile against a maneuvering target. It is demonstrated that the scheme has good robustness and high accuracy to attack a maneuvering target in the presence of external disturbance and missile model uncertainty.

  15. A Direct Multiple Shooting Method for Missile Trajectory Optimization with The Terminal Bunt Manoeuvre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Subchan Subchan


    Full Text Available Numerical solution of constrained nonlinear optimal control problem is an important field in a wide range of applications in science and engineering. The real time solution for an optimal control problem is a challenge issue especially the state constrained handling. Missile trajectory shaping with terminal bunt manoeuvre with state constaints is addressed. The problem can be stated as an optimal control problem in which an objective function is minimised satisfying a series of constraints on the trajectory which includes state and control constraints. Numerical solution based on a direct multiple shooting is proposed. As an example the method has been implemented to a design of optimal trajectory for a missile where the missile must struck the target by vertical dive. The qualitative analysis and physical interpretation of the numerical solutions are given.

  16. Improved manufacturing techniques for rf and laser hardening of missile domes, phase 1 (United States)

    Pawlewicz, W. T.; Mann, I. B.; Martin, P. M.; Hays, D. D.; Graybeal, A. G.


    The adaptation of an existing Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) optical coating capability developed for high power fusion laser applications to the case of RF and laser hardening of plastic missile domes used by US Army (MICOM) is reported. RF hardening of Hellfire and Copperhead 1.06 micron missile domes by use of transparent conductive Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) coatings is demonstrated. The project involved adaptation of a coating material and process developed for flat glass components used in fusion lasers to the case of hemispherical or conical heat sensitive plastic domes used on laser guided missiles. Specific ITO coating property goals are an electrical sheet resistance of 10 ohms/square, a coated dome transmission of 80% or more at 1.06 micron wavelength (compared to 90% for a bare dome), and good adhesion. The sheet resistance goal of 10 ohms/square was expected to result in an RF attenuation of 30 dB at the frequencies of importance.

  17. A method for simulating the atmospheric entry of long-range ballistic missiles (United States)

    Eggers, A J , Jr


    It is demonstrated with the aid of similitude arguments that a model launched from a hypervelocity gun upstream through a special supersonic nozzle should experience aerodynamic heating and resulting thermal stresses like those encountered by a long-range ballistic missile entering the earth's atmosphere. This demonstration hinges on the requirements that model and missile be geometrically similar and made of the same material, and that they have the same flight speed and Reynolds number (based on conditions just outside the boundary layer) at corresponding points in their trajectories. The hypervelocity gun provides the model with the required initial speed, while the nozzle scales the atmosphere, in terms of density variation, to provide the model with speeds and Reynolds numbers over its entire trajectory. Since both the motion and aerodynamic heating of a missile tend to be simulated in the model tests, this combination of hypervelocity gun and supersonic nozzle is termed an atmosphere entry simulator.

  18. Autopilot Design Method for the Blended Missile Based on Model Predictive Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoqing Yang


    Full Text Available This paper develops a novel autopilot design method for blended missiles with aerodynamic control surfaces and lateral jets. Firstly, the nonlinear model of blended missiles is reduced into a piecewise affine (PWA model according to the aerodynamics properties. Secondly, based on the equivalence between the PWA model and mixed logical dynamical (MLD model, the MLD model of blended missiles is proposed taking into account the on-off constraints of lateral pulse jets. Thirdly, a hybrid model predictive control (MPC method is employed to design autopilot. Finally, simulation results under different conditions are presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed method, which demonstrate that control allocation between aerodynamic control surfaces and lateral jets is realized by adjusting the weighting matrix in an index function.

  19. Medarbejderinvolvering og engagement i arbejdspladsvurdering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasle, Peter; Thoft, Eva


    En vurdering af betingelserne for at udvikle medarbejder involvering og engagement i arbejdspladsvurdering.......En vurdering af betingelserne for at udvikle medarbejder involvering og engagement i arbejdspladsvurdering....

  20. Mechanical properties of cast Ti-Hf alloys. (United States)

    Sato, Hideki; Kikuchi, Masafumi; Komatsu, Masashi; Okuno, Osamu; Okabe, Toru


    This study examined the mechanical properties of a series of Ti-Hf alloys. Titanium alloys with 10 to 40 mass % Hf were made with titanium and hafnium sponge in an argon-arc melting furnace. Specimens cast into magnesia-based investment molds were tested for yield strength, tensile strength, percentage elongation, and modulus of elasticity. Vickers microhardness was determined at 25 to 600 microm from the cast surface. X-ray diffractometry was also performed. Commercially pure Ti (CP Ti) and pure Ti prepared from titanium sponge were used as controls. The data (n = 5) were analyzed with a one-way ANOVA and the Student-Newman-Keuls test (alpha = 0.05). The diffraction peaks of all the metals matched those for alpha Ti; no beta phase peaks were found. Alloys with Hf > or = 25% had significantly (p 0.05) in elongation among all the Ti-Hf alloys and CP Ti, whereas the elongation of alloys with Hf > or = 30% was significantly (p alloys tested can be considered viable alternatives to CP Ti because they were stronger than CP Ti and had similar elongation.

  1. Successful hardware-in-the-loop support of the Longbow/HELLFIRE modular missile system (United States)

    Ray, Jerry A.; Larson, Gerald A.; Terry, John E.


    The Air-to-Ground Missiles Systems (AGMS) Project Management Office (PMO) chose to invest in hardware-in-the-loop (HWIL) simulation as an integral part of their Longbow/HELLFIRE (Helicopter Launched, Fire-and-Forget) Modular Missile System program throughout the development and production phases. This investment has resulted in two HWIL simulations, developed by the U.S. Army Aviation and Missile Command (AMCOM) Missile Research Development and Engineering Center, that have had unprecedented success in program support from the early development through production phases. The Millimeter Simulation System 1 (MSS-1) facility is capable of edge-of- the-envelope performance analysis and verification using high- fidelity target, background, and countermeasures signature modeling. The System Test/Acceptance Facility (STAF), developed in partnership with Redstone Technical Test Center, tests full-up missiles for production lot acceptance. Between these two facilities, HWIL simulation is responsible for pre- flight confidence testing of missile hardware and software, software independent verification and validation (IV&V) testing, comprehensive performance evaluation, component verification, production lot acceptance, and data gathering for the shelf life extension program. One payoff of the MSS-1 HWIL investment has been an extremely effective flight test program with MSS-1 receiving credit for saving three flight tests and documenting over 40 failure modes. With the advent of the Performance Based Specification, the MSS-1 has become involved in continuous verification of high level specifications since contractor controlled, low-level specifications are subject to change. The STAF has saved 8 million annually through providing a non-destructive lot acceptance-testing paradigm, and further benefited the production phase by discovering three production problems. This paper will highlight the innovative uses of HWIL simulation as utilized in the Longbow/HELLFIRE program and

  2. Integrated Guidance and Control of Homing Missiles Against Ground Fixed Targets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hou Mingzhe; Duan Guangren


    This paper presents a scheme of integrated guidance and autopilot design for homing missiles against ground fixed targets. An in- tegrated guidance and control model in the pitch plane is formulated and further changed into a normal form by nonlinear coordinate transformation. By adopting the sliding mode control approach, an adaptive nonlinear control law of the system is designed so that the missile can hit the target accurately with a desired impact attitude angle. The stability analysis of the closed-loop system is also con- ducted. The numerical simulation has confirmed the usefulness of the proposed design scheme.

  3. NATO and U.S. Ballistic Missile Defense Programs: Divergent or Convergent Paths? (United States)


    making framework. It is common for TMD systems to be developed and deployed via bilateral negotiations. The only TMD project that has been subject to...sol-air moyenne portée- terrestre , that is, a ground based surface- to-air medium-range missile. 52 “Aster 30 SAMP/T – Surface-to-Air Missile Platform...alone rather than via a joint development with Alliance members that have expressed interest. Additionally, some European members of the Alliance

  4. HfO2 Gate Dielectrics for Future Generation of CMOS Device Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H.Y.Yu; J.F.Kang; Ren Chi; M.F.Li; D.L.Kwong


    The material and electrical properties of HfO2 high-k gate dielectric are reported.In the first part,the band alignment of HfO2 and (HfO2)x(Al2O3)1-x to (100)Si substrate and their thermal stability are studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and TEM.The energy gap of (HfO2)x(Al2O3)1-x,the valence band offset,and the conduction band offset between (HfO2)x(Al2O3)1-x and the Si substrate as functions of x are obtained based on the XPS results.Our XPS results also demonstrate that both the thermal stability and the resistance to oxygen diffusion of HfO2 are improved by adding Al to form Hf aluminates.In the second part,a thermally stable and high quality HfN/HfO2 gate stack is reported.Negligible changes in equivalent oxide thickness (EOT),gate leakage,and work function (close to Si mid-gap) of HfN/HfO2 gate stack are demonstrated even after 1000℃ post-metal annealing(PMA),which is attributed to the superior oxygen diffusion barrier of HfN as well as the thermal stability of the HfN/HfO2 interface.Therefore,even without surface nitridation prior to HfO2 deposition,the EOT of HfN/HfO2 gate stack has been successfully scaled down to less than 1nm after 1000℃ PMA with excellent leakage and long-term reliability.The last part demonstrates a novel replacement gate process employing a HfN dummy gate and sub-1nm EOT HfO2 gate dielectric.The excellent thermal stability of the HfN/HfO2 gate stack enables its use in high temperature CMOS processes.The replacement of HfN with other metal gate materials with work functions adequate for n- and p-MOS is facilitated by a high etch selectivity of HfN with respect to HfO2,without any degradation to the EOT,gate leakage,or TDDB characteristics of HfO2.

  5. Pressure-induced novel compounds in the Hf-O system from first-principles calculations (United States)

    Zhang, Jin; Oganov, Artem R.; Li, Xinfeng; Xue, Kan-Hao; Wang, Zhenhai; Dong, Huafeng


    Using first-principles evolutionary simulations, we have systematically investigated phase stability in the Hf-O system at pressure up to 120 GPa. New compounds Hf5O2,Hf3O2 , HfO, and HfO3 are discovered to be thermodynamically stable at certain pressure ranges. Two new high-pressure phases are found for Hf2O : one with space group Pnnm and anti-CaCl2-type structure, another with space group I 41/amd. Pnnm-HfO3 shows interesting structure, simultaneously containing oxide O2 - and peroxide [O-O]2 - anions. Remarkably, it is P 6 ¯2 m -HfO rather than OII-HfO2 that exhibits the highest mechanical characteristics among Hf-O compounds. Pnnm-Hf2O , Imm2-Hf5O2 ,P 3 ¯1 m -Hf2O , and P 4 ¯m 2 -Hf2O3 phases also show superior mechanical properties; theoretically these phases become metastable phases to ambient pressure and their properties can be exploited.

  6. Effect of HF leaching on 14C dates of pottery (United States)

    Goslar, Tomasz; Kozłowski, Janusz; Szmyt, Marzena; Czernik, Justyna


    This paper presents the experiments with 14C dating of two potsherds, which contained carbon dispersed rather homogeneously in their clay fabric. After AAA treatment, the potsherds still appeared to be contaminated with young carbon, presumably connected with humic acids. To make removal of humic acids more effective, we treated the sherds with HF acid of different concentration. The 14C results obtained demonstrate that HF treatment indeed helps to remove humic contaminants, but it also mobilizes carbon bound to raw clay, which may make 14C dates too old. We conclude therefore, that using a simple combination of HF and AAA treatment seems insufficient in reliable 14C dating of carbon homogeneously dispersed in the volume of potsherds.

  7. The Status of Rotational Nonequilibrium in HF Chemical Lasers (United States)


    later study from the same laboratory, Copeland et al. 5 3 used a NdYAG dye laser to pump HF into v = 2, j, and an HF pulsed laser to probe various P 2(J... Weston , Jr., J. Chem. Phys. 77, 4776 (1982). 51. J. J. Hinchen and R. H. Hobbs, Appl. Phys. 50, 628 (1979). 52. j. K. Lambert, G. M. Jursich, and F. F...Crim, Chem. Phys. Lett. 71, 258 (1980). 53. R. A. Copeland , D. J. Pearson, and F. F. Crim, Chem. Phys. Lett. 81, 541 (1981). 54. T. J. Foster and F. F

  8. New active load voltage clamp for HF-link converters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ljusev, P.; Andersen, M.A.E.


    This paper proposes a new active clamp for HF-link converters, which features very high efficiency by returning the clamped energy back to the primary side through a small auxiliary converter. It also increases the reliability of HF-link converters by providing an alternative load current path during malfunctions of the secondary bidirectional bridge. The feasibility of the approach is shown on audio power amplifier prototype. New integrated magnetics design is presented that incorporates both the main power and auxiliary transformer on the same magnetic core. (au)

  9. HF-induced airglow at magnetic zenith: theoretical considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Mishin


    Full Text Available Observations of airglow at 630nm (red line and 557.7nm (green line during HF modification experiments at the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP heating facility are analyzed. We propose a theoretical framework for understanding the generation of Langmuir and ion acoustic waves during magnetic zenith injections. We show that observations of HF-induced airglow in an underdense ionosphere as well as a decrease in the height of the emitting volume are consistent with this scenario.

  10. HF-hash : Hash Functions Using Restricted HFE Challenge-1

    CERN Document Server

    Dey, Dhananjoy; Gupta, Indranath Sen


    Vulnerability of dedicated hash functions to various attacks has made the task of designing hash function much more challenging. This provides us a strong motivation to design a new cryptographic hash function viz. HF-hash. This is a hash function, whose compression function is designed by using first 32 polynomials of HFE Challenge-1 with 64 variables by forcing remaining 16 variables as zero. HF-hash gives 256 bits message digest and is as efficient as SHA-256. It is secure against the differential attack proposed by Chabaud and Joux as well as by Wang et. al. applied to SHA-0 and SHA-1.

  11. Hf--Co--B alloys as permanent magnet materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGuire, Michael Alan; Rios, Orlando; Ghimire, Nirmal Jeevi


    An alloy composition is composed essentially of Hf.sub.2-XZr.sub.XCo.sub.11B.sub.Y, wherein 0Hf.sub.2-XZr.sub.XCo.sub.11B.sub.Y, wherein 0.ltoreq.X<2 and 0

  12. First HF radar measurements of summer mesopause echoes at SURA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Karashtin

    Full Text Available HF sounding of the mesosphere was first carried out at SURA in summer 1994 at frequencies in the range 8–9 MHz using one of the sub-arrays of the SURA heating facility. The observations had a range resolution of 3 km. Almost all measurements indicated the presence of strong radar returns from altitudes between 83 and 90 km with features very similar to VHF measurements of mesopause summer echoes at mid-latitudes and polar mesopause summer echoes. In contrast to VHF observations, HF mesopause echoes are almost always present.

  13. New active load voltage clamp for HF-link converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljusev, Petar; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.


    This paper proposes a new active clamp for HF-link converters, which features very high efficiency by returning the clamped energy back to the primary side through a small auxiliary converter. It also increases the reliability of HF-link converters by providing an alternative load current path du...... during malfunctions of the secondary bidirectional bridge. The feasibility of the approach is shown on audio power amplifier prototype. New integrated magnetics design is presented that incorporates both the main power and auxiliary transformer on the same magnetic core....

