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Sample records for hexyl acetate cis-hexenyl

  1. The microwave spectrum of n-hexyl acetate and structural aspects of n-alkyl acetates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attig, T.; Kannengießer, R.; Kleiner, I.; Stahl, W.

    2014-04-01

    The microwave spectrum of n-hexyl acetate was recorded in the range of 10-13.5 GHz using the Aachen MB-FTMW spectrometer. The rotational constants of the most abundant conformer were determined to be A = 3.3591100(32) GHz, B = 0.39596553(53) GHz, and C = 0.36999804(31) GHz. Quantum chemical calculations for specific conformers were carried out at the MP2/6-311++G(d,p) level. The programs XIAM and BELGI were used to analyze the internal rotation of the acetyl methyl group. The observed conformer of n-hexyl acetate was compared to the lowest energy conformers of n-butyl acetate and n-pentyl acetate.

  2. 40 CFR 721.304 - Acetic acid, [(5-chloro-8-quinolinyl)oxy-], 1-methyl hexyl ester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acetic acid, , 1-methyl hexyl ester... Substances § 721.304 Acetic acid, , 1-methyl hexyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as acetic acid, -, 1-methylhexyl ester (PMN...

  3. 胺型离子液体催化合成乙酸己酯%Synthesis of hexyl acetate catalyzed by ammonium ionic liquid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶庆华; 侯梦吟; 张文霞; 占晓友; 许映杰

    2011-01-01

    合成了硝酸正丁胺(N_4NO_3)、醋酸正丁胺(N_4AC)、醋酸正丙胺(N_3AC)和醋酸乙胺(N_2AC)4种胺型离子液体,采用~1HNMR对其结构进行了表征。以上述胺型离子液体为催化剂,冰醋酸和正己醇为原料,环己烷为带水剂,通过酯化反应制备了乙酸己酯。考察了催化剂种类、反应温度和反应时间等因素对乙酸己酯酯化率的影响,优化了反应工艺。最佳反应条件为:15mL环己烷为带水剂,n(冰醋酸):n(正己醇):n(N_4NO_3)=1:1.2:0.1,反应温度为95℃,反应时间为4.5h,乙酸己酯的酯化率可达90.52%。%Four ammonium ionic liquids,n-butylamine nitrate(N_4NO_3),n-butylamine acetate(N_4AC), n-propylamine acetate(N_3AC) and ethylamine acetate(N_2AC) were synthesized.Their structures were identified by ~1HNMR.The hexyl acetate was synthesized from n-hexanol and acetic acid using the ammonium ionic liquids as the catalyst by direct esterification.The influences of catalyst,reaction temperature and reaction time were investigated. The proper reactions condition was as follow:using 15mL cyclohexane as water carrier agent,n(acetic acid):n(n-hexanol):n(N_4NO_3)=1:1.2:0.1,the reaction temperature was 95℃and reaction time was 4.5h.The yield of the product was 90.5%.

  4. Membrane Separation of 2-Ethyl Hexyl Amine/1-Decene

    KAUST Repository

    Bawareth, Bander

    2012-12-01

    1-Decene is a valuable product in linear alpha olefins plants that is contaminated with 2-EHA (2-ethyl hexyl amine). Using organic solvent nanofiltration membranes for this separation is quite challengeable. A membrane has to be a chemically stable in this environment with reasonable and stable separation factor. This paper shows that Teflon AF 2400 and cellulose acetate produced interesting results in 1-decene/2-EHA separation. The separation factor of Teflon AF 2400 is 3 with a stable permeance of 1.1x10-2 L/(m2·h·bar). Likewise, cellulose acetate gave 2-EHA/1-decene separation factor of 2 with a lower permeance of 3.67x10-3 L/(m2·h·bar). A series of hydrophilic membranes were tested but they did not give any separation due to high degree of swelling of 2-EHA with these polymers. The large swelling causes the membrane to lose its diffusivity selectivity because of an increase in the polymer\\'s chain mobility.

  5. Increased Serum Level of Cyclopropaneoctanoic Acid 2-Hexyl in Patients with Hypertriglyceridemia-Related Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mika, Adriana; Stepnowski, Piotr; Chmielewski, Michal; Malgorzewicz, Sylwia; Kaska, Lukasz; Proczko, Monika; Ratnicki-Sklucki, Krzysztof; Sledzinski, Maciej; Sledzinski, Tomasz

    2016-07-01

    We recently reported the presence of various cyclopropane fatty acids-among them, cyclopropaneoctanoic acid 2-hexyl-in the adipose tissue of obese women. The aim of this study was to verify whether the presence of cyclopropaneoctanoic acid 2-hexyl in human serum was associated with obesity or chronic kidney disease (both being related to dyslipidemia), and to find potential associations between the serum level of this compound and specific markers of the these conditions. The serum concentration of cyclopropaneoctanoic acid 2-hexyl was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in non-obese controls, obese patients, obese patients after a 3-month low-calorie diet, and individuals with chronic kidney disease. Obese patients and those with chronic kidney disease presented with higher serum levels of cyclopropaneoctanoic acid 2-hexyl than controls. Switching obese individuals to a low-calorie (low-lipid) diet resulted in a reduction in this fatty acid concentration to the level observed in controls. Cyclopropaneoctanoic acid 2-hexyl was also found in foods derived from animal fat. Serum concentrations of triacylglycerols in the analyzed groups followed a pattern similar to that for serum cyclopropaneoctanoic acid 2-hexyl, and these variables were positively correlated with each other among the studied groups. Patients with hypertriglyceridemia-related conditions presented with elevated serum levels of cyclopropaneoctanoic acid 2-hexyl. Our findings suggest that its high serum level is related to high serum triacylglycerol concentrations rather than to body mass or BMI.

  6. [Chiral separation of five beta-blockers using di-n-hexyl L-tartrate-boric acid complex as mobile phase additive by reversed-phase liquid chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Juan; Wang, Lijuan; Guo, Qiaoling; Yang, Gengliang

    2012-03-01

    A reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method using the di-n-hexyl L-tartrate-boric acid complex as a chiral mobile phase additive was developed for the enantioseparation of five beta-blockers including propranolol, esmolol, metoprolol, bisoprolol and sotalol. In order to obtain a better enantioseparation, the influences of concentrations of di-n-butyl L-tartrate and boric acid, the type, concentration and pH of the buffer, methanol content as well as the molecular structure of analytes were extensively investigated. The separation of the analytes was performed on a Venusil MP-C18 column (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 microm). The mobile phase was 15 mmol/L ammonium acetate-methanol containing 60 mmol/L boric acid, 70 mmol/L di-n-hexyl L-tartrate (pH 6.00). The volume ratios of 15 mmol/L ammonium acetate to methanol were 20: 80 for propranolol, esmolol, metoprolol, bisoprolol and 30: 70 for sotalol. The flow rate was 0.5 mL/min and the detection wavelength was set at 214 nm. Under the optimized conditions, baseline enantioseparation was obtained separately for the five pairs of analytes.

  7. N-Hexyl-4-aminobutyl glycosides for investigating structures and biological functions of carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Katsuhiko; Tobe, Akifumi; Adachi, Shin; Daikoku, Shusaku; Hasegawa, Yasuko; Shioiri, Yuki; Kobayashi, Mariko; Kanie, Osamu

    2009-11-21

    The potential applications of N-hexyl-4-aminobutyl glycosides in the mass spectrometric investigation of glycan structure and in the investigation of glycan functions were studied. Under collision-induced dissociation (CID) conditions, sodiated glycosides carrying N-hexyl-4-aminobutyl groups effectively produced a hemiacetal species (C-ions), which is important in mass-spectrometry-based structural investigation. The usefulness of N-hexyl-4-aminobutyl glycosides in biological analysis was also confirmed by obtaining a binding constant for the binding of dipyrrometheneboron difluoride C3-labeled N-hexyl-4-aminobutyl beta-lactoside with an Erythrina cristagalli lectin, and by visualizing cellular organelles using a more hydrophobic BODIPY-labeled compound.

  8. Research on polyfluorene derivatives end-capped by N-hexyl-carbazole and benzene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Copolymers of 9,9-dioctylfluorene (DOF) and 2-thienyl-benzothiadiazole (DBT) were synthesized by Suzuki reaction and end-capped by N-hexyl-carbazole and benzene, which were abbreviated as PDOF-DBT-Cz and PDOF-DBT-B, respectively. The photophysical, electrochemical and thermal properties of the copolymers were studied. The results indicated that replacement of N-hexyl-carbazole as end-capping group of PDOF-DBT can vary light color and improve luminescence efficiency.

  9. Identification of cyclopropaneoctanoic acid 2-hexyl in human adipose tissue and serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sledzinski, Tomasz; Mika, Adriana; Stepnowski, Piotr; Proczko-Markuszewska, Monika; Kaska, Lukasz; Stefaniak, Tomasz; Swierczynski, Julian

    2013-08-01

    Fatty acids containing a cyclopropane ring in their structure (cyclopropane FA) have been found in a wide variety of bacteria, a number of protozoa, and Myriapoda. Little is known about cyclopropane FA in mammal, especially in human tissues. The present study deals with the identification of cyclopropane FA in adipose tissue and serum of humans and rats. Fatty acids extracted from the adipose tissue and serum obtained from obese women during bariatric surgery were methylated and analyzed on GC-MS. We have identified: cyclopropaneoctanoic acid 2-hexyl, cyclopropaneoctanoic acid 2-octyl, cyclopropanenonanoic acid, and 2-[[2-[(2-ethylcyclopropyl)methyl]cyclopropyl]methyl] acid in human adipose tissue. We confirmed the presence of cyclopropaneoctanoic acid 2-hexyl by derivatization of FA extracted from human adipose tissue to picolinyl esters. Cyclopropaneoctanoic acid 2-hexyl was the main cyclopropane FA (approximately 0.4 % of total fatty acids in human adipose tissue, and about 0.2 % of total fatty acids in the serum). In adipose tissue cyclopropaneoctanoic acid 2-hexyl was found mainly in triacylglycerols, whereas in serum in phospholipids and triacylglycerols. The cyclopropaneoctanoic acid 2-hexyl has also been found in serum, and adipose tissue of rats in amounts comparable to humans. The content of cyclopropaneoctanoic acid 2-hexyl decreased in adipose tissue of rats maintained on a restricted diet for 1 month. In conclusion, we demonstrated that cyclopropaneoctanoic acid 2-hexyl is present in human adipose tissue and serum. Adipose tissue cyclopropaneoctanoic acid 2-hexyl is stored mainly in triacylglycerols and the storage of this cyclopropane FA is affected by food restriction.

  10. Cyclo-hexyl-methyl-ammonium N,N'-dicyclo-hexyl-N,N'-dimethyl-N''-(2,2,2-trifluoro-acet-yl)phospho-nic triamide).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdanbakhsh, Mohammad; Eshtiagh-Hosseini, Hossein; Sabbaghi, Fahimeh

    2008-12-10

    In the salt, C(7)H(16)N(+)·C(16)H(28)F(3)N(3)O(2)P(-), the P atom shows tetra-hedral coordination. Two ion pairs are linked by N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds across a center of inversion. The phosphoryl and carbonyl groups are staggered [O-P-N-C = 64.8 (3)°].

  11. Inorganic layered double hydroxides as a 4-hexyl resorcinol delivery system for topical applications

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mosangi, Damodar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available inhibitors to control pigmentation byRSC Adv., 2016, 6, 77709–77716 | 77709 Fig. 1 Chemical structure of 4-hexyl resorcinol. RSC Advances Paperaffecting the transcription and activity of pigmentary enzymes are peroxidase, tyrosinase, tyrosinase...-related protein-1 (Tyrp-1), tyrosinase-related protein-2 (Tyrp-2), methimazole, ellagic acid and hydroquinone.34–36 Among the different skin lightening agents, hydroquinone has been the most frequently used in numerous even tone formulations for more than 5...

  12. Responses to hexyl 5-aminolevulinate-induced photodynamic treatment in rat bladder cancer model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arum, Carl-Jørgen; Gederas, Odrun; Larsen, Eivind; Randeberg, Lise; Zhao, Chun-Mei

    2010-02-01

    OBJECTIVES: In this study, we evaluated histologically the effects of hexyl 5-aminolevulinateinduced photodynamic treatment in the AY-27 tumor cell induced rat bladder cancer model. MATERIAL & METHODS: The animals (fischer-344 female rats) were divided into 2 groups, half of which were orthotopically implanted with 400,000 syngeniec AY-27 urothelia1 rat bladder cancer cells and half sham implanted. 14 days post implantation 6 rats from each group were treated with hexyl 5-aminolevulinate-induced photodynamic treatment (8mM HAL and light fluence of 20 J/cm2). Additional groups of animals were only given HAL instillation, only light treatment, or no treatment. All animals were sacrificed 7 days after the PDT/only HAL/only light or no treatment. Each bladder was removed, embedded in paraffin and stained with hematoxylin, eosin, and saferin for histological evaluation at high magnification for features of tissue damage by a pathologist blinded to the sample source. RESULTS: In all animals that were AY-27 implanted and not given complete PDT treatment, viable tumors were found in the bladder mucosa and wall. In the animals treated with complete HAL-PDT only 3 of 6 animals had viable tumor. In the 3 animals with viable tumor it was significantly reduced in volume compared to the untreated animals. It was also noted that in the PDT treated animals there was a significantly increased inflammatory response (lymphocytic and mononuclear cell infiltration) in the peri-tumor area compared to implanted animals without complete HAL-PDT. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that hexyl 5-aminolevulinate-induced photodynamic treatment in a rat bladder cancer model involves both direct effects on cell death (necrosis and apoptosis) and indirect effects to evoke the host immune-response, together contributing to tumor eradication.

  13. A novel biodegradation pathway of the endocrine-disruptor di(2-ethyl hexyl) phthalate by Pleurotus ostreatus based on quantum chemical investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuactzin-Pérez, Miriam; Tlecuitl-Beristain, Saúl; García-Dávila, Jorge; Santacruz-Juárez, Ericka; González-Pérez, Manuel; Gutiérrez-Ruíz, María Concepción; Sánchez, Carmen

    2017-09-12

    Di(2-ethyl hexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a plasticizer that interfere with endocrine systems in mammals. Growth parameters for Pleurotus ostreatus grown on media containing glucose and different concentrations of DEHP (0, 500 and 1000mg/L) were evaluated. The highest biomass production was observed in medium supplemented with 1000mg of DEHP/L. Half-life of DEHP biodegradation, biodegradation constant of DEHP, and percentage of removal efficiency (%E) were also determined. P. ostreatus degraded 100% of DEHP after 504h. %E was 99.3% and 98.4% for 500 and 1000mg of DEHP/L, respectively. Intermediate compounds of biodegraded DEHP were identified by GC-MS and a DEHP biodegradation pathway was proposed using quantum chemical investigation. DEHP might be metabolized through three pathways; a de-esterification pathway, an oxidation pathway and an oxidation-hydrolysis pathway, forming phthalic acid, acetic acid and butanediol, respectively. P. ostreatus degrades and uses (as carbon and energy source) high concentrations of DEHP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Obtaining of inulin acetate

    OpenAIRE

    Khusenov, Arslonnazar; Rakhmanberdiev, Gappar; Rakhimov, Dilshod; Khalikov, Muzaffar

    2014-01-01

    In the article first obtained inulin ester inulin acetate, by etherification of inulin with acetic anhydride has been exposed. Obtained product has been studied using elementary analysis and IR spectroscopy.

  15. Experimental and theoretical studies on the coordination chemistry of the N1-hexyl substituted pyrimidines (uracil, 5-fluorouracil and cytosine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barceló-Oliver, Miquel; Baquero, Beatriz Adriana; Bauzá, Antonio; García-Raso, Angel; Vich, Roberto; Mata, Ignasi; Molins, Elies; Terrón, Angel; Frontera, Antonio

    2013-06-01

    N(1)-Hexyl substituted pyrimidines were shown to present solubility properties closer to the real bases than the commonly used methyl and ethyl derivatives, yielding bi-layered structures in the solid state. The study of their coordination capabilities, mainly with Ag(I) and Hg(II), is presented in order to prove their reactivity. A series of coordination complexes, namely, [Hg(N(1)-hexyl-5-fluorouracilate)2]4·6H2O (1), (Ag(+))·[Ag(N(1)-hexyl-5-fluorouracilate)2](-) (2), [Ag(NO3)(N(1)-hexyluracil-κO(4))4] (3), [ZnBr2(N(1)-hexylcytosine)2] (4), [CdBr2(N(1)-hexylcytosine)2] (5), [HgBr2(N(1)-hexylcytosine)2] (6) and [CoBr2(N(1)-hexylcytosine)2] (7), have been synthesized in good yields and X-ray characterized. The presence of the hexyl chains and the fluorine atoms causes the formation of interesting 3D architectures in the solid state. Their structures have been further characterized by infrared spectra (IR) and elemental analyses. In addition, DFT-D3 calculations are used to study interesting noncovalent interactions observed in the solid state, like fluorine-fluorine, fluorine-π and hydrophobic interactions.

  16. Pairing of 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium and tetrafluoroborate ions in n-pentanol

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, P; Papadopoulos, K D

    2012-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations are obtained and analyzed to study pairing of 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium and tetrafluoroborate ions in n-pentanol, in particular by evaluating the potential-of-mean-force between counter ions. The present molecular model and simulation accurately predicts the dissociation constant Kd in comparison to experiment, and thus the behavior and magnitudes for the ion-pair pmf at molecular distances, even though the dielectric constant of the simulated solvent differs from the experimental value by about 30%. A naive dielectric model does not capture molecule structural effects such as multiple conformations and binding geometries of the Hmim+ and BF4- ion-pairs. Mobilities identify multiple time-scale effects in the autocorrelation of the random forces on the ions, and specifically a slow, exponential time-decay of those long-ranged forces associated here with dielectric friction effects.

  17. Dicyclo-hexyl-ammonium trimethyl-bis-(hydrogen phenyl-phospho-nato)stannate(IV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diop, Tidiane; Diop, Libasse; Diop, Cheikh A K; Molloy, Kieran C; Kociok-Köhn, Gabriele

    2011-12-01

    In the title compound, (C(12)H(24)N)[Sn(CH(3))(3)(C(6)H(6)O(3)P)(2)], the SnMe(3) residues are axially coordinated by two monodentate [PhPO(3)H](-) anions, leading to a trigonal-bipyramidal geometry for the Sn(IV) atom. The two [SnMe(3)(PhPO(3)H)(2)](-) anions in the unit cell are associated into infinite chains along the a axis by O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds involving the hy-droxy group of the hydrogen phenyl-phospho-nate ion. The chains inter-act with one another via O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds along the c axis. These networks of anions assemble with the dicyclo-hexyl-ammonium ion through N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional network.

  18. Porphyrin biodistribution in UV-exposed murine skin after methyl- and hexyl-aminolevulinate incubation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Togsverd-Bo, Katrine; Lerche, Catharina M; Philipsen, Peter A

    2012-01-01

    Topical photodynamic therapy (PDT) with methyl-aminolevulinate (MAL) is a well-established treatment for precancerous skin lesions and non-melanoma skin cancer. Treatment outcomes are less effective for thick than for superficial lesions, which are presumed to be due to insufficient Pp......IX biodistribution in tumour tissue. Hexyl-aminolevulinate (HAL) is a more lipophilic photosensitizer precursor than MAL and may penetrate the skin to a greater depth and more homogeneously. We compared HAL- and MAL-induced PpIX accumulation in specific skin compartments using concentrations of 2%, 6% and 20% HAL...... and MAL on long-term UV-irradiated mouse skin. Furthermore, 20% HAL and 20% MAL were applied to non-irradiated skin. Porphyrin fluorescence was measured by fluorescence microscopy in selected skin regions: the epidermis, superficial dermis, deep dermis and sebaceous gland epithelium down to a depth of 1...

  19. The metabolic effects of di (2-ethyl hexyl phthalate medium dose on lipid profiles in serum and liver tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buang Y

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Di (2-ethyl hexyl phthalate is the most widely used  plasticizer in blood storage bag for transfusion. This substance can modify lipid metabolism. This study was aimed to elucidate the metabolic effects of di (2-ethyl hexyl phthalate medium dose on lipid profiles in serum and liver tissue.Methods: Sprague Dawley rats were fed 1.0 % di (2-ethyl hexyl phthalate diet (DEHP group, n=5 or a non-supplemented diet (control group, n=5 for 10 days. The rats were allowed to freely access each food. Serum lipid concentrations were measured using enzyme assay kits. Lipids of liver tissues were extracted and the lipid contents were determined. A peach of liver was prepared to determine the activities of malic enzyme and carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1 (CPT-1.Results: Serum lipid concentrations (mg/dL of DEHP group decreased compared to control (P<0.05. The serum triglyceride (TG concentrations of control and DEHP groups were respectively (100.5±16.5 and (31.2±1.7; phospholipid (PL, (143.3±7.8 and (88.9±3.2; total cholesterol, (88.7±4.6 and (51.9±2.3. The liver TG content of control and DEHP group (mg/g liver were respectively, (40.8±4.4 and (23.7±1.3; liver cholesterol were (3.36±0.29 and (2.33±0.23; and the liver PL were (36.5±1.0 and (41.7±0.6. Malic enzyme and CPT-1 activities (nmol/min/mg protein of DEHP group increased compared to control (P<0.05, in which their increases were approximately by 4.35- and 2.33-folds,  respectively.Conclusion: The di (2-ethyl hexyl phthalate medium dose attenuates lipids secretion from the liver cells into the bloodstream. The increase of liver PL level accompanied with the promotions of malic enzyme and the CPT-1 activities are the key factors of the dietary di (2-ethyl hexyl phthalate effects in rats to attenuate the lipid secretions from the livers. (Med J Indones 2011; 20:20-6Keywords: Di (2-ethyl hexyl phthalate, hyperphospholipids, lipolysis, liver lipids, serum lipids

  20. Synthesis and tautomeric studies of enamines from 1-(n-Hexyl)-3-methyl-2-pyrazoline-5-one

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belmar, Julio; Alderete, Joel; Zuniga, Celia [Universidad de Concepcion (Chile). Faculty of Chemical Sciences. Dept. of Organic Chemistry]. E-mail: jbelmar@udec.cl; Perez, Fredy R. [Universidad Privada Antenor Orrego, Trujillo (Peru). Faculty of Health Sciences. Dept. of Chemistry

    2005-04-01

    1-(n-Hexyl)-3-methyl-2-pyrazoline-5-one was acylated with acid chlorides. Condensation of acyl derivatives with primary amines afforded enamines. According to the {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR data, the acyl derivatives have mainly a 4-acylpyrazol-5-ol structure with intramolecular hydrogen bond, and the 4-aminomethylene derivatives exist predominantly in the enamine form stabilized by the same type of interaction. (author)

  1. Characterization of crystal polymorphs of the organic semiconductor non-peripheral octa-hexyl phthalocyanine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneya, Makoto; Miyamoto, Ayano; Shimizu, Yo; Ohmori, Masashi; Fujii, Akihiko; Ozaki, Masanori

    2017-08-01

    The carrier-transport and thermodynamic properties of two crystal polymorphs, i.e., bulk and needle polymorphs, of non-peripheral octa-hexyl substituted phthalocyanine were investigated using density functional theory calculations and molecular dynamics simulations. The calculated results show that the bulk and needle polymorphs have hole mobilities of the same order of magnitude and that the hole mobility of the bulk polymorph was approximately twice that of the needle polymorph. For ideal one-dimensional transport along π stacking columns, the difference in mobility between the two polymorphs was larger by a factor of approximately 8. Therefore, we can expect the bulk polymorph to have 2 (or 8) times higher mobility than the values for the needle polymorph. These results predict that the bulk polymorph has the potential to show higher device performance than the needle polymorph. We also obtained the results that imply that a needle-polymorph-like phase with uniform (monoclinic) phthalocyanine-core tilting (instead of the alternative tilting of the needle polymorph) could be a new polymorph in this crystal system.

  2. SYNTHESIS OF SOLUBLE POLY(3-HEXYL-2,5-THIENYLENE VINYLENE) FROM THIOPHENE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gui-jiang Zhou; Cheng Ye

    2004-01-01

    Soluble poly(3-hexyl-2,5-thienylene vinylene) (PHTV) was readily synthesized from thiophene in a yield better than that of the precursor method to prepare poly(thienylene vinylene) (PTV). The bandgap of the polymer is about 1.8 eV,which is comparable with that of PTV. Owing to the introduction of alkyl side groups onto the backbone of the polymer, it can be dissolved in common organic solvents such as chloroform, THF and toluene. The synthesis of soluble PHTV is a very important approach to preventing oxidation and to improving the properties and the processbility of the PTV. The existence of alkyl side groups in PHTV does not affect its, bandgap and thermal properties as compared with PTV. After doping with FeCl3, the conductivity of PHTV is as high as 1.1 × 10-2 S/cm. The soluble PHTV can be easily transformed into thin film with much better quality than that of the PTV film prepared by the traditional precursor method, which is very important for fabricating devices with good properties.

  3. Dynamical properties of alcohol + 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium ionic liquid mixtures: a computer simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Morales, Trinidad; Carrete, Jesús; García, Manuel; Cabeza, Oscar; Gallego, Luis J; Varela, Luis M

    2011-12-29

    In this work, extensive molecular dynamics simulations of the dynamics of mixtures of ionic liquids (ILs) composed of the cation 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium and several anions of different hydrophobicity degrees (Cl(-), BF(4)(-), PF(6)(-)) with alcohols of different chain lengths (methanol and ethanol) are reported. We evaluated the influence of the nature of the anion, the length of the molecular chain of the alcohol, and the alcohol concentration on some dynamical properties of the mixtures, such as self-diffusion coefficients of all the species, mean square displacements (with an analysis of both ballistic and diffusive regimes), and velocity autocorrelation functions of alcohol molecules. The diffusivity of the mixtures was found to be highly dependent on the nature of the anion since the interaction between chloride and alcohols is greater than that with fluorinated anions and leads to slower dynamics. Additionally, our results show that self-diffusion coefficients increase with alcohol concentration. On the other hand, a subdiffusive regime over thousands of picoseconds was detected at intermediate times through analysis of the center-of-mass mean square displacements of alcohol molecules, a region that becomes narrower as alcohol concentration increases. Finally, the study of the role of the anion and of solvent concentration on velocity autocorrelation functions reflects an increase in mean collision times as the amount of alcohol increases until the value of pure alcohols is reached. These collision times are smaller in mixtures with halogenated ILs. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  4. Acetate Kinase Isozymes Confer Robustness in Acetate Metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chan, Siu Hung Joshua; Nørregaard, Lasse; Solem, Christian

    2014-01-01

    strains reveal that AckA1 has a higher capacity for acetate production which allows faster growth in an environment with high acetate concentration. Meanwhile, AckA2 is important for fast acetate-dependent growth at low concentration of acetate. The results demonstrate that the two ACKs have complementary...

  5. Methyl trans-rac-2-hexyl-1-oxo-3-(2-pyridyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline-4-carboxylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orhan Büyükgüngör

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C22H26N2O3, was synthesized by esterification of trans-rac-2-hexyl-1-oxo-3-(2-pyridyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline-4-carboxylic acid in the presence of H2SO4 in methanol. The dihedral angle between the benzene and pyridine rings is 84.46 (17°. The piperidine ring adopts a screw-boat conformation. In the crystal, inversion dimers linked by two C—H...O bonds occur.

  6. EFFECT OF LEAD ACETATE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICROSOFT

    suspicion of poisoning are illnesses in a number of pre- viously healthy animals, at the same time, and showing. *Corresponding ... hepatocytes, the major cell type in the liver. ALT is often ... level is also increased in cases of liver cell death resulting from ...... Acetate on the Neural Development of Chick Embryos. Radostitis ...

  7. Preparing Process of Cerium Acetate and Rare Earth Acetate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiao Jun; Ma Ying; Xu Yanhui; Zhang Jun; Chang Shu; Hao Xianku

    2004-01-01

    Preparing process was presented and the influences of concentration of acetic acid, reaction temperature, the ratio of cerium carbonate and acetic acid, heat preservation time to the yield of cerium acetate were discussed.The crystalline cerium acetate and rare earth acetate such as ( La, Ce, Pr, Nd) (Ac) 3, ( Ce, Pr, Nd) (Ac) 3, ( Pr, Nd, Er,Y) (Ac) 3 and yttrium acetate were prepared under this condition.The shape, structure and composition of the crystals were determined by the methods of SEM, TG-DTA, X-ray diffraction and chemical analysis.The optimum prepared conditions of cerium acetate were described.This prepared process has characteristics such as simple process route, low cost, high yield, good quality, no pollution to environment, etc.

  8. New Insights into the Mechanisms of Photodegradation/Stabilization of P3HT:PCBM Active Layers Using Poly(3-hexyl-d13-Thiophene)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tournebize, Aurelien; Bussiere, Pierre-Olivier; Rivaton, Agnes

    2013-01-01

    The photo-oxidation mechanism of thin-film blends based on poly(3-hexylthiophene):phenyl-C-61-butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PCBM) upon irradiation with ultraviolet-visible light (UV-Vis) was studied. The use of deuterated P3HT, i.e., poly(3-hexyl-d(13)-thiophene) (P3HdT), permitted discriminati...

  9. Degradation of organic ultraviolet filter diethylamino hydroxybenzoyl hexyl benzoate in aqueous solution by UV/H2O2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Ping; Yuan, Haixia; Zhai, Pingping; Dong, Wenbo; Li, Hongjing

    2015-07-01

    Steady-state and transient-state photolysis experiments were conducted to investigate the degradation of organic ultraviolet filter diethylamino hydroxybenzoyl hexyl benzoate (DHHB) in the aqueous solution by UV/H2O2. Results showed that the obvious degradation of DHHB was not observed under UV irradiation (λ = 254 nm), and the DHHB degradation was conducted due to the oxidation by hydroxyl radical (HO·). While the H2O2 concentration was between 0.05 and 0.10 mol L(-1), the highest DHHB degradation efficiency was obtained. The lower solution pH favored the transformation of DHHB, and the coexisting Cl(-) and NO3(-) ions slightly enhanced the conversion. The degradation of DHHB by HO· followed a pseudo-first-order kinetic model with different initial DHHB concentrations. By intermediate products during DHHB oxidation and laser flash photolysis spectra analysis, a primary degradation pathway was proposed.

  10. Utilization of amylopectin-grafted-poly(hexyl methacrylate) as bio-compatible agent for polypropylene/starch polymers blend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwaningsih, I. S.; Handayani, A. S.

    2017-07-01

    PP film/starch blend at different ratio of composition and various amount of Amylopectin-grafted-Poly (Hexyl methacrylate) (Ap-g-PHMA) as bio compatible agent were prepared by blending method. In this study PP/starch blends were obtain 0.6% and 1% Ap-g-PHMA were processed in Rheomix. The structure characteristic, melt flow index (MFI) and thermal properties of the films product were characterized by Fourier Transform Infra-Red Spectroscopy (FTIR), Simultaneous Thermal Analysis (STA). The experimental result indicated that addition of Ap-g-PHMA to the PP/starch blend resulting in increased of MFI values more than three times, raised of starch content in PP matrix, and reduced crystallinity degree.

  11. New series of potent delta-opioid antagonists containing the H-Dmt-Tic-NH-hexyl-NH-R motif.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tingyou; Shiotani, Kimitaka; Miyazaki, Anna; Fujita, Yoshio; Tsuda, Yuko; Ambo, Akihiro; Sasaki, Yusuke; Jinsmaa, Yunden; Marczak, Ewa; Bryant, Sharon D; Lazarus, Lawrence H; Okada, Yoshio

    2005-12-15

    Heterodimeric compounds H-Dmt-Tic-NH-hexyl-NH-R (R=Dmt, Tic, and Phe) exhibited high affinity to delta- (K(i)delta=0.13-0.89nM) and mu-opioid receptors (K(i)mu=0.38-2.81nM) with extraordinary potent delta antagonism (pA(2)=10.2-10.4). These compounds represent the prototype for a new class of structural homologues lacking mu-opioid receptor-associated agonism (IC(50)=1.6-5.8muM) based on the framework of bis-[H-Dmt-NH]-alkyl (Okada, Y.; Tsuda, Y.; Fujita, Y.; Yokoi, T.; Sasaki, Y.; Ambo, A.; Konishi, R.; Nagata, M.; Salvadori, S.; Jinsmaa, Y.; Bryant, S. D.; Lazarus, L. H. J. Med. Chem.2003, 46, 3201), which exhibited both high mu affinity and bioactivity.

  12. Photovoltaic characterization of hybrid solar cells using surface modified TiO2 nanoparticles and poly(3-hexyl)thiophene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günes, Serap; Marjanovic, Nenad; Nedeljkovic, Jovan M.; Sariciftci, Niyazi Serdar

    2008-10-01

    We report on the photovoltaic performance of bulk heterojunction solar cells using novel nanoparticles of 6-palmitate ascorbic acid surface modified TiO2 as an electron acceptor embedded into the donor poly(3-hexyl)thiophene (P3HT) matrix. Devices were fabricated by using P3HT with varying amounts of red TiO2 nanoparticles (1:1, 1:2, 1:3 w-w ratio). The devices were characterized by measuring current-voltage characteristics under simulated AM 1.5 conditions. Incident photon to current efficiency (IPCE) was spectrally resolved. The nanoscale morphology of such organic/inorganic hybrid blends was also investigated using atomic force microscopy (AFM).

  13. 4-Carbamoylpiperidinium acetate monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urs D. Wermuth

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the structure of the title compound, C6H13N2O+·C2H3O2−·H2O, the amide H atoms of the cations form centrosymmetric cyclic hydrogen-bonding associations incorporating two water molecules [graph set R42(8], which are conjoint with cyclic water-bridged amide–amide associations [R44(12] and larger R44(20 associations involving the water molecule and the acetate anions, which bridge through the piperidinium H-bond donors, giving an overall three-dimensional framework structure.

  14. Threshold Acetate Concentrations for Acetate Catabolism by Aceticlastic Methanogenic Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Westermann, Peter; Ahring, Birgitte K.; Mah, Robert A.

    1989-01-01

    Marked differences were found for minimum threshold concentrations of acetate catabolism by Methanosarcina barkeri 227 (1.180 mM), Methanosarcina mazei S-6 (0.396 mM), and a Methanothrix sp. (0.069 mM). This indicates that the aceticlastic methanogens responsible for the conversion of acetate to methane in various ecosystems might be different, depending on the prevailing in situ acetate concentrations.

  15. Kallolide A acetate pyrazoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Escudero, Idaliz; Marrero, Jeffrey; Rodríguez, Abimael D

    2012-01-01

    IN THE CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF KALLOLIDE A ACETATE PYRAZOLINE [SYSTEMATIC NAME: 7-methyl-16-oxo-4,10-bis-(prop-1-en-2-yl)-17,18-dioxa-14,15-diaza-tetra-cyclo-[9.4.2.1(6,9).0(1,12)]octa-deca-6,8,14-trien-5-yl acetate], C(23)H(28)N(2)O(5), there is a 12-member-ed carbon macrocyclic structure. In addition, there is a tris-ubstituted furan ring, an approximately planar γ-lactone ring [maximum deviation of 0.057 (3) Å] and a pyraz-oline ring, the latter in an envelope conformation. The pyrazoline and the γ-lactone rings are fused in a cis configuration. In the crystal, mol-ecules are linked by weak C-H⋯O inter-actions, forming a two-dimensional network parallel to (001). An intra-molecular C-H⋯O hydrogen bond is also present.

  16. Antibiofilm Properties of Acetic Acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Alhede, Morten; Jensen, Peter Østrup;

    2014-01-01

    of the infected implant, tissue, or organ and thereby the biofilm. Acetic acid is known for its antimicrobial effect on bacteria in general, but has never been thoroughly tested for its efficacy against bacterial biofilms. In this article, we describe complete eradication of both Gram-positive and Gram......-negative biofilms using acetic acid both as a liquid and as a dry salt. In addition, we present our clinical experience of acetic acid treatment of chronic wounds. In conclusion, we here present the first comprehensive in vitro and in vivo testing of acetic acid against bacterial biofilms....

  17. ACETIC ACID AND A BUFFER

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to a composition comprising : a) 0.01-20% wt/wt acetic acid and b) a physiologically tolerable buffer capable of maintaining acetic acid at a pH in the range of 2-7; and use of such a composition as an antimicrobial agent.......The present invention relates to a composition comprising : a) 0.01-20% wt/wt acetic acid and b) a physiologically tolerable buffer capable of maintaining acetic acid at a pH in the range of 2-7; and use of such a composition as an antimicrobial agent....

  18. ACETIC ACID AND A BUFFER

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to a composition comprising : a) 0.01-20% wt/wt acetic acid and b) a physiologically tolerable buffer capable of maintaining acetic acid at a pH in the range of 2-7; and use of such a composition as an antimicrobial agent.......The present invention relates to a composition comprising : a) 0.01-20% wt/wt acetic acid and b) a physiologically tolerable buffer capable of maintaining acetic acid at a pH in the range of 2-7; and use of such a composition as an antimicrobial agent....

  19. Acetate metabolism in Methanothrix soehngenii.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jetten, M.S.M.

    1991-01-01

    Acetate is quantitatively the most important intermediate in the anaerobic degradation of soluble organic matter. The conversion rate of acetate by methanogenic bacteria is proposed to be the rate limiting step in this degradation The study of acetoclastic methanogens, therefore is of relevance to o

  20. Utilizing of 1-Hexyl-1-Methyl-Pyrrolidinium Bis (Trifluoromethyl-Sulfonyl Imide as Medium for Electrochemical Generation of Superoxide Ion-Radical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maan Hayyan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The superoxide ion-radical was generated and analysed electrochemically using cyclic voltammetry (CV technique from oxygen dissolved in a room-temperature ionic liquid, 1-Hexyl-1-methyl-pyrrolidinium bis (trifluoromethylsulfonyl imide, at atmospheric pressure. It was found that the generated superoxide ion was stable which indicates its possible use for further useful applications.ABSTRAK: Ion radikal superoksida dihasil dan dianalisa secara elektrokimia menggunakan teknik voltammetri berkitar (cyclic voltammetry (CV daripada oksigen yang dilarutkan dalam larutan ionik pada suhu bilik, 1-Hexyl-1-methyl-pyrrolidinium bis (trifluoromethylsulfonyl imida, pada tekanan atmosfera. Didapati bahawa ion superoksida yang terhasil adalah stabil. Ini menunjukkan ia berkemungkinan berguna dalam aplikasi lain.

  1. Low-temperature heat capacity of room-temperature ionic liquid, 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Yoshitaka; Ohte, Yoko; Yamamura, Yasuhisa; Saito, Kazuya; Atake, Tooru

    2006-07-20

    Heat capacities of liquid, stable crystal, and liquid-quenched glass of a room-temperature ionic liquid (RTIL), 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluromethylsulfonyl)imide were measured between 5 and 310 K by adiabatic calorimetry. Heat capacity of the liquid at 298.15 K was determined for an IUPAC project as (631.6 +/- 0.5) J K(-1) mol(-1). Fusion was observed at T(fus) = 272.10 K for the stable crystalline phase, with enthalpy and entropy of fusion of 28.34 kJ mol(-1) and 104.2 J K(-1) mol(-1), respectively. The purity of the sample was estimated as 99.83 mol % by the fractional melting method. The liquid could be supercooled easily and the glass transition was observed around T(g) approximately 183 K, which was in agreement with the empirical relation, T(g) approximately ((2)/(3)) T(fus). The heat capacity of the liquid-quenched glass was larger than that of the crystal as a whole. In the lowest temperature region, however, the difference between the two showed a maximum around 6 K and a minimum around 15 K, at which the heat capacity of the glass was a little smaller than that of crystal.

  2. Electrochemical behaviour of Cu(II)/Cu(I) redox couple in 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ionic liquid

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Shakeela; A Sri Dithya; Ch Jagadeeswara Rao; G Ranga Rao

    2015-01-01

    The electrochemical behaviour of Cu(II)/Cu(I) redox couple in 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (C6mimCl) ionic liquid was studied using glassy carbon electrode at 375 K by cyclic voltammetry, chronopotentiometry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. In this electrochemical study, we have made an attempt to avoid the problem of water contamination in hygroscopic C6mimCl ionic liquid by setting the temperature at 375 K without glove box. This high temperature cyclic voltammetric study revealed two-step one electron reductions of Cu(II) to Cu(I) followed by Cu(I) to Cu metal. The reduction of Cu(II) to Cu(I) was found to be quasi-reversible at 375 K. The diffusion coefficients of Cu(II) and Cu(I), and the charge transfer rate constant of Cu(II) in C6mimCl were estimated by Randles-Ševčik equation and Nicholson’s method, respectively, and found to be consistent with the quasi-reversible process. Further, constant potential electrodeposition of metallic copper was carried out on a stainless steel electrode at 375 K and the deposit was characterised by X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy.

  3. Kinetic Studies of Atom Transfer Radical Polymerisations of Styrene and Chloromethylstyrene with Poly(3-hexyl thiophene Macroinitiator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nattawoot Rattanathamwat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Poly(3-hexyl thiophene-b-poly(styrene-co-chloromethylstyrene copolymers, to be used as a prepolymer for preparing donor-acceptor block copolymers for organic solar cells, have been synthesised by reacting P3HT macroinitiators with styrene and chloromethylstyrene via three types of atom transfer radical polymerisation (ATRP systems, which are (1 a normal ATRP, (2 activators generated by electron transfer (AGET, and (3 a simultaneous reverse and normal initiation (SR&NI. The kinetics of these ATRP systems were studied as a function of monomers to the macroinitiator molar ratio. It was found that all of the three types of ATRP systems led to first order kinetics with respect to monomers. The highest rate constant (k of 3.4 × 10−3 s−1 was obtained from the SR&NI ATRP system. The molecular weights of the product determined by the GPC were lower than were the theoretical values. The result was discussed in light of the chain transfer reaction to the poly(chloromethylstyrene repeating units. Morphology of the synthesized block copolymers, examined by an atomic force microscopy (AFM, were also compared and discussed.

  4. Antibiofilm Properties of Acetic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Alhede, Morten; Jensen, Peter Østrup; Nielsen, Anne K.; Johansen, Helle Krogh; Homøe, Preben; Høiby, Niels; Givskov, Michael; Kirketerp-Møller, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial biofilms are known to be extremely tolerant toward antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents. These biofilms cause the persistence of chronic infections. Since antibiotics rarely resolve these infections, the only effective treatment of chronic infections is surgical removal of the infected implant, tissue, or organ and thereby the biofilm. Acetic acid is known for its antimicrobial effect on bacteria in general, but has never been thoroughly tested for its efficacy against bacterial biofilms. In this article, we describe complete eradication of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative biofilms using acetic acid both as a liquid and as a dry salt. In addition, we present our clinical experience of acetic acid treatment of chronic wounds. In conclusion, we here present the first comprehensive in vitro and in vivo testing of acetic acid against bacterial biofilms. PMID:26155378

  5. Transport Properties of the 1-Hexyl-3-methylimidazolium Bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide-Trichloromethane Binary System: Indication of Trichloromethane Segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeva, David R; Petenuci, João; Hoffmann, Markus M

    2016-09-15

    Self-diffusion coefficients and electrical conductivity were studied for the binary system 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide-trichloromethane ([C6mim][NTf2]-CHCl3) as a function of composition and temperature. Self-diffusion coefficients of cation and anion are identical for ionic liquid mole fractions xIL < 0.95. The self-diffusion coefficient of CHCl3 is consistently larger than that of the ions by a factor of 4. A double logarithmic plot for the ratio of self-diffusion coefficient and temperature versus viscosity is linear for ionic liquid mole fractions 0.1 < xIL < 0.9 indicating (a) a fractional Stokes-Einstein applies where self-diffusion is inverse proportional to some power b of viscosity (D ∼ η(-b)) and (b) single average length scales are associated with the mass transport of [C6mim][NTf2] and CHCl3. However, the obtained length scale for CHCl3 is unreasonably small, which is indicative of CHCl3 segregation. The molar conductivity displays a maximum near xIL = 0.2. Evaluation of the ionicity from molar conductivity and self-diffusion coefficients indicates a gradual speciation change from charged species to neutral species for xIL < 0.5. The temperature dependencies of self-diffusion and molar conductivity follow Arrhenius behavior. The obtained xIL-dependent activation energies are found to be linear for molar conductivity and largest for the cation and anion self-diffusion coefficients. The activation energies for the self-diffusion of CHCl3 appear to be identical with those obtained from fluidity data.

  6. Investigation on removal pathways of Di 2-ethyl hexyl phthalate from synthetic municipal wastewater using a submerged membrane bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolfaghari, Mehdi; Drogui, Patrick; Seyhi, Brahima; Brar, Satinder Kaur; Buelna, Gerardo; Dubé, Rino; Klai, Nouha

    2015-11-01

    Highly hydrophobic Di 2-ethyl hexyl phthalate (DEHP) is one of the most prevalent plasticizers in wastewaters. Since its half-life in biological treatment is around 25days, it can be used as an efficiency indicator of wastewater treatment plant for the removal of hydrophobic emerging contaminants. In this study, the performance of submerged membrane bioreactor was monitored to understand the effect of DEHP on the growth of aerobic microorganisms. The data showed that the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonia concentration were detected below 10 and 1.0mg/L, respectively for operating conditions of hydraulic retention time (HRT)=4 and 6hr, sludge retention time (SRT)=140day and sludge concentration between 11.5 and 15.8g volatile solid (VS)/L. The removal efficiency of DEHP under these conditions was higher and ranged between 91% and 98%. Results also showed that the removal efficiency of DEHP in biological treatment depended on the concentration of sludge, as adsorption is the main mechanism of its removal. For the submerged membrane bioreactor, the pore size is the pivotal factor for DEHP removal, since it determines the amount of soluble microbial products coming out of the process. Highly assimilated microorganisms increase the biodegradation rate, as 74% of inlet DEHP was biodegraded; however, the concentration of DEHP inside sludge was beyond the discharge limit. Understanding the fate of DEHP in membrane bioreactor, which is one of the most promising and futuristic treatment process could provide replacement for conventional processes to satisfy the future stricter regulations on emerging contaminants.

  7. A novel metabolite (1,3-benzenediol, 5-hexyl) production by Exophiala spinifera strain FM through dibenzothiophene desulfurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmi, Fatemeh; Etemadifar, Zahra; Emtiazi, Giti

    2015-05-01

    Sulfur dioxide which is released from petroleum oil combustion causes pollution over the atmosphere and the soil. Biodesulfurization can be used as a complementary method of hydrodesulfurization, the common method of petroleum desulfurization in refineries. Many studies have been carried out to develop biological desulfurization of dibenzothiophene (DBT) with bacterial biocatalysts. However, fungi are capable to metabolize a wide range of aromatic hydrocarbons through cytochrome P450 and their extracellular enzymes. The aim of the present work was isolation and identification of fungi biocatalysts capable for DBT utilization as sulfur source and production of novel metabolites. DBT consumption and the related produced metabolites were analyzed by HPLC and GC-MS respectively. One of the isolated fungi that could utilize DBT as sole sulfur source was identified by both traditional and molecular experiments and registered in NCBI as Exophiala spinifera FM strain (accession no. KC952672). This strain could desulfurize 99 % of DBT (0.3 mM) as sulfur source by co-metabolism reaction with other carbon sources through the same pathway as 4S and produced 2-hydroxy biphenyl (2-HBP) during 7 days of incubation at 30 °C and 180 rpm shaking. However, the isolate was able to transform 2-HBP to 1,3-benzenediol, 5-hexyl. While biphenyl compounds are toxic to leaving cells, biotransformation of them can reduce their toxicity and the fungi will be more tolerant to the final product. These data are the first report about the desulfurization of DBT comparable to 4S-pathway and production of innovative metabolite by E. spinifera FM strain.

  8. Zinc Acetate Immobilized on Mesoporous Materials by Acetate Ionic Liquids as Catalysts for Vinyl Acetate Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ionic liquid containing active ingredient Zn(CH3COO2 was loaded in mesoporous silica gel to form supported ionic liquids catalyst (SILC which was used to synthesize vinyl acetate monomer (VAM. SILC was characterized by 1HNMR, FT-IR, TGA, BET, and N2 adsorption/desorption and the acetylene method was used to evaluate SILC catalytic activity and stability in fixed reactor. The result shows that 1-allyl-3-acetic ether imidazole acetate ionic liquid is successfully fixed within mesoporous channel of silica gel. The average thickness of ionic liquid catalyst layer is about 1.05 nm. When the catalytic temperature is 195°C, the acetic acid (HAc conversion is 10.9% with 1.1 g vinyl acetate yield and 98% vinyl acetate (VAc selectivity. The HAc conversion is increased by rise of catalytic temperature and molar ratio of C2H2 : HAc and decreased by mass space velocity (WHSV. The catalyst activity is not significantly reduced within 7 days and VAc selectivity has a slight decrease.

  9. Investigation of Mechanisms of Enhanced Open-Circuit Photovoltage of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Based the Electrolyte Containing 1-Hexyl-3-Methylimidazolium Iodide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Miao; ZHANG Qing-Li; WENG Yu-Xiang; LIN Yuan; XIAO Xu-Rui

    2006-01-01

    @@ The open-circuit photovoltage is improved by adding 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium iodide (HMImI) into the electrolyte. To investigate the mechanisms of the increase of the open-circuit photovoltage, we take the Mott Schottky analysis and time-resolved mid-infrared absorption spectroscopy to study the band edge movement of TiO2 and the rate of back electron transfer, respectively. The results indicate that the negative shift of the conduction band of TiO2 is a predominant factor to increase the open-circuit photovoltage for the electrolyte containing HMImL

  10. Analysis of proteins responsive to acetic acid in Acetobacter: molecular mechanisms conferring acetic acid resistance in acetic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Shigeru; Fukaya, Masahiro

    2008-06-30

    Acetic acid bacteria are used for industrial vinegar production because of their remarkable ability to oxidize ethanol and high resistance to acetic acid. Although several molecular machineries responsible for acetic acid resistance in acetic acid bacteria have been reported, the entire mechanism that confers acetic acid resistance has not been completely understood. One of the promising methods to elucidate the entire mechanism is global analysis of proteins responsive to acetic acid by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Recently, two proteins whose production was greatly enhanced by acetic acid in Acetobacter aceti were identified to be aconitase and a putative ABC-transporter, respectively; furthermore, overexpression or disruption of the genes encoding these proteins affected acetic acid resistance in A. aceti, indicating that these proteins are involved in acetic acid resistance. Overexpression of each gene increased acetic acid resistance in Acetobacter, which resulted in an improvement in the productivity of acetic acid fermentation. Taken together, the results of the proteomic analysis and those of previous studies indicate that acetic acid resistance in acetic acid bacteria is conferred by several mechanisms. These findings also provide a clue to breed a strain having high resistance to acetic acid for vinegar fermentation.

  11. 5-(Chloromethylquinolin-8-yl acetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-Qian Kong

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C12H10ClNO2, crystallizes with two independent molecules in the asymmetric unit; these are approximate mirror images of each other. In each molecule, the chloromethyl and acetate groups lie on the same side of the quinoline ring system, with dihedral angles between the ring plane and the plane of the acetate group of 82.0 (1 and −79.2 (1°. The C—C—C—Cl torsion angles for the chloromethyl groups of the two molecules are 80.9 (2 and −83.1 (2°.

  12. Universal charge quenching and stability of proteins in 1-methyl-3-alkyl (hexyl/octyl) imidazolium chloride ionic liquid solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawat, Kamla; Bohidar, H B

    2012-09-13

    This study reports pH dependent stability of protein dispersions of five common proteins, bovine serum albumin (BSA), human serum albumin (HSA), immunoglobulin (IgG), β-lactoglobulin (β-Lg), and gelatin-B (Gel-B), all having isoelectric pH, pI ≈ 5, in room temperature ionic liquid solutions of 1-methyl-3-alkyl (hexyl/octyl) imidazolium chloride (concentration 0-0.2% w/v). Molecular hydrophobicity index, (H-index = hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity) of these molecules spanned the range 0.43-0.87. Electrophoretic characteristics, surface tension data and hydrodynamic size information revealed that IL solutions provide dispersion stability owing to specific protein-IL binding which did not alter their pI values though their surface charge was considerably screened. Change in maximum (ζ(max)) and minimum (ζ(min)) zeta potential values observed at pH ~3 (maximum protonated state) and pH ~8 (maximum deprotonated state) could be described universally as function of IL concentration, c as Δζ(x) = [1 - exp(-ac)] where Δζ(x) is either |(ζ(max) - ζ(w))|/ζ(w) or |(ζ(min) - ζ(w))|/ζ(w), and ζ(w) is the corresponding value in water. Tensiometry data showed two major stages of protein-IL interactions: (i) for c cmc free IL-aggregates begin to form. Similarly, we can define Δγ(x) as either |(γ(max) - γ(w))|/γ(w) at pH 3 or |(γ(min) - γ(w))|/γ(w) at pH 8. Both Δζ(x) and Δγ(x) showed linear dependence with c, Δγ(min, max) (or Δζ(min, max)) = (1 - K(γ) (or K(ζ)) H-index), where the slopes K(ζ) and K(γ) defined intermolecular interactions. Hydrodynamic radii data revealed protein stabilization, circular dichroism spectra implied retention of secondary structures, and Raman spectra confirmed a marginal increase in water structure. Results concluded that selective binding of IL molecules to protein surface in the form of bilayer screen protein surface charge, thereby, contributing to its dispersion stability.

  13. Desmopressin Acetate in Intracranial Haemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Kapapa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The secondary increase in the size of intracranial haematomas as a result of spontaneous haemorrhage or trauma is of particular relevance in the event of prior intake of platelet aggregation inhibitors. We describe the effect of desmopressin acetate as a means of temporarily stabilising the platelet function. Patients and Methods. The platelet function was analysed in 10 patients who had received single (N=4 or multiple (N=6 doses of acetylsalicylic acid and 3 patients (control group who had not taken acetylsalicylic acid. All subjects had suffered intracranial haemorrhage. Analysis was performed before, half an hour and three hours after administration of desmopressin acetate. Statistical analysis was performed by applying a level of significance of P≤0.05. Results. (1 Platelet function returned to normal 30 minutes after administration of desmopressin acetate. (2 The platelet function worsened again after three hours. (3 There were no complications related to electrolytes or fluid balance. Conclusion. Desmopressin acetate can stabilise the platelet function in neurosurgical patients who have received acetylsalicylic acid prior to surgery without causing transfusion-related side effects or a loss of time. The effect is, however, limited and influenced by the frequency of drug intake. Further controls are needed in neurosurgical patients.

  14. Symthesis of Methyl Hexyl Acetaldehyde by Darzems Reactiom%Darzens 反应合成甲基己基乙醛

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈文抗

    2014-01-01

    The solvent method for synthesizing methyl hexyl acetaldehyde,under the anhydrous and alkali catalysis,methyl nonyl ketone and α - halogenated acid ester via Darzens reaction to generate α,β - epoxy acid ester,saponification, acidification,heating and decarboxylation. The optimum process conditions acquired:petroleum ether as solvent,reaction temperature for 10 ~ 15℃ for condensation,condensation rate of reached 75% ;25% NaOH solution for saponification;2% sulfuric acidhyl sulfoxide for decarboxylation,the methyl hexyl acetaldehyde must rate reached 61% .%溶剂法缩合制甲基己基乙醛,以甲基壬酮与α-卤代酸酯在无水碱催化下,通过 Darzens 反应生成α,β-环氧酸酯,经皂化、酸化、加热脱羧而得,并对该工艺进行优化,缩合反应以石油醚为溶剂,反应温度为10~15℃,缩合收率达到75%;水解反应:用25%的 NaOH 溶液;脱羧反应:用2%的硫酸,使甲基己基乙醛总收率达到61%。

  15. Carbon-isotopic analysis of dissolved acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelwicks, J T; Hayes, J M

    1990-01-01

    Heating of dried, acetate-containing solids together with oxalic acid dihydrate conveniently releases acetic acid for purification by gas chromatography. For determination of the carbon-isotopic composition of total acetate, the acetate-containing zone of the chromatographic effluent can be routed directly to a combustion furnace coupled to a vacuum system allowing recovery, purification, and packaging of CO2 for mass-spectrometric analysis. For analysis of methyl carbon, acetic acid can be cryogenically trapped from the chromatographic effluent, then transferred to a tube containing excess NaOH. The tube is evacuated, sealed, and heated to 500 degrees C to produce methane by pyrolysis of sodium acetate. Subsequent combustion of the methane allows determination of the 13C content at the methyl position in the parent acetate. With typical blanks, the standard deviation of single analyses is less than 0.4% for acetate samples larger than 5 micromoles. A full treatment of uncertainties is outlined.

  16. 21 CFR 522.2476 - Trenbolone acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... days. (A) 140 milligrams (mg) trenbolone acetate (one implant consisting of 7 pellets, each pellet containing 20 mg trenbolone acetate) per implant dose. (B) 140 mg trenbolone acetate (one implant consisting... 29 mg tylosin tartrate) per implant dose. (ii) Indications for use. For improved feed...

  17. 21 CFR 582.1005 - Acetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acetic acid. 582.1005 Section 582.1005 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1005 Acetic acid. (a) Product. Acetic acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  18. Pallidol hexaacetate ethyl acetate monosolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinyong Mao

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The entire molecule of pallidol hexaacetate {systematic name: (±-(4bR,5R,9bR,10R-5,10-bis[4-(acetyloxyphenyl]-4b,5,9b,10-tetrahydroindeno[2,1-a]indene-1,3,6,8-tetrayl tetraacetate} is completed by the application of twofold rotational symmetry in the title ethyl acetate solvate, C40H34O12·C4H8O2. The ethyl acetate molecule was highly disordered and was treated with the SQUEEZE routine [Spek (2009. Acta Cryst. D65, 148–155]; the crystallographic data take into account the presence of the solvent. In pallidol hexaacetate, the dihedral angle between the fused five-membered rings (r.m.s. deviation = 0.100 Å is 54.73 (6°, indicating a significant fold in the molecule. Significant twists between residues are also evident as seen in the dihedral angle of 80.70 (5° between the five-membered ring and the pendent benzene ring to which it is attached. Similarly, the acetate residues are twisted with respect to the benzene ring to which they are attached [C—O(carboxy—C—C torsion angles = −70.24 (14, −114.43 (10 and −72.54 (13°]. In the crystal, a three-dimensional architecture is sustained by C—H...O interactions which encompass channels in which the disordered ethyl acetate molecules reside.

  19. Disruption of the acetate kinase (ack) gene of Clostridium acetobutylicum results in delayed acetate production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuit, W.; Minton, N.P.; Lopez Contreras, A.M.; Eggink, G.

    2012-01-01

    In microorganisms, the enzyme acetate kinase (AK) catalyses the formation of ATP from ADP by de-phosphorylation of acetyl phosphate into acetic acid. A mutant strain of Clostridium acetobutylicum lacking acetate kinase activity is expected to have reduced acetate and acetone production compared to

  20. Disruption of the acetate kinase (ack) gene of Clostridium acetobutylicum results in delayed acetate production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuit, W.; Minton, N.P.; Lopez Contreras, A.M.; Eggink, G.

    2012-01-01

    In microorganisms, the enzyme acetate kinase (AK) catalyses the formation of ATP from ADP by de-phosphorylation of acetyl phosphate into acetic acid. A mutant strain of Clostridium acetobutylicum lacking acetate kinase activity is expected to have reduced acetate and acetone production compared to t

  1. Chemical and biologic characteristics of roxatidine acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickel, M; Herling, A W; Schoelkens, B; Scholtholt, J

    1988-01-01

    Roxatidine acetate is a specific and competitive H2-receptor antagonist, as shown in isolated rabbit gastric glands or guinea pig atria preparations. The antisecretory effect of roxatidine acetate is mediated by its main metabolite, roxatidine. In the rat, roxatidine acetate was equipotent after intraduodenal and intraperitoneal administration, indicating excellent bioavailability. Roxatidine acetate and roxatidine were equipotent in the rat after intravenous administration. In the Heidenhain-pouch dog stimulated by food ingestion or maximal histamine dosing, roxatidine acetate and roxatidine proved to be 3-6 times more potent than cimetidine in inhibiting gastric acid secretion. From in vitro experiments it can be concluded that roxatidine acetate and ranitidine are equipotent. Roxatidine acetate has no antiandrogenic effects and does not influence drug-metabolizing enzymes in the liver.

  2. Ultrafast transient absorption spectrum of the room temperature Ionic liquid 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide: Confounding effects of photo-degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musat, Raluca M.; Crowell, Robert A.; Polyanskiy, Dmitriy E.; Thomas, Marie F.; Wishart, James F.; Katsumura, Yosuke; Takahashi, Kenji

    2015-12-01

    The photochemistry of the charge transfer (CT) band of the room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide (HMIm+/Br-) is investigated using near-IR to vis ultrafast transient absorption (TA) and steady-state UV absorption spectroscopies. Continuous irradiation of the CT band at 266 nm results in the formation of photo-products that absorb strongly at 266 nm. It is shown that these photo-products, which are apparently very stable, adversely affect ultrafast TA measurements. Elimination of these effects reveals at least two transient species that exist within the TA detection window of 100 fs to 3 ns and 500-1250 nm. One of the components is a short-lived (mechanism.

