WorldWideScience

Sample records for hf communications direction

  1. Direct currents produced by hf heating of plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klima, R.

    1974-01-01

    In addition to the well-known diffusion currents, toroidal direct currents arise in h.f. heated plasmas as a result of a momentum transfer from the h.f. field to plasma particles. The estimates of steady-state conditions are given for these currents. Particularly, the possibility of stationary operation of a Tokamak device is analyzed. (author)

  2. Determining characteristics of HF communications links using SuperDARN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Hughes

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Space weather effects can strongly influence high-frequency (HF communications by changing the ionospheric environment through which the radio waves propagate. Since many systems utilize HF communications, the ability to make real-time assessments of propagation conditions is an important part of space weather monitoring systems. In this paper, we present new techniques for measuring high-latitude HF communications link parameters using data from SuperDARN radars. These techniques use ground-scatter returns to define the variation in skip distance with frequency. From these data, the maximum usable frequency (MUF as a function of range is determined and ionospheric critical frequencies are estimated. These calculations are made in near-real-time and the results are made available on the World Wide Web. F-region critical frequencies calculated using this method show good agreement with ionosonde data.Key words. Ionosphere (active experiments; instruments and techniques – Radio science (ionospheric propagation

  3. Determining characteristics of HF communications links using SuperDARN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Hughes

    Full Text Available Space weather effects can strongly influence high-frequency (HF communications by changing the ionospheric environment through which the radio waves propagate. Since many systems utilize HF communications, the ability to make real-time assessments of propagation conditions is an important part of space weather monitoring systems. In this paper, we present new techniques for measuring high-latitude HF communications link parameters using data from SuperDARN radars. These techniques use ground-scatter returns to define the variation in skip distance with frequency. From these data, the maximum usable frequency (MUF as a function of range is determined and ionospheric critical frequencies are estimated. These calculations are made in near-real-time and the results are made available on the World Wide Web. F-region critical frequencies calculated using this method show good agreement with ionosonde data.

    Key words. Ionosphere (active experiments; instruments and techniques – Radio science (ionospheric propagation

  4. Direct Communication Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Krajačić, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Today we use numerous methods of direct communications, for which we use a technical term Unified Communications. It is almost impossible to imagine the business world today without Unified Communications, which are improving productivity and reducing costs. The goal of using Unified Communications is to ensure a consistent user experience at any location and any device. Skype for Business, a Microsoft product, is one of the solutions for Unified Communications and is described in this thesis...

  5. Study of Direct-Contact HfO2/Si Interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriyuki Miyata

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Controlling monolayer Si oxide at the HfO2/Si interface is a challenging issue in scaling the equivalent oxide thickness of HfO2/Si gate stack structures. A concept that the author proposes to control the Si oxide interface by using ultra-high vacuum electron-beam HfO2 deposition is described in this review paper, which enables the so-called direct-contact HfO2/Si structures to be prepared. The electrical characteristics of the HfO2/Si metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors are reviewed, which suggest a sufficiently low interface state density for the operation of metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistors (MOSFETs but reveal the formation of an unexpected strong interface dipole. Kelvin probe measurements of the HfO2/Si structures provide obvious evidence for the formation of dipoles at the HfO2/Si interfaces. The author proposes that one-monolayer Si-O bonds at the HfO2/Si interface naturally lead to a large potential difference, mainly due to the large dielectric constant of the HfO2. Dipole scattering is demonstrated to not be a major concern in the channel mobility of MOSFETs.

  6. Conseiller principal en communications (h/f) | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Résumé des fonctions Le conseiller principal en communications est chargé de la gestion des relations publiques de telecentre.org. Il est également responsable de l'élaboration et de la gestion des principales stratégies de communication et de mise en commun des connaissances, de même que des grandes stratégies ...

  7. DIRECT DETERMINATION OF THE HF/H{sub 2} ABUNDANCE RATIO IN INTERSTELLAR GAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Indriolo, Nick; Neufeld, D. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Seifahrt, A. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Richter, M. J. [Department of Physics, University of California Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2013-02-20

    We report the first detection of the v = 1-0, R(0) ro-vibrational transition of HF at 2.499385 {mu}m arising from interstellar gas. The line is seen in absorption toward three background sources-HD 154368, Elias 29, and AFGL 2136 IRS 1-all of which have reported H{sub 2} column densities determined from observations of H{sub 2}. This allows for the first direct determination of the HF/H{sub 2} abundance ratio. We find values of N(HF)/N(H{sub 2}) = 1.15 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8} and 0.69 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8} for HD 154368 and Elias 29, respectively. The sight line toward AFGL 2136 IRS 1 also shows absorption from the v = 1-0, R(1) transition of HF, indicating warm, dense (n {sub H} {approx}> 10{sup 9} cm{sup -3}) gas, likely very close to the central protostar. Ascribing portions of the HF absorption to warm and cold gas, we find N(HF)/N(H{sub 2}) = (1.7-2.9) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8} and (0.33-0.58) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8} for the two components, respectively. Except for the warm component toward AFGL 2136 IRS 1, all observed HF/H{sub 2} ratios are well below N(HF)/N(H{sub 2}) = 3.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8}, the value predicted if nearly all gas phase fluorine is in the form of HF. Models of fluorine chemistry that account for depletion onto grains are able to reproduce the results toward HD 154368, but not in the cold, dense gas toward AFGL 2136 IRS 1 and Elias 29. Most likely, some combinations of simplifying assumptions made in the chemical models are responsible for these discrepancies.

  8. Quantum direct communication with authentication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hwayean; Lim, Jongin; Yang, HyungJin

    2006-01-01

    We propose two quantum direct communication (QDC) protocols with user authentication. Users can identify each other by checking the correlation of Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) states. Alice can directly send a secret message to Bob without any previously shared secret using the remaining GHZ states after authentication. Our second QDC protocol can be used even though there is no quantum link between Alice and Bob. The security of the transmitted message is guaranteed by properties of entanglement of GHZ states

  9. Agent de Communication (h/f) - Initiative de recherche en santé ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Complexité du travail Sous la direction et la surveillance du chef de programme, la personne titulaire du poste est chargée de la gestion des communications et des activités de relations publiques.

  10. Direct Marketing Communication at SEAL Communication Company

    OpenAIRE

    Wachtler, Kamilla Dóra

    2010-01-01

    The appearance of the Internet and new, rapidly changing emerging online technologies have led to some fundamental changes in marketing -- especially direct marketing. Besides the growing popularity of the Internet, the appearance of databases and one-to-one marketing are challenging traditional marketing methods. This thesis attempts to illustrate how direct marketing techniques can be implemented in an IT company. It starts with an overview of the concepts of direct marketing and its techni...

  11. Izviđanje radio-komunikacija u VF opsegu u funkciji savremenih operacija / Communication intelligence in HF range as support of modern operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miljko Erić

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available U ovom radu je, polazeći od opštih principa izviđanja radio-komunikacija analiziran problem izviđanja radio-komunikacija u VF opsegu 1,6-30 MHz na operativno-strategijskom nivou koje se sprovodi u funkciji obaveštajnog obezbeđenja. Izložen je koncept širokopojasnog multifunkcionalnog radio-goniometra u kojem su integrisane funkcije automatskog presretanja i goniometrisanja signala, koji treba da omogući trenutni i potpuni nadzor (otkrivanje i goniometrisanje svih aktivnih emisija u kompletnom VF frekvencijskom opsegu koje nisu kraće od 10 ms. Ovaj goniometar predstavlja osnovicu budućeg automatizovanog radioizviđačkog sistema za VF opseg, koji sistemu komandovanja savremenim operacijama treba da omogući potpuni uvid u stanje, odnosno praćenje aktivnosti radio-komunikacija u kompletnom VF opsegu, što postojeći sistem za izviđanje VF frekvencijskog opsega ne obezbeđuje. Izložena problematika zasniva se na analizi iskustava i trendova u ovoj oblasti u svetu, na iskustvima stečenim u VTI kroz dosadašnje istraživačke i razvojne zadatke, posebno kroz razvoj i terenska ispitivanja radio-goniometra za VVF/UVF opseg. / Starting from the elaboration of the basic principles of communication intelligence, a problem of communication intelligence in HF range 1,6-30 MHz on the operational-strategic level is analyzed in detail. A concept of the wide-band multifunctional direction finder with integrated intercept and direction finding functions is presented. The direction finder should provide complete surveillance of the HF range and interception with direction finding of all active signals in given frequency range which are not shorter than 10 ms. The direction finder is the key element of the future automated radio reconnaissance system for the HF range, that should provide a complete insight of the signal activities in the HF range, which the existing communication intelligence system does not provide. The subject matter of this paper

  12. Multiparty-controlled quantum secure direct communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiu, X.-M.; Dong, L.; Gao, Y.-J.; Chi, F.

    2007-01-01

    A theoretical scheme of a multiparty-controlled quantum secure direct communication is proposed. The supervisor prepares a communication network with Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen pairs and auxiliary particles. After passing a security test of the communication network, a supervisor tells the users the network is secure and they can communicate. If the controllers allow the communicators to communicate, the controllers should perform measurements and inform the communicators of the outcomes. The communicators then begin to communicate after they perform a security test of the quantum channel and verify that it is secure. The recipient can decrypt the secret message in a classical message from the sender depending on the protocol. Any two users in the network can communicate through the above processes under the control of the supervisor and the controllers

  13. Quantum Secure Direct Communication Based on Authentication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min-Jie, Wang; Wei, Pan

    2008-01-01

    We propose two schemes of quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) combined ideas of user authentication [Phys. Rev. A 73 (2006) 042305] and direct communication with dense coding [Phys. Rev. A. 68 (2003) 042317]. In these protocols, the privacy of authentication keys and the properties of the EPR pairs not only ensure the realization of identity authentication but also further improve the security of communication, and no secret messages are leaked even if the messages were broken. (general)

  14. Quantum Secure Direct Communication with Quantum Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Ding, Dong-Sheng; Sheng, Yu-Bo; Zhou, Lan; Shi, Bao-Sen; Guo, Guang-Can

    2017-06-02

    Quantum communication provides an absolute security advantage, and it has been widely developed over the past 30 years. As an important branch of quantum communication, quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) promotes high security and instantaneousness in communication through directly transmitting messages over a quantum channel. The full implementation of a quantum protocol always requires the ability to control the transfer of a message effectively in the time domain; thus, it is essential to combine QSDC with quantum memory to accomplish the communication task. In this Letter, we report the experimental demonstration of QSDC with state-of-the-art atomic quantum memory for the first time in principle. We use the polarization degrees of freedom of photons as the information carrier, and the fidelity of entanglement decoding is verified as approximately 90%. Our work completes a fundamental step toward practical QSDC and demonstrates a potential application for long-distance quantum communication in a quantum network.

  15. Quantum Secure Direct Communication Using W State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Li; Xiu Xiaoming; Gao Yajun; Chi Feng

    2008-01-01

    A theoretical scheme of quantum secure direct communication using teleportation is proposed. In the scheme, the sender needs to prepare a class of three-particle W states to use as quantum channel. The two communicators may communicate after they test the security of the quantum channel. The security of the protocol is ensured by quantum entanglement and quantum no-cloning theorem. The receiver can obtain the secret message determinately if the quantum channel is secure

  16. Bidirectional communication using delay coupled chaotic directly ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Corresponding author. ... 30 September 2009. Abstract. Chaotic synchronization of two directly modulated semiconductor lasers with ... For InGaAsP lasers used in optical communication systems, the nonlinear gain re- duction is very strong and its ...

  17. Direct marketing and market communication process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovović Sanja

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Direct marketing is marketing which demands immediate reply. That reply can be an order, a request for an additional information, a registration, a telephone call or a visit. This work presents direct marketing as the most contemporary method of company communications with environs. A concept of direct marketing is made and aimed for complete identification of existing customers and for finding out potential customers. Mail, printed documents e-mail and new medias are used as modern communications channels. It is especially emphasizes the Internet as an important media.

  18. Analysis of the Effect of Electron Density Perturbations Generated by Gravity Waves on HF Communication Links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagre, M.; Elias, A. G.; Chum, J.; Cabrera, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    In the present work, ray tracing of high frequency (HF) signals in ionospheric disturbed conditions is analyzed, particularly in the presence of electron density perturbations generated by gravity waves (GWs). The three-dimensional numerical ray tracing code by Jones and Stephenson, based on Hamilton's equations, which is commonly used to study radio propagation through the ionosphere, is used. An electron density perturbation model is implemented to this code based upon the consideration of atmospheric GWs generated at a height of 150 km in the thermosphere and propagating up into the ionosphere. The motion of the neutral gas at these altitudes induces disturbances in the background plasma which affects HF signals propagation. To obtain a realistic model of GWs in order to analyze the propagation and dispersion characteristics, a GW ray tracing method with kinematic viscosity and thermal diffusivity was applied. The IRI-2012, HWM14 and NRLMSISE-00 models were incorporated to assess electron density, wind velocities, neutral temperature and total mass density needed for the ray tracing codes. Preliminary results of gravity wave effects on ground range and reflection height are presented for low-mid latitude ionosphere.

  19. Agent de communications et d'apprentissage (h/f) | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    initiative Think tank, l'agent responsable des communications et de la diffusion joue un rôle clé dans le développement de la stratégie de communication du CRDI (et des relations publiques) pour permettre à l'équipe d'atteindre ses objectifs et ...

  20. Bidirectional communication in an HF hybrid organic/solution-processed metal-oxide RFID tag

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Myny, K.; Rockelé, M.; Chasin, A.; Pham, D.V.; Steiger, J.; Botnaras, S.; Weber, D.; Herold, B.; Ficker, J.; Van Putten, B.D.; Gelinck, G.H.; Genoe, J.; Dehaene, W.; Heremans, P.

    2014-01-01

    A bidirectional communication protocol allows radio-frequency identification (RFID) tags to have readout of multiple tags in the RF field without collision of data. In this paper, we realized bidirectional communication between a reader system and thin-film RFID tag by introducing a novel protocol

  1. Deterministic Secure Direct Communication Using Mixed state

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Qing-yu

    2003-01-01

    We show an improved ping-pong protocol which is based on the protocol showed by Kim Bostrom and Timo Felbinger [Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 187902 (2002); quant-ph/0209040]. We show that our protocol is asymptotically secure key distribution and quasisecure direct communication using a single photon resource. And this protocol can be can be carried out with great efficiency and speed using today's technology.

  2. Gestionnaire, Communications électroniques (h/f) (mise à jour le 27 ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    27 janv. 2017 ... Le gestionnaire, Communications électroniques, est responsable de la gestion ... chaînes de médias sociaux, de l'intranet, des bulletins, de l'image de marque et ... Représenter la division lors de rencontres avec des comités ...

  3. Rejuvenating direct modulation and direct detection for modern optical communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Di; Li, An; Chen, Xi; Hu, Qian; Shieh, William

    2018-02-01

    High-speed transoceanic optical fiber transmission using direct modulation (DM) and direct detection (DD) was one of the most stirring breakthroughs for telecommunication in 1990s, which drove the internet as a global phenomenon. However, the later evolution of optical coherent communications in 2000s gradually took over the long-haul applications, due to its superior optical spectral efficiency. Nowadays, DM-DD systems are dominant mainly in cost- and power-sensitive short-reach applications, because of its natural characteristics-the simplicity. This paper reviews the recent advances of DM-DD transceivers from both hardware and signal processing perspectives. It introduces a variety of modified DM and/or DD systems for 3 application scenarios: very-short-reach interconnect with little fiber channel impact; single or a few spans of fiber transmission up to several hundred km; and distance beyond the 2nd scenario. Besides the DM-DD and multi-dimension DM-DD with polarization diversity, this paper focuses on how to rejuvenate traditional DM and DD technologies in order to bridge the transmission application gap between DM-DD and coherent transceivers, using technologies such as dispersion compensation, signal field recovery from the intensity-only DD receiver, and complex direct modulation with coherent detection. More than 30 years since the birth, DM and DD still hold indispensable roles in modern optical communications.

  4. Comment on 'Quantum direct communication with authentication'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zhan-jun; Liu, Jun; Wang, Dong; Shi, Shou-hua

    2007-01-01

    Two protocols of quantum direct communication with authentication [Phys. Rev. A 73, 042305 (2006)] were recently proposed by Lee, Lim, and Yang. In this paper we will show that in the two protocols the authenticator Trent should be prevented from knowing the secret message. The first protocol can be eavesdropped on by Trent using the intercept-measure-resend attack, while the second protocol can be eavesdropped on by Trent using a simple single-qubit measurement. To fix these leaks, we revise the original versions of the protocols by using the Pauli Z operation σ z instead of the original bit-flip operation X. As a consequence, the attacks we present can be prevented and accordingly the protocol securities are improved

  5. Adjoint de direction, Économies inclusives (h/f) | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Résumé des fonctions Sous la responsabilité du directeur de domaine de ... et en qualité de membre de l'équipe de gestion de la direction générale, fournir de ... un système de contrôle, effectuer des suivis pour assurer une réponse rapide.

  6. Ionospheric modification induced by high-power HF transmitters: a potential for extended range VHF--UHF communications and plasma physics research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utlaut, W.F.

    1975-01-01

    When the ionized upper atmosphere of the earth is illuminated by high-power HF radio waves at appropriate frequencies, the temperature of electrons in the ionosphere can be raised substantially. In addition, radio waves with sufficient energy cause parametric instabilities that generate a spectrum of intense plasma waves. Observations of these phenomena have produced new understanding of plasma processes. One consequence of heating and plasma wave generation is that irregularities are formed in the electron distribution which are aligned with the earth's magnetic field. Because of this, a scatterer of large radar cross section is produced, which scatters HF through UHF communication signals over long distance paths, that would not otherwise be normally possible by ionospheric means. Results of radio, radar, communication, and photometric experiments that explored the characteristics of the volume of ionosphere which has been intentionally modified, temporarily, above facilities near Boulder (Platteville), Colo., and at Arecibo, Puerto Rico are summarized

  7. Atomic layer deposition of crystalline SrHfO3 directly on Ge (001) for high-k dielectric applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDaniel, Martin D.; Ngo, Thong Q.; Ekerdt, John G.; Hu, Chengqing; Jiang, Aiting; Yu, Edward T.; Lu, Sirong; Smith, David J.; Posadas, Agham; Demkov, Alexander A.

    2015-01-01

    The current work explores the crystalline perovskite oxide, strontium hafnate, as a potential high-k gate dielectric for Ge-based transistors. SrHfO 3 (SHO) is grown directly on Ge by atomic layer deposition and becomes crystalline with epitaxial registry after post-deposition vacuum annealing at ∼700 °C for 5 min. The 2 × 1 reconstructed, clean Ge (001) surface is a necessary template to achieve crystalline films upon annealing. The SHO films exhibit excellent crystallinity, as shown by x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The SHO films have favorable electronic properties for consideration as a high-k gate dielectric on Ge, with satisfactory band offsets (>2 eV), low leakage current (<10 −5 A/cm 2 at an applied field of 1 MV/cm) at an equivalent oxide thickness of 1 nm, and a reasonable dielectric constant (k ∼ 18). The interface trap density (D it ) is estimated to be as low as ∼2 × 10 12  cm −2  eV −1 under the current growth and anneal conditions. Some interfacial reaction is observed between SHO and Ge at temperatures above ∼650 °C, which may contribute to increased D it value. This study confirms the potential for crystalline oxides grown directly on Ge by atomic layer deposition for advanced electronic applications

  8. HF laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Kazuya; Iwasaki, Matae

    1977-01-01

    A review is made of the research and development of HF chemical laser and its related work. Many gaseous compounds are used as laser media successfully; reaction kinetics and technological problems are described. The hybrid chemical laser of HF-CO 2 system and the topics related to the isotope separation are also included. (auth.)

  9. Secure direct communication based on secret transmitting order of particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Aidong; Zhang Shou; Xia Yan; Fan Qiubo

    2006-01-01

    We propose the schemes of quantum secure direct communication based on a secret transmitting order of particles. In these protocols, the secret transmitting order of particles ensures the security of communication, and no secret messages are leaked even if the communication is interrupted for security. This strategy of security for communication is also generalized to a quantum dialogue. It not only ensures the unconditional security but also improves the efficiency of communication

  10. Direct counterfactual communication via quantum Zeno effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yuan; Li, Yu-Huai; Cao, Zhu; Yin, Juan; Chen, Yu-Ao; Yin, Hua-Lei; Chen, Teng-Yun; Ma, Xiongfeng; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2017-05-01

    Intuition from our everyday lives gives rise to the belief that information exchanged between remote parties is carried by physical particles. Surprisingly, in a recent theoretical study [Salih H, Li ZH, Al-Amri M, Zubairy MS (2013) Phys Rev Lett 110:170502], quantum mechanics was found to allow for communication, even without the actual transmission of physical particles. From the viewpoint of communication, this mystery stems from a (nonintuitive) fundamental concept in quantum mechanics—wave-particle duality. All particles can be described fully by wave functions. To determine whether light appears in a channel, one refers to the amplitude of its wave function. However, in counterfactual communication, information is carried by the phase part of the wave function. Using a single-photon source, we experimentally demonstrate the counterfactual communication and successfully transfer a monochrome bitmap from one location to another by using a nested version of the quantum Zeno effect.

  11. Distributed Optimization of Multi Beam Directional Communication Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-30

    Distributed Optimization of Multi-Beam Directional Communication Networks Theodoros Tsiligkaridis MIT Lincoln Laboratory Lexington, MA 02141, USA...based routing. I. INTRODUCTION Missions where multiple communication goals are of in- terest are becoming more prevalent in military applications...Multilayer communications may occur within a coalition; for example, a team consisting of ground vehicles and an airborne set of assets may desire to

  12. Quantum Secure Direct Communication with Authentication Expansion Using Single Photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Jing; Wang Chuan; Zhang Ru

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we propose two quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) protocols with authentication. The authentication key expansion method is introduced to improve the life of the keys with security. In the first scheme, the third party, called Trent is introduced to authenticate the users that participate in the communication. He sends the polarized photons in blocks to authenticate communication parties Alice and Bob using the authentication keys. In the communication process, polarized single photons are used to serve as the carriers, which transmit the secret messages directly. The second QSDC process with authentication between two parties is also discussed.

  13. High performance organic field-effect transistors with ultra-thin HfO2 gate insulator deposited directly onto the organic semiconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, S.; Häusermann, R.; Chiba, D.; Shimamura, K.; Ono, T.; Batlogg, B.

    2014-01-01

    We have produced stable organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) with an ultra-thin HfO 2 gate insulator deposited directly on top of rubrene single crystals by atomic layer deposition (ALD). We find that ALD is a gentle deposition process to grow thin films without damaging rubrene single crystals, as results these devices have a negligibly small threshold voltage and are very stable against gate-bias-stress, and the mobility exceeds 1 cm 2 /V s. Moreover, the devices show very little degradation even when kept in air for more than 2 months. These results demonstrate thin HfO 2 layers deposited by ALD to be well suited as high capacitance gate dielectrics in OFETs operating at small gate voltage. In addition, the dielectric layer acts as an effective passivation layer to protect the organic semiconductor

  14. Direct band gap light emission and detection at room temperature in bulk germanium diodes with HfGe/Ge/TiN structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Dong, E-mail: wang.dong.539@m.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Sciences, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-koen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Maekura, Takayuki [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Sciences, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-koen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Yamamoto, Keisuke; Nakashima, Hiroshi [Art, Science and Technology Center for Cooperative Research, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-koen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan)

    2016-03-01

    Direct band gap (DBG) electroluminescence (EL) and photo detection were studied at room temperature for n-type bulk germanium (Ge) diodes with a fin type lateral HfGe/Ge/TiN structure. DBG EL spectra peaked at 1.55 μm were clearly observed due to small hole and electron barrier heights of HfGe/Ge and TiN/Ge contacts. DBG EL peak intensity increased with increasing doping level of Ge substrate due to increased electron population in direct conduction band. The integrated intensity of DBG EL spectrum is proportional to the area of active region, implying a good surface-uniformity of EL efficiency. Small dark current intensity was measured as 2.4 × 10{sup −7} A under a reverse bias voltage of − 1 V, corresponding to dark current densities of 5.3 × 10{sup −10} A/μm or 3.2 × 10{sup −10} A/μm{sup 2}. At the wavelength of 1.55 μm, a linear dependence of photo current intensity on laser power was observed with a responsivity of 0.44 A/W at a reverse bias voltage of − 1 V. - Highlights: • Lateral HfGe/Ge/TiN diodes were fabricated on bulk Ge substrates. • The highest temperature was 400 °C for the entire fabrication process. • Electroluminescence spectra were measured for HfGe/Ge/TiN diodes with different parameters. • Dark current densities were 5.3 × 10{sup −10} A/μm or 3.2 × 10{sup −10} A/μm{sup 2} at − 1 V. • Responsivity was 0.44 A/W, corresponding to an external quantum efficiency of 35.2%.

  15. [Theraplay--a direct communication play therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, U

    1990-01-01

    This paper introduces the basic concepts and the application of the directive short-term play therapy called Theraplay. Goals and methods are illustrated by examples from the assessment (Marschak Interaction Method) and by sessions with a 6 year old regressive noncompliant mutistic twin.

  16. Controlled and secure direct communication using GHZ state and teleportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, T.

    2004-01-01

    A theoretical scheme for controlled and secure direct communication is proposed. The communication is based on GHZ state and controlled quantum teleportation. After insuring the security of the quantum channel (a set of qubits in the GHZ state), alice encodes the secret message directly on a sequence of particle states in the GHZ state and transmits them to Bob, supervised by Charlie using controlled quantum teleportation. Bob can read out the encoded messages directly by the measurement on his qubits. In this scheme, the controlled quantum teleportation transmits alice's message without revealing any information to a potential eavesdropper. Because there is not a transmission of the qubit carrying the secret messages between Alice and Bob in the public channel, it is completely secure for controlled and direct secret communication if a perfect quantum channel is used. The feature of this scheme is that the communication between two sides depends on the agreement of a third side. (orig.)

  17. Assimilative model for ionospheric dynamics employing delay, Doppler, and direction of arrival measurements from multiple HF channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridman, Sergey V.; Nickisch, L. J.; Hausman, Mark; Zunich, George

    2016-03-01

    We describe the development of new HF data assimilation capabilities for our ionospheric inversion algorithm called GPSII (GPS Ionospheric Inversion). Previously existing capabilities of this algorithm included assimilation of GPS total electron content data as well as assimilation of backscatter ionograms. In the present effort we concentrated on developing assimilation tools for data related to HF propagation channels. Measurements of propagation delay, angle of arrival, and the ionosphere-induced Doppler from any number of known propagation links can now be utilized by GPSII. The resulting ionospheric model is consistent with all assimilated measurements. This means that ray tracing simulations of the assimilated propagation links are guaranteed to be in agreement with measured data within the errors of measurement. The key theoretical element for assimilating HF data is the raypath response operator (RPRO) which describes response of raypath parameters to infinitesimal variations of electron density in the ionosphere. We construct the RPRO out of the fundamental solution of linearized ray tracing equations for a dynamic magnetoactive plasma. We demonstrate performance and internal consistency of the algorithm using propagation delay data from multiple oblique ionograms (courtesy of Defence Science and Technology Organisation, Australia) as well as with time series of near-vertical incidence sky wave data (courtesy of the Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity HFGeo Program Government team). In all cases GPSII produces electron density distributions which are smooth in space and in time. We simulate the assimilated propagation links by performing ray tracing through GPSII-produced ionosphere and observe that simulated data are indeed in agreement with assimilated measurements.

  18. Direct quantum mechanical calculation of the F + H{sub 2} {yields} HF + H thermal rate constant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moix, Marc [Computer Simulation and Modeling (COSMO) Lab, Parc Cientific de Barcelona, Josep Samitier 5, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Institut de Quimica Teorica i Computacional de la UB (IQTCUB), Universitat de Barcelona (Spain); Huarte-Larranaga, Fermin [Computer Simulation and Modeling (COSMO) Lab, Parc Cientific de Barcelona, Josep Samitier 5, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Institut de Quimica Teorica i Computacional de la UB (IQTCUB), Universitat de Barcelona (Spain)], E-mail: fhuarte@pcb.ub.es

    2008-07-03

    Accurate full-dimensional quantum mechanical thermal rate constant values have been calculated for the F+H{sub 2}{yields}HF+H reaction on the Stark-Werner ab initio potential energy surface. These calculations are based on a flux correlation functions and employ a rigorous statistical sampling scheme to account for the overall rotation and the MCTDH scheme for the wave packet propagation. Our results shed some light on discrepancies on the thermal rate found for previous flux correlation based calculations with respect to accurate reactive scattering results. The resonance pattern of the all-J cumulative reaction probability is analyzed in terms of the partial wave contributions.

  19. Exponential Communication Complexity Advantage from Quantum Superposition of the Direction of Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guérin, Philippe Allard; Feix, Adrien; Araújo, Mateus; Brukner, Časlav

    2016-09-01

    In communication complexity, a number of distant parties have the task of calculating a distributed function of their inputs, while minimizing the amount of communication between them. It is known that with quantum resources, such as entanglement and quantum channels, one can obtain significant reductions in the communication complexity of some tasks. In this work, we study the role of the quantum superposition of the direction of communication as a resource for communication complexity. We present a tripartite communication task for which such a superposition allows for an exponential saving in communication, compared to one-way quantum (or classical) communication; the advantage also holds when we allow for protocols with bounded error probability.

  20. Communication: Mode specific quantum dynamics of the F + CHD{sub 3} → HF + CD{sub 3} reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Ji; Song, Hongwei; Yang, Minghui, E-mail: yangmh@wipm.ac.cn, E-mail: juliana@unq.edu.ar, E-mail: uwe.manthe@uni-bielefeld.de [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance in Biological Systems, State Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance and Atomic and Molecular Physics, National Center for Magnetic Resonance in Wuhan, Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China); Palma, Juliana, E-mail: yangmh@wipm.ac.cn, E-mail: juliana@unq.edu.ar, E-mail: uwe.manthe@uni-bielefeld.de [Departamento de Ciencia y Tecnología, Universidad Nacional de Quilmes, CONICET, Sáenz Peña 352, Bernal B1876BXD (Argentina); Manthe, Uwe, E-mail: yangmh@wipm.ac.cn, E-mail: juliana@unq.edu.ar, E-mail: uwe.manthe@uni-bielefeld.de [Theoretische Chemie, Fakultät für Chemie, Universität Bielefeld, Universitätsstr. 25, D-33615 Bielefeld (Germany); Guo, Hua [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131 (United States)

    2016-05-07

    The mode specific reactivity of the F + CHD{sub 3} → HF + CD{sub 3} reaction is investigated using an eight-dimensional quantum dynamical model on a recently developed ab initio based full-dimensional potential energy surface. Our results indicate prominent resonance structures at low collision energies and absence of an energy threshold in reaction probabilities. It was also found that excitation of the C–D stretching or CD{sub 3} umbrella mode has a relatively small impact on reactivity. On the other hand, the excitation of the C–H vibration (v{sub 1}) in CHD{sub 3} is shown to significantly increase the reactivity, which, like several recent quasi-classical trajectory studies, is at odds with the available experimental data. Possible sources of the disagreement are discussed.

  1. Networked Airborne Communications Using Adaptive Multi Beam Directional Links

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-05

    Networked Airborne Communications Using Adaptive Multi-Beam Directional Links R. Bruce MacLeod Member, IEEE, and Adam Margetts Member, IEEE MIT...provide new techniques for increasing throughput in airborne adaptive directional net- works. By adaptive directional linking, we mean systems that can...techniques can dramatically increase the capacity in airborne networks. Advances in digital array technology are beginning to put these gains within reach

  2. Risk communication, public participation and the Seveso II directive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, G.; Simmons, P.; Wynne, B.; Irwin, A.

    1999-01-01

    Risk communication and public participation are considered in the context of the forthcoming requirements of the 'Seveso II' Directive. The discussion draws substantially on the findings of a research project which has investigated public perceptions of the risks from major accident hazards in seven communities in the UK. Implications for the Directive's requirements on emergency information provision, public access to safety reports and consultation on emergency plans are considered. Our conclusions stress the need for risk communication to be seen as a long term and ongoing process, involving active listening to public reasoning about risk and a sensitivity to the context in which communication is taking place. In meeting both needs and rights to information and encouraging and enabling public participation, we conclude that the Directive should contribute in some degree to an improved environment for dialogue and the building of trust. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  3. Understanding the role of marketing communications in direct marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Naik; N. Piersma (Nanda)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThe standard RFM models used by direct marketers include behavioral variables, but ignore the role of marketing communications. In addition, RFM models allow customer responsiveness to vary across different customers, but not across diiferent time periods. Hence, the authors first

  4. Maximally efficient protocols for direct secure quantum communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, Anindita [Department of Physics and Materials Science Engineering, Jaypee Institute of Information Technology, A-10, Sector-62, Noida, UP-201307 (India); Department of Physics and Center for Astroparticle Physics and Space Science, Bose Institute, Block EN, Sector V, Kolkata 700091 (India); Pathak, Anirban, E-mail: anirban.pathak@jiit.ac.in [Department of Physics and Materials Science Engineering, Jaypee Institute of Information Technology, A-10, Sector-62, Noida, UP-201307 (India); RCPTM, Joint Laboratory of Optics of Palacky University and Institute of Physics of Academy of Science of the Czech Republic, Faculty of Science, Palacky University, 17. Listopadu 12, 77146 Olomouc (Czech Republic)

    2012-10-01

    Two protocols for deterministic secure quantum communication (DSQC) using GHZ-like states have been proposed. It is shown that one of these protocols is maximally efficient and that can be modified to an equivalent protocol of quantum secure direct communication (QSDC). Security and efficiency of the proposed protocols are analyzed and compared. It is shown that dense coding is sufficient but not essential for DSQC and QSDC protocols. Maximally efficient QSDC protocols are shown to be more efficient than their DSQC counterparts. This additional efficiency arises at the cost of message transmission rate. -- Highlights: ► Two protocols for deterministic secure quantum communication (DSQC) are proposed. ► One of the above protocols is maximally efficient. ► It is modified to an equivalent protocol of quantum secure direct communication (QSDC). ► It is shown that dense coding is sufficient but not essential for DSQC and QSDC protocols. ► Efficient QSDC protocols are always more efficient than their DSQC counterparts.

  5. Multiparty quantum secret sharing of secure direct communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhanjun

    2005-01-01

    Based on the two-step protocol [F.G. Deng, G.L. Long, X.S. Liu, Phys. Rev. A 68 (2003) 042317], we propose a (n,n)-threshold multiparty quantum secret sharing protocol of secure direct communication. In our protocol, the sender's secure direct communication message can be extracted only if all the sharers collaborate. We show a variant version of this protocol based on the variant two-step protocol. This variant version can considerably reduce the realization difficulty in experiment. In contrast to the use of multi-particle GHZ states in the case that the sharer number is larger than 3, the use and identification of Bell states are enough in our two protocols disregarding completely the sharer number, hence, our protocols are more feasible in technique

  6. Robust Quantum Secure Direct Communication over Collective Rotating Channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Sujuan; Gao Fei; Wen Qiaoyan; Zhu Fuchen

    2010-01-01

    A quantum secure direct communication protocol over a collective rotating channel is proposed. The protocol encodes logical bits in noiseless subspaces, and so it can function over a quantum channel subjected to an arbitrary degree of collective rotating noise. Although entangled states are used, both the sender and receiver are only required to perform single-particle product measurement or Pauli operations. The protocol is feasible with present-day technique. (general)

  7. Multiparty Quantum Secret Sharing of Secure Direct Communication Using Teleportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jian; Zhang Quan; Tang Chaojing

    2007-01-01

    We present an (n,n) threshold quantum secret sharing scheme of secure direct communication using Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state and teleportation. After ensuring the security of the quantum channel, the sender encodes the secret message directly on a sequence of particle states and transmits it to the receivers by teleportation. The receivers can recover the secret message by combining their measurement results with the sender's result. If a perfect quantum channel is used, our scheme is completely secure because the transmitting particle sequence does not carry the secret message. We also show our scheme is secure for noise quantum channel.

  8. Quantum Secure Direct Communication with Five-Qubit Entangled State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Song; Liu Xiao-Fen; Gao Fei

    2011-01-01

    Recently, a genuine five-qubit entangled state has been achieved by Brown et al.[J. Phys. A 38 (2005) 1119]. Later it was indicated that this state can be used for quantum teleportation and quantum state sharing. Here we build a quantum secure direct communication protocol with this state, and prove that it is secure in ideal conditions. In the protocol, the sender performs unitary transformations to encode a secret message on his/her particles and sends them to the receiver. The receiver then performs projective determinate measurement to decode the secret message directly. Furthermore, this protocol utilizes superdense coding to achieve a high intrinsic efficiency and source capacity. (general)

  9. Quantum secure direct communication by EPR pairs and entanglement swapping

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, T; Yan, F L; 10.1393/ncb/i2004-10090-1

    2004-01-01

    We present, a quantum secure direct communication scheme achieved by swapping quantum entanglement. In this scheme a set of ordered Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (HPIl) pairs is used as a quantum information channel for sending secret messages directly. After insuring the safety of the quantum channel, the sender Alice encodes the secret messages directly by applying a series local operations on her particle sequences according to their stipulation. Using three EPR pairs, three bits of secret classical information can be faithfully transmitted from Alice to remote Bob without revealing any information to a potential eavesdropper. By both Alice and Bob's GHZ state measurement results, Bob is able to read out the encoded secret messages directly. The protocol is completely secure if perfect quantum channel is used, because there is not a transmission of the qubits carrying the secret message between Alice and Bob in the public channel.

  10. Bidirectional Quantum Secure Direct Communication Network Protocol with Hyperentanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Bin; Chen Yulin; Huang Yugai; Fang Xia

    2011-01-01

    We propose a bidirectional quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) network protocol with the hyperentanglment in both the spatial-mode ad the polarization degrees of freedom of photon pairs which can in principle be produced with a beta barium borate crystal. The secret message can be encoded on the photon pairs with unitary operations in these two degrees of freedom independently. Compared with other QSDC network protocols, our QSDC network protocol has a higher capacity as each photon pair can carry 4 bits of information. Also, we discuss the security of our QSDC network protocol and its feasibility with current techniques. (general)

  11. A New Quantum Secure Direct Communication Scheme with Authentication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dan, Liu; Chang-Xing, Pei; Dong-Xiao, Quan; Nan, Zhao

    2010-01-01

    A new quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) scheme with authentication is proposed based on polarized photons and EPR pairs. EPR pairs are used to transmit information, while polarized photons are used to detect Eve and their encoding bases are used to transmit authentication information. Alice and Bob have their own identity number which is shared by legal users only. The identity number is encoded on the bases of polarized photons and distilled if there is no Eve. Compared with other QSDC schemes with authentication, this new scheme is considerably easier and less expensive to implement in a practical setting

  12. HF i dag

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindstrøm, Maria Duclos; Simonsen, Birgitte

    2008-01-01

    Notatet er lavet på baggrund af uddannelsesbiografiske dybdeinterviews med kursister på toårigt HF. Indenfor rammerne af en pilotundersøgelse identificerer notatet fire gennemgående profiler: De pragmatiske, de fagligt usikre, second chance-kursisterne, og de HF-kursister, som har HF som first...

  13. Atomic layer deposition of crystalline SrHfO{sub 3} directly on Ge (001) for high-k dielectric applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDaniel, Martin D.; Ngo, Thong Q.; Ekerdt, John G., E-mail: ekerdt@utexas.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Hu, Chengqing; Jiang, Aiting; Yu, Edward T. [Microelectronics Research Center, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78758 (United States); Lu, Sirong; Smith, David J. [Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States); Posadas, Agham; Demkov, Alexander A. [Department of Physics, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

    2015-02-07

    The current work explores the crystalline perovskite oxide, strontium hafnate, as a potential high-k gate dielectric for Ge-based transistors. SrHfO{sub 3} (SHO) is grown directly on Ge by atomic layer deposition and becomes crystalline with epitaxial registry after post-deposition vacuum annealing at ∼700 °C for 5 min. The 2 × 1 reconstructed, clean Ge (001) surface is a necessary template to achieve crystalline films upon annealing. The SHO films exhibit excellent crystallinity, as shown by x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The SHO films have favorable electronic properties for consideration as a high-k gate dielectric on Ge, with satisfactory band offsets (>2 eV), low leakage current (<10{sup −5} A/cm{sup 2} at an applied field of 1 MV/cm) at an equivalent oxide thickness of 1 nm, and a reasonable dielectric constant (k ∼ 18). The interface trap density (D{sub it}) is estimated to be as low as ∼2 × 10{sup 12 }cm{sup −2 }eV{sup −1} under the current growth and anneal conditions. Some interfacial reaction is observed between SHO and Ge at temperatures above ∼650 °C, which may contribute to increased D{sub it} value. This study confirms the potential for crystalline oxides grown directly on Ge by atomic layer deposition for advanced electronic applications.

  14. [Instrumental, directive, and affective communication in hospital leaflets].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcellos-Silva, Paulo Roberto; Uribe Rivera, Francisco Javier; Castiel, Luis David

    2003-01-01

    This study focuses on the typical semantic systems extracted from hospital staff communicative resources which attempt to validate information as an "object" to be transferred to patients. We describe the models of textual communication in 58 patient information leaflets from five hospital units in Brazil, gathered from 1996 to 2002. Three categories were identified, based on the theory of speech acts (Austin, Searle, and Habermas): 1) cognitive-instrumental utterances: descriptions by means of technical terms validated by self-referred, incomplete, or inaccessible argumentation, with an implicit educational function; 2) technical-directive utterances: self-referred (to the context of the source domains), with a shifting of everyday acts to a technical terrain with a disciplinary function and impersonal features; and 3) expressive modulations: need for inter-subjective connections to strengthen bonds of trust and a tendency to use childish arguments. We conclude that the three categories displayed: fragmentary sources; assumption of univocal messages and invariable use of information (idealized motivations and interests, apart from individualized perspectives); and assumption of universal interests as generators of knowledge.

  15. Quantum Secure Direct Communication by Using Three-Dimensional Hyperentanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Jin; Gong Yanxiao; Xu Ping; Zhu Shining; Zhan Youbang

    2011-01-01

    We propose two schemes for realizing quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) by using a set of ordered two-photon three-dimensional hyperentangled states entangled in two degrees of freedom (DOFs) as quantum information channels. In the first scheme, the photons from Bob to Alice are transmitted only once. After insuring the security of the quantum channels, Bob encodes the secret message on his photons. Then Alice performs single-photon two-DOF Bell bases measurements on her photons. This scheme has better security than former QSDC protocols. In the second scheme, Bob transmits photons to Alice twice. After insuring the security of the quantum channels, Bob encodes the secret message on his photons. Then Alice performs two-photon Bell bases measurements on each DOF. The scheme has more information capacity than former QSDC protocols. (general)

  16. New Directions in the Study of Organizational Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Donald; Farace, Richard V.

    For knowledge of organizational communication to increase, new concepts must be developed and correlative or even causal relationships between communication concepts and other organizational variables must be established. Here, meanings of "organization,""information,""communication," and "other organizational variables" are explicated, and three…

  17. Quantum secure direct communication scheme using a W state and teleportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Haijing; Song Heshan

    2006-01-01

    A theoretical scheme for quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) is proposed, where a three-qubit symmetric W state functions as a quantum channel. Two legitimate communicators can transmit their secret information by using quantum teleportation and local measurements

  18. Cholinergic neuromodulation controls directed temporal communication in neocortex in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita K Roopun

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Acetylcholine is the primary neuromodulator involved in cortical arousal in mammals. Cholinergic modulation is involved in conscious awareness, memory formation and attention – processes that involve intercommunication between different cortical regions. Such communication is achieved in part through temporal structuring of neuronal activity by population rhythms, particularly in the beta and gamma frequency ranges (12 – 80 Hz. Here we demonstrate, using in vitro and in silico models, that spectrally identical patterns of beta2 and gamma rhythms are generated in primary sensory areas and polymodal association areas by fundamentally different local circuit mechanisms: Glutamatergic excitation induced beta2 frequency population rhythms only in layer 5 association cortex whereas cholinergic neuromodulation induced this rhythm only in layer 5 primary sensory cortex. This region-specific sensitivity of local circuits to cholinergic modulation allowed for control of the extent of cortical temporal interactions. Furthermore, the contrasting mechanisms underlying these beta2 rhythms produced a high degree of directionality, favouring an influence of association cortex over primary auditory cortex.

  19. Cholinergic Neuromodulation Controls Directed Temporal Communication in Neocortex in Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roopun, Anita K.; LeBeau, Fiona E.N.; Rammell, James; Cunningham, Mark O.; Traub, Roger D.; Whittington, Miles A.

    2010-01-01

    Acetylcholine is the primary neuromodulator involved in cortical arousal in mammals. Cholinergic modulation is involved in conscious awareness, memory formation and attention – processes that involve intercommunication between different cortical regions. Such communication is achieved in part through temporal structuring of neuronal activity by population rhythms, particularly in the beta and gamma frequency ranges (12–80 Hz). Here we demonstrate, using in vitro and in silico models, that spectrally identical patterns of beta2 and gamma rhythms are generated in primary sensory areas and polymodal association areas by fundamentally different local circuit mechanisms: Glutamatergic excitation induced beta2 frequency population rhythms only in layer 5 association cortex whereas cholinergic neuromodulation induced this rhythm only in layer 5 primary sensory cortex. This region-specific sensitivity of local circuits to cholinergic modulation allowed for control of the extent of cortical temporal interactions. Furthermore, the contrasting mechanisms underlying these beta2 rhythms produced a high degree of directionality, favouring an influence of association cortex over primary auditory cortex. PMID:20407636

  20. A communication training perspective on AND versus DNR directives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Tomer T; Coyle, Nessa

    2015-04-01

    From a communication perspective, the term "do not resuscitate" (DNR) is challenging to use in end-of-life discussions because it omits the goals of care. An alternative, "Allow Natural Death" (AND), has been proposed as a better way of framing this palliative care discussion. We present a case where a nurse unsuccessfully discusses end-of-life goals of care using the term DNR. Subsequently, with the aid of a communication trainer, he is coached to successfully use the term "AND" to facilitate this discussion and advance his goal of palliative care communication and planning. We contrast the advantages and disadvantages of the term AND from the communication training perspective and suggest that AND-framing language replace DNR as a better way to facilitate meaningful end-of-life communication. One well-designed, randomized, controlled simulation study supports this practice. We also consider the communication implications of "natural" versus "unnatural" death.

  1. Direct cellular vs. indirect pager communication during orthopaedic surgical procedures: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Gil R; Taksali, Sudeep; Smart, Ryan; Baumgaertner, Michael R

    2009-01-01

    Cellular phone use within the hospital setting has increased as physicians, nurses, and ancillary staff incorporate wireless technologies in improving efficiencies, cost, and maintaining patient safety and high quality healthcare [11]. Through the use of wireless, cellular communication, an overall improvement in communication accuracy and efficiency between intraoperative orthopaedic surgeons and floor nurses may be achieved. Both communication types occurred while the surgeon was scrubbed in the operating room (OR). Indirect communication occurred when the pager call was answered by the OR circulating nurse with communication between the surgeon, circulating nurse, and floor nurse. Direct communication consisted of cell phone and Jabra Bluetooth BT200 wireless ear piece used by the surgeon. The surgeon answered the floor nurse's cellular call by phone ring-activated automatic answering. The study was conducted during scheduled orthopaedic procedures. An independent observer measured time variables with a stop-watch while orthopaedic nurses randomly called via pager or cell phone. The nurses asked for patient caregiver confirmation and answers to 30 different patient-care questions. Sixty trials were performed with 30 cell and 30 page communications. Direct cellular communication showed a better response rate than indirect page (Cell 100%, Page 73%). Indirect page communication allowed a 27% and 33% error rate with patient problem and surgeon solution communications, respectively. There were no reported communication errors while using direct wireless, cellular communication. When compared to page communications, cellular communications showed statistically significant improvements in mean time intervals in response time (Cell = 11s, Page = 211s), correct patient identification (Cell = 5s, Page = 172s), patient problem and solution time (Cell = 13s, Page = 189s), and total communication time (Cell = 32s, Page = 250s) (s = seconds, all P < 0.001). Floor nurse

  2. Utilization of antenna arrays in HF systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis Bertel

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Different applications of radio systems are based on the implementation of antenna arrays. Classically, radio direction

    finding operates with a multi channel receiving system connected to an array of receiving antennas. More

    recently, MIMO architectures have been proposed to increase the capacity of radio links by the use of antenna

    arrays at both the transmitter and receiver.

    The first part of this paper describes some novel experimental work carried out to examine the feasibility of applying

    MIMO techniques for communications within the HF radio band. A detailed correlation analysis of a variety

    of different antenna array configurations is presented. The second section of the paper also deals with HF

    MIMO communications, focusing on the problem from a modelling point of view. The third part presents a sensitivity

    analysis of different antenna array structures for HF direction finding applications. The results demonstrate

    that when modelling errors, heterogeneous antenna arrays are more robust in comparison to homogeneous structures


  3. Lossless quantum data compression and secure direct communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boström, Kim

    2004-07-01

    This thesis deals with the encoding and transmission of information through a quantum channel. A quantum channel is a quantum mechanical system whose state is manipulated by a sender and read out by a receiver. The individual state of the channel represents the message. The two topics of the thesis comprise 1) the possibility of compressing a message stored in a quantum channel without loss of information and 2) the possibility to communicate a message directly from one party to another in a secure manner, that is, a third party is not able to eavesdrop the message without being detected. The main results of the thesis are the following. A general framework for variable-length quantum codes is worked out. These codes are necessary to make lossless compression possible. Due to the quantum nature of the channel, the encoded messages are in general in a superposition of different lengths. It is found to be impossible to compress a quantum message without loss of information if the message is not apriori known to the sender. In the other case it is shown that lossless quantum data compression is possible and a lower bound on the compression rate is derived. Furthermore, an explicit compression scheme is constructed that works for arbitrarily given source message ensembles. A quantum cryptographic protocol - the “ping-pong protocol” - is presented that realizes the secure direct communication of classical messages through a quantum channel. The security of the protocol against arbitrary eavesdropping attacks is proven for the case of an ideal quantum channel. In contrast to other quantum cryptographic protocols, the ping-pong protocol is deterministic and can thus be used to transmit a random key as well as a composed message. The protocol is perfectly secure for the transmission of a key, and it is quasi-secure for the direct transmission of a message. The latter means that the probability of successful eavesdropping exponentially decreases with the length of the

  4. 26 CFR 56.4911-2 - Lobbying expenditures, direct lobbying communications, and grass roots lobbying communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... rebuttable presumption regarding certain paid mass media communications) and § 56.4911-5 (special, more... mass media communications about highly publicized legislation. Paragraph (d) of this section contains... the farm economy. The advertisement is not a mass media communication described in paragraph (b)(5)(ii...

  5. Quantum secure direct communication network with Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen pairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Fuguo; Li Xihan; Li Chunyan; Zhou Ping; Zhou Hongyu

    2006-01-01

    We discuss the four requirements for a real point-to-point quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) first, and then present two efficient QSDC network schemes with an N ordered Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen pairs. Any one of the authorized users can communicate another one on the network securely and directly

  6. 32 CFR 705.4 - Communication directly with private organizations and individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Communication directly with private... Communication directly with private organizations and individuals. (a) Questions from the public and requests... current date may be purchased from the National Archives. Details are available from: Audio-Visual Branch...

  7. Quantum secure direct communication with high-dimension quantum superdense coding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chuan; Li Yansong; Liu Xiaoshu; Deng Fuguo; Long Guilu

    2005-01-01

    A protocol for quantum secure direct communication with quantum superdense coding is proposed. It combines the ideas of block transmission, the ping-pong quantum secure direct communication protocol, and quantum superdense coding. It has the advantage of being secure and of high source capacity

  8. A Contingency Approach to Communication Skill Importance: The Impact of Occupation, Direction, and Position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Salvo, Vincent S.; Larsen, Janet K.

    1987-01-01

    Examines the impact of direction and occupation on the importance of communication skills for entry-level positions in finance, management, engineering, and law. Results substantiate a three-dimensional model (based on direction, occupation, and position) for the examination and application of communication skill importance in organization. (JD)

  9. Multilingual Communication and Language Acquisition: New Research Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canagarajah, A. Suresh; Wurr, Adrian J.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we outline the differences between a monolingual and multilingual orientation to language and language acquisition. The increasing contact between languages in the context of globalization motivates such a shift of paradigms. Multilingual communicative practices have remained vibrant in non-western communities for a long time. We…

  10. Reply to 'Comment on 'Secure direct communication with a quantum one-time-pad''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Fuguo; Long Guilu

    2005-01-01

    We reply to the preceding comment which focused on whether there exists a quantum privacy amplification technique for purifying the unknown single-photon states transmitted. In this Reply, we will show that quantum privacy amplification is principally possible, and a specific scheme for direct communication protocol based on single photons has been constructed and will be published elsewhere. Then the secure direct quantum communication is secure against the attack strategy in the preceding comment by using quantum privacy amplification directly

  11. Perspectives on Individual Differences Affecting Therapeutic Change in Communication Disorders. New Directions in Communication Disorders Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Amy L., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This volume examines the ramifications of individual differences in therapy outcomes for a wide variety of communication disorders. In an era where evidence-based practice is the clinical profession's watchword, each chapter attacks this highly relevant issue from a somewhat different perspective. In some areas of communication disorders,…

  12. Role of Self-Directed Learning in Communication Competence and Self-Efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Youngshin; Yun, Soon Young; Kim, Sun-Ae; Ahn, Eun-Kyong; Jung, Mi Sook

    2015-10-01

    Although effective self-directed learning (SDL) has been shown to improve clinical performance, little is known about its role between communication competence and communication self-efficacy in nursing students. This study aimed to identify whether SDL mediates the relationship between communication competence and communication self-efficacy. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with a sample of 213 nursing students taking a basic fundamentals of nursing course. A path diagram, using structural equation modeling, was used to estimate the direct and indirect effects of communication competence on communication self-efficacy, controlling for SDL as a mediator. A structural equation model confirmed direct and indirect effects of communication competence on communication self-efficacy when SDL was controlled as a mediator. An appropriate fit to the data was identified in this mediation model of SDL. For enhancing self-efficacy regarding communication skill, the specified SDL program based on the level of communication competence will yield more effective results. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  13. Numerical simulation of the effect of dissipation and phase fluctuation in a direct communication scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Fu; Zhu, Shi-Yao; Zhang, Jun-Xiang

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the direct counterfactual communication protocol, proposed by Salih et al (2013 Phys. Rev. Lett. 110 170502) using a single photon source under ideal conditions (no dissipation, no phase fluctuation and an infinite number of beam splitters), has attracted much interest from a broad range of scientists. In order to put the direct communication protocol into a realistic framework, we numerically simulate the effect of the dissipation and the phase fluctuation with a finite number of beam splitters. Our calculation shows that the dissipation and phase fluctuation will dramatically decrease the reliability and the efficiency of communication, and even corrupt the communication. To counteract the negative effect of dissipation, we propose the balanced dissipation method, which substantially improves the reliability of the protocol at the expense of decreasing communication efficiency. Meanwhile, our theoretical derivation shows that the reliability and efficiency of communication are independent of the input state: a single photon state or a coherent state. (paper)

  14. Numerical simulation of the effect of dissipation and phase fluctuation in a direct communication scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fu; Zhang, Jun-Xiang; Zhu, Shi-Yao

    2015-06-01

    Recently, the direct counterfactual communication protocol, proposed by Salih et al (2013 Phys. Rev. Lett. 110 170502) using a single photon source under ideal conditions (no dissipation, no phase fluctuation and an infinite number of beam splitters), has attracted much interest from a broad range of scientists. In order to put the direct communication protocol into a realistic framework, we numerically simulate the effect of the dissipation and the phase fluctuation with a finite number of beam splitters. Our calculation shows that the dissipation and phase fluctuation will dramatically decrease the reliability and the efficiency of communication, and even corrupt the communication. To counteract the negative effect of dissipation, we propose the balanced dissipation method, which substantially improves the reliability of the protocol at the expense of decreasing communication efficiency. Meanwhile, our theoretical derivation shows that the reliability and efficiency of communication are independent of the input state: a single photon state or a coherent state.

  15. HF-laser program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    Sandia's HF-laser program for FY 77 and FY 78 was revised in June 1977 in order to meet several new program milestones. Research progress is reported on: objective of HF oscillator-amplifier studies using H 2 -F 2 gas mixtures; characteristics of large-volume oscillator using H 2 -F 2 mixtures; characteristics of large-volume amplifier using H 2 -F 2 mixtures; experimental results of the oscillator-amplifier study; objective of high-quality discharge-initiated SF 6 -HI oscillator-preamplifier system; pin-discharge-initiated oscillator and first beam expander; fast-discharge-initiated preamplifiers; reflecting beam expanders for oscillator-preamplifier system; beam quality of discharge-initiated oscillator-preamplifier system; short pulse option for discharge initiated SF 6 -HI system; H 2 -F 2 electron-beam-initiated oscillator-preamplifier system; chamber for HF-laser focusing experiments; computer study of parasitic oscillations in HF amplifiers and oscillators; kinetics upgrade of HF-laser code; repetitivey ignited flowing H 2 -F 2 -O 2 mixtures; spontaneous detonations in multiatmosphere H 2 -F 2 -O 2 mixtures; high-pressure H 2 -F 2 laser studies; and time sequenced energy extraction on the high xenon laser

  16. Globalizing Technical Communication Programs: Visions, Challenges, and Emerging Directions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maylath, Bruce; Mousten, Birthe; Vandepitte, Sonia

    Speakers Maylath, Mousten and Vandepitte, co-authors of two chapters on what they call the Trans-Atlantic Project, will describe the programmatic framework for establishing the collaborative partnerships in which students studying technical writing in the U.S. work with students studying...... help achieve common program objectives, particularly in regard to intercultural negotiation and mediation processes. In addition, they will describe how they met course-specific objectives. For the technical writing course, such objectives included broadening students' awareness of the needs of readers...... translation in Europe to create procedural documents in Danish, Dutch, English, French, German and/or Italian. They will provide guidelines for  how international partnerships of this kind can be established between technical communication programs and translation programs anywhere, even in the abscence...

  17. Hybrid Polling Method for Direct Link Communication for IEEE 802.11 Wireless LANs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woo-Yong Choi

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The direct link communication between STAtions (STAs is one of the techniques to improve the MAC performance of IEEE 802.11 infrastructure networks. For the efficient direct link communication, in the literature, the simultaneous polling method was proposed to allow the multiple direct data communication to be performed simultaneously. However, the efficiency of the simultaneous polling method is affected by the interference condition. To alleviate the problem of the lower polling efficiency with the larger interference range, the hybrid polling method is proposed for the direct link communication between STAs in IEEE 802.11 infrastructure networks. By the proposed polling method, we can integrate the sequential and simultaneous polling methods properly according to the interference condition. Numerical examples are also presented to show the medium access control (MAC performance improvement by the proposed polling method.

  18. Semi-quantum communication: protocols for key agreement, controlled secure direct communication and dialogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Chitra; Thapliyal, Kishore; Pathak, Anirban

    2017-12-01

    Semi-quantum protocols that allow some of the users to remain classical are proposed for a large class of problems associated with secure communication and secure multiparty computation. Specifically, first-time semi-quantum protocols are proposed for key agreement, controlled deterministic secure communication and dialogue, and it is shown that the semi-quantum protocols for controlled deterministic secure communication and dialogue can be reduced to semi-quantum protocols for e-commerce and private comparison (socialist millionaire problem), respectively. Complementing with the earlier proposed semi-quantum schemes for key distribution, secret sharing and deterministic secure communication, set of schemes proposed here and subsequent discussions have established that almost every secure communication and computation tasks that can be performed using fully quantum protocols can also be performed in semi-quantum manner. Some of the proposed schemes are completely orthogonal-state-based, and thus, fundamentally different from the existing semi-quantum schemes that are conjugate coding-based. Security, efficiency and applicability of the proposed schemes have been discussed with appropriate importance.

  19. Bi-directional Multi Dimension CAP Transmission for Smart Grid Communication Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xu; Binti Othman, Maisara; Pang, Xiaodan

    2012-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate bi-directional multi dimension carrierless amplitude and phase (CAP) transmission for smart grid communication services based on optical fiber networks. The proposed system is able to support multi-Gb/s transmission with high spectral efficiency.......We experimentally demonstrate bi-directional multi dimension carrierless amplitude and phase (CAP) transmission for smart grid communication services based on optical fiber networks. The proposed system is able to support multi-Gb/s transmission with high spectral efficiency....

