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Sample records for hexaploid wheat electronic

  1. The pangenome of hexaploid bread wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenegro, Juan D; Golicz, Agnieszka A; Bayer, Philipp E; Hurgobin, Bhavna; Lee, HueyTyng; Chan, Chon-Kit Kenneth; Visendi, Paul; Lai, Kaitao; Doležel, Jaroslav; Batley, Jacqueline; Edwards, David

    2017-02-23

    There is an increasing understanding that gene presence absence variation plays an important role in the heritability of agronomic traits, however there have been relatively few studies on gene presence absence variation in crop species. Hexaploid wheat is one of the most important food crops in the world and intensive breeding has reduced the genetic diversity of elite cultivars. Major efforts have produced draft genome assemblies for the cultivar Chinese Spring, but it is unknown how well this represents the genome diversity found in current modern elite cultivars. In this study we build an improved reference for Chinese Spring and explore gene diversity across 18 wheat cultivars. We predict a pangenome size of 140,500 +/- 102 genes, a core genome of 81,070 +/- 1,631 genes, and an average of 128,656 genes in each cultivar. Functional annotation of the variable gene set suggests that it is enriched for genes that may be associated with important agronomic traits. In addition to gene presence variation, more than 36 million intervarietal SNPs were identified across the pangenome. This study of the wheat pangenome provides insight into elite wheat genome diversity as a basis for genomics based improvement of this important crop. A wheat pangenome Gbrowse is available at http://appliedbioinformatics.com.au/cgi-bin/gb2/gbrowse/WheatPan/, and data is available for download from http://wheatgenome.info/wheat_genome_databases.php. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. Combining ability and heterosis effect in hexaploid wheat group

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    Titan Primož

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of hybrid wheat breeding is the identification of parents with high specific combining ability for grain yield and other agronomic traits. This kind of data facilitate the development of hybrid combinations with high level of heterosis in first filial generation (F1 generation. The use of species from the hexaploid wheat group (e.g. Triticum spelta L. Triticum compactum HOST... is representing an opportunity for the increase of heterosis level in the germplasm of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.. The study of combining ability and heterosis effect in hexaploid wheat group was carried out using crosses between thirteen inbred lines of common wheat (6 lines x 7 testers and inter-species crosses (T. aestivum L. × T. spelta L., T. aestivum L. × T. compactum HOST, T. aestivum L. × T. sphaerococcum PERCIV., T. aestivum L. × T. macha DEKAPR. et MENABDE, T. aestivum L. × T. petropavlovskyi UDACZ. et MIGUSCH, T. aestivum L. × T. vavilovii (THUM. JAKUBZ.. The 42 common wheat F1 hybrids were tested during two seasons (2010/11 and 2011/12 on the Selection center Ptuj. The experiment was carried out in a randomized block design with four replications. The 43 interspecies F1 hybrids were tested on the same location in the season 2011/12 and the experiment was designed as an randomized block with three replications. The results were analyzed using statistical package AGROBASE generation II and STATGRAPHICS Centurion XVI. The analysis of variance was significant for both, GCA and SCA variances (P < 0,01. Generally, SCA variances were lower than GCA variances. We could state, that the improvement of heterosis level in the common wheat germplasm through the use of relatives with the same genome (genome BAD is possible. As an example we can point out the interspecies F1 hybrid between common wheat variety Garcia and an accession of the Triticum sphaerococcum PERCIV. species (accession number 01C0201227.

  3. New broad-spectrum resistance to septoria tritici blotch derived from synthetic hexaploid wheat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tabib Ghaffary, M.S.; Faris, J.D.; Friesen, T.L.; Visser, R.G.F.; Lee, van der T.A.J.; Robert, O.; Kema, G.H.J.

    2012-01-01

    Septoria tritici blotch (STB), caused by the ascomycete Mycosphaerella graminicola, is one of the most devastating foliar diseases of wheat. We screened five synthetic hexaploid wheats (SHs), 13 wheat varieties that represent the differential set of cultivars and two susceptible checks with a global

  4. Divergent Development of Hexaploid Triticale by a Wheat - Rye -Psathyrostachys huashanica Trigeneric Hybrid Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Houyang; Wang, Hao; Huang, Juan; Wang, Yujie; Li, Daiyan; Diao, Chengdou; Zhu, Wei; Tang, Yao; Wang, Yi; Fan, Xing; Zeng, Jian; Xu, Lili; Sha, Lina; Zhang, Haiqin; Zhou, Yonghong

    2016-01-01

    Hexaploid triticale is an important forage crop and a promising energy plant. Some forms were previously reported for developing the hexaploid triticale, such as crossing tetraploid wheat or hexaploid wheat with rye, crossing hexaploid triticale and/or hexaploid wheat with octoploid triticale, and spontaneously appearing in the selfed progenies of octoploid triticale. In the present study, we developed an effective method for production of diverse types of hexaploid triticale via wheat-rye-Psathyrostachys huashanica trigeneric hybrid. Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) karyotyping revealed that D genome chromosomes were completely eliminated and the whole A, B, and R genome chromosomes were retained in three lines. More interestingly, the composite genome of the line K14-489-2 consisted of complete A and B genomes and chromosomes 1D, 2R, 3R, 4R, 5R, 6R, and 7R, that of line K14-491-2 was 12 A-genome (1A-6A), 14 B-genome (1B-7B), 12 R-genome (1R-3R, 5R-7R), and chromosomes 1D and 3D, and that of the line K14-547-1 had 26A/B and 14R chromosomes, plus one pair of centric 6BL/2DS translocations. This finding implies that some of D genome chromosomes can be spontaneously and stably incorporated into the hexaploid triticale. Additionally, a variety of high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) compositions were detected in the six hexaploid triticale lines, respectively. Besides, compared with its recurrent triticale parent Zhongsi828, these lines showed high level of resistance to stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, Pst) pathogens prevalent in China, including V26/Gui 22. These new hexaploid triticales not only enhanced diversification of triticale but also could be utilized as valuable germplasm for wheat improvement.

  5. Divergent Development of Hexaploid Triticale by a Wheat - Rye -Psathyrostachys huashanica Trigeneric Hybrid Method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houyang Kang

    Full Text Available Hexaploid triticale is an important forage crop and a promising energy plant. Some forms were previously reported for developing the hexaploid triticale, such as crossing tetraploid wheat or hexaploid wheat with rye, crossing hexaploid triticale and/or hexaploid wheat with octoploid triticale, and spontaneously appearing in the selfed progenies of octoploid triticale. In the present study, we developed an effective method for production of diverse types of hexaploid triticale via wheat-rye-Psathyrostachys huashanica trigeneric hybrid. Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH karyotyping revealed that D genome chromosomes were completely eliminated and the whole A, B, and R genome chromosomes were retained in three lines. More interestingly, the composite genome of the line K14-489-2 consisted of complete A and B genomes and chromosomes 1D, 2R, 3R, 4R, 5R, 6R, and 7R, that of line K14-491-2 was 12 A-genome (1A-6A, 14 B-genome (1B-7B, 12 R-genome (1R-3R, 5R-7R, and chromosomes 1D and 3D, and that of the line K14-547-1 had 26A/B and 14R chromosomes, plus one pair of centric 6BL/2DS translocations. This finding implies that some of D genome chromosomes can be spontaneously and stably incorporated into the hexaploid triticale. Additionally, a variety of high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS compositions were detected in the six hexaploid triticale lines, respectively. Besides, compared with its recurrent triticale parent Zhongsi828, these lines showed high level of resistance to stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, Pst pathogens prevalent in China, including V26/Gui 22. These new hexaploid triticales not only enhanced diversification of triticale but also could be utilized as valuable germplasm for wheat improvement.

  6. Application of Synthetic Hexaploid Wheat Derived from T.Durum, Ae. taushiiin Common Wheat Breeding for FHB Resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The F1 and F4 plants of 'synthetic hexaploid wheat/common wheat'crosses and part of their parents were inoculated with Fusarium graminearum to evaluate FHB resistance.The results showed tht the scab resistance in the F1 varied with the synthetic wheat accessions used as crossing parents.In the F4,some resistant head lines were generated from the crosses,although their parents had different scab resistance levels.It indicated that synthetic hexaploid wheat are useful in wheat breeding for scab resistance.

  7. Variability of leaf Cadmium content in tetraploid and hexaploid wheat

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    Kraljević-Balalić Marija

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium (Cd is a toxic trace metal pollutant for humans, animals, and plants. It is a heavy metal present in soils from natural and anthropogenic sources. Much of the Cd taken up by plants is retained in the root, but a portion is translocated to the aerial portions of the plant and into the seed. The objective of this research was to determine the variability and diversity of Cd content in the leaves of 30 wheat cultivars with different ploidy level, during two years. Analyses of Cd content (ppm in the leaves at heading stage were performed with an atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS. Significant differences between the mean values of the genotypes in Cd content were found. Tetraploid wheat genotypes had higher Cd content than hexaploid genotypes. Cd content was predominantly influenced by the year of growing (73%. The influence of genotype on Cd content amounted 16% and the interaction genotype × year 11%. The cluster of the genotypes consists of four groups. In the groups three and four were some of the genotypes (Kalyan Sona, Partizanka and NS Rana 5 with lowest Cd content in the leaves. They could be chosen as parents in the hybridization for lower cadmium concentration.

  8. Genetic diversity among synthetic hexaploid wheat accessions with resistance to several fungal diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synthetic hexaploid wheat (SHW) is known to be an excellent vehicle for transferring large genetic variations especially the many useful traits present in the D genome of Aegilops tauschii Coss (2n=2x=14, DD) for improvement of cultivated wheat (Triticum aestivum L., 2n=6x=42, AABBDD). The objectiv...

  9. Chromosomal structural changes and microsatellite variations in newly synthesized hexaploid wheat mediated by unreduced gametes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    HAO LI; YAJUAN WANG; XIAOXUE GUO; YINPENG DU; CHANGYOU WANG; WANQUAN JI

    2016-12-01

    Allohexaploid wheat was derived from interspecific hybridization, followed by spontaneous chromosome doubling. Newly synthesized hexaploid wheat by crossing Triticum turgidum and Aegilops tauschii provides a classical model to understand the mechanisms of allohexaploidization in wheat. However, immediate chromosome level variation and microsatellite level variation of newly synthesized hexaploid wheat have been rarely reported. Here, unreduced gametes were applied to develop synthesized hexaploid wheat, NA0928, population by crossing T. turgidum ssp. dicoccum MY3478 and Ae. tauschii SY41, and further S0–S3 generations of NA0928 were assayed by sequential cytological and microsatellite techniques. We demonstrated that plentiful chromosomal structural changes and microsatellite variations emerged in the early generations of newlysynthesized hexaploid wheat population NA0928, including aneuploidy with whole-chromosome loss or gain, aneuploidy with telosome formation, chromosome-specific repeated sequence elimination (indicated by fluorescence in situ hybridization) and microsatellite sequence elimination (indicated by sequencing), and many kinds of variations have not been previously reported. Additionally, we reported a new germplasm, T. turgidum accession MY3478 with excellent unreduced gametes trait, and then succeeded to transfer powdery mildew resistance from Ae. tauschii SY41 to synthesized allohexaploid wheatpopulation NA0928, which would be valuable resistance resources for wheat improvement.

  10. Detection of Genetic Diversity in Synthetic Hexaploid Wheats Using Microsatellite Markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Guo-yue; LI Li-hui

    2007-01-01

    Ninety-five synthetic hexaploid wheats(2n=6x=42,AABBDD)were analyzed using 45 microsatellite markers to investigate the potential genetic diversity in wheat breeding programs.A total of 326 alleles were detected by these microsatellite primer pairs,with an average of 6.65 alleles per locus.The polymorphic information content(PIC),Simpson index(SI),and genetic similarity(GS)coefficient showed that the D genome is of the highest genetic diversity among the A,B,and D genomes in the synthetic hexaploid wheats.The results also indicated that the synthetic hexaploid wheat is an efficient way to enrich wheat genetic backgrounds,especially to use the genetic variations of the D genome from Aegilops squarrosa for wheat improvement.The UPGMA dendogram,based on a similarity matrix by a simple matching coefficient algorithm,delineated the above accessions into 5 major clusters and was in accordance with the available pedigree information.The results demonstrated the utility of microsatellite markers in detecting DNA polymorphism and estimating genetic diversity.

  11. Genomic and genie sequence variation in synthetic hexaploid wheat(AABBDD)as compared to their parental species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lihong Nie; Zongfu Han; Lahu Lu; Yingyin Yao; Qixin Sun; Zhongfu Ni

    2008-01-01

    In order to understand the genomic changes during the evolution of hexaploid wheat,two sets of synthetic hexaploid wheat from hybridization between maternal tetraploid wheat (AABB) and paternal diploid goat grass(DD)were used for DNA-AFLP and single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis to determine the genomic and genie variation in the synthetic hexaploid wheat.Results indicated that more DNA sequences from paternal diploid species wen eliminated in the synthetic hexaploid wheat than from maternal tetraploid wheat,suggesting that genome from parental species of lower ploidity tends to be eliminated preferentially.However,sequence variation detected by SSCP procedure was much lower than those detected by DNA-AFLP.which indicated that much less variation in the genie regions occurred in the synthetic hexaploid wheat.and sequence variations detected by DNA-AFLP could be derived mostly from non-coding regions and repetitive sequences.Our results also indicated that sequence variation in 4 genes can be detected in hybrid F1.which suggested that this type of sequence variation could be resulted from distant hybridization.It was interesting to note that 3 out of the 4 genes were mapped and clustered on the long alTll of chromosome 2D,which indicated that variation in genic sequences in synthetic hexaploid wheat might not be a randomized process.

  12. High Transferability of Homoeolog-Specific Markers between Bread Wheat and Newly Synthesized Hexaploid Wheat Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Deying; Luo, Jiangtao; Li, Zenglin; Chen, Gang; Zhang, Lianquan; Ning, Shunzong; Yuan, Zhongwei; Zheng, Youliang; Hao, Ming; Liu, Dengcai

    2016-01-01

    Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum, 2n = 6x = 42, AABBDD) has a complex allohexaploid genome, which makes it difficult to differentiate between the homoeologous sequences and assign them to the chromosome A, B, or D subgenomes. The chromosome-based draft genome sequence of the ‘Chinese Spring’ common wheat cultivar enables the large-scale development of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based markers specific for homoeologs. Based on high-confidence ‘Chinese Spring’ genes with known functions, we developed 183 putative homoeolog-specific markers for chromosomes 4B and 7B. These markers were used in PCR assays for the 4B and 7B nullisomes and their euploid synthetic hexaploid wheat (SHW) line that was newly generated from a hybridization between Triticum turgidum (AABB) and the wild diploid species Aegilops tauschii (DD). Up to 64% of the markers for chromosomes 4B or 7B in the SHW background were confirmed to be homoeolog-specific. Thus, these markers were highly transferable between the ‘Chinese Spring’ bread wheat and SHW lines. Homoeolog-specific markers designed using genes with known functions may be useful for genetic investigations involving homoeologous chromosome tracking and homoeolog expression and interaction analyses. PMID:27611704

  13. Association analysis of grain traits with SSR markers between Aegilops tauschii and hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivumL.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Jing-lan; WANG Hong-wei; ZHANG Xiao-cun; DU Xu-ye; LI An-fei; KONG Ling-rang

    2015-01-01

    Seven important grain traits, including grain length (GL), grain width (GW), grain perimeter (GP), grain area (GA), grain length/width ratio (GLW), roundness (GR), and thousand-grain weight (TGW), were analyzed using a set of 139 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers in 130 hexaploid wheat varieties and 193Aegilops tauschiaccessions worldwide. In total, 1612 aleles inAe. tauschiand 1360 aleles in hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivumL.) were detected throughout the D genome. 197 marker-trait associations inAe. tauschi were identiifed with 58 different SSR loci in 3 environments, and the average phenotypic variation value (R2) ranged from 0.68 to 15.12%. In contrast, 208 marker-trait associations were identiifed in wheat with 66 different SSR markers in 4 environments and the average phenotypicR2ranged from 0.90 to 19.92%. Further analysis indicated that there are 6 common SSR loci present in bothAe. tauschi and hexaploid wheat, which are signiifcantly associated with the 5 investigated grain traits (i.e., GA, GP, GR, GL, and TGW) and in total, 16 aleles derived from the 6 aforementioned SSR loci were shared byAe. tauschi and hexaploid wheat. These preliminary data suggest the existence of common aleles may explain the evolutionary process and the selection betweenAe. tauschi and hexaploid wheat. Furthermore, the genetic differentiation of grain shape and thousand-grain weight were observed in the evolutionary developmental process fromAe. tauschi to hexaploid wheat.

  14. Evaluation of Aegilops tauschii for Heading Date and Its Gene Location in a Re-synthesized Hexaploid Wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIANG Zhi-guo; ZHANG Lian-quan; NING Shun-zong; ZHENG You-Liang; LIU Deng-cai

    2009-01-01

    The successful worldwide cultivation of hexaploid wheat in a diverse range of environments is because of, in part, breeding and selection for appropriate heading date. To adjust and fine-tune the heading time of hexaploid wheat to particular geographical regions and specific environment within these, there is an urgent need to evaluate and use alternative alleles for heading time. Aegilops tauschii, the donor species of D-genome of hexaploid wheat, has a wide geographic distribution. The present study revealed a wide variation for heading time among 56 Ae. tauschii accessions. All the accessions with short heading dates belonged to the ssp. tauschii, whereas most of ssp. strangulata accessions showed very long heading date. The heading date was also related to distribution of this species. The monotelosomic and monosomic analysis of a synthetic hexaploid wheat showed that chromosome 2D derived from ssp. tauschii accession AS60 had a major effect on promoting heading time with a reduction of more than 5 days. It is postulated that this Ae. tauschii genotype possess the allele Ppd-Dt1 responsible for the insensitivity to photoperiod. This allele is probably different from Ppd-D1 existing in hexaploid wheat. The new allele Ppd-Dt1 derived from Ae. tauschii might be used as a source for hexaploid wheat breeding on photoperiod response.

  15. Spontaneous and divergent hexaploid triticales derived from common wheat × rye by complete elimination of D-genome chromosomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Li

    Full Text Available Hexaploid triticale could be either synthesized by crossing tetraploid wheat with rye, or developed by crossing hexaploid wheat with a hexaploid triticale or an octoploid triticale.Here two hexaploid triticales with great morphologic divergence derived from common wheat cultivar M8003 (Triticum aestivum L. × Austrian rye (Secale cereale L. were reported, exhibiting high resistance for powdery mildew and stripe rust and potential for wheat improvement. Sequential fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH and genomic in situ hybridization (GISH karyotyping revealed that D-genome chromosomes were completely eliminated and the whole A-genome, B-genome and R-genome chromosomes were retained in both lines. Furthermore, plentiful alterations of wheat chromosomes including 5A and 7B were detected in both triticales and additionally altered 5B, 7A chromosome and restructured chromosome 2A was assayed in N9116H and N9116M, respectively, even after selfing for several decades. Besides, meiotic asynchrony was displayed and a variety of storage protein variations were assayed, especially in the HMW/LMW-GS region and secalins region in both triticales.This study confirms that whole D-genome chromosomes could be preferentially eliminated in the hybrid of common wheat × rye, "genome shock" was accompanying the allopolyploidization of nascent triticales, and great morphologic divergence might result from the genetic variations. Moreover, new hexaploid triticale lines contributing potential resistance resources for wheat improvement were produced.