  3. Photovoltaic characterization of hybrid solar cells using surface modified TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles and poly(3-hexyl)thiophene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenes, Serap [Yildiz Technical University, Faculty of Arts and Science, Department of Physics, Davutpasa Campus, 34220, Esenler, Istanbul (Turkey); Marjanovic, Nenad [Plastic electronic GmbH, Rappetsederweg 28, A-4040 Linz (Austria); Nedeljkovic, Jovan M [Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, PO Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Sariciftci, Niyazi Serdar [Linz Institute for Organic Solar Cells (LIOS), Physical Chemistry, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Altenberger Strasse 69, A-4040, Linz (Austria)], E-mail: sgunes@yildiz.edu.tr

    2008-10-22

    We report on the photovoltaic performance of bulk heterojunction solar cells using novel nanoparticles of 6-palmitate ascorbic acid surface modified TiO{sub 2} as an electron acceptor embedded into the donor poly(3-hexyl)thiophene (P3HT) matrix. Devices were fabricated by using P3HT with varying amounts of red TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles (1:1, 1:2, 1:3 w-w ratio). The devices were characterized by measuring current-voltage characteristics under simulated AM 1.5 conditions. Incident photon to current efficiency (IPCE) was spectrally resolved. The nanoscale morphology of such organic/inorganic hybrid blends was also investigated using atomic force microscopy (AFM)

  4. [1,1'-Bis(dicyclo-hexyl-phosphino)cobalto-cenium-κP,P']chlorido(η-cyclo-penta-dien-yl)ruthenium(II) hexa-fluorido-phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jian-Guo

    2010-01-30

    In the title structure, [CoRu(C(5)H(5))(C(17)H(26)P)(2)Cl]PF(6), the Ru(II) atom is bonded to a cyclo-penta-dienyl ring, a Cl atom and two P atoms of the chelating 1,1'-bis-(dicyclo-hexyl-phosphino)cobaltocenium (di-cypc) ligand, leading to a three-legged piano-stool coordination. Part of the PF(6) (-) counter-anion is disordered over two positions, with a site-occupancy ratio of 0.898 (7):0.102 (7). The components are linked by C-H⋯F and C-H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds.

  5. Global gene expression profile induced by the UV-filter 2-ethyl-hexyl-4-trimethoxycinnamate (EHMC) in zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zucchi, Sara [University of Applied Sciences Northwestern Switzerland, School of Life Sciences, Gruendensrasse 40, CH-4132 Muttenz (Switzerland); Oggier, Daniela M. [University of Applied Sciences Northwestern Switzerland, School of Life Sciences, Gruendensrasse 40, CH-4132 Muttenz (Switzerland); University of Zuerich, Institute of Plant Biology, Division of Limnology, 8802 Kilchberg (Switzerland); Fent, Karl, E-mail: karl.fent@fhnw.ch [University of Applied Sciences Northwestern Switzerland, School of Life Sciences, Gruendensrasse 40, CH-4132 Muttenz (Switzerland); Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zuerich (ETH Zuerich), Department of Environmental Sciences, 8092 Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2011-10-15

    Residues of the UV-filter 2-ethyl-hexyl-4-trimethoxycinnamate (EHMC) are ubiquitously found in aquatic biota but potential adverse effects in fish are fairly unknown. To identify molecular effects and modes of action of EHMC we applied a gene expression profiling in zebrafish using whole genome microarrays. Transcriptome analysis and validation of targeted genes were performed after 14 days of exposure of male zebrafish. Concentrations of 2.2 {mu}g/L and 890 {mu}g/L EHMC lead to alteration of 1096 and 1137 transcripts, respectively, belonging to many pathways. Genes involved in lipid metabolism and estrogenic pathway (vtg1), lipid biosynthesis (ptgds), vitamin A metabolic process (rbp2a), DNA damage and apoptosis (gadd45b), and regulation of cell growth (igfbp1a) were investigated by qRT-PCR analysis in whole body, liver, brain and testis. The analysis showed tissue-specific gene profiles and revealed that EHMC slightly affects the transcription of genes involved in hormonal pathways including vtg1, esr1, esr2b, ar, cyp19b and hsd17{beta}3. - Highlights: > The UV-filter EHMC accumulates in biota and shows expressional changes in fish. > Molecular effects of EHMC are demonstrated by microarrays and qRT-PCR in zebrafish. > Expressional changes in zebrafish occur at environmentally relevant concentrations. > The expressional changes point to interference of EHMC with the sex hormone system. > Additionally, many pathways are affected demonstrating multiple activities of EHMC. - Gene expression changes by 2-ethyl-hexyl-4-trimethoxycinnamate in zebrafish.

  6. Isobaric Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium of Binary Systems: p-Xylene + (Acetic Acid, Methyl Acetate and n-Propyl Acetate)and Methyl Acetate + n-Propyl Acetate in an Acetic Acid Dehydration Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Xiuhui; ZHONG Weimin; PENG Changjun; QIAN Feng

    2013-01-01

    The vapor-liquid equilibrium data of four binary systems(acetic acid + p-xylene,methyl acetate + n-propyl acetate,n-propyl acetate + p-xylene and methyl acetate + p-xylene)are measured at 101.33 kPa with Ellis equilibrium still,and then both the NRTL and UNIQUAC models are used in combination with the HOC model for correlating and estimating the vapor-liquid equilibrium of these four binary systems.The estimated binary VLE results using correlated parameters agree well with the measured data except the methyl acetate + p-xylene system which easily causes bumping and liquid rushing out of the sampling tap due to their dramatically different boiling points.The correlation results by NRTL and UNIQUAC models have little difference on the average absolute deviations of temperature and composition of vapor phase,and the results by NRTL model are slightly better than those by UNIQUAC model except for the methyl acetate + n-propyl acetate system,for which the latter gives more accurate correlations.

  7. 21 CFR 184.1005 - Acetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Acetic acid. 184.1005 Section 184.1005 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1005 Acetic acid. (a) Acetic acid (C2H4O2, CAS Reg. No. 64-19-7) is known as ethanoic acid. It occurs naturally in plant and animal tissues. It is produced by fermentation...

  8. Extractive fermentation of acetic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busche, R.M. [Bio En-Gene-Er Associates, Inc., Wilmington, DE (United States)

    1991-12-31

    In this technoeconomic evaluation of the manufacture of acetic acid by fermentation, the use of the bacterium: Acetobacter suboxydans from the old vinegar process was compared with expected performance of the newer Clostridium thermoaceticum bacterium. Both systems were projected to operate as immobilized cells in a continuous, fluidized bed bioreactor, using solvent extraction to recover the product. Acetobacter metabolizes ethanol aerobically to produce acid at 100 g/L in a low pH medium. This ensures that the product is in the form of a concentrated extractable free acid, rather than as an unextractable salt. Unfortunately, yields from glucose by way of the ethanol fermentation are poor, but near the biological limits of the organisms involved. Conversely, C. thermoaceticum is a thermophilic anaerobe that operates at high fermentation rates on glucose at neutral pH to produce acetate salts directly in substantially quantitative yields. However, it is severely inhibited by product, which restricts concentration to a dilute 20 g/L. An improved Acetobacter system operating with recycled cells at 50 g/L appears capable of producing acid at $0.38/lb, as compared with a $0.29/lb price for synthetic acid. However, this system has only a limited margin for process improvement. The present Clostridium system cannot compete, since the required selling price would be $0.42/lb. However, if the organism could be adapted to tolerate higher product concentrations at acid pH, selling price could be reduced to $0.22/lb, or about 80% of the price of synthetic acid.

  9. Optimization of coproduction of ethyl acetate and n-butyl acetate by reactive distillation☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Tian; Suying Zhao; Huidong Zheng; Zhixian Huang

    2015-01-01

    Based on a previous investigation, a simulation model was used for optimization of coproduction of ethyl acetate and n-butyl acetate by reactive distil ation. An experimental setup was established to verify the simulated results. The effects of various operating variables, such as ethanol feed location, acetic acid feed location, feed stage of reaction mixture of acetic acid and n-butanol, reflux ratio of ethyl acetate reactive distillation column, and distil-late to feed ratio of n-butyl acetate column, on the ethanol/n-butanol conversions, ethyl acetate/n-butyl acetate purity, and energy consumption were investigated. The optimal results in the simulation study are as follows:ethanol feed location, 15th stage;acetic acid feed location, eighth stage;feed location of reaction mixture of acetic acid and n-butanol, eighth stage;reflux ratio of ethyl acetate reactive distillation column, 2.0;and distillate to feed ratio of n-butyl acetate, 0.6.

  10. Manufacturing Ethyl Acetate From Fermentation Ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohatgi, Naresh K.; Ingham, John D.

    1991-01-01

    Conceptual process uses dilute product of fermentation instead of concentrated ethanol. Low-concentration ethanol, extracted by vacuum from fermentation tank, and acetic acid constitutes feedstock for catalytic reaction. Product of reaction goes through steps that increases ethyl acetate content to 93 percent by weight. To conserve energy, heat exchangers recycle waste heat to preheat process streams at various points.

  11. Direct Oxidation of Ethene to Acetic Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Direct oxidation of ethene to acetic acid over Pd-SiW12/SiO2 catalysts prepared by several methods was studied. A better method for reducing palladium composition of the catalysts was found. Acetic acid was obtained with selectivity of 82.7% and once-through space time yield (STY) of 257.4 g/h×L.

  12. Predominant contribution of syntrophic acetate oxidation to thermophilic methane formation at high acetate concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Li-Ping; Lü, Fan; He, Pin-Jing; Li, Lei; Shao, Li-Ming

    2011-01-15

    To quantify the contribution of syntrophic acetate oxidation to thermophilic anaerobic methanogenesis under the stressed condition induced by acidification, the methanogenic conversion process of 100 mmol/L acetate was monitored simultaneously by using isotopic tracing and selective inhibition techniques, supplemented with the analysis of unculturable microorganisms. Both quantitative methods demonstrated that, in the presence of aceticlastic and hydrogenotrophic methanogens, a large percentage of methane (up to 89%) was initially derived from CO(2) reduction, indicating the predominant contribution of the syntrophic acetate oxidation pathway to acetate degradation at high acid concentrations. A temporal decrease of the fraction of hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis from more than 60% to less than 40% reflected the gradual prevalence of the aceticlastic methanogenesis pathway along with the reduction of acetate. This apparent discrimination of acetate methanization pathways highlighted the importance of the syntrophic acetate-oxidizing bacteria to initialize methanogenesis from high organic loadings.

  13. Desvenlafaxinium chloranilate ethyl acetate solvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manpreet Kaur

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In the cation of the title compound, C16H26NO2+·C6HCl2O4−·C4H8O2, the 1-hydroxy-cyclohexyl ring adopts a slightly distorted chair conformation. The dihedral angle between the mean planes of the 1-hydroxycyclohexyl and 4-hydroxyphenyl rings is 84.0 (8°. In the anion, the hydroxyl H atom is twisted slightly out of the ring plane with a C—C—O—H torsion angle of −171.9°. Disorder was modeled for the methyl group of the acetate group in the solvate with an occupancy ratio of 0.583 (15: 0.417 (15. In the crystal, O—H...O hydrogen bonds are observed between cations and between cations and anions, while bifuricated N—H...(O,O cation–anion hydrogen bonds are also present, forming chains along [010] and [100]. In addition weak cation–anion and cation–solvate C—H...O interactions occur.

  14. Role of 2-hexyl, 5-propyl resorcinol production by Pseudomonas chlororaphis PCL1606 in the multitrophic interactions in the avocado rhizosphere during the biocontrol process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón, Claudia E; de Vicente, Antonio; Cazorla, Francisco M

    2014-07-01

    Different bacterial traits can contribute to the biocontrol of soilborne phytopathogenic fungus. Among others, (1) antagonism, (2) competition for nutrients and niches, (3) induction of systemic resistance of the plants and (4) predation and parasitism are the most studied. Pseudomonas chlororaphis PCL1606 is an antagonistic rhizobacterium that produces the antifungal metabolite 2-hexyl, 5-propyl resorcinol (HPR). This bacterium can biologically control the avocado white root rot caused by Rosellinia necatrix. Confocal laser scanning microscopy of the avocado rhizosphere revealed that this biocontrol bacterium and the fungal pathogen compete for the same niche and presumably also for root exudate nutrients. The use of derivative mutants in the geners related to HPR biosynthesis (dar genes) revealed that the lack of HPR production by P. chlororaphis PCL1606 negatively influences the bacterial colonisation of the avocado root surface. Microscopical analysis showed that P. chlororaphis PCL1606 closely interacts and colonises the fungal hyphae, which may represent a novel biocontrol mechanism in this pseudomonad. Additionally, the presence of HPR-producing biocontrol bacteria negatively affects the ability of the fungi to infect the avocado root. HPR production negatively affects hyphal growth, leading to alterations in the R. necatrix physiology visible under microscopy, including the curling, vacuolisation and branching of hyphae, which presumably affects the colonisation and infection abilities of the fungus. This study provides the first report of multitrophic interactions in the avocado rhizosphere, advancing our understanding of the role of HPR production in those interactions.

  15. Thermal stability and structural study of the poly(3-hexyl thiophene)/HiPCO single walled carbon nanotubes (P3HT/SWCNT) nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakour, Anass; Baitoul, Mimouna; Faulques, Eric; Wery-Venturini, Jany

    2016-05-01

    In this work we present the effect of HiPCO single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) introduction into the conjugated polymer matrix poly(3-hexyl thiophene) (P3HT) on the structural and thermal stability of these nanocomposites. The P3HT/SWCNT nanocomposite films were prepared using chloroform and chlorobenzene as solvents and optimised ultrasonication duration. The prepared samples were analyzed by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to study the effect of carbon nanotubes on the thermal stability and structure of the polymer matrix. The measurements carried out for different SWCNT loadings show that the thermal stability was enhanced for a 0.5 wt.%, but exhibits a decrease with increasing the SWCNT content. Our results prove the structural enhancement which is in favor of a better organisation for both P3HT chains and carbon nanotubes due to their interaction. Contribution to the topical issue "Materials for Energy Harvesting, Conversion and Storage (ICOME 2015) - Elected submissions", edited by Jean-Michel Nunzi, Rachid Bennacer and Mohammed El Ganaoui

  16. Tissue responses to hexyl 5-aminolevulinate-induced photodynamic treatment in syngeneic orthotopic rat bladder cancer model: possible pathways of action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arum, Carl-Jørgen; Gederaas, Odrun A.; Larsen, Eivind L. P.; Randeberg, Lise L.; Hjelde, Astrid; Krokan, Hans E.; Svaasand, Lars O.; Chen, Duan; Zhao, Chun-Mei

    2011-02-01

    Orthotopic bladder cancer model in rats mimics human bladder cancer with respect to urothelial tumorigenesis and progression. Utilizing this model at pT1 (superficial stage), we analyze the tissue responses to hexyl 5-aminolevulinate-induced photodynamic therapy (HAL-PDT). In comparison to untreated rats, HAL-PDT causes little change in tumor-free rat bladder but induces inflammatory changes with increased lymphocytes and mononuclear cell infiltration in rat bladders with tumor. Immunohistochemistry reveals that HAL-PDT is without effect on proliferating cell nuclear antigen expression within the tumor and increases caspase-3 expression in both normal urothelium and the tumor. Transmission electron microscopy reveals severe mitochondrial damage, formations of apoptotic bodies, vacuoles, and lipofuscin bodies, but no microvillus-formed niches in HAL-PDT-treated bladder cancer rats. Bioinformatics analysis of the gene expression profile indicates an activation of T-cell receptor signaling pathway in bladder cancer rats without PDT. HAL-PDT increases the expression of CD3 and CD45RA in the tumor (determined by immunohistochemistry). We suggest that pathways of action of HAL-PDT may include, at least, activations of mitochondrial apoptosis and autophagy, breakdown of cancer stem cell niches, and importantly, enhancement of T-cell activation.

  17. Improvement in enzyme activity and stability by addition of low molecular weight polyethylene glycol to sodium bis(2-ethyl-L-hexyl)sulfosuccinate/isooctane reverse micellar system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukder, M M R; Takeyama, T; Hayashi, Y; Wu, J C; Kawanishi, T; Shimizu, N; Ogino, C

    2003-08-01

    The activity and stability of Chromobacterium viscosum lipase (glycerolester hydrolase, EC 3.1.1.3)-catalyzed olive oil hydrolysis in sodium bis (2-ethyl-l-hexyl)sulfosuccinate (AOT)/isooctane reverse micelles is increased appreciably when low molecular weight polyethylene glycol (PEG 400) is added to the reverse micelles. To understand the effect of PEG 400 on the phase behavior of the reverse micellar system, the phase diagram of AOT/ PEG 400/water/isooctane system was studied. The influences of relevant parameters on the catalytic activity in AOT/PEG 400 reverse micelles were investigated and compared with the results in the simple AOT reverse micelles. In the presence of PEG 400, the linear decreasing trend of the lipase activity with AOT concentration, which is observed in the simple AOT reverse micelles, disappeared. Enzyme entrapped in AOT/PEG reverse micelles was very stable, retaining >75% of its initial activity after 60 d, whereas the half-life in simple AOT reverse micelles was 38 d. The kinetics parameter maximum velocity (Vmax) exhibiting the temperature dependence and the activation energy obtained by Arrhenius plot was suppressed significantly by the addition of PEG 400.

  18. Absorption of CO2 in the ionic liquid 1-n-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate ([hmim][FEP]): a molecular view by computer simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaochun; Huo, Feng; Liu, Zhiping; Wang, Wenchuan; Shi, Wei; Maginn, Edward J

    2009-05-28

    Using a computational screening methodology, we predicted (AIChE J. 2008, 54, 2717) that the anion tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate ([FEP]) should increase the solubility of CO2 in ionic liquids (ILs) relative to a wide range of conventional anions. This prediction was confirmed experimentally. In this work, we develop a united-atom force field for the [FEP] anion and use the continuous fractional component Monte Carlo (CFC MC) method to predict CO2 absorption isotherms in 1-n-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium ([hmim]) [FEP] at 298.2 and 323.2 K and pressures up to 20.0 bar. The simulated isotherms overestimate the solubility of CO2 by about 20% but capture the experimental trends quite well. Additional Monte Carlo (MC) and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are performed to study the mechanisms of CO2 absorption in [hmim][FEP] and [hmim][PF6]. The site-site radial distribution functions (RDFs) show that CO2 is highly organized around the [PF6] anion due to its symmetry and smaller size, while less ordered distributions were found around [FEP] and [hmim]. However, more CO2 can be found in the first coordination shell of [FEP] compared with [PF6]. The structures of ILs, illustrated by P-P radial distribution functions, change very little upon the addition of as much as 50 mol % CO2. An energetic analysis shows that the van der Waals interactions between CO2 and ILs are generally larger than electrostatic interactions.

  19. Crystal structure of 1,3-bis(4-hexyl-5-iodothiophen-2-yl-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-2-benzothiophene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Linshoeft

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the crystal structure of the title compound, C28H36I2S3, a terthiophene monomer, the central thiophene unit is arranged anti-coplanar to the two outer thiophene rings. There are two crystallographically independent molecules in the asymmetric unit, which show different conformations. In one molecule, the dihedral angles between the inner and the two outer thiophene rings are 15.7 (3 and 3.47 (3°, whereas these values are 4.2 (3 and 11.3 (3° for the second molecule. Differences are also found in the arrangement of the hexyl chains: in one of the two molecules, both chains are nearly in plane to the central moiety, whereas in the second molecule, only one chain is in plane and the other one is nearly perpendicular to the central moiety. Some of the C atoms are disordered and were refined using a split model with occupancy ratios of 0.65:0.35 and 0.70:0.30 in the two molecules.

  20. Effects of culture conditions on acetic acid production by bacteria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2015-11-30

    Nov 30, 2015 ... Keywords: Acetic acid bacteria, acetic acid production, Cocoa fermentation, culture conditions. INTRODUCTION ... assessed by acid forming colony characterized by a ... production capacity to ethanol, lactic acid, acetic acid.

  1. Disruption of the acetate kinase (ack) gene of Clostridium acetobutylicum results in delayed acetate production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuit, Wouter; Minton, Nigel P; López-Contreras, Ana M; Eggink, Gerrit

    2012-05-01

    In microorganisms, the enzyme acetate kinase (AK) catalyses the formation of ATP from ADP by de-phosphorylation of acetyl phosphate into acetic acid. A mutant strain of Clostridium acetobutylicum lacking acetate kinase activity is expected to have reduced acetate and acetone production compared to the wild type. In this work, a C. acetobutylicum mutant strain with a selectively disrupted ack gene, encoding AK, was constructed and genetically and physiologically characterized. The ack (-) strain showed a reduction in acetate kinase activity of more than 97% compared to the wild type. The fermentation profiles of the ack (-) and wild-type strain were compared using two different fermentation media, CGM and CM1. The latter contains acetate and has a higher iron and magnesium content than CGM. In general, fermentations by the mutant strain showed a clear shift in the timing of peak acetate production relative to butyrate and had increased acid uptake after the onset of solvent formation. Specifically, in acetate containing CM1 medium, acetate production was reduced by more than 80% compared to the wild type under the same conditions, but both strains produced similar final amounts of solvents. Fermentations in CGM showed similar peak acetate and butyrate levels, but increased acetoin (60%), ethanol (63%) and butanol (16%) production and reduced lactate (-50%) formation by the mutant compared to the wild type. These findings are in agreement with the proposed regulatory function of butyryl phosphate as opposed to acetyl phosphate in the metabolic switch of solventogenic clostridia.

  2. Acetobacter pasteurianus metabolic change induced by initial acetic acid to adapt to acetic acid fermentation conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yu; Zhang, Renkuan; Yin, Haisong; Bai, Xiaolei; Chang, Yangang; Xia, Menglei; Wang, Min

    2017-08-02

    Initial acetic acid can improve the ethanol oxidation rate of acetic acid bacteria for acetic acid fermentation. In this work, Acetobacter pasteurianus was cultured in ethanol-free medium, and energy production was found to increase by 150% through glucose consumption induced by initial acetic acid. However, oxidation of ethanol, instead of glucose, became the main energy production pathway when upon culturing ethanol containing medium. Proteome assay was used to analyze the metabolism change induced by initial acetic acid, which provided insight into carbon metabolic and energy regulation of A. pasteurianus to adapt to acetic acid fermentation conditions. Results were further confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR. In summary, decreased intracellular ATP as a result of initial acetic acid inhibition improved the energy metabolism to produce more energy and thus adapt to the acetic acid fermentation conditions. A. pasteurianus upregulated the expression of enzymes related to TCA and ethanol oxidation to improve the energy metabolism pathway upon the addition of initial acetic acid. However, enzymes involved in the pentose phosphate pathway, the main pathway of glucose metabolism, were downregulated to induce a change in carbon metabolism. Additionally, the enhancement of alcohol dehydrogenase expression promoted ethanol oxidation and strengthened the acetification rate, thereby producing a strong proton motive force that was necessary for energy production and cell tolerance to acetic acid.

  3. Luminescence properties of uranyl-acetate species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinkmann, Hannes; Moll, Henry [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Inst. of Resource Ecology; Stumpf, Thorsten [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Biogeochemistry

    2017-06-01

    Time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS) was applied to characterize uranium(VI)- acetate species based on their luminescence properties. In contrast to previous interpretations, no indications were detected for the existence of the 1: 3 complex.

  4. Effect of fluorogesterone acetate impregnated intravaginal sponges ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of fluorogesterone acetate impregnated intravaginal sponges 1 on vaginal bacterial flora of ewes. ... The bacterial flora of the vagina of ten ewes was determined at sponge removal and two days later before insertion of ... Article Metrics.

  5. Acetic acid fermentation of acetobacter pasteurianus: relationship between acetic acid resistance and pellicle polysaccharide formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanchanarach, Watchara; Theeragool, Gunjana; Inoue, Taketo; Yakushi, Toshiharu; Adachi, Osao; Matsushita, Kazunobu

    2010-01-01

    Acetobacter pasteurianus strains IFO3283, SKU1108, and MSU10 were grown under acetic acid fermentation conditions, and their growth behavior was examined together with their capacity for acetic acid resistance and pellicle formation. In the fermentation process, the cells became aggregated and covered by amorphous materials in the late-log and stationary phases, but dispersed again in the second growth phase (due to overoxidation). The morphological change in the cells was accompanied by changes in sugar contents, which might be related to pellicle polysaccharide formation. To determine the relationship between pellicle formation and acetic acid resistance, a pellicle-forming R strain and a non-forming S strain were isolated, and their fermentation ability and acetic acid diffusion activity were compared. The results suggest that pellicle formation is directly related to acetic acid resistance ability, and thus is important to acetic acid fermentation in these A. pasteurianus strains.

  6. Acetate intolerance and an inhibitor of acetate utilization in hemodialysis patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egan, J.D.; Wells, I.C.

    1979-03-01

    Diminished ability to utilize acetate (acetate intolerance) developed in a male patient on chronic hemodialysis after five years of maintenance dialysis. His ability to utilize lactate was also subnormal. We studied acetate metabolism in vitro by isolating lymphocytes from the patient's blood before dialysis and measuring their ability to convert (1-/sub 14/C)acetate to /sub 14/CO2. His cells metabolized acetate only 35% as well as did lymphocytes from normal adults. The inhibition appeared when the patient's lymphocytes were cultured, and the ability of normal lymphocytes to oxidize acetate decreased after they had been incubated in the patient's plasma. We conclude that an inhibitor of acetate utilization is present in the plasma and in (or on) the cells of this acetate-intolerant patient. The diminished ability of the patient to utilize lactate and the presence of normal concentrations of pyruvate, citrate, and ketone bodies in his blood suggest that the inhibitor functions at the cell surface to impede the entrance of acetate into the cells. The inhibitor appears to be dialyzable; its nature is unknown. Its accumulation in the plasma of chronic hemodialysis patients has not been thus far associated with any deleterious effects other than prolonging the metabolic acidosis of such patients.

  7. Synthesis and Thermal Properties of Acrylonitrile/Butyl Acrylate/Fumaronitrile and Acrylonitrile/Ethyl Hexyl Acrylate/Fumaronitrile Terpolymers as a Potential Precursor for Carbon Fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Nurul Ain Md Jamil

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A synthesis of acrylonitrile (AN/butyl acrylate (BA/fumaronitrile (FN and AN/EHA (ethyl hexyl acrylate/FN terpolymers was carried out by redox polymerization using sodium bisulfite (SBS and potassium persulphate (KPS as initiator at 40 °C. The effect of comonomers, BA and EHA and termonomer, FN on the glass transition temperature (Tg and stabilization temperature was studied using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC. The degradation behavior and char yield were obtained by Thermogravimetric Analysis. The conversions of AN, comonomers (BA and EHA and FN were 55%–71%, 85%–91% and 76%–79%, respectively. It was found that with the same comonomer feed (10%, the Tg of AN/EHA copolymer was lower at 63 °C compared to AN/BA copolymer (70 °C. AN/EHA/FN terpolymer also exhibited a lower Tg at 63 °C when compared to that of the AN/BA/FN terpolymer (67 °C. By incorporating BA and EHA into a PAN system, the char yield was reduced to ~38.0% compared to that of AN (~47.7%. It was found that FN reduced the initial cyclization temperature of AN/BA/FN and AN/EHA/FN terpolymers to 228 and 221 °C, respectively, in comparison to that of AN/BA and AN/EHA copolymers (~260 °C. In addition, FN reduced the heat liberation per unit time during the stabilization process that consequently reduced the emission of volatile group during this process. As a result, the char yields of AN/BA/FN and AN/EHA/FN terpolymers are higher at ~45.1% and ~43.9%, respectively, as compared to those of AN/BA copolymer (37.1% and AN/EHA copolymer (38.0%.

  8. Skin barrier function in healthy volunteers as assessed by transepidermal water loss and vascular response to hexyl nicotinate: intra- and inter-individual variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oestmann, E; Lavrijsen, A P; Hermans, J; Ponec, M

    1993-02-01

    This study assesses the variability of two non-invasive methods of measuring stratum corneum barrier function in vivo. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL), and the vascular response to hexyl nicotinate (HN) penetration as determined by laser-Doppler flowmetry, were measured in a group of 21 healthy volunteers. Each time profile of the vascular response to HN penetration was analysed using the following parameters: the baseline cutaneous blood flow, the lag-time between application and initial response (t0), the time between application and maximum response (tmax), the maximum response, and the slope of the curve. TEWL measured on the left volar forearm showed a normal range of 3.9-7.6 g/m2h and a small inter-individual variability [coefficient of variation (CV) 19.4%]. TEWL values at three other forearm sites did not show differences of clinical importance compared with the left volar forearm. The parameters of the vascular response to HN penetration spanned a wider normal range than the TEWL values (CV between 33 and 52%). Repeat measurements after a 1-2 month interval showed highly reproducible individual TEWL values. The mean difference between first and second measurements was only 0.03 g/m2h; the relative difference 0.6%. The intra-individual reproducibility of t0 and tmax. for HN penetration was also high (relative differences of 2.8 and 3.1%, respectively). The other vascular response parameters were less reproducible (relative differences of 6.9-18.6%). We conclude that TEWL and selected parameters of HN penetration, as non-invasive tests of the stratum corneum barrier function, yield reproducible results and are hence useful for investigations assessing the skin barrier function in various disorders.

  9. Clinical characteristics of roxatidine acetate: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dammann, H G; de Looze, S M; Bender, W; Labs, R

    1988-01-01

    Pharmacodynamic studies revealed that 150 mg of roxatidine acetate were optimal in suppressing gastric acid secretion, and that a single bedtime dose of 150 mg was more effective than a dose of 75 mg twice daily in terms of inhibiting nocturnal acid secretion. When administered orally as a capsule containing a granule formulation, the drug displayed modified-release properties, which led to a sustained suppression of gastric acid secretion. Clinical trials revealed that roxatidine acetate, 75 mg twice daily and 150 mg at night, was highly effective in healing duodenal and gastric ulcers and in reducing ulcer pain, over 4, 6, and 8 weeks of therapy. A steady reduction in diameter was observed in those ulcers not completely healed during therapy. The single bedtime dose regimen, while producing the same degree of healing as the divided daily dose during controlled clinical trials, may be of greater value in therapeutic use owing to improved patient compliance. In all efficacy criteria (cure, reduction in ulcer size, and pain relief) there was no significant difference between roxatidine acetate in a total daily dose of 150 mg, ranitidine in a total daily dose of 300 mg, and cimetidine in a total daily dose of 800 mg. Prevention of gastric and duodenal ulcer relapse was achieved by roxatidine acetate, 75 mg at night for 6 months, in about 70% of patients, as determined in open, pilot studies--a rate comparable to those reported for cimetidine and ranitidine. Roxatidine acetate shares with ranitidine an improved safety profile when compared with cimetidine. Human pharmacology studies and short-term and long-term clinical trials have all shown that roxatidine acetate is an exceptionally well tolerated compound, without the antiandrogenic activity and interference with hepatic drug metabolism which have characterized cimetidine treatment. A reason for the improved safety profile of roxatidine acetate may be its greater potency than cimetidine (six times less potent) and

  10. Acetic acid production from food wastes using yeast and acetic acid bacteria micro-aerobic fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; He, Dongwei; Niu, Dongjie; Zhao, Youcai

    2015-05-01

    In this study, yeast and acetic acid bacteria strains were adopted to enhance the ethanol-type fermentation resulting to a volatile fatty acids yield of 30.22 g/L, and improve acetic acid production to 25.88 g/L, with food wastes as substrate. In contrast, only 12.81 g/L acetic acid can be obtained in the absence of strains. The parameters such as pH, oxidation reduction potential and volatile fatty acids were tested and the microbial diversity of different strains and activity of hydrolytic ferment were investigated to reveal the mechanism. The optimum pH and oxidation reduction potential for the acetic acid production were determined to be at 3.0-3.5 and -500 mV, respectively. Yeast can convert organic matters into ethanol, which is used by acetic acid bacteria to convert the organic wastes into acetic acid. The acetic acid thus obtained from food wastes micro-aerobic fermentation liquid could be extracted by distillation to get high-pure acetic acid.

  11. Tested Demonstrations: Buffer Capacity of Various Acetic Acid-Sodium Acetate Systems: A Lecture Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Craig J.; Panek, Mary G.

    1985-01-01

    Background information and procedures are provided for a lecture experiment which uses indicators to illustrate the concept of differing buffer capacities by titrating acetic acid/sodium acetate buffers with 1.0 molar hydrochloric acid and 1.0 molar sodium hydroxide. A table with data used to plot the titration curve is included. (JN)

  12. Different cerebrovascular effects of medroxyprogesterone acetate and norethisterone acetate in the New Zealand White rabbit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, S H; Pedersen, N G; Dalsgaard, T

    2004-01-01

    of different progestins on cerebrovascular reactivity in an animal model. METHODS: Fifty-six ovariectomized New Zealand White rabbits were randomized into seven groups receiving hormone treatment for 4 weeks: medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) (10 mg/day); norethisterone acetate (NETA) (3 mg/day); conjugated...

  13. Acetylation of Starch with Vinyl Acetate in Imidazolium Ionic Liquids and Characterization of Acetate Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starch was acetylated with vinyl acetate in different 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium (BMIM) salts as solvent in effort to produce starches with different acetylation patterns. Overall degree of substitution was much higher for basic anions such as acetate and dicyanimide (dca) than for neutral anions ...

  14. 2-己基-4-乙酰氧基四氢呋喃顺反异构体的制备%Preparation of Trans-and Cis-2-Hexyl-4-acetoxytetrahydrofuran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈凯; 公秀琴; 孙宝国; 杨绍祥; 陈海涛; 田红玉

    2013-01-01

    The preparation of cis-and trans-2-hexyl-4-acetoxytetrahydrofuran has been studied.1-Decen-4-ol was obtained in 86% yield by the Grignard reaction starting from allyl chloride and heptanal,which was then epoxidized by m-chloroperoxybenzoic acid to give 1,2-epoxy-4-decanol in 89% yield.The cis-and trans-2-hexyl-4-hydroxytetrahydrofuran mixture was produced in 90% yield through an intramolecular nucleophilic substitution of 1,2-epoxy-4-decanol promoted by K2CO3.The ratio of trans-to cis-isomer was 53∶47.2-Hexyl-4-hydroxytetrahydrofuran reacted with p-nitrobenzoyl chloride and the products of esterification were separated by column chromatography to give trans-and cis-isomer individually in 52% and 40% yields respectively.The transm-or cis-ester was hydrolyzed in a basic solution to give trans-or cis-2-hexyl-4-hydroxytetrahydrofuran in 85% or 82% yield.Trans-or cis-2-hexyl-4-acetoxytetrahydrofuran was produced after acetylation with Ac2O in 83% or 85% yield.The odor and flavor dilution factor of trans-or cis-2-hexyl-4-acetoxytetrahydrofuran was evaluated by GC-O,which indicates that the two isomers differed in odor feature and intensity.%以烯丙基氯和庚醛为原料通过格氏反应制得1-癸烯-4-醇,产率86%;1-癸烯-4-醇用间氯过氧苯甲酸氧化,得到1,2-环氧-4-癸醇,产率89%;然后,在碳酸钾的作用下1,2-环氧-4-癸醇进行分子内的亲核取代反应,关环得到2-己基-4-羟基四氢呋喃顺反异构体的混合物,产率90%,trans-和cis-异构体比例为53∶47;2-己基-4-羟基四氢呋喃与对硝基苯甲酰氯反应,酯化产物通过柱层析分离,得到trans-和cis-2-己基-4-四氢呋喃对硝基苯甲酸酯,产率分别为52%和40%;分离后的酯化产物的顺反异构体在碱性条件下水解,得到trans-和cis-2-己基-4-羟基四氢呋喃,产率分别为85%和82%;trans-和cis-2-己基-4-羟基四氢呋喃与乙酸酐反应,得到trans-和cis-2-己基-4-乙酰氧基

  15. [Roxatidine acetate in therapy of reflux esophagitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, P; Botzler, R; Mayershofer, R; Kriech, W

    1996-06-10

    A total of 3409 patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease were treated with roxatidine acetate. 60.7% of the patients received a daily dose of 2 x 75 mg roxatidine acetate, and the median duration of treatment was 5 weeks. Symptoms improved in about 90% of patients. For 1687 patients, endoscopic findings were available at the beginning and end of the treatment period. The overall endoscopic healing rate was 65.3%, and, depending on the initial finding (if), decreased from 92.9% (if: Savary-Miller stage I) to 67.5% (if: stage II), 40.7% (if: stage III), and to 22.5% (if: stage IV). Twenty-one patients experienced adverse events during the course of treatment, which, however, were either only minor or not related to the use of roxatidine acetate.

  16. Acetic acid mediated interactions between alumina surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Kimiyasu, E-mail: sato.kimiyasu@aist.go.jp [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Anagahora 2266-98, Shimoshidami, Moriyama-ku, Nagoya 463-8560 (Japan); Y Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I lmaz, Hueseyin [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Anagahora 2266-98, Shimoshidami, Moriyama-ku, Nagoya 463-8560 (Japan); Gebze Institute of Technology, Materials Science and Engineering Department, 41400, Gebze-Kocaeli (Turkey); Ijuin, Atsuko; Hotta, Yuji; Watari, Koji [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Anagahora 2266-98, Shimoshidami, Moriyama-ku, Nagoya 463-8560 (Japan)

    2012-02-01

    Low-molecular-weight organic acids have been known to modify colloidal stability of alumina-based suspensions. We investigated interaction forces between alumina surfaces mediated by acetic acid which is one of the simplest organic acids. Forces between alumina surfaces were measured using the colloid-probe method of atomic force microscope (AFM). Repulsive forces attributed to steric repulsion due to adsorbed molecules and electrostatic repulsion dominated the interaction. Results of rheological characterization of the alumina slurry containing acetic acid supported the finding.

  17. Hydrolysis of Acetic Anhydride in a CSTR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica N. Coraci

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available To find the optimal reactor volume and temperature for the hydrolysis of acetic anhydride at the lowest possible cost with a 90% conversion of acetic anhydride, a formula for the total cost of the reaction was created. Then, the first derivative was taken to find a value for the temperature. This value was then inputted into the second derivative of the equation to find the sign of the value which would indicate whether that point was a minima or maxima value. The minima value would then be the lowest total cost for the optimum reaction to take place.

  18. Experimental and theoretical charge-density analysis of 1,4-bis(5-hexyl-2-thienyl)butane-1,4-dione: applications of a virtual-atom model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Maqsood; Nassour, Ayoub; Noureen, Sajida; Lecomte, Claude; Jelsch, Christian

    2016-02-01

    The experimental and theoretical charge densities of 1,4-bis(5-hexyl-2-thienyl)butane-1,4-dione, a precursor in the synthesis of thiophene-based semiconductors and organic solar cells, are presented. A dummy bond charges spherical atom model is applied besides the multipolar atom model. The results show that the dummy bond charges model is accurate enough to calculate electrostatic-derived properties which are comparable with those obtained by the multipolar atom model. The refinement statistics and the residual electron density values are found to be intermediate between the independent atom and the multipolar formalisms.

  19. The coordination structure of the extracted copper(II) complex with a synergistic mixture containing dinonylnaphthalene sulfonic acid and n-hexyl 3-pyridinecarboxylate ester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shan; Hu, Huiping; Hu, Jiugang; Li, Jiyuan; Hu, Fang; Wang, Yongxi

    2017-09-01

    In continuation of our interest in the coordination structure of the nickel(II) complex with dinonylnaphthalene sulfonic acid (HDNNS) and 2-ethylhexyl 4-pyridinecarboxylate ester (4PC), it was observed that the coordination sphere was completed by the coordination of two N atoms of pyridine rings in ligands 4PC and four water molecules while no direct interaction between Ni(II) and deprotonated HDNNS was observed. To investigate whether the coordination structure of nickel(II) with the synergistic mixture containing HDNNS and 4PC predominates or not in the copper(II) complex with the synergistic mixtures containing HDNNS and pyridinecarboxylate esters, a copper(II) synergist complex with n-hexyl 3-pyridinecarboxylate ester (L) and naphthalene-2-sulfonic acid (HNS, the short chain analogue of HDNNS), was prepared and studied by X-ray single crystal diffraction, elemental analyses and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA), respectively. It was shown that the composition of the copper(II) synergist complex was [Cu(H2O)2(L)2(NS)2] and formed a trans-form distorted octahedral coordination structure. Two oxygen atoms of the two coordinated water molecules and two N atoms of the pyridine rings in the ligands L defined the basal plane while two O atoms from two sulfonate anions of the deprotonated HNS ligands occupied the apical positions by direct coordination with Cu(II), which was distinguished from the coordination structure of the nickel(II) synergist complex as reported in our previous work. In the crystal lattice, neighboring molecules [Cu(H2O)2L2(NS)2] were linked through the intermolecular hydrogen bonds between the hydrogen atoms of the coordinated water molecules and the oxygen atoms of the sulfonate anions in the copper(II) synergist complex to form a 2D plane. In order to bridge the gap between the solid state structure of the copper(II) synergist complex and the solution structure of the extracted copper(II) complex with the actual synergistic mixture containing

  20. Thermodynamic Properties at Saturation Derived from Experimental Two-Phase Isochoric Heat Capacity of 1-Hexyl-3-methylimidazolium bis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]imide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polikhronidi, Nikolai G.; Batyrova, Rabiyat G.; Abdulagatov, Ilmutdin M.; Magee, Joseph W.; Wu, Jiangtao

    2016-11-01

    New measurements are reported for the isochoric heat capacity of the ionic liquid substance 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium bis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]imide ([C6mim][NTf2]). These measurements extend the ranges of our earlier study (Polikhronidi et al. in Phys Chem Liq 52:657, 2014) by 5 % of the compressed liquid density and by 75 K. An adiabatic calorimeter was used to measure one-phase (C_{V1}) liquid and two-phase (C_{V2}) liquid + vapor isochoric heat capacities, densities (ρ _s), and phase-transition temperatures (T_s) of the ionic liquid (IL) substance. The combined expanded uncertainty of the density ρ and isochoric heat capacity C_V measurements at the 95 % confidence level with a coverage factor of k = 2 is estimated to be 0.15 % and 3 %, respectively. Measurements are concentrated in the immediate vicinity of the liquid + vapor phase-transition curve, in order to closely observe phase transitions. The present measurements and those of our earlier study are analyzed together and are presented in terms of thermodynamic properties (T_s, ρ _s, C_{V1} and C_{V2}) evaluated at saturation and in terms of key-derived thermodynamic properties C_P, C_S, W_S^' }}, K_{TS}^' }}, ( {partial P/partial T} ) V^' }, and ( {partial V/partial T} ) _{P}^' }) on the liquid + vapor phase-transition curve. A thermodynamic relation by Yang and Yang is used to confirm the internal consistency of measured two-phase heat capacities C_{V2} , which are observed to fall perfectly on a line as a function of specific volume at a constant temperature. The observed linear behavior is exploited to evaluate contributions to the quantity C_{V2} = f(V, T) from chemical potential C_{{Vμ}} =-Td^{{2}}μ /dT2 and from vapor pressure C_{VP} =VTd2PS /dT2. The physical nature and specific details of the temperature and specific volume dependence of the two-phase isochoric heat capacity and some features of the other derived thermodynamic properties of IL at liquid saturation curve are considered

  1. Ionic association and solvation of the ionic liquid 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride in molecular solvents revealed by vapor pressure osmometry, conductometry, volumetry, and acoustic measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Rahmat; Ebrahimi, Nosaibah

    2011-11-17

    A systematic study of osmotic coefficient, conductivity, volumetric and acoustic properties of solutions of ionic liquid 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([C(6)mim][Cl]) in various molecular solvents has been made at different temperatures in order to study of ionic association and solvation behavior of [C(6)mim][Cl] in different solutions. Precise measurements on electrical conductances of solutions of [C(6)mim][Cl] in water, methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, 2-propanol, 1-butanol, and acetonitrile at 293.15, 298.15, and 303.15 K are reported and analyzed with Barthel's low-concentration chemical model (lcCM) to obtain the limiting molar conductivities and association constants of this ionic liquid in the investigated solvents. Strong ion pairing was found for the ionic liquid in 2-propanol, 1-butanol, and 1-propanol, whereas ion association in acetonitrile, methanol and ethanol is rather weak and in water the ionic liquid is fully dissociated. In the second part of this work, the apparent molar volumes and isentropic compressibilities of [C(6)mim][Cl] in water, methanol, ethanol, acetonitrile, 1-propanol, 2-propanol, and 1-butanol are obtained at the 288.15-313.15 K temperature range at 5 K intervals at atmospheric pressure from the precise measurements of density and sound velocity. The infinite dilution apparent molar volume and isentropic compressibility values of the free ions and ion pairs of [C(6)mim][Cl] in the investigated solvents as well as the excess molar volume of the investigated solutions are determined and their variations with temperature and type of solvents are also studied. Finally, the experimental measurements of osmotic coefficient at 318.15 K for binary solutions of [C(6)mim][Cl] in water, methanol, ethanol, 2-propanol, and acetonitrile are taken using the vapor pressure osmometry (VPO) method and from which the values of the solvent activity, vapor pressure, activity coefficients, and Gibbs free energies are calculated. The results are

  2. Diethyl hexyl phthalate-induced changes in insulin signaling molecules and the protective role of antioxidant vitamins in gastrocnemius muscle of adult male rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srinivasan, Chinnapaiyan; Khan, Adam Ismail; Balaji, Venkataraman; Selvaraj, Jayaraman; Balasubramanian, Karundevi, E-mail: kbala82@rediffmail.com

    2011-12-15

    Diethyl hexyl phthalate (DEHP) is an endocrine disruptor, it influences various organ systems in human beings and experimental animals. DEHP reduced the serum testosterone and increased the blood glucose, estradiol, T{sub 3} and T{sub 4} in rats. However, the effect of DEHP on insulin signaling and glucose oxidation in skeletal muscle is not known. Adult male albino rats were divided into four groups: Group I: Control; Groups II and III: DEHP treated (dissolved in olive oil at a dose of 10 and 100 mg/kg body weight, respectively, once daily through gastric intubation for 30 days); and Group IV: DEHP (100 mg/kg body weight) plus vitamins E (50 mg/kg body weight) and C (100 mg/kg body weight) dissolved in olive oil and distilled water, respectively, once daily through gastric intubation for 30 days. On completion of treatment, animals were euthanized and perfused (whole body); gastrocnemius muscle was dissected out and subjected to assessment of various parameters. DEHP treatment increased the H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, hydroxyl radical levels and lipid peroxidation which disrupt the membrane integrity and insulin receptor. DEHP impaired the insulin signal transduction, glucose uptake and oxidation through decreased expression of plasma membrane GLUT4, which may partly be responsible for the elevation of fasting blood glucose level. The present study suggests that DEHP exposure affects glucose oxidation in skeletal muscle and is mediated through enhanced lipid peroxidation, impaired insulin signaling and GLUT4 expression in plasma membrane. Antioxidant vitamins (C and E) have a protective role against the adverse effect of DEHP. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DEHP treatment significantly decreased serum insulin and testosterone levels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increased ROS and decreased glucose uptake were observed in DEHP treated animals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Impaired insulin signaling in gastrocnemius muscle was observed in DEHP treatment. Black

  3. Octreotide acetate in dominant cystoid macular dystrophy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogewind, B.F.T.; Pieters, G.; Hoyng, C.B.

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: Dominant cystoid macular degeneration (DCMD) is an autosomal dominant trait of cystoid macular edema with poor visual prognosis. Until now, no efficient treatments for DCMD have been reported. The authors evaluated a somatostatin-analogue (octreotide acetate) as treatment for DCMD. METHODS:

  4. Fierce Competition in China's Ethyl Acetate Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Zichang

    2007-01-01

    @@ Ethyl acetate is used extensively in the coatings, inks, pharmaceuticals,adhesives, cosmetics and organic synthesis sectors. With the sustained stable growth of China's national economy, the construction and automobile sectors are developing rapidly and environmental protection laws and regulations are becoming stricter.

  5. Megestrol acetate in cachexia and anorexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Shing-shing; Schuster, Michael W

    2006-01-01

    The aim is to review major clinical trials that have used megestrol acetate (MA) in the treatment of cachexia across several disease states. A review of general usage and potential side-effects are discussed. A theory that the newly approved nanocrystal formation of MA can better deliver this potent medication for treatment will also be reviewed. PMID:17722275

  6. Fragrance material review on 2-phenylpropyl acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 2-phenylpropyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 2-Phenylpropyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohol Simple Acid Esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 2-phenylpropyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, and skin sensitization data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Fragrance material review on piperonyl acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of piperonyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. Piperonyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group aryl alkyl alcohol simple acid esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for piperonyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, toxicokinetics, and genotoxicity data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Fragrance material review on 3-phenylpropyl acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 3-phenylpropyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 3-Phenylpropyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohol Simple Acid Esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 3-phenylpropyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, skin sensitization, and toxicokinetics data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al., 2012 for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Fragrance material review on 4-methylbenzyl acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 4-methylbenzyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 4-Methylbenzyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohol Simple Acid Esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 4-methylbenzyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, skin irritation, skin sensitization, and elicitation data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Heat Bonding of Irradiated Ethylene Vinyl Acetate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slack, D. H.

    1986-01-01

    Reliable method now available for joining parts of this difficult-tobond material. Heating fixture encircles ethylene vinyl acetate multiplesocket part, providing heat to it and to tubes inserted in it. Fixtures specially designed to match parts to be bonded. Tube-and-socket bonds made with this technique subjected to tensile tests. Bond strengths of 50 percent that of base material obtained consistently.

  11. Advanced Colloids Experiment (ACE-T1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, William V.; Sicker, Ron; Brown, Dan; Eustace, John

    2015-01-01

    Increment 45 - 46 Science Symposium presentation of Advanced Colloids Experiment (ACE-T1) to RPO. The purpose of this event is for Principal Investigators to present their science objectives, testing approach, and measurement methods to agency scientists, managers, and other investigators.

  12. Phenyl Acetate Preparation from Phenol and Acetic Acid: Reassessment of a Common Textbook Misconception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocking, M. B.

    1980-01-01

    Reassesses a common textbook misconception that "...phenols cannot be esterified directly." Results of experiments are discussed and data tables provided of an effective method for the direct preparation of phenyl acetate. (CS)

  13. Correlation of vapor - liquid equilibrium data for acetic acid - isopropanol - water - isopropyl acetate mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A. Mandagarán

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available A correlation procedure for the prediction of vapor - liquid equilibrium of acetic acid - isopropanol - water - isopropyl acetate mixtures has been developed. It is based on the NRTL model for predicting liquid activity coefficients, and on the Hayden-O'Connell second virial coefficients for predicting the vapor phase of systems containing association components. When compared with experimental data the correlation shows a good agreement for binary and ternary data. The correlation also shows good prediction for reactive quaternary data.

  14. Nasal pungency, odor, and eye irritation thresholds for homologous acetates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cometto-Muñiz, J E; Cain, W S

    1991-08-01

    We measured detection thresholds for nasal pungency (in anosmics), odor (in normosmics) and eye irritation employing a homologous series of acetates: methyl through octyl acetate, decyl and dodecyl acetate. All anosmics reliably detected the series up to heptyl acetate. Only the anosmics without smell since birth (congenital) reliably detected octyl acetate, and only one congenital anosmic detected decyl and dodecyl acetate. Anosmics who lost smell from head trauma proved to be selectively less sensitive. As expected, odor thresholds lay well below pungency thresholds. Eye irritation thresholds for selected acetates came close to nasal pungency thresholds. All three types of thresholds decreased logarithmically with carbon chain length, as previously seen with homologous alcohols and as seen in narcotic and toxic phenomena. Results imply that nasal pungency for these stimuli rests upon a physical, rather than chemical, interaction with susceptible mucosal structures. When expressed as thermodynamic activity, nasal pungency thresholds remain remarkably constant within and across the homologous series of acetates and alcohols.

  15. Oestrus induction using fluorogestone acetate sponges and equine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oestrus induction using fluorogestone acetate sponges and equine chorionic gonadotrophin in Red Sokoto goats. ... acetate sponge) alone or in combination with equine chorionic gonadotrophin (eCG) on oestrus response in ... Article Metrics.

  16. Expression of acetate permease-like (apl) genes in subsurface communities of Geobacter species under fluctuating acetate concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elifantz, H.; N' Guessan, L.A.; Mouser, P.J.; Williams, K H.; Wilkins, M J.; Risso, C.; Holmes, D.E.; Long, P.E.; Lovley, D.R.

    2010-03-01

    The addition of acetate to uranium-contaminated aquifers in order to stimulate the growth and activity of Geobacter species that reduce uranium is a promising in situ bioremediation option. Optimizing this bioremediation strategy requires that sufficient acetate be added to promote Geobacter species growth. We hypothesized that under acetate-limiting conditions, subsurface Geobacter species would increase the expression of either putative acetate symporters genes (aplI and aplII). Acetate was added to a uranium-contaminated aquifer (Rifle, CO) in two continuous amendments separated by 5 days of groundwater flush to create changing acetate concentrations. While the expression of aplI in monitoring well D04 (high acetate) weakly correlated with the acetate concentration over time, the transcript levels for this gene were relatively constant in well D08 (low acetate). At the lowest acetate concentrations during the groundwater flush, the transcript levels of aplII were the highest. The expression of aplII decreased 2-10-fold upon acetate reintroduction. However, the overall instability of acetate concentrations throughout the experiment could not support a robust conclusion regarding the role of apl genes in response to acetate limitation under field conditions, in contrast to previous chemostat studies, suggesting that the function of a microbial community cannot be inferred based on lab experiments alone.

  17. Kinetics of Ethyl Acetate Synthesis Catalyzed by Acidic Resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Bruno M.; Cardoso, Simao P.; Silva, Carlos M.; Portugal, Ines

    2011-01-01

    A low-cost experiment to carry out the second-order reversible reaction of acetic acid esterification with ethanol to produce ethyl acetate is presented to illustrate concepts of kinetics and reactor modeling. The reaction is performed in a batch reactor, and the acetic acid concentration is measured by acid-base titration versus time. The…

  18. 21 CFR 582.5933 - Vitamin A acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vitamin A acetate. 582.5933 Section 582.5933 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5933 Vitamin A acetate. (a) Product. Vitamin A acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  19. Microbial acetate oxidation in horizontal rotating tubular bioreactor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Slavica; B Šantek; S Novak; V Marić

    2004-06-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the possibility of conducting a continuous aerobic bioprocess in a horizontal rotating tubular bioreactor (HRTB). Aerobic oxidation of acetate by the action of a mixed microbial culture was chosen as a model process. The microbial culture was not only grown in a suspension but also in the form of a biofilm on the interior surface of HRTB. Efficiency of the bioprocess was monitored by determination of the acetate concentration and chemical oxygen demand (COD). While acetate inlet concentration and feeding rate influenced efficiency of acetate oxidation, the bioreactor rotation speed did not influence the bioprocess dynamics significantly. Gradients of acetate concentration and pH along HRTB were more pronounced at lower feeding rates. Volumetric load of acetate was proved to be the most significant parameter. High volumetric loads (above 2 g acetate l–1 h–1) gave poor acetate oxidation efficiency (only 17 to 50%). When the volumetric load was in the range of 0.60–1.75 g acetate l–1 h–1, acetate oxidation efficiency was 50–75%. At lower volumetric loads (0.14–0.58 g acetate l–1 h–1), complete acetate consumption was achieved. On the basis of the obtained results, it can be concluded that HRTB is suitable for conducting aerobic continuous bioprocesses.

  20. Acetic acid extraction from aqueous solutions using fatty acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJmker, H.M.; Gramblicka, M.; Kersten, Sascha R.A.; van der Ham, Aloysius G.J.; Schuur, Boelo

    2014-01-01

    A major challenge for production of acetic acid via bio-based routes is cost-effective concentration and purification of the acetic acid from the aqueous solutions, for which liquid–liquid extraction is a possible method. A main challenge in extraction of acetic acid from dilute aqueous solutions is

  1. 21 CFR 177.1350 - Ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymers. 177.1350 Section... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1350 Ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymers. Ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymers may be safely used as articles or components of...

  2. Acetic acid extraction from aqueous solutions using fatty acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJmker, H.M.; Gramblicka, M.; Kersten, S.R.A.; Ham, van der A.G.J.; Schuur, B.

    2014-01-01

    A major challenge for production of acetic acid via bio-based routes is cost-effective concentration and purification of the acetic acid from the aqueous solutions, for which liquid–liquid extraction is a possible method. A main challenge in extraction of acetic acid from dilute aqueous solutions is

  3. Acetate in Oz: Some Strategic Moves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Webb

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available I would like to add my voice to the words of congratulations and thanks to the British Library for organising this forum, and for their generosity in making it possible for me to come across the world to be part of it. The issues we are discussing today have an importance extending beyond cellulose acetate, as they reflect our ability as custodians to deal with common threats to the documentary heritage we are charged with preserving. As I will argue later, we need to see this situation in the context of the full range of preservation management issues that face our institutions. While it imposes a burden and a challenge on us as preservation managers, it also presents opportunities to sort out some things that have needed attention for some time. I have been asked to talk about problems with cellulose acetate microfilm collections in Australia, and specifically the strategies – both national and local – that have been adopted or at least explored in response to those problems. In the time I have I will not be going into any of these in great detail, but I hope I can give you some sense of the situation down under, and perhaps draw out a few issues that might make this more than just an ‘us too’ session! One thing to emphasise from the start is that we have had a number of goes at dealing with acetate microfilm collections: it is not a newly discovered problem in Australia. One significant context in which we have been working is that of a national strategy for all kinds of cellulose acetate collection materials. Explaining this national strategy will form a major part of my presentation, with issues and approaches specific to microfilm discussed towards the end.

  4. 21 CFR 184.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... (d) The ingredient is used in food at levels not to exceed current good manufacturing practice in... defined in § 170.3(n)(23) of this chapter and snack foods as defined in § 170.3(n)(37) of this chapter; 0... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium acetate. 184.1721 Section 184.1721 Food and...

  5. PHOTOCOPOLYMERIZATION OF MALEIC ANHYDRIDE AND VINYL ACETATE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiaofang; LI Shanjun; QIN Anwei; YU Tongyin

    1990-01-01

    The charge-transfer complex of maleic anhydride and vinyl acetate was copolymerized under UV light. The chain composition and structure of the copolymer were analyzed with conductometry and NMR, and the chain sequence was determined as alternating. The copolymerization rates at different feed ratios, temperatures and in different solvents were investigated, giving evidence to the very active involvement of the CT complexes in the copolymerization. Terpolymerization with acrylonitrile also showed that the complex mechanism was a proper one for this system.

  6. Co-fermentation of acetate and sugars facilitating microbial lipid production on acetate-rich biomass hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zhiwei; Zhou, Wenting; Shen, Hongwei; Yang, Zhonghua; Wang, Guanghui; Zuo, Zhenyu; Hou, Yali; Zhao, Zongbao K

    2016-05-01

    The process of lignocellulosic biomass routinely produces a stream that contains sugars plus various amounts of acetic acid. As acetate is known to inhibit the culture of microorganisms including oleaginous yeasts, little attention has been paid to explore lipid production on mixtures of acetate and sugars. Here we demonstrated that the yeast Cryptococcus curvatus can effectively co-ferment acetate and sugars for lipid production. When mixtures of acetate and glucose were applied, C. curvatus consumed both substrates simultaneously. Similar phenomena were also observed for acetate and xylose mixtures, as well as acetate-rich corn stover hydrolysates. More interestingly, the replacement of sugar with equal amount of acetate as carbon source afforded higher lipid titre and lipid content. The lipid products had fatty acid compositional profiles similar to those of cocoa butter, suggesting their potential for high value-added fats and biodiesel production. This co-fermentation strategy should facilitate lipid production technology from lignocelluloses.

  7. Simultaneous production of acetic and gluconic acids by a thermotolerant Acetobacter strain during acetous fermentation in a bioreactor

    OpenAIRE

    Majid MOUNIR; Shafiei, Rasoul; Zarmehrkhorshid, Raziyeh; Hamouda, Allal; Ismaili Alaoui, Mustapha; Thonart, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    The activity of bacterial strains significantly influences the quality and the taste of vinegar. Previous studies of acetic acid bacteria have primarily focused on the ability of bacterial strains to produce high amounts of acetic acid. However, few studies have examined the production of gluconic acid during acetous fermentation at high temperatures. The production of vinegar at high temperatures by two strains of acetic acid bacteria isolated from apple and cactus fruits, namely AF01 and CV...

  8. A NOVEL COPOLYMER-BOUND CIS- DICARBONYLRHODIUM COMPLEX FOR THE CARBONYLATION OF METHANOL TO ACETIC ACID AND ACETIC ANHYDRIDE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Guoqing; CHEN Yuying; CHEN Rongyao

    1989-01-01

    A series of porous microspheres of linear and ethylene diacrylate (M ') cross-linked copolymers of 2 - vinylpyridine (V) and methyl acrylate (M) reacted with tetracarbonyldichlorodirhodium to form a series of cis-dicarbonylrhodium chelate complex (MVRh and MVM 'Rh). They are thermally stable yet very reactive in the carbonylation of methanol to acetic acid, and of methanol - acetic acid mixture to acetic acid and acetic anhydride with a selectivity of 100% under relatively mild and anhydrous conditions.

  9. Overview on mechanisms of acetic acid resistance in acetic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Shao, Yanchun; Chen, Fusheng

    2015-02-01

    Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are a group of gram-negative or gram-variable bacteria which possess an obligate aerobic property with oxygen as the terminal electron acceptor, meanwhile transform ethanol and sugar to corresponding aldehydes, ketones and organic acids. Since the first genus Acetobacter of AAB was established in 1898, 16 AAB genera have been recorded so far. As the main producer of a world-wide condiment, vinegar, AAB have evolved an elegant adaptive system that enables them to survive and produce a high concentration of acetic acid. Some researches and reviews focused on mechanisms of acid resistance in enteric bacteria and made the mechanisms thoroughly understood, while a few investigations did in AAB. As the related technologies with proteome, transcriptome and genome were rapidly developed and applied to AAB research, some plausible mechanisms conferring acetic acid resistance in some AAB strains have been published. In this review, the related mechanisms of AAB against acetic acid with acetic acid assimilation, transportation systems, cell morphology and membrane compositions, adaptation response, and fermentation conditions will be described. Finally, a framework for future research for anti-acid AAB will be provided.