  14. First HF radar measurements of summer mesopause echoes at SURA (United States)

    Karashtin, A. N.; Shlyugaev, Y. V.; Abramov, V. I.; Belov, I. F.; Berezin, I. V.; Bychkov, V. V.; Eryshev, E. B.; Komrakov, G. P.


    HF sounding of the mesosphere was first carried out at SURA in summer 1994 at frequencies in the range 8-9 MHz using one of the sub-arrays of the SURA heating facility. The observations had a range resolution of 3 km. Almost all measurements indicated the presence of strong radar returns from altitudes between 83 and 90 km with features very similar to VHF measurements of mesopause summer echoes at mid-latitudes and polar mesopause summer echoes. In contrast to VHF observations, HF mesopause echoes are almost always present.

  15. European coordination for coastal HF radar data in EMODnet Physics (United States)

    Mader, Julien; Novellino, Antonio; Gorringe, Patrick; Griffa, Annalisa; Schulz-Stellenfleth, Johannes; Montero, Pedro; Montovani, Carlo; Ayensa, Garbi; Vila, Begoña; Rubio, Anna; Sagarminaga, Yolanda


    Historically, joint effort has been put on observing open ocean, organizing, homogenizing, sharing and reinforcing the impact of the acquired information based on one technology: ARGO with profilers Argo floats, EuroSites, ESONET-NoE, FixO3 for deep water platforms, Ferrybox for stations in ships of opportunities, and GROOM for the more recent gliders. This kind of networking creates synergies and makes easier the implementation of this source of data in the European Data exchange services like EMODnet, ROOSs portals, or any applied services in the Blue economy. One main targeted improvement in the second phase of EMODnet projects is the assembling of data along coastline. In that sense, further coordination is recommended between platform operators around a specific technology in order to make easier the implementation of the data in the platforms (4th EuroGOOS DATAMEQ WG). HF radar is today recognized internationally as a cost-effective solution to provide high spatial and temporal resolution current maps (depending on the instrument operation frequency, covering from a few kilometres offshore up to 200 km) that are needed for many applications for issues related to ocean surface drift or sea state characterization. Significant heterogeneity still exists in Europe concerning technological configurations, data processing, quality standards and data availability. This makes more difficult the development of a significant network for achieving the needed accessibility to HF Radar data for a pan European use. EuroGOOS took the initiative to lead and coordinate activities within the various observation platforms by establishing a number of Ocean Observing Task Teams such as HF-Radars. The purpose is to coordinate and join the technological, scientific and operational HF radar communities at European level. The goal of the group is on the harmonization of systems requirements, systems design, data quality, improvement and proof of the readiness and standardization of

  16. Engaging With Reality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondebjerg, Ib

    to engage us with reality. Engaging with Reality investigates some of the major global themes as they are reflected in documentaries from the USA, UK and Denmark. Engaging with Reality is a contribution to comparative, transnational studies of documentary in contemporary media culture. By comparing...... documentaries in three different countries dealing with the same global themes, the book contributes to a broader and deeper understanding of our global media culture. The book deals with documentaries as part of a new form of cosmopolitan narratives, as part of new, global forms of social imagination......Documentaries play an important role in the increasingly global media culture that has been developing over the last few decades. Despite its many different forms and genres, all documentaries claim a special relation to the way things are in the world, and they each attempt in their own way...

  17. Public Engagement with Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Irwin, Alan


    Based on a recent review and a contribution for the 20 years anniversary edition of the scientific journal Public Understanding of Science, reflections are made about the last twenty years of achievements and failures in the theory, practice and policy of Public Engagement with Science (PES......). The ‘deficit theory’ which still today characterize many scientific activities that address citizen can be criticized for ‘one-way communication’, ‘sanctity of expertise’, and treatment of the publics as ‘homogeneous’. When arguing for the need for public engagement with science it is question about...... not problematising ‘the public’, taking values seriously and instead educating ‘the experts’, and recognising both the ‘legitimacy of wider concerns’ and the ‘democratic imperative’. Public Engagement with Science as strategy is building upon a normative commitment to the idea of democratic science policy...

  18. The rules of engagement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Sarah Rachael


    This article reflects on the “dialogic turn,” focusing on one analytical framework for understanding the wide range of processes that fall under the rubric of engagement. The notion of power-in-interaction is explored using a case study of informal dialogue, the Dana Centre, London. Using...... this framework I argue that we can understand public engagement events as hallmarked by conflict, but that this conflict emerges not in differing assessments of the value of different forms of knowledge but around the very form of a dialogue event; similarly, I suggest that the content of talk indicates...... that imposed hierarchies are continually re-negotiated. In concluding I reflect on some implications of using power in the analysis of engagement....

  19. Engagement, Exploration, Empowerment. (United States)

    Stoffel, Virginia Ginny


    Engagement, exploration, and empowerment are significant practice strategies used by occupational therapy practitioners as a means of getting to know what matters to clients and how to facilitate their participation in everyday life. Applied to the American Occupational Therapy Association (AOTA) as an organization, professional engagement, exploration of new service contexts, and empowerment of members to take an active role in shaping the profession's future are examined. This address, given at the 2015 AOTA Annual Convention & Expo, looks to the future in terms of engaging greater numbers of members; participating in Vision 2025, a strategic planning initiative that will be unveiled at the 2016 AOTA Annual Conference & Expo; and empowering members to achieve excellence in occupational therapy.

  20. Civic Engagement and Associationalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexander, Damon Timothy; Barraket, Jo; Lewis, Jenny;


    that individuals are involved with (associational scope). Does it matter in terms of civic engagement, for example, whether one is a member of a quilting-circle or trade union? Does it matter whether association ‘membership’ is simply an annual payment or a major commitment of time and energy? In this article, we...... use a large survey to explore these questions empirically by focusing on the membership patterns and civic engagement practices of 4,001 citizens drawn from eight suburbs across Greater Melbourne, Australia. Our findings indicate that, while associational intensity is positively related to civic...... engagement, associational scope (the number of group memberships per person), is a more influential determinant of the level of civic and political participation. The results also suggest that while all forms of associationalism are important in terms of fostering greater levels of civic activity, not all...

  1. Engaging with users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisberg, Vibeke; Bang, Anne Louise

    to change the education of future designers. This is an emerging field at a number of design schools across the world, among these Design School Kolding in Denmark. In this paper we discuss ways in which we as design educators can teach fashion and textile students ways to engage with users during...... the creative process. To a large degree it is not common to engage direct with users in fashion and textile design. However, we see an increasing interest in this subject among the design students and also in recent research within fashion and textiles. We therefore argue that there is a need for participatory...... with the biggest sense organ – our skin. Thus, the aim of our research is to develop new dialogue tools for teaching fashion and textile students in order to stimulate new ways of thinking and engaging with users. By developing and employing participatory design methods in the field of fashion and textiles, we...

  2. White Sands Missile Range Overview & Introduction: Test Capabilities Briefing (United States)


    Vulnerability and Propagation • The transportable Advanced Pointer Tracker (APT) is a 60 cm beam director for the PLVTS to conduct dynamic tactical engagements...OT • High quality instrumentation & data collection of entire flight • Recovery forensics and materials performance • Scenario control and...calibration and repair support (C&RS) for WSMR and all its testing activities and organizations Test Measurement & Diagnostic Equipment Army Proven

  3. Science, Public Engagement with

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Irwin, Alan


    regarding their definition in institutional practice. Science and technology studies scholars have been especially active in challenging prevailing policy assumptions in this area and in considering how science–public relations might be reinterpreted and reconstructed. This article presents some of the key......‘Public engagement with science’ evokes a series of long-standing issues concerning the relationship between members of the public (or citizens) and matters of technical expertise. However, each of the terms ‘public,’ ‘engagement,’ and ‘science’ is open to question, and to empirical investigation...

  4. Constituting Public Engagement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Sarah Rachael


    This article uses data from two U.K. studies in order to explore the meanings attached to public engagement. It focuses on two issues of importance to contemporary discussions of science communication: the degree to which there has been a smooth transition, in practice, from models of public unde...... backgrounds, suggesting that multiple and overlapping meanings around PEST are derived from particular histories that have been brought together, through the rubric of public engagement, in assemblages such as the Beacons. © 2013 SAGE Publications....

  5. Evolution of E2 transition strength in deformed hafnium isotopes from new measurements on $^{172}$Hf, $^{174}$Hf, and $^{176}$Hf

    CERN Document Server

    Rudigier, M; Dannhoff, M; Gerst, R-B; Jolie, J; Saed-Samii, N; Stegemann, S; Régis, J-M; Robledo, L M; Rodríguez-Guzmán, R; Blazhev, A; Fransen, Ch; Warr, N; Zell, K O


    The available data for E2 transition strengths in the region between neutron-deficient Hf and Pt isotopes are far from complete. More and precise data are needed to enhance the picture of structure evolution in this region and to test state-of-the-art nuclear models. In a simple model, the maximum collectivity is expected at the middle of the major shell. However, for actual nuclei, this picture may no longer be the case, and one should use a more realistic nuclear-structure model. We address this point by studying the spectroscopy of Hf. We remeasure the 2^+_1 half-lives of 172,174,176Hf, for which there is some disagreement in the literature. The main goal is to measure, for the first time, the half-lives of higher-lying states of the rotational band. The new results are compared to a theoretical calculation for absolute transition strengths. The half-lives were measured using \\gamma-\\gamma and conversion-electron-\\gamma delayed coincidences with the fast timing method. For the determination of half-lives i...

  6. Pacific Missile Range Facility Intercept Test Support. Environmental Assessment/Overseas Environmental Assessment (United States)


    Portable hair dryer 86 to 77 At 1 foot Vacuum cleaner 85 to 78 At 5 feet Long range airplane 80 to 70 Inside Conversation 60 Typical suburban...missile unstable, causing it to tumble and fall to the earth prior to reaching populated areas. Other strategies to cause a vehicle to tumble may also

  7. A Three-Pronged Strategy to Solve the Problem of Long-Range Missile Proliferation (United States)


    One example is Brazil and its Sonda space launch vehicle (SLV) program. This SLV program, and others like it, are potentially dangerous to the U.S...because as a non-adherent to the MTCR, Brazil may transfer Sonda technology to rogue states or build offensive missiles capable of striking the U.S

  8. Treatment of open tibial fracture with bone defect caused by high velocity missiles: a case report. (United States)

    Golubović, Zoran; Vukajinović, Zoran; Stojiljković, Predrag; Golubović, Ivan; Visnjić, Aleksandar; Radovanović, Zoran; Najman, Stevo


    Tibia fracture caused by high velocity missiles is mostly comminuted and followed by bone defect which makes their healing process extremely difficult and prone to numerous complications. A 34-year-old male was wounded at close range by a semi-automatic gun missile. He was wounded in the distal area of the left tibia and suffered a massive defect of the bone and soft tissue. After the primary treatment of the wound, the fracture was stabilized with an external fixator type Mitkovic, with convergent orientation of the pins. The wound in the medial region of the tibia was closed with the secondary stitch, whereas the wound in the lateral area was closed with the skin transplant after Thiersch. Due to massive bone defect in the area of the rifle-missile wound six months after injury, a medical team placed a reconstructive external skeletal fixator type Mitkovic and performed corticotomy in the proximal metaphyseal area of the tibia. By the method of bone transport (distractive osteogenesis), the bone defect of the tibia was replaced. After the fracture healing seven months from the secondary surgery, the fixator was removed and the patient was referred to physical therapy. Surgical treatment of wounds, external fixation, performing necessary debridement, adequate antibiotic treatment and soft and bone tissue reconstruction are essential in achieving good results in patients with the open tibial fracture with bone defect caused by high velocity missiles. Reconstruction of bone defect can be successfully treated by reconstructive external fixator Mitkovic.

  9. Military aircraft and missile technology at the Langley Research Center: A selected bibliography (United States)

    Maddalon, D. V.


    A compilation of reference material is presented on the Langley Research Center's efforts in developing advanced military aircraft and missile technology over the past twenty years. Reference material includes research made in aerodynamics, performance, stability, control, stall-spin, propulsion integration, flutter, materials, and structures.

  10. 76 FR 4322 - Availability of the Fiscal Year 2009 Missile Defense Agency Services Contracts Inventory Pursuant... (United States)


    ... of the Secretary Availability of the Fiscal Year 2009 Missile Defense Agency Services Contracts... United States Code as amended by the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2008 (NDAA 08... Procurement and Acquisition Policy, Office of Strategic Sourcing (DPAP/SS) will make available to the public...

  11. Software Acquisition: Evolution, Total Quality Management, and Applications to the Army Tactical Missile System. (United States)

    presents the concept of software Total Quality Management (TQM) which focuses on the entire process of software acquisition, as a partial solution TQM can be applied to software acquisition. Software Development, Software Acquisition, Total Quality management (TQM), Army Tactical Missile

  12. 78 FR 42430 - Revisions to the Export Administration Regulations Based on the 2012 Missile Technology Control... (United States)


    ... (Definitions of Terms as Used in the Export Administration Regulations) by amending the definition of the term... Definitions of terms as used in the Export Administration Regulations (EAR). * * * * * Payload... Administration Regulations Based on the 2012 Missile Technology Control Regime Plenary Agreements AGENCY:...


    A cross-sectional survey of two fleet ballistic missile submarine crews revealed no remarkable oral health factors. A close relationship was found...effects of FBM submarine service on oral health could be demonstrated; however, in view of the isolated nature of the FBM patrols great stress needs to

  14. The Effects of Fleet Ballistic Missile Submarine Patrols on Oral Health (United States)

    Maintenance of optimum oral health for Fleet Ballistic Missile submarine personnel is a continuing effort. Information is required concerning oral ... health status and patrol effects on this status. Ninety-one crew members of the USS JOHN MARSHALL (SSBN 611 (Gold)) were evaluated predeployment, during

  15. Joint Theater Missile Defense in Taiwan: Protecting United States Interests and Friends (United States)


    people in a disproportionately short period and where the consequences of its release overwhelms local responders. 67 APPENDIX A CHINESE BALLISTIC...2004, Ballistic Missile Defense. Airborne Laser The Airborne Laser (ABL) consists of a high-energy, chemical oxygen iodine laser (COIL) mounted

  16. Theoretical and Experimental Methods in the Solution of Missile Nonlinear Roll Problems (United States)


    directed towvard improving the science of free flight missile dynamics by investigating the nonlinear rolling motion phenomena *exhibitcd by firned ...3 3 Schematic of Basic Finner Model ......................... 7 4 Induced Rolling Moment vs Roll Orientation Angle for Basic Finner Model Measured in...28 27 Rotational Characteristics of Cruciform Rectangular Fins ....... ............................. 29 28 Wind Tunnel Model (Naval Academy

  17. Dynamic attack zone of air-to-air missile after being launched in random wind field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Yaoluo; Nan Ying; Chen Shaodong; Ding Quanxin; Wu Shengliang


    A new concept is presented for air-to-air missile which is dynamic attack zone after being launched in random wind field. This new concept can be used to obtain the 4-dimensional (4-D) information regarding the dynamic envelope of an air-to-air missile at any flight time aimed at different flight targets considering influences of random wind, in the situation of flight fighters coop-erated with missiles fighting against each other. Based on an air-to-air missile model, some typical cases of dynamic attack zone after being launched in random wind field were numerically simulated. Compared with the simulation results of traditional dynamic envelope, the properties of dynamic attack zone after being launched are as follows. The 4-D dynamic attack zone after being launched is inside traditional maximum dynamic envelope, but its forane boundary is usually not inside tra-ditional no-escape dynamic envelope;Traditional dynamic attack zone can just be reliably used at launch time, while dynamic envelope after being launched can be reliably and accurately used dur-ing any flight antagonism time. Traditional envelope is a special case of dynamic envelope after being launched when the dynamic envelope is calculated at the launch time;the dynamic envelope after being launched can be influenced by the random wind field.