  16. Structural and molecular basis of starch viscosity in hexaploid wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ral, J-P; Cavanagh, C R; Larroque, O; Regina, A; Morell, M K

    2008-06-11

    Wheat starch is considered to have a low paste viscosity relative to other starches. Consequently, wheat starch is not preferred for many applications as compared to other high paste viscosity starches. Increasing the viscosity of wheat starch is expected to increase the functionality of a range of wheat flour-based products in which the texture is an important aspect of consumer acceptance (e.g., pasta, and instant and yellow alkaline noodles). To understand the molecular basis of starch viscosity, we have undertaken a comprehensive structural and rheological analysis of starches from a genetically diverse set of wheat genotypes, which revealed significant variation in starch traits including starch granule protein content, starch-associated lipid content and composition, phosphate content, and the structures of the amylose and amylopectin fractions. Statistical analysis highlighted the association between amylopectin chains of 18-25 glucose residues and starch pasting properties. Principal component analysis also identified an association between monoesterified phosphate and starch pasting properties in wheat despite the low starch-phosphate level in wheat as compared to tuber starches. We also found a strong negative correlation between the phosphate ester content and the starch content in flour. Previously observed associations between internal starch granule fatty acids and the swelling peak time and pasting temperature have been confirmed. This study has highlighted a range of parameters associated with increased starch viscosity that could be used in prebreeding/breeding programs to modify wheat starch pasting properties.

  17. Applicability of Aegilops tauschii drought tolerance traits to breeding of hexaploid wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohail, Quahir; Inoue, Tomoe; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Eltayeb, Amin Elsadig; Matsuoka, Yoshihiro; Tsujimoto, Hisashi

    2011-12-01

    Few genes are available to develop drought-tolerant bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars. One way to enhance bread wheat's genetic diversity would be to take advantage of the diversity of wild species by creating synthetic hexaploid wheat (SW) with the genomic constitution of bread wheat. In this study, we compared the expression of traits encoded at different ploidy levels and evaluated the applicability of Aegilops tauschii drought-related traits using 33 Ae. tauschii accessions along with their corresponding SW lines under well-watered and drought conditions. We found wide variation in Ae. tauschii, and even wider variation in the SW lines. Some SW lines were more drought-tolerant than the standard cultivar Cham 6. Aegilops tauschii from some regions gave better performing SW lines. The traits of Ae. tauschii were not significantly correlated with their corresponding SW lines, indicating that the traits expressed in wild diploid relatives of wheat may not predict the traits that will be expressed in SW lines derived from them. We suggest that, regardless of the adaptability and performance of the Ae. tauschii under drought, production of SW could probably result in genotypes with enhanced trait expression due to gene interactions, and that the traits of the synthetic should be evaluated in hexaploid level.

  18. Patterns of homoeologous gene expression shown by RNA sequencing in hexaploid bread wheat.

    KAUST Repository

    Leach, Lindsey J

    2014-04-11

    BACKGROUND: Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) has a large, complex and hexaploid genome consisting of A, B and D homoeologous chromosome sets. Therefore each wheat gene potentially exists as a trio of A, B and D homoeoloci, each of which may contribute differentially to wheat phenotypes. We describe a novel approach combining wheat cytogenetic resources (chromosome substitution \\'nullisomic-tetrasomic\\' lines) with next generation deep sequencing of gene transcripts (RNA-Seq), to directly and accurately identify homoeologue-specific single nucleotide variants and quantify the relative contribution of individual homoeoloci to gene expression. RESULTS: We discover, based on a sample comprising ~5-10% of the total wheat gene content, that at least 45% of wheat genes are expressed from all three distinct homoeoloci. Most of these genes show strikingly biased expression patterns in which expression is dominated by a single homoeolocus. The remaining ~55% of wheat genes are expressed from either one or two homoeoloci only, through a combination of extensive transcriptional silencing and homoeolocus loss. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that wheat is tending towards functional diploidy, through a variety of mechanisms causing single homoeoloci to become the predominant source of gene transcripts. This discovery has profound consequences for wheat breeding and our understanding of wheat evolution.

  19. A modified TILLING approach to detect induced mutations in tetraploid and hexaploid wheat

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    Tsai Helen

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wheat (Triticum ssp. is an important food source for humans in many regions around the world. However, the ability to understand and modify gene function for crop improvement is hindered by the lack of available genomic resources. TILLING is a powerful reverse genetics approach that combines chemical mutagenesis with a high-throughput screen for mutations. Wheat is specially well-suited for TILLING due to the high mutation densities tolerated by polyploids, which allow for very efficient screens. Despite this, few TILLING populations are currently available. In addition, current TILLING screening protocols require high-throughput genotyping platforms, limiting their use. Results We developed mutant populations of pasta and common wheat and organized them for TILLING. To simplify and decrease costs, we developed a non-denaturing polyacrylamide gel set-up that uses ethidium bromide to detect fragments generated by crude celery juice extract digestion of heteroduplexes. This detection method had similar sensitivity as traditional LI-COR screens, suggesting that it represents a valid alternative. We developed genome-specific primers to circumvent the presence of multiple homoeologous copies of our target genes. Each mutant library was characterized by TILLING multiple genes, revealing high mutation densities in both the hexaploid (~1/38 kb and tetraploid (~1/51 kb populations for 50% GC targets. These mutation frequencies predict that screening 1,536 lines for an effective target region of 1.3 kb with 50% GC content will result in ~52 hexaploid and ~39 tetraploid mutant alleles. This implies a high probability of obtaining knock-out alleles (P = 0.91 for hexaploid, P = 0.84 for tetraploid, in addition to multiple missense mutations. In total, we identified over 275 novel alleles in eleven targeted gene/genome combinations in hexaploid and tetraploid wheat and have validated the presence of a subset of them in our seed stock

  20. Genome interplay in the grain transcriptome of hexaploid bread wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, Matthias; Kugler, Karl G; Sandve, Simen R; Zhan, Bujie; Rudi, Heidi; Hvidsten, Torgeir R; Mayer, Klaus F X; Olsen, Odd-Arne

    2014-07-18

    Allohexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) provides approximately 20% of calories consumed by humans. Lack of genome sequence for the three homeologous and highly similar bread wheat genomes (A, B, and D) has impeded expression analysis of the grain transcriptome. We used previously unknown genome information to analyze the cell type-specific expression of homeologous genes in the developing wheat grain and identified distinct co-expression clusters reflecting the spatiotemporal progression during endosperm development. We observed no global but cell type- and stage-dependent genome dominance, organization of the wheat genome into transcriptionally active chromosomal regions, and asymmetric expression in gene families related to baking quality. Our findings give insight into the transcriptional dynamics and genome interplay among individual grain cell types in a polyploid cereal genome. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  1. Synthetic hexaploids derived from under-exploited tetraploids as a new resource for disease resistance in wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synthetic hexaploid wheat (SHW) (2n = 6x = 42, genome AABBDD), which is developed from the hybridization between tetraploid wheat (Triticum turgidum L., 2n = 4x = 28, genome AABB) and Aegilops tauschii Coss. (2n = 2x = 14, genome DD), is a useful bridging germplasm for the introgression of desirable...

  2. Water and Nutrient Use Efficiency in Diploid, Tetraploid and Hexaploid Wheats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming-Li Huang; Xi-Ping Deng; Yu-Zong Zhao; Sheng-Lu Zhou; Shinobu Inanaga; Satoshi Yamada; Kiyoshi Tanaka

    2007-01-01

    Three diploid (Triticum boeoticum, AA; Aegilops speltoides, BB and Ae. tauschii, DD), two tetraplold (T. dlcoccoides,AABB and T. dicoccon, AABB) and one hexaploid (T. vulgare, AABBDD) varieties of wheat, which are very important in the evolution of wheat were chosen in this study. A pot experiment was carried out on the wheat under different water and nutrient conditions (i) to understand the differences in biomass, yield, water use efficiency (WUE), and nutrient (N, P and K) use efficiency (uptake and utilization efficiency) among ploldles in the evolution of wheat; (ii) to clarify the effect of water and nutrient conditions on water and nutrient use efficiency; and (iii) to assess the relationship of water and nutrient use efficiency in the evolution of wheat. Our results showed that from diploid to tetraploid then to hexaploid during the evolution of wheat, both root biomass and above-ground biomass increased initially and then decreased. Water consumption for transpiration decreased remarkably, correlating with the decline of the growth period, while grain yield, harvest index, WUE, N, P and K uptake efficiency, and N, P and K utilization efficiency increased significantly. Grain yield, harvest index and WUE decreased in the same order: T.vulgare > T. dicoccon > T. dicoccoides > Ae. tauschii > Ae. speltoides > T. boeoticum. Water stress significantly decreased root biomass, above-ground biomass, yield, and water consumption for transpiration by 47-52%, butremarkably increased WUE. Increasing the nutrient supply increased wheat above-ground biomass, grain yield,harvest index, water consumption for transpiration and WUE under different water levels, but reduced root biomass under drought conditions. Generally, water stress and low nutrient supply resulted in the lower nutrientuptake efficiency of wheat. However, water and nutrient application had no significant effects on nutrient utilization efficiency, suggesting that wheat nutrient utilization

  3. Possible origin of Triticum petropavlovskyi based on cytological analyses of crosses between T. petropavlovskyi and tetraploid, hexaploid, and synthetic hexaploid (SHW-DPW wheat accessions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Chen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Intraspecific hybridization between Triticum petropavlovskyi Udacz. et Migusch., synthetic hexaploid wheat (SHW-DPW, and tetraploid and hexaploid wheat, was performed to collect data on seed set, fertility of F1 hybrid, and meiotic pairing configuration, aiming to evaluate the possible origin of T. petropavlovskyi. Our data showed that (1 seed set of crosses T. petropavlovskyi × T. polonicum and T. petropavlovskyi × T. aestivum cv. Chinese Spring was significantly high; (2 fertility of hybrids T. petropavlovskyi × T. polonicum and T. petropavlovskyi × T. aestivum ssp. yunnanense was higher than that of the other hybrids; (3 fertility of F1 hybrids SHW-DPW × T. dicoccoides and SHW-DPW×T. aestivum ssp. tibetanum was significantly high; and (4 c-value of T. petropavlovskyi × T. polonicum and T. petropavlovskyi × T. aestivum cv. Changning white wheat was also significantly high. The results indicate that the probable origin of T. petropavlovskyi is divergence from a natural cross between T. aestivum and T. polonicum, via either spontaneous introgression or breeding effort.

  4. Simultaneous editing of three homoeoalleles in hexaploid bread wheat confers heritable resistance to powdery mildew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanpeng; Cheng, Xi; Shan, Qiwei; Zhang, Yi; Liu, Jinxing; Gao, Caixia; Qiu, Jin-Long

    2014-09-01

    Sequence-specific nucleases have been applied to engineer targeted modifications in polyploid genomes, but simultaneous modification of multiple homoeoalleles has not been reported. Here we use transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN) and clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas9 (refs. 4,5) technologies in hexaploid bread wheat to introduce targeted mutations in the three homoeoalleles that encode MILDEW-RESISTANCE LOCUS (MLO) proteins. Genetic redundancy has prevented evaluation of whether mutation of all three MLO alleles in bread wheat might confer resistance to powdery mildew, a trait not found in natural populations. We show that TALEN-induced mutation of all three TaMLO homoeologs in the same plant confers heritable broad-spectrum resistance to powdery mildew. We further use CRISPR-Cas9 technology to generate transgenic wheat plants that carry mutations in the TaMLO-A1 allele. We also demonstrate the feasibility of engineering targeted DNA insertion in bread wheat through nonhomologous end joining of the double-strand breaks caused by TALENs. Our findings provide a methodological framework to improve polyploid crops.

  5. Identification and characterization of genes on a single subgenome in the hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotype 'Chinese Spring'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jian; Zheng, Zhi; Stiller, Jiri; Lan, Xiu-Jin; Liu, Yaxi; Deng, Mei; Wang, Penghao; Pu, Zhien; Chen, Guangdeng; Jiang, Qian-Tao; Wei, Yuming; Zheng, You-Liang

    2017-03-01

    Gene loss during the formation of hexaploid bread wheat has been repeatedly reported. However, our knowledge on genome-wide analysis of the genes present on a single subgenome (SSG) in bread wheat is still limited. In this study, by analysing the 'Chinese Spring' chromosome arm shotgun sequences together with high-confidence gene models, we detected 433 genes on a SSG. Greater gene loss was observed in A and D subgenomes compared with B subgenome. More than 79% of the orthologs for these SSG genes were detected in diploid and tetraploid relatives of hexaploid wheat. Unexpectedly, no bias in expression breadth or in the distribution patterns of GO (gene ontology) terms for these genes was detected among the high-confidence genes. Further, network and KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) pathway analyses indicated that most of these genes were not functionally related to each other. Interestingly, 30.7% of these SSG genes were most highly expressed in root, showing biased distribution given the distribution of the whole high-confidence genes. Collectively, these results facilitate our understanding of the loss of the genes that were retained in a SSG during the formation of hexaploid wheat.

  6. Transcriptional profiling of hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) roots identifies novel, dehydration-responsive genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Mohsen; Kav, Nat N V; Deyholos, Michael K

    2007-05-01

    We used a long-oligonucleotide microarray to identify transcripts that increased or decreased in abundance in roots of dehydration-tolerant hexaploid bread wheat, in response to withholding of water. We observed that the major classes of dehydration-responsive genes (e.g. osmoprotectants, compatible solutes, proteases, glycosyltransferases/hydrolases, signal transducers components, ion transporters) were generally similar to those observed previously in other species and osmotic stresses. More specifically, we highlighted increases in transcript expression for specific genes including those putatively related to the synthesis of asparagine, trehalose, oligopeptide transporters, metal-binding proteins, the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) shunt and transcription factors. Conversely, we noted a decrease in transcript abundance for diverse classes of glutathione and sulphur-related enzymes, specific amino acids, as well as MATE-efflux carrier proteins. From these data, we identified a novel, dehydration-induced putative AP2/ERF transcription factor, which we predict to function as a transcriptional repressor. We also identified a dehydration-induced 'little protein' (LitP; predicted mass: 8 kDa) that is highly conserved across spermatophytes. Using qRT-PCR, we compared the expression patterns of selected genes between two related wheat genotypes that differed in their susceptibility to dehydration, and confirmed that these novel genes were highly inducible by water limitation in both genotypes, although the magnitude of induction differed.

  7. Molecular cloning and characterization of two novel genes from hexaploid wheat that encode double PR-1 domains coupled with a receptor-like protein kinase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) contains at least 23 TaPr-1 genes encoding the group 1 pathogenesis-related (PR-1) proteins as identified in our previous work. Here we report the cloning and characterization of TaPr-1-rk1 and TaPr-1-rk2, two novel genes closely related to the wheat PR-1 famil...

  8. Using the Hexaploid Nature of Wheat To Create Variability in Starch Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inokuma, Takayuki; Vrinten, Patricia; Shimbata, Tomoya; Sunohara, Ai; Ito, Hiroyuki; Saito, Mika; Taniguchi, Yoshinori; Nakamura, Toshiki

    2016-02-03

    In hexaploid crops, such as bread wheat, it should be possible to fine-tune phenotypic traits by identifying wild-type and null genes from each of the three genomes and combining them in a calculated manner. Here, we demonstrate this with gene combinations for two starch synthesis genes, SSIIa and GBSSI. Lines with inactive copies of both enzymes show a very dramatic change in phenotype, so to create intermediate phenotypes, we used marker-assisted selection to develop near-isogenic lines (NILs) carrying homozygous combinations of null alleles. For both genes, gene dosage effects follow the order B > D ≥ A; therefore, we completed detailed analysis of starch characteristics for NIL 3-3, which is null for the B-genome copy of the SSIIa and GBSSI genes, and NIL 5-5, which has null mutations in the B- and D-genome-encoded copies of both of these genes. The effects of the combinations on phenotypic traits followed the order expected on the basis of genotype, with NIL 5-5 showing the largest differences from the wild type, while NIL 3-3 characteristics were intermediate between NIL 5-5 and the wild type. Differences among genotypes were significant for many starch characteristics, including percent amylose, chain length distribution, gelatinization temperature, retrogradation, and pasting properties, and these differences appeared to translate into improvements in end-product quality, since bread made from type 5-5 flour showed a 3 day lag in staling.

  9. Meiotic behaviour of tetraploid wheats (Triticum turgidum L.) and their synthetic hexaploid wheat derivates influenced by meiotic restitution and heat stress

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Masoumeh Rezaei; Ahmad Arzani; Badraldin Ebrahim Sayed-Tabatabaei

    2010-12-01

    Meiotic restitution is considered to be a common mechanism of polyploidization in plants and hence is one of the most important processes in plant speciation. Meiotic behaviour of plant chromosomes is influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. In this study, the meiotic behaviour of cereal crops was investigated, which includes tetraploid wheat genotypes (with and without the meiotic restitution trait) and their derivates (synthetic hexaploid wheats and a doubled haploid (DH) line), grown at two planting dates in the field. In addition, two local landraces of emmer wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccum), one wheat cultivar (Chinese spring), one DH triticale cultivar (Eleanor) and one rye accession were included. Immature spikes of mid-autumn and end-winter sowing plants were collected in April and May 2008, respectively, fixed in Carnoy’s solution and stained with hematoxylin. Pollen mother cells (PMCs) from anthers at different stages of meiotic process were analysed for their chromosomal behaviour and irregularities. Meiotic aberrations such as laggards, chromosome bridges, micronuclei, abnormal cytokines, chromatin pulling and meiotic restitution were observed and the studied genotypes were accordingly ranked as follows: triticale > synthetic hexaploid wheats > tetraploid wheats possessing meiotic restitution > tetraploid wheats lacking meiotic restitution > rye. The results indicated that the samples that had been planted in the autumn, thus experiencing an optimum temperature level at the flowering stage, exhibited less meiotic irregularities than winter planting samples that encountered heat stress at the flowering period.

  10. Quality of synthetic hexaploid wheat containing null alleles at Glu-A1 and Glu-B1 loci

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Xinkun Hu; Shoufen Dai; Zhien Pu; Dengcai Liu; Zongjun Pu; Jiaqi Jiang; Yuming Wei; Bihua Wu; Xiujin Lan; Youliang Zheng; Zehong Yan

    2013-08-01

    Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccon PI94668 and PI349045 were identified as containing null alleles at Glu-A1 and Glu-B1 loci in previous investigation. Sequencing of the respective HMW-GS genes Ax, Bx, Ay and By in both accessions indicated equal DNA lengths with gene silencing caused by 1 to 4 in-frame stop codon(s) in the open reading frames. Six synthetic hexaploid wheat lines were produced by crossing PI94668 or PI349045 with six Aegilops tauschii by spontaneous chromosome doubling of unreduced gametes. As expected, these amphiploids had three different HMW-GS: Dx 3.1t + Dy11*t, Dx2.1t +10t and Dx2t + Dy12t in Glu-D1 but double nulls in Glu-A1 and Glu-B1. Quality tests showed that most quality parameters in two T. turgidum ssp. dicoccon parents were very low due to the lack of HMW-GSs. However, incorporation of HMW-GS from Ae. tauschii in six synthetic hexaploid wheat lines significantly increased most quality related parameters. The potential values of these wheat lines in improving the quality of wheat are discussed.

  11. [Analysis of wheat and rye semidwarfing gene distribution in spring hexaploid triticale (Triticosecale Wittm.) varieties and lines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korshunova, A D; Divashchuk, M G; Solov'ev, A A; Karlov, G I

    2015-03-01

    A collection of spring hexaploid triticale varieties and promising breeding lines has been examined for the presence of wheat Rht-B1b, Rht-B1e, and Rht8c semidwarfing genes and the rye Hl semidwarfing gene. It was discovered in spring triticale that these semidwarfing genes are represented by only one, the Rht-B1b wheat gene. The presence of this gene is associated with shortening of spring triticale plants by 28 cm on average, which constituted 26% of their initial height. Rht-B1b was found in all of the studied commercial varieties of spring triticale, which rendered it possible to conclude that plant height reduction is a necessary condition for increasing the competitiveness of this crop culture.