  20. Evaluating communication to optimise consumer-directed energy efficiency interventions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Awareness campaigns, education and training programmes, label schemes and smart metering are all initiatives based on the principle that more and better information will encourage consumers to use less energy. Initiatives of this type can realise efficiency savings of up to 30%, and are likely to remain politically popular while preferred by the public to legislation or fines. While widespread, such programmes can have mixed performance, with savings often not reaching potential. This article investigates whether existing theoretical models can usefully be combined for evaluations of such message-oriented programmes. To do this it examines relationships between the variables of the Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) and Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) using empirical data from participants exposed to energy behaviour change projects. Analysis revealed that when used together, the theories may offer insight into the impact of messaging. While a single exploratory study can only describe what has occurred, it offers initial evidence to advocate further analysis of the potential of the combined framework. The author offers an illustration of how the framework might be utilised by other schemes by example of its application to a major EU project to save energy in Europe’s public buildings. - Highlights: • Consumer energy saving schemes have huge potential as a route to emissions reduction. • Mixed performance could be addressed by focus on impact of communication. • Evidence from exploratory study supports case for proposed evaluation framework. • Framework is illustrated at varying stages: planning, mid-term, and impact

  1. High-aspect-ratio HfC nanobelts accompanied by HfC nanowires: Synthesis, characterization and field emission properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Song, E-mail: tiansong22@126.com [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing Jiaotong University, Chongqing 400074 (China); Zhang, Yulei; Ren, Jincui; Qiang, Xinfa; Zhang, Shouyang [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China); Li, Hejun, E-mail: lihejun@nwpu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China)

    2017-04-30

    Highlights: • HfC naobelts accompanied by HfC nanowires were synthesized by a catalytic CVD method. • HfC nanobelts as a novel structure of HfC ceramic are reported for the first time. • HfC nanobelts have 100–200 μm in lengths and reach up to 10 μm in widths. • The synthesized product is promising field nanoemitters. - Abstract: As a key refractory carbide, hafnium carbide (HfC) is commonly used as structural materials while the field emission (FE) application of HfC in the field of vacuum microelectronics is almost the only one for functional material purposes. Based on its outstanding physical and chemical characteristics, HfC is identified as a potential candidate with satisfactory mechanical properties and long-term and/or high-temperature FE stability for future applications in high-performance field emitters. However, the development of HfC in various FE applications is hindered because it is not facile to fabricate large-scale low-dimensional HfC field nanoemitters. Herein, High-aspect-ratio HfC nanobelts accompanied by HfC nanowires were synthesized on a large scale by a traditional and simple catalytic chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. Classical vapor–liquid–solid (VLS) theory was employed to explain the growth of the HfC nanowires and nanobelts along axial direction. The thin HfO{sub 2} shell and thin C layer surrounding the nanostructures might give rise to the diameter fluctuation of HfC nanowires and the width increase of HfC nanobelts in lateral direction. Field emission results show that the high-aspect-ratio HfC nanobelts accompanied by the nanowires are promising field nanoemitters, which exhibit excellent field emission properties with a fairly low turn-on field of ∼1.5 V μm{sup −1} and a low current fluctuation less than ∼10%. This suggests that HfC ceramics with high-aspect-ratio nanostructures are ideal cathode material for various field emission applications.

  2. Medicine, market and communication: ethical considerations in regard to persuasive communication in direct-to-consumer genetic testing services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaper, Manuel; Schicktanz, Silke

    2018-06-05

    Commercial genetic testing offered over the internet, known as direct-to-consumer genetic testing (DTC GT), currently is under ethical attack. A common critique aims at the limited validation of the tests as well as the risk of psycho-social stress or adaption of incorrect behavior by users triggered by misleading health information. Here, we examine in detail the specific role of advertising communication of DTC GT companies from a medical ethical perspective. Our argumentative analysis departs from the starting point that DTC GT operates at the intersection of two different contexts: medicine on the one hand and the market on the other. Both fields differ strongly with regard to their standards of communication practices and the underlying normative assumptions regarding autonomy and responsibility. Following a short review of the ethical contexts of medical and commercial communication, we provide case examples for persuasive messages of DTC GT websites and briefly analyze their design with a multi-modal approach to illustrate some of their problematic implications. We observe three main aspects in DTC GT advertising communication: (1) the use of material suggesting medical professional legitimacy as a trust-establishing tool, (2) the suggestion of empowerment as a benefit of using DTC GT services and (3) the narrative of responsibility as a persuasive appeal to a moral self-conception. While strengthening and respecting the autonomy of a patient is the focus in medical communication, specifically genetic counselling, persuasive communication is the normal mode in marketing of consumer goods, presuming an autonomous, rational, independent consumer. This creates tension in the context of DTC GT regarding the expectation and normative assessment of communication strategies. Our analysis can even the ground for a better understanding of ethical problems associated with intersections of medical and commercial communication and point to perspectives of analysis of

  3. Communication: Direct tests of single-parameter aging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hecksher, Tina; Olsen, Niels Boye; Dyre, Jeppe C.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents accurate data for the physical aging of organic glasses just below the glass transition probed by monitoring the following quantities after temperature up and down jumps: the shear-mechanical resonance frequency (∼360 kHz), the dielectric loss at 1 Hz, the real part of the die......This paper presents accurate data for the physical aging of organic glasses just below the glass transition probed by monitoring the following quantities after temperature up and down jumps: the shear-mechanical resonance frequency (∼360 kHz), the dielectric loss at 1 Hz, the real part...... Tool-Narayanaswamy aging formalism, which makes it possible to calculate one relaxation curve directly from another without any fitting to analytical functions....

  4. Very short intracavity directional coupler for high-speed communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffel, Giora

    1993-07-01

    We propose a novel intracavity modulator/switch that consists of a directional-coupler located inside a Fabry-Perot cavity. The back mirror of the cavity has a unit reflectivity so that both input and output signals are at the same side. In this way we obtain a two-port, single side element, with coupling length of 83.5 μm, which is the shortest modulation coupler proposed so far. The upper frequency limit due to photon lifetime is 275 GHz, which is well over the bandwidth constraints of microwave lumped structures. A unified approach for the analysis of this device and other similar structures is presented and discussed.

  5. Directional antenna array (DAA) for communications, control, and data link protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molchanov, Pavlo A.; Contarino, Vincent M.

    2013-06-01

    A next generation of Smart antennas with point-to-point communication and jam, spoof protection capability by verification of spatial position is offered. A directional antenna array (DAA) with narrow irradiation beam provides counter terrorism protection for communications, data link, control and GPS. Communications are "invisible" to guided missiles because of 20 dB smaller irradiation outside the beam and spatial separation. This solution can be implemented with current technology. Directional antennas have higher gain and can be multi-frequency or have wide frequency band in contrast to phase antenna arrays. This multi-directional antenna array provides a multi-functional communication network and simultaneously can be used for command control, data link and GPS.

  6. Direction of CRT waste glass processing: electronics recycling industry communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Julia R; Boehm, Michael W; Drummond, Charles

    2012-08-01

    Cathode Ray Tube, CRT, waste glass recycling has plagued glass manufacturers, electronics recyclers and electronics waste policy makers for decades because the total supply of waste glass exceeds demand, and the formulations of CRT glass are ill suited for most reuse options. The solutions are to separate the undesirable components (e.g. lead oxide) in the waste and create demand for new products. Achieving this is no simple feat, however, as there are many obstacles: limited knowledge of waste glass composition; limited automation in the recycling process; transportation of recycled material; and a weak and underdeveloped market. Thus one of the main goals of this paper is to advise electronic glass recyclers on how to best manage a diverse supply of glass waste and successfully market to end users. Further, this paper offers future directions for academic and industry research. To develop the recommendations offered here, a combination of approaches were used: (1) a thorough study of historic trends in CRT glass chemistry; (2) bulk glass collection and analysis of cullet from a large-scale glass recycler; (3) conversations with industry members and a review of potential applications; and (4) evaluation of the economic viability of specific uses for recycled CRT glass. If academia and industry can solve these problems (for example by creating a database of composition organized by manufacturer and glass source) then the reuse of CRT glass can be increased. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. HF/DF chemical labs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meinzer, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    This paper provides the essential details to understand and design HF/DF and related types of chemical lasers. The basic operation of the HF/DF chemical laser is described. The details of the excitation chemistry are presented and the pertinent laser physics is described. A description of the various laser components is given and the analytical models for the HF/DF chemical laser are discussed. A brief description of the chain reaction HF/DF chemical laser is offered

  8. Direction of CRT waste glass processing: Electronics recycling industry communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, Julia R.; Boehm, Michael W.; Drummond, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Given a large flow rate of CRT glass ∼10% of the panel glass stream will be leaded. ► The supply of CRT waste glass exceeded demand in 2009. ► Recyclers should use UV-light to detect lead oxide during the separation process. ► Recycling market analysis techniques and results are given for CRT glass. ► Academic initiatives and the necessary expansion of novel product markets are discussed. - Abstract: Cathode Ray Tube, CRT, waste glass recycling has plagued glass manufacturers, electronics recyclers and electronics waste policy makers for decades because the total supply of waste glass exceeds demand, and the formulations of CRT glass are ill suited for most reuse options. The solutions are to separate the undesirable components (e.g. lead oxide) in the waste and create demand for new products. Achieving this is no simple feat, however, as there are many obstacles: limited knowledge of waste glass composition; limited automation in the recycling process; transportation of recycled material; and a weak and underdeveloped market. Thus one of the main goals of this paper is to advise electronic glass recyclers on how to best manage a diverse supply of glass waste and successfully market to end users. Further, this paper offers future directions for academic and industry research. To develop the recommendations offered here, a combination of approaches were used: (1) a thorough study of historic trends in CRT glass chemistry; (2) bulk glass collection and analysis of cullet from a large-scale glass recycler; (3) conversations with industry members and a review of potential applications; and (4) evaluation of the economic viability of specific uses for recycled CRT glass. If academia and industry can solve these problems (for example by creating a database of composition organized by manufacturer and glass source) then the reuse of CRT glass can be increased.

  9. Performance Analysis of Mobile Ad Hoc Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Communication Networks with Directional Antennas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel Ilah Alshbatat

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs have the potential of creating an ad hoc communication network in the air. Most UAVs used in communication networks are equipped with wireless transceivers using omnidirectional antennas. In this paper, we consider a collection of UAVs that communicate through wireless links as a mobile ad-hoc network using directional antennas. The network design goal is to maximize the throughput and minimize the end-to-end delay. In this respect, we propose a new medium access control protocol for a network of UAVs with directional antennas. We analyze the communication channel between the UAVs and the effect of aircraft attitude on the network performance. Using the optimized network engineering tool (OPNET, we compare our protocol with the IEEE 802.11 protocol for omnidirectional antennas. The simulation results show performance improvement in end-to-end delay as well as throughput.

  10. Multi-user bidirectional communication using isochronal synchronisation of array of chaotic directly modulated semiconductor lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishna, Bindu M.; John, Manu P.; Nandakumaran, V.M.

    2010-01-01

    Isochronal synchronisation between the elements of an array of three mutually coupled directly modulated semiconductor lasers is utilized for the purpose of simultaneous bidirectional secure communication. Chaotic synchronisation is achieved by adding the coupling signal to the self feedback signal provided to each element of the array. A symmetric coupling is effective in inducing synchronisation between the elements of the array. This coupling scheme provides a direct link between every pair of elements thus making the method suitable for simultaneous bidirectional communication between them. Both analog and digital messages are successfully encrypted and decrypted simultaneously by each element of the array.

  11. Direct observation of weight-related communication in primary care: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHale, Calum T; Laidlaw, Anita H; Cecil, Joanne E

    2016-08-01

    Primary care is ideally placed to play an effective role in patient weight management; however, patient weight is seldom discussed in this context. A synthesis of studies that directly observe weight discussion in primary care is required to more comprehensively understand and improve primary care weight-related communication. To systematically identify and examine primary care observational research that investigates weight-related communication and its relationship to patient weight outcomes. A systematic review of literature published up to August 2015, using seven electronic databases (including MEDLINE, Scopus and PsycINFO), was conducted using search terms such as overweight, obese and/or doctor-patient communication. Twenty papers were included in the final review. Communication analysis focused predominantly on 'practitioner' use of specific patient-centred communication. Practitioner use of motivational interviewing was associated with improved patient weight-related outcomes, including patient weight loss and increased patient readiness to lose weight; however, few studies measured patient weight-related outcomes. Studies directly observing weight-related communication in primary care are scarce and limited by a lack of focus on patient communication and patient weight-related outcomes. Future research should measure practitioner and patient communications during weight discussion and their impact on patient weight-related outcomes. This knowledge may inform the development of a communication intervention to assist practitioners to more effectively discuss weight with their overweight and/or obese patients. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Healthcare professionals' self-reported experiences and preferences related to direct healthcare professional communications : a survey conducted in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piening, Sigrid; Haaijer-Ruskamp, Flora M.; de Graeff, Pieter A.; Straus, Sabine M. J. M.; Mol, Peter G. M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: In Europe, Direct Healthcare Professional Communications (DHPCs) are important tools to inform healthcare professionals of serious, new drug safety issues. However, this tool has not always been successful in effectively communicating the desired actions to healthcare professionals.

  13. PEMISAHAN Zr – Hf SECARA SINAMBUNG MENGGUNAKAN MIXER SETTLER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Biyantoro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK PEMISAHAN Zr – Hf SECARA SINAMBUNG MENGGUNAKANMIXER SETTLER. Telah dilakukan pemisahanZr – Hf secara sinambung menggunakan pengaduk pengenap (mixer settler 16 stage. Larutan umpan adalah zirkon nitrat dengan kadar Zr = 30786 ppm dan Hf = 499 ppm. Ekstraktan dipakai adalah solven 60 % TBP dalam kerosen dan larutan scrubbingyang dipakai adalah asam nitrat 1 M. Umpan masuk pada stageke 5 dikontakkan secara berlawanan arah dengan solven masuk pada stage ke 16 dan larutan scrubbing masuk pada stage ke 1. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah memisahkan unsur Zr dan Hf dari hasil olah pasir zirkon menggunakan solven TBP dengan alat mixer settler16 stage. Analisis umpan dan hasil proses pemisahan untuk zirkonium (Zr dilakukan dengan menggunakan alat pendar sinar-X, sedangkananalisis unsur hafnium (Hf menggunakan Analisis Pengaktifan Neutron (APN. Parameter penelitian dilakukan dengan variasi keasaman asam nitrat dalam umpan dan variasi waktu pada berbagai laju pengadukan. Hasil penelitian pemisahan unsur Zr dengan Hf diperolehkondisi optimum pada keasaman umpan 4 N HNO3, keseimbangan dicapai setelah 3jam dan laju pengadukan 3300 rpm. Hasil ekstrak  unsur zirkon (Zr diperoleh kadar sebesar 28577 ppm dengan efisiensi 92,76 % serta kadar pengotor hafnium (Hf sebesar 95 ppm. Kata Kunci: pemisahan Zr, Hf, ekstraksi, mixer settler, alat pendar sinar-X, APN. ABSTRACT SEPARATION of Zr - Hf CONTINUOUSLY USE THE MIXER SETTLER. Separation of Zr - Hf continuously using mixer settler 16 stage has been done. The feed solution is zircon nitrate concentration of Zr = 30786 ppm  and Hf = 499 ppm. As the solvent used extractant 60 % TBP in 40 % kerosene. Nitric acid solution used srubbing 1 M. The feed entered into stage to 5 is contacted with solvents direction on the stage to 16 and the scrubbing solution enter the stage to 1. The purpose of this study is to separate Zr and Hf of the results from the process of zircon sand using solvent TBP using 16 stage

  14. Two-step quantum direct communication protocol using the Einstein- Podolsky-Rosen pair block

    CERN Document Server

    Fu Guo Deng; Xiao Shu Liu; 10.1103/PhysRevA.68.042317

    2003-01-01

    A protocol for quantum secure direct communication using blocks of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) pairs is proposed. A set of ordered N EPR pairs is used as a data block for sending secret message directly. The ordered N EPR set is divided into two particle sequences, a checking sequence and a message-coding sequence. After transmitting the checking sequence, the two parties of communication check eavesdropping by measuring a fraction of particles randomly chosen, with random choice of two sets of measuring bases. After insuring the security of the quantum channel, the sender Alice encodes the secret message directly on the message-coding sequence and sends them to Bob. By combining the checking and message-coding sequences together, Bob is able to read out the encoded messages directly. The scheme is secure because an eavesdropper cannot get both sequences simultaneously. We also discuss issues in a noisy channel. (30 refs).

  15. Network-Assisted Device-to-Device (D2D) Direct Proximity Discovery with Underlay Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pratas, Nuno; Popovski, Petar

    2015-01-01

    ) direct communication between proximate devices. While (ii) is treated extensively in the recent literature, (i) has received relatively little attention. In this paper we analyze a network-assisted underlay proximity discovery protocol, where a cellular device can take the role of: announcer (which......Device-to-Device communications are expected to play an important role in current and future cellular generations, by increasing the spatial reuse of spectrum resources and enabling lower latency communication links. This paradigm has two fundamental building blocks: (i) proximity discovery and (ii......, we consider the case where the announcers underlay their messages in the downlink transmissions that are directed towards the monitoring devices. We propose a power control scheme applied to the downlink transmission, which copes with the underlay transmission via additional power expenditure, while...

  16. Parents' Child-Directed Communication and Child Language Development: A Longitudinal Study with Italian Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majorano, Marinella; Rainieri, Chiara; Corsano, Paola

    2013-01-01

    The present study focuses on the characteristics of parental child-directed communication and its relationship with child language development. For this purpose, thirty-six toddlers (18 males and 18 females) and their parents were observed in a laboratory during triadic free play at ages 1;3 and 1;9. The characteristics of the maternal and…

  17. 16-level differential phase shift keying (D16PSK) in direct detection optical communication systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sambaraju, R.; Tokle, Torger; Jensen, J.B.

    2006-01-01

    Optical 16-level differential phase shift keying (D16PSK) carrying four bits for every symbol is proposed for direct detection optical communication systems. Transmitter and receiver schematics are presented, and the receiver sensitivity is discussed. We numerically investigate the impact...

  18. Direct estimation of functionals of density operators by local operations and classical communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, Carolina Moura; Horodecki, Pawel; Oi, Daniel K. L.; Kwek, L. C.; Ekert, Artur K.

    2003-01-01

    We present a method of direct estimation of important properties of a shared bipartite quantum state, within the ''distant laboratories'' paradigm, using only local operations and classical communication. We apply this procedure to spectrum estimation of shared states, and locally implementable structural physical approximations to incompletely positive maps. This procedure can also be applied to the estimation of channel capacity and measures of entanglement

  19. HF-laser program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    The HF laser is an attractive candidate driver for a large-system ICF scientific demonstration facility, for an ICF experimental power reactor and for a commercial laser--fusion power reactor. Previous accomplishments of the program have included demonstrations of high efficiency and high energy capability, efficient energy extraction from HF amplifiers, good beam quality and focusability, and short-pulse generation and amplification. In the reporting period, beam quality has been determined to be near-diffraction limited for a short pulsewidth (6 ns to 25 ns) oscillator-amplifier chain, suppression of amplified spontaneous emission has been demonstrated on an individual spectral line, high-pressure characteristics have been determined for the Phoenix I amplifier, and detailed comparisions between the kinetic code and experiments have been made. Details of two major upcoming experiments are also included. The first is energy extraction and beam quality measurements on the Phoenix I amplifier operating under saturated output power conditions. The second experiment, using a newly designed amplifier (Phoenix II), is designed to demonstrate the concept of angular-multiplexing: a pulse width-compression scheme

  20. Pulsed inductive HF laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Razhev, A M; Kargapol' tsev, E S [Institute of Laser Physics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Churkin, D S; Demchuk, S V [Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2016-03-31

    We report the results of experimentally investigated dependences of temporal, spectral and spatial characteristics of an inductive HF-laser generation on the pump conditions. Gas mixtures H{sub 2} – F{sub 2}(NF{sub 3} or SF6{sub 6}) and He(Ne) – H{sub 2} – F{sub 2}(NF{sub 3} or SF{sub 6}) were used as active media. The FWHM pulse duration reached 0.42 μs. This value corresponded to a pulsed power of 45 kW. For the first time, the emission spectrum of an inductive HF laser was investigated, which consisted of seven groups of bands with centres around the wavelengths of 2732, 2736, 2739, 2835, 2837, 2893 and 2913 nm. The cross section profile of the laser beam was a ring with a diameter of about 20 mm and width of about 5 mm. Parameters of laser operation in the repetitively pulsed regime were sufficiently stable. The amplitude instability of light pulses was no greater than 5% – 6%. (lasers)

  1. Deterministic secure direct communication using GHZ states and swapping quantum entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, T; Yan, F L; Wang, Z X

    2005-01-01

    We present a deterministic secure direct communication scheme via entanglement swapping, where a set of ordered maximally entangled three-particle states (GHZ states), initially shared by three spatially separated parties, Alice, Bob and Charlie, functions as a quantum information channel. After ensuring the safety of the quantum channel, Alice and Bob apply a series of local operations on their respective particles according to the tripartite stipulation and the secret message they both want to send to Charlie. By three of Alice, Bob and Charlie's Bell measurement results, Charlie is able to infer the secret messages directly. The secret messages are faithfully transmitted from Alice and Bob to Charlie via initially shared pairs of GHZ states without revealing any information to a potential eavesdropper. Since there is no transmission of the qubits carrying the secret message between any two of them in the public channel, it is completely secure for direct secret communication if a perfect quantum channel is used

  2. A generalized architecture of quantum secure direct communication for N disjointed users with authentication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farouk, Ahmed; Zakaria, Magdy; Megahed, Adel; Omara, Fatma A.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we generalize a secured direct communication process between N users with partial and full cooperation of quantum server. So, N - 1 disjointed users u1, u2, …, uN-1 can transmit a secret message of classical bits to a remote user uN by utilizing the property of dense coding and Pauli unitary transformations. The authentication process between the quantum server and the users are validated by EPR entangled pair and CNOT gate. Afterwards, the remained EPR will generate shared GHZ states which are used for directly transmitting the secret message. The partial cooperation process indicates that N - 1 users can transmit a secret message directly to a remote user uN through a quantum channel. Furthermore, N - 1 users and a remote user uN can communicate without an established quantum channel among them by a full cooperation process. The security analysis of authentication and communication processes against many types of attacks proved that the attacker cannot gain any information during intercepting either authentication or communication processes. Hence, the security of transmitted message among N users is ensured as the attacker introduces an error probability irrespective of the sequence of measurement.

  3. High-Capacity Quantum Secure Direct Communication Based on Quantum Hyperdense Coding with Hyperentanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Tie-Jun; Li Tao; Du Fang-Fang; Deng Fu-Guo

    2011-01-01

    We present a quantum hyperdense coding protocol with hyperentanglement in polarization and spatial-mode degrees of freedom of photons first and then give the details for a quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) protocol based on this quantum hyperdense coding protocol. This QSDC protocol has the advantage of having a higher capacity than the quantum communication protocols with a qubit system. Compared with the QSDC protocol based on superdense coding with d-dimensional systems, this QSDC protocol is more feasible as the preparation of a high-dimension quantum system is more difficult than that of a two-level quantum system at present. (general)

  4. Controlled quantum secure direct communication using a non-symmetric quantum channel with quantum superdense coding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, Yan; Song, He-Shan

    2007-01-01

    We present a controlled quantum secure direct communication protocol that uses a 2-dimensional Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) entangled state and a 3-dimensional Bell-basis state and employs the high-dimensional quantum superdense coding, local collective unitary operations and entanglement swapping. The proposed protocol is secure and of high source capacity. It can effectively protect the communication against a destroying-travel-qubit-type attack. With this protocol, the information transmission is greatly increased. This protocol can also be modified, so that it can be used in a multi-party control system

  5. Visual elements in direct-to-consumer advertising: Messages communicated to patients with arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Erin

    2017-01-01

    Direct-to-consumer (DTC) advertising saturates popular health magazines, communicating persuasive messages to readers that may influence attitudes and behaviors. This research used a two-prong approach to investigate the visual elements used in DTC advertising and their influence on consumers' understanding of a disease and its treatment options. An analysis was conducted of DTC advertisements (N = 62) from a population sample of Arthritis Today magazine, 2000-2010. Three panels of people with arthritis were used to validate the findings and discuss implications for health literacy. Pharmaceutical companies have an opportunity to communicate tailored messages to readers of niche publications and improve disease management.

  6. HF-DLLME

    OpenAIRE

    Simão, Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    Tese (doutorado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro de Ciências Físicas e Matemáticas, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Química, Florianópolis, 2015. Neste trabalho foi proposto, pela primeira vez, a combinação simultânea das técnicas de microextração em fase líquida suportada em fibra oca (HF-LPME) e microextração líquido-líquido dispersiva (DLLME) para aplicação em amostras líquidas. Dois estudos foram desenvolvidos utilizando a metodologia proposta, a qua...

  7. High energy HF pulsed lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, E.L.; Gerber, R.A.

    1976-01-01

    Recent experiments show that pulsed HF lasers are capable of producing high energy with good efficiency. Preliminary experiments show that the laser radiation from the high-gain medium can be controlled with a low-power probe laser beam or with low-level feedback. These results indicate that the HF laser may have potential for second-generation laser fusion experiments

  8. NASA space communications R and D (Research and Development): Issues, derived benefits, and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-02-01

    Space communication is making immense strides since ECHO was launched in 1962. It was a simple passive reflector of signals that demonstrated the concept. Today, satellites incorporating transponders, sophisticated high-gain antennas, and stabilization systems provide voice, video, and data communications to millions of people nationally and worldwide. Applications of emerging technology, typified by NASA's Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) to be launched in 1992, will use newer portions of the frequency spectrum (the Ka-band at 30/20 GHz), along with antennas and signal-processing that could open yet new markets and services. Government programs, directly or indirectly, are responsible for many space communications accomplishments. They are sponsored and funded in part by NASA and the U.S. Department of Defense since the early 1950s. The industry is growing rapidly and is achieving international preeminence under joint private and government sponsorship. Now, however, the U.S. space communications industry - satellite manufacturers and users, launch services providers, and communications services companies - are being forced to adapt to a different environment. International competition is growing, and terrestrial technologies such as fiber optics are claiming markets until recently dominated by satellites. At the same time, advancing technology is opening up opportunities for new applications and new markets in space exploration, for defense, and for commercial applications of several types. Space communications research, development, and applications (RD and A) programs need to adjust to these realities, be better coordinated and more efficient, and be more closely attuned to commercial markets. The programs must take advantage of RD and A results in other agencies - and in other nations.

  9. Semi-quantum Secure Direct Communication Scheme Based on Bell States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Chen; Li, Lvzhou; Situ, Haozhen; He, Jianhao

    2018-06-01

    Recently, the idea of semi-quantumness has been often used in designing quantum cryptographic schemes, which allows some of the participants of a quantum cryptographic scheme to remain classical. One of the reasons why this idea is popular is that it allows a quantum information processing task to be accomplished by using quantum resources as few as possible. In this paper, we extend the idea to quantum secure direct communication(QSDC) by proposing a semi-quantum secure direct communication scheme. In the scheme, the message sender, Alice, encodes each bit into a Bell state |φ+> = 1/{√2}(|00> +|11> ) or |{Ψ }+> = 1/{√ 2}(|01> +|10> ), and the message receiver, Bob, who is classical in the sense that he can either let the qubit he received reflect undisturbed, or measure the qubit in the computational basis |0>, |1> and then resend it in the state he found. Moreover, the security analysis of our scheme is also given.

  10. Quantum secure direct communication network with superdense coding and decoy photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Fuguo; Li Xihan; Li Chunyan; Zhou Ping; Zhou Hongyu

    2007-01-01

    A quantum secure direct communication network scheme is proposed with quantum superdense coding and decoy photons. The servers on a passive optical network prepare and measure the quantum signal, i.e. a sequence of the d-dimensional Bell states. After confirming the security of the photons received from the receiver, the sender codes his secret message on them directly. For preventing a dishonest server from eavesdropping, some decoy photons prepared by measuring one photon in the Bell states are used to replace some original photons. One of the users on the network can communicate to any other one. This scheme has the advantage of high capacity, and it is more convenient than others as only a sequence of photons is transmitted in quantum line

  11. Cryptanalysis of Quantum Secure Direct Communication and Authentication Scheme via Bell States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Fei; Qin Su-Juan; Guo Fen-Zhuo; Wen Qiao-Yan

    2011-01-01

    The security of the quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) and authentication protocol based on Bell states is analyzed. It is shown that an eavesdropper can invalidate the authentication function, and implement a successful man-in-the-middle attack, where he/she can obtain or even modify the transmitted secret without introducing any error. The particular attack strategy is demonstrated and an improved protocol is presented. (general)

  12. Establishing rational networking using the DL04 quantum secure direct communication protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Huawang; Tang, Wallace K. S.; Tso, Raylin

    2018-06-01

    The first rational quantum secure direct communication scheme is proposed, in which we use the game theory with incomplete information to model the rational behavior of the participant, and give the strategy space and utility function. The rational participant can get his maximal utility when he performs the protocol faithfully, and then the Nash equilibrium of the protocol can be achieved. Compared to the traditional schemes, our scheme will be more practical in the presence of rational participant.

  13. Aspects of HF radio propagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephane Saillant

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available

    radio systems. From the point of view Working Group 2 of the COST 296 Action, interest lies with effects associated

    with propagation via the ionosphere of signals within the HF band. Several aspects are covered in this paper:

    a The directions of arrival and times of flight of signals received over a path oriented along the trough have

    been examined and several types of propagation effects identified. Of particular note, combining the HF observations

    with satellite measurements has identified the presence of irregularities within the floor of the trough that

    result in propagation displaced from the great circle direction. An understanding of the propagation effects that

    result in deviations of the signal path from the great circle direction are of particular relevance to the operation

    of HF radiolocation systems.

    b Inclusion of the results from the above mentioned measurements into a propagation model of the northerly

    ionosphere (i.e. those regions of the ionosphere located poleward of, and including, the mid-latitude trough

    and the use of this model to predict the coverage expected from transmitters where the signals impinge on the

    northerly ionosphere

  14. [The Support System for Diabetic Patients at Home with Bi-Directional IT Communication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Masakazu; Hosoda, Kiminori; Eguchi, Kyoko; Nishijima, Yuki; Nakao, Kazuwa; Kinoshita, Ayae

    2010-12-01

    The present study analyzed the effects of bi-directional IT communication on the purpose of preventing diabetes progression and to reduce a caregiver burden. Diabetic patients were informed of the nature and purpose of the study before giving their voluntary consents to participate in the study. For the period of 12 weeks, a diabetic patient and his caregiver were communicated with a nurse through the TV telephone for 30 minutes once a week. Medical staff checked the list of weight change, compliance check, exercise habit, and attached pictures of the plate with a diabetic patient through the TV telephone in real time. We encouraged a diabetic patient to eat properly based on the diet record. The 12-week TV telephone communication resulted in the body weight decrease and HbA1c. There was a consciousness change about their daily eating habit. In the present study, the 12-week TV telephone communication once a week might be useful as an auxiliary therapy for changing a bad daily habit to a good daily habit for a diabetic patient at home.

  15. Direct-to-Earth Communications with Mars Science Laboratory During Entry, Descent, and Landing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano, Melissa; Finley, Susan; Fort, David; Schratz, Brian; Ilott, Peter; Mukai, Ryan; Estabrook, Polly; Oudrhiri, Kamal; Kahan, Daniel; Satorius, Edgar

    2013-01-01

    Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) undergoes extreme heating and acceleration during Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) on Mars. Unknown dynamics lead to large Doppler shifts, making communication challenging. During EDL, a special form of Multiple Frequency Shift Keying (MFSK) communication is used for Direct-To-Earth (DTE) communication. The X-band signal is received by the Deep Space Network (DSN) at the Canberra Deep Space Communication complex, then down-converted, digitized, and recorded by open-loop Radio Science Receivers (RSR), and decoded in real-time by the EDL Data Analysis (EDA) System. The EDA uses lock states with configurable Fast Fourier Transforms to acquire and track the signal. RSR configuration and channel allocation is shown. Testing prior to EDL is discussed including software simulations, test bed runs with MSL flight hardware, and the in-flight end-to-end test. EDA configuration parameters and signal dynamics during pre-entry, entry, and parachute deployment are analyzed. RSR and EDA performance during MSL EDL is evaluated, including performance using a single 70-meter DSN antenna and an array of two 34-meter DSN antennas as a back up to the 70-meter antenna.

  16. Event-Triggered Distributed Average Consensus Over Directed Digital Networks With Limited Communication Bandwidth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huaqing; Chen, Guo; Huang, Tingwen; Dong, Zhaoyang; Zhu, Wei; Gao, Lan

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we consider the event-triggered distributed average-consensus of discrete-time first-order multiagent systems with limited communication data rate and general directed network topology. In the framework of digital communication network, each agent has a real-valued state but can only exchange finite-bit binary symbolic data sequence with its neighborhood agents at each time step due to the digital communication channels with energy constraints. Novel event-triggered dynamic encoder and decoder for each agent are designed, based on which a distributed control algorithm is proposed. A scheme that selects the number of channel quantization level (number of bits) at each time step is developed, under which all the quantizers in the network are never saturated. The convergence rate of consensus is explicitly characterized, which is related to the scale of network, the maximum degree of nodes, the network structure, the scaling function, the quantization interval, the initial states of agents, the control gain and the event gain. It is also found that under the designed event-triggered protocol, by selecting suitable parameters, for any directed digital network containing a spanning tree, the distributed average consensus can be always achieved with an exponential convergence rate based on merely one bit information exchange between each pair of adjacent agents at each time step. Two simulation examples are provided to illustrate the feasibility of presented protocol and the correctness of the theoretical results.

  17. A two-step quantum secure direct communication protocol with hyperentanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Bin; Zhang Cheng-Yi; Huang Yu-Gai; Fang Xia

    2011-01-01

    We propose a two-step quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) protocol with hyperentanglement in both the spatial-mode and the polarization degrees of freedom of photon pairs which can in principle be produced with a beta barium borate crystal. The secret message can be encoded on the photon pairs with unitary operations in these two degrees of freedom independently. This QSDC protocol has a higher capacity than the original two-step QSDC protocol as each photon pair can carry 4 bits of information. Compared with the QSDC protocol based on hyperdense coding, this QSDC protocol has the immunity to Trojan horse attack strategies with the process for determining the number of the photons in each quantum signal as it is a one-way quantum communication protocol. (general)

  18. Analysis and Improvement of Large Payload Bidirectional Quantum Secure Direct Communication Without Information Leakage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi-Hao; Chen, Han-Wu

    2018-02-01

    As we know, the information leakage problem should be avoided in a secure quantum communication protocol. Unfortunately, it is found that this problem does exist in the large payload bidirectional quantum secure direct communication (BQSDC) protocol (Ye Int. J. Quantum. Inf. 11(5), 1350051 2013) which is based on entanglement swapping between any two Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) states. To be specific, one half of the information interchanged in this protocol is leaked out unconsciously without any active attack from an eavesdropper. Afterward, this BQSDC protocol is revised to the one without information leakage. It is shown that the improved BQSDC protocol is secure against the general individual attack and has some obvious features compared with the original one.

  19. Hf på VUC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pless, Mette; Hansen, Niels-Henrik Møller

    . Konkret har forskningsprojektet 3 mål: At afdække hf-kursisternes tidligere uddannelsesforløb og -erfaringer, før de starter på hf på VUC.At afdække, hvordan mødet med uddannelsens studiemiljø opleves af kursisterne, og ikke mindst kursisternes oplevelse af undervisningsformer, lærere mm.At afdække, hvad...

  20. PMD compensation in fiber-optic communication systems with direct detection using LDPC-coded OFDM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djordjevic, Ivan B

    2007-04-02

    The possibility of polarization-mode dispersion (PMD) compensation in fiber-optic communication systems with direct detection using a simple channel estimation technique and low-density parity-check (LDPC)-coded orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) is demonstrated. It is shown that even for differential group delay (DGD) of 4/BW (BW is the OFDM signal bandwidth), the degradation due to the first-order PMD can be completely compensated for. Two classes of LDPC codes designed based on two different combinatorial objects (difference systems and product of combinatorial designs) suitable for use in PMD compensation are introduced.

  1. Fault-tolerant controlled quantum secure direct communication over a collective quantum noise channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Chun-Wei; Hwang, Tzonelih; Tsai, Chia-Wei

    2014-01-01

    This work proposes controlled quantum secure direct communication (CQSDC) over an ideal channel. Based on the proposed CQSDC, two fault-tolerant CQSDC protocols that are robust under two kinds of collective noises, collective-dephasing noise and collective-rotation noise, respectively, are constructed. Due to the use of quantum entanglement of the Bell state (or logical Bell state) as well as dense coding, the proposed protocols provide easier implementation as well as better qubit efficiency than other CQSDC protocols. Furthermore, the proposed protocols are also free from correlation-elicitation attack and other well-known attacks. (paper)

  2. Improvement on Quantum Secure Direct Communication with W State in Noisy Channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Li; Xiu Xiaoming; Gao Yajun; Chi Feng

    2009-01-01

    An improvement (Y-protocol) [Commun. Theor. Phys. 49 (2008) 103] on the quantum secure direct communication with W state (C-protocol) [Chin. Phys. Lett. 23 (2006) 290] is proposed by Yuan et al. The quantum bit error rate induced by eavesdropper is 4.17% in C-protocol and 6.25% in Y-protocol. In this paper, another improvement on C-protocol is given. The quantum bit error rate of the eavesdropping will increase to 8.75%, which is 1.1 times larger than that in C-protocol and 0.4 times larger than that in Y-protocol.

  3. An adaptive digital suppression filter for direct-sequence spread-spectrum communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saulnier, G. J.; Das, P. K.; Milstein, L. B.

    1985-09-01

    This paper describes the structure of a digital implementation of the Widrow-Hoff LMS algorithm which uses a burst processing technique to obtain some hardware simplification. This adaptive system is used to suppress narrow-band interference in a direct-sequence spread-spectrum communication system. Several different narrow-band interferers are considered, and probability of error results are presented for all cases. While, in general, the results show significant improvement in performance when the LMS algorithm is used, certain disadvantages are also present and are discussed in this paper.

  4. Beta decomposition processes in Hf-rich Hf--Nb alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, W.B.; Taggart, R.; Polonis, D.H.

    1978-01-01

    The decomposition of the bcc β-phase by both athermal and isothermal processes has been investigated in Hf-rich Hf--Nb alloys. An all β-phase structure is retained in chill-cast alloys containing 30 to 50 at.% Nb (Cb), although electron diffraction streaking effects and the behavior of the temperature coefficient of electrical resistivity indicate the presence of a bcc lattice instability similar to that reported in solute lean Ti and Zr alloys. Aging a Hf 0 . 65 Nb 0 . 35 alloy at 400 and 600 0 C resulted in the direct precipitation of a fine dispersion of α-phase needles; this morphology differs from the discs of transition α (α/sub t/) which Carpenter et al observed in Nb-rich Nb 0 . 68 Hf 0 . 32 . During continued aging, the needles grow selectively to form colonies or groups of needles in which both the individual needles and the groups of needles have major axes aligned along (110)/sub β/ type directions. The initial α-phase particles exhibit the Burgers orientation relationship with the parent matrix; continued aging changes the electron diffraction patterns in a way that is similar to that observed in aged Ti--Mo and Ti--Mo--Al alloys where they were attributed to the α-phase having a different crystallographic relationship to the β-phase (Type 2 α-phase). The observed changes in the electron diffraction patterns of aged Hf 0 . 65 Nb 0 . 35 cannot be described as resulting from strained Burgers α-phase

  5. Healthcare professionals' self-reported experiences and preferences related to direct healthcare professional communications: a survey conducted in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Piening, Sigrid; Haaijer-Ruskamp, Flora M.; de Graeff, Pieter A.; Straus, Sabine M. J. M.; Mol, Peter G. M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: In Europe, Direct Healthcare Professional Communications (DHPCs) are important tools to inform healthcare professionals of serious, new drug safety issues. However, this tool has not always been successful in effectively communicating the desired actions to healthcare professionals. Objective: The aim of this study was to explore healthcare providers' experiences and their preferences for improvement of risk communication, comparing views of general practitioners (GPs), internists...

  6. Wild orangutan males plan and communicate their travel direction one day in advance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carel P van Schaik

    Full Text Available The ability to plan for the future beyond immediate needs would be adaptive to many animal species, but is widely thought to be uniquely human. Although studies in captivity have shown that great apes are capable of planning for future needs, it is unknown whether and how they use this ability in the wild. Flanged male Sumatran orangutans (Pongo abelii emit long calls, which females use to maintain earshot associations with them. We tested whether long calls serve to communicate a male's ever-changing predominant travel direction to facilitate maintaining these associations. We found that the direction in which a flanged male emits his long calls predicts his subsequent travel direction for many hours, and that a new call indicates a change in his main travel direction. Long calls given at or near the night nest indicate travel direction better than random until late afternoon on the next day. These results show that male orangutans make their travel plans well in advance and announce them to conspecifics. We suggest that such a planning ability is likely to be adaptive for great apes, as well as in other taxa.

  7. High-capacity quantum secure direct communication with two-photon six-qubit hyperentangled states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, FangZhou; Yang, GuoJian; Wang, HaiBo; Xiong, Jun; Alzahrani, Faris; Hobiny, Aatef; Deng, FuGuo

    2017-12-01

    This study proposes the first high-capacity quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) with two-photon six-qubit hyper-entangled Bell states in two longitudinal momentum and polarization degrees of freedom (DOFs) of photon pairs, which can be generated using two 0.5 mm-thick type-I β barium borate crystal slabs aligned one behind the other and an eight-hole screen. The secret message can be independently encoded on the photon pairs with 64 unitary operations in all three DOFs. This protocol has a higher capacity than previous QSDC protocols because each photon pair can carry 6 bits of information, not just 2 or 4 bits. Our QSDC protocol decreases the influence of decoherence from environment noise by exploiting the decoy photons to check the security of the transmission of the first photon sequence. Compared with two-way QSDC protocols, our QSDC protocol is immune to an attack by an eavesdropper using Trojan horse attack strategies because it is a one-way quantum communication. The QSDC protocol has good applications in the future quantum communication because of all these features.

  8. A Comparison of Assessment Tools: Is Direct Observation an Improvement Over Objective Structured Clinical Examinations for Communications Skills Evaluation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goch, Abraham M; Karia, Raj; Taormina, David; Kalet, Adina; Zuckerman, Joseph; Egol, Kenneth A; Phillips, Donna

    2018-04-01

    Evaluation of resident physicians' communications skills is a challenging task and is increasingly accomplished with standardized examinations. There exists a need to identify the effective, efficient methods for assessment of communications skills. We compared objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) and direct observation as approaches for assessing resident communications skills. We conducted a retrospective cohort analysis of orthopaedic surgery resident physicians at a single tertiary care academic institution, using the Institute for Healthcare Communication "4 Es" model for effective communication. Data were collected between 2011 and 2015. A total of 28 residents, each with OSCE and complete direct observation assessment checklists, were included in the analysis. Residents were included if they had 1 OSCE assessment and 2 or more complete direct observation assessments. There were 28 of a possible 59 residents (47%) included. A total of 89% (25 of 28) of residents passed the communications skills OSCE; only 54% (15 of 28) of residents passed the direct observation communications assessment. There was a positive, moderate correlation between OSCE and direct observation scores overall ( r  = 0.415, P  = .028). There was no agreement between OSCE and direct observation in categorizing residents into passing and failing scores (κ = 0.205, P  = .16), after adjusting for chance agreement. Our results suggest that OSCE and direct observation tools provide different insights into resident communications skills (simulation of rare and challenging situations versus real-life daily encounters), and may provide useful perspectives on resident communications skills in different contexts.

  9. Bi-directionally protective communication between neurons and astrocytes under ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Mei Wu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The extensive existing knowledge on bi-directional communication between astrocytes and neurons led us to hypothesize that not only ischemia-preconditioned (IP astrocytes can protect neurons but also IP neurons protect astrocytes from lethal ischemic injury. Here, we demonstrated for the first time that neurons have a significant role in protecting astrocytes from ischemic injury. The cultured medium from IP neurons (IPcNCM induced a remarkable reduction in LDH and an increase in cell viability in ischemic astrocytes in vitro. Selective neuronal loss by kainic acid injection induced a significant increase in apoptotic astrocyte numbers in the brain of ischemic rats in vivo. Furthermore, TUNEL analysis, DNA ladder assay, and the measurements of ROS, GSH, pro- and anti-apoptotic factors, anti-oxidant enzymes and signal molecules in vitro and/or in vivo demonstrated that IP neurons protect astrocytes by an EPO-mediated inhibition of pro-apoptotic signals, activation of anti-apoptotic proteins via the P13K/ERK/STAT5 pathways and activation of anti-oxidant proteins via up-regulation of anti-oxidant enzymes. We demonstrated the existence of astro-protection by IP neurons under ischemia and proposed that the bi-directionally protective communications between cells might be a common activity in the brain or peripheral organs under most if not all pathological conditions.

  10. A Chaos-Based Secure Direct-Sequence/Spread-Spectrum Communication System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Xuan Quyen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a chaos-based secure direct-sequence/spread-spectrum (DS/SS communication system which is based on a novel combination of the conventional DS/SS and chaos techniques. In the proposed system, bit duration is varied according to a chaotic behavior but is always equal to a multiple of the fixed chip duration in the communication process. Data bits with variable duration are spectrum-spread by multiplying directly with a pseudonoise (PN sequence and then modulated onto a sinusoidal carrier by means of binary phase-shift keying (BPSK. To recover exactly the data bits, the receiver needs an identical regeneration of not only the PN sequence but also the chaotic behavior, and hence data security is improved significantly. Structure and operation of the proposed system are analyzed in detail. Theoretical evaluation of bit-error rate (BER performance in presence of additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN is provided. Parameter choice for different cases of simulation is also considered. Simulation and theoretical results are shown to verify the reliability and feasibility of the proposed system. Security of the proposed system is also discussed.

  11. Dispersion compensation of fiber optic communication system with direct detection using artificial neural networks (ANNs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghrabi, Mahmoud M. T.; Kumar, Shiva; Bakr, Mohamed H.

    2018-02-01

    This work introduces a powerful digital nonlinear feed-forward equalizer (NFFE), exploiting multilayer artificial neural network (ANN). It mitigates impairments of optical communication systems arising due to the nonlinearity introduced by direct photo-detection. In a direct detection system, the detection process is nonlinear due to the fact that the photo-current is proportional to the absolute square of the electric field intensity. The proposed equalizer provides the most efficient computational cost with high equalization performance. Its performance is comparable to the benchmark compensation performance achieved by maximum-likelihood sequence estimator. The equalizer trains an ANN to act as a nonlinear filter whose impulse response removes the intersymbol interference (ISI) distortions of the optical channel. Owing to the proposed extensive training of the equalizer, it achieves the ultimate performance limit of any feed-forward equalizer (FFE). The performance and efficiency of the equalizer is investigated by applying it to various practical short-reach fiber optic communication system scenarios. These scenarios are extracted from practical metro/media access networks and data center applications. The obtained results show that the ANN-NFFE compensates for the received BER degradation and significantly increases the tolerance to the chromatic dispersion distortion.

  12. Bi-directionally protective communication between neurons and astrocytes under ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiao-Mei; Qian, Christopher; Zhou, Yu-Fu; Yan, Yick-Chun; Luo, Qian-Qian; Yung, Wing-Ho; Zhang, Fa-Li; Jiang, Li-Rong; Qian, Zhong Ming; Ke, Ya

    2017-10-01

    The extensive existing knowledge on bi-directional communication between astrocytes and neurons led us to hypothesize that not only ischemia-preconditioned (IP) astrocytes can protect neurons but also IP neurons protect astrocytes from lethal ischemic injury. Here, we demonstrated for the first time that neurons have a significant role in protecting astrocytes from ischemic injury. The cultured medium from IP neurons (IPcNCM) induced a remarkable reduction in LDH and an increase in cell viability in ischemic astrocytes in vitro. Selective neuronal loss by kainic acid injection induced a significant increase in apoptotic astrocyte numbers in the brain of ischemic rats in vivo. Furthermore, TUNEL analysis, DNA ladder assay, and the measurements of ROS, GSH, pro- and anti-apoptotic factors, anti-oxidant enzymes and signal molecules in vitro and/or in vivo demonstrated that IP neurons protect astrocytes by an EPO-mediated inhibition of pro-apoptotic signals, activation of anti-apoptotic proteins via the P13K/ERK/STAT5 pathways and activation of anti-oxidant proteins via up-regulation of anti-oxidant enzymes. We demonstrated the existence of astro-protection by IP neurons under ischemia and proposed that the bi-directionally protective communications between cells might be a common activity in the brain or peripheral organs under most if not all pathological conditions. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A Novel Multiparty Quantum Secret Sharing Scheme of Secure Direct Communication Based on Bell States and Bell Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Run-Hua; Huang Liu-Sheng; Yang Wei; Zhong Hong

    2011-01-01

    We present a novel quantum secret sharing scheme of secure direct communication and analyze its security. This scheme takes Einstein—Podolsky—Rosen (EPR) pairs in Bell states as quantum resources. In order to obtain the direct communication message, all agents only need to perform Bell measurements, not to perform any local unitary operation. The total efficiency in this scheme approaches 100% as the classical information exchanged is unnecessary except for the eavesdropping checks. (general)

  14. Developmental memory capacity resources of typical children retrieving picture communication symbols using direct selection and visual linear scanning with fixed communication displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Barry T; Jackson, Heather M

    2006-02-01

    This study examined the cognitive demands of 2 selection techniques in augmentative and alternative communication (AAC), direct selection, and visual linear scanning, by determining the memory retrieval abilities of typically developing children when presented with fixed communication displays. One hundred twenty typical children from kindergarten, 1st, and 3rd grades were randomly assigned to either a direct selection or visual linear scanning group. Memory retrieval was assessed through word span using Picture Communication Symbols (PCSs). Participants were presented various numbers and arrays of PCSs and asked to retrieve them by placing identical graphic symbols on fixed communication displays with grid layouts. The results revealed that participants were able to retrieve more PCSs during direct selection than scanning. Additionally, 3rd-grade children retrieved more PCSs than kindergarten and 1st-grade children. An analysis on the type of errors during retrieval indicated that children were more successful at retrieving the correct PCSs than the designated location of those symbols on fixed communication displays. AAC practitioners should consider using direct selection over scanning whenever possible and account for anticipatory monitoring and pulses when scanning is used in the service delivery of children with little or no functional speech. Also, researchers should continue to investigate AAC selection techniques in relationship to working memory resources.

  15. The Use of Post-Purchase Communication to Reduce Dissonance and Improve Direct Marketing Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milliman, Ronald E.; Decker, Phillip J.

    1990-01-01

    Demonstrates the use and potentially positive effects of postpurchase communication on order refund requests and reorder rates. Finds that dissonance was effectively reduced through postpurchase communication. (MG)

  16. Feasibility study of data transmission via HF link from a small UAV platform

    OpenAIRE

    Enander, Filip

    2017-01-01

    The High Frequency (HF) band, 3-30 MHz, is used when no infrastructure for long-range communications is available. New technology, such as digital signal processing enables higher data rate in the HF band, which in 2000s has resulted in increased commercial use. Reflection of radio waves in the ionosphere allows for beyond horizon communication, and are a unique property of the HF band. However, properties of the ionosphere are highly dependent of radiation from the sun, which varies with geo...

  17. Design for human factors (DfHF): a grounded theory for integrating human factors into production design processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Village, Judy; Searcy, Cory; Salustri, Filipo; Patrick Neumann, W

    2015-01-01

    The 'design for human factors' grounded theory explains 'how' human factors (HF) went from a reactive, after-injury programme in safety, to being proactively integrated into each step of the production design process. In this longitudinal case study collaboration with engineers and HF Specialists in a large electronics manufacturer, qualitative data (e.g. meetings, interviews, observations and reflections) were analysed using a grounded theory methodology. The central tenet in the theory is that when HF Specialists acclimated to the engineering process, language and tools, and strategically aligned HF to the design and business goals of the organisation, HF became a means to improve business performance. This led to engineers 'pulling' HF Specialists onto their team. HF targets were adopted into engineering tools to communicate HF concerns quantitatively, drive continuous improvement, visibly demonstrate change and lead to benchmarking. Senior management held engineers accountable for HF as a key performance indicator, thus integrating HF into the production design process. Practitioner Summary: Research and practice lack explanations about how HF can be integrated early in design of production systems. This three-year case study and the theory derived demonstrate how ergonomists changed their focus to align with design and business goals to integrate HF into the design process.

  18. HF Interference, Procedures and Tools (Interferences HF, procedures et outils)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    the actual ambient noise floor situation. Besides these HF radio links, special units such as crisis reaction forces are using low power radios for...the origin point on the ground. For ease of arithmetic and typography , the latter option is preferable. The dipole-modelled PLT is located at x = H1

  19. HF-START: A Regional Radio Propagation Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hozumi, K.; Maruyama, T.; Saito, S.; Nakata, H.; Rougerie, S.; Yokoyama, T.; Jin, H.; Tsugawa, T.; Ishii, M.

    2017-12-01

    HF-START (HF Simulator Targeting for All-users' Regional Telecommunications) is a user-friendly simulator developed to meet the needs of space weather users. Prediction of communications failure due to space weather disturbances is of high priority. Space weather users from various backgrounds with high economic impact, i.e. airlines, telecommunication companies, GPS-related companies, insurance companies, international amateur radio union, etc., recently increase. Space weather information provided by Space Weather Information Center of NICT is, however, too professional to be understood and effectively used by the users. To overcome this issue, I try to translate the research level data to the user level data based on users' needs and provide an immediate usable data. HF-START is positioned to be a space weather product out of laboratory based truly on users' needs. It is originally for radio waves in HF band (3-30 MHz) but higher frequencies up to L band are planned to be covered. Regional ionospheric data in Japan and southeast Asia are employed as a reflector of skywave mode propagation. GAIA (Ground-to-topside model of Atmosphere and Ionosphere for Aeronomy) model will be used as ionospheric input for global simulation. To evaluate HF-START, an evaluation campaign for Japan region will be launched in coming months. If the campaign successes, it will be expanded to southeast Asia region as well. The final goal of HF-START is to provide the near-realtime necessary radio parameters as well as the warning message of radio communications failure to the radio and space weather users.

  20. UHD Video Transmission over Bi-Directional Underwater Wireless Optical Communication

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Halafi, Abdullah; Shihada, Basem

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate for the first time a bi-directional underwater wireless optical communication system that is capable of transmitting an ultra high definition real-time video using a downlink channel while simultaneously receiving the feedback messages on the uplink channel. The links extend up to 4.5 m using QPSK, 16-QAM and 64-QAM modulations. The system is built using software defined platforms connected to TO-9 packaged pigtailed 520 nm directly modulated green laser diode (LD) with 1.2 GHz bandwidth as the optical transmitter for video streaming on the downlink, and an avalanche photodiode (APD) module as the downlink receiver. The uplink channel is connected to another pigtailed 450 nm directly modulated blue LD with 1.2 GHz bandwidth as the optical uplink transmitter for the feedback channel, and to a second APD as the uplink receiver. We perform laboratory experiments on different water types. The measured throughput is 15 Mbps for QPSK, and 30 Mbps for both 16-QAM and 64-QAM. We evaluate the quality of the received live video streams using Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio and achieve values up to 16 dB for 64-QAM when streaming UHD video in harbor II water and 22 dB in clear ocean.

  1. UHD Video Transmission over Bi-Directional Underwater Wireless Optical Communication

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Halafi, Abdullah

    2018-04-02

    In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate for the first time a bi-directional underwater wireless optical communication system that is capable of transmitting an ultra high definition real-time video using a downlink channel while simultaneously receiving the feedback messages on the uplink channel. The links extend up to 4.5 m using QPSK, 16-QAM and 64-QAM modulations. The system is built using software defined platforms connected to TO-9 packaged pigtailed 520 nm directly modulated green laser diode (LD) with 1.2 GHz bandwidth as the optical transmitter for video streaming on the downlink, and an avalanche photodiode (APD) module as the downlink receiver. The uplink channel is connected to another pigtailed 450 nm directly modulated blue LD with 1.2 GHz bandwidth as the optical uplink transmitter for the feedback channel, and to a second APD as the uplink receiver. We perform laboratory experiments on different water types. The measured throughput is 15 Mbps for QPSK, and 30 Mbps for both 16-QAM and 64-QAM. We evaluate the quality of the received live video streams using Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio and achieve values up to 16 dB for 64-QAM when streaming UHD video in harbor II water and 22 dB in clear ocean.

  2. Influencing feelings of cancer risk: direct and moderator effects of affectively laden phrases in risk communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Eva; van Osch, Liesbeth; Lechner, Lilian; de Vries, Hein

    2015-01-01

    Evidence is accumulating for the importance of feelings of risk in explaining cancer preventive behaviors, but best practices for influencing these feelings are limited. This study investigated the direct and moderational influence of affectively laden phrases in cancer risk messages. Two experimental studies were conducted in relation to different cancer-related behaviors--sunbed use (n = 112) and red meat consumption (n = 447)--among student and nonstudent samples. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two conditions: (a) a cognitive message using cognitively laden phrases or (b) an affective message using affectively laden phrases. The results revealed that affective phrases did not directly influence feelings of risk in both studies. Evidence for a moderational influence was found in Study 2, suggesting that affective information strengthened the relation between feelings of risk and intention (i.e., participants relied more on their feelings in the decision-making process after exposure to affective information). These findings suggest that solely using affective phrases in risk communication may not be sufficient to directly influence feelings of risk and other methods need to be explored in future research. Moreover, research is needed to replicate our preliminary indications for a moderational influence of affective phrases to advance theory and practice.

  3. Ka-band Technologies for Small Spacecraft Communications via Relays and Direct Data Downlink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budinger, James M.; Niederhaus, Charles; Reinhart, Richard; Downey, Joe; Roberts, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    As the scientific capabilities and number of small spacecraft missions in the near Earth region increase, standard yet configurable user spacecraft terminals operating in Ka-band are needed to lower mission cost and risk and enable significantly higher data return than current UHF or S-band terminals. These compact Ka-band terminals are intended to operate with both the current and next generation of Ka-band relay satellites and via direct data communications with near Earth tracking terminals. This presentation provides an overview of emerging NASA-sponsored and commercially provided technologies in software defined radios (SDRs), transceivers, and electronically steered antennas that will enable data rates from hundreds of kbps to over 1 Gbps and operate in multiple frequency bands (such as S- and X-bands) and expand the use of NASA's common Ka-bands frequencies: 22.55-23.15 GHz for forward data or uplink; and 25.5-27.0 GHz for return data or downlink. Reductions in mass, power and volume come from integration of multiple radio functions, operations in Ka-band, high efficiency amplifiers and receivers, and compact, flat and vibration free electronically steered narrow beam antennas for up to + 60 degrees field of regard. The software defined near Earth space transceiver (SD-NEST) described in the presentation is intended to be compliant with NASA's space telecommunications radio system (STRS) standard for communications waveforms and hardware interoperability.

  4. Deterministic Quantum Secure Direct Communication with Dense Coding and Continuous Variable Operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Lianfang; Chen Yueming; Yuan Hao

    2009-01-01

    We propose a deterministic quantum secure direct communication protocol by using dense coding. The two check photon sequences are used to check the securities of the channels between the message sender and the receiver. The continuous variable operations instead of the usual discrete unitary operations are performed on the travel photons so that the security of the present protocol can be enhanced. Therefore some specific attacks such as denial-of-service attack, intercept-measure-resend attack and invisible photon attack can be prevented in ideal quantum channel. In addition, the scheme is still secure in noise channel. Furthermore, this protocol has the advantage of high capacity and can be realized in the experiment. (general)

  5. Impersonation attack on a quantum secure direct communication and authentication protocol with improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amerimehr, Ali; Hadain Dehkordi, Massoud

    2018-03-01

    We analyze the security of a quantum secure direct communication and authentication protocol based on single photons. We first give an impersonation attack on the protocol. The cryptanalysis shows that there is a gap in the authentication procedure of the protocol so that an opponent can reveal the secret information by an undetectable attempt. We then propose an improvement for the protocol and show it closes the gap by applying a mutual authentication procedure. In the improved protocol single photons are transmitted once in a session, so it is easy to implement as the primary protocol. Furthermore, we use a novel technique for secret order rearrangement of photons by which not only quantum storage is eliminated also a secret key can be reused securely. So the new protocol is applicable in practical approaches like embedded system devices.

  6. Quantum direct communication protocol strengthening against Pavičić’s attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Shi, Wei-Xu; Wang, Jian; Tang, Chao-Jing

    2015-12-01

    A quantum circuit providing an undetectable eavesdropping of information in message mode, which compromises all two-state ψ-ϕ quantum direct communication (QDC) protocols, has been recently proposed by Pavičić [Phys. Rev. A 87 (2013) 042326]. A modification of the protocol’s control mode is proposed, which improves users’ 25% detection probability of Eve to 50% at best, as that in ping-pong protocol. The modification also improves the detection probability of Wójcik’s attack [Phys. Rev. Lett 90 (2003) 157901] to 75% at best. The resistance against man-in-the-middle (MITM) attack as well as the discussion of security for four Bell state protocols is presented. As a result, the protocol security is strengthened both theoretically and practically, and quantum advantage of superdense coding is restored.

  7. A Remote Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum Communications Lab Utilising the Emona DATEx

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosmas Mwikirize

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Remote labs have become popular learning aids due to their versatility and considerable ease of utilisation as compared to their physical counterparts. At Makerere University, the remote labs are based on the standard Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT iLabs Shared Architecture (ISA - a scalable and generic platform. Presented in this paper is such a lab, addressing the key practical aspects of Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS communication. The lab is built on the National Instruments Educational Laboratory Virtual Instrumentation Suite (NI ELVIS with the Emona Digital and Analog Telecommunications Experimenter (DATEx add-on board. It also incorporates switching hardware. The lab facilitates real-time control of the equipment, with users able to set, manipulate and observe signal parameters in both the frequency and the time domains. Simulation and data Acquisition modes of the experiment are supported to provide a richer learning experience.

  8. A Study of an Optical Lunar Surface Communications Network with High Bandwidth Direct to Earth Link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, K.; Biswas, A.; Schoolcraft, J.