  18. Passive FOG IMU for short-range missile application: from qualification toward series production (United States)

    Trommer, Gert F.; Mueller, R.; Opitz, S.


    An inertial measurement unit (IMU) with angular rate, angular increment and linear acceleration measurement systems for short range missile application is described. It consists of a three axis fiber optic gyroscope (FOG) cluster, three linear vibrating beam accelerometers and an electronics device for signal evaluation and data transmission via a serial transputer link. The FOG cluster is realized by means of a passive all-fiber open loop configuration. Due to the inherent optical phase shift of 3 by 3 couplers, completely passive operation near the quadrature point is achieved without the need for a non- reciprocal optical phase modulation in the fiber loop. Basing on that concept more than 50 rugged IMUs have been built for implementation into a short range air to air missile. Verification tests for flight clearance with stresses simulating air carriage and missile free flight environments have been computed. The operation under extreme vibration and shock environments without the use of vibration isolator fixings due to very tight requirements on data time delay has been demonstrated. The first telemetered missile firings have been performed successfully. The line- setup for large quantity series production is progressing. The implementation of the workstations for the integration of the IMU is finished. The production equipment for calibration and acceptance testing of IMUs in parallel allowing for a rate of more than 150 unit per month has been installed and will be operational in autumn this year.

  19. Optical flow based guidance system design for semi-strapdown image homing guided missiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Lan


    Full Text Available This paper focuses mainly on semi-strapdown image homing guided (SSIHG system design based on optical flow for a six-degree-of-freedom (6-DOF axial-symmetric skid-to-turn missile. Three optical flow algorithms suitable for large displacements are introduced and compared. The influence of different displacements on computational accuracy of the three algorithms is analyzed statistically. The total optical flow of the SSIHG missile is obtained using the Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT algorithm, which is the best among the three for large displacements. After removing the rotational optical flow caused by rotation of the gimbal and missile body from the total optical flow, the remaining translational optical flow is smoothed via Kalman filtering. The circular navigation guidance (CNG law with impact angle constraint is then obtained utilizing the smoothed translational optical flow and position of the target image. Simulations are carried out under both disturbed and undisturbed conditions, and results indicate the proposed guidance strategy for SSIHG missiles can result in a precise target hit with a desired impact angle without the need for the time-to-go parameter.

  20. Space radiation studies at the White Sands Missile Range Fast Burst Reactor (United States)

    Delapaz, A.


    The operation of the White Sands Missile Range Fast Burst Reactor is discussed. Space radiation studies in radiobiology, dosimetry, and transient radiation effects on electronic systems and components are described. Proposed modifications to increase the capability of the facility are discussed.

  1. Synthesis of robust feedback missile control strategies by using LMI techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trottemant, E.J.; Weiss, M.; Vermeulen, A.


    Robust programming, and more specific LMI techniques, have proven to be an extremely effective tool for the synthesis of missile guidance laws. The advantage of this model-based approach is that a large class of uncertainties can be taken into account and a robust guidance law is obtained. In this p

  2. Optimal linear-quadratic missile guidance laws with penalty on command variability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weiss, M.; Shima, T.


    This paper proposes a new approach to the derivation of homing guidance laws for interceptor missiles that makes use of linear-quadratic optimal control in a different manner than the traditional approaches. Instead of looking only for the minimization of the miss distance and the integral square of

  3. 75 FR 20520 - Revisions to the Export Administration Regulations Based on the 2009 Missile Technology Control... (United States)


    ... turbo-compound engines. Accordingly, turbo-compound engines are not meant to be included within the... describe these engines. Additionally, turbo- compound engines are not a missile proliferation concern. This... December 10, 2009 (74 FR 65662). DATES: Effective Date: This rule is effective: April 20, 2010....

  4. 75 FR 28587 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Missile Launch... (United States)


    ... incidents (e.g., search-and-rescue, fire-fighting, adverse weather conditions), which may require... mission objectives; (2) the Navy must limit launch activities during other pinniped pupping seasons... launch trajectory necessary to meet mission objectives; (3) the Navy must not launch missiles from...

  5. Determination of an Achievable Materiel Availability for the Joint Air-to-Ground Missile (United States)


    to meet applied TAT metrics (use of FedEx, DHL , etc.). Sup- ply chain variances emerge under organic support, which are out of the control of the...can be a low priority, will vary depending on the mode and frequency of trips. Missiles in particular cannot be shipped commercially (FedEx, DHL etc

  6. 75 FR 58365 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Missile Launch... (United States)


    .... Placement of the cameras would cause minimal disturbance to pinnipeds and would focus on a subgroup of... forward looking infrared (FLIR) HS-324 Command thermal imaging cameras for nighttime monitoring of pinnipeds before, during, and after each missile launch. Previously, no cameras were available for...

  7. Near Term Command and Control of Homeland Air and Missile Defense (United States)


    grounded the aircraft prior to take off. Special Operations forces might be best suited to eliminate a terrorist cell with minimal collateral 32 damage. We...Review. 27 March 2002. HAER No. ND-9 (Excerpt from Historic American Engineering Record,) Safeguard Ballistic Missile Defense Center ( BMDC ). Heller

  8. Navy Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) Program: Background and Issues for Congress (United States)


    developments in Australia, Japan , and South Korea. 93 Justin Doubleday, “MDA Looking to Integrate European Allies into Missile Defense Architecture ...12 Japan ................................................................................................................................. 12 Other...building, or are planning to build Aegis-equipped ships include Japan , South Korea, Australia, Spain, and Norway.2 Aegis BMD System3 Aegis ships

  9. Adaptive block dynamic surface control for integrated missile guidance and autopilot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hou Mingzhe; Liang Xiaoling; Duan Guangren


    A novel integrated guidance and autopilot design method is proposed for homing missiles based on the adaptive block dynamic surface control approach.The fully integrated guidance and autopilot model is established by combining the nonlinear missile dynamics with the nonlinear dynamics describing the pursuit situation of a missile and a target in the three-dimensional space.The integrated guidance and autopilot design problem is further converted to a state regulation problem of a time-varying nonlinear system with matched and unmatched uncertainties.A new and simple adaptive block dynamic surface control algorithm is proposed to address such a state regulation problem.The stability of the closed-loop system is proven based on the Lyapunov theory.The six degrees of freedom (6DOF) nonlinear numerical simulation results show that the proposed integrated guidance and autopilot algorithm can ensure the accuracy of target interception and the robust stability of the closed-loop system with respect to the uncertainties in the missile dynamics

  10. Conventional Prompt Global Strike and Long Range Ballistic Missiles: Background and Issues (United States)


    Christopher P. Caves, “Subs May Serve Attack, Guided Missile Functions,” Navy Times, October 15, 2011, dual -use...preliminary results show that the HTV-2 achieved controlled flight in the atmosphere before telemetry was lost nine minutes after liftoff. 72 Media

  11. Conventional Prompt Global Strike and Long-Range Ballistic Missiles: Background and Issues (United States)


    2011/10/navy- dual -use-submarines-attack-guided-missile-101511w/ 46 U.S. Department of Defense, Major Budget Decisions Briefing From the Pentagon...According to DARPA, its preliminary results show that the HTV-2 achieved controlled flight in the atmosphere before telemetry was lost nine minutes after

  12. Comparative study of atomic-layer-deposited HfO2/Al2O3, Hf0.8Al0.2Ox and Hf0.5Al0.5Ox on N-GaAs (United States)

    Yu, Xinjiang; Lv, Hongliang; Zhang, Yuming; Zhang, Yimen; Qin, Zaiyang


    Interfacial properties of n-GaAs metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOSCAPs) with the gate dielectrics of HfO2/Al2O3, Hf0.8Al0.2Ox and Hf0.5Al0.5Ox are investigated. The results reveal that Hf0.5Al0.5Ox has larger permittivity and lower interface trap density than that of HfO2/Al2O3. In order to explain the result from the physical perspective, the XPS tests of all three samples are performed. It is found that the main reason to form interface trap of three samples treated with 500 °C post-deposition annealing, is attributed to the interfacial component of Ga2O3 and The Hf0.5Al0.5Ox dielectric is beneficial to reducing the formation of Ga2O3.

  13. First 100 ms of HF modification at Tromso, Norway (United States)

    Djuth, F. T.; Isham, B.; Rietveld, M. T.; Hagfors, T.; La Hoz, C.

    Experiments were performed with the high-power high-frequency HF facility at Troms o Norway to test theoretical predictions for the excitation of ion and Langmuir oscillations in the ionosphere The principal diagnostic of wave-plasma interactions was the VHF radar at the European Incoherent Scatter EISCAT facility High resolution radar techniques were used to monitor the temporal development of the ion and Langmuir oscillations HF pulses 100 ms in duration were periodically transmitted into a smooth background F region plasma Measurements of the radar backscatter spectra show that all key spectral features predicted by strong Langmuir turbulence SLT theory modified Zakharov model are simultaneously present in the plasma and that their evolution is in agreement with theoretical expectations However several new features have been observed that cannot be anticipated by current theory because of limitations in the electric field strength within the simulations The experimental results reinforce the notion that new theoretical developments are needed to accommodate the large HF electric fields produced at Troms o and HAARP Gakona Alaska and to treat the electron acceleration process in a self-consistent fashion The F region response to two HF effective radiated power levels sim 58 MW and sim 125 MW was investigated at Troms o These ERP values include absorptive losses resulting from the sunlit D region In general the results at 58 MW ERP and 125 MW ERP are consistent with many of the SLT

  14. The multilayer Fe/Hf studied with slow positron beam (United States)

    Murashige, Y.; Tashiro, M.; Nakajyo, T.; Koizumi, T.; Kanazawa, I.; Komori, F.; Ito, Y.


    The positron annihilation parameter versus the incident positron energy is measured in the thin Fe films and the Fe/Hf bilayer on silica substrate, by means of the variable energetic slow-positron beam technique. We have analyzed the change in open-volume spaces and vacancy-type defects among the Fe microcrystals in these thin films with the deposition temperature.

  15. A CMOS OTA for HF filters with programmable transfer function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Zwan, Eric J.; Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Seevinck, E.; Seevinck, Evert


    A CMOS operational transconductance amplifier (OTA) for programmable HF filters is presented. When used in an OTA-C integrator, the unity-gain frequency phase error remains less than 0.3° for frequencies up to more than one tenth of the OTA bandwidth. The OTA has built-in phase compensation, which

  16. Hf isotope evidence for a hidden mantle reservoir

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bizzarro, Martin; Simonetti, A.; Stevenson, R.K.


    High-precision Hf isotopic analyses and U-Pb ages of carbonatites and kimberlites from Greenland and eastern North America, including Earth's oldest known carbonatite (3 Ga), indicate derivation from an enriched mantle source. This previously unidentified mantle reservoir-marked by an unradiogeni...

  17. Origin of excess 176Hf in meteorites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Kristine; Connelly, James; Bizzarro, Martin


    After considerable controversy regarding the (176)Lu decay constant (lambda(176)Lu), there is now widespread agreement that (1.867 +/- 0.008) x 10(-11) yr(-1) as confirmed by various terrestrial objects and a 4557 Myr meteorite is correct. This leaves the (176)Hf excesses that are correlated with...

  18. Self-diffusion of Er and Hf inpure and HfO/sub 2/-doped polycrystalline Er/sub 2/O/sub 3/. [Hf-175 and Er-169

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheidecker, R.W.


    Using a tracer technique, self-diffusion of Er and Hf was measured over the approximate temperature interval of 1600 to 1970/sup 0/C in pure and HfO/sub 2/-doped polycryatalline Er/sub 2/O/sub 3/. Up to about 10 m/o HfO/sub 2/ dopant level, the Er self-diffusion coefficients followed a relationship based on cation vacancies. Above 10 m/o HfO/sub 2/, deviation from this relationship occurred, apparently due to clustering of cation vacancies and oxygen interstitials around the dopant hafnia ion. The activation energy for the self-diffusion of Er in pure Er/sub 2/O/sub 3/ was 82.2 Kcal/mole and increased with the HfO/sub 2/ dopant level present. Self-diffusion of Hf was measured in pure Er/sub 2/O/sub 3/ having two impurity levels, and a separation of the grain boundary. The volume diffusion of Hf showed both extrinsic and intrinsic behavior with the transition temperature increasing with the impurity level present in Er/sub 2/O/sub 3/. The activation energy for Hf volume diffusion in the intrinsic region was high, i.e. 235 -+ 9.5 Kcal/mole. The grain boundary diffusion was apparently extrinsic over the entire temperature interval Very low Hf self diffusion rates were found in both pure and HfO/sub 2/ doped Er/sub 2/O/sub 3/ compositions. Despite a clustering effect, the HfO/sub 2/ dopant increased the Hf volume diffusion coefficients.

  19. Analytics for Customer Engagement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijmolt, Tammo H. A.; Leeflang, Peter S. H.; Block, Frank; Eisenbeiss, Maik; Hardie, Bruce G. S.; Lemmens, Aurelie; Saffert, Peter


    In this article, we discuss the state of the art of models for customer engagement and the problems that are inherent to calibrating and implementing these models. The authors first provide an overview of the data available for customer analytics and discuss recent developments. Next, the authors di

  20. Parental Engagement with Science (United States)

    Bond, Joanna; Harbinson, Terence


    A programme of parental engagement with school science is described, in which parents and their children take part in scientific debate and practical science lessons. Three sessions, in biology, chemistry and physics, of this ongoing programme are described, through which parents have been able to support their children by learning science with…

  1. The rules of engagement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Sarah Rachael


    This article reflects on the “dialogic turn,” focusing on one analytical framework for understanding the wide range of processes that fall under the rubric of engagement. The notion of power-in-interaction is explored using a case study of informal dialogue, the Dana Centre, London. Using...

  2. Music Researchers' Musical Engagement (United States)

    Wollner, Clemens; Ginsborg, Jane; Williamon, Aaron


    There is an increasing awareness of the importance of reflexivity across various disciplines, which encourages researchers to scrutinize their research perspectives. In order to contextualize and reflect upon research in music, this study explores the musical background, current level of musical engagement and the listening habits of music…

  3. Analytics for Customer Engagement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijmolt, Tammo H. A.; Leeflang, Peter S. H.; Block, Frank; Eisenbeiss, Maik; Hardie, Bruce G. S.; Lemmens, Aurelie; Saffert, Peter

    In this article, we discuss the state of the art of models for customer engagement and the problems that are inherent to calibrating and implementing these models. The authors first provide an overview of the data available for customer analytics and discuss recent developments. Next, the authors

  4. The Engagement Gap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tartari, Valentina; Salter, Ammon


    In recent years, the debate about the marginality of women in academic science has been extended to academics’ engagement with industry and their commercial efforts. Analyzing multi-source data for a large sample of UK physical and engineering scientists and employing a matching technique, this s...