  12. Genotype-dependent Burst of Transposable Element Expression in Crowns of Hexaploid Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. during Cold Acclimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debbie Laudencia-Chingcuanco

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The expression of 1,613 transposable elements (TEs represented in the Affymetrix Wheat Genome Chip was examined during cold treatment in crowns of four hexaploid wheat genotypes that vary in tolerance to cold and in flowering time. The TE expression profiles showed a constant level of expression throughout the experiment in three of the genotypes. In winter Norstar, the most cold-hardy of the four genotypes, a subset of the TEs showed a burst of expression after vernalization saturation was achieved. About 47% of the TEs were expressed, and both Class I (retrotransposons and Class II (DNA transposons types were well represented. Gypsy and Copia were the most represented among the retrotransposons while CACTA and Mariner were the most represented DNA transposons. The data suggests that the Vrn-A1 region plays a role in the stage-specific induction of TE expression in this genotype.

  13. Tetraploid and hexaploid wheat varieties reveal large differences in expression of alpha-gliadins from homoeologous Gli-2 loci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastien Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Α-gliadins form a multigene protein family encoded by multiple α-gliadin (Gli-2 genes at three genomic loci, Gli-A2, Gli-B2 and Gli-D2, respectively located on the homoeologous wheat chromosomes 6AS, 6BS, and 6DS. These proteins contain a number of important celiac disease (CD-immunogenic domains. The α-gliadins expressed from the Gli-B2 locus harbour fewer conserved CD-epitopes than those from Gli-A2, whereas the Gli-D2 gliadins have the highest CD-immunogenic potential. In order to detect differences in the highly CD-immunogenic α-gliadin fraction we determined the relative expression level from the homoeologous Gli-2 loci in various tetraploid and hexaploid wheat genotypes by using a quantitative pyrosequencing method and by analyzing expressed sequence tag (EST sequences. Results We detected large differences in relative expression levels of α-gliadin genes from the three homoeologous loci among wheat genotypes, both as relative numbers of expressed sequence tag (EST sequences from specific varieties and when using a quantitative pyrosequencing assay specific for Gli-A2 genes. The relative Gli-A2 expression level in a tetraploid durum wheat cultivar ('Probstdorfer Pandur' was 41%. In genotypes derived from landraces, the Gli-A2 frequency varied between 12% and 58%. In some advanced hexaploid bread wheat cultivars the genes from locus Gli-B2 were hardly expressed (e.g., less than 5% in 'Lavett' but in others they made up more than 40% (e.g., in 'Baldus'. Conclusion Here, we have shown that large differences exist in relative expression levels of α-gliadins from the homoeologous Gli-2 loci among wheat genotypes. Since the homoelogous genes differ in the amount of conserved CD-epitopes, screening for differential expression from the homoeologous Gli-2 loci can be employed for the pre-selection of wheat varieties in the search for varieties with very low CD-immunogenic potential. Pyrosequencing is a method that can be

  14. Genetic Analysis and Molecular Tagging a Novel Yellow Rust Resistance Gene Derived from Synthetic Hexaploid Wheat Germplasm M08

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Guo-yue; LI Li-hui

    2008-01-01

    Yellow rust of wheat(caused by Puccinia striiformis Westend.f sp.tritici Eriks.)has been periodically epidemic and severely damaged wheat production in China.The development of resistant cultivars could be an effective way to reduce yield losses of wheat caused by yellow rust.Rust reaction tests and genetic analysis indicated that M08,the synthetic hexaploid wheat derived from hybridization between Triticum durum(2n=6X=28;genome AABB)and Aegilops tauschii (2n=2X=14;genome DD),showed resistance to current prevailing yellow rust races at seedling stage,which was controlled by a single dominant gene,designated as YrAm.Bulked segregant analysis was used to identify microsatellite markers linked to gene YrAm in an F2 population derived from cross M08(resistant)×Jinan 17(susceptible).Three microsatellite marker loci Xgwm77,Xgwm285,and Xgwm131 located on chromosome 3B were mapped to the YrAm locus. Xgwm131 was the closest marker locus and showed a linkage distance of 7.8 cM to the resistance locus.Thus,it is assumed that YrAm for resistance to yellow rust may be derived from Triticum durum and is located on the long arm of chromosome 3B.

  15. Genetic map of Triticum turgidum based on a hexaploid wheat population without genetic recombination for D genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Li

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A synthetic doubled-haploid hexaploid wheat population, SynDH1, derived from the spontaneous chromosome doubling of triploid F1 hybrid plants obtained from the cross of hybrids Triticum turgidum ssp. durum line Langdon (LDN and ssp. turgidum line AS313, with Aegilops tauschii ssp. tauschii accession AS60, was previously constructed. SynDH1 is a tetraploidization-hexaploid doubled haploid (DH population because it contains recombinant A and B chromosomes from two different T. turgidum genotypes, while all the D chromosomes from Ae. tauschii are homogenous across the whole population. This paper reports the construction of a genetic map using this population. Results Of the 606 markers used to assemble the genetic map, 588 (97% were assigned to linkage groups. These included 513 Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT markers, 72 simple sequence repeat (SSR, one insertion site-based polymorphism (ISBP, and two high-molecular-weight glutenin subunit (HMW-GS markers. These markers were assigned to the 14 chromosomes, covering 2048.79 cM, with a mean distance of 3.48 cM between adjacent markers. This map showed good coverage of the A and B genome chromosomes, apart from 3A, 5A, 6A, and 4B. Compared with previously reported maps, most shared markers showed highly consistent orders. This map was successfully used to identify five quantitative trait loci (QTL, including two for spikelet number on chromosomes 7A and 5B, two for spike length on 7A and 3B, and one for 1000-grain weight on 4B. However, differences in crossability QTL between the two T. turgidum parents may explain the segregation distortion regions on chromosomes 1A, 3B, and 6B. Conclusions A genetic map of T. turgidum including 588 markers was constructed using a synthetic doubled haploid (SynDH hexaploid wheat population. Five QTLs for three agronomic traits were identified from this population. However, more markers are needed to increase the density and resolution of

  16. Estimation of Genetic Diversity in Genetic Stocks of Hexaploid Wheat Using Seed Storage Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Tanweer Kumar; Imtiaz Ahmed Khan; Niaz Ali; Muhammad Amir Zia; Tahir Hameed; Sohaib Roomi; Ali Bahadur; Habib Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is an allohexaploid specie, consist of three genomes AABBDD having 2n = 6x = 42 chromosomes. The wheat is a staple food of human beings due to its bread making quality which is composed of seed storage proteins of wheat especially High Molecular Weight Glutenins (HMW-GS). During present research, HMW-GS were analyzed in genetic stocks of common wheat consist of Nullisomic- tetrasomic, ditelosomic and deletion lines of group 3 homoeologous chromosomes by Sodi...

  17. A splice acceptor site mutation in TaGW2-A1 increases thousand grain weight in tetraploid and hexaploid wheat through wider and longer grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmonds, James; Scott, Peter; Brinton, Jemima; Mestre, Teresa C; Bush, Max; Del Blanco, Alicia; Dubcovsky, Jorge; Uauy, Cristobal

    2016-06-01

    Across 13 experiments the gw2 - A1 mutant allele shifts grain size distribution consistently across all grains significantly increasing grain weight (6.6 %), width (2.8 %) and length (2.1 %) in tetraploid and hexaploid wheat. There is an urgent need to identify, understand and incorporate alleles that benefit yield in polyploid wheat. The rice OsGW2 gene functions as a negative regulator of grain weight and width and is homologous to the wheat TaGW2 gene. Previously it was shown that transcript levels of the A-genome homoeologue, TaGW2-A1, are negatively associated with grain width in hexaploid wheat. In this study we screened the tetraploid Kronos TILLING population to identify mutants in TaGW2-A1. We identified a G to A transition in the splice acceptor site of exon 5 which leads to mis-splicing in TaGW2-A1. We backcrossed the mutant allele into tetraploid and hexaploid wheat and generated a series of backcross derived isogenic lines which were evaluated in glasshouse and field conditions. Across 13 experiments the GW2-A1 mutant allele significantly increased thousand grain weight (6.6 %), grain width (2.8 %) and grain length (2.1 %) in tetraploid and hexaploid wheat compared to the wild type allele. In hexaploid wheat, this led to an increase in spike yield since no differences were detected for spikelet or grain number between isogenic lines. The increase in grain width and length was consistent across grains of different sizes, suggesting that the effect of the mutation is stable across the ear and within spikelets. Differences in carpel size and weight between alleles were identified as early as 5 days before anthesis, suggesting that TaGW2-A1 acts on maternal tissue before anthesis to restrict seed size. A single nucleotide polymorphism marker was developed to aid the deployment of the mutant allele into breeding programmes.

  18. Subgenome chromosome walking in wheat: A 450-kb physical contig in Triticum monococcum L. spans the Lr10 resistance locus in hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Nils; Feuillet, Catherine; Wicker, Thomas; Schlagenhauf, Edith; Keller, Beat

    2000-01-01

    For many agronomically important plant genes, only their position on a genetic map is known. In the absence of an efficient transposon tagging system, such genes have to be isolated by map-based cloning. In bread wheat Triticum aestivum, the genome is hexaploid, has a size of 1.6 × 1010 bp, and contains more than 80% of repetitive sequences. So far, this genome complexity has not allowed chromosome walking and positional cloning. Here, we demonstrate that chromosome walking using bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones is possible in the diploid wheat Triticum monococcum (Am genome). BAC end sequences were mostly repetitive and could not be used for the first walking step. New probes corresponding to rare low-copy sequences were efficiently identified by low-pass DNA sequencing of the BACs. Two walking steps resulted in a physical contig of 450 kb on chromosome 1AmS. Genetic mapping of the probes derived from the BAC contig demonstrated perfect colinearity between the physical map of T. monococcum and the genetic map of bread wheat on chromosome 1AS. The contig genetically spans the Lr10 leaf rust disease resistance locus in bread wheat, with 0.13 centimorgans corresponding to 300 kb between the closest flanking markers. Comparison of the genetic to physical distances has shown large variations within 350 kb of the contig. The physical contig can now be used for the isolation of the orthologous regions in bread wheat. Thus, subgenome chromosome walking in wheat can produce large physical contigs and saturate genomic regions to support positional cloning. PMID:11078510

  19. Variation in Dehydration Tolerance, ABA Sensitivity and Related Gene Expression Patterns in D-Genome Progenitor and Synthetic Hexaploid Wheat Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumeto Kurahashi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The wild wheat Aegilops tauschii Coss. has extensive natural variation available for breeding of common wheat. Drought stress tolerance is closely related to abscisic acid (ABA sensitivity. In this study, 17 synthetic hexaploid wheat lines, produced by crossing the tetraploid wheat cultivar Langdon with 17 accessions of Ae. tauschii, were used for comparative analysis of natural variation in drought tolerance and ABA sensitivity. Ae. tauschii showed wide natural variation, with weak association between the traits. Drought-sensitive accessions of Ae. tauschii exhibited significantly less ABA sensitivity. D-genome variations observed at the diploid genome level were not necessarily reflected in synthetic wheats. However, synthetic wheats derived from the parental Ae. tauschii accessions with high drought tolerance were significantly more tolerant to drought stress than those from drought-sensitive accessions. Moreover, synthetic wheats with high drought tolerance showed significantly higher ABA sensitivity than drought-sensitive synthetic lines. In the hexaploid genetic background, therefore, weak association of ABA sensitivity with drought tolerance wasobserved. To study differences in gene expression patterns between stress-tolerant and -sensitive lines, levels of two Cor/Lea and three transcription factor gene transcripts were compared. The more tolerant accession of Ae. tauschii tended to accumulate more abundant transcripts of the examined genes than the sensitive accession under stress conditions. The expression patterns in the synthetic wheats seemed to be additive for parental lines exposed to drought and ABA treatments. However, the transcript levels of transcription factor genes in the synthetic wheats did not necessarily correspond to the postulated levels based on expression in parental lines. Allopolyploidization altered the expression levels of the stress-responsive genes in synthetic wheats.

  20. Characterization of Quantitative Trait Loci for Grain Minerals in Hexaploid Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Rong-li; TONG Yi-ping; JING Rui-lian; ZHANG Fu-suo; ZOU Chun-qin

    2013-01-01

    Wheat is an important source of essential minerals for human body. Breeding wheat with high grain mineral concentration thus benefits human health. The objective of present study was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling grain mineral concentration and to evaluate the relation between nitrogen (N) and other essential minerals in winter wheat. Wheat grains were harvested from field experiment which conducted in China and analyzed for this purpose. Forty-three QTLs controlling grain mineral concentration and nitrogen-related traits were detected by using a double haploid (DH) population derived from winter wheat varieties Hanxuan 10 and Lumai 14. Chromosomes 4D and 5A might be very important in controlling mineral status in wheat grains. Significant positive correlations were found between grain nitrogen concentration (GNC) and nutrients Fe, Mn, Cu, Mg concentrations (FeGC, MnGC, CuGC, MgGC). Flag leaf N concentration at anthesis (FLNC) significantly and positively correlated with GNC, FeGC, MnGC, and CuGC. The study extended our knowledge on minerals in wheat grains and suggested which interactions between minerals should be considered in future breeding program.

  1. Chromatin modification contributes to the expression divergence of three TaGS2 homoeologs in hexaploid wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Fan, Xiaoli; Gao, Yingjie; Liu, Lei; Sun, Lijing; Su, Qiannan; Han, Jie; Zhang, Na; Cui, Fa; Ji, Jun; Tong, Yiping; Li, Junming

    2017-01-01

    Plastic glutamine synthetase (GS2) is responsible for ammonium assimilation. The reason that TaGS2 homoeologs in hexaploid wheat experience different selection pressures in the breeding process remains unclear. TaGS2 were minimally expressed in roots but predominantly expressed in leaves, and TaGS2-B had higher expression than TaGS2-A and TaGS2-D. ChIP assays revealed that the activation of TaGS2-B expression in leaves was correlated with increased H3K4 trimethylation. The transcriptional silencing of TaGS2 in roots was correlated with greater cytosine methylation and less H3K4 trimethylation. Micrococcal nuclease and DNase I accessibility experiments indicated that the promoter region was more resistant to digestion in roots than leaves, which indicated that the closed nucleosome conformation of the promoter region was important to the transcription initiation for the spatial-temporal expression of TaGS2. In contrast, the transcribed regions possess different nuclease accessibilities of three TaGS2 homoeologs in the same tissue, suggesting that nucleosome conformation of the transcribed region was part of the fine adjustment of TaGS2 homoeologs. This study provides evidence that histone modification, DNA methylation and nuclease accessibility coordinated the control of the transcription of TaGS2 homoeologs. Our results provided important evidence that TaGS2-B experienced the strongest selection pressures during the breeding process. PMID:28300215

  2. Genome-wide identification and expression characterization of ABCC-MRP transporters in hexaploid wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushal Kumar Bhati

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The ABCC multidrug resistance associated proteins (ABCC-MRP, a subclass of ABC transporters are involved in multiple physiological processes that include cellular homeostasis, metal detoxification and transport of glutathione-conjugates. Although they are well studied in humans, yeast and Arabidopsis, limited efforts have been made to address their possible role in crop like wheat. In the present work, eighteen wheat ABCC-MRP proteins were identified that showed the uniform distribution with families of rice and Arabidopsis. Organ specific quantitative expression analysis of wheat ABCC genes indicated significantly higher accumulation in roots (TaABCC2, TaABCC3, and TaABCC11 and TaABCC12, stem (TaABCC1, leaves (TaABCC16 and TaABCC17, flag leaf (TaABCC14 and TaABCC15 and seeds (TaABCC6, TaABCC8, TaABCC12, TaABCC13 and TaABCC17 implicating their role in the respective tissues. Differential transcript expression patterns were observed for TaABCC genes during grain maturation speculating their role during seed development. Hormone treatment experiments indicated that some of the ABCC genes could be transcriptionally regulated during seed development. In the presence of Cd or hydrogen peroxide, distinct molecular expression of wheat ABCC genes was observed in the wheat seedlings, suggesting their possible role during heavy metal generated oxidative stress. Functional characterization of the wheat transporter, TaABCC13 a homolog of maize LPA1 confirms its role in glutathione-mediated detoxification pathway and is able to utilize adenine biosynthetic intermediates as a substrate. This is the first comprehensive inventory of wheat ABCC-MRP gene subfamily.

  3. Genome-wide identification and expression characterization of ABCC-MRP transporters in hexaploid wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhati, Kaushal K; Sharma, Shivani; Aggarwal, Sipla; Kaur, Mandeep; Shukla, Vishnu; Kaur, Jagdeep; Mantri, Shrikant; Pandey, Ajay K

    2015-01-01

    The ABCC multidrug resistance associated proteins (ABCC-MRP), a subclass of ABC transporters are involved in multiple physiological processes that include cellular homeostasis, metal detoxification, and transport of glutathione-conjugates. Although they are well-studied in humans, yeast, and Arabidopsis, limited efforts have been made to address their possible role in crop like wheat. In the present work, 18 wheat ABCC-MRP proteins were identified that showed the uniform distribution with sub-families from rice and Arabidopsis. Organ-specific quantitative expression analysis of wheat ABCC genes indicated significantly higher accumulation in roots (TaABCC2, TaABCC3, and TaABCC11 and TaABCC12), stem (TaABCC1), leaves (TaABCC16 and TaABCC17), flag leaf (TaABCC14 and TaABCC15), and seeds (TaABCC6, TaABCC8, TaABCC12, TaABCC13, and TaABCC17) implicating their role in the respective tissues. Differential transcript expression patterns were observed for TaABCC genes during grain maturation speculating their role during seed development. Hormone treatment experiments indicated that some of the ABCC genes could be transcriptionally regulated during seed development. In the presence of Cd or hydrogen peroxide, distinct molecular expression of wheat ABCC genes was observed in the wheat seedlings, suggesting their possible role during heavy metal generated oxidative stress. Functional characterization of the wheat transporter, TaABCC13 a homolog of maize LPA1 confirms its role in glutathione-mediated detoxification pathway and is able to utilize adenine biosynthetic intermediates as a substrate. This is the first comprehensive inventory of wheat ABCC-MRP gene subfamily.

  4. [Development and study of spring bread wheat variety Pamyati Maystrenko with introgression of genetic material from synthetic hexaploid Triticum timopheevii zhuk. x Aegilops tauschii Coss].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laikova, L I; Belan, I A; Badaeva, E D; Posseeva, L P; Shepelev, S S; Shumny, V K; Pershina, L A

    2013-01-01

    Synthetic hexaploids are bridges for transferring new genes that determine resistance to stress factors from wild-type species to bread wheat. In the present work, the method of developing the spring bread wheat variety Pamyati Maystrenko and the results of its study are described. This variety was obtained using one of the immune lines produced earlier via the hybridization of the spring bread wheat variety Saratovskaya 29 with the synthetic hexaploid T. timopheevii Zhuk. x Ae. tauschii Coss. The C-staining of chromosomes in the Pamyati Maystrenko variety revealed substitutions of 2B and 6B chromosomes by the homeologous chromosomes of the G genome of T. timopheevii and the substitution of chromosome 1D by an orthologous chromosome ofAe. tauschii. It was found that this variety is characterized by resistance to leaf and stem rust, powdery mildew, and loose smut as well as by high grain and bread-making qualities. The role of the alien genetic material introgressed into the bread-wheat genome in the expression of adaptive and economically valuable traits in the Pamyati Maystrenko variety is discussed.