    2011-01-01

    Analyzed optical DTE (direct to earth) and lunar relay satellite link analyses, greater than 200 Mbps downlink to 1-m Earth receiver and greater than 1 Mbps uplink achieved with mobile 5-cm lunar transceiver, greater than 1Gbps downlink and greater than 10 Mpbs uplink achieved with 10-cm stationary lunar transceiver, MITLL (MIT Lincoln Laboratory) 2013 LLCD (Lunar Laser Communications Demonstration) plans to demonstrate 622 Mbps downlink with 20 Mbps uplink between lunar orbiter and ground station; Identified top five technology challenges to deploying lunar optical network, Performed preliminary experiments on two of challenges: (i) lunar dust removal and (ii)DTN over optical carrier, Exploring opportunities to evaluate DTN (delay-tolerant networking) over optical link in a multi-node network e.g. Desert RATS.

  9. Linear Narratives, Arbitrary Relationships: Arbitrary Relationships: Mimesis and Direct Communication for Effectively Representing Engineering Realities Multimodally

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyaraj, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    Engineers communicate multimodally using written and visual communication, but there is not much theorizing on why they do so and how. This essay, therefore, examines why engineers communicate multimodally, what, in the context of representing engineering realities, are the strengths and weaknesses of written and visual communication, and how,…

  10. Using the combination refraction-reflection solid to design omni-directional light source used in underwater wireless optical communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Jionghui; Yao, Wenming; Wen, Linqiang

    2015-10-01

    Underwater wireless optical communication is a communication technology which uses laser as an information carrier and transmits data through water. Underwater wireless optical communication has some good features such as broader bandwidth, high transmission rate, better security, anti—interference performance. Therefore, it is promising to be widely used in the civil and military communication domains. It is also suitable for high-speed, short-range communication between underwater mobile vehicles. This paper presents a design approach of omni-directional light source used in underwater wireless optical communication, using TRACEPRO simulation tool to help design a combination solid composed of the lens, conical reflector and parabolic reflector, and using the modulated DPSS green laser in the transmitter module to output the laser beam in small divergence angles, after expanded by the combination refraction-reflection solid, the angle turns into a space divergence angle of 2π, achieving the omni-directional light source of hemisphere space, and test in the air and underwater, the result shows that the effect is fine. This paper analyzes the experimental test in the air and water, in order to make further improvement of the uniformity of light distribution, we optimize the reflector surface parameters of combination refraction-reflection solid and test in the air and water. The result shows that omni-directional light source used in underwater wireless optical communication optimized could achieve the uniformity of light distribution of underwater space divergence angle of 2π. Omni-directional light source used in underwater wireless optical communication designed in this paper has the characteristics of small size and uniformity of light distribution, it is suitable for application between UUVs, AUVs, Swimmer Delivery Vehicles (SDVs) and other underwater vehicle fleet, it realizes point-to-multipoint communications.

  11. Zirconium Zr and hafnium Hf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busev, A.I.; Tiptsova, V.G.; Ivanov, V.M.

    1978-01-01

    The basic methods for extracting and determining Zr(4) and Hf(4) are described. Diantipyrinemethane and its alkyl homologs selectively extract Zr and Hf from HNO 3 solutions in the presence of nitrates. Zr is selectively extracted with tetraethyldiamide of heptyl phosphoric acid (in benzene) as well as with 2-thenoyltrifluoroacetone (in an acid). The latter reagents is suitable for rapid determination of 95 Zr in a mixture with 95 Nb and other fragments. The complexometric determination of Zr is based on formation of a stable complex of Zr with EDTA. The titration is carried out in the presence of n-sulfobenzene-azo-pyrocatechol, eriochrome black T. The determination is hindered by Hf, fluoride-, phosphate-, oxalate- and tartrate-ions. The method is used for determining Zr in zircon and eudialyte ore. Zr is determined photometrically with the aid of xylenol orange, arsenazo 3 and pyrocatechol violet (in phosphorites). Hf is determined in the presence of Zr photometrically with the aid of xylenol orange or methyl-thymol blue. The method is based on Zr being masked with hydrogen peroxide in the presence of sulfate-ions

  12. HF Parameters of Induction Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Benallal

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the results of experimental studies of HF input and primary parameters. A simulation model in Matlab SimulinkTM of multiphase windings as ladder circuit of coils is developed. A method for determining the primary parameters of ladder equivalent circuits is presented.

  13. Behavioral and physiological responses to child-directed speech as predictors of communication outcomes in children with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Linda R; Baranek, Grace T; Roberts, Jane E; David, Fabian J; Perryman, Twyla Y

    2010-08-01

    To determine the extent to which behavioral and physiological responses during child-directed speech (CDS) correlate concurrently and predictively with communication skills in young children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Twenty-two boys with ASD (initial mean age: 35 months) participated in a longitudinal study. At entry, behavioral (i.e., percentage looking) and physiological (i.e., vagal activity) measures were collected during the presentation of CDS stimuli. A battery of standardized communication measures was administered at entry and readministered 12 months later. Percentage looking during CDS was strongly correlated with all entry and follow-up communication scores; vagal activity during CDS was moderately to strongly correlated with entry receptive language, follow-up expressive language, and social-communicative adaptive skills. After controlling for entry communication skills, vagal activity during CDS accounted for significant variance in follow-up communication skills, but percentage looking during CDS did not. Behavioral and physiological responses to CDS are significantly related to concurrent and later communication skills of children with ASD. Furthermore, higher vagal activity during CDS predicts better communication outcomes 12 months later, after initial communication skills are accounted for. Further research is needed to better understand the physiological mechanisms underlying variable responses to CDS among children with ASD.

  14. Intertextuality and Directionality in the Communication Discourse of a Translation Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Wang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on a study based on a corpus of written professional discourses. Both e-mails and doumails (a specific sort of e-mail used at the website of douban between a translator and several editors from a publishing house during a translation activity on book publication are collected as data for the analysis. The purpose of compiling the corpus is to describe professional literacy by means of identifying the different types of intertextuality found as well as the directionality of intertextuality in discourse flows. Intertextuality is signaled, and some frequent-occurred phraseologies are found within the corpus. The study also quantifies the types and the directionality of intertextuality by distinguishing prior, current, and predicting intertextual references. The prevalence of intertextuality could thus be identified. It is expected that this study could shed some light on researches in professional discourses and the training of novice professionals with communication skills. In addition, this study also reveals the power relationship between the translator and editors, and would be helpful to the description of translation activities.

  15. Peer Communication in Online Mental Health Forums for Young People: Directional and Nondirectional Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, Terry; Ujhelyi, Katalin

    2017-01-01

    Background The Internet has the potential to help young people by reducing the stigma associated with mental health and enabling young people to access services and professionals which they may not otherwise access. Online support can empower young people, help them develop new online friendships, share personal experiences, communicate with others who understand, provide information and emotional support, and most importantly help them feel less alone and normalize their experiences in the world. Objective The aim of the research was to gain an understanding of how young people use an online forum for emotional and mental health issues. Specifically, the project examined what young people discuss and how they seek support on the forum (objective 1). Furthermore, it looked at how the young service users responded to posts to gain an understanding of how young people provided each other with peer-to-peer support (objective 2). Methods Kooth is an online counseling service for young people aged 11-25 years and experiencing emotional and mental health problems. It is based in the United Kingdom and provides support that is anonymous, confidential, and free at the point of delivery. Kooth provided the researchers with all the online forum posts between a 2-year period, which resulted in a dataset of 622 initial posts and 3657 initial posts with responses. Thematic analysis was employed to elicit key themes from the dataset. Results The findings support the literature that online forums provide young people with both informational and emotional support around a wide array of topics. The findings from this large dataset also reveal that this informational or emotional support can be viewed as directive or nondirective. The nondirective approach refers to when young people provide others with support by sharing their own experiences. These posts do not include explicit advice to act in a particular way, but the sharing process is hoped to be of use to the poster. The

  16. Peer Communication in Online Mental Health Forums for Young People: Directional and Nondirectional Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Julie; Hanley, Terry; Ujhelyi, Katalin

    2017-08-02

    The Internet has the potential to help young people by reducing the stigma associated with mental health and enabling young people to access services and professionals which they may not otherwise access. Online support can empower young people, help them develop new online friendships, share personal experiences, communicate with others who understand, provide information and emotional support, and most importantly help them feel less alone and normalize their experiences in the world. The aim of the research was to gain an understanding of how young people use an online forum for emotional and mental health issues. Specifically, the project examined what young people discuss and how they seek support on the forum (objective 1). Furthermore, it looked at how the young service users responded to posts to gain an understanding of how young people provided each other with peer-to-peer support (objective 2). Kooth is an online counseling service for young people aged 11-25 years and experiencing emotional and mental health problems. It is based in the United Kingdom and provides support that is anonymous, confidential, and free at the point of delivery. Kooth provided the researchers with all the online forum posts between a 2-year period, which resulted in a dataset of 622 initial posts and 3657 initial posts with responses. Thematic analysis was employed to elicit key themes from the dataset. The findings support the literature that online forums provide young people with both informational and emotional support around a wide array of topics. The findings from this large dataset also reveal that this informational or emotional support can be viewed as directive or nondirective. The nondirective approach refers to when young people provide others with support by sharing their own experiences. These posts do not include explicit advice to act in a particular way, but the sharing process is hoped to be of use to the poster. The directive approach, in contrast, involves

  17. Improved security detection strategy in quantum secure direct communication protocol based on four-particle Green-Horne-Zeilinger state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jian; Nie, Jin-Rui; Li, Rui-Fan [Beijing Univ. of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing (China). School of Computer; Jing, Bo [Beijing Univ. of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing (China). School of Computer; Beijing Institute of Applied Meteorology, Beijing (China). Dept. of Computer Science

    2012-06-15

    To enhance the efficiency of eavesdropping detection in the quantum secure direct communication protocol, an improved quantum secure direct communication protocol based on a four-particle Green-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) state is presented. In the protocol, the four-particle GHZ state is used to detect eavesdroppers, and quantum dense coding is used to encode the message. In the security analysis, the method of entropy theory is introduced, and two detection strategies are compared quantitatively by using the constraint between the information that the eavesdroppers can obtain and the interference that has been introduced. If the eavesdropper wants to obtain all the information, the detection rate of the quantum secure direct communication using an Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) pair block will be 50% and the detection rate of the presented protocol will be 87%. At last, the security of the proposed protocol is discussed. The analysis results indicate that the protocol proposed is more secure than the others. (orig.)

  18. Communication is the key. : Part 2 : Direct to consumer genetics in our future daily life ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perbal, Bernard

    2014-12-01

    The considerable advances of genome sequencing over the past decades have had a profound impact on our daily life and opened up new avenues for the public to have access to their genetic information and learn more about their ancestry, genealogy and other traits that make each of us unique individuals. A very large number of individual single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been associated to diseases whereas others have no known phenotype. For example, among the SNPs mapped within ccn1(cyr61), ccn2(ctgf), ccn3(nov), ccn4(wisp-1), ccn5(wisp-2) and ccn6 (wisp-3), only mutations within ccn4 were associated to PPD (the autosomal recessive skeletal disorder Progressive Pseudorheumatoid Dysplasia). On the occasion of this JCCS special issue on the roles of hormetic responses in adaptation, and response of living species to the modifications of their environment, it appeared that it was a good time to briefly review a topic that has been the subject of passionate discussions for the past few years, that is Direct to Consumer genetic tests (DTC GT). Based on the use of DNA analysis and identification of polymorphisms, DTC GT have been developed by several companies in the USA and in countries where there was no legal obstacle for customers to have direct access to their genetic information and manage their healthcare. Problems that arose and decisions that have been taken by regulatory agencies are presented and discussed in this editorial. The « freeze » of health-oriented DTC GT in the USA neither implies the end of DNA analysis nor « fun » applications, which are not aimed at providing risks estimates for particular illnesses. As shown in the example which is discussed in this editorial, DTC GT for cosmetic applications might be considered a fun application of great interest for companies such as L'Oréal, who recently developed the Makeup Genius mobile application. Other fun applications of DTC GT are discussed but there is no doubt that nothing will stop

  19. Application of HF Radar in Hazard Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mal Heron

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A review is given of the impact that HF radars are having on the management of coastal hazards. Maps of surface currents can be produced every 10–20 minutes which, in real time, improve navigation safety in restricted areas commonly found near ports and harbours. The time sequence of surface current maps enables Lagrangian tracking of small parcels of surface water, which enables hazard mitigation in managing suspended sediments in dredging, in emergency situations where flotsam and other drifting items need to be found, and in pollution control. The surface current measurement capability is used to assist tsunami warnings as shown by the phased-array data from Chile following the Great Tohoku Earthquake in 2011. The newly launched Tsunami Warning Center in Oman includes a network of phased-array HF radars to provide real-time tsunami monitoring. Wind direction maps can be used to locate the position of cold fronts in the open ocean and to monitor the timing and strength of sea-breeze fronts in key locations.

  20. Communicating Risk Information in Direct-to-Consumer Prescription Drug Television Ads: A Content Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Helen W; Aikin, Kathryn J; Poehlman, Jon

    2017-11-10

    Direct-to-consumer (DTC) television ads for prescription drugs are required to disclose the product's major risks in the audio or audio and visual parts of the presentation (sometimes referred to as the "major statement"). The objective of this content analysis was to determine how the major statement of risks is presented in DTC television ads, including what risk information is presented, how easy or difficult it is to understand the risk information, and the audio and visual characteristics of the major statement. We identified 68 DTC television ads for branded prescription drugs, which included a unique major statement and that aired between July 2012 and August 2014. We used subjective and objective measures to code 50 ads randomly selected from the main sample. Major statements often presented numerous risks, usually in order of severity, with no quantitative information about the risks' severity or prevalence. The major statements required a high school reading level, and many included long and complex sentences. The major statements were often accompanied by competing non-risk information in the visual images, presented with moderately fast-paced music, and read at a faster pace than benefit information. Overall, we discovered several ways in which the communication of risk information could be improved.

  1. Dynamic (2, 3) Threshold Quantum Secret Sharing of Secure Direct Communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai Hong; Xiao Jing-Hua; Mehmet, Orgun A.; Josef, Pieprzyk; Xue Li-Yin

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we show that a (2, 3) discrete variable threshold quantum secret sharing scheme of secure direct communication can be achieved based on recurrence using the same devices as in BB84. The scheme is devised by first placing the shares of smaller secret pieces into the shares of the largest secret piece, converting the shares of the largest secret piece into corresponding quantum state sequences, inserting nonorthogonal state particles into the quantum state sequences with the purpose of detecting eavesdropping, and finally sending the new quantum state sequences to the three participants respectively. Consequently, every particle can on average carry up to 1.5-bit messages due to the use of recurrence. The control codes are randomly prepared using the way to generate fountain codes with pre-shared source codes between Alice and Bob, making three participants can detect eavesdropping by themselves without sending classical messages to Alice. Due to the flexible encoding, our scheme is also dynamic, which means that it allows the participants to join and leave freely. (paper)

  2. Deviations in CBERS-4 Satellite Direction Components From The Electromagnetic Disturbance of Communication Antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilmann, A.; Fernandes, C.

    2017-10-01

    The CBERS-4 is a low Earth orbit satellite, with a set of antennas S-band/UHF for communication almost omni-direcional. For the electromagnetic radiation from transmission antennas, was developed a model of electromagnetic disturbance considering the antennas theory and the laws of the conservation energy-momentum. Was propagated the orbit of the CBERS-4 satellite considering your state vector from the March 14, 2016, at 11h 14m 15.23s using the equation of motion in the form of cartesian components. From the state vector of the CBERS-4 satellite was possible to propagate the orbit for different periods, without disturbance (considering just the problem of two bodies) and with a disturbance of electromagnetic origin. The model of reaction of electromagnetic acceleration on the satellite depends on only the type of antenna. Quadrifilar and parabolic propeller antennas were considered in this paper. Using the equation of motion of the satellite based on the method of Runge-Kutta of fourth and fifth degree, the effect disturber this modeling was applied on the CBERS-4 considering the mass of satellite, characteristics of antenna, power irradiated and gain maximum of antenna. The final analysis discusses the values of components in the direction (radial, cross and normal) and the coordinates X-Y-Z considering the case disturbed to both antennas.

  3. Rate adaptive multilevel coded modulation with high coding gain in intensity modulation direct detection optical communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Fei; Liu, Bo; Zhang, Lijia; Xin, Xiangjun; Zhang, Qi; Tian, Qinghua; Tian, Feng; Wang, Yongjun; Rao, Lan; Ullah, Rahat; Zhao, Feng; Li, Deng'ao

    2018-02-01

    A rate-adaptive multilevel coded modulation (RA-MLC) scheme based on fixed code length and a corresponding decoding scheme is proposed. RA-MLC scheme combines the multilevel coded and modulation technology with the binary linear block code at the transmitter. Bits division, coding, optional interleaving, and modulation are carried out by the preset rule, then transmitted through standard single mode fiber span equal to 100 km. The receiver improves the accuracy of decoding by means of soft information passing through different layers, which enhances the performance. Simulations are carried out in an intensity modulation-direct detection optical communication system using MATLAB®. Results show that the RA-MLC scheme can achieve bit error rate of 1E-5 when optical signal-to-noise ratio is 20.7 dB. It also reduced the number of decoders by 72% and realized 22 rate adaptation without significantly increasing the computing time. The coding gain is increased by 7.3 dB at BER=1E-3.

  4. Organizational Communication: An Analysis of the Main Perspectives, Main Concepts and Future Directions of the Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Yüksel

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available There is a scholarly debate since the 1980s regarding the content, theory, methodology and applications that define the scope of organizational communication and separate it from other related disciplines. This debate is critical in the sense that it enables to identity organizational communication in a rich manner and helps us define the scope of the field and its unique characteristics. Based on this main assumption, this study addressed the major theoretical/methodological dimensions of the field (functional, interpretive, and critical, conceptualization of the most critical concepts (organization, communication, culture, voice/control in these dimensions, and current gaps and future directions of the field. This study revealed that the field of organizational communication has made great improvements since the field emerged in the last three decade with its own content, methodology, and applications and generated an adequate body of research within these different perspectives. It is shown that representation of the field by different perspectives provides richness to the field compared with the time when organizational communication was solely dominated by functional, positivist research. Key words: Functional/interpretive/critical perspectives, communication, organization, culture, control, effectiveness. Örgütsel İletişim: Alanın Ana Yaklaşımları, Ana Kavramları ve Gelecek Yönelimlerinin AnaliziÖzÖrgütsel iletişim alanının kapsamı ve bu alanı ilgili displinlerden ayıracak içerik, teori, yöntem, ve uygulamalar üzerine akademik tartışmalar 1980’li yıllardan beri devam etmektedir. Bu tartışmalar, örgütsel iletişim alanının derinlemesine anlaşılması, sınırlarının belirlenmesi ve diğer disiplinlerden ayrılan özelliklerinin anlaşılması noktasında hayati öneme sahiptir. Bu temel varsayımdan hareketle, bu çalışma alandaki temel teorik/yöntemsel yaklaşımları (işlevsel, yorumlayıcı, ele

  5. Visual and tactile interfaces for bi-directional human robot communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Daniel; Lackey, Stephanie; Reinerman-Jones, Lauren; Hudson, Irwin

    2013-05-01

    Seamless integration of unmanned and systems and Soldiers in the operational environment requires robust communication capabilities. Multi-Modal Communication (MMC) facilitates achieving this goal due to redundancy and levels of communication superior to single mode interaction using auditory, visual, and tactile modalities. Visual signaling using arm and hand gestures is a natural method of communication between people. Visual signals standardized within the U.S. Army Field Manual and in use by Soldiers provide a foundation for developing gestures for human to robot communication. Emerging technologies using Inertial Measurement Units (IMU) enable classification of arm and hand gestures for communication with a robot without the requirement of line-of-sight needed by computer vision techniques. These devices improve the robustness of interpreting gestures in noisy environments and are capable of classifying signals relevant to operational tasks. Closing the communication loop between Soldiers and robots necessitates them having the ability to return equivalent messages. Existing visual signals from robots to humans typically require highly anthropomorphic features not present on military vehicles. Tactile displays tap into an unused modality for robot to human communication. Typically used for hands-free navigation and cueing, existing tactile display technologies are used to deliver equivalent visual signals from the U.S. Army Field Manual. This paper describes ongoing research to collaboratively develop tactile communication methods with Soldiers, measure classification accuracy of visual signal interfaces, and provides an integration example including two robotic platforms.

  6. Linking Contextual Factors with Rhetorical Pattern Shift: Direct and Indirect Strategies Recommended in English Business Communication Textbooks in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junhua; Zhu, Pinfan

    2011-01-01

    Scholars have consistently claimed that rhetorical patterns are culturally bound, and indirectness is a defining characteristic of Chinese writing. Through examining how the rhetorical mechanism of directness and indirectness is presented in 29 English business communication textbooks published in China, we explore how English business…

  7. Teaching Children with Autism to Engage in Peer-Directed Mands Using a Picture Exchange Communication System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paden, Amber R.; Kodak, Tiffany; Fisher, Wayne W.; Gawley-Bullington, Elizabeth M.; Bouxsein, Kelly J.

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA) plus prompting to increase peer-directed mands for preferred items using a picture exchange communication system (PECS). Two nonvocal individuals with autism participated. Independent mands with a peer increased with the implementation of DRA plus prompting for both…

  8. Mid-Latitude Mobile Wideband HF- NVIS Channel Analysis: Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-14

    commercial satellite communications (SATCOM) for beyond line-of-sight (LOS) links. However, standard HF systems operating over a 3-kHz bandwidth do not...citation of trade names and names of names of manufacturers is not to be construed as official government endorsement or approval of commercial ...Division EXECUTIVE SUMMARY High frequency (HF) links (2 to 30 MHz) are an alternative to the cost and tactical fragility of commercial satellite

  9. CURRENT DIRECTIONS OF RESEARCH IN INFORMATION- COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE FIELD OF PEDAGOGICAL SCIENCE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.N. Spirin

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In the publication modern research areas of information-communication technologies in pedagogical science are identified. The basic requirements of the new passport for the specialty 13.00.10 - Information and Communication Technologies in Education are described. On this specialty the defence of the degree of doctor and candidate of pedagogical science may be carried out.

  10. Family Communication Patterns and Relational Maintenance Behavior: Direct and Mediated Associations with Friendship Closeness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledbetter, Andrew M.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, both face-to-face and online relational maintenance behaviors were tested as mediators of family communication patterns and closeness with a same-sex friend. Participants included 417 young adults recruited from communication courses at a large university in the Midwestern United States. The obtained structural model demonstrated…

  11. The rotational excitation of HF by H

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desrousseaux, Benjamin; Lique, François

    2018-06-01

    The HF molecule is a key tracer of molecular hydrogen in diffuse interstellar medium (ISM). Accurate modelling of the HF abundance in such media requires one to model its excitation by both radiation and collisions. In diffuse ISM, the dominant collisional partners are atomic and molecular hydrogen. We report quantum time-independent calculations of collisional cross-sections and rate coefficients for the rotational excitation of HF by H. The reactive hydrogen exchange channels are taken into account in the scattering calculations. For the first time, HF-H rate coefficients are provided for temperature ranging from 10 to 500 K. The strongest collision-induced rotational HF transitions are those with Δj = 1, and the order of magnitude of the new HF-H rate coefficients is similar to that of the HF-H2 ones previously computed. As a first application, we simulate the excitation of HF by both H and H2 in typical diffuse ISM. We show that, depending on the rotational transition, hydrogen atoms increase or decrease the simulated excitation temperatures compared to collisional excitation only due to H2 molecules. Such results suggest that the new HF-H collisional data have to be used for properly modelling the abundance of HF in diffuse ISM.

  12. TC-PTP directly interacts with connexin43 to regulate gap junction intercellular communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hanjun; Spagnol, Gaelle; Naslavsky, Naava; Caplan, Steve; Sorgen, Paul L.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Protein kinases have long been reported to regulate connexins; however, little is known about the involvement of phosphatases in the modulation of intercellular communication through gap junctions and the subsequent downstream effects on cellular processes. Here, we identify an interaction between the T-cell protein tyrosine phosphatase (TC-PTP, officially known as PTPN2) and the carboxyl terminus of connexin43 (Cx43, officially known as GJA1). Two cell lines, normal rat kidney (NRK) cells endogenously expressing Cx43 and an NRK-derived cell line expressing v-Src with temperature-sensitive activity, were used to demonstrate that EGF and v-Src stimulation, respectively, induced TC-PTP to colocalize with Cx43 at the plasma membrane. Cell biology experiments using phospho-specific antibodies and biophysical assays demonstrated that the interaction is direct and that TC-PTP dephosphorylates Cx43 residues Y247 and Y265, but does not affect v-Src. Transfection of TC-PTP also indirectly led to the dephosphorylation of Cx43 S368, by inactivating PKCα and PKCδ, with no effect on the phosphorylation of S279 and S282 (MAPK-dependent phosphorylation sites). Dephosphorylation maintained Cx43 gap junctions at the plaque and partially reversed the channel closure caused by v-Src-mediated phosphorylation of Cx43. Understanding dephosphorylation, along with the well-documented roles of Cx43 phosphorylation, might eventually lead to methods to modulate the regulation of gap junction channels, with potential benefits for human health. PMID:24849651

  13. Allosteric communication in myosin V: from small conformational changes to large directed movements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Cecchini

    Full Text Available The rigor to post-rigor transition in myosin, a consequence of ATP binding, plays an essential role in the Lymn-Taylor functional cycle because it results in the dissociation of the actomyosin complex after the powerstroke. On the basis of the X-ray structures of myosin V, we have developed a new normal mode superposition model for the transition path between the two states. Rigid-body motions of the various subdomains and specific residues at the subdomain interfaces are key elements in the transition. The allosteric communication between the nucleotide binding site and the U50/L50 cleft is shown to result from local changes due to ATP binding, which induce large amplitude motions that are encoded in the structure of the protein. The triggering event is the change in the interaction of switch I and the P-loop, which is stabilized by ATP binding. The motion of switch I, which is a relatively rigid element of the U50 subdomain, leads directly to a partial opening of the U50/L50 cleft; the latter is expected to weaken the binding of myosin to actin. The calculated transition path demonstrates the nature of the subdomain coupling and offers an explanation for the mutual exclusion of ATP and actin binding. The mechanism of the uncoupling of the converter from the motor head, an essential part of the transition, is elucidated. The origin of the partial untwisting of the central beta-sheet in the rigor to post-rigor transition is described.

  14. An Enzyme Switch Employing Direct Electrochemical Communication between Horseradish Peroxidase and a Poly(aniline) Film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, P N; Birkin, P R; Wang, J H; Palmisano, F; De Benedetto, G

    1998-09-01

    An enzyme switch, or microelectrochemical enzyme transistor, responsive to hydrogen peroxide was made by connecting two carbon band electrodes (∼10 μm wide, 4.5 mm long separated by a 20-μm gap) with an anodically grown film of poly(aniline). Horseradish peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.7) was either adsorbed onto the poly(aniline) film or immobilized in an insulating poly(1,2-diaminobenzene) polymer grown electrochemically on top of the poly(aniline) film to complete the device. In the completed device, the conductivity of the poly(aniline) film changes from conducting (between - 0.05 and + 0.3 V vs SCE at pH 5) to insulating (>+0.3 V vs SCE at pH 5) on addition of hydrogen peroxide. The change in conductivity is brought about by oxidation of the poly(aniline) film by direct electrochemical communication between the enzyme and the conducting polymer. This was confirmed by measuring the potential of the poly(aniline) film during switching of the conductivity in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. The devices can be reused by rereducing the poly(aniline) electrochemically to a potential below +0.3 V vs SCE. A blind test showed that the device can be used to determine unknown concentrations of H(2)O(2) in solution and that, when used with hydrogen peroxide concentrations below 0.5 mmol dm(-)(3), the same device maybe reused several times. The possible development of devices of this type for use in applications requiring the measurement of low levels of hydrogen peroxide or horseradish peroxidase is discussed.

  15. Special Topics in HF Propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-11-01

    Capitaine de Frigate P.Italley Dr T.SJones Ing6nieur en Chef au CNET Physics Department 38 -40 rue du Gdn~ral Leclerc University of Leicester 9213 i1...fre’qiancý. A t’ctailcd discussion of HF reliability is giver in A companion paiper (MASLIN, N.M . 197(j)) the result tic ligs 4 atad % i-. sumniart-aed...conttoutt to determine if treie :s an additional zonal gqt.ient but wa shall ceo tto.., tnC companion Layttacings that it it, negliit.-tle. F:gur:!i 7A

  16. Very large phase shift of microwave signals in a 6 nm Hf x Zr1-x O2 ferroelectric at ±3 V

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragoman, Mircea; Modreanu, Mircea; Povey, Ian M.; Iordanescu, Sergiu; Aldrigo, Martino; Romanitan, Cosmin; Vasilache, Dan; Dinescu, Adrian; Dragoman, Daniela

    2017-09-01

    In this letter, we report for the first time very large phase shifts of microwaves in the 1-10 GHz range, in a 1 mm long gold coplanar interdigitated structure deposited over a 6 nm Hf x Zr1-x O2 ferroelectric grown directly on a high resistivity silicon substrate. The phase shift is larger than 60° at 1 GHz and 13° at 10 GHz at maximum applied DC voltages of ±3 V, which can be supplied by a simple commercial battery. In this way, we demonstrate experimentally that the new ferroelectrics based on HfO2 could play an important role in the future development of wireless communication systems for very low power applications.

  17. MO-HF-C alloy composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whelan, E.P.; Kalns, E.

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes, as an article of manufacture, a cast ingot of a molybdenum-hafnium-carbon alloy consisting essentially by weight of about 0.6% to about 1% Hf, about 0.045% to about 0.08% C, and the balance essentially molybdenum. The amount of Hf and C present are substantially stoichiometric with respect to HfC and within about +-15% of stoichiometry. The ingot is characterized in that it has a substantially less tendency to crack compared to alloys containing Hf in excess of about 1% by weight and carbon in excess of 0.08% by weight, without substantial diminution in strength properties of the alloy

  18. Performance Analysis of HF Band FB-MC-SS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussein Moradi; Stephen Andrew Laraway; Behrouz Farhang-Boroujeny

    2016-01-01

    Abstract—In a recent paper [1] the filter bank multicarrier spread spectrum (FB-MC-SS) waveform was proposed for wideband spread spectrum HF communications. A significant benefit of this waveform is robustness against narrow and partial band interference. Simulation results in [1] demonstrated good performance in a wideband HF channel over a wide range of conditions. In this paper we present a theoretical analysis of the bit error probably for this system. Our analysis tailors the results from [2] where BER performance was analyzed for maximum ration combining systems that accounted for correlation between subcarriers and channel estimation error. Equations are give for BER that closely match the simulated performance in most situations.

  19. Development of Cu-Hf-Al ternary systems and tungsten wire/particle reinforced Cu48Hf43Al9 bulk metallic glass composites for strengthening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Joyoung; An, Jihye; Choi-Yim, Haein

    2010-01-01

    Stable bulk glass forming alloys can be developed over a wide range of compositions in Cu-Hf-Al ternary systems starting from the Cu 49 Hf 42 Al 9 bulk metallic glass. Ternary Cu-Hf-Al alloys can be cast directly from the melt into copper molds to form fully amorphous strips with thicknesses of 1 to 6 mm. The maximum critical diameter of the new Cu-Hf-Al ternary alloy was 6 mm. X-ray diffraction patterns were used to confirm the amorphous nature of the ternary Cu-Hf-Al alloys. To increase the toughness of these metallic glasses, we reinforced the Cu 48 Hf 43 Al 9 bulk metallic glass-forming liquid with a 50% volume fraction of tungsten particles and an 80% volume fraction of tungsten wires with diameters of 242.4 μm. Composites with a critical diameter of 7 mm and length 70 mm were synthesized. The structure of the composites was confirmed by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), and the scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The mechanical properties of the composites were studied in compression tests. The thermal stability and the crystallization processes of the Cu-Hf-Al alloys and composites were investigated by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Values of the glass transition temperature (T g ), the crystallization temperature (T x ), and the supercooled liquid region (ΔT = T x - T g ) are given in this paper.

  20. Does Direct Radiologist-Patient Verbal Communication Affect Follow-Up Compliance of Probably Benign Assessments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosma, Melissa S; Neal, Colleen H; Klein, Katherine A; Noroozian, Mitra; Patterson, Stephanie K; Helvie, Mark A

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether direct verbal communication of results by a radiologist affected follow-up compliance rates for probably benign breast imaging findings. This study was institutional review board approved and HIPAA compliant. A retrospective search identified all patients from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2010 who had breast findings newly assessed as probably benign (BI-RADS category 3). Patients were categorized by whether the radiologist or the technologist verbally communicated the result and follow-up recommendation. Patient adherence to 6-, 12-, and 24-month follow-up imaging recommendations was recorded. Compliance data were available for 770 of 819 patients in the study. Overall compliance was 83.0% (639 of 770) for 6-month examinations, 68.1% (524 of 770) for 6- and 12-month examinations, and 57.4% (442 of 770) for 6-, 12-, and 24-month examinations. For patients who initially underwent diagnostic mammography alone, there was no significant difference in compliance between those who had and those who did not have radiologist-patient communication (6 months, 81.9% vs 80.8% [P = .83]; 6 and 12 months, 70.8% vs 67.3% [P = .58]; 6, 12, and 24 months, 54.2% vs 58.4% [P = .53]). For patients who initially underwent diagnostic mammography alone versus ultrasound with or without diagnostic mammography, there was no significant difference in compliance (6 months, 81.1% vs 84.3% [P = .24]; 6 and 12 months, 68.1% vs 68.0% [P = .96]; 6, 12, and 24 months, 57.4% vs 57.4% [P = .00]). High initial compliance was achieved by radiologist or technologist verbal communication of findings and recommendations. Direct communication by the radiologist did not increase compliance compared with communication by a technologist. Copyright © 2016 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Direct observation of mother-child communication in pediatric cancer: assessment of verbal and non-verbal behavior and emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Madeleine J; Rodriguez, Erin M; Miller, Kimberly S; Gerhardt, Cynthia A; Vannatta, Kathryn; Saylor, Megan; Scheule, C Melanie; Compas, Bruce E

    2011-06-01

    To examine the acceptability and feasibility of coding observed verbal and nonverbal behavioral and emotional components of mother-child communication among families of children with cancer. Mother-child dyads (N=33, children ages 5-17 years) were asked to engage in a videotaped 15-min conversation about the child's cancer. Coding was done using the Iowa Family Interaction Rating Scale (IFIRS). Acceptability and feasibility of direct observation in this population were partially supported: 58% consented and 81% of those (47% of all eligible dyads) completed the task; trained raters achieved 78% agreement in ratings across codes. The construct validity of the IFIRS was demonstrated by expected associations within and between positive and negative behavioral/emotional code ratings and between mothers' and children's corresponding code ratings. Direct observation of mother-child communication about childhood cancer has the potential to be an acceptable and feasible method of assessing verbal and nonverbal behavior and emotion in this population.

  2. Myths on Bi-direction Communication of Web 2.0 Based Social Networks: Is Social Network Truly Interactive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-10

    more and more social interactions are happening on the on-line. Especially recent uptake of the social network sites (SNSs), such as Facebook (http...Smart phones • Live updates within social networks • Facebook & Twitters Solution: WebMon for Risk Management Need for New WebMon for Social Networks ...Title: Myths on bi-direction communication of Web 2.0 based social networks : Is social network truly interactive

  3. Double C-NOT attack and counterattack on `Three-step semi-quantum secure direct communication protocol'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jun; Lin, Po-hua; Hwang, Tzonelih

    2018-07-01

    Recently, Zou and Qiu (Sci China Phys Mech Astron 57:1696-1702, 2014) proposed a three-step semi-quantum secure direct communication protocol allowing a classical participant who does not have a quantum register to securely send his/her secret message to a quantum participant. However, this study points out that an eavesdropper can use the double C-NOT attack to obtain the secret message. To solve this problem, a modification is proposed.

  4. A binomial truncation function proposed for the second-moment approximation of tight-binding potential and application in the ternary Ni-Hf-Ti system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, J H; Dai, X D; Wang, T L; Liu, B X

    2007-01-01

    We propose a two-parameter binomial truncation function for the second-moment approximation of the tight-binding (TB-SMA) interatomic potential and illustrate in detail the procedure of constructing the potentials for binary and ternary transition metal systems. For the ternary Ni-Hf-Ti system, the lattice constants, cohesion energies, elastic constants and bulk moduli of six binary compounds, i.e. L1 2 Ni 3 Hf, NiHf 3 , Ni 3 Ti, NiTi 3 , Hf 3 Ti and HfTi 3 , are firstly acquired by ab initio calculations and then employed to derive the binomial-truncated TB-SMA Ni-Hf-Ti potential. Applying the ab initio derived Ni-Hf-Ti potential, the lattice constants, cohesive energy, elastic constants and bulk moduli of another six binary compounds, i.e. D0 3 NiHf 3 , NiTi 3 HfTi 3 , and B2 NiHf, NiTi, HfTi, and two ternary compounds, i.e. C1 b NiHfTi, L2 1 Ni 2 HfTi, are calculated, respectively. It is found that, for the eight binary compounds studied, the calculated lattice constants and cohesion energies are in excellent agreement with those directly acquired from ab initio calculations and that the elastic constants and bulk moduli calculated from the potential are also qualitatively consistent with the results from ab initio calculations

  5. Three-party quantum secret sharing of secure direct communication based on χ-type entangled states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu-Guang, Yang; Wei-Feng, Cao; Qiao-Yan, Wen

    2010-01-01

    Based on χ-type entangled states and the two-step protocol [Deng F G, Long G L and Liu X S 2003 Phys. Rev. A 68 042317], a quantum secret sharing protocol of secure direct communication based on χ-type entangled states |χ 00 ) 3214 is proposed. Using some interesting entanglement properties of this state, the agent entirety can directly obtain the secret message from the message sender only if they collaborate together. The security of the scheme is also discussed. (general)

  6. Social communication with virtual agents: The effects of body and gaze direction on attention and emotional responding in human observers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschner, Linda; Pannasch, Sebastian; Schulz, Johannes; Graupner, Sven-Thomas

    2015-08-01

    In social communication, the gaze direction of other persons provides important information to perceive and interpret their emotional response. Previous research investigated the influence of gaze by manipulating mutual eye contact. Therefore, gaze and body direction have been changed as a whole, resulting in only congruent gaze and body directions (averted or directed) of another person. Here, we aimed to disentangle these effects by using short animated sequences of virtual agents posing with either direct or averted body or gaze. Attention allocation by means of eye movements, facial muscle response, and emotional experience to agents of different gender and facial expressions were investigated. Eye movement data revealed longer fixation durations, i.e., a stronger allocation of attention, when gaze and body direction were not congruent with each other or when both were directed towards the observer. This suggests that direct interaction as well as incongruous signals increase the demands of attentional resources in the observer. For the facial muscle response, only the reaction of muscle zygomaticus major revealed an effect of body direction, expressed by stronger activity in response to happy expressions for direct compared to averted gaze when the virtual character's body was directed towards the observer. Finally, body direction also influenced the emotional experience ratings towards happy expressions. While earlier findings suggested that mutual eye contact is the main source for increased emotional responding and attentional allocation, the present results indicate that direction of the virtual agent's body and head also plays a minor but significant role. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A Case for Leveraging 802.11p for Direct Phone-to-Phone Communications

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Pilsoon; Gao, Jason Hao; Ramanathan, Nadesh; Mao, Mengda; Xu, Shipeng; Boon, Chirn-Chye; Fahmy, Suhaib A.; Peh, Li-Shiuan

    2014-01-01

    WiFi cannot effectively handle the demands of device-to-device communication between phones, due to insufficient range and poor reliability. We make the case for using IEEE 802.11p DSRC instead, which has been adopted for vehicle-to-vehicle communications, providing lower latency and longer range. We demonstrate a prototype motivated by a novel fabrication process that deposits both III-V and CMOS devices on the same die. In our system prototype, the designed RF front-end is interfaced with a...

  8. Development of HF-systems for electron storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Androsov, V.P.; Karnaukhov, I.M.; Popkov, Yu.P.; Reva, S.N.; Telegin, Yu.N.

    1999-01-01

    Development of HF systems for electron storages is described. Its final task is construction of 100 kW HF station at 699,3 MHz frequency consisting from low-power HF system, klystron amplifier, wave line for HF power transmission and accelerating section. Functional parameters of HF station are given

  9. Mechanical alloying of Hf and Fe powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza Zelis, L.; Crespo, E.; Creus, M.; Damonte, L.C.; Sanchez, F.H.; Punte, G.

    1994-01-01

    Pure crystalline Hf and Fe powders were mixed and milled under an argon atmosphere. The evolution of the system with milling time was followed with Moessbauer effect spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The results indicate that in the first stages an amorphous Fe-rich alloy was gradually formed together with a solid solution of Hf in Fe beyond the solubility limit. (orig.)

  10. Changing Direction: Assessing Student Thoughts and Feelings about a New Program in Strategic Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisby, Cynthia M.; Reber, Bryan H.; Cameron, Glen T.

    A number of recent studies have examined integration of advertising and public relations, but none reports what students think. Over three semesters, students in an introduction to strategic communication course were asked to assess an integrated public relations and advertising curriculum. Students supported integration and viewed a focus on new…

  11. Diffusion tensor imaging with direct cytopathological validation: characterisation of decorin treatment in experimental juvenile communicating hydrocephalus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aojula, Anuriti; Botfield, Hannah; McAllister, James Patterson; Gonzalez, Ana Maria; Abdullah, Osama; Logan, Ann; Sinclair, Alexandra

    2016-05-31

    In an effort to develop novel treatments for communicating hydrocephalus, we have shown previously that the transforming growth factor-β antagonist, decorin, inhibits subarachnoid fibrosis mediated ventriculomegaly; however decorin's ability to prevent cerebral cytopathology in communicating hydrocephalus has not been fully examined. Furthermore, the capacity for diffusion tensor imaging to act as a proxy measure of cerebral pathology in multiple sclerosis and spinal cord injury has recently been demonstrated. However, the use of diffusion tensor imaging to investigate cytopathological changes in communicating hydrocephalus is yet to occur. Hence, this study aimed to determine whether decorin treatment influences alterations in diffusion tensor imaging parameters and cytopathology in experimental communicating hydrocephalus. Moreover, the study also explored whether diffusion tensor imaging parameters correlate with cellular pathology in communicating hydrocephalus. Accordingly, communicating hydrocephalus was induced by injecting kaolin into the basal cisterns in 3-week old rats followed immediately by 14 days of continuous intraventricular delivery of either human recombinant decorin (n = 5) or vehicle (n = 6). Four rats remained as intact controls and a further four rats served as kaolin only controls. At 14-days post-kaolin, just prior to sacrifice, routine magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging was conducted and the mean diffusivity, fractional anisotropy, radial and axial diffusivity of seven cerebral regions were assessed by voxel-based analysis in the corpus callosum, periventricular white matter, caudal internal capsule, CA1 hippocampus, and outer and inner parietal cortex. Myelin integrity, gliosis and aquaporin-4 levels were evaluated by post-mortem immunohistochemistry in the CA3 hippocampus and in the caudal brain of the same cerebral structures analysed by diffusion tensor imaging. Decorin significantly

  12. A method exploiting direct communication between phasor measurement units for power system wide-area protection and control algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almas, Muhammad Shoaib; Vanfretti, Luigi

    2017-01-01

    Synchrophasor measurements from Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs) are the primary sensors used to deploy Wide-Area Monitoring, Protection and Control (WAMPAC) systems. PMUs stream out synchrophasor measurements through the IEEE C37.118.2 protocol using TCP/IP or UDP/IP. The proposed method establishes a direct communication between two PMUs, thus eliminating the requirement of an intermediate phasor data concentrator, data mediator and/or protocol parser and thereby ensuring minimum communication latency without considering communication link delays. This method allows utilizing synchrophasor measurements internally in a PMU to deploy custom protection and control algorithms. These algorithms are deployed using protection logic equations which are supported by all the PMU vendors. Moreover, this method reduces overall equipment cost as the algorithms execute internally in a PMU and therefore does not require any additional controller for their deployment. The proposed method can be utilized for fast prototyping of wide-area measurements based protection and control applications. The proposed method is tested by coupling commercial PMUs as Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) with Opal-RT's eMEGAsim Real-Time Simulator (RTS). As illustrative example, anti-islanding protection application is deployed using proposed method and its performance is assessed. The essential points in the method are: •Bypassing intermediate phasor data concentrator or protocol parsers as the synchrophasors are communicated directly between the PMUs (minimizes communication delays).•Wide Area Protection and Control Algorithm is deployed using logic equations in the client PMU, therefore eliminating the requirement for an external hardware controller (cost curtailment)•Effortless means to exploit PMU measurements in an environment familiar to protection engineers.

  13. Positron annihilation studies in Hf doped YBCO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopalan, P.; Priya, E.R.; Premila, M.; Sundar, C.S.; Gopinathan, K.P.

    1992-01-01

    The variation of positron lifetime and oxygen stoichiometry as a function of quench temperature has been measured in undoped and 0.5at%, 0.75at%, and 1.0 at% Hf doped YBCO. In both the undoped and Hf doped samples, the lifetime decreases and the oxygen content increases as the quench temperature is lowered from 900degC to 300degC. The lifetime in the tetragonal phase (900degC) decreases with the increase in Hf content, whereas in the orthorhombic phase (450degC) it increases. The difference in lifetime between the tetragonal and orthorhombic phases decreases with the increase in the Hf content. These trends are discussed in terms of the influence of Hf doping on the oxygen content and the positron density distribution in YBCO

  14. Healthcare professionals' self-reported experiences and preferences related to direct healthcare professional communications: a survey conducted in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piening, Sigrid; Haaijer-Ruskamp, Flora M; de Graeff, Pieter A; Straus, Sabine M J M; Mol, Peter G M

    2012-11-01

    In Europe, Direct Healthcare Professional Communications (DHPCs) are important tools to inform healthcare professionals of serious, new drug safety issues. However, this tool has not always been successful in effectively communicating the desired actions to healthcare professionals. The aim of this study was to explore healthcare providers' experiences and their preferences for improvement of risk communication, comparing views of general practitioners (GPs), internists, community pharmacists and hospital pharmacists. A questionnaire was developed and pilot tested to assess experiences and preferences of Dutch healthcare professionals with DHPCs. The questionnaire and two reminders were sent to a random sample of 3488 GPs, internists and community and hospital pharmacists in the Netherlands. Descriptive statistics were used to describe demographic characteristics of the respondents. Chi squares, ANOVAs and the Wilcoxon signed rank test were used, when appropriate, to compare healthcare professional groups. The overall response rate was 34% (N = 1141, ranging from 24% for internists to 46% for community pharmacists). Healthcare providers trusted safety information more when provided by the Dutch Medicines Evaluation Board (MEB) than by the pharmaceutical industry. This was more the case for GPs than for the other healthcare professionals. Respondents preferred safety information to be issued by the MEB, the Dutch Pharmacovigilance Center or their own professional associations. The preferred alternative channels of drug safety information were e-mail, medical journals and electronic prescribing systems. Safety information of drugs does not always reach healthcare professionals through DHPCs. To improve current risk communication of drug safety issues, alternative and/or additional methods of risk communication should be developed using electronic methods and medical journals. Moreover, (additional) risk communication coming from an independent source such as the

  15. COMMUNICATIONS

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor and D. Barney

    2010-01-01

    CMS Centres, Outreach and the 7 TeV Media Event The new CMS Communications group is now established and is addressing three areas that are critical to CMS as it enters the physics operations phase: - Communications Infrastructure, including almost 50 CMS Centres Worldwide, videoconferencing systems, and CERN meeting rooms - Information systems, including the internal and external Web sites as well as the document preparation and management systems - Outreach and Education activities, including working with print, radio and TV media, visits to CMS, and exhibitions. The group has been active in many areas, with the highest priority being accorded to needs of CMS operations and preparations for the major media event planned for 7 TeV collisions. Unfortunately the CMS Centre@CERN suffered a major setback when, on 21st December, a cooling water pipe froze and burst on the floor above the CMS Centre main room. Water poured through the ceiling, flooding the floor and soaking some of the consoles, before e...

  16. COMMUNICATIONS

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Petrilli

    2013-01-01

    The organisation of the Open Days at the end of September was the single biggest effort of the CMS Communications Group this year. We would like to thank all volunteers for their hard work to show our Point 5 facilities and explain science and technology to the general public. During two days more than 5,000 people visited the CMS detector underground and profited from the surface activities, which included an exhibition on CMS, a workshop on superconductivity, and an activity for our younger visitors involving wooden Kapla blocks. The Communications Group took advantage of the preparations to produce new CMS posters that can be reused at other venues. Event display images have been produced not just for this occasion but also for other exhibits, education purposes, publications etc. During the Open Days, Gilles Jobin, 2012 winner of CERN Collide@CERN prize, performed his Quantum show in Point 5, with the light installation of German artist Julius von Bismarck. Image 3: CERN Open Days at CMS wel...

  17. Exploring bi-directional and SMS messaging for communications between Public Health Agencies and their stakeholders: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revere, Debra; Calhoun, Rebecca; Baseman, Janet; Oberle, Mark

    2015-07-08

    Communication technologies that enable bi-directional/two-way communications and cell phone texting (SMS) between public health agencies and their stakeholders may improve public health surveillance, ensure targeted distribution of alerts to hard-to-reach populations, reduce mortality and morbidity in an emergency, and enable a crucial feedback loop between public health agencies and the communities they serve. Building on prior work regarding health care provider preferences for receiving one-way public health communications by email, fax or SMS, we conducted a formative, exploratory study to understand how a bi-directional system and the incorporation of SMS in that system might be used as a strategy to send and receive messages between public health agencies and community-based organizations which serve vulnerable populations, health care providers, and public health workers. Our research question: Under what conditions and/or situations might public health agencies utilize bi-directional and/or SMS messaging for disseminating time-sensitive public health information (alerts, advisories, updates, etc.) to their stakeholders? A mixed methods (qualitative and quantitative) study was conducted between April and July 2014. Data collection included a survey distributed to health care providers and semi-structured interviews with providers, community- and government-based organization leaders and directors, and public health agency internal workforce staff. Survey respondents and interviewees were asked about their exposure to public health messages, how these messages are received and how the information in these messages are handled, and in what situations (for example, a local vs. a national event, a pandemic or emergency vs. a health update) a bi-directional and/or SMS messaging system might improve communications between public health agencies and their stakeholder group. Interview and survey data were qualitatively analyzed. Thematic codes were quantitized into

  18. International standards for optical wireless communications: state-of-the-art and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciniak, Marian

    2017-10-01

    As the number of active OWC installations is growing fast, the standards for compatibility of co-existing neighbouring systems are being developed. The paper addresses the Laser Safety (IEC standards), ITU-T Study Group 15 standards (G.640 Co-location longitudinally compatible interfaces for free space optical systems), ITU-Radiocommunication Sector standards (P.1817-1 Propagation data required for the design of terrestrial free-space optical links), and the IEEE Work in Progress - standardization activity on Visible Light Communications. International standards of FSO communications have been reviewed and discussed. ITU, IEC, and IEEE International standards for Free-Space Optical links have been reviewed. The system reliability and availability as well as security issues will be addressed as well in the talk.

  19. Prospective directions of information and communication systems and technologies development in logistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Pustynnikova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available At present time the high trade turnover is typical of the Russian economy, which in turn, activates a sufficient intensity of goods movement. Logistics, as a goods movement path in the context of a variety of delivery methods: road, air, water, pipeline, railroad transport, including across the customs border, is acutely affected by all kinds of economic transformation. Therefore, the creation of stable conditions for movement of goods under the terms of mutually beneficial cooperation is a priority for logistics. Trends of economic development are characterized by growth of integration processes which have expressed themselves positively and proven their economic suitability. Such transformations denote the necessity of the control mechanisms improvement, including logistics. The actual issue of business processes information support in circumstances of logistical integration is considered in this article. The basis of the information system consists of information and communication resources, tools and technologies, the use of which is aimed at solving specific problems for the shaping of information infrastructure, business process reengineering, supporting economic security of business. In process of this issue studying are becoming obvious undeniable advantages of information and communication technologies use in logistics operations, the gaining of which is possible as a result of an integrated system’s interests harmonization. The article provides evidence that the market has a certain influence on the improvement of information and communication systems and technologies for complex carrying out logistical operations, which, in turn, optimizes the duration of the movement of goods and related with this process costs, thereby determines the improvement of logistic conditions in terms of business growth and competitiveness development The article provides evidence that the market has a certain influence on the improvement of information

  20. The Directed Megaphone: A Theater Commander’s Means to Communicate His Vision and Intent

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-05-01

    commander must have oratory skills--both logos and pathos , as described by Aristotle . He must have a flair for the dramatic to embellish his message...went on to say that persuasion depends on three elements: logos -- The truth and logical validity of what is being argued. ethos -- The speakers...presents the message ( pathos ), and who the speaker is (ethoas). Many experts in the field of communications identify ethos as the most important persuasive

  1. Cooperative Convex Optimization in Networked Systems: Augmented Lagrangian Algorithms With Directed Gossip Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakovetic, Dusan; Xavier, João; Moura, José M. F.

    2011-08-01

    We study distributed optimization in networked systems, where nodes cooperate to find the optimal quantity of common interest, x=x^\\star. The objective function of the corresponding optimization problem is the sum of private (known only by a node,) convex, nodes' objectives and each node imposes a private convex constraint on the allowed values of x. We solve this problem for generic connected network topologies with asymmetric random link failures with a novel distributed, decentralized algorithm. We refer to this algorithm as AL-G (augmented Lagrangian gossiping,) and to its variants as AL-MG (augmented Lagrangian multi neighbor gossiping) and AL-BG (augmented Lagrangian broadcast gossiping.) The AL-G algorithm is based on the augmented Lagrangian dual function. Dual variables are updated by the standard method of multipliers, at a slow time scale. To update the primal variables, we propose a novel, Gauss-Seidel type, randomized algorithm, at a fast time scale. AL-G uses unidirectional gossip communication, only between immediate neighbors in the network and is resilient to random link failures. For networks with reliable communication (i.e., no failures,) the simplified, AL-BG (augmented Lagrangian broadcast gossiping) algorithm reduces communication, computation and data storage cost. We prove convergence for all proposed algorithms and demonstrate by simulations the effectiveness on two applications: l_1-regularized logistic regression for classification and cooperative spectrum sensing for cognitive radio networks.

  2. Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hecksher, Tina

    2016-01-01

    This work provides the first direct evidence that the puzzling dielectric Debye process observed in mono-alcohols is coupled to density fluctuations. The results open up for an explanation of the Debye process within the framework of conventional liquid-statetheory. The spectral shape of the dyna...

  3. Communication Strategies in Direct-to-Consumer Prescription Drug Advertising (DTCA): Application of the Six Segment Message Strategy Wheel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Ilwoo; Park, Jin Seong

    2015-01-01

    This study addresses a void in the literature on direct-to-consumer prescription drug advertising (DTCA) with a theory-based content analysis. The findings indicate that Taylor's communication strategy wheel provides insight into what and how pharmaceutical marketers communicate with consumers by means of DTCA. Major findings are summarized as follows: (a) In most DTC ads, informational and transformational message themes and creative approaches were simultaneously used, indicating a combination strategy; (b) DTCA message themes were associated with creative strategies in alignment with Taylor's framework; and (c) message themes and creative strategies varied across therapeutic categories and DTCA categories with different levels of ad spending. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.

  4. Barriers to Real-Time Medical Direction via Cellular Communication for Prehospital Emergency Care Providers in Gujarat, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, Benjamin; Strehlow, Matthew C; Rao, G V Ramana; Newberry, Jennifer A

    2016-07-08

    Many low- and middle-income countries depend on emergency medical technicians (EMTs), nurses, midwives, and layperson community health workers with limited training to provide a majority of emergency medical, trauma, and obstetric care in the prehospital setting. To improve timely patient care and expand provider scope of practice, nations leverage cellular phones and call centers for real-time online medical direction. However, there exist several barriers to adequate communication that impact the provision of emergency care. We sought to identify obstacles in the cellular communication process among GVK Emergency Management and Research Institute (GVK EMRI) EMTs in Gujarat, India. A convenience sample of practicing EMTs in Gujarat, India were surveyed regarding the barriers to call initiation and completion. 108 EMTs completed the survey. Overall, ninety-seven (89.8%) EMTs responded that the most common reason they did not initiate a call with the call center physician was insufficient time. Forty-six (42%) EMTs reported that they were unable to call the physician one or more times during a typical workweek (approximately 5-6 twelve-hour shifts/week) due to their hands being occupied performing direct patient care. Fifty-eight (54%) EMTs reported that they were unable to reach the call center physician, despite attempts, at least once a week. This study identified multiple barriers to communication, including insufficient time to call for advice and inability to reach call center physicians. Identification of simple interventions and best practices may improve communication and ensure timely and appropriate prehospital care.

  5. The anisotropy of Hf diffusion in α-Zr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hood, G.M.; Zou, H.; Roy, J.A.; Schultz, R.J.; Matsuura, N.; Jackson, J.A.

    1995-07-01

    Hf diffusion coefficients (D) have been measured in the temperature interval 870-1100 K, in directions parallel (D pa ) and perpendicular (D pe ) to the c-axis of double-faced, single crystal specimens of both high-purity (HP) and nominally pure (NP) α-Zr single crystals. The diffusion profiles were measured by secondary ion mass spectrometry. Hf diffusion in HP α-Zr is characterised by an activation energy of about 3.0 eV and a pre-exponential factor of about 10 -5 m 2 /s. The anisotropy ratio, D pa /D pe is ∼ 1.0 for the NP specimens. A dependence of D on diffusion time/depth is indicated for some NP experiments on NP Zr. (author). 7 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs

  6. Digital Game Playing and Direct and Indirect Aggression in Early Adolescence: The Roles of Age, Social Intelligence, and Parent-Child Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallenius, Marjut; Punamaki, Raija-Leena; Rimpela, Arja

    2007-01-01

    The roles of age, social intelligence and parent-child communication in moderating the association between digital game playing and direct and indirect aggression were examined in 478 Finnish 10- and 13-year-old schoolchildren based on self-reports. The results confirmed that digital game violence was directly associated with direct aggression,…

  7. HF radio systems and circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Sabin, William

    1998-01-01

    A comprehensive reference for the design of high frequency communications systems and equipment. This revised edition is loaded with practical data, much of which cannot be found in other reference books. Its approach to the subject follows the needs of an engineer from system definition and performance requirements down to the individual circuit elements that make up radio transmitters and receivers. The accompanying disk contains updated software on filters, matching networks and receiver analysis. SciTech Publishing also provides many other products related to Communication Systems Design.

  8. Communication About Advance Directives and End-of-Life Care Options Among Internal Medicine Residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Ramona L.; Tindall, Kate; Xuan, Lei; Paulk, M. Elizabeth; Halm, Ethan A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite increasing awareness about the importance of discussing end-of-life (EOL) care options with terminally ill patients and families, many physicians remain uncomfortable with these discussions. Objective The objective of the study was to examine perceptions of and comfort with EOL care discussions among a group of internal medicine residents and the extent to which comfort with these discussions has improved over time. Methods In 2013, internal medicine residents at a large academic medical center were asked to participate in an on-line survey that assessed their attitudes and experiences with discussing EOL care with terminally-ill patients. These results were compared to data from a similar survey residents in the same program completed in 2006. Results Eighty-three (50%) residents completed the 2013 survey. About half (52%) felt strongly that they were able to have open, honest discussions with patients and families, while 71% felt conflicted about whether CPR was in the patient’s best interest. About half (53%) felt strongly that it was okay for them to tell a patient/family member whether or not CPR was a good idea for them. Compared to 2006 respondents, the 2013 cohort felt they had more lectures about EOL communication, and had watched an attending have an EOL discussion more often. Conclusions Modest improvements were made over time in trainees’ exposure to EOL discussions; however, many residents remain uncomfortable and conflicted with having EOL care discussions with their patients. More effective training approaches in EOL communication are needed to train the next generation of internists. PMID:24418692

  9. Communication About Advance Directives and End-of-Life Care Options Among Internal Medicine Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Ramona L; Tindall, Kate; Xuan, Lei; Paulk, M Elizabeth; Halm, Ethan A

    2015-05-01

    Despite increasing awareness about the importance of discussing end-of-life (EOL) care options with terminally ill patients and families, many physicians remain uncomfortable with these discussions. The objective of the study was to examine perceptions of and comfort with EOL care discussions among a group of internal medicine residents and the extent to which comfort with these discussions has improved over time. In 2013, internal medicine residents at a large academic medical center were asked to participate in an on-line survey that assessed their attitudes and experiences with discussing EOL care with terminally-ill patients. These results were compared to data from a similar survey residents in the same program completed in 2006. Eighty-three (50%) residents completed the 2013 survey. About half (52%) felt strongly that they were able to have open, honest discussions with patients and families, while 71% felt conflicted about whether CPR was in the patient's best interest. About half (53%) felt strongly that it was okay for them to tell a patient/family member whether or not CPR was a good idea for them. Compared to 2006 respondents, the 2013 cohort felt they had more lectures about EOL communication, and had watched an attending have an EOL discussion more often. Modest improvements were made over time in trainees' exposure to EOL discussions; however, many residents remain uncomfortable and conflicted with having EOL care discussions with their patients. More effective training approaches in EOL communication are needed to train the next generation of internists. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. When direct health-care professional communications have an impact on inappropriate and unsafe use of medicines : A retrospective analysis of determinants of impact of safety warnings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reber, K.C.; Piening, S.; Wieringa, J.E.; Straus, S.M.J.M.; Raine, J.M.; de Graeff, Pauline; Haaijer-Ruskamp, F.M.; Mol, Peter G. M.