  5. Mars Public Engagement Overview (United States)

    Johnson, Christine


    This viewgraph presentation reviews the Mars public engagement goal to understand and protect our home planet, explore the Universe and search for life, and to inspire the next generation of explorers. Teacher workshops, robotics education, Mars student imaging and analysis programs, MARS Student Imaging Project (MSIP), Russian student participation, MARS museum visualization alliance, and commercialization concepts are all addressed in this project.

  6. Mellem engagement og afmagt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrenkiel, Annegrethe; Nielsen, Birger Steen; Schmidt, Camilla;

    Bogen præsenterer resultaterne fra udviklings- og forskningsprojektet "BUPL-tillidsrepræsentanten. Nye udfordringer - nye svar". Den giver et fyldigt indblik i tillidsrepræsentanternes arbejde, deres engagement, vanskeligheder og forhåbninger. På baggrund af et større værkstedsarbejde fremlægges...

  7. Employer Engagement in Education (United States)

    Mann, Anthony; Dawkins, James


    The subject of this paper is employer engagement in education as it supports the learning and progression of young people through activities including work experience, job shadowing, workplace visits, career talks, mock interviews, CV workshops, business mentoring, enterprise competitions and the provision of learning resources. Interest has grown…

  8. Community engagement. Streets ahead. (United States)

    Gould, Mark


    A survey of NHS staff by the Commission for Health Improvement highlighted top-performing PCTs on community engagement. Numbers attending public meetings can be boosted by targeting transport and using existing networks. A number of PCTs have helped community links by moving staff out of NHS locations.

  9. Unges politiske engagement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lieberkind, Jonas; Hansen, Niels-Henrik Møller


    I denne artikel undersøges danske unges politiske engagement. Vi vil se på, hvilke tilgange og forudsætninger danske unge har til politik, om deres politiske engagement kommer til udtryk på nye og anderledes måder, og hvorvidt deres politiske deltagelse er i konflikt med andre aktiviteter, der også...... kræver opmærksomhed og engagement. Vi vil argumentere for, at de unges syn på politik i disse år ændrer karakter, og at deres politiske deltagelse er viklet ind i og udfordret af et generelt og stigende krav fra de unge selv og omverdenen om at kunne navigere mellem stadigt flere interessesfærer: ’sig...... selv’, det sociale liv, jobs, uddannelse, karriere og fællesskabets generelle interesser (Illeris et al. 2009). Politisk deltagelse og engagement er i dette lys ikke et konkret og forudsigeligt anliggende, sådan som vi har for vane at diskutere det. For de unge fremstår det snarere som en diffus og...

  10. Music Researchers' Musical Engagement (United States)

    Wollner, Clemens; Ginsborg, Jane; Williamon, Aaron


    There is an increasing awareness of the importance of reflexivity across various disciplines, which encourages researchers to scrutinize their research perspectives. In order to contextualize and reflect upon research in music, this study explores the musical background, current level of musical engagement and the listening habits of music…

  11. Helium implanted $\\rm\\underline{Al}$Hf as studied by 181Ta TDPAC

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R Govindaraj; K P Gopinathan; B Viswanathan


    Time differential perturbed angular correlation (TDPAC) measurement on $\\rm\\underline{Al}$Hf reference sample has shown that a fraction 0.88 of probe nuclei are defect free and are occupying the substitutional sites in fcc Al matrix, and the remaining are associated with Hf solute clusters. Measurements on helium implanted sample indicate the binding of helium associated defects by Hf solute clusters. Isochronal annealing measurements indicate the dissociation of the helium implantation induced defects from Hf solute clusters for annealing treatments beyond 650 K. On comparison of the present results with that reported in $\\rm\\underline{Cu}$Hf subjected to identical helium implantation, it is inferred that the Hf solute clusters in $\\rm\\underline{Al}$Hf bind less strongly the helium associated defects than in $\\rm\\underline{Cu}$Hf.

  12. Processing and crystallographic structure of non-equilibrium Si-doped HfO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Dong; Fancher, Chris M.; Esteves, Giovanni; Jones, Jacob L., E-mail: [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States); Zhao, Lili [School of Information Science and Technology, Northwest University, Xi' an 710127 (China)


    Si-doped HfO{sub 2} was confirmed to exist as a non-equilibrium state. The crystallographic structures of Si-doped HfO{sub 2} were studied using high-resolution synchrotron X-ray diffraction and the Rietveld refinement method. Incorporation of Si into HfO{sub 2} and diffusion of Si out of (Hf,Si)O{sub 2} were determined as a function of calcination temperature. Higher thermal energy input at elevated calcination temperatures resulted in the formation of HfSiO{sub 4}, which is the expected major secondary phase in Si-doped HfO{sub 2}. The effect of SiO{sub 2} particle size (nano- and micron-sized) on the formation of Si-doped HfO{sub 2} was also determined. Nano-crystalline SiO{sub 2} was found to incorporate into HfO{sub 2} more readily.

  13. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1CLMA-2HF5A [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)


  14. 基于HLA的导弹仿真系统%Missile simulation system based on HLA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王利; 赵振南; 张亮


    计算机仿真是解决导弹装备研发过程中遇到难题的有效方法.设计了基于高层体系结构(HLA)分布式协议的仿真框架,给出了搭建系统的实施方案,具体介绍了系统联邦成员的构成及功能,分析设计了主要联邦成员的对象类和交互类,最后给出了整个系统的仿真流程及主要代码实现.该系统是一个模块化、通用化、易扩展、形象直观的导弹仿真系统,可以进行多种想定条件下导弹飞行仿真和性能评估,为导弹装备的论证、定型、验证提供了支撑平台.%The computer simulation is an effective way to solve the missile R&D process problems encountered.The article designs the simulation framework based on High Level Architecture (HLA),gives out the build system solutions,introduces the structure and function of the system of the federal member,analyzes and designs the main federal members of the object class and interaction class,finally present the simulation process and code implementation of the entire system.The system is a modular,extensible,general-purpose,image intuitive missile simulation system,can do many kinds of scenario conditions missile flight simulation and performance evaluation for missile equipment,provides support platform for missile equipment demonstration,qualitative and verify.

  15. 基于引用Petri网的导弹攻防对抗仿真研究%Research on missile confrontation simulation based on reference Petri net

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐硕; 禹磊


    Missile confrontation system is a complex and dynamic system with both sides interacting with each other. Especially,engagement level simulation will contain more objects and interaction. Petri net is a powerful graphical tool describing complex system with the feature of concurrence,distribution and uncertainty. Objected-oriented Petri net is formed by combining traditional Petri net with objected-orien-ted technology. Reference net is one of the objected-oriented Petri net,which has many excellent characteristics. This paper applies the basic theory of reference net,explores its application in the missile confrontation simulation,and realizes one confrontation simulation instance.%导弹攻防对抗是一个攻防双方相交互的复杂动态系统,尤其对于交战级仿真,会涉及到更多的对象及其交互.Petri网是一种图形化的描述,具有并发、分布、不确定性等特征的复杂系统的有力工具,通过将传统Petri网理论同面向对象技术相结合,形成了面向对象Petri网.引用Petri网作为具有面向对象特征的Petri网的一种,具有更多优良的特性.应用引用网的基本理论,探讨了引用网在导弹对抗仿真中的应用,完成了一个攻防对抗算例的仿真研究.

  16. 多平台对AAM协同制导交接班模型%Multi-P latform Cooperative Guidance Model for Anti-aircraft Missile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷宇曜; 姜文志; 朱伟; 张声


    This article provides a detailed analysis of the components of anti⁃aircraft missile system and engagement flow. It gives some definition and concept of cooperative guidance. The AAWS ( Anti⁃aircraft Weapon System) for AAM ( Anti⁃air⁃craft Missile) cooperative guidance model is established. It contains concept model of system, coordinate transaction model, errors model and radar tracking probability model. Radom errors are simulated. The Monte⁃Carlo method is used to have the relationship between errors and cooperative guidance ship probability. The reliable of cooperative guidance model is proved by simulation, which established in this paper. The results of error analysis can be used for precision controlling.%通过对协同制导交接班的类型进行分析,建立了防空武器系统对AAM( Anti⁃aircraft Missile)协同制导交接班的坐标转换模型、误差模型及雷达截获概率模型。通过模拟产生随机误差,利用Monte⁃Carlo方法进行计算,得出不同误差源对协同制导交接班概率影响的定量关系。实验结果证明了所建模型的有效性,误差分析结论可作为协同制导交接班精度控制的依据。

  17. Geographic variations in the PARADIGM-HF heart failure trial. (United States)

    Kristensen, Søren Lund; Martinez, Felipe; Jhund, Pardeep S; Arango, Juan Luis; Bĕlohlávek, Jan; Boytsov, Sergey; Cabrera, Walter; Gomez, Efrain; Hagège, Albert A; Huang, Jun; Kiatchoosakun, Songsak; Kim, Kee-Sik; Mendoza, Iván; Senni, Michele; Squire, Iain B; Vinereanu, Dragos; Wong, Raymond Ching-Chiew; Gong, Jianjian; Lefkowitz, Martin P; Rizkala, Adel R; Rouleau, Jean L; Shi, Victor C; Solomon, Scott D; Swedberg, Karl; Zile, Michael R; Packer, Milton; McMurray, John J V


    The globalization of clinical trials has highlighted geographic variations in patient characteristics, event rates, and treatment effects. We investigated these further in PARADIGM-HF, the largest and most globally representative trial in heart failure (HF) to date. We looked at five regions: North America (NA) 602 (8%), Western Europe (WE) 1680 (20%), Central/Eastern Europe/Russia (CEER) 2762 (33%), Latin America (LA) 1433 (17%), and Asia-Pacific (AP) 1487 (18%). Notable differences included: WE patients (mean age 68 years) and NA (65 years) were older than AP (58 years) and LA (63 years) and had more coronary disease; NA and CEER patients had the worst signs, symptoms, and functional status. North American patients were the most likely to have a defibrillating-device (54 vs. 2% AP) and least likely prescribed a mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist (36 vs. 65% LA). Other evidence-based therapies were used most frequently in NA and WE. Rates of the primary composite outcome of cardiovascular (CV) death or HF hospitalization (per 100 patient-years) varied among regions: NA 13.6 (95% CI 11.7-15.7) WE 9.6 (8.6-10.6), CEER 12.3 (11.4-13.2), LA 11.2 (10.0-12.5), and AP 12.5 (11.3-13.8). After adjustment for prognostic variables, relative to NA, the risk of CV death was higher in LA and AP and the risk of HF hospitalization lower in WE. The benefit of sacubitril/valsartan was consistent across regions. There were many regional differences in PARADIGM-HF, including in age, symptoms, comorbidity, background therapy, and event-rates, although these did not modify the benefit of sacubitril/valsartan. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION URL: Unique identifier: NCT01035255. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.

  18. Mid-Latitude Mobile Wideband HF- NVIS Channel Analysis: Part 1 (United States)


    communications (SATCOM) for beyond line-of- sight (LOS) links. However, standard HF systems operating over a 3-kHz bandwidth do not provide sufficient...wideband mid-latitude HF channel soundings and three-dimensional (3-D) ray-tracing simulations to develop a statistical model of a particular nearly...46 5 THE HF-NVIS CHANNEL SOUNDING SYSTEM ...................................................................... 47 5.1 TRANSMIT AND RECEIVE HF

  19. HF Radar observations of the Dardanelles outflow current in North Eastern Aegean using validated WERA HF radar data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available A two-site WERA HF radar station was installed in November 2009 at the eastern coast of Lemnos Island in North Aegean Sea, aiming to monitor the surface inflow of Black Sea waters exiting from the Dardanelles Strait, as well as to constitute a coastal management tool for incidents of oil-pollution or save-and-rescue operations. Strong interference by foreign transmissions is a source of noise deteriorating the quality of the backscattered signal, thus significantly reducing the HF radar’s effective data return rate. In order to ameliorate this problem, further quality-control and data gap interpolating procedures have been developed and applied, to be used in addition to the procedures incorporated and used by the manufacturer’s signal processing software. The second-level processing involves traditional despiking in the temporal domain, preceding Empirical Orthogonal Function analysis. The latter is used not only to filter high-frequency noise but also to fill data gaps in time and space. The data reconstruction procedure has been assessed via comparison of (a HF radial with CODE-type drifter radial velocities as well as (b HF-derived virtual drifter tracks with actual drifter tracks. The main circulation features and their variability, as revealed by the reconstructed fields, are presented.

  20. HF Radar observations of the Dardanelles outflow current in North Eastern Aegean using validated WERA HF radar data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available A two-site WERA HF radar station was installed in November 2009 at the eastern coast of Lemnos Island in North Aegean Sea, aiming to monitor the surface inflow of Black Sea waters exiting from the Dardanelles Strait, as well as to constitute a coastal management tool for incidents of oil-pollution or save-and-rescue operations. Strong interference by foreign transmissions is a source of noise deteriorating the quality of the backscattered signal, thus significantly reducing the HF radar’s effective data return rate. In order to ameliorate this problem, further quality-control and data gap interpolating procedures have been developed and applied, to be used in addition to the procedures incorporated and used by the manufacturer’s signal processing software. The second-level processing involves traditional despiking in the temporal domain, preceding Empirical Orthogonal Function analysis. The latter is used not only to filter high-frequency noise but also to fill data gaps in time and space. The data reconstruction procedure has been assessed via comparison of (a HF radial with CODE-type drifter radial velocities as well as (b HF-derived virtual drifter tracks with actual drifter tracks. The main circulation features and their variability, as revealed by the reconstructed fields, are presented.

  1. The stability of the bifluoride ion (HF - 2) in the gas phase (United States)

    Heni, Martin; Illenberger, Eugen


    The bifluoride ion (HF-2) has been generated by dissociative electron attachment to trans-1,2-difluorethylene and cis-1,2-difluoroethylene. Evaluation of the energetics for these reactions leads to ΔH0f (HF-2) ≤-6.9 eV and E. A. (HF2)≥4.8 eV.

  2. Photon strength function in the Hf-181 nucleus by method of two-step cascade

    CERN Document Server

    Le Hong Khiem


    The applicability of sum-coincidence measurements of two-step cascade gamma ray spectra determining Photon Strength Function (PSF) of Hf-181 induced from Hf-180 (n,2 gamma) Hf-181 reaction is presented. Up to 80% intensity of the primary gamma ray transitions in a wide energy range have been deduced and compared to model calculation.

  3. Suppression Factor of ~(182)W for ~(182)Hf AMS at CIAE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Suppression factor of 182W is an important index in the measurement of 182Hf with AMS method. This factor is defined as the value of 182W/180Hf in blank samples divised by the measured value of 182 W/180Hf with AMS method. In order to satisfy a

  4. 40 CFR 180.1273 - Beauveria bassiana HF23; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Beauveria bassiana HF23; exemption... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1273 Beauveria bassiana HF23; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Beauveria bassiana HF23 are exempt from the requirement of a tolerance on all...