  10. Lipase Mediated Isoamyl Acetate Synthesis in Solvent-Free System Using Vinyl Acetate as Acyl Donor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annapurna Kumari

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis of isoamyl acetate, a flavour ester extensively used in food industry, has been carried out in a solvent-free system. In the present study, an attempt has been made to enhance the isoamyl acetate synthesis yield by transesterification of isoamyl alcohol with vinyl acetate using immobilized Rhizopus oryzae NRRL 3562 lipase. In the present synthesis, substrates had no inhibitory effect on immobilized lipase. The effects of various reaction parameters on isoamyl acetate synthesis were studied and maximum conversion was achieved at 16 % (by mass per volume of immobilized lipase, 40 °C and 200 rpm. Under these conditions, 8-hour reaction time was sufficient to reach a high ester conversion of 95 % with 0.5 mol/L of isoamyl alcohol. The structure of the transesterified product was confirmed by infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic studies. Immobilized lipase had Km and vmax values of 306.53 mmol/L and 99 µmol/(h·g respectively, for isoamyl acetate synthesis in a solvent-free system.

  11. Compound list: desmopressin acetate [Open TG-GATEs

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available desmopressin acetate DDAVP 00159 ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LA...TEST/Rat/in_vivo/Liver/Single/desmopressin_acetate.Rat.in_vivo.Liver.Single.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/a...rchive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Liver/Repeat/desmopressin_acetate.Rat.in_vivo.Liver.Repeat.zip ftp://...ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Kidney/Single/desmopre...ssin_acetate.Rat.in_vivo.Kidney.Single.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Kidney/Repeat/desmopressin_acetate.Rat.in_vivo.Kidney.Repeat.zip ...

  12. Acetic acid removal from corn stover hydrolysate using ethyl acetate and the impact on Saccharomyces cerevisiae bioethanol fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghazadeh, Mahdieh; Ladisch, Michael R; Engelberth, Abigail S

    2016-07-08

    Acetic acid is introduced into cellulose conversion processes as a consequence of composition of lignocellulose feedstocks, causing significant inhibition of adapted, genetically modified and wild-type S. cerevisiae in bioethanol fermentation. While adaptation or modification of yeast may reduce inhibition, the most effective approach is to remove the acetic acid prior to fermentation. This work addresses liquid-liquid extraction of acetic acid from biomass hydrolysate through a pathway that mitigates acetic acid inhibition while avoiding the negative effects of the extractant, which itself may exhibit inhibition. Candidate solvents were selected using simulation results from Aspen Plus™, based on their ability to extract acetic acid which was confirmed by experimentation. All solvents showed varying degrees of toxicity toward yeast, but the relative volatility of ethyl acetate enabled its use as simple vacuum evaporation could reduce small concentrations of aqueous ethyl acetate to minimally inhibitory levels. The toxicity threshold of ethyl acetate, in the presence of acetic acid, was found to be 10 g L(-1) . The fermentation was enhanced by extracting 90% of the acetic acid using ethyl acetate, followed by vacuum evaporation to remove 88% removal of residual ethyl acetate along with 10% of the broth. NRRL Y-1546 yeast was used to demonstrate a 13% increase in concentration, 14% in ethanol specific production rate, and 11% ethanol yield. This study demonstrated that extraction of acetic acid with ethyl acetate followed by evaporative removal of ethyl acetate from the raffinate phase has potential to significantly enhance ethanol fermentation in a corn stover bioethanol facility. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:929-937, 2016.

  13. Detoxification of biomass derived acetate via metabolic conversion to ethanol, acetone, isopropanol, or ethyl acetate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sillers, William Ryan; Van Dijken, Hans; Licht, Steve; Shaw, IV, Arthur J.; Gilbert, Alan Benjamin; Argyros, Aaron; Froehlich, Allan C.; McBride, John E.; Xu, Haowen; Hogsett, David A.; Rajgarhia, Vineet B.

    2017-03-28

    One aspect of the invention relates to a genetically modified thermophilic or mesophilic microorganism, wherein a first native gene is partially, substantially, or completely deleted, silenced, inactivated, or down-regulated, which first native gene encodes a first native enzyme involved in the metabolic production of an organic acid or a salt thereof, thereby increasing the native ability of said thermophilic or mesophilic microorganism to produce lactate or acetate as a fermentation product. In certain embodiments, the aforementioned microorganism further comprises a first non-native gene, which first non-native gene encodes a first non-native enzyme involved in the metabolic production of lactate or acetate. Another aspect of the invention relates to a process for converting lignocellulosic biomass to lactate or acetate, comprising contacting lignocellulosic biomass with a genetically modified thermophilic or mesophilic microorganism.

  14. Adaptation and tolerance of bacteria against acetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trček, Janja; Mira, Nuno Pereira; Jarboe, Laura R

    2015-08-01

    Acetic acid is a weak organic acid exerting a toxic effect to most microorganisms at concentrations as low as 0.5 wt%. This toxic effect results mostly from acetic acid dissociation inside microbial cells, causing a decrease of intracellular pH and metabolic disturbance by the anion, among other deleterious effects. These microbial inhibition mechanisms enable acetic acid to be used as a preservative, although its usefulness is limited by the emergence of highly tolerant spoilage strains. Several biotechnological processes are also inhibited by the accumulation of acetic acid in the growth medium including production of bioethanol from lignocellulosics, wine making, and microbe-based production of acetic acid itself. To design better preservation strategies based on acetic acid and to improve the robustness of industrial biotechnological processes limited by this acid's toxicity, it is essential to deepen the understanding of the underlying toxicity mechanisms. In this sense, adaptive responses that improve tolerance to acetic acid have been well studied in Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Strains highly tolerant to acetic acid, either isolated from natural environments or specifically engineered for this effect, represent a unique reservoir of information that could increase our understanding of acetic acid tolerance and contribute to the design of additional tolerance mechanisms. In this article, the mechanisms underlying the acetic acid tolerance exhibited by several bacterial strains are reviewed, with emphasis on the knowledge gathered in acetic acid bacteria and E. coli. A comparison of how these bacterial adaptive responses to acetic acid stress fit to those described in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is also performed. A systematic comparison of the similarities and dissimilarities of the ways by which different microbial systems surpass the deleterious effects of acetic acid toxicity has not been performed so far, although such exchange

  15. POLYMER—SUPPORTED RHODIUM CATALYSTS FOR CARBONYLATION OF METHYL ACETATE TO ACETIC ANHYDRIDE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENDean; HUANGShizhuan; 等

    1993-01-01

    Two kinds of rhodium catalysts supported on cross-linked styrene-divinylbenzene copolymers containing bipyridine or o-phenylene diamine have been prepared and found to display high activity for methyl acetate carbonylation to form acetic anhydride,the activities are even higher than their homogeneous counterparts. XPS analysis was used to characterize the synthetic catalysts.The apparent activation parameters were determined to be Eα=73.3KJ/mol,ΔH≠=66.3KJ/mol,ΔS≠=-28.6eu.These parameters are very close to those in methanol carbonylation and imply to have analogous mechanism in both cases.

  16. Aerobic oxidation of aqueous ethanol using heterogeneous gold catalysts: Efficient routes to acetic acid and ethyl acetate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Betina; Christiansen, Sofie Egholm; Thomsen, M.L.D.

    2007-01-01

    The aerobic oxidation of aqueous ethanol to produce acetic acid and ethyl acetate was studied using heterogeneous gold catalysts. Comparing the performance of Au/MgAl2O4 and Au/TiO2 showed that these two catalysts exhibited similar performance in the reaction. By proper selection of the reaction...... conditions, yields of 90-95% of acetic acid could be achieved at moderate temperatures and pressures. Based on our findings, a reaction pathway for the catalytic oxidation of ethanol via acetaldehyde to acetic acid is proposed, and the rate-determining step (RDS) in the mechanism is found to be the (possibly......, the possibilities for producing ethyl acetate by the aerobic oxidation of ethanol is also studied. At low ethanol concentrations, the main product is acetic acid; at concentrations >60 wt%, it is ethyl acetate....

  17. [1,1′-Bis(dicyclo­hexyl­phosphino)cobalto­cenium-κ2 P,P′]chlorido(η5-cyclo­penta­dien­yl)ruthenium(II) hexa­fluorido­phosphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jian-Guo

    2010-01-01

    In the title structure, [CoRu(C5H5)(C17H26P)2Cl]PF6, the RuII atom is bonded to a cyclo­penta­dienyl ring, a Cl atom and two P atoms of the chelating 1,1′-bis­(dicyclo­hexyl­phosphino)cobaltocenium (di-cypc) ligand, leading to a three-legged piano-stool coordination. Part of the PF6 − counter-anion is disordered over two positions, with a site-occupancy ratio of 0.898 (7):0.102 (7). The components are linked by C—H⋯F and C—H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds. PMID:21579679

  18. Photoelectron spectroscopy of a series of acetate and propionate esters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Śmiałek, Małgorzata A.; Guthmuller, Julien; MacDonald, Michael A.; Zuin, Lucia; Delwiche, Jacques; Hubin-Franskin, Marie-Jeanne; Lesniewski, Tadeusz; Mason, Nigel J.; Limão-Vieira, Paulo

    2017-10-01

    The electronic state and photoionization spectroscopy of a series of acetate esters: methyl acetate, isopropyl acetate, butyl acetate and pentyl acetate as well as two propionates: methyl propionate and ethyl propionate, have been determined using vacuum-ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy. These experimental investigations are complemented by ab initio calculations. The measured first adiabatic and vertical ionization energies were determined as: 10.21 and 10.45 eV for methyl acetate, 9.99 and 10.22 eV for isopropyl acetate, 10.07 and 10.26 eV for butyl acetate, 10.01 and 10.22 eV for pentyl acetate, 10.16 and 10.36 eV for methyl propionate and 9.99 and 10.18 eV for ethyl propionate. For the four smaller esters vibrational transitions were calculated and compared with those identified in the photoelectron spectrum, revealing the most distinctive ones to be a Csbnd O stretch combined with a Cdbnd O stretch. The ionization energies of methyl and ethyl esters as well as for a series of formates and acetates were compared showing a clear dependence of the value of the ionization energy on the size of the molecule with very little influence of its conformation.

  19. Sphingolipids contribute to acetic acid resistance in Zygosaccharomyces bailii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Lina; Genheden, Samuel; Eriksson, Leif A; Olsson, Lisbeth; Bettiga, Maurizio

    2016-04-01

    Lignocellulosic raw material plays a crucial role in the development of sustainable processes for the production of fuels and chemicals. Weak acids such as acetic acid and formic acid are troublesome inhibitors restricting efficient microbial conversion of the biomass to desired products. To improve our understanding of weak acid inhibition and to identify engineering strategies to reduce acetic acid toxicity, the highly acetic-acid-tolerant yeast Zygosaccharomyces bailii was studied. The impact of acetic acid membrane permeability on acetic acid tolerance in Z. bailii was investigated with particular focus on how the previously demonstrated high sphingolipid content in the plasma membrane influences acetic acid tolerance and membrane permeability. Through molecular dynamics simulations, we concluded that membranes with a high content of sphingolipids are thicker and more dense, increasing the free energy barrier for the permeation of acetic acid through the membrane. Z. bailii cultured with the drug myriocin, known to decrease cellular sphingo-lipid levels, exhibited significant growth inhibition in the presence of acetic acid, while growth in medium without acetic acid was unaffected by the myriocin addition. Furthermore, following an acetic acid pulse, the intracellular pH decreased more in myriocin-treated cells than in control cells. This indicates a higher inflow rate of acetic acid and confirms that the reduction in growth of cells cultured with myriocin in the medium with acetic acid was due to an increase in membrane permeability, thereby demonstrating the importance of a high fraction of sphingolipids in the membrane of Z. bailii to facilitate acetic acid resistance; a property potentially transferable to desired production organisms suffering from weak acid stress.

  20. Immunotoxicity of trenbolone acetate in Japanese quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, M.J.; McKernan, M.; Lavoie, E.T.; Ottinger, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    Trenbolone acetate is a synthetic androgen that is currently used as a growth promoter in many meat-exporting countries. Despite industry laboratories classifying trenbolone as nonteratogenic, data showed that embryonic exposure to this androgenic chemical altered development of the immune system in Japanese quail. Trenbolone is lipophilic, persistent, and released into the environment in manure used as soil fertilizer. This is the first study to date to assess this chemical's immunotoxic effects in an avian species. A one-time injection of trenbolone into yolks was administered to mimic maternal deposition, and subsequent effects on the development and function of the immune system were determined in chicks and adults. Development of the bursa of Fabricius, an organ responsible for development of the humoral arm of the immune system, was disrupted, as indicated by lower masse, and smaller and fewer follicles at day 1 of hatch. Morphological differences in the bursas persisted in adults, although no differences in either two measures of immune function were observed. Total numbers of circulating leukocytes were reduced and heterophil-lymphocyte ratios were elevated in chicks but not adults. This study shows that trenbolone acetate is teratogenic and immunotoxic in Japanese quail, and provides evidence that the quail immune system may be fairly resilient to embryonic endocrine-disrupting chemical-induced alterations following no further exposure posthatch.

  1. Methylprednisolon acetate in the management of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Khaci, M.D.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground and Purpose: Acute renal colic is a common complaint from patients entering the emergency departments. Although, urethral lithotripsy and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy are known to be effective, the role of medical-expulsive therapy for the treatment of this disease has not yet been established. This study assessed the clinical efficacy of addition methylprednisolon acetate in the medical-expulsive therapy of distal ureterolithiasis.Materials and Methods: Eighty five (85 consecutive patients with a symptomatic distal urethral stone were included in our study and randomized to one of two home treatment groups. Group A patients (n = 45 received tramadol (50mg bid and hydrochlorothiazide (50 mg daily for 21 days, and group B patients (n = 40 were treated with a corticosteroid drug (methylprednisolon acetate 40mg intra-muscular on 0, 7 and 14 days after treatment, in addition to tramadol and hydrochlorothiazide. The treatment duration was 21 days. All patients were re-evaluated after 21days with a clinical examination and KUB.Results: The mean stone size was 5.2mm and 5.8mm in groups A and B respectively (P value>0.05. Both groups had a significant difference in expulsion rate (20(44.4% for group A and 32 (88% for group B; (P value<0.001.Conclusion: Our results suggest that the use of a corticosteroid drug in association with tramadol and hydro-cholorothiazid appeared to induce an increase in the expulsion ra

  2. Genetic dissection of acetic acid tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Peng; Xiao, Yin; Hu, Yun; Sun, Haiye; Xue, Wei; Zhang, Liang; Shi, Gui-Yang

    2016-09-01

    Dissection of the hereditary architecture underlying Saccharomyces cerevisiae tolerance to acetic acid is essential for ethanol fermentation. In this work, a genomics approach was used to dissect hereditary variations in acetic acid tolerance between two phenotypically different strains. A total of 160 segregants derived from these two strains were obtained. Phenotypic analysis indicated that the acetic acid tolerance displayed a normal distribution in these segregants, and suggested that the acetic acid tolerant traits were controlled by multiple quantitative trait loci (QTLs). Thus, 220 SSR markers covering the whole genome were used to detect QTLs of acetic acid tolerant traits. As a result, three QTLs were located on chromosomes 9, 12, and 16, respectively, which explained 38.8-65.9 % of the range of phenotypic variation. Furthermore, twelve genes of the candidates fell into the three QTL regions by integrating the QTL analysis with candidates of acetic acid tolerant genes. These results provided a novel avenue to obtain more robust strains.

  3. Effect of medroxyprogesterone acetate (Provera) on ovarian radiosensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarrell, J.; YoungLai, E.V.; McMahon, A.; Barr, R.; O' Connell, G.; Belbec, L.

    1989-04-01

    Medroxyprogesterone acetate (Provera) is a drug that is commonly given to young women with cancer during chemotherapy and radiation to control heavy bleeding associated with anovulation. Because hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian suppression has been associated with ovarian protection from the effects of chemotherapy and medroxyprogesterone acetate has been identified as a radiosensitizing agent, we explored the effects of medroxyprogesterone acetate on a rat model with known radiation injury characteristics. Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with medroxyprogesterone acetate or vehicle from day 22 to day 37 of life and were either irradiated or sham-irradiated on day 30 of life and then killed on day 44. Radiation with medroxyprogesterone acetate administration produced a greater loss in preantral and healthy control follicles than in control follicles. No suppression of luteinizing hormone or follicle-stimulating hormone had occurred by day 30 but ovarian glutathione content was reduced. These findings indicate that the administration of medroxyprogesterone acetate with radiotherapy may enhance ovarian injury.

  4. Fermentation characteristics of Fusarium oxysporum grown on acetate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panagiotou, Gianni; Pachidou, Fotini; Petroutsos, Dimitris

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the growth characteristics of Fusarium oxysporum were evaluated in minimal medium using acetate or different mixtures of acetate and glucose as carbon source. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of acetic acid that F oxysporum cells could tolerate was 0.8% w/v while glucose...... of succinate-propionate pathway which consumes reducing power (NADH) via conversion of succinate to propionyl-CoA and produce propionate. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  5. Leuprorelin Acetate in Prostate Cancer: a European Update

    OpenAIRE

    Persad R

    2002-01-01

    This review provides an update on leuprorelin acetate, the world's most widely prescribed depot luteinising hormone-releasing hormone analogue. Leuprorelin acetate has been in clinical use in the palliative treatment of prostate cancer for more than 20 years, but advances continue to be made in terms of convenience and flexibility of administration, and in the incorporation of leuprorelin acetate into novel treatment regimens. The drug is administered in the form of a depot injection containi...

  6. Methane-to-acetic acid synthesis matriculates at Penn State

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rotman, D.

    1994-04-20

    Direct conversion of methane to commercially valuable chemicals remains one of the grails of industrial chemistry. But scientists at Pennsylvania State University (University Park) appear to have made a significant step forward, reporting the direct catalytic conversion of methane into acetic acid under relatively mild conditions. Commercial acetic production involves a three-step process, including steam reforming of methane to synthesis gas (syngas) and the carbonylation of methanol of acetic acid.

  7. The acetate kinase of Clostridum acetobutylicum strain P262.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diez-Gonzalez, F; Russell, J B; Hunter, J B

    1996-12-01

    Clostridum acetobutylicum strain P262 fermented glucose, pyruvate, or lactate, and the butyrate production was substrate-dependent. Differences in butyrate yield could not be explained by changes in butyrate kinase activities, but the butyrate production was inversely related to acetate kinase activity. The acetate kinase had a pH optimum of 8.0, a Km for acetate of 160 mM, and a kcat of 16, 800 min-1. The enyzme had a native molecular mass of 78 kDa; the size of 42 kDa on SDS-PAGE indicated that the acetate kinase of strain P262 was a homodimer.

  8. Glatiramer Acetate-associated Refractory Immune Thrombocytopenic Purpura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iftach Sagy

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of glatiramer acetate-associated refractory immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP in a female patient with multiple sclerosis. A search of MEDLINE/PubMed did not find any connection between glatiramer acetate and thrombocytopenia, specifically ITP. The autoimmune reaction was resistant to conservative ITP treatment, and was eventually managed only by splenectomy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of glatiramer acetate-associated ITP. Physicians should be aware of this condition, and consider performing routine blood counts at the beginning of glatiramer acetate treatment.

  9. Omics analysis of acetic acid tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Peng; Zhang, Liang; Shi, Gui Yang

    2017-05-01

    Acetic acid is an inhibitor in industrial processes such as wine making and bioethanol production from cellulosic hydrolysate. It causes energy depletion, inhibition of metabolic enzyme activity, growth arrest and ethanol productivity losses in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms of the yeast responses to acetic acid stress is essential for improving acetic acid tolerance and ethanol production. Although 329 genes associated with acetic acid tolerance have been identified in the Saccharomyces genome and included in the database ( http://www.yeastgenome.org/observable/resistance_to_acetic_acid/overview ), the cellular mechanistic responses to acetic acid remain unclear in this organism. Post-genomic approaches such as transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics and chemogenomics are being applied to yeast and are providing insight into the mechanisms and interactions of genes, proteins and other components that together determine complex quantitative phenotypic traits such as acetic acid tolerance. This review focuses on these omics approaches in the response to acetic acid in S. cerevisiae. Additionally, several novel strains with improved acetic acid tolerance have been engineered by modifying key genes, and the application of these strains and recently acquired knowledge to industrial processes is also discussed.

  10. Acetic orcein staining of prefixed tissue sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, C; Lillie, R D

    1978-05-01

    Acetic orcein stains formol- and Carnoy-fixed tissues, coloring mast cells, nuclei, basophilic cytoplasm, cerebral corpora amylacea, and cartilage strongly; keratin and erythrocytes moderately; muscle and collagen weakly. Guinea pig Brunner gland and rat colonic goblet cell mucins did not stain. The red nuclear stain contrasts well with the Prussian blue reaction of hemosiderin and the ferric ferricyanide (Turnbull's blue) reaction of enterochromaffin. A weak (0.01%) fast-green FCF stain changes collagen and sometimes smooth muscle to green, without impairing nucleic acid or mast cell staining. Picroindigocarmine gives blue collagen, yellow muscle, and red elastin, nucleic acids and mast cells. Picro-methyl blue tends to override the red nuclear stain. Carnoy fixation is somewhat better for nuclei, formol for basophil cytoplasms.

  11. Unsuccessful treatment of acromegaly with medroxyprogesterone acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, R L; Dimond, R C; Howard, W J; Earll, J M

    1974-09-01

    6 patients with active acromegaly were treated with 10 mg of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) every 6 hours daily for 2 weeks to 6 months. Oral glucose tolerance tests, growth hormone (GH) levels, and insulin tolerance tests (ITT) were done before and during MPA treatment. Basal GH levels varied widely during control and therapy periods; no significant lowering of GH levels occurred during treatment. Carbohydrate tolerance was not significantly affected by MPA therapy, although 5 out of 6 patients had deterioration at least once during treatment. Blood glucose response to ITT was unchanged by MPA. MPA did not affect the clinical features of acromegaly. There was no consistent effect of MPA on insulin-induced or arginine-induced GH secretion. It is concluded that MPA is not an effective agent for treating acromegaly.

  12. Cytoprotective action of roxatidine acetate HCl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiratsuchi, K; Fuse, H; Hagiwara, M; Mikami, T; Miyasaka, K; Sakuma, H

    1988-01-01

    The cytoprotective action of roxatidine acetate HCl (roxatidine) was investigated. We also studied the involvement of endogenous prostaglandins (PGs) in the cytoprotective action of roxatidine and the effect of roxatidine on SRS content in pleurisy induced by A23187. Simultaneously, these effects of roxatidine were compared with those of other histamine H2-receptor antagonists at the same anti-secretory activity level. Roxatidine prevented formation of the gastric mucosal lesions induced by abs. ethanol, 0.6 N HCl and 0.2 N NaOH, but it failed to prevent 30% NaCl-induced gastric mucosal lesions. Cimetidine, ranitidine and famotidine failed to prevent formation of the gastric mucosal lesions induced by necrotizing agents. The cytoprotective action of roxatidine was not abolished by pretreatment with indomethacin. Roxatidine did not greatly influence SRS production. Consequently, it appears that roxatidine has a cytoprotective action and that this action is not associated with endogenous PGs and SRS.

  13. Emergency contraception: potential role of ulipristal acetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Gemzell-Danielsson

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Kristina Gemzell-Danielsson, Chun-Xia MengDepartment of Women’s and Children’s Health, Division of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, SwedenAbstract: Unintended pregnancy is a global reproductive health problem. Emergency contraception (EC provides women with a safe means of preventing unwanted pregnancies after having unprotected intercourse. While 1.5 mg of levonorgestrel (LNG as a single dose or in 2 doses with 12 hours apart is the currently gold standard EC regimen, a single dose of 30 mg ulipristal acetate (UPA has recently been proposed for EC use up to 120 hours of unprotected intercourse with similar side effect profiles as LNG. The main mechanism of action of both LNG and UPA for EC is delaying or inhibiting ovulation. However, the ‘window of effect’ for LNG EC seems to be rather narrow, beginning after selection of the dominant follicular and ending when luteinizing hormone peak begins to rise, whereas UPA appears to have a direct inhibitory effect on follicular rupture which allows it to be also effective even when administered shortly before ovulation, a time period when use of LNG is no longer effective. These experimental findings are in line with results from a series of clinical trials conducted recently which demonstrate that UPA seems to have higher EC efficacy compared to LNG. This review summarizes some of the data available on UPA used after unprotected intercourse with the purpose to provide evidence that UPA, a new type of second-generation progesterone receptor modulator, represents a new evolutionary step in EC treatment.Keywords: emergency contraception, ulipristal acetate, levonorgestrel

  14. Oxidation of indole-3-acetic acid to oxindole-3-acetic acid by an enzyme preparation from Zea mays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinecke, D. M.; Bandurski, R. S.

    1988-01-01

    Indole-3-acetic acid is oxidized to oxindole-3-acetic acid by Zea mays tissue extracts. Shoot, root, and endosperm tissues have enzyme activities of 1 to 10 picomoles per hour per milligram protein. The enzyme is heat labile, is soluble, and requires oxygen for activity. Cofactors of mixed function oxygenase, peroxidase, and intermolecular dioxygenase are not stimulatory to enzymic activity. A heat-stable, detergent-extractable component from corn enhances enzyme activity 6- to 10-fold. This is the first demonstration of the in vitro enzymic oxidation of indole-3-acetic acid to oxindole-3-acetic acid in higher plants.

  15. Oxidation of indole-3-acetic acid to oxindole-3-acetic acid by an enzyme preparation from Zea mays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinecke, D. M.; Bandurski, R. S.

    1988-01-01

    Indole-3-acetic acid is oxidized to oxindole-3-acetic acid by Zea mays tissue extracts. Shoot, root, and endosperm tissues have enzyme activities of 1 to 10 picomoles per hour per milligram protein. The enzyme is heat labile, is soluble, and requires oxygen for activity. Cofactors of mixed function oxygenase, peroxidase, and intermolecular dioxygenase are not stimulatory to enzymic activity. A heat-stable, detergent-extractable component from corn enhances enzyme activity 6- to 10-fold. This is the first demonstration of the in vitro enzymic oxidation of indole-3-acetic acid to oxindole-3-acetic acid in higher plants.

  16. Liquid-Liquid equilibria of the water-acetic acid-butyl acetate system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Ince

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Experimental liquid-liquid equilibria of the water-acetic acid-butyl acetate system were studied at temperatures of 298.15± 0.20, 303.15± 0.20 and 308.15± 0.20 K. Complete phase diagrams were obtained by determining solubility and tie-line data. The reliability of the experimental tie-line data was ascertained by using the Othmer and Tobias correlation. The UNIFAC group contribution method was used to predict the observed ternary liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE data. It was found that UNIFAC group interaction parameters used for LLE did not provide a good prediction. Distribution coefficients and separation factors were evaluated for the immiscibility region.

  17. A double-blind placebo controlled trial of medroxyprogesterone acetate and cyproterone acetate with seven pedophiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, A J; Sandhu, S; Losztyn, S; Cernovsky, Z

    1992-12-01

    Seven of ten pedophiles in hospital completed a double-blind, placebo-controlled two-dose comparison of medroxyprogesterone acetate and cyproterone acetate. Sequential measures during the 28 week study were: patient self-reports, nurses' observations, phallometry, hormone levels and side-effects. The drugs, which performed equivalently, reduced sexual thoughts and fantasies, the frequency of early morning erections on awakening, the frequency and pleasure of masturbation, and level of sexual frustration. Penile responses were also reduced but to a lesser degree and were more variable. Serum testosterone FSH and LH all declined during drug administration, but by the end of the final placebo phase had essentially returned to (or exceeded) pre-drug values. Our experience suggests that only a minority of pedophiles are likely to accept libido-reducing drugs.

  18. Trehalose accumulation enhances tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to acetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshiyama, Yoko; Tanaka, Koichi; Yoshiyama, Kohei; Hibi, Makoto; Ogawa, Jun; Shima, Jun

    2015-02-01

    Trehalose confers protection against various environmental stresses on yeast cells. In this study, trehalase gene deletion mutants that accumulate trehalose at high levels showed significant stress tolerance to acetic acid. The enhancement of trehalose accumulation can thus be considered a target in the breeding of acetic acid-tolerant yeast strains.

  19. Acetic acid assisted cobalt methanesulfonate catalysed chemoselective diacetylation of aldehydes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Wang; Zhi Guo Song; Hong Gong; Heng Jiang

    2008-01-01

    Cobalt methanesulfonate in combination with acetic acid catalysed the chemoselective diacetylation of aldehyde with acetic anhydride at room temperature under solvent free conditions. After reaction, cobalt methanesulfonate can be easily recovered and mused many times. The reaction was mild and efficient with good to high yields.

  20. Acetalization of furfural with zeolites under benign reaction conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubio-Caballeroa, Juan Miguel; Shunmugavel, Saravanamurugan; Maireles-Torres, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Acetalization is a viable method to protect carbonyl functionalities in organic compounds and offers apotential synthetic strategy for synthesizing derived chemicals. In this work, several families of commer-cial zeolites have been employed as solid acid catalysts in the acetalization of furfural...

  1. A review of the animal pharmacology of roxatidine acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholtholt, J; Bickel, M; Herling, A W

    1988-01-01

    Roxatidine acetate (TZU 0460/HOE 760) [N-(3-[3-(1-piperidinylmethyl)-phenoxy]-propyl)acetoxyacetamide hydrochloride] is a specific and competitive H2-receptor antagonist with a chemical structure different from those of cimetidine, ranitidine and famotidine. Roxatidine acetate and its main metabolite roxatidine inhibit histamine-induced gastric acid secretion in vitro with a potency greater than that of cimetidine, and in the range of that produced by ranitidine. Gastric acid secretion following stimulation with dibutyryl cyclic adenosine monophosphate remains unaffected by roxatidine acetate. In vivo experiments in rats and dogs confirm these in vitro findings. Thus, in rats roxatidine acetate inhibits gastric acid secretion with similar values following intraduodenal or intraperitoneal injection, indicating excellent absorption of the drug from the gastrointestinal tract. In all studies it was shown that roxatidine acetate was more potent than cimetidine. In rats single or repeated dosing with roxatidine acetate did not influence drug metabolising enzymes in the liver nor did the drug show antiandrogenic activity in long term animal studies. Extensive general pharmacological studies with roxatidine acetate demonstrate the lack of effects on the central nervous system, on gastrointestinal motility, the autonomic nervous system and the cardiovascular and urogenital systems. Studies on the pharmacokinetics and metabolism of roxatidine acetate demonstrate that there is a presystemic deacetylation producing the main metabolite roxatidine, which is responsible for the in vivo effects of the drug.

  2. 21 CFR 522.2477 - Trenbolone acetate and estradiol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... acetate and 4 mg estradiol, and 1 pellet containing 29 mg tylosin tartrate) per implant dose. (C) 200 mg... containing 29 mg tylosin tartrate) per implant dose. (F) 80 mg trenbolone acetate and 16 mg estradiol (one..., and 1 pellet containing 29 mg tylosin tartrate) per implant dose. (G) 200 milligram (mg)...

  3. Fermentation of lignocellulosic sugars to acetic acid by Moorella thermoacetica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsanipour, Mandana; Suko, Azra Vajzovic; Bura, Renata

    2016-06-01

    A systematic study of bioconversion of lignocellulosic sugars to acetic acid by Moorella thermoacetica (strain ATCC 39073) was conducted. Four different water-soluble fractions (hydrolysates) obtained after steam pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass were selected and fermented to acetic acid in batch fermentations. M. thermoacetica can effectively ferment xylose and glucose in hydrolysates from wheat straw, forest residues, switchgrass, and sugarcane straw to acetic acid. Xylose and glucose were completely utilized, with xylose being consumed first. M. thermoacetica consumed up to 62 % of arabinose, 49 % galactose and 66 % of mannose within 72 h of fermentation in the mixture of lignocellulosic sugars. The highest acetic acid yield was obtained from sugarcane straw hydrolysate, with 71 % of theoretical yield based on total sugars (17 g/L acetic acid from 24 g/L total sugars). The lowest acetic acid yield was observed in forest residues hydrolysate, with 39 % of theoretical yield based on total sugars (18 g/L acetic acid from 49 g/L total sugars). Process derived compounds from steam explosion pretreatment, including 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (0.4 g/L), furfural (0.1 g/L) and total phenolics (3 g/L), did not inhibit microbial growth and acetic acid production yield. This research identified two major factors that adversely affected acetic acid yield in all hydrolysates, especially in forest residues: (i) glucose to xylose ratio and (ii) incomplete consumption of arabinose, galactose and mannose. For efficient bioconversion of lignocellulosic sugars to acetic acid, it is imperative to have an appropriate balance of sugars in a hydrolysate. Hence, the choice of lignocellulosic biomass and steam pretreatment design are fundamental steps for the industrial application of this process.

  4. Hydrolyses of alpha-naphthyl acetate, beta-naphthyl acetate, and acetyl-DL-phenylalanine beta-naphthyl ester

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, S; Moe, D

    1983-01-01

    Using simultaneous coupling azo dye techniques kidney enzymes active against alpha-naphthyl acetate, beta-naphthyl acetate, and acetyl-DL-phenylalanine beta-naphthyl ester are characterized. The enzymes show identical distribution in the section. The banding patterns in zymograms are the same after...

  5. Biological Function of Acetic Acid-Improvement in Obesity and Glucose Tolerance by Acetic Acid in Type 2 Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Hiromi

    2016-07-29

    Fatty acids derived from adipose tissue are oxidized by β-oxidation to form ketone bodies as final products under the starving condition. Previously, we found that free acetic acid was formed concomitantly with the production of ketone bodies in isolated rat liver perfusion, and mitochondrial acetyl CoA hydrolase was appeared to be involved with the acetic acid production. It was revealed that acetic acid was formed as a final product of enhanced β-oxidation of fatty acids and utilized as a fuel in extrahepatic tissues under the starving condition. Under the fed condition, β-oxidation is suppressed and acetic acid production is decreased. When acetic acid was taken daily by obesity-linked type 2 diabetic Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats under the fed condition, it protected OLETF rats against obesity. Furthermore, acetic acid contributed to protect from the accumulation of lipid in the liver as well as abdominal fat in OLETF rats. Transcripts of lipogenic genes in the liver were decreased, while transcripts of myoglobin and Glut4 genes in abdominal muscles were increased in the acetic acid-administered OLETF rats. It is indicated that exogenously administered acetic acid would have effects on lipid metabolism in both the liver and the skeletal muscles, and have function that works against obesity and obesity-linked type 2 diabetes.

  6. The effect of oral sodium acetate administration on plasma acetate concentration and acid-base state in horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindinger Michael I

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim Sodium acetate (NaAcetate has received some attention as an alkalinizing agent and possible alternative energy source for the horse, however the effects of oral administration remain largely unknown. The present study used the physicochemical approach to characterize the changes in acid-base status occurring after oral NaAcetate/acetic acid (NAA administration in horses. Methods Jugular venous blood was sampled from 9 exercise-conditioned horses on 2 separate occasions, at rest and for 24 h following a competition exercise test (CET designed to simulate the speed and endurance test of 3-day event. Immediately after the CETs horses were allowed water ad libitum and either: 1 8 L of a hypertonic NaAcetate/acetic acid solution via nasogastric tube followed by a typical hay/grain meal (NAA trial; or 2 a hay/grain meal alone (Control trial. Results Oral NAA resulted in a profound plasma alkalosis marked by decreased plasma [H+] and increased plasma [TCO2] and [HCO3-] compared to Control. The primary contributor to the plasma alkalosis was an increased [SID], as a result of increased plasma [Na+] and decreased plasma [Cl-]. An increased [Atot], due to increased [PP] and a sustained increase in plasma [acetate], contributed a minor acidifying effect. Conclusion It is concluded that oral NaAcetate could be used as both an alkalinizing agent and an alternative energy source in the horse.

  7. Measurement of the rates of oxindole-3-acetic acid turnover, and indole-3-acetic acid oxidation in Zea mays seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonhebel, H. M.; Bandurski, R. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1986-01-01

    Oxindole-3-acetic acid is the principal catabolite of indole-3-acetic acid in Zea mays seedlings. In this paper measurements of the turnover of oxindole-3-acetic acid are presented and used to calculate the rate of indole-3-acetic acid oxidation. [3H]Oxindole-3-acetic acid was applied to the endosperm of Zea mays seedlings and allowed to equilibrate for 24 h before the start of the experiment. The subsequent decrease in its specific activity was used to calculate the turnover rate. The average half-life of oxindole-3-acetic acid in the shoots was found to be 30 h while that in the kernels had an average half-life of 35h. Using previously published values of the pool sizes of oxindole-3-acetic acid in shoots and kernels from seedlings of the same age and variety, and grown under the same conditions, the rate of indole-3-acetic acid oxidation was calculated to be 1.1 pmol plant-1 h-1 in the shoots and 7.1 pmol plant-1 h-1 in the kernels.

  8. Hydrolyses of alpha-naphthyl acetate, beta-naphthyl acetate, and acetyl-DL-phenylalanine beta-naphthyl ester

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, S; Moe, D

    1983-01-01

    Using simultaneous coupling azo dye techniques kidney enzymes active against alpha-naphthyl acetate, beta-naphthyl acetate, and acetyl-DL-phenylalanine beta-naphthyl ester are characterized. The enzymes show identical distribution in the section. The banding patterns in zymograms are the same after...

  9. Oxidation of indole-3-acetic acid and oxindole-3-acetic acid to 2,3-dihydro-7-hydroxy-2-oxo-1H indole-3-acetic acid-7'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside in Zea mays seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonhebel, H. M.; Bandurski, R. S.

    1984-01-01

    Radiolabeled oxindole-3-acetic acid was metabolized by roots, shoots, and caryopses of dark grown Zea mays seedlings to 2,3-dihydro-7-hydroxy-2-oxo-1H indole-3-acetic acid-7'-O-beta-D-glycopyranoside with the simpler name of 7-hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid-glucoside. This compound was also formed from labeled indole-3-acetic acid supplied to intact seedlings and root segments. The glucoside of 7-hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid was also isolated as an endogenous compound in the caryopses and shoots of 4-day-old seedlings. It accumulates to a level of 4.8 nanomoles per plant in the kernel, more than 10 times the amount of oxindole-3-acetic acid. In the shoot it is present at levels comparable to that of oxindole-3-acetic acid and indole-3-acetic acid (62 picomoles per shoot). We conclude that 7-hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid-glucoside is a natural metabolite of indole-3-acetic acid in Z. mays seedlings. From the data presented in this paper and in previous work, we propose the following route as the principal catabolic pathway for indole-3-acetic acid in Zea seedlings: Indole-3-acetic acid --> Oxindole-3-acetic acid --> 7-Hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid --> 7-Hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid-glucoside.

  10. Oxidation of indole-3-acetic acid and oxindole-3-acetic acid to 2,3-dihydro-7-hydroxy-2-oxo-1H indole-3-acetic acid-7'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside in Zea mays seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonhebel, H. M.; Bandurski, R. S.

    1984-01-01

    Radiolabeled oxindole-3-acetic acid was metabolized by roots, shoots, and caryopses of dark grown Zea mays seedlings to 2,3-dihydro-7-hydroxy-2-oxo-1H indole-3-acetic acid-7'-O-beta-D-glycopyranoside with the simpler name of 7-hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid-glucoside. This compound was also formed from labeled indole-3-acetic acid supplied to intact seedlings and root segments. The glucoside of 7-hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid was also isolated as an endogenous compound in the caryopses and shoots of 4-day-old seedlings. It accumulates to a level of 4.8 nanomoles per plant in the kernel, more than 10 times the amount of oxindole-3-acetic acid. In the shoot it is present at levels comparable to that of oxindole-3-acetic acid and indole-3-acetic acid (62 picomoles per shoot). We conclude that 7-hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid-glucoside is a natural metabolite of indole-3-acetic acid in Z. mays seedlings. From the data presented in this paper and in previous work, we propose the following route as the principal catabolic pathway for indole-3-acetic acid in Zea seedlings: Indole-3-acetic acid --> Oxindole-3-acetic acid --> 7-Hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid --> 7-Hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid-glucoside.

  11. Microsomal metabolism of trenbolone acetate metabolites ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenbolone acetate (TBA) is a synthetic growth promoter widely used in animal agriculture, and its metabolites are suspected endocrine disrupting compounds in agriculturally impacted receiving waters. However, beyond the three widely recognized TBA metabolites (17-trenbolone, 17-trenbolone and trendione), little is known about other metabolites formed in vivo and subsequently discharged into the environment, with some evidence suggesting these unknown metabolites comprise a majority of the TBA mass dosed to the animal. Here, we explored the metabolism of the three known TBA metabolites using rat liver microsome studies. All TBA metabolites are transformed into a complex mixture of monohydroxylated products. Based on product characterization, the majority are more polar than the parent metabolites but maintain their characteristic trienone backbone. A minor degree of interconversion between known metabolites was also observed, as were higher order hydroxylated products with a greater extent of reaction. Notably, the distribution and yield of products were generally comparable across a series of variably induced rat liver microsomes, as well as during additional studies with human and bovine liver microsomes. Bioassays conducted with mixtures of these transformation products suggest that androgen receptor (AR) binding activity is diminished as a result of the microsomal treatment, suggesting that the transformation products are generally less potent than

  12. Quantitative Structure of an Acetate Dye Molecule Analogue at the TiO2–Acetic Acid Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The positions of atoms in and around acetate molecules at the rutile TiO2(110) interface with 0.1 M acetic acid have been determined with a precision of ±0.05 Å. Acetate is used as a surrogate for the carboxylate groups typically employed to anchor monocarboxylate dye molecules to TiO2 in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). Structural analysis reveals small domains of ordered (2 × 1) acetate molecules, with substrate atoms closer to their bulk terminated positions compared to the clean UHV surface. Acetate is found in a bidentate bridge position, binding through both oxygen atoms to two 5-fold titanium atoms such that the molecular plane is along the [001] azimuth. Density functional theory calculations provide adsorption geometries in excellent agreement with experiment. The availability of these structural data will improve the accuracy of charge transport models for DSSC. PMID:27110318

  13. Quantitative Structure of an Acetate Dye Molecule Analogue at the TiO2-Acetic Acid Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Hadeel; Torrelles, Xavier; Cabailh, Gregory; Rajput, Parasmani; Lindsay, Robert; Bikondoa, Oier; Tillotson, Marcus; Grau-Crespo, Ricardo; Zegenhagen, Jörg; Thornton, Geoff

    2016-04-14

    The positions of atoms in and around acetate molecules at the rutile TiO2(110) interface with 0.1 M acetic acid have been determined with a precision of ±0.05 Å. Acetate is used as a surrogate for the carboxylate groups typically employed to anchor monocarboxylate dye molecules to TiO2 in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). Structural analysis reveals small domains of ordered (2 × 1) acetate molecules, with substrate atoms closer to their bulk terminated positions compared to the clean UHV surface. Acetate is found in a bidentate bridge position, binding through both oxygen atoms to two 5-fold titanium atoms such that the molecular plane is along the [001] azimuth. Density functional theory calculations provide adsorption geometries in excellent agreement with experiment. The availability of these structural data will improve the accuracy of charge transport models for DSSC.

  14. Simultaneous production of acetic and gluconic acids by a thermotolerant Acetobacter strain during acetous fermentation in a bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mounir, Majid; Shafiei, Rasoul; Zarmehrkhorshid, Raziyeh; Hamouda, Allal; Ismaili Alaoui, Mustapha; Thonart, Philippe

    2016-02-01

    The activity of bacterial strains significantly influences the quality and the taste of vinegar. Previous studies of acetic acid bacteria have primarily focused on the ability of bacterial strains to produce high amounts of acetic acid. However, few studies have examined the production of gluconic acid during acetous fermentation at high temperatures. The production of vinegar at high temperatures by two strains of acetic acid bacteria isolated from apple and cactus fruits, namely AF01 and CV01, respectively, was evaluated in this study. The simultaneous production of gluconic and acetic acids was also examined in this study. Biochemical and molecular identification based on a 16s rDNA sequence analysis confirmed that these strains can be classified as Acetobacter pasteurianus. To assess the ability of the isolated strains to grow and produce acetic acid and gluconic acid at high temperatures, a semi-continuous fermentation was performed in a 20-L bioreactor. The two strains abundantly grew at a high temperature (41°C). At the end of the fermentation, the AF01 and CV01 strains yielded acetic acid concentrations of 7.64% (w/v) and 10.08% (w/v), respectively. Interestingly, CV01 was able to simultaneously produce acetic and gluconic acids during acetic fermentation, whereas AF01 mainly produced acetic acid. In addition, CV01 was less sensitive to ethanol depletion during semi-continuous fermentation. Finally, the enzymatic study showed that the two strains exhibited high ADH and ALDH enzyme activity at 38°C compared with the mesophilic reference strain LMG 1632, which was significantly susceptible to thermal inactivation.

  15. Effect of Magnesium Acetate on the Antimold Activity of Lactobacillus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kycia, Katarzyna; Bzducha-Wróbel, Anna; Kraśniewska, Karolina; Chlebowska-Śmigiel, Anna; Gniewosz, Małgorzata

    2017-01-01

    The antimold activity of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) is used in food biopreservation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of magnesium acetate added to de Man Rogosa Sharpe (MRS) medium on the antimold activity of three LAB strains ( Lactobacillus plantarum , Lactobacillus brevis , and Lactobacillus fermentum ) against molds contaminating food ( Aspergillus oryzae , Aspergillus niger , Penicillium chrysogenum , Fusarium avenaceum , and Rhizopus arrhizus ) and their ability to produce organic acids (acetic acid, lactic acid, and phenyllactic acid). The antimold activity of LAB strains was evaluated using the overlay method, and the concentration of the organic acids was determined with the gas chromatography technique. Changes in viable cell counts and the pH of LAB culture also were monitored over a 48-h period. The results show that the growth inhibition of all the molds (except R. arrhizus ) was higher in LAB strain cultures on MRS with magnesium acetate agar than on MRS agar, and inhibition increased over the 48 h. Magnesium acetate added to MRS broth stimulated the production of acetic acid by all LAB strains in the first 8 h and slightly stimulated the production of lactic acid by L. plantarum during the first 24 h. No adverse effect of magnesium acetate on growth of LAB strains was noted. The results confirm that magnesium acetate enhances the antimold activity of LAB strains.

  16. SAGA complex components and acetate repression in Aspergillus nidulans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgakopoulos, Paraskevi; Lockington, Robin A; Kelly, Joan M

    2012-11-01

    Alongside the well-established carbon catabolite repression by glucose and other sugars, acetate causes repression in Aspergillus nidulans. Mutations in creA, encoding the transcriptional repressor involved in glucose repression, also affect acetate repression, but mutations in creB or creC, encoding components of a deubiquitination system, do not. To understand the effects of acetate, we used a mutational screen that was similar to screens that uncovered mutations in creA, creB, and creC, except that glucose was replaced by acetate to identify mutations that were affected for repression by acetate but not by glucose. We uncovered mutations in acdX, homologous to the yeast SAGA component gene SPT8, which in growth tests showed derepression for acetate repression but not for glucose repression. We also made mutations in sptC, homologous to the yeast SAGA component gene SPT3, which showed a similar phenotype. We found that acetate repression is complex, and analysis of facA mutations (lacking acetyl CoA synthetase) indicates that acetate metabolism is required for repression of some systems (proline metabolism) but not for others (acetamide metabolism). Although plate tests indicated that acdX- and sptC-null mutations led to derepressed alcohol dehydrogenase activity, reverse-transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction showed no derepression of alcA or aldA but rather elevated induced levels. Our results indicate that acetate repression is due to repression via CreA together with metabolic changes rather than due to an independent regulatory control mechanism.

  17. Acetate:succinate CoA-transferase in the hydrogenosomes of Trichomonas vaginalis: Identification and characterization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.W.A. Grinsven; S. Rosnowsky (Silke); S.W.H. van Weelden (Susanne); S. Pütz (Simone); M. van der Giezen (Mark); W. Martin (William); J.J. van Hellemond (Jaap); A.G.M. Tielens (Aloysius); K. Henze (Katrin)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractAcetate:succinate CoA-transferases (ASCT) are acetate-producing enzymes in hydrogenosomes, anaerobically functioning mitochondria and in the aerobically functioning mitochondria of trypanosomatids. Although acetate is produced in the hydrogenosomes of a number of anaerobic microbial

  18. Isolation, purification, and characterization of antimicrobial compound 6-[1,2-dimethyl-6-(2-methyl-allyloxy)-hexyl]-3-(2-methoxy-phenyl)-chromen-4-one from Penicillium sp. HT-28.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Harpreet; Arora, Daljit Singh; Sharma, Vishal

    2014-08-01

    A fungal culture (Penicillium sp., HT-28), isolated from soil has been evaluated for its bioactivity, which showed broad spectrum antimicrobial activity and was effective against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) also. Statistical optimization of the medium by response surface methodology (RSM) enhanced the antimicrobial activity up to 1.8-fold. Column chromatography was used to isolate the active compound (A), which was characterized to be 6-[1,2-dimethyl-6-(2-methyl-allyloxy)-hexyl]-3-(2-methoxy-phenyl)-chromen-4-one by various spectroscopic techniques such as infrared (IR), (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra, and mass spectroscopy. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the active compound (A) ranged from 0.5 to 15 μg/mL. Viable cell count studies of the active compound (A) showed S. aureus, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Salmonella typhimurium 1 to be the most sensitive. The compound retained its bioactivity after treating it at 100 °C for 1 h. Furthermore, the compound (A) when tested for its biosafety was found neither to be cytotoxic nor mutagenic. The study demonstrated that an apparently novel compound isolated from Penicillium sp. (HT-28) seems to be a stable and potent antimicrobial.

  19. Ethinylestradiol/Chlormadinone acetate: dermatological benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-Tapia, Aurora; Sancho Pérez, Blanca

    2011-09-06

    Acne vulgaris, hirsutism, seborrhea and female pattern hair loss (FPHL) are common disorders of the pilosebaceous unit (PSU). In some women with hyperandrogenemia, an excess of androgens at the PSU can lead to the development of these dermatological manifestations. These manifestations can cause many psychiatric and psychological implications, such as social fears and anxiety, and can adversely affect quality of life. High androgen levels at the PSU as a possible underlying cause of acne vulgaris, hirsutism, seborrhea and FPHL supports the rationale for using combined oral contraceptives for the management of these conditions in women. The purpose of this review is to describe these dermatological manifestations of the PSU and the management of these conditions through the use of the oral contraceptive ethinylestradiol/chlormadinone acetate (EE/CMA). EE/CMA 0.03/2 mg is a combined monophasic contraceptive pill with anti-androgenic properties. It is approved in Europe for contraception and has been investigated in phase III trials for the treatment of acne. EE/CMA was better than placebo and similar to another low-dose oral contraceptive (ethinylestradiol/levonorgestrel) in improving symptoms of acne in two phase III randomized controlled trials in patients with mild to moderate papulopustular acne. In addition, in trials investigating the contraceptive efficacy of EE/CMA, limited data suggest that there were also improvements in hirsutism, FPHL and seborrhea in small subgroups of patients. EE/CMA has a good safety profile. The most commonly reported adverse events are breast tenderness/pain, headache/migraine and nausea. Evidence in the literature indicates that the use of EE/CMA for the treatment of dermatological disorders under the control of androgens may be a valid treatment option. Further investigation is warranted.

  20. Leuprolide acetate suppresses pedophilic urges and arousability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schober, Justine M; Kuhn, Phyllis J; Kovacs, Paul G; Earle, James H; Byrne, Peter M; Fries, Ruth A

    2005-12-01

    Cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy was compared with cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy augmented by leuprolide acetate (LA) for suppression of pedophilic behavior. Five male pedophiles (M age, 50 years; range, 36-58) were administered LA by Depo injection for 12 months, followed by saline placebo for 12 months. Testosterone levels, sexual interest preference by visual reaction time (Abel Assessment), penile tumescence (Monarch Penile Plethysmography, PPG), as well as strong sexual urges toward children and masturbatory frequency involving thoughts of children (polygraph), were measured every 3 months. On LA, testosterone decreased to castrate levels. Penile tumescence was significantly suppressed compared with baseline, but sufficient response remained to detect pedophilic interest. Pedophilic interest was also detected by visual reaction times. When asked about having pedophilic urges and masturbating to thoughts of children, all subjects self-reported a decrease. Polygraph responses indicated subjects were not deceptive. On placebo, testosterone and physiologic arousal eventually rose to baseline. As noted by polygraph, at baseline and on placebo, subjects were deceptive regarding increased pedophilic urges and masturbatory frequency. Interest preference, as measured by Abel Assessment and Monarch PPG, was generally unchanged throughout the study. Cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy augmented with LA significantly reduced pedophilic fantasies, urges, and masturbation; however, pedophilic interest did not change during 1 year of therapy. Deceptive responses by polygraph suggested that self-report was unreliable. Follow-up utilizing objective measures is essential for monitoring efficacy of treatment in pedophilia. Our study supports the premise that suppression of pedophilic behavior is possible. LA may augment cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy and help break the sequence leading to a re-offense.

  1. SYNTHESIS OF CONDENSATION POLYMERS OF SALICYLIC ACID, FORMALDEHYDE AND ALKYL PRIMARY AMINES AND ITS APPLICATION AS A CATALYST FOR THE HYDROLYSIS OF p-NITROPHENYL ACETATE (PNPA) IN AQUEOUS SOLUTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Binglin(Ho Pinglum); HUANG Wenqiang

    1983-01-01

    As a model of serine hydrolase, the condensation polymers of salicylic acid, formaldehyde and methyl amine, n-propyl amine, n-hexyl amine or n-lauryl amine were prepared by polycondensation catalyzed by sulfuric acid. It was confirmed by potentiometric titration and infrared spectrum that the polymers containing tertiary amino group possess the structure which resembles the internal salt of amino acid in weak basic and weak acidic solution:[-OOC-OH-CH2-H+N-R-CH2-]n R=alkyl group The catalytic reaction of the above polymers for hydrolysis of active ester,p-nitrophenyl acetate (PNPA),was studied .It was found kinetically that the most efficient catalytic effect of polymer was composed of two salicylic acid groups and one tertiary amino group in the polymer chain.The rates of hydrolysis of PNPA increase with increasing of pH values and length of the alkyl group in the side chain of the polymers and the effect of the conformation of the polymer containing tertiary amino group in the buffer solution on the catalytic activity was also investigated. Hydrolysis of PNPA catalyzed by the polymer made of salicylic acid, formaldehyde and n-lauryl amine follows the simple Michaelis-Menten type mechanism . The kinetics parameters were determined as :Km 6.7×10-5 M and Vmax 2.07×10-7 M·min-1.

  2. Inhibition of ice growth and recrystallization by zirconium acetate and zirconium acetate hydroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizrahy, Ortal; Bar-Dolev, Maya; Guy, Shlomit; Braslavsky, Ido

    2013-01-01

    The control over ice crystal growth, melting, and shaping is important in a variety of fields, including cell and food preservation and ice templating for the production of composite materials. Control over ice growth remains a challenge in industry, and the demand for new cryoprotectants is high. Naturally occurring cryoprotectants, such as antifreeze proteins (AFPs), present one solution for modulating ice crystal growth; however, the production of AFPs is expensive and inefficient. These obstacles can be overcome by identifying synthetic substitutes with similar AFP properties. Zirconium acetate (ZRA) was recently found to induce the formation of hexagonal cavities in materials prepared by ice templating. Here, we continue this line of study and examine the effects of ZRA and a related compound, zirconium acetate hydroxide (ZRAH), on ice growth, shaping, and recrystallization. We found that the growth rate of ice crystals was significantly reduced in the presence of ZRA and ZRAH, and that solutions containing these compounds display a small degree of thermal hysteresis, depending on the solution pH. The compounds were found to inhibit recrystallization in a manner similar to that observed in the presence of AFPs. The favorable properties of ZRA and ZRAH suggest tremendous potential utility in industrial applications.

  3. Inhibition of ice growth and recrystallization by zirconium acetate and zirconium acetate hydroxide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ortal Mizrahy

    Full Text Available The control over ice crystal growth, melting, and shaping is important in a variety of fields, including cell and food preservation and ice templating for the production of composite materials. Control over ice growth remains a challenge in industry, and the demand for new cryoprotectants is high. Naturally occurring cryoprotectants, such as antifreeze proteins (AFPs, present one solution for modulating ice crystal growth; however, the production of AFPs is expensive and inefficient. These obstacles can be overcome by identifying synthetic substitutes with similar AFP properties. Zirconium acetate (ZRA was recently found to induce the formation of hexagonal cavities in materials prepared by ice templating. Here, we continue this line of study and examine the effects of ZRA and a related compound, zirconium acetate hydroxide (ZRAH, on ice growth, shaping, and recrystallization. We found that the growth rate of ice crystals was significantly reduced in the presence of ZRA and ZRAH, and that solutions containing these compounds display a small degree of thermal hysteresis, depending on the solution pH. The compounds were found to inhibit recrystallization in a manner similar to that observed in the presence of AFPs. The favorable properties of ZRA and ZRAH suggest tremendous potential utility in industrial applications.

  4. Disproportionation Kinetics of Hypoiodous Acid As Catalyzed and Suppressed by Acetic Acid-Acetate Buffer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbansky, Edward T.; Cooper, Brian T.; Margerum, Dale W.

    1997-03-26

    The kinetics of the disproportionation of hypoiodous acid to give iodine and iodate ion (5HOI right harpoon over left harpoon 2I(2) + IO(3)(-) + H(+) + 2H(2)O) are investigated in aqueous acetic acid-sodium acetate buffer. The rate of iodine formation is followed photometrically at -log [H(+)] = 3.50, 4.00, 4.50, and 5.00, &mgr; = 0.50 M (NaClO(4)), and 25.0 degrees C. Both catalytic and inhibitory buffer effects are observed. The first process is proposed to be a disproportionation of iodine(I) to give HOIO and I(-); the iodide then reacts with HOI to give I(2). The reactive species (acetato-O)iodine(I), CH(3)CO(2)I, is postulated to increase the rate by assisting in the formation of I(2)O, a steady-state species that hydrolyzes to give HOIO and I(2). Inhibition is postulated to result from the formation of the stable ion bis(acetato-O)iodate(I), (CH(3)CO(2))(2)I(-), as buffer concentration is increased. This species is observed spectrophotometrically with a UV absorption shoulder (lambda = 266 nm; epsilon = 530 M(-)(1) cm(-)(1)). The second process is proposed to be a disproportionation of HOIO to give IO(3)(-) and I(2). Above 1 M total buffer, the reaction becomes reversible with less than 90% I(2) formation. Rate and equilibrium constants are resolved and reported for the proposed mechanism.

  5. KINETIC STUDY OF CARBONYLATION OF METHANOL TO ACETIC ACID AND ACETIC ANHYDRIDE OVER A NOVEL COPOLYMER- BOUND CIS- DICARBONYLRHODIUM COMPLEX

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yuying; YUAN Guoqing; CHEN Rongyao

    1989-01-01

    The kinetic study of carbonylation of methanol-acetic acid mixture to acetic acid and acetic anhydride over a cis-dicarbonylrhodium complex (MVM' Rh)coordinated with the ethylene diacrylate (M')crosslinked copolymer of methyl acrylate (M) and 2 - vinylpyridine (V) shows that the rate of reaction is zero order with respect to both reactants methanol and carbon monoxide, but first order in the concentrations of promoter methyl iodide and rhodium in the complex . Polar solvents can accelerate the reaction .Activation parameters were calculated from the experimental results, being comparable to that of the homogeneous system . A mechanism similar to that of soluble rhodium catalyst was proposed .

  6. Densities, speeds of sound, and refractive indices of the ternary mixtures (toluene + methyl acetate + butyl acetate) and (toluene + methyl acetate + methyl heptanoate) at 298.15 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariano, Alejandra [Departamento de Quimica, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional del Comahue, Buenos Aires 1400 (8300) Neuquen (Argentina); Postigo, Miguel [Departamento de Quimica, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional del Comahue, Buenos Aires 1400 (8300) Neuquen (Argentina)]. E-mail: postigo@uncoma.edu.ar; Gonzalez-Salgado, Diego [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad de Vigo, Facultad de Ciencias del Campus de Ourense, E 32004 Ourense (Spain); Romani, Luis [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad de Vigo, Facultad de Ciencias del Campus de Ourense, E 32004 Ourense (Spain)

    2007-02-15

    Density, {rho}, speed of sound, u, and refractive index, n {sub D}, at 298.15 K and atmospheric pressure have been measured over the entire composition range for (toluene + methyl acetate + butyl acetate) and (toluene + methyl acetate + methyl heptanoate) systems. Excess molar volumes, V {sup E}, isentropic compressibility, {kappa} {sub s}, isentropic compressibility deviations, {delta}{kappa} {sub s}, and changes of refractive index on mixing, {delta}n {sub D}, for the above systems, have been calculated from experimental data and fitted to Cibulka, Singh et al., and Nagata and Sakura equations, standard deviations from the regression lines are shown. Geometrical solution models, Tsao and Smith, Kholer, Jacob and Fitzner, Rastogi et al. were also applied to predict ternary properties from binary contributions.

  7. Measurement and modelization of VLE of binary mixtures of propyl acetate, butyl acetate or isobutyl acetate with methanol at pressure of 0.6 MPa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P Susial; D Garca; R Susial; YC Clavijo; A Martn

    2016-01-01

    The vapor–liquid equilibrium of binary mixtures of propyl acetate, butyl acetate and isobutyl acetate with meth-anol has been determined at a constant pressure of 0.6 MPa. Results have been modeled with the Peng–Robinson equation, a traditional cubic equation of state widely employed in chemical industries, as well as with the perturbed-chain statistical associating fluid PC-SAFT theory of Gross–Sadowski. By correlation of the binary inter-action parameters of these equations, the measured vapor–liquid equilibrium data can be accurately predicted. Thus, this work shows that these models are able to represent the experimental data for systems with associating compounds via hydrogen bonding.