    Serious safety issues relating to drugs are communicated to health-care professionals via Direct Health-Care Professional Communications (DHPCs). We explored which characteristics determined the impact of DHPCs issued in the Netherlands for ambulatory-care drugs (2001-2008). With multiple linear

  11. Infilling Direction and Fluid Communication in the E2.0 Reservoir of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study reveals a close similarity in percentage contents of the saturates, aromatics, resins and asphaltenes in all the oils. The maturity gradient clearly shows a maturation trend in the Southwest-Northeast direction which indicates that subsequent charge from the oil kitchen were more mature than the initial charges.

  12. Microhardness evaluation alloys Hf-Si-B; Avaliacao de microdureza de ligas Hf-Si-B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gigolotti, Joao Carlos Janio; Costa, Eliane Fernandes Brasil [Centro Universitario de Volta Redonda (UNIFOA), Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil); Nunes, Carlos Angelo; Rocha, Elisa Gombio; Coelho, Gilberto Carvalho, E-mail: carlosjanio@uol.com.br, E-mail: eliane-costabrasi@hotmail.com, E-mail: cnunes@demar.eel.usp.br, E-mail: elisarocha@alunos.eel.usp.br, E-mail: coelho@demar.eel.usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Lorena, SP (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    The technological advance has generated increasing demand for materials that can be used under high temperature, what includes intermetallic MR-Si-B (MR = refractory metal) alloys with multiphase structures, that can also be applied in oxide environments. Thus, this work had for objective the micro hardness study of the Hf-Si-B system alloys, heat treated at 1600 deg C, in the Hf rich region. Hf-Si-B alloys had been produced with blades of Hf (min. 99.8%), Si (min. 99.998%) and B (min. 99.5%), in the voltaic arc furnace and heat treated at 1600 deg C under argon atmosphere. The relationship of the phases had been previously identified by X-ray diffraction and contrast in backscattered electron imaging mode. The alloys had their hardness analyzed by method Vickers (micro hardness) with load of 0.05 kgf and 0.2 kgf and application time of 20 s. The results, obtained from the arithmetic mean of measurements for each alloy on the heterogeneous region, showed a mean hardness of 11.08 GPA, with small coefficient of variation of 3.8%. The borides HfB2 (19.34 GPa) e HfB - 11.76 GPa, showed the hardness higher than the silicides Hf2Si (8.57 GPa), Hf5Si3 (9.63 GPa), Hf3Si2 (11.66 GPa), Hf5Si4 (10.00 GPa), HfSi (10.02 GPa) e HfSi2 (8.61 GPa). (author)

  13. Heavy ion studies with CMS HF calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damgov, I.; Genchev, V.; Kolosov, V.A.; Lokhtin, I.P.; Petrushanko, S.V.; Sarycheva, L.I.; Teplov, S.Yu.; Shmatov, S.V.; Zarubin, P.I.

    2001-01-01

    The capability of the very forward (HF) calorimeter of the CMS detector at LHC to be applied to specific studies with heavy ion beams is discussed. The simulated responses of the HF calorimeter to nucleus-nucleus collisions are used for the analysis of different problems: reconstruction of the total energy flow in the forward rapidity region, accuracy of determination of the impact parameter of collision, study of fluctuations of the hadronic-to-electromagnetic energy ratio, fast inelastic event selection

  14. The impact of a parent-directed intervention on parent-child communication about tobacco and alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, Shelley E; Cross, Donna S; Shaw, Thérèse M

    2008-11-01

    Given the likelihood of engaging in the hazardous use of tobacco and alcohol increases during teenage years, pre-adolescence is a critical time to implement prevention programmes. While social factors other than those associated with parenting play a role in determining a child's risk for initiation of tobacco and alcohol use, parents can have a significant influence on their children's decisions about these issues. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of an in-home parent-directed drug education intervention on parent-child communication about tobacco and alcohol. A group randomised intervention trial was conducted in Perth, Western Australia. Schools were selected using stratified random sampling and randomised to three study conditions. A total of 1201 parents of 10- 11-year-old children were recruited from 20 schools. The impact of a self-help intervention, comprised of five communication sheets containing information and activities designed to encourage parents to talk with their 10- 11-year-old child about issues related to smoking cigarettes and drinking alcohol, was assessed. Intervention-group parents were more likely to have spoken with their children, to have spoken more recently, to have engaged the child during the discussion and to have addressed the topics identified as being protective of children's involvement in tobacco and alcohol. In addition, the duration of talks about alcohol was longer than for parents in the comparison group. Parents of 10- 11-year-old children appear to be receptive to participating in a home-based drug-related educational intervention and the parent-directed intervention seems to have enhanced parent-child tobacco- and alcohol-related communication.

  15. TID measurement using oblique transmissions of HF pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galkin, Ivan; Reinisch, Bodo; Huang, Xueqin; Paznukhov, Vadym; Hamel, Ryan; Kozlov, Alexander; Belehaki, Anna

    2017-04-01

    The Traveling Ionospheric Disturbance (TID), a wave-like signature of moving plasma density modulation in the ionosphere, is widely acknowledged for its utility in backtracking the anomalous events responsible for the TID generation, and as a major inconvenience to high-frequency (HF) operational systems because of its deleterious impact on the accuracy of navigation and geolocation. The pilot project "Net-TIDE" for the real-time detection and evaluation of TIDs began its operation in 2016 based on the remote-sensing data from synchronized, network-coordinated HF sounding between pairs of DPS4D ionosondes at five participating observatories in Europe. Measurement of all signal properties (Doppler frequency, angle of arrival, and time-of-flight from transmitter to receiver) proved to be instrumental in detecting the TID and deducing the TID parameters: amplitude, wavelength, phase velocity, and direction of propagation. Processing of the measured HF signal data required a specialized signal processing technique that is capable of consistently extracting different signals that have propagated along different ionospheric paths. The multi-path signal environment proved to be the greatest challenge for the reliable TID specification by Net-TIDE, demanding the development of an intelligent system for "signal tracking". The intelligent system is based on a neural network model of a pre-attentive vision capable of extracting continuous signal tracks from the multi-path signal ensemble. Specific examples of the Net-TIDE algorithm suite operation and its suitability for a fully automated TID warning service are discussed.

  16. Beating HF waves to generate VLF waves in the ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Spencer; Snyder, Arnold; Kossey, Paul; Chang, Chia-Lie; Labenski, John

    2012-03-01

    Beat-wave generation of very low frequency (VLF) waves by two HF heaters in the ionosphere is formulated theoretically and demonstrated experimentally. The heater-induced differential thermal pressure force and ponderomotive force, which dominate separately in the D and F regions of the ionosphere, drive an electron current for the VLF emission. A comparison, applying appropriate ionospheric parameters shows that the ponderomotive force dominates in beat-wave generation of VLF waves. Three experiments, one in the nighttime in the absence of D and E layers and two in the daytime in the presence of D and E layers, were performed. X mode HF heaters of slightly different frequencies were transmitted at CW full power. VLF waves at 10 frequencies ranging from 3.5 to 21.5 kHz were generated. The frequency dependencies of the daytime and nighttime radiation intensities are quite similar, but the nighttime radiation is much stronger than the daytime one at the same radiation frequency. The intensity ratio is as large as 9 dB at 11.5 kHz. An experiment directly comparing VLF waves generated by the beat-wave approach and by the amplitude modulation (AM) approach was also conducted. The results rule out the likely contribution of the AM mechanism acting on the electrojet and indicate that beat-wave in the VLF range prefers to be generated in the F region of the ionosphere through the ponderomotive nonlinearity, consistent with the theory. In the nighttime experiment, the ionosphere was underdense to the HF heaters, suggesting a likely setting for effective beat-wave generation of VLF waves by the HF heaters.

  17. Direct Thy-1/alphaVbeta3 integrin interaction mediates neuron to astrocyte communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermosilla, Tamara; Muñoz, Daniel; Herrera-Molina, Rodrigo; Valdivia, Alejandra; Muñoz, Nicolás; Nham, Sang-Uk; Schneider, Pascal; Burridge, Keith; Quest, Andrew F G; Leyton, Lisette

    2008-06-01

    Thy-1 is an abundant neuronal glycoprotein of poorly defined function. We recently provided evidence indicating that Thy-1 clusters a beta3-containing integrin in astrocytes to induce tyrosine phosphorylation, RhoA activation and the formation of focal adhesions and stress fibers. To date, the alpha subunit partner of beta3 integrin in DI TNC1 astrocytes is unknown. Similarly, the ability of neuronal, membrane-bound Thy-1 to trigger astrocyte signaling via integrin engagement remains speculation. Here, evidence that alphav forms an alphavbeta3 heterodimer in DI TNC1 astrocytes was obtained. In neuron-astrocyte association assays, the presence of either anti-alphav or anti-beta3 integrin antibodies reduced cell-cell interaction demonstrating the requirement of both integrin subunits for this association. Moreover, anti-Thy-1 antibodies blocked stimulation of astrocytes by neurons but not the binding of these two cell types. Thus, neuron-astrocyte association involved binding between molecular components in addition to the Thy-1-integrin; however, the signaling events leading to focal adhesion formation in astrocytes depended exclusively on the latter interaction. Additionally, wild-type (RLD) but not mutated (RLE) Thy-1 was shown to directly interact with alphavbeta3 integrin by Surface Plasmon Resonance analysis. This interaction was promoted by divalent cations and was species-independent. Together, these results demonstrate that the alphavbeta3 integrin heterodimer interacts directly with Thy-1 present on neuronal cells to stimulate astrocytes.

  18. Determination of the rate of HF hydration and the effects of HF on moisture condensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCulla, W.H.

    1982-01-01

    There were four basic questions addressed in this report that relate to the HF interaction in the environment. As to whether HF hydrates in the vapor phase and what the rate of that hydration is, there seems ample evidence that HF hydrates readily in the vapor phase and the rate of that hydration is very fast, i.e., dHF/dt greater than or equal to 25 torr sec -1 . Concerning under what conditions condensation of the hydrate will occur and whether a third body is required for condensation, it was found that HF does effect the dew point or condensation of water and data was presented indicating the extent of that effect. It was also determined that condensation will occur without a third body present. Thus, in attempting to model an HF release for the Safety Analysis Report the hydration of HF and the subsequent heat released may be treated as occurring instantaneously; but the ultimate disposition of the HF will be strongly dependent upon the environmental conditions at the time of the release

  19. Determination of the rate of HF hydration and the effects of HF on moisture condensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCulla, W H

    1982-04-30

    There were four basic questions addressed in this report that relate to the HF interaction in the environment. As to whether HF hydrates in the vapor phase and what the rate of that hydration is, there seems ample evidence that HF hydrates readily in the vapor phase and the rate of that hydration is very fast, i.e., dHF/dt greater than or equal to 25 torr sec/sup -1/. Concerning under what conditions condensation of the hydrate will occur and whether a third body is required for condensation, it was found that HF does effect the dew point or condensation of water and data was presented indicating the extent of that effect. It was also determined that condensation will occur without a third body present. Thus, in attempting to model an HF release for the Safety Analysis Report the hydration of HF and the subsequent heat released may be treated as occurring instantaneously; but the ultimate disposition of the HF will be strongly dependent upon the environmental conditions at the time of the release.

  20. Lu-Hf isotope systematics of fossil biogenic apatite and their effects on geochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herwartz, Daniel; Münker, Carsten; Tütken, Thomas; Hoffmann, J. Elis; Wittke, Andreas; Barbier, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Reliable methods for direct dating of biogenic apatite from pre-Pleistocene fossils are currently not available, and recent attempts using the Lu-Hf decay system yielded highly inaccurate ages for both bones and teeth. The geological processes accounting for this poor accuracy of Lu-Hf chronometry are not yet understood. Here we explore Lu-Hf systematics in fossil bones and teeth in detail, by applying five different sample digestion techniques that are tested on bones and composites of bone and sediment. Our current dataset implies that dissolution methods only slightly affect the resulting Lu-Hf ages, while clear differences between the individual digestion techniques became apparent for element concentrations. By analysing the insoluble leftovers from incomplete sample dissolution, four main reservoirs of Hf in fossil bones were identified: (1) a radiogenic end-member associated with apatite; (2) an unradiogenic end-member represented by the authigenic minerals or the embedding sediment; (3) a highly unradiogenic end-member that can be attributed to detrital zircon; and (4) a moderately soluble phase (probably a Zr(Hf)-phosphate) that yielded very low Lu/Hf but a highly radiogenic Hf isotope composition at the same time. This Zr(Hf)-phase must have been precipitated within the fossil bone sample at a late stage of burial history, thereby incorporating radiogenic 176Hf released from apatite surfaces over geological timescales. A second focus of our study is the effect of different sediment matrices and of crystal size on the preservation of pristine Lu-Hf isotope compositions in bioapatite. Because near-depositional Lu-Hf ages of phosphate fossils have previously been reported for the London Clay (England) and a calcareous marl from Tendaguru (Tanzania), we herein investigate specimens fossilised in carbonate matrices (calcareous marl from Oker, Germany; carbonate concretions from the Santana Formation, Brazil; carbonate from the Eifel, Germany) and argillaceous

  1. High-K rotational bands in {sup 174}Hf and {sup 175}Hf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gjoerup, N L; Sletten, G [The Niels Bohr Institute, Roskilbe (Denmark); Walker, P M [Surrey Univ., Guildford (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics; Bentley, M A [Daresbury Lab. (United Kingdom); Cullen, D M; Sharpey-Schafer, J F; Fallon, P; Smith, G [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Oliver Lodge Lab.

    1992-08-01

    High sensitivity experiments with {sup 48}Ca, {sup 18}O and {sup 9}Be induced reactions using the ESSA-30, TESSA-3 and NORDBALL arrays have provided extensive new information on the high spin level structures of {sup 174}Hf and {sup 175}Hf. During the series of experiments, several new bands have been found and most known bands have been extended considerably. Spin and excitation energy ranges for {sup 174}Hf are now {approx} 35 {Dirac_h} and {approx} 13 MeV, respectively, and for {sup 175}Hf ranges are {approx} 30 {Dirac_h} and {approx} 7 MeV. respectively. Several new high-K structures have been found in {sup 174}Hf and the structure of these and the already known high-K bands in both nuclei together with the new Tilted Axis Cranking approach might explain the small K-hindrances observed for K-isomers in this region. (author). 8 refs., 2 figs.

  2. Robustness of digitally modulated signal features against variation in HF noise model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoaib Mobien

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract High frequency (HF band has both military and civilian uses. It can be used either as a primary or backup communication link. Automatic modulation classification (AMC is of an utmost importance in this band for the purpose of communications monitoring; e.g., signal intelligence and spectrum management. A widely used method for AMC is based on pattern recognition (PR. Such a method has two main steps: feature extraction and classification. The first step is generally performed in the presence of channel noise. Recent studies show that HF noise could be modeled by Gaussian or bi-kappa distributions, depending on day-time. Therefore, it is anticipated that change in noise model will have impact on features extraction stage. In this article, we investigate the robustness of well known digitally modulated signal features against variation in HF noise. Specifically, we consider temporal time domain (TTD features, higher order cumulants (HOC, and wavelet based features. In addition, we propose new features extracted from the constellation diagram and evaluate their robustness against the change in noise model. This study is targeting 2PSK, 4PSK, 8PSK, 16QAM, 32QAM, and 64QAM modulations, as they are commonly used in HF communications.

  3. Communicating efficacy information based on composite scores in direct-to-consumer prescription drug advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Pamela A; O'Donoghue, Amie C; Sullivan, Helen W; Willoughby, Jessica Fitts; Squire, Claudia; Parvanta, Sarah; Betts, Kevin R

    2016-04-01

    Drug efficacy can be measured by composite scores, which consist of two or more symptoms or other clinical components of a disease. We evaluated how individuals interpret composite scores in direct-to-consumer (DTC) prescription drug advertising. We conducted an experimental study of seasonal allergy sufferers (n=1967) who viewed a fictitious print DTC ad that varied by the type of information featured (general indication, list of symptoms, or definition of composite scores) and the presence or absence of an educational intervention about composite scores. We measured composite score recognition and comprehension, and perceived drug efficacy and risk. Ads that featured either (1) the composite score definition alone or (2) the list of symptoms or general indication information along with the educational intervention improved composite score comprehension. Ads that included the composite score definition or the educational intervention led to lower confidence in the drug's benefits. The composite score definition improved composite score recognition and lowered drug risk perceptions. Adding composite score information to DTC print ads may improve individuals' comprehension of composite scores and affect their perceptions of the drug. Providing composite score information may lead to more informed patient-provider prescription drug decisions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Issues concerning the determination of solubility products of sparingly soluble crystalline solids. Solubility of HfO2(cr)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rai, Dhanpat; Kitamura, Akira; Rosso, Kevin M.; Sasaki, Takayuki; Kobayashi, Taishi

    2016-01-01

    Solubility studies were conducted with HfO 2 (cr) solid as a function HCl and ionic strength ranging from 2.0 to 0.004 mol kg -1 . These studies involved (1) using two different amounts of the solid phase, (2) acid washing the bulk solid phase, (3) preheating the solid phase to 1400 C, and (4) heating amorphous HfO 2 (am) suspensions to 90 C to ascertain whether the HfO 2 (am) converts to HfO 2 (cr) and to determine the solubility from the oversaturation direction. Based on the results of these treatments it is concluded that the HfO 2 (cr) contains a small fraction of less crystalline, but not amorphous, material [HfO 2 (lcr)] and this, rather than the HfO 2 (cr), is the solubility-controlling phase in the range of experimental variables investigated in this study. The solubility data are interpreted using both the Pitzer and SIT models and they provide log 10 K 0 values of -(59.75±0.35) and -(59.48±0.41), respectively, for the solubility product of HfO 2 (lcr)[HfO 2 (lcr) + 2H 2 O ↔ Hf 4+ + 4OH - ]. The log 10 of the solubility product of HfO 2 (cr) is estimated to be < -63. The observation of a small fraction of less crystalline higher solubility material is consistent with the general picture that mineral surfaces are often structurally and/or compositionally imperfect leading to a higher solubility than the bulk crystalline solid. This study stresses the urgent need, during interpretation of solubility data, of taking precautions to make certain that the observed solubility behavior for sparingly-soluble solids is assigned to the proper solid phase.

  5. Issues concerning the determination of solubility products of sparingly soluble crystalline solids. Solubility of HfO{sub 2}(cr)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rai, Dhanpat [Rai Enviro-Chem, LLC, Yachats, OR (United States); Kitamura, Akira [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki (Japan); Rosso, Kevin M. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Sasaki, Takayuki; Kobayashi, Taishi [Kyoto Univ. (Japan)

    2016-11-01

    Solubility studies were conducted with HfO{sub 2}(cr) solid as a function HCl and ionic strength ranging from 2.0 to 0.004 mol kg{sup -1}. These studies involved (1) using two different amounts of the solid phase, (2) acid washing the bulk solid phase, (3) preheating the solid phase to 1400 C, and (4) heating amorphous HfO{sub 2}(am) suspensions to 90 C to ascertain whether the HfO{sub 2}(am) converts to HfO{sub 2}(cr) and to determine the solubility from the oversaturation direction. Based on the results of these treatments it is concluded that the HfO{sub 2}(cr) contains a small fraction of less crystalline, but not amorphous, material [HfO{sub 2}(lcr)] and this, rather than the HfO{sub 2}(cr), is the solubility-controlling phase in the range of experimental variables investigated in this study. The solubility data are interpreted using both the Pitzer and SIT models and they provide log{sub 10} K{sup 0} values of -(59.75±0.35) and -(59.48±0.41), respectively, for the solubility product of HfO{sub 2}(lcr)[HfO{sub 2}(lcr) + 2H{sub 2}O ↔ Hf{sup 4+} + 4OH{sup -}]. The log{sub 10} of the solubility product of HfO{sub 2}(cr) is estimated to be < -63. The observation of a small fraction of less crystalline higher solubility material is consistent with the general picture that mineral surfaces are often structurally and/or compositionally imperfect leading to a higher solubility than the bulk crystalline solid. This study stresses the urgent need, during interpretation of solubility data, of taking precautions to make certain that the observed solubility behavior for sparingly-soluble solids is assigned to the proper solid phase.

  6. Acoustic communication in the Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) an examination into vocal sacs, sound propagation, and signal directionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantzker, Marc Steven

    The thesis is an inquiry into the acoustic communication of a very unusual avian species, the Greater Sage-Grouse, Centrocercus urophasianus. One of the most outstanding features of this animal's dynamic mating display is its use of paired air sacs that emerge explosively from an esophageal pouch. My first line of inquiry into this system is a review of the form and function of similar vocal apparatuses, collectively called vocal sacs, in birds. Next, with a combination of mathematical models and field measurements, My collaborator and I investigate the acoustic environment where the Greater Sage-Grouse display. The complexities of this acoustic environment are relevant both to the birds and to the subsequent examinations of the display's properties. Finally, my collaborators and I examine a cryptic component of the acoustic display --- directionality --- which we measured simultaneously from multiple locations around free moving grouse on their mating grounds.

  7. Comparison of HF radar measurements with Eulerian and Lagrangian surface currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röhrs, Johannes; Sperrevik, Ann Kristin; Christensen, Kai Håkon; Broström, Göran; Breivik, Øyvind

    2015-05-01

    High-frequency (HF) radar-derived ocean currents are compared with in situ measurements to conclude if the radar observations include effects of surface waves that are of second order in the wave amplitude. Eulerian current measurements from a high-resolution acoustic Doppler current profiler and Lagrangian measurements from surface drifters are used as references. Directional wave spectra are obtained from a combination of pressure sensor data and a wave model. Our analysis shows that the wave-induced Stokes drift is not included in the HF radar-derived currents, that is, HF radars measure the Eulerian current. A disputed nonlinear correction to the phase velocity of surface gravity waves, which may affect HF radar signals, has a magnitude of about half the Stokes drift at the surface. In our case, this contribution by nonlinear dispersion would be smaller than the accuracy of the HF radar currents, hence no conclusion can be made. Finally, the analysis confirms that the HF radar data represent an exponentially weighted vertical average where the decay scale is proportional to the wavelength of the transmitted signal.

  8. Comparison of HfCl4, HfI4, TEMA-Hf, and TDMA-Hf as precursors in early growing stages of HfO2 films deposited by ALD: A DFT study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortez-Valadez, M.; Fierro, C.; Farias-Mancilla, J. R.; Vargas-Ortiz, A.; Flores-Acosta, M.; Ramírez-Bon, R.; Enriquez-Carrejo, J. L.; Soubervielle-Montalvo, C.; Mani-Gonzalez, P. G.

    2016-06-01

    The final structure of HfO2 films grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) after reaction with OH- ions has been analyzed by DFT (density functional theory). The interaction of the precursors: HfCl4 (hafnium tetrachloride), HfI4 (hafnium tetraiodide), TEMA-Hf (tetrakis-ethylmethylamino hafnium), and TDMA-Hf (tetrakis-dimethylamino hafnium) with HO-H was studied employing the B3LYP (Becke 3-parameter, Lee-Yang-Parr) hybrid functional and the PBE (Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof) generalized gradient functional. The structural evolution at the Si(100) surface has been analyzed by LDA (local density approximation). The structural parameters: bond length and bond angle, and the vibrational parameters for the optimized structures are also reported. The presence of hafnium silicate at the interface was detected. The infrared spectra and structural parameters obtained in this work agree with previously reported experimental results.

  9. Teach It, Don’t Preach It: The Differential Effects of Directly-communicated and Self-generated Utility Value Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canning, Elizabeth A.; Harackiewicz, Judith M.

    2015-01-01

    Social-psychological interventions in education have used a variety of “self-persuasion” or “saying-is-believing” techniques to encourage students to articulate key intervention messages. These techniques are used in combination with more overt strategies, such as the direct communication of messages in order to promote attitude change. However, these different strategies have rarely been systematically compared, particularly in controlled laboratory settings. We focus on one intervention based in expectancy-value theory designed to promote perceptions of utility value in the classroom and test different intervention techniques to promote interest and performance. Across three laboratory studies, we used a mental math learning paradigm in which we varied whether students wrote about utility value for themselves or received different forms of directly-communicated information about the utility value of a novel mental math technique. In Study 1, we examined the difference between directly-communicated and self-generated utility-value information and found that directly-communicated utility-value information undermined performance and interest for individuals who lacked confidence, but that self-generated utility had positive effects. However, Study 2 suggests that these negative effects of directly-communicated utility value can be ameliorated when participants are also given the chance to generate their own examples of utility value, revealing a synergistic effect of directly-communicated and self-generated utility value. In Study 3, we found that individuals who lacked confidence benefited more when everyday examples of utility value were communicated, rather than career and school examples. PMID:26495326

  10. Teach It, Don't Preach It: The Differential Effects of Directly-communicated and Self-generated Utility Value Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canning, Elizabeth A; Harackiewicz, Judith M

    2015-03-01

    Social-psychological interventions in education have used a variety of "self-persuasion" or "saying-is-believing" techniques to encourage students to articulate key intervention messages. These techniques are used in combination with more overt strategies, such as the direct communication of messages in order to promote attitude change. However, these different strategies have rarely been systematically compared, particularly in controlled laboratory settings. We focus on one intervention based in expectancy-value theory designed to promote perceptions of utility value in the classroom and test different intervention techniques to promote interest and performance. Across three laboratory studies, we used a mental math learning paradigm in which we varied whether students wrote about utility value for themselves or received different forms of directly-communicated information about the utility value of a novel mental math technique. In Study 1, we examined the difference between directly-communicated and self-generated utility-value information and found that directly-communicated utility-value information undermined performance and interest for individuals who lacked confidence, but that self-generated utility had positive effects. However, Study 2 suggests that these negative effects of directly-communicated utility value can be ameliorated when participants are also given the chance to generate their own examples of utility value, revealing a synergistic effect of directly-communicated and self-generated utility value. In Study 3, we found that individuals who lacked confidence benefited more when everyday examples of utility value were communicated, rather than career and school examples.

  11. Directeur des communications (h/f) | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Résumé des fonctions Conçoit, planifie et met en oeuvre une stratégie de ... exprimés par la haute gestion, puis, en fonction de l'environnement externe, des ... Contrôle. Met en place les mécanismes nécessaires à l'accroissement et au ...

  12. Direct or Directed: Orchestrating a More Harmonious Approach to Teaching Technology within an Art & Design Higher Education Curriculum with Special Reference to Visual Communications Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Lindsey; Meachem, Lester

    2007-01-01

    In this scoping study we have investigated the integration of subject-specific software into the structure of visual communications courses. There is a view that the response within visual communications courses to the rapid developments in technology has been linked to necessity rather than by design. Through perceptions of staff with day-to-day…

  13. Using Visual Scene Displays as Communication Support Options for People with Chronic, Severe Aphasia: A Summary of AAC Research and Future Research Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beukelman, David R; Hux, Karen; Dietz, Aimee; McKelvey, Miechelle; Weissling, Kristy

    2015-01-01

    Research about the effectiveness of communicative supports and advances in photographic technology has prompted changes in the way speech-language pathologists design and implement interventions for people with aphasia. The purpose of this paper is to describe the use of photographic images as a basis for developing communication supports for people with chronic aphasia secondary to sudden-onset events due to cerebrovascular accidents (strokes). Topics include the evolution of AAC-based supports as they relate to people with aphasia, the development and key features of visual scene displays (VSDs), and future directions concerning the incorporation of photographs into communication supports for people with chronic and severe aphasia.

  14. Ionosphere research with a HF/MF cubesat radio instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallio, Esa; Aikio, Anita; Alho, Markku; Fontell, Mathias; Harri, Ari-Matti; Kauristie, Kirsti; Kestilä, Antti; Koskimaa, Petri; Mäkelä, Jakke; Mäkelä, Miika; Turunen, Esa; Vanhamäki, Heikki; Verronen, Pekka

    2017-04-01

    New technology provides new possibilities to study geospace and 3D ionosphere by using spacecraft and computer simulations. A type of nanosatellites, CubeSats, provide a cost effective possibility to provide in-situ measurements in the ionosphere. Moreover, combined CubeSat observations with ground-based observations gives a new view on auroras and associated electromagnetic phenomena. Especially joint and active CubeSat - ground based observation campaigns enable the possibility of studying the 3D structure of the ionosphere. Furthermore using several CubeSats to form satellite constellations enables much higher temporal resolution. At the same time, increasing computation capacity has made it possible to perform simulations where properties of the ionosphere, such as propagation of the electromagnetic waves in the medium frequency, MF (0.3-3 MHz) and high frequency, HF (3-30 MHz), ranges is based on a 3D ionospheric model and on first-principles modelling. Electromagnetic waves at those frequencies are strongly affected by ionospheric electrons and, consequently, those frequencies can be used for studying the plasma. On the other hand, even if the ionosphere originally enables long-range telecommunication at MF and HF frequencies, the frequent occurrence of spatiotemporal variations in the ionosphere disturbs communication channels, especially at high latitudes. Therefore, study of the MF and HF waves in the ionosphere has both a strong science and technology interests. We introduce recently developed simulation models as well as measuring principles and techniques to investigate the arctic ionosphere by a polar orbiting CubeSat whose novel AM radio instrument measures HF and MF waves. The cubesat, which contains also a white light aurora camera, is planned to be launched in late 2017 (http://www.suomi100satelliitti.fi/eng). The new models are (1) a 3D ray tracing model and (2) a 3D full kinetic electromagnetic simulation. We also introduce how combining of the

  15. Searching triaxial superdeformation in 175Hf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaowei; Zhejiang Normal Univ., Jinhua; Yu Shaoying; Zhejiang Normal Univ., Jinhua; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing; Shen Caiwan; National Laboratory of Heavy Ion Accelerator of Lanzhou, Lanzhou; Chen Yongshou; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing; National Laboratory of Heavy Ion Accelerator of Lanzhou

    2006-01-01

    A two-dimensional Total Routhian Surface (TRS) calculation is carried out in order to ascertain if there is triaxial superdeformation in 175 Hf. A five quasi-particle configuration is chosen in the calculation. Unfortunately, the TRS minimum does not show up in the total potential energy surface. (authors)

  16. Ferromagnetic characteristics of HfFe2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novakovic, N.; Belosevic-Cavor, J.; Cekic, B.; Manasijevic, M.; Milosevic, Z. . E-mail address of correspoding author: novnik@rt270.vin.bg.ac.yu; Novakovic, N.)

    2003-01-01

    The magnetic hyperfine fields at 181 Ta ion-probe sites in the HfFe 2 polycrystalline binary compound were measured using the time-differential perturbed angular correlation (TDPAC) method. Measurements were performed in the absence of polarizing external magnetic field, at room temperature. The existence of two different structures, dominant cubic MgCu 2 -type and hexagonal MgZn 2 -type in our HfFe 2 sample was refined. Both structures are ferromagnetic with Curie temperatures, which differ significantly (588 K for MgCu 2 and 427 K for MgZn 2 ). The corresponding values of hyperfine fields are H hf 13.8±0.1 T for MgCu 2 -type structure and H hf = 8.0±0.2 T for MgZn 2 -type structure. Calculations using LAPW-Wien 97 program package are in progress and preliminary results are in good agreement with experiment. The analysis includes qualitative explanation of the exchange interactions mechanism between magnetic dipole moment of the observed 181 Ta ion-probe and magnetic dipole moments of the nearest neighbours on the corresponding coordination polyhedra. All these results will be published recently. (author)

  17. Statistical gamma transitions in {sup 174}Hf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farris, L P; Cizewski, J A; Brinkman, M J; Henry, R G; Lee, C S [Rutgers--the State Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Khoo, T L; Janssens, R V.F.; Moore, E F; Carpenter, M P; Ahmad, I; Lauritsen, T [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Kolata, J J; Beard, K B; Ye, B; Garg, U [Notre Dame Univ., IN (United States); Kaplan, M S; Saladin, J X; Winchell, D [Pittsburgh Univ., PA (United States)

    1992-08-01

    The statistical spectrum extracted from the {sup 172}Yb({alpha},2n){sup 174}Hf reaction was fit with Monte Carlo simulations using a modified GDR E1 strength function and several formulations of the level density. (author). 15 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs.

  18. The communication of forensic science in the criminal justice system: A review of theory and proposed directions for research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes, Loene M

    2015-03-01

    Clear communication about forensic science is essential to the effectiveness and perceived trustworthiness of the criminal justice system. Communication can be seen as a meaning-making process that involves different components such as the sender of a message, the message itself, the channel in which a message is sent, and the receiver of the message. Research conducted to date on the communication between forensic scientists and non-scientists in the criminal justice system has focused on different components of the communication process as objects of study. The purpose of this paper is to bring together communication theory and past research on the communication of forensic science to contribute to a deeper understanding of it, and to provide a coherent view of it overall. The paper first outlines the broader context of communication theory and science communication as a backdrop to forensic science communication. Then it presents a conceptual framework as a way to organise past research and, using the framework, reviews recent examples of empirical research and commentary on the communication of forensic science. Finally the paper identifies aspects of the communication of forensic science that may be addressed by future research to enhance the effectiveness of communication between scientists and non-scientists in this multidisciplinary arena. Copyright © 2014 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Updated climatological model predictions of ionospheric and HF propagation parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reilly, M.H.; Rhoads, F.J.; Goodman, J.M.; Singh, M.

    1991-01-01

    The prediction performances of several climatological models, including the ionospheric conductivity and electron density model, RADAR C, and Ionospheric Communications Analysis and Predictions Program, are evaluated for different regions and sunspot number inputs. Particular attention is given to the near-real-time (NRT) predictions associated with single-station updates. It is shown that a dramatic improvement can be obtained by using single-station ionospheric data to update the driving parameters for an ionospheric model for NRT predictions of f(0)F2 and other ionospheric and HF circuit parameters. For middle latitudes, the improvement extends out thousands of kilometers from the update point to points of comparable corrected geomagnetic latitude. 10 refs

  20. QAPP for Hydraulic Fracturing (HF) Surface Spills Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    This QAPP provides information concerning the analysis of spills associated with hydraulic fracturing. This project is relevant to both the chemical mixing and flowback and produced water stages of the HF water cycle as found in the HF Study Plan.

  1. SEMICONDUCTOR TECHNOLOGY: Wet etching characteristics of a HfSiON high-k dielectric in HF-based solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yongliang, Li; Qiuxia, Xu

    2010-03-01

    The wet etching properties of a HfSiON high-k dielectric in HF-based solutions are investigated. HF-based solutions are the most promising wet chemistries for the removal of HfSiON, and etch selectivity of HF-based solutions can be improved by the addition of an acid and/or an alcohol to the HF solution. Due to densification during annealing, the etch rate of HfSiON annealed at 900 °C for 30 s is significantly reduced compared with as-deposited HfSiON in HF-based solutions. After the HfSiON film has been completely removed by HF-based solutions, it is not possible to etch the interfacial layer and the etched surface does not have a hydrophobic nature, since N diffuses to the interface layer or Si substrate formation of Si-N bonds that dissolves very slowly in HF-based solutions. Existing Si-N bonds at the interface between the new high-k dielectric deposit and the Si substrate may degrade the carrier mobility due to Coulomb scattering. In addition, we show that N2 plasma treatment before wet etching is not very effective in increasing the wet etch rate for a thin HfSiON film in our case.

  2. Wet etching characteristics of a HfSiON high-k dielectric in HF-based solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yongliang; Xu Qiuxia

    2010-01-01

    The wet etching properties of a HfSiON high-k dielectric in HF-based solutions are investigated. HF-based solutions are the most promising wet chemistries for the removal of HfSiON, and etch selectivity of HF-based solutions can be improved by the addition of an acid and/or an alcohol to the HF solution. Due to densification during annealing, the etch rate of HfSiON annealed at 900 0 C for 30 s is significantly reduced compared with as-deposited HfSiON in HF-based solutions. After the HfSiON film has been completely removed by HF-based solutions, it is not possible to etch the interfacial layer and the etched surface does not have a hydrophobic nature, since N diffuses to the interface layer or Si substrate formation of Si-N bonds that dissolves very slowly in HF-based solutions. Existing Si-N bonds at the interface between the new high-k dielectric deposit and the Si substrate may degrade the carrier mobility due to Coulomb scattering. In addition, we show that N 2 plasma treatment before wet etching is not very effective in increasing the wet etch rate for a thin HfSiON film in our case. (semiconductor technology)

  3. Implementing communication and decision-making interventions directed at goals of care: a theory-led scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Amanda; Lund, Susi; Campling, Natasha; May, Carl R; Richardson, Alison; Myall, Michelle

    2017-10-06

    To identify the factors that promote and inhibit the implementation of interventions that improve communication and decision-making directed at goals of care in the event of acute clinical deterioration. A scoping review was undertaken based on the methodological framework of Arksey and O'Malley for conducting this type of review. Searches were carried out in Medline and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) to identify peer-reviewed papers and in Google to identify grey literature. Searches were limited to those published in the English language from 2000 onwards. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied, and only papers that had a specific focus on implementation in practice were selected. Data extracted were treated as qualitative and subjected to directed content analysis. A theory-informed coding framework using Normalisation Process Theory (NPT) was applied to characterise and explain implementation processes. Searches identified 2619 citations, 43 of which met the inclusion criteria. Analysis generated six themes fundamental to successful implementation of goals of care interventions: (1) input into development; (2) key clinical proponents; (3) training and education; (4) intervention workability and functionality; (5) setting and context; and (6) perceived value and appraisal. A broad and diverse literature focusing on implementation of goals of care interventions was identified. Our review recognised these interventions as both complex and contentious in nature, making their incorporation into routine clinical practice dependent on a number of factors. Implementing such interventions presents challenges at individual, organisational and systems levels, which make them difficult to introduce and embed. We have identified a series of factors that influence successful implementation and our analysis has distilled key learning points, conceptualised as a set of propositions, we consider relevant to implementing other complex

  4. Enhancement of couples' communication and dyadic coping by a self-directed approach: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodenmann, Guy; Hilpert, Peter; Nussbeck, Fridtjof W; Bradbury, Thomas N

    2014-08-01

    Although prevention of relationship distress and dissolution has potential to strengthen the well-being of partners and any children they are raising, dissemination of prevention programs can be limited because couples face many barriers to in-person participation. An alternative strategy, providing couples with an instructional DVD, is tested in the present study, in which 330 Caucasian couples (N = 660 participants; mean age: men 41.4 years, women 40.0 years) were randomly assigned to a DVD group without any further support, a DVD group with technical telephone coaching, or a wait-list control group. Couples completed questionnaires at pretest, posttest, and 3 and 6 months after completion of the intervention. Self-report measures of dyadic coping, communication quality, ineffective arguing, and relationship satisfaction were used to test whether the intervention groups improved in comparison with the control group. Women in both intervention groups increased in dyadic coping, reduced conflict behavior, and were more satisfied with their relationship 6 months after the intervention. Effects for men were mixed. Participants with poorer skills reported stronger improvement. Intimate relationships can, within limits, be positively influenced by a self-directed approach. Effective dissemination of principles underlying successful relationships can be facilitated through the use of emerging low-cost tools and technologies. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. Stability of formation control using a consensus protocol under directed communications with two time delays and delay scheduling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepeda-Gomez, Rudy; Olgac, Nejat

    2016-01-01

    We consider a linear algorithm to achieve formation control in a group of agents which are driven by second-order dynamics and affected by two rationally independent delays. One of the delays is in the position and the other in the velocity information channels. These delays are taken as constant and uniform throughout the system. The communication topology is assumed to be directed and fixed. The formation is attained by adding a supplementary control term to the stabilising consensus protocol. In preparation for the formation control logic, we first study the stability of the consensus, using the recent cluster treatment of characteristic roots (CTCR) paradigm. This effort results in a unique depiction of the non-conservative stability boundaries in the domain of the delays. However, CTCR requires the knowledge of the potential stability switching loci exhaustively within this domain. The creation of these loci is done in a new surrogate coordinate system, called the 'spectral delay space (SDS)'. The relative stability is also investigated, which has to do with the speed of reaching consensus. This step leads to a paradoxical control design concept, called the 'delay scheduling', which highlights the fact that the group behaviour may be enhanced by increasing the delays. These steps lead to a control strategy to establish a desired group formation that guarantees spacing among the agents. Example case studies are presented to validate the underlying analytical derivations.

  6. The Security Analysis of Two-Step Quantum Direct Communication Protocol in Collective-Rotation Noise Channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jian; Sun Feng-Qi; Pan Ze-Shi; Nie Jin-Rui; Chen Yan-Hua; Yuan Kai-Guo

    2015-01-01

    To analyze the security of two-step quantum direct communication protocol (QDCP) by using Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen pair proposed by Deng et al. [Phys. Rev. A 68 (2003) 042317] in collective-rotation noise channel, an excellent model of noise analysis is proposed. In the security analysis, the method of the entropy theory is introduced, and is compared with QDCP, an error rate point Q 0 (M : (Q 0 , 1.0)) is given. In different noise levels, if Eve wants to obtain the same amount of information, the error rate Q is distinguishable. The larger the noise level ϵ is, the larger the error rate Q is. When the noise level ϵ is lower than 11%, the high error rate is 0.153 without eavesdropping. Lastly, the security of the proposed protocol is discussed. It turns out that the quantum channel will be safe when Q < 0.153. Similarly, if error rate Q > 0.153 = Q 0 , eavesdropping information I > 1, which means that there exist eavesdroppers in the quantum channel, and the quantum channel will not be safe anymore. (paper)

  7. Influence of transmission bit rate on performance of optical fibre communication systems with direct modulation of laser diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Moustafa F

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on the influence of the transmission bit rate on the performance of optical fibre communication systems employing laser diodes subjected to high-speed direct modulation. The performance is evaluated in terms of the bit error rate (BER) and power penalty associated with increasing the transmission bit rate while keeping the transmission distance. The study is based on numerical analysis of the stochastic rate equations of the laser diode and takes into account noise mechanisms in the receiver. Correlation between BER and the Q-parameter of the received signal is presented. The relative contributions of the transmitter noise and the circuit and shot noises of the receiver to BER are quantified as functions of the transmission bit rate. The results show that the power penalty at BER = 10 -9 required to keep the transmission distance increases moderately with the increase in the bit rate near 1 Gbps and at high bias currents. In this regime, the shot noise is the main contributor to BER. At higher bit rates and lower bias currents, the power penalty increases remarkably, which comes mainly from laser noise induced by the pseudorandom bit-pattern effect.

  8. A comparative study of clinical signs, computed tomography, and electroencephalography after direct operation of ruptured anterior communicating aneurysms, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitaoka, Kenichi; Abe, Hiroshi; Nakagawa, Yoku; Imai, Tomohiro; Satoh, Masaharu.

    1987-01-01

    Eight cases with ruptured anterior communicating aneurysms, who developed mental signs of mild degree lasting more than two weeks following direct operation, were subjected to our study. The following results were obtained. 1) The mental signs of mild degree in 8 cases consisted of memory and emotional disturbances. The main findings of CT scan was low density area in the subcortical and cortical areas of the frontal lobe. There was no close correlation on CT findings between memory and emotional disturbances. 2) Abnormal density areas were detected on CT scan, but EEG showed no localized abnormalities of slow waves. Abnormal density areas were not clearly shown on CT, but EEG showed localized abnormalities. Background activities on EEG were favorable despite lesions detected on CT. Either local or diffuse abnormalities were observed in EEG background activities while no abnormal mental signs were recognized. 3) In cases with no apparent abnormal findings on CT and with favorable background activities on EEG, EEG showed marked build up during hyperventilation. 4) As indicated by the above data, comparative studies of CT and EEG findings revealed differences in sites of abnormalities and degree of abnormalities. This is considered caused by a possible increase in cerebral blood flow and metabolism at initiation of chronic stage following subarachnoid hemorrhage-resulting in the disappearance of abnormalities on EEG. (author)

  9. In quantum direct communication an undetectable eavesdropper can always tell Ψ from Φ Bell states in the message mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavičić, Mladen

    2013-04-01

    We show that in any quantum direct communication protocol that is based on Ψ and Φ Bell states, an eavesdropper can always tell Ψ from Φ states without altering the transmission in any way in the message mode. This renders all protocols that make use of only one Ψ state and one Φ state completely insecure in the message mode. All four-Bell-state protocols require a revision and this might be of importance for new implementations of entanglement-based cryptographic protocols. The detection rate of an eavesdropper is 25% per control transmission, i.e., a half of the rate in the two-state (ping-pong) protocol. An eavesdropper can detect control probes with certainty in the standard control transmission without a photon in the Alice-to-Bob's travel mode and with near certainty in a transmission with a fake photon in the travel mode. Resending of measured control photons via the travel mode would make an eavesdropper completely invisible.

  10. Robust quantum secure direct communication and authentication protocol against decoherence noise based on six-qubit DF state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Yan; Zhang Shi-Bin; Yan Li-Li; Han Gui-Hua

    2015-01-01

    By using six-qubit decoherence-free (DF) states as quantum carriers and decoy states, a robust quantum secure direct communication and authentication (QSDCA) protocol against decoherence noise is proposed. Four six-qubit DF states are used in the process of secret transmission, however only the |0′〉 state is prepared. The other three six-qubit DF states can be obtained by permuting the outputs of the setup for |0′〉. By using the |0′〉 state as the decoy state, the detection rate and the qubit error rate reach 81.3%, and they will not change with the noise level. The stability and security are much higher than those of the ping–pong protocol both in an ideal scenario and a decoherence noise scenario. Even if the eavesdropper measures several qubits, exploiting the coherent relationship between these qubits, she can gain one bit of secret information with probability 0.042. (paper)

  11. INFORMAS (International Network for Food and Obesity/non-communicable diseases Research, Monitoring and Action Support): summary and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumanyika, S

    2013-10-01

    This supplement presents the foundational elements for INFORMAS (International Network for Food and Obesity/non-communicable diseases Research, Monitoring and Action Support). As explained in the overview article by Swinburn and colleagues, INFORMAS has a compelling rationale and has set forth clear objectives, outcomes, principles and frameworks for monitoring and benchmarking key aspects of food environments and the policies and actions that influence the healthiness of food environments. This summary highlights the proposed monitoring approaches for the 10 interrelated INFORMAS modules: public and private sector policies and actions; key aspects of food environments (food composition, labelling, promotion, provision, retail, prices, and trade and investment) and population outcomes (diet quality). This ambitious effort should be feasible when approached in a step-wise manner, taking into account existing monitoring efforts, data sources, country contexts and capacity, and when adequately resourced. After protocol development and pilot testing of the modules, INFORMAS aims to be a sustainable, low-cost monitoring framework. Future directions relate to institutionalization, implementation and, ultimately, to leveraging INFORMAS data in ways that will bring key drivers of food environments into alignment with public health goals. © 2013 The Authors. Obesity Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  12. A quantum secure direct communication protocol based on a five-particle cluster state and classical XOR operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jian; Song Danjie; Guo Xiaojing; Jing Bo

    2012-01-01

    In order to transmit secure messages, a quantum secure direct communication protocol based on a five-particle cluster state and classical XOR operation is presented. The five-particle cluster state is used to detect eavesdroppers, and the classical XOR operation serving as a one-time-pad is used to ensure the security of the protocol. In the security analysis, the entropy theory method is introduced, and three detection strategies are compared quantitatively by using the constraint between the information that the eavesdroppers can obtain and the interference introduced. If the eavesdroppers intend to obtain all the information, the detection rate of the original ping-pong protocol is 50%; the second protocol, using two particles of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen pair as detection particles, is also 50%; while the presented protocol is 89%. Finally, the security of the proposed protocol is discussed, and the analysis results indicate that the protocol in this paper is more secure than the other two. (authors)

  13. Hf layer thickness dependence of resistive switching characteristics of Ti/Hf/HfO2/Au resistive random access memory device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Ryo; Azuma, Atsushi; Yoshida, Hayato; Shimizu, Tomohiro; Ito, Takeshi; Shingubara, Shoso

    2018-06-01

    Resistive random access memory (ReRAM) devices with a HfO2 dielectric layer have been studied extensively owing to the good reproducibility of their SET/RESET switching properties. Furthermore, it was reported that a thin Hf layer next to a HfO2 layer stabilized switching properties because of the oxygen scavenging effect. In this work, we studied the Hf thickness dependence of the resistance switching characteristics of a Ti/Hf/HfO2/Au ReRAM device. It is found that the optimum Hf thickness is approximately 10 nm to obtain good reproducibility of SET/RESET voltages with a small RESET current. However, when the Hf thickness was very small (∼2 nm), the device failed after the first RESET process owing to the very large RESET current. In the case of a very thick Hf layer (∼20 nm), RESET did not occur owing to the formation of a leaky dielectric layer. We observed the occurrence of multiple resistance states in the RESET process of the device with a Hf thickness of 10 nm by increasing the RESET voltage stepwise.

  14. Doppler shift simulation of scattered HF signals during the Tromsø HF pumping experiment on 16 February 1996

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. D. Borisova

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Comparisons between bistatic scatter measurements and simulation results during the Tromsø HF pumping experiment on 16 February 1996 are made. Doppler measurements of an HF diagnostic signal scattered from the field-aligned irregularities (FAIs in the auroral E-region were carried out on the London – Tromsø – St. Petersburg path at 9410 kHz from 21:00 to 22:00 UT. The scattered signals were observed both from natural and artificial ionospheric irregularities located in the vicinity of Tromsø. To simulate the Doppler frequency shifts, fd , of scattered signals, a radio channel model, named CONE, was developed. The model allows for ray tracing, group and phase paths, and Doppler frequency shift calculations. The calculated Doppler shifts were analyzed for dependence on the magnitude and direction of plasma velocities in the scattering volume. It was found that the velocity components in the north-south direction are crucial for explaining the Doppler frequency shifts of the scattered diagnostic signals. To simulate fd , real velocities obtained from the EISCAT UHF radar at an altitude of 278 km and from the digital all-sky imager during the experiment were employed. The simulation results of Doppler frequency shift variations with time are in reasonable agreement with the experimental Doppler shifts of scattered signals on the London – Tromsø – St. Petersburg path.Key words. Ionosphere (active experiments; ionospheric irregularities Radio science (ionospheric propagation

  15. Structural, morphological, optical and photoluminescence properties of HfO2 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, C.Y.; Wang, W.J.; Wang, J.; Miao, C.Y.; Li, S.L.; Zhang, Q.Y.

    2013-01-01

    Nanocrystalline monoclinic HfO 2 films with an average crystal size of 4.2–14.8 nm were sputter deposited under controlled temperatures and their structural characteristics and optical and photoluminescence properties have been evaluated. Structural investigations indicate that monoclinic HfO 2 films grown at higher temperatures above 400 °C are highly oriented along the (− 111) direction. The lattice expansion increases with diminishing HfO 2 crystalline size below 6.8 nm while maximum lattice expansion occurs with highly oriented monoclinic HfO 2 of crystalline size about 14.8 nm. The analysis of atomic force microscopy shows that the film growth at 600 °C can be attributed to the surface-diffusion-dominated growth. The intensity of the shoulderlike band that initiates at ∼ 5.7 eV and saturates at 5.94 eV shows continued increase with increasing crystalline size, which is intrinsic to nanocrystalline monoclinic HfO 2 films. Optical band gap varies in the range 5.40 ± 0.03–5.60 ± 0.03 eV and is slightly decreased with the increase in crystalline size. The luminescence band at 4.0 eV of HfO 2 films grown at room temperature can be ascribed to the vibronic transition of excited OH · radical while the emission at 3.2–3.3 eV for the films grown at all temperatures was attributed to the radiative recombination at impurity and/or defect centers. - Highlights: • Nanocrystalline monoclinic HfO 2 films were sputter deposited. • Structural, optical and photoluminescence properties were studied. • To analyze the scaling behavior using the power spectral density • Optical and photoluminescence properties strongly depend on film growth temperature

  16. Comparison of HfCl4, HfI4, TEMA-Hf, and TDMA-Hf as precursors in early growing stages of HfO2 films deposited by ALD: A DFT study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortez-Valadez, M.; Fierro, C.; Farias-Mancilla, J.R.; Vargas-Ortiz, A.; Flores-Acosta, M.; Ramírez-Bon, R.; Enriquez-Carrejo, J.L.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Hafnium oxide growth on Si(100) by atomic layer deposition was simulated. • The interface structure was considered as silicate and silicide. • The interface was studied employing DFT. • TDMA-Hf precursor show better interface stability. - Abstract: The final structure of HfO 2 films grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) after reaction with OH − ions has been analyzed by DFT (density functional theory). The interaction of the precursors: HfCl 4 (hafnium tetrachloride), HfI 4 (hafnium tetraiodide), TEMA-Hf (tetrakis-ethylmethylamino hafnium), and TDMA-Hf (tetrakis-dimethylamino hafnium) with HO–H was studied employing the B3LYP (Becke 3-parameter, Lee–Yang–Parr) hybrid functional and the PBE (Perdew–Burke–Ernzerhof) generalized gradient functional. The structural evolution at the Si(100) surface has been analyzed by LDA (local density approximation). The structural parameters: bond length and bond angle, and the vibrational parameters for the optimized structures are also reported. The presence of hafnium silicate at the interface was detected. The infrared spectra and structural parameters obtained in this work agree with previously reported experimental results.

  17. Comparison of HfCl{sub 4}, HfI{sub 4}, TEMA-Hf, and TDMA-Hf as precursors in early growing stages of HfO{sub 2} films deposited by ALD: A DFT study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortez-Valadez, M. [Departamento de Investigación en Física, Universidad de Sonora, Apdo. Postal 5-88, 83190 Hermosillo, Son. (Mexico); Fierro, C.; Farias-Mancilla, J.R. [Instituto de Ingeniería y Tecnología, Departamento de Física y Matemáticas, Universidad Autónoma de Ciudad Juárez, Av. del Charro 450, Cd. Juárez C.P. 32310, Chihuahua (Mexico); Vargas-Ortiz, A. [Universidad Autónoma de Sinaloa, Facultad de Ingeniería Mochis, Ciudad Universitaria, C.P. 81223 Los Mochis, Sinaloa (Mexico); Flores-Acosta, M. [Departamento de Investigación en Física, Universidad de Sonora, Apdo. Postal 5-88, 83190 Hermosillo, Son. (Mexico); Ramírez-Bon, R. [Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Unidad Querétaro, Apdo. Postal 1-798, 76001 Querétaro, Qro. (Mexico); Enriquez-Carrejo, J.L. [Instituto de Ingeniería y Tecnología, Departamento de Física y Matemáticas, Universidad Autónoma de Ciudad Juárez, Av. del Charro 450, Cd. Juárez C.P. 32310, Chihuahua (Mexico); and others

    2016-06-15

    Highlights: • Hafnium oxide growth on Si(100) by atomic layer deposition was simulated. • The interface structure was considered as silicate and silicide. • The interface was studied employing DFT. • TDMA-Hf precursor show better interface stability. - Abstract: The final structure of HfO{sub 2} films grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) after reaction with OH{sup −} ions has been analyzed by DFT (density functional theory). The interaction of the precursors: HfCl{sub 4} (hafnium tetrachloride), HfI{sub 4} (hafnium tetraiodide), TEMA-Hf (tetrakis-ethylmethylamino hafnium), and TDMA-Hf (tetrakis-dimethylamino hafnium) with HO–H was studied employing the B3LYP (Becke 3-parameter, Lee–Yang–Parr) hybrid functional and the PBE (Perdew–Burke–Ernzerhof) generalized gradient functional. The structural evolution at the Si(100) surface has been analyzed by LDA (local density approximation). The structural parameters: bond length and bond angle, and the vibrational parameters for the optimized structures are also reported. The presence of hafnium silicate at the interface was detected. The infrared spectra and structural parameters obtained in this work agree with previously reported experimental results.

  18. Motivations, aims and communication around advance directives A mixed-methods study into the perspective of their owners and the influence of a current illness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijmen, M.P.S.; Pasman, H.R.W.; Widdershoven, G.A.M.; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, B.D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: What are motivations of owners of an advance directive (AD) to draft an AD, what do they aim for with their AD and do they communicate about their AD? Methods: Written questionnaires were sent to a cohort of people owning different types of ADs (n= 5768). A purposive sample of people

  19. Digital Game Violence and Direct Aggression in Adolescence: A Longitudinal Study of the Roles of Sex, Age, and Parent-Child Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallenius, Marjut; Punamaki, Raija-Leena

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the roles of sex, age, and parent-child communication in moderating the association between digital game violence and direct aggression in a two-year longitudinal study. Finnish 12- and 15-year-old adolescents (N = 316) participated in the follow-up survey. As hypothesized, digital game violence was linked to direct…

  20. Self-diffusion of Er and Hf inpure and HfO2-doped polycrystalline Er2O3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheidecker, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    Using a tracer technique, self-diffusion of Er and Hf was measured over the approximate temperature interval of 1600 to 1970 0 C in pure and HfO 2 -doped polycryatalline Er 2 O 3 . Up to about 10 m/o HfO 2 dopant level, the Er self-diffusion coefficients followed a relationship based on cation vacancies. Above 10 m/o HfO 2 , deviation from this relationship occurred, apparently due to clustering of cation vacancies and oxygen interstitials around the dopant hafnia ion. The activation energy for the self-diffusion of Er in pure Er 2 O 3 was 82.2 Kcal/mole and increased with the HfO 2 dopant level present. Self-diffusion of Hf was measured in pure Er 2 O 3 having two impurity levels, and a separation of the grain boundary. The volume diffusion of Hf showed both extrinsic and intrinsic behavior with the transition temperature increasing with the impurity level present in Er 2 O 3 . The activation energy for Hf volume diffusion in the intrinsic region was high, i.e. 235 -+ 9.5 Kcal/mole. The grain boundary diffusion was apparently extrinsic over the entire temperature interval Very low Hf self diffusion rates were found in both pure and HfO 2 doped Er 2 O 3 compositions. Despite a clustering effect, the HfO 2 dopant increased the Hf volume diffusion coefficients

  1. High resolution TDPAC measurements on 181Ta in Hf2Fe, Hf2Co and Hf2Rh at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cekic, B.; Koicki, S.; Ivanovic, N.; Manasijevic, M.; Koteski, V.; Marjanovic, D.

    1998-01-01

    The time differential perturbed angular correlation measurements (TDPAC-method ) on 181 Ta ion probe in Hf 2 Co, Hf 2 Fe and Hf 2 Rh intermetallic compounds have been performed at 1170 K, using a fast - slow time spectrometer consisting of two BaF 2 detectors. The results of the measurements show the presence of two independent electric quadrupole interactions, compatible with the crystalline structure of these polycrystalline compounds. (authors)

  2. HF Radio Angle-of-Arrival Measurements and Ionosonde Positioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lung-Chih Tsai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 2010 a 2nd generation NOAA MF/HF radar, also referred to as the VIPIR ionosonde, has been operated at Hualien, Taiwan (23.8973°N, 121.5503°E. The Hualien VIPIR ionosonde is a modern ionospheric radar, fully digitizing complex signal records and using multiple parallel receiver channels for simultaneous signal measurements from multiple spaced receiving antennas. This paper considers radio direction finding based on interferometric phase measurements from a horizontal antenna array in the Hualien VIPIR ionosonde system. We applied the Hermite normal form method to solve the phase-measurement aliasing and least squares problems and improve the radio angle-of-arrival (AOA measurements. Backward ray-tracing simulation has been proposed to determine radio transmitter position. This paper presents a numerical, step by step ray-tracing method based on the IGRF superimposed onto a phenomenological ionospheric electron density model, the TaiWan Ionospheric Model (TWIM. The proposed methodology is successfully applied to locate two experimental HF radio transmitters at Longquan and Chungli with distance errors within 5 km and less than 5% of the great circle distances.

  3. HF Radar Sea-echo from Shallow Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josh Kohut

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available HF radar systems are widely and routinely used for the measurement of ocean surface currents and waves. Analysis methods presently in use are based on the assumption of infinite water depth, and may therefore be inadequate close to shore where the radar echo is strongest. In this paper, we treat the situation when the radar echo is returned from ocean waves that interact with the ocean floor. Simulations are described which demonstrate the effect of shallow water on radar sea-echo. These are used to investigate limits on the existing theory and to define water depths at which shallow-water effects become significant. The second-order spectral energy increases relative to the first-order as the water depth decreases, resulting in spectral saturation when the waveheight exceeds a limit defined by the radar transmit frequency. This effect is particularly marked for lower radar transmit frequencies. The saturation limit on waveheight is less for shallow water. Shallow water affects second-order spectra (which gives wave information far more than first-order (which gives information on current velocities, the latter being significantly affected only for the lowest radar transmit frequencies for extremely shallow water. We describe analysis of radar echo from shallow water measured by a Rutgers University HF radar system to give ocean wave spectral estimates. Radar-derived wave height, period and direction are compared with simultaneous shallow-water in-situ measurements.

  4. 2.3 Gbit/s underwater wireless optical communications using directly modulated 520 nm laser diode

    KAUST Repository

    Oubei, Hassan M.; Li, Changping; Park, Kihong; Ng, Tien Khee; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Ooi, Boon S.

    2015-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a record high-speed underwater wireless optical communication (UWOC) over 7 m distance using on-off keying non-return-to-zero (OOK-NRZ) modulation scheme. The communication link uses a commercial TO-9 packaged pigtailed

  5. A novel method for the evaluation of polarization and hemisphere coverage of HF radio noise measurement antennas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witvliet, Ben A.; van Maanen, Erik; Bentum, Mark J.; Slump, Cornelis H.; Schiphorst, Roel

    2015-01-01

    In HF (3-30 MHz) communications the ambient electromagnetic background noise or 'radio noise' generally is the limiting factor in reception. Radio noise measurements are needed for spectrum pollution control and to provide reference levels for radio system design. This article discusses the

  6. Magnetic properties of Hf177 and Hf180 in the strong-coupling deformed model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muto, S.; Stone, N. J.; Bingham, C. R.; Stone, J. R.; Walker, P. M.; Audi, G.; Gaulard, C.; Köster, U.; Nikolov, J.; Nishimura, K.; Ohtsubo, T.; Podolyak, Z.; Risegari, L.; Simpson, G. S.; Veskovic, M.; Walters, W. B.