  5. Two-dimensional semiconductor HfSe{sub 2} and MoSe{sub 2}/HfSe{sub 2} van der Waals heterostructures by molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aretouli, K. E.; Tsipas, P.; Tsoutsou, D.; Marquez-Velasco, J.; Xenogiannopoulou, E.; Giamini, S. A.; Vassalou, E.; Kelaidis, N.; Dimoulas, A., E-mail: [Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, National Center for Scientific Research “Demokritos,” 15310, Aghia Paraskevi, Athens (Greece)


    Using molecular beam epitaxy, atomically thin 2D semiconductor HfSe{sub 2} and MoSe{sub 2}/HfSe{sub 2} van der Waals heterostructures are grown on AlN(0001)/Si(111) substrates. Details of the electronic band structure of HfSe{sub 2} are imaged by in-situ angle resolved photoelectron spectroscopy indicating a high quality epitaxial layer. High-resolution surface tunneling microscopy supported by first principles calculations provides evidence of an ordered Se adlayer, which may be responsible for a reduction of the measured workfunction of HfSe{sub 2} compared to theoretical predictions. The latter reduction minimizes the workfunction difference between the HfSe{sub 2} and MoSe{sub 2} layers resulting in a small valence band offset of only 0.13 eV at the MoSe{sub 2}/HfSe{sub 2} heterointerface and a weak type II band alignment.

  6. Influence of transverse reinforcement on perforation resistance of reinforced concrete slabs under hard missile impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orbovic, Nebojsa, E-mail:; Sagals, Genadijs; Blahoianu, Andrei


    This paper describes the work conducted by the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) related to the influence of transverse reinforcement on perforation capacity of reinforced concrete (RC) slabs under “hard” missile impact (impact with negligible missile deformations). The paper presents the results of three tests on reinforced concrete slabs conducted at VTT Technical Research Centre (Finland), along with the numerical simulations as well as a discussion of the current code provisions related to impactive loading. Transverse reinforcement is widely used for improving the shear and punching strength of concrete structures. However, the effect of this reinforcement on the perforation resistance under localized missile impact is still unclear. The goal of this paper is to fill the gap in the current literature related to this topic. Based on similar tests designed by the authors with missile velocity below perforation velocity, it was expected that transverse reinforcement would improve the perforation resistance. Three slabs were tested under almost identical conditions with the only difference being the transverse reinforcement. One slab was designed without transverse reinforcement, the second one with the transverse reinforcement in form of conventional stirrups with hooks and the third one with the transverse reinforcement in form of T-headed bars. Although the transverse reinforcement reduced the overall damage of the slabs (the rear face scabbing), the conclusion from the tests is that the transverse reinforcement does not have important influence on perforation capacity of concrete slabs under rigid missile impact. The slab with T-headed bars presented a slight improvement compared to the baseline specimen without transverse reinforcement. The slab with conventional stirrups presented slightly lower perforation capacity (higher residual missile velocity) than the slab without transverse reinforcement. In conclusion, the performed tests show slightly

  7. Career Engagement: Bridging Career Counseling and Employee Engagement (United States)

    Neault, Roberta A.; Pickerell, Deirdre A.


    In this article, the authors present a model of career engagement that helps bridge the gap between career counselors' focus on supporting individuals to find meaningful work and employers' desire for an engaged, productive, and committed workforce. They briefly review highlights of the employee engagement literature, introduce the Career…

  8. The Engaged Campus: Toward a Comprehensive Approach to Public Engagement (United States)

    Furco, Andrew


    Although civic purposes are implicit in the mission statements of higher education institutions, American colleges and universities have not always embraced public engagement initiatives. This paper explores how the recent emergence of the engaged campus movement has helped move public engagement initiatives from the margins to the mainstream by…

  9. Institutional social engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prijić-Samaržija Snježana


    Full Text Available I am referring to social engagement as a value-based choice to actively intervene in social reality in order to modify existing collective identities and social practices with the goal of realizing the public good. The very term ‘engagement’, necessarily involves the starting awareness of a social deficit or flaw and presupposes a critical attitude towards social reality. In this article, I will attempt to provide arguments in favour of the thesis about the possibility (and, later, necessity of institutional engagement, critical action and even institutional protest, basing this view on the thesis that institutions are fundamentally collective or social agents whose actions must be guided by ethical and epistemic virtues.

  10. Transnationalism and Civic Engagement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farah, Abdulkadir Osman

    communities the concept of qabiil (kinship allegiance) as a central organizational factor dominates western scholarship. Instead this book favors taking both western and non-western approaches into consideration in order to achieve deeper and richer understanding of the transnational global Diaspora condition....... In order to surmount the dichotomy of essentialist versus no-essentialist frames, the epistemological approach instrumentalized in this work follows an emancipatory method critically engaging both approaches. Furthermore the book proposes a theoretical framework analytically connecting western and non...... or modern, i.e. symbolizing modernity, urbanization and individualism). Finally this book empirically examines how a host country’s mobilizing, political and structural opportunities or lack of them influence transnational Diasporas’ civic engagement that often include the application of combined formal...

  11. Cooperative Monitoring Center Occasional Paper/4: Missile Control in South Asia and the Role of Cooperative Monitoring Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamal, N.; Sawhney, P.


    The succession of nuclear tests by India and Pakistan in May 1998 has changed the nature of their missile rivalry, which is only one of numerous manifestations of their relationship as hardened adversaries, deeply sensitive to each other's existing and evolving defense capabilities. The political context surrounding this costly rivalry remains unmediated by arms control measures or by any nascent prospect of detente. As a parallel development, sensible voices in both countries will continue to talk of building mutual confidence through openness to avert accidents, misjudgments, and misinterpretations. To facilitate a future peace process, this paper offers possible suggestions for stabilization that could be applied to India's and Pakistan's missile situation. Appendices include descriptions of existing missile agreements that have contributed to better relations for other countries as well as a list of the cooperative monitoring technologies available to provide information useful in implementing subcontinent missile regimes.

  12. Integrated guidance and control design for missile with terminal impact angle constraint based on sliding mode control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng Wu; Ming Yang


    Aimed at the guidance requirements of some missiles which attack targets with terminal impact angle at the terminal point,a new integrated guidance and control design scheme based on variable structure control approach for missile with terminal impact angle constraint is proposed.First,a mathematical model of an integrated guidance and control model in pitch plane is established,and then nonlinear transformation is employed to transform the mathematical model into a standard form suitable for sliding mode control method design.A sufficient condition for the existence of linear sliding surface is given in terms of linear matrix inequalities(LMIs),based on which the corresponding reaching motion controller is also developed.To verify the effectiveness of the proposed integrated design scheme,the numerical simulation of missile is made.The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed guidance and control law can guide missile to hit the target with desired impact angle and desired flight attitude angle simultaneously.

  13. Frafald og engagement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Christian Helms; Pedersen, Lene Tanggaard; Nielsen, Klaus;

    Denne rapport beskriver de første resultater fra den kvalitative del af et forskningsprojekt om frafald og fastholdelse i dansk erhvervsuddannelse finansieret af Det Strategiske Forskningsråd i perioden 2009-2012. Resultaterne bygger på de første elevinterview gennemført i efteråret 2009 og fokus...... fokuserer eksplicit på elevernes oplevelse af eget engagement eller mangel på samme på erhvervsskolernes grundforløb....

  14. Ballistic Missile Defense: Actions Needed to Address Implementation Issues and Estimate Long-Term Costs for European Capabilities (United States)


    forces, and allies against inbound threat missiles. In December 2011, DOD deployed the initial phase of a revised approach for Europe, with...the United States, U.S. forces, and allies around the world against inbound threat missiles. In 2009, the President announced a revised approach for...allocating resources. In addition, we reviewed the Army’s regulation on Integrated Logistic Support, which includes guidance on business-case analysis

  15. A study of the motion and aerodynamic heating of ballistic missiles entering the earth's atmosphere at high supersonic speeds (United States)

    Allen, H Julian; Eggers, A J , Jr


    A simplified analysis of the velocity and deceleration history of ballistic missiles entering the earth's atmosphere at high supersonic speeds is presented. The results of this motion analysis are employed to indicate means available to the designer for minimizing aerodynamic heating. The heating problem considered involves not only the total heat transferred to a missile by convection, but also the maximum average and local time rates of convective heat transfer.

  16. Research of Short-range Missile Motion in Terms of Different Wind Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Klishin


    Full Text Available When modeling the aircraft motion it is advisable to choose a particular model of the Earth, depending both on the task and on the required accuracy of calculation. The article describes various models of the Earth, such as the flat Earth with a plane-parallel field of gravity, spherical and non-rotating Earth with a plane-parallel field of gravity, spherical and non-rotating Earth with a central gravitational field, spherical and non-rotating Earth, taking into account the polar flattening of the Earth, spherical Earth based compression and polar daily rotation. The article also considers the influence of these models on the motion of the selected aircraft.To date, there is technical equipment to provide highly accurate description of the Earthshape, gravitational field, etc. The improved accuracy of the Earth model description results in more correct description of the trajectory and motion parameters of a ballistic missile. However, for short ranges (10-20 km this accuracy is not essential, and, furthermore, it increases time of calculation. Therefore, there is a problem of choosing the optimal description of the Earth parameters.The motion in the model of the Earth, which takes into account a daily rotation of the planet and polar flattening, is discussed in more detail, and the geographical latitude impact on coordinates of the points of fall of a ballistic missile is analyzed on the basis of obtained graphs.The article individually considers a problem of the wind effect on the aircraft motion and defines dependences of the missile motion on the parameters of different wind loads, such as wind speed and height of its action.A mathematical model of the missile motion was built and numerically integrated, using the Runge-Kutta 4th order method, for implementation and subsequent analysis.Based on the analysis of the calculation results in the abovementioned models of the Earth, differences in impact of these models on the parameters of the

  17. Charge storage characteristics and tunneling mechanism of amorphous Ge-doped HfOx films (United States)

    Qiu, X. Y.; Zhang, S. Y.; Zhang, T.; Wang, R. X.; Li, L. T.; Zhang, Y.; Dai, J. Y.


    Amorphous Ge-doped HfOx films have been deposited on p-Si(100) substrates by means of RF magnetron sputtering. Microstructural investigations reveal the partial oxidation of doped Ge atoms in the amorphous HfOx matrix and the existence of HfSiOx interfacial layer. Capacitance-voltage hysteresis of the Ag-/Ge-doped HfOx/Si/Ag memory capacitor exhibits a memory window of 3.15 V which can maintain for >5 × 104 cycles. Current-voltage characteristics reveal that Poole-Frenkel tunneling is responsible for electron transport in the Ge-doped HfOx film.

  18. Clinical trials update from the Heart Failure Society of America Meeting 2009: FAST, IMPROVE-HF, COACH galectin-3 substudy, HF-ACTION nuclear substudy, DAD-HF, and MARVEL-1. (United States)

    Lainscak, Mitja; Coletta, Alison P; Sherwi, Nasser; Cleland, John G F


    This article presents findings and a commentary on late-breaking trials presented during the meeting of the Heart Failure Society of America in September 2009. Unpublished reports should be considered as preliminary, since analyses may change in the final publication. The FAST trial showed somewhat better performance of intrathoracic impedance for prediction of deterioration in patients with heart failure (HF) when compared with daily weighing. The IMPROVE-HF study reported the benefits of education on the management of patients with systolic HF. Galectin-3 appeared a useful method for improving risk stratification of patients with chronic HF in a substudy of the COACH trial. A nuclear substudy of the HF-ACTION trial failed to demonstrate that resting myocardial perfusion imaging, a measure of myocardial scar and viability, was clinically useful. A small randomized controlled trial (DAD-HF) suggested that the use of low-dose dopamine in patients with acutely decompensated HF was associated with less deterioration in renal function and less hypokalaemia. The MARVEL-1 trial raises further concerns about the safety of myoblast transplantation in ischaemic HF.

  19. Work engagement: drivers and effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakhuys Roozeboom, M.; Schelvis, R.


    The concept of work engagement fits into the tradition of positive psychology, a recent paradigm shift in psychology which focuses on mental health rather than mental illness. This article gives an introduction to the concept of work engagement. Different definitions and viewpoints of the work engag

  20. Research staff and public engagement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Sarah Rachael


    Public engagement plays an important role in the contemporary UK academy, and is promoted through initiatives such as Beacons of Public Engagement and research grant 'Pathways to Impact'. Relatively little is known, however, about academic experiences of such engagement activities. This study...

  1. Engaging Stakeholders in Curriculum Development (United States)

    Wood, Jo Nell


    This article investigates the importance of parent and community engagement in curriculum development, along with curriculum leadership, engaging stakeholders, and the importance of curriculum. Parent and community member engagement is examined in light of curriculum committee participation as reported by Missouri superintendents. Survey responses…

  2. Engaging Stakeholders in Curriculum Development (United States)

    Wood, Jo Nell


    This article investigates the importance of parent and community engagement in curriculum development, along with curriculum leadership, engaging stakeholders, and the importance of curriculum. Parent and community member engagement is examined in light of curriculum committee participation as reported by Missouri superintendents. Survey responses…

  3. Comparison of head-steered and aircraft-fixed infrared imagery for employing the AGM-65 Maverick missile (United States)

    Osgood, Robert K.; Wells, Maxwell J.; Meador, Douglas P.


    Eight veteran USAF fighter pilots, experienced with AGM-65 Maverick air-to-ground missiles, flew a night, low-level ground attack mission in a flight simulator equipped with a helmet-mounted display (HMD). The mission was performed by delivering five Maverick missiles against ground vehicles using either an aircraft-fixed forward-looking infrared (FLIR) sensor image on a head-up display (HUD) or a head-steered FLIR as the missile aiming device. Additionally, the pilots employed their weapons by two methods: fixing and launching missiles singly or in varying numbers (multiple method). The purpose of the experiment was to determine what, if any, advantage there is to employing the AGM-65 using the HMD FLIR image to slew the missile seeker onto the target versus the conventional method of using the FLIR image displayed on the HUD. With a head-steered sensor (and fixing and launching weapons singly) subjects released their weapons quicker (14.6 second interval between launches vs. 17.1 sec.), at a higher altitude (1739 feet vs. 1603 ft.), and slightly farther from the target (3.42 nautical miles vs. 3.37 nm). Furthermore, data indicated the pilots looked farther off-boresight when searching for and locking the weapon onto a target, thereby more effectively using the full field-of-regard of the missile seeker. The participants also contributed their opinions of the advantages and disadvantages of the two mechanizations.

  4. The anisotropy of Hf diffusion in {alpha}-Zr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hood, G.M. [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, ON (Canada). Chalk River Nuclear Labs.]|[Metals Technology Laboratory, CANMET, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Zou, H. [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, ON (Canada). Chalk River Nuclear Labs.]|[Metals Technology Laboratory, CANMET, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Roy, J.A. [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, ON (Canada). Chalk River Nuclear Labs.]|[Metals Technology Laboratory, CANMET, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Schultz, R.J. [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, ON (Canada). Chalk River Nuclear Labs.]|[Metals Technology Laboratory, CANMET, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Matsuura, N. [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, ON (Canada). Chalk River Nuclear Labs.]|[Metals Technology Laboratory, CANMET, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Jackman, J.A. [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, ON (Canada). Chalk River Nuclear Labs.]|[Metals Technology Laboratory, CANMET, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)


    Hf diffusion coefficients (D) have been measured ({proportional_to}870-1100 K) in directions parallel (D{sub pa}) and perpendicular (D{sub pe}) to the c-axis of double-faced, single-crystal specimens of both high purity (HP) and nominally pure (NP) {alpha}-Zr. The diffusion profiles were measured by secondary ion mass spectrometry. Hf diffusion in HP {alpha}-Zr is characterised by an activation energy of about 3.0 eV and a pre-exponential factor of about 10{sup -5} m{sup 2}/s. The anisotropy ratio, D{sub pa}/D{sub pe}, is {proportional_to}<1.0 for the HP specimens and mostly >1.0 for the NP specimens. A dependence of D on diffusion time/depth is indicated for some experiments on NP Zr. (orig.).