  8. EFFECT OF COLD EXPOSURE AND FASTING ON HEPATIC ACETATE METABOLISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    present investigation the carbohydrate content of the liver was drastically reduced by fasting rats both at 25 C. and 0 C. Acetate oxidation is greatly depressed by the lowering of the hepatic carbohydrate level. (Author)

  9. Development of Chitosan Acetate Films for Transdermal Delivery of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    India. Abstract. Purpose: To formulate and evaluate chitosan acetate films designed for transdermal delivery of ... been found to have antibacterial activity and can be used as such, .... blotted with filter paper and weighed on a digital balance.

  10. CHARACTERIZATION OF REGENERATED CELLULOSE MEMBRANES HYDROLYZED FROM CELLULOSE ACETATE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun Chen; Xiao-peng Xiong; Guang Yang; Li-na Zhang; Sen-lin Lei; Hui Lianga

    2002-01-01

    A series of cellulose acetate membranes were prepared by using formamide as additive, and then were hydrolyzedin 4 wt% aqueous NaOH solution for 8 h to obtain regenerated cellulose membranes. The dependence of degree ofsubstitution, structure, porous properties, solubility and thermal stability on hydrolysis time was studied by chemical titration,Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, wide-angle X-ray diffraction, and differentialscanning calorimetry, respectively. The results indicated that the pore size of the regenerated cellulose membranes wasslightly smaller than that of cellulose acetate membrane, while solvent-resistance, crystallinity and thermostability weresignificantly improved. This work provides a simple way to prepare the porous cellulose membranes, which not only kept thegood pore characteristics of cellulose acetate membranes, but also possessed solvent-resistance, high crystallinity andthermostability. Therefore, the application range of cellulose acetate membranes can be expanded.

  11. Comparison of visual inspection with acetic acid (via) with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparison of visual inspection with acetic acid (via) with papanicolaou ... Abstract. Background: Cervical cancer is the second most common killer ... VIA while 10 (4.2%) had heard about Pap smear test as a screening test for cervical cancer.

  12. Ammonia effect on hydrogenotrophic methanogens and syntrophic acetate oxidizing bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Han; Fotidis, Ioannis; Angelidaki, Irini

    2015-01-01

    Ammonia-rich substrates can cause inhibition on anaerobic digestion process. Syntrophic acetate oxidizing bacteria (SAOB) and hydrogenotrophic methanogens are important for the ammonia inhibitory mechanism on anaerobic digestion. The roles and interactions of SAOB and hydrogenotrophic methanogens...

  13. Catalytic Esterification of Methyl Alcohol with Acetic Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Esterification of methyl alcohol with acetic acid catalysed by Amberlyst-15 (cation-exchange resin) was carried out in a batch reactor in the temperature ranging between 318-338 K, at atmospheric pressure. The reaction rate increased with increase in catalyst concentration and reaction temperature, but decreased with an increase in water concentration. Stirrer speed had virtually no effect on the rate under the experimental conditions. The rate data were correlated with a second-order kinetic model based on homogeneous reaction. The apparent activation energy was found to be 22.9kJ.mo1-1 for the formation of methyl acetate. The methyl acetate production was carried out aa batch and continuous in a packed bed restive distillation column with high purity methyl acetate produced.

  14. Microorganisms having enhanced resistance to acetate and methods of use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Steven D; Yang, Shihui

    2014-10-21

    The present invention provides isolated or genetically modified strains of microorganisms that display enhanced resistance to acetate as a result of increased expression of a sodium proton antiporter. The present invention also provides methods for producing such microbial strains, as well as related promoter sequences and expression vectors. Further, the present invention provides methods of producing alcohol from biomass materials by using microorganisms with enhanced resistance to acetate.

  15. Probiotic and Acetic Acid Effect on Broiler Chickens Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Král; Mária Angelovičová; Ľubica Mrázová; Jana Tkáčová; Martin Kliment

    2011-01-01

    Probiotics and organic acids are widely accepted as an alternative to in-feed antibiotics in poultry production. We carried the experiment with broiler chickens. In experiment we research effect of probiotic and acetic acids on the performance of broiler chickens. A total number of 200 one day old broiler chickens were distributed to two dietary groups. Broiler chickens in control group were fed with standard feed mixture and experimental group 1% vinegar contained 5% acetic acid used in drin...

  16. Proteome analysis of Acetobacter pasteurianus during acetic acid fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrés-Barrao, Cristina; Saad, Maged M; Chappuis, Marie-Louise; Boffa, Mauro; Perret, Xavier; Ortega Pérez, Ruben; Barja, François

    2012-03-16

    Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are Gram-negative, strictly aerobic microorganisms that show a unique resistance to ethanol (EtOH) and acetic acid (AcH). Members of the Acetobacter and Gluconacetobacter genera are capable of transforming EtOH into AcH via the alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) enzymes and are used for the industrial production of vinegar. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain how AAB resist high concentrations of AcH, such as the assimilation of acetate through the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, the export of acetate by various transporters and modifications of the outer membrane. However, except for a few acetate-specific proteins, little is known about the global proteome responses to AcH. In this study, we used 2D-DIGE to compare the proteome of Acetobacter pasteurianus LMG 1262(T) when growing in glucose or ethanol and in the presence of acetic acid. Interesting protein spots were selected using the ANOVA p-value of 0.05 as threshold and 1.5-fold as the minimal level of differential expression, and a total of 53 proteins were successfully identified. Additionally, the size of AAB was reduced by approximately 30% in length as a consequence of the acidity. A modification in the membrane polysaccharides was also revealed by PATAg specific staining.

  17. Genetic organization of Acetobacter for acetic acid fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beppu, T

    Plasmid vectors for the acetic acid-producing strains of Acetobacter and Gluconobacter were constructed from their cryptic plasmids and the efficient transformation conditions were established. The systems allowed to reveal the genetic background of the strains used in the acetic acid fermentation. Genes encoding indispensable components in the acetic acid fermentation, such as alcohol dehydrogenase, aldehyde dehydrogenase and terminal oxidase, were cloned and characterized. Spontaneous mutations at high frequencies in the acetic acid bacteria to cause the deficiency in ethanol oxidation were analyzed. A new insertion sequence element, IS1380, was identified as a major factor of the genetic instability, which causes insertional inactivation of the gene encoding cytochrome c, an essential component of the functional alcohol dehydrogenase complex. Several genes including the citrate synthase gene of A. aceti were identified to confer acetic acid resistance, and the histidinolphosphate aminotransferase gene was cloned as a multicopy suppressor of an ethanol sensitive mutant. Improvement of the acetic acid productivity of an A. aceti strain was achieved through amplification of the aldehyde dehydrogenase gene with a multicopy vector. In addition, spheroplast fusion of the Acetobacter strains was developed and applied to improve their properties.

  18. The Solubility Rules: Why Are All Acetates Soluble?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Sluys, William G.

    2001-01-01

    According to the solubility rules presented in many introductory chemistry texts, all (or most) acetate salts are soluble in aqueous solution. The thermodynamic factors that contribute to the solubility of acetates are compared with those of other slightly basic anions. In particular, the hydration enthalpy of acetate is calculated using the Born-Haber approach, from lattice energies, heats of solution, and the hydration energies of several cations. The hydration enthalpy of acetate (-375 kJ/mol) is similar to that of chloride ({355 kJ/mol), nitrite ({383 kJ/mol), and nitrate ({370 kJ/mol), which are all considerably less exothermic than fluoride ({497 kJ/mol). This was somewhat unexpected, since hydration enthalpies generally correlate well with the acid-base properties of an ion, and acetate is more basic than fluoride. Factors influencing the solubility and acid-base properties of acetates, such as the electron donating and hydrophobic nature of the methyl group, are discussed in light of the thermodynamic data.

  19. Laboratory millimeter wave spectrum and astronomical search for vinyl acetate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolesniková, L.; Peña, I.; Alonso, J. L.; Cernicharo, J.; Tercero, B.; Kleiner, I.

    2015-05-01

    Context. The recent discovery of methyl acetate in Orion KL makes vinyl acetate, CH3C=OOCH=CH2, a potential molecule in the interstellar medium. We obtained very accurate spectroscopic constants in a comprehensive laboratory analysis of its rotational spectra which can be used to predict those transition frequencies towards interstellar sources. Aims: We present the experimental study and theoretical analysis of the ground torsional state of vinyl acetate in a large spectral range for astrophysical use. Methods: The room-temperature rotational spectrum of vinyl acetate has been measured from 125 to 305 GHz to provide direct frequencies to the astronomical community. Additional measurements have also been made using a broadband CP-FTMW spectrometer in the region of 6-18 GHz. Transition lines, corresponding to the most stable conformer, have been observed and assigned. All the rotational transitions revealed the A-E splitting due to the methyl internal rotation and had to be treated with a specific internal rotation code (BELGI-Cs). Results: We analyzed 2508 transitions up to J'' = 75 for vt = 0 for the most stable conformer of vinyl acetate. The new lines were globally fitted with previously published data and 24 parameters of the Hamiltonian were accurately determined. The spectral features of vinyl acetate were then searched for in Orion KL. Using the whole line survey of Orion KL (80-280 GHz) obtained with the IRAM 30 m radio telescope we can provide only an upper limit to the column density of vinyl acetate. However, using the ALMA science verification data we obtain a tentative detection of this species that will require further search at other frequencies to confirm its presence in this high mass star forming region. Table 2 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/577/A91

  20. Ultrasonic velocities, densities, and excess molar volumes of binary mixtures of N,N-dimethyl formamide with methyl acrylate, or ethyl acrylate, or butyl acrylate, or 2-ethyl hexyl acrylate at T = 308.15 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondaiah, M. [Department of Physics, Acharya Nagarjuna University, Nagarjuna Nagar 522510, Andhra Pradesh (India); Sravana Kumar, D. [Dr. V.S. Krishna Govt. Degree College, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh (India); Sreekanth, K. [Department of Physics, Acharya Nagarjuna University, Nagarjuna Nagar 522510, Andhra Pradesh (India); Krishna Rao, D., E-mail: krdhanekula@yahoo.co.in [Department of Physics, Acharya Nagarjuna University, Nagarjuna Nagar 522510, Andhra Pradesh (India)

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: > Positive values of V{sub m}{sup E}, indicate dispersion forces between acrylic esters and DMF. > V{sub m}{sup E} values compared with Redlich-Kister polynomial. > Partial molar volumes data conclude that weak interactions exist in the systems. > Measured velocity values compared with theoretical values obtained by polynomials. - Abstract: Ultrasonic velocities, u, densities, {rho}, of binary mixtures of N,N-dimethyl formamide (DMF) with methyl acrylate (MA), ethyl acrylate (EA), butyl acrylate (BA), and 2-ethyl hexyl acrylate (EHA), including pure liquids, over the entire composition range have been measured at T = 308.15 K. Using the experimental results, the excess molar volume, V{sub m}{sup E}, partial molar volumes, V-bar {sub m,1}, V-bar{sub m,2}, and excess partial molar volumes, V-bar{sub m,1}{sup E}, V-bar{sub m,2}{sup E} have been calculated. Molecular interactions in the systems have been studied in the light of variation of excess values of calculated properties. The excess properties have been fitted to Redlich-Kister type polynomial and the corresponding standard deviations have been calculated. The positive values of V{sub m}{sup E} indicate the presence of dispersion forces between the DMF and acrylic ester molecules. Further theoretical values of sound velocity in the mixtures have been evaluated using various theories and have been compared with experimental sound velocities to verify the applicability of such theories to the systems studied. Theoretical ultrasonic velocity data have been used to study molecular interactions in the binary systems investigated.

  1. 21 CFR 862.1390 - 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system... Test Systems § 862.1390 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system. (a) Identification. A 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system is a device intended to measure 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid...

  2. 21 CFR 177.1360 - Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers... acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers. Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers (CAS Reg. No. 26221-27-2... accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers...

  3. [Conversion of acetic acid to methane by thermophiles: Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinder, S.

    1991-12-31

    The objective of this project is to provide an understanding of thermophilic anaerobic microorganisms capable of breaking down acetic acid, the precursor of two-thirds of the methane produced by anaerobic bioreactors. Recent results include: (1) the isolation of Methanothrix strain CALLS-1, which grows much more rapidly than mesophilic strains; (2) the demonstration that thermophilic cultures of Methanosarcina and Methanothrix show minimum thresholds for acetate utilization of 1--2.5 mM and 10--20{mu}m respectively, in agreement with ecological data indicating that Methanothrix is favored by low acetate concentration; (3) the demonstration of high levels of thermostable acetyl-coA synthetase and carbon monoxide dehydrogenase in cell-free extracts of Methanothrix strains CALS-1; (4) the demonstration of methanogenesis from acetate and ATP in cell free extracts of strain CALS-1. (5) the demonstration that methanogenesis from acetate required 2 ATP/methane, and, in contrast to Methanosarcina, was independent of hydrogen and other electron donors; (6) the finding that entropy effects must be considered when predicting the level of hydrogen in thermophilic syntrophic cultures. (7) the isolation and characterization of the Desulfotomaculum thermoacetoxidans. Current research is centered on factors which allow thermophilic Methanothrix to compete with Methanosarcina.

  4. (Conversion of acetic acid to methane by thermophiles: Progress report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinder, S.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this project is to provide an understanding of thermophilic anaerobic microorganisms capable of breaking down acetic acid, the precursor of two-thirds of the methane produced by anaerobic bioreactors. Recent results include: (1) the isolation of Methanothrix strain CALLS-1, which grows much more rapidly than mesophilic strains; (2) the demonstration that thermophilic cultures of Methanosarcina and Methanothrix show minimum thresholds for acetate utilization of 1--2.5 mM and 10--20{mu}m respectively, in agreement with ecological data indicating that Methanothrix is favored by low acetate concentration; (3) the demonstration of high levels of thermostable acetyl-coA synthetase and carbon monoxide dehydrogenase in cell-free extracts of Methanothrix strains CALS-1; (4) the demonstration of methanogenesis from acetate and ATP in cell free extracts of strain CALS-1. (5) the demonstration that methanogenesis from acetate required 2 ATP/methane, and, in contrast to Methanosarcina, was independent of hydrogen and other electron donors; (6) the finding that entropy effects must be considered when predicting the level of hydrogen in thermophilic syntrophic cultures. (7) the isolation and characterization of the Desulfotomaculum thermoacetoxidans. Current research is centered on factors which allow thermophilic Methanothrix to compete with Methanosarcina.

  5. Hydrogen production by fermentation using acetic acid and lactic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Mitsufumi; Nishimura, Yasuhiko

    2007-03-01

    Microbial hydrogen production from sho-chu post-distillation slurry solution (slurry solution) containing large amounts of organic acids was investigated. The highest hydrogen producer, Clostridium diolis JPCC H-3, was isolated from natural environment and produced hydrogen at 6.03+/-0.15 ml from 5 ml slurry solution in 30 h. Interestingly, the concentration of acetic acid and lactic acid in the slurry solution decreased during hydrogen production. The substrates for hydrogen production by C. diolis JPCC H-3, in particular organic acids, were investigated in an artificial medium. No hydrogen was produced from acetic acid, propionic acid, succinic acid, or citric acid on their own. Hydrogen and butyric acid were produced from a mixture of acetic acid and lactic acid, showing that C. diolis. JPCC H-3 could produce hydrogen from acetic acid and lactic acid. Furthermore, calculation of the Gibbs free energy strongly suggests that this reaction would proceed. In this paper, we describe for the first time microbial hydrogen production from acetic acid and lactic acid by fermentation.

  6. Leuprorelin Acetate in Prostate Cancer: a European Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Persad R

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This review provides an update on leuprorelin acetate, the world's most widely prescribed depot luteinising hormone-releasing hormone analogue. Leuprorelin acetate has been in clinical use in the palliative treatment of prostate cancer for more than 20 years, but advances continue to be made in terms of convenience and flexibility of administration, and in the incorporation of leuprorelin acetate into novel treatment regimens. The drug is administered in the form of a depot injection containing leuprorelin acetate microspheres, and is at least as effective in suppressing testosterone secretion as orchiectomy. In patients with prostate cancer, serum testosterone levels are reduced to castrate levels (= 50 ng/dl within 2-3 weeks of the first one-month depot injection of 3.75 mg or three-month depot injection of 11.25 mg. Both the one-month and three-month formulations are effective in delaying tumour progression and alleviating symptoms of locally advanced and metastatic prostate cancer. Tolerability is generally good, with side-effects reflecting effective testosterone suppression. Recent studies have investigated the place of leuprorelin acetate as part of continuous or intermittent maximal androgen blockade (MAB and in neoadjuvant therapy (ie, to reduce the size of the prostate and downsize the tumour before radiotherapy. Additional formulations and presentations are in development, including a six-month injection, with the aim of adding to the clinical flexibility and patient acceptability of this important palliative treatment for prostate cancer.

  7. Eslicarbazepine acetate: an update on efficacy and safety in epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrotti, Alberto; Loiacono, Giulia; Rossi, Alessandra; Zaccara, Gaetano

    2014-01-01

    Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder. Despite a broad range of commonly used antiepileptic drugs, approximately 30% of patients with epilepsy have drug resistance or encounter significant adverse effects. Eslicarbazepine acetate is a new central nervous system-active compound with anticonvulsant activity whose mechanism of action is by blocking the voltage-gated sodium channel. Eslicarbazepine acetate was approved by the European Medicines Agency and launched onto the European market in 2009 for adjunctive treatment in adult subjects of partial-onset seizures, with or without secondary generalization. This article provides an overview on the recent studies on eslicarbazepine acetate in the treatment of drug-resistant partial epilepsy. Efficacy and safety of this drug for partial-onset seizures were assessed in four randomized clinical trials with responder rates ranged between 17% and 43%. Adverse events were usually mild to moderate in intensity and the most common were dizziness, somnolence, nausea, diplopia, headache, vomiting, abnormal coordination, blurred vision, vertigo and fatigue. Eslicarbazepine acetate is not recommended below 18 years, but a published phase II trial had the main goal to evaluate the pharmacokinetics, efficacy and safety of this drug in pediatric population. Eslicarbazepine acetate appears to be a safe and effective drug with a linear pharmacokinetics, very low potential for drug-drug interactions and therefore it can offer a valid alternative to current antiepileptic drugs. Additionally, it is undergoing investigation for monotherapy in subjects with partial epilepsy, and other neurological and psychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Adiabatic calorimetry (RSST and VSP) tests with sodium acetate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirch, N.W.

    1993-09-01

    As requested in the subject reference, adiabatic calorimetry (RSST and VSP) tests have been performed with sodium acetate covering TOC concentrations from 3 to 7% with the following results: Exothermic activity noted around 200{degrees}C. Propagating reaction initiated at about 300{degrees}C. Required TOC concentration for propagation estimated at about 6 w% (dry mixture) or about 20 w% sodium acetate. Heat of reaction estimated to be 3.7 MJ per kg of sodium acetate (based on VSP test with 3 w% TOC and using a dry mixture specific heat of 1000 J kg{sup {minus}1} K{sup {minus}1}). Based upon the above results we estimate that a moisture content in excess of 14 w% would prevent a propagating reaction of a stoichiometric mixture of fuel and oxidizer ({approximately} 38 w% sodium acetate and {approximately}62 w% sodium nitrate). Assuming that the fuel can be treated as sodium acetate equivalent, and considering that the moisture content in the organic containing waste generally is believed to be in excess of 14 w%, it follows that the possibility of propagating reactions in the Hanford waste tanks can be ruled out.

  9. Characterization of differently sized granule fractions of yellow pea, cowpea and chickpea starches after modification with acetic anhydride and vinyl acetate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, J.; Schols, H.A.; Jin, Z.; Sulmann, E.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of reagent type on the properties of acetylated starches was studied for yellow pea, cowpea and chickpea starches after modification with acetic anhydride and vinyl acetate. Samples modified with vinyl acetate showed higher swelling volume and peak viscosity than those acetylated with

  10. Characterization of differently sized granule fractions of yellow pea, cowpea and chickpea starches after modification with acetic anhydride and vinyl acetate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, J.; Schols, H.A.; Jin, Z.; Sulmann, E.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of reagent type on the properties of acetylated starches was studied for yellow pea, cowpea and chickpea starches after modification with acetic anhydride and vinyl acetate. Samples modified with vinyl acetate showed higher swelling volume and peak viscosity than those acetylated with ace

  11. Biodegradable polymers by reactive blending trans-esterification of thermoplastic starch with poly (vinyl acetate) and poly (vinyl acetate-co-butyl acrylate)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Vargha, V

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Wheat starch was reacted with poly (vinyl acetate) and with poly (vinyl acetate-co-butyl acrylate) in an internal mixer at 150 _C in the absence of catalyst, and in the presence of sodium carbonate, zinc-acetate and titanium (IV) but oxide...

  12. Fluorometholone acetate. A new ophthalmic derivative of fluorometholone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupferman, A; Berrospi, A R; Leibowitz, H M

    1982-04-01

    Hourly topical administration of 0.1% fluorometholone acetate ophthalmic suspension produced, on the average, a 47% reduction in the polymorphonuclear leukocytes invading the cornea during an experimentally induced inflammatory keratitis. This is a significantly greater anti-inflammatory effect than we have previously reported for the alcohol derivative of fluorometholone and is not significantly different from the therapeutic effect of 1.0% prednisolone acetate ophthalmic suspension, the most effective corneal anti-inflammatory agent that we have studied to date. Fluorometholone acetate (0.1%) formulated as a high-viscosity carbomer gel and applied at three-hour intervals reduced invading leukocytes in the cornea an average of 48%, an effect not significantly different from hourly administration of the suspension.

  13. Crystal structure of febuxostat–acetic acid (1/1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Wu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title compound [systematic name: 2-(3-cyano-4-isobutyloxyphenyl-4-methylthiazole-5-carboxylic acid–acetic acid (1/1], C16H16N2O3S·CH3COOH, contains a febuxostat molecule and an acetic acid molecule. In the febuxostat molecule, the thiazole ring is nearly coplanar with the benzene ring [dihedral angle = 3.24 (2°]. In the crystal, the febuxostat and acetic acid molecules are linked by O—H...O, O—H...N hydrogen bonds and weak C—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming supramolecular chains propagating along the b-axis direction. π–π stacking is observed between nearly parallel thiazole and benzene rings of adjacent molecules; the centroid-to-centroid distances are 3.8064 (17 and 3.9296 (17 Å.

  14. Improvement of productivity in acetic acid fermentation with Clostridium thermoaceticum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, M.M.; Cheryan, M. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Production of acetic acid by a mutant strain of Clostridium thermoaceticum was compared in three types of membrane cell-recycle bioreactors. A modified fed-batch bioreactor (where the product is partially removed at the end of fermentation, but the cells are retained), and a two-stage CSTR (with product being removed continuously and the cells being recycled from the second to the first stage) resulted in better performance than a one-stage CSTR or batch fermenter. The difference in performance was greater at higher acetate concentration. With 45 g/L of glucose in the feed, productivity was 0.75-1.12 g/L-h and acetic acid concentrations were 34-38 g/L. This is more than double the batch system. The nutrient supply rate also appeared to have a strong influence on productivity of the microorganism.

  15. Kinetics of wet oxidation of formic acid and acetic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shende, R.V.; Mahajani, V.V. [Univ. of Mumbai (India). Dept. of Chemical Technology

    1997-11-01

    Oxidation of lower molecular weight carboxylic acids such as formic, acetic, glyoxalic, and oxalic acids is often the rate-controlling step during wet oxidation (WO) of an aqueous waste stream exhibiting very high chemical oxygen demand (COD). The kinetics of WO of formic acid was studied in the absence and presence of a cupric sulfate as catalyst in the temperature range 150--240 C and oxygen partial pressure range 0.345--1.380 MPa. Wet oxidation of acetic acid was carried out in the presence of cupric sulfate in the temperature range 215--235 C. Homogeneous copper sulfate was found to be a very good catalyst for oxidation of formic acid and acetic acid.

  16. Interaction of roxatidine acetate with antacids, food and other drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labs, R A

    1988-01-01

    The inhibition of hepatic mixed-function oxidase microsomal enzymes by cimetidine can lead to clinically important drug interactions. The metabolism of antipyrine is used as an index of hepatic enzymatic activity. The pharmacokinetic profiles of salivary antipyrine obtained following treatment with roxatidine acetate 75 mg or placebo twice a day for 7 days showed similar characteristics with no difference in the areas under the plasma concentration-time curves. In addition, roxatidine acetate 75 mg daily did not modify the clearance of propranolol, diazepam, desmethyldiazepam or controlled release theophylline preparations. Furthermore, there was no interference in the bioavailability of roxatidine acetate 150 mg daily when administered alone or in combination with a meal or antacids.

  17. A biochemical explanation of phenyl acetate neurotoxicity in experimental phenylketonuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loo, Y H; Potempska, A; Wisniewski, H M

    1985-11-01

    The in vivo formation of [1-14C]acetyl-coenzyme A from D-[3-14C]3-hydroxybutyrate in the brain of the suckling rat was not affected by postnatal exposure to phenyl acetate. However, utilization of the generated acetyl-coenzyme A was significantly inhibited in certain metabolic reactions, namely synthesis of fatty acids and of sterols, but not in others as the Krebs cycle reactions that lead to the production of dicarboxylic amino acids. The incorporation of D-[U-14C]glucosamine into N-acetylneuraminic acid bound to glycoproteins was appreciably diminished in the rat pup previously exposed to maternal phenylketonuria induced by phenyl acetate. During the period of very rapid development of the brain, interference by phenyl acetate and/or its metabolites with certain critical biosynthetic pathways that require acetyl-coenzyme A would significantly contribute to retarded maturation of the brain that occurs in phenylketonuria.

  18. A comparison of acetate and digital templating for hip resurfacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracey, Daniel N; Seyler, Thorsten M; Shields, John S; Leng, Xiaoyan; Jinnah, Riyaz H; Lang, Jason E

    2014-01-01

    This study sought to determine whether templating for metal-on-metal hip resurfacing is more accurate with digital or acetate methodology. The medical records of 102 consecutive patients who underwent hip resurfacing at our institution were retrospectively reviewed. Records lacking preoperative radiographs that included a magnification-establishing marker were excluded, leaving 78 records for study. Two investigators independently prepared acetate and digital templates of the preoperative radiographs, which had been calibrated to 120% magnification, to predict femoral and acetabular component size. Accuracy was measured by comparing the predicted component sizes to the surgically implanted component sizes. Digital templating was more accurate than acetate templating in predicting hip resurfacing component size when measuring accuracy of templates by the absolute error of predicted component sizes (femoral, P hip resurfacing procedures.

  19. Syntrophic acetate oxidation in industrial CSTR biogas digesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li; Müller, Bettina; Westerholm, Maria; Schnürer, Anna

    2014-02-10

    The extent of syntrophic acetate oxidation (SAO) and the levels of known SAO bacteria and acetate- and hydrogen-consuming methanogens were determined in sludge from 13 commercial biogas production plants. Results from these measurements were statistically related to the prevailing operating conditions, through partial least squares (PLS) analysis. This revealed that high abundance of microorganisms involved in SAO was positively correlated with relatively low abundance of aceticlastic methanogens and high concentrations of free ammonia (>160 mg/L) and volatile fatty acids (VFA). Temperature was identified as another influencing factor for the population structure of the syntrophic acetate oxidising bacteria (SAOB). Overall, there was a high abundance of SAOB in the different digesters despite differences in their operating parameters, indicating that SAOB are an enduring and important component of biogas-producing consortia.

  20. Search for Deuterated methyl acetate in the ISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorai, Prasanta; Chakrabarti, Sandip Kumar; Das, Ankan; Majumdar, Liton; Sahu, Dipen; Sivaraman, Bhalamurugan

    2016-07-01

    Methyl acetate (CH_3COOCH_3 ) has been recently observed by IRAM 30 m radio telescope in Orion. But the existence of its deuterated form are yet to be confirmed. Here, we study the properties of methyl acetate and its singly deuterated forms (CH_3COOCH_3, CH_2DCOOCH_3 and CH_3COOCH_2D). Our simulation results reveal that deuterated forms of methyl acetate could efficiently be produced both in gas as well as in ice phase. Production of methyl acetate could follow radical-radical reaction between acetyl (CH_3CO) and methoxy (CH_3O) radicals. To predict abundances of CH_3COOCH_3 along with its two singly deuterated isotopomers and its two isomers (ethyl formate and hydroxy acetone), we prepare a large gas-grain chemical network to study chemical evolution of these molecules. Since gas phase rate coefficients of our newly adopted network for methyl acetate and its related species were unknown, in our simulation, either we consider similar rate coefficients for similar types of reactions (by following existing data bases) or we carry out quantum chemical calculations to estimate the unknown rate coefficients. For the surface reactions, we use adsorption energies of reactants from some earlier studies. Moreover, we perform quantum chemical calculations to find out various spectral properties of various forms of methyl acetate in infrared, ultraviolet and sub-millimeter regions. We prepare two catalog files for the rotational transitions of CH_2DCOOCH_3 and CH_3COOCH_2D in JPL format, which might be useful for its detection in regions of interstellar media where CH_3COOCH_3 has already been observed.

  1. Rotational study of the bimolecule acetic acid-fluoroacetic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Gang; Gou, Qian; Evangelisti, Luca; Caminati, Walther

    2017-01-01

    The rotational spectrum of the acetic acid-fluoroacetic acid bimolecule was measured by using a pulsed jet Fourier transform microwave spectrometer. One conformer, in which fluoroacetic acid is in trans form, has been observed. The rotational transitions are split into two component lines, due to the internal rotation of the methyl group of acetic acid. From these splittings, the corresponding V3 barrier has been determined. The dissociation energy of this complex has been estimated to 66 kJ/mol. An increase of the distance between the two monomers upon the OH → OD substitution (Ubbelohde effect) has been observed.

  2. Acetylation of cellulose nanowhiskers with vinyl acetate under moderate conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Nihat Sami; Tingaut, Philippe; Ozmen, Nilgül; Henry, Nathan; Harper, David; Dadmun, Mark; Sèbe, Gilles

    2009-10-08

    A novel and straightforward method for the surface acetylation of cellulose nanowhiskers by transesterification of vinyl acetate is proposed. The reaction of vinyl acetate with the hydroxyl groups of cellulose nanowhiskers obtained from cotton linters was examined with potassium carbonate as catalyst. Results indicate that during the first stage of the reaction, only the surface of the nanowhiskers was modified, while their dimensions and crystallinity remained unchanged. With increasing reaction time, diffusion mechanisms controlled the rate, leading to nanowhiskers with higher levels of acetylation, smaller dimensions, and lower crystallinity. In THF, a solvent of low polarity, the suspensions from modified nanowhiskers showed improved stability with increased acetylation.

  3. Fate and residues of trenbolone acetate in edible tissues from sheep amd calves implanted with tritium-labeled trenbolone acetate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evrard, P.; Maghuin-Rogister, G.; Rico, A.G. (Univ. of Liege (Belgium))

    1989-06-01

    In order to study the fate and residues of trenbolone acetate in edible tissues, two groups of six animals from two ruminant species (ewes and calves) were implanted with (3H)trenbolone acetate. The distribution of extractable radioactive residues was measured in liver, kidney and muscle. We found that the largest proportion of residues was not extractable and thus was considered as covalently bound residues. The proportion of the main extractable metabolites (17 alpha-trenbolone, trendione, 17 beta-trenbolone) was measured. The evaluation of the distribution of trenbolone acetate metabolites directly soluble in water showed that unknown metabolite(s) were predominant. The covalent binding to nucleic acids was measured. It was so low that it was not detectable. The results are discussed in light of the data presented in the scientific report on anabolic agents in animal production from the European scientific working group.

  4. MORPHOLOGY, IN VITRO - DEGRADATION AND DRUG RELEASE PROFILE OF POLY (ETHYLENE-CO-VINYL ACETATE / MICROCRYSTALLINE CELLULOSE ACETATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Lakshmi Narayana

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Microcrystalline cellulose acetate (MCC was incorporated in poly (ethylene-co-vinyl acetate (EVA at different loading. The morphology, swelling properties and drug release profile were studied with respect to MCC loading to study its potential application as ocular inserts. The XRD patterns showed a good compatibility between the components. However swelling ratio and in-vitro degradation of EVA increase with MCC loading. This has been explained in terms of the hygroscopic nature of cellulose acetate. The study shows that EVA/MCC system can be tuned in terms of important parameters such as swelling behavior, in vitro release and degradation by varying blend composition, thus fulfilling specific biomedical requirements.

  5. Experimental Measurements and Correlations Isobaric Vapor-Liquid Equilibria for Water + Acetic Acid + Sec-butyl Acetate at 101.3 kPa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ling; HE Yong; WU Yanxiang; ZOU Wenhu

    2013-01-01

    Isobaric vapor-liquid equilibrium(VLE) data for acetic acid + sec-butyl acetate and water + acetic acid + sec-butyl acetate systems were determined at 101.3 kPa using a modified Rose type.The nonideality of the vapor phase caused by the association of the acetic acid was corrected by the chemical theory and Hayden-O'Connell method.Thermodynamic consistency was tested for the binary VLE data.The experimental data were correlated successfully with the Non-Random Two Liquids (NRTL) model.The Root Mean Square Deviation (RMSD) of the ternary system was 0.0038.The saturation vapor pressure of sec-butyl acetate at 329 to 385 K was measured by means of two connected equilibrium cells.The vapor pressures of water and sec-butyl acetate were correlated with the Antoine equation.The binary interaction parameters and the ternary VLE data were obtained from this work.

  6. Enhanced Gas Absorption in the Ionic Liquid 1-n-Hexyl-3-methylimidazolium Bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide ([hmim][Tf{sub 2}N]) Confined in Silica Slit Pores: A Molecular Simulation Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Wei; Luebke, David R

    2013-05-07

    Two-dimensional NP{sub xy}T and isostress-osmotic (N{sub 2}P{sub xy}Tf{sub 1}) Monte Carlo simulations were used to compute the density and gas absorption properties of the ionic liquid (IL) 1-n-hexyl-3- methylimidazolium bis(Trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide ([hmim][Tf{sub 2}N]) confined in silica slit pores (25-45 Å). Self-diffusivity values for both gas and IL were calculated from NVE molecular dynamics simulations using both smooth and atomistic potential models for the silica. Simulations show that the molar volume for [hmim][Tf{sub 2}N] confined in 25-45 Å silica slit pores are 12-31% larger than for the bulk IL at 313-573 K and 1 bar. The amounts of CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, and N{sub 2} absorbed in the confined IL are typically 1.1-3 times larger than in the bulk IL due to larger molar volumes for the confined IL compared to the bulk IL. The CO{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, and H{sub 2} molecules are generally absorbed close to the silica wall where the IL density is very low. This arrangement causes the self-diffusivities for these gases in the confined IL to be 2 to 8 times larger than in the bulk IL at 298-573 K. The solubility for water in the confined and bulk ILs are similar, which is likely due to strong water interactions with [hmim][Tf{sub 2}N] through hydrogen-bonding resulting in the confined IL molar volume playing a less important role in determining H{sub 2}O solubility. Water molecules were largely absorbed in the IL-rich region rather than close to the silica wall. The self-diffusivities for water correlate with the confined IL. The confined IL exhibits self-diffusivities larger than the bulk IL at lower temperatures, but smaller than the bulk IL at higher temperatures. The findings from simulations are consistent with available experimental data for similar confined IL systems.

  7. Enhanced Gas Absorption in the Ionic Liquid 1- n -Hexyl-3-methylimidazolium Bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide ([hmim][Tf 2 N]) Confined in Silica Slit Pores: A Molecular Simulation Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Wei; Luebke, David R.

    2013-05-07

    Two-dimensional NP{sub xy}T and isostress-osmotic (N{sub 2}P{sub xy}Tf{sub 1}) Monte Carlo simulations were used to compute the density and gas absorption properties of the ionic liquid (IL) 1-n-hexyl-3- methylimidazolium bis(Trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide ([hmim][Tf{sub 2}N]) confined in silica slit pores (25-45 Å). Self-diffusivity values for both gas and IL were calculated from NVE molecular dynamics simulations using both smooth and atomistic potential models for the silica. Simulations show that the molar volume for [hmim][Tf{sub 2}N] confined in 25-45 Å silica slit pores are 12-31% larger than for the bulk IL at 313-573 K and 1 bar. The amounts of CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, and N{sub 2} absorbed in the confined IL are typically 1.1-3 times larger than in the bulk IL due to larger molar volumes for the confined IL compared to the bulk IL. The CO{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, and H{sub 2} molecules are generally absorbed close to the silica wall where the IL density is very low. This arrangement causes the self-diffusivities for these gases in the confined IL to be 2 to 8 times larger than in the bulk IL at 298-573 K. The solubility for water in the confined and bulk ILs are similar, which is likely due to strong water interactions with [hmim][Tf{sub 2}N] through hydrogen-bonding resulting in the confined IL molar volume playing a less important role in determining H{sub 2}O solubility. Water molecules were largely absorbed in the IL-rich region rather than close to the silica wall. The self-diffusivities for water correlate with the confined IL. The confined IL exhibits self-diffusivities larger than the bulk IL at lower temperatures, but smaller than the bulk IL at higher temperatures. The findings from simulations are consistent with available experimental data for similar confined IL systems.

  8. Effects of the UV-filter 2-ethyl-hexyl-4-trimethoxycinnamate (EHMC) on expression of genes involved in hormonal pathways in fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and link to vitellogenin induction and histology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christen, Verena; Zucchi, Sara [University of Applied Sciences Northwestern Switzerland, School of Life Sciences, Gruendenstrasse 40, CH-4132 Muttenz (Switzerland); Fent, Karl, E-mail: karl.fent@fhnw.ch [University of Applied Sciences Northwestern Switzerland, School of Life Sciences, Gruendenstrasse 40, CH-4132 Muttenz (Switzerland); Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zuerich (ETH Zuerich), Department of Environmental Sciences, 8092 Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2011-04-15

    UV-filters are increasingly used in cosmetics and in the protection of materials against UV-irradiation, and ultimately they reach aquatic systems. The lipophilic UV-filter 2-ethyl-hexyl-4-trimethoxycinnamate (EHMC) belongs to one of the most frequently used UV-filters and accumulates in aquatic animals. Despite its ubiquitous presence in water and biota, very little is known about its potential hormonal effects on aquatic organisms. In our study, we evaluated the effects of measured water concentration of 5.4, 37.5, 244.5 and 394 {mu}g/L EHMC on the expression of genes involved in hormonal pathways in the liver, testis and brain of male and female fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas). We compare the transcription profile with the plasma vitellogenin (VTG) content, secondary sex characteristics, and gonad histology. Transcripts of the androgen receptor (ar) were significantly down-regulated in the liver of females at 37.5, 244.5 {mu}g/L and 394 {mu}g/L EHMC. Additionally, the 3{beta}-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3{beta}-HSD) transcript was significantly decreased in the liver of males at 37.5, 244.5 and 394 {mu}g/L EHMC, and at 244.5 and 394 {mu}g/L EHMC in females. The expressional changes were tissue-specific in most cases, being most significant in the liver. Vitellogenin plasma concentration was significantly increased at 244.5 {mu}g/L EHMC in males. EHMC induced significant histological changes in testes and ovaries at 394 {mu}g/L. Testes displayed a decrease in spermatocytes, and ovaries a decrease in previtellogenic oocytes. The induction of VTG plasma concentration and the histological changes in gonads suggest an estrogenic and/or antiandrogenic activity of EHMC. On the other hand, the gene expression profile shows an antiestrogenic (e.g.: down-regulation of esr1) activity of EHMC. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that EHMC displays low but multiple hormonal activities in fish.

  9. Photocatalytic decomposition of cortisone acetate in aqueous solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sobral Romao, J.I.; Saad, M.H.; Mul, Guido; Baltrusaitis, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    The photocatalytic decomposition of cortisone 21-acetate (CA), a model compound for the commonly used steroid, cortisone, was studied. CA was photocatalytically decomposed in a slurry reactor with the initial rates between 0.11 and 0.46 mg L−1 min−1 at 10 mg L−1 concentration, using the following

  10. 21 CFR 522.960b - Flumethasone acetate injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... alcohol (as preservative); 8 milligrams of sodium chloride; 1 milligram of polysorbate 80; 0.1 milligram... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Flumethasone acetate injection. 522.960b Section 522.960b Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  11. Preparation and properties of polyvinyl acetal sponge modified by chitosan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The polyvinyl acetal sponge modified by chitosan was prepared by adding chitosan/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) solution during the acetalation reaction of PVA and formaldehyde.The effect of vesicant and chitosan to the pore morphology,water absorption ratio,water absorption rate,expansion time and mechanical properties were studied.The polyvinyl acetal sponge modified by chitosan was used as a hemostatic packing material for the injured rabbit nasal tissue.The hemostatic effect and the healing effect of the modified sponge on the nasal mucosa after nasal surgery were studied.The results indicated that the polyvinyl acetal sponge modified by chitosan has an interconnected pore structure and the wall between large pores also has small pores.The chitosan adhered on the inner surface of the pores.The increased content of vesicant led to an increase in pore diameter,in the water absorption ratio and in expansion time.However,there was only a small change in the water absorption rate and a decrease in tensile strength and compression strength were noted.With an increase in chitosan content,the pore diameter and interconnection of the sponge was reduced.Water absorption ratio,expansion time and water absorption rate decreased,but tensile strength and compression strength improved.Observation of the rabbit nasal tissue after surgical operation suggested that polyvinyl acetal sponge modified by chitosan has an anti-inflammatory,hemostatic and antiadherent characteristic and could promote the healing and functional recovery of rabbit nasal mucosa.

  12. Advanced Colloids Experiment (Temperature Controlled) - ACE-T6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, William V.; Sicker, Ronald J.; Bailey, Kelly; Eustace, John; Lynch, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    Increment 53 - 54 Science Symposium presentation of Advanced Colloids Experiment (ACE-T6) to RPO. The purpose of this event is for Principal Investigators to present their science objectives, testing approach, and measurement methods to agency scientists, managers, and other investigators.

  13. Advanced Colloids Experiment (Temperature Controlled) - ACE-T9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marr, David W. M.; Meyer, William V.; Sicker, Ronald; Bailey, Kelly; Eustace, John G.

    2017-01-01

    Increment 53 - 54 Science Symposium presentation of Advanced Colloids Experiment (ACE-T9) to RPO. The purpose of this event is for Principal Investigators to present their science objectives, testing approach, and measurement methods to agency scientists, managers, and other investigators.

  14. Unimolecular Gas-Phase Thermolysis of Ethyl Acetate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egsgaard, Helge; Carlsen, Lars

    1983-01-01

    The unimolecular gas-phase thermolysis of ethyl acetate has been investigated by the Flash-Vacuum-Thermolysis/Field-Ionization Mass Spectrometry (FVT/FI-MS) method in combination with Collision Activation (CA) mass spectrometry at 1253K. Two predominant reactions are observed: elimination...

  15. Megestrol acetate in the treatment of metastatic breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Alexieva-Figusch (Jana)

    1984-01-01

    textabstractThere are many non-elucidated questions concerning cancer, especially of the breast, in which hormones are involved. The scope of this particular study is to bring more clarity on the role of the progestin megestrol acetate in the hormonal treatment of breast cancer. It should be kept in

  16. First Acetic Acid Survey with CARMA in Hot Molecular Cores

    CERN Document Server

    Shiao, Y -S Jerry; Remijan, Anthony J; Snyder, Lewis E; Friedel, Douglas N

    2010-01-01

    Acetic acid (CH$_3$COOH) has been detected mainly in hot molecular cores where the distribution between oxygen (O) and nitrogen (N) containing molecular species is co-spatial within the telescope beam. Previous work has presumed that similar cores with co-spatial O and N species may be an indicator for detecting acetic acid. However, does this presumption hold as higher spatial resolution observations become available of large O and N-containing molecules? As the number of detected acetic acid sources is still low, more observations are needed to support this postulate. In this paper, we report the first acetic acid survey conducted with the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA) at 3 mm wavelengths towards G19.61-0.23, G29.96-0.02 and IRAS 16293-2422. We have successfully detected CH$_3$COOH via two transitions toward G19.61-0.23 and tentatively confirmed the detection toward IRAS 16293-2422 A. The determined column density of CH$_3$COOH is 2.0(1.0)$\\times 10^{16}$ cm$^{-2}$ and the...

  17. Photocatalytic decomposition of cortisone acetate in aqueous solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sobral Romao, Joana; Hamdy, Mohamed S.; Mul, Guido; Baltrusaitis, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    The photocatalytic decomposition of cortisone 21-acetate (CA), a model compound for the commonly used steroid, cortisone, was studied. CA was photocatalytically decomposed in a slurry reactor with the initial rates between 0.11 and 0.46 mg L−1 min−1 at 10 mg L−1 concentration, using the following he

  18. Medroxyprogesterone acetate (Medroxyprogesteroni acetas).(The International Pharmacopoeia)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2016-01-01

    ... of Medicines & Healthcare, it is proposed to revise the monograph on Medroxyprogesterone acetate.] [Note from the editor. In accordance with WHO editorial policy the text reproduced below does not include tracked changes. Changes from the current monograph are indicated by insert and delete in the working document available at the abov...

  19. Thermophilic anaerobic acetate-utilizing methanogens and their metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mladenovska, Zuzana

    Methanosarcina strains required vitamins as growth factor. The isolates differed in cardinal growth pH and temperatures, the kinetic parameters - maximum specific growth rate and half saturation constant - and threshold values during growth on acetate. Analysis of total cell proteins by SDS-page gel...

  20. A Kinetic Study of the Emulsion Polymerization of Vinyl Acetate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, N.; Nyhagen, L.

    1973-01-01

    The emulsion polymerization of vinyl acetate was studied at 50°C. It was found that the rate of polymerization was proportional to the 0.5 power of the initiator concentration and the 0.25 power of the number of particles. The number of particles was proportional to the power 0.5 ± 0.05 of the em...

  1. Cloning, expression and purification of cold adapted acetate kinase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-04-10

    Apr 10, 2012 ... The molecular mass of the enzyme is about 86 kDa, which is .... 540 nm using a micro plate reader (Bio-Rad, model 680XR). A ... The maximum amount of soluble acetate kinase was ..... A consensus view of protein dynamics.

  2. Thiosulphate conversion in a methane and acetate fed membrane bioreactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suarez Zuluaga, D.A.; Timmers, P.H.A.; Plugge, C.M.; Stams, A.J.M.; Buisman, C.J.N.; Weijma, J.

    2016-01-01

    The use of methane and acetate as electron donors for biological reduction of thiosulphate in a 5-L laboratory membrane bioreactor was studied and compared to disproportionation of thiosulphate as competing biological reaction. The reactor was operated for 454 days in semi-batch mode; 30 % of its li

  3. Acetate stimulates secretion in the rabbit mandibular gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novak, I; Young, J A

    1989-01-01

    In isolated perfused rabbit mandibular glands undergoing stimulation with 0.8 microM acetylcholine, replacement of HCO3- with acetate (25 mM) increased fluid secretion by more than 100%. Other short-chain fatty acids, except for propionate, had a similar effect. We focused our further studies...

  4. Demixing and gelation behavior of ternary cellulose acetate solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reuvers, A.J.; Altena, F.W.; Smolders, C.A.

    1986-01-01

    The demixing behavior on cooling of ternary systems of cellulose acetate/solvent/water has been examined for CA concentrations up to 40 wt% CA in several solvents. Cloud points have been measured as a function of cooling rate. The rapid process of liquid - liquid demixing can be discriminated from t

  5. The Use of Megestrol Acetate in Some Feline Dermatological Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Gosselin, Y.; Chalifoux, A.; Papageorges, M.

    1981-01-01

    Twenty-one cats were treated with megestrol acetate because they were showing clinical signs associated with one of the following problems: eosinophilic ulcer, eosinophilic plaque, neurodermatitis, endocrine alopecia and miliary dermatitis. The dosage schedule was 5 mg orally per day per cat for seven days, then 5 mg every three days for 21 days.

  6. Fragrance material review on ethyl phenyl carbinyl acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of ethyl phenyl carbinyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. Ethyl phenyl carbinyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohol Simple Acid Esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for ethyl phenyl carbinyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties; acute toxicity; skin irritation; and skin sensitization data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Fragrance material review on 2,4-dimethylbenzyl acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 2,4-dimethylbenzyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 2,4-Dimethylbenzyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group aryl alkyl alcohol simple acid esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, iso-butyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 2,4-dimethylbenzyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, and skin sensitization data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Antimicrobial activity of rhodanine-3-acetic acid derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krátký, Martin; Vinšová, Jarmila; Stolaříková, Jiřina

    2017-03-15

    Twenty-four 2-(4-oxo-2-thioxothiazolidin-3-yl)acetic acid (rhodanine-3-acetic acid)-based amides, esters and 5-arylalkylidene derivatives were synthesized, characterized and evaluated as potential antimicrobial agents against a panel of bacteria, mycobacteria and fungi. All of the derivatives were active against mycobacteria. N-(4-Chlorophenyl)-2-[5-(2-hydroxybenzylidene)-4-oxo-2-thioxothiazolidin-3-yl]acetamide demonstrated the highest activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 8-16μM. Non-tuberculous mycobacteria were the most susceptible to 2-[5-(2-hydroxybenzylidene)-4-oxo-2-thioxothiazolidin-3-yl]acetic acids (MIC values ⩾32μM). The highest antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus exhibited 4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl 2-(4-oxo-2-thioxothiazolidin-3-yl)acetate (MIC⩾15.62μM). Several structure-activity relationships were identified. The activity against Gram-negative and fungal pathogens was marginal. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Intramolecular carbon isotope distribution of acetic acid in vinegar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Ryota; Yamada, Keita; Kikuchi, Makiko; Hirano, Satoshi; Yoshida, Naohiro

    2011-09-14

    Compound-specific carbon isotope analysis of acetic acid is useful for origin discrimination and quality control of vinegar. Intramolecular carbon isotope distributions, which are each carbon isotope ratios of the methyl and carboxyl carbons in the acetic acid molecule, may be required to obtain more detailed information to discriminate such origin. In this study, improved gas chromatography-pyrolysis-gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-Py-GC-C-IRMS) combined with headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) was used to measure the intramolecular carbon isotope distributions of acetic acid in 14 Japanese vinegars. The results demonstrated that the methyl carbons of acetic acid molecules in vinegars produced from plants were mostly isotopically depleted in (13)C relative to the carboxyl carbon. Moreover, isotopic differences (δ(13)C(carboxyl) - δ(13)C(methyl)) had a wide range from -0.3 to 18.2‰, and these values differed among botanical origins, C3, C4, and CAM plants.

  10. Occurrence and metabolism of 7-hydroxy-2-indolinone-3-acetic acid in Zea mays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewer, P.; Bandurski, R. S.

    1987-01-01

    7-Hydroxy-2-indolinone-3-acetic acid was identified as a catabolite of indole-3-acetic acid in germinating kernels of Zea mays and found to be present in amounts of ca 3.1 nmol/kernel. 7-Hydroxy-2-indolinone-3-acetic acid was shown to be a biosynthetic intermediate between 2-indolinone-3-acetic acid and 7-hydroxy-2-indolinone-3-acetic acid-7'-O-glucoside in both kernels and roots of Zea mays. Further metabolism of 7-hydroxy-2-[5-3H]-indolinone-3-acetic acid-7'-O-glucoside occurred to yield tritiated water plus, as yet, uncharacterized products.

  11. Highly Concentrated Acetic Acid Poisoning: 400 Cases Reviewed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Brusin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Caustic substance ingestion is known for causing a wide array of gastrointestinal and systemic complications. In Russia, ingestion of acetic acid is a major problem which annually affects 11.2 per 100,000 individuals. The objective of this study was to report and analyze main complications and outcomes of patients with 70% concentrated acetic acid poisoning. Methods: This was a retrospective study of patients with acetic acid ingestion who were treated at Sverdlovsk Regional Poisoning Treatment Center during 2006 to 2012. GI mucosal injury of each patient was assessed with endoscopy according to Zargar’s scale. Data analysis was performed to analyze the predictors of stricture formation and mortality. Results: A total of 400 patients with median age of 47 yr were included. GI injury grade I was found in 66 cases (16.5%, IIa in 117 (29.3%, IIb in 120 (30%, IIIa in 27 (16.7% and IIIb in 70 (17.5%. 11% of patients developed strictures and overall mortality rate was 21%. Main complications were hemolysis (55%, renal injury (35%, pneumonia (27% and bleeding during the first 3 days (27%. Predictors of mortality were age 60 to 79 years, grade IIIa and IIIb of GI injury, pneumonia, stages “I”, “F” and “L” of kidney damage according to the RIFLE scale and administration of prednisolone. Predictors of stricture formation were ingestion of over 100 mL of acetic acid and grade IIb and IIIa of GI injury. Conclusion: Highly concentrated acetic acid is still frequently ingested in Russia with a high mortality rate. Patients with higher grades of GI injury, pneumonia, renal injury and higher amount of acid ingested should be more carefully monitored as they are more susceptible to develop fatal consequences.          

  12. Dynamic changes of carbon isotope apparent fractionation factor to describe transition to syntrophic acetate oxidation during cellulose and acetate methanization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavilin, Vasily A; Rytov, Sergey V

    2017-05-01

    To identify predominant metabolic pathway for cellulose methanization new equations that take into account dynamics of 13C are added to the basic model of cellulose methanization. The correct stoichiometry of hydrolysis, acidogenesis, acetogenesis and methanogenesis steps including biomass is considered. Using experimental data by Laukenmann et al. [Identification of methanogenic pathway in anaerobic digesters using stable carbon isotopes. Eng. Life Sci. 2010;10:1-6], who reported about the importance of ace`tate oxidation during mesophilic cellulose methanization, the model confirmed that, at high biomass concentration of acetate oxidizers, the carbon isotope fractionation factor amounts to about 1.085. The same model, suggested firstly for cellulose degradation, was used to describe, secondly, changes in, and in methane and carbon dioxide during mesophylic acetate methanization measured by Grossin-Debattista [Fractionnements isotopiques (13C/12C) engendres par la methanogenese: apports pour la comprehension des processus de biodegradation lors de la digestion anaerobie [doctoral thesis]. 2011. Bordeaux: Universite Bordeaux-1;2011. Available from: http://ori-oai.u-bordeaux1.fr/pdf/2011/GROSSIN-DEBATTISTA_JULIEN_2011.pdf . French].The model showed that under various ammonium concentrations, at dominating acetoclastic methanogenesis, the value decreases over time to a low level (1.016), while at dominating syntrophic acetate oxidation, coupled with hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis, slightly increases, reaching 1.060 at the end of incubation.

  13. The key to acetate: metabolic fluxes of acetic acid bacteria under cocoa pulp fermentation-simulating conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Philipp; Frey, Lasse Jannis; Berger, Antje; Bolten, Christoph Josef; Hansen, Carl Erik; Wittmann, Christoph

    2014-08-01

    Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) play an important role during cocoa fermentation, as their main product, acetate, is a major driver for the development of the desired cocoa flavors. Here, we investigated the specialized metabolism of these bacteria under cocoa pulp fermentation-simulating conditions. A carefully designed combination of parallel 13C isotope labeling experiments allowed the elucidation of intracellular fluxes in the complex environment of cocoa pulp, when lactate and ethanol were included as primary substrates among undefined ingredients. We demonstrate that AAB exhibit a functionally separated metabolism during coconsumption of two-carbon and three-carbon substrates. Acetate is almost exclusively derived from ethanol, while lactate serves for the formation of acetoin and biomass building blocks. Although this is suboptimal for cellular energetics, this allows maximized growth and conversion rates. The functional separation results from a lack of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and malic enzymes, typically present in bacteria to interconnect metabolism. In fact, gluconeogenesis is driven by pyruvate phosphate dikinase. Consequently, a balanced ratio of lactate and ethanol is important for the optimum performance of AAB. As lactate and ethanol are individually supplied by lactic acid bacteria and yeasts during the initial phase of cocoa fermentation, respectively, this underlines the importance of a well-balanced microbial consortium for a successful fermentation process. Indeed, AAB performed the best and produced the largest amounts of acetate in mixed culture experiments when lactic acid bacteria and yeasts were both present.

  14. Catabolism of indole-3-acetic acid and 4- and 5-chloroindole-3-acetic acid in Bradyrhizobium japonicum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J B; Egsgaard, H; Van Onckelen, H

    1995-01-01

    Some strains of Bradyrhizobium japonicum have the ability to catabolize indole-3-acetic acid. Indoleacetic acid (IAA), 4-chloro-IAA (4-Cl-IAA), and 5-Cl-IAA were metabolized to different extents by strains 61A24 and 110. Metabolites were isolated and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatogr...

  15. Water requirements of the rayon- and acetate-fiber industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussey, Orville Durey

    1957-01-01

    Water is required for several purposes in the manufacture of rayon and acetate fiber. These water requirements, as indicated by a survey of the water used by the plants operating in 1953, are both quantitative and qualitative. About 300 mgd (million gallons per day) of water was used in 1953 in the preparation of purified wood cellulose and cotton linters, the basic material from which the rayon and acetate fiber is made. An additional 620 mgd was used in the process of converting the cellulose to rayon and acetate fiber. The total, 920 mgd, is about 1 percent of the total estimated withdrawals of industrial water in the United States in 1953. The rayon- and acetate-fiber plants are scattered through eastern United States and generally are located in small towns or rural areas where there are abundant supplies of clean, soft water. Water use at a typical rayon-fiber plant was about 9 mgd, and at a typical acetate-fiber plant about 38 mgd. About 110 gallons of water was used to produce a pound of rayon fiber, 32 gallons per pound was process water and the remainder was used largely for cooling in connection with power production and air conditioning. For the manufacture of a pound of acetate fiber about 170 gallons of water was used. However, the field survey on which this report is based indicated a wide range in the amount of water used per pound of product. For example, in the manufacture of viscose rayon, the maximum unit water use was 8 times the minimum unit water use. Water use in summer was about 22 percent greater than average annual use. About 8 mgd Of water was consumed by evaporation in the manufacture of rayon and acetate fiber. More than 90 percent of the water used by the rayon and acetate industry was with- drawn from surface-water sources, about 8 percent from ground water, and less than 2 percent from municipal water supplies. All available analyses of the untreated waters used by the rayon and acetate industry were collected and studied. The

  16. Synthesis and crystal structures of 7-bromo-5-(2‧-chloro)phenyl-3-hydroxy-1-methyl-1,2-dihydro-3H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one and 7-bromo-5-(2‧-chloro)phenyl-1-hexyl-1,2,4,5-tetrahydro-3H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2,3-dione

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravtsov, Victor Ch.; Fonari, Marina S.; Gdaniec, Мaria; Pavlovsky, Victor I.; Andronati, Sergei A.; Semenishyna, Ekaterina A.

    2012-06-01

    Treatment of 7-bromo-5-(2'-chloro)phenyl-3-hydroxy-1,2-dihydro-3H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one (1) with methyl or hexyl tosylate resulted in 7-bromo-5-(2'-chloro)phenyl-3-hydroxy-1-methyl-1,2-dihydro-3H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one (2) and 7-bromo-5-(2'-chloro)phenyl-1-hexyl-1,2,4,5-tetrahydro-3H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2,3-dione (3). As confirmed by X-ray crystallography, the two products differ not only in the identity of the alkyl substituent in position 1 of the benzodiazepine fragment but also crystallize in different molecular forms resulting from proton migration. This alteration of the molecular structure leads to a significant change in the conformation of the central molecular fragment and influences the assembly mode in the crystal. In 3, centrosymmetric dimers formed via a pair of Nsbnd H⋯O hydrogen bonds are further linked into chains via Csbnd Br⋯Odbnd C halogen bond interaction. In turn in 2 there are two symmetry independent molecules, each giving a different set of intermolecular interactions. One of the molecules forms a dimer via Osbnd H⋯O interactions whereas the second one generates chain via Csbnd Br⋯Odbnd C halogen bond that is also assisted by a weak Osbnd H⋯Br hydrogen bond.

  17. modelling and simulation of the batch hydrolysis of acetic ing and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    The kinetic modelling of the batch synthesis of acetic acid from acetic. The kinetic ... chemical processes involving reactions, it is important to have ... optimal design and operational parameters and this .... 4.3 Degree of freedom analysis.

  18. Acetic Acid Production by an Electrodialysis Fermentation Method with a Computerized Control System

    OpenAIRE

    Nomura, Yoshiyuki; Iwahara, Masayoshi; Hongo, Motoyoshi

    1988-01-01

    In acetic acid fermentation by Acetobacter aceti, the acetic acid produced inhibits the production of acetic acid by this microorganism. To alleviate this inhibitory effect, we developed an electrodialysis fermentation method such that acetic acid is continuously removed from the broth. The fermentation unit has a computerized system for the control of the pH and the concentration of ethanol in the fermentation broth. The electrodialysis fermentation system resulted in improved cell growth an...

  19. Isolation, characterization and optimization of indigenous acetic acid bacteria and evaluation of their preservation methods

    OpenAIRE

    Sharafi, SM; I Rasooli; K Beheshti-Maal

    2010-01-01

    Background and Objectives Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are useful in industrial production of vinegar. The present study aims at isolation and identification of acetic acid bacteria with characterization, optimization, and evaluation of their acetic acid productivity. Materials and Methods Samples from various fruits were screened for presence of acetic acid bacteria on glucose, yeast extract, calcium carbonate (GYC) medium. Carr medium supplemented with bromocresol green was used for distingui...

  20. [Clinical evaluation of roxatidine acetate hydrochloride injection as preanesthetic medication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawanishi, M; Enomoto, A; Shimada, Y; Kurokawa, Y

    1991-09-01

    The effects of single intravenous administration of roxatidine acetate hydrochloride 75 mg on the volume and pH of gastric juice were investigated in 43 patients undergoing elective surgery under general anesthesia. The drug was given 1 hour before anesthesia. The percentages of patients with gastric pH above 2.5 and gastric juice volume under 25 ml were 95.3% and 97.7% at the time of induction of anesthesia and at the time of extubation, respectively. As for overall assessment on gastric secretion, 93.0% was judged as very effective. In 2 cases, pricking sensations were observed at the time of injection, but these symptoms disappeared without any treatment within a few minutes. No other adverse reactions nor abnormal laboratory test findings were observed. In conclusion, roxatidine acetate hydrochloride administered intravenously 1 hour prior to anesthesia is thought to be useful to prevent acid aspiration pneumonitis.