  5. Rmg8, a New Gene for Resistance to Triticum Isolates of Pyricularia oryzae in Hexaploid Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anh, Vu Lan; Anh, Nguyen Tuan; Tagle, Analiza Grubanzo; Vy, Trinh Thi Phuong; Inoue, Yoshihiro; Takumi, Shigeo; Chuma, Izumi; Tosa, Yukio

    2015-12-01

    Blast, caused by Pyricularia oryzae, is one of the major diseases of wheat in South America. We identified a new gene for resistance to Triticum isolates of P. oryzae in common wheat 'S-615', and designated it "resistance to Magnaporthe grisea 8" (Rmg8). Rmg8 was assigned to chromosome 2B through molecular mapping with simple-sequence repeat markers. To identify an avirulence gene corresponding to Rmg8, Triticum isolate Br48 (avirulent on S-615) was crossed with 200R29 (virulent on S-615), an F1 progeny derived from a cross between an Eleusine isolate (MZ5-1-6) and Br48. Segregation analysis of their progeny revealed that avirulence of Br48 on S-615 was conditioned by a single gene, which was designated AVR-Rmg8. AVR-Rmg8 was closely linked to AVR-Rmg7, which corresponded to Rmg7 located on chromosome 2A of tetraploid wheat.

  6. Mapping-by-sequencing in complex polyploid genomes using genic sequence capture: a case study to map yellow rust resistance in hexaploid wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, Laura-Jayne; Bansept-Basler, Pauline; Olohan, Lisa; Joynson, Ryan; Brenchley, Rachel; Hall, Neil; O'Sullivan, Donal M; Hall, Anthony

    2016-08-01

    Previously we extended the utility of mapping-by-sequencing by combining it with sequence capture and mapping sequence data to pseudo-chromosomes that were organized using wheat-Brachypodium synteny. This, with a bespoke haplotyping algorithm, enabled us to map the flowering time locus in the diploid wheat Triticum monococcum L. identifying a set of deleted genes (Gardiner et al., 2014). Here, we develop this combination of gene enrichment and sliding window mapping-by-synteny analysis to map the Yr6 locus for yellow stripe rust resistance in hexaploid wheat. A 110 MB NimbleGen capture probe set was used to enrich and sequence a doubled haploid mapping population of hexaploid wheat derived from an Avalon and Cadenza cross. The Yr6 locus was identified by mapping to the POPSEQ chromosomal pseudomolecules using a bespoke pipeline and algorithm (Chapman et al., 2015). Furthermore the same locus was identified using newly developed pseudo-chromosome sequences as a mapping reference that are based on the genic sequence used for sequence enrichment. The pseudo-chromosomes allow us to demonstrate the application of mapping-by-sequencing to even poorly defined polyploidy genomes where chromosomes are incomplete and sub-genome assemblies are collapsed. This analysis uniquely enabled us to: compare wheat genome annotations; identify the Yr6 locus - defining a smaller genic region than was previously possible; associate the interval with one wheat sub-genome and increase the density of SNP markers associated. Finally, we built the pipeline in iPlant, making it a user-friendly community resource for phenotype mapping.

  7. Rapid changes of microsatellite flanking sequence in the allopolyploidization of new synthesized hexaploid wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Lianquan; LIU Dengcai; YAN Zehong; LAN Xiujin; ZHENG Youliang; ZHOU Yonghong

    2004-01-01

    It was suggested that the rapid changes of DNA sequence and gene expression occurred at the early stages of allopolyploid formation. In this study, we revealed the microsatellite (SSR) differences between newly formed allopolyploids and their donor parents by using 21 primer sets specific for D genome of wheat. It was indicated that rapid changes had occurred in the "shock" process of the allopolyploid formation between tetraploid wheat and Aegilops tauschii. The changes of SSR flanking sequence resulted in appearance of novel bands or disappearance of parental bands. The disappearance of the parental bands showed much higher frequencies in comparison with that of appearance of novel bands. Disappearance of the parental bands was not random. The frequency of disappearance in tetraploid wheat was much higher than in Ae. tauschii, i. e. the disappearance frequency in AABB genome was much higher than in D genome. Changes of SSR flanking sequence occurred at the early stage of F1 hybrid or just after chromosome doubling. From the above results, it can be inferred that SSR flanking sequence region was very active and was amenable to change in the process of polyploidization. This suggested that SSR flanking sequence probably had special biological function at the early stage of ployploidization. The rapid and directional changes at the early stage of polyploidization might contribute to the rapid evolution of the newly formed allopolyploid and allow the divergent genomes to act in harmony.

  8. A comparison of the levels of hydroxamic acids in Aegilops speltoides and a hexaploid wheat and effects on Rhopalosiphum padi behaviour and fecundity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elek, Henriett; Smart, Lesley; Ahmad, S; Anda, Angéla; Werner, C P; Pickett, J A

    2014-03-01

    Hydroxamic acids (HAs) are plant secondary metabolites produced by certain cereals, which have been found to be toxic to pest aphids in artificial diet assays. Previous studies have shown that tetraploid and hexaploid wheat varieties, the leaf tissues of which contained higher levels of these compounds than used in artificial diets, did not reduce aphid settling or fecundity. This current study reports findings on a high HA producing B genome accession of the diploid ancestor of wheat, Aegilops speltoides. We found that this accession does have a negative impact on aphid host selection and substantially reduces nymph production. Whole leaf tissue assays showed very high levels of HAs, well in excess of the toxic level determined in the artificial diet assays. Extraction of the apoplast fluid (AF) from this accession showed that the HA level is much lower than that of the whole tissue, but is still close to the artificial diet toxic level. Furthermore the HA level in the AF increases in response to aphid feeding. These observations could explain why hexaploid wheat remains susceptible to aphids, despite having whole leaf tissue HA levels in excess of the toxic levels determined in artificial diets.

  9. Synthesizing double haploid hexaploid wheat populations based on a spontaneous alloploidization process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lianquan Zhang; Youliang Zheng; Dengcai Liu; Yang Yen; Li Zhang; Jiangtao Luo; Wenjie Chen; Ming Hao; Baolong Liu; Zehong Yan; Bo Zhang; Huaigang Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Doubled haploid (DH) populations are useful to scientists and breeders in both crop improvement and basic research. Current methods of producing DHs usually need in vitro culture for extracting haploids and chemical treatment for chromosome doubling. This report describes a simple method for synthesizing DHs (SynDH) especially for allopolyploid species by utilizing meiotic restitution genes. The method involves three steps: hybridization to induce recombination, interspecific hybridization to extract haploids, and spontaneous chromosome doubling by selfing the interspecific F1s. DHs produced in this way contain recombinant chromosomes in the genome(s) of interest in a homogeneous background. No special equipment or treatments are involved in the DH production and it can be easily applied in any breeding and/or genetic program. Triticum turgidum L. and Aegilops tauschii Coss, the two ancestral species of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and molecular markers were used to demonstrate the SynDH method.

  10. Mapping of quantitative trait loci determining agronomic important characters in hexaploid wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Börner, A.; Schumann, E.; Fürste, A.; Cöster, H.; Leithold, B.; Röder, S.; Weber, E.

    2002-11-01

    A set of 114 recombinant inbred lines of the 'International Triticeae Mapping Initiative' mapping population was grown during the seasons 1997, 1998, 1999 and 2000 under several environments. Twenty morphological (glume colour, awn colour, waxiness, leaf erectness, peduncle length), agronomical (ear emergence time, flowering time, grain filling time, ear length, plant height, lodging, grain number, thousand-grain-weight, grain weight per ear, grain protein content, winter hardiness) and disease resistance (powdery mildew, yellow rust, leaf rust, fusarium) traits were studied. Not all traits were scored in each experiment. In total 210 QTLs with a LOD threshold of >2.0 (minor QTLs) were detected of which 64 reached a LOD score of >3.0 (major QTLs). Often QTLs were detected in comparable positions in different experiments. Homologous and homoeologous relationships of the detected QTLs, and already described major genes or QTLs determining the same traits in wheat or other Triticeae members, are discussed.

  11. ROOT WATER-UPTAKE AND PLANT GROWTH IN TWO SYNTHETIC HEXAPLOID WHEAT GENOTYPES GROWN IN SALINE SOIL UNDER CONTROLLED WATER-DEFICIT STRESS

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    Masanori Inagaki

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A key breeding objective for bread wheat grown in the dry regions of Western Asia and North Africa is to enhance its adaptation to drought and its related salinity. Two newly-developed genotypes of synthetic hexaploid wheat, ‘SW-3’ and ‘SW-4’, their parental durum wheat variety ‘Jennah Khetifa’ and a dry-land bread wheat variety ‘Cham 6’, were compared for plant growth in saline hydroponic culture. They were also compared for root water-uptake and growth in soil culture in pots under combined water deficit and salinity stresses. Under saline hydroponic culture for five weeks, ‘SW-3’ developed a larger leaf area than the other genotypes. In saline soils for the period up to maturity, ‘SW-4’ and ‘Cham 6’ had higher root water uptake than the others. Only ‘SW-4’ developed normal grains and was clearly tolerant of soil salinity. ‘Cham 6’ developed normal spikes but ceased to fill the grains after heading. It may be assumed that salinity stress depressed root water-uptake at the early stages of growth, but the toxic effects of salinity stress increased in the later stages. The four wheat genotypes used in this study responded differently to salinity stress whereas water-deficit stress resulted in relatively few genotypic differences. ‘SW-4’ was more tolerant of soil salinity than its durum wheat variety parent ‘Jennah Khetifa’. This could be a useful genetic resource for improving ‘Cham 6’, which was relatively tolerant of water-deficit stress but sensitive to salinity stress after heading.

  12. Molecular cloning and characterization of two novel genes from hexaploid wheat that encode double PR-1 domains coupled with a receptor-like protein kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shunwen; Faris, Justin D; Edwards, Michael C

    2017-04-01

    Hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) contains at least 23 TaPr-1 genes encoding the group 1 pathogenesis-related (PR-1) proteins as identified in our previous work. Here, we report the cloning and characterization of TaPr-1-rk1 and TaPr-1-rk2, two novel genes closely related to the wheat PR-1 family. The two TaPr-1-rk genes are located on homoeologous chromosomes 3D and 3A, respectively, and each contains a large open reading frame (7385 or 6060 bp) that is interrupted by seven introns and subjected to alternative splicing (AS) with five or six isoforms of mRNA transcripts. The deduced full-length TaPR-1-RK1 and TaPR-1-RK2 proteins (95% identity) contain two repeat PR-1 domains, the second of which is fused via a transmembrane helix to a serine/threonine kinase catalytic (STKc) domain characteristic of receptor-like protein kinases. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the two PR-1 domains of the TaPR-1-RK proteins form sister clades with their homologues identified in other monocot plants and are well separated from stand-alone PR-1 proteins, whereas the STKc domains may have originated from cysteine-rich receptor-like kinases (CRKs). Reverse-transcriptase-PCR analysis revealed that the TaPr-1-rk genes are predominantly expressed in wheat leaves and their expression levels are elevated in response to pathogen attack, such as infection by barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV), and also to stress conditions, most obviously, to soil salinity. This is the first report of PR-1-CRK hybrid proteins in wheat. The data may shed new insights into the function/evolutionary origin of the PR-1 family and the STKc-mediated defense/stress response pathways in plants.

  13. Chromosome Based Strategies to Decipher the Structure and Evolution of the Hexaploid Wheat Genome: Chromosome 3B, a Case Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    E. Paux; P. Sourdille; J. Salse; P. Leroy; J. Dolezel; M. Bernard; C. Feuillet

    2007-01-01

    @@ With 17% of all crop area, wheat is the staple food for 40% of the world's population. Improvement in bread wheat quality and yield in the context of sustainable agriculture is needed in the next decades to meet human needs by 2050.

  14. Cytogenetics and immature embryo culture at Embrapa Trigo breeding program: transfer of disease resistance from related species by artificial resynthesis of hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em. Thell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Irene Baggio de Moraes Fernandes

    2000-12-01

    to facilitate gene flow between wheat and related species. Since the environment at the center of origin of wheat in Southern Asia is quite different from subtropical environments, Brazilian breeding programs overcome more challenges to adapt wheat crop to biotic and abiotic stresses than some other countries. The germplasm bank of Embrapa Trigo has about 1000 registered entries of Triticum relatives, Aegilops, Secale and Agropyron species supplied from several germplasm banks distributed over the world which were multiplied and/or selected for naturally occurring or artificially inoculated fungal diseases. Since Aegilops squarrosa L. entries showed very good performance, the genetic variability observed in this species was firstly exploited. It is reported here the strategy used for transferring useful genes from Ae. squarrosa (DD, 2n = 14: crossing with tetraploid species (AABB, 2n = 28, rescue and in vitro culture of immature embryos for regeneration of the trihaploid (ABD, 2n = 21 hybrid, and colchicine treatment for genome duplication resulting in the artificial synthesis of hexaploid wheat lines (AABBDD, 2n = 42. Results of 10,739 artificial pollinations involving 28 cross combinations amongst eight T. durum L., T. dicoccum and T. cartlicum tetraploid entries used as female parents and ten selected Ae. squarrosa sources of resistance as male parents are presented here. Immature embryos from 18 cross combinations were recovered and cultured in vitro. Green plantlets from 13 combinations were regenerated. Fertile amphiploids were recovered only from crosses among entries of tetraploid T. durum and diploid Ae. squarrosa. They originated 11 fertile synthetic amphiploid lines from seven different combinations. Useful stem and leaf rust as well as powdery mildew resistance for future use in breeding programs were obtained.

  15. A highly conserved gene island of three genes on chromosome 3B of hexaploid wheat: diverse gene function and genomic structure maintained in a tightly linked block

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    Ma Wujun

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The complexity of the wheat genome has resulted from waves of retrotransposable element insertions. Gene deletions and disruptions generated by the fast replacement of repetitive elements in wheat have resulted in disruption of colinearity at a micro (sub-megabase level among the cereals. In view of genomic changes that are possible within a given time span, conservation of genes between species tends to imply an important functional or regional constraint that does not permit a change in genomic structure. The ctg1034 contig completed in this paper was initially studied because it was assigned to the Sr2 resistance locus region, but detailed mapping studies subsequently assigned it to the long arm of 3B and revealed its unusual features. Results BAC shotgun sequencing of the hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. Chinese Spring genome has been used to assemble a group of 15 wheat BACs from the chromosome 3B physical map FPC contig ctg1034 into a 783,553 bp genomic sequence. This ctg1034 sequence was annotated for biological features such as genes and transposable elements. A three-gene island was identified among >80% repetitive DNA sequence. Using bioinformatics analysis there were no observable similarity in their gene functions. The ctg1034 gene island also displayed complete conservation of gene order and orientation with syntenic gene islands found in publicly available genome sequences of Brachypodium distachyon, Oryza sativa, Sorghum bicolor and Zea mays, even though the intergenic space and introns were divergent. Conclusion We propose that ctg1034 is located within the heterochromatic C-band region of deletion bin 3BL7 based on the identification of heterochromatic tandem repeats and presence of significant matches to chromodomain-containing gypsy LTR retrotransposable elements. We also speculate that this location, among other highly repetitive sequences, may account for the relative stability in gene order and

  16. Source-Sink Relationship in Wheat (Triticum aestivum and T. durum and Triticale (Triticale hexaploid Lart. Genotypes under Ahvaz Conditions

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    A Modhej

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the sink-source physiological relationship, current photosynthesis, contribution and remobilization of assimilates to grain yield in wheat and triticale genotypes, a field experiment was conducted in Iran, Ahvaz area on 2003-4. Treatments were two bread wheat (Simareh and Tawer, one durum wheat (Showa and two triticale (Juvanillo92 and Line 45 genotypes. Grain weight changes determined with removal of 50% spikelet from one spike side in main stem and tillers. Results indicated that the highest and the lowest grain yield were in Juvanilo92 and Line 45 genotypes. Higher grain yield in Juvanillo92 genotype was due to higher biological yield (1500 g.m-2, grain number per spike (65 floret per spikelet (2.3 and spikelet number per spike (28. In average, source limitation was 22 and 30.7% in wheat and triticale genotypes, respectively. Increase in grain weight in spikelet removal treatments compared to unmanipulated spike was 22.2 and 29% for main stem and tillers, respectively. It seems that this reaction was due to remobilization of assimilates from main stems to tillers by spikelets removal from main spikes. However, in desirable conditions, high yielding genotypes of wheat and triticale could be selected on the basis of the higher spike number and grain yield which are related to increase of source limitation.

  17. Genome-wide association mapping for resistance to leaf and stripe rust in winter-habit hexaploid wheat landraces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaf rust, caused by Puccinia triticina (Pt), and stripe rust, caused by P. striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), are destructive foliar diseases of wheat worldwide. Breeding for disease resistance is the preferred strategy of managing both diseases. The continued emergence of new races of Pt and Pst re...

  18. Tetraploid and hexaploid wheat varieties reveal large differences in expression of alpha-gliadins from homoelogous Gli-loci

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salentijn, E.M.J.; Goryunova, S.V.; Bas, N.; Meer, van der I.M.; Broeck, van den H.C.; Bastien, T.A.; Gilissen, L.J.W.J.; Smulders, M.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Background - A-gliadins form a multigene protein family encoded by multiple ¿-gliadin (Gli-2) genes at three genomic loci, Gli-A2, Gli-B2 and Gli-D2, respectively located on the homoeologous wheat chromosomes 6AS, 6BS, and 6DS. These proteins contain a number of important celiac disease (CD)-immunog

  19. mlo-based powdery mildew resistance in hexaploid bread wheat generated by a non-transgenic TILLING approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo-Garcia, Johanna; Spencer, David; Thieron, Hannah; Reinstädler, Anja; Hammond-Kosack, Kim; Phillips, Andrew L; Panstruga, Ralph

    2017-03-01

    Wheat is one of the most widely grown cereal crops in the world and is an important food grain source for humans. However, wheat yields can be reduced by many abiotic and biotic stress factors, including powdery mildew disease caused by Blumeria graminis f.sp. tritici (Bgt). Generating resistant varieties is thus a major effort in plant breeding. Here, we took advantage of the non-transgenic Targeting Induced Lesions IN Genomes (TILLING) technology to select partial loss-of-function alleles of TaMlo, the orthologue of the barley Mlo (Mildew resistance locus o) gene. Natural and induced loss-of-function alleles (mlo) of barley Mlo are known to confer durable broad-spectrum powdery mildew resistance, typically at the expense of pleiotropic phenotypes such as premature leaf senescence. We identified 16 missense mutations in the three wheat TaMlo homoeologues, TaMlo-A1, TaMlo-B1 and TaMlo-D1 that each lead to single amino acid exchanges. Using transient gene expression assays in barley single cells, we functionally analysed the different missense mutants and identified the most promising candidates affecting powdery mildew susceptibility. By stacking of selected mutant alleles we generated four independent lines with non-conservative mutations in each of the three TaMlo homoeologues. Homozygous triple mutant lines and surprisingly also some of the homozygous double mutant lines showed enhanced, yet incomplete, Bgt resistance without the occurrence of discernible pleiotropic phenotypes. These lines thus represent an important step towards the production of commercial non-transgenic, powdery mildew-resistant bread wheat varieties.

  20. Genome-Wide Association Mapping for Resistance to Leaf and Stripe Rust in Winter-Habit Hexaploid Wheat Landraces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Kertho

    Full Text Available Leaf rust, caused by Puccinia triticina (Pt, and stripe rust, caused by P. striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst, are destructive foliar diseases of wheat worldwide. Breeding for disease resistance is the preferred strategy of managing both diseases. The continued emergence of new races of Pt and Pst requires a constant search for new sources of resistance. Here we report a genome-wide association analysis of 567 winter wheat (Triticum aestivum landrace accessions using the Infinium iSelect 9K wheat SNP array to identify loci associated with seedling resistance to five races of Pt (MDCL, MFPS, THBL, TDBG, and TBDJ and one race of Pst (PSTv-37 frequently found in the Northern Great Plains of the United States. Mixed linear models identified 65 and eight significant markers associated with leaf rust and stripe rust, respectively. Further, we identified 31 and three QTL associated with resistance to Pt and Pst, respectively. Eleven QTL, identified on chromosomes 3A, 4A, 5A, and 6D, are previously unknown for leaf rust resistance in T. aestivum.