  5. Photodetachment of HF-in an Electric Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG De-Hua


    @@ Photdetachment of a negative HF-ion in an electric field is studied by using the two-centre model and the closed orbit theory.An analytic formula is presented for the electron flux of HF- in the presence of an electric field.The results show that the oscillation in the electron flux distribution is caused by the rescattering effect of the molecular ion core and the interference betweed the two nuclei.In addition,the interference between the orbits passing through the given spatial point also plays an important role in the electron flux distribution.This study provides a new understanding of the photodetachment of polar molecules in the presence of external field.

  6. Generation of ionospheric ducts by the HAARP HF heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, J A; Pradipta, R; Burton, L M; Labno, A; Lee, M C [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Watkins, B J; Fallen, C [University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK 99775 (United States); Kuo, S P [New York University, Brooklyn, NY 11201 (United States); Burke, W J [Air Force Research Laboratory, Hanscom AFB, MA 01731 (United States); Mabius, D; See, B Z, E-mail: [Boston University, Boston, MA 02215 (United States)


    We report an investigation of ionospheric ducts having the shape of large plasma sheets, generated by vertically transmitted HAARP HF heater waves in several experiments conducted in Gakona, Alaska. Theory predicts that O-mode heater wave-created ionospheric ducts form parallel-plate waveguides within the meridional plane, and those generated by the X-mode heater waves are orthogonal to the meridional plane. Our theoretical prediction is supported by measurements of ionosonde data (namely ionograms), range-time-intensity (RTI) plots of UHF and HF backscatter radars, as well as magnetometer data analyses. When these plasma sheets experienced ExB drifts, they were intercepted by the HAARP UHF radar and seen as slanted stripes in the RTI plots. This striking feature was also observed in our earlier experiments using the Arecibo UHF radar.

  7. Use of GPS network data for HF Doppler measurements interpretation

    CERN Document Server

    Petrova, Inna R; Latypov, Ruslan R


    The method of measurement of Doppler frequency shift of ionospheric signal - HF Doppler technique - is one of well-known and widely used methods of ionosphere research. It allows to research various disturbances in the ionosphere. There are some sources of disturbances in the ionosphere. These are geomagnetic storms, solar flashes, metrological effects, atmospheric waves. This method allows to find out the influence of earthquakes, explosions and other processes on the ionosphere, which occur near to the Earth. HF Doppler technique has the high sensitivity to small frequency variations and the high time resolution, but interpretation of results is difficult. In this work we make an attempt to use GPS data for Doppler measurements interpretation. Modeling of Doppler frequency shift variations with use of TEC allows to separate ionosphere disturbances of medium scale.

  8. Imaging HF-induced large-scale irregularities above HAARP (United States)

    Djuth, Frank T.; Reinisch, Bodo W.; Kitrosser, David F.; Elder, John H.; Snyder, A. Lee; Sales, Gary S.


    The University of Massachusetts-Lowell digisonde is used with the HAARP high-frequency (HF), ionospheric modification facility to obtain radio images of artificially-produced, large-scale, geomagnetic field-aligned irregularities. F region irregularities generated with the HAARP beam pointed in the vertical and geomagnetic field-aligned directions are examined in a smooth background plasma. It is found that limited large-scale irregularity production takes place with vertical transmissions, whereas there is a dramatic increase in the number of source irregularities with the beam pointed parallel to the geomagnetic field. Strong irregularity production appears to be confined to within ~5° of the geomagnetic zenith and does not fill the volume occupied by the HF beam. A similar effect is observed in optical images of artificial airglow.

  9. Performance Analysis of HF Band FB-MC-SS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussein Moradi; Stephen Andrew Laraway; Behrouz Farhang-Boroujeny


    Abstract—In a recent paper [1] the filter bank multicarrier spread spectrum (FB-MC-SS) waveform was proposed for wideband spread spectrum HF communications. A significant benefit of this waveform is robustness against narrow and partial band interference. Simulation results in [1] demonstrated good performance in a wideband HF channel over a wide range of conditions. In this paper we present a theoretical analysis of the bit error probably for this system. Our analysis tailors the results from [2] where BER performance was analyzed for maximum ration combining systems that accounted for correlation between subcarriers and channel estimation error. Equations are give for BER that closely match the simulated performance in most situations.

  10. Investigation of new type Cu-Hf-Al bulk glassy alloys (United States)

    Nagy, E.; Rontó, V.; Sólyom, J.; Roósz, A.


    In the last years new type Cu-Hf-Al ternary alloys were developed with high glass forming ability and ductility. The addition of Al to Cu-Hf alloys results in improvements in glass formation, thermal stability and mechanical properties of these alloys. We have investigated new Cu-based bulk amorphous alloys in Cu-Hf-Al ternary system. The alloys with Cu49Hf42Al9, Cu46Hf45Al9, Cu50Hf42.5Al7.5 and Cu50Hf45Al5 compositions were prepared by arc melting. The samples were made by centrifugal casting and were investigated by X-ray diffraction method. Thermodynamic properties were examined by differential scanning calorimetry and the structure of the crystallising phases by scanning electron microscopy. The determination of liquidus temperatures of alloys were measured by differential thermal analysis.

  11. First-principles studies of HF molecule adsorption on intrinsic graphene and Al-doped graphene (United States)

    Sun, Yuanyuan; Chen, Li; Zhang, Feiwu; Li, Daoyong; Pan, Hongzhe; Ye, Jun


    In the search for a high-sensitivity sensor for HF gas, the adsorption of HF molecules on both intrinsic and Al-doped graphene sheets is studied by first-principles calculations. We find that the adsorption mechanisms of HF molecules are different for intrinsic graphene and Al-doped graphene. Al-doped graphene has higher adsorption energy and shorter connecting distance to the HF molecule than intrinsic graphene. The calculated net electron transfers, electronic density difference images and densities of states give evidence that the adsorption of HF molecules on Al-doped graphene is by chemisorption, while there is weak physisorption on intrinsic graphene. Therefore, Al-doped graphene can be expected to have applications as a novel sensor for the detection of HF gas. The HF molecules adsorbed on Al-doped graphene material can be reactivated by applying an external electric field of 0.013 a.u.

  12. Ferroelectric HfO2 for Emerging Ferroelectric Semiconductor Devices (United States)

    Florent, Karine

    The spontaneous polarization in ferroelectrics (FE) makes them particularly attractive for non-volatile memory and logic applications. Non-volatile FRAM memories using perovskite structure materials, such as Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) and Strontium Bismuth Tantalate (SBT) have been studied for many years. However, because of their scaling limit and incompatibility with CMOS beyond 130 nm node, floating gate Flash memory technology has been preferred for manufacturing. The recent discovery of ferroelectricity in doped HfO2 in 2011 has opened the door for new ferroelectric based devices compatible with CMOS technology, such as Ferroelectric Field Effect Transistor (FeFET) and Ferroelectric Tunnel Junctions (FTJ). This work began with developing ferroelectric hysteresis characterization capabilities at RIT. Initially reactively sputtered aluminum doped HfO 2 films were investigated. It was observed that the composition control using co-sputtering was not achievable within the existing capabilities. During the course of this study, collaboration was established with the NaMLab group in Germany to investigate Si doped HfO2 deposited by Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD). Metal Ferroelectric Metal (MFM) devices were fabricated using TiN as the top and bottom electrode with Si:HfO2 thickness ranging from 6.4 nm to 22.9 nm. The devices were electrically tested for P-E, C-V and I-V characteristics. Structural characterizations included TEM, EELS, XRR, XRD and XPS/Auger spectroscopy. Higher remanant polarization (Pr) was observed for films of 9.3 nm and 13.1 nm thickness. Thicker film (22.9 nm) showed smaller Pr. Devices with 6.4 nm thick films exhibit tunneling behavior showing a memristor like I-V characteristics. The tunnel current and ferroelectricity showed decrease with cycling indicating a possible change in either the structure or the domain configurations. Theoretical simulations using the improved FE model were carried out to model the ferroelectric behavior of

  13. Centrifugal stretching of 170Hf in the interacting boson model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner V.


    Full Text Available We present the results of a recent experiment to deduce lifetimes of members of the ground state rotational band of 170Hf, which show the effect of centrifugal stretching in this deformed isotope. Results are compared to the geometrical confined beta-soft(CBS rotor model, as well as to the interacting boson model (IBM. Two methods to correct for effects due to the finite valence space within the IBM are proposed.

  14. Electrochemical characterization of cast Ti-Hf binary alloys. (United States)

    Cai, Z; Koike, M; Sato, H; Brezner, M; Guo, Q; Komatsu, M; Okuno, O; Okabe, T


    This study characterized the electrochemical behavior of Ti-Hf binary alloys in a simulated oral environment. Ti-Hf alloys (10, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40 mass% Hf) were prepared by arc-melting titanium sponge and hafnium sponge. Specimens of each alloy (n = 4) were prepared using a dental titanium casting system with a MgO-based investment. Specimens were inspected with X-ray radiography to ensure minimal internal porosity. Castings (n = 4) made from pure titanium and commercially pure titanium were used as controls. The ground flat surface (10 mm x 10 mm) on each specimen where approximately 30 microm was removed was used for the characterization. Sixteen-hour open-circuit potential (OCP) measurement, linear polarization and potentiodynamic cathodic polarization were performed sequentially in aerated (air + 10% CO2) MTZ synthetic saliva at 37 degrees C. Potentiodynamic anodic polarization was conducted in the same medium but deaerated (N2 + 10% CO2) 2 h before and during testing. Polarization resistance (R(P)) and Tafel slopes were determined, as were corrosion current density (I(CORR)) and passive current density (I(PASS)). Results were subjected to nonparametric statistical analysis (alpha = 0.05). The OCP stabilized (mean values -229 mV to -470 mV vs. SCE) for all specimens after the 16-h immersion. Similar passivation was observed for all the metals on their anodic polarization diagrams. The Kruskal-Wallis test showed significant differences in OCP among the test groups (p = 0.006). No significant differences were found in R(P), I(CORR) or I(PASS) among all the metals (p>0.3). Results indicate that the electrochemical behavior of the Ti-Hf alloys examined resembles that of pure titanium.

  15. Self-healing structural properties of thermoplastics in HF field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Filippenko


    Full Text Available The article concerns one of the possible ways for safe operation of polymer products with initiating a process of their self-healing. This is especially true for products from polymer materials, used in hard-to-reach areas and units of machines and mechanisms. In this regard, the aim of this study was to develop techniques for a self-healing process of the mechanical properties of products from polymer materials.To achieve this goal, the author has solved problems to define a complex method of HF self-healing of polymer material: damage detection in products from polymer materials, determination of signal initiating the recovery process, determining the efficiency of material regeneration. The present study uses proposed and developed by the author methods for the determination of necessary and sufficient indicators of the strength characteristics of products under realmeteorological and climatic conditions of their operation.To determine the practical results of the developed algorithm for self-healing the polymer products in the HF field, a series of experimental studies has been conducted to regenerate the polyamide cage fatigue destruction of the rolling stock axle equipment of Russian Railways JSC.The obtained results of the strength characteristics of the material under investigation prove the self-healing process of polymer materials in HF field.According to research results, the conclusion is drawn that it is required to provide a technological HF self-healing process of products from polymer materials. The created algorithm of regeneration enables a new approach to study the effects of electromagnetic fields on polymer and polymer-based composite materials when solving the practical tasks to improve the quality of repairing parts from thermoplastics.

  16. Hf--Co--B alloys as permanent magnet materials (United States)

    McGuire, Michael Alan; Rios, Orlando; Ghimire, Nirmal Jeevi


    An alloy composition is composed essentially of Hf.sub.2-XZr.sub.XCo.sub.11B.sub.Y, wherein 0B.sub.Y, wherein 0.ltoreq.X<2 and 0

  17. Ionizing wave via high-power HF acceleration

    CERN Document Server

    Mishin, Evgeny


    Recent ionospheric modification experiments with the 3.6 MW transmitter at the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) facility in Alaska led to discovery of artificial ionization descending from the nominal interaction altitude in the background F-region ionosphere by ~60 km. This paper presents a physical model of an ionizing wavefront created by suprathermal electrons accelerated by the HF-excited plasma turbulence.

  18. Study on Preparation of 182Hf AMS Standards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YINXin-yi; JIANGShan; HEMing; ZHANGChun-hua; ZHANGSheng-dong


    The neutron-rich isotope 182Hf with its half-life of (9±2)×106 a produced by neutron activation can be used to determine the neutron flux of some places, in order to study the transport of radioactive nuclides and the safe disposal of nuclear waste. AMS is a kind of relative measurement method with high sensitivity (10-15), it requires corresponding standard samples.

  19. Ionizing wave via high-power HF acceleration


    Mishin, Evgeny; Pedersen, Todd


    Recent ionospheric modification experiments with the 3.6 MW transmitter at the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) facility in Alaska led to discovery of artificial ionization descending from the nominal interaction altitude in the background F-region ionosphere by ~60 km. This paper presents a physical model of an ionizing wavefront created by suprathermal electrons accelerated by the HF-excited plasma turbulence.

  20. On the Onset of HF-Induced Airglow at HAARP (United States)


    AFRL-VS-HA-TR-2005-1061 JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. 109, A02305, doi:10.1029/2003JA010205, 2004 On the onset of HF-induced airglow at HAARP ...line) during the February 2002 campaign at the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program ( HAARP ) heating facility are analyzed. We find that... HAARP , J. Geophys. Res., 109, A02305, doi: 10.1029/2003JA010205. 1. Introduction known as the parametric decay (PDI) or oscillating two- [2] A

  1. HF Over-the-Horizon Radar System Performance Analysis (United States)


    target detection technique and radar equations are applied. Chapter V uses PROPLAB model simulation to bring in the principle of raytracing and... RADAR SYSTEM PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS by Bin-Yi Liu September 2007 Thesis Co-Advisors: Phillip E. Pace Jeffrey B. Knorr THIS PAGE...Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE HF Over-the-Horizon Radar System Performance Analysis 6. AUTHOR(S) Bin-Yi Liu 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 7. PERFORMING

  2. Wideband high frequency (HF) skywave channel parameters from narrowband measurements (United States)

    Hausman, Cynthia L.; Uffelman, Donald R.; Walton, Thomas L.

    The HF wideband channel allow the use of spread-spectrum techniques to provide covert communications with low probability of intercept (LPI) and antijam protection. The objective of this work is to determine the extent to which oblique narrowband channel measurements can be used to infer effects in the wideband skywave channel. If oblique narrowband channel measurements can be used as a basis for developing wideband channel models, a large number of existing narrowband measurements can be made available for this task.

  3. Detection of HCl and HF by TTFMS and WMS. (United States)

    De Luca, Anna Chiara; Pesce, Giuseppe; Rusciano, Giulia; Sasso, Antonio


    In this work we discuss on a compact spectrometer based on DFB diode lasers for detection of chloridric and fluoridric acids. HCl and HF concentrations are determined through optical absorption of the P(4) line (lambda=1.7 microm) and the R(3) line (lambda=1.3 microm), respectively. Both lines belong to first overtone vibrational bands and their line strengths are 7.8 x 10(-21)cm/molecule for HCl and 2.8 x 10(-20)cm/molecule for HF. We chose these lines for their relative high intensities and because they are quite far from water vapour lines which represent the main interfering gas for trace-gases analysis. To detect these species we used two different high frequency modulation techniques: two-tone frequency modulation spectroscopy (f(1)=800 MHz and f(2)=804 MHz) was used for HCl while for HF we followed a simpler approach based on wavelength modulation spectroscopy (f=600 kHz). We demonstrate that the two techniques provide comparable detection limit of about 80 ppbV at atmospheric pressure. Positive testing of our spectrometer makes it suitable for in situ measurements of exhaust gases coming from waste incinerators.