  1. Acetic acid pretreatment improves the hardness of cooked potato slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wenlin; Shehzad, Hussain; Yan, Shoulei; Li, Jie; Wang, Qingzhang

    2017-08-01

    The effects of acetic acid pretreatment on the texture of cooked potato slices were investigated in this work. Potato slices were pretreated with acetic acid immersion (AAI), distilled water immersion (DWI), or no immersion (NI). Subsequently, the cell wall material of the pretreated samples was isolated and fractioned to evaluate changes in the monosaccharide content and molar mass (MM), and the hardness and microscopic structure of the potato slices in different pretreatments before and after cooking were determined. The results showed that the highest firmness was obtained with more intact structure of the cell wall for cooked potato slices with AAI pretreatment. Furthermore, the MM and sugar ratio demonstrated that the AAI pretreated potato slices contained a higher content of the small molecular polysaccharides of cell walls, especially in the hemicellulose fraction. This work may provide a reference for potato processing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Migration of 2-butoxyethyl acetate from polycarbonate infant feeding bottles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens Højslev; Lund, K.H.

    2003-01-01

    An enforcement campaign was carried out to assess the migration of 2-butoxyethyl acetate (2-BEA) from polycarbonate infant feeding bottles intended for repeated use. Migration was measured by three successive migration tests into two of the European Union official food simulants: distilled water...... and 3% acetic acid testing at 40degrees C for 10 days. The Danish Veterinary and Food Administration (DVFA) has assessed that a migration above 0.33 mg for 2-BEA and a group of eight related substances kg(-1) foodstuff from plastics articles used exclusively for infants is unacceptable. Migration of 2......-BEA was found from eight of 12 bottles. However, migration above the target value of 0.33 mg kg(-1) was not observed in the third decisive test from any of the 12 different brands of polycarbonate feeding bottles. A migration of between 0.05 and 0.26 mg kg(-1) from seven of 12 bottles was measured...

  3. Stabilization of Candida rugosa lipase during transacetylation with vinyl acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumder, Abir B; Gupta, Munishwar N

    2010-04-01

    An optimally prepared Candida rugosa lipase aggregate cross-linked with bovine serum albumin, was found to overcome acetaldehyde deactivation during transacetylation of a series of benzyl alcohols with vinyl acetate. The formulation, under the same reaction conditions, exhibited 4-30x enhancement in the reaction rate as compared to the celite immobilized lyophilized formulation and 25-133x enhancement as compared to the free lyophilized enzyme depending upon the alcohol chosen. The racemic 1-phenylethanol, taken as one of the alcohols, underwent a more efficient enantioselective transacetylation giving 80% enantiomeric excess of the product, (R)-1-phenylethyl acetate, at 38% conversion (E = 15) within 24h while the enzyme immobilized on celite gave 83% enantiomeric excess at 18% conversion (E = 13) during the same period of time.

  4. Bacterial populations and processes involved in acetate and propionate consumption in anoxic brackish sediment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschker, H.T.S.; De Graaf, W.; Köster, M.; Meyer-Reil, L.A.; Cappenberg, T.E.

    2001-01-01

    Bacterial populations and pathways involved in acetate and propionate consumption were studied in anoxic brackish sediment from the Grosser Jasmunder Bodden, German Baltic Sea. Uptake of acetate and propionate from the porewater was studied using stable carbon isotope-labeled compounds. Labeled acet

  5. 75 FR 52269 - Acetic Acid Ethenyl Ester, Polymer With Oxirane; Tolerance Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-25

    ...-2010-0429; FRL-8841-2] Acetic Acid Ethenyl Ester, Polymer With Oxirane; Tolerance Exemption AGENCY... from the requirement of a tolerance for residues of acetic acid ethenyl ester, polymer with oxirane... permissible level for residues of acetic acid ethenyl ester, polymer with oxirane on food or feed...

  6. 40 CFR 180.1258 - Acetic acid; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acetic acid; exemption from the... Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1258 Acetic acid; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. An... acetic acid when used as a preservative on post-harvest agricultural commodities intended for animal...

  7. Synthesis of /sup 13/C-labelled medroxyprogesterone acetate with three /sup 13/C isotopes (1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, P.N.; Damodaran, K.M. (Southwest Foundation for Research and Education, San Antonio, TX (USA))

    1982-03-01

    17..cap alpha..-hydroxyprogesterone was condensed with phenyl acetate /sup 13/C/sub 2/ in the presence of sodium hydride. Treatment with acetic and hydrochloric acids and acetylation gave 17..cap alpha..-acetoxyprogesterone /sup 13/C/sub 2/. Treatment with tetrabromomethane /sup 13/C and hydrogenation yielded medroxyprogesterone acetate with three /sup 13/C isotopes.

  8. A continuous acetic acid system for polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of gliadins and other prolamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, R L

    1988-02-01

    A polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis system buffered by acetic acid alone was developed for electrophoresis of prolamines. When applied to gliadin electrophoresis, the acetic acid system produces more bands than does a conventional aluminum lactate-lactic acid system (using 12% acrylamide gels). The acetic acid system is relatively simple, requiring a single buffer component that is universally available in high purity.

  9. Identification of dihydrogalangal acetate in galangal [Alpinia galangal (L.) Swartz] extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaogen; Rohr, Martin; Jordan, Jason

    2009-04-22

    Dihydrogalangal acetate has been discovered for the first time in galangal roots [Alpinia galangal (L.) Swartz]. The compound has a taste sensation similar to galangal acetatethe pungent principle of galangalbut it is more stable in food and beverage applications. Therefore, dihydrogalangal acetate provides many advantages as a flavor ingredient for alcohol enhancement and taste modification. Dihydrogalangal acetate is present in approximately 0.0005% of fresh roots and in about 0.004% of dried roots. (S)-Dihydrogalangal acetate is found as the main optical isomer in galangal roots (98%), while its minor (R)-isomer is less abundant (2%). Enantiomers of galangal acetate and dihydrogalangal acetate were separated and evaluated by sensory analysis. (R)-Galangal acetate has a very faint woody and sweet aroma, and (R)-dihydrogalangal acetate is almost odorless, while (S)-galangal acetate has strong and (S)-dihydrogalangal acetate has weak pungent and woody notes. Although the aroma characters of these optical isomers are different, taste sensations were found to have no significant differences among galangal acetate, dihydrogalangal acetate, and their optical isomers.

  10. Acetate Dose-Dependently Stimulates Milk Fat Synthesis in Lactating Dairy Cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrutia, Natalie L; Harvatine, Kevin J

    2017-05-01

    Background: Acetate is a short-chain fatty acid (FA) that is especially important to cows because it is the major substrate for de novo FA synthesis. However, the effect of acetate supply on mammary lipid synthesis is not clear.Objective: The objective of this experiment was to determine the effect of increasing acetate supply on milk fat synthesis in lactating dairy cows.Methods: Six multiparous lactating Holstein cows were randomly assigned to treatments in a replicated design to investigate the effect of acetate supply on milk fat synthesis. Treatments were 0 (control), 5, 10, and 15 mol acetate/d continuously infused into the rumen for 4 d. Rumen short-chain FAs, plasma hormones and metabolites, milk fat concentration, and milk FA profile were analyzed on day 4 of each treatment. Polynomial contrasts were used to test the linear and quadratic effects of increasing acetate supply.Results: Acetate increased milk fat yield quadratically (P synthesis pathways. Apparent transfer of acetate to milk fat was 33.4%, 36.2%, and 20.6% for 5, 10, and 15 mol/d, respectively. Acetate infusion linearly increased the relative concentration of rumen acetate (P synthesis, suggesting that nutritional strategies that increase ruminal acetate absorption would be expected to increase milk fat by increasing de novo FA synthesis. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  11. Acetate:succinate CoA-transferase in the hydrogenosomes of Trichomonas vaginalis: Identification and characterization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.W.A. Grinsven; S. Rosnowsky (Silke); S.W.H. van Weelden (Susanne); S. Pütz (Simone); M. van der Giezen (Mark); W. Martin (William); J.J. van Hellemond (Jaap); A.G.M. Tielens (Aloysius); K. Henze (Katrin)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractAcetate:succinate CoA-transferases (ASCT) are acetate-producing enzymes in hydrogenosomes, anaerobically functioning mitochondria and in the aerobically functioning mitochondria of trypanosomatids. Although acetate is produced in the hydrogenosomes of a number of anaerobic microbial euka

  12. 40 CFR 721.8658 - Modified polymer of vinyl acetate and quaternary ammonium compound (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Modified polymer of vinyl acetate and... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8658 Modified polymer of vinyl acetate and.... (1) The chemical substance identified generically as modified polymer of vinyl acetate and...

  13. 21 CFR 175.350 - Vinyl acetate/crotonic acid copolymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Vinyl acetate/crotonic acid copolymer. 175.350... COATINGS Substances for Use as Components of Coatings § 175.350 Vinyl acetate/crotonic acid copolymer. A copolymer of vinyl acetate and crotonic acid may be safely used as a coating or as a component of a...

  14. Investigations on organolead compounds III. The reaction of organolead compounds with ketene. (Triphenylplumbyl)acetic anhydride

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemsens, L.C.; Kerk, G.J.M. van der

    1965-01-01

    The reaction of ketene with triphenyllead hydroxide in diethyl ether gave (triphenylplumbyl)acetic anhydride, (Ph3PbCH2CO)2O, the first anhydride-substituted organolead compound known. The reaction of ketene with triphenyllead acetate in absolute ethanol gave ethyl (triphenylplumbyl)acetate, Ph3PbCH

  15. EFFECT OF GOSSYPOL ACETIC ACID ON CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS AND ANEUPLOIDIES IN OOCYTES AND ZYGOTES OF MICE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGRen-Li; ZHANGZhong-Shu

    1989-01-01

    It was reported that gossypol acetic acid could effectively inhibit th~ implantation in ratA. This finding indicated that gossypol acet/c acid might also be used as a female contraceptive. The Present study further investigated the genetic effect of gossypol acetic

  16. THERMAL BEHAVIOR OF THERMOTROPIC HYDROXYETHYL CELLULOSE ACETATE/POLYETHYLENE BLENDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hailin; CHEN Jinming; HUANG Yong; SHEN Jiarui

    1997-01-01

    The thermal behavior of thermotropic hydroxyethyl cellulose acetate (HECA)/polyethylene (PE) blends has been studied by DSC. It is found that the blends of HECA and PE are immiscible but the crystallization of PE is affected by HECA chains in the blends with more than 50% HECA, which results in the subordinate crystallization of PE and the formation of imperfect structures in the PE crystals. The imperfection of PE crystals in the blends can be eliminated after annealing at 393K.

  17. Successful Pregnancy after Treatment with Ulipristal Acetate for Uterine Fibroids

    OpenAIRE

    Javier Monleón; Alicia Martínez-Varea; Daniela Galliano; Antonio Pellicer

    2014-01-01

    This case report presents a clinical pregnancy after ulipristal acetate (UA) to decrease uterine fibroid size. A 37-year-old patient, gravida 1, abortus 1, with uterine fibroids was treated with 5 mg of UA daily for 13 weeks starting eight months after a multiple laparotomic myomectomy. Fibroid shrinkage and restoration of the morphology of endometrial cavity were evaluated in order to allow a subsequent pregnancy. A decrease of the uterine fibroids and a normal morphology of the endometrial ...

  18. Development of high performance vinyl acetate monomer (VAM) catalysts

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    The focus of this study was to develop high performance catalysts for the synthesis of vinyl acetate monomer (VAM). By systematic variation of different preparation parameters a multitude of shell catalysts consisting of PdAu nanoparticles supported on a bentonite carrier was explored. In order to investigate the influence of these alterations on catalytic performance, a catalyst classification was accomplished in a high-throughput Temkin test unit by comparison with a highly efficient commer...

  19. Fries Rearrangement of Phenyl Acetate over Solid Acid Catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A silica-supported zirconium based solid acid (ZS) has been used as catalyst for the Fries rearrangement of phenyl acetate (PA). The catalyst showed a higher PA conversion activity and a much higher selectivity for o-hydroxyacetophenone (o-HAP) than for strongly acidic zeolite catalysts. The supported catalyst was characterized by XRD, IR, XPS, pyridine-TPD and the surface area measurements. The catalytic properties were influenced significantly by pretreatment temperature.

  20. Galangal pungent component, 1'-acetoxychavicol acetate, activates TRPA1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narukawa, Masataka; Koizumi, Kanako; Iwasaki, Yusaku; Kubota, Kikue; Watanabe, Tatsuo

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the activation of transient receptor potential cation channel (TRP) subfamily V, member 1 (TRPV1) and TRP subfamily A, member 1 (TRPA1) by 1'-acetoxychavicol acetate (ACA), the main pungent component in galangal. ACA did not activate TRPV1-expressing human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells, but strongly activated TRPA1-expressing HEK cells. ACA was more potent than allyl isothiocyanate, the typical TRPA1 agonist.

  1. Synthesis and herbicidal activities of benzothiazole N,O-acetals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Zhiqin; Zhou, Fengxing; Wei, Shaopeng

    2015-10-01

    A new series of N,O-acetals were prepared via a simple one-pot reaction by the condensation of 2-amino-methybenzothiazole with aldehydes and alcohols. The title compounds were obtained in moderate to good yields in the presence of acid catalyst. Bioassay results indicated that some synthesized compounds had good herbicidal activity against both dicotyledon and monocotyledon weeds. This investigation provided a new type of herbicidal lead compounds, as well as its facile preparation method.

  2. Effect of lead acetate toxicity on experimental male albino rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nabil M Ibrahim; Esam A Eweis; Hossam S El-Beltagi; Yasmin E Abdel-Mobdy

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of different doses of lead acetate (1/20, 1/40 and 1/60 of LD50) on body weight gain, blood picture, plasma protein profile and the function of liver, kidney and thyroid gland. Methods: Male albino rats were divided into four groups, the first group represented the health control animals, while the second, third and fourth groups were ingested orally with sub lethal doses of lead acetate (1/20, 1/40 and 1/60) of the oral LD50, respectively. One dose was ingested every two days during the experimental period (14 weeks) including the adaptation time. Blood was collected and used for all analysis. Results: The results showed that, the ingestion of Pb2+ induced significant stimulation in glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (ALT) and glutamic-oxalacetic transaminease (AST) activity. Also, total soluble protein and albumin contents of plasma were significantly decreased, while the content of globulin was changed by the Pb2+ treatments. The cholinesterase activity was inhibited, but the activities of alkaline and acid phosphates and lactate dehydrogenase were stimulated, while plasma glucose level was elevated as a result of lead acetate intoxication. In case of blood picture, Pb2+ ingestion reduced the contents of hemoglobin and RBCs count of intoxicated rat’s blood and the plasma levels of T3, T4 and blood WBCs count were decreased. Conclusions: It can be concluded that lead acetate has harmful effect on experimental male albino rats. Therefore, the present work advises people to prevent exposure to the lead compound to avoid injurious hazard risk.

  3. Interconversion kinetic studies of betamethasone acetate polymorphs in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Xue; Ping, QiNeng; Liao, ZhengGen

    2006-10-01

    This study assessed the effect of polymers on the transformation of polymorphs of betamethasone acetate (BA) when suspended in water. The results showed that the polymers, in particular HPMC E5, retarded the transition of the forms Ialpha and Ibeta. However, the form Ialpha, as the metastable form, with the aid of HPMC E5, was preferred for BA suspension preparation through kinetic studies, while the form Ibeta was not suitable due to its instability in water.

  4. Fries Rearrangement of Phenyl Acetate over Solid Acid Catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CanXiongGUO; YanLIU; 等

    2002-01-01

    A silica-supported zirconium based solid acid (ZS) has been used as catalyst for the Fries rearrangement of phenyl acetate (PA). The catalyst showed a higher PA conversion activity and a much higher selectivity for o-hydroxyacetophenone (o-HAP) than for strongly acidic zeolite catalysts. The supported catalyst was characterized by XRD,IR,XPS,pyridine-TPD and the surface area measurements. The catalytic properties were influenced significantly by pretreatment temperature.

  5. Microwave Irradiation Promoted Synthesis of Aryloxy Acetic Acids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Min; ZHOU Jin-mei; XIA Hai-ping; YANG Rui-feng; LIN Chen

    2004-01-01

    Several aryloxy acetic acids were synthesized under microwave irradiation. The factors, which affect the reaction, were investigated and optimized. It was revealed that the best yields(92.7%-97.4%) were obtained when the molar ratio of the reactants was n(ArOH) : n(NaOH): n(ClCH2CO2H) =1: 2.5: 1.2 with microwave irradiation power of 640 W for 65-85 s.

  6. Kinetics of xylose dehydration into furfural in acetic acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Chen; Weijiang Zhang; Jiao Xu; Pingli Li

    2015-01-01

    In this paper kinetics of xylose dehydration into furfural using acetic acid as catalyst was studied comprehensively and systematical y. The reaction order of both furfural and xylose dehydration was determined and the reaction activation energy was obtalned by nonlinear regression. The effect of acetic acid concentration was also investi-gated. Reaction rate constants were galned. Reaction rate constant of xylose dehydration is k1 ¼ 4:189 . 1010 ½A.0:1676 exp −108:6.1000RT . ., reaction rate constant of furfural degradation is k2 ¼ 1:271 . 104½A.0:1375 exp−63:413.1000RT . and reaction rate constant of condensation reaction is k3 ¼ 3:4051 . 1010½A.0:1676 exp−104:99.1000RT .. Based on this, the kinetics equation of xylose dehydration into furfural in acetic acid was set up according to theory of Dunlop and Furfural generating rate equation is dd½F.t ¼ k1½X.0e−k1t−k2½F.−k3½X.0e−k1t½F.. © 2015 The Chemical Industry and Engineering Society of China, and Chemical Industry Press. Al rights reserved.

  7. Evaporation kinetics of acetic acid-water solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffey, K.; Wong, N.; Saykally, R.; Cohen, R. C.

    2012-12-01

    The transport of water molecules across vapor-liquid interfaces in the atmosphere is a crucial step in the formation and evolution of cloud droplets. Despite decades of study, the effects of solutes on the mechanism and rate of evaporation and condensation remain poorly characterized. The present work aims to determine the effect of atmospherically-relevant solutes on the evaporation rate of water. In our experiments, we create a train of micron-sized droplets and measure their temperature via Raman thermometry as they undergo evaporation without condensation. Analysis of the cooling rate yields the evaporation coefficient (γ). Previous work has shown that inorganic salts have little effect on γ, with surface-adsorbing anions causing a slight reduction in the coefficient from that measured for pure water. Organic acids are ubiquitous in aqueous aerosol and have been shown to disrupt the surface structure of water. Here we describe measurements of the evaporation rate of acetic acid solutions, showing that acetic acid reduces γ to a larger extent than inorganic ions, and that γ decreases with increasing acetic acid concentration.

  8. Ethylene-Vinyl Acetate Potential Problems for Photovoltaic Packaging: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kempe, M. D.; Jorgensen, G. J.; Terwilliger, K. M.; McMahon, T. J.; Kennedy, C. E.; Borek, T. T.

    2006-05-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) devices are typically encapsulated using ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) to provide mechanical support, optical coupling, electrical isolation, and protection against environmental exposure. Under exposure to atmospheric water and/or ultraviolet radiation, EVA will decompose to produce acetic acid, lowering the pH and increasing the surface corrosion rates of embedded devices. Even though acetic acid is produced at a very slow rate, it may not take much to catalyze reactions that lead to rapid module deterioration. Another consideration is that the glass transition of EVA, as measured using dynamic mechanical analysis, begins at temperatures of about ?15 C. Temperatures lower than this can be reached for extended periods of time in some climates. Because of increased moduli below the glass transition temperature, a module may be more vulnerable to damage if a mechanical load is applied by snow or wind at low temperatures. Modules using EVA should not be rated for use at such low temperatures without additional low-temperature mechanical testing beyond the scope of UL 1703.

  9. Controlled free radical polymerization of vinyl acetate with cobalt acetoacetonate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mohammad Ali Semsarzadeh; Sahar Amiri

    2012-03-01

    The polymerization of vinyl acetate with the complex catalyst of cobalt acetoacetonate [Co (acac)2] and DMF ligand with benzoyl peroxide initiator has been successfully carried out in bulk and in solution. The bulk polymerization has been used in a new route consisting of a one-step polymer formation in a fine capillary tube. In this process, the high rate of propagation was used to carry out the reaction in a microcapillary tube. Under 60°C, the colour-free reaction without solid catalyst impurity was 95% complete within a few hours. The high molecular weight of polyvinyl acetate (PVAc) with its relatively low molecular distribution without unreacted monomer provided a new method in microprocessing of the controlled radical polymerization of vinyl acetate in a one-step polymerization process. PVAc polymerization systems showed induction time, which was reduced in this reaction with using complex of DMF/ Co(acac)2. The kinetics of the reaction with a smaller degree of branching from this catalyst indicated that the electronegativity of the transition metal and diffusion of the homogeneous catalyst with DMF are important factors of fast polymerization in the bulk. Thermal properties of the polymer indicated a lower glass transition state. The easily reformed or stretched microsolid polymer demonstrated 20% crystallinity.

  10. Observations on a laboratory method for submerged acetic fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LOPEZ, A; JOHNSON, L W; WOOD, C B

    1961-09-01

    Submerged acetic fermentation experiments were performed for the purpose of determining the conditions under which this type of fermentation should be conducted under laboratory conditions. The apparatus used consisted of a set of glass tubes provided with air spargers. Acetobacter acetigenum was found to be the most suitable bacterium among six Acetobacter compared under submerged acetic fermentation conditions in a synthetic medium. Statistically significant different rates of fermentation were observed in acetators that were identical in construction, fermentation medium, and aeration characteristics. Extremely long growth lag periods and complete absence of growth were often observed when starting fermentations. The causes of this behavior were investigated. It was found that it was not produced by lack of nutrients or by presence of a bacteriophage. Different kinds of bacterial starters were studied and compared. Cultures maintained in a liquid medium were reliable starters with a short growth lag period. Liquid medium cultures maintained their good starter characteristics after periods of storage of up to 11 weeks at 40 F (4 C).

  11. Bacteria contributing to behaviour of radiocarbon in sodium acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Nobuyoshi; Uchida, Shigeo

    2011-07-01

    An acetate-utilising bacterium was isolated and identified from deionised water that was used for flooding of paddy soils in this study's batch culture experiments. Bacteria in the deionised water samples formed colonies on agar plates containing [1,2-(14)C] sodium acetate, and the autoradiograms showed that all the colonies were positive for (14)C utilisation. Then one of the acetate-utilising bacteria was isolated. The isolate was characterised by phylogenetic analysis, cell morphology, Gram staining and growth at 30 °C. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA sequencing showed that the isolate belonged to the genus Burkholderia. The bacterium was gram-negative rods and grew at 30 °C under aerobic conditions. Based on these characteristics, the isolate was identified as Burkholderia gladioli. Because B. gladioli is often found in soil, water and the rhizosphere, attention must be paid to the relationships between bacteria and the behaviour of (14)C to for the safety assessment of geological disposal of transuranic waste.

  12. Roxatidine acetate in the long term maintenance of gastric ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Börsch, G

    1988-01-01

    A non-comparative multicentre study of 78 patients with healed gastric ulcers who had received roxatidine acetate was conducted to determine the ulcer recurrence rates during 6 months' maintenance therapy with roxatidine acetate 75 mg at night. Gastric ulcer relapses occurred in 35% of patients, representing a worst possible outcome estimate, with no significant differences between smokers and non-smokers although heavy smoking appeared to increase the rate of relapse. The incidence of epigastric pain did not significantly increase over the duration of therapy and while some patients complained of mild pain at the start of the trial all subjects had endoscopically confirmed healed ulcers. The consumption of antacids for symptom relief was low, reaching an average of 0.75 tablets a day which was insufficient to influence intragastric pH. Continuous poor appetite and pyrosis were reported by about 5% of subjects. Of 2 patients who complained of mild to moderate side effects, 1 discontinued treatment. In addition, there were no clinically significant changes in haematological and biochemical variables. Thus, maintenance therapy with roxatidine acetate 75 mg at night is safe and generally effective in preventing symptomatic relapse.

  13. Roxatidine acetate in the long term maintenance of duodenal ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, G

    1988-01-01

    A non-comparative multicentre study of 105 patients with healed duodenal ulcers was conducted to determine the effect on ulcer recurrence of 6 months' maintenance treatment with roxatidine acetate 75 mg daily. All patients had previously received roxatidine acetate treatment. 31 patients out of 89 had 32 relapsed ulcers after 6 months of treatment, which represents an overall relapse rate of around 30%; the relapse rate in smokers was double that of non-smokers. The overall incidence of epigastric pain did not increase significantly over the period of the trial, although some patients complained of mild pain when they entered the study despite having endoscopically confirmed healed ulcers. At the end of the study continuous poor appetite and pyrosis were reported by 17% and 6% of patients, respectively. Side effects, which included constipation and diarrhoea, were reported by 4 patients, 1 of whom withdrew from therapy. There were no clinically significant changes in laboratory values. Thus, maintenance treatment with roxatidine acetate 75 mg daily proved a safe and effective method of preventing symptomatic duodenal ulcer relapse.

  14. Treatment of congenital hyperinsulinism with lanreotide acetate (Somatuline Autogel).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modan-Moses, Dalit; Koren, Ilana; Mazor-Aronovitch, Kineret; Pinhas-Hamiel, Orit; Landau, Heddy

    2011-08-01

    Congenital hyperinsulinism (CH) may be treated conservatively in many children with octreotide given by multiple sc injections or via an insulin pump. We describe two children treated with a once-monthly injection of a long-acting somatostatin analog. Both patients presented with hypoglycemia 30 min after birth and were subsequently diagnosed with CH. Patients were initially treated with diazoxide, hydrochlorothiazide, frequent feedings, and octreotide via an insulin pump. With this therapy, they were normoglycemic with a good growth rate, normal weight gain, and excellent neurodevelopment. Treatment with the long-acting somatostatin analog lanreotide acetate (Somatuline Autogel), administered by deep sc injection of 30 mg once a month, was started at the ages of 4½ and 4 yr, respectively. Octreotide infusion was gradually weaned over 1 month. Continuous glucose monitoring after discontinuation of pump therapy showed normoglycemia. The first patient has now been treated with the lanreotide acetate for over 5 yr, and the second for 3 yr. Treatment is well-tolerated, and both the patients and their parents are satisfied with the transition from pump therapy to once-a-month injection and prefer it to pump therapy. Lanreotide acetate may be a safe and effective alternative to octreotide pump therapy in patients with CH, offering an improved quality of life. Longer follow-up of a larger patient group is needed.

  15. Stimulation of hepatic glycogenolysis by phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, T.B.

    1986-05-01

    In isolated perfused rat livers, infusion of phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (150 nM) resulted in a three-fold stimulation of the rate of glucose production. This response was maximal at perfusate phorbol ester concentration of 150 nM, and was significantly diminished at higher concentrations of the phorbol ester (e.g. 300 nM). Stimulation of glycogenolysis by phorbol ester was greatly decreased in livers perfused infusion into livers perfused with calcium-free medium. Phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate infusion into livers perfused in the absence of calcium did not result in calcium efflux from the livers. Additionally, in hepatocytes isolated from livers of fed rats neither the phorbol ester nor 1-oleoyl-2-acetyl-rac-glycerol, stimulated the rate of glucose production. This last result along with the observations that in isolated perfused rat livers, phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate increases portal pressure, and decreases oxygen consumption suggests that stimulation of hepatic glycogenolysis by phorbol ester is the result of increased vasoconstriction, and is not a consequence of a direct effect of the phorbol ester on liver parenchymal cells.

  16. Oxidation of acetate through reactions of the citric acid cycle by Geobacter sulfurreducens in pure culture and in syntrophic coculture

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    Geobacter sulfurreducens strain PCA oxidized acetate to CO2 via citric acid cycle reactions during growth with acetate plus fumarate in pure culture, and with acetate plus nitrate in coculture with Wolinella succinogenes. Acetate was activated by succinyl-CoA:acetate CoA-transferase and also via acetate kinase plus phosphotransacetylase. Citrate was formed by citrate synthase. Soluble isocitrate and malate dehydrogenases reduced NADP+ and NAD+, respectively. Oxidation of 2-oxoglutarate was me...

  17. PVC/D2EHPA聚合物包容膜对水相中苯酚的分离%Separation of phenol through polyvinyl-chloride inclusion membrane with bis(2-ethyl hexyl)-phosphoric acid as carrier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟晓荣; 高晨光; 王磊; 王旭东; 马源; 陈赫男

    2014-01-01

    A polymer inclusion membrane (PIM) system containing polyvinyl chloride (PVC) polymer matrix and bis(2-ethyl hexyl)-phosphoric acid (D2EHPA, P204), as a specific carrier, was prepared without using any additional plasticizers, expressed as PD-PIM. The chemical composition, crystallization behavior and morphology of as-prepared PD-PIM were characterized with Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry, X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy. The facilitated transport of phenol through the PD-PIM was investigated. The influences of carrier content of PD-PIM, phenol concentration, pH in source phase, and HCl concentration in receiving phase on the transport were investigated. The transport kinetics of phenol and the stability of membranes were studied. The results show that the early transmission process of phenol is in line with the first order kinetic equation and the optimal transport process can be obtained with the membrane containing 70%D2EHPA/30%PVC (mass), from the source solution of phenol concentration at 400 mg·L-1 and pH 6.0, by using 0.1 mol·L-1 HCl as receiving phase. In addition, the experiments demonstrate that PD-PIM presents good stability and the phenol transport through the membrane is facilitated by co-transport.%以二-(2-乙基己基)膦酸(D2EHPA,P204)为载体,制备了聚氯乙烯(PVC)为膜基材的系列聚合物包容膜(PD-PIM),用FTIR、XRD及AFM表征了PD-PIM的化学组成、结晶行为和微观形貌。以渗透系数和渗透通量为指标,考察了PD-PIM膜中载体含量、料液相浓度和pH,以及解析相中盐酸浓度对PD-PIM分离苯酚的影响,探讨了实验条件下苯酚通过 PD-PIM 的传输机制。结果表明:在实验设定的范围内,PD-PIM 对苯酚的传质通量随PD-PIM中载体质量分数、料液相中苯酚浓度的增加而增大,并在料液相苯酚浓度为400 mg·L-1、pH=6,解析相盐酸浓度为0.1 mol·L-1,载体P204含量为70%(质量)时达到

  18. Short-term oral toxicity of butyl ether, ethyl hexyl ether, methyl heptyl ether and 1,6-dimethoxyhexane in male rats and the role of 2-methoxyacetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Raymond; Wade, Michael; Valli, Victor E; Chu, Ih

    2005-10-15

    A 4-week oral study was conducted in male rats to characterize and compare the toxicity of four aliphatic ethers (butyl ether, BE; ethyl hexyl ether, EHxE; methyl heptyl ether, MHpE; and 1,6-dimethoxyhexane, DMH) which have been proposed as high-cetane diesel additives. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (280+/-20 g) were divided into groups of seven animals each and were administered by gavage low (2mg/kg body weight), medium (20mg/kg) or high (200mg/kg) doses of BE, EHxE, or MHpE, 5 days per week for 4 weeks. Another group of animals was administered DMH at 200mg/kg while the control group received the vehicle (corn oil at 1 ml/100g bw) only. At the end of the treatment period, relative testis weights and thymus weights were significantly decreased in the DMH group but not in animals receiving BE, EHxE, or MHpE. Microscopic examination revealed degeneration of the seminiferous tubules and reduction of sperm density in the epididymides in the DMH treatment group. Urinary creatine/creatinine ratio, a sensitive indicator of testicular damage, was markedly elevated in the DMH treated animals but not in those treated with BE, EHxE, or MHpE. In the bone marrow, DMH caused mild dyserythropoiesis and dysthrombopoiesis, while BE, EHxE, and MHpE produced mild increases in granulocytes and myelocyte/erythrocyte ratio. All four ethers at 200mg/kg caused mild histological changes in the thyroid but no significant modulation in the circulating thyroxin (T4) or triiodothyronine (T3) levels. All four ethers produced hepatic effects at 200mg/kg consisting of mild, adaptive histological changes, increased urinary ascorbic acid output, and elevation in the activities of one or more xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes (benzyloxyresorufin-O-dealkylase, UDP-glucuronosyltransferase, glutathione-S-transferases). The level of 2-methoxyacetic acid (MAA), a known testicular and developmental toxin, was significantly increased in the urine and plasma of animals treated with DMH but not in those

  19. Catabolism of indole-3-acetic acid and 4- and 5-chloroindole-3-acetic acid in Bradyrhizobium japonicum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J B; Egsgaard, H; Van Onckelen, H

    1995-01-01

    Some strains of Bradyrhizobium japonicum have the ability to catabolize indole-3-acetic acid. Indoleacetic acid (IAA), 4-chloro-IAA (4-Cl-IAA), and 5-Cl-IAA were metabolized to different extents by strains 61A24 and 110. Metabolites were isolated and analyzed by high-performance liquid...... chromatography and conventional mass spectrometry (MS) methods, including MS-mass spectroscopy, UV spectroscopy, and high-performance liquid chromatography-MS. The identified products indicate a novel metabolic pathway in which IAA is metabolized via dioxindole-3-acetic acid, dioxindole, isatin, and 2......-aminophenyl glyoxylic acid (isatinic acid) to anthranilic acid, which is further metabolized. Degradation of 4-Cl-IAA apparently stops at the 4-Cl-dioxindole step in contrast to 5-Cl-IAA which is metabolized to 5-Cl-anthranilic acid. Udgivelsesdato: 1995-Oct...

  20. Effect of wood acetylation with vinyl acetate and acetic anhydride on the properties of wood-plastic composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilgül Özmen

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Chemical modifications of Scots pine (Pinus slyvestris wood flour were performed with vinyl acetate (VA and acetic anhydride (AA in the presence of potassium carbonate as a catalyst. Scots pine wood flour samples were successfully acetylated with VA (19 wt% gain and AA (24 wt% gain. The effect of chemical modification of the Scots pine wood flour with AA and VA on the mechanical properties of wood high-density polyethylene composites (WPC were determined. It was observed that acetylation of wood flour allowed a significant increase in both the mechanical properties and the thermal stability of the WPCs. It was concluded that acetylation of lignocellulosic fibers improves thermal stability, dispersion in the polymer matrix, and compatibility with the polymer matrix.

  1. Change in the plasmid copy number in acetic acid bacteria in response to growth phase and acetic acid concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akasaka, Naoki; Astuti, Wiwik; Ishii, Yuri; Hidese, Ryota; Sakoda, Hisao; Fujiwara, Shinsuke

    2015-06-01

    Plasmids pGE1 (2.5 kb), pGE2 (7.2 kb), and pGE3 (5.5 kb) were isolated from Gluconacetobacter europaeus KGMA0119, and sequence analyses revealed they harbored 3, 8, and 4 genes, respectively. Plasmid copy numbers (PCNs) were determined by real-time quantitative PCR at different stages of bacterial growth. When KGMA0119 was cultured in medium containing 0.4% ethanol and 0.5% acetic acid, PCN of pGE1 increased from 7 copies/genome in the logarithmic phase to a maximum of 12 copies/genome at the beginning of the stationary phase, before decreasing to 4 copies/genome in the late stationary phase. PCNs for pGE2 and pGE3 were maintained at 1-3 copies/genome during all phases of growth. Under a higher concentration of ethanol (3.2%) the PCN for pGE1 was slightly lower in all the growth stages, and those of pGE2 and pGE3 were unchanged. In the presence of 1.0% acetic acid, PCNs were higher for pGE1 (10 copies/genome) and pGE3 (6 copies/genome) during the logarithmic phase. Numbers for pGE2 did not change, indicating that pGE1 and pGE3 increase their PCNs in response to acetic acid. Plasmids pBE2 and pBE3 were constructed by ligating linearized pGE2 and pGE3 into pBR322. Both plasmids were replicable in Escherichia coli, Acetobacter pasteurianus and G. europaeus, highlighting their suitability as vectors for acetic acid bacteria.

  2. Overexpression of acetyl-CoA synthetase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae increases acetic acid tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jun; Holzwarth, Garrett; Penner, Michael H; Patton-Vogt, Jana; Bakalinsky, Alan T

    2015-01-01

    Acetic acid-mediated inhibition of the fermentation of lignocellulose-derived sugars impedes development of plant biomass as a source of renewable ethanol. In order to overcome this inhibition, the capacity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to synthesize acetyl-CoA from acetic acid was increased by overexpressing ACS2 encoding acetyl-coenzyme A synthetase. Overexpression of ACS2 resulted in higher resistance to acetic acid as measured by an increased growth rate and shorter lag phase relative to a wild-type control strain, suggesting that Acs2-mediated consumption of acetic acid during fermentation contributes to acetic acid detoxification.

  3. Acetate/acetyl-CoA metabolism associated with cancer fatty acid synthesis: overview and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshii, Yukie; Furukawa, Takako; Saga, Tsuneo; Fujibayashi, Yasuhisa

    2015-01-28

    Understanding cancer-specific metabolism is important for identifying novel targets for cancer diagnosis and therapy. Induced acetate/acetyl CoA metabolism is a notable feature that is related to fatty acid synthesis supporting tumor growth. In this review, we focused on the recent findings related to cancer acetate/acetyl CoA metabolism. We also introduce [1-¹¹C]acetate positron emission tomography (PET), which is a useful tool to visualize up-regulation of acetate/acetyl CoA metabolism in cancer, and discuss the utility of [1-¹¹C]acetate PET in cancer diagnosis and its application to personalized medicine.

  4. Influence of Alkylammonium Acetate Buffers on Protein-Ligand Noncovalent Interactions Using Native Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Xiaoyu; Gavriilidou, Agni F. M.; Zenobi, Renato

    2017-02-01

    We investigate the influence of three volatile alkylammonium acetate buffers on binding affinities for protein-ligand interactions determined by native electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Four different types of proteins were chosen for this study. A charge-reduction effect was observed for all the cases studied, in comparison to the ions formed in ammonium acetate solution. When increasing the collision energy, the complexes of trypsin and the ligand were found to be more stable when sprayed from alkylammonium acetate buffers than from ammonium acetate. The determined dissociation constant (Kd) also exhibited a drop (up to 40%) when ammonium acetate was replaced by alkylammonium acetate buffers for the case of lysozyme and the ligand. The prospective uses of these ammonium acetate analogs in native ESI-MS are discussed in this paper as well.

  5. Acetic acid enhances endurance capacity of exercise-trained mice by increasing skeletal muscle oxidative properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jeong Hoon; Kim, Jun Ho; Kim, Hyung Min; Lee, Eui Seop; Shin, Dong-Hoon; Kim, Seongpil; Shin, Minkyeong; Kim, Sang Ho; Lee, Jin Hyup; Kim, Young Jun

    2015-01-01

    Acetic acid has been shown to promote glycogen replenishment in skeletal muscle during exercise training. In this study, we investigated the effects of acetic acid on endurance capacity and muscle oxidative metabolism in the exercise training using in vivo mice model. In exercised mice, acetic acid induced a significant increase in endurance capacity accompanying a reduction in visceral adipose depots. Serum levels of non-esterified fatty acid and urea nitrogen were significantly lower in acetic acid-fed mice in the exercised mice. Importantly, in the mice, acetic acid significantly increased the muscle expression of key enzymes involved in fatty acid oxidation and glycolytic-to-oxidative fiber-type transformation. Taken together, these findings suggest that acetic acid improves endurance exercise capacity by promoting muscle oxidative properties, in part through the AMPK-mediated fatty acid oxidation and provide an important basis for the application of acetic acid as a major component of novel ergogenic aids.

  6. Methylene acetal formation from 1,2- and 1,3-diols using an O,S-acetal, 1,3-dibromo-5,5-dimethylhydantoin, and BHT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maegawa, Tomohiro; Koutani, Yasuyuki; Otake, Kazuki; Fujioka, Hiromichi

    2013-04-05

    A mild and efficient method for formation of methylene acetals from 1,2- and 1,3-diols using methoxymethylphenylsulfide, 1,3-dibromo-5,5-dimethylhydantoin (DBDMH), and dibutylhydroxytoluene (BHT) is described. The use of BHT in this process suppresses side reactions and enables high-yielding formation of methylene acetals of various diols, including carbohydrate-type substrates.

  7. Acetic acid bacteria spoilage of bottled red wine -- a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartowsky, Eveline J; Henschke, Paul A

    2008-06-30

    Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are ubiquitous organisms that are well adapted to sugar and ethanol rich environments. This family of Gram-positive bacteria are well known for their ability to produce acetic acid, the main constituent in vinegar. The oxidation of ethanol through acetaldehyde to acetic acid is well understood and characterised. AAB form part of the complex natural microbial flora of grapes and wine, however their presence is less desirable than the lactic acid bacteria and yeast. Even though AAB were described by Pasteur in the 1850s, wine associated AAB are still difficult to cultivate on artificial laboratory media and until more recently, their taxonomy has not been well characterised. Wine is at most risk of spoilage during production and the presence of these strictly aerobic bacteria in grape must and during wine maturation can be controlled by eliminating, or at least limiting oxygen, an essential growth factor. However, a new risk, spoilage of wine by AAB after packaging, has only recently been reported. As wine is not always sterile filtered prior to bottling, especially red wine, it often has a small resident bacterial population (bacteria. This spoilage is evident as a distinct deposit of bacterial biofilm in the neck of the bottle at the interface of the wine and the headspace of air, and is accompanied with vinegar, sherry, bruised apple, nutty, and solvent like off-aromas, depending on the degree of spoilage. This review focuses on the wine associated AAB species, the aroma and flavour changes in wine due to AAB metabolism, discusses the importance of oxygen ingress into the bottle and presents a hypothesis for the mechanism of spoilage of bottled red wine.

  8. Acetalization of Poly(vinyl alcohol) /Soybean Protein Fibers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Dong-yan; FU Chang-fei; GU Li-xia

    2008-01-01

    Acetalizatioin on the blend fibers of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and soybean protein (SP) was studied by using dialdehydes as cross-linking agents. The optimal acetalization conditions were determined by Latin square experiment, where the modified fibers with good mechanical properties can be achieved by treating in 41 g/L dialdehyde solution at 67 ℃ for 9 min. The cross-linking reactions of PVA and SP with dialdehydes were confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Tensile test and boiling water shrinkage measurements showed that the physical properties of PVA/SP fibers crosslinked by dialdehydes were improved comparing with those formalized fibers.

  9. Invasive cervical cancer and depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate

    OpenAIRE

    1985-01-01

    Preliminary results of a study of the possible relationship of depot-medroxy-progesterone acetate (DMPA) to invasive cervical cancer are presented. The findings are based on data from three participating centres in Thailand and one in Mexico. A relative risk for cervical cancer of 1.2 was observed in women who had ever used DMPA; this was not statistically significant. No consistent increase in risk with duration of use was observed, although a relative risk of 2 was found in women who had us...

  10. DFT studies of CNT-functionalized uracil-acetate hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, Mahmoud; Gulseren, Oguz

    2015-09-01

    Calculations based on density functional theory (DFT) have been performed to investigate the stabilities and properties of hybrid structures consisting of a molecular carbon nanotube (CNT) and uracil acetate (UA) counterparts. The investigated models have been relaxed to minimum energy structures and then various physical properties and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) properties have been evaluated. The results indicated the effects of functionalized CNT on the properties of hybrids through comparing the results of hybrids and individual structures. The oxygen atoms of uracil counterparts have been seen as the detection points of properties for the CNT-UA hybrids.

  11. Helenalin Acetate in in vitro Propagated Plants of Arnica montana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malarz, J; Stojakowska, A; Dohnal, B; Kisiel, W

    1993-02-01

    Propagated "IN VITRO" shoots and plantlets of ARNICA MONTANA L. (Asteraceae) have been shown to produce sesquiterpene lactones, i.e. helenalin and 11,13-dihydrohelenalin esters. The compounds were detected in green organs only; roots of the plantlets contained no sesquiterpene lactones. The helenalin acetate content in leaves of the plantlets (0.073% dry wt) was 4-times higher than in proliferated shoots (0.016% dry wt). The best rate of shoot multiplication was achieved on MS medium, supplemented with NAA 0.5mg/l and Kn 2.5 mg/l (formation of 22 shoots within 8 weeks).

  12. Cytotoxic constituents of ethyl acetate fraction from Dianthus superbus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Chengli; Zhang, Wu; Li, Jie; Lei, Jiachuan; Yu, Jianqing

    2013-01-01

    The ethyl acetate fraction (EE-DS) from Dianthus superbus was found to possess the cytotoxic activity against cancer cells in previous study. To investigate cytotoxic constituents, the bioassay-guided isolation of compounds from EE-DS was performed. Two dianthramides (1 and 2), three flavonoids (3-5), two coumarins (6 and 7) and three other compounds (8-10) were obtained. Structures of isolated compounds were identified by spectroscopic analysis. Cytotoxicity of the compounds against HepG2 cells was evaluated. Compound 1 showed the strongest cytotoxicity, compounds 10, 4, 3 and 5 had moderate cytotoxicity.

  13. Enthalpies of formation and lattice enthalpies of alkaline metal acetates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleixo, Ana I. [Departamento de Quimica e Bioquimica, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade de Lisboa, 1749-016 Lisbon (Portugal); Oliveira, Pedro H. [Centro de Quimica Estrutural, Complexo Interdisciplinar, Instituto Superior Tecnico, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Diogo, Herminio P. [Centro de Quimica Estrutural, Complexo Interdisciplinar, Instituto Superior Tecnico, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Minas da Piedade, Manuel E. [Departamento de Quimica e Bioquimica, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade de Lisboa, 1749-016 Lisbon (Portugal)]. E-mail: memp@fc.ul.pt

    2005-04-15

    The standard (p{sup o}=0.1MPa) molar enthalpies of formation in the crystalline state of the alkaline metal acetates CH{sub 3}COOM (M=Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs), at T=298.15K, were determined by reaction-solution calorimetry as: {delta}{sub f}H{sub m}{sup o}(CH{sub 3}COOLi,cr)=-(741.40+/-0.95)kJmol{sup -1}, {delta}{sub f}H{sub m}{sup o}(CH{sub 3}COONa,cr)=-(711.01+/-0.51)kJmol{sup -1}, {delta}{sub f}H{sub m}{sup o}(CH{sub 3}COOK,cr)=-(722.36+/-0.49)kJmol{sup -1}, {delta}{sub f}H{sub m}{sup o}(CH{sub 3}COORb,cr)=-(722.31+/-1.09)kJmol{sup -1}, {delta}{sub f}H{sub m}{sup o}(CH{sub 3}COOCs,cr)=-(726.10+/-1.07)kJmol{sup -1}. These results, taken together with the enthalpies of formation of the haloacetates XCH{sub 2}COOM (M=Li, Na; X=Cl, Br, I) and chloropropionates ClCH(CH{sub 3})COOM (M=Li, Na) re-evaluated from literature data were used to derive a consistent set of lattice energies, and discuss some general trends of the structure-energetics relationship for the CH{sub 3}COOM, XCH{sub 2}COOM, and ClCH(CH{sub 3})COOM compounds, based on the Kapustinskii approximation. It was found that the lattice energies of the haloacetates are essentially independent of the halogen and ca. 17-25kJmol{sup -1} smaller than those of the corresponding acetates. In addition, no significant difference between the lattice enthalpy values of the haloacetates and chloropropionates was observed. Finally, linear correlations of very similar slope were obtained by plotting the M-O bond distances derived from the Kapustinskii equation against the published experimental M-O bond distances for alkaline metal acetates and alkoxides. The analysis of these relations suggests that the metal-oxygen bond distances for the lithium, potassium, and rubidium acetates, whose molecular structures in the solid state have not been determined, can be estimated as 214, 288, and 304pm, respectively.

  14. Improvement of acetic acid tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae using a zinc-finger-based artificial transcription factor and identification of novel genes involved in acetic acid tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Cui; Wei, Xiaowen; Sun, Cuihuan; Zhang, Fei; Xu, Jianren; Zhao, Xinqing; Bai, Fengwu

    2015-03-01

    Acetic acid is present in cellulosic hydrolysate as a potent inhibitor, and the superior acetic acid tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae ensures good cell viability and efficient ethanol production when cellulosic raw materials are used as substrates. In this study, a mutant strain of S. cerevisiae ATCC4126 (Sc4126-M01) with improved acetic acid tolerance was obtained through screening strains transformed with an artificial zinc finger protein transcription factor (ZFP-TF) library. Further analysis indicated that improved acetic acid tolerance was associated with improved catalase (CAT) activity. The ZFP coding sequence associated with the improved phenotype was identified, and real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed that three of the possible genes involved in the enhanced acetic acid tolerance regulated by this ZFP-TF, namely YFL040W, QDR3, and IKS1, showed decreased transcription levels in Sc4126-M01 in the presence of acetic acid, compared to those in the control strain. Sc4126-M01 mutants having QDR3 and IKS1 deletion (ΔQDR3 and ΔIKS1) exhibited higher acetic acid tolerance than the wild-type strain under acetic acid treatment. Glucose consumption rate and ethanol productivity in the presence of 5 g/L acetic acid were improved in the ΔQDR3 mutant compared to the wild-type strain. Our studies demonstrated that the synthetic ZFP-TF library can be used to improve acetic acid tolerance of S. cerevisiae and that the employment of an artificial transcription factor can facilitate the exploration of novel functional genes involved in stress tolerance of S. cerevisiae.

  15. Photodynamic therapy: anti-tumour potentialities of bis (tri {pi}-hexyl-siloxy) silicon phthalocyanine against malignant achromic M6 melanocytes. EPR study of the photo-toxic mechanism; Phototherapie dynamique: etude des potentialites anti-tumorales de la bis (tri {pi}-hexylsiloxy) phtalocyanine de silicium sur melanocytes malins achromiques M6. Etude RPE desmecanismes phototoxiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreau, R.; Viola, A.; Julliard, M. [Faculte des Sciences Saint-Jerome, 13 - Marseille (France). Laboratoire AM3-ESA CNRS; Hadjur, Ch.; Richard, M.J.; Favier, A. [Hopital Michallon, 38 - Grenoble (France). Laboratoire de Biochimie C; Jeunet, A. [Grenoble Universite, 38 - Saint-Martin-d' Heres (France). LEDSS-UMR CNRS

    1997-07-01

    Photodynamic therapy of cancerous cells is a technique relying upon the irradiation of tumorous cells after selective incorporation of a photo-sensitizer. The bis (tri n-hexyl-siloxy) silicon phthalocyanine is a second generation photo-sensitizer. Anti-cancerous potentialities of this molecule have been evaluated against the melanotic M6 cell line. Results have evidenced a high phototoxicity at low concentration and no dark toxicity under the same conditions. EPR studies on the photochemical pathways involved in phototoxicity processes have been realised in solvent and model membranes (liposomes). Results provide evidences for the production of singlet oxygen ({sup 1}O{sub 2}) as well as superoxide (O{sub 2}{sup 0-}) and hydroxyl radical ({sup 0}OH). (authors)

  16. Heterogeneous Reactions of Acetic Acid with Oxide Surfaces: Effects of Mineralogy and Relative Humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Mingjin; Larish, Whitney A; Fang, Yuan; Gankanda, Aruni; Grassian, Vicki H

    2016-07-21

    We have investigated the heterogeneous uptake of gaseous acetic acid on different oxides including γ-Al2O3, SiO2, and CaO under a range of relative humidity conditions. Under dry conditions, the uptake of acetic acid leads to the formation of both acetate and molecularly adsorbed acetic acid on γ-Al2O3 and CaO and only molecularly adsorbed acetic acid on SiO2. More importantly, under the conditions of this study, dimers are the major form for molecularly adsorbed acetic acid on all three particle surfaces investigated, even at low acetic acid pressures under which monomers are the dominant species in the gas phase. We have also determined saturation surface coverages for acetic acid adsorption on these three oxides under dry conditions as well as Langmuir adsorption constants in some cases. Kinetic analysis shows that the reaction rate of acetic acid increases by a factor of 3-5 for γ-Al2O3 when relative humidity increases from 0% to 15%, whereas for SiO2 particles, acetic acid and water are found to compete for surface adsorption sites.

  17. Acetic Acid Causes Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Induces the Unfolded Protein Response in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nozomi Kawazoe

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Since acetic acid inhibits the growth and fermentation ability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, it is one of the practical hindrances to the efficient production of bioethanol from a lignocellulosic biomass. Although extensive information is available on yeast response to acetic acid stress, the involvement of endoplasmic reticulum (ER and unfolded protein response (UPR has not been addressed. We herein demonstrated that acetic acid causes ER stress and induces the UPR. The accumulation of misfolded proteins in the ER and activation of Ire1p and Hac1p, an ER-stress sensor and ER stress-responsive transcription factor, respectively, were induced by a treatment with acetic acid stress (>0.2% v/v. Other monocarboxylic acids such as propionic acid and sorbic acid, but not lactic acid, also induced the UPR. Additionally, ire1Δ and hac1Δ cells were more sensitive to acetic acid than wild-type cells, indicating that activation of the Ire1p-Hac1p pathway is required for maximum tolerance to acetic acid. Furthermore, the combination of mild acetic acid stress (0.1% acetic acid and mild ethanol stress (5% ethanol induced the UPR, whereas neither mild ethanol stress nor mild acetic acid stress individually activated Ire1p, suggesting that ER stress is easily induced in yeast cells during the fermentation process of lignocellulosic hydrolysates. It was possible to avoid the induction of ER stress caused by acetic acid and the combined stress by adjusting extracellular pH.

  18. Acetic Acid Causes Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Induces the Unfolded Protein Response in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawazoe, Nozomi; Kimata, Yukio; Izawa, Shingo

    2017-01-01

    Since acetic acid inhibits the growth and fermentation ability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, it is one of the practical hindrances to the efficient production of bioethanol from a lignocellulosic biomass. Although extensive information is available on yeast response to acetic acid stress, the involvement of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and unfolded protein response (UPR) has not been addressed. We herein demonstrated that acetic acid causes ER stress and induces the UPR. The accumulation of misfolded proteins in the ER and activation of Ire1p and Hac1p, an ER-stress sensor and ER stress-responsive transcription factor, respectively, were induced by a treatment with acetic acid stress (>0.2% v/v). Other monocarboxylic acids such as propionic acid and sorbic acid, but not lactic acid, also induced the UPR. Additionally, ire1Δ and hac1Δ cells were more sensitive to acetic acid than wild-type cells, indicating that activation of the Ire1p-Hac1p pathway is required for maximum tolerance to acetic acid. Furthermore, the combination of mild acetic acid stress (0.1% acetic acid) and mild ethanol stress (5% ethanol) induced the UPR, whereas neither mild ethanol stress nor mild acetic acid stress individually activated Ire1p, suggesting that ER stress is easily induced in yeast cells during the fermentation process of lignocellulosic hydrolysates. It was possible to avoid the induction of ER stress caused by acetic acid and the combined stress by adjusting extracellular pH.

  19. Selective inhibition of methanogenesis to enhance ethanol and n-butyrate production through acetate reduction in mixed culture fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steinbusch, K.J.J.; Arvaniti, E.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2009-01-01

    Acetate reduction is an alternative digestion process to convert organic waste into ethanol. Using acetate for fuel ethanol production offers the opportunity to use organic waste materials instead of sugar-containing feedstock. Methanogenesis, however, competes with acetate reduction for acetate and

  20. Modeling of sodium acetate recovery from aqueous solutions by electrodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidaleo, Marcello; Moresi, Mauro

    2005-09-05

    The main engineering parameters (i.e., ion transport numbers in solution and electro-membranes; effective solute and water transport numbers; effective membrane surface area, membrane surface resistances, and limiting current intensity) affecting the recovery of sodium acetate from model solutions by electrodialysis (ED) were determined in accordance with a sequential experimental procedure. Such parameters allowed a satisfactory simulation of a few validation tests carried out under constant or step-wisely variable current intensity. The performance of this ED process was characterized in terms of a current efficiency (omega) of about 93% in the constant-current region, a water transport number (t(W)) of about 15, and a specific energy consumption (epsilon) increasing from 0.14 to 0.31 kWh/kg for a solute recovery yield of 95% as the current density (j) was increased from 112 to 337 A/m2. The specific resistance of the anion- or cation-exchange membranes were found to be three or two times greater than those measured in aqueous NaCl solutions and are to be used to design and/or optimize ED stacks involved in the downstream processing of acetic acid fermentation broths.

  1. Unusal pattern of product inhibition: batch acetic acid fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bar, R.; Gainer, J.L.; Kirwan, D.J.

    1987-04-20

    The limited tolerance of microorganisms to their metabolic products results in inhibited growth and product formation. The relationship between the specific growth rate, micro, and the concentration of an inhibitory product has been described by a number of mathematical models. In most cases, micro was found to be inversely proportional to the product concentration and invariably the rate of substrate utilization followed the same pattern. In this communication, the authors report a rather unusual case in which the formation rate of a product, acetic acid, increased with a decreasing growth rate of the microorganism, Acetobacter aceti. Apparently, a similar behavior was mentioned in a review report with respect to Clostridium thermocellum in a batch culture but was not published in the freely circulating literature. The fermentation of ethanol to acetic acid, C/sub 2/H/sub 5/OH + O/sub 2/ = CH/sub 3/COOH + H/sub 2/O is clearly one of the oldest known fermentations. Because of its association with the commercial production of vinegar it has been a subject of extensive but rather technically oriented studies. Suprisingly, the uncommon uncoupling between the inhibited microbial growth and the product formation appears to have been unnoticed. 13 references.

  2. Improving the photovoltaic performance of perovskite solar cells with acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qian; Li, G R; Song, Jian; Zhao, Yulong; Qiang, Yinghuai; Gao, X P

    2016-12-09

    In an all-solid-state perovskite solar cell, methylammonium lead halide film is in charge of generating photo-excited electrons, thus its quality can directly influence the final photovoltaic performance of the solar cell. This paper accentuates a very simple chemical approach to improving the quality of a perovskite film with a suitable amount of acetic acid. With introduction of acetate ions, a homogeneous, continual and hole-free perovskite film comprised of high-crystallinity grains is obtained. UV-visible spectra, steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) spectra reveal that the obtained perovskite film under the optimized conditions shows a higher light absorption, more efficient electron transport, and faster electron extraction to the adjoining electron transport layer. The features result in the optimized perovskite film can provide an improved short-circuit current. The corresponding solar cells with a planar configuration achieves an improved power conversion efficiency of 13.80%, and the highest power conversion efficiency in the photovoltaic measurements is up to 14.71%. The results not only provide a simple approach to optimizing perovskite films but also present a novel angle of view on fabricating high-performance perovskite solar cells.

  3. DISCOVERY OF METHYL ACETATE AND GAUCHE ETHYL FORMATE IN ORION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tercero, B.; Cernicharo, J.; Lopez, A.; Caro, G. M. Munoz [Department of Astrophysics, CAB, INTA-CSIC, Crta Torrejon-Ajalvir, km. 4, E-28850 Torrejon de Ardoz, Madrid (Spain); Kleiner, I.; Nguyen, H. V. L., E-mail: terceromb@cab.inta-csic.es, E-mail: jcernicharo@cab.inta-csic.es, E-mail: lopezja@cab.inta-csic.es, E-mail: munozcg@cab.inta-csic.es, E-mail: isabelle.kleiner@lisa.u-pec.fr, E-mail: nguyen@pc.rwth-aachen.de [Laboratoire Interuniversitaire des Systemes Atmospheriques, CNRS/IPSL UMR7583 et Universites Paris Diderot et Paris Est, 61 av. General de Gaulle, F-94010 Creteil (France)

    2013-06-10

    We report on the discovery of methyl acetate, CH{sub 3}COOCH{sub 3}, through the detection of a large number of rotational lines from each one of the spin states of the molecule: AA species (A{sub 1} or A{sub 2}), EA species (E{sub 1}), AE species (E{sub 2}), and EE species (E{sub 3} or E{sub 4}). We also report, for the first time in space, the detection of the gauche conformer of ethyl formate, CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}OCOH, in the same source. The trans conformer is also detected for the first time outside the Galactic center source SgrB2. From the derived velocity of the emission of methyl acetate, we conclude that it arises mainly from the compact ridge region with a total column density of (4.2 {+-} 0.5) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 15} cm{sup -2}. The derived rotational temperature is 150 K. The column density for each conformer of ethyl formate, trans and gauche, is (4.5 {+-} 1.0) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 14} cm{sup -2}. Their abundance ratio indicates a kinetic temperature of 135 K for the emitting gas and suggests that gas-phase reactions could participate efficiently in the formation of both conformers in addition to cold ice mantle reactions on the surface of dust grains.

  4. Thiosulphate conversion in a methane and acetate fed membrane bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Zuluaga, Diego A; Timmers, Peer H A; Plugge, Caroline M; Stams, Alfons J M; Buisman, Cees J N; Weijma, Jan

    2016-02-01

    The use of methane and acetate as electron donors for biological reduction of thiosulphate in a 5-L laboratory membrane bioreactor was studied and compared to disproportionation of thiosulphate as competing biological reaction. The reactor was operated for 454 days in semi-batch mode; 30 % of its liquid phase was removed and periodically replenished (days 77, 119, 166, 258, 312 and 385). Although the reactor was operated under conditions favourable to promote thiosulphate reduction coupled to methane oxidation, thiosulphate disproportionation was the dominant microbial process. Pyrosequencing analysis showed that the most abundant microorganisms in the bioreactor were phototrophic green sulphur bacteria (GSB) belonging to the family Chlorobiaceae and thiosulphate-disproportionating bacteria belonging to the genus Desulfocapsa. Even though the reactor system was surrounded with opaque plastic capable of filtering most of the light, the GSB used it to oxidize the hydrogen sulphide produced from thiosulphate disproportionation to elemental sulphur. Interrupting methane and acetate supply did not have any effect on the microbial processes taking place. The ultimate goal of our research was to develop a process that could be applied for thiosulphate and sulphate removal and biogenic sulphide formation for metal precipitation. Even though the system achieved in this study did not accomplish the targeted conversion using methane as electron donor, it does perform microbial conversions which allow to directly obtain elemental sulphur from thiosulphate.