    2014-04-01

    This paper reports NMR measurements of the magnetic dipole moments of two high-K isomers, the 37/2-, 51.4 m, 2740 keV state in Hf177 and the 8-, 5.5 h, 1142 keV state in Hf180 by the method of on-line nuclear orientation. Also included are results on the angular distributions of γ transitions in the decay of the Hf177 isotope. These yield high precision E2/M1 multipole mixing ratios for transitions in bands built on the 23/2+, 1.1 s, isomer at 1315 keV and on the 9/2+, 0.663 ns, isomer at 321 keV. The new results are discussed in the light of the recently reported finding of systematic dependence of the behavior of the gR parameter upon the quasiproton and quasineutron make up of high-K isomeric states in this region.

  7. Electric Field Gradients at Hf and Fe Sites in Hf2Fe Recalculated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belosevic-Cavor, J.; Cekic, B.; Novakovic, N.; Koteski, V.; Milosevic, Z.

    2004-01-01

    The electric field gradients (EFG) of the Hf 2 Fe intermetallic compound were calculated using the full-potential linearized augmented plain-wave (FP-LAPW) method as embodied in the WIEN 97 code. The obtained values are compared with other ab-initio calculations and on a qualitative basis with the previously reported experimental data obtained from TDPAC. The calculated results, -23.1.10 21 V/m 2 and 2.7.10 21 V/m 2 for Hf 48f and Fe 32e position, respectively, are in excellent agreement with experimental data (23.4.10 21 V/m 2 and 2.7.10 21 V/m 2 ), better than those reported in earlier calculations. The calculated EFG for Hf 16c position (4.2.10 21 V/m 2 ) is stronger than the experimental one (1.1.10 21 V/m 2 ).

  8. Lifetime of the first excited 2{sup +} state in {sup 172}Hf and {sup 174}Hf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerst, Rosa-Belle; Stegemann, Simon; Jolie, Jan; Regis, Jean-Marc; Rudigier, Matthias; Saed-Samii, Nima; Zell, Karl Oskar [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet zu Koeln, Zuelpicher Str. 77, 50937 Koeln (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    Using the {sup 170}Yb(α,2n) and {sup 172}Yb(α,2n) reactions the lifetimes of the first excited 2{sup +} state in {sup 172}Hf and {sup 174}Hf have been measured in fast-timing experiments using the Cologne Orange-Spectrometer and 6 LaBr{sub 3}(Ce)-Detectors. The lifetimes were obtained analyzing e{sup -}-γ-coincidence time-spectra with the slope method. The new and more precise lifetimes correct existing, outdated lifetimes in nuclear databases. Additionally, the systematics of the B(E2,2{sub 1}{sup +}→0{sub 1}{sup +}) is studied.

  9. Search for chemical separations of the element 106 homologues in HF and HF-HCl media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trubert, D.; Monroy-Guzman, F.; Hussonnois, M.; Brillard, L.; Le Naour, C.; Constantinescu, O.

    1996-01-01

    In order to study the chemical properties of element 263 106 in aqueous media, fast, efficient and reproducible chromatographic separations were tested on its assumed homologous: Mo, W and U. Corroborative static and dynamic off-line experiments have shown that after fixation of these three elements on anion-exchange resin in HF medium, selective elution could be achieved by using suitable concentration of HCl - HF and HCl solutions. Separations of short-lived W isotopes, produced through heavy ion irradiation were also performed on-line. (author). 27 refs., 14 figs

  10. Development and validation of a house finch interleukin-1β (HfIL-1β) ELISA system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sungwon; Park, Myeongseon; Leon, Ariel E; Adelman, James S; Hawley, Dana M; Dalloul, Rami A

    2017-08-30

    A unique clade of the bacterium Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), which causes chronic respiratory disease in poultry, has resulted in annual epidemics of conjunctivitis in North American house finches since the 1990s. Currently, few immunological tools have been validated for this songbird species. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) is a prototypic multifunctional cytokine and can affect almost every cell type during Mycoplasma infection. The overall goal of this study was to develop and validate a direct ELISA assay for house finch IL-1β (HfIL-1β) using a cross-reactive chicken antibody. A direct ELISA approach was used to develop this system using two different coating methods, carbonate and dehydration. In both methods, antigens (recombinant HfIL-1b or house finch plasma) were serially diluted in carbonate-bicarbonate coating buffer and either incubated at 4 °C overnight or at 60 °C on a heating block for 2 hr. To generate the standard curve, rHfIL-1b protein was serially diluted at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21, and 24 ng/mL. Following blocking and washing, anti-chicken IL-1b polyclonal antibody was added, plates were later incubated with detecting antibodies, and reactions developed with tetramethylbenzidine solution. A commercially available anti-chicken IL-1β (ChIL-1β) polyclonal antibody (pAb) cross-reacted with house finch plasma IL-1β as well as bacterially expressed recombinant house finch IL-1β (rHfIL-1β) in immunoblotting assays. In a direct ELISA system, rHfIL-1β could not be detected by an anti-ChIL-1β pAb when the antigen was coated with carbonate-bicarbonate buffer at 4°C overnight. However, rHfIL-1β was detected by the anti-ChIL-1β pAb when the antigen was coated using a dehydration method by heat (60°C). Using the developed direct ELISA for HfIL-1β with commercial anti-ChIL-1β pAb, we were able to measure plasma IL-1β levels from house finches. Based on high amino acid sequence homology, we hypothesized and demonstrated cross-reactivity of

  11. Direct-to-consumer communication on prescription only medicines via the internet in the Netherlands, a pilot study. Opinion of the pharmaceutical industry, patient associations and support groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabius, A Mariette; Cheung, Ka-Chun; Rijcken, Cristianne J F; Vinkers, Christiaan H; Talsma, Herre

    2004-06-01

    Investigation of the current application of direct-to-consumer (DTC) communication on prescription only medicines via the Intemet in the Netherlands. Questionnaires were sent by e-mail to 43 Dutch innovative pharmaceutical industries and 130 Patient Association and Support Groups (PASGs). In this pilot study, the response of the pharmaceutical industry was rather low but the impression is that they were willing to invest in DTC communication. The majority of the websites of PASGs did not link to websites of pharmaceutical companies. The PASGs had no opinion whether patients can make a good distinction between DTC advertising and information on websites of the pharmaceutical industry nor about the quality. PASGs did not think unambiguously about the impact on the patient-doctor relationship. The impact of DTC communication on prescription only medicines via the internet is not yet clear in the Netherlands.

  12. Generation and amplification of nanaosecond duration multiline hf laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Getzinger, R.L.; Ware, K.D.; Carpenter, J.P.

    1976-01-01

    High-power, fast-rising pulses of hydrogen fluoride laser energy suitable for laser-fusion target interaction experiments can in principle be generated by directing an electro-optically shuttered oscillator pulse through one or more electron-beam driven amplifiers. A three-stage HF master oscillator-power amplifier (MOPA) configuration was constructed and tested using SF 6 -C 2 H 6 in which an E-O generated 4-ns-FWHM pulse was amplified in an electron-beam-excited third stage and subsequently isolated with a Brewster angle splitter. Independent experiments in which a 100-ns-FWHM pilot pulse interacted with the power amplifier demonstrated for the first time complete extraction of the available laser energy. These two results provide strong evidence that with upgrading to H 2 -F 2 , it should be possible to obtain nanosecond duration pulses with power levels sufficient for meaningful laser fusion target coupling experiments

  13. Digital hf radar observations of equatorial spread-F

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argo, P.E.

    1984-01-01

    Modern digital ionosondes, with both direction finding and doppler capabilities can provide large scale pictures of the Spread-F irregularity regions. A morphological framework has been developed that allows interpretation of the hf radar data. A large scale irregularity structure is found to be nightward of the dusk terminator, stationary in the solar reference frame. As the plasma moves through this foehn-wall-like structure it descends, and irregularities may be generated. Localized upwellings, or bubbles, may be produced, and they drift with the background plasma. The spread-F irregularity region is found to be best characterized as a partly cloudy sky, due to the patchiness of the substructures. 13 references, 16 figures

  14. Dynamic neural network modeling of HF radar current maps for forecasting oil spill trajectories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tissot, P.; Perez, J.; Kelly, F.J.; Bonner, J.; Michaud, P.

    2001-01-01

    This paper examined the concept of dynamic neural network (NN) modeling for short-term forecasts of coastal high-frequency (HF) radar current maps offshore of Galveston Texas. HF radar technology is emerging as a viable and affordable way to measure surface currents in real time and the number of users applying the technology is increasing. A 25 megahertz, two site, Seasonde HF radar system was used to map ocean and bay surface currents along the coast of Texas where wind and river discharge create complex and rapidly changing current patters that override the weaker tidal flow component. The HF radar system is particularly useful in this type of setting because its mobility makes it a good marine spill response tool that could provide hourly current maps. This capability helps improve deployment of response resources. In addition, the NN model recently developed by the Conrad Blucher Institute can be used to forecast water levels during storm events. Forecasted currents are based on time series of current vectors from HF radar plus wind speed, wind direction, and water levels, as well as tidal forecasts. The dynamic NN model was tested to evaluate its performance and the results were compared with a baseline model which assumes the currents do not change from the time of the forecast up to the forecasted time. The NN model showed improvements over the baseline model for forecasting time equal or greater than 3 hours, but the difference was relatively small. The test demonstrated the ability of the dynamic NN model to link meteorological forcing functions with HF radar current maps. Development of the dynamic NN modeling is still ongoing. 18 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs

  15. HF Radio Astronomy from a Small Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-15

    SSC16-XI-03 HF Radio Astronomy from a Small Satellite Frank C. Robey1, Mary Knapp2, Alan J. Fenn1, Mark Silver1, Kerry Johnson1 Frank J. Lind3...frequency end of the electromagnetic spectrum (below 15 MHz) is one of the least explored windows in observational astronomy . Observations at these...pdf. [Accessed: 17-Oct-2015]. 3. G. Hallinan, “The Owens Valley LWA,” in Exascale Radio Astronomy , 2014, vol. 2. 4. C. J. Lonsdale, R. J. Cappallo

  16. Crystal structures of KM(AsF{sub 6}){sub 3} (M{sup 2+} = Mg, Co, Mn, Zn), KCu(SbF{sub 6}){sub 3} and [Co(HF){sub 2}]Sr[Sr(HF)]{sub 2}-[Sr(HF){sub 2}]{sub 2}[AsF{sub 6}]{sub 12}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazej, Zoran; Goreshnik, Evgeny [Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovakia). Dept. of Inorganic Chemisrty and Technology

    2015-05-01

    The KM(AsF{sub 6}){sub 3} (M{sup 2+} = Mg, Co, Mn, Zn) and KCu(SbF{sub 6}){sub 3} compounds crystallize isotypically to previously known KNi(AsF{sub 6}){sub 3}. The main features of the structure of these compounds are rings of MF{sub 6} octahedra sharing apexes with AsF{sub 6} octahedra connected into infinite tri-dimensional frameworks. In this arrangement cavities are formed where K{sup +} cations are placed. Single crystals of CoSr{sub 5}(AsF{sub 6}){sub 12}.8HF were obtained as one of the products after the crystallization of 3KF/CoF{sub 2}/SrF{sub 2} mixture in the presence of AsF{sub 5} in anhydrous HF. The CoSr{sub 5}(AsF{sub 6}){sub 12}.8HF is monoclinic, C/2c (No.15), with a = 26.773(5) Aa, b = 10.087(2) Aa, c = 21.141(5) Aa, β = 93.296(13) {sup circle}, V = 5699.9(19) Aa{sup 3} at 200 K, and Z = 4. There are three crystallographically non-equivalent Sr{sup 2+} cations in the crystal structure of CoSr{sub 5}(AsF{sub 6}){sub 12}.8HF. The Sr1 is coordinated by ten fluorine atoms from eight different [AsF{sub 6}]- anions, meanwhile Sr2 and Sr3 are bound to nine fluorine atoms provided by one HF and eight AsF{sub 6} units or by two HF and six AsF{sub 6} units, respectively. The Co{sup 2+} is coordinated distorted-octahedrally by six fluorine atoms from two HF molecules and four different AsF{sub 6} units. All those moieties in the crystal structure of [Co(HF){sub 2}]Sr[Sr(HF)]{sub 2}[Sr(HF){sub 2}]{sub 2}[AsF{sub 6}]{sub 12} are connected into tridimensional framework. The CoSr{sub 5}(AsF{sub 6}){sub 12}.8HF is a unique example of compound where HF molecules are directly bound via fluorine atoms to two different metal centres.

  17. Crystal structures of KM(AsF6)3 (M2+ = Mg, Co, Mn, Zn), KCu(SbF6)3 and [Co(HF)2]Sr[Sr(HF)]2-[Sr(HF)2]2[AsF6]12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazej, Zoran; Goreshnik, Evgeny

    2015-01-01

    The KM(AsF 6 ) 3 (M 2+ = Mg, Co, Mn, Zn) and KCu(SbF 6 ) 3 compounds crystallize isotypically to previously known KNi(AsF 6 ) 3 . The main features of the structure of these compounds are rings of MF 6 octahedra sharing apexes with AsF 6 octahedra connected into infinite tri-dimensional frameworks. In this arrangement cavities are formed where K + cations are placed. Single crystals of CoSr 5 (AsF 6 ) 12 .8HF were obtained as one of the products after the crystallization of 3KF/CoF 2 /SrF 2 mixture in the presence of AsF 5 in anhydrous HF. The CoSr 5 (AsF 6 ) 12 .8HF is monoclinic, C/2c (No.15), with a = 26.773(5) Aa, b = 10.087(2) Aa, c = 21.141(5) Aa, β = 93.296(13) circle , V = 5699.9(19) Aa 3 at 200 K, and Z = 4. There are three crystallographically non-equivalent Sr 2+ cations in the crystal structure of CoSr 5 (AsF 6 ) 12 .8HF. The Sr1 is coordinated by ten fluorine atoms from eight different [AsF 6 ]- anions, meanwhile Sr2 and Sr3 are bound to nine fluorine atoms provided by one HF and eight AsF 6 units or by two HF and six AsF 6 units, respectively. The Co 2+ is coordinated distorted-octahedrally by six fluorine atoms from two HF molecules and four different AsF 6 units. All those moieties in the crystal structure of [Co(HF) 2 ]Sr[Sr(HF)] 2 [Sr(HF) 2 ] 2 [AsF 6 ] 12 are connected into tridimensional framework. The CoSr 5 (AsF 6 ) 12 .8HF is a unique example of compound where HF molecules are directly bound via fluorine atoms to two different metal centres.

  18. Ab initio theoretical study of dipole-bound anions of molecular complexes: (HF)3- and (HF)4- anions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaekers, Riet; Smith, Dayle M. A.; Smets, Johan; Adamowicz, Ludwik

    1997-12-01

    Ab initio calculations have been performed to determine structures and vertical electron detachment energy (VDE) of the hydrogen fluoride trimer and tetramer anions, (HF)3- and (HF)4-. In these systems the excess electron is bound by the dipole field of the complex. It was determined that, unlike the neutral complexes which prefer the cyclic structures, the equilibrium geometries of the anions have "zig-zag" shapes. For both complexes the predicted VDEs are positive [210 meV and 363 meV for (HF)3- and (HF)4-, respectively], indicating that the anions are stable systems with respect to the vertical electron detachment. These results were obtained at the coupled-cluster level of theory with single, double and triple excitations [CCSD(T) method; the triple-excitation contribution in this method is calculated approximately using the perturbation approach] with the anion geometries obtained using the second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2) method. The same approach was also used to determine the adiabatic electron affinities (AEA) of (HF)3 and (HF)4. In addition to the electronic contribution, we also calculated the contributions (using the harmonic approximation) resulting from different zero-point vibration energies of the neutral and anionic clusters. The calculations predicted that while the AEA of (HF)3 is positive (44 meV), the AEA for (HF)4 is marginally negative (-16 meV). This suggests that the (HF)3- anion should be a stable system, while the (HF)4- is probably metastable.

  19. Thermoelectric properties of doped BaHfO_3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixit, Chandra Kr.; Bhamu, K. C.; Sharma, Ramesh

    2016-01-01

    We have studied the structural stability, electronic structure, optical properties and thermoelectric properties of doped BaHfO_3 by full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method. The electronic structure of BaHfO_3 doped with Sr shows enhances the indirect band gaps of 3.53 eV, 3.58 eV. The charge density plots show strong ionic bonding in Ba-Hf, and ionic and covalent bonding between Hf and O. Calculations of the optical spectra, viz., the dielectric function, refractive index and extinction coefficient are performed for the energy range are calculated and analyzed. Thermoelectric properties of semi conducting are also reported first time. The doped BaHfO_3 is approximately wide band gap semiconductor with the large p-type Seebeck coefficient. The power factor of BaHfO_3 is increased with Sr doping, decreases because of low electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity.

  20. Solvent Effects on Nuclear Magnetic Resonance 2J(C,Hf and 1J(C,Hf Spin–Spin Coupling Constants in Acetaldehyde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Esteban

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The known solvent dependence of 1J(Cc,Hf and 2J(C1,Hf couplings in acetaldehyde is studied from a theoretical viewpoint based on the density functional theory approach where the dielectric solvent effect is taken into account with the polarizable continuum model. The four terms of scalar couplings, Fermi contact, paramagnetic spin orbital, diamagnetic spin orbital and spin dipolar, are calculated but the solvent effect analysis is restricted to the first term since for both couplings it is by far the dominant contribution. Experimental trends of Δ1J(Cc,Hf and Δ2J(C1,Hf Vs ε (the solvent dielectric constant are correctly reproduced although they are somewhat underestimated. Specific interactions between solute and solvent molecules are studied for dimethylsulfoxide, DMSO, solutions considering two different one-to-one molecular complexes between acetaldehyde and DMSO. They are determined by interactions of type C=O---H---C and S=O---H---C, and the effects of such interactions on 1J(Cc,Hf and 2J(C1,Hf couplings are analyzed. Even though only in a semiquantitative way, it is shown that the effect of such interactions on the solvent effects, of Δ1J(Cc,Hf and Δ2J(C1,Hf, tend to improve the agreement between calculated and experimental values. These results seem to indicate that a continuum dielectric model has not enough flexibility for describing quantitatively solvent effects on spin-spin couplings. Apparently, even for relatively weak hydrogen bonding, the contribution from “direct” interactions is of the same order of magnitude as the “dielectric” effect.

  1. Nuclear quadrupole interactions in ferroelectric compounds of HF181

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunzler, J.V.

    1971-01-01

    Measurements of nuclear quadrupole interaction constants in perovkite-type compounds of PbHfO 3 , SnhfO 3 , CaHfO 3 e SrHfO 3 have been performed using the perturbed angular correlation technique. A range of fundamental frequencies from 150 to 550 Megaradians persecond was determined. The variation of quadrupole constants has been discussed through the molecular orbital theory

  2. Doppler shift simulation of scattered HF signals during the Tromsø HF pumping experiment on 16 February 1996

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. D. Borisova

    Full Text Available Comparisons between bistatic scatter measurements and simulation results during the Tromsø HF pumping experiment on 16 February 1996 are made. Doppler measurements of an HF diagnostic signal scattered from the field-aligned irregularities (FAIs in the auroral E-region were carried out on the London – Tromsø – St. Petersburg path at 9410 kHz from 21:00 to 22:00 UT. The scattered signals were observed both from natural and artificial ionospheric irregularities located in the vicinity of Tromsø. To simulate the Doppler frequency shifts, fd , of scattered signals, a radio channel model, named CONE, was developed. The model allows for ray tracing, group and phase paths, and Doppler frequency shift calculations. The calculated Doppler shifts were analyzed for dependence on the magnitude and direction of plasma velocities in the scattering volume. It was found that the velocity components in the north-south direction are crucial for explaining the Doppler frequency shifts of the scattered diagnostic signals. To simulate fd , real velocities obtained from the EISCAT UHF radar at an altitude of 278 km and from the digital all-sky imager during the experiment were employed. The simulation results of Doppler frequency shift variations with time are in reasonable agreement with the experimental Doppler shifts of scattered signals on the London – Tromsø – St. Petersburg path.

    Key words. Ionosphere (active experiments; ionospheric irregularities Radio science (ionospheric propagation

  3. Mixed Messages from Garnet Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd Geochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vervoort, J. D.; Wang, D.; Johnson, T. A.

    2017-12-01

    Garnet geochronology provides important information on the timing and conditions of metamorphism. As a major indicator mineral formed during metamorphism, its direct dating can not only help establish the timing of metamorphism, provide the "t" for P-T-t paths, but also, if the dated garnet can be placed in a textural context, can provide information on the timing of deformational features. With advances in chemistry and mass spectrometry, garnet Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd geochronology has become an important geochronological tool and we can now reliably (if not routinely) date a wide variety of garnet compositions formed under diverse conditions. In the course of dating a variety of lithologies using both Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd isotope systems, however, some intriguing results have emerged. Although there are many examples where the Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd systems give the same date within uncertainty, there are also many cases where these systems yield significantly different dates, and the differences between these dates can be considerable—many 10's of Ma of and even 100's of Ma. For example, in garnet-bearing Mesoproterozoic gneisses from across the Blue Ridge Province in Virginia, both Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd analyses (determined on the same solutions) define narrow time spans, but with the Sm-Nd dates systematically younger (for orthogneisses Lu-Hf dates are 1032 to 1019 Ma whereas Sm-Nd dates are 965 to 949 Ma—a difference of 67 to 80 Ma). There are many other examples of systematically younger Sm-Nd garnet dates in both the literature and with our ongoing research. Potential explanations for these differences include: 1) strong partitioning of Lu into garnet during growth yielding ages weighted toward the beginning of growth; 2) faster Lu diffusion from high Lu regions after garnet formation, potentially leading to isochron rotation and anomalously old Lu-Hf dates; and 3) differences in closure temperatures of the two isotope systems. We will review several examples of divergent Lu-Hf

  4. Hf isotope evidence for a hidden mantle reservoir

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bizzarro, Martin; Simonetti, A.; Stevenson, R.K.

    2002-01-01

    High-precision Hf isotopic analyses and U-Pb ages of carbonatites and kimberlites from Greenland and eastern North America, including Earth's oldest known carbonatite (3 Ga), indicate derivation from an enriched mantle source. This previously unidentified mantle reservoir-marked by an unradiogenic...... Hf isotopic composition and preserved in the deep mantle for at least 3 b.y.-may account for the mass imbalance in Earth's Hf-Nd budget. The Hf isotopic data presented here support a common mantle source region and genetic link between carbonatite and some oceanic-island basalt volcanoes....

  5. Microstructural characterization of as-cast hf-b alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Jânio Gigolotti

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available An accurate knowledge of several metal-boron phase diagrams is important to evaluation of higher order systems such as metal-silicon-boron ternaries. The refinement and reassessment of phase diagram data is a continuous work, thus the reevaluation of metal-boron systems provides the possibility to confirm previous data from an investigation using higher purity materials and better analytical techniques. This work presents results of rigorous microstructural characterization of as-cast hafnium-boron alloys which are significant to assess the liquid composition associated to most of the invariant reactions of this system. Alloys were prepared by arc melting high purity hafnium (minimum 99.8% and boron (minimum 99.5% slices under argon atmosphere in water-cooled copper crucible with non consumable tungsten electrode and titanium getter. The phases were identified by scanning electron microscopy, using back-scattered electron image mode and X-ray diffraction. In general, a good agreement was found between our data and those from the currently accepted Hafnium-Boron phase diagram. The phases identified are αHfSS and B-RhomSS, the intermediate compounds HfB and HfB2 and the liquide L. The reactions are the eutectic L ⇔ αHfSS + HfB and L ⇔ HfB2 + B-Rhom, the peritectic L + HfB2 ⇔ HfB and the congruent formation of HfB2.

  6. Design lateral heterostructure of monolayer ZrS2 and HfS2 from first principles calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Junhui; Yu, Niannian; Wang, Jiafu; Xue, Kan-Hao; Miao, Xiangshui

    2018-04-01

    The successful fabrication of two-dimensional lateral heterostructures (LHS's) has opened up unprecedented opportunities in material science and device physics. It is therefore highly desirable to search for more suitable materials to create such heterostructures for next-generation devices. Here, we investigate a novel lateral heterostructure composed of monolayer ZrS2 and HfS2 based on density functional theory. The phonon dispersion and ab initio molecular dynamics analysis indicate its good kinetic and thermodynamic stability. Remarkably, we find that these lateral heterostructures exhibit an indirect to direct bandgap transition, in contrast to the intrinsic indirect bandgap nature of ZrS2 and HfS2. The type-II alignment and chemical bonding across the interline have also been revealed. The tensile strain is proved to be an efficient way to modulate the band structure. Finally, we further discuss other three stable lateral heterostructures: (ZrSe2)2(HfSe2)2 LHS, (ZrS2)2(ZrSe2)2 LHS and (HfS2)2(HfSe2)2 LHS. Generally, the lateral heterostructures of monolayer ZrS2 and HfS2 are of excellent electrical properties, and may find potential applications for future electronic devices.

  7. Characterization of inkjet-printing HF and UHF antennas for RFID applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarapata, Grzegorz; Paczesny, Daniel; Kawecki, Krzysztof

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this work was to perform a set of RFID antennas on flexible plastic substrates designed for range of HF and UHF band. The samples was fabricated using inkjet printing technology and conductive material base on silver nanopartilces ink. Fabricated antennas have been characterized, and the results were compared with the parameters of antennas made with usage of classical PCB technology on FR4 laminate with copper metallization. The paper presents studies on the impact of elastic substrates and conductive materials on antennas electrical parameters, as well as the communication range of the resulting RFID tags. During the experiment two patterns of HF and three patterns of UHF antennas was examined and the antennas was realized on different types of substrates, such as PET, Kapton® and FR4.

  8. High-temperature x-ray diffraction study of HfTiO4-HfO2 solid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, D.A.

    1975-01-01

    High-temperature x-ray diffraction techniques were used to determine the axial thermal expansion curves of HfTiO 4 -HfO 2 solid solutions as a function of composition. Data show increasing anisotropy with increasing HfO 2 content. An orthorhombic-to-monoclinic phase transformation was detected near room temperature for compositions near the high HfO 2 end of the orthorhombic phase field and for compositions within the two-phase region (HfTiO 4 solid solution plus HfO 2 solid solution). An orthorhombic-to-cubic phase transformation is indicated by data from oxygen-deficient materials at greater than 1873 0 K. (U.S.)

  9. Phenomena in the ionosphere-magnetosphere system induced by injection of powerful HF radio waves into nightside auroral ionosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. F. Blagoveshchenskaya

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental results from three ionospheric HF pumping experiments in overdense E or F regions are summarized. The experiments were conducted by the use of the EISCAT HF Heating facility located near Tromsø, Norway, allowing HF pumping the ionosphere in a near geomagnetic field-aligned direction. Distinctive features related to auroral activations in the course of the experiments are identified. Typical features observed in all experiments are the following: generation of scattered components in dynamic HF radio scatter Doppler spectra; strong increase of ion temperatures Ti and local ionospheric electric field E0; modification of the auroral arc and local spiral-like formation. However, some effects were observed only when the HF pump wave was reflected from the F2 layer. Among them are the generation of intense field-aligned ion outflows, and a strong increase in the electron temperature Te with altitude. A possible scenario for the substorm triggering due to HF pumping into an auroral ionosphere is discussed. The authors present their interpretation of the data as follows. It is suggested that two populations of charged particles are at play. One of them is the runaway population of electrons and ions from the ionosphere caused by the effects of the powerful HF radio wave. The other is the population of electrons that precipitate from the magnetosphere. It is shown that the hydrodynamical equilibrium was disrupted due to the effects of the HF pumping. We estimate that the parallel electric field can reach values of the order of 30mV/m during substorm triggering.

  10. 4 Gbps direct modulation of 450 nm GaN laser for high-speed visible light communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Changmin; Zhang, Chong; Cantore, Michael; Farrell, Robert M; Oh, Sang Ho; Margalith, Tal; Speck, James S; Nakamura, Shuji; Bowers, John E; DenBaars, Steven P

    2015-06-15

    We demonstrate high-speed data transmission with a commercial high power GaN laser diode at 450 nm. 2.6 GHz bandwidth was achieved at an injection current of 500 mA using a high-speed visible light communication setup. Record high 4 Gbps free-space data transmission rate was achieved at room temperature.

  11. 4 Gbps direct modulation of 450 nm GaN laser for high-speed visible light communication

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Changmin

    2015-06-10

    We demonstrate high-speed data transmission with a commercial high power GaN laser diode at 450 nm. 2.6 GHz bandwidth was achieved at an injection current of 500 mA using a high-speed visible light communication setup. Record high 4 Gbps free-space data transmission rate was achieved at room temperature.

  12. 4 Gbps direct modulation of 450 nm GaN laser for high-speed visible light communication

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Changmin; Zhang, Chong; Cantore, Michael; Farrell, Robert M.; Oh, Sang Ho; Margalith, Tal; Speck, James S.; Nakamura, Shuji; Bowers, John E.; DenBaars, Steven P.

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate high-speed data transmission with a commercial high power GaN laser diode at 450 nm. 2.6 GHz bandwidth was achieved at an injection current of 500 mA using a high-speed visible light communication setup. Record high 4 Gbps free

  13. Teaching a Child with Autism and Severe Language Delays to Reject: Direct and Indirect Effects of Functional Communication Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Christian A.; Drasgow, Erik; Halle, James W.; Brucker, Jennifer M.

    2005-01-01

    We used functional communication training to teach Bob, a 10-year-old student with autism and severe language delays, to reject items by touching an icon. Our initial assessment revealed that Bob's behaviours serving a rejecting function consisted of pushing away, yelling, bear hugging-grabbing, and leaving. We used prompting, differential…

  14. Mapping high-latitude plasma convection with coherent HF radars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruohoniemi, J.M.; Greenwald, R.A.; Baker, K.B.; Villain, J.-P.; Hanuise, C.; Kelly, J.

    1989-01-01

    In this decade, a new technique for the study of ionosphere electrodynamics has been implemented in an evolving generation of high-latitude HF radars. Coherent backscatter from electron density irregularities at F region altitudes is utilized to observe convective plasma motion. The electronic beam forming and scanning capabilities of the radars afford an excellent combination of spatial (∼50 km) and temporal (∼1 min) resolution of the large-scale (∼10 6 km 2 ) convection pattern. In this paper, we outline the methods developed to synthesize the HF radar data into two-dimensional maps of convection velocity. Although any single radar can directly measure only the line-of-sight, or radial, component of the plasma motion, the convection pattern is sometimes so uniform and stable that scanning in azimuth serves to determine the transverse component as well. Under more variable conditions, data from a second radar are necessary to unambiguously resolve velocity vectors. In either case, a limited region of vector solution can be expanded into contiguous areas of single-radar radial velocity data by noting that the convection must everywhere be divergence-free, i.e., ∇·v=0. It is thus often possible to map velocity vectors without extensive second-radar coverage. We present several examples of two-dimensional velocity maps. These show instances of L shell-aligned flow in the dusk sector, the reversal of convection near magnetic midnight, and counterstreaming in the dayside cleft. We include a study of merged coherent and incoherent radar data that illustrates the applicability of these methods to other ionospheric radar systems. copyright American Geophysical Union 1989

  15. Simultaneous analysis of rotational and vibrational-rotational spectra of DF and HF to obtain irreducible molecular constants for HF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horiai, Koui; Uehara, Hiromichi

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Available rotational and vibrational-rotational spectral lines of DF and HF are analyzed simultaneously using a non-Born-Oppenheimer effective Hamiltonian. Research highlights: → Simultaneous analysis of DF and HF spectral data. → Application of a non-Born-Oppenheimer effective Hamiltonian. → Twenty irreducible molecular constants for HF have been determined. - Abstract: Analytic expressions of corrections for the breakdown of the Born-Oppenheimer approximation to Dunham's Y ij with optimal parameters, i.e., determinable clusters of expansion coefficients, are applied to a data analysis of the rotational and vibrational-rotational transitions of HF reported in the literature. All the available spectral lines of the two isotopologues, DF and HF, are simultaneously fitted to a single set of molecular parameters of HF within experimental errors. Fitting of a data set of 595 spectral transitions for DF and HF has generated only 20 minimal independent parameter values, i.e., 'irreducible' molecular constants of HF, that are sufficient to precisely generate 82 Y ij coefficients and 144 band constants in total: 41 Y ij and 72 band constants each for DF and HF.

  16. Preparation and characterization of Ce-doped HfO2 nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gálvez-Barboza, S.; González, L.A.; Puente-Urbina, B.A.; Saucedo-Salazar, E.M.; García-Cerda, L.A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Ce-doped HfO 2 nanoparticles were prepared by a modified solgel method. • Ce-doped HfO 2 nanoparticles have a semispherical shape with sizes between 6 and 11.5 nm. • The samples doped with 10% in weight of Ce directly crystallized in a cubic structure. • A quick, straightforward and effective route for the preparation of Ce-doped nanoparticles. - Abstract: A modified solgel method to synthesize Ce-doped HfO 2 nanoparticles was carried out using a precursor material prepared with cerium nitrate, hafnium chloride, citric acid and ethylene glycol. The obtained precursor material was calcined at 500 and 700 °C for 2 h in air. The influence of the concentration of Ce and the calcination temperature was studied to observe the structural and morphological changes of the obtained materials. For the characterization, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Raman scattering (RS) were employed. The XRD patterns shown that the Ce-doped HfO 2 undergoes a structural transformation from monoclinic to cubic phase, which is significantly dependent on the Ce content and calcination temperature. TEM images have also confirmed the existence of semispherical nanoparticles with sizes between 6 and 11.5 nm

  17. Preparation and characterization of Ce-doped HfO{sub 2} nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gálvez-Barboza, S. [Centro de Investigación en Química Aplicada, Departamento de Materiales Avanzados, Blvd. Enrique Reyna Hermosillo #140, C.P. 25294 Saltillo, Coahuila (Mexico); Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Av. Industria Metalúrgica # 1062 Parque Industrial, C.P. 25900 Ramos Arizpe, Coahuila (Mexico); González, L.A. [Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Av. Industria Metalúrgica # 1062 Parque Industrial, C.P. 25900 Ramos Arizpe, Coahuila (Mexico); Puente-Urbina, B.A.; Saucedo-Salazar, E.M. [Centro de Investigación en Química Aplicada, Departamento de Materiales Avanzados, Blvd. Enrique Reyna Hermosillo #140, C.P. 25294 Saltillo, Coahuila (Mexico); García-Cerda, L.A., E-mail: luis.garcia@ciqa.edu.mx [Centro de Investigación en Química Aplicada, Departamento de Materiales Avanzados, Blvd. Enrique Reyna Hermosillo #140, C.P. 25294 Saltillo, Coahuila (Mexico)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Ce-doped HfO{sub 2} nanoparticles were prepared by a modified solgel method. • Ce-doped HfO{sub 2} nanoparticles have a semispherical shape with sizes between 6 and 11.5 nm. • The samples doped with 10% in weight of Ce directly crystallized in a cubic structure. • A quick, straightforward and effective route for the preparation of Ce-doped nanoparticles. - Abstract: A modified solgel method to synthesize Ce-doped HfO{sub 2} nanoparticles was carried out using a precursor material prepared with cerium nitrate, hafnium chloride, citric acid and ethylene glycol. The obtained precursor material was calcined at 500 and 700 °C for 2 h in air. The influence of the concentration of Ce and the calcination temperature was studied to observe the structural and morphological changes of the obtained materials. For the characterization, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Raman scattering (RS) were employed. The XRD patterns shown that the Ce-doped HfO{sub 2} undergoes a structural transformation from monoclinic to cubic phase, which is significantly dependent on the Ce content and calcination temperature. TEM images have also confirmed the existence of semispherical nanoparticles with sizes between 6 and 11.5 nm.

  18. 2.3 Gbit/s underwater wireless optical communications using directly modulated 520 nm laser diode

    KAUST Repository

    Oubei, Hassan M.

    2015-07-30

    We experimentally demonstrate a record high-speed underwater wireless optical communication (UWOC) over 7 m distance using on-off keying non-return-to-zero (OOK-NRZ) modulation scheme. The communication link uses a commercial TO-9 packaged pigtailed 520 nm laser diode (LD) with 1.2 GHz bandwidth as the optical transmitter and an avalanche photodiode (APD) module as the receiver. At 2.3 Gbit/s transmission, the measured bit error rate of the received data is 2.23×10−4, well below the forward error correction (FEC) threshold of 2×10−3 required for error-free operation. The high bandwidth of the LD coupled with high sensitivity APD and optimized operating conditions is the key enabling factor in obtaining high bit rate transmission in our proposed system. To the best of our knowledge, this result presents the highest data rate ever achieved in UWOC systems thus far.

  19. Understanding consumer preferences for communication channels to create consumer-directed health promotion efforts in psychiatric rehabilitation settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiFranco, Evelina; Bressi, Sara K; Salzer, Mark S

    2006-01-01

    People with serious mental illnesses experience increased rates of physical illnesses. Drop-in centers and psychosocial rehabilitation programs can serve as important settings for health promotion efforts, but such efforts should utilize communication strategies that are used by consumers and are perceived to be reliable. Focus groups involving 23 consumers at drop-in centers in Philadelphia were conducted to assess the perceived usefulness of health information from a variety of sources. Consumers especially liked getting information from other people, including health care professionals, friends, and family, and found the information to be reliable and useful. Print literature, the Internet, and a library had various limitations. Respondents were generally unfamiliar with community health fairs and related events. Consumers considered trustworthiness, proximity and availability, and the specificity and depth of information provided by a communication source when getting health information. Implications for health promotion efforts are discussed.

  20. CDMA à séquence directe appliqué aux systèmes de communications optiques

    OpenAIRE

    Lourdiane , Mounia

    2005-01-01

    Depuis quelques années, le besoin de systèmes de communications plus rapides et plus sures se fait sentir. Le partage entre utilisateurs de la très grande bande passante des fibres optiques nécessite des techniques d'accès adaptées. Afin de répondre à ces besoins, un certain nombre de techniques de multiplexage, dont le CDMA, ont été développées. Cette technique d'accès multiple est déjà largement utilisée dans les systèmes de communications radio-mobiles, que ce soit dans les normes américai...

  1. Then and Now: Examining How Consumer Communication and Attitudes of Direct-to-Consumer Pharmaceutical Advertising Have Changed in the Last Decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Kelly S; Cronley, Maria L

    2014-09-01

    This study examines changes over a 10-year period in consumer reports of communication with health care providers about direct-to-consumer advertised (DTCA) medications. Two rounds of survey data were collected in 2003 and 2012 using repeated cross-sectional procedures to examine consumer willingness to discuss DTCA medications, content and tone of those conversations, and attitudes about the advertisements. In total, 472 surveys were analyzed. Generally, we found physician-patient conversations, attitudes, and behaviors regarding DTCA have changed. Consumers in 2012 reported talking significantly less about the names of the advertised drug, comparing the advertised drug with their current medication, and sharing general information than consumers in 2003. Attitudes toward the advertisements were significantly more negative in 2012 compared to 2003. Of those who specifically asked for a prescription, the proportion of patients who received the prescription was significantly lower in 2012, despite research suggesting increased rates of prescriptions. These results are interpreted in light of previous research about the lack of research examining the actual communication between physicians and patients on this topic. Limitations of the study are provided along with directions for future research about DTCA and physician-patient communication.

  2. Extreme Hf-Os Isotope Compositions in Hawaiian Peridotite Xenoliths: Evidence for an Ancient Recycled Lithosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizimis, M.; Lassiter, J. C.; Salters, V. J.; Sen, G.; Griselin, M.

    2004-12-01

    ) melt depletion event recorded by both the low 187Os/186Os and high 176Hf/177Hf ratios in the SLC peridotites can be explained with two different scenarios. First, the SLC peridotites may represent ancient depleted lithosphere that survived subduction, remained "rafting" in the upper mantle and is now sampled beneath Oahu. However, the lack of such unradiogenic Os isotopes in both MORBs and abyssal peridotites suggests that such peridotites are rare in the upper mantle and makes their exclusive presence under Oahu a rather fortuitous coincidence. Alternatively, the SLC peridotites may represent ancient depleted recycled lithosphere brought up by the Hawaiian plume. A recycled oceanic crust origin has been previously invoked for the Koolau shield lavas. It is then conceivable that fragments of the lithospheric portion of that subducted package have remained coupled with the oceanic crust and are being brought up by the plume from the deep, but because they were previously depleted, these peridotites contribute minimally, if at all, to Hawaiian volcanism. The presence of microdiamonds and majoritic garnets in some SLC pyroxenites also corroborates a deep origin. In this case, the SLC peridotites represent the first-ever direct evidence that subducted material actually makes it back on the surface, essentially closing the subduction cycle.

  3. Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd garnet geochronology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smit, Matthijs Arjen; Scherer, Erik E.; Mezger, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the systematics of the 176Lu–176Hf and 147Sm–143Nd garnet chronometers, we performed REE and isotope analyses on garnet crystals of different size (0.55–3.1 mm radius) from a single granulite specimen (Archean Pikwitonei Granulite Domain, Manitoba, Canada). The Lu–Hf dates are simi...

  4. Store-directed price promotions and communications strategies improve healthier food supply and demand: impact results from a randomized controlled, Baltimore City store-intervention trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budd, Nadine; Jeffries, Jayne K; Jones-Smith, Jessica; Kharmats, Anna; McDermott, Ann Yelmokas; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2017-12-01

    Small food store interventions show promise to increase healthy food access in under-resourced areas. However, none have tested the impact of price discounts on healthy food supply and demand. We tested the impact of store-directed price discounts and communications strategies, separately and combined, on the stocking, sales and prices of healthier foods and on storeowner psychosocial factors. Factorial design randomized controlled trial. Twenty-four corner stores in low-income neighbourhoods of Baltimore City, MD, USA. Stores were randomized to pricing intervention, communications intervention, combined pricing and communications intervention, or control. Stores that received the pricing intervention were given a 10-30 % price discount by wholesalers on selected healthier food items during the 6-month trial. Communications stores received visual and interactive materials to promote healthy items, including signage, taste tests and refrigerators. All interventions showed significantly increased stock of promoted foods v. There was a significant treatment effect for daily unit sales of healthy snacks (β=6·4, 95 % CI 0·9, 11·9) and prices of healthy staple foods (β=-0·49, 95 % CI -0·90, -0·03) for the combined group v. control, but not for other intervention groups. There were no significant intervention effects on storeowner psychosocial factors. All interventions led to increased stock of healthier foods. The combined intervention was effective in increasing sales of healthier snacks, even though discounts on snacks were not passed to the consumer. Experimental research in small stores is needed to understand the mechanisms by which store-directed price promotions can increase healthy food supply and demand.

  5. Growth and characterization of acentric BaHf(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} and BaZr(BO{sub 3}){sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mączka, Mirosław, E-mail: m.maczka@int.pan.wroc.pl [Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1410, 50-950 Wrocław 2 (Poland); Szymborska-Małek, Katarzyna; Gągor, Anna [Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1410, 50-950 Wrocław 2 (Poland); Majchrowski, Andrzej [Institute of Applied Physics, Military University of Technology, 2 Kaliskiego Str., 00-908 Warszawa (Poland)

    2015-05-15

    Growth, single crystal X-ray diffraction, polarized Raman and infrared (IR) studies of BaHf(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} are presented. Raman and IR spectra of polycrystalline BaZr(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} are also reported to facilitate assignment of modes. BaHf(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} borate crystallizes in trigonal system, space group R3c, with lattice parameters: a=5.1540(4) Å, c=33.901(3) Å. It accommodates dolomite-like structure doubled in the c direction, which is built of alternating layers of HfO{sub 6} octahedra and BaO{sub 6} distorted trigonal prisms that are connected through borate groups. The obtained structural as well as spectroscopic data show that BaHf(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} is isostructural with BaZr(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} and the deviations from centrosymmetry is small. - Graphical abstract: Arrangement of BO{sub 3} groups in BaHf(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} along the c direction in one unit cell. Dark and light blue denote different borate groups. - Highlights: • BaHf(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} single crystals were grown. • X-ray diffraction showed that this borate crystallizes in the acentric R3c structure. • Raman and IR spectra were measured for BaHf(BO{sub 3}){sub 2} and BaZr(BO{sub 3}){sub 2}, respectively. • Assignment of modes is proposed.

  6. CVD growth of large-area and high-quality HfS2 nanoforest on diverse substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Binjie; Wang, Zegao; Qi, Fei; Wang, Xinqiang; Yu, Bo; Zhang, Wanli; Chen, Yuanfu

    2018-03-01

    Two-dimensional layered transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have attracted burgeoning attention due to their various properties and wide potential applications. As a new TMD, hafnium disulfide (HfS2) is theoretically predicted to have better electrical performance than widely studied MoS2. The experimental researches also confirmed the extraordinary feature in electronics and optoelectronics. However, the maximal device performance may not be achieved due to its own limitation of planar structure and challenge of transfer without contamination. Here, through the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique, inch-size HfS2 nanoforest has been directly grown on diverse objective substrates covering insulating, semiconducting and conducting substrates. This direct CVD growth without conventional transfer process avoids contamination and degradation in quality, suggesting its promising and wide applications in high-quality and multifarious devices. It is noted that all the HfS2 nanoforests grown on diverse substrates are constructed with vertically aligned few-layered HfS2 nanosheets with high crystalline quality and edge orientation. Moreover, due to its unique structure, the HfS2 nanoforest owns abundant exposed edge sites and large active surface area, which is essential to apply in high-performance catalyst, sensor, and energy storage or field emitter.

  7. Follow up CT of the patients who developed mental symptoms after direct operation of ruptured anterior communicating aneurysma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitaoka, Kenichi; Nakagawa, Yoku; Abe, Hiroshi; Satoh, Masaharu; Miyasaka, Kazuo.

    1985-01-01

    The following conclusions were obtained from the analysis of CT findings of 26 cases with ruptured anterior communicating aneurysm showed postoperative mental symptoms. 1) Many cases with diffuse and symmetrical high density in subarachnoid spaces on CT in the acute stage, showed severe mental symptoms in the chronic stage. In particular, serious mental symptoms of the chronic stage were recognized in cases with high density in not only subarachnoid space but also in brain tissues and ventricles. 2) Mental symptoms of the chronic stage were severe in cases showed relatively large low density area and with low density in frontal lobe. (author)

  8. Motivations, aims and communication around advance directives: a mixed-methods study into the perspective of their owners and the influence of a current illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijmen, Matthijs P S; Pasman, H Roeline W; Widdershoven, Guy A M; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje D

    2014-06-01

    What are motivations of owners of an advance directive (AD) to draft an AD, what do they aim for with their AD and do they communicate about their AD? Written questionnaires were sent to a cohort of people owning different types of ADs (n=5768). A purposive sample of people suffering from an illness was selected from the cohort for an in-depth interview (n=29). About half of our population had no direct motivation to draft their AD. Most mentioned motivation for the other half was an illness of a family member or friend. Many different and specific aims for drafting an AD were mentioned. An often mentioned more general aim in people with different ADs was to prevent unnecessary lengthening of life or treatment (14-16%). Most respondents communicated about having an AD with close-ones (63-88%) and with their GP (65-79%). In the interviews people gave vivid examples of experiences of what they hoped to prevent at the end of life. Some mentioned difficulties foreseeing the future and gave examples of response shift. ADs can give directions to caregivers about what people want at the end of life. ADs have to be discussed in detail by their owners and caregivers, since owners often have specific aims with their AD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Surface current dynamics under sea breeze conditions observed by simultaneous HF radar, ADCP and drifter measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sentchev, Alexei; Forget, Philippe; Fraunié, Philippe

    2017-04-01

    Ocean surface boundary layer dynamics off the southern coast of France in the NW Mediterranean is investigated by using velocity observations by high-frequency (HF) radars, surface drifting buoys and a downward-looking drifting acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP). The analysis confirms that velocities measured by HF radars correspond to those observed by an ADCP at the effective depth z f = k -1, where k is wavenumber of the radio wave emitted by the radar. The radials provided by the radars were in a very good agreement with in situ measurements, with the relative errors of 1 and 9 % and root mean square (RMS) differences of 0.02 and 0.04 m/s for monostatic and bistatic radar, respectively. The total radar-based velocities appeared to be slightly underestimated in magnitude and somewhat biased in direction. At the end of the survey period, the difference in the surface current direction, based on HF radar and ADCP data, attained 10°. It was demonstrated that the surface boundary layer dynamics cannot be reconstructed successfully without taking into the account velocity variation with depth. A significant misalignment of ˜30° caused by the sea breeze was documented between the HF radar (HFR-derived) surface current and the background current. It was also found that the ocean response to a moderate wind forcing was confined to the 4-m-thick upper layer. The respective Ekman current attained the maximum value of 0.15 m/s, and the current rotation was found to be lagging the wind by approximately 40 min, with the current vector direction being 15-20° to the left of the wind. The range of velocity variability due to wind forcing was found comparable with the magnitude of the background current variability.

  10. Advance directives from haematology departments: the patient's freedom of choice and communication with families. A qualitative analysis of 35 written documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trarieux-Signol, S; Bordessoule, D; Ceccaldi, J; Malak, S; Polomeni, A; Fargeas, J B; Signol, N; Pauliat, H; Moreau, S

    2018-01-02

    In France, advance directives are favourably perceived by most of the population, although the drafting rate is low. This ambivalence is challenging because advance directives are meant to promote the autonomy and freedom of choice of patients. The purpose of this study was to analyse the content of advance directives written by patients suffering from malignant haemopathies to better understand how patients put them into practice. These could be relevant as early as the initial diagnosis of haematological malignancies because of the uncertain course of the disease. This was a multicentre, qualitative, descriptive study. The advance directives written by patients with malignant haemopathies treated in one of the six French hospital departments were included in the study from 01/06/2008 to 15/04/2016. A thematic analysis of the advance directives was performed by two researchers: a senior haematologist and a research assistant. The median age of the patients was 69. Most were women (sex ratio: 0.59), living as a couple (57%), with lymphoid pathologies (66%), who were still alive two years after the instructions were written (63%) and had nominated a health care proxy (88.6%). Free texts (62.9%) were richer in content than pre-defined forms. The advance directives were used in three ways: for a purely legal purpose, to focus on medical treatments or actions, or to communicate a message to the family. Three main themes emerged: (1) refusal of medical treatment (100%), in which patients express refusal of life-sustaining care (97.1%). The actual treatments or the moment when they should be limited or stopped were not always mentioned in detail. (2) A desire for effective pain relief to avoid suffering (57.1%) and (3) messages for their family (34.3%), such as funeral arrangements (17.1%) and messages of love or trust (14.3%). Patients who write advance directives are not necessarily at the end of their lives. Their content mainly conveys treatment wishes, although

  11. Process Simulation Analysis of HF Stripping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaer A. Abdulla

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available    HYSYS process simulator is used for the analysis of existing HF stripping column in LAB plant (Arab Detergent Company, Baiji-Iraq. Simulated column performance and profiles curves are constructed. The variables considered are the thermodynamic model option, bottom temperature, feed temperature, and column profiles for the temperature, vapor flow rate, liquid flow rate and composition. The five thermodynamic models options used (Margules, UNIQUAC, van laar, Antoine, and Zudkevitch-Joffee, affecting the results within (0.1-58% variation for the most cases.        The simulated results show that about 4% of paraffin (C10 & C11 presents at the top stream, which may cause a problem in the LAB production plant. The major variations were noticed for the total top vapor flow rate with bottom temperature and with feed composition. The column profiles maintain fairly constants from tray 5 to tray 18. The study gives evidence about a successful simulation with HYSYS because the results correspond with the real plant operation data.

  12. Grindability of cast Ti-Hf alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Masafumi; Takahashi, Masatoshi; Sato, Hideki; Okuno, Osamu; Nunn, Martha E; Okabe, Toru

    2006-04-01

    As part of our systematic studies characterizing the properties of titanium alloys, we investigated the grindability of a series of cast Ti-Hf alloys. Alloy buttons with hafnium concentrations up to 40 mass% were made using an argon-arc melting furnace. Each button was cast into a magnesia-based mold using a dental titanium casting machine; three specimens were made for each metal. Prior to testing, the hardened surface layer was removed. The specimens were ground at five different speeds for 1 min at 0.98 N using a carborundum wheel on an electric dental handpiece. Grindability was evaluated as the volume of metal removed per minute (grinding rate) and the volume ratio of metal removed compared to the wheel material lost (grinding ratio). The data were analyzed using ANOVA. A trend of increasing grindability was found with increasing amounts of hafnium, although there was no statistical difference in the grindability with increasing hafnium contents. We also found that hafnium may be used to harden or strengthen titanium without deteriorating the grindability.

  13. Time variations of hf induced plasma waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Showen, R.L.

    1976-01-01

    Intense plasma waves are generated by an HF pump wave in an ionospheric heating experiment at the Arecibo Observatory. These plasma waves can be observed as enhancements to the ion and plasma lines of the incoherent backscatter echo. The enhancements can be three or four orders of magnitude more intense than the unenhanced lines, and tend to fluctuate wildly. Both the purely growing and the decay mode parametric instabilities are present. When the pump wave is turned on abruptly the enhancements develop in time in a repeatable manner. A rather remarkable feature on time scales of seconds is an overshoot in instability power. These overshoots occur frequently but not universally and last for 1 to 6 seconds. They can have a magnitude from ten to hundreds of times the average instability level. Field aligned irregularities may be the cause of the overshoots. The overshoots appear definitely related to an unusually rapid rise in measured electron temperature that cannot be understood in terms of ohmic energy deposition. On time scales of milliseconds there is a ''mini-overshoot'' before the growth of the instability to a large value. The spectral details also change in a striking manner. The instabilities can first be detected 2 to 4 msec after the pump wave turn-on. The decay mode is present as well as a broad featureless ''noise bump'', which partially sharpens into a line as time progresses. These changes of the spectra in time seem to run counter to the currently accepted theories of plasma wave saturation

  14. A model for emergency department end-of-life communications after acute devastating events--part I: decision-making capacity, surrogates, and advance directives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limehouse, Walter E; Feeser, V Ramana; Bookman, Kelly J; Derse, Arthur

    2012-09-01

    Making decisions for a patient affected by sudden devastating illness or injury traumatizes a patient's family and loved ones. Even in the absence of an emergency, surrogates making end-of-life treatment decisions may experience negative emotional effects. Helping surrogates with these end-of-life decisions under emergent conditions requires the emergency physician (EP) to be clear, making medical recommendations with sensitivity. This model for emergency department (ED) end-of-life communications after acute devastating events comprises the following steps: 1) determine the patient's decision-making capacity; 2) identify the legal surrogate; 3) elicit patient values as expressed in completed advance directives; 4) determine patient/surrogate understanding of the life-limiting event and expectant treatment goals; 5) convey physician understanding of the event, including prognosis, treatment options, and recommendation; 6) share decisions regarding withdrawing or withholding of resuscitative efforts, using available resources and considering options for organ donation; and 7) revise treatment goals as needed. Emergency physicians should break bad news compassionately, yet sufficiently, so that surrogate and family understand both the gravity of the situation and the lack of long-term benefit of continued life-sustaining interventions. EPs should also help the surrogate and family understand that palliative care addresses comfort needs of the patient including adequate treatment for pain, dyspnea, or anxiety. Part I of this communications model reviews determination of decision-making capacity, surrogacy laws, and advance directives, including legal definitions and application of these steps; Part II (which will appear in a future issue of AEM) covers communication moving from resuscitative to end-of-life and palliative treatment. EPs should recognize acute devastating illness or injuries, when appropriate, as opportunities to initiate end-of-life discussions and to

  15. HF Propagation Effects Caused by an Artificial Plasma Cloud in the Ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, D. R.; Groves, K. M.; McNeil, W. J.; Caton, R. G.; Parris, R. T.; Pedersen, T. R.; Cannon, P. S.; Angling, M. J.; Jackson-Booth, N. K.

    2014-12-01

    In a campaign carried out by the NASA sounding rocket team, the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) launched two sounding rockets in the Kwajalein Atoll, Marshall Islands, in May 2013 known as the Metal Oxide Space Cloud (MOSC) experiment to study the interactions of artificial ionization and the background plasma and measure the effects on high frequency (HF) radio wave propagation. The rockets released samarium metal vapor in the lower F-region of the ionosphere that ionized forming a plasma cloud that persisted for tens of minutes to hours in the post-sunset period. Data from the experiments has been analyzed to understand the impacts of the artificial ionization on HF radio wave propagation. Swept frequency HF links transiting the artificial ionization region were employed to produce oblique ionograms that clearly showed the effects of the samarium cloud. Ray tracing has been used to successfully model the effects of the ionized cloud. Comparisons between observations and modeled results will be presented, including model output using the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI), the Parameterized Ionospheric Model (PIM) and PIM constrained by electron density profiles measured with the ALTAIR radar at Kwajalein. Observations and modeling confirm that the cloud acted as a divergent lens refracting energy away from direct propagation paths and scattering energy at large angles relative to the initial propagation direction. The results confirm that even small amounts of ionized material injected in the upper atmosphere can result in significant changes to the natural propagation environment.

  16. Thermal response of Ru electrodes in contact with SiO2 and Hf-based high-k gate dielectrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, H.-C.; Lysaght, P.; Alshareef, H.N.; Huffman, C.; Harris, H.R.; Choi, K.; Senzaki, Y.; Luan, H.; Majhi, P.; Lee, B.H.; Campin, M. J.; Foran, B.; Lian, G.D.; Kwong, D.-L.

    2005-01-01

    A systematic experimental evaluation of the thermal stability of Ru metal gate electrodes in direct contact with SiO 2 and Hf-based dielectric layers was performed and correlated with electrical device measurements. The distinctly different interfacial reactions in the Ru/SiO 2 , Ru/HfO 2 , and Ru/HfSiO x film systems were observed through cross-sectional high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, high angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy with electron-energy-loss spectra, and energy dispersive x-ray spectra analysis. Ru interacted with SiO 2 , but remained stable on HfO 2 at 1000 deg. C. The onset of Ru/SiO 2 interfacial interactions is identified via silicon substrate pitting possibly from Ru diffusion into the dielectric in samples exposed to a 900 deg. C/10-s anneal. The dependence of capacitor device degradation with decreasing SiO 2 thickness suggests Ru diffuses through SiO 2 , followed by an abrupt, rapid, nonuniform interaction of ruthenium silicide as Ru contacts the Si substrate. Local interdiffusion detected on Ru/HfSiO x samples may be due to phase separation of HfSiO x into HfO 2 grains within a SiO 2 matrix, suggesting that SiO 2 provides a diffusion pathway for Ru. Detailed evidence consistent with a dual reaction mechanism for the Ru/SiO 2 system at 1000 deg. C is presented

  17. Nanoscopic studies of domain structure dynamics in ferroelectric La:HfO2 capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buragohain, P.; Richter, C.; Schenk, T.; Lu, H.; Mikolajick, T.; Schroeder, U.; Gruverman, A.

    2018-05-01

    Visualization of domain structure evolution under an electrical bias has been carried out in ferroelectric La:HfO2 capacitors by a combination of Piezoresponse Force Microscopy (PFM) and pulse switching techniques to study the nanoscopic mechanism of polarization reversal and the wake-up process. It has been directly shown that the main mechanism behind the transformation of the polarization hysteretic behavior and an increase in the remanent polarization value upon the alternating current cycling is electrically induced domain de-pinning. PFM imaging and local spectroscopy revealed asymmetric switching in the La:HfO2 capacitors due to a significant imprint likely caused by the different boundary conditions at the top and bottom interfaces. Domain switching kinetics can be well-described by the nucleation limited switching model characterized by a broad distribution of the local switching times. It has been found that the domain velocity varies significantly throughout the switching process indicating strong interaction with structural defects.

  18. The Sprint/1 language for the dynamic evaluation of the mathematic formulas by direct communication with a computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavadia, I.C.

    1968-06-01

    The Sprint/1 system is indented for real-time production of present day computers and can be used by persons without a special preparation in the programming field. All input operations (instructions, comments, data) and corresponding output operations (printing of results and diagnostics) are done by a type-writer. It assures a bidirectional communication between the user and his program during its execution, the user indicating to the computer each step that must be performed to resolve the problem. At the same time the machine immediately flags the detection of a syntax or semantic error which allows him to correct or to improve his program immediately. It should be emphasized that the language is an evolutive one. Each introduced instruction enriches the language, the user having the possibility to easily build complex structures from very simple expressions. Thus he can make a general study of the behaviour of a dynamic learning process of the machine which constitutes one of the characteristics of artificial intelligence. (author) [fr

  19. The magnetic properties of $^{\\rm 177}$Hf and $^{\\rm 180}$Hf in the strong coupling deformed model

    OpenAIRE

    Muto, S.; Stone, N. J.; Bingham, C. R.; Stone, J. R.; Walker, P. M.; Audi, G.; Gaulard, C.; Köster, U.; Nikolov, J.; Nishimura, K.; Ohtsubo, T.; Podolyak, Z.; Risegari, L.; Simpson, G. S.; Veskovic, M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports NMR measurements of the magnetic dipole moments of two high-K isomers, the 37/2$^-$, 51.4 m, 2740 keV state in $^{\\rm 177}$Hf and the 8$^-$, 5.5 h, 1142 keV state in $^{\\rm 180}$Hf by the method of on-line nuclear orientation. Also included are results on the angular distributions of gamma transitions in the decay of the $^{\\rm 177}$Hf isotope. These yield high precision E2/M1 multipole mixing ratios for transitions in bands built on the 23/2$^+$, 1.1 s, isomer at 1315 keV ...