  4. Multiple excitation modes in 163Hf

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yadav, Rachita; Ma, J.C.; Marsh, J.C.


    Excited states of Hf163 were populated using the Zr94(Ge74,5n) reaction and the decay γ rays were measured with the Gammasphere spectrometer. Two previously known bands were extended to higher spins, and nine new bands were identified. In addition to bands associated with three- and five-quasipar......Excited states of Hf163 were populated using the Zr94(Ge74,5n) reaction and the decay γ rays were measured with the Gammasphere spectrometer. Two previously known bands were extended to higher spins, and nine new bands were identified. In addition to bands associated with three- and five......-quasiparticle configurations, two γ−vibrational bands coupled to the i13/2 excitation were also observed. The lowest level of a newly identified, negative-parity band is proposed to be the ground state of the nucleus. A systematic delay of the high-spin proton crossing frequency with increasing quadrupole deformation from Hf...

  5. Electronic structures and properties of Ti, Zr and Hf metals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The electronic structures of pure Ti, Zr and Hf metals with hcp structure were determined by one-atom (OA) theory. According to the electronic structures of these metals,their potential curves, cohesive energies, lattice constants, elasticities and the temperature dependence of linear thermal expansion coefficients were calculated. The electronic structures and characteristic properties of these metals with bcc and fcc structures and liquids were also studied. The results show that the electronic structures of Ti, Zr and Hf metals are respectively [Ar](3dn)0.481 0(3dc)2.085 7(4sc)1.000 0(4sf)0.433 3, [Kr](4dn)0.396 8(4dc)2.142 8(5sc)1.262 0(5sf)0.198 4, [Xe](5dn)0.368 0(5dc)2.041 4(6sc)1.406 6(6sf)0.184 0. It is explained why the pure Ti, Zr and Hf metals with hcp and bcc structures can exist naturally, while those with fcc structure can not.

  6. Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd garnet geochronology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smit, Matthijs Arjen; Scherer, Erik E.; Mezger, Klaus


    are similar among grains having radii larger than 1.3 mm (weighted mean: 2714±6 Ma2714±6 Ma; 2 s.d.) and up to 20 Myr younger for finer fractions. In contrast, Sm–Nd dates are equal to or younger than the 2641–2637 Ma age of peak metamorphism. The roles of concurrently digested inclusions and core–rim Lu......To investigate the systematics of the 176Lu–176Hf and 147Sm–143Nd garnet chronometers, we performed REE and isotope analyses on garnet crystals of different size (0.55–3.1 mm radius) from a single granulite specimen (Archean Pikwitonei Granulite Domain, Manitoba, Canada). The Lu–Hf dates....../Sm fractionation are quantitatively evaluated and excluded as causes for the observed age heterogeneity. Instead, the isotope dates are interpreted to reflect partial loss of radiogenic 176Hf and 143Nd, and are used to constrain the systematics of the garnet chronometers at high temperature. The data constrain...

  7. TID measurement using oblique transmissions of HF pulses (United States)

    Galkin, Ivan; Reinisch, Bodo; Huang, Xueqin; Paznukhov, Vadym; Hamel, Ryan; Kozlov, Alexander; Belehaki, Anna


    The Traveling Ionospheric Disturbance (TID), a wave-like signature of moving plasma density modulation in the ionosphere, is widely acknowledged for its utility in backtracking the anomalous events responsible for the TID generation, and as a major inconvenience to high-frequency (HF) operational systems because of its deleterious impact on the accuracy of navigation and geolocation. The pilot project "Net-TIDE" for the real-time detection and evaluation of TIDs began its operation in 2016 based on the remote-sensing data from synchronized, network-coordinated HF sounding between pairs of DPS4D ionosondes at five participating observatories in Europe. Measurement of all signal properties (Doppler frequency, angle of arrival, and time-of-flight from transmitter to receiver) proved to be instrumental in detecting the TID and deducing the TID parameters: amplitude, wavelength, phase velocity, and direction of propagation. Processing of the measured HF signal data required a specialized signal processing technique that is capable of consistently extracting different signals that have propagated along different ionospheric paths. The multi-path signal environment proved to be the greatest challenge for the reliable TID specification by Net-TIDE, demanding the development of an intelligent system for "signal tracking". The intelligent system is based on a neural network model of a pre-attentive vision capable of extracting continuous signal tracks from the multi-path signal ensemble. Specific examples of the Net-TIDE algorithm suite operation and its suitability for a fully automated TID warning service are discussed.

  8. The Present Status and Cooperative Prospect of Multi-Missile Guidance Law%多导弹协同制导规律研究现状及展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖增博; 雷虎氏; 滕江川; 王好新


    With the transformation of missile engagement manners, the multi-missile cooperative guidance law has drawn extensive attention recently. The research developments of cooperative guidance laws are introduced firstly, and the design difficulties for these guidance laws are pointed out. Then the research areas are proposed to address the development tendency. The guidance law with impact time and impact angle constraints is emphatically discussed. The work of this paper is expected to provide some references for the improvement and design of cooperative guidance law in the future.%随着导弹作战样式的变革,多导弹协同制导规律受到越来越广泛的关注。本文系统地论述了多导弹协同制导规律的研究进展,指出了协同制导规律设计的难点问题,并对未来协同制导规律的研究方向进行了展望。其中着重论述了基于攻击时间和攻击角度控制的协同制导规律。可供从事导弹制导的科研人员对现有协同制导规律有一个全面的认识,以便于更深入地研究。

  9. An object-oriented simulation architecture for utilizing hardware-in-the-loop simulation within a many-on-many engagement scenario (United States)

    Brindley, Ryan; Mobley, Scott; Gareri, Jeffrey


    In the area of Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD), target engagements can traverse numerous intercept envelopes with each incorporating interceptor systems that utilize different hardware, software, and algorithmic implementations. In the area of BMD Hardware-in-the-Loop (HWIL) simulation, historical implementations have focused on the development of simulators which recreate a single "one-on-one" missile engagement, tied to a specific BMD operational envelope, with other, "many-on-many" digital simulation assets developed independently to explore various battle management and engagement coordination concepts. In developing the student-utilized Auburn University BMD HWIL simulation, a key requirement is to construct a single six-degree-of-freedom (6-DOF) simulation software application which allows student investigation, development, and modeling of guidance, control, and mission planning concepts over the entire progression of BMD intercept envelopes. In addition, the application must also support real-time data path and control provisions required by the HWIL simulation. This paper first provides an approach for implementing a "many-on-many" BMD simulation, allowing concurrent, independent simulation of boost, midcourse, and terminal phase engagements which comprise an aggregate threat scenario. This approach incorporates an object oriented design philosophy, as well as specific features of the C++ programming language. Secondly the software architecture is expanded to achieve the time-critical performance necessary to operate the real-time HWIL simulator, as well to allow external communications with distributed HWIL simulation components.

  10. High-spin positive-parity states in 179Hf studied by the 180Hf(τ, α) 179Hf reaction AT 32 MeV (United States)

    Thorsteinsen, T. F.; Løvhøiden, G.; Vaagen, J. S.; Bjørnberg, A.; Burke, D. G.


    Full angular distributions are presented for states populated in the reaction 180Hf(τ, α) 179Hf at 32 MeV beam energy. Positive-parity states associated with the i {13}/{2} unique parity intruder orbital are given special attention. Thus, angular distributions for the five first members of the [624 {9}/{2}] groundstate sequence are given, as well as for a number of more highly excited states, some being new assignments. The distribution of l = 6 transfer strength is quite characteristic, two {13}/{2}+ states being substantially more populated than the rest. The characteristic features of the data are explained by a quasiparticle-rotor calculation employing deformed Woods-Saxon orbitals, but only if the hexadecapole shape parameter of the nuclear potential is β 4 ˜ -0.08. The often anomalous differential cross sections for I π ≠ {13}/{2}+ band members are well accounted for by a rotor model CCBA calculation employing transfer form factors extracted from the orbitals of the deformed Woods-Saxon field, and including non-adiabatic Coriolis mixing effects.

  11. Hf isotopic compositions of the standard zircons for U-Pb dating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Ping; WU Fuyuan; XIE Liewen; YANG Yueheng


    Using the newly published Yb isotopic abundances and the mass bias relationship between Yb and Hf, we carried out an analysis of Hf isotopes in the standard zircon 91500 by means of 193 nm laser attached to Neptune multi-collector ICP-MS (LA-MC-ICPMS). The obtained Hf isotopic data, in either in situ or line scan modes, are not only identical for different spot sizes, but also are consistent with previously published results obtained on TIMS or other MC-ICPMS machines within errors. This indicates that it is possible to obtain reliable 176Hf/177Hf isotopic ratios for zircon in either in situ or line scan conditions on LA-MC-ICPMS machine, and the applied procedures in our study for elemental interfering correction are appropriate for the purpose of acquiring satisfactory accuracy for Hf isotope analyses. The Hf isotopic compositions of four zircon standards in high spatial resolution U-Pb dating, 91500, CZ3,CN92-1 and TEMORA, are measured, respectively. The obtained 176Hf/177Hf ratios are 0.282316+4 (n = 34, 2σ) for 91500, 0.281704±6 (n = 16, 2σ) for CZ3, 0.282200±6 (n = 20,2σ-) for CN92-1 and 0.282684±14 (n = 24, 2σ) for TEMORA,respectively, with 176Lu/177Hf ratios of ~0.00031, 0.000036,0.00083 and 0.00127. Zircons 91500 and CZ3 show narrower variations in 176Hf/177Hf and 176Lu/177Hf ratios than those of zircons CN92-1 and TEMORA, and thus are appropriate standards for the Hf isotope analysis.

  12. Students individual engagement in GIS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Lene Møller; Christiansen, Frederik V; Rump, Camilla Østerberg


    This paper develops two sets of concepts to theorize why students engage differently in Geographical Information Systems (GIS). These theoretical concepts are used as an analytical lens to explore empirical data on the experiences and engagement of students enrolled in an undergraduate GIS course...... in planning and management. The analysis shows that both the theoretical perspectives and the custom and didactical contract are important to understand students' engagement in GIS. However, it is the personal desiderata that are the key to understanding the students' different engagement. Further, a temporal...... dimension and contextual awareness are important in understanding students' engagement in a broader perspective....

  13. Research on the Robustness of an Adaptive PID Control of a Kind of Supersonic Missile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gangling Jiao


    Full Text Available In this study, the dynamic characteristic of missile system is viewed as a two-loop system, such as inner loop and outer loop and we design an adaptive PID control strategy for the pitch channel linear model of supersonic missile. The robustness of a double PID controller is analyzed by changing the aerodynamic coefficients. The control law is testified to be stable even the aerodynamic coefficients are changed between 0.7 and 1.7 times of its standard value and the control effect is compared with the sliding mode control strategy. Also the advantage and defect of both control strategy are summarized at the end of this study.

  14. A Study on Missile Reentry Control Based on the Method of Feedback Linearization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yu-xi; ZHOU Jun; ZHOU Feng-qi


    In the process of missile large attack angle reentry, there exist nonlinear, strong coupling uncertainty and multiinput-multi-output (MIMO) in the movement equations, so the traditional small disturbance faces difficulties. For such situations, the method of feedback linearization is adopted to control the complex system, and the control method based on the fuzzy adaptive nonlinear dynamic inversion decoupling control of missile is proposed in the paper. According to the principle of time-scale separation, the system is separated into fast loop and slow loop, the method of dynamic inversion is applied to them, and the method of adaptive fuzzy approach is adopted to compensate for the uncertainty of the fast loop.The simulation results denote the control method in the paper has a better tracing characteristic and robustness.

  15. 3D-Route Planning Method to Realize Missile Cruise Flight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zheng-jie; FAN Chen; ZHU Qun-Min; TANG Wei


    In order to increase the aircraft's survival in the flight mission, it is necessary to carry out flight mission planning, which includes TF/TA\\+2(terrain following/terrain avoidance/threat avoidance).An approach to 3D-route planning based on A* heuristic search algorithm was selected to determine the routes of fiber optic guidance missile's cruise segment.The cost function was discussed, which was mainly related to the physical obstacle, threat exposure, and aircraft performance characteristics.The digital map techniques were presented, which included setting "no-go" area according to fiber's safety requirement.The optimal or the sub-optimal route was obtained, while the cost function constraints were satisfied and the stored terrain obtained from a real terrain was digitized.The algorithm is validated through simulation and can fulfill the route planning task which focuses on the cruise segment of fiber optic guidance missile.

  16. Terrain-aided navigation of an unpowered tactical missile using autopilot-grade sensors (United States)

    Longenbaker, W. E.


    The feasibility of applying a terrain-aided navigation concept (Sandia Inertial Terrain-Aided Navigation, or SITAN) to an unpowered tactical missile (USAF GBU-15) is considered. The brief flight time and predictable missile flight path dynamics lead to the definition of a velocity-based strap-down navigation algorithm that uses the existing autopilot-grade sensors. The navigation states are corrected by means of the error estimates of a Kalman filter. The filter makes use of frequent radar altimeter measurements and terrain slope information (derived from an on-board digitized map) to provide essentially continuous position updating. Covariance analysis and Monte Carlo simulation techniques are then applied to predict system performance. Results are obtained showing that the accuracy of this weapon/guidance combination is sufficient to defeat airfields with area munitions.

  17. Using Fractional-order Piλ Dμ Controller for Control of Aerodynamic Missile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Bang-chu; ZHU Ji-hong; PAN Shu-shan; WANG Shao-feng


    A new type of PID controller is introduced and some properties are given. The novelty of the proposed controller consists in the extension of derivation and integration order from integer to non-integer order. The PIλDμ controller generally has three advantages when compared to the integerl-order controller: the first is that it has more degrees of freedom in the model; the second is that it has a memory in model, the memory insure the history and its impact to present and future, the third is it ensures the stability of missile. This approach provides a more flexible tuning strategy and therefore an easier achieving of control requirements. Flight dynamic model of an aerodynamic missile is taken into account in implementing the PIλDμ controller. Simulation results show that the PIλDμ controller is not sensitive to the changes of control parameters and the system parameters. Also, the controller has more flexible structure and stronger robustness.

  18. Average-passage simulation of counter-rotating propfan propulsion systems as applied to cruise missiles (United States)

    Mulac, Richard A.; Schneider, Jon C.; Adamczyk, John J.


    Counter-rotating propfan (CRP) propulsion technologies are currently being evaluated as cruise missile propulsion systems. The aerodynamic integration concerns associated with this application are being addressed through the computational modeling of the missile body-propfan flowfield interactions. The work described in this paper consists of a detailed analysis of the aerodynamic interactions between the control surfaces and the propfan blades through the solution of the average-passage equation system. Two baseline configurations were studied, the control fins mounted forward of the counter-rotating propeller and the control fins mounted aft of the counter-rotating propeller. In both cases, control fin-propfan separation distance and control fin deflection angle were varied.