  5. Discovery of Methyl Acetate and Gauche Ethyl Formate in Orion

    CERN Document Server

    Tercero, B; Cernicharo, J; Nguyen, H V L; López, A; Caro, G M Muñoz

    2013-01-01

    We report on the discovery of methyl acetate, CH3COOCH3, through the detection of a large number of rotational lines from each one of the spin states of the molecule: AA species (A1 or A2), EA species (E1), AE species (E2), EE species (E3 or E4). We also report the detection, for the first time in space, of the $gauche$ conformer of ethyl formate, CH3CH2OCOH, in the same source. The trans conformer is also detected for the first time outside the galactic center source SgrB2. From the derived velocity of the emission of methyl acetate we conclude that it arises mainly from the compact ridge region with a total column density of (4.2+-0.5)E15 cm(-2). The derived rotational temperature is 150 K. The column density for each conformer of ethyl formate, trans and gauche, is (4.5+-1.0)E14 cm(-2). Their abundance ratio indicates a kinetic temperature of 135 K for the emitting gas and suggests that gas phase reactions could participate efficiently in the formation of both conformers in addition to cold ice mantle reac...

  6. Scalar Relativistic Study of the Structure of Rhodium Acetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily E. Edwards

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Rhodium acetate, related rhodium carboxylates, and rhodium amide complexes are powerful catalysts for carbene chemistry. They readily promote the decomposition of diazo compounds and transfer the resulting carbene to a variety of substrates. There have been several quantum chemistry studies of these compounds, particularly of the acetate. These have all used non-relativistic methods, and all have shown optimized Rh-Rh bond lengths significantly longer than the experimental value. In this study we have surveyed several scalar relativistic DFT methods using Gaussian, Slater, and numerical basis functions (in DGAUSS, ADF, and DMOL3. Several combinations of exchange-correlation functionals with relativistic and non-relativistic effective core potentials (ECP were investigated, as were non-relativistic and all electron scalar relativistic methods. The combination of the PW91 exchange and PW91 correlation functional with the Christiansen-Ermler ECP gave the best results: 2.3918 Å compared to the experimental value of 2.3855±0.0005 Å.

  7. Probiotic and Acetic Acid Effect on Broiler Chickens Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Král

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics and organic acids are widely accepted as an alternative to in-feed antibiotics in poultry production. We carried the experiment with broiler chickens. In experiment we research effect of probiotic and acetic acids on the performance of broiler chickens. A total number of 200 one day old broiler chickens were distributed to two dietary groups. Broiler chickens in control group were fed with standard feed mixture and experimental group 1% vinegar contained 5% acetic acid used in drinking water and probiotics mixed with feed mixture. Body weight, FCR and GIT pH were recorded. The performance showed no statistically significant increase in body weight (P>0.05 in the weeks 1, 2, 3 and 4 of age. The body weight of broiler chickens was significant increase (P0.05 in weeks 5, and 6 of age. In different segments of the GIT was not statistically significant (P>0.05 difference of pH between the control and experimental groups.

  8. [Clinical evaluation of roxatidine acetate hydrochlorides as a preanesthetic medication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namba, M; Chihara, E; Ibuki, T; Ashida, H; Fukushima, H; Tanaka, Y

    2001-02-01

    Roxatidine acetate hydrochloride capsule is slowly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, and its acid suppressive effect on the stomach is long-lasting compared with other H2-blockers. The reduction of gastric juice in perioperative period is considered advantageous for patients not only because it decreases the risk for aspiration pneumonia but also because it reduces the risk of bronchial spasm induced by gastroesophageal reflux of acidic gastric content. The effects of single oral administration of roxatidine acetate hydrochloride 150 mg at night before the operation on the volume and pH of gastric juice were investigated during anesthesia using two types of anesthetic agents (isoflurane and propofol) in 93 patients of three age groups (group Y: age 20-40, group M: age 41-64, group O: age 65 roxatidine on reduction of gastric juice was found at the time of anesthetic induction and 2 hours after the induction in any age group with either anesthetic agent. The serum concentration of roxatidine at the time of induction was much higher in group O. The value of residual concentration of roxatidine 20 hours after oral intake was estimated from the intraoperative measurements of serum concentration. The results suggest that single administration at night before the operation is sufficient for the oldest group, but an additive dose is recommended for the younger groups.

  9. Zinc acetate for the treatment of Wilson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, G J

    2001-09-01

    Zinc acetate (Galzin, Gate Pharmaceutical Co.) has been developed for the treatment of Wilson's disease, an inherited disease of copper accumulation and copper toxicity in brain and liver. Zinc acetate has been approved by the US FDA for maintenance therapy of adult and paediatric Wilson's disease patients but also has efficacy in the treatment of pregnant patients and presymptomatic patients from the beginning. It also has value as adjunctive therapy for the initial treatment of symptomatic patients. Zinc's mechanism of action involves induction of intestinal cell metallothionein (Mt), which blocks copper absorption from the intestinal track. A negative copper balance is caused by blockade not only of absorption of food copper but the blockade of reabsorption of the considerable amount of endogenously secreted copper in saliva, gastric juice and intestinal secretions. Zinc is completely effective in controlling copper levels and toxicity in Wilson's disease, as are other anticopper agents. Zinc's major advantage over other anticopper agents is its extremely low level of toxicity. The only side effect is some degree of initial gastric irritation in approximately10% of patients, which usually decreases and becomes insignificant over time. As with all long-term therapies, compliance is a problem in some patients and dictates regular monitoring with 24 h urine copper and zinc measurements. As with all anticopper therapies, over a long period of time, overtreatment and induction of copper deficiency can occur. This is to be avoided particularly in children because copper is required for growth.

  10. Improving the photovoltaic performance of perovskite solar cells with acetate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qian; Li, G. R.; Song, Jian; Zhao, Yulong; Qiang, Yinghuai; Gao, X. P.

    2016-12-01

    In an all-solid-state perovskite solar cell, methylammonium lead halide film is in charge of generating photo-excited electrons, thus its quality can directly influence the final photovoltaic performance of the solar cell. This paper accentuates a very simple chemical approach to improving the quality of a perovskite film with a suitable amount of acetic acid. With introduction of acetate ions, a homogeneous, continual and hole-free perovskite film comprised of high-crystallinity grains is obtained. UV-visible spectra, steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) spectra reveal that the obtained perovskite film under the optimized conditions shows a higher light absorption, more efficient electron transport, and faster electron extraction to the adjoining electron transport layer. The features result in the optimized perovskite film can provide an improved short-circuit current. The corresponding solar cells with a planar configuration achieves an improved power conversion efficiency of 13.80%, and the highest power conversion efficiency in the photovoltaic measurements is up to 14.71%. The results not only provide a simple approach to optimizing perovskite films but also present a novel angle of view on fabricating high-performance perovskite solar cells.

  11. The effect of vinyl acetate in acetoclastic methanogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán, U; Gómez, J; Monroy, O; Ramírez, F

    2011-01-01

    The influence of vinyl acetate (VA) in the methanogenesis was evaluated, by using an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor of 1.5L. The reactor was operated at 33.5 g/L volatile suspended solids to 30±2 °C, a hydraulic residence time of 1 day, an organic loading rate of 1 kgCOD/m3/d of two different mixtures of VA and glucose. The VA was methanized to 81% when its proportion was of 10% into reactor loading rate, when VA proportion increased to 25%, the methane production rate decreased to 62% and the acetate production rate increased almost 8 times. These results indicated that VA was only hydrolyzed and glucose was not used as a co-substrate. The effect of glucose on VA methanogenic degradation was evaluated through batch reactors of 60 mL, concluding that the glucose supported the methanogenesis without favoring the VA elimination. On the other hand, the results of the sludge from the reactor in the presence of VA demonstrated that VA caused an irreversibly inhibition of acetoclastic methanogenesis when the anaerobic sludge was exposed to this compound.

  12. The Kinetics of Cellulose Grafting with Vinyl Acetate Monomer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éva Borbély

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose is a natural raw material recurring in a great quantity. The demand touse it more and more widely is increasing. The production of cellulose derivates started asearly as the 19th century, however the modification of these materials meant the breakingup the fibrous structure, which made their use more difficult in paper industry. Themodified cellulose made by graft copolymerization, however, keeps its fibrous character,which provides a great advantage regarding its use. Grafting of industrial cellulose pulpwith vinyl-acetate allows for the production of grafted wood cellulose fibres that have athermoplastic layer on their surface. The binder fibre (fibrid produced in this way can beexcellently used for producing synthetic papers.In the first part of my experiments I dealt with choosing the parameters of graftcopolymerization which are best suited to various uses and after that I studied thedependence of graft reaction on the composition and properties of industrial celluloseapplied. The selection of the suitable reaction parameters was followed by the study ofreaction speed and activation energy. I have stated that the gross reaction of graftingindustrial cellulose with vinyl-acetate monomer is a second order reaction, which is provenby the fact that the invert of the momentary monomer concentration of the system plottedagainst time is a linear function. The rise of the curves, that is, the reaction speed increaseswhen the temperature in the range of 293–323 K is increasing, while the average activationenergy decreases.

  13. Solubilities of Isophthalic Acid in Acetic Acid + Water Solvent Mixtures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Youwei; HUO Lei; LI Xi

    2013-01-01

    The solubilities of isophthalic acid (1) in binary acetic acid (2) + water (3) solvent mixtures were determined in a pressurized vessel.The temperature range was from 373.2 to 473.2K and the range of the mole fraction of acetic acid in the solvent mixtures was from x2 =0 to 1.A new method to measure the solubility was developed,which solved the problem of sampling at high temperature.The experimental results indicated that within the temperature range studied,the solubilities of isophthalic acid in all mixtures showed an increasing trend with increasing temperature.The experimental solubilities were correlated by the Buchowski equation,and the calculate results showed good agreement with the experimental solubilities.Furthermore,the mixed solvent systems were found to exhibit a maximum solubility effect on the solubility,which may be attributed to the intermolecular association between the solute and the solvent mixture.The maximum solubility effect was well modeled by the modified Wilson equation.

  14. Olfactory attraction of Drosophila suzukii by symbiotic acetic acid bacteria

    KAUST Repository

    Mazzetto, Fabio

    2016-03-24

    Some species of acetic acid bacteria (AAB) play relevant roles in the metabolism and physiology of Drosophila spp. and in some cases convey benefits to their hosts. The pest Drosophila suzukii harbors a set of AAB similar to those of other Drosophila species. Here, we investigate the potential to exploit the ability of AAB to produce volatile substances that attract female D. suzukii. Using a two-way olfactometer bioassay, we investigate the preference of D. suzukii for strains of AAB, and using solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography–mass spectrometry we specifically characterize their volatile profiles to identify attractive and non-attractive components produced by strains from the genera Acetobacter, Gluconobacter, and Komagataeibacter. Flies had a preference for one strain of Komagataeibacter and two strains of Gluconobacter. Analyses of the volatile profiles from the preferred Gluconobacter isolates found that acetic acid is distinctively emitted even after 2 days of bacterial growth, confirming the relevance of this volatile in the profile of this isolate for attracting flies. Analyses of the volatile profile from the preferred Komagataeibacter isolate showed that a different volatile in its profile could be responsible for attracting D. suzukii. Moreover, variation in the concentration of butyric acid derivatives found in some strains may influence the preference of D. suzukii. Our results indicate that Gluconobacter and Komagataeibacter strains isolated from D. suzukii have the potential to provide substances that could be exploited to develop sustainable mass-trapping-based control approaches. © 2016 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

  15. Clostridium lentocellum SG6--a potential organism for fermentation of cellulose to acetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravinder, T; Swamy, M V; Seenayya, G; Reddy, G

    2001-12-01

    A cellulolytic, acetic acid producing anaerobic bacterial isolate, Gram negative, rod-shaped, motile, terminal oval shaped endospore forming bacterium identified as Clostridium lentocellum SG6 based on physiological and biochemical characteristics. It produced acetic acid as a major end product from cellulose fermentation at 37 degrees C and pH 7.2. Acetic acid production was 0.67 g/g cellulose substrate utilized in cellulose mineral salt (CMS) medium. Yeast extract (0.4%) was the best nitrogen source among the various nitrogenous nutrients tested in production medium containing 0.8% cellulose as substrate. No additional vitamins or trace elemental solution were required for acetic acid fermentation. This is the highest acetic acid fermentation yield in monoculture fermentation for direct conversion of cellulose to acetic acid.

  16. Synergistic effect of radiation on colon carcinogenesis induced by methylazoxymethanol acetate in ACI/N rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Takuji; Morishita, Yukio; Kawamori, Toshihiko; Suzui, Masumi; Kojima, Toshihiro; Sugie, Shigeyuki; Mori, Hideki (Gifu Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1993-10-01

    The effect on colon and liver carcinogenicity in rats of a single X-irradiation exposure given either before or after methylazoxymethanol (MAM) acetate was studied in ACI/N rats of both sexes. A single dose of X-irradiation (3 Gy) was administered either 3 months before or after three weekly s.c. injection of MAM acetate (25 mg/kg body weight). At 365 days after the start, the incidence and multiplicity of MAM acetate-induced intestinal tumors were enhanced by X-irradiation either prior to or after the MAM acetate treatment. In addition, X-irradiation before MAM acetate increased the incidence of hepatocellular foci in either sex. In females, X-irradiation either before or after MAM acetate exposure decreased intestinal tumorigenesis. These findings suggest an apparent synergism of these agents in intestinal carcinogenesis of male rats. (author).

  17. Study on fluorescence spectra of molecular association of acetic acid-water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Caiqin Han; Ying Liu; Yang Yang; Xiaowu Ni; Jian Lu; Xiaosen Luo

    2009-01-01

    Fluorescence spectra of acetic acid-water solution excited by ultraviolet (UV) light are studied, and the relationship between fluorescence spectra and molecular association of acetic acid is discussed. The results indicate that when the exciting light wavelength is longer than 246 nm, there are two fluorescence peaks located at 305 and 334 nm, respectively. By measuring the excitation spectra, the optimal wavelengths of the two fluorescence peaks are obtained, which are 258 and 284 nm, respectively. Fluorescence spectra of acetic acid-water solution change with concentrations, which is primarily attributed to changes of molecular association of acetic acid in aqueous solution. Through theoretical analysis, three variations of molecular association have been obtained in acetic acid-water solution, which are the hydrated monomers, the linear dimers, and the water separated dimers. This research can provide references to studies of molecular association of acetic acid-water, especially studies of hydrogen bonds.

  18. Use of pooled sodium acetate acetic acid formalin-preserved fecal specimens for the detection of intestinal parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaafar, Maha R

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed at comparing detection of intestinal parasites from single unpreserved stool sample vs. sodium acetate acetic acid formalin (SAF)-preserved pooled samples, and stained with chlorazol black dye in routine practice. Unpreserved samples were collected from 120 patients and represented as Group I. Other three SAF-preserved samples were collected from the same patients over a 6-day period and represented as Groups IIa, IIb, and IIc. The latter groups were equally subdivided into two subgroups. The first subgroup of each of the three samples was examined individually, whereas the second subgroup of each were pooled and examined as a single specimen. All groups were examined by the routine diagnostic techniques; however, in group II when the diagnosis was uncertain, the chlorazol black dye staining procedure was carried out. Results demonstrated that out of 74 patients who continued the study, 12 cases (16%) were positive in group I, compared with 29 (39%) in the subgroups examined individually, and 27 (36%) in the pooled subgroups. Therefore, pooling of preserved fecal samples is an efficient and economical procedure for the detection of parasites. Furthermore, the chlorazol black dye was simple and effective in detecting the nuclear details of different parasites.

  19. A Study of the Catalysts for the Complete Oxidation of Low Concentration Ethyl Acetate and n-Butyl Acetate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ In this work, we have synthesized mixed oxides catalysts supported on γ-Al2O3,using some base metals such as La、 Sr、 Ce、 Ni、 Cu. At the space velocity of 56,000h-1 and at some range of concentration, the complete conversion temperatures( ≥ 98% )of Ethyl acetate and n-butyl acetate are 260℃ and 250℃ respectively. The work has an excellent prospect of industrial application. I will introduce the experiment and results from the following tluee aspects. According to Figure 1, X-ray diffraction pattern of the catalyst have shown not only perovskite structure but also much independent CeO2 phase. During the preparation, the CeO2 was coated over support γ-A12O3 for the better Oxygen storage capacity .By co1mparison, we found that the activity of the catalyst with CeO2 was higher than the activity of the catalyst without CeO2.

  20. A Study of the Catalysts for the Complete Oxidation of Low Concentration Ethyl Acetate and n-Butyl Acetate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN; ZhiYing

    2001-01-01

    In this work, we have synthesized mixed oxides catalysts supported on γ-Al2O3,using some base metals such as La、 Sr、 Ce、 Ni、 Cu. At the space velocity of 56,000h-1 and at some range of concentration, the complete conversion temperatures( ≥ 98% )of Ethyl acetate and n-butyl acetate are 260℃ and 250℃ respectively. The work has an excellent prospect of industrial application.  I will introduce the experiment and results from the following tluee aspects. According to Figure 1, X-ray diffraction pattern of the catalyst have shown not only perovskite structure but also much independent CeO2 phase. During the preparation, the CeO2 was coated over support γ-A12O3 for the better Oxygen storage capacity .By co1mparison, we found that the activity of the catalyst with CeO2 was higher than the activity of the catalyst without CeO2.……

  1. RESEARCH ON THE INFLUENCE OF LEAD ACETATE ON THE GAMETOPHYTE OF SOME PTERIDOPHYTE SPECIES

    OpenAIRE

    Liliana Cristina SOARE; Codruţa-Mihaela DOBRESCU; Camelia Georgiana DIACONESCU

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research was to study the influence of lead acetate on spore germination and gametophyte differentiation in the pteridophyte species Athyrium filix-femina, Dryopteris affinis and Dryopteris carthusiana. The study was conducted to determine the lead tolerance level of these species.The experimental variants were: Control - Knop solution, V1-100 ppm lead acetate and V2-500 ppm lead acetate. The spores were cultivated in 50 ml of experimental solutions. The culture vessels were k...

  2. Overexpression of acetyl-CoA synthetase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae increases acetic acid tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Ding, Jun; Holzwarth, Garrett; Penner, Michael H.; Patton-Vogt, Jana; Bakalinsky, Alan T.

    2015-01-01

    Acetic acid-mediated inhibition of the fermentation of lignocellulose-derived sugars impedes development of plant biomass as a source of renewable ethanol. In order to overcome this inhibition, the capacity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to synthesize acetyl-CoA from acetic acid was increased by overexpressing ACS2 encoding acetyl-coenzyme A synthetase. Overexpression of ACS2 resulted in higher resistance to acetic acid as measured by an increased growth rate and shorter lag phase relative to a ...

  3. Synthesis of imidazol-1-yl-acetic acid hydrochloride: A key intermediate for zoledronic acid

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Santosh Kumar; Manne, Narendra; Ray, Purna Chandra; Pal, Manojit

    2008-01-01

    A convenient and practical synthesis of imidazol-1-yl-acetic acid hydrochloride was achieved via N-alkylation of imidazole using tert-butyl chloroacetate followed by a non-aqueous ester cleavage of the resulting imidazol-1-yl-acetic acid tert-butyl ester in the presence of titanium tetrachloride. The synthesized imidazol-1-yl-acetic acid hydrochloride was then utilized to prepare zoledronic acid.

  4. Synthesis of imidazol-1-yl-acetic acid hydrochloride: A key intermediate for zoledronic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manne, Narendra; Ray, Purna Chandra

    2008-01-01

    Summary A convenient and practical synthesis of imidazol-1-yl-acetic acid hydrochloride was achieved via N-alkylation of imidazole using tert-butyl chloroacetate followed by a non-aqueous ester cleavage of the resulting imidazol-1-yl-acetic acid tert-butyl ester in the presence of titanium tetrachloride. The synthesized imidazol-1-yl-acetic acid hydrochloride was then utilized to prepare zoledronic acid. PMID:19104672

  5. The effect of enhanced acetate influx on Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, Kati; Vuorio, Eerika; Aro, Eva-Mari; Kallio, Pauli Tapio

    2017-02-02

    Acetate is a common microbial fermentative end-product, which can potentially be used as a supplementary carbon source to enhance the output of biotechnological production systems. This study focuses on the acetate metabolism of the photosynthetic cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 which is unable to grow on acetate as a sole carbon source but still can assimilate it via acetyl-CoA-derived metabolic intermediates. In order to gain insight into the acetate uptake, associated limitations and metabolic effects, a heterologous acetate transporter ActP from Escherichia coli was introduced into Synechocystis to facilitate the transport of supplemented acetate from the medium into the cell. The results show that enhanced acetate intake can efficiently promote the growth of the cyanobacterial host. The effect is apparent specifically under low-light conditions when the photosynthetic activity is low, and expected to result from increased availability of acetyl-CoA precursors, accompanied by changes induced in cellular glycogen metabolism which may include allocation of resources towards enhanced growth instead of glycogen accumulation. Despite the stimulated growth of the mutant, acetate is shown to suppress the activity of the photosynthetic apparatus, further emphasizing the contribution of glycolytic metabolism in the acetate-induced effect. The use of acetate by the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 is at least partially restricted by the import into the cell. This can be improved by the introduction of a heterologous acetate transporter into the system, thereby providing a potential advantage by expanding the scope of acetate utilization for various biosynthetic processes.

  6. Development of an Acetate-Fed or Sugar-Fed Microbial Power Generator for Military Bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Sucrose • Acetate Propionate • Hydrogen gas • Lactate • Formate • !so-butyrate Unknown fbiomass -’-soluble products ) KM. 80 60 I" 20 DavO...lactate and acetate as fermentation products and is ready for test in the MFC modules. 1. Anode materials We compared the performances of acetate-fed...microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) with graphite rods and stainless steel meshes as anodes to select the optimum material for use in MFC modules to

  7. P-chiral phosphine-sulfonate/palladium-catalyzed asymmetric copolymerization of vinyl acetate with carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Akifumi; Kageyama, Takeharu; Goto, Hiroki; Carrow, Brad P; Ito, Shingo; Nozaki, Kyoko

    2012-08-01

    Utilization of palladium catalysts bearing a P-chiral phosphine-sulfonate ligand enabled asymmetric copolymerization of vinyl acetate with carbon monoxide. The obtained γ-polyketones have head-to-tail and isotactic polymer structures. The origin of the regio- and stereoregularities was elucidated by stoichiometric reactions of acylpalladium complexes with vinyl acetate. The present report for the first time demonstrates successful asymmetric coordination-insertion (co)polymerization of vinyl acetate.

  8. Validation of human physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for vinyl acetate against human nasal dosimetry data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinderliter, P M; Thrall, K D; Corley, R A; Bloemen, L J; Bogdanffy, M S

    2005-05-01

    Vinyl acetate has been shown to induce nasal lesions in rodents in inhalation bioassays. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for vinyl acetate has been used in human risk assessment, but previous in vivo validation was conducted only in rats. Controlled human exposures to vinyl acetate were conducted to provide validation data for the application of the model in humans. Five volunteers were exposed to 1, 5, and 10 ppm 13C1,13C2 vinyl acetate via inhalation. A probe inserted into the nasopharyngeal region sampled both 13C1,13C2 vinyl acetate and the major metabolite 13C1,13C2 acetaldehyde during rest and light exercise. Nasopharyngeal air concentrations were analyzed in real time by ion trap mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Experimental concentrations of both vinyl acetate and acetaldehyde were then compared to predicted concentrations calculated from the previously published human model. Model predictions of vinyl acetate nasal extraction compared favorably with measured values of vinyl acetate, as did predictions of nasopharyngeal acetaldehyde when compared to measured acetaldehyde. The results showed that the current PBPK model structure and parameterization are appropriate for vinyl acetate. These analyses were conducted from 1 to 10 ppm vinyl acetate, a range relevant to workplace exposure standards but which would not be expected to saturate vinyl acetate metabolism. Risk assessment based on this model further concluded that 24 h per day exposures up to 1 ppm do not present concern regarding cancer or non-cancer toxicity. Validation of the vinyl acetate human PBPK model provides support for these conclusions.

  9. Excited-state proton transfer from pyranine to acetate in methanol

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sudip Kumar Mondal; Subhadip Ghosh; Kalyanasis Sahu; Pratik Sen; Kankan Bhattacharyya

    2007-03-01

    Excited-state proton transfer (ESPT) of pyranine (8-hydroxypyrene-1,3,6-trisulphonate, HPTS) to acetate in methanol has been studied by steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. The rate constant of direct proton transfer from pyranine to acetate (1) is calculated to be ∼ 1 × 109 M-1 s-1. This is slower by about two orders of magnitude than that in bulk water (8 × 1010 M-1 s-1) at 4 M acetate.

  10. Progression-free and overall survival in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer treated with abiraterone acetate can be predicted with serial C11-acetate PET/CT

    OpenAIRE

    Farnebo, Jacob; Wadelius, Agnes; Sandström, Per; Nilsson, Sten; Jacobsson, Hans; Blomqvist, Lennart; Ullén, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In this retrospective study, we evaluated the benefit of repeated carbon 11 (C11)-acetate positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) to assess response in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) treated with abiraterone acetate (AA). A total of 30 patients with mCRPC were monitored with C11-acetate PET/CT and PSA levels during their treatment with AA. Retrospective evaluation of their response was made after 102 days (median; range 70–155)...

  11. Physiology and Genetics of Biogenic Methane-Production from Acetate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sowers, Kevin R

    2013-04-04

    Biomass conversion catalyzed by methanogenic consortia is a widely available, renewable resource for both energy production and waste treatment. The efficiency of this process is directly dependent upon the interaction of three metabolically distinct groups of microorganisms; the fermentative and acetogenic Bacteria and the methanogenic Archaea. One of the rate limiting steps in the degradation of soluble organic matter is the dismutation of acetate, a predominant intermediate in the process, which accounts for 70 % or more of the methane produced by the methanogens. Acetate utilization is controlled by regulation of expression of carbon monoxide dehydrogensase (COdh), which catalyzes the dismutation of acetate. However, physiological and molecular factors that control differential substrate utilization have not been identified in these Archaea. Our laboratory has identified sequence elements near the promoter of the gene (cdh) encoding for COdh and we have confirmed that these sequences have a role in the in vivo expression of cdh. The current proposal focuses on identifying the regulatory components that interact with DNA and RNA elements, and identifying the mechanisms used to control cdh expression. We will determine whether expression is controlled at the level of transcription or if it is mediated by coordinate interaction of transcription initiation with other processes such as transcription elongation rate and differential mRNA stability. Utilizing recently sequenced methanosarcinal genomes and a DNA microarray currently under development genes that encode regulatory proteins and transcription factors will be identified and function confirmed by gene disruption and subsequent screening on different substrates. Functional interactions will be determined in vivo by assaying the effects of gene dosage and site-directed mutagenesis of the regulatory gene on the expression of a cdh::lacZ operon fusion. Results of this study will reveal whether this critical

  12. Polyphenolic acetates : A newer anti-Mycobacterial therapeutic option

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santram

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of our research project was screening of various highly specific substrates of Acetoxy Drug: Protein Transacytylase (M.TAase for antimycobacterial activity. Mycobacterial culture was done in Middlebrook’s 7H9 media. Protein purification (Mycobacterial Tranacetylase, M.TAase was done by ion exchange chromatography and its demonstration was done on SDS- polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE and western blot. Middlebrook’s 7H9 broth was procured from Becton Dickinson. CM-Sepharose, DEAE-Sepharose and Q-Sephharose were purchased from Amersham Pharmacia. Anti acetyl lysine polyclonal antibody was purchased from Cell Signaling. The Middlebrook 7H9 medium was used for M. smegmatis culture. The media was prepared according to the manufacturer’s instructions. The various Polyphenol acetate compounds were tested for their antimycobacterial activities. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC were calculated by Alamar blue dye assay method. The GST protein was used as a receptor protein and purified Mycobacterial Glutamine Synthetase (GS as TAase for acetylation by DAMC. To demonstrate the TAase catalyzed acetylation of GST by DAMC, purified M.TAase (GS was preincubated with GST and DAMC followed by western blot using anti acetyl lysine antibody, which avidly react with the acetylated proteins. The growth pattern of M. smegmatis was diminished under the influence of various polyphenolic acetates (PA tested for their anti-mycobacterial activity. DAMC and DAMC-5-carboxylic acid was found to have MIC of 40μg/ml whereas DAMC-6-carboxylic acid was reported to have MIC value of 35μg/ml and for ellagic acid tetra acetate (EATA it was 60μg/ml. Previous work in our lab has led to discovery of a novel enzyme acetoxy drug: protein transacetylase (TAase, catalyzing transfer of acetyl group from various polyphenolic peracetate (PA to certain receptor proteins such as cytochromes P-450, NADPH cytochrome reductase, nitric oxide synthase (NOS

  13. [Cerebrospinal fluid pressure studies after the intravenous administration of the steroid narcotic, alphaxolone + alphadolone acetate (Althesin)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekhart, E; List, W F; Vadon, P; Oberbauer, R

    1979-09-30

    The effect of alphaxalon + alphadolon-acetate on cerebrospinal fluid pressure (CSFP), mean arterial blood pressure (MPA), heart rate (BMP) and blood gases was investigated in 18 patients. Cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) was calculated from the difference MAP minus CSFP. Alphaxalon + alphadolon-acetate lowered the normal CSFP and normalized ketamin induced increase of CSFP. Premedication with alphaxalon + alphadolon-acetate delayed the ketamin induced increase of CSFP, which returned to norm after a second dose of alphaxalon + alphadolon-acetate. This effect was seen despite elevation of pCO2 in all patients breathing spontaneously.

  14. Effect of acetic acid on lipid accumulation by glucose-fed activated sludge cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondala, Andro; Hernandez, Rafael; French, Todd; McFarland, Linda; Sparks, Darrell; Holmes, William; Haque, Monica

    2012-01-01

    The effect of acetic acid, a lignocellulose hydrolysis by-product, on lipid accumulation by activated sludge cultures grown on glucose was investigated. This was done to assess the possible application of lignocellulose as low-cost and renewable fermentation substrates for biofuel feedstock production. Results: Biomass yield was reduced by around 54% at a 2 g L -1 acetic acid dosage but was increased by around 18% at 10 g L -1 acetic acid dosage relative to the control run. The final gravimetric lipid contents at 2 and 10 g L -1 acetic acid levels were 12.5 + 0.7% and 8.8 + 3.2% w/w, respectively, which were lower than the control (17.8 + 2.8% w/w). However, biodiesel yields from activated sludge grown with acetic acid (5.6 + 0.6% w/w for 2 g L -1 acetic acid and 4.2 + 3.0% w/w for 10 g L -1 acetic acid) were higher than in raw activated sludge (1-2% w/w). The fatty acid profiles of the accumulated lipids were similar with conventional plant oil biodiesel feedstocks. Conclusions: Acetic acid enhanced biomass production by activated sludge at high levels but reduced lipid production. Further studies are needed to enhance acetic acid utilization by activated sludge microorganisms for lipid biosynthesis.

  15. Acetate adaptation of clostridia tyrobutyricum for improved fermentation production of butyrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaros, Adam M; Rova, Ulrika; Berglund, Kris A

    2013-12-01

    Clostridium tyrobutyricum ATCC 25755 is an acidogenic bacterium capable of utilizing xylose for the fermentation production of butyrate. Hot water extraction of hardwood lingocellulose is an efficient method of producing xylose where autohydrolysis of xylan is catalysed by acetate originating from acetyl groups present in hemicellulose. The presence of acetic acid in the hydrolysate might have a severe impact on the subsequent fermentations. In this study the fermentation kinetics of C. tyrobutyricum cultures after being classically adapted for growth at 26.3 g/L acetate equivalents were studied. Analysis of xylose batch fermentations found that even in the presence of high levels of acetate, acetate adapted strains had similar fermentation kinetics as the parental strain cultivated without acetate. The parental strain exposed to acetate at inhibitory conditions demonstrated a pronounced lag phase (over 100 hours) in growth and butyrate production as compared to the adapted strain (25 hour lag) or non-inhibited controls (0 lag). Additional insight into the metabolic pathway of xylose consumption was gained by determining the specific activity of the acetate kinase (AK) enzyme in adapted versus control batches. AK activity was reduced by 63% in the presence of inhibitory levels of acetate, whether or not the culture had been adapted.

  16. Acetate oxidation is the dominant methanogenic pathway from actetate in the absence of Methanosaetaceae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov; Batstone, Damien J.; Trably, Eric

    2006-01-01

    The oxidation of acetate to hydrogen, and the subsequent conversion of hydrogen and carbon dioxide to methane, has been regarded largely as a niche mechanism occurring at high temperatures or under inhibitory conditions. In this study, 13 anaerobic reactors and sediment from a temperate anaerobic...... lake were surveyed for their dominant methanogenic population by using fluorescent in situ hybridization and for the degree of acetate oxidation relative to aceticlastic conversion by using radiolabeled [2-C-14]acetate in batch incubations. When Methanosaetaceae were not present, acetate oxidation...

  17. Acetate oxidation by syntrophic association between Geobacter sulfurreducens and a hydrogen-utilizing exoelectrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Zen-ichiro; Okabe, Satoshi

    2013-08-01

    Anodic microbial communities in acetate-fed microbial fuel cells (MFCs) were analyzed using stable-isotope probing of 16S rRNA genes followed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. The results revealed that Geobacter sulfurreducens and Hydrogenophaga sp. predominated in the anodic biofilm. Although the predominance of Geobacter sp. as acetoclastic exoelectrogens in acetate-fed MFC systems has been often reported, the ecophysiological role of Hydrogenophaga sp. is unknown. Therefore, we isolated and characterized a bacterium closely related to Hydrogenophaga sp. (designated strain AR20). The newly isolated strain AR20 could use molecular hydrogen (H2), but not acetate, with carbon electrode as the electron acceptor, indicating that the strain AR20 was a hydrogenotrophic exoelectrogen. This evidence raises a hypothesis that acetate was oxidized by G. sulfurreducens in syntrophic cooperation with the strain AR20 as a hydrogen-consuming partner in the acetate-fed MFC. To prove this hypothesis, G. sulfurreducens strain PCA was cocultivated with the strain AR20 in the acetate-fed MFC without any dissolved electron acceptors. In the coculture MFC of G. sulfurreducens and strain AR20, current generation and acetate degradation were the highest, and the growth of strain AR20 was observed. No current generation, acetate degradation and cell growth occurred in the strain AR20 pure culture MFC. These results show for the first time that G. sulfurreducens can oxidize acetate in syntrophic cooperation with the isolated Hydrogenophaga sp. strain AR20, with electrode as the electron acceptor.

  18. Separation of Acetic Acid from Aqueous Solution using Various Organic Solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Zaved Hossain Khan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 In the study a model has been developed to separate the acetic acid from aqueous solution by liquid-liquid extraction and find out the proper solvent for this separation. Various solvents such as n-butanol, iso butanol, amyl alcohol and ethyl acetate are used for separation of acetic acid from water. The binodal curves (mutual solubility curves for acetic acid distributed between water and an organic solvent were obtained by titrating known mixtures of two components (water and solvents with the third component acetic acid to the point of first appearance of permanent turbidity. In order to determine the tie-lines, the absorbance of the coexisting phases, obtained by the separation of ternary mixtures within the binodal curve are needed to be determined. The absorbance of each point had been determined by a UV spectrophotometer. Distribution diagrams are obtained by plotting weight percent of acetic acid in solvent phase against the weight percent of acetic acid in water phase. Selectivity diagrams are also obtained by plotting (wt. % of acetic acid / (percent of acetic acid + percent of water in solvent phase against the same quantity in the diluent phase. The separation factor is determined numerically from the tie-line data.

  19. Vacuum ultraviolet and infrared spectra of condensed methyl acetate on cold astrochemical dust analogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivaraman, B. [Space and Atmospheric Sciences Division, Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad 380009 (India); Nair, B. G.; Mason, N. J. [Department of Physical Sciences, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Lo, J.-I.; Cheng, B.-M. [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, 101 Hsin-Ann Road, Hsinchu Science Park, Hsinchu 30076, Taiwan (China); Kundu, S.; Davis, D.; Prabhudesai, V.; Krishnakumar, E. [Department of Nuclear and Atomic Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005 (India); Raja Sekhar, B. N., E-mail: bhala@prl.res.in [B-4, Indus-1, BARC Spectroscopy Lab at Indus-1, Atomic and Molecular Physics Division, BARC, Mumbai and RRCAT, Indore 452013 (India)

    2013-12-01

    Following the recent report of the first identification of methyl acetate (CH{sub 3}COOCH{sub 3}) in the interstellar medium (ISM), we have carried out vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) and infrared (IR) spectroscopy studies on methyl acetate from 10 K until sublimation in an ultrahigh vacuum chamber simulating astrochemical conditions. We present the first VUV and IR spectra of methyl acetate relevant to ISM conditions. Spectral signatures clearly showed molecular reorientation to have started in the ice by annealing the amorphous ice formed at 10 K. An irreversible phase change from amorphous to crystalline methyl acetate ice was found to occur between 110 K and 120 K.

  20. Isotope fractionation during the anaerobic consumption of acetate by methanogenic and sulfate-reducing microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gövert, D.; Conrad, R.

    2009-04-01

    During the anaerobic degradation of organic matter in anoxic sediments and soils acetate is the most important substrate for the final step in production of CO2 and/or CH4. Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and methane-producing archaea both compete for the available acetate. Knowledge about the fractionation of 13C/12C of acetate carbon by these microbial groups is still limited. Therefore, we determined carbon isotope fractionation in different cultures of acetate-utilizing SRB (Desulfobacter postgatei, D. hydrogenophilus, Desulfobacca acetoxidans) and methanogens (Methanosarcina barkeri, M. acetivorans). Including literature values (e.g., Methanosaeta concilii), isotopic enrichment factors (epsilon) ranged between -35 and +2 permil, possibly involving equilibrium isotope effects besides kinetic isotope effects. The values of epsilon were dependent on the acetate-catabolic pathway of the particular microorganism, the methyl or carboxyl position of acetate, and the relative availability or limitation of the substrate acetate. Patterns of isotope fractionation in anoxic lake sediments and rice field soil seem to reflect the characteristics of the microorganisms actively involved in acetate catabolism. Hence, it might be possible using environmental isotopic information to determine the type of microbial metabolism converting acetate to CO2 and/or CH4.

  1. Lead Acetate Induces Epithelium-Dependent Contraction of Airway Smooth Muscle

    OpenAIRE

    , Ramadan B. Sopi; , Kemajl Bislimi; , Fetah Halili; , Mentor Sopjani; , Burim Neziri; , Muharrem Jakupi

    2016-01-01

    The effect of lead acetate on tracheal smooth muscle (TSM) of dog pups was investigated in this study. In addition we studied the role of epithelium and involvement of nitric oxide (NO) in counteracting the effects of lead acetate on TSM as well as the modifying effects of lead acetate on contractile responses of TSM to acetylcholine (ACh) . Tracheal rings were excised and placed in in vitro organ baths. In vitro administration of lead acetate in increasing concentrations(10-7–10-3 M) induced...

  2. Abilities of some higher plants to hydrolyze the acetates of phenols and aromatic-aliphatic alcohols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Mironowicz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the biotransformations carried out under the same conditions, the whole intact plants of Spirodela punctata, Nephrolepis exaltata, Cyrtomium falcatum, Nephrolepis cordifolia and the suspension cultures of Helianthus tuberosus, Daucus carota and Petunia hybrida hydrolyze (partially or totally the ester bonds of the acetates of phenols and aromatic-aliphatic alcohols and also the menthyl acetate. Nevertheless, the methyl esters of aromatic acids, structurally similar to the former substrates, do not undergo hydrolysis. At the same time, the viability of first four plants was observed for different levels of acetate concentration. The method of continuous preparative hydrolysis of the same acetates was worked out in Cyrtomium falcatum culture.

  3. Indole-3-acetic acid metabolism in normal and dwarf micropropagated banana plants (Musa spp. AAA)

    OpenAIRE

    Zaffari,Gilmar Roberto; Peres,Lázaro Eustáquio Pereira; Tcacenco,Fernando Adami; Kerbauy,Gilberto Barbante

    2002-01-01

    Nanism is one of the most frequent type of mutant in micropropagated banana plants from the Cavendish subgroup. The present study aimed at studying some of the hormone factors involved in this type of mutation. Rhizomes from normal and dwarf plants from the cultivar Grand Naine were incubated for 5 d in the presence of [³H]-L-tryptophan, [³H]-indole-3-acetic acid and gibberellin, to quantify the endogenous levels of indole-3-acetic acid-ester, indole-3-acetic acid-amide, free indole-3-acetic ...

  4. Effects of acetate on Kluyveromyces marxianus DSM 5422 growth and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martynova, Jekaterina; Kokina, Agnese; Kibilds, Juris; Liepins, Janis; Scerbaka, Rita; Vigants, Armands

    2016-05-01

    Metabolically active cells produce a wide array of metabolites that can inhibit their growth. Acetate is a widely known preservative, and it is also produced by yeast cells during their growth. Kluyveromyces marxianus DSM 5422 is a promising yeast strain that could be employed in biotechnological processes, but the knowledge of its stress physiology is scarce. Here, we investigate the effects of acetate on growth and changes in cell population structure during adaptation to elevated concentrations of acetate in K. marxianus DSM 5422. Our results indicate that acetate inhibits growth in a pH-dependent manner and has pronounced effects if yeast is grown on lactose or galactose. When challenged with acetate, culture extends lag phase, during which cells adapt to elevated acetate concentrations, and growth reoccurs, albeit at a slower rate, when majority of the population is acetate resistant. Acetate resistance is maintained only if acetate is present in the media or if the culture has reached end of active growth phase. This study shows possible caveats in lactose fermentation with K. marxianus and gives a further perspective in non-conventional yeast applications in biotechnology.

  5. Enhanced biofuel production through coupled acetic acid and xylose consumption by engineered yeast

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wei, Na; Quarterman, Josh; Kim, Soo Rin; Cate, Jamie H D; Jin, Yong-Su

    2013-01-01

    .... However, commercial production of cellulosic biofuel has been hampered by inefficient fermentation of xylose and the toxicity of acetic acid, which constitute substantial portions of cellulosic biomass...

  6. Vinyl acetate induces intracellular acidification in mouse oral buccal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamoto, Tetsuji; Wagner, Mark; Melvin, James E; Bogdanffy, Matthew S

    2005-08-14

    Vinyl acetate exposure in drinking water has been associated with tumor formation in the upper gastrointestinal tract of rats and mice. One potential mechanism for inducing carcinogenesis involves acidification of the intracellular environment due to the metabolism of vinyl acetate to acetic acid. Prolonged intracellular acidification is thought to produce cytotoxic and/or mitogenic responses that are the sentinel pharmacodynamic steps toward cancer. To determine whether exposure to vinyl acetate affects the intracellular pH of intact oral cavity tissue, isolated mouse oral buccal epithelium was loaded with the pH-sensitive dye BCECF, and then exposed to vinyl acetate concentrations ranging from 10 to 1000 microM for up to 4 min. Extracellular vinyl acetate exposure induced a progressive intracellular acidification that was reversible upon removal of the vinyl acetate. The rate of the acidification was concentration-dependent and increased exponentially within the concentration range tested. The magnitude of the vinyl acetate-induced acidification was inhibited by pretreatment with the carboxylesterase inhibitor bis(p-nitrophenyl)phosphate. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that vinyl acetate contributes to the generation and progression of oral cavity tumors via a process of intracellular acidification. Such a process has been proposed to have practical dose-response thresholds below which the intracellular environment can be maintained within homeostatic bounds and the contribution of exposure to carcinogenic risk is negligible.

  7. The use of megestrol acetate in some feline dermatological problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosselin, Y; Chalifoux, A; Papageorges, M

    1981-12-01

    Twenty-one cats were treated with megestrol acetate because they were showing clinical signs associated with one of the following problems: eosinophilic ulcer, eosinophilic plaque, neurodermatitis, endocrine alopecia and miliary dermatitis. The dosage schedule was 5 mg orally per day per cat for seven days, then 5 mg every three days for 21 days. In all cats, we noted a good improvement of the lesions as soon as treatment was started. In 25% of the patients, one treatment schedule was sufficient to control the skin disease for at least 18 months. In the remaining 75%, two treatment schedules and/or a maintenance dosage had to be established.Side effects encountered were increased appetite, personality changes and depression.

  8. Antimicrobial Lemongrass Essential Oil-Copper Ferrite Cellulose Acetate Nanocapsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liakos, Ioannis L; Abdellatif, Mohamed H; Innocenti, Claudia; Scarpellini, Alice; Carzino, Riccardo; Brunetti, Virgilio; Marras, Sergio; Brescia, Rosaria; Drago, Filippo; Pompa, Pier Paolo

    2016-04-20

    Cellulose acetate (CA) nanoparticles were combined with two antimicrobial agents, namely lemongrass (LG) essential oil and Cu-ferrite nanoparticles. The preparation method of CA nanocapsules (NCs), with the two antimicrobial agents, was based on the nanoprecipitation method using the solvent/anti-solvent technique. Several physical and chemical analyses were performed to characterize the resulting NCs and to study their formation mechanism. The size of the combined antimicrobial NCs was found to be ca. 220 nm. The presence of Cu-ferrites enhanced the attachment of LG essential oil into the CA matrix. The magnetic properties of the combined construct were weak, due to the shielding of Cu-ferrites from the polymeric matrix, making them available for drug delivery applications where spontaneous magnetization effects should be avoided. The antimicrobial properties of the NCs were significantly enhanced with respect to CA/LG only. This work opens novel routes for the development of organic/inorganic nanoparticles with exceptional antimicrobial activities.

  9. Purification and Characterization of An Alkaline Protease from Acetes chinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Jiachao; LIU Xin; LI Zhaojie; XU Jie; XUE Changhu; GAO Xin

    2005-01-01

    An alkaline protease from Acetes chinensis was purified and characterized in this study. The steps of purification include ammonium sulfate precipitation, ion-exchange chromatography with Q-sepharose Fast Flow, gel filtration chromatography with S300 and the second ion-exchange chromatography with Q-sepharose Fast Flow. The protease was isolated and purified, which was present and active on protein substrates (azocasein and casein). The specific protease activity was 17.15folds and the recovery was 4.67. The molecular weight of the protease was estimated at 23.2 kD by SDS-PAGE. With azocasein as the susbstrate, the optimal temperature was 55 ℃ and the optimal pH value was 5.5. Ion Ca2+ could enhance the proteolytic activity of the protease, while Cu2+ , EDTA and PMSF could inhibit its activity.

  10. Ionic liquid mediated esterification of alcohol with acetic acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Beilei ZHOU; Yanxiong FANG; Hao GU; Saidan ZHANG; Baohua HUANG; Kun ZHANG

    2009-01-01

    Highly efficient esterification of alcohols with acetic acid by using a Bransted acidic ionic liquid, i.e., 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidonium hydrogen sulfate ([Hnmp]HSo4), as catalyst has been realized. The turnover numbers (TON) were able to reach up to 11000 and turnover frequency (TOF) was 846. The catalytic system is suitable for the esterification of long chain aliphatic alcohols, benzyl alcohol and cyclohexanol with good yields of esters. The procedure of separating the product and catalyst is simple, and the catalyst could be reused. [Hnmp]HSO4 had much weaker corrosiveness than H2SO4. The corrosive rate of H2SO4 was 400 times more than that of [Hnmp]HSO4 to stainless steel.

  11. Acetylation of barnyardgrass starch with acetic anhydride under iodine catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartz, Josiane; Goebel, Jorge Tiago; Giovanaz, Marcos Antônio; Zavareze, Elessandra da Rosa; Schirmer, Manoel Artigas; Dias, Alvaro Renato Guerra

    2015-07-01

    Barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli) is an invasive plant that is difficult to control and is found in abundance as part of the waste of the paddy industry. In this study, barnyardgrass starch was extracted and studied to obtain a novel starch with potential food and non-food applications. We report some of the physicochemical, functional and morphological properties as well as the effect of modifying this starch with acetic anhydride by catalysis with 1, 5 or 10mM of iodine. The extent of the introduction of acetyl groups increased with increasing iodine levels as catalyst. The shape of the granules remained unaltered, but there were low levels of surface corrosion and the overall relative crystallinity decreased. The pasting temperature, enthalpy and other gelatinisation temperatures were reduced by the modification. There was an increase in the viscosity of the pastes, except for the peak viscosity, which was strongly reduced in 10mM iodine.

  12. Oxygen Permeability of Polypropylene Containing Polyisobutene with Magnesium Acetate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The oxygen permeabilities of polypropylene films are reduced by adding a minor percentage of a polyisobutene ionomer. The polyisobutene ionomers were prepared by in situ salt exchange of magnesium acetate with maleated polyisobutenes of commercially available low relative molecular mass. The more polar magnesium salts aided phase separation during crystallization from the molten polypropylene mixture. Scanning electron microscope photographs revealed that the polyisobutene ionomer is largely concentrated in the amorphous regions between the polypropylene spherulites, where the ionomer tends to concentrate during crystallization. The influence of the polyisobutene ionomer on the oxygen permeability of polypropylene was found to be slightly dependent upon the relative molecular mass of the polyisobutene precursor. Under optimum conditions, the oxygen permeability of polypropylene is reduced by 20% with only 1% additive.

  13. Invasive cervical cancer and depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    Preliminary results of a study of the possible relationship of depot-medroxy-progesterone acetate (DMPA) to invasive cervical cancer are presented. The findings are based on data from three participating centres in Thailand and one in Mexico. A relative risk for cervical cancer of 1.2 was observed in women who had ever used DMPA; this was not statistically significant. No consistent increase in risk with duration of use was observed, although a relative risk of 2 was found in women who had used DMPA for more than 5 years. This observed increase in risk was confined to women who were aged under 46 years or who had first been exposed to DMPA before 30 years of age. These findings are based on small numbers of subjects, and may not represent a causal relationship. PMID:2931205

  14. Acetic Acid bacteria: physiology and carbon sources oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamlouk, Dhouha; Gullo, Maria

    2013-12-01

    Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are obligately aerobic bacteria within the family Acetobacteraceae, widespread in sugary, acidic and alcoholic niches. They are known for their ability to partially oxidise a variety of carbohydrates and to release the corresponding metabolites (aldehydes, ketones and organic acids) into the media. Since a long time they are used to perform specific oxidation reactions through processes called "oxidative fermentations", especially in vinegar production. In the last decades physiology of AAB have been widely studied because of their role in food production, where they act as beneficial or spoiling organisms, and in biotechnological industry, where their oxidation machinery is exploited to produce a number of compounds such as l-ascorbic acid, dihydroxyacetone, gluconic acid and cellulose. The present review aims to provide an overview of AAB physiology focusing carbon sources oxidation and main products of their metabolism.

  15. Liquid phase ozonation of cyclohexanol using acetic acid as solvent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Encinar, J.M.; Beltran, F.J. (Departamento de Ingeneria Quimica y Energetica. Facultad de Ciencias. Badajoz (Spain)); Frades, J.M. (Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica. E.U.P. Almaden (Spain))

    1994-01-01

    The liquid phase oxidation of cyclohexanol in an acetic acid medium using a mixture of oxygen and ozone has been studied in a laboratory semi batch reactor. The influence of temperature, ozone partial pressure, initial concentration of cyclohexanol on its conversion and yield and distribution of products has been observed. Under the experimental conditions investigated formation of peroxydic compounds and mono basic acids was not relevant; the major products obtained were cyclohexanone and adipic and glutaric acids although analytical chromatograms revealed the presence of other products unidentified. Formation of these products is qualitatively explained by means of a chain-radical mechanism. Finally, it is proposed an empirical kinetic equation which relates the variables mentioned above with the reaction rates. This equation reproduces the experimental results with deviations less than 10%. (Author) 21 refs.

  16. New Biopolymer Nanoparticles Improve the Solubility of Lipophilic Megestrol Acetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malwina Lachowicz

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available As many substances are poorly soluble in water and thus possess decreased bioavailability, creating orally administered forms of these substances is a challenge. The objective of this study was to determine whether the solubility of megestrol acetate, a Biopharmaceutical Classification System (BCS class II drug, can be improved by using a newly-synthesized surfactant (Rofam 70: a rapeseed methyl ester ethoxylate and compare it with two references surfactants (Tween 80, Pluronic F68 at three different pH values. Spectrophotometry was used to compare the solubility profiles in the presence of three tested surfactants at pH 5.0, 7.4 and 9.0. Rapeseed methyl ester ethoxylate was found to improve the solubility of the BCS Class II drug and increase its bioavailability; It increased drug solubility more effectively than Pluronic F68. Its cytotoxicity results indicate its possible value as a surfactant in Medicine and Pharmacy.

  17. Ignition of magnetic deflagration in Mn12 acetate

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, Sean; Jaafar, R.; Sarachik, M. P.; Myasoedov, Y.; Finkler, A.; Shtrikman, H.; Zeldov, E.; Bagai, R.; Christou, G.

    2008-03-01

    We study the conditions for the ignition of two types of magnetic avalanches in the molecular magnet Mn12-acetate corresponding to the major species and a fast-relaxing minor species. The minor component, which has a lower anisotropy barrier, exists in these crystals at the level of 5-7%. The ignition temperatures are measured using small (30 x30 μm^2) Ge thermometers. In addition, the magnetization dynamics are measured using an array of Hall sensors of comparable size. Various aspects of the ignition will be discussed, including: the reduction of the ignition threshold due to quantum tunneling, the catalytic effect of the minor species, and the shift of the ignition point as a function of external magnetic field. The work at City College was supported by NSF grant DMR-00451605. E. Z. acknowledges the support of the Israel Ministry of Science, Culture and Sports. Support for G. C. was provided by NSF grant CHE-0414555.

  18. Cashew wine vinegar production: alcoholic and acetic fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Silva

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Cashew wine of demi-sec grade was produced in a stirred batch reactor. The kinetic parameters obtained for cashew wine fermentation were Y X/S=0.061, Y P/S=0.3 and µmax=0.16 h-1. The yield and the productivity of cashew wine were 57.7% and 0.78 g/Lh respectively. A 2² factorial experimental design was used for the cashew wine vinegar fermentation optimization study. The cashew wine vinegar process optimization ranges found for initial concentrations of ethanol and acetic acid as independent variables were 4.8 to 6.0% and 1.0 to 1.3% respectively.

  19. Hydroxide as general base in the saponification of ethyl acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata-Segreda, Julio F

    2002-03-13

    The second-order rate constant for the saponification of ethyl acetate at 30.0 degrees C in H(2)O/D(2)O mixtures of deuterium atom fraction n (a proton inventory experiment) obeys the relation k(2)(n) = 0.122 s(-1) M(-1) (1 - n + 1.2n) (1 - n + 0.48n)/(1 - n + 1.4n) (1 - n + 0.68n)(3). This result is interpreted as a process where formation of the tetrahedral intermediate is the rate-determining step and the transition-state complex is formed via nucleophilic interaction of a water molecule with general-base assistance from hydroxide ion, opposite to the direct nucleophilic collision commonly accepted. This mechanistic picture agrees with previous heavy-atom kinetic isotope effect data of Marlier on the alkaline hydrolysis of methyl formate.

  20. UV recording with vinyl acetate and muicle dye film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxqui-Lopez, S.; Olivares-Pérez, A.; Santacruz-Vazquez, V.; Fuentes-Tapia, I.; Ordoñez-Padilla, J.

    2015-03-01

    Nowadays, there are many types of holographic recording medium some of them are photopolymer systems that generally consist of a polymeric host matrix, photopolymerizable momomer, photosensitizing dye and charge transfer agent but some of them have an undesirable feature, the toxicity of their components. Therefore, the present research study material recording, vinyl acetate is selected as polymeric matrix and natural dye from "muicle plant" is used as the photoinitiation these components are not toxic. The films are fabricated using gravity settling method at room temperature by this method, uniform films is obtained with good optical quality. To characterize the medium, been obtained when the coherent reed light (632.8 nm) was sent normally to the grating.

  1. Regioselective Alcoholysis of Silychristin Acetates Catalyzed by Lipases

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    Eva Vavříková

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A panel of lipases was screened for the selective acetylation and alcoholysis of silychristin and silychristin peracetate, respectively. Acetylation at primary alcoholic group (C-22 of silychristin was accomplished by lipase PS (Pseudomonas cepacia immobilized on diatomite using vinyl acetate as an acetyl donor, whereas selective deacetylation of 22-O-acetyl silychristin was accomplished by Novozym 435 in methyl tert-butyl ether/ n-butanol. Both of these reactions occurred without diastereomeric discrimination of silychristin A and B. Both of these enzymes were found to be capable to regioselective deacetylation of hexaacetyl silychristin to afford penta-, tetra- and tri-acetyl derivatives, which could be obtained as pure synthons for further selective modifications of the parent molecule.

  2. Purification and characterization of an alkaline protease from Acetes chinensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiachao; Liu, Xin; Li, Zhaojie; Xu, Jie; Xue, Changhu; Gao, Xin

    2005-07-01

    An alkaline protease from Acetes chinensis was purified and characterized in this study. The steps of purification include ammonium sulfate precipitation, ion-exchange chromatography with Q-sepharose Fast Flow, gel filtration chromatography with S300 and the second ion-exchange chromatography with Q-sepharose Fast Flow. The protease was isolated and purified, which was present and active on protein substrates (azocasein and casein). The specific protease activity was 17.15 folds and the recovery was 4.67. The molecular weight of the protease was estimated at 23.2 kD by SDS-PAGE. With azocasein as the susbstrate, the optimal temperature was 55°C and the optimal pH value was 5.5. Ion Ca2+ could enhance the proteolytic activity of the protease, while Cu2+, EDTA and PMSF could inhibit its activity.

  3. Self-assembled platinum nanochains based on octreotide acetate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Xiaoning; Gao, Dawei, E-mail: dwgao@ysu.edu.cn; Gao, Faming, E-mail: fmgao@ysu.edu.cn; Li, Na; Zhou, Jing [Yanshan University, Applying Chemistry Key Lab of Hebei Province (China); Hao, Jikui [Illinois Institute of Technology, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering (United States)

    2013-09-15

    Biological scaffolds are used for the synthesis of inorganic materials due to their ability to self-assemble and nucleate crystal formation. We reported a facile method for preparing self-assembled Pt nanochains by using octreotide acetate (AOC) as bio-template in aqueous environment. The influence of solution pH was examined to define the optimal conditions for the formation of the AOC bio-templated Pt nanoparticles (PtNPs) arrays, the AOC has diameter about 55 nm at pH 2.0, for comparison, at pH 9.0, the diameter of AOC is about 25 nm. After 24-h incubation of AOC (pH 2.0) with PtCl{sub 4} and chemical reduction with borane-dimethyl-amine, uniform platinum nanoparticles (mean diameter 2.5 {+-} 0.5 nm) directed by AOC were formed. Preliminary characterizations of the synthesized PtNPs were performed using transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and selected area of electron diffraction. The cytotoxicity of Pt/octreotide acetate complexes (PtNPs-AOC) and AOC was evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT). The results indicated that the antiproliferative effect of PtNPs-AOC is as high as AOC. In addition, the nano-design architecture of the Pt particles plays a crucial role in a strong enhancement of the biological efficiency of radiations, making PtNPs-AOC a promising material for anticancer drug delivery in the future.

  4. Recent advances in nitrogen-fixing acetic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedraza, Raúl O

    2008-06-30

    Nitrogen is an essential plant nutrient, widely applied as N-fertilizer to improve yield of agriculturally important crops. An interesting alternative to avoid or reduce the use of N-fertilizers could be the exploitation of plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB), capable of enhancing growth and yield of many plant species, several of agronomic and ecological significance. PGPB belong to diverse genera, including Azospirillum, Azotobacter, Herbaspirillum, Bacillus, Burkholderia, Pseudomonas, Rhizobium, and Gluconacetobacter, among others. They are capable of promoting plant growth through different mechanisms including (in some cases), the biological nitrogen fixation (BNF), the enzymatic reduction of the atmospheric dinitrogen (N(2)) to ammonia, catalyzed by nitrogenase. Aerobic bacteria able to oxidize ethanol to acetic acid in neutral or acid media are candidates of belonging to the family Acetobacteraceae. At present, this family has been divided into ten genera: Acetobacter, Gluconacetobacter, Gluconobacter, Acidomonas, Asaia, Kozakia, Saccharibacter, Swaminathania, Neoasaia, and Granulibacter. Among them, only three genera include N(2)-fixing species: Gluconacetobacter, Swaminathania and Acetobacter. The first N(2)-fixing acetic acid bacterium (AAB) was described in Brazil. It was found inside tissues of the sugarcane plant, and first named as Acetobacter diazotrophicus, but then renamed as Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus. Later, two new species within the genus Gluconacetobacter, associated to coffee plants, were described in Mexico: G. johannae and G. azotocaptans. A salt-tolerant bacterium named Swaminathania salitolerans was found associated to wild rice plants. Recently, N(2)-fixing Acetobacter peroxydans and Acetobacter nitrogenifigens, associated with rice plants and Kombucha tea, respectively, were described in India. In this paper, recent advances involving nitrogen-fixing AAB are presented. Their natural habitats, physiological and genetic aspects

  5. Effect of lead acetate on neurobehavioral development of rats

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    Mello C.F.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of lead exposure during the pre- and postnatal period on the neurobehavioral development of female Wistar rats (70-75 days of age, 120-150 g using a protocol of lead intoxication that does not affect weight gain. Wistar rats were submitted to lead acetate intoxication by giving their dams 1.0 mM lead acetate. Control dams received deionized water. Growth and neuromotor development were assessed by monitoring daily the following parameters in 20 litters: body weight, ear unfolding, incisor eruption, eye opening, righting, palmar grasp, negative geotaxis, cliff avoidance and startle reflex. Spontaneous alternation was assessed on postnatal day 17 using a T maze. The animals' ability to equilibrate on a beaker rim was measured on postnatal day 19. Lead intoxication was confirmed by measuring renal, hepatic and cerebral lead concentration in dams and litters. Lead treatment hastened the day of appearance of the following parameters: eye opening (control: 13.5 ± 0.6, N = 88; lead: 12.9 ± 0.6, N = 72; P<0.05, startle reflex (control: 13.0 ± 0.8, N = 88; lead: 12.0 ± 0.7, N = 72; P<0.05 and negative geotaxis. On the other hand, spontaneous alternation performance was hindered in lead-exposed animals (control: 37.6 ± 19.7; lead: 57.5 ± 28.3% of alternating animals; P<0.05. These results suggest that lead exposure without concomitant undernutrition alters rat development, affecting specific subsets of motor skills.