  20. Low-Frequency Waves in HF Heating of the Ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, A. S.; Eliasson, B.; Milikh, G. M.; Najmi, A.; Papadopoulos, K.; Shao, X.; Vartanyan, A.

    2016-02-01

    Ionospheric heating experiments have enabled an exploration of the ionosphere as a large-scale natural laboratory for the study of many plasma processes. These experiments inject high-frequency (HF) radio waves using high-power transmitters and an array of ground- and space-based diagnostics. This chapter discusses the excitation and propagation of low-frequency waves in HF heating of the ionosphere. The theoretical aspects and the associated models and simulations, and the results from experiments, mostly from the HAARP facility, are presented together to provide a comprehensive interpretation of the relevant plasma processes. The chapter presents the plasma model of the ionosphere for describing the physical processes during HF heating, the numerical code, and the simulations of the excitation of low-frequency waves by HF heating. It then gives the simulations of the high-latitude ionosphere and mid-latitude ionosphere. The chapter also briefly discusses the role of kinetic processes associated with wave generation.

  1. Theoretical Assessment of 178m2Hf De-Excitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartouni, E P; Chen, M; Descalle, M A; Escher, J E; Loshak, A; Navratil, P; Ormand, W E; Pruet, J; Thompson, I J; Wang, T F

    2008-10-06

    This document contains a comprehensive literature review in support of the theoretical assessment of the {sup 178m2}Hf de-excitation, as well as a rigorous description of controlled energy release from an isomeric nuclear state.

  2. HF Surface Wave Radar Operation in Adverse Conditions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ponsford, Anthony M; Dizaji, Reza M; McKerracher, Richard

    2005-01-01

    ...) system based on HF Surface Wave Radar (HFSWR). the primary objective behind the programme was to demonstrate the capability of HFSWR to continuously detect and track surface targets (ships and icebergs...

  3. HF band filter bank multi-carrier spread spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laraway, Stephen Andrew; Moradi, Hussein; Farhang-Boroujeny, Behrouz

    2015-10-01

    Abstract—This paper describes modifications to the filter bank multicarrier spread spectrum (FB-MC-SS) system, that was presented in [1] and [2], to enable transmission of this waveform in the HF skywave channel. FB-MC-SS is well suited for the HF channel because it performs well in channels with frequency selective fading and interference. This paper describes new algorithms for packet detection, timing recovery and equalization that are suitable for the HF channel. Also, an algorithm for optimizing the peak to average power ratio (PAPR) of the FBMC- SS waveform is presented. Application of this algorithm results in a waveform with low PAPR. Simulation results using a wide band HF channel model demonstrate the robustness of this system over a wide range of delay and Doppler spreads.

  4. HF-voltage testing of accelerating system functional model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gladkov, A.V.; Stepanov, V.B.

    1989-01-01

    Owing to ambiguity in interpreting the notion of the electron strength of the operating HF device in an acceleator a technique of measurements and result processing, based on statistical analysis of the data is suggested. Experimental testing on electric strength of structures with HF focusing was carried out using a bench in the form of a cylindrical vacuum container inside which a double H-resonator with HF quadrupole electrodes without surface modulation was installed. The dependences obtained permit to evaluate the bahaviour of the HF device from the viewpoint of electric strength and radiation hazard for the whole range of possible values of voltage on the basis of data on the frequency of breakdowns and radiation situation only in one experimental point. 12 refs.; 8 figs

  5. Integrated magnetics design for HF-link power converters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ljusev, P.; Andersen, Michael A.E.

    2005-07-01

    This paper deals with the design of integrated magnetics for HF-link converters, where the two integrated magnetic components on the same core do not necessarily belong to the same voltage loop. Depending on the specific HF-link converter topology, the proposed integrated magnetics can either alleviate the derivation of independent auxiliary supply voltages from the main transformer or integrate other magnetic structures, thus saving board space and cutting costs. (au)

  6. Large Magnetic Anisotropy in HfMnP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, David; Lamichhane, Tej; Taufour, Valentin; Masters, Morgan; Thimmaiah, Srinivasa; Bud'Ko, Ser'gey; Canfield, Paul

    We present a theoretical and experimental study of two little-studied manganese phosphide ferromagnets, HfMnP and ZrMnP, with Curie temperatures above room temperature. We find an anisotropy field in HfMnP approaching 10 T - larger than that of the permanent magnet workhorse NdFeB magnets. From theory we determine the source of this anisotropy. Our results show the potential of 3d-element-based magnetic materials for magnetic applications.

  7. Phenomena induced by powerful HF pumping towards magnetic zenith with a frequency near the F-region critical frequency and the third electron gyro harmonic frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. F. Blagoveshchenskaya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Multi-instrument observational data from an experiment on 13 October 2006 at the EISCAT/HEATING facility at Tromsø, Norway are analysed. The experiment was carried out in the evening hours when the electron density in the F-region dropped, and the HF pump frequency fH was near and then above the critical frequency of the F2 layer. The distinctive feature of this experiment is that the pump frequency was just below the third electron gyro harmonic frequency, while both the HF pump beam and UHF radar beam were directed towards the magnetic zenith (MZ. The HF pump-induced phenomena were diagnosed with several instruments: the bi-static HF radio scatter on the London-Tromsø-St. Petersburg path, the CUTLASS radar in Hankasalmi (Finland, the European Incoherent Scatter (EISCAT UHF radar at Tromsø and the Tromsø ionosonde (dynasonde. The results show thermal electron excitation of the HF-induced striations seen simultaneously from HF bi-static scatter and CUTLASS radar observations, accompanied by increases of electron temperature when the heater frequency was near and then above the critical frequency of the F2 layer by up to 0.4 MHz. An increase of the electron density up to 25% accompanied by strong HF-induced electron heating was observed, only when the heater frequency was near the critical frequency and just below the third electron gyro harmonic frequency. It is concluded that the combined effect of upper hybrid resonance and gyro resonance at the same altitude gives rise to strong electron heating, the excitation of striations, HF ray trapping and extension of HF waves to altitudes where they can excite Langmuir turbulence and fluxes of electrons accelerated to energies that produce ionization.

  8. Phenomena induced by powerful HF pumping towards magnetic zenith with a frequency near the F-region critical frequency and the third electron gyro harmonic frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. F. Blagoveshchenskaya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Multi-instrument observational data from an experiment on 13 October 2006 at the EISCAT/HEATING facility at Tromsø, Norway are analysed. The experiment was carried out in the evening hours when the electron density in the F-region dropped, and the HF pump frequency fH was near and then above the critical frequency of the F2 layer. The distinctive feature of this experiment is that the pump frequency was just below the third electron gyro harmonic frequency, while both the HF pump beam and UHF radar beam were directed towards the magnetic zenith (MZ. The HF pump-induced phenomena were diagnosed with several instruments: the bi-static HF radio scatter on the London-Tromsø-St. Petersburg path, the CUTLASS radar in Hankasalmi (Finland, the European Incoherent Scatter (EISCAT UHF radar at Tromsø and the Tromsø ionosonde (dynasonde. The results show thermal electron excitation of the HF-induced striations seen simultaneously from HF bi-static scatter and CUTLASS radar observations, accompanied by increases of electron temperature when the heater frequency was near and then above the critical frequency of the F2 layer by up to 0.4 MHz. An increase of the electron density up to 25% accompanied by strong HF-induced electron heating was observed, only when the heater frequency was near the critical frequency and just below the third electron gyro harmonic frequency. It is concluded that the combined effect of upper hybrid resonance and gyro resonance at the same altitude gives rise to strong electron heating, the excitation of striations, HF ray trapping and extension of HF waves to altitudes where they can excite Langmuir turbulence and fluxes of electrons accelerated to energies that produce ionization.

  9. Thermoelectric properties of doped BaHfO{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixit, Chandra Kr., E-mail: ckparadise@gmail.com, E-mail: sharmarameshfgiet@gmail.com [Dept. of Physics, Dr. Shakuntala Misra National Rehabilitation University, Lucknow-229001, U.P India (India); Bhamu, K. C. [Department of Physics, Goa University, Goa-403 206 (India); Sharma, Ramesh, E-mail: ckparadise@gmail.com, E-mail: sharmarameshfgiet@gmail.com [Dept. of Physics, Feroze Gandhi Institute of Engineering & Technology, Raebareli-229001, U.P India (India)

    2016-05-06

    We have studied the structural stability, electronic structure, optical properties and thermoelectric properties of doped BaHfO{sub 3} by full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method. The electronic structure of BaHfO{sub 3} doped with Sr shows enhances the indirect band gaps of 3.53 eV, 3.58 eV. The charge density plots show strong ionic bonding in Ba-Hf, and ionic and covalent bonding between Hf and O. Calculations of the optical spectra, viz., the dielectric function, refractive index and extinction coefficient are performed for the energy range are calculated and analyzed. Thermoelectric properties of semi conducting are also reported first time. The doped BaHfO{sub 3} is approximately wide band gap semiconductor with the large p-type Seebeck coefficient. The power factor of BaHfO{sub 3} is increased with Sr doping, decreases because of low electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity.

  10. The isobutylene-isobutane alkylation process in liquid HF revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteves, P M; Araújo, C L; Horta, B A C; Alvarez, L J; Zicovich-Wilson, C M; Ramírez-Solís, A

    2005-07-07

    Details on the mechanism of HF catalyzed isobutylene-isobutane alkylation were investigated. On the basis of available experimental data and high-level quantum chemical calculations, a detailed reaction mechanism is proposed taking into account solvation effects of the medium. On the basis of our computational results, we explain why the density of the liquid media and stirring rates are the most important parameters to achieve maximum yield of alkylate, in agreement with experimental findings. The ab initio Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics calculations show that isobutylene is irreversibly protonated in the liquid HF medium at higher densities, leading to the ion pair formation, which is shown to be a minimum on the potential energy surface after optimization using periodic boundary conditions. The HF medium solvates preferentially the fluoride anion, which is found as solvated [FHF](-) or solvated F(-.)(HF)(3). On the other hand, the tert-butyl cation is weakly solvated, where the closest HF molecules appear at a distance of about 2.9 Angstrom with the fluorine termination of an HF chain.

  11. Solid phase crystallisation of HfO2 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modreanu, M.; Sancho-Parramon, J.; O'Connell, D.; Justice, J.; Durand, O.; Servet, B.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we report on the solid phase crystallisation of carbon-free HfO 2 thin films deposited by plasma ion assisted deposition (PIAD). After deposition, the HfO 2 films were annealed in N 2 ambient for 3 h at 350, 550 and 750 deg. C. Several characterisation techniques including X-ray reflectometry (XRR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used for the physical characterisation of as-deposited and annealed HfO 2 . XRD has revealed that the as-deposited HfO 2 film is in an amorphous-like state with only traces of crystalline phase and that the annealed films are in a highly crystalline state. These results are in good agreement with the SE results showing an increase of refractive index by increasing the annealing temperature. XRR results show a significant density gradient over the as-deposited film thickness, which is characteristic of the PIAD method. The AFM measurements show that the HfO 2 layers have a smooth surface even after annealing at 750 deg. C. The present study demonstrates that the solid phase crystallisation of HfO 2 PIAD thin films starts at a temperature as low as 550 deg. C

  12. Sequential sputtered Co-HfO{sub 2} granular films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chadha, M.; Ng, V.

    2017-03-15

    A systematic study of magnetic, magneto-transport and micro-structural properties of Co-HfO{sub 2} granular films fabricated by sequential sputtering is presented. We demonstrate reduction in ferromagnetic-oxide formation by using HfO{sub 2} as the insulting matrix. Microstructure evaluation of the films showed that the film structure consisted of discrete hcp-Co grains embedded in HfO{sub 2} matrix. Films with varying compositions were prepared and their macroscopic properties were studied. We correlate the variation in these properties to the variation in film microstructure. Our study shows that Co-HfO{sub 2} films with reduced cobalt oxide and varying properties can be prepared using sequential sputtering technique. - Highlights: • Co-HfO{sub 2} granular films were prepared using sequential sputtering. • A reduction in ferromagnetic-oxide formation is observed. • Co-HfO{sub 2} films display superparamagnetism and tunnelling magneto-resistance. • Varying macroscopic properties were achieved by changing film composition. • Applications can be found in moderate MR sensors and high –frequency RF devices.

  13. Human-Machine Communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farbrot, J.E.; Nihlwing, Ch.; Svengren, H.

    2005-01-01

    New requirements for enhanced safety and design changes in process systems often leads to a step-wise installation of new information and control equipment in the control room of older nuclear power plants, where nowadays modern digital I and C solutions with screen-based human-machine interfaces (HMI) most often are introduced. Human factors (HF) expertise is then required to assist in specifying a unified, integrated HMI, where the entire integration of information is addressed to ensure an optimal and effective interplay between human (operators) and machine (process). Following a controlled design process is the best insurance for ending up with good solutions. This paper addresses the approach taken when introducing modern human-machine communication in the Oskarshamn 1 NPP, the results, and the lessons learned from this work with high operator involvement seen from an HF point of view. Examples of possibilities modern technology might offer for the operators are also addressed. (orig.)

  14. The dimers of glyoxal and acrolein with H 2O and HF: Negative intramolecular coupling and blue-shifted C-H stretch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpfen, Alfred; Kryachko, Eugene S.

    2010-04-01

    The structures and the vibrational spectra of the hydrogen-bonded complexes: glyoxal-H 2O, glyoxal-HF, acrolein-H 2O, and acrolein-HF, are investigated within the MP2/aug-cc-pVTZ computational approach. It is demonstrated that the calculated blue shifts of the C-H stretching frequencies in the glyoxal-H 2O complexes are only indirectly pertinent to hydrogen bonding to the C-H group. The comparison with the glyoxal-HF and the acrolein-HF complexes reveals that these blue shifts are a direct consequence of a negative intramolecular coupling between vicinal C dbnd O and C-H bonds in the aldehyde groups of isolated glyoxal and acrolein molecules. To support this interpretation, the halogen-bonded complexes glyoxal-BrF and acrolein-BrF are discussed.

  15. Reconciliation of the excess 176Hf conundrum in meteorites: Recent disturbances of the Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd isotope systematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bast, Rebecca; Scherer, Erik E.; Sprung, Peter; Mezger, Klaus; Fischer-Gödde, Mario; Taetz, Stephan; Böhnke, Mischa; Schmid-Beurmann, Hinrich; Münker, Carsten; Kleine, Thorsten; Srinivasan, Gopalan

    2017-09-01

    The long-lived 176Lu-176Hf and 147Sm-143Nd radioisotope systems are commonly used chronometers, but when applied to meteorites, they can reveal disturbances. Specifically, Lu-Hf isochrons commonly yield dates up to ∼300 Myr older than the solar system and varying initial 176Hf/177Hf values. We investigated this problem by attempting to construct mineral and whole rock isochrons for eucrites and angrites. Meteorites from different parent bodies exhibit similar disturbance features suggesting that a common process is responsible. Minerals scatter away from isochron regressions for both meteorite classes, with low-Hf phases such as plagioclase and olivine typically being most displaced above (or left of) reference isochrons. Relatively Hf-rich pyroxene is less disturbed but still to the point of steepening Lu-Hf errorchrons. Using our Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd data, we tested various Hf and Lu redistribution scenarios and found that decoupling of Lu/Hf from 176Hf/177Hf must postdate the accumulation of significant radiogenic 176Hf. Therefore early irradiation or diffusion cannot explain the excess 176Hf. Instead, disturbed meteorite isochrons are more likely caused by terrestrial weathering, contamination, or common laboratory procedures. The partial dissolution of phosphate minerals may predominantly remove rare earth elements including Lu, leaving relatively immobile and radiogenic Hf behind. Robust Lu-Hf (and improved Sm-Nd) meteorite geochronology will require the development of chemical or physical methods for removing unsupported radiogenic Hf and silicate-hosted terrestrial contaminants without disturbing parent-daughter ratios.

  16. Tracking magmatic processes through Zr/Hf ratios in rocks and Hf and Ti zoning in zircons: An example from the Spirit Mountain batholith, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowery, Claiborne L.E.; Miller, C.F.; Walker, B.A.; Wooden, J.L.; Mazdab, F.K.; Bea, F.

    2006-01-01

    Zirconium and Hf are nearly identical geochemically, and therefore most of the crust maintains near-chondritic Zr/Hf ratios of ???35-40. By contrast, many high-silica rhyolites and granites have anomalously low Zr/Hf (15-30). As zircon is the primary reservoir for both Zr and Hf and preferentially incorporates Zr, crystallization of zircon controls Zr/ Hf, imprinting low Zr/Hf on coexisting melt. Thus, low Zr/Hf is a unique fingerprint of effective magmatic fractionation in the crust. Age and compositional zonation in zircons themselves provide a record of the thermal and compositional histories of magmatic systems. High Hf (low Zr/ Hf) in zircon zones demonstrates growth from fractionated melt, and Ti provides an estimate of temperature of crystallization (TTiZ) (Watson and Harrison, 2005). Whole-rock Zr/Hf and zircon zonation in the Spirit Mountain batholith, Nevada, document repeated fractionation and thermal fluctuations. Ratios of Zr/Hf are ???30-40 for cumulates and 18-30 for high-SiO2 granites. In zircons, Hf (and U) are inversely correlated with Ti, and concentrations indicate large fluctuations in melt composition and TTiZ (>100??C) for individual zircons. Such variations are consistent with field relations and ion-probe zircon geochronology that indicate a >1 million year history of repeated replenishment, fractionation, and extraction of melt from crystal mush to form the low Zr/Hf high-SiO2 zone. ?? 2006 The Mineralogical Society.

  17. Isothermal cross-sections of Hf-Sc-Ga(800 deg C) and Hf-Ti-Ga (750 deg C) phase diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markiv, V.Ya.; Belyavina, N.N.

    1981-01-01

    Isothermal cross sections of Hf-Sc-Ga (800 deg C) and Hf-Ti-Ga (750 deg C) state diagrams are plotted. The existence of two ternary Hfsub(0.1-0.8)Scsub(0.9)-sub(0.2)Ga and Hfsub(0.8)Scsub(0.2)Gasub(3) phases is stated in the Hf-Sc-Ga system. The crystal structure of these compounds investigated by the powder method belongs to the structural α-MoB and ZrAl 3 types respectively. Continuous rows of (Hf, Sc 5 Ga 5 , (Hf, Ti)Ga 3 and (Hf, Ti)Ga 2 solid solutions are formed in the investigated systems. Essential quantity of the third component dissolve binary Sc 5 Ga 4 , Sc 2 Ga 3 (15 and 30 at % Hf respectively), Hf 5 Ga 4 , HfGa 2 (20, 10 at. % Sc), Hf 5 Ga 4 , HfGa, Hf 5 Ga 3 , Hf 2 Ga 3 (48, 30, 46, 20 at. % Ti) gallides [ru

  18. Mother-Infant Face-to-Face Interaction: The Communicative Value of Infant-Directed Talking and Singing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Diana; Peña, Marcela

    Across culture, healthy infants show a high interest in infant-directed (ID) talking and singing. Despite ID talking and ID singing being very similar in physical properties, infants differentially respond to each of them. The mechanisms underpinning these different responses are still under discussion. This study explored the behavioral (n = 26) and brain (n = 14) responses from 6- to 8-month-old infants to ID talking and ID singing during a face-to-face mother-infant interaction with their own mother. Behavioral response was analyzed from offline video coding, and brain response was estimated from the analysis of electrophysiological recordings. We found that during ID talking, infants displayed a significantly higher number of visual contacts, vocalizations, and body movements than during ID singing. Moreover, only during ID talking were the number of visual contacts and vocalizations positively correlated with the number of questions and pauses in the mother's speech. Our results suggest that ID talking provides infants with specific cues that allow them not only to react to mother stimulation, but also to act toward them, displaying a rudimentary version of turn-taking behavior. Brain activity partially supported that interpretation. The relevance of our results for bonding is discussed. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Geospace ionosphere research with a MF/HF radio instrument on a cubesat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallio, E. J.; Aikio, A. T.; Alho, M.; Fontell, M.; van Gijlswijk, R.; Kauristie, K.; Kestilä, A.; Koskimaa, P.; Makela, J. S.; Mäkelä, M.; Turunen, E.; Vanhamäki, H.

    2016-12-01

    Modern technology provides new possibilities to study geospace and its ionosphere, using spacecraft and and computer simulations. A type of nanosatellites, CubeSats, provide a cost effective possibility to provide in-situ measurements in the ionosphere. Moreover, combined CubeSat observations with ground-based observations gives a new view on auroras and associated electromagnetic phenomena. Especially joint and active CubeSat - ground based observation campaigns enable the possibility of studying the 3D structure of the ionosphere. Furthermore using several CubeSats to form satellite constellations enables much higher temporal resolution. At the same time, increasing computation capacity has made it possible to perform simulations where properties of the ionosphere, such as propagation of the electromagnetic waves in the medium frequency, MF (0.3-3 MHz) and high frequency, HF (3-30 MHz), ranges is based on a 3D ionospheric model and on first-principles modelling. Electromagnetic waves at those frequencies are strongly affected by ionospheric electrons and, consequently, those frequencies can be used for studying the plasma. On the other hand, even if the ionosphere originally enables long-range telecommunication at MF and HF frequencies, the frequent occurrence of spatiotemporal variations in the ionosphere disturbs communication channels, especially at high latitudes. Therefore, study of the MF and HF waves in the ionosphere has both a strong science and technology interests. We present computational simulation results and measuring principles and techniques to investigate the arctic ionosphere by a polar orbiting CubeSat whose novel AM radio instrument measures HF and MF waves. The cubesat, which contains also a white light aurora camera, is planned to be launched in 2017 (http://www.suomi100satelliitti.fi/eng). We have modelled the propagation of the radio waves, both ground generated man-made waves and space formed space weather related waves, through the 3D

  20. Performance Analysis of Direct-Sequence Code-Division Multiple-Access Communications with Asymmetric Quadrature Phase-Shift-Keying Modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C.-W.; Stark, W.

    2005-01-01

    This article considers a quaternary direct-sequence code-division multiple-access (DS-CDMA) communication system with asymmetric quadrature phase-shift-keying (AQPSK) modulation for unequal error protection (UEP) capability. Both time synchronous and asynchronous cases are investigated. An expression for the probability distribution of the multiple-access interference is derived. The exact bit-error performance and the approximate performance using a Gaussian approximation and random signature sequences are evaluated by extending the techniques used for uniform quadrature phase-shift-keying (QPSK) and binary phase-shift-keying (BPSK) DS-CDMA systems. Finally, a general system model with unequal user power and the near-far problem is considered and analyzed. The results show that, for a system with UEP capability, the less protected data bits are more sensitive to the near-far effect that occurs in a multiple-access environment than are the more protected bits.

  1. Ge interactions on HfO2 surfaces and kinetically driven patterning of Ge nanocrystals on HfO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanley, Scott K.; Joshi, Sachin V.; Banerjee, Sanjay K.; Ekerdt, John G.

    2006-01-01

    Germanium interactions are studied on HfO 2 surfaces, which are prepared through physical vapor deposition (PVD) and by atomic layer deposition. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and temperature-programed desorption are used to follow the reactions of germanium on HfO 2 . Germanium chemical vapor deposition at 870 K on HfO 2 produces a GeO x adhesion layer, followed by growth of semiconducting Ge 0 . PVD of 0.7 ML Ge (accomplished by thermally cracking GeH 4 over a hot filament) also produces an initial GeO x layer, which is stable up to 800 K. PVD above 2.0 ML deposits semiconducting Ge 0 . Temperature programed desorption experiments of ∼1.0 ML Ge from HfO 2 at 400-1100 K show GeH 4 desorption below 600 K and GeO desorption above 850 K. These results are compared to Ge on SiO 2 where GeO desorption is seen at 550 K. Exploiting the different reactivity of Ge on HfO 2 and SiO 2 allows a kinetically driven patterning scheme for high-density Ge nanoparticle growth on HfO 2 surfaces that is demonstrated

  2. Theoretical predictions of hydrolysis and complex formation of group-4 elements Zr, Hf and Rf in HF and HCl solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pershina, V.; Trubert, D.; Le Naour, C.; Kratz, J.V.

    2002-01-01

    Fully relativistic molecular density-functional calculations of the electronic structures of hydrated, hydrolyzed and fluoride/chloride complexes have been performed for group-4 elements Zr, Hf, and element 104, Rf. Using the electronic density distribution data, relative values of the free energy change for hydrolysis and complex formation reactions were defined. The results show the following trend for the first hydrolysis step of the cationic species: Zr>Hf>Rf in agreement with experiments. For the complex formation in HF solutions, the trend to a decrease from Zr to Hf is continued with Rf, provided no hydrolysis takes place. At pH>0, further fluorination of hydrolyzed species or fluoro-complexes has an inversed trend in the group Rf≥Zr>Hf, with the difference between the elements being very small. For the complex formation in HCl solutions, the trend is continued with Rf, so that Zr>Hf>Rf independently of pH. A decisive energetic factor in hydrolysis or complex formation processes proved to be a predominant electrostatic metal-ligand interaction. Trends in the K d (distribution coefficient) values for the group-4 elements are expected to follow those of the complex formation

  3. Relationship between CCR and NT-proBNP in Chinese HF patients, and their correlations with severity of HF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhigang; Wang, Bo; Wang, Yunliang; Qian, Xueqing; Zheng, Wei; Wei, Meng

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the relationship between creatinine clearance rate (CCR) and the level of N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) in heart failure (HF) patients and their correlations with HF severity. Two hundred and one Chinese patients were grouped according to the New York Heart Association (NYHA) classification as NYHA 1-2 and 3-4 groups and 135 cases out of heart failure patients as control group. The following variables were compared among these three groups: age, sex, body mass index (BMI), smoking status, hypertension, diabetes, NT-proBNP, creatinine (Cr), uric acid (UA), left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (LVEDD), and CCR. The biomarkers of NT-proBNP, Cr, UA, LVEDD, and CCR varied significantly in the three groups, and these variables were positively correlated with the NHYA classification. The levels of NT-proBNP and CCR were closely related to the occurrence of HF and were independent risk factors for HF. At the same time, there was a significant negative correlation between the levels of NT-proBNP and CCR. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve suggested that the NT-proBNP and CCR have high accuracy for diagnosis of HF and have clinical diagnostic value. NT-proBNP and CCR may be important biomarkers in evaluating the severity of HF.

  4. Joint Efforts Towards European HF Radar Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, A.; Mader, J.; Griffa, A.; Mantovani, C.; Corgnati, L.; Novellino, A.; Schulz-Stellenfleth, J.; Quentin, C.; Wyatt, L.; Ruiz, M. I.; Lorente, P.; Hartnett, M.; Gorringe, P.

    2016-12-01

    During the past two years, significant steps have been made in Europe for achieving the needed accessibility to High Frequency Radar (HFR) data for a pan-European use. Since 2015, EuroGOOS Ocean Observing Task Teams (TT), such as HFR TT, are operational networks of observing platforms. The main goal is on the harmonization of systems requirements, systems design, data quality, improvement and proof of the readiness and standardization of HFR data access and tools. Particular attention is being paid by HFR TT to converge from different projects and programs toward those common objectives. First, JERICO-NEXT (Joint European Research Infrastructure network for Coastal Observatory - Novel European eXpertise for coastal observaTories, H2020 2015 Programme) will contribute on describing the status of the European network, on seeking harmonization through exchange of best practices and standardization, on developing and giving access to quality control procedures and new products, and finally on demonstrating the use of such technology in the general scientific strategy focused by the Coastal Observatory. Then, EMODnet (European Marine Observation and Data Network) Physics started to assemble HF radar metadata and data products within Europe in a uniform way. This long term program is providing a combined array of services and functionalities to users for obtaining free of charge data, meta-data and data products on the physical conditions of European sea basins and oceans. Additionally, the Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service (CMEMS) delivers from 2015 a core information service to any user related to 4 areas of benefits: Maritime Safety, Coastal and Marine Environment, Marine Resources, and Weather, Seasonal Forecasting and Climate activities. INCREASE (Innovation and Networking for the integration of Coastal Radars into EuropeAn marine SErvices - CMEMS Service Evolution 2016) will set the necessary developments towards the integration of existing European

  5. HF DBD plasma actuators for reduction of cylinder noise in flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopiev, V. F.; Kazansky, P. N.; Kopiev, V. A.; Moralev, I. A.; Zaytsev, M. Yu

    2017-11-01

    Surface high frequency dielectric barrier discharge (HF DBD) was used to reduce flow-induced noise, radiated by circular cylinder in cross flow. Effect of HF DBD actuators is studied for flow velocity up to 80 m s-1 (Reynolds numbers up to 2.18 · 105), corresponding to the typical aircraft landing approach speed. Noise measurements were performed by microphone array in anechoic chamber; averaged flow parameters were studied by particle image velocimetry (PIV). Actuator was powered by high-frequency voltage in hundreds kHz range in steady or modulated mode with the modulation frequency of 0.3-20 kHz (Strouhal number St of 0.4 to 20). It is demonstrated that upstream directed plasma actuators are able to reduce the vortex noise of a cylinder by 10 dB. Noise reduction is accompanied by significant reorganization of the wake behind a cylinder, decreasing both wake width and turbulence level. The physical mechanism related to broadband noise control by HF DBD actuator is also discussed.

  6. Closed-cycle 1-kHz-pulse-repetition-frequency HF(DF) laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Michael R.; Morris, A. V.; Gorton, Eric K.

    1998-05-01

    We describe the design and performance of a closed cycle, high pulse repetition frequency HF(DF) laser. A short duration, glow discharge is formed in a 10 SF6:1 H2(D2) gas mixture at a total pressure of approximately 110 torr. A pair of profiled electrodes define a 15 X 0.5 X 0.5 cm3 discharge volume through which gas flow is forced in the direction transverse to the optical axis. A centrifugal fan provides adequate gas flow to enable operation up to 3 kHz repetition frequency. The fan also passes the gas through a scrubber cell in which ground state HF(DF) is eliminated from the gas stream. An automated gas make-up system replenishes the spent fuel gases removed by the scrubber. Total gas admission is regulated by monitoring the system pressure, whilst the correct fuel balance is maintained through measurement of the discharge voltage. The HF(DF) generation rate is determined to be close to 5 X 1019 molecules per second per watt of laser output. Typical mean laser output powers of up to 3 watts can be delivered for extended periods of time. The primary limitation to life is found to be the discharge pre- ionization system. A distributed resistance corona pre- ionizer is shown to be advantageous when compared with an alternative arc array scheme.

  7. HF DBD plasma actuators for reduction of cylinder noise in flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopiev, V F; Kopiev, V A; Zaytsev, M Yu; Kazansky, P N; Moralev, I A

    2017-01-01

    Surface high frequency dielectric barrier discharge (HF DBD) was used to reduce flow-induced noise, radiated by circular cylinder in cross flow. Effect of HF DBD actuators is studied for flow velocity up to 80 m s −1 (Reynolds numbers up to 2.18 · 10 5 ), corresponding to the typical aircraft landing approach speed. Noise measurements were performed by microphone array in anechoic chamber; averaged flow parameters were studied by particle image velocimetry (PIV). Actuator was powered by high-frequency voltage in hundreds kHz range in steady or modulated mode with the modulation frequency of 0.3–20 kHz (Strouhal number St of 0.4 to 20). It is demonstrated that upstream directed plasma actuators are able to reduce the vortex noise of a cylinder by 10 dB. Noise reduction is accompanied by significant reorganization of the wake behind a cylinder, decreasing both wake width and turbulence level. The physical mechanism related to broadband noise control by HF DBD actuator is also discussed. (paper)

  8. PC communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Jae Cheol

    1992-03-01

    This text book is comprised of five charters, which is about PC communication for beginners who need to learn manners and how to use Ketel and PC serve. So it introduces first, conception of PC and precautions on using PC communication, second, preparation for PC communication with Modem, its program, install, kinds of protocol and how to use protocol, third directions of emulator of PC communication and super session, fourth, instruction of Ketel with join and access, basic command of Ketel, list of Ketel's menu, Ketel editor, service guide, directions of News service, Stock and bond service business and economic figures, exchange rate and interest rate, tax culture and leisure, Ketel BBS service and posting. The last part has a instruction of PC-serve about join, basic command of PC-serve, service guide and practical guideline.

  9. PC communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Jae Cheol

    1992-03-15

    This text book is comprised of five charters, which is about PC communication for beginners who need to learn manners and how to use Ketel and PC serve. So it introduces first, conception of PC and precautions on using PC communication, second, preparation for PC communication with Modem, its program, install, kinds of protocol and how to use protocol, third directions of emulator of PC communication and super session, fourth, instruction of Ketel with join and access, basic command of Ketel, list of Ketel's menu, Ketel editor, service guide, directions of News service, Stock and bond service business and economic figures, exchange rate and interest rate, tax culture and leisure, Ketel BBS service and posting. The last part has a instruction of PC-serve about join, basic command of PC-serve, service guide and practical guideline.

  10. Plasma antennas: dynamically configurable antennas for communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borg, G.; Harris, J.

    1999-01-01

    In recent years, the rapid growth in both communications and radar systems has led to a concomitant growth in the possible applications and requirements of antennas. These new requirements include compactness and conformality, rapid reconfigurability for directionality and frequency agility. For military applications, antennas should also allow low absolute or out-of-band radar cross-section and facilitate low probability of intercept communications. Investigations have recently begun worldwide on the use of ionised gases or plasmas as the conducting medium in antennas that could satisfy these requirements. Such plasma antennas may even offer a viable alternative to metal in existing applications when overall technical requirements are considered. A recent patent for ground penetrating radar claims the invention of a plasma antenna for the transmission of pulses shorter than 100 ns in which it is claimed that current ringing is avoided and signal processing simplified compared with a metal antenna. A recent US ONR tender has been issued for the design and construction of a compact and rapidly reconfigurable antenna for dynamic signal reception over the frequency range 1 - 45 GHz based on plasma antennas. Recent basic physics experiments at ANU have demonstrated that plasma antennas can attain adequate efficiency, predictable radiation patterns and low base-band noise for HF and VHF communications. In this paper we describe the theory of the low frequency plasma antenna and present a few experimental results

  11. Coulomb-nuclear interference measurements of 168Yb, 176Hf, 178Hf, and 180Hf and lifetime measurements in 186Hg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nettles, W.G.

    1979-01-01

    Alpha scattering measurements were performed at center-of-mass energies near the Coulomb barrier. These energies allow for nuclear as well as pure Coulomb forces to play a significant role in the excitation process. The interference of these two forces is very sensitive to the sign of the E4 ground-state moment, whereas pure Coulomb excitation is not. Systematics of the E4 moments of the rare earth mass region indicate a transition in the magnitude and sign of the reduced matrix element of the M(E4) operator between 0 + and 4 + states from small and positive to large and negative between Yb and W. Previous Coulomb-nuclear interference measurements show that this reduced matrix element for 180 Hf is large and negative. The present results agree with that conclusion. It is also shown that the above reduced matrix element for 178 Hf, like that of 180 Hf, is large and negative. The small and positive moment (matrix element) for 168 Yb is seen to be consistent with the experimental data. No conclusions are drawn for the E4 moment in 176 Hf. The measurement of nuclear lifetimes shorter than 500 ps requires the use of plastic scintilltor detectors. These detectors, however have very poor energy resolution. A system is described that uses plastic scintillators with a magnetic lens spectrometer for energy selection. The system was used to measure the lifetime of the 522-keV 0 + sate in 186 Hf. A data analysis method using higher-order distribution moments is also presented

  12. [Effect of a multifunctional instrument (HF scissors) in parotis surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, G; Schaller, S; Gollnick, I

    2014-03-01

    Lateral parotidectomy is a demanding surgical procedure and requires a large number of instruments with a high frequency (HF) of alternating. Many functions, such as preparing, spreading, coagulating and cutting could be combined by using scissors with an integrated function of bipolar coagulation. This study has targeted an investigation of technical application, influence on surgery time, frequency of HF application and change of instruments. In the period between 01 April 2011 and 30 September 2012 (18 months) 35 procedures of lateral parotidectomy in 35 patients were investigated. In all cases lateral parotidectomy was carried out with a similar technique (modified extracapsular preparation). Workflow data were used from a control group in the period between 01 January 2009 and 31 December 2010 (24 months). The following parameters from both groups were documented and evaluated: incision-suture times (subdivided into nine sections of the procedure), change of instruments, period of application for HF function and early facial nerve function (6 h and 6 days after surgery according to House-Brackmann). Additionally, in the HF+ group a questionnaire that facilitated subjective evaluation of instruments was analyzed. It was possible to perform the surgery in both groups with neither technical nor surgical intraoperative complications. Incision-suture times showed an average reduction of 31.6 min (34.8 %) in the HF+ group. There was a reduction in the change of instruments compared to a conventional group (CONV) by up to 62.7 %. With the deployment of HF scissors there was a clear increase in the use of HF surgery by more than 100 % when comparing incision-suture times. Evaluation of both groups according to House-Brackmann showed a similar postoperative facial nerve function. The surgeons involved were of the opinion that in all 35 surgeries with HF scissors the intervention was easier and more comfortable. The use of HF scissors is appropriate for parotid gland

  13. Draft revision of human factors guideline HF-010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyun Chul; Lee, Yong Hee; Oh, In Seok; Lee, Jung Woon; Cha, Woo Chang; Lee, Dhong Ha

    2003-05-01

    The Application of Human Factors to the design of Man-Machine Interfaces System(MMIS) in the nuclear power plant is essential to the safety and productivity of the nuclear power plants, human factors standards and guidelines as well as human factors analysis methods and experiments are weightily used to the design application. A Korean engineering company has developed a human factors engineering guideline, so-call HF-010, and has used it for human factors design, however the revision of HF-010 is necessary owing to lack of the contents related to the advanced MMI(Man-Machine Interfaces). As the results of the reviews of HF-010, it is found out that the revision of Section 9. Computer Displays of HF-010 is urgent, thus the revision was drafted on the basis of integrated human factors design guidelines for VDT, human factors design guidelines for PMAS SPADES display, human factors design guidelines for PMAS alarm display, and human factors design guidelines for electronic displays developed by the surveillance and operation support project of KOICS. The draft revision of HF-010 Section 9 proposed in this report can be utilized for the human factors design of the advanced MMI, and the high practical usability of the draft can be kept up through the continuous revision according to the advancement of digital technology

  14. Rationale and methods of the multicenter randomised trial of a heart failure management programme among geriatric patients (HF-Geriatrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casado Jose

    2011-08-01

    will provide direct evidence on the effect of a DMP in elderly patients with HF and high comorbidty, and will reduce the need to extrapolate the results of clinical trials in adults to elderly patients. Trial registration (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01076465.

  15. An Intervention to Enhance Goals-of-Care Communication Between Heart Failure Patients and Heart Failure Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doorenbos, Ardith Z; Levy, Wayne C; Curtis, J Randall; Dougherty, Cynthia M

    2016-09-01

    Heart failure patients contend with a markedly impaired quality of life, experiencing emotional distress and severe physical discomfort that increases in frequency in the last months of life. Improving communication between patients and providers about goals of care has the potential to improve patient-provider communication and patient outcomes. To determine the effects of a goals-of-care (GoC) intervention compared to usual care on the number of GoC conversations, quality of communication between patients and providers, referrals to palliative care services and completion of advance care directives. A two-group randomized study (n = 40/group) compared a GoC intervention to usual care, conducted in an academic heart failure (HF) clinic. The GoC intervention was a previsit patient activation-education, telephone-based intervention delivered by a nurse. The primary outcome of the study was number of GoC conversations between HF patients and HF providers. Secondary outcomes were quality of communication, number of referrals to palliative care, and completion of advance directives. Patients averaged 58.15 ± 11.26 years of age, with mean left ventricular ejection fraction = 30.31 ± 9.72% and Seattle Heart Failure Model scores = 95.1 ± 1.60. There was a significant increase in goals-of-care conversations (58% vs. 2.6%, P communication (P = 0.03) in the GoC group compared to usual care after the intervention. There were no differences between groups on the other outcomes. The GoC intervention resulted in more GoC conversations and higher quality communication between HF patients and providers without increased anxiety or depression. Further studies are needed to assess impact on longer term quality of care and patient outcomes. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Centrifugal stretching along the ground state band of 168Hf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costin, A.; Pietralla, N.; Reese, M.; Moeller, O.; Ai, H.; Casten, R. F.; Heinz, A.; McCutchan, E. A.; Meyer, D. A.; Qian, J.; Werner, V.; Dusling, K.; Fitzpatrick, C. R.; Guerdal, G.; Petkov, P.; Rainovski, G.

    2009-01-01

    The lifetimes of the J π =4 + , 6 + , 8 + , and 10 + levels along the ground state band in 168 Hf were measured by means of the recoil distance Doppler shift (RDDS) method using the New Yale Plunger Device (NYPD) and the SPEEDY detection array at Wright Nuclear Structure Laboratory of Yale University. Excited states in 168 Hf were populated using the 124 Sn( 48 Ti,4n) fusion evaporation reaction. The new lifetime values are sufficiently precise to clearly prove the increase of quadrupole deformation as a function of angular momentum in the deformed nucleus 168 Hf. The data agree with the predictions from the geometrical confined β-soft (CBS) rotor model that involves centrifugal stretching in a soft potential

  17. Densification and properties of HfB2 based materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonber, J.K.; Ch Murthy, T.S.R.; Bedse, R.D.; Subramanian, C.; Kumar, Sunil; Fotedar, R.K.; Krishnamurthy, N.; Suri, A.K.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the results of investigation carried out on densification and properties of HfB 2 based materials. Densification study of HfB 2 with and without sinter additive was carried out by hot pressing. TiSi 2 and CrSi 2 were used as sinter additive. Monolithic HfB 2 was densified to only 80%ρ th at 1850 deg C with a pressure of 35 MPa. Addition of 10 wt% TiSi 2 resulted in a density of 95% TD at a relatively low temperature of 1650 deg C and a low pressure of 20 MPa. Addition of 10% CrSi 2 resulted in a density of 99% TD at the same operating conditions. All the samples were characterized by SEM/EDS and mechanical property measurement. (author)

  18. Preliminary results from the Arecibo Heating Experiment (HEX): HF to GNSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson-Booth, N.; Penney, R.; Bernhardt, P. A.; Martin, P. L.; Buckland, R.; Morton-Orr, T.; Nossa, E.; Buckland, R.

    2017-12-01

    The ionosphere is subject to many solar and terrestrial influences that can generate disturbances, causing degradation to modern communication and navigational systems. Whilst the disturbances are normally caused by natural phenomena such as hurricanes, earthquakes and solar storms; they can also be generated by artificially modifying the ionosphere. Artificial Ionospheric Modification (AIM) attempts to alter a small region of the ionosphere in order to perturb the RF propagation environment. This can be achieved through injecting the ionosphere with aerosols, chemicals or radio signals. The effects of any such modification can be detected through the deployment of sensors, including ground based high-frequency (HF) sounders and dual-band Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receivers. HF sounders allow measurements of the bottom-side of the ionosphere. GNSS receivers offer a convenient means of obtaining information about the ionosphere, including ionospheric disturbances through changes in the derived total electron content information. The Heating EXperiment (HEX), which took place in March and May 2017, was designed to further our understanding of the phenomena caused by artificially heating a small region of the ionosphere, using the Arecibo facility in Puerto Rico. This was achieved by utilizing a HF measurement experiment spread between Texas and Trinidad and the deployment of a small scale travelling ionospheric disturbance (TID) network near the heater. The TID network comprised three GNSS receivers along baselines of approximately 4 km, located 20 km north of the heater. This paper presents preliminary results from the HEX campaign, including evidence of heating-induced disturbances enhancing propagation between Virginia and Trinidad. The implications of generated irregularities on GNSS will also be discussed.

  19. Titrimetric determination of Zr, Hf, Sn, Ta and rare earths in binary oxide systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flyantikova, G.V.; Chekirda, T.N.; Lasovskaya, O.N.; Migun, N.P.

    1989-01-01

    Proximate method of titrimetric determination of oxides of Zr(4), Hf(4), Sn(4), Ta(5) and rare earths (La, Lu, Nd, Eu, Yb, Y) in binary systems (BS) with high accuracy was developed. A study was made on conditions of decomposition and dissolution of BS by means of their treatment by the mixture of solutions of concentrated sulfuric acid and ammonium sulfate during 2h boiling eith successive complexonometric determination of their components by direct EDTA titration in the presence of xylenol orange. The relative standard deviation when titrating 0.3-9.7mg oxides in BS does not exceed 0.02

  20. Oxidation behavior of Hf-modified platinum aluminide coatings during thermal cycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liya Ye

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Platinum aluminide coatings with different Hf contents were fabricated by using HfCl4. The oxidation kinetics and the rumpling behavior of oxide scale were investigated. After thermal cycling, the coating with 0.46 wt% Hf showed least weight gain. With the increase of Hf content, rumpling extent of the scale decreased. Meanwhile, HfO2 preferentially formed in the scale resulting in the increase of scale thickness. The oxidation of excessive Hf even caused the spallation of the scale. The results in the present study indicate that although Hf plays an important role in decreasing rumpling extent of TGO, the oxidation of Hf decreases the adhesion of the scale. Keywords: Pt-Al coating, Hf, Oxidation, Rumpling

  1. European coordination for coastal HF radar data in EMODnet Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mader, Julien; Novellino, Antonio; Gorringe, Patrick; Griffa, Annalisa; Schulz-Stellenfleth, Johannes; Montero, Pedro; Montovani, Carlo; Ayensa, Garbi; Vila, Begoña; Rubio, Anna; Sagarminaga, Yolanda

    2015-04-01

    Historically, joint effort has been put on observing open ocean, organizing, homogenizing, sharing and reinforcing the impact of the acquired information based on one technology: ARGO with profilers Argo floats, EuroSites, ESONET-NoE, FixO3 for deep water platforms, Ferrybox for stations in ships of opportunities, and GROOM for the more recent gliders. This kind of networking creates synergies and makes easier the implementation of this source of data in the European Data exchange services like EMODnet, ROOSs portals, or any applied services in the Blue economy. One main targeted improvement in the second phase of EMODnet projects is the assembling of data along coastline. In that sense, further coordination is recommended between platform operators around a specific technology in order to make easier the implementation of the data in the platforms (4th EuroGOOS DATAMEQ WG). HF radar is today recognized internationally as a cost-effective solution to provide high spatial and temporal resolution current maps (depending on the instrument operation frequency, covering from a few kilometres offshore up to 200 km) that are needed for many applications for issues related to ocean surface drift or sea state characterization. Significant heterogeneity still exists in Europe concerning technological configurations, data processing, quality standards and data availability. This makes more difficult the development of a significant network for achieving the needed accessibility to HF Radar data for a pan European use. EuroGOOS took the initiative to lead and coordinate activities within the various observation platforms by establishing a number of Ocean Observing Task Teams such as HF-Radars. The purpose is to coordinate and join the technological, scientific and operational HF radar communities at European level. The goal of the group is on the harmonization of systems requirements, systems design, data quality, improvement and proof of the readiness and standardization of

  2. HF-induced airglow at magnetic zenith: theoretical considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Mishin

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Observations of airglow at 630nm (red line and 557.7nm (green line during HF modification experiments at the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP heating facility are analyzed. We propose a theoretical framework for understanding the generation of Langmuir and ion acoustic waves during magnetic zenith injections. We show that observations of HF-induced airglow in an underdense ionosphere as well as a decrease in the height of the emitting volume are consistent with this scenario.

  3. Assessment of the structural relations between the bcc and omega phases of Ti, Zr, Hf and other transition metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurelio, G.; Guillermet, A.F.

    2000-01-01

    The name omega (Ω) phase refers to a high-pressure structural modification of the transition metals (TMs) Ti, Zr, and Hf. In alloys of Ti, Zr and Hf with other TMs, the Ω phase can be formed and retained metastably at room temperature by quenching the bcc structure, which is usually the stable high-temperature phase in these alloy systems. As a part of a systematic investigation of the structural and bonding properties of the bcc and Ω phases, and of the bcc → Ω phase transformation in TMs and alloys, we present in this paper a detailed analysis of the structural relations between these phases in Ti, Zr, Hf and in other TMs. The approach is as follows. First, we establish the most general geometrical relations connecting the lattice parameters and interatomic distances (IDs) of the bcc and Ω structures. Next, we focus on the ratio between the relevant IDs of these phases, which are assessed on the basis of an extensive database with experimental and theoretical information. Both stable and metastable structures are considered, and various remarkable regularities in ID ratios are discussed. Finally, in the light of the systematics of ID ratios established in the present work, a discussion is made of the probable lattice parameters for the Ω phase of Hf, which are not yet accurately known from direct measurements. (orig.)

  4. Direct interactions of OCA-B and TFII-I regulate immunoglobulin heavy-chain gene transcription by facilitating enhancer-promoter communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiaodi; Siegel, Rachael; Kim, Unkyu; Roeder, Robert G

    2011-05-06

    B cell-specific coactivator OCA-B, together with Oct-1/2, binds to octamer sites in promoters and enhancers to activate transcription of immunoglobulin (Ig) genes, although the mechanisms underlying their roles in enhancer-promoter communication are unknown. Here, we demonstrate a direct interaction of OCA-B with transcription factor TFII-I, which binds to DICE elements in Igh promoters, that affects transcription at two levels. First, OCA-B relieves HDAC3-mediated Igh promoter repression by competing with HDAC3 for binding to promoter-bound TFII-I. Second, and most importantly, Igh 3' enhancer-bound OCA-B and promoter-bound TFII-I mediate promoter-enhancer interactions, in both cis and trans, that are important for Igh transcription. These and other results reveal an important function for OCA-B in Igh 3' enhancer function in vivo and strongly favor an enhancer mechanism involving looping and facilitated factor recruitment rather than a tracking mechanism. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Electrochemical investigation of the surface energy: Effect of the HF concentration on electroless silver deposition onto p-Si (1 1 1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Weichun; Chang Yanlong; Ma Chuanli; Jia Bingyu; Cao Guiyan; Wang Chunming

    2007-01-01

    Electroless silver deposition onto p-silicon (1 1 1) from 0.005 mol l -1 AgNO 3 solutions with different HF concentration was investigated by using an electrochemical direct current polarization method and open circuit potential-time (Ocp-t) technique. The fact that three-dimensional (3D) growth of silver onto silicon is favored with increasing the HF concentration was ascribed to the drop of the surface energy and approved by electrochemical direct current polarization, Ocp-t technique and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The drop slope of open-circuit potential, K -ΔE(OCP)/t , was educed from the mixed-potential theory. K -ΔE(OCP)/t as well as the deposition rate determined by an inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), increased with the HF concentration, yet was not a linear function. Results were explained by the stress generation and relaxation mechanisms

  6. Influence of rotation on multiphoton processes in HF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broeckhove, J.; Feyen, B.; Van Leuven, P.

    1994-01-01

    In this contribution, the authors are concerned with the role of rotational motion in multiphoton processes induced by a laser field of high intensity. The authors use the pseudospectral split operator method for the propagation of the quantum wave-function. The rotation is treated by decomposition of the HF wave-function in its angular momentum components

  7. lambda-3, Sandia's 100-J HF laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, R.A.

    1979-09-01

    Sandia's lambda-geometry intermediate electron-beam-initiated HF amplifier is described in sufficient detail such that a similar system could be designed, constructed and characterized. Items included are the design of the laser cell, magnetic field design and measurements, electron-beam calorimetry, and typical laser results

  8. Multiple excitation modes in 163Hf

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yadav, Rachita; Ma, J.C.; Marsh, J.C.

    2014-01-01

    Excited states of Hf163 were populated using the Zr94(Ge74,5n) reaction and the decay γ rays were measured with the Gammasphere spectrometer. Two previously known bands were extended to higher spins, and nine new bands were identified. In addition to bands associated with three- and five-quasiparticle...

  9. COPD predicts mortality in HF: the Norwegian Heart Failure Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Blois, Jonathan; Simard, Serge; Atar, Dan; Agewall, Stefan

    2010-03-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and chronic heart failure (HF) are common clinical conditions that share tobacco as a risk factor. Our aim was to evaluate the prognostic impact of COPD on HF patients. The Norwegian Heart Failure Registry was used. The study included 4132 HF patients (COPD, n = 699) from 22 hospitals (mean follow-up, 13.3 months). COPD patients were older, more often smokers and diabetics, less often on beta-blockers and had a higher heart rate. They were more often in New York Heart Association (NYHA) Class III or IV (COPD, 63%; no COPD, 51%), although left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) distribution was similar. COPD independently predicted death (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.188; 95% CI: 1.015 to 1.391; P = 0.03) along with age, creatinine, NYHA Class III/IV (HR, 1.464; 95% CI: 1.286 to 1.667) and diabetes. beta-blockers at baseline were associated with improved survival in patients with LVEF < or =40% independently of COPD. COPD is associated with a poorer survival in HF patients. COPD patients are overrated in terms of NYHA class in comparison with patients with similar LVEF. Nonetheless, NYHA class remains the strongest predictor of death in these patients. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Research of HF and HV circuit with Pspice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Jianjiang; Li Quanfeng; Zheng Shuxin; Li Wenjun; Tang Chuanxiang

    2005-01-01

    Transferring HF and HV pulse with 3 kinds of components is discussed. Terminal volt waves was got using the soft of Pspice when transmission line is matching of load in 3 kinds of condition. It is proved by experiments that the results got from Pspice have important values to improve experiment circuit. (authors)

  11. Comunicação instrumental, diretiva e afetiva em impressos hospitalares Instrumental, directive, and affective communication in hospital leaflets/[title

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Vasconcellos-Silva

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho se ocupa dos típicos sistemas semânticos extraídos dos recursos comunicativos de equipes hospitalares, que tentam validar informações como um "objeto" a ser transferido aos pacientes. Descrevemos modelos de comunicação textual em 58 impressos de orientações aos pacientes de cinco unidades hospitalares, coletados de 1996 a 2002. Identificamos três categorias fundamentadas na teoria dos atos de fala (Austin, Searle e Habermas: (1 Proferimentos cognitivo-instrumentais - descrições por meio de termos técnicos validados por argumentação auto-referente, incompleta ou inacessível; função educativa implícita. (2 Proferimentos técnico-diretivos - auto-referentes (contexto dos setores de origem; deslocamento freqüente de atos cotidianos para o terreno técnico com função disciplinadora; impessoalidade. (3 Modulações expressivas: necessidade de conexões intersubjetivas para fortalecer laços de confiança; tendência à infantilização. Concluímos que as categorias estudadas expõem: base em origens fragmentárias; pressupostos de univocidade de mensagens e consumo invariante da informação (motivações e interesses idealizados, alheios às perspectivas individuais; pressuposto de interesses universais como geradores de conhecimento.This study focuses on the typical semantic systems extracted from hospital staff communicative resources which attempt to validate information as an "object" to be transferred to patients. We describe the models of textual communication in 58 patient information leaflets from five hospital units in Brazil, gathered from 1996 to 2002. Three categories were identified, based on the theory of speech acts (Austin, Searle, and Habermas: 1 cognitive-instrumental utterances: descriptions by means of technical terms validated by self-referred, incomplete, or inaccessible argumentation, with an implicit educational function; 2 technical-directive utterances: self-referred (to the context of

  12. HF Radar Observations of Current, Wave and Wind Parameters in the South Australian Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleditch, A.; Cosoli, S.

    2016-12-01

    The Australian Coastal Ocean Radar Network (ACORN) has been measuring metocean parameters from an array of HF radar systems since 2007. Current, wave and wind measurements from a WERA phased-array radar system in the South Australian Gulf are evaluated using current meter, wave buoy and weather station data over a 12-month period. The spatial and temporal scales of the radar deployment have been configured for the measurement of surface currents from the first order backscatter spectra. Quality control procedures are applied to the radar currents that relate to the geometric configurations, statistical properties, and diagnostic variables provided by the analysis software. Wave measurements are obtained through an iterative inversion algorithm that provides an estimate of the directional frequency spectrum. The standard static configurations and data sampling strategies are not optimised for waves and so additional signal processing steps need to be implemented in order to provide reliable estimates. These techniques are currently only applied in offline mode but a real-time approach is in development. Improvements in the quality of extracted wave data are found through increased averaging of the raw radar data but the impact of temporal non-stationarity and spatial inhomogeneities in the WERA measurement region needs to be taken into account. Validations of wind direction data from a weather station on Neptune Island show the potential of using HF radar to combat the spread of bushfires in South Australia.

  13. Solar effects on communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleveland, F.; Malcolm, W.; Nordell, D.E.; Zirker, J.

    1991-01-01

    When people involved in the power industry think of Solar Magnetic Disturbances (SMD), they normally consider the potential for disrupting power transmission which results form solar-induced disturbances to the earth's magnetic field known as geomagnetic storms. However, in addition to the disruption of power transmission, solar phenomena can interfere with utility communication systems. Utilities use many different types of communication media, some of which can be affected by various solar phenomena. These include wire-based facilities (metallic cables and power line carrier), radio systems (HF, VHF, UHF mobile radio, microwave networks, and satellite transmissions), and fiber optic systems. This paper reports that the solar flares and other solar phenomena can affect these media through different mechanisms: Radio communications can be disturbed by flare-induced changes in the ionispheric layer of the atmosphere; Cable communications can be disrupted by the flare-induced changes in the magnetosphere which surrounds the earth. These changes, in turn, induce currents in the power equipment that energizes long communications cables; Satellite communications can be disrupted by the flare-induced perturbations of satellite orbits and equipment

  14. Nanosized Hydroxyapatite Precipitation on the Ti—30Ta—xHf Alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang; Jang, Jae- In; Han-Cheol, Choe

    2017-04-01

    In this study, we prepared hydroxyapatite (HAp) layer on the alkali treated Ti–30Ta–xHf alloys using electrochemical deposition method. Ti–30Ta–xHf alloys was anodized in 5 M NaOH solution at 0.3 A for 10 min. Alkali treated Ti–30Ta–xHf surface formed by anodization step which acted as templates and anchorage for growth of the HAp during subsequent pulsed electrochemical deposition process at 85 °C. The phase and morphologies of deposited HAp layer were affected by the Hf contents of Ti–30Ta–xHf alloys. The nano-scale rod-like HAp layer was formed on untreated Ti–30Ta–xHf alloys with partially low crystallinity. In the case of alkali treated Ti–30Ta–xHf, nano-sized needle-like layers were transferred to nano-flake surface and denser morphology as Hf content increased.

  15. HF Radar observations of the Dardanelles outflow current in North Eastern Aegean using validated WERA HF radar data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. KOKKINI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A two-site WERA HF radar station was installed in November 2009 at the eastern coast of Lemnos Island in North Aegean Sea, aiming to monitor the surface inflow of Black Sea waters exiting from the Dardanelles Strait, as well as to constitute a coastal management tool for incidents of oil-pollution or save-and-rescue operations. Strong interference by foreign transmissions is a source of noise deteriorating the quality of the backscattered signal, thus significantly reducing the HF radar’s effective data return rate. In order to ameliorate this problem, further quality-control and data gap interpolating procedures have been developed and applied, to be used in addition to the procedures incorporated and used by the manufacturer’s signal processing software. The second-level processing involves traditional despiking in the temporal domain, preceding Empirical Orthogonal Function analysis. The latter is used not only to filter high-frequency noise but also to fill data gaps in time and space. The data reconstruction procedure has been assessed via comparison of (a HF radial with CODE-type drifter radial velocities as well as (b HF-derived virtual drifter tracks with actual drifter tracks. The main circulation features and their variability, as revealed by the reconstructed fields, are presented.