  19. A distributed cooperative guidance law for salvo attack of multiple anti-ship missiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Youan


    Full Text Available The consensus problem of impact time is addressed for multiple anti-ship missiles. A new distributed cooperative guidance law with the form of biased proportional navigation guidance (BPNG is presented. The proposed guidance law employs the available measurements of relative impact time error as the feedback information to achieve the consensus of impact time among missiles and, by exploiting the special structure of the biased cooperative control term, it can handle the seeker’s field-of-view (FOV constraint. The proposed scheme ensures convergence to consensus of impact time under either fixed or switching sensing/communication network, and the topological requirements are less restrictive than those in the existing results. Numerical examples are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed guidance law.

  20. A distributed cooperative guidance law for salvo attack of multiple anti-ship missiles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Youan; Wang Xingliang; Wu Huali


    The consensus problem of impact time is addressed for multiple anti-ship missiles. A new distributed cooperative guidance law with the form of biased proportional navigation guidance (BPNG) is presented. The proposed guidance law employs the available measurements of relative impact time error as the feedback information to achieve the consensus of impact time among mis-siles and, by exploiting the special structure of the biased cooperative control term, it can handle the seeker’s field-of-view (FOV) constraint. The proposed scheme ensures convergence to consensus of impact time under either fixed or switching sensing/communication network, and the topological requirements are less restrictive than those in the existing results. Numerical examples are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed guidance law.

  1. Results from Sandia National Laboratories/Lockheed Martin Electromagnetic Missile Launcher (EMML).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lockner, Thomas Ramsbeck; Skurdal, Ben (Lockheed Martin MS2, Baltimore, MD); Gaigler, Randy (Lockheed Martin MS2, Baltimore, MD); Basak, L (Lockheed Martin MS2, Baltimore, MD); Root, G (Lockheed Martin MS2, Baltimore, MD); Aubuchon, Matthew S.; Turman, Bobby N.; Floyd, Mendel D. (Lockheed Martin MS2, Baltimore, MD)


    Sandia national laboratories (SNL) and lockheed martin MS2 are designing an electromagnetic missile launcher (EMML) for naval applications. The EMML uses an induction coilgun topology with the requirement of launching a 3600 lb. missile up to a velocity of 40 m/s. To demonstrate the feasibility of the electromagnetic propulsion design, a demonstrator launcher was built that consists of approximately 10% of the propulsion coils needed for a tactical design. The demonstrator verified the design by launching a 1430 lb weighted sled to a height of 24 ft in mid-December 2004 (Figure 1). This paper provides the general launcher design, specific pulsed power system component details, system operation, and demonstration results.

  2. Backstepping design of missile guidance and control based on adaptive fuzzy sliding mode control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ran Maopeng; Wang Qing; Hou Delong; Dong Chaoyang


    This paper presents an integrated missile guidance and control law based on adaptive fuzzy sliding mode control. The integrated model is formulated as a block-strict-feedback nonlinear system, in which modeling errors, unmodeled nonlinearities, target maneuvers, etc. are viewed as unknown uncertainties. The adaptive nonlinear control law is designed based on backstepping and sliding mode control techniques. An adaptive fuzzy system is adopted to approximate the coupling nonlinear functions of the system, and for the uncertainties, we utilize an online-adaptive control law to estimate the unknown parameters. The stability analysis of the closed-loop system is also conducted. Simulation results show that, with the application of the adaptive fuzzy sliding mode control, small miss distances and smooth missile trajectories are achieved, and the system is robust against system uncertainties and external disturbances.

  3. Comparative Analysis of Guidance Algorithms for the Hyper Velocity Missile and AFTI/F-16 (United States)


    latest Kalman Filter modeling tools to the problem of guiding this missile to a target. Capps and Nelson assumed a smart missile, with "a proportional...N \\ r~,sin(S)I Nx /4 p1M. rt rioi r.Di PIc2 i_e IM rm rM BIm Figure 3-7 Pursuit Algorithm Geometry From Figure 3-7 it is seen that: r, sin (8) (1...algorithm does. 4-25 101 I-\\ - - 00 I-’ c 4 o. 0) 000 < L L Z 0) LL zo 0 C!) * . 0 .D 0 0 ~ cu r- mn T CItI I’ II II I I I CUj 0 0) CD r- CD I) W m N ~ 4-2E

  4. Modular Open System Architecture for Reducing Contamination Risk in the Space and Missile Defense Supply Chain (United States)

    Seasly, Elaine


    To combat contamination of physical assets and provide reliable data to decision makers in the space and missile defense community, a modular open system architecture for creation of contamination models and standards is proposed. Predictive tools for quantifying the effects of contamination can be calibrated from NASA data of long-term orbiting assets. This data can then be extrapolated to missile defense predictive models. By utilizing a modular open system architecture, sensitive data can be de-coupled and protected while benefitting from open source data of calibrated models. This system architecture will include modules that will allow the designer to trade the effects of baseline performance against the lifecycle degradation due to contamination while modeling the lifecycle costs of alternative designs. In this way, each member of the supply chain becomes an informed and active participant in managing contamination risk early in the system lifecycle.

  5. Design and Simulation of BTT Missile with High-Aspect-Ratio Wing Robust H∞ Autopilot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Sheng-wang; LIU Li; MA Chun-yan


    For the strong coupling among the channels of bank-to-turn (BTT) missile with high-aspect-ratio wing,an autopilot is designed with a two loop control structure robust autopilot design methods.By the inner loop design,the question of pole-zero cancellation is solved,and the stabilization of structured uncertainty is achieved.Through the outer loop of H∞ controller design,the flying performance and robustness can be guaranteed.The nonlinear simulation results show that the autopilot designed has perfect time domain response,and can suppress bad influence of the inertial and kinematics couplings.It can make the missile fly stably in the large flying areas.The control is very effective.

  6. Indirect robust control of agile missile via Theta-D technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Zhou


    Full Text Available An agile missile with tail fins and pulse thrusters has continuous and discontinuous control inputs. This brings certain difficulty to the autopilot design and stability analysis. Indirect robust control via Theta-D technique is employed to handle this problem. An acceleration tracking system is formulated based on the nonlinear dynamics of agile missile. Considering the dynamics of actuators, there is an error between actual input and computed input. A robust control problem is formed by treating the error as input uncertainty. The robust control is equivalent to a nonlinear quadratic optimal control of the nominal system with a modified performance index including uncertainty bound. Theta-D technique is applied to solve the nonlinear optimal control problem to obtain the final control law. Numerical results show the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed strategy.

  7. Relationship quality and student engagement (United States)

    Culver, Jennifer

    The purpose of this study was to examine the qualities of support, relatedness, and negative interaction within parent-child and teacher-student relationships and their association with cognitive, psychological, and behavioral engagement. Additionally, this study explored the contributions of cognitive and psychological engagement on behavioral engagement. The role of gender, grade, and ethnicity on relationship quality and engagement was also considered. Participants (n=311) were students in grades three through five from a suburban school district in southeastern Michigan. Perceptions of teacher-student relationship quality varied by grade level. In general, younger students reported greater teacher support and relatedness in comparison to older students. Conversely, older students perceived greater conflict within the teacher-student relationship. Student engagement also varied by grade level, with younger students reporting greater engagement than older students. Ethnicity also contributed to variance in student engagement, with African American students reporting significantly more engagement than Caucasian or Multiracial students. Teacher-student relationship quality was a significant predictor of student engagement, even after controlling for student characteristics and parent-child relationship variables. Results of path analysis revealed that cognitive and psychological engagement contributed significantly to behavioral engagement.

  8. Electrical characteristics of MOS capacitor with HfTiON gate dielectric and HfTiSiON interlayer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Wei-Bing; Xu Jing-Ping; Lai Pui-To; Li Yan-Ping; Xu Sheng-Guo; Chan Chu-Lok


    The paper reports that HfTiO dielectric is deposited by reactive co-sputtering of Hf and Ti targets in an Ar/O2 ambience, followed by an annealing in different gas ambiences of N2, NO and NHa at 600°C for 2 min. Capacitance-voltage and gate-leakage properties are characterized and compared. The results indicate that the NO-annealed sample exhibits the lowest interface-state and dielectric-charge densities and best device reliability. This is attributed to the fact that nitridation can create strong Si≡N bonds to passivate dangling Si bonds and replace strained Si- O bonds, thus the sample forms a hardened dielectric/Si interface with high reliability.

  9. Crisis Stability and Long-Range Strike: A Comparative Analysis of Fighters, Bombers, and Missiles (United States)


    affordable as we advance further into the 21st century. In fact , the risks in some confrontations may be comparable to what the United States expe- rienced...confrontation between nuclear- armed superpowers at the height of the Cold War. Given the immense stakes for both sides and the fact that it was resolved...and a secret promise to remove U.S. Jupiter missiles from Turkey. While this case is informative, and much has been made of it in previous crisis

  10. Prediction of Target Travel During Missile Time of Flight. A Computer Simulation (United States)


    the second program, the subject had to decide if a gap between two covered areas was wide enough for a missile to be fired successfully. Functional...Program Display During "Time to Decide"....... . ............ 7 4. Gap Program Display ,howing Covered Areas and Dot Track ... .......... 7 5. Gap...18 17. SD of Decision Time As a Funcion of Target Speed and Relative Gap Size ....... .............................. 19 18. Mean Decision

  11. China and Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction and Missiles: Policy Issues (United States)


    Machinery and Electric Equipment Import and Export Co. - Wha Cheong Tai Co. - China Shipbuilding Trading Co. - CPMIEC - China Aero-Technology Import...Equipment Import Export Co. - CMEC Machinery and Electrical Import Export Co. - China Machinery and Electric Equipment Import Export Co. - Wha Cheong...ballistic missiles) September 23, 2004 for two years - Liaoning Jiayi Metals and Minerals Co. - Q.C. Chen - Wha Cheong Tai Co. Ltd. - Shanghai

  12. Another Brick in the Wall: The Israeli Experience in Missile Defense (United States)


    the launch- ing of preemptive campaigns that would swiftly move the battles to the territory its enemies. The country did start cooperating with the...Israeli leaders opted for offensive doctrines, enabling the launching of preemptive campaigns that would swiftly move the battles to the territory meant for Israeli analysts was that Saddam Hussein was using Scud missiles to strike Tehran as new means of compellence. This is now cor

  13. Deep intracerebral (basal ganglia) haematomas in fatal non-missile head injury in man.


    Adams, J H; Doyle, D.; Graham, D I; Lawrence, A E; McLellan, D R


    Deep intracerebral (basal ganglia) haematomas were found post mortem in 63 of 635 fatal non-missile head injuries. In patients with a basal ganglia haematoma, contusions were more severe, there was a reduced incidence of a lucid interval, and there was an increased incidence of road traffic accidents, gliding contusions and diffuse axonal injury than in patients without this type of haematoma. Intracranial haematoma is usually thought to be a secondary event, that is a complication of the ori...

  14. Navy Ohio Replacement (SSBN[X]) Ballistic Missile Submarine Program: Background and Issues for Congress (United States)


    Missile Submarine Program Congressional Research Service F. Woolf , discusses the SSBN(X) as an element of future U.S. strategic nuclear forces in the...Report RL33640, U.S. Strategic Nuclear Forces: Background, Developments, and Issues, by Amy F. Woolf . 3 In the designations SSN, SSGN, SSBN, and SSBN(X...missions than do SSN operations. For more on the Navy’s SSNs and SSGNs, see CRS Report RL32418, Navy Virginia (SSN-774) Class Attack Submarine

  15. Treatment of open tibial fracture with bone defect caused by high velocity missiles: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golubović Zoran


    Full Text Available Introduction .Tibia fracture caused by high velocity missiles is mostly comminuted and followed by bone defect which makes their healing process extremely difficult and prone to numerous complications. Case Outline. A 34-year-old male was wounded at close range by a semi-automatic gun missile. He was wounded in the distal area of the left tibia and suffered a massive defect of the bone and soft tissue. After the primary treatment of the wound, the fracture was stabilized with an external fixator type Mitkovic, with convergent orientation of the pins. The wound in the medial region of the tibia was closed with the secondary stitch, whereas the wound in the lateral area was closed with the skin transplant after Thiersch. Due to massive bone defect in the area of the rifle-missile wound six months after injury, a medical team placed a reconstructive external skeletal fixator type Mitkovic and performed corticotomy in the proximal metaphyseal area of the tibia. By the method of bone transport (distractive osteogenesis, the bone defect of the tibia was replaced. After the fracture healing seven months from the secondary surgery, the fixator was removed and the patient was referred to physical therapy. Conclusion. Surgical treatment of wounds, external fixation, performing necessary debridement, adequate antibiotic treatment and soft and bone tissue reconstruction are essential in achieving good results in patients with the open tibial fracture with bone defect caused by high velocity missiles. Reconstruction of bone defect can be successfully treated by reconstructive external fixator Mitkovic. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 41017 i br. III 41004

  16. Electromagnetic pulse (EMP): Exposure of missile 56 in EMP simulator sapiens (United States)

    Dikvall, T.


    The effects on the electric field caused by the object (missile) in the SAPIENS electromagnetic pulse simulator were studied. A noticeable effect on the field strength is noted close to the object, due to the characteristics of the field. This effect also appears in real electromagnetic pulse environments. During these tests 200 pulses were distributed with good accuracy of reproduction. The SAPIENS is an outdoor device and tests carried out in winter show that weather has very little influence on results.

  17. Non-Slender Missile Geometries of Minimum Ballistic Factor via Calculus of Variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manak Singh


    Full Text Available The problem of determining the geometry of non-slender axisymmetric missile of minimum ballistic factor in hypersonic flow has been solved via calculus of variation under the assumption that the flow is Newtonian and the surface averaged skin friction coefficient is constant. The study has been made for conditions of given diameter and surface area. The results obtained have been compared with those obtained by the method of gradient technique.

  18. Complaint Regarding the Use of Audit Results on a $1 Billion Missile Defense Agency Contract (United States)


    our scope and methodology. See Appendix B for the sequence of events. Background Missile Defense Agency MDA is a research , development, and...a $2.07 billion cost-plus-fixed/award-fee1 proposal submitted by a DoD contractor for the Ground-Based Midcourse Defense (GMD) Core Completion...negotiated, DCAA discontinued its audit of the GMD proposal. MDA Did Not Consider the DCAA Preliminary Audit Results DFARS Procedures, Guidance , and

  19. Navy Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) Program: Background and Issues for Congress (United States)


    many ships will be available; and how the alphabet- soup of U.S. and international commanders will work together in a crisis. [Admiral Mark...meeting outside of missile defense,” Campbell said during a Nov. 3 interview with Aviation Week. These include providing weapons and manpower for...would seem a natural mission for the Army to fund and field the land-based SM-3 mission as the lead service. Campbell notes that the Army has 10

  20. Application of fleet ballistic missile components/designs for expendable launch vehicles (United States)

    Grizzell, Norman E.

    This paper describes the orbital performance and configuration attributes of an expendable launch vehicle (ELV) derived from flight-qualified components. Representative logistical and programmatic data are also provided. The backbone of the ELV program described is the cost-effective use of proven Fleet Ballistic Missile components/designs coupled with other high confidence 'off-the-shelf' equipment. The ELV defined can place over a thousand pounds (1000 lb) of spacecraft (payload) into Low Earth Orbit.