  6. A pharmacokinetic study of roxatidine acetate in chronic renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lameire, N; Rosenkranz, B; Maass, L; Brockmeier, D

    1988-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of a single oral dose of roxatidine acetate 150 mg were studied in 31 patients with varying degrees of chronic renal failure. The patients were divided into 5 groups according to their creatinine clearance (Clcr): controls (Clcr 94.5 +/- 13.9 ml/min; n = 6); mild chronic renal failure (Clcr 47 +/- 6 ml/min; n = 4); moderate chronic renal failure (Clcr 27.3 +/- 3.1 ml/min; n = 4); severe chronic renal failure (Clcr 12.8 +/- 1.4 ml/min; n = 5) and uraemia (Clcr 6.6 +/- 0.6 ml/min; n = 12). Serum and urine samples were analysed with capillary gas chromatography to measure the salt of the desacetyl metabolite of roxatidine acetate (roxatidine). The terminal half-life was 6.02 +/- 0.31 hours in controls and 7.35 +/- 0.57, 9.3 +/- 0.83, 14.6 +/- 3.7 and 18.10 +/- 2.77 hours, respectively, in the 4 other groups, with progressively decreasing creatinine clearance. Maximum serum concentration and time to maximum serum concentration rose from 816 +/- 75 ng/ml and 2.08 +/- 0.22 hours, respectively, in controls to 1364.7 +/- 156 ng/ml and 4.05 +/- 0.47 hours, respectively, in uraemic patients. Relative total clearance progressively decreased with decreasing glomerular filtration rate (GFR) [from 353.6 +/- 26 ml/min in controls to 90.31 +/- 12.2 ml/min in patients with uraemia]. Renal clearance decreased from a control of 243.9 +/- 56 ml/min to 12.32 +/- 0.18 ml/min in uraemic patients. A linear correlation between creatinine clearance and both relative total clearance and renal drug clearance was noted.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Nomegestrol acetate-17b-estradiol for oral contraception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burke A

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Anne Burke Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USAAbstract: Oral contraceptives remain a popular method of contraception over 50 years after their introduction. While safe and effective for many women, the failure rate of oral contraception is about 8%. Concerns about the risk of venous thromboembolism continue to drive the search for the safest oral contraceptive formulations. The oral contraceptive NOMAC-E2 contains nomegestrol acetate (NOMAC 2.5 mg + 17b-estradiol (E2 1.5 mg. The approved dosing regimen is 24 days of active hormone, followed by a 4-day hormone-free interval. NOMAC is a progestin derived from testosterone, which has high bioavailability, rapid absorption, and a long half-life. Estradiol, though it has a lower bioavailability, has been successfully combined with NOMAC in a monophasic oral contraceptive. Two recently published randomized controlled trials demonstrate that NOMAC-E2 is an effective contraceptive, with a Pearl Index less than one pregnancy per 100 woman-years. The bleeding pattern on NOMAC-E2 is characterized by fewer bleeding/spotting days, shorter withdrawal bleeds, and a higher incidence of amenorrhea than the comparator oral contraceptive containing drospirenone and ethinyl estradiol. The adverse event profile appears to be acceptable. Few severe adverse events were reported in the randomized controlled trials. The most common adverse events were irregular bleeding, acne, and weight gain. Preliminary studies suggest that NOMAC-E2 does not seem to have negative effects on hemostatic and metabolic parameters. While no one oral contraceptive formulation is likely to be the optimum choice for all women, NOMAC-E2 is a formulation with effectiveness comparable with that of other oral contraceptives, and a reassuring safety profile.Keywords: oral contraception, nomegestrol acetate, estradiol

  8. Crystal structure of azilsartan methyl ester ethyl acetate hemisolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengyi Li

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C26H22N4O5 (systematic name: methyl 2-ethoxy-1-{4-[2-(5-oxo-4,5-dihydro-1,2,4-oxadiazol-3-ylphenyl]benzyl}-1H-1,3-benzodiazole-7-carboxylate ethyl acetate hemisolvate, was obtained via cyclization of methyl (Z-2-ethoxy-1-{(2′-(N′-hydroxycarbamimidoyl-[1,1′-biphenyl]-4-ylmethyl}-1H-benzo[d]imidazole-7-carboxylate with diphenyl carbonate. There are two independent molecules (A and B with different conformations and an ethyl acetate solvent molecule in the asymmetric unit. In molecule A, the dihedral angle between the benzene ring and its attached oxadiazole ring is 59.36 (17; the dihedral angle between the benzene rings is 43.89 (15 and that between the benzene ring and its attached imidazole ring system is 80.06 (11°. The corresponding dihedral angles in molecule B are 58.45 (18, 50.73 (16 and 85.37 (10°, respectively. The C—O—C—Cm (m = methyl torsion angles for the ethoxy side chains attached to the imidazole rings in molecules A and B are 93.9 (3 and −174.6 (3°, respectively. In the crystal, the components are linked by N—H...N and C—H...O hydrogen bonds, generating a three-dimensional network. Aromatic π–π stacking interactions [shortest centroid–centroid separation = 3.536 (3Å] are also observed.

  9. Vinyl acetate monomer (VAM) genotoxicity profile: relevance for carcinogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertini, Richard J

    2013-09-01

    Vinyl acetate monomer (VAM) is a site-of-contact carcinogen in rodents. It is also DNA reactive and mutagenic, but only after its carboxylesterase mediated conversion to acetaldehyde (AA), a metabolic reaction that also produces acetic acid and protons. As VAM's mutagenic metabolite, AA is normally produced endogenously; detoxification by aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) is required to maintain intra-cellular AA homeostasis. This review examines VAM's overall genotoxicity, which is due to and limited by AA, and the processes leading to mutation induction. VAM and AA have both been universally negative in mutation studies in bacteria but both have tested positive in several in vitro studies in higher organisms that usually employed high concentrations of test agents. Recently however, in vitro studies evaluating submillimolar concentrations of VAM or AA have shown threshold dose-responses for mutagenicity in human cultured cells. Neither VAM nor AA induced systemic mutagenicity in in vivo studies in metabolically competent mice when tested at non-lethal doses while treatments of animals deficient in aldehyde dehydrogenase (Aldh in animals) did induce both gene and chromosome level mutations. The results of several studies have reinforced the critical role for aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2 in humans) in limiting AA's (and therefore VAM's) mutagenicity. The overall aim of this review of VAM's mutagenic potential through its AA metabolite is to propose a mode of action (MOA) for VAM's site-of-contact carcinogenesis that incorporates the overall process of mutation induction that includes both background mutations due to endogenous AA and those resulting from exogenous exposures.

  10. The influence of surface oxygen and hydroxyl groups on the dehydrogenation of ethylene, acetic acid and hydrogenated vinyl acetate on pure Pd(1 0 0): A DFT study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yanping; Dong, Xiuqin; Yu, Yingzhe; Zhang, Minhua

    2016-12-01

    On the basis of a Langmuir-Hinshelwood-type mechanism, the dehydrogenation of ethylene, acetic acid and hydrogenated vinyl acetate (VAH) on pure Pd(1 0 0) with surface oxygen atoms (Os) and hydroxyl groups (OHs) was studied with density functional theory (DFT) method. Our calculation results show that both Os and OHs can consistently reduce the activation energies of dehydrogenation of ethylene, acetic acid and VAH to some degree with only one exception that OHs somehow increase the activation energy of VAH. Based on Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanism, the three dehydrogenation reactions in presence of surface Os and OHs are almost consistently favored, compared with the corresponding processes on clean Pd(1 0 0) surfaces, and thus a Langmuir-Hinshelwood-type mechanism may not be excluded beforehand when investigating the microscopic performance of the oxygen-assisted vinyl acetate synthesis on Pd(1 0 0) catalysts.

  11. Transports of acetate and haloacetate in Burkholderia species MBA4 are operated by distinct systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Xianbin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acetate is a commonly used substrate for biosynthesis while monochloroacetate is a structurally similar compound but toxic and inhibits cell metabolism by blocking the citric acid cycle. In Burkholderia species MBA4 haloacetate was utilized as a carbon and energy source for growth. The degradation of haloacid was mediated by the production of an inducible dehalogenase. Recent studies have identified the presence of a concomitantly induced haloacetate-uptake activity in MBA4. This uptake activity has also been found to transport acetate. Since acetate transporters are commonly found in bacteria it is likely that haloacetate was transported by such a system in MBA4. Results The haloacetate-uptake activity of MBA4 was found to be induced by monochloroacetate (MCA and monobromoacetate (MBA. While the acetate-uptake activity was also induced by MCA and MBA, other alkanoates: acetate, propionate and 2-monochloropropionate (2MCPA were also inducers. Competing solute analysis showed that acetate and propionate interrupted the acetate- and MCA- induced acetate-uptake activities. While MCA, MBA, 2MCPA, and butyrate have no effect on acetate uptake they could significantly quenched the MCA-induced MCA-uptake activity. Transmembrane electrochemical potential was shown to be a driving force for both acetate- and MCA- transport systems. Conclusions Here we showed that acetate- and MCA- uptake in Burkholderia species MBA4 are two transport systems that have different induction patterns and substrate specificities. It is envisaged that the shapes and the three dimensional structures of the solutes determine their recognition or exclusion by the two transport systems.

  12. AinS quorum sensing regulates the Vibrio fischeri acetate switch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studer, Sarah V; Mandel, Mark J; Ruby, Edward G

    2008-09-01

    The marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri uses two acyl-homoserine lactone (acyl-HSL) quorum-sensing systems. The earlier signal, octanoyl-HSL, produced by AinS, is required for normal colonization of the squid Euprymna scolopes and, in culture, is necessary for a normal growth yield. In examining the latter requirement, we found that during growth in a glycerol/tryptone-based medium, wild-type V. fischeri cells initially excrete acetate but, in a metabolic shift termed the acetate switch, they subsequently utilize the acetate, removing it from the medium. In contrast, an ainS mutant strain grown in this medium does not remove the excreted acetate, which accumulates to lethal levels. The acetate switch is characterized by the induction of acs, the gene encoding acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) synthetase, leading to uptake of the excreted acetate. Wild-type cells induce an acs transcriptional reporter 25-fold, coincident with the disappearance of the extracellular acetate; in contrast, the ainS mutant did not display significant induction of the acs reporter. Supplementation of the medium of an ainS mutant with octanoyl-HSL restored normal levels of acs induction and acetate uptake. Additional mutant analyses indicated that acs regulation was accomplished through the regulator LitR but was independent of the LuxIR quorum-signaling pathway. Importantly, the acs mutant of V. fischeri has a competitive defect when colonizing the squid, indicating the importance of proper control of acetate metabolism in the light of organ symbiosis. This is the first report of quorum-sensing control of the acetate switch, and it indicates a metabolic connection between acetate utilization and cell density.

  13. Low and high acetate amendments are equally as effective at promoting complete dechlorination of trichloroethylene (TCE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Na; Finneran, Kevin T

    2013-06-01

    Experiments with trichloroethylene-contaminated aquifer material demonstrated that TCE, cis-DCE, and VC were completely degraded with concurrent Fe(III) or Fe(III) and sulfate reduction when acetate was amended at stoichiometric concentration; competing TEAPs did not inhibit ethene production. Adding 10× more acetate did not increase the rate or extent of TCE reduction, but only increased methane production. Enrichment cultures demonstrated that ~90 μM TCE or ~22 μM VC was degraded primarily to ethene within 20 days with concurrent Fe(III) or Fe(III) + sulfate reduction. The dechlorination rates were comparable between the low and high acetate concentrations (0.36 vs 0.34 day(-1), respectively), with a slightly slower rate in the 10× acetate amended incubations. Methane accumulated to 13.5 (±0.5) μmol/tube in the TCE-degrading incubations with 10× acetate, and only 1.4 (±0.1) μmol/tube with low acetate concentration. Methane accumulated to 16 (±1.5) μmol/tube in VC-degrading enrichment with 10× acetate and 2 (±0.1) μmol/tube with stoichiometric acetate. The estimated fraction of electrons distributed to methanogenesis increased substantially when excessive acetate was added. Quantitative PCR analysis indicated that 10× acetate did not enhance Dehalococcoides biomass but rather increased the methanogen abundance by nearly one order of magnitude compared to that with stoichiometric acetate. The data suggest that adding low levels of substrate may be equally if not more effective as high concentrations, without producing excessive methane. This has implications for field remediation efforts, in that adding excess electron donor may not benefit the reactions of interest, which in turn will increase treatment costs without direct benefit to the stakeholders.

  14. Thermal decarboxylation of acetate. Part I. The kinetics and mechanism of reaction in aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Donald A.; Drummond, S. E.

    1986-05-01

    In an effort to understand the kinetics of the thermal decarboxylation of acetate and the role of catalysis, a series of laboratory experiments were conducted to measure the rate constants for the decomposition of acetate (acetic acid and sodium acetate) in the presence of titanium, silica, stainless steel, gold, and magnetite. Activation energies for decarboxylation of acetic acid and acetate ion range from about 8 kcal mol -1 in stainless steel vessels to 69 kcal mol -1 in silica tubes. Extrapolated rate constants at 100°C for acetic acid differ by more than fourteen orders of magnitude between the experiments conducted in stainless steel and the catalytically least active titanium vessels. Gold and titanium were the least active catalysts for the acetic acid substrate, while stainless steel, silica, and magnetite showed marked catalytic effects. Methane and carbon dioxide were the predominant reaction products of most of these experiments, although mass spectrometric analyses of the gas phase revealed concentrations of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons (apparent mass range from 29 to 56) amounting to as much as 55 mole percent of the total volatile products, depending on the catalyst. The reactions were generally first order in acetic acid or acetate ion, except for those involving the acid over silica and magnetite which were zero order. These results and the observed effects of variations in surface area are rationalized in terms of changes in the mode of surface catalysis. The mechanistic assignment is simplified by the existence of three unique straight lines on an isokinetic plot ( i.e., activation enthalpy versus activation entropy) which fit all the respective first- and zeroorder reactions. The results described here provide the nucleus for the discussion in Part II of the role of acetate in the primary migration of methane and the transportation of metals in hydrothermal solutions.

  15. Effects of Oxygen Availability on Acetic Acid Tolerance and Intracellular pH in Dekkera bruxellensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capusoni, Claudia; Arioli, Stefania; Zambelli, Paolo; Moktaduzzaman, M; Mora, Diego; Compagno, Concetta

    2016-08-01

    The yeast Dekkera bruxellensis, associated with wine and beer production, has recently received attention, because its high ethanol and acid tolerance enables it to compete with Saccharomyces cerevisiae in distilleries that produce fuel ethanol. We investigated how different cultivation conditions affect the acetic acid tolerance of D. bruxellensis We analyzed the ability of two strains (CBS 98 and CBS 4482) exhibiting different degrees of tolerance to grow in the presence of acetic acid under aerobic and oxygen-limited conditions. We found that the concomitant presence of acetic acid and oxygen had a negative effect on D. bruxellensis growth. In contrast, incubation under oxygen-limited conditions resulted in reproducible growth kinetics that exhibited a shorter adaptive phase and higher growth rates than those with cultivation under aerobic conditions. This positive effect was more pronounced in CBS 98, the more-sensitive strain. Cultivation of CBS 98 cells under oxygen-limited conditions improved their ability to restore their intracellular pH upon acetic acid exposure and to reduce the oxidative damage to intracellular macromolecules caused by the presence of acetic acid. This study reveals an important role of oxidative stress in acetic acid tolerance in D. bruxellensis, indicating that reduced oxygen availability can protect against the damage caused by the presence of acetic acid. This aspect is important for optimizing industrial processes performed in the presence of acetic acid. This study reveals an important role of oxidative stress in acetic acid tolerance in D. bruxellensis, indicating that reduced oxygen availability can have a protective role against the damage caused by the presence of acetic acid. This aspect is important for the optimization of industrial processes performed in the presence of acetic acid. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  16. Citric acid cycle in the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrobaculum islandicum grown autotrophically, heterotrophically, and mixotrophically with acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yajing; Holden, James F

    2006-06-01

    The hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrobaculum islandicum uses the citric acid cycle in the oxidative and reductive directions for heterotrophic and autotrophic growth, respectively, but the control of carbon flow is poorly understood. P. islandicum was grown at 95 degrees C autotrophically, heterotrophically, and mixotrophically with acetate, H2, and small amounts of yeast extract and with thiosulfate as the terminal electron acceptor. The autotrophic growth rates and maximum concentrations of cells were significantly lower than those in other media. The growth rates on H2 and 0.001% yeast extract with and without 0.05% acetate were the same, but the maximum concentration of cells was fourfold higher with acetate. There was no growth with acetate if 0.001% yeast extract was not present, and addition of H2 to acetate-containing medium greatly increased the growth rates and maximum concentrations of cells. P. islandicum cultures assimilated 14C-labeled acetate in the presence of H2 and yeast extract with an efficiency of 55%. The activities of 11 of 19 enzymes involved in the central metabolism of P. islandicum were regulated under the three different growth conditions. Pyruvate synthase and acetate:coenzyme A (CoA) ligase (ADP-forming) activities were detected only in heterotrophically grown cultures. Citrate synthase activity decreased in autotrophic and acetate-containing cultures compared to the activity in heterotrophic cultures. Acetylated citrate lyase, acetate:CoA ligase (AMP forming), and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase activities increased in autotrophic and acetate-containing cultures. Citrate lyase activity was higher than ATP citrate synthase activity in autotrophic cultures. These data suggest that citrate lyase and AMP-forming acetate:CoA ligase, but not ATP citrate synthase, work opposite citrate synthase to control the direction of carbon flow in the citric acid cycle.

  17. Transcriptome analysis of acetic-acid-treated yeast cells identifies a large set of genes whose overexpression or deletion enhances acetic acid tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yeji; Nasution, Olviyani; Choi, Eunyong; Choi, In-Geol; Kim, Wankee; Choi, Wonja

    2015-08-01

    Acetic acid inhibits the metabolic activities of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Therefore, a better understanding of how S. cerevisiae cells acquire the tolerance to acetic acid is of importance to develop robust yeast strains to be used in industry. To do this, we examined the transcriptional changes that occur at 12 h post-exposure to acetic acid, revealing that 56 and 58 genes were upregulated and downregulated, respectively. Functional categorization of them revealed that 22 protein synthesis genes and 14 stress response genes constituted the largest portion of the upregulated and downregulated genes, respectively. To evaluate the association of the regulated genes with acetic acid tolerance, 3 upregulated genes (DBP2, ASC1, and GND1) were selected among 34 non-protein synthesis genes, and 54 viable mutants individually deleted for the downregulated genes were retrieved from the non-essential haploid deletion library. Strains overexpressing ASC1 and GND1 displayed enhanced tolerance to acetic acid, whereas a strain overexpressing DBP2 was sensitive. Fifty of 54 deletion mutants displayed enhanced acetic acid tolerance. Three chosen deletion mutants (hsps82Δ, ato2Δ, and ssa3Δ) were also tolerant to benzoic acid but not propionic and sorbic acids. Moreover, all those five (two overexpressing and three deleted) strains were more efficient in proton efflux and lower in membrane permeability and internal hydrogen peroxide content than controls. Individually or in combination, those physiological changes are likely to contribute at least in part to enhanced acetic acid tolerance. Overall, information of our transcriptional profile was very useful to identify molecular factors associated with acetic acid tolerance.

  18. Modification of wheat starch with succinic acid/acetic anhydride and azelaic acid/acetic anhydride mixtures I. Thermophysical and pasting properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subarić, Drago; Ačkar, Durđica; Babić, Jurislav; Sakač, Nikola; Jozinović, Antun

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate the influence of modification with succinic acid/acetic anhydride and azelaic acid/acetic anhydride mixtures on thermophysical and pasting properties of wheat starch. Starch was isolated from two wheat varieties and modified with mixtures of succinic acid and acetic anhydride, and azelaic acid and acetic anhydride in 4, 6 and 8 % (w/w). Thermophysical, pasting properties, swelling power, solubility and amylose content of modified starches were determined. The results showed that modifications with mixtures of afore mentioned dicarboxylic acids with acetic anhydride decreased gelatinisation and pasting temperatures. Gelatinisation enthalpy of Golubica starch increased, while of Srpanjka starch decreased by modifications. Retrogradation after 7 and 14 day-storage at 4 °C decreased after modifications of both starches. Maximum, hot and cold paste viscosity of both starches increased, while stability during shearing at high temperatures decreased. % setback of starches modified with azelaic acid/acetic anhydride mixture decreased. Swelling power and solubility of both starches increased by both modifications.

  19. Growth of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii in acetate-free medium when co-cultured with alginate-encapsulated, acetate-producing strains of Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therien, Jesse B; Zadvornyy, Oleg A; Posewitz, Matthew C; Bryant, Donald A; Peters, John W

    2014-01-01

    The model alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii requires acetate as a co-substrate for optimal production of lipids, and the addition of acetate to culture media has practical and economic implications for algal biofuel production. Here we demonstrate the growth of C. reinhardtii on acetate provided by mutant strains of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002. Optimal growth conditions for co-cultivation of C. reinhardtii with wild-type and mutant strains of Synechococcus sp. 7002 were established. In co-culture, acetate produced by a glycogen synthase knockout mutant of Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 was able to support the growth of a lipid-accumulating mutant strain of C. reinhardtii defective in starch production. Encapsulation of Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 using an alginate matrix was successfully employed in co-cultures to limit growth and maintain the stability. The ability of immobilized strains of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 to produce acetate at a level adequate to support the growth of lipid-accumulating strains of C. reinhartdii offers a potentially practical, photosynthetic alternative to providing exogenous acetate into growth media.

  20. Electron attachment and electron ionization of acetic acid clusters embedded in helium nanodroplets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    da Silva, F. Ferreira; Jaksch, S.; Martins, G.; Dang, H. M.; Dampc, M.; Denifl, S.; Maerk, T. D.; Limao-Vieira, P.; Liu, J.; Yang, S.; Ellis, A. M.; Scheier, P.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of incident electrons on acetic acid clusters is explored for the first time. The acetic acid clusters are formed inside liquid helium nanodroplets and both cationic and anionic products ejected into the gas phase are detected by mass spectrometry. The cation chemistry (induced by electro

  1. Microbiological preservation of cucumbers for bulk storage by the use of acetic acid and food preservatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microbial growth did not occur when cucumbers were preserved without a thermal process by storage in solutions containing acetic acid, sodium benzoate, and calcium chloride to maintain tissue firmness. The concentrations of acetic acid and sodium benzoate required to assure preservation were low en...

  2. 42 CFR 84.1142 - Isoamyl acetate tightness test; respirators designed for respiratory protection against dusts...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Isoamyl acetate tightness test; respirators... Mist; Pesticide; Paint Spray; Powered Air-Purifying High Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1142 Isoamyl acetate tightness test; respirators designed for respiratory protection...

  3. Effect of sulfate and nitrate on acetate conversion by anaerobic microorganisms in a freshwater sediment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, J.C.M.; Van Bodegom, P.M.; Vogelaar, J.; Van Ittersum, A.; Hordijk, C.A.; Roelofsen, W.; Stams, A.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    Acetate is quantitatively the most important substrate for methane production in a freshwater sediment in The Netherlands. In the presence of alternative electron acceptors the conversion of acetate by methanogens was strongly inhibited. By modelling the results, obtained in experiments with and

  4. Cervical cancer risk factors and feasibility of visual inspection with acetic acid screening in Sudan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, Ahmed; Rasch, Vibeke; Pukkala, Eero;

    2011-01-01

    To assess the risk factors of cervical cancer and the feasibility and acceptability of a visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) screening method in a primary health center in Khartoum, Sudan.......To assess the risk factors of cervical cancer and the feasibility and acceptability of a visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) screening method in a primary health center in Khartoum, Sudan....

  5. Acetic acid induces pH-independent cellular energy depletion in Salmonella enterica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Sin Mei; Lee, Sui Mae; Dykes, Gary A

    2015-03-01

    Weak organic acids are widely used as preservatives and disinfectants in the food industry. Despite their widespread use, the antimicrobial mode of action of organic acids is still not fully understood. This study investigated the effect of acetic acid on the cell membranes and cellular energy generation of four Salmonella strains. Using a nucleic acid/protein assay, it was established that acetic acid did not cause leakage of intracellular components from the strains. A scanning electron microscopy study further confirmed that membrane disruption was not the antimicrobial mode of action of acetic acid. Some elongated Salmonella cells observed in the micrographs indicated a possibility that acetic acid may inhibit DNA synthesis in the bacterial cells. Using an ATP assay, it was found that at a neutral pH, acetic acid caused cellular energy depletion with an ADP/ATP ratio in the range between 0.48 and 2.63 (pacid molecules. The antimicrobial effect of acetic acid was better under acidic conditions (ADP/ATP ratio of 5.56 ± 1.27; pacid molecules can act together. We concluded that the inhibitory effect of acetic acid is not solely attributable to acidic pH but also to undissociated acid molecules. This finding has implication for the use of acetic acid as an antimicrobial against Salmonella on food products, such as chicken meat, which can buffer its pH.

  6. Efficacy of Acetic Acid against Listeria monocytogenes Attached to Poultry Skin during Refrigerated Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Fandos, Elena; Herrera, Barbara

    2014-09-11

    This work evaluates the effect of acetic acid dipping on the growth of L. monocytogenes on poultry legs stored at 4 °C for eight days. Fresh inoculated chicken legs were dipped into either a 1% or 2% acetic acid solution (v/v) or distilled water (control). Changes in mesophiles, psychrotrophs, Enterobacteriaceae counts and sensorial characteristics (odor, color, texture and overall appearance) were also evaluated. The shelf life of the samples washed with acetic acid was extended by at least two days over the control samples washed with distilled water. L. monocytogenes counts before decontamination were 5.57 log UFC/g, and after treatment with 2% acetic acid (Day 0), L. monocytogenes counts were 4.47 log UFC/g. Legs washed with 2% acetic acid showed a significant (p acetic acid. This study demonstrates that while acetic acid did reduce populations of L. monocytogenes on meat, it did not completely inactivate the pathogen. The application of acetic acid may be used as an additional hurdle contributing to extend the shelf life of raw poultry and reducing populations of L. monocytogenes.

  7. A Binary Host Plant Volatile Lure Combined With Acetic Acid to Monitor Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, A L; Basoalto, E; Katalin, J; El-Sayed, A M

    2015-10-01

    Field studies were conducted in the United States, Hungary, and New Zealand to evaluate the effectiveness of septa lures loaded with ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate (pear ester) and (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene (nonatriene) alone and in combination with an acetic acid co-lure for both sexes of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.). Additional studies were conducted to evaluate these host plant volatiles and acetic acid in combination with the sex pheromone, (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol (codlemone). Traps baited with pear ester/nonatriene + acetic acid placed within orchards treated either with codlemone dispensers or left untreated caught significantly more males, females, and total moths than similar traps baited with pear ester + acetic acid in some assays. Similarly, traps baited with codlemone/pear ester/nonatriene + acetic acid caught significantly greater numbers of moths than traps with codlemone/pear ester + acetic acid lures in some assays in orchards treated with combinational dispensers (dispensers loaded with codlemone/pear ester). These data suggest that monitoring of codling moth can be marginally improved in orchards under variable management plans using a binary host plant volatile lure in combination with codlemone and acetic acid. These results are likely to be most significant in orchards treated with combinational dispensers. Significant increases in the catch of female codling moths in traps with the binary host plant volatile blend plus acetic acid should be useful in developing more effective mass trapping strategies.

  8. Catalysis of the Carbonylation of Alcohols to Carboxylic Acids Including Acetic Acid Synthesis from Methanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Denis; DeKleva, Thomas W.

    1986-01-01

    Monsanto's highly successful synthesis of acetic acid from methanol and carbon monoxide illustrates use of new starting materials to replace pretroleum-derived ethylene. Outlines the fundamental aspects of the acetic acid process and suggests ways of extending the synthesis to higher carboxylic acids. (JN)

  9. [Advances in functional genomics studies underlying acetic acid tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xinqing; Zhang, Mingming; Xu, Guihong; Xu, Jianren; Bai, Fengwu

    2014-03-01

    Industrial microorganisms are subject to various stress conditions, including products and substrates inhibitions. Therefore, improvement of stress tolerance is of great importance for industrial microbial production. Acetic acid is one of the major inhibitors in the cellulosic hydrolysates, which affects seriously on cell growth and metabolism of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Studies on the molecular mechanisms underlying adaptive response and tolerance of acetic acid of S. cerevisiae benefit breeding of robust strains of industrial yeast for more efficient production. In recent years, more insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying acetic acid tolerance have been revealed through analysis of global gene expression and metabolomics analysis, as well as phenomics analysis by single gene deletion libraries. Novel genes related to response to acetic acid and improvement of acetic acid tolerance have been identified, and novel strains with improved acetic acid tolerance were constructed by modifying key genes. Metal ions including potassium and zinc play important roles in acetic acid tolerance in S. cerevisiae, and the effect of zinc was first discovered in our previous studies on flocculating yeast. Genes involved in cell wall remodeling, membrane transport, energy metabolism, amino acid biosynthesis and transport, as well as global transcription regulation were discussed. Exploration and modification of the molecular mechanisms of yeast acetic acid tolerance will be done further on levels such as post-translational modifications and synthetic biology and engineering; and the knowledge obtained will pave the way for breeding robust strains for more efficient bioconversion of cellulosic materials to produce biofuels and bio-based chemicals.

  10. Enzymology of the Pathway for Acetate Conversion to Methane in Methanosarcina thermophilia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferry, James G.

    1999-05-04

    These topics are covered: Regulation of enzyme synthesis; Activation of acetate to acetyl-CoA; Biochemistry of acetyl-CoA cleavage; Electron transport; Other enzymes implicated in the pathway of acetate conversion to methane; and publications resulting from this work.

  11. Biological caproate production by Clostridium kluyveri from ethanol and acetate as carbon sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Yanan; Zhang, Yifeng; Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov

    2017-01-01

    Caproate is a valuable industrial product and chemical precursor. In this study, batch tests were conducted to investigate the fermentative caproate production through chain elongation from acetate and ethanol. The effect of acetate/ethanol ratio and initial ethanol concentration on caproate prod...

  12. Enhanced expression of aconitase raises acetic acid resistance in Acetobacter aceti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Shigeru; Fukaya, Masahiro; Horinouchi, Sueharu

    2004-06-15

    Acetobacter spp. are used for industrial vinegar production because of their high ability to oxidize ethanol to acetic acid and high resistance to acetic acid. Two-dimensional gel electrophoretic analysis of a soluble fraction of Acetobacter aceti revealed the presence of several proteins whose production was enhanced, to various extents, in response to acetic acid in the medium. A protein with an apparent molecular mass of 100 kDa was significantly enhanced in amount by acetic acid and identified to be aconitase by NH2-terminal amino acid sequencing and subsequent gene cloning. Amplification of the aconitase gene by use of a multicopy plasmid in A. aceti enhanced the enzymatic activity and acetic acid resistance. These results showed that aconitase is concerned with acetic acid resistance. Enhancement of the aconitase activity turned out to be practically useful for acetic acid fermentation, because the A. aceti transformant harboring multiple copies of the aconitase gene produced a higher concentration of acetic acid with a reduced growth lag-time.

  13. Investigation of acetic acid-catalyzed hydrothermal pretreatment on corn stover

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Jian; Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard; Thomsen, Anne Belinda

    2010-01-01

    Acetic acid (AA)-catalyzed liquid hot water (LHW) pretreatments on raw corn stover (RCS) were carried out at 195 °C at 15 min with the acetic acid concentrations between 0 and 400 g/kg RCS. After pretreatment, the liquor fractions and water-insoluble solids (WIS) were collected separately...

  14. A Phase Transfer Catalyzed Permanganate Oxidation: Preparation of Vanillin from Isoeugenol Acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampman, Gary M.; Sharpe, Steven D.

    1983-01-01

    Background information, laboratory procedures, and results are provided for the preparation of vanillin from isoeugenol acetate. Reaction scheme used to prepare the vanillin and a table indicating the different oxidation experiments carried out on isoeugenol or isoeugenol acetate are also provided. (JN)

  15. Effect of acetate on lead toxicity to microbial biomass in a red soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    A laboratory incubation experiment was conducted to elucidate the effect of acetate on lead bioavailability and toxicity to microbial biomass in a red soil. Treatment included the application of lead at six different levels i.e., 0(background), 100, 200, 300, 450 and 600μg/g soil with three levels of the acetate(0, 900 and 2700 μg/g soil). Results indicated that the application of acetate along or at the lower lead levels of 100 and 200μg/g soil stimulated the soil microbial biomass. The addition of acetate at the higher lead levels of 300, 450 and 600 μg/g soil caused significantly greater reductions in the biomass carbon(Cmic) and the biomass nitrogen(Nmic), compared with the control or the same lead levels applied individually. A greater increase in the biomass C:N ratio occurred by acetate addition at the same lead levels. The concentration of 0.01mol/L CaCl2-extractable lead was considerably higher in the lead plus acetate treatments than at the same lead levels with no acetate.Based on these results, it was concluded that the application of acetate might have suppressed the lead adsorption in the soil which in turn resulted in its more bioavailability and hence more toxicity to the soil microbial biomass.

  16. Thermoreversible gelation of cellulose acetate solutions studied by differential scanning calorimetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altena, F.W.; Schroder, J.S.; Huls, van de R.; Smolders, C.A.

    1986-01-01

    Thermoreversible gels of cellulose acetate can be obtained by cooling concentrated cellulose acetate solutions in solvent-nonsolvent mixtures of dioxane and water. Upon heating the gels, endothermic effects were observed with differential scanning calorimetry. The heat effects are ascribed to the me

  17. Multiple sclerosis. Generic glatiramer acetate--a step toward cheaper MS drugs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Per Soelberg

    2016-01-01

    A randomized, double-blind, phase III trial of generic glatiramer acetate has shown equivalent efficacy and safety compared with the approved formulation, Copaxone. The impact of approval of generic glatiramer acetate, however, will mainly depend on the pricing of the drug.

  18. 21 CFR 524.1484i - Neomycin sulfate, hydrocortisone acetate, sterile ointment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Neomycin sulfate, hydrocortisone acetate, sterile... NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1484i Neomycin sulfate, hydrocortisone acetate, sterile ointment. (a) Specifications. The drug contains 5 milligrams of neomycin sulfate, equivalent to 3.5 milligrams of neomycin...

  19. [Conversion of acetic acid to methane by thermophiles]. Annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinder, S.H.

    1994-02-01

    Acetate is the precursor of approximately two-thirds of the methane produced by anaerobic bioreactors and many other methanogenic habitats. Besides their intrinsic interest, thermophilic acetotrophic methanogenic cultures usually grow at least twice as fast as their mesophilic counterparts, making them more amenable to study. In recent years, attention has been mainly focused on the thermophilic acetate utilizing methanogen Methanothrix strain CALS-1. Methanothrix, also called Methanosaeta, is one of only two methanogenic genera known to convert acetate to methane, the other being Methanosarcina. The faster-growing more versatile Methanosarcina has been better studied. However, when one examines anaerobic digestor contents, Methanothrix is often the dominant acetate-utilizing methanogen. As described in previous progress reports, the authors have achieved methanogenesis from acetate in cell-free extracts of Methanothrix strain CALS-1 grown in a pH auxostat. Using these cell extracts, specific activities for methanogenesis from acetate and ATP of 100--300 nmol/min were routinely obtained, levels comparable to the rate in whole cells, which is not usually the case in methanogenic extracts. Recently obtained results are given and discussed for the following: Methanogenesis in crude extracts; Role of the cell membrane in methanogenesis from acetate; Carbon monoxide dehydrogenase; Novel thermophilic cultures converting acetate to methane; and Methanol-utilizing methanogen.

  20. Preparation of Ethylene Glycol Monoethyl Ether Acetate Using a Tubular Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡振云; 卢祖国; 李小波

    2003-01-01

    Ethylene glycol monoethyl ether acetate (EGEA), an excellent solvent, is prepared with ethylene oxide (EO) and ethyl acetate (EA) in a tubular reactor under suitable reaction condition. The single circulation yield can reach 81%. This technology is not only safe but also makes it possible to continuously produce EGEA in industry,with low content of high boiling point by-products.

  1. 77 FR 27776 - Advisory Council for the Elimination of Tuberculosis Meeting (ACET)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    ... for ACET; (2) Modeling TB Epidemiology; (3) Tuberculosis Outbreaks in Special Populations; (4) The... Tuberculosis Meeting (ACET) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L... Director, CDC, regarding the elimination of tuberculosis. Specifically, the Council makes...

  2. Palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions of allylic halides and acetates with indium organometallics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, David; Pérez Sestelo, José; Sarandeses, Luis A

    2004-11-12

    The palladium(0)-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction of allylic halides and acetates with indium organometallics is reported. In this synthetic transformation, triorganoindium compounds and tetraorganoindates (aryl, alkenyl, and methyl) react with cinnamyl and geranyl halides and acetates to afford the S(N)2 product regioselectively and in good yield. The reaction proceeds with net inversion of the stereochemical configuration.

  3. Comparison of acetate tape impression with squeezing versus skin scraping for the diagnosis of canine demodicosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, A V; Pereira, S A; Gremião, I D F; Campos, M P; Ferreira, A M R

    2012-11-01

    This study compared the sensitivity of acetate tape impression and skin squeezing with that of deep skin scraping for the diagnosis of demodicosis in dogs. Demodex canis was detected in 100% of acetate tape impressions obtained after skin squeezing and in 90% of deep skin scrapings. There was a significant difference (P scraping and is an alternative diagnostic method for canine demodicosis.

  4. 21 CFR 529.1003 - Flurogestone acetate-impregnated vaginal sponge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Flurogestone acetate-impregnated vaginal sponge... § 529.1003 Flurogestone acetate-impregnated vaginal sponge. (a) Specifications. Each vaginal sponge... ewes during their normal breeding season. (2) Limitations. Using applicator provided, insert...

  5. Sustainable hydrogen from bio-oil - Steam reforming of acetic acid as a model oxygenate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takanabe, K.; Takanabe, Kazuhiro; Aika, Ken-ichi; Seshan, Kulathuiyer; Lefferts, Leonardus

    2004-01-01

    Steam reforming of acetic acid over Pt/ZrO2 catalysts has been investigated. Pt/ZrO2 catalysts are very active, completely converting acetic acid, and give a hydrogen yield close to thermodynamic equilibrium. The catalyst deactivated by formation of oligomers which block the active sites. The

  6. Equilibria of ternary system acetic acid-water-CO2 under subcritical conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gutierrez, Jose M. Jimenez; Mussatto, Solange I.; Tsou, Joana

    , such as acetic acid in fermentations [2, 3]. Thus, from a biotechnological perspective, it is highly interesting to research on the system CO2—H2O with different concentrations of acetic acid (HAc). Based on previous studies [4, 5], this project aims to investigate the vapour/liquid equilibria (VLE...

  7. Thermoreversible gelation of cellulose acetate solutions studied by differential scanning calorimetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altena, F.W.; Schroder, J.S.; van de Huls, R.; Smolders, C.A.

    1986-01-01

    Thermoreversible gels of cellulose acetate can be obtained by cooling concentrated cellulose acetate solutions in solvent-nonsolvent mixtures of dioxane and water. Upon heating the gels, endothermic effects were observed with differential scanning calorimetry. The heat effects are ascribed to the

  8. Brain MR finding of {beta}-fluoroethyl acetate rodenticide intoxication: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji Young; Jung, Cheol Kyu; Lee, Seung Ro; Park, Dong Woo [College of Medicine, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-05-15

    {beta}-fluoroethyl acetate rodenticide intoxication can manifest as several different clinical abnormalities such as respiratory, neurologic, cardiologic and fluid-electrolyte problems. We report here on the MR findings of a case that showed symmetric cytotoxic edema in the while matter of the cerebral hemispheres after the ingestion of {beta} - fluoroethyl acetate rodenticide by a woman who was attempting suicide.

  9. Novel ketene N,S-acetals : synthesis and reactions of 1-isocyano-1-arylthioethenes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemert, Antonius Wilhelmus van

    1987-01-01

    This thesis deals with a new type of ketene N,S-acetals. It concerns compounds of the general structure 62, in which an arylthio group and an isocyano group are attached to the same carbon atom of a C,C double bond. These compounds are in a way N,S-acetals of ketenes. ... Zie: Summary

  10. The amrG1 gene is involved in the activation of acetate in Corynebacterium glutamicum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RUAN; Hong; R.; Gerstmeir; S.; Schnicke; B.J.; Eikmanns

    2005-01-01

    During growth of Corynebacterium glutamicum on acetate as its carbon and energy source, the expression of the pta-ack operon is induced, coding for the acetate-activating enzymes, which are phosphotransacetylase (PTA) and acetate kinase (AK). By transposon rescue, we identified the two genes amrG1 and amrG2 found in the deregulated transposon mutant C. glutamicum G25. The amrG1 gene (NCBI-accession: AF532964) has a size of 732 bp, encoding a polypeptide of 243 amino acids and apparently is partially responsible for the regulation of acetate metabolism in C. glutamicum. We constructed an in-frame deletion mutant and an overexpressing strain of amrG1 in the C. glutamicum ATCC13032 wildtype. The strains were then analyzed with respect to their enzyme activities of PTA and AK during growth on glucose, acetate and glucose or acetate alone as carbon sources. Compared to the parental strain, the amrG1 deletion mutant showed higher specific AK and PTA activities during growth on glucose but showed the same high specific activities of AK and PTA on medium containing acetate plus glucose and on medium containing acetate. In contrast to the gene deletion, overexpression of the amrG1 gene in C. glutamicum 13032 had the adverse regulatory effect. These results indicate that the amrG1 gene encodes a repressor or co-repressor of the pta-ack operon.

  11. The Vinyl Acetate Content of Packaging Film: A Quantitative Infrared Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allpress, K. N.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Presents an experiment used in laboratory technician training courses to illustrate the quantitative use of infrared spectroscopy which is based on industrial and laboratory procedures for the determination of vinyl acetate levels in ethylene vinyl acetate packaging films. Includes three approaches to allow for varying path lengths (film…

  12. Zymomonas with improved ethanol production in medium containing concentrated sugars and acetate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caimi, Perry G.; Chou, Yat-Chen; Franden, Mary Ann; Knoke, Kyle; Tao, Luan; Viitanen, Paul V.; Zhang, Min; Zhang, Yuying

    2010-09-28

    Through screening of a Zymomonas mutant library the himA gene was found to be involved in the inhibitory effect of acetate on Zymomonas performance. Xylose-utilizing Zymomonas further engineered to reduce activity of the himA gene were found to have increased ethanol production in comparison to a parental strain, when cultured in medium comprising xylose and acetate.

  13. 75 FR 40736 - Acetic Acid; Exemption from the Requirement of a Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-14

    ..., particularly in the tricarboxylic acid cycle, also known as the citric acid (Ref. 1.) or krebs cycle (Ref. 2... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Acetic Acid; Exemption from the Requirement of a Tolerance AGENCY: Environmental... for acetic acid by establishing an exemption from the requirement of a tolerance for residues of...

  14. Fabrication of First Chinese Made Reactor for Oxosvnthesis of Acetic Acid in Xi'an

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The first set of Chinese made reactor for oxo-synthesis of acetic acid has been fabricated by the Xi'an Nuclear Equipment Company,Ltd.This reactor has been transported to the site of equipment installation at the acetic acid production project owned by Shandong Yimeng Company,Ltd.,which has shattered the long-time precedent of relying upon imported equipment.

  15. Cell wall dynamics modulate acetic acid-induced apoptotic cell death of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António Rego

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Acetic acid triggers apoptotic cell death in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, similar to mammalian apoptosis. To uncover novel regulators of this process, we analyzed whether impairing MAPK signaling affected acetic acid-induced apoptosis and found the mating-pheromone response and, especially, the cell wall integrity pathways were the major mediators, especially the latter, which we characterized further. Screening downstream effectors of this pathway, namely targets of the transcription factor Rlm1p, highlighted decreased cell wall remodeling as particularly important for acetic acid resistance. Modulation of cell surface dynamics therefore emerges as a powerful strategy to increase acetic acid resistance, with potential application in industrial fermentations using yeast, and in biomedicine to exploit the higher sensitivity of colorectal carcinoma cells to apoptosis induced by acetate produced by intestinal propionibacteria.

  16. Development of Acetic Acid Removal Technology for the UREX+Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert M. Counce; Jack S. Watson

    2009-06-30

    It is imperative that acetic acid is removed from a waste stream in the UREX+process so that nitric acid can be recycled and possible interference with downstreatm steps can be avoidec. Acetic acid arises from acetohydrozamic acid (AHA), and is used to suppress plutonium in the first step of the UREX+process. Later, it is hydrolyzed into hydroxyl amine nitrate and acetic acid. Many common separation technologies were examined, and solvent extraction was determined to be the best choice under process conditions. Solvents already used in the UREX+ process were then tested to determine if they would be sufficient for the removal of acetic acid. The tributyl phosphage (TBP)-dodecane diluent, used in both UREX and NPEX, was determined to be a solvent system that gave sufficient distribution coefficients for acetic acid in addition to a high separation factor from nitric acid.

  17. Atmospheric geochemistry of formic and acetic acids at a mid-latitude temperate site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, R. W.; Beecher, K. M.; Harriss, R. C.; Cofer, R. W., III

    1988-01-01

    Tropospheric concentrations of formic and acetic acids in the gas, the aerosol, and the rainwater phases were determined in samples collected 1-2 m above ground level at an open field site in eastern Virginia. These acids were found to occur principally (98 percent or above) in the gas phase, with a marked annual seasonality, averaging 1890 ppt for formate and 1310 ppt for acetate during the growing season, as compared to 695 ppt and 700 ppt, respectively, over the nongrowing season. The data support the hypothesis that biogenic emissions from vegatation are important sources of atmospheric formic and acetic acid during the local growing season. The same time trends were observed for precipitation, although with less defined seasonality. The relative increase of the acetic acid/formic acid ratio during the nongrowing season points to the dominance of anthropogenic inputs of acetic acid from motor vehicles and biomass combustion in the wintertime.

  18. Single-cell level based approach to investigate acetate metabolism during batch industrial fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nierychlo, Marta; Larsen, Poul; Eriksen, Niels T.

    accumulation causes the decrease of productivity as it represents a waste of carbon source that would otherwise be converted to biomass and product. As the acetate accumulation problem is of the utmost importance in batch fermentation processes, various strategies have been developed to explain, understand...... on the sub-population level. We hypothesized that during the fermentation process, bacterial subpopulation exist, which exhibit different metabolic strategies towards the acetate. In this study, pure culture of Escherichia coli MG1655 was used to investigate in situ acetate metabolism at single-cell level...... during glucose fermentation. Batch fermentations were performed in order to examine consecutive stages of acetate metabolism during the fermentation process (production, co-consumption with glucose, consumption as single substrate). Uptake of glucose and acetate at single-cell level was observed...

  19. Norethisterone acetate in combination with estrogen: effects on the skeleton and other organs. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riis, Bente Juel; Lehmann, Hans-Jørgen; Christiansen, Claus

    2002-10-01

    This article is focused on the use of norethisterone acetate as progestogen in hormone replacement therapy. Emphasis is made on the fact that the primary reason for adding a progestogen to hormone replacement therapy is to protect the endometrium against hyperplasia. In this paper we review data that demonstrate that hormone replacement therapy that includes norethisterone acetate has positive effects on the postmenopausal bone metabolism and that it increases bone mass more than expected and more than treatment with alendronate. All available evidence is reviewed to show that norethisterone acetate, if given in the correct dosage, does not influence serum lipids and lipoproteins in any negative way. It is furthermore shown that norethisterone acetate seems to be superior compared to other progestogens to provide optimum bleeding control and endometrial protection. Also, hormone replacement therapy combinations with norethisterone acetate efficiently alleviate hot flushes. Hormone replacement therapy and the risk of breast cancer and the role of progestogens are discussed.

  20. Effect of roxatidine acetate on daytime and night-time peptone-stimulated gastric acid secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagenmüller, F

    1988-01-01

    A double-blind, randomised, crossover study in 12 healthy volunteers was performed to assess the effects of roxatidine acetate 75 mg or placebo administered at 8 am and 9 pm on peptone-stimulated hydrochloric acid secretion. In comparison to placebo, roxatidine acetate produced an average reduction of daytime hydrochloric acid output of 86% and 32%, respectively, for the 4- to 6-hour and 10- to 12-hour post-drug administration phases. In addition, roxatidine acetate produced reductions in nocturnal hydrochloric acid output of 75 to 92% with an associated rise in intragastric pH of around 2 units compared to placebo. No side effects or clinically significant alterations in haematological or biochemical values were reported following roxatidine acetate administration. These results suggest that roxatidine acetate is a potent and effective inhibitor of day and night-time intragastric acid secretion.

  1. Deletion of JJJ1 improves acetic acid tolerance and bioethanol fermentation performance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xuechang; Zhang, Lijie; Jin, Xinna; Fang, Yahong; Zhang, Ke; Qi, Lei; Zheng, Daoqiong

    2016-07-01

    To improve tolerance to acetic acid that is present in lignocellulosic hydrolysates and affects bioethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains with improved tolerance to acetic acid were obtained through deletion of the JJJ1 gene. The lag phase of the JJJ1 deletion mutant BYΔJJJ1 was ~16 h shorter than that of the parent strain, BY4741, when the fermentation medium contained 4.5 g acetic acid/l. Additionally, the specific ethanol production rate of BYΔJJJ1 was increased (0.057 g/g h) compared to that of the parent strain (0.051 g/g h). Comparative transcription and physiological analyses revealed higher long chain fatty acid, trehalose, and catalase contents might be critical factors responsible for the acetic acid resistance of JJJ1 knockout strains. JJJ1 deletion improves acetic acid tolerance and ethanol fermentation performance of S. cerevisiae.

  2. Cell wall dynamics modulate acetic acid-induced apoptotic cell death of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rego, António; Duarte, Ana M.; Azevedo, Flávio; Sousa, Maria J.; Côrte-Real, Manuela; Chaves, Susana R.

    2014-01-01

    Acetic acid triggers apoptotic cell death in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, similar to mammalian apoptosis. To uncover novel regulators of this process, we analyzed whether impairing MAPK signaling affected acetic acid-induced apoptosis and found the mating-pheromone response and, especially, the cell wall integrity pathways were the major mediators, especially the latter, which we characterized further. Screening downstream effectors of this pathway, namely targets of the transcription factor Rlm1p, highlighted decreased cell wall remodeling as particularly important for acetic acid resistance. Modulation of cell surface dynamics therefore emerges as a powerful strategy to increase acetic acid resistance, with potential application in industrial fermentations using yeast, and in biomedicine to exploit the higher sensitivity of colorectal carcinoma cells to apoptosis induced by acetate produced by intestinal propionibacteria. PMID:28357256

  3. Synthesis and Characterization of Cellulose Acetate from TCF Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fauzi Muhammad Djuned

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose acetate (CA was successfully synthesized by the acetylation of TCF cellulose pulp from oil palm empty fruit bunches (OPEFB at room temperature, using acetic anhydride as the acetylating agent and acetic acid as the solvent in the presence of sulfuric acid/sodium bisulfate as catalysts. Degree of substitution (DS was controlled by the variables of acetylation time and acetic anhydride to cellulose ratio, under the heterogeneous state. The product (CA obtained was characterized through Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The results indicate that the CA obtained has characteristics similar to commercial CA, and DS is significantly dependent on acetylation time and the acetic anhydride-to-cellulose ratio.

  4. Experimental investigations on heat content of supercooled sodium acetate trihydrate by a simple heat loss method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kong, Weiqiang; Dannemand, Mark; Johansen, Jakob Berg

    2016-01-01

    Sodium acetate trihydrate is a phase change material that can be used for long term heat storage in solar heating systems because of its relatively high heat of fusion, a melting temperature of 58 °C and its ability to supercool stable. In practical applications sodium acetate trihydrate tend...... to suffer from phase separation which is the phenomenon where anhydrous salt settles to the bottom over time. This happens especially in supercooled state. The heat released from the crystallization of supercooled sodium acetate trihydrate with phase separation will be lower than the heat released from...... sodium acetate trihydrate without phase separation. Possible ways of avoiding or reducing the problem of phase separation were investigated. A wide variety of composites of sodium acetate trihydrate with additives including extra water, thickening agents, solid and liquid polymers have been...

  5. Progress in Acetic Acid Industry%醋酸工业现状及发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李好管; 闫慧芳

    2001-01-01

    醋酸是用途最广泛的有机酸之一。分析了醋酸的生产和消费趋势;综述了醋酸工艺的进展;介绍了具有工业化前景或学术价值的醋酸合成新工艺的研究开发概况。对我国醋酸工业发展提出了建议。%Acetic acid is one of the organic acids which have many uses.This paper analyzed the production and consumption of acetic acid,summarized the progress of acetic acid technology,introduced the research and development of acetic acid new process.Some suggestions on China's acetic acid industry were also put forward.

  6. Recovery of Dilute Acetic Acid by Catalytic Distillation Using NKC-9 as Catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhigang; LI Xiaofeng; XU Shimin; LI Xingang

    2006-01-01

    The reaction kinetics of dilute acetic acid with methanol using NKC-9 as catalyst was studied at temperatures of 308 K, 318 K, 323 K, 328 K. The kinetic model based on Langmuir-Hinshelwood rate model was derived and the activation energy was 6.13 x 104 kJ/kmol. The experiment of recovery of dilute acetic acid was conducted in a packed bed catalytic distillation column. The optimal process parameters and operational conditions determined to make up to 85.9% conversion of acetic acid are as follows:the height of catalyst bed is 1 100 mm, reflux ratio is 4: 1, and the ratio of methanol to acetic acid is 2: 1. The method can be used as a guide in industrial scale recovery of 15%-30% dilute acetic acid.

  7. Photocatalytic decomposition of cortisone acetate in aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romão, Joana Sobral; Hamdy, Mohamed S.; Mul, Guido, E-mail: g.mul@utwente.nl; Baltrusaitis, Jonas, E-mail: j.baltrusaitis@utwente.nl

    2015-01-23

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Most efficient photocatalysts for cortisone 21-acetate (CA) degradation were ZnO and TiO{sub 2} (P25). • The decomposition rate increased at low CA concentrations. • No pH dependence was observed allowing CA photocatalytic degradation at native pH. • Synergistic CA degradation effects between TiO{sub 2} and S{sub 2}O{sub 8}{sup 2−} were found. • LC–MS confirmed a decrease in CA concentration, but no intermediate products were detected. - Abstract: The photocatalytic decomposition of cortisone 21-acetate (CA), a model compound for the commonly used steroid, cortisone, was studied. CA was photocatalytically decomposed in a slurry reactor with the initial rates between 0.11 and 0.46 mg L{sup −1} min{sup −1} at 10 mg L{sup −1} concentration, using the following heterogeneous photocatalysts in decreasing order of their catalytic activity: ZnO > Evonik TiO{sub 2} P25 > Hombikat TiO{sub 2} > WO{sub 3}. Due to the lack of ZnO stability in aqueous solutions, TiO{sub 2} P25 was chosen for further experiments. The decomposition reaction was found to be pseudo-first order and the rate constant decreased as a function of increasing initial CA concentration. Changing the initial pH of the CA solution did not affect the reaction rate significantly. The decomposition reaction in the presence of the oxidizing sacrificial agent sodium persulfate showed an observed decomposition rate constant of 0.004 min{sup −1}, lower than that obtained for TiO{sub 2} P25 (0.040 min{sup −1}). The highest photocatalytic degradation rate constant was obtained combining both TiO{sub 2} P25 and S{sub 2}O{sub 8}{sup 2−} (0.071 min{sup −1}) showing a synergistic effect. No reactive intermediates were detected using LC–MS showing fast photocatalytic decomposition kinetics of CA.

  8. Megestrol acetate for treatment of anorexia-cachexia syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Garcia, Vicente; López-Briz, Eduardo; Carbonell Sanchis, Rafael; Gonzalvez Perales, Jose Luis; Bort-Marti, Sylvia

    2013-03-28

    This is an updated version of a previously published review in The Cochrane Library (2005, Issue 2) on 'Megestrol acetate for the treatment of anorexia-cachexia syndrome'. Megestrol acetate (MA) is currently used to improve appetite and to increase weight in cancer-associated anorexia. In 1993, MA was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of anorexia, cachexia or unexplained weight loss in patients with AIDS. The mechanism by which MA increases appetite is unknown and its effectiveness for anorexia and cachexia in neoplastic and AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) patients is under investigation. To evaluate the efficacy, effectiveness and safety of MA in palliating anorexia-cachexia syndrome in patients with cancer, AIDS and other underlying pathologies. We sought studies through an extensive search of electronic databases, journals, reference lists, contact with investigators and other search strategies outlined in the methods. The most recent search for this update was carried out in May 2012. Studies were included in the review if they assessed MA compared to placebo or other drug treatments in randomised controlled trials of patients with a clinical diagnosis of anorexia-cachexia syndrome related to cancer, AIDS or any other underlying pathology. Two independent review authors conducted data extraction and evaluated methodological quality. We performed quantitative analyses using appetite and quality of life as a dichotomous variable, and analysed weight gain as continuous and dichotomous variables. We included 35 trials in this update, the same number but not the same trials as in the previous version of the review. The trials comprised 3963 patients for effectiveness and 3180 for safety. Sixteen trials compared MA at different doses with placebo, seven trials compared different doses of MA with other drug treatments and 10 trials compared different doses of MA. Meta-analysis showed a benefit of MA compared with placebo

  9. C-13 Stable Isotope Probing of Biostimulation Experiments to Identify Acetate Utilizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, P. R.; Tan, H.; Kerkhof, L.; McGuinness, L.; Peacock, A.; Long, P. E.

    2011-12-01

    In order to determine which microorganisms take up acetate during biostimulation and how the uptake of acetate by specific organisms, especially Geobacter species, changes over time, a 120-day column biostimulation experiment was performed. A total of eight columns were loaded with Rifle sediments and operated under continuous flow conditions using Rifle groundwater, amended with 3 mM C-12 acetate. At regular time intervals, C-12 acetate flow into a specific column was switched to C-13 acetate. That column was then operated under C-13 acetate amendment for 36 hours before it was sacrificed for detailed geochemical and microbiological analyses. Column operation started under iron reduction (based on the measured Fe(II) in the column effluent), while sulfate reduction (based on removal of sulfate between influent and outflow), was noted at about 25 days of operation. The microbial characterization consisted of phospholipid fatty acid analysis (PLFA) and stable isotope probing (SIP). All microbial characterization was done to differentiate between the C-12 and C-13 incorporation into the biomass. Results showed that there was a differentiation between the community that was taking up acetate actively throughout the 120 days of operation and the overall microbial community. Of interest was that the fraction of Geobacter population remained fairly constant throughout the duration of the experiment, as well as its acetate uptake. Results also showed that of the acetate incorporated into the overall biomass, about 40% was incorporated into Geobacter biomass. These results are key for the proper numerical simulations of biostimulation via acetate amendment and the biostimulation of Geobacter.

  10. Isolation, characterization and optimization of indigenous acetic acid bacteria and evaluation of their preservation methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Beheshti-Maal

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Acetic acid bacteria (AAB are useful in industrial production of vinegar. The present study aims at isolation and identification of acetic acid bacteria with characterization, optimization, and evaluation of their acetic acid productivity."nMaterials and Methods: Samples from various fruits were screened for presence of acetic acid bacteria on glucose, yeast extract, calcium carbonate (GYC medium. Carr medium supplemented with bromocresol green was used for distinguishing Acetobacter from Gluconobacter. The isolates were cultured in basal medium to find the highest acetic acid producer. Biochemical tests followed by 16S rRNA and restriction analyses were employed for identification of the isolate and phylogenic tree was constructed. Bacterial growth and acid production conditions were optimized based on optimal inoculum size, pH, temperature, agitation, aeration and medium composition."nResults: Thirty-seven acetic acid bacteria from acetobacter and gluconobacter members were isolated. Acetic acid productivity yielded 4 isolates that produced higher amounts of acid. The highest producer of acid (10.03% was selected for identification. The sequencing and restriction analyses of 16S rRNA revealed a divergent strain of Acetobacter pasteurianus (Gene bank accession number # GU059865. The optimum condition for acid production was a medium composed of 2% glucose, 2% yeast extract, 3% ethanol and 3% acid acetic at inoculum size of 4% at 3L/Min aeration level in the production medium. The isolate was best preserved in GYC medium at 12oC for more than a month. Longer preservation was possible at -70oC."nConclusion: The results are suggestive of isolation of an indigenous acetic acid bacteria. Pilot plan is suggested to study applicability of the isolated strain in acetic acid production.