  1. Comparative high-resolution mapping of the wax inhibitors Iw1 and Iw2 in hexaploid wheat.

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    Haibin Wu

    Full Text Available The wax (glaucousness on wheat leaves and stems is mainly controlled by two sets of genes: glaucousness loci (W1 and W2 and non-glaucousness loci (Iw1 and Iw2. The non-glaucousness (Iw loci act as inhibitors of the glaucousness loci (W. High-resolution comparative genetic linkage maps of the wax inhibitors Iw1 originating from Triticum dicoccoides, and Iw2 from Aegilops tauschii were developed by comparative genomics analyses of Brachypodium, sorghum and rice genomic sequences corresponding to the syntenic regions of the Iw loci in wheat. Eleven Iw1 and eight Iw2 linked EST markers were developed and mapped to linkage maps on the distal regions of chromosomes 2BS and 2DS, respectively. The Iw1 locus mapped within a 0.96 cM interval flanked by the BE498358 and CA499581 EST markers that are collinear with 122 kb, 202 kb, and 466 kb genomic regions in the Brachypodium 5S chromosome, the sorghum 6S chromosome and the rice 4S chromosome, respectively. The Iw2 locus was located in a 4.1 to 5.4-cM interval in chromosome 2DS that is flanked by the CJ886319 and CJ519831 EST markers, and this region is collinear with a 2.3 cM region spanning the Iw1 locus on chromosome 2BS. Both Iw1 and Iw2 co-segregated with the BF474014 and CJ876545 EST markers, indicating they are most likely orthologs on 2BS and 2DS. These high-resolution maps can serve as a framework for chromosome landing, physical mapping and map-based cloning of the wax inhibitors in wheat.

  2. Does Seed Priming Induce Changes in the Levels of Some Endogenous Plant Hormones in Hexaploid Wheat Plants Under Salt Stress?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In order to assess whether salt tolerance could be improved in spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), the present study was performed by soaking the seeds of two cultivars, namely MH-97 (salt sensitive) and Inqlab91 (salt tolerant), for 12 h in distilled water or 100 mol/m3 CaCl2, KCl, or NaCl. Primed seeds from each treatment group and non-primed seeds were sown in a field in which NaCl salinity of 15 dS/m was developed. Priming of seeds with CaCl2, followed by priming with KCl and NaCl, was found to be effective in alleviating the adverse effects of salt stress on both wheat cultivars in terms of shoot fresh and dry weights and grain yield. Priming with CaCl2 alleviated the adverse effects of salt stress on hormonal balance in plants of both cultivars. In MH-97plants, CaCl2 pretreatment considerably reduced leaf abscisic acid (ABA) concentrations and increased leaf free salicylic acid (SA) concentrations under both saline and non-saline conditions. In contrast, in the Inqlab-91plant, CaCl2 increased free indoleacetic acid (IAA) and indolebutyric acid (IBA) content. However, priming of seeds with CaCl2 did not alter free polyamine levels in either cultivar, although spermidine levels were considerably lower in plants raised from seeds treated with CaCl2 for both cultivars under saline conditions. Priming with KCl increased growth in Inqlab-91 plants, but not in MH-97 plants, under saline conditions. The salinity induced reduction in auxins (IAA and IBA) was alleviated by NaCl priming in both cultivars under saline conditions.However, NaCl increased leaf free ABA content and lowered leaf SA and putrescine levels in Inqlab-91 plants under saline conditions. In conclusion, although all three priming agents (i.e. CaCl2, KCl, and NaCI) were effective in alleviating the adverse effects of salt stress on wheat plants, their effects on altering the levels of different plant hormones were different in the two cultivars.

  3. Presence of celiac disease epitopes in modern and old hexaploid wheat varieties: wheat breeding may have contributed to increased prevalence of celiac disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeck, van den H.C.; Jong, de H.C.; Salentijn, E.M.J.; Dekking, L.; Bosch, H.J.; Hamer, R.J.; Gilissen, L.J.W.J.; Meer, van der I.M.; Smulders, M.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Gluten proteins from wheat can induce celiac disease (CD) in genetically susceptible individuals. Specific gluten peptides can be presented by antigen presenting cells to gluten-sensitive T-cell lymphocytes leading to CD. During the last decades, a significant increase has been observed in the preva

  4. New insights into the origin of the B genome of hexaploid wheat: Evolutionary relationships at the SPA genomic region with the S genome of the diploid relative Aegilops speltoides

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    Charmet Gilles

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies suggested that the diploid ancestor of the B genome of tetraploid and hexaploid wheat species belongs to the Sitopsis section, having Aegilops speltoides (SS, 2n = 14 as the closest identified relative. However molecular relationships based on genomic sequence comparison, including both coding and non-coding DNA, have never been investigated. In an attempt to clarify these relationships, we compared, in this study, sequences of the Storage Protein Activator (SPA locus region of the S genome of Ae. speltoides (2n = 14 to that of the A, B and D genomes co-resident in the hexaploid wheat species (Triticum aestivum, AABBDD, 2n = 42. Results Four BAC clones, spanning the SPA locus of respectively the A, B, D and S genomes, were isolated and sequenced. Orthologous genomic regions were identified as delimited by shared non-transposable elements and non-coding sequences surrounding the SPA gene and correspond to 35 268, 22 739, 43 397 and 53 919 bp for the A, B, D and S genomes, respectively. Sequence length discrepancies within and outside the SPA orthologous regions are the result of non-shared transposable elements (TE insertions, all of which inserted after the progenitors of the four genomes divergence. Conclusion On the basis of conserved sequence length as well as identity of the shared non-TE regions and the SPA coding sequence, Ae speltoides appears to be more evolutionary related to the B genome of T. aestivum than the A and D genomes. However, the differential insertions of TEs, none of which are conserved between the two genomes led to the conclusion that the S genome of Ae. speltoides has diverged very early from the progenitor of the B genome which remains to be identified.

  5. Transferring a Gene Expression Cassette Lacking the Vector Backbone Sequences of the 1Ax1 High Molecular Weight Glutenin Subunit into Two Chinese Hexaploid Wheat Genotypes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Nong-nong; HE Guang-yuan; LI Ke-xiu; WANG Hui-zhong; CHEN Guan-ping; XU Ying

    2007-01-01

    1Ax1 high molecular weight glutenin subunit (HMW-GS) gene expression cassette (GEC) lacking vector backbone sequences together with selectable marker Bar GEC were co-transformed into Chinese hexaploid cultivars Een 1 and Emai 12 to test the feasibility and the efficiency of explant regeneration, transformation frequency and transgene expression comparing with whole vector transformation by the approaches of plasmid extraction and excision, immature embryo isolation, particle co-bombardment, tissue culture, DNA extraction, PCR amplification, southern hybridization, leaf-painting test and SDS-PAGE etc. No significant difference was shown in tissue culture response of the proportion of embryogenic calli, somatic embryogenesis and regeneration frequency between GEC and whole plasmid bombarded embryos, but both regenerated less well than non-bombarded control. Total 56 plantlets that survived PPT selection had insertion of at least the Bar gene, 18 were from the GEC treatment and 38 from the whole plasmid treatment, the escape ratio averaged 0.23. Six independent transplants f230 - f235 with GEC transformation from genotype Emai 12 presented clear PCR amplification bands of Bar and 1Ax1 gene. The transformation and co-transformation frequency were 3.51 and 100% respectively. PCR amplification using a primer-pair specific for ampicillin resistant gene indicated the existence of AmpR gene in whole vectors but the removal in GECs and transplants. Southern blot of total DNA and PCR products from transgenic plants of 1Ax1 GEC confirmed the integration of the transgene 1Ax1 and the absence of the EcoR Ⅰ recognition site at both ends of the 1Ax1 GEC when integrated. SDS-PAGE showed the expression of 1Ax1 GEC and un-expression of whole plasmid. The length of integrated fragment, the proportion of the gene of interest (GOI) and the selectable marker (MG), bombardment pressure and genotypes are vital for the expression of a transformed GEC.

  6. Genetic and physiological architecture of early vigor in Aegilops tauschii, the D-genome of hexaploid wheat. A quantitative trait loci analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steege, ter M.W.; Ouden, den F.M.; Lambers, H.; Stam, P.; Peeters, A.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Plant growth can be studied at different organizational levels, varying from cell, leaf, and shoot to the whole plant. The early growth of seedlings is important for the plant's establishment and its eventual success. Wheat (Triticum aestivum, genome AABBDD) seedlings exhibit a low early growth rate

  7. A genome-wide association study of resistance to stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici) in a worldwide collection of hexaploid spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccaferri, Marco; Zhang, Junli; Bulli, Peter; Abate, Zewdie; Chao, Shiaoman; Cantu, Dario; Bossolini, Eligio; Chen, Xianming; Pumphrey, Michael; Dubcovsky, Jorge

    2015-01-20

    New races of Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), the causal pathogen of wheat stripe rust, show high virulence to previously deployed resistance genes and are responsible for large yield losses worldwide. To identify new sources of resistance we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) using a worldwide collection of 1000 spring wheat accessions. Adult plants were evaluated under field conditions in six environments in the western United States, and seedlings were tested with four Pst races. A single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) Infinium 9K-assay provided 4585 SNPs suitable for GWAS. High correlations among environments and high heritabilities were observed for stripe rust infection type and severity. Greater levels of Pst resistance were observed in a subpopulation from Southern Asia than in other groups. GWAS identified 97 loci that were significant for at least three environments, including 10 with an experiment-wise adjusted Bonferroni probability resistance genes and QTL, and likely represent new resistance loci. The other seven QTL mapped close to known resistance genes and allelism tests will be required to test their relationships. In summary, this study provides an integrated view of stripe rust resistance resources in spring wheat and identifies new resistance loci that will be useful to diversify the current set of resistance genes deployed to control this devastating disease.

  8. Effect of Allelic Variation at the Glu-3/Gli-1 Loci on Breadmaking Quality Parameters in Hexaploid Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonafede, Marcos D; Tranquilli, Gabriela; Pflüger, Laura A; Peña, Roberto J; Dubcovsky, Jorge

    2015-03-01

    Low molecular weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GS) encoded by the Glu-3 loci are known to contribute to wheat breadmaking quality. However, the specific effect of individual Glu-3 alleles is not well understood due to their complex protein banding patterns in SDS-PAGE and tight linkage with gliadins at the Gli-1 locus. Using DNA markers and a backcross program we developed a set of nine near isogenic lines (NILs) including different Glu-A3/GliA-1 or Glu-B3/Gli-B1 alleles in the genetic background of the Argentine variety ProINTA Imperial. The nine NILs and the control were evaluated in three different field trials in Argentina. Significant genotype-by-environment interactions were detected for most quality parameters indicating that the effects of the Glu-3/Gli-1 alleles are modulated by environmental differences. None of the NILs showed differences in total flour protein content, but relative changes in the abundance of particular classes of proteins cannot be ruled out. On average, the Glu-A3f, Glu-B3b, Glu-B3g and Glu-B3iMan alleles were associated with the highest values in gluten strength-related parameters, while Glu-A3e, Glu-B3a and Glu-B3iChu were consistently associated with weak gluten and low quality values. The value of different Glu3/Gli-1 allele combinations to improve breadmaking quality is discussed.

  9. Effect of Allelic Variation at the Glu-3/Gli-1 Loci on Breadmaking Quality Parameters in Hexaploid Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonafede, Marcos D.; Tranquilli, Gabriela; Pflüger, Laura A.; Peña, Roberto J.; Dubcovsky, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Low molecular weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GS) encoded by the Glu-3 loci are known to contribute to wheat breadmaking quality. However, the specific effect of individual Glu-3 alleles is not well understood due to their complex protein banding patterns in SDS-PAGE and tight linkage with gliadins at the Gli-1 locus. Using DNA markers and a backcross program we developed a set of nine near isogenic lines (NILs) including different Glu-A3/GliA-1 or Glu-B3/Gli-B1 alleles in the genetic background of the Argentine variety ProINTA Imperial. The nine NILs and the control were evaluated in three different field trials in Argentina. Significant genotype-by-environment interactions were detected for most quality parameters indicating that the effects of the Glu-3/Gli-1 alleles are modulated by environmental differences. None of the NILs showed differences in total flour protein content, but relative changes in the abundance of particular classes of proteins cannot be ruled out. On average, the Glu-A3f, Glu-B3b, Glu-B3g and Glu-B3iMan alleles were associated with the highest values in gluten strength-related parameters, while Glu-A3e, Glu-B3a and Glu-B3iChu were consistently associated with weak gluten and low quality values. The value of different Glu3/Gli-1 allele combinations to improve breadmaking quality is discussed. PMID:27818572

  10. Genetic Variance in Cadmium Tolerance and Accumulation in Wheat Materials Differing in Ploidy and Genome at Seedling Stage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ci, D; Jiang, D; Wollenweber, B;

    2010-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) tolerance and accumulation in wheat varieties differing in ploidy and genome were investigated at seedling stage under controlled environmental conditions. The wheat varieties included six diploid, eight tetraploid, seven hexaploid and three octoploid species together with wheat rela...

  11. Wheat ferritins: Improving the iron content of the wheat grain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, Søren; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik; Tauris, Birgitte

    2012-01-01

    The characterization of the full complement of wheat ferritins show that the modern hexaploid wheat genome contains two ferritin genes, TaFer1 and TaFer2, each represented by three homeoalleles and placed on chromosome 5 and 4, respectively. The two genes are differentially regulated and expresse...

  12. Genetically divergent types of the wheat leaf fungus Puccinia triticina in Ethiopia, a center of tetraploid wheat diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collections of Puccinia triticina, the wheat leaf rust fungus, were obtained from tetraploid and hexaploid wheat in the central highlands of Ethiopia, and a smaller number from Kenya from 2011 to 2013, in order to determine the genetic diversity of this wheat pathogen in a center of host diversity. ...

  13. Ancient DNA from 8400 Year-Old Catalhoyuk Wheat: Implications for the Origin of Neolithic Agriculture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Bilgic

    Full Text Available Human history was transformed with the advent of agriculture in the Fertile Crescent with wheat as one of the founding crops. Although the Fertile Crescent is renowned as the center of wheat domestication, archaeological studies have shown the crucial involvement of Çatalhöyük in this process. This site first gained attention during the 1961-65 excavations due to the recovery of primitive hexaploid wheat. However, despite the seeds being well preserved, a detailed archaeobotanical description of the samples is missing. In this article, we report on the DNA isolation, amplification and sequencing of ancient DNA of charred wheat grains from Çatalhöyük and other Turkish archaeological sites and the comparison of these wheat grains with contemporary wheat species including T. monococcum, T. dicoccum, T. dicoccoides, T. durum and T. aestivum at HMW glutenin protein loci. These ancient samples represent the oldest wheat sample sequenced to date and the first ancient wheat sample from the Middle East. Remarkably, the sequence analysis of the short DNA fragments preserved in seeds that are approximately 8400 years old showed that the Çatalhöyük wheat stock contained hexaploid wheat, which is similar to contemporary hexaploid wheat species including both naked (T. aestivum and hulled (T. spelta wheat. This suggests an early transitory state of hexaploid wheat agriculture from the Fertile Crescent towards Europe spanning present-day Turkey.

  14. Accumulation of Dry Matter, Canopy Structure and Photosynthesis of Synthetic Hexaploid Wheat-Derived High-Yielding Varieties Grown in Sichuan Basin, China%人工合成小麦衍生品种的物质积累、冠层结构及群体光合特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤永禄; 李朝苏; 吴晓丽; 吴春; 杨武云; 黄钢; 马孝玲

    2014-01-01

    [Objective]Synthetic hexaploid wheat (SHW) has increasingly reported having outstanding tolerance to abiotic and biotic stresses and a great potential in improving wheat yield. The objective of this study was to evaluate the yield performance, accumulation and portioning of dry matter, leaf and canopy photosynthesis of SHW-derived varieties released nationally. [Method]Three SHW-derived varieties (SDVs) were compared with 5 local elite non-synthetic derived varieties (NSVs) in field experiments conducted during the 2010 to 2011, 2011 to 2012, and 2012 to 2013 crop seasons at Guanghan county of Sichuan province, China.[Result]Combined analysis of variance showed that a significant difference in grain yield and dry matter-related traits was detected among genotypes and experimental years, and year effect was higher than both genotype effect and genotype by year interaction. Average grain yield,grain number/m2, and thousand kernel weight of SDVs over three years were 9 163 kg·hm-2, 19133, and 47.5 g, respectively, which were 12.31%, 5.31%, and 7.95%higher than NSVs. SDVs had higher rate of dry matter accumulation, especially at earlier growth stages as showed that the rates of dry matter accumulation during the periods from sowing to tillering and from tillering to jointing were 18.66%and 20.46%higher than NSVs, and consequently higher amount of accumulated dry matter at major growth stages, higher translocated dry matter and contribution to grain than NSVs. With no significant difference in dry matter distribution amongst organs of spike-bearing shoot between SDVs and NSVs at flowering stage, while the proportion of dry matter to leaf, rhachis&glume, and stem&sheath of SDVs was lower than that of NSVs by 15.46%, 7.14%, and 2.65%, respectively. SDVs showed a relative compact type with medium to high plight, shorter but wider upper leaves compared to NSVs, and no significant difference in canopy analyzer parameters between varieties tested at anthesis but SDVs had

  15. [Wheat androgenic embryoids and calli: data of scanning electron microscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruglova, N N; Gorbunova, V Iu; Abramov, S N; Sel'dimirova, O A

    2001-01-01

    The surface of wheat androgenic embryoids and calli at different developmental stages was studied using SEM. The embryoids were already characterized by regular cell divisions at the early developmental stages, while the calli were represented by irregular cell conglomerates. This trend was preserved during further development of androgenic structures. SEM studies of the surface of so-called secondary embryoids confirmed these observations.

  16. Acc homoeoloci and the evolution of wheat genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    We analyzed the DNA sequences of BACs from many wheat libraries containing the Acc-1 and Acc-2 loci, encoding the plastid and cytosolic forms of the enzyme acetyl-CoA carboxylase, to gain understanding of the evolution of these genes and the origin of the three genomes in modern hexaploid wheat. Mor...

  17. Hypersensitive response-like reaction is associated with hybrid necrosis in interspecific crosses between tetraploid wheat and Aegilops tauschii coss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki Mizuno

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hybrid speciation is classified into homoploid and polyploid based on ploidy level. Common wheat is an allohexaploid species that originated from a naturally occurring interploidy cross between tetraploid wheat and diploid wild wheat Aegilops tauschii Coss. Aegilops tauschii provides wide naturally occurring genetic variation. Sometimes its triploid hybrids with tetraploid wheat show the following four types of hybrid growth abnormalities: types II and III hybrid necrosis, hybrid chlorosis, and severe growth abortion. The growth abnormalities in the triploid hybrids could act as postzygotic hybridization barriers to prevent formation of hexaploid wheat. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we report on the geographical and phylogenetic distribution of Ae. tauschii accessions inducing the hybrid growth abnormalities and showed that they are widely distributed across growth habitats in Ae. tauschii. Molecular and cytological characterization of the type III necrosis phenotype was performed. The hybrid abnormality causing accessions were widely distributed across growth habitats in Ae. tauschii. Transcriptome analysis showed that a number of defense-related genes such as pathogenesis-related genes were highly up-regulated in the type III necrosis lines. Transmission electron microscope observation revealed that cell death occurred accompanied by generation of reactive oxygen species in leaves undergoing type III necrosis. The reduction of photosynthetic activity occurred prior to the appearance of necrotic symptoms on the leaves exhibiting hybrid necrosis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Taking these results together strongly suggests that an autoimmune response might be triggered by intergenomic incompatibility between the tetraploid wheat and Ae. tauschii genomes in type III necrosis, and that genetically programmed cell death could be regarded as a hypersensitive response-like cell death similar to that observed in Arabidopsis

  18. Chromosome engineering techniques for targeted introgression of rust resistance from wild wheat relatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hexaploid wheat has relatively narrow genetic diversity due to its evolution and domestication processes compared to its wild relatives that often carry agronomically important traits including resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Many genes have been introgressed into wheat from wild relative...