  16. Wave parameters comparisons between High Frequency (HF) radar system and an in situ buoy: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Maria; Alonso-Martirena, Andrés; Agostinho, Pedro; Sanchez, Jorge; Ferrer, Macu; Fernandes, Carlos

    2015-04-01

    The coastal zone is an important area for the development of maritime countries, either in terms of recreation, energy exploitation, weather forecasting or national security. Field measurements are in the basis of understanding how coastal and oceanic processes occur. Most processes occur over long timescales and over large spatial ranges, like the variation of mean sea level. These processes also involve a variety of factors such as waves, winds, tides, storm surges, currents, etc., that cause huge interference on such phenomena. Measurement of waves have been carried out using different techniques. The instruments used to measure wave parameters can be very different, i.e. buoys, ship base equipment like sonar and satellites. Each equipment has its own advantage and disadvantage depending on the study subject. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the behaviour of a different technology available and presently adopted in wave measurement. In the past few years the measurement of waves using High Frequency (HF) Radars has had several developments. Such a method is already established as a powerful tool for measuring the pattern of surface current, but its use in wave measurements, especially in the dual arrangement is recent. Measurement of the backscatter of HF radar wave provides the raw dataset which is analyzed to give directional data of surface elevation at each range cell. Buoys and radars have advantages, disadvantages and its accuracy is discussed in this presentation. A major advantage with HF radar systems is that they are unaffected by weather, clouds or changing ocean conditions. The HF radar system is a very useful tool for the measurement of waves over a wide area with real-time observation, but it still lacks a method to check its accuracy. The primary goal of this study was to show how the HF radar system responds to high energetic variations when compared to wave buoy data. The bulk wave parameters used (significant wave height, period and

  17. Comparative Effectiveness of Disease Management With Information Communication Technology for Preventing Hospitalization and Readmission in Adults With Chronic Congestive Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronow, Wilbert S; Shamliyan, Tatyana A

    2018-06-01

    Critical appraisal of all available evidence regarding the role of noninvasive communication technology for improving patient survival and reducing hospital admissions in adults with chronic heart failure (HF). Systematic literature review and grading of the quality of evidence according to the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) Working Group approach. Four databases were searched in March 2018 to find 2 high-quality meta-analyses and published and unpublished data from 58 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared noninvasive communication technology with usual care in community-dwelling adults with HF. Direct meta-analysis of aggregate data with random effects models. Moderate-quality evidence suggests that there are no differences in all-cause mortality between telemonitoring and usual care, whereas complex telemonitoring that includes transmission of patient parameters and analysis by health care professionals decreases all-cause mortality (relative risk [RR] 0.78, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.62, 0.99; 2885 people in 12 RCTs). Moderate-quality evidence suggests that telemonitoring prevents HF-related hospitalizations (RR 0.74; 95% CI 0.62, 0.88; 4001 people in 11 RCTs). Moderate-quality evidence suggests that structured telephone support decreases all-cause mortality (RR 0.86; 95% CI 0.77, 0.97; 9535 people in 24 RCTs) and HF-related hospitalizations (RR 0.83; 95% CI 0.73, 0.94; 7030 people in 16 RCTs). Use of a mobile personal digital assistant prevents HF-related hospitalizations (RR 0.58; 95% CI 0.44, 0.77; 674 people in 3 RCTs). The evidence regarding the comparative effectiveness of specific telecommunication devices is insufficient. The results from many completed studies are not available. Clinicians should offer noninvasive monitoring with communication technology applications to all HF patients. Future research should examine comparative effectiveness of technology applications in patient subpopulations

  18. Nanotube formation and morphology change of Ti alloys containing Hf for dental materials use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Yong-Hoon; Lee, Kang; Choe, Han-Cheol; Ko, Yeong-Mu; Brantley, William A.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, Ti-Hf (10, 20, 30 and 40 wt.%) alloys were prepared by arc melting, and subjected to heat treatment for 24 h at 1000 o C in an argon atmosphere. Formation of surface nanotubes was achieved by anodizing a Ti-Hf alloy in 1.0 M H 3 PO 4 electrolytes with small amounts of NaF at room temperature. Microstructures of the alloys and nanotube morphology were examined by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The homogenized Ti-Hf alloys had a needle-like microstructure of α phase, and nanotubes formed on Ti-xHf alloys had the anatase phase after treatment that promoted crystallization. Uniform nanotubes formed for Hf contents up to 20 wt.%. Irregular nanotubes formed on the Ti-30Hf and Ti-40Hf alloys. The structure of the irregular layers on the Ti-30Hf and Ti-40Hf alloys had nanotubes of two sizes. Increasing the Hf content in Ti led to the formation of nanotubes with more narrow size. The pores in the nanotubes typically had a diameter ranging from 80-120 nm and a length of approximately 1.7 μm. It is concluded that nanotube morphology on Ti-Hf alloys can controlled by varying the amount of Hf.

  19. 40 CFR 180.1273 - Beauveria bassiana HF23; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Beauveria bassiana HF23; exemption... FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1273 Beauveria bassiana HF23; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Beauveria bassiana HF23 are exempt from the requirement of a tolerance on all food...

  20. Photon strength function in the Hf-181 nucleus by method of two-step cascade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Hong Khiem

    2003-01-01

    The applicability of sum-coincidence measurements of two-step cascade gamma ray spectra determining Photon Strength Function (PSF) of Hf-181 induced from Hf-180 (n,2γ) Hf-181 reaction is presented. Up to 80% intensity of the primary gamma ray transitions in a wide energy range have been deduced and compared to model calculation. (author)

  1. Effects of the 2017 Solar Eclipse on HF Radio Propagation and the D-Region Ionosphere: Citizen Science Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, C. D.; Adams, M.; Gallagher, D. L.; Habash Krause, L.; Rawlins, L.; Suggs, R. M.; Anderson, S. C.

    2017-12-01

    August 21, 2017 provided a unique opportunity to investigate the effects of the total solar eclipse on high frequency (HF) radio propagation and ionospheric variability. In Marshall Space Flight Center's partnership with the US Space and Rocket Center (USSRC) and Austin Peay State University (APSU), we engaged students and citizen scientists in an investigation of the eclipse effects on the mid-latitude ionosphere. The Amateur Radio community has developed several automated receiving and reporting networks that draw from widely-distributed, automated and manual radio stations to build a near-real time, global picture of changing radio propagation conditions. We used these networks and employed HF radio propagation modeling in our investigation. A Ham Radio Science Citizen Investigation (HamSCI) collaboration with the American Radio Relay League (ARRL) ensured that many thousands of amateur radio operators would be "on the air" communicating on eclipse day, promising an extremely large quantity of data would be collected. Activities included implementing and configuring software, monitoring the HF Amateur Radio frequency bands and collecting radio transmission data on days before, the day of, and days after the eclipse to build a continuous record of changing propagation conditions as the moon's shadow marched across the United States. Our expectations were the D-Region ionosphere would be most impacted by the eclipse, enabling over-the-horizon radio propagation on lower HF frequencies (3.5 and 7 MHz) that are typically closed during the middle of the day. Post-eclipse radio propagation analysis provided insights into ionospheric variability due to the eclipse. We report on results, interpretation, and conclusions of these investigations.

  2. Developing hydrological monitoring system based on HF radar for islands and reefs in the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J.; Shi, P.; Chen, J.; Zhu, Y.; Li, B.

    2016-12-01

    There are many islands (or reefs) in the South China Sea. The hydrological properties (currents and waves) around the islands are highly spatially variable compared to those of coastal region of mainland, because the shorelines are more complex with much smaller scale, and the topographies are step-shape with a much sharper slope. The currents and waves with high spatial variations may destroy the buildings or engineering on shorelines, or even influence the structural stability of reefs. Therefore, it is necessary to establish monitoring systems to obtain the high-resolution hydrological information. This study propose a plan for developing a hydrological monitoring system based on HF radar on the shoreline of a typical island in the southern South China Sea: firstly, the HF radar are integrated with auxiliary equipment (such as dynamo, fuel tank, air conditioner, communication facilities) in a container to build a whole monitoring platform; synchronously, several buoys are set within the radar visibility for data calibration and validation; and finally, the current and wave observations collected by the HF radar are assimilated with numerical models to obtain long-term and high-precision reanalysis products. To test the feasibility of this plan, our research group has built two HF radar sites at the western coastal region of Guangdong Province. The collected data were used to extract surface current information and assimilated with an ocean model. The results show that the data assimilation can highly improve the surface current simulation, especially for typhoon periods. Continuous data with intervals between 6 and 12 hour are the most suitable for ideal assimilations. On the other hand, the test also reveal that developing similar monitoring system on island environments need advanced radars that have higher resolutions and a better performance for persistent work.

  3. Direct marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čičić Muris

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Direct Marketing (DM is usually treated as unworthy activity, with actions at the edge of legality and activities minded cheating. Despite obvious problems regarding ethics and privacy threat, DM with its size, importance and role in a concept of integrated marketing communication deserves respect and sufficient analysis and review

  4. Action mechanism of hydrogen gas on deposition of HfC coating using HfCl{sub 4}-CH{sub 4}-H{sub 2}-Ar system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yalei, E-mail: yaleipm@csu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha, 410083 (China); School of Metallurgy and Environment, Central South University, Changsha, 410083 (China); Li, Zehao [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha, 410083 (China); Xiong, Xiang, E-mail: xiongx@csu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha, 410083 (China); Li, Xiaobin [School of Metallurgy and Environment, Central South University, Changsha, 410083 (China); Chen, Zhaoke; Sun, Wei [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha, 410083 (China)

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • HfC coatings were deposited on C/C composites by LPCVD using HfCl4-CH4-H2-Ar system. • Action mechanism of H2 on structure and growth behavior of HfC coating was studied. • Increased H2 concentration leads to transformation in growth mechanism of coating. - Abstract: Hafnium carbide coatings were deposited on carbon/carbon composites by low pressure chemical vapor deposition using HfCl{sub 4}-CH{sub 4}-H{sub 2}-Ar system. The microstructure, mechanical and ablation resistance performance of HfC coatings deposited with various H{sub 2} concentrations were investigated. The effect of hydrogen gas on the deposition of HfC coating was also discussed. Results show that all of the deposited coatings are composed of single cubic HfC phase, the hydrogen gas acted as a crucial role in determining the preferred orientation, microstructure and growth behavior of HfC coatings. During the deposition process, the gas phase supersaturation of the reaction species can be controlled by adjusting the hydrogen gas concentration. When deposited with low hydrogen gas concentration, the coating growth was dominated by the nucleation of HfC, which results in the particle-stacked structure of HfC coating. Otherwise, the coating growth was dominated by the crystal growth at high hydrogen gas concentration, which leads to the column-arranged structure of HfC coating. Under the ablation environment, the coating C2 exhibits better configurational stability and ablation resistance. The coating structure has a significant influence on the mechanical and ablation resistance properties of HfC coating.

  5. Space weather effects on airline communications in the high latitude regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocker, Alan; Siddle, Dave; Warrington, Mike; Honary, Farideh; Zaalov, Nikolay; Homam, Mariyam; Boteler, David; Danskin, Donald; de Franceschi, Georgiana; Ascaneus, Svend

    2013-04-01

    In the polar regions, ground-based VHF facilities for air-traffic control are lacking (and non-existent on the Russian side of the pole) and satellite communication systems either not available or expensive to retrofit to current aircraft and hence there remains a need for HF communication systems. Unfortunately, at these latitudes space weather can significantly affect the propagation of HF radio signals and the forecasting techniques currently employed by the airline industry are somewhat crude. In this paper, a new project that aims to provide forecasting of HF propagation characteristics for use by civilian airlines operating over polar routes will be described and preliminary results presented. Previous work in this area [e.g. Stocker et al., 2007] has focussed on taking HF signal measurements (e.g. SNR, delay and Doppler spread, and direction of arrival) on a limited number of propagation paths and developing an ionospheric model that incorporates high latitude features (e.g. polar patches and arcs) which, when combined with raytracing, allows the broad characteristics of the observations to be reproduced [Warrington et al., 2012]. The new project will greatly extend this work and consists of a number of stages. Firstly, HF measurements from an extensive network of purpose built transmitters and receivers spanning the Arctic regions will be collected and analysed. In order to test a wide variety of scenarios, the propagation paths will have different characteristics, e.g. different lengths and covering different parts of the northern ionosphere (i.e. polar cap paths where both terminals are in the polar cap, trans-auroral paths, and sub-auroral paths) and observations will be taken at a range of HF frequencies for a period covering the current (so far weak) solar maximum and part of the declining phase. Simultaneously, high latitude absorption measurements utilising the Global Riometer Array (GLORIA) will be collected and analysed. Next, the observations of

  6. Study on the adducts formation of Zr and Hf chelates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ree, Chin Taik; Jung, Young Sam; Park, Jun Kown

    1986-01-01

    The synergistic effect observed in Zr(IV) and Hf(IV) extraction from strong perchloric acid solutions by the mixtures of 2-Thenoyltri-fluoroacetone(TTA) and Octanols is shown to be caused by the formation of a mixed complex, M(TTA) 3 XS (M=Zr(IV), HF(IV), X=ClO 4 - , S=Octanol). One of the four TTA molecules coordinated at lower HClO 4 concentration to the metal as bidendate ligand seems to be changed to monodendate due to increasing HClO 4 concentration. The monodenate TTA ligand leaves the coordination site, finally, due to the activity of perchlorate at higher concentration and the additional coordination of an Octanol molecule seems to be allowed to the vaccant site which shows the synergistic extraction phenomena. (Author)

  7. First demonstration of HF-driven ionospheric currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, K.; Chang, C.-L.; Labenski, J.; Wallace, T.

    2011-10-01

    The first experimental demonstration of HF driven currents in the ionosphere at low ELF/ULF frequencies without relying in the presence of electrojets is presented. The effect was predicted by theoretical/computational means in a recent letter and given the name Ionospheric Current Drive (ICD). The effect relies on modulated F-region HF heating to generate Magneto-Sonic (MS) waves that drive Hall currents when they reach the E-region. The Hall currents inject ELF waves into the Earth-Ionosphere waveguide and helicon and Shear Alfven (SA) waves in the magnetosphere. The proof-of-concept experiments were conducted using the HAARP heater in Alaska under the BRIOCHE program. Waves between 0.1-70 Hz were measured at both near and far sites. The letter discusses the differences between ICD generated waves and those relying on modulation of electrojets.

  8. Picture analysis in CT-HF and its CT photographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Kazuo; Kohirasawa, Hideo; Shinojima, Masayasu; Tokui, Mitsuru; Seo, Kunihiko.

    1980-01-01

    CT (computed tomography) apparatus is rarely used yet in the field of dentistry, though it seems useful. It is possibly because of the artefacts caused by the metallic parts attached to teeth, the large partial volume effect due to many bones and the problems of positioning and reproducibility. After considering the various requirements of the CT apparatuses in dental field, CT-HF (of T/R type) was chosen as such apparatus, and installed as the first in dentistry. In the CT-HF apparatus, the inner diameter of the gantry is up to 300 mm, and the position of a tomographic plane is only 40 mm away from the front of gantry. Mainly the usefulness of scanography in positioning and the usefulness of the CT apparatus in the picture analysis and processing in dental field are described. (J.P.N.)

  9. Fe substitution and pressure effects on superconductor Re6Hf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jinhu; Guo, Yang; Wang, Hangdong; Chen, Bin

    2018-04-01

    Polycrystalline samples of (Re1-xFex) 6Hf were synthesized by arc-melting method and the phase purity of the samples was confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction method. In this paper, we report the Fe substitution and pressure effect on non-centrosymmetric superconductor Re6Hf. The superconducting transition temperature, TC, is confirmed by the measurements of magnetic susceptibility, electrical resistivity for x ≤ 0.22 samples with the temperature down to 2 K. We find that the TC is suppressed with the increase of Fe content. The upper critical field Hc2 is larger than the value predicted by the WHH theory and shows a linear temperature dependence down to 2 K. When upon the application of external pressure up to 2.5 GPa, the TC decreases monotonically at a rate dlnTC/dP of 0.01 GPa-1.

  10. Comparison between HF radar current data and moored ADCP currentmeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosoli, S.

    2005-01-01

    A preliminary assessment of accuracy of a two-sites shore-based HF Radar network along the Venice Lagoon littoral was attempted by means of comparison with a 57.5 day-long ADCP current time series for the period September-October 2002. Results showed that radar measurements were accurate ( O . The main differences between the HF radar and surface ADCP currents can be explained in terms of random errors affecting the measurement technique and the daily sea breeze forcing, since low-pass filtering of current time series significantly improved the correlation and decreased the RMS of the differences between the two measured data set. Comparison of the semidiurnal (M2, S2) tidal band suggested good agreement between tidal ellipse amplitudes. Wind forcing on a daily time-scale (sea-breeze) was associated with larger differences between radar and ADCP currents at a diurnal band due to the presence of a vertical shear in the surface layer

  11. Closed cycle high-repetition-rate pulsed HF laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Michael R.; Morris, A. V.; Gorton, Eric K.

    1997-04-01

    The design and performance of a closed cycle high repetition rate HF laser is described. A short pulse, glow discharge is formed in a 10 SF6:1 H2 gas mixture at a total pressure of approximately 110 torr within a 15 by 0.5 by 0.5 cm3 volume. Transverse, recirculated gas flow adequate to enable repetitive operation up to 3 kHz is imposed by a centrifugal fan. The fan also forces the gas through a scrubber cell to eliminate ground state HF from the gas stream. An automated gas make-up system replenishes spent gas removed by the scrubber. Typical mean laser output powers up to 3 W can be maintained for extended periods of operation.

  12. Prediction study of structural, elastic and electronic properties of FeMP (M = Ti, Zr, Hf) compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanto, A.; Chihi, T.; Ghebouli, M. A.; Reffas, M.; Fatmi, M.; Ghebouli, B.

    2018-06-01

    First principles calculations are applied in the study of FeMP (M = Ti, Zr, Hf) compounds. We investigate the structural, elastic, mechanical and electronic properties by combining first-principles calculations with the CASTEP approach. For ideal polycrystalline FeMP (M = Ti, Zr, Hf) the shear modulus, Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, elastic anisotropy indexes, Pugh's criterion, elastic wave velocities and Debye temperature are also calculated from the single crystal elastic constants. The shear anisotropic factors and anisotropy are obtained from the single crystal elastic constants. The Debye temperature is calculated from the average elastic wave velocity obtained from shear and bulk modulus as well as the integration of elastic wave velocities in different directions of the single crystal.

  13. Rationale and Design of the Reduce Elevated Left Atrial Pressure in Patients With Heart Failure (Reduce LAP-HF) Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasenfuss, Gerd; Gustafsson, Finn; Kaye, David

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is characterized by elevated left atrial pressure during rest and/or exercise. The Reduce LAP-HF (Reduce Elevated Left Atrial Pressure in Patients With Heart Failure) trial will evaluate the safety and performance of the Interatrial...... Shunt Device (IASD) System II, designed to directly reduce elevated left atrial pressure, in patients with HFpEF. METHODS: The Reduce LAP-HF Trial is a prospective, nonrandomized, open-label trial to evaluate a novel device that creates a small permanent shunt at the level of the atria. A minimum of 60...... patients with ejection fraction ≥40% and New York Heart Association functional class III or IV heart failure with a pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) ≥15 mm Hg at rest or ≥25 mm Hg during supine bike exercise will be implanted with an IASD System II, and followed for 6 months to assess the primary...

  14. Efficient switching of 3-terminal magnetic tunnel junctions by the giant spin Hall effect of Pt85Hf15 alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Minh-Hai; Shi, Shengjie; Rowlands, Graham E.; Aradhya, Sriharsha V.; Jermain, Colin L.; Ralph, D. C.; Buhrman, R. A.

    2018-02-01

    Recent research has indicated that introducing impurities that increase the resistivity of Pt can enhance the efficiency of the spin Hall torque it generates. Here, we directly demonstrate the usefulness of this strategy by fabricating prototype 3-terminal in-plane-magnetized magnetic tunnel junctions that utilize the spin Hall torque from a Pt85Hf15 alloy and measuring the critical currents for switching. We find that Pt85Hf15 reduces the switching current densities compared to pure Pt by approximately a factor of 2 for both quasi-static ramped current biases and nanosecond-scale current pulses, thereby proving the feasibility of this approach in assisting the development of efficient embedded magnetic memory technologies.

  15. Modelling of Phase Equlibria in the Hf-V System\

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vřešťál, Jan; Pavlů, Jana; Wdowik, U. D.; Šob, Mojmír

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 3 (2017), s. 239-247 ISSN 1450-5339 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-15576S; GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1601 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Laves phases * Hf-V system * Ab initio calculations * Phase diagram * Zero Kelvin * CALPHAD method Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 0.804, year: 2016

  16. Ionizing wave via high-power HF acceleration

    OpenAIRE

    Mishin, Evgeny; Pedersen, Todd

    2010-01-01

    Recent ionospheric modification experiments with the 3.6 MW transmitter at the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) facility in Alaska led to discovery of artificial ionization descending from the nominal interaction altitude in the background F-region ionosphere by ~60 km. This paper presents a physical model of an ionizing wavefront created by suprathermal electrons accelerated by the HF-excited plasma turbulence.

  17. Clinical trials update from the Heart Failure Society of America Meeting 2009: FAST, IMPROVE-HF, COACH galectin-3 substudy, HF-ACTION nuclear substudy, DAD-HF, and MARVEL-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lainscak, Mitja; Coletta, Alison P; Sherwi, Nasser; Cleland, John G F

    2010-02-01

    This article presents findings and a commentary on late-breaking trials presented during the meeting of the Heart Failure Society of America in September 2009. Unpublished reports should be considered as preliminary, since analyses may change in the final publication. The FAST trial showed somewhat better performance of intrathoracic impedance for prediction of deterioration in patients with heart failure (HF) when compared with daily weighing. The IMPROVE-HF study reported the benefits of education on the management of patients with systolic HF. Galectin-3 appeared a useful method for improving risk stratification of patients with chronic HF in a substudy of the COACH trial. A nuclear substudy of the HF-ACTION trial failed to demonstrate that resting myocardial perfusion imaging, a measure of myocardial scar and viability, was clinically useful. A small randomized controlled trial (DAD-HF) suggested that the use of low-dose dopamine in patients with acutely decompensated HF was associated with less deterioration in renal function and less hypokalaemia. The MARVEL-1 trial raises further concerns about the safety of myoblast transplantation in ischaemic HF.

  18. New three-phase ac-ac converter incorporating three-phase boost integrated ZVT bridge and single-phase HF link

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelhamid, Tamer H.; Sabzali, Ahmad J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a new zero voltage transition (ZVT), power factor corrected three phase ac-ac converter with single phase high frequency (HF) link. It is a two stage converter; the first stage is a boost integrated bridge converter (combination of a 3 ph boost converter and a bridge converter) operated at fixed frequency and that operates in two modes at ZVT for all switches and establishes a 1 ph square wave HF link. The second stage is a bi-directional pulse width modulation (PWM) 3 ph bridge that converts the 1 ph HF link to a 3 ph voltage using a novel switching strategy. The converter modes of operation and key equations are outlined. Simulation of the overall system is conducted using Simulink. The switching strategy and its corresponding control circuit are clearly described. Experimental verification of the simulation is conducted for a prototype of 100 V, 500 W at 10 kHz link frequency

  19. Photoemission study on electrical dipole at SiO_2/Si and HfO_2/SiO_2 interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimura, Nobuyuki; Ohta, Akio; Ikeda, Mitsuhisa; Makihara, Katsunori; Miyazaki, Seiichi

    2017-01-01

    Electrical dipole at SiO_2/Si and HfO_2/SiO_2 interfaces have been investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) under monochromatized Al Kα radiation. From the analysis of the cut-off energy for secondary photoelectrons measured at each thinning step of a dielectric layer by wet-chemical etching, an abrupt potential change caused by electrical dipole at SiO_2/Si and HfO_2/SiO_2 interfaces has been clearly detected. Al-gate MOS capacitors with thermally-grown SiO_2 and a HfO_2/SiO_2 dielectric stack were fabricated to evaluate the Al work function from the flat band voltage shift of capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics. Comparing the results of XPS and C-V measurements, we have verified that electrical dipole formed at the interface can be directly measured by photoemission measurements. (author)

  20. Collision-Induced Dissociation Study of Strong Hydrogen-Bonded Cluster Ions Y-(HF) n (Y=F, O2) Using Atmospheric Pressure Corona Discharge Ionization Mass Spectrometry Combined with a HF Generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Kenya; Sekimoto, Kanako; Takayama, Mitsuo

    2017-01-01

    Hydrogen fluoride (HF) was produced by a homemade HF generator in order to investigate the properties of strong hydrogen-bonded clusters such as (HF) n . The HF molecules were ionized in the form of complex ions associated with the negative core ions Y - produced by atmospheric pressure corona discharge ionization (APCDI). The use of APCDI in combination with the homemade HF generator led to the formation of negative-ion HF clusters Y - (HF) n (Y=F, O 2 ), where larger clusters with n ≥4 were not detected. The mechanisms for the formation of the HF, F - (HF) n , and O 2 - (HF) n species were discussed from the standpoints of the HF generator and APCDI MS. By performing energy-resolved collision-induced dissociation (CID) experiments on the cluster ions F - (HF) n ( n =1-3), the energies for the loss of HF from F - (HF) 3 , F - (HF) 2 , and F - (HF) were evaluated to be 1 eV or lower, 1 eV or higher, and 2 eV, respectively, on the basis of their center-of-mass energy ( E CM ). These E CM values were consistent with the values of 0.995, 1.308, and 2.048 eV, respectively, obtained by ab initio calculations. The stability of [O 2 (HF) n ] - ( n =1-4) was discussed on the basis of the bond lengths of O 2 H-F - (HF) n and O 2 - H-F(HF) n obtained by ab initio calculations. The calculations indicated that [O 2 (HF) 4 ] - separated into O 2 H and F - (HF) 3 .

  1. Digital Marketing Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Margherita Corniani

    2006-01-01

    Digital marketing communication is directed to profiled targets, which are active in the communication process. Every communication flow can ask for an information answer from the market. This opportunity grants immediate feed-backs and feed-forwards, so that digital communication can be easily and cheaply measured; digital communication flows are diffused at costs that are getting lower and lower, but it asks specialized and deep competences to communication managers. The ease in the flowing...

  2. Modeling of NiTiHf using finite difference method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farjam, Nazanin; Mehrabi, Reza; Karaca, Haluk; Mirzaeifar, Reza; Elahinia, Mohammad

    2018-03-01

    NiTiHf is a high temperature and high strength shape memory alloy with transformation temperatures above 100oC. A constitutive model based on Gibbs free energy is developed to predict the behavior of this material. Two different irrecoverable strains including transformation induced plastic strain (TRIP) and viscoplastic strain (VP) are considered when using high temperature shape memory alloys (HTSMAs). The first one happens during transformation at high levels of stress and the second one is related to the creep which is rate-dependent. The developed model is implemented for NiTiHf under uniaxial loading. Finite difference method is utilized to solve the proposed equations. The material parameters in the equations are calibrated from experimental data. Simulation results are captured to investigate the superelastic behavior of NiTiHf. The extracted results are compared with experimental tests of isobaric heating and cooling at different levels of stress and also superelastic tests at different levels of temperature. More results are generated to investigate the capability of the proposed model in the prediction of the irrecoverable strain after full transformation in HTSMAs.

  3. HfO2 and SiO2 as barriers in magnetic tunneling junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Gokaran; Archer, Thomas; Sanvito, Stefano

    2017-05-01

    SiO2 and HfO2 are both high-k, wide-gap semiconductors, currently used in the microelectronic industry as gate barriers. Here we investigate whether the same materials can be employed to make magnetic tunnel junctions, which in principle can be amenable for integration in conventional Si technology. By using a combination of density functional theory and the nonequilibrium Green's functions method for quantum transport we have studied the transport properties of Co [0001 ] /SiO2[001 ] /Co [0001 ] and Fe [001 ] /HfO2[001 ] /Fe [001 ] junctions. In both cases we found a quite large magnetoresistance, which is explained through the analysis of the real band structure of the magnets and the complex one of the insulator. We find that there is no symmetry spin filtering for the Co-based junction since the high transmission Δ2' band crosses the Fermi level, EF, for both spin directions. However, the fact that Co is a strong ferromagnet makes the orbital contribution to the two Δ2' spin subbands different, yielding magnetoresistance. In contrast for the Fe-based junction symmetry filtering is active for an energy window spanning between the Fermi level and 1 eV below EF, with Δ1 symmetry contributing to the transmission.

  4. Communication without communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bratina Boris R.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the necessary conditions for successful communication. It is well known that post-modernity, described as an era of control, produces only decentralized, imploded subjectivities, who are neither able to question their own being nor to relate one with another in authentic bonds of communication. Today, virtual communication has become an ultimate model of every possible communication whatsoever. The authors, therefore, pose the question of conditions for possibility of subjectivities who would be able and apt for authentic communication, wherein faith, fidelity, truth, and capability of keeping one's word occupy the central place.

  5. Investigation of new type Cu-Hf-Al bulk glassy alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagy, E; Ronto, V; Solyom, J; Roosz, A

    2009-01-01

    In the last years new type Cu-Hf-Al ternary alloys were developed with high glass forming ability and ductility. The addition of Al to Cu-Hf alloys results in improvements in glass formation, thermal stability and mechanical properties of these alloys. We have investigated new Cu-based bulk amorphous alloys in Cu-Hf-Al ternary system. The alloys with Cu 49 Hf 42 Al 9 , Cu 46 Hf 45 Al 9 , Cu 50 Hf 42.5 Al 7.5 and Cu 50 Hf 45 Al 5 compositions were prepared by arc melting. The samples were made by centrifugal casting and were investigated by X-ray diffraction method. Thermodynamic properties were examined by differential scanning calorimetry and the structure of the crystallising phases by scanning electron microscopy. The determination of liquidus temperatures of alloys were measured by differential thermal analysis.

  6. Nightside studies of coherent HF Radar spectral width behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Woodfield

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available A previous case study found a relationship between high spectral width measured by the CUTLASS Finland HF radar and elevated electron temperatures observed by the EISCAT and ESR incoherent scatter radars in the post-midnight sector of magnetic local time. This paper expands that work by briefly re-examining that interval and looking in depth at two further case studies. In all three cases a region of high HF spectral width (>200 ms-1 exists poleward of a region of low HF spectral width (<200 ms-1. Each case, however, occurs under quite different geomagnetic conditions. The original case study occurred during an interval with no observed electrojet activity, the second study during a transition from quiet to active conditions with a clear band of ion frictional heating indicating the location of the flow reversal boundary, and the third during an isolated sub-storm. These case studies indicate that the relationship between elevated electron temperature and high HF radar spectral width appears on closed field lines after 03:00 magnetic local time (MLT on the nightside. It is not clear whether the same relationship would hold on open field lines, since our analysis of this relationship is restricted in latitude. We find two important properties of high spectral width data on the nightside. Firstly the high spectral width values occur on both open and closed field lines, and secondly that the power spectra which exhibit high widths are both single-peak and multiple-peak. In general the regions of high spectral width (>200 ms-1 have more multiple-peak spectra than the regions of low spectral widths whilst still maintaining a majority of single-peak spectra. We also find that the region of ion frictional heating is collocated with many multiple-peak HF spectra. Several mechanisms for the generation of high spectral width have been proposed which would produce multiple-peak spectra, these are discussed in relation to the data presented here. Since the

  7. Nightside studies of coherent HF Radar spectral width behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Woodfield

    Full Text Available A previous case study found a relationship between high spectral width measured by the CUTLASS Finland HF radar and elevated electron temperatures observed by the EISCAT and ESR incoherent scatter radars in the post-midnight sector of magnetic local time. This paper expands that work by briefly re-examining that interval and looking in depth at two further case studies. In all three cases a region of high HF spectral width (>200 ms-1 exists poleward of a region of low HF spectral width (<200 ms-1. Each case, however, occurs under quite different geomagnetic conditions. The original case study occurred during an interval with no observed electrojet activity, the second study during a transition from quiet to active conditions with a clear band of ion frictional heating indicating the location of the flow reversal boundary, and the third during an isolated sub-storm. These case studies indicate that the relationship between elevated electron temperature and high HF radar spectral width appears on closed field lines after 03:00 magnetic local time (MLT on the nightside. It is not clear whether the same relationship would hold on open field lines, since our analysis of this relationship is restricted in latitude. We find two important properties of high spectral width data on the nightside. Firstly the high spectral width values occur on both open and closed field lines, and secondly that the power spectra which exhibit high widths are both single-peak and multiple-peak. In general the regions of high spectral width (>200 ms-1 have more multiple-peak spectra than the regions of low spectral widths whilst still maintaining a majority of single-peak spectra. We also find that the region of ion frictional heating is collocated with many multiple-peak HF spectra. Several mechanisms for the generation of high spectral width have been proposed which would produce multiple-peak spectra, these are discussed in relation to

  8. Dynamics of the F(-) + CH3I → HF + CH2I(-) Proton Transfer Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiaxu; Xie, Jing; Hase, William L

    2015-12-17

    Direct chemical dynamics simulations, at collision energies Erel of 0.32 and 1.53 eV, were performed to obtain an atomistic understanding of the F(-) + CH3I reaction dynamics. There is only the F(-) + CH3I → CH3F + I(-) bimolecular nucleophilic substitution SN2 product channel at 0.32 eV. Increasing Erel to 1.53 eV opens the endothermic F(-) + CH3I → HF + CH2I(-) proton transfer reaction, which is less competitive than the SN2 reaction. The simulations reveal proton transfer occurs by two direct atomic-level mechanisms, rebound and stripping, and indirect mechanisms, involving formation of the F(-)···HCH2I complex and the roundabout. For the indirect trajectories all of the CH2I(-) is formed with zero-point energy (ZPE), while for the direct trajectories 50% form CH2I(-) without ZPE. Without a ZPE constraint for CH2I(-), the reaction cross sections for the rebound, stripping, and indirect mechanisms are 0.2 ± 0.1, 1.2 ± 0.4, and 0.7 ± 0.2 Å(2), respectively. Discarding trajectories that do not form CH2I(-) with ZPE reduces the rebound and stripping cross sections to 0.1 ± 0.1 and 0.7 ± 0.5 Å(2). The HF product is formed rotationally and vibrationally unexcited. The average value of J is 2.6 and with histogram binning n = 0. CH2I(-) is formed rotationally excited. The partitioning between CH2I(-) vibration and HF + CH2I(-) relative translation energy depends on the treatment of CH2I(-) ZPE. Without a CH2I(-) ZPE constraint the energy partitioning is primarily to relative translation with little CH2I(-) vibration. With a ZPE constraint, energy partitioning to CH2I(-) rotation, CH2I(-) vibration, and relative translation are statistically the same. The overall F(-) + CH3I rate constant at Erel of both 0.32 and 1.53 eV is in good agreement with experiment and negligibly affected by the treatment of CH2I(-) ZPE, since the SN2 reaction is the major contributor to the total reaction rate constant. The potential energy surface and reaction dynamics for F

  9. Anion exchange behavior of Ti, Zr, Hf, Nb and Ta as homologues of Rf and Db in mixed HF-acetone solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aksenov, N.V.; Bozhikov, G.A.; Starodub, G.Ya.; Dmitriev, S.N.; Filosofov, D.V.; Jon Sun Jin; Radchenko, V.I.; Lebedev, N.A.; Novgorodov, A.F.

    2009-01-01

    We studied in detail the sorption behavior of Ti, Zr, Hf, Nb and Ta on AG 1 anion exchange resin in HF-acetone mixed solutions as a function of organic cosolvent and acid concentrations. Anion exchange behavior was found to be strongly acetone concentration dependent. The distribution coefficients of Ti, Zr, Hf and Nb increased and those of Ta decreased with increasing content of acetone in HF solutions. With increasing HF concentration, anion exchange equilibrium analysis indicated the formation of fluoride complexes of group-4 elements with charge -3 and Ta with charge -2. For Nb the slope of -2 increased up to -5. Optimal conditions for separation of the elements using AIX chromatography were found. Group-4 elements formed MF 7 3- (M = Ti, Zr, Hf) complexes whose sorption decreased Ti > Hf > Zr in reverse order of complex stability. This fact is of particular interest for studying ion exchange behavior of Rf compared to Ti. The advantages of studying chemical properties of Rf and Db in aqueous HF solutions mixed with organic solvents are briefly discussed

  10. Temperature dependence of the resistivity and tunneling magnetoresistance of sputtered FeHf(Si)O cermet films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strijkers, G.J.; Swagten, H.J.M.; Rulkens, B.; Bitter, R.H.J.N.; Jonge, de W.J.M.; Bloemen, P.J.H.; Schep, K.M.

    1998-01-01

    We have studied the tunneling resistivity and magnetoresistance of reactive sputter deposited FeHfO and FeHfSiO thin granular films. Maximum magnetoresistance ratios at room temperature of 2% and 3.2% were observed for films with compositions of Fe47Hf10O43 and Fe40Hf6Si6O48, respectively. The

  11. Thermodynamics of HfCl/sub 4/-KCl molten mixtures containing HfCl/sub 4/ up to 33. 3 mol. per cent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smirnov, M V; Salyulev, A B; Kudyakov, V Ya [AN SSSR, Sverdlovsk. Inst. Ehlektrokhimii

    1980-05-01

    Based on measurements of saturated vapour pressure in components of melted mixtures of HfCl/sub 4/-KCl, depending on temperature and concentration, calculated are the results of changes in activity coefficients of hafnium tetrachloride and potassium chloride on transition from diluted solutions, where the Henry law is met, to those concentrated where the law is disobeyed. Growth in the activity coefficient of HfCl/sub 4/ is due to dissociation of complex groups of HfCl/sub 6//sup 2 -/ into complexes with a lesser number of ligands and decreasing relative binding energy of Hf/sup 4 +/-Cl/sup -/ there. In this case, marked changes take place in partial enthalpy and entropy of hafnium tetrachloride mixing. Similar dependences are observed for potassium chloride, but they are expressed considerably weaker. Evaporation enthalpy and entropy are calculated for HfCl/sub 4/ and KCl monomers from their melted mixtures of various concentrations.

  12. Thermodynamics of HfCl4-KCl molten mixtures containing HfCl4 up to 33.3 mol. per cent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, M.V.; Salyulev, A.B.; Kudyakov, V.Ya.

    1980-01-01

    Based on measurements of saturated vapour pressure in components of melted mixtures of HfCl 4 -KCl, depending on temperature and concentration, calculated are the results of changes in activity coefficients of hafnium tetrachloride and potassium chloride on transition from diluted solutions, where the Henry law is met, to those concentrated where the law is disobeyed. Growth in the activity coefficient of HfCl 4 is due to dissociation of complex groups of HfCl 6 2- into complexes with a lesser number of ligands and decreasing relative binding energy of Hf 4+ -Cl - there. In this case, marked changes take place in partial enthalpy and entropy of hafnium tetrachloride mixing. Similar dependences are observed for potassium chloride, but they are expressed considerably weaker. Evaporation enthalpy and entropy are calculated for HfCl 4 and KCl monomers from their melted mixtures of various concentrations

  13. Oceanic Area System Improvement Study (OASIS). Volume V. North Atlantic, Central East Pacific, and Caribbean Regions Communication Systems Description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    system SENEAM Servicies a la Navagacion en el Espacio Aero Mexicano SSB Single side band USB Upper side band VFR Visual flight rules VHF Very-high...working may mitigate many historical problems associated with HF communications. The ambient noise associated with monitoring an HF frequency led to...airports all have their VHF facilities on site. Communications are the responsibility of the Administration de l’Aeroport International Francois

  14. Solidification Rate Dependence of Microstructures and Transformation Behavior of Ti-Ni-Hf Alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Jo; Kim, Yeon-Wook; Nam, Tae-Hyun

    2018-09-01

    The microstructures and transformation behavior of Ti-49Ni-20Hf, Ti-49.5Ni-20Hf and Ti-50.3Ni- 20Hf alloys, when prepared by conventional casting, were investigated and compared with the properties of the alloys prepared by melt spinning. The area fraction of (Ti,Hf)2Ni in Ti-Ni-Hf alloys decreased to 3.9% from 9.4% as Ni content rose to 50.3 at% from 49 at%. Several cracks were observed in the hot-rolled Ti-49Ni-20Hf alloy sheet but none were found in the Ti-50.3Ni-20Hf alloy sheet. The B2-B19' transformation start temperature (Ms) decreased to 476 K from 580 K as Ni content increased to 50.3 at% from 49 at%. All the as-spun ribbons were amorphous, and the activation energy for crystallization ranged from 167.8 kJ/mol to 182.7 kJ/mol based on Ni content. When annealing temperature ranged from 810 K to 873 K, crystalline Ti-Ni-Hf alloys without (Ti,Hf)2Ni particles were obtained. At annealing temperatures higher than 873 K, very fine (Ti,Hf)2Ni particles, less than 20 nm in size, were found embedded in a crystalline matrix.

  15. Effects of HfB2 and HfN Additions on the Microstructures and Mechanical Properties of TiB2-Based Ceramic Tool Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Jing; Song, Jinpeng; Liang, Guoxing; Gao, Jiaojiao; Xie, Juncai; Cao, Lei; Wang, Shiying; Lv, Ming

    2017-01-01

    The effects of HfB2 and HfN additions on the microstructures and mechanical properties of TiB2-based ceramic tool materials were investigated. The results showed that the HfB2 additive not only can inhibit the TiB2 grain growth but can also change the morphology of some TiB2 grains from bigger polygons to smaller polygons or longer ovals that are advantageous for forming a relatively fine microstructure, and that the HfN additive had a tendency toward agglomeration. The improvement of flexural strength and Vickers hardness of the TiB2-HfB2 ceramics was due to the relatively fine microstructure; the decrease of fracture toughness was ascribed to the formation of a weaker grain boundary strength due to the brittle rim phase and the poor wettability between HfB2 and Ni. The decrease of the flexural strength and Vickers hardness of the TiB2-HfN ceramics was due to the increase of defects such as TiB2 coarse grains and HfN agglomeration; the enhancement of fracture toughness was mainly attributed to the decrease of the pore number and the increase of the rim phase and TiB2 coarse grains. The toughening mechanisms of TiB2-HfB2 ceramics mainly included crack bridging and transgranular fracture, while the toughening mechanisms of TiB2-HfN ceramics mainly included crack deflection, crack bridging, transgranular fracture, and the core-rim structure. PMID:28772821

  16. Effects of HfB2 and HfN Additions on the Microstructures and Mechanical Properties of TiB2-Based Ceramic Tool Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing An

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects of HfB2 and HfN additions on the microstructures and mechanical properties of TiB2-based ceramic tool materials were investigated. The results showed that the HfB2 additive not only can inhibit the TiB2 grain growth but can also change the morphology of some TiB2 grains from bigger polygons to smaller polygons or longer ovals that are advantageous for forming a relatively fine microstructure, and that the HfN additive had a tendency toward agglomeration. The improvement of flexural strength and Vickers hardness of the TiB2-HfB2 ceramics was due to the relatively fine microstructure; the decrease of fracture toughness was ascribed to the formation of a weaker grain boundary strength due to the brittle rim phase and the poor wettability between HfB2 and Ni. The decrease of the flexural strength and Vickers hardness of the TiB2-HfN ceramics was due to the increase of defects such as TiB2 coarse grains and HfN agglomeration; the enhancement of fracture toughness was mainly attributed to the decrease of the pore number and the increase of the rim phase and TiB2 coarse grains. The toughening mechanisms of TiB2-HfB2 ceramics mainly included crack bridging and transgranular fracture, while the toughening mechanisms of TiB2-HfN ceramics mainly included crack deflection, crack bridging, transgranular fracture, and the core-rim structure.

  17. Quantum secure communication models comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgi Petrov Bebrov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper concerns the quantum cryptography, more specifically, the quantum secure communication type of schemes. The main focus here is on making a comparison between the distinct secure quantum communication models – quantum secure direct communication and deterministic secure quantum communication, in terms of three parameters: resource efficiency, eavesdropping check efficiency, and security (degree of preserving the confidentiality.

  18. Communicating doses of pediatric liquid medicines to parents/caregivers: a comparison of written dosing directions on prescriptions with labels applied by dispensed pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Rita; Blustein, Leona; Kuffner, Ed; Davis, Lisa

    2014-03-01

    To identify and compare volumetric measures used by healthcare providers in communicating dosing instructions for pediatric liquid prescriptions to parents/caregivers. Dosing instructions were retrospectively reviewed for the 10 most frequently prescribed liquid medications dispensed from 4 community pharmacies for patients aged ≤ 12 years during a 3-month period. Volumetric measures on original prescriptions (ie, milliliters, teaspoons) were compared with those utilized by the pharmacist on the pharmacy label dispensed to the parent/caregiver. Of 649 prescriptions and corresponding pharmacy labels evaluated, 68% of prescriptions and 62% of pharmacy labels communicated dosing in milliliters, 24% of prescriptions and 29% of pharmacy labels communicated dosing in teaspoonfuls, 7% of prescriptions and 0% of pharmacy labels communicated dosing in other measures (ie, milligrams, cubic centimeters, "dose"), and 25% of dispensed pharmacy labels did not reflect units as written in the prescription. Volumetric measures utilized by healthcare professionals in dosing instructions for prescription pediatric oral liquid medications are not consistent. Healthcare professionals and parents/caregivers should be educated on safe dosing practices for liquid pediatric medications. Generalizability to the larger pediatric population may vary depending on pharmacy chain, location, and medications evaluated. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Low lying magnetic dipole strength distribution in 176Hf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuliev, A. A.; Ertugral, F.; Yakut, H.; Bektasoglu, M.; Guliyev, E.

    2006-01-01

    In this study the scissors mode 1 + states are systematically investigated within the rotational invariant Quasiparticle Random Phase Approximation (QRPA) for 1 76Hf isotopes. We consider the 1 + vibrations generated by the isovector spin-spin interactions and the isoscalar (h 0 ) and isovector (h 1 ) quadrupole type separable forces restoring the broken symmetry by a deformed mean field. It has been shown that restoration of the broken rotational symmetry of the Hamiltonian essentially decreases the B(M1) value of the low lying 1 + states and increases the collectivization of the scissors mode excitations in the spectroscopic energy region. Agreement between the calculated mean excitation energies as well as the summed B(M1) value of the scissors mode excitations and the available experimental data of 1 76Hf is rather good. For instance, distributions of the calculated B(M1) transition strengths in the 1 76 Hf isotopes with respect to K π =1 + excitations is represented in Figure. Thus, we see that the models which use the Hamiltonian with broken rotational symmetry strongly overestimate the M1 strength at low energy. These results indicate an importance of the models which are free from the low-energy spurious states. The marked differences between the results for 1 + states, calculated in rotational invariant (RI) and non-rotational invariant (NRI) model indicate the importance of the approaches which are free from spurious low-energy solutions. A separation of the rotational state from the 1 + states changes somewhat the distribution of the B(M1) strength in the spectroscopic energy region and increases the fragmentation of the scissors mode 1 + excitations in agreement with the experimental data

  20. High Q-factor tunable superconducting HF circuit

    CERN Document Server

    Vopilkin, E A; Pavlov, S A; Ponomarev, L I; Ganitsev, A Y; Zhukov, A S; Vladimirov, V V; Letyago, A G; Parshikov, V V

    2001-01-01

    Feasibility of constructing a high Q-factor (Q approx 10 sup 5) mechanically tunable in a wide range of frequencies (12-63 MHz) vibration circuit of HF range was considered. The tunable circuit integrates two single circuits made using YBaCuO films. The circuit frequency is tuned by changing distance X (capacity) between substrates. Potentiality of using substrates of lanthanum aluminate, neodymium gallate and strontium titanate for manufacture of single circuits was considered. Q-factor of the circuit amounted to 68000 at resonance frequency of 6.88 MHz

  1. High Q-factor tunable superconducting HF circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vopilkin, E.A.; Parafin, A.E.; Pavlov, S.A.; Ponomarev, L.I.; Ganitsev, A.Yu.; Zhukov, A.S.; Vladimirov, V.V.; Letyago, A.G.; Parshikov, V.V.

    2001-01-01

    Feasibility of constructing a high Q-factor (Q ∼ 10 5 ) mechanically tunable in a wide range of frequencies (12-63 MHz) vibration circuit of HF range was considered. The tunable circuit integrates two single circuits made using YBaCuO films. The circuit frequency is tuned by changing distance X (capacity) between substrates. Potentiality of using substrates of lanthanum aluminate, neodymium gallate and strontium titanate for manufacture of single circuits was considered. Q-factor of the circuit amounted to 68000 at resonance frequency of 6.88 MHz [ru

  2. TEA HF laser with a high specific radiation energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puchikin, A. V.; Andreev, M. V.; Losev, V. F.; Panchenko, Yu. N.

    2017-01-01

    Results of experimental studies of the chemical HF laser with a non-chain reaction are presented. The possibility of the total laser efficiency of 5 % is shown when a traditional C-to-C pumping circuit with the charging voltage of 20-24 kV is used. It is experimentally shown that the specific radiation output energy of 21 J/l is reached at the specific pump energy of 350 J/l in SF6/H2 = 14/1 mixture at the total pressure of 0.27 bar.

  3. Azeotrope in LiF-HfF4 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorokin, I.D.; Korenev, Yu.M.; Sidorov, L.N.

    1975-01-01

    The gaseous phase of the system LiF-HfF 4 is investigated by means of isothermal evaporation. Using experimental data, p-X diagrams are constructed for 1125, 1075, 1025, 975 and 925 K. It is shown that the azeotrope with minimum total pressure observed at 1125 K degenerates upon lowering of the temperature and entry into the heterogeneous region. At 975 K the azeotrope corresponds to the point of inflexion from the horizontal tangent on the total pressure curve. At lower temperatures azeotropic distillation is absent from the system. (author)

  4. Conseiller principal, Affaires publiques (h/f) | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Résumé des fonctions Le conseiller principal, Affaires publiques agit à titre de chef des communications pour un portefeuille de clients attribué en vue d'offrir des services de communications intégrés. Plus particulièrement, le conseiller se penche sur les besoins relatifs aux communications, fournit des conseils, assure une ...

  5. Embryo-maternal communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østrup, Esben; Hyttel, Poul; Østrup, Olga

    2011-01-01

    Communication during early pregnancy is essential for successful reproduction. In this review we address the beginning of the communication between mother and developing embryo; including morphological and transcriptional changes in the endometrium as well as epigenetic regulation mechanisms dire...... directing the placentation. An increasing knowledge of the embryo-maternal communication might not only help to improve the fertility of our farm animals but also our understanding of human health and reproduction.......Communication during early pregnancy is essential for successful reproduction. In this review we address the beginning of the communication between mother and developing embryo; including morphological and transcriptional changes in the endometrium as well as epigenetic regulation mechanisms...

  6. A routine high-precision method for Lu-Hf isotope geochemistry and chronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patchett, P.J.; Tatsumoto, M.

    1981-01-01

    A method for chemical separation of Lu and Hf from rock, meteorite and mineral samples is described, together with a much improved mass spectrometric running technique for Hf. This allows (i) geo- and cosmochronology using the176Lu???176Hf+??- decay scheme, and (ii) geochemical studies of planetary processes in the earth and moon. Chemical yields for the three-stage ion-exchange column procedure average 90% for Hf. Chemical blanks are international mass spectrometric standard; suitable aliquots, prepared from a single batch of JMC 475, are available from Denver. Lu-Hf analyses of the standard rocks BCR-1 and JB-1 are given. The potential of the Lu-Hf method in isotope geochemistry is assessed. ?? 1980 Springer-Verlag.

  7. Directing Creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darsø, Lotte; Ibbotson, Piers

    2008-01-01

    In this article we argue that leaders facing complex challenges can learn from the arts, specifically that leaders can learn by examining how theatre directors direct creativity through creative constraints. We suggest that perceiving creativity as a boundary phenomenon is helpful for directing it....... Like leaders, who are caught in paradoxical situations where they have to manage production and logistics simultaneously with making space for creativity and innovation, theatre directors need to find the delicate balance between on one hand renewal of perceptions, acting and interaction...... and on the other hand getting ready for the opening night. We conclude that the art of directing creativity is linked to developing competencies of conscious presence, attention and vigilance, whereas the craft of directing creativity concerns communication, framing and choice....

  8. Exposing barriers to end-of-life communication in heart failure: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Ella L; Bruce, Anne; Stajduhar, Kelli

    2013-01-01

    End-of-life (EOL) communication is lacking despite patients with heart failure (HF) and their caregivers desiring it. To review the existing literature to identify barriers that inhibit EOL communication in the HF population. We chose an integrative literature review method and began by searching CINAHL, Medline, PsychInfo, Web of Science, Health Source Nursing Academic, Evidence-Based Medicine Reviews (EBMR), dissertations and theses searches through the University of Victoria and through Proquest from 1995 to 2011. DATA EVALUATION: EOL communication regarding wishes, prognosis and options for care rarely happen. We noted that patients lacked understanding of HF, feared engaging health care professionals (HCP), did not wish to talk about EOL, or waited for HCPs to initiate the conversation. HCPs lacked communication skills, focused on curative therapies and found diagnosing and prognosticating HF difficult. Limited time and space for conversations played a role. The challenge of diagnosing and prognosticating HF, its unpredictable trajectory, HCP inexperience in recognizing nearing EOL and lack of communication skills lead to HCPs avoiding EOL conversations. Four categories of barriers to communication were identified: patient/caregiver, HCP, disease-specific and organizational challenges.

  9. Astronomy Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heck, A.; Madsen, C.

    2003-07-01

    Astronomers communicate all the time, with colleagues of course, but also with managers and administrators, with decision makers and takers, with social representatives, with the news media, and with the society at large. Education is naturally part of the process. Astronomy communication must take into account several specificities: the astronomy community is rather compact and well organized world-wide; astronomy has penetrated the general public remarkably well with an extensive network of associations and organizations of aficionados all over the world. Also, as a result of the huge amount of data accumulated and by necessity for their extensive international collaborations, astronomers have pioneered the development of distributed resources, electronic communications and networks coupled to advanced methodologies and technologies, often much before they become of common world-wide usage. This book is filling up a gap in the astronomy-related literature by providing a set of chapters not only of direct interest to astronomy communication, but also well beyond it. The experts contributing to this book have done their best to write in a way understandable to readers not necessarily hyperspecialized in astronomy nor in communication techniques while providing specific detailed information, as well as plenty of pointers and bibliographic elements. This book will be very useful for researchers, teachers, editors, publishers, librarians, computer scientists, sociologists of science, research planners and strategists, project managers, public-relations officers, plus those in charge of astronomy-related organizations, as well as for students aiming at a career in astronomy or related space science. Link: http://www.wkap.nl/prod/b/1-4020-1345-0

  10. The magnetic hyperfine field in the 181Ta site in the Co2HfAl and Co2HfGa Heusler alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, R. da.

    1979-01-01

    The hyperfine magnetic fields at 181 Ta nuclei in Heusler alloys Co 2 HfZ (Z=Al, Ga) have been measured using the time differential perturbed gamma-gamma angular correlation (TDPAC) method. The hyperfine fields obtained from these measurements at the liquid nitrogen temperature are -189 and +- 150 kOersted for Co 2 HfAl and Co 2 HfGa, respectively. The concept that the hyperfine field at the Y site is similar to the solute fields in Fe, Co, Ni and Gd matrices is corroborated. We have verified that ratios H sub(hf) sub(Ta)/T sub(c) and H sub(hf) sub(Ta)μ sub(Co) in Co 2 HfZ compounds (Z=Al, Ga, Sn) do not depend on the nature of Z element. However a dependence in the value of observed field with the s-p element in Z site was noticed. We feel that the samples are not completely ordered cubic as observed by the quadrupole interaction measurements. The results are interpreted in terms of the Campbell-Blandin formalism, and it is shown that the spin polarization of conduction electrons at Hf and Ta have opposite signs. (Author) [pt

  11. Enhanced resistive switching and multilevel behavior in bilayered HfAlO/HfAlO{sub x} structures for non-volatile memory applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faita, F. L., E-mail: fabriciofaita@gmail.com [Centre of Physics, University of Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Campus Trindade, 88040-900 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil); Silva, J. P. B., E-mail: josesilva@fisica.uminho.pt [Centre of Physics, University of Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); IFIMUP and IN-Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Departamento de Física e Astronomia, Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade do Porto, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Pereira, M.; Gomes, M. J. M. [Centre of Physics, University of Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal)

    2015-12-14

    In this work, hafnium aluminum oxide (HfAlO) thin films were deposited by ion beam sputtering deposition technique on Si substrate. The presence of oxygen vacancies in the HfAlO{sub x} layer deposited in oxygen deficient environment is evidenced from the photoluminescence spectra. Furthermore, HfAlO(oxygen rich)/HfAlO{sub x}(oxygen poor) bilayer structures exhibit multilevel resistive switching (RS), and the switching ratio becomes more prominent with increasing the HfAlO layer thickness. The bilayer structure with HfAlO/HfAlO{sub x} thickness of 30/40 nm displays the enhanced multilevel resistive switching characteristics, where the high resistance state/intermediate resistance state (IRS) and IRS/low resistance state resistance ratios are ≈10{sup 2} and ≈5 × 10{sup 5}, respectively. The switching mechanisms in the bilayer structures were investigated by the temperature dependence of the three resistance states. This study revealed that the multilevel RS is attributed to the coupling of ionic conduction and the metallic conduction, being the first associated to the formation and rupture of conductive filaments related to oxygen vacancies and the second with the formation of a metallic filament. Moreover, the bilayer structures exhibit good endurance and stability in time.

  12. Anticipate and communicate: Ethical management of incidental and secondary findings in the clinical, research, and direct-to-consumer contexts (December 2013 report of the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Christine

    2014-09-15

    Genomic population research increases the possibility of finding genetic coding anomalies that are not the primary object of research but may have significance for the current and future medical care of research participants and progeny. The December 2013 Report of the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues (Anticipate and Communicate: Ethical Management of Incidental and Secondary Findings in the Clinical, Research, and Direct-to-Consumer Contexts (http://bioethics.gov/sites/default/files/FINALAnticipateCommunicate_PCSBI_0.pdf)) recommends that a researcher anticipate these findings and make a plan that addresses which findings will be communicated to research participants and how. Following these recommendations will be disruptive for both investigators and institutional review boards (IRBs) until the research community reaches consensus, or a mechanism for evolving consensus, on which results should be returned to research participants. A protocol-by-protocol approach, though laborious, makes sense for both investigators and IRBs as the research community thinks through the implications of genomic research. Epidemiologists will note that discussion of the return of results and the plan for communicating findings should be included in both the participant consent agreement and the research protocol submitted to the IRB. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Fretting wear of ZrN and Zr(21% Hf)N coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atar, E. [Gebze Inst. of Tech., Material Science and Engineering Dept., Kocaeli (Turkey); Cimenoglu, H.; Kayali, E.S. [Istanbul Technical Univ., Dept. of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2004-07-01

    In this study, the wear behaviours of ZrN and Zr(21% Hf)N coatings, deposited on hardened AISI D2 cold work tool steel were examined by a fretting wear tester. The hardness of ZrN and Zr(21% Hf)N coatings were almost the same, where as they exhibited different wear resistance. Addition of 21% Hf to ZrN coating achieved about 25% increase in the wear resistance. (orig.)

  14. Fretting wear of ZrN and Zr(21% Hf)N coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atar, E.; Cimenoglu, H.; Kayali, E.S.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the wear behaviours of ZrN and Zr(21% Hf)N coatings, deposited on hardened AISI D2 cold work tool steel were examined by a fretting wear tester. The hardness of ZrN and Zr(21% Hf)N coatings were almost the same, where as they exhibited different wear resistance. Addition of 21% Hf to ZrN coating achieved about 25% increase in the wear resistance. (orig.)

  15. Simultaneous measurements of HF-enhanced plasma waves and artificial field-aligned irregularities at Arecibo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noble, S.T.; Djuth, F.T.

    1990-01-01

    Two radar systems with beams intersecting in the HF-modified F region were used to simultaneously measure HF-enhanced plasma lines (HFPLs) and artificial geomagnetic field-aligned irregularities (AFAIs). The Arecibo 430-MHz radar was used for the HFPL observations, and a portable 49.92-MHz backscatter radar was deployed on the island of Guadeloupe to monitor the AFAIs. The experiment was desgined to examine the degree to which HF-induced plasma turbulence influences the development of AFAIs. When the HF beam is stepped up in power, sustained HFPLs and AFAIs are first observed at the same HF power level, indicating that ponderomotively driven instabilities may be involved in the early time development of AFAIs. As the HF power is increased, the HFPL backscatter power begins to saturate at ∼70 MW effective radiated power (ERP). However, the backscatter from AFAIs is linearly dependent on HF power, even at the highest (120 MW ERP) HF power levels available at Arecibo. This suggests that additional processes may contribute to the development of AFAIs. For example, ponderomotively driven instabilities may give rise to weak geomagnetic field-aligned irregularities that are subsequently driven unstable by processes excited near the upper hybrid resonance. It is also likely that AFAIs greatly impact the development of HF-induced plasma turbulence at late times (>1 s) following HF turn-on. Once the ionosphere is preconditioned by high-power HF modifications, AFAIs and HFPLs can be simultaneously sustained at a much lower HF power level than that needed to originally excite them. The nature of the preconditioning process is currently not well understood. New theoretical initiatives are clearly needed to guide future experimental activity in this area

  16. Assembly of the CMS HF (hadron forward) calorimeter, April 2003 to June 2005

    CERN Multimedia

    Tejinder S. Virdee, CERN

    2005-01-01

    The forward calorimeters (HF) of the CMS hadron calorimeter system are located 11.2 m from the interaction point. Each HF module is composed by 18 wedges, made of steel absorbers and radiation-hard quartz fibers. The photogallery shows the wedges (Figs. 1-3, April 2003), the assembly of one HF module (Figs. 4-9, May and June 2004) and the assembly of the other (Figs. 10-11, June 2005)

  17. Nuclear quadrupole interactions in ferroelectric compounds of HF/sup 181/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunzler, J V

    1971-01-01

    Measurements of nuclear quadrupole interaction constants in perovkite-type compounds of PbHfO/sub 3/, SnhfO/sub 3/, CaHfO/sub 3/ e SrHfO/sub 3/ have been performed using the perturbed angular correlation technique. A range of fundamental frequencies from 150 to 550 Megaradians per second was determined. The variation of quadrupole constants has been discussed through the molecular orbital theory.

  18. Small signal gain measurements in a small scale HF overtone laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wisniewski, C.F.; Hewett, K.B.; Manke, G.C. II; Hager, G.D. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Directed Energy Directorate, 3550 Aberdeen Ave SE, Kirtland AFB, NM 87117-5776 (United States); Crowell, P.G. [Northrup Grumman Information Technology, Science and Technology Operating Unit, Advanced Technology Division, P.O. Box 9377, Albuquerque, NM 87119-9377 (United States); Truman, C.R. [Mechanical Engineering Department, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States)

    2003-07-01

    The overtone gain medium of a small-scale HF overtone laser was probed using a sub-Doppler tunable diode laser. Two-dimensional spatially resolved small signal gain and temperature maps were generated for several ro-vibrational transitions in the HF (v=2{yields}v=0) overtone band. Our results compare well with previous measurements of the overtone gain in a similar HF laser device. (orig.)