  11. Isolation, characterization and optimization of indigenous acetic acid bacteria and evaluation of their preservation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharafi, Sm; Rasooli, I; Beheshti-Maal, K

    2010-03-01

    Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are useful in industrial production of vinegar. The present study aims at isolation and identification of acetic acid bacteria with characterization, optimization, and evaluation of their acetic acid productivity. Samples from various fruits were screened for presence of acetic acid bacteria on glucose, yeast extract, calcium carbonate (GYC) medium. Carr medium supplemented with bromocresol green was used for distinguishing Acetobacter from Gluconobacter. The isolates were cultured in basal medium to find the highest acetic acid producer. Biochemical tests followed by 16S rRNA and restriction analyses were employed for identification of the isolate and phylogenic tree was constructed. Bacterial growth and acid production conditions were optimized based on optimal inoculum size, pH, temperature, agitation, aeration and medium composition. Thirty-seven acetic acid bacteria from acetobacter and gluconobacter members were isolated. Acetic acid productivity yielded 4 isolates that produced higher amounts of acid. The highest producer of acid (10.03%) was selected for identification. The sequencing and restriction analyses of 16S rRNA revealed a divergent strain of Acetobacter pasteurianus (Gene bank accession number#GU059865). The optimum condition for acid production was a medium composed of 2% glucose, 2% yeast extract, 3% ethanol and 3% acid acetic at inoculum size of 4% at 3L/Min aeration level in the production medium. The isolate was best preserved in GYC medium at 12°C for more than a month. Longer preservation was possible at -70°C. The results are suggestive of isolation of an indigenous acetic acid bacteria. Pilot plan is suggested to study applicability of the isolated strain in acetic acid production.

  12. Evaluation of the morphological changes of gastric mucosa induced by a low concentration of acetic acid using a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakao, Ken-ichiro; Ro, Ayako; Kibayashi, Kazuhiko

    2014-02-01

    Oral ingestion of concentrated acetic acid causes corrosive injury of the gastrointestinal tract. To assess the effects of a low concentration of acetic acid on gastric mucosa, we examined the gastric mucosal changes in rats at 1 and 3 days after the injection of 5% or 25% acetic acid into the gastric lumen. The area of the gastric ulcerative lesions in the 25% acetic acid group was significantly larger than that in the 5% acetic acid group. The lesion area was reduced significantly at 3 days after injection in the 5% acetic acid group, whereas no significant difference in lesion area was observed at 1 and 3 days in the 25% acetic acid group. Histologically, corrosive necrosis was limited to the mucosal layer in the 5% acetic acid group, whereas necrosis extended throughout the gastric wall in the 25% acetic acid group. At 3 days post-injection, the 25% acetic acid group showed widespread persistent inflammation, whereas the 5% acetic acid group showed widespread appearance of fibroblasts indicative of a healing process. These results indicate that a low concentration of acetic acid damages the gastric mucosa and that the degree of mucosal damage depends on the concentration of acetic acid.

  13. Photocatalytic decomposition of cortisone acetate in aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romão, Joana Sobral; Hamdy, Mohamed S; Mul, Guido; Baltrusaitis, Jonas

    2015-01-23

    The photocatalytic decomposition of cortisone 21-acetate (CA), a model compound for the commonly used steroid, cortisone, was studied. CA was photocatalytically decomposed in a slurry reactor with the initial rates between 0.11 and 0.46 mg L(-1)min(-1) at 10 mg L(-1) concentration, using the following heterogeneous photocatalysts in decreasing order of their catalytic activity: ZnO>Evonik TiO2 P25>Hombikat TiO2>WO3. Due to the lack of ZnO stability in aqueous solutions, TiO2 P25 was chosen for further experiments. The decomposition reaction was found to be pseudo-first order and the rate constant decreased as a function of increasing initial CA concentration. Changing the initial pH of the CA solution did not affect the reaction rate significantly. The decomposition reaction in the presence of the oxidizing sacrificial agent sodium persulfate showed an observed decomposition rate constant of 0.004 min(-1), lower than that obtained for TiO2 P25 (0.040 min(-1)). The highest photocatalytic degradation rate constant was obtained combining both TiO2 P25 and S2O8(2-) (0.071 min(-1)) showing a synergistic effect. No reactive intermediates were detected using LC-MS showing fast photocatalytic decomposition kinetics of CA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Antimicrobial Lemongrass Essential Oil—Copper Ferrite Cellulose Acetate Nanocapsules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis L. Liakos

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose acetate (CA nanoparticles were combined with two antimicrobial agents, namely lemongrass (LG essential oil and Cu-ferrite nanoparticles. The preparation method of CA nanocapsules (NCs, with the two antimicrobial agents, was based on the nanoprecipitation method using the solvent/anti-solvent technique. Several physical and chemical analyses were performed to characterize the resulting NCs and to study their formation mechanism. The size of the combined antimicrobial NCs was found to be ca. 220 nm. The presence of Cu-ferrites enhanced the attachment of LG essential oil into the CA matrix. The magnetic properties of the combined construct were weak, due to the shielding of Cu-ferrites from the polymeric matrix, making them available for drug delivery applications where spontaneous magnetization effects should be avoided. The antimicrobial properties of the NCs were significantly enhanced with respect to CA/LG only. This work opens novel routes for the development of organic/inorganic nanoparticles with exceptional antimicrobial activities.

  15. Effect of doping on TSD relaxation in cellulose acetate films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P K Khare; P L Jain; R K Pandey

    2000-12-01

    Thermally stimulated depolarization current (TSDC) studies have been performed on solution grown cellulose acetate films doped with different concentrations of acrylic acid (AA) prepared at the poling temperatures (40–75°C) with poling fields (10–50 kV/cm). The TSDC spectra of pure and AA doped CA films reveal two relaxation peaks at 80°C and 180 ± 2°C, having activation energies centred around 0.25 and 0.55 eV. The phenomena of the existence of these current maxima have been analyzed and discussed in terms of the molecular motion of the polar side groups and release of the remaining part of the frozen dipoles by their cooperative motion with adjoining segments of the main polymer chain. The peak currents, released charge and activation energies associated with the peaks are affected by AA doping. The effect of doping with acrylic acid on the discharge current indicates the formation of molecular aggregates.

  16. Investigation of polyvinylchloride and cellulose acetate blend membranes for desalination

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gendi, Ayman; Abdallah, Heba; Amin, Ashraf; Amin, Shereen Kamel

    2017-10-01

    The pollution of water resources, severe climate changes, rapid population growth, increasing agricultural demands, and rapid industrialization insist the development of innovative technologies for generating potable water. Polyvinylchloride/cellulose acetate (PVC/CA) membranes were prepared using phase inversion technique for seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO). The membrane performance was investigated using Red Sea water (El-Ein El-Sokhna-Egypt). The membrane performance indicated that the prepared membranes were endowed to work under high pressure; increasing in feeding operating pressure led to increase permeate flux and rejection. Increasing feed operating pressure from zero to 40 bar led to increase in the salt rejection percent. Salt rejection percent reached to 99.99% at low feed concentration 5120 ppm and 99.95% for Red Sea water (38,528 ppm). The prepared membranes were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrophotometry, and mechanical properties. SEM, FTIR and mechanical results were used to distinguish the best membrane for desalination. According to characterization results, one prepared membrane was selected to run performance test in desalination testing unit. The membrane (M3) showed excellent performance and stability under different operating conditions and during the durability test for 36 days.

  17. Successful Pregnancy after Treatment with Ulipristal Acetate for Uterine Fibroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Monleón

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This case report presents a clinical pregnancy after ulipristal acetate (UA to decrease uterine fibroid size. A 37-year-old patient, gravida 1, abortus 1, with uterine fibroids was treated with 5 mg of UA daily for 13 weeks starting eight months after a multiple laparotomic myomectomy. Fibroid shrinkage and restoration of the morphology of endometrial cavity were evaluated in order to allow a subsequent pregnancy. A decrease of the uterine fibroids and a normal morphology of the endometrial cavity were noted by transvaginal ultrasound after treatment. An endometrial biopsy excluded histologic endometrial changes. Three months after the end of UA the patient reported amenorrhea for 5 weeks and a clinical pregnancy was confirmed with transvaginal ultrasound. She underwent a subsequent uneventful pregnancy. Thus, the spontaneous pregnancy after UA to reduce fibroid size may support the potential clinical utility of this selective progesterone receptor modulator in the management of women with pregnancy desire and uterine fibroids after a prior myomectomy. Patients who refuse a new surgical procedure and/or those who are going to undergo assisted reproductive techniques would benefit from UA. It effectively shrinks fibroids, avoids risks of a new surgical procedure, and allows an immediate attempt at conception after the end of treatment.

  18. Successful pregnancy after treatment with ulipristal acetate for uterine fibroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monleón, Javier; Martínez-Varea, Alicia; Galliano, Daniela; Pellicer, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    This case report presents a clinical pregnancy after ulipristal acetate (UA) to decrease uterine fibroid size. A 37-year-old patient, gravida 1, abortus 1, with uterine fibroids was treated with 5 mg of UA daily for 13 weeks starting eight months after a multiple laparotomic myomectomy. Fibroid shrinkage and restoration of the morphology of endometrial cavity were evaluated in order to allow a subsequent pregnancy. A decrease of the uterine fibroids and a normal morphology of the endometrial cavity were noted by transvaginal ultrasound after treatment. An endometrial biopsy excluded histologic endometrial changes. Three months after the end of UA the patient reported amenorrhea for 5 weeks and a clinical pregnancy was confirmed with transvaginal ultrasound. She underwent a subsequent uneventful pregnancy. Thus, the spontaneous pregnancy after UA to reduce fibroid size may support the potential clinical utility of this selective progesterone receptor modulator in the management of women with pregnancy desire and uterine fibroids after a prior myomectomy. Patients who refuse a new surgical procedure and/or those who are going to undergo assisted reproductive techniques would benefit from UA. It effectively shrinks fibroids, avoids risks of a new surgical procedure, and allows an immediate attempt at conception after the end of treatment.

  19. Metabolic regulation of the plant hormone indole-3-acetic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jerry D. Cohen

    2009-11-01

    The phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA, auxin) is important for many aspects of plant growth, development and responses to the environment yet the routes to is biosynthesis and mechanisms for regulation of IAA levels remain important research questions. A critical issue concerning the biosynthesis if IAA in plants is that redundant pathways for IAA biosynthesis exist in plants. We showed that these redundant pathways and their relative contribution to net IAA production are under both developmental and environmental control. We worked on three fundamental problems related to how plants get their IAA: 1) An in vitro biochemical approach was used to define the tryptophan dependent pathway to IAA using maize endosperm, where relatively large amounts of IAA are produced over a short developmental period. Both a stable isotope dilution and a protein MS approach were used to identify intermediates and enzymes in the reactions. 2) We developed an in vitro system for analysis of tryptophan-independent IAA biosynthesis in maize seedlings and we used a metabolite profiling approach to isolate intermediates in this reaction. 3) Arabidopsis contains a small family of genes that encode potential indolepyruvate decarboxylase enzymes. We cloned these genes and studied plants that are mutant in these genes and that over-express each member in the family in terms of the level and route of IAA biosynthesis. Together, these allowed further development of a comprehensive picture of the pathways and regulatory components that are involved in IAA homeostasis in higher plants.

  20. Sodium Acetate Stimulates PHB Biosynthesis in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴桂芳; 鲍恬; 沈忠耀; 吴庆余

    2002-01-01

    Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 cell growth and poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) biosynthesis were studied in the presence of sodium acetate (NaAc). For nitrogen-sufficient conditions, 15 -mmol/L NaAc improved the PHB content up to 9.9% (w/w) while for nitrogen-starved conditions, the PHB content was up to 15.2% (w/w). NaAc at levels below 20 -mmol/L promoted cell growth in the first six days, but the growth slowed on the seventh day when the NaAc concentration exceeded 15 -mmol/L. The PHB content in the final biomass reached 11.0% of the dry cellular weight in the presence of 20 -mmol/L NaAc. Two adjacent open reading frames (ORFs) in the genome of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, slr1993 and slr1994, were assigned to phbA and phbB, respectively, while the phbC gene was found to be far from these genes. This may account for the low expression of PHB in cyanobacteria.

  1. Enantioselective Organocatalytic Cascade Approach to Different Classes of Benzofused Acetals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, Bruno Matos; Klier, Lydia; Naesborg, Line; Lauridsen, Vibeke Henriette; Jensen, Frank; Jørgensen, Karl Anker

    2016-11-14

    A novel enantioselective organocatalytic strategy is presented for the synthesis of tetrahydrofurobenzofuran and methanobenzodioxepine natural product core structures. The strategy is based on a pair of divergent reaction pathways in which hydroxyarenes react with γ-keto-α,β-unsaturated aldehydes, catalyzed by a chiral secondary amine. One reaction pathway, which leads to chiral 5,5-fused acetals with two stereocenters-the tetrahydrofurobenzofuran scaffolds-proceeds in moderate yields and up to 96 % ee. The other reaction pathway provides 5,6-bridged methanobenzodioxepine scaffolds with three stereocenters in moderate to good yields and up to 95 % ee. The reaction is remarkable as it can proceed with catalyst loadings as low as 0.25 mol %, providing one of the highest known turnover numbers in iminium ion catalysis. Furthermore, the hemiacetal tetrahydrofurobenzofuran can undergo functionalizations including reduction, oxidation, and allylation. Finally, the effects involved in the substrate control for the divergent pathways, based on both experimental and computational studies, have been investigated. A model involving steric, electronic and stereoelectronic interactions is discussed to rationalize the observed selectivities.

  2. Hepatotoxicity induced by cyproterone acetate: A report of three cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ioanna Savidou; Melanie Deutsch; Aspasia S Soultati; Dimitrios Koudouras; Georgia Kafiri; Spyridon P Dourakis

    2006-01-01

    Cyproterone acetate (CPA) is a steroidal synthetic progestagen and anti-androgenic compound widely administered in prostate cancer which has been evidentially correlated with a severe hepatotoxic potency.Three male patients aged 78-83 years are presented, in whom severe hepatotoxic reactions emerged after CPA administration. Patients were treated with CPA at the doses of 200-300 mg/d for malignant prostate disease for 3-12 mo prior to the acute manifestation of the hepatic disease. Clinical features compatible with mixed hepatocellular and cholestatic liver disease including jaundice, white stools and dark urine, manifested in all three cases whereas encephalopathy and ascites were present in two of the patients. Other primary causes of hepatotoxicity (alcohol consumption and viral hepatitis)were also verified in two cases, and in those patients biopsy findings revealed the presence of cirrhotic lesions in liver parenchyma. Discontinuation of the therapeutic agent led to the amelioration of the clinical profile in all the patients whereas a patient died 40 d after hospital admission due to sepsis, despite acute liver disease improvement. The current article highlights the hepatotoxic potency of a widely administered therapeutic agent and illustrates the importance of clinical surveillance especially in patients with previous hepatic diseases. Three relevant cases are reported and a review of the published literature is made.

  3. Stratification of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Patients Based on Acetate Utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Björnson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is a deadly form of liver cancer that is increasingly prevalent. We analyzed global gene expression profiling of 361 HCC tumors and 49 adjacent noncancerous liver samples by means of combinatorial network-based analysis. We investigated the correlation between transcriptome and proteome of HCC and reconstructed a functional genome-scale metabolic model (GEM for HCC. We identified fundamental metabolic processes required for cell proliferation using the network centric view provided by the GEM. Our analysis revealed tight regulation of fatty acid biosynthesis (FAB and highly significant deregulation of fatty acid oxidation in HCC. We predicted mitochondrial acetate as an emerging substrate for FAB through upregulation of mitochondrial acetyl-CoA synthetase (ACSS1 in HCC. We analyzed heterogeneous expression of ACSS1 and ACSS2 between HCC patients stratified by high and low ACSS1 and ACSS2 expression and revealed that ACSS1 is associated with tumor growth and malignancy under hypoxic conditions in human HCC.

  4. Thermal Conductivity of Ethylene Vinyl Acetate Copolymer/Nanofiller Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghose, S.; Watson, K. A.; Working, D. C.; Connell, J. W.; Smith, J. G., Jr.; Lin, Y.; Sun, Y. P.

    2007-01-01

    To reduce weight and increase the mobility, comfort, and performance of future spacesuits, flexible, thermally conductive fabrics and plastic tubes are needed for the Liquid Cooling and Ventilation Garment. Such improvements would allow astronauts to operate more efficiently and safely for extended extravehicular activities. As an approach to raise the thermal conductivity (TC) of an ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer (Elvax 260), it was compounded with three types of carbon based nanofillers: multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), vapor grown carbon nanofibers (CNFs), and expanded graphite (EG). In addition, other nanofillers including metallized CNFs, nickel nanostrands, boron nitride, and powdered aluminum were also compounded with Elvax 260 in the melt at various loading levels. In an attempt to improve compatibility between Elvax 260 and the nanofillers, MWCNTs and EG were modified by surface coating and through noncovalent and covalent attachment of organic molecules containing alkyl groups. Ribbons of the nanocomposites were extruded to form samples in which the nanofillers were aligned in the direction of flow. Samples were also fabricated by compression molding to yield nanocomposites in which the nanofillers were randomly oriented. Mechanical properties of the aligned samples were determined by tensile testing while the degree of dispersion and alignment of nanoparticles were investigated using high-resolution scanning electron microscopy. TC measurements were performed using a laser flash (Nanoflash ) technique. TC of the samples was measured in the direction of, and perpendicular to, the alignment direction. Additionally, tubing was also extruded from select nanocomposite compositions and the TC and mechanical flexibility measured.

  5. Incensole acetate: a novel neuroprotective agent isolated from Boswellia carterii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussaieff, Arieh; Shein, Na'ama A; Tsenter, Jeanna; Grigoriadis, Savvas; Simeonidou, Constantina; Alexandrovich, Alexander G; Trembovler, Victoria; Ben-Neriah, Yinon; Schmitz, Michael L; Fiebich, Bernd L; Munoz, Eduardo; Mechoulam, Raphael; Shohami, Esther

    2008-07-01

    Boswellia resin has been used as a major anti-inflammatory agent and for the healing of wounds for centuries. Incensole acetate (IA), isolated from this resin, was shown to inhibit the activation of nuclear factor-kappaB, a key transcription factor in the inflammatory response. We now show that IA inhibits the production of inflammatory mediators in an in vitro model system of C6 glioma and human peripheral monocytes. Given the involvement of postinjury inflammation in the pathophysiology and outcome of traumatic brain injury, we examined the effect of IA on the inflammatory process and on the recovery of neurobehavioral and cognitive functions in a mouse model of closed head injury (CHI). In the brains of post-CHI mice, IA reduced glial activation, inhibited the expression of interleukin-1beta, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha mRNAs, and induced cell death in macrophages at the area of trauma. A mild hypothermic effect was also noted. Subsequently, IA inhibited hippocampal neurodegeneration and exerted a beneficial effect on functional outcome after CHI, indicated by reduced neurological severity scores and improved cognitive ability in an object recognition test. This study attributes the anti-inflammatory activity of Boswellia resin to IA and related cembranoid diterpenes and suggests that they may serve as novel neuroprotective agents.

  6. Scaleable production and separation of fermentation-derived acetic acid. Final CRADA report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snyder, S. W.; Energy Systems

    2010-02-08

    Half of U.S. acetic acid production is used in manufacturing vinyl acetate monomer (VAM) and is economical only in very large production plants. Nearly 80% of the VAM is produced by methanol carbonylation, which requires high temperatures and exotic construction materials and is energy intensive. Fermentation-derived acetic acid production allows for small-scale production at low temperatures, significantly reducing the energy requirement of the process. The goal of the project is to develop a scaleable production and separation process for fermentation-derived acetic acid. Synthesis gas (syngas) will be fermented to acetic acid, and the fermentation broth will be continuously neutralized with ammonia. The acetic acid product will be recovered from the ammonium acid broth using vapor-based membrane separation technology. The process is summarized in Figure 1. The two technical challenges to success are selecting and developing (1) microbial strains that efficiently ferment syngas to acetic acid in high salt environments and (2) membranes that efficiently separate ammonia from the acetic acid/water mixture and are stable at high enough temperature to facilitate high thermal cracking of the ammonium acetate salt. Fermentation - Microbial strains were procured from a variety of public culture collections (Table 1). Strains were incubated and grown in the presence of the ammonium acetate product and the fastest growing cultures were selected and incubated at higher product concentrations. An example of the performance of a selected culture is shown in Figure 2. Separations - Several membranes were considered. Testing was performed on a new product line produced by Sulzer Chemtech (Germany). These are tubular ceramic membranes with weak acid functionality (see Figure 3). The following results were observed: (1) The membranes were relatively fragile in a laboratory setting; (2) Thermally stable {at} 130 C in hot organic acids; (3) Acetic acid rejection > 99%; and (4

  7. Genome-wide identification of Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes required for tolerance to acetic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sá-Correia Isabel

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acetic acid is a byproduct of Saccharomyces cerevisiae alcoholic fermentation. Together with high concentrations of ethanol and other toxic metabolites, acetic acid may contribute to fermentation arrest and reduced ethanol productivity. This weak acid is also a present in lignocellulosic hydrolysates, a highly interesting non-feedstock substrate in industrial biotechnology. Therefore, the better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying S. cerevisiae tolerance to acetic acid is essential for the rational selection of optimal fermentation conditions and the engineering of more robust industrial strains to be used in processes in which yeast is explored as cell factory. Results The yeast genes conferring protection against acetic acid were identified in this study at a genome-wide scale, based on the screening of the EUROSCARF haploid mutant collection for susceptibility phenotypes to this weak acid (concentrations in the range 70-110 mM, at pH 4.5. Approximately 650 determinants of tolerance to acetic acid were identified. Clustering of these acetic acid-resistance genes based on their biological function indicated an enrichment of genes involved in transcription, internal pH homeostasis, carbohydrate metabolism, cell wall assembly, biogenesis of mitochondria, ribosome and vacuole, and in the sensing, signalling and uptake of various nutrients in particular iron, potassium, glucose and amino acids. A correlation between increased resistance to acetic acid and the level of potassium in the growth medium was found. The activation of the Snf1p signalling pathway, involved in yeast response to glucose starvation, is demonstrated to occur in response to acetic acid stress but no evidence was obtained supporting the acetic acid-induced inhibition of glucose uptake. Conclusions Approximately 490 of the 650 determinants of tolerance to acetic acid identified in this work are implicated, for the first time, in tolerance to

  8. Genome-wide identification of Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes required for tolerance to acetic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Acetic acid is a byproduct of Saccharomyces cerevisiae alcoholic fermentation. Together with high concentrations of ethanol and other toxic metabolites, acetic acid may contribute to fermentation arrest and reduced ethanol productivity. This weak acid is also a present in lignocellulosic hydrolysates, a highly interesting non-feedstock substrate in industrial biotechnology. Therefore, the better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying S. cerevisiae tolerance to acetic acid is essential for the rational selection of optimal fermentation conditions and the engineering of more robust industrial strains to be used in processes in which yeast is explored as cell factory. Results The yeast genes conferring protection against acetic acid were identified in this study at a genome-wide scale, based on the screening of the EUROSCARF haploid mutant collection for susceptibility phenotypes to this weak acid (concentrations in the range 70-110 mM, at pH 4.5). Approximately 650 determinants of tolerance to acetic acid were identified. Clustering of these acetic acid-resistance genes based on their biological function indicated an enrichment of genes involved in transcription, internal pH homeostasis, carbohydrate metabolism, cell wall assembly, biogenesis of mitochondria, ribosome and vacuole, and in the sensing, signalling and uptake of various nutrients in particular iron, potassium, glucose and amino acids. A correlation between increased resistance to acetic acid and the level of potassium in the growth medium was found. The activation of the Snf1p signalling pathway, involved in yeast response to glucose starvation, is demonstrated to occur in response to acetic acid stress but no evidence was obtained supporting the acetic acid-induced inhibition of glucose uptake. Conclusions Approximately 490 of the 650 determinants of tolerance to acetic acid identified in this work are implicated, for the first time, in tolerance to this weak acid. These are

  9. Medroxyprogesterone acetate levels among Kenyan women using depot medroxyprogesterone acetate in the FEM-PrEP trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, Kavita; Callahan, Rebecca; Taylor, Douglas; Wang, Meng; Agot, Kawango; Jenkins, David; Van Damme, Lut; Dorflinger, Laneta

    2016-07-01

    To describe medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) levels among Kenyan depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) users in the FEM-PrEP HIV prevention trial, and to compare MPA levels between ARV for HIV prevention (treatment) and placebo groups. We measured MPA in previously collected plasma samples from 63 Kenyan trial participants who used DMPA for one or two complete intervals. We separately assessed MPA levels among the nine DMPA users who became pregnant at this site. Mean MPA levels at the end of each 12week injection interval were 0.37ng/ml (95% CI: 0.25, 1.99) and 0.28ng/ml (95% CI: 0.19, 1.22) among participants assigned TDF/FTC and 0.49 (95% CI: 0.40, 1.27) and 0.39 (95% CI: 0.31, 1.17) among those assigned placebo. The difference between groups was not statistically significant overall, or in an analysis which adjusted for the observed low adherence to TDF/FTC. Unanticipated findings of this analysis were low 12-week MPA levels among DMPA users in both study arms. Of 61 women who contributed data for the first DMPA injection interval, 26.2% had MPA levels<0.1ng/ml and 9.8% had levels below the detection level (0.02ng/ml) at 12weeks post-injection. Levels were similar at the end of the second injection interval. Five of nine women who became pregnant had levels below 0.15ng/mL at the time of their last negative pregnancy test. Use of TDF/FTC did not appear to affect serum MPA levels, however we found lower than expected MPA concentrations at the end of the dosing interval among DMPA users in the FEM-PrEP trial, the cause of which are unknown. This study presents some of the few available data on MPA levels among DMPA users in Africa. The low levels among users described here, together with a number of pregnancies among DMPA users, are potentially concerning and require further investigation. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Commercial Application of the CTV-IV Type Catalyst for Synthesis of Vinyl Acetate Developed by Shanghai Petrochemical Research Instit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The CTV-IV type catalyst for synthesis of vinyl acetate developed by the SINOPEC Shanghai Petrochemical Research Institute (SPRI) has been successfully applied on the #2 vinyl acetate unit at SINOPEC's Shanghai Petrochemical Company.

  11. Extraction and sorption of acetic acid at pH above pK{sub a} to form calcium magnesium acetate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reisinger, H.; King, C.J. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-03-01

    The use of rock salt for deicing roads has many negative effects on automobiles, highway systems, and the environment. Calcium magnesium acetate, hence-forth denoted CMA, has been identified as a more desirable, environmentally benign solid deicer for high-ways, airport runaways, and similar applications. CMA is also of interest as an additive for scavenging sulfur in combustion processes so as to reduce emissions of sulfur oxides and as a catalyst for coal gasification. Different extractants (trioctylphosphine oxide and secondary, tertiary, and quaternary amines) and solid sorbents (tertiary and quaternary amines) were investigated as agents for recovery of acetic acid as part of a process for production of CMA from fermentation acetic acid. The pH and temperature dependencies for uptake of acetic acid by these extractants and sorbents were measured, along with the degrees of regeneration by aqueous suspensions of slaked dolomitic lime. These results enable identification of agents having optimal basicity. Among the extractants, the secondary amine Amberlite LA-2 gave the best combined performance for extraction and regeneration. Among the sorbents, a tertiary amine, Amberlite IRA-35, gave the best performance. Trioctylphosphine oxide does not maintain capacity in the pH range (about 6) most attractive for acetic acid fermentation. Slurred crushed dolomite is not sufficiently basic to accomplish regeneration.

  12. Paradigm for industrial strain improvement identifies sodium acetate tolerance loci in Zymomonas mobilis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Shihui [ORNL; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Klingeman, Dawn Marie [ORNL; Pelletier, Dale A [ORNL; Lu, Tse-Yuan [ORNL; Martin, S L. [North Carolina State University; Guo, Hao-Bo [ORNL; Smith, Jeremy C [ORNL; Brown, Steven D [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    The application of systems biology tools holds promise for rational industrial microbial strain development. Here, we characterize a Zymomonas mobilis mutant (AcR) demonstrating sodium acetate tolerance that has potential importance in biofuel development. The genome changes associated with AcR are determined using microarray comparative genome sequencing (CGS) and 454-pyrosequencing. Sanger sequencing analysis is employed to validate genomic differences and to investigate CGS and 454-pyrosequencing limitations. Transcriptomics, genetic data and growth studies indicate that over-expression of the sodium-proton antiporter gene nhaA confers the elevated AcR sodium acetate tolerance phenotype. nhaA over-expression mostly confers enhanced sodium (Na{sup +}) tolerance and not acetate (Ac{sup -}) tolerance, unless both ions are present in sufficient quantities. NaAc is more inhibitory than potassium and ammonium acetate for Z. mobilis and the combination of elevated Na{sup +} and Ac{sup -} ions exerts a synergistic inhibitory effect for strain ZM4. A structural model for the NhaA sodium-proton antiporter is constructed to provide mechanistic insights. We demonstrate that Saccharomyces cerevisiae sodium-proton antiporter genes also contribute to sodium acetate, potassium acetate, and ammonium acetate tolerances. The present combination of classical and systems biology tools is a paradigm for accelerated industrial strain improvement and combines benefits of few a priori assumptions with detailed, rapid, mechanistic studies.

  13. A paradigm for strain improvement identifies sodium acetate tolerance loci in Zymomonas mobilis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Shihui [ORNL; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Klingeman, Dawn Marie [ORNL; Pelletier, Dale A [ORNL; Lu, Tse-Yuan [ORNL; Martin, S L. [North Carolina State University; Guo, Hao-Bo [ORNL; Smith, Jeremy C [ORNL; Brown, Steven D [ORNL

    2010-04-01

    The application of systems biology tools holds promise for rational industrial microbial strain development. Here, we characterize a Zymomonas mobilis mutant (AcR) demonstrating sodium acetate tolerance that has potential importance in biofuel development. The genome changes associated with AcR are determined using microarray comparative genome sequencing (CGS) and 454-pyrosequencing. Sanger sequencing analysis is employed to validate genomic differences and to investigate CGS and 454-pyrosequencing limitations. Transcriptomics, genetic data and growth studies indicate that over-expression of the sodium-proton antiporter gene nhaA confers the elevated AcR sodium acetate tolerance phenotype. nhaA over-expression mostly confers enhanced sodium (Na+) tolerance and not acetate (Ac-) tolerance, unless both ions are present in sufficient quantities. NaAc is more inhibitory than potassium and ammonium acetate for Z. mobilis and the combination of elevated Na+ and Ac- ions exerts a synergistic inhibitory effect for strain ZM4. A structural model for the NhaA sodium-proton antiporter is constructed to provide mechanistic insights. We demonstrate that Saccharomyces cerevisiae sodium-proton antiporter genes also contribute to sodium acetate, potassium acetate, and ammonium acetate tolerances. The present combination of classical and systems biology tools is a paradigm for accelerated industrial strain improvement and combines benefits of few a priori assumptions with detailed, rapid, mechanistic studies.

  14. Beneficial Effect of Acetic Acid on the Xylose Utilization and Bacterial Cellulose Production by Gluconacetobacter xylinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiao-Yan; Huang, Chao; Guo, Hai-Jun; Xiong, Lian; Luo, Jun; Wang, Bo; Chen, Xue-Fang; Lin, Xiao-Qing; Chen, Xin-De

    2014-09-01

    In this work, acetic acid was found as one promising substrate to improve xylose utilization by Gluconacetobacter xylinus CH001. Also, with the help of adding acetic acid into medium, the bacterial cellulose (BC) production by G. xylinus was increased significantly. In the medium containing 3 g l(-1) acetic acid, the optimal xylose concentration for BC production was 20 g l(-1). In the medium containing 20 g l(-1) xylose, the xylose utilization and BC production by G. xylinus were stimulated by acetic acid within certain concentration. The highest BC yield (1.35 ± 0.06 g l(-1)) was obtained in the medium containing 20 g l(-1) xylose and 3 g l(-1) acetic acid after 14 days. This value was 6.17-fold higher than the yield (0.21 ± 0.01 g l(-1)) in the medium only containing 20 g l(-1) xylose. The results analyzed by FE-SEM, FTIR, and XRD showed that acetic acid affected little on the microscopic morphology and physicochemical characteristics of BC. Base on the phenomenon observed, lignocellulosic acid hydrolysates (xylose and acetic acid are main carbon sources present in it) could be considered as one potential substrate for BC production.

  15. Point mutation of H3/H4 histones affects acetic acid tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiangyong; Zhang, Xiaohua; Zhang, Zhaojie

    2014-10-10

    The molecular mechanism of acetic acid tolerance in yeast remains unclear despite of its importance for efficient cellulosic ethanol production. In this study, we examined the effects of histone H3/H4 point mutations on yeast acetic acid tolerance by comprehensively screening a histone H3/H4 mutant library. A total of 24 histone H3/H4 mutants (six acetic acid resistant and 18 sensitive) were identified. Compared to the wild-type strain, the histone acetic acid-resistant mutants exhibited improved ethanol fermentation performance under acetic acid stress. Genome-wide transcriptome analysis revealed that changes in the gene expression in the acetic acid-resistant mutants H3 K37A and H4 K16Q were mainly related to energy production, antioxidative stress. Our results provide novel insights into yeast acetic acid tolerance on the basis of histone, and suggest a novel approach to improve ethanol production by altering the histone H3/H4 sequences.

  16. Acetic acid in aged vinegar affects molecular targets for thrombus disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Li; Yanyan, Zhang; Junfeng, Fan

    2015-08-01

    To elucidate the mechanism underlying the action of dietary vinegar on antithrombotic activity, acetic acid, the main acidic component of dietary vinegar, was used to determine antiplatelet and fibrinolytic activity. The results revealed that acetic acid significantly inhibits adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-, collagen-, thrombin-, and arachidonic acid (AA)-induced platelet aggregation. Acetic acid (2.00 mM) reduced AA-induced platelet aggregation to approximately 36.82 ± 1.31%, and vinegar (0.12 mL L(-1)) reduced the platelet aggregation induced by AA to 30.25 ± 1.34%. Further studies revealed that acetic acid exerts its effects by inhibiting cyclooxygenase-1 and the formation of thromboxane-A2. Organic acids including acetic acid, formic acid, lactic acid, citric acid, and malic acid also showed fibrinolytic activity; specifically, the fibrinolytic activity of acetic acid amounted to 1.866 IU urokinase per mL. Acetic acid exerted its fibrinolytic activity by activating plasminogen during fibrin crossing, thus leading to crosslinked fibrin degradation by the activated plasmin. These results suggest that organic acids in dietary vinegar play important roles in the prevention and cure of cardiovascular diseases.

  17. Acetic Acid Production by an Electrodialysis Fermentation Method with a Computerized Control System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Yoshiyuki; Iwahara, Masayoshi; Hongo, Motoyoshi

    1988-01-01

    In acetic acid fermentation by Acetobacter aceti, the acetic acid produced inhibits the production of acetic acid by this microorganism. To alleviate this inhibitory effect, we developed an electrodialysis fermentation method such that acetic acid is continuously removed from the broth. The fermentation unit has a computerized system for the control of the pH and the concentration of ethanol in the fermentation broth. The electrodialysis fermentation system resulted in improved cell growth and higher productivity over an extended period; the productivity exceeded that from non-pH-controlled fermentation. During electrodialysis fermentation in our system, 97.6 g of acetic acid was produced from 86.0 g of ethanol; the amount of acetic acid was about 2.4 times greater than that produced by non-pH-controlled fermentation (40.1 g of acetic acid produced from 33.8 g of ethanol). Maximum productivity of electrodialysis fermentation in our system was 2.13 g/h, a rate which was 1.35 times higher than that of non-pH-controlled fermentation (1.58 g/h).

  18. Effects of pH and acetic acid on homoacetic fermentation of lactate by Clostridium formicoaceticum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, I C; Okos, M R; Yang, S T

    1989-10-20

    Clostridium formicoaceticum homofermentatively converts lactate to acetate at 37 degrees C and pH 6.6-9.6. However, this fermentation is strongly inhibited by acetic acid at acidic pH. The specific growth rate of this organism decreased from a maximum at pH 7.6 to zero at pH 6.6. This inhibition effect was found to be attributed to both H(+) and undissociated acetic acid. At pH values below 7.6, the H(+) inhibited the fermentation following non-competitive inhibition kinetics. The acetic acid inhibition was found to be stronger at a lower medium pH. At pH 6.45-6.8, cell growth was found to be primarily limited by a maximum undissociated acetic acid concentration of 0.358 g/L (6mM). This indicates that the undissociated acid, not the dissociated acid, is the major acid inhibitor. At pH 7.6 or higher, this organism could tolerate acetate concentrations of higher than 0.8M, but salt (Na(+)) became a strong inhibitor at concentrations of higher than 0.4M. Acetic acid inhibition also can be represented by noncompetitive inhibition kinetics. A mathematical model for this homoacetic fermentation was also developed. This model can be used to simulate batch fermentation at any pH between 6.9 and 7.6.

  19. A laboratory study of the effect of acetic acid vapor on atmospheric copper corrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Delgado, A.; Cano, E.; Bastidas, J.M.; Lopez, F.A. [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgicas, Madrid (Spain)

    1998-12-01

    A study was made of the copper corrosion rate and corrosion products originated by the action of acetic acid vapor at 100% relative humidity. Copper plates were exposed to an acetic acid contaminated atmosphere for a period of 21 days. Five acetic vapor concentration levels were used. The copper corrosion rate was in the range of 1 to 23 mg/dm{sup 2} day. The corrosion-product layers were characterized using electrochemical, X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, and scanning electron microscopy techniques. Thermal and calorimetric studies were also performed. Some of the compounds identified were cuprite (Cu{sub 2}O), copper acetate hydrate [Cu(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 2}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O], and copper hydroxide acetate [Cu{sub 4}(OH)(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 7}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O]. This last compound was also characterized. The thickness of the patina layers was 4 to 8 nm for amorphous cuprite, 11 to 48 nm for cuprite, and 225 nm for copper acetate. The patina, in which the cementation process of different corrosion-product layers plays an important role, is formed by the reaction of acetic vapor with copper through porous cuprite paths.

  20. Inability of Microorganisms To Degrade Cellulose Acetate Reverse-Osmosis Membranes †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Leighton C. W.; Martin, David D.; Lindemann, William C.

    1983-01-01

    Operational cellulose acetate reverse-osmosis membranes were examined for evidence of biological degradation. Numerous fungi and bacteria were isolated by direct and enrichment techniques. When tested, most of the fungi were active cellulose degraders, but none of the bacteria were. Neither fungi nor bacteria were able to degrade cellulose acetate membrane in vitro, although many fungi were able to degrade cellulose acetate membrane after it had been deacetylated. Organisms did not significantly degrade powdered cellulose acetate in pure or mixed cultures as measured by reduction in acetyl content or intrinsic viscosity or production of reducing sugars. Organisms did not affect the performance of cellulose triacetate fibers when incubated with them. The inability of the organisms to degrade cellulose acetate was attributed to the high degree of acetate substitution of the cellulose polymer. The rate of salt rejection decline was strongly correlated with chlorination of feed water and inversely with densities of microorganisms. These data suggest that microbial degradation of operational cellulose acetate reverse-osmosis membranes is unlikely. PMID:16346192

  1. Safety and efficacy of roxatidine acetate. Evidence from pharmacodynamic and clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merki, H S; Bender, W; Labs, R

    1989-01-01

    The effects of a new H2-receptor antagonist, roxatidine acetate, have been investigated in both clinical and pharmacodynamic trials in Europe and the United States. A series of four double-blind randomized studies are reviewed, reporting the effects of different dose regimens of roxatidine acetate compared with ranitidine and placebo in healthy volunteers using continuous intragastric pH monitoring. These pharmacodynamic studies clearly demonstrate that roxatidine acetate is an effective gastric antisecretory agent, which is up to twice as potent as ranitidine. The results of several clinical studies of roxatidine acetate in patients with gastric as well as duodenal ulcer conducted in Europe, Japan, and the United States are also reviewed. These studies show that roxatidine acetate is comparable to other potent H2-receptor antagonists in terms of cumulative healing rates, pain relief, and safety. Overall, the pharmacodynamic and clinical data indicate that the efficacy of roxatidine acetate 75 mg twice-daily (b.i.d.) does not differ significantly from ranitidine 150 mg b.i.d. Roxatidine acetate is equally effective in the treatment of peptic disease including gastric ulcer, duodenal ulcer, and reflux esophagitis.

  2. [Physiological response to acetic acid stress of Acetobacter pasteuranus during vinegar fermentation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Zhengliang; Yang, Hailin; Xia, Xiaole; Wang, Wu; Leng, Yunwei; Yu, Xiaobin; Quan, Wu

    2014-03-04

    The aim of the study is to propose a dynamic acetic acid resistance mechanism through analysis on response of cellular morphology, physiology and metabolism of A. pasteurianus CICIM B7003 during vinegar fermentation. Vinegar fermentation was carried out in a Frings 9 L acetator by strain B7003 and cultures were sampled at different cellular growth phases. Simultaneously, percentage of capsular polysaccharide versus dry cells weight, ratio of unsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids, transcription of acetic acid resistance genes, activity of alcohol respiratory chain enzymes and ATPase were detected for these samples to assay the responses of bacterial morphology, physiology and metabolism. When acetic acid was existed, no obvious capsular polysaccharide was secreted by cells. As vinegar fermentation proceeding, percentage of capsular polysaccharide versus dry cells weight was reduced from 2.5% to 0.89%. Ratio of unsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids was increased obviously which can improve membrane fluidity. Also transcription level of acetic acid resistance genes was promoted. Interestingly, activity of alcohol respiratory chain and ATPase was not inhibited but promoted obviously with acetic acid accumulation which could provide enough energy for acetic acid resistance mechanism. On the basis of the results obtained from the experiment, A. pasteurianus CICIM B7003 relies mainly on the cooperation of changes of extracellular capsular polysaccharide and membrane fatty acids, activation of acid resistance genes transcription, enhancement of activity of alcohol respiratory chain and rapid energy production to tolerate acidic environment.

  3. Acetic Acid Acts as a Volatile Signal To Stimulate Bacterial Biofilm Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yun; Gozzi, Kevin; Yan, Fang

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Volatiles are small air-transmittable chemicals with diverse biological activities. In this study, we showed that volatiles produced by the bacterium Bacillus subtilis had a profound effect on biofilm formation of neighboring B. subtilis cells that grew in proximity but were physically separated. We further demonstrated that one such volatile, acetic acid, is particularly potent in stimulating biofilm formation. Multiple lines of genetic evidence based on B. subtilis mutants that are defective in either acetic acid production or transportation suggest that B. subtilis uses acetic acid as a metabolic signal to coordinate the timing of biofilm formation. Lastly, we investigated how B. subtilis cells sense and respond to acetic acid in regulating biofilm formation. We showed the possible involvement of three sets of genes (ywbHG, ysbAB, and yxaKC), all encoding putative holin-antiholin-like proteins, in cells responding to acetic acid and stimulating biofilm formation. All three sets of genes were induced by acetate. A mutant with a triple mutation of those genes showed a severe delay in biofilm formation, whereas a strain overexpressing ywbHG showed early and robust biofilm formation. Results of our studies suggest that B. subtilis and possibly other bacteria use acetic acid as a metabolic signal to regulate biofilm formation as well as a quorum-sensing-like airborne signal to coordinate the timing of biofilm formation by physically separated cells in the community. PMID:26060272

  4. Comparison of acetic acid and ethanol sclerotherapy for simple renal cysts: clinical experience with 86 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Young Jun; Shin, Ji Hoon

    2016-01-01

    To compare the efficacy and treatment session numbers of acetic acid to that of ethanol sclerotherapy for the treatment of simple renal cysts. Between February 2004 and June 2013, 86 patients with simple renal cysts underwent percutaneous aspiration and injection of 50 %-acetic-acid (42 cysts) and 95 %-ethanol (44 cysts). The patient demographics, volume reduction rate, number of treatment sessions, and complications were then analyzed. The volume reduction rate was 94.1 ± 7.6 % in the 50 %-acetic acid group and 94.7 ± 11.7 % in the 95 %-ethanol group, and without a statistical difference. The rates of complete remission, partial remission, and no response were 57.1, 42.9 and 0 %, respectively, for the acetic acid group, and 70.5, 25.0, and 4.5 %, respectively, for the ethanol group. No statistical difference was observed between the two groups. Compared to the acetic acid group, the ethanol group had a higher number of treatment sessions, i.e. 1.10 ± 0.30 in the acetic acid group and 1.80 ± 0.79 in the ethanol group. Mild flank pain was a minor complication that occurred in both groups. Acetic acid seems to have equivalent sclerosing effects on simple renal cysts compared with those of ethanol despites of fewer treatment sessions.

  5. Theoretical Study of Acetic Acid Association Based on Hydrogen Bonding Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Minhua; Chen, Lihang; Yang, Huaming; Ma, Jing

    2017-06-15

    Combining molecular dynamics (MD) and quantum chemistry (QM) simulation, the association mechanisms of acetic acid (AA) systems were examined. DFT methods were proposed to compare the hydrogen-bonding energies of variable acetic acid dimers and definitely provided the stable dimers configuration. Geometry parameters of dimers were also obtained by QM calculations, which were taken as the characteristic criteria for further MD analysis. Proportion of different acetic acid dimers in gas phase was obtained by Radial distribution function (RDF) analysis, and cyclic dimer with two O1-Ho hydrogen bonds was demonstrated as the most stable structure. While in the more complex liquid phase, the linear chain form was proved to be the most stable one. Furthermore, in the acetic acid-crotonaldehyde solution, the association configuration of acetic acid changed from the linear chain form to the cyclic dimer structure as the acetic acid concentration decreased gradually. This result would be significant for the chemical separation process of acetic acid-crotonaldehyde solutions.

  6. Acetic acid bacteria in traditional balsamic vinegar: phenotypic traits relevant for starter cultures selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullo, Maria; Giudici, Paolo

    2008-06-30

    This review focuses on acetic acid bacteria in traditional balsamic vinegar process. Although several studies are available on acetic acid bacteria ecology, metabolism and nutritional requirements, their activity as well as their technological traits in homemade vinegars as traditional balsamic vinegar is not well known. The basic technology to oxidise cooked grape must to produce traditional balsamic vinegar is performed by the so called "seed-vinegar" that is a microbiologically undefined starter culture obtained from spontaneous acetification of previous raw material. Selected starter cultures are the main technological improvement in order to innovate traditional balsamic vinegar production but until now they are rarely applied. To develop acetic acid bacteria starter cultures, selection criteria have to take in account composition of raw material, acetic acid bacteria metabolic activities, applied technology and desired characteristics of the final product. For traditional balsamic vinegar, significative phenotypical traits of acetic acid bacteria have been highlighted. Basic traits are: ethanol preferred and efficient oxidation, fast rate of acetic acid production, tolerance to high concentration of acetic acid, no overoxidation and low pH resistance. Specific traits are tolerance to high sugar concentration and to a wide temperature range. Gluconacetobacter europaeus and Acetobacter malorum strains can be evaluated to develop selected starter cultures since they show one or more suitable characters.

  7. Kelp waste extracts combined with acetate enhances the biofuel characteristics of Chlorella sorokiniana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shiyan; He, Meilin; Sui, Yangsui; Gebreluel, Temesgen; Zou, Shanmei; Kemuma, Nyabuto Dorothy; Wang, Changhai

    2017-02-01

    To probe the effect of kelp waste extracts (KWE) combined with acetate on biochemical composition of Chlorella sorokiniana, the cultures were performed under independent/combined treatment of KWE and acetate. The results showed that high cell density and biomass were obtained by KWE combined with acetate treatments, whose biomass productivity increased by 79.69-102.57% and 20.04-35.32% compared with 3.0gL(-1) acetate and KWE treatments respectively. The maximal neutral lipid per cell and lipid productivity were gained in KWE combined with 3.0gL(-1) acetate treatment, which increased by 16.32% and 129.03% compared with 3.0gL(-1) acetate, and 253.35% and 70.74% compared with KWE treatment. Meanwhile, C18:3n3 and C18:2n6c contents were reduced to 4.90% and 11.88%, whereas C16:0 and C18:1n9c were improved to 28.71% and 37.76%. Hence, supplementing appropriate acetate in KWE cultures is supposed to be a great potential method for large-scale cultivation of C. sorokiniana to generate biofuel. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A comparative study of biodegradation of vinyl acetate by environmental strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greń, Izabela; Gąszczak, Agnieszka; Guzik, Urszula; Bartelmus, Grażyna; Labużek, Sylwia

    2011-06-01

    Four Gram-negative strains, E3_2001, EC1_2004, EC3_3502 and EC2_3502, previously isolated from soil samples, were subjected to comparative studies in order to select the best vinyl acetate degrader for waste gas treatment. Comparison of biochemical and physiological tests as well as the results of fatty acids analyses were comparable with the results of 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses. The isolated strains were identified as Pseudomonas putida EC3_2001, Pseudomonas putida EC1_2004, Achromobacter xylosoxidans EC3_3502 and Agrobacterium sp. EC2_3502 strains. Two additional strains, Pseudomonas fluorescens PCM 2123 and Stenotrophomonas malthophilia KB2, were used as controls. All described strains were able to use vinyl acetate as the only source of carbon and energy under aerobic as well as oxygen deficiency conditions. Esterase, alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase were involved in vinyl acetate decomposition under aerobic conditions. Shorter degradation times of vinyl acetate were associated with accumulation of acetic acid, acetaldehyde and ethanol as intermediates in the culture fluids of EC3_2001 and KB2 strains. Complete aerobic degradation of vinyl acetate combined with a low increase in biomass was observed for EC3_2001 and EC1_2004 strains. In conclusion, P. putida EC1_2004 is proposed as the best vinyl acetate degrader for future waste gas treatment in trickle-bed bioreactors.

  9. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of clove essential oil and eugenyl acetate produced by enzymatic esterification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanin, Adriana B; Orlando, Tainara; Piazza, Suelen P; Puton, Bruna M S; Cansian, Rogério L; Oliveira, Debora; Paroul, Natalia

    2014-10-01

    This work reports the maximization of eugenyl acetate production by esterification of essential oil of clove in a solvent-free system using Novozym 435 as catalyst. The antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of clove essential oil and eugenyl acetate produced were determined. The conditions that maximized eugenyl acetate production were 60 °C, essential oil of clove to acetic anhydride ratio of 1:5, 150 rpm, and 10 wt% of enzyme, with a conversion of 99.87 %. A kinetic study was performed to assess the influence of substrates' molar ratio, enzyme concentration, and temperature on product yield. Results show that an excess of anhydride, enzyme concentration of 5.5 wt%, 50 °C, and essential oil of clove to acetic anhydride ratio of 1:5 afforded nearly a complete conversion after 2 h of reaction. Comparing the antibacterial activity of the essential oil of clove before and after esterification, we observed a decrease in the antimicrobial activity of eugenyl acetate, particularly with regard to minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Both eugenyl acetate and clove essential oil were most effective to the gram-negative than gram-positive bacteria group. The results showed a high antioxidant potential for essential oil before and particularly after the esterification reaction thus becoming an option for the formulation of new antioxidant products.

  10. C11-Acetate and F-18 FDG PET for Men With Prostate Cancer Bone Metastases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Evan Y.; Muzi, Mark; Hackenbracht, Joy A.; Rezvani, Brian B.; Link, Jeanne M.; Montgomery, Robert Bruce; Higano, Celestia S.; Eary, Janet F.; Mankoff, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of the Report This study tested the feasibility of C11-acetate (acetate) positron emission tomography (PET) imaging to assess response to therapy in men with bone metastatic prostate cancer and compared results for disease detection and response evaluation with F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET. Materials and Methods Men with ≥3 prostate cancer bone metastases identified by Tc-99m methylene diphosphonate (MDP) bone scintigraphy and/or computed tomography were enrolled in a prospective study of serial acetate and FDG PET imaging. Patients were imaged before and 6 to 12 weeks after initial androgen deprivation therapy for new metastatic prostate cancer or first-line chemotherapy with docetaxel for castration-resistant prostate cancer. Qualitative assessment and changes in the tumor:normal uptake ratio were used to assess response by both acetate and FDG PET. In addition, the detection of bone metastases pretherapy was compared for acetate and FDG PET. Results A total of 8 patients with documented bone metastases were imaged, of which 6 were imaged both pre- and post-therapy. Acetate PET detected bone metastases in all 8 patients, whereas FDG PET detected lesions in 6 of the 7 imaged patients. Acetate PET generally detected more metastases with a higher tumor:normal uptake ratio. Qualitative and quantitative assessments of post-treatment response correlated with composite clinical designations of response, stable disease, or progression in 6 of 6 and 5 of 6 by acetate and 4 of 5 and 3 of 5 by FDG PET, respectively. Conclusions In this pilot study, results indicate that acetate PET holds promise for response assessment of prostate cancer bone metastases and is complementary to FDG PET in bone metastasis detection. PMID:21285676

  11. Partial least square modeling of hydrolysis: analyzing the impacts of pH and acetate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L(U) Fan; HE Pin-jing; SHAO Li-ming

    2006-01-01

    pH and volatile fatty acids both might affect the further hydrolysis of particulate solid waste, which is the limiting-step of anaerobic digestion. To clarify the individual effects of pH and volatile fatty acids, batch experiments were conducted at fixed pH value (pH 5-9) with or without acetate (20 g/L). The hydrolysis efficiencies of carbohydrate and protein were evaluated by carbon and nitrogen content of solids, amylase activity and proteinase activity. The trend of carbohydrate hydrolysis with pH was not affected by the addition of acetate, following the sequence of pH 7>pH 8>pH 9>pH 6>pH 5; but the inhibition of acetate (20 g/L) was obvious by 10%-60 %. The evolution of residual nitrogen showed that the effect of pH on protein hydrolysis was minor, while the acetate was seriously inhibitory especially at alkali condition by 45%-100 %. The relationship between the factors (pH and acetate) and the response variables was evaluated by partial least square modeling (PLS). The PLS analysis demonstrated that the hydrolysis of carbohydrate was both affected by pH and acetate, with pH the more important factor. Therefore, the inhibition by acetate on carbohydrate hydrolysis was mainly due to the corresponding decline of pH, but the presence of acetate species, while the acetate species was the absolutely important factor for the hydrolysis of protein.

  12. Improved Acetic Acid Resistance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by Overexpression of the WHI2 Gene Identified through Inverse Metabolic Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yingying; Stabryla, Lisa; Wei, Na

    2016-01-29

    Development of acetic acid-resistant Saccharomyces cerevisiae is important for economically viable production of biofuels from lignocellulosic biomass, but the goal remains a critical challenge due to limited information on effective genetic perturbation targets for improving acetic acid resistance in the yeast. This study employed a genomic-library-based inverse metabolic engineering approach to successfully identify a novel gene target, WHI2 (encoding a cytoplasmatic globular scaffold protein), which elicited improved acetic acid resistance in S. cerevisiae. Overexpression of WHI2 significantly improved glucose and/or xylose fermentation under acetic acid stress in engineered yeast. The WHI2-overexpressing strain had 5-times-higher specific ethanol productivity than the control in glucose fermentation with acetic acid. Analysis of the expression of WHI2 gene products (including protein and transcript) determined that acetic acid induced endogenous expression of Whi2 in S. cerevisiae. Meanwhile, the whi2Δ mutant strain had substantially higher susceptibility to acetic acid than the wild type, suggesting the important role of Whi2 in the acetic acid response in S. cerevisiae. Additionally, overexpression of WHI2 and of a cognate phosphatase gene, PSR1, had a synergistic effect in improving acetic acid resistance, suggesting that Whi2 might function in combination with Psr1 to elicit the acetic acid resistance mechanism. These results improve our understanding of the yeast response to acetic acid stress and provide a new strategy to breed acetic acid-resistant yeast strains for renewable biofuel production.

  13. 36 CFR 1237.30 - How do agencies manage records on nitrocellulose-base and cellulose-acetate base film?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... records on nitrocellulose-base and cellulose-acetate base film? 1237.30 Section 1237.30 Parks, Forests... and cellulose-acetate base film? (a) The nitrocellulose base, a substance akin to gun cotton, is... picture film and X-ray film—nitrocellulose base). (b) Agencies must inspect cellulose-acetate...

  14. Improved Acetic Acid Resistance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by Overexpression of the WHI2 Gene Identified through Inverse Metabolic Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yingying; Stabryla, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Development of acetic acid-resistant Saccharomyces cerevisiae is important for economically viable production of biofuels from lignocellulosic biomass, but the goal remains a critical challenge due to limited information on effective genetic perturbation targets for improving acetic acid resistance in the yeast. This study employed a genomic-library-based inverse metabolic engineering approach to successfully identify a novel gene target, WHI2 (encoding a cytoplasmatic globular scaffold protein), which elicited improved acetic acid resistance in S. cerevisiae. Overexpression of WHI2 significantly improved glucose and/or xylose fermentation under acetic acid stress in engineered yeast. The WHI2-overexpressing strain had 5-times-higher specific ethanol productivity than the control in glucose fermentation with acetic acid. Analysis of the expression of WHI2 gene products (including protein and transcript) determined that acetic acid induced endogenous expression of Whi2 in S. cerevisiae. Meanwhile, the whi2Δ mutant strain had substantially higher susceptibility to acetic acid than the wild type, suggesting the important role of Whi2 in the acetic acid response in S. cerevisiae. Additionally, overexpression of WHI2 and of a cognate phosphatase gene, PSR1, had a synergistic effect in improving acetic acid resistance, suggesting that Whi2 might function in combination with Psr1 to elicit the acetic acid resistance mechanism. These results improve our understanding of the yeast response to acetic acid stress and provide a new strategy to breed acetic acid-resistant yeast strains for renewable biofuel production. PMID:26826231

  15. Polygenic analysis and targeted improvement of the complex trait of high acetic acid tolerance in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijnen, Jean-Paul; Randazzo, Paola; Foulquié-Moreno, María R; van den Brink, Joost; Vandecruys, Paul; Stojiljkovic, Marija; Dumortier, Françoise; Zalar, Polona; Boekhout, Teun; Gunde-Cimerman, Nina; Kokošar, Janez; Štajdohar, Miha; Curk, Tomaž; Petrovič, Uroš; Thevelein, Johan M

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acetic acid is one of the major inhibitors in lignocellulose hydrolysates used for the production of second-generation bioethanol. Although several genes have been identified in laboratory yeast strains that are required for tolerance to acetic acid, the genetic basis of the high acetic

  16. Polygenic analysis and targeted improvement of the complex trait of high acetic acid tolerance in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijnen, Jean-Paul; Randazzo, Paola; Foulquié-Moreno, María R; van den Brink, Joost; Vandecruys, Paul; Stojiljkovic, Marija; Dumortier, Françoise; Zalar, Polona; Boekhout, Teun; Gunde-Cimerman, Nina; Kokošar, Janez; Štajdohar, Miha; Curk, Tomaž; Petrovič, Uroš; Thevelein, Johan M

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acetic acid is one of the major inhibitors in lignocellulose hydrolysates used for the production of second-generation bioethanol. Although several genes have been identified in laboratory yeast strains that are required for tolerance to acetic acid, the genetic basis of the high acetic

  17. Electroencephalogram investigations of the disequilibrium syndrome during bicarbonate and acetate dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampl, H; Klopp, H W; Michels, N; Mahiout, A; Schilling, H; Wolfgruber, M; Schiller, R; Hanefeld, F; Kessel, M

    1983-01-01

    Continuous long-time electroencephalographic (EEG) monitoring was performed during acetate and bicarbonate dialysis in 20 patients. Persisting normal basic activity of the EEG without neurological symptoms was found only during the course of bicarbonate dialysis. However, in acetate dialysis, during the decrease of arterial CO2 tension (PaCO2), we registered EEG disturbances with moderate to severe slowing, dysrhythmic activity and high voltage discharges. The decrease in PaCO2 and the deterioration in EEG activity in the patients during acetate dialysis was concomitant with severe neurological alterations, e.g. the typical symptoms of so-called 'disequilibrium' causing a cessation of dialysis in three patients.

  18. Kinetics of acetic acid synthesis from ethanol over a Cu/SiO2 catalyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voss, Bodil; Schjødt, Niels Christian; Grunwaldt, Jan-Dierk;

    2011-01-01

    The dehydrogenation of ethanol via acetaldehyde for the synthesis of acetic acid over a Cu based catalyst in a new process is reported. Specifically, we have studied a Cu on SiO2 catalyst which has shown very high selectivity to acetic acid via acetaldehyde compared to competing condensation routes....... The dehydrogenation experiments were carried out in a flow through lab scale tubular reactor. Based on 71 data sets a power law kinetic expression has been derived for the description of the dehydrogenation of acetaldehyde to acetic acid. The apparent reaction order was 0.89 with respect to water and 0...

  19. THE INFLUENCE OF CULTURE MEDIA ON ACETIC FERMENTATION WITH SELECTED Acetobacter STRAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA CRISTIANA GARNAI

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We have systematically followed the efficiency of acetic fermentation, by cultivating 14 Acetobacter strains (previously isolated and identified, within a medium obtain out of ethanol and acetic acid, in various proportions, and utilizing corn extract (CE as a nutrient. The purpose of the research was to determine the resistance of the studied Acetobacter strains related to the composition of the cultivation media (acidity and alcohol content of the medium, as well as following the dynamics of the acetic fermentation by calculating the practical yield. The research led to optimal variants which may be industrially exploited in order to obtain vinegar.

  20. Laboratory test of a prototype heat storage module based on stable supercooling of sodium acetate trihydrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dannemand, Mark; Kong, Weiqiang; Fan, Jianhua;

    2015-01-01

    Laboratory test of a long term heat storage module utilizing the principle of stable supercooling of 199.5 kg of sodium acetate water mixture has been carried out. Avoiding phase separation of the incongruently melting salt hydrate by using the extra water principle increased the heat storage...... the supercooled sodium acetate water mixture was 194 kJ/kg of sodium acetate water mixture in the first test cycles dropping to 179 kJ/kg in the later test cycles. Instability of the supercooling occurred when the charging periods were short and in the last test cycles where the tube connecting the module...