  19. Evidence for stable transformation of wheat by floraldip in Agrobacterium tumefaciens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hexaploid wheat is one of the world’s most important staple crops but genetic transformation is still challenging. We have developed a floral transformation protocol that does not utilize tissue culture. Three T-DNA wheat transformants have been produced in the germplasm line, Crocus, using this p...

  20. Rapid development of PCR-based genome-specific repetitive DNA junction markers in wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    In hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) (AABBDD, C=17,000Mb), repeat DNA accounts for ~ 90% of the genome of which transposable elements (TEs) constitute 60-80 %. Despite the dynamic evolution of TEs, our previous study indicated that the majority of TEs between the homologous wheat genomes are co...

  1. A SNP Genotyping Array for Hexaploid Oat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas A. Tinker

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Recognizing a need in cultivated hexaploid oat ( L. for a reliable set of reference single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, we have developed a 6000 (6K BeadChip design containing 257 Infinium I and 5486 Infinium II designs corresponding to 5743 SNPs. Of those, 4975 SNPs yielded successful assays after array manufacturing. These SNPs were discovered based on a variety of bioinformatics pipelines in complementary DNA (cDNA and genomic DNA originating from 20 or more diverse oat cultivars. The array was validated in 1100 samples from six recombinant inbred line (RIL mapping populations and sets of diverse oat cultivars and breeding lines, and provided approximately 3500 discernible Mendelian polymorphisms. Here, we present an annotation of these SNPs, including methods of discovery, gene identification and orthology, population-genetic characteristics, and tentative positions on an oat consensus map. We also evaluate a new cluster-based method of calling SNPs. The SNP design sequences are made publicly available, and the full SNP genotyping platform is available for commercial purchase from an independent third party.

  2. [Comparative cytogenetic analysis of hexaploid Avena L. species].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badaeva, E D; Shelukhina, O Iu; Dedkova, O S; Loskutov, I G; Pukhal'skiĭ, V A

    2011-06-01

    Using C-banding method and in situ hybridization with the 45S and 5S rRNA gene probes, six hexaploid species of the genus Avena L. with the ACD genome constitution were studied to reveal evolutionary karyotypic changes. Similarity in the C-banding patterns of chromosomal and in the patterns of distribution of the rRNA gene families suggests a common origin of all hexaploid species. Avena fatua is characterized by the broadest intraspecific variation of the karyotype; this species displays chromosomal variants typical of other hexaploid species of Avena. For instance, a translocation with the involvement of chromosome 5C marking A. occidentalis was discovered in many A. fatua accessions, whereas in other representatives of this species this chromosome is highly similar to the chromosome of A. sterilis. Only A. fatua and A. sativa show slight changes in the morphology and in the C-banding pattern of chromosome 2C. These results can be explained either by a hybrid origin of A. fatua or by the fact that this species is an intermediate evolutionary form of hexaploid oats. The 7C-17 translocation was identified in all studied accessions of wild and weedy species (A. sterilis, A. fatua, A. ludoviciana, and A. occidentalis) and in most A. sativa cultivars, but it was absent in A. byzantina and in two accessions of A. sativa. The origin and evolution of the Avena hexaploid species are discussed in context of the results.

  3. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy characterization of wheat grains from plants of different water stress tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łabanowska, Maria; Filek, Maria; Kurdziel, Magdalena; Bednarska, Elżbieta; Dłubacz, Aleksandra; Hartikainen, Helina

    2012-09-01

    Grains of five genotypes of wheat (four Polish and one Finnish), differing in their tolerance to drought stress were chosen for this investigation. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy allowed observation of transition metal ions (Mn, Fe, Cu) and different types of stable radicals, including semiquinone centers, present in seed coats, as well as several types of carbohydrate radicals found mainly in the inner parts of grains. The content of paramagnetic metal centers was higher in sensitive genotypes (Radunia, Raweta) than in tolerant ones (Parabola, Nawra), whereas the Finnish genotype (Manu) exhibited intermediate amounts. Similarly, the concentrations of both types of radicals, carbohydrates and semiquinone were significantly higher in the grains originating from more sensitive wheat genotypes. The nature of carbohydrate radicals and their concentrations were confronted with the kinds and amounts of sugars found by the biochemical analyses and microscopy observations. It is suggested that some long lived radicals (semiquinone and starch radicals) occurring in grains could be indicators of stress resistance of wheat plants.

  4. Photosynthetic transport of electrons and formation of biomass in selected evolutionary forms of wheat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hieke, B.

    1982-01-01

    The morphological parameters and the activity of photosynthetic transport of electrons in isolated chloroplasts were determined in nine species of the genera Triticum and Aegilops, each of which represents certain stages of the evolution of crop wheat. The capacity of photosynthetic transport of electrons in relation to the chlorophyll content does not allow conclusions for the potential formation of biomass by shoots and primary leaves. There was a positive correlation between rate of transport of electrons of isolated chloroplasts and the dry (fresh) matter/shoot (primary leaf) ratio, but a negative correlation between biomass and chlorophyll content/fresh matter. These correlations indicate a reduction of the light-collecting antenna complexes in the process of the evolution of crop wheat. The most intensively bred species, T. aestivum is marked by potentially lowest biomass production/primary leaf dry matter. Nevertheless relatively large shoots are produced, which means that the utilization of the photosynthetic primary products in the subsequent dark reactions must be highly efficient.

  5. A diploid wheat TILLING resource for wheat functional genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rawat Nidhi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Triticum monococcum L., an A genome diploid einkorn wheat, was the first domesticated crop. As a diploid, it is attractive genetic model for the study of gene structure and function of wheat-specific traits. Diploid wheat is currently not amenable to reverse genetics approaches such as insertion mutagenesis and post-transcriptional gene silencing strategies. However, TILLING offers a powerful functional genetics approach for wheat gene analysis. Results We developed a TILLING population of 1,532 M2 families using EMS as a mutagen. A total of 67 mutants were obtained for the four genes studied. Waxy gene mutation frequencies are known to be 1/17.6 - 34.4 kb DNA in polyploid wheat TILLING populations. The T. monococcum diploid wheat TILLING population had a mutation frequency of 1/90 kb for the same gene. Lignin biosynthesis pathway genes- COMT1, HCT2, and 4CL1 had mutation frequencies of 1/86 kb, 1/92 kb and 1/100 kb, respectively. The overall mutation frequency of the diploid wheat TILLING population was 1/92 kb. Conclusion The mutation frequency of a diploid wheat TILLING population was found to be higher than that reported for other diploid grasses. The rate, however, is lower than tetraploid and hexaploid wheat TILLING populations because of the higher tolerance of polyploids to mutations. Unlike polyploid wheat, most mutants in diploid wheat have a phenotype amenable to forward and reverse genetic analysis and establish diploid wheat as an attractive model to study gene function in wheat. We estimate that a TILLING population of 5, 520 will be needed to get a non-sense mutation for every wheat gene of interest with 95% probability.

  6. Genetically Divergent Types of the Wheat Leaf Fungus Puccinia triticina in Ethiopia, a Center of Tetraploid Wheat Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolmer, J A; Acevedo, M A

    2016-04-01

    Collections of Puccinia triticina, the wheat leaf rust fungus, were obtained from tetraploid and hexaploid wheat in the central highlands of Ethiopia, and a smaller number from Kenya, from 2011 to 2013, in order to determine the genetic diversity of this wheat pathogen in a center of host diversity. Single-uredinial isolates were derived and tested for virulence phenotype to 20 lines of Thatcher wheat that differ for single leaf rust resistance genes and for molecular genotypes with 10 simple sequence repeat (SSR) primers. Nine virulence phenotypes were described among the 193 isolates tested for virulence. Phenotype BBBQJ, found only in Ethiopia, was predominantly collected from tetraploid wheat. Phenotype EEEEE, also found only in Ethiopia, was exclusively collected from tetraploid wheat and was avirulent to the susceptible hexaploid wheat 'Thatcher'. Phenotypes MBDSS and MCDSS, found in both Ethiopia and Kenya, were predominantly collected from common wheat. Phenotypes CCMSS, CCPSS, and CBMSS were found in Ethiopia from common wheat at low frequency. Phenotypes TCBSS and TCBSQ were found on durum wheat and common wheat in Kenya. Four groups of distinct SSR genotypes were described among the 48 isolates genotyped. Isolates with phenotypes BBBQJ and EEEEE were in two distinct SSR groups, and isolates with phenotypes MBDSS and MCDSS were in a third group. Isolates with CCMSS, CCPSS, CBMSS, TCBSS, and TCBSQ phenotypes were in a fourth SSR genotype group. The diverse host environment of Ethiopia has selected and maintained a genetically divergent population of P. triticina.

  7. End-use quality of CIMMYT-derived soft kernel durum wheat germplasm. II. Dough strength and pan bread quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum) is considered unsuitable for the majority of commercial bread production because its weak gluten strength combined with flour particle size and flour starch damage after milling are not commensurate with hexaploid wheat flours. Recently a new durum cultivar...

  8. Comparative cytogenetic analysis of diploid and hexaploid Chenopodium album Agg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożena Kolano

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Two cytotypes of Chenopodium album, diploid (2n=2x=18 and hexaploid (2n=6x=54, were analysed using flow cytometry and a FISH experiment. The genome size was indicated as 1.795 pg for the diploid and 3.845 pg for the hexaploid plants which suggested genome downsizing in the evolution of hexaploid cytotype. Double FISH with 25S rDNA and 5S rDNA allowed three to five homologue chromosome pairs to be distinguished depending on the cytotype. The Variation in size and number of rDNA sites between the polyploid C. album and its putative diploid ancestor indicated that rDNA loci underwent rearrangements after polyploidization. Flow cytometry measurements of the relative nuclear DNA content in the somatic tissue of C. album revealed extensive endopolyploidization resulting in tissues comprising a mixture of cells with a different DNA content (from 2C to 32C in varying proportions. The pattern of endopolyploidy was characteristic for the developmental stage of the plant and for the individual organ. Polysomaty was not observed in the embryo tissues however endopolyploidization had taken place in most tested organs of seedlings. The endopolyploidy in diploid and hexaploid C. album was compared to find any relationship between the pattern of polysomaty and polyploidy level in this species. This revealed that polyploid plants showed a decline in the number of endocycles as well as in the frequency of endopolyploidy cells compared to diploid plants.

  9. Chromosomal Behavior during Meiosis in the Progeny of Triticum timopheevii × Hexaploid Wild Oat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongzhou An

    Full Text Available The meiotic behavior of pollen mother cells (PMCs of the F2 and F3 progeny from Triticum timopheevii × hexaploid wild oat was investigated by cytological analysis and sequential C-banding-genomic in situ hybridization (GISH in the present study. A cytological analysis showed that the chromosome numbers of the F2 and F3 progeny ranged from 28 to 41. A large number of univalents, lagging chromosomes, chromosome bridges and micronuclei were found at the metaphase I, anaphase I, anaphase II and tetrad stages in the F2 and F3 progeny. The averages of univalents were 3.50 and 2.73 per cell, and those of lagging chromosomes were 3.37 and 1.87 in the F2 and F3 progeny, respectively. The PMC meiotic indices of the F2 and F3 progeny were 12.22 and 20.34, respectively, indicating considerable genetic instability. A sequential C-banding-GISH analysis revealed that some chromosomes and fragments from the hexaploid wild oat were detected at metaphase I and anaphase I in the progeny, showing that the progeny were of true intergeneric hybrid origin. The alien chromosomes 6A, 7A, 3C and 2D were lost during transmission from F2 to F3. In addition, partial T. timopheevii chromosomes appeared in the form of univalents or lagging chromosomes, which might result from large genome differences between the parents, and the wild oat chromosome introgression interfered with the wheat homologues' normally pairing.

  10. Screening Cereals Quality by Electronic Nose: the Example of Mycotoxins Naturally Contaminated Maize and Durum Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campagnoli, Anna; Dell'Orto, Vittorio; Savoini, Giovanni; Cheli, Federica

    2009-05-01

    Mycotoxins represent an heterogeneous group of toxic compounds from fungi metabolism. Due to the frequent occurrence of mycotoxins in cereals commodities the develop of cost/effective screening methods represent an important topic to ensure food and feed safety. In the presented study a commercial electronic nose constituted by ten MOS (Metal Oxide Sensors) was applied to verify the possibility of discriminating between mycotoxins contaminated and non-contaminated cereals. The described analytical approach was able to discriminate contaminated and non-contaminated samples both in the case of aflatoxins infected maize and deoxynivalenol infected durum wheat samples. In the case of maize data two sensors from the array revealed a partial relation with the level of aflatoxins. These results could be promising for a further improvement of electronic nose application in order to develop a semi-quantitative screening approach to mycotoxins contamination.

  11. Identification of irradiated wheat by germination test, DNA comet assay and electron spin resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Adilson C.; Freund, Maria Teresa L.; Villavicencio, Ana Lúcia C. H.; Delincée, Henry; Arthur, Valter

    2002-03-01

    In several countries, there has been an increase in the use of radiation for food processing thus improving the quality and sanitary conditions, inhibiting pathogenic microorganisms, delaying the natural aging process and so extending product lifetime. The need to develop analytical methods to detect these irradiated products is also increasing. The goal of this research was to identify wheat irradiated using different radiation doses. Seeds were irradiated with a gamma 60Co source (Gammacell 220 GC) in the Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura and the Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares. Dose rate used were 1.6 and 5.8kGy/h. Applied doses were 0.0, 0.10, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0, and 2.0kGy. After irradiation, seeds were analysed over a 6 month period. Three different detection methods were employed to determine how irradiation had modified the samples. Screening methods consisted of a germination test measuring the inhibition of shooting and rooting and analysis of DNA fragmentation. The method of electron spin resonance spectroscopy allowed a better dosimetric evaluation. These techniques make the identification of irradiated wheat with different doses possible.

  12. Wheat Production and Wheat Rust Management in Canada

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue Allen G; Chi Dawn T; Zhang Shu-zhen; Li Zuo-fu

    2012-01-01

    Wheat is Canada's the largest crop with most of the production in the western Canadian Prairie Provinces of Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta. There were approximately 10 million (M) hectares (hm2) seeded to wheat in Canada, including 7 M hm2 of hexaploid spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), 2 M hm2 of durum wheat (T. turgidum L. ssp. durum (Desf.) Husn.), and 1 M hm2 of winter wheat (T. aestivum). Within hexaploid wheat there has been diversification into a number of market classes based on different end-use quality criteria. The predominant spring bread wheat class has been the Canada Western Red Spring (CWRS) class. Historically, the disease of major concern in wheat was stem rust, caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici. The first significant stem rust resistant cultivar in Canada was Thatcher, grown extensively from 1939 until the early 1970s. Thatcher, however, was very susceptible to leaf rust, caused by Puccinia triticina. Over years, improved resistance to both stem and leaf rust was achieved with the release of cultivars with additional genes for resistance, primarily Sr2, Sr6, Sr7a, Sr9b, Lr13, Lr14a, Lr16, and Lr34. The genetic resistance has adequately controlled stem rust but leaf rust continues to cause significant loss, partially due to changes in the P. triticina population which reduced the effectiveness of resistance genes such as Lr13 and Lr16. Stripe rust on wheat, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, was historically a problem under irrigation in southern Alberta, but since 2000, it has been found annually in the central Canadian prairies and southern Ontario. The genetic basis of resistance to stripe rust in most Canadian wheat cultivars has not been determined, although Yr18 provides partial resistance in many cultivars. In the future, other rust diseases, such as wheat stripe rust, or highly virulent new pathotypes of current rust pathogens, such as P. graminis f. sp. tritici race Ug-99, may pose

  13. Impact of the D genome and quantitative trait loci on quantitative traits in a spring durum by spring bread wheat cross

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desirable agronomic traits are similar for common hexaploid (6X) bread wheat (Triticum aestivum, 2n = 6x = 42, genome, AABBDD) and tetraploid (4X) durum wheat (Triticum turgidum durum, 2n = 4x = 28, genome, AABB). However, they are genetically isolated from each other due to an unequal number of ge...

  14. Isolation and identification of Triticeae chromosome 1 receptor-like kinase genes (Lrk10) from diploid, tetraploid, and hexaploid species of the genus Avena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, D W; Armstrong, K C; Drouin, G; McElroy, A; Fedak, G; Molnar, S D

    2003-02-01

    The DNA sequence of an extracellular (EXC) domain of an oat (Avena sativa L.) receptor-like kinase (ALrk10) gene was amplified from 23 accessions of 15 Avena species (6 diploid, 6 tetraploid, and 3 hexaploid). Primers were designed from one partial oat ALrk10 clone that had been used to map the gene in hexaploid oat to linkage groups syntenic to Triticeae chromosome 1 and 3. Cluster (phylogenetic) analyses showed that all of the oat DNA sequences amplified with these primers are orthologous to the wheat and barley sequences that are located on chromosome 1 of the Triticeae species. Triticeae chromosome 3 Lrk10 sequences were not amplified using these primers. Cluster analyses provided evidence for multiple copies at a locus. The analysis divided the ALrk EXC sequences into two groups, one of which included AA and AABB genome species and the other CC, AACC, and CCCC genome species. Both groups of sequences were found in hexaploid AACCDD genome species, but not in all accessions. The C genome group was divided into 3 subgroups: (i) the CC diploids and the perennial autotetraploid, Avena macrostachya (this supports other evidence for the presence of the C in this autotetraploid species); (ii) a sequence from Avena maroccana and Avena murphyi and several sequences from different accessions of A. sativa; and (iii) A. murphyi and sequences from A. sativa and Avena sterilis. This suggests a possible polyphyletic origin for A. sativa from the AACC progenitor tetraploids or an origin from a progenitor of the AACC tetraploids. The sequences of the A genome group were not as clearly divided into subgroups. Although a group of sequences from the accession 'SunII' and a sequence from line Pg3, are clearly different from the others, the A genome diploid sequences were interspersed with tetraploid and hexaploid sequences.

  15. Accelerated Senescence and Enhanced Disease Resistance in Hybrid Chlorosis Lines Derived from Interspecific Crosses between Tetraploid Wheat and Aegilops tauschii

    OpenAIRE

    Hiroki Nakano; Nobuyuki Mizuno; Yukio Tosa; Kentaro Yoshida; Pyoyun Park; Shigeo Takumi

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid chlorosis, a type of hybrid incompatibility, has frequently been reported in inter- and intraspecific crosses of allopolyploid wheat. In a previous study, we reported some types of growth abnormalities such as hybrid necrosis and observed hybrid chlorosis with mild or severe abnormalities in wheat triploids obtained in crosses between tetraploid wheat cultivar Langdon and four Ae. tauschii accessions and in their derived synthetic hexaploids. However, the molecular mechanisms underlyin...

  16. Photosynthetical electron transfer and biomass formation in selected evolutionary wheat types

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, H.