  19. Phase1 upgrade of the CMS-HF Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Gulmez, Erhan

    2016-01-01

    In this presentation, results of the Phase I upgrade of the CMS Hadron Forward Calorimeter (HF) are discussed. The CMS-HF Calorimeter was using regular PMTs. Cherenkov light produced in the quartz fibers embedded in the iron absorber was read out with the PMTs. However, occasionally, stray muons hitting the PMT windows cause Cherenkov radiation in the PMT itself and produce large signals. These large signals mimic a very high-energy particle and are tagged as important by the trigger. To reduce this problem, PMTs had to be replaced. The four-anode PMTs that were chosen have thinner windows; thereby reducing the Cherenkov radiation in the PMT window. As part of the upgrade, the read-out electronics is to be replaced so that the PMTs are read out in two channels by connecting each pair of anodes to a single channel. Information provided by these two channels will help us reject the false signals due to the stray muons since the Cherenkov radiation in the PMT window is more likely to produce a signal only in one...

  20. Reversible spin texture in ferroelectric Hf O2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, L. L.; Paudel, Tula R.; Kovalev, Alexey A.; Tsymbal, Evgeny Y.

    2017-06-01

    Spin-orbit coupling effects occurring in noncentrosymmetric materials are known to be responsible for nontrivial spin configurations and a number of emergent physical phenomena. Ferroelectric materials may be especially interesting in this regard due to reversible spontaneous polarization making possible a nonvolatile electrical control of the spin degrees of freedom. Here, we explore a technologically relevant oxide material, Hf O2 , which has been shown to exhibit robust ferroelectricity in a noncentrosymmetric orthorhombic phase. Using theoretical modelling based on density-functional theory, we investigate the spin-dependent electronic structure of the ferroelectric Hf O2 and demonstrate the appearance of chiral spin textures driven by spin-orbit coupling. We analyze these spin configurations in terms of the Rashba and Dresselhaus effects within the k .p Hamiltonian model and find that the Rashba-type spin texture dominates around the valence-band maximum, while the Dresselhaus-type spin texture prevails around the conduction band minimum. The latter is characterized by a very large Dresselhaus constant λD= 0.578 eV Å, which allows using this material as a tunnel barrier to produce tunneling anomalous and spin Hall effects that are reversible by ferroelectric polarization.

  1. Thermoluminescence in films of HfO2:Dy+3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceron, P.; Rivera, T.; Guzman, J.; Montes, E.; Pelaez, A.; Rojas, B.; Guzman, D.; Azorin, J.; Paredes, L.

    2014-08-01

    In this work the thermoluminescence (TL) response of films of hafnium oxide polluted with dysprosium (HfO 2 :Dy +3 ) that were irradiated in the near UV (200 nm - 400 nm). The films were deposited by means of the ultrasonics spray pyrolysis technique on a glass substrate, using different deposit temperatures (300 grades C - 600 grades C). The best TL emission corresponded to the prepared film to 450 grades C that was exposed to a spectral irradiation of 80 μJ/(cm 2 -s) with a wave longitude of 240 nm. The TL response in function of the spectral irradiation was lineal in the studied interval (24 to 288 mJ/cm 2 ), several kinetic parameters were also calculated of the shine curve as depth of the trap (E), frequency factor (s) and order to the kinetics (b). The obtained results show that the films of HfO 2 :Dy +3 could be used as radiation monitor in the region of the near UV. (Author)

  2. Pressure-induced phase transformation of HfO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arashi, H.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on the pressure dependence of the Raman spectra of HfO 2 that was measured by a micro-Raman technique using a single-crystal specimen in the pressure range from 0 to 10 GPa at room temperature. The symmetry assignment of Raman bands of the monoclinic phase was experimentally accomplished from the polarization measurements for the single crystal. With increased pressure, a phase transformation for the monoclinic phase took place at 4.3 ± 0.3 GPa. Nineteen Raman bands were observed for the high-pressure phase. The spectral structure of the Raman bands for the high-pressure phase was similar with those reported previously for ZrO 2 . The space group for the high pressure phase of HfO 2 was determined as Pbcm, which was the same as that of the high-pressure phase for ZrO 2 on the basis of the number and the spectral structure of the Raman bands

  3. Thermodynamic modeling of the Co–Hf system supported by key experiments and first-principles calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Xingxu [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Liu, Shuhong, E-mail: shhliu@csu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Sino-German Cooperation Group “Microstructure in Al alloys”, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Cheng, Kaiming; Tang, Ying [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Ou, Pengfei [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Nash, Philip [Thermal Processing Technology Center, Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT), 10 West 32nd Street, Chicago, IL 60616 (United States); Sundman, Bo [INSTN, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-Sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Du, Yong [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Sino-German Cooperation Group “Microstructure in Al alloys”, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Zheng, Feng [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China)

    2015-05-20

    Highlights: • Heat contents of Co{sub 2}Hf and CoHf{sub 2} were measured by drop calorimetry. • Enthalpy of formation for Co{sub 23}Hf{sub 6} was computed via first-principles calculations. • Co–Hf system was assessed by means of CALPHAD approach. • Order–disorder model is used to describe B2 (CoHf) and A2 (βHf). • Glass forming range of the Co–Hf amorphous alloys was predicted. - Abstract: Phase equilibria and thermodynamic properties of the Co–Hf system were investigated via calorimetric measurements, first-principles calculations and thermodynamic modeling. Heat contents of Co{sub 2}Hf and CoHf{sub 2} were measured by drop calorimetry from 300 to 1200 °C. The enthalpy of formation for Co{sub 23}Hf{sub 6} at 0 K was computed via first-principles calculations. Based on the experimental measurements and first-principles calculations from the present work and the literature, the Co–Hf system was assessed by means of CALPHAD (CALculation of PHAse Diagram) approach. The excess Gibbs energy of solution phases was modeled with Redlich–Kister polynomial. Sublattice models were employed to describe the homogeneity ranges of Co{sub 2}Hf, CoHf and CoHf{sub 2}. The order–disorder transition between B2 (CoHf) and A2 (βHf) phases was taken into account in the current optimization. Using the optimized parameters, glass forming range (GFR) of the Co–Hf amorphous alloys was predicted to be 15–75 at.% Hf, which is in satisfactory agreement with the experimental observation.

  4. Communication Facilities for Distributed Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Barladeanu

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The design of physical networks and communication protocols in Distributed Systems can have a direct impact on system efficiency and reliability. This paper tries to identify efficient mechanisms and paradigms for communication in distributed systems.

  5. Chemical stability and defect formation in CaHfO3

    KAUST Repository

    Alay-E-Abbas, Syed Muhammad

    2014-04-01

    Defects in CaHfO3 are investigated by ab initio calculations based on density functional theory. Pristine and anion-deficient CaHfO 3 are found to be insulating, whereas cation-deficient CaHfO 3 is hole-doped. The formation energies of neutral and charged cation and anion vacancies are evaluated to determine the stability in different chemical environments. Moreover, the energies of the partial and full Schottky defect reactions are computed. We show that clustering of anion vacancies in the HfO layers is energetically favorable for sufficiently high defect concentrations and results in metallicity. © 2014 EPLA.

  6. Chemical stability and defect formation in CaHfO3

    KAUST Repository

    Alay-E-Abbas, Syed Muhammad; Nazir, Safdar; Mun Wong, Kin; Shaukat, Ali; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2014-01-01

    Defects in CaHfO3 are investigated by ab initio calculations based on density functional theory. Pristine and anion-deficient CaHfO 3 are found to be insulating, whereas cation-deficient CaHfO 3 is hole-doped. The formation energies of neutral and charged cation and anion vacancies are evaluated to determine the stability in different chemical environments. Moreover, the energies of the partial and full Schottky defect reactions are computed. We show that clustering of anion vacancies in the HfO layers is energetically favorable for sufficiently high defect concentrations and results in metallicity. © 2014 EPLA.

  7. Evolution of E 2 transition strength in deformed hafnium isotopes from new measurements on 172Hf,174Hf, and 176Hf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudigier, M.; Nomura, K.; Dannhoff, M.; Gerst, R.-B.; Jolie, J.; Saed-Samii, N.; Stegemann, S.; Régis, J.-M.; Robledo, L. M.; Rodríguez-Guzmán, R.; Blazhev, A.; Fransen, Ch.; Warr, N.; Zell, K. O.

    2015-04-01

    Background: The available data for E 2 transition strengths in the region between neutron-deficient hafnium and platinum isotopes are far from complete. More and precise data are needed to enhance the picture of structure evolution in this region and to test state-of-the-art nuclear models. In a simple model, the maximum collectivity is expected at the middle of the major shell. However, for actual nuclei, particularly in heavy-mass regions, which should be highly complex, this picture may no longer be the case, and one should use a more realistic nuclear-structure model. We address this point by studying the spectroscopy of Hf as a representative case. Purpose: We remeasure the 21+ half-lives of 172,174,176Hf, for which there is some disagreement in the literature. The main goal is to measure, for the first time, the half-lives of higher-lying states of the rotational band. The new results are compared to a theoretical calculation for absolute transition strengths. Method: The half-lives were measured using γ -γ and conversion-electron-γ delayed coincidences with the fast timing method. For the determination of half-lives in the picosecond region, the generalized centroid difference method was applied. For the theoretical calculation of the spectroscopic properties, the interacting boson model is employed, whose Hamiltonian is determined based on microscopic energy-density functional calculations. Results: The measured 21+ half-lives disagree with results from earlier γ -γ fast timing measurements, but are in agreement with data from Coulomb excitation experiments and other methods. Half-lives of the 41+ and 61+ states were measured, as well as a lower limit for the 81+ states. Conclusions: This work shows the importance of a mass-dependent effective boson charge in the interacting boson model for the description of E 2 transition rates in chains of nuclei. It encourages further studies of the microscopic origin of this mass dependence. New experimental

  8. Communication of nuclear data progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This is the 26th issue of Communication of Nuclear Data Progress (CNDP), in which the progress and achievements in nuclear data field from the last year up to now in China are carried. It includes the measurements of 71 Ga, 94 Zn, 191 Ir, 174 Hf(n, γ) and 114 Cd(n, 2n) cross sections, fission product yields of n + 235,238 U, DPA cross section calculated with UNF code, fission barrier parameter evaluation of some nuclides, production and transmission of covariance in the evaluation processing of fission yield data and transition analysis of Ne-like Ge XXIII

  9. Communication theory

    CERN Document Server

    Goldie, Charles M

    1991-01-01

    This book is an introduction, for mathematics students, to the theories of information and codes. They are usually treated separately but, as both address the problem of communication through noisy channels (albeit from different directions), the authors have been able to exploit the connection to give a reasonably self-contained treatment, relating the probabilistic and algebraic viewpoints. The style is discursive and, as befits the subject, plenty of examples and exercises are provided. Some examples and exercises are provided. Some examples of computer codes are given to provide concrete illustrations of abstract ideas.

  10. Safety and feasibility of pulmonary artery pressure-guided heart failure therapy: rationale and design of the prospective CardioMEMS Monitoring Study for Heart Failure (MEMS-HF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angermann, Christiane E; Assmus, Birgit; Anker, Stefan D; Brachmann, Johannes; Ertl, Georg; Köhler, Friedrich; Rosenkranz, Stephan; Tschöpe, Carsten; Adamson, Philip B; Böhm, Michael

    2018-05-19

    Wireless monitoring of pulmonary artery (PA) pressures with the CardioMEMS HF™ system is indicated in patients with New York Heart Association (NYHA) class III heart failure (HF). Randomized and observational trials have shown a reduction in HF-related hospitalizations and improved quality of life in patients using this device in the United States. MEMS-HF is a prospective, non-randomized, open-label, multicenter study to characterize safety and feasibility of using remote PA pressure monitoring in a real-world setting in Germany, The Netherlands and Ireland. After informed consent, adult patients with NYHA class III HF and a recent HF-related hospitalization are evaluated for suitability for permanent implantation of a CardioMEMS™ sensor. Participation in MEMS-HF is open to qualifying subjects regardless of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). Patients with reduced ejection fraction must be on stable guideline-directed pharmacotherapy as tolerated. The study will enroll 230 patients in approximately 35 centers. Expected duration is 36 months (24-month enrolment plus ≥ 12-month follow-up). Primary endpoints are freedom from device/system-related complications and freedom from pressure sensor failure at 12-month post-implant. Secondary endpoints include the annualized rate of HF-related hospitalization at 12 months versus the rate over the 12 months preceding implant, and health-related quality of life. Endpoints will be evaluated using data obtained after each subject's 12-month visit. The MEMS-HF study will provide robust evidence on the clinical safety and feasibility of implementing haemodynamic monitoring as a novel disease management tool in routine out-patient care in selected European healthcare systems. ClinicalTrials.gov; NCT02693691.

  11. Conseiller principal en stratégie et communications (h/f) | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Il peut d'agir de messages adressés au personnel, de réunions, d'activités de mobilisation, etc. Coordonne et rédige le contenu institutionnel pour le site intranet. Prépare un tableau de bord hebdomadaire pour le V.-P., SGC. Met en oeuvre la stratégie relative aux messages internes (EchoNet) et aux écrans de télévision.

  12. A new potential energy surface for vibration-vibration coupling in HF-HF collisions. Formulation and quantal scattering calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenke, David W.; Truhlar, Donald G.

    1988-04-01

    We present new ab initio calculations of the HF-HF interaction potential for the case where both molecules are simultaneously displaced from their equilibrium internuclear distance. These and previous ab initio calculations are then fit to a new analytic representation which is designed to be efficient to evaluate and to provide an especially faithful account of the forces along the vibrational coordinates. We use the new potential for two sets of quantal scattering calculations for collisions in three dimensions with total angular momentum zero. First we test that the angular harmonic representation of the anisotropy is adequate by comparing quantal rigid rotator calculations to those carried out for potentials involving higher angular harmonics and for which the expansion in angular harmonics is systematically increased to convergence. Then we carry out large-scale quantal calculations of vibration-vibration energy transfer including the coupling of both sets of vibrational and rotational coordinates. These calculations indicate that significant rotational energy transfer accompanies the vibration-to-vibration energy transfer process.

  13. Digital communication system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Union, D.C.

    1980-01-01

    A digital communication system for communicating among two central consoles and a plurality of local controllers, e.g. in a radiation and monitoring system, provides communication between each of the consoles and all of the local controllers via dual paths. Each path is independent of the other and each extends from one of the consoles to all of the local controllers from opposite directions, thereby forming a unique non-continuous loop. (author)

  14. Mapping ionospheric backscatter measured by the SuperDARN HF radars – Part 2: Assessing SuperDARN virtual height models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. K. Yeoman

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The Super Dual Auroral Radar Network (SuperDARN network of HF coherent backscatter radars form a unique global diagnostic of large-scale ionospheric and magnetospheric dynamics in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. Currently the ground projections of the HF radar returns are routinely determined by a simple rangefinding algorithm, which takes no account of the prevailing, or indeed the average, HF propagation conditions. This is in spite of the fact that both direct E- and F-region backscatter and 1½-hop E- and F-region backscatter are commonly used in geophysical interpretation of the data. In a companion paper, Chisham et al. (2008 have suggested a new virtual height model for SuperDARN, based on average measured propagation paths. Over shorter propagation paths the existing rangefinding algorithm is adequate, but mapping errors become significant for longer paths where the roundness of the Earth becomes important, and a correct assumption of virtual height becomes more difficult. The SuperDARN radar at Hankasalmi has a propagation path to high power HF ionospheric modification facilities at both Tromsø on a ½-hop path and SPEAR on a 1½-hop path. The SuperDARN radar at Þykkvibǽr has propagation paths to both facilities over 1½-hop paths. These paths provide an opportunity to quantitatively test the available SuperDARN virtual height models. It is also possible to use HF radar backscatter which has been artificially induced by the ionospheric heaters as an accurate calibration point for the Hankasalmi elevation angle of arrival data, providing a range correction algorithm for the SuperDARN radars which directly uses elevation angle. These developments enable the accurate mappings of the SuperDARN electric field measurements which are required for the growing number of multi-instrument studies of the Earth's ionosphere and magnetosphere.

  15. Child speech, language and communication need re-examined in a public health context: a new direction for the speech and language therapy profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, James; Reilly, Sheena; Snow, Pamela C

    2013-01-01

    Historically speech and language therapy services for children have been framed within a rehabilitative framework with explicit assumptions made about providing therapy to individuals. While this is clearly important in many cases, we argue that this model needs revisiting for a number of reasons. First, our understanding of the nature of disability, and therefore communication disabilities, has changed over the past century. Second, there is an increasing understanding of the impact that the social gradient has on early communication difficulties. Finally, understanding how these factors interact with one other and have an impact across the life course remains poorly understood. To describe the public health paradigm and explore its implications for speech and language therapy with children. We test the application of public health methodologies to speech and language therapy services by looking at four dimensions of service delivery: (1) the uptake of services and whether those children who need services receive them; (2) the development of universal prevention services in relation to social disadvantage; (3) the risk of over-interpreting co-morbidity from clinical samples; and (4) the overlap between communicative competence and mental health. It is concluded that there is a strong case for speech and language therapy services to be reconceptualized to respond to the needs of the whole population and according to socially determined needs, focusing on primary prevention. This is not to disregard individual need, but to highlight the needs of the population as a whole. Although the socio-political context is different between countries, we maintain that this is relevant wherever speech and language therapists have a responsibility for covering whole populations. Finally, we recommend that speech and language therapy services be conceptualized within the framework laid down in The Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion. © 2013 Royal College of Speech and Language

  16. Analysis of the Metal Oxide Space Clouds (MOSC) HF Propagation Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson-Booth, N.; Selzer, L.

    2015-12-01

    Artificial Ionospheric Modification (AIM) attempts to modify the ionosphere in order to alter the high frequency (HF) propagation environment. It can be achieved through injections of aerosols, chemicals or radio (RF) signals into the ionosphere. The Metal Oxide Space Clouds (MOSC) experiment was undertaken in April/May 2013 to investigate chemical AIM. Two sounding rockets were launched from the Kwajalein Atoll (part of the Marshall Islands) and each released a cloud of vaporized samarium (Sm). The samarium created a localized plasma cloud, with increased electron density, which formed an additional ionospheric layer. The ionospheric effects were measured by a wide range of ground based instrumentation which included a network of high frequency (HF) sounders. Chirp transmissions were made from three atolls and received at five sites within the Marshall Islands. One of the receive sites consisted of an 18 antenna phased array, which was used for direction finding. The ionograms have shown that as well as generating a new layer the clouds created anomalous RF propagation paths, which interact with both the cloud and the F-layer, resulting in 'ghost traces'. To fully understand the propagation environment a 3D numerical ray trace has been undertaken, using a variety of background ionospheric and cloud models, to find the paths through the electron density grid for a given fan of elevation and azimuth firing angles. Synthetic ionograms were then produced using the ratio of ray path length to speed of light as an estimation of the delay between transmission and observation for a given frequency of radio wave. This paper reports on the latest analysis of the MOSC propagation environment, comparing theory with observations, to further understanding of AIM.

  17. Application of small-size antennas for estimation of angles of arrival of HF signals scattered by ionospheric irregularities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qiang; Galushko, Volodymyr G.; Zalizovski, Andriy V.; Kashcheyev, Sergiy B.; Zheng, Yu

    2018-05-01

    A modification of the Doppler Interferometry Technique is suggested to enable estimating angles of arrival of comparatively broadband HF signals scattered by random irregularities of the ionospheric plasma with the use of small-size weakly directional antennas. The technique is based on the measurements of cross-spectra phases of the probe radiation recorded at least in three spatially separated points. The developed algorithm has been used to investigate the angular and frequency-time characteristics of HF signals propagating at frequencies above the maximum usable one (MUF) for the direct radio path Moscow-Kharkiv. The received signal spectra show presence of three families of spatial components attributed, respectively, to scattering by plasma irregularities near the middle point of the radio path, ground backscatter signals and scattering of the sounding signals by the intense plasma turbulence associated with auroral activations. It has been shown that the regions responsible for the formation of the third family components are located well inside the auroral oval. The drift velocity and direction of the auroral ionosphere plasma have been determined. The obtained estimates are consistent with the classical conception of the ionospheric plasma convection at high latitudes and do not contradict the results of investigations of the auroral ionosphere dynamics using the SuperDARN network.

  18. Unified communications

    OpenAIRE

    Kravos, Urban

    2011-01-01

    In the modern business world, communication are becoming more and more complex. As a solution to this problem unified communications occurred. Using a single communication approach unified communications are the integration of various communication technologies (eg, telephony, unified messaging, audio, video and web conferencing and collaboration tools). Unified Messaging, which represents only part of the unified communications means the integration of different non real time communication t...

  19. Atomic scale engineering of HfO2-based dielectrics for future DRAM applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudek, Piotr

    2011-01-01

    Modern dielectrics in combination with appropriate metal electrodes have a great potential to solve many difficulties associated with continuing miniaturization process in the microelectronic industry. One significant branch of microelectronics incorporates dynamic random access memory (DRAM) market. The DRAM devices scaled for over 35 years starting from 4 kb density to several Gb nowadays. The scaling process led to the dielectric material thickness reduction, resulting in higher leakage current density, and as a consequence higher power consumption. As a possible solution for this problem, alternative dielectric materials with improved electrical and material science parameters were intensively studied by many research groups. The higher dielectric constant allows the use of physically thicker layers with high capacitance but strongly reduced leakage current density. This work focused on deposition and characterization of thin insulating layers. The material engineering process was based on Si cleanroom compatible HfO 2 thin films deposited on TiN metal electrodes. A combined materials science and dielectric characterization study showed that Ba-added HfO 2 (BaHfO 3 ) films and Ti-added BaHfO 3 (BaHf 0.5 Ti 0.5 O 3 ) layers are promising candidates for future generation of state-of-the-art DRAMs. In especial a strong increase of the dielectric permittivity k was achieved for thin films of cubic BaHfO 3 (k∝38) and BaHf 0.5 Ti 0.5 O 3 (k∝90) with respect to monoclinic HfO 2 (k∝19). Meanwhile the CET values scaled down to 1 nm for BaHfO 3 and ∝0.8 nm for BaHf 0.5 Ti 0.5 O 3 with respect to HfO 2 (CET=1.5 nm). The Hf 4+ ions substitution in BaHfO 3 by Ti 4+ ions led to a significant decrease of thermal budget from 900 C for BaHfO 3 to 700 C for BaHf 0.5 Ti 0.5 O 3 . Future studies need to focus on the use of appropriate metal electrodes (high work function) and on film deposition process (homogeneity) for better current leakage control. (orig.)

  20. Reliability assessment of ultra-thin HfO2 films deposited on silicon wafer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Wei-En; Chang, Chia-Wei; Chang, Yong-Qing; Yao, Chih-Kai; Liao, Jiunn-Der

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Nano-mechanical properties on annealed ultra-thin HfO 2 film are studied. ► By AFM analysis, hardness of the crystallized HfO 2 film significantly increases. ► By nano-indention, the film hardness increases with less contact stiffness. ► Quality assessment on the annealed ultra-thin films can thus be achieved. - Abstract: Ultra-thin hafnium dioxide (HfO 2 ) is used to replace silicon dioxide to meet the required transistor feature size in advanced semiconductor industry. The process integration compatibility and long-term reliability for the transistors depend on the mechanical performance of ultra-thin HfO 2 films. The criteria of reliability including wear resistance, thermal fatigue, and stress-driven failure rely on film adhesion significantly. The adhesion and variations in mechanical properties induced by thermal annealing of the ultra-thin HfO 2 films deposited on silicon wafers (HfO 2 /SiO 2 /Si) are not fully understood. In this work, the mechanical properties of an atomic layer deposited HfO 2 (nominal thickness ≈10 nm) on a silicon wafer were characterized by the diamond-coated tip of an atomic force microscope and compared with those of annealed samples. The results indicate that the annealing process leads to the formation of crystallized HfO 2 phases for the atomic layer deposited HfO 2 . The HfSi x O y complex formed at the interface between HfO 2 and SiO 2 /Si, where the thermal diffusion of Hf, Si, and O atoms occurred. The annealing process increases the surface hardness of crystallized HfO 2 film and therefore the resistance to nano-scratches. In addition, the annealing process significantly decreases the harmonic contact stiffness (or thereafter eliminate the stress at the interface) and increases the nano-hardness, as measured by vertically sensitive nano-indentation. Quality assessments on as-deposited and annealed HfO 2 films can be thereafter used to estimate the mechanical properties and adhesion of ultra-thin HfO 2

  1. Reliability assessment of ultra-thin HfO{sub 2} films deposited on silicon wafer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Wei-En [Center for Measurement Standards, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Room 216, Building 8, 321 Kuang Fu Road Sec. 2, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Chang, Chia-Wei [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, 1 University Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Chang, Yong-Qing [Center for Measurement Standards, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Room 216, Building 8, 321 Kuang Fu Road Sec. 2, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Yao, Chih-Kai [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, 1 University Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Liao, Jiunn-Der, E-mail: jdliao@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, 1 University Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China)

    2012-09-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nano-mechanical properties on annealed ultra-thin HfO{sub 2} film are studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer By AFM analysis, hardness of the crystallized HfO{sub 2} film significantly increases. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer By nano-indention, the film hardness increases with less contact stiffness. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quality assessment on the annealed ultra-thin films can thus be achieved. - Abstract: Ultra-thin hafnium dioxide (HfO{sub 2}) is used to replace silicon dioxide to meet the required transistor feature size in advanced semiconductor industry. The process integration compatibility and long-term reliability for the transistors depend on the mechanical performance of ultra-thin HfO{sub 2} films. The criteria of reliability including wear resistance, thermal fatigue, and stress-driven failure rely on film adhesion significantly. The adhesion and variations in mechanical properties induced by thermal annealing of the ultra-thin HfO{sub 2} films deposited on silicon wafers (HfO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2}/Si) are not fully understood. In this work, the mechanical properties of an atomic layer deposited HfO{sub 2} (nominal thickness Almost-Equal-To 10 nm) on a silicon wafer were characterized by the diamond-coated tip of an atomic force microscope and compared with those of annealed samples. The results indicate that the annealing process leads to the formation of crystallized HfO{sub 2} phases for the atomic layer deposited HfO{sub 2}. The HfSi{sub x}O{sub y} complex formed at the interface between HfO{sub 2} and SiO{sub 2}/Si, where the thermal diffusion of Hf, Si, and O atoms occurred. The annealing process increases the surface hardness of crystallized HfO{sub 2} film and therefore the resistance to nano-scratches. In addition, the annealing process significantly decreases the harmonic contact stiffness (or thereafter eliminate the stress at the interface) and increases the nano-hardness, as measured by vertically

  2. Atomic scale engineering of HfO{sub 2}-based dielectrics for future DRAM applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudek, Piotr

    2011-02-14

    Modern dielectrics in combination with appropriate metal electrodes have a great potential to solve many difficulties associated with continuing miniaturization process in the microelectronic industry. One significant branch of microelectronics incorporates dynamic random access memory (DRAM) market. The DRAM devices scaled for over 35 years starting from 4 kb density to several Gb nowadays. The scaling process led to the dielectric material thickness reduction, resulting in higher leakage current density, and as a consequence higher power consumption. As a possible solution for this problem, alternative dielectric materials with improved electrical and material science parameters were intensively studied by many research groups. The higher dielectric constant allows the use of physically thicker layers with high capacitance but strongly reduced leakage current density. This work focused on deposition and characterization of thin insulating layers. The material engineering process was based on Si cleanroom compatible HfO{sub 2} thin films deposited on TiN metal electrodes. A combined materials science and dielectric characterization study showed that Ba-added HfO{sub 2} (BaHfO{sub 3}) films and Ti-added BaHfO{sub 3} (BaHf{sub 0.5}Ti{sub 0.5}O{sub 3}) layers are promising candidates for future generation of state-of-the-art DRAMs. In especial a strong increase of the dielectric permittivity k was achieved for thin films of cubic BaHfO{sub 3} (k{proportional_to}38) and BaHf{sub 0.5}Ti{sub 0.5}O{sub 3} (k{proportional_to}90) with respect to monoclinic HfO{sub 2} (k{proportional_to}19). Meanwhile the CET values scaled down to 1 nm for BaHfO{sub 3} and {proportional_to}0.8 nm for BaHf{sub 0.5}Ti{sub 0.5}O{sub 3} with respect to HfO{sub 2} (CET=1.5 nm). The Hf{sup 4+} ions substitution in BaHfO{sub 3} by Ti{sup 4+} ions led to a significant decrease of thermal budget from 900 C for BaHfO{sub 3} to 700 C for BaHf{sub 0.5}Ti{sub 0.5}O{sub 3}. Future studies need to focus

  3. Do Hf isotopes in magmatic zircons represent those of their host rocks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Di; Wang, Xiao-Lei; Cai, Yue; Goldstein, Steven L.; Yang, Tao

    2018-04-01

    Lu-Hf isotopic system in zircon is a powerful and widely used geochemical tracer in studying petrogenesis of magmatic rocks and crustal evolution, assuming that zircon Hf isotopes can represent initial Hf isotopes of their parental whole rock. However, this assumption may not always be valid. Disequilibrium partial melting of continental crust would preferentially melt out non-zircon minerals with high time-integrated Lu/Hf ratios and generate partial melts with Hf isotope compositions that are more radiogenic than those of its magma source. Dissolution experiments (with hotplate, bomb and sintering procedures) of zircon-bearing samples demonstrate this disequilibrium effect where partial dissolution yielded variable and more radiogenic Hf isotope compositions than fully dissolved samples. A case study from the Neoproterozoic Jiuling batholith in southern China shows that about half of the investigated samples show decoupled Hf isotopes between zircons and the bulk rocks. This decoupling could reflect complex and prolonged magmatic processes, such as crustal assimilation, magma mixing, and disequilibrium melting, which are consistent with the wide temperature spectrum from ∼630 °C to ∼900 °C by Ti-in-zircon thermometer. We suggest that magmatic zircons may only record the Hf isotopic composition of their surrounding melt during crystallization and it is uncertain whether their Hf isotopic compositions can represent the primary Hf isotopic compositions of the bulk magmas. In this regard, using zircon Hf isotopic compositions to trace crustal evolution may be biased since most of these could be originally from disequilibrium partial melts.

  4. Lowered operation voltage in Pt/SBi2Ta2O9/HfO2/Si ferroelectric-gate field-effect transistors by oxynitriding Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horiuchi, Takeshi; Takahashi, Mitsue; Li, Qiu-Hong; Wang, Shouyu; Sakai, Shigeki

    2010-01-01

    Oxynitrided Si (SiON) surfaces show smaller subthreshold swings than do directly nitrided Si (SiN) surfaces when used in ferroelectric-gate field-effect transistors (FeFETs) having the following stacked-gate structure: Pt/SrBi 2 Ta 2 O 9 (SBT)/HfO 2 /Si. SiON/Si substrates for FeFETs were prepared by rapid thermal oxidation (RTO) in O 2 at 1000 °C and subsequent rapid thermal nitridation (RTN) in NH 3 at various temperatures in the range 950–1150 °C. The electrical properties of the Pt/SBT/HfO 2 /SiON/Si FeFET were compared with those of reference FETs, i.e. Pt/SBT/HfO 2 gate stacks formed on Si substrates subjected to various treatments: SiN x /Si formed by RTN, SiO 2 /Si formed by RTO and untreated Si. The Pt/SBT/HfO 2 /SiON/Si FeFET had a larger memory window than all the other reference FeFETs, particularly at low operation voltages when the RTN temperature was 1050 °C

  5. Marxism and Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, Patrick J.; Soloski, John

    Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels had little to say specifically about communication and language, but their works hint at the direction their critique of communication might have taken. Language and consciousness are conditioned by specific means of production and sociopolitical circumstances and are therefore ideological. The domain of ideology…

  6. Adjoint de direction (h/f) - Technologie et innovation | CRDI - Centre ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Résumé des fonctions Sous la responsabilité du directeur de domaine de ... du bureau du directeur et appuyer les activités fonctionnelles de gestion de ... tenir un système de contrôle et effectuer des suivis pour assurer une réponse rapide; ...

  7. Adjoint de direction (h/f) – Gestion du risque et de l'audit interne ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Résumé des fonctions Sous la supervision de la directrice, Gestion du risque et de ... hiérarchise et traite les demandes reçues, tient à jour un système de contrôle et ... formuler des recommandations sur les niveaux de dépense et questions ...

  8. Metal-assisted chemical etching in HF/Na2S2O8 OR HF/KMnO4 produces porous silicon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadjersi, T.; Gabouze, N.; Kooij, Ernst S.; Zinine, A.; Zinine, A.; Ababou, A.; Chergui, W.; Cheraga, H.; Belhousse, S.; Djeghri, A.

    2004-01-01

    A new metal-assisted chemical etching method using Na2S2O8 or KMnO4 as an oxidizing agent was proposed to form a porous silicon layer on a highly resistive p-type silicon. A thin layer of Ag or Pd is deposited on the Si(100) surface prior to immersion in a solution of HF and Na2S2O8 or HF and KMnO4.

  9. HfC plasma coating of C/C composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boncoeur, M.; Schnedecker, G.; Lulewicz, J.D.

    1992-01-01

    The surface properties of C/C composites such as hardness and corrosion or erosion resistance can be modified by a ceramic coating applied by plasma torch. The technique of plasma spraying in controlled temperature and atmosphere, that was developed and patented by the CEA, makes it possible to apply coatings to the majority of metals and ceramics without affecting the characteristics of the composite. An example of hard deposit of HfC on a C/C composite is described. The characteristics of the deposit and of the bonding with the C/C composite were studied before and after a heat treatment under vacuum for 2 hours at 1000 C. 2 refs

  10. Ternary ceramic alloys of Zr-Ce-Hf oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becher, P.F.; Funkenbusch, E.F.

    1990-11-20

    A ternary ceramic alloy is described which produces toughening of zirconia and zirconia composites through the stress transformation from tetragonal phase to monoclinic phase. This alloy, having the general formula Ce[sub x]Hf[sub y]Zr[sub 1[minus]x[minus]y]O[sub 2], is produced through the addition of appropriate amounts of ceria and hafnia to the zirconia. Typically, improved toughness is achieved with about 5 to about 15 mol % ceria and up to about 40 mol % hafnia. The preparation of alloys of these compositions are given together with data as to the densities, tetragonal phase content, hardness and fracture toughness. The alloys are useful in preparing zirconia bodies as well as reinforcing ceramic composites. 1 fig.

  11. Silicon/HfO2 interface: Effects of proton irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurya, Savita; Radhakrishna, M.

    2015-01-01

    Substrate oxide interfaces are of paramount importance in deciding the quality of the semiconductor devices. In this work we have studied how 200 keV proton irradiation affects the interface of a 13 nm thick, atomic layer deposited hafnium dioxide on silicon substrate. Pre- and post-irradiation electrical measurements are used to quantify the effect of proton irradiation for varying electrode geometries. Proton irradiation introduces positive charge in the oxide and at the interface of Si/HfO 2 interface. The gate current is not very much affected under positive injection since the induced positive charge is compensated by the injected electrons. Current voltage characteristics under negative bias get affected by the proton irradiation

  12. Hyperfine spectroscopic study of Laves phase HfFe2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belosevic-Cavor, J.; Novakovic, N.; Cekic, B.; Ivanovic, N.; Manasijevic, M.

    2004-01-01

    Hyperfine fields in HfFe 2 were measured at 181 Ta probe using the time-differential perturbed angular correlation method (TDPAC) in the temperature range 78-1200 K. Analysis of the spectra revealed two interactions with hyperfine fields of 13.82(7) T and 8.0(2) T, at 293 K. First is ascribed to the interaction at the 8a position in the cubic C15 structure. The second can be assigned to a minor amount of hexagonal C14 phase, or to an irregular position of the probe in the C15 lattice. Results of calculations using LAPW-WIEN97 are in a good agreement with experiment

  13. Tsunami Arrival Detection with High Frequency (HF Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Barrick

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative real-time observations of a tsunami have been limited to deep-water, pressure-sensor observations of changes in the sea surface elevation and observations of sea level fluctuations at the coast, which are essentially point measurements. Constrained by these data, models have been used for predictions and warning of the arrival of a tsunami, but to date no system exists for local detection of an actual incoming wave with a significant warning capability. Networks of coastal high frequency (HF-radars are now routinely observing surface currents in many countries. We report here on an empirical method for the detection of the initial arrival of a tsunami, and demonstrate its use with results from data measured by fourteen HF radar sites in Japan and USA following the magnitude 9.0 earthquake off Sendai, Japan, on 11 March 2011. The distance offshore at which the tsunami can be detected, and hence the warning time provided, depends on the bathymetry: the wider the shallow continental shelf, the greater this time. We compare arrival times at the radars with those measured by neighboring tide gauges. Arrival times measured by the radars preceded those at neighboring tide gauges by an average of 19 min (Japan and 15 min (USA The initial water-height increase due to the tsunami as measured by the tide gauges was moderate, ranging from 0.3 to 2 m. Thus it appears possible to detect even moderate tsunamis using this method. Larger tsunamis could obviously be detected further from the coast. We find that tsunami arrival within the radar coverage area can be announced 8 min (i.e., twice the radar spectral time resolution after its first appearance. This can provide advance warning of the tsunami approach to the coastline locations.

  14. Physical Layer Definition for a Long-Haul HF Antarctica to Spain Radio Link

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Ma Alsina-Pagès

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available La Salle and the Observatori de l’Ebre (OE have been involved in a remote sensing project in Antarctica for the last 11 years. The OE has been monitoring the geomagnetic activity for more than twenty years and also the ionospheric activity of the last ten years in the Spanish Antarctic Station Juan Carlos I (ASJI (62.7 ° S, 299.6 ° E. La Salle is finishing the design and testing of a low-power communication system between the ASJI and Cambrils (41.0 ° N, 1.0 ° E with a double goal: (i the transmission of data from the sensors located at the ASJI and (ii the performance of an oblique ionospheric sounding of a 12,760 km HF link. Previously, La Salle has already performed sounding and modulation tests to describe the channel performance in terms of availability, Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR, Doppler spread and delay spread. This paper closes the design of the physical layer, by means of the channel error study and the synchronization performance, and concludes with a new physical layer proposal for the Oblique Ionosphere Sounder. Narrowband and wideband frames have been defined to be used when the oblique sounder performs as an ionospheric sensor. Finally, two transmission modes have been defined for the modem performance: the High Robustness Mode (HRM for low SNR hours and the High Throughput Mode (HTM for the high SNR hours.

  15. A novel process for preparation of titanium dioxide from Ti-bearing electric furnace slag: NH4HF2-HF leaching and hydrolyzing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Fuqiang; Guo, Yufeng; Qiu, Guanzhou; Chen, Feng; Wang, Shuai; Sui, Yulei; Jiang, Tao; Yang, Lingzhi

    2018-02-15

    A novel process to prepare titanium dioxide from Ti-bearing electric furnace slag by NH 4 HF 2 -HF leaching and hydrolyzing process has been developed. In this present study, the effects of [NH 4 + ]/[F] mXolar ratio, leaching temperature, [F] concentration, liquid/solid mass ratio, leaching time on the Ti extraction, and the phase transformations have been investigated to reveal the leaching mechanism of Ti-bearing electric furnace slag in NH 4 HF 2 -HF solution. In the NH 4 HF 2 -HF leaching process, the MgTi 2 O 5 and Al 2 TiO 5 are converted to TiF 6 2- and Mg-Al-bearing precipitate. Ti extraction rate reached 98.84% under the optimal conditions. In addition, 98.25% iron ions can be removed in the presence of NaCl prior to hydrolysis process. The effects of pH and temperature on the selective hydrolysis of TiF 6 2- during hydrolysis process were also studied. In the hydrolysis process, the TiF 6 2- is converted to (NH 4 ) 2 TiOF 4 . By calcination, high grade TiO 2 powder with its purity of 99.88% was obtained, using which the products, well crystallized anatase and rutile, were obtained through roasting at 800°C and 1000°C, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The first HF table, after heat treatment and ready to be machined in HEPCO, Arak (IRAN)

    CERN Multimedia

    Tiziano Camporesi

    2003-01-01

    The first HF support table 'load' tested by the team of people who have contributed to it from design to welding. This table will support the 240 tons of 1 HF detector and will integrate the raisers which will push it up to the beam line level. It is the first Iranian contribution to an HEP experiment.

  17. Phase transformation and precipitation in aged Ti-Ni-Hf high-temperature shape memory alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, X.L.; Cai, W.; Zheng, Y.F.; Zhao, L.C.

    2006-01-01

    More attention has been paid to ternary Ti-Ni-Hf high-temperature shape memory alloys (SMAs) due to their high phase transformation temperatures, good thermal stability and low cost. However, the Ti-Ni-Hf alloys have been found to have low ductility and only about 3% shape memory effect and these have hampered their applications. It is well known that there are three methods to improve the shape memory properties of high-temperature SMAs: (a) cold rolling + annealing; (b) adding another element to the alloy; (c) aging. These methods are not suitable to improve the properties of Ti-Ni-Hf alloys. In this paper, a method of conditioning Ni-rich Ti-Ni-Hf alloys as high-temperature SMAs by aging is presented. For Ni-rich Ti 80-x Ni x Hf 20 alloys (numbers indicate at.%) the phase transformation temperatures are on average increased by more than 100 K by aging at 823 K for 2 h. Especially for those alloys with Ni contents less than 50.6 at.%, the martensitic transformation start temperatures (M s ) are higher than 473 K after aging. Transmission electron microscopy shows the presence of (Ti + Hf) 3 Ni 4 precipitates after aging. Compared with the precipitation of Ti 3 Ni 4 particles in Ni-rich Ti-Ni alloys, the precipitation of (Ti + Hf) 3 Ni 4 particles in Ni-rich Ti-Ni-Hf alloys needs higher temperatures and longer times

  18. First results on the sorption behaviour of Rutherfordium from HCl/HF containing aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumann, D.; Nitsche, H. [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany); Taut, S. [Forschungszentrum Rossendorf e.V. (FZR), Dresden (Germany); Jost, D.T.; Gaeggeler, H.W. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Yakushev, A.B.; Buklanov, G.V.; Domanov, V.P.; Lien Din Thi [Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Kubica, B.; Misiak, R.; Szeglowski, Z. [NINP Cracow (Poland)

    1997-09-01

    Rutherfordium shows strong sorption on the cation exchanger DOWEX 50x8 at a concentration of 0.1 M HCl/10{sup -2} M HF. This shows that Rf behaves under these conditions differently from Hf and Zr and more like Th under these conditions. (author) 1 fig., 5 refs.

  19. EURObservational Research Programme: the Heart Failure Pilot Survey (ESC-HF Pilot)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maggioni, Aldo P; Dahlström, Ulf; Filippatos, Gerasimos

    2010-01-01

    The primary objective of the new ESC-HF Pilot Survey was to describe the clinical epidemiology of outpatients and inpatients with heart failure (HF) and the diagnostic/therapeutic processes applied across 12 participating European countries. This pilot study was specifically aimed at validating...

  20. Decolourization and degradation of azo Dye, Synozol Red HF6BN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Decolourization and degradation of azo Dye, Synozol Red HF6BN, by Pleurotus ostreatus. Sidra Ilyas, Skinder Sultan Sultan, Abdul Rehman. Abstract. The present paper focuses on the use of fungus, Pleurotus ostreatus, to decolorize and degrade azo dye, Synazol Red HF6BN. Decolorization study showed that P.

  1. New PWM method and commutation strategy for HF-link converters for fuel cells and photovoltaics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljusev, Petar; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a new PWM method and commutation strategy for HF-link converters, which leads to safe commutation of the load current in the output bidirectional bridge. The proposed implementation is independent of the particular HF-link converter topology and bidirectional switch selection ...

  2. EURObservational Research Programme : The Heart Failure Pilot Survey (ESC-HF Pilot)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maggioni, Aldo P.; Dahlstrom, Ulf; Filippatos, Gerasimos; Chioncel, Ovidiu; Crespo Leiro, Marisa; Drozdz, Jaroslaw; Fruhwald, Friedrich; Gullestad, Lars; Logeart, Damien; Metra, Marco; Parissis, John; Persson, Hans; Ponikowski, Piotr; Rauchhaus, Mathias; Voors, Adriaan A.; Nielsen, Olav Wendelboe; Zannad, Faiez; Tavazzi, Luigi

    2010-01-01

    The primary objective of the new ESC-HF Pilot Survey was to describe the clinical epidemiology of outpatients and inpatients with heart failure (HF) and the diagnostic/therapeutic processes applied across 12 participating European countries. This pilot study was specifically aimed at validating the

  3. Torsemide Versus Furosemide in Patients With Acute Heart Failure (from the ASCEND-HF Trial)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mentz, Robert J.; Hasselblad, Vic; DeVore, Adam D.; Metra, Marco; Voors, Adriaan A.; Armstrong, Paul W.; Ezekowitz, Justin A.; Tang, W. H. Wilson; Schulte, Phillip J.; Anstrom, Kevin J.; Hernandez, Adrian F.; Velazquez, Eric J.; O'Connor, Christopher M.

    2016-01-01

    Furosemide is the most commonly used loop diuretic in patients with heart failure (HF) despite data suggesting potential pharmacologic and antifibrotic benefits with torsemide. We investigated patients with HF in Acute Study of Clinical Effectiveness of Nesiritide in Decompensated Heart Failure who

  4. Mechanical properties of ultra-thin HfO2 films studied by nano scratches tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Wei-En; Chang, Yong-Qing; Chang, Chia-Wei; Yao, Chih-Kai; Liao, Jiunn-Der

    2013-01-01

    10-nm-thick atomic layer deposited HfO 2 films were characterized in terms of wear resistance and indentation hardness to investigate the thermal annealing induced impacts on mechanical properties. The wear resistance of ultra-thin films at low loads was characterized using nano-scratch tests with an atomic force microscope. The depth of the nano-scratches decreases with increasing annealing temperature, indicating that the hardness of the annealed films increases with the annealing temperatures. Surface nanoindentation was also performed to confirm the nanoscratch test results. The hardness variation of the annealed films is due to the generation of HfSi x O y induced by the thermal annealing. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements proved that the hardness of formed HfSi x O y with increasing annealing temperatures. The existence of HfSi x O y broadens the interface, and causes the increase of the interfacial layer thickness. As a result, the surface hardness increases with the increasing HfSi x O y induced by the thermal annealing. - Highlights: ► Mechanical properties of HfO 2 films were assessed by nano-scratch and indentation. ► Scratch depth of HfO 2 films decreased with the increase of annealing temperatures. ► Nano-hardness of HfO 2 films increased with the increase of annealing temperatures

  5. Nanomechanical study of amorphous and polycrystalline ALD HfO2 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. Tapily; J.E. Jakes; D. Gu; H. Baumgart; A.A. Elmustafa

    2011-01-01

    Thin films of hafnium oxide (HfO2) were deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD). The structural properties of the deposited films were characterised by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). We investigated the effect of phase transformations induced by thermal treatments on the mechanical properties of ALD HfO

  6. Helium implanted AlHf as studied by 181 Ta TDPAC

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Measurements on helium implanted sample indicate the binding of helium associated defects by Hf solute clusters. Isochronal annealing measurements indicate the dissociation of the helium implantation induced defects from Hf solute clusters for annealing treatments beyond 650 K. On comparison of the present results ...

  7. A Robust and Self-Paced BCI System Based on a Four Class SSVEP Paradigm: Algorithms and Protocols for a High-Transfer-Rate Direct Brain Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Parini

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present, with particular focus on the adopted processing and identification chain and protocol-related solutions, a whole self-paced brain-computer interface system based on a 4-class steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs paradigm. The proposed system incorporates an automated spatial filtering technique centred on the common spatial patterns (CSPs method, an autoscaled and effective signal features extraction which is used for providing an unsupervised biofeedback, and a robust self-paced classifier based on the discriminant analysis theory. The adopted operating protocol is structured in a screening, training, and testing phase aimed at collecting user-specific information regarding best stimulation frequencies, optimal sources identification, and overall system processing chain calibration in only a few minutes. The system, validated on 11 healthy/pathologic subjects, has proven to be reliable in terms of achievable communication speed (up to 70 bit/min and very robust to false positive identifications.

  8. Integrated marketing communications in sport organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Gašović Milan

    2011-01-01

    Integrated marketing communications represent the unification of organization's marketing and communication activities. Sports organizations have the emphasized need for effective communication with their environment (the public, the media, advertisers, sponsors, and other subjects interested in their offer). Elements of the integrated marketing communications are: advertising, personal selling, sales promotion, publicity, public relations, direct marketing, Internet communications etc. Each ...

  9. Suspended HfO2 photonic crystal slab on III-nitride/Si platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yongjin; Feng, Jiao; Cao, Ziping; Zhu, Hongbo

    2014-01-01

    We present here the fabrication of suspended hafnium oxide (HfO 2 ) photonic crystal slab on a III-nitride/Si platform. The calculations are performed to model the suspended HfO 2 photonic crystal slab. Aluminum nitride (AlN) film is employed as the sacrificial layer to form air gap. Photonic crystal patterns are defined by electron beam lithography and transferred into HfO 2 film, and suspended HfO 2 photonic crystal slab is achieved on a III-nitride/Si platform through wet-etching of AlN layer in the alkaline solution. The method is promising for the fabrication of suspended HfO 2 nanostructures incorporating into a III-nitride/Si platform, or acting as the template for epitaxial growth of III-nitride materials. (orig.)

  10. Organizational Communication: Communication and Motivation in The Workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sari Ramadanty

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Every human activity was basically driven by the motivation. Work motivation was a condition or an energy that directed employees to achieve organizational goals of the company. Nowadays, the development of organizational communication saw the communication as one of the most dominant and important activity in the organization and it could be able to motivate employees. The purpose of this study was to reveal how the role of the communication that occurs within the organization could give the motivation to employee. The problem of the research was the relationship employee motivation with factors of communication, such as nonverbal communication, interpersonal communication leadership and communication climate. The method used descriptive qualitative method. Methods of data collection of this study were literature study. Research finds that nonverbal communication, interpersonal communication leadership and communication climate have a significant role to form employee motivation. Nonverbal communication has slightly strong role in shaping the positive motivation to employee. The role includes body communication, facial communication and eye communication. Interpersonal communication leader is based on the satisfaction level of information between management and employees. Management and transparency in openness in downward communication under the form of information from superiors are by listening the communication between supervisors and employees are running smoothly. 

  11. Communications article

    KAUST Repository

    Fariborzi, Hossein

    2017-01-01

    Seamless, covert communications using a communications system integrated or incorporated within an article of clothing is described. In one embodiment, the communications system is integrated or incorporated into a shoe insole and includes a haptic

  12. The Sprint/1 language for the dynamic evaluation of the mathematic formulas by direct communication with a computer; Le langage Sprint/1 pour l'evaluation dynamique des formules mathematiques par dialogue direct avec un ordinateur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavadia, I C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires, direction des piles atomiques, direction du CEN-Saclay

    1968-06-01

    The Sprint/1 system is indented for real-time production of present day computers and can be used by persons without a special preparation in the programming field. All input operations (instructions, comments, data) and corresponding output operations (printing of results and diagnostics) are done by a type-writer. It assures a bidirectional communication between the user and his program during its execution, the user indicating to the computer each step that must be performed to resolve the problem. At the same time the machine immediately flags the detection of a syntax or semantic error which allows him to correct or to improve his program immediately. It should be emphasized that the language is an evolutive one. Each introduced instruction enriches the language, the user having the possibility to easily build complex structures from very simple expressions. Thus he can make a general study of the behaviour of a dynamic learning process of the machine which constitutes one of the characteristics of artificial intelligence. (author) [French] Le systeme SPRINT/1 est destine a l'exploitation en temps reel des ordinateurs actuels et peut etre utilise par des personnes sans une preparation speciale dans le domaine de la programmation. Toutes les operations d'entree (d'instructions, de commentaires et de donnees) et respectivement de sortie (impression des resultats et de diagnostics) sont realisees a l'aide d'une machine a ecrire. Elle assure une communication bidirectionnelle entre l'utilisateur et son programme pendant l'execution de celui-ci, l'utilisateur indiquant a l'ordinateur chaque etape qu'il doit entreprendre afin de resoudre le probleme. En meme temps la machine signale immediatement l'apparition d'une erreur de syntaxe ou de semantique ce qui permet de corriger ou d'ameliorer sur place le programme. Il faut souligner le fait que le langage est evolutif. Chaque instruction introduite enrichit le lexique, l'utilisateur ayant la possibilite de construire

  13. Should direct measurements of tumor oxygenation relate to the radiobiological hypoxic fraction of a tumor?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenton, Bruce M.; Kiani, Mohammad F.; Siemann, Dietmar W.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: Numerous previous studies have attempted to relate the radiobiological hypoxic fraction (HF) to direct measures of tumor oxygenation such as HbO 2 saturations, tumor pO 2 levels, or hypoxic cell labeling. Although correlations have been found within tumor lines, no overall relationships were seen across tumor lines. The current objective was to examine the effect on HF of changes in the fractions of the oxygenated and anoxic tumor cells that remain clonogenic. Methods and Materials: A mathematical model was developed that relates the HF to direct measures of tumor oxygenation. The primary assumptions were that: (a) the tumor is divided into distinct compartments of either fully oxygenated or fully anoxic cells, and (b) the survival of the oxygenated cells is negligible compared to that of the anoxic cells. Based on these assumptions, the HF is plotted as a function of the fractions of clonogenic or nonclonogenic, and oxygenated or anoxic cells. Results: If all cells are clonogenic, then the HF equals the fraction of anoxic cells. If a higher fraction of anoxic than oxygenated cells are nonclonogenic, then the HF will be overestimated by the fraction of the tumor measured to be anoxic using direct measuring techniques. If a higher fraction of the oxygenated than anoxic cells are nonclonogenic, the HF will be underestimated by the fraction of anoxic cells. Conclusion: Correlations between the HF and direct measures of tumor oxygenation have been described within tumor lines evaluated under different physiological condition. However, such relationships can be totally unpredictable between different tumors if the fraction of the anoxic cells that is clonogenic varies substantially. Clearly, if tumor anoxia cannot be detected using direct measures, this is an accurate indication that the tumor is well oxygenated. When tumor anoxia is present, however, the conclusions are ambiguous. Even when a small fraction of the tumor is measured as anoxic, direct measures

  14. The Thermodynamic Characterization of ZrCo–H, HfCo−H, HfNi−H and Zr{sub 1–x}HfxNi(Co) Alloy–H Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flanagan, Ted B., E-mail: ted.flanagan@uvm.edu; Noh, Hak; Luo, Suifang

    2016-08-25

    ZrCo and HfCo intermetallic compounds have the same cubic (CsCl-type) structure and their ternary (Zr{sub 1−x}Hf{sub x})Co alloys are also cubic. ZrNi and HfNi intermetallic compounds have the orthorhombic structure (CrB-type) and the ternary (Zr{sub 1−x}Hf{sub x})Ni alloys also have this structure. Thermodynamic data for hydride formation and decomposition in ZrCo, HfCo and HfNi intermetallic compounds have been determined from reaction calorimetry and from pressure-composition isotherms. Thermodynamic data have been determined for the three ternary alloys: (Zr{sub 0.75}Hf{sub 0.25})Co, (Zr{sub 0.50}Hf{sub 0.50})Co, and (Zr{sub 0.25}Hf{sub 0.75})Co and the four ternary alloys: (Zr{sub 0.875}Hf{sub 0.125})Ni, (Zr{sub 0.75}Hf{sub 0.25})Ni, (Zr{sub 0.50}Hf{sub 0.50})Ni, and (Zr{sub 0.25}Hf{sub 0.75})Ni. This offers the opportunity to learn how the thermodynamic properties of the ternary alloy-H systems change with the stoichiometry of alloys with the same structure. - Highlights: • Calorimetric enthalpies determined for H absorption by ZrCo, HfCo, HfNi are determined. • Ternary alloys, e.g., Zr{sub 1−x}Hf{sub x}Ni, prepared and characterized by x-ray diffraction. • Isotherms for the ternary alloys give thermodynamic parameters for H solution.

  15. PHTS, a novel putative tumor suppressor, is involved in the transformation reversion of HeLaHF cells independently of the p53 pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Dehua; Fan, Wufang; Liu, Guohong; Nguy, Vivian; Chatterton, Jon E.; Long Shilong; Ke, Ning; Meyhack, Bernd; Bruengger, Adrian; Brachat, Arndt; Wong-Staal, Flossie; Li, Qi-Xiang

    2006-01-01

    HeLaHF is a non-transformed revertant of HeLa cells, likely resulting from the activation of a putative tumor suppressor(s). p53 protein was stabilized in this revertant and reactivated for certain transactivation functions. Although p53 stabilization has not conclusively been linked to the reversion, it is clear that the genes in p53 pathway are involved. The present study confirms the direct role of p53 in HeLaHF reversion by demonstrating that RNAi-mediated p53 silencing partially restores anchorage-independent growth potential of the revertant through the suppression of anoikis. In addition, we identified a novel gene, named PHTS, with putative tumor suppressor properties, and showed that this gene is also involved in HeLaHF reversion independently of the p53 pathway. Expression profiling revealed that PHTS is one of the genes that is up-regulated in HeLaHF but not in HeLa. It encodes a putative protein with CD59-like domains. RNAi-mediated PHTS silencing resulted in the partial restoration of transformation (anchorage-independent growth) in HeLaHF cells, similar to that of p53 gene silencing, implying its tumor suppressor effect. However, the observed increased transformation potential by PHTS silencing appears to be due to an increased anchorage-independent proliferation rate rather than suppression of anoikis, unlike the effect of p53 silencing. p53 silencing did not affect PHTS gene expression, and vice versa, suggesting PHTS may function in a new and p53-independent tumor suppressor pathway. Furthermore, over-expression of PHTS in different cancer cell lines, in addition to HeLa, reduces cell growth likely via induced apoptosis, confirming the broad PHTS tumor suppressor properties

  16. Comparison between the ionospheric plasma drift and the motion of artificially induced irregularities as observed by HF backscatter radars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanuise, C.; Hedberg, A.; Oksman, J.; Nielsen, E.; Stubbe, P.; Kopka, H.

    1986-01-01

    Theories of striation generation by powerful HF waves state that the irregularities should convect with the plasma, without propagating through the medium. This prediction has been checked by observing, with the two SAFARI radars, the backscatter from striations generated in the F-region by the HEATING facility at Tromso. The magnitude and direction of the Doppler velocity of the fluctuations is derived from the line-of-sight velocities measured by the two HF radar stations. The comparison between the electric field, derived from SAFARI, and the E-region current deduced from magnetometer data show that the magnitudes are well correlated. The directions of the velocity and this current are, however, not exactly antiparallel. Another comparison between the SAFARI F-region Doppler velocity and the E-region drift measured by STARE shows, on the average, a good agreement between the estimates. The experimental evidence therefore agrees with the theoretical suggestion that the irregularity motion should be the ExB drift

  17. Emergency Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    : Environmental Documents, Reports LANL Home Calendar Search Contacts Resources » Emergency Communication Emergency Communication Stay informed of emergencies, weather delays, closures, other alerts. Find links to

  18. Tactile Communications

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Communication with the crew is vital and must be maintained regardless of environmental conditions and crew activity. Current spacecraft communication systems depend...

  19. Oxidation behavior of TiC, ZrC, and HfC dispersed in oxide matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arun, R.; Subramanian, M.; Mehrotra, G.M.

    1990-01-01

    The oxidation behavior of hot pressed TiC-Al 2 O 3 , TiC-ZrO 2 , ZrC-ZrO 2 , and HfC-HfO 2 composites has been investigated at 1273 K. The oxidation of TiC, ZrC, and HfC in hot-pressed composites containing ZrO 2 and HfO 2 has been found to be extremely rapid. The kinetics of oxidation of TiC and a 90 wt% TiC-Al 2 O 3 composite appear to be faster compared to that of pure TiC. X-ray diffraction results for hot-pressed ZrC-HfO 2 and HfC-HfO 2 composites indicate partial stabilization of tetragonal ZrO 2 and HfO 2 phases in these composites

  20. Theoretical and Experimental Studies of High-Frequency Plasma Structures; Etudes Theoriques et Experimentales sur les Structures HF a Plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Consoli, T. [CEA, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay (France)

    1969-03-15

    currents of more than 20 keV and of about 10 mA/cm{sub 2} were obtained. Ion entrainment for a magnetic field twice that necessary for resonance was also verified. Finally, with the Pleiade I device ({lambda} = 100 cm, P{sub HF} {approx}500 W, CW), the reflection of accelerated plasma jets by a mirror pulse lasting 75 {mu}s was verified. From measurements of the fast neutrals resulting from ion charge exchange (with the residual gas; p {<=} 10{sup -4} mmHg) it was deduced that the density of the ions (directed energy {approx} 1.5 keV) may be increased from 2 x 10{sub 8} cm{sup -3} (direct beam) to 6 x 10{sup 9} cm{sup -3} during the mirror pulse. The accumulated density appears to be limited by the charge exchange, and the increased duration of the mirror pulse to 200 {mu}s with p Less-Than-Or-Equivalent-To 10{sup -4} mmHg (unchanged) hardly improves the accumulation ratio. This agrees with the predictions if one takes into account the fact that the ion lifetime is {approx} 10 {mu}s. (author) [French] Il s'agit des etudes sur les structures HF a la resonance ( {omega}{sub ec} = {omega}{sub HF}) en champ magnetique inhomogene. Les points suivants ont ete developpes theoriquement: description analytique complete (relativiste et non lineaire) du mouvement individuel, compte tenu du fait que le nombre de revolutions des particules dans la zone de resonance est eleve ; etude du champ de charge d' espace autocoherent ( 'self-consistent') en vue d'etablir les conditions pour que l' energie des ions soit de l'ordre de celle gagnee par les electrons dans la zone de resonance; calcul du champ HF autocoherent dans le plasma accelere en vue d' etablir les conditions de fonctionnement optimum de l'accelerateur HF; probleme des pertes aux miroirs. Les resultats experimentaux ont ete obtenus avec divers dispositifs construits en vue de la verification des previsions theoriques.