    1980-01-01

    The primary photosynthetical reactions, which are responsible for the absorption of light energy and its fixing as chemical energy, represent the first part of a chain of metabolic processes occurring in the green plant, which ends with the production of organic material. In principle, the synthesis of reserve substances and their deposition in economically profitable storage organs also bases on the supply with energy and reduction equivalents due to the photosynthetical electron transfer, although this production is also determined and influenced by other processes, whose regulative connections are not yet completely known. The formation of biomasses (vegetative organs) however, has a close connection with the capacity of the photosynthetic electron transfer, because there are numerous possibilities of an indirect usage of ATP and NADPH/sub 2/ in the protein and lipid metabolisms besides the synthesis of carbohydrates, which is limited by the CO/sub 2/ supply at the carboxylation site. Consequently, a high degree of functional capacity should correlate with the capacity of intensive growth and result to be a selective advantage in evolution. It was the intention of this study to examine the above-mentioned suppositions on selected species of the genera triticum and aegilops, each of which represents a certain step in the evolution from wild grasses to cultured wheat.

  17. Analysis of Breeding Systems, Ploidy, and the Role of Hexaploids in Three Hypericum perforatum L. Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hexaploid seeds are produced by predominantly tetraploid populations of Hypericum perforatum, but the fate of hexaploid seedlings and their reproductive behavior have not been closely examined. We used flow cytometry to analyze single seeds and individual plant samples of three accessions of H. per...

  18. Spontaneous wheat-Aegilops biuncialis, Ae. geniculata and Ae. triuncialis amphiploid production, a potential way of gene transference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loureiro, I.; Escorial, C.; Garcia-Baudin, J. M.; Chueca, M. C.

    2009-07-01

    Some F1 hybrid plants between three species of the Aegilops genus and different hexaploid wheat Triticum aestivum cultivars show certain self-fertility, with averages of F{sub 1} hybrids bearing F{sub 2} seeds of 8.17%, 5.12% and 48.14% for Aegilops biuncialis, Aegilops geniculata and Aegilops triuncialis respectively. In the Ae. triuncialis-wheat combination with Astral wheat cultivar, the fertility was higher than that found in the other combinations. All the F2 seeds studied were spontaneous amphiploids (2n=10x=70). The present study evidences the possibility of spontaneous formation of amphiploids between these three Aegilops species and hexaploid wheat and discusses their relevance for gene transference. Future risk assessment of transgenic wheat cultivars needs to evaluate the importance of amphiploids as a bridge for transgene introgression and for gene escape to the wild. (Author)

  19. Molecular verification of the integration of Tripsacum dactyloides DNA into wheat genome through wide hybridization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    RAPD and RFLP analyses of double haploid lines which derived from hybridization between hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.2n=42) and eastern gamagrass (Tripsacum dactyloides L.2n=4x=72) are reported.Two of the 340 Operon primers have been screened,which stably amplified Tripsacum dactyloides (male parent) specific bands in the double haploid lines.These results confirm the fact that Tripsacum dactyloides DNA has been integrated into wheat genome by sexual hybridization at molecular level.This idea has been further testified by RFLP analysis.Application and potentials of transferring Tripsacum dactyloides DNA into wheat genome by sexual hybridization in wheat breeding are discussed.

  20. Quantification of genetic relationships among A genomes of wheats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandolini, A; Vaccino, P; Boggini, G; Ozkan, H; Kilian, B; Salamini, F

    2006-04-01

    The genetic relationships of A genomes of Triticum urartu (Au) and Triticum monococcum (Am) in polyploid wheats are explored and quantified by AFLP fingerprinting. Forty-one accessions of A-genome diploid wheats, 3 of AG-genome wheats, 19 of AB-genome wheats, 15 of ABD-genome wheats, and 1 of the D-genome donor Ae. tauschii have been analysed. Based on 7 AFLP primer combinations, 423 bands were identified as potentially A genome specific. The bands were reduced to 239 by eliminating those present in autoradiograms of Ae. tauschii, bands interpreted as common to all wheat genomes. Neighbour-joining analysis separates T. urartu from T. monococcum. Triticum urartu has the closest relationship to polyploid wheats. Triticum turgidum subsp. dicoccum and T. turgidum subsp. durum lines are included in tightly linked clusters. The hexaploid spelts occupy positions in the phylogenetic tree intermediate between bread wheats and T. turgidum. The AG-genome accessions cluster in a position quite distant from both diploid and other polyploid wheats. The estimates of similarity between A genomes of diploid and polyploid wheats indicate that, compared with Am, Au has around 20% higher similarity to the genomes of polyploid wheats. Triticum timo pheevii AG genome is molecularly equidistant from those of Au and Am wheats.

  1. Identification and Phylogenetic Analysis of a CC-NBS-LRR Encoding Gene Assigned on Chromosome 7B of Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangqi Zhang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Hexaploid wheat displays limited genetic variation. As a direct A and B genome donor of hexaploid wheat, tetraploid wheat represents an important gene pool for cultivated bread wheat. Many disease resistant genes express conserved domains of the nucleotide-binding site and leucine-rich repeats (NBS-LRR. In this study, we isolated a CC-NBS-LRR gene locating on chromosome 7B from durum wheat variety Italy 363, and designated it TdRGA-7Ba. Its open reading frame was 4014 bp, encoding a 1337 amino acid protein with a complete NBS domain and 18 LRR repeats, sharing 44.7% identity with the PM3B protein. TdRGA-7Ba expression was continuously seen at low levels and was highest in leaves. TdRGA-7Ba has another allele TdRGA-7Bb with a 4 bp deletion at position +1892 in other cultivars of tetraploid wheat. In Ae. speltoides, as a B genome progenitor, both TdRGA-7Ba and TdRGA-7Bb were detected. In all six species of hexaploid wheats (AABBDD, only TdRGA-7Bb existed. Phylogenic analysis showed that all TdRGA-7Bb type genes were grouped in one sub-branch. We speculate that TdRGA-7Bb was derived from a TdRGA-7Ba mutation, and it happened in Ae. speltoides. Both types of TdRGA-7B participated in tetraploid wheat formation. However, only the TdRGA-7Bb was retained in hexaploid wheat.

  2. Evolution of polyploid triticum wheats under cultivation: the role of domestication, natural hybridization and allopolyploid speciation in their diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Yoshihiro

    2011-05-01

    The evolution of the polyploid Triticum wheats is distinctive in that domestication, natural hybridization and allopolyploid speciation have all had significant impacts on their diversification. In this review, I outline the phylogenetic relationships of cultivated wheats and their wild relatives and provide an overview of the recent progress and remaining issues in understanding the genetic and ecological factors that favored their evolution. An attempt is made to view the evolution of the polyploid Triticum wheats as a continuous process of diversification that was initiated by domestication of tetraploid emmer wheat and driven by various natural events ranging from interploidy introgression via hybridization to allopolyploid speciation of hexaploid common wheat, instead of viewing it as a group of discrete evolutionary processes that separately proceeded at the tetraploid and hexaploid levels. This standpoint underscores the important role of natural hybridization in the reticulate diversification of the tetraploid-hexaploid Triticum wheat complex and highlights critical, but underappreciated, issues that concern the allopolyploid speciation of common wheat.

  3. Wheat Landrace Genome Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingen, Luzie U; West, Claire; Leverington-Waite, Michelle; Collier, Sarah; Orford, Simon; Goram, Richard; Yang, Cai-Yun; King, Julie; Allen, Alexandra M; Burridge, Amanda; Edwards, Keith J; Griffiths, Simon

    2017-02-17

    Understanding the genomic complexity of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a cornerstone in the quest to unravel the processes of domestication and the following adaptation of domesticated wheat to a wide variety of environments across the globe. Additionally, it is of importance for future improvement of the crop, particularly in the light of climate change. Focussing on the adaptation after domestication, a nested association mapping (NAM) panel of 60 segregating bi-parental populations were developed mainly involving landrace accessions from the core set of the Watkins hexaploid wheat collection optimized for genetic diversity (WINGEN et al. 2014). A modern spring elite variety, 'Paragon,' was used as common reference parent. Genetic maps were constructed following identical rules to make them comparable. In total, 1,611 linkage groups were identified, based on recombination from an estimated 126,300 crossover events over the whole NAM panel. A consensus map, named landrace consensus map (LRC) was constructed and contained 2,498 genetic loci. These newly developed genetics tools were used to investigate the rules underlying genome fluidity or rigidity, e.g. by comparing at marker distances and marker orders. In general, marker order was highly correlated, which provides support for strong synteny between bread wheat accessions. However, many exceptional cases of incongruent linkage groups and increased marker distances were also found. Segregation distortion was detected for many markers, sometimes as hot-spots present in different populations. Furthermore, evidence for translocations in at least 36 of the maps was found. These translocations fell, in general, into many different translocation classes, but a few translocation classes were found in several accessions, the most frequent one being the well known T5B:7B translocation. Loci involved in recombination rate, which is an interesting trait for plant breeding, were identified by QTL analyses using the

  4. Herbicide resistance-endowing ACCase gene mutations in hexaploid wild oat (Avena fatua): insights into resistance evolution in a hexaploid species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Q; Ahmad-Hamdani, M S; Han, H; Christoffers, M J; Powles, S B

    2013-03-01

    Many herbicide-resistant weed species are polyploids, but far too little about the evolution of resistance mutations in polyploids is understood. Hexaploid wild oat (Avena fatua) is a global crop weed and many populations have evolved herbicide resistance. We studied plastidic acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACCase)-inhibiting herbicide resistance in hexaploid wild oat and revealed that resistant individuals can express one, two or three different plastidic ACCase gene resistance mutations (Ile-1781-Leu, Asp-2078-Gly and Cys-2088-Arg). Using ACCase resistance mutations as molecular markers, combined with genetic, molecular and biochemical approaches, we found in individual resistant wild-oat plants that (1) up to three unlinked ACCase gene loci assort independently following Mendelian laws for disomic inheritance, (2) all three of these homoeologous ACCase genes were transcribed, with each able to carry its own mutation and (3) in a hexaploid background, each individual ACCase resistance mutation confers relatively low-level herbicide resistance, in contrast to high-level resistance conferred by the same mutations in unrelated diploid weed species of the Poaceae (grass) family. Low resistance conferred by individual ACCase resistance mutations is likely due to a dilution effect by susceptible ACCase expressed by homoeologs in hexaploid wild oat and/or differential expression of homoeologous ACCase gene copies. Thus, polyploidy in hexaploid wild oat may slow resistance evolution. Evidence of coexisting non-target-site resistance mechanisms among wild-oat populations was also revealed. In all, these results demonstrate that herbicide resistance and its evolution can be more complex in hexaploid wild oat than in unrelated diploid grass weeds. Our data provide a starting point for the daunting task of understanding resistance evolution in polyploids.

  5. Analysis of Triticum boeoticum and Triticum urartu seed defensins: To the problem of the origin of polyploid wheat genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odintsova, Tatyana I; Korostyleva, Tatyana V; Odintsova, Margarita S; Pukhalsky, Vitaliy A; Grishin, Eugene V; Egorov, Tsezi A

    2008-06-01

    The origin of polyploid wheat genomes has been the subject of numerous studies and is the key problem in wheat phylogeny. Different diploid species have been supposed to donate genomes to tetraploid and hexaploid wheat species. To shed light on phylogenetic relationships between the presumable A genome donors and hexaploid wheat species we have applied a new approach: the comparison of defensins from diploid Triticum species, Triticum boeoticum Boiss. and Triticum urartu Thum. ex Gandil., with previously characterized Triticum kiharae defensins [T.I. Odintsova et al., Biochimie 89 (2007) 605-612]. Defensins were isolated by acidic extraction of seeds followed by three-step chromatographic separation. Isolated defensins were identified by molecular masses using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and N-terminal sequencing. For the first time, we have shown that T. urartu defensins are more similar to those of the hexaploid wheat than T. boeoticum defensins, although variation among samples collected in different regions of the world was revealed. Our results clearly demonstrate that T. urartu of the Asian origin contributed the A genome to polyploid wheat species.

  6. Autoimmune response and repression of mitotic cell division occur in inter-specific crosses between tetraploid wheat and Aegilops tauschii Coss. that show low temperature-induced hybrid necrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Nobuyuki; Shitsukawa, Naoki; Hosogi, Naoki; Park, Pyoyun; Takumi, Shigeo

    2011-10-01

    Common wheat is an allohexaploid species originating from a naturally occurring inter-specific cross between tetraploid wheat and the diploid wild wheat Aegilops tauschii Coss. Artificial allopolyploidization can produce synthetic hexaploid wheat. However, synthetic triploid hybrids show four types of hybrid growth abnormalities: type II and III hybrid necrosis, hybrid chlorosis, and severe growth abortion. Of these hybrid abnormalities, type II necrosis is induced by low temperature. Under low temperature, elongation of stems and expansion of new leaves is repressed in type II necrosis lines, which later exhibit necrotic symptoms. Here, we characterize type II necrosis in detail. Comparative transcriptome analysis showed that a number of defense-related genes were highly up-regulated in seedling leaves that showed type II necrosis. Transmission electron microscopy revealed extensive cell death in the leaves under low-temperature conditions, accompanied by abundant generation of reactive oxygen species. In addition, down-regulation of cell cycle-related genes was observed in shoot apices of type II necrosis lines under low-temperature conditions. Quantitative RT-PCR and in situ hybridization showed repression of accumulation of histone H4 transcripts in the shoot apical meristem of type II necrosis lines. These results strongly suggest that an autoimmune response-like reaction and repression of cell division in the shoot apical meristem are associated with the abnormal growth phenotype in type II necrosis lines.

  7. Cytotype distribution at a diploid–hexaploid contact zone in Aster amellus (Asteraceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, S.; Loureiro, J.; Procházka, T.; Münzbergová, Z.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims The present study aims to assess the diversity and distribution of cytotypes of Aster amellus in central and eastern Europe, contributing with data to improve understanding of the evolutionary dynamics of the contact zone between diploids and hexaploids of this polyploid complex. Methods Large-scale cytotype screening of 4720 individuals collected in 229 populations was performed using 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) flow cytometry. Fine-scale cytotype screening was performed in the mixed-ploidy population. Reproductive variables, such as number of florets per flower head, seed set and seedling emergence, as well as ploidy level of seeds and seedlings were recorded in this population. Key Results The diploid–hexaploid contact zone is large and complex, reaching the Czech Republic in the west, Austria in the south, Poland in the north-east and Romania in the extreme east of the surveyed areas. Most populations presented only one cytotype, either diploid or hexaploid. In several areas of the contact zone both cytotypes were found to grow in parapatry. One mixed-ploidy population of diploids and hexaploids was detected for the first time, but no signs of hybridization were detected. In this population, diploids had a significantly lower reproductive success, and significantly higher production of intercytotype offspring, being in reproductive disadvantage in comparison with hexaploids. Conclusions The contact zone of diploid and hexaploid A. amellus in central and eastern Europe seems to be highly dynamic and diffuse, with both primary and secondary contacts being possible. The obtained results suggest the origin of hexaploids through diploids, overall supporting previous hypotheses that this species is autopolyploid. Data from the only mixed-ploidy population detected so far suggest that the minority cytotype exclusion is an important evolutionary mechanisms driving the prevalence of single-cytotype populations, and thus contributing to

  8. [Development of commercially valuable traits in hexaploid triticale lines with Aegilops introgressions as dependent on the genome composition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adonina, I G; Orlovskaia, O A; Tereshchenko, O Yu; Koren', L V; Khotyleva, L V; Shumnyĭ, V K; Salina, E A

    2011-04-01

    Introgressive hybridization is an efficient means to improve the genetic diversity of cultivated cereals, including triticale. To identify the triticale lines with Aegilops introgressions, genotyping was carried out with ten lines obtained by crossing hexaploid triticale with genome-substitution forms of the common wheat cultivar Avrora: Avrolata (AABBUU), Avrodes (AABBSS), and Avrotika (AABBTT). The genome composition of the triticale lines was studied by in situ hybridization, and recombination events involving Aegilops and/or common wheat chromosomes were assumed for nine out of the ten lines. Translocations involving rye chromosomes were not observed. Substitutions for rye chromosomes were detected in two lines resulting from crosses with Avrolata. Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) with Ae. umbellulata DNA and molecular genetic analysis showed that chromosome 1R was substituted with Ae. umbellulata chromosome 1U in one of the lines and that 2R(2U) substitution took place in the other line. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with the Spelt 1 and pSc119.2 probes revealed a translocation from Ae. speltoides to the long arm of chromosome 1B in one of the two lines resulting from crosses with Avrodes and a translocation in the long arm of chromosome 7B in the other line. In addition, the pSc119.2 probe revealed chromosome 1B rearrangements in four lines resulting from crosses with Avrolata and in a line resulting from crosses with Avrotika. The lines were tested for main productivity parameters. A negative effect on all productivity parameters was demonstrated for Ae. umbellulata chromosome 2U. The overwinter survival in all of the lines was similar to or even higher than in the original triticale cultivars. A substantial increase in winter resistance as compared with the parental cultivar was observed for the line carrying the T7BS-7SL translocation. The line with the 1R(1U) chromosome substitution seemed promising for the baking properties of triticale.

  9. Evolution of New Disease Specificity at a Simple Resistance Locus in a Crop–Weed Complex: Reconstitution of the Lr21 Gene in Wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Li; Brooks, Steven; Li, Wanlong; Fellers, John; Nelson, James C.; Gill, Bikram

    2009-01-01

    The wheat leaf-rust resistance gene Lr21 was first identified in an Iranian accession of goatgrass, Aegilops tauschii Coss., the D-genome donor of hexaploid bread wheat, and was introgressed into modern wheat cultivars by breeding. To elucidate the origin of the gene, we analyzed sequences of Lr21 and lr21 alleles from 24 wheat cultivars and 25 accessions of Ae. tauschii collected along the Caspian Sea in Iran and Azerbaijan. Three basic nonfunctional lr21 haplotypes, H1, H2, and H3, were ide...

  10. Alien DNA introgression and wheat DNA rearrangements in a stable wheat line derived from the early generation of distant hybridization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Lianquan; LIU Dengcai; YAN Zehong; ZHENG Youliang

    2005-01-01

    Polyploidy has been found to be common in plants. Bread or common wheat (Triticum aestivum L., 2n = 42) is a good example of allopolyploid made up of three diploid genomes A, B and D. In recent years, by the study of mimicking the origination of common wheat, it was found that changes of DNA sequence and gene expression occurred at the early stages of artificial allohexaploid between tetraploid wheat and Aegilops tauschii, which was probably favorable to genetic diploidization of new synthetic hexaploid wheat. Common wheat 99L2 is a new line stable in genetic, which was derived from the early self-pollinated generation of wide hybrids between common wheat and rye. In this study, it was found that at least two rye DNA segments had been introgressed into 99L2. This result suggested that a mechanism of alien DNA introgression may exist, which was different from the traditional mechanism of chromosome pairing and DNA recombination between wheat and alien species. Meanwhile, during the introgression process of alien rye DNA segments, the changes in DNA sequences of wheat itself occurred.

  11. SOME CONSTRAINTS ON INTERSPECIFIC CROSSING OF DURUM WHEAT WITH AEGILOPS TAUSCHII ACCESSIONS SCREENED UNDER WATER-DEFICIT STRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masanori Inagaki

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A total of 400 accessions of Aegilops tauschii Coss. (goat grass collected from western Asia and the Caucasus were screened for the productive tillering capacity under rain-fed field conditions with the aim of developing new, synthetic hexaploid wheats having enhanced drought adaptation. Of these, 23 Ae. tauschii accessions were selected for interspecific crossing with two durum wheat varieties ‘Belikh-2’ and ‘Jennah Khetifa’. Fifteen of the selected accessions were of Pakistani origin and exhibited early ear-emergence and low cross-compatibility, and five accessions were from Iran and Turkmenistan and exhibited high cross-compatibility. A wide variation among accessions in cross-compatibility might be related to their region of origin. Successful hybridization resulted in the formation of immature embryos, which are capable of regenerating to plants on culture medium. The Ae. tauschii accession ig 47219, of Turkmenistan origin, gave the highest frequency of embryos in crosses with both wheat varieties, but regeneration from the crosses with ‘Belikh-2’ failed due to the occurrence of hybrid necrosis. Thus, a high frequency of embryo production did not always result in the satisfactory development of hybrid plants. Treatment of the hybrid plants with colchicine was essential for the successful set of hexaploid seeds on the newly-synthesized plants. These constraints were discussed for the efficient development of new, synthetic hexaploid wheats.

  12. Genetic diversity of the African hexaploid species Solanum scabrum Mill. and S. nigrum L. (Solanaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manoko, M.L.K.; Berg, van den R.G.; Feron, R.M.C.; Weerden, van der G.M.; Mariani, C.

    2008-01-01

    Two hexaploid species of Solanum sect. Solanum are present in Africa: Solanum scabrum and S. nigrum. Solanum scabrum is a widely cultivated species and is used as a leafy vegetable, as a source of medicine and as a source of ink dye. In previous studies a wide range of morphological diversity has be

  13. Genetic diversity revealed by genomic-SSR and EST-SSR markers among common wheat, spelt and compactum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xinquan; LIU Peng; HAN Zongfu; NI Zhongfu; SUN Qixin

    2005-01-01

    In this study, two SSR molecular markers, named genomic-SSR and EST-SSR, are used to measure the genetic diversity among three hexaploid wheat populations, which include 28 common wheat ( Triticum aestivum L. ), 13 spelt ( Triticum spelta L. ),and 11 compactum ( Triticum compactum Host. ). The results show that common wheat has the highest genetic polymorphism, followed by spelt and then compactum. The mean genetic distance between the populations is higher than that within a population, and similar tendency is detected for individual genomes A, B and D. Therefore, spelt and compactum can be used as potential germplasms for wheat breeding, especially for enriching the genetic variation in genome D. As compared with spelt, the genetic diversity between common wheat and compactum is much smaller, indicating a closer consanguine relationship between these two species. Although the polymorphism revealed by EST-SSR is lower than that by genomic-SSR, it can effectively differentiate diverse genotypes as well. Together with our present results, it is concluded that EST-SSR marker is an ideal marker for assessing the genetic diversity in wheat. Meanwhile, the origin and evolution of hexaploid wheat is also analyzed and discussed.

  14. Haplotype variation of Glu-D1 locus and the origin of Glu-D1d allele conferring superior end-use qualities in common wheat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenying Dong

    Full Text Available In higher plants, seed storage proteins (SSPs are frequently expressed from complex gene families, and allelic variation of SSP genes often affects the quality traits of crops. In common wheat, the Glu-D1 locus, encoding 1Dx and 1Dy SSPs, has multiple alleles. The Glu-D1d allele frequently confers superior end-use qualities to commercial wheat varieties. Here, we studied the haplotype structure of Glu-D1 genomic region and the origin of Glu-D1d. Using seven diagnostic DNA markers, 12 Glu-D1 haplotypes were detected among common wheat, European spelt wheat (T. spelta, a primitive hexaploid relative of common wheat, and Aegilops tauschii (the D genome donor of hexaploid wheat. By comparatively analyzing Glu-D1 haplotypes and their associated 1Dx and 1Dy genes, we deduce that the haplotype carrying Glu-D1d was likely differentiated in the ancestral hexaploid wheat around 10,000 years ago, and was subsequently transmitted to domesticated common wheat and T. spelta. A group of relatively ancient Glu-D1 haplotypes was discovered in Ae. tauschii, which may serve for the evolution of other haplotypes. Moreover, a number of new Glu-D1d variants were found in T. spelta. The main steps in Glu-D1d differentiation are proposed. The implications of our work for enhancing the utility of Glu-D1d in wheat quality improvement and studying the SSP alleles in other crop species are discussed.

  15. Divergence in homoeolog expression of the grain length-associated gene GASR7 during wheat allohexaploidization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongdong Zhang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Hexaploid wheat has triplicated homoeologs for most of the genes that are located in subgenomes A, B, and D. GASR7, a member of the Snakin/GASA gene family, has been associated with grain length development in wheat. However, little is known about divergence of its homoeolog expression in wheat polyploids. We studied the expression patterns of the GASR7 homoeologs in immature seeds in a synthetic hexaploid wheat line whose kernels are slender like those of its maternal parent (Triticum turgidum, AABB, PI 94655 in contrast to the round seed shape of its paternal progenitor (Aegilops tauschii, DD, AS2404. We found that the B homoeolog of GASR7 was the main contributor to the total expression level of this gene in both the maternal tetraploid progenitor and the hexaploid progeny, whereas the expression levels of the A and D homoeologs were much lower. To understand possible mechanisms regulating different GASR7 homoeologs, we firstly analyzed the promoter sequences of three homoeologous genes and found that all of them contained gibberellic acid (GA response elements, with the TaGASR7B promoter (pTaGASR7B uniquely characterized by an additional predicted transcriptional enhancer. This was confirmed by the GA treatment of spikes where all three homoeologs were induced, with a much stronger response for TaGASR7B. McrBC enzyme assays showed that the methylation status at pTaGASR7D was increased during allohexaploidization, consistent with the repressed expression of TaGASR7D. For pTaGASR7A, the distribution of repetitive sequence-derived 24-nucleotide (nt small interfering RNAs (siRNAs were found which suggests possible epigenetic regulation because 24-nt siRNAs are known to mediate RNA-dependent DNA methylation. Our results thus indicate that both genetic and epigenetic mechanisms may be involved in the divergence of GASR7 homoeolog expression in polyploid wheat.

  16. Wheat Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... but also, in some cases, by inhaling wheat flour. Wheat can be found in many foods, including ... protein Soy sauce Some condiments, such as ketchup Meat products, such as hot dogs or cold cuts ...

  17. Wheat Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Blog Media Shop Alerts Donate About Food Allergies Home About Food Allergy Food Allergy Basics Facts ... Registration Create Your Own Events Educational Events Wheat Allergy Wheat allergy is most common in children, and ...

  18. Genome-Wide Analysis of Microsatellite Markers Based on Sequenced Database in Chinese Spring Wheat (Triticum aestivum L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Han

    Full Text Available Microsatellites or simple sequence repeats (SSRs are distributed across both prokaryotic and eukaryotic genomes and have been widely used for genetic studies and molecular marker-assisted breeding in crops. Though an ordered draft sequence of hexaploid bread wheat have been announced, the researches about systemic analysis of SSRs for wheat still have not been reported so far. In the present study, we identified 364,347 SSRs from among 10,603,760 sequences of the Chinese spring wheat (CSW genome, which were present at a density of 36.68 SSR/Mb. In total, we detected 488 types of motifs ranging from di- to hexanucleotides, among which dinucleotide repeats dominated, accounting for approximately 42.52% of the genome. The density of tri- to hexanucleotide repeats was 24.97%, 4.62%, 3.25% and 24.65%, respectively. AG/CT, AAG/CTT, AGAT/ATCT, AAAAG/CTTTT and AAAATT/AATTTT were the most frequent repeats among di- to hexanucleotide repeats. Among the 21 chromosomes of CSW, the density of repeats was highest on chromosome 2D and lowest on chromosome 3A. The proportions of di-, tri-, tetra-, penta- and hexanucleotide repeats on each chromosome, and even on the whole genome, were almost identical. In addition, 295,267 SSR markers were successfully developed from the 21 chromosomes of CSW, which cover the entire genome at a density of 29.73 per Mb. All of the SSR markers were validated by reverse electronic-Polymerase Chain Reaction (re-PCR; 70,564 (23.9% were found to be monomorphic and 224,703 (76.1% were found to be polymorphic. A total of 45 monomorphic markers were selected randomly for validation purposes; 24 (53.3% amplified one locus, 8 (17.8% amplified multiple identical loci, and 13 (28.9% did not amplify any fragments from the genomic DNA of CSW. Then a dendrogram was generated based on the 24 monomorphic SSR markers among 20 wheat cultivars and three species of its diploid ancestors showing that monomorphic SSR markers represented a promising

  19. Wheat Woes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING SHENGJUN

    2010-01-01

    @@ Chicago wheat futures began to skyrocket in early June,jumping 62 percent and reaching their highest level since September 2008. In Russia, wheat prices increased 70 percent recently. And Europe's wheat prices also rose 8 percent within a short time.

  20. Wheat Woes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Soaringwheat prices are unlikely to endanger globalgrain security chicago wheat futures began to skyrocket in early June, jumping 62 percent and reaching their highest level since September 2008. In Russia,wheat prices increased 70 percent recently.And Europe’s wheat prices also rose 8 percent within a short time.

  1. Embryo and endosperm development in caryopses of hybrids from crosses between tetraploid wheats and their alloplasmic lines with rye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wijciech Sodkiewicz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Data concerning the embryo and endosperm development in twenty-day-old caryopses of hybrids obtained as the result of pollination with rye pollen of tetraploid wheats (Triticum dicoccoides, T. dicoccum, T. durum and T. polonicum, their alloplasmic lines with T. timopheevi plasma and aIlaplasmic T. timopheevi lines with cytoplasma of the above mentioned tetraploid wheats and hexaploid wheat (T. macha were analysed. A high variability was noted between the tetraploid wheats as regards the degree of development of the embryo and of the endosperm in the hybrid caryopses and a decisive influence of the wheat genotype on these characters. The data for alloplasmic lines showed that the cytoplasm may have a modifying effect on the expression of these genotype characters.

  2. In search of tetraploid wheat accessions reduced in celiac disease-related gluten epitopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Broeck, Hetty; Hongbing, Chen; Lacaze, Xavier; Dusautoir, Jean-Claude; Gilissen, Ludovicus; Smulders, Marinus; van der Meer, Ingrid

    2010-11-01

    Tetraploid wheat (durum wheat) is mainly used for the preparation of pasta. As a result of breeding, thousands of tetraploid wheat varieties exist, but also tetraploid landraces are still maintained and used for local food preparations. Gluten proteins present in wheat can induce celiac disease, a T-cell mediated auto-immune disorder, in genetically predisposed individuals after ingestion. Compared to hexaploid wheat, tetraploid wheat might be reduced in T-cell stimulatory epitopes that cause celiac disease because of the absence of the D-genome. We tested gluten protein extracts from 103 tetraploid wheat accessions (obtained from the Dutch CGN genebank and from the French INRA collection) including landraces, old, modern, and domesticated accessions of various tetraploid species and subspecies from many geographic origins. Those accessions were typed for their level of T-cell stimulatory epitopes by immunoblotting with monoclonal antibodies against the α-gliadin epitopes Glia-α9 and Glia-α20. In the first selection, we found 8 CGN and 6 INRA accessions with reduced epitope staining. Fourteen of the 57 CGN accessions turned out to be mixed with hexaploid wheat, and 5 out of the 8 selected CGN accessions were mixtures of two or more different gluten protein chemotypes. Based on single seed analysis, lines from two CGN accessions and one INRA accession were obtained with significantly reduced levels of Glia-α9 and Glia-α20 epitopes. These lines will be further tested for industrial quality and may contribute to the development of safer foods for celiac patients.

  3. Phosphomolybdic acid and ferric iron as efficient electron mediators for coupling biomass pretreatment to produce bioethanol and electricity generation from wheat straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yi; Du, Bo; Zhao, Xuebing; Zhu, J Y; Liu, Dehua

    2017-03-01

    Phosphomolybdic acid (PMo12) was used as an electron mediator and proton carrier to mediate biomass pretreatment for ethanol production and electricity generation from wheat straw. In the pretreatment, lignin was oxidized anaerobically by PMo12 with solubilization of a fraction of hemicelluloses, and the PMo12 was simultaneously reduced. In an external liquid flow cell, the reduced PMo12 was re-oxidized with generation of electricity. The effects of several factors on pretreatment were investigated for optimizing the conditions. Enzymatic conversion of cellulose and xylan were about 80% and 45%, respectively, after pretreatment of wheat straw with 0.25M PMo12, at 95°C for 45min. FeCl3 was found to be an effective liquid mediator to transfer electrons to air, the terminal electron acceptor. By investigating the effects of various operation parameters and cell structural factors, the highest output power density of about 11mW/cm(2) was obtained for discharging of the reduced PMo12. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. An efficient and reproducible protocol for the production of salt tolerant transgenic wheat plants expressing the Arabidopsis AtNHX1 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaieb, Reda E A; Sharaf, Ahmed N; Soliman, Mohamed H; El-Arabi, Nagwa I; Momtaz, Osama A

    2014-01-01

    We present an efficient method for the production of transgenic salt tolerant hexaploid wheat plants expressing the Arabidopsis AtNHX1 gene. Wheat mature zygotic embryos were isolated from two hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) cultivars (namely: Gemmeiza 9 and Gemmeiza 10) and were transformed with the A. tumefaciens LBA4404 harboring the pBI-121 vector containing the AtNHX1 gene. Transgenic wheat lines that express the gus intron was obtained and used as control. The results confirmed that npt-II gene could be transmitted and expressed in the T2 following 3:1 Mendelian segregation while the control plant couldn't. The data indicate that, the AtNHX1 gene was integrated in a stable manner into the wheat genome and the corresponding transcripts were expressed. The transformation efficiency was 5.7 and 7.5% for cultivars Gemmeiza 10 and Gemmeiza 9, respectively. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of AtNHX1 gene in wheat salt tolerance. The transgenic wheat lines could maintain high growth rate under salt stress condition (350 mM NaCl) while the control plant couldn't. The results confirmed that Na(+)/H(+) antiporter gene AtNHX1 increased salt tolerance by increasing Na(+) accumulation and keeping K+/Na(+) balance. Thus, transgenic plants showed high tolerance to salt stress and can be considered as a new genetic resource in breeding programs.

  5. Identification of three wheat globulin genes by screening a Triticum aestivum BAC genomic library with cDNA from a diabetes-associated globulin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacFarlane Amanda J

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to dietary wheat proteins in genetically susceptible individuals has been associated with increased risk for the development of Type 1 diabetes (T1D. Recently, a wheat protein encoded by cDNA WP5212 has been shown to be antigenic in mice, rats and humans with autoimmune T1D. To investigate the genomic origin of the identified wheat protein cDNA, a hexaploid wheat genomic library from Glenlea cultivar was screened. Results Three unique wheat globulin genes, Glo-3A, Glo3-B and Glo-3C, were identified. We describe the genomic structure of these genes and their expression pattern in wheat seeds. The Glo-3A gene shared 99% identity with the cDNA of WP5212 at the nucleotide and deduced amino acid level, indicating that we have identified the gene(s encoding wheat protein WP5212. Southern analysis revealed the presence of multiple copies of Glo-3-like sequences in all wheat samples, including hexaploid, tetraploid and diploid species wheat seed. Aleurone and embryo tissue specificity of WP5212 gene expression, suggested by promoter region analysis, which demonstrated an absence of endosperm specific cis elements, was confirmed by immunofluorescence microscopy using anti-WP5212 antibodies. Conclusion Taken together, the results indicate that a diverse group of globulins exists in wheat, some of which could be associated with the pathogenesis of T1D in some susceptible individuals. These data expand our knowledge of specific wheat globulins and will enable further elucidation of their role in wheat biology and human health.

  6. DIVERSITY OF EAR CHARACTERISTICS OF CROATIAN WHEAT GERMPLASM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Rukavina

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Morphological characteristics of ear were used for estimation of genetic diversity in 50 varieties of hexaploid winter wheat originated from Croatian breeding programs. Field trials were set at two locations in two vegetation years (2008/09 and 2009/10. Observations in field trials and laboratory were done on 13 ear characteristics used in DUS testing. Genetic diversity research of Croatian wheat germplasm according to ear morphological characteristics, showed a high level of dissimilarity (0.625 among the tested varieties. Varieties Super Žitarka and AFZG Karla are pointed out with highest coefficient of dissimilarity (0.94. Application of UPGMA method showed that all varieties in different groups had significant genetic diversity. On the basis of data analysis the most distant varieties with the best morphological characteristics of ear were determined and it will be help in the selection of new parent combinations in future breeding programs.

  7. Mapping QTLs for Fusarium Head Blight Resistance in an Interspecific Wheat Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giancaspro, Angelica; Giove, Stefania L.; Zito, Daniela; Blanco, A.; Gadaleta, Agata

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium head blight (scab) is one of the most widespread and damaging diseases of wheat, causing grain yield and quality losses and production of harmful mycotoxins. Development of resistant varieties is hampered by lack of effective resistance sources in the tetraploid wheat primary gene pool. Here we dissected the genetic basis of resistance in a new durum wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum) Recombinant inbred lines (RILs) population obtained by crossing an hexaploid resistant line and a durum susceptible cultivar. A total of 135 RILs were used for constituting a genetic linkage map and mapping loci for head blight incidence, severity, and disease-related plant morphological traits (plant height, spike compactness, and awn length). The new genetic map accounted for 4,366 single nucleotide polymorphism markers assembled in 52 linkage groups covering a total length of 4,227.37 cM. Major quantitative trait loci (QTL) for scab incidence and severity were mapped on chromosomes 2AS, 3AL, and 2AS, 2BS, 4BL, respectively. Plant height loci were identified on 3A, 3B, and 4B, while major QTL for ear compactness were found on 4A, 5A, 5B, 6A, and 7A. In this work, resistance to Fusarium was transferred from hexaploid to durum wheat, and correlations between the disease and morphological traits were assessed. PMID:27746787

  8. Selección recurrente en triticale hexaploide (X Triticosecale Wittmack bajo condiciones de secano Recurrent selection in hexaploid triticale (X Triticosecale Wittmack under rainfed conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Maich

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue detectar cambios en una población de triticale hexaploide sometida a un proceso de selección y recombinación en condiciones de secano. Fueron evaluadas diez familias de triticale hexaploide S1:2 (2004 y S1:3 (2005 por cada uno de los ciclos de selección recurrente analizados: C0, C1, C2 y C3,, para lo cual se usaron diseños completamente aleatorizados con dos repeticiones. Diez caracteres fueron medidos o estimados. Se consideró a los ciclos de selección, años de evaluación e interacción entre ambas variables como fuentes de variación. El índice de cosecha por espiga incrementó significativamente en C2 y C3 con respecto a C0; en cambio no existieron diferencias significativas entre C2 y C3. ; en tanto para el peso de 1000 semillas ocurrieron diferencias significativas en C3 con respecto a C2. Se continuará con el proceso de selección y recombinación en curso, mediante el uso de un índice de selección que incluya al rendimiento y sus principales componentes, introduciendo nuevas combinaciones genotípicas fijadas, de probada aptitud agronómica, derivadas de los distintos ciclos de selección recurrente alcanzados.The objective of this study was to detect changes within an hexaploid triticale population submitted to a selection and recombination process under rainfed conditions. Ten S1:2 (2004 and S1:3 (2005 families per each one of analyzed recurrent selection cycles: C0, C1, C2 y C3, were evaluated. Completely randomized designs with two replications were used. At harvest, ten characters were measured or estimated. The recurrent selection cycles, years of evaluation and the interaction between them were considered as variation sources. Spike harvest index increased significantly at C2 and C3 with respect to C0; not statistical differences between C2 and C3 were observed. The 1000 grain weight of C3 was statistically superior than C2. The selection and recombination process will be continued

  9. Genetic transformation of Indian bread (T. aestivum) and pasta (T. durum) wheat by particle bombardment of mature embryo-derived calli

    OpenAIRE

    Khurana Paramjit; Patnaik Debasis

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Background Particle bombardment has been successfully employed for obtaining transgenics in cereals in general and wheat in particular. Most of these procedures employ immature embryos which are not available throughout the year. The present investigation utilizes mature seeds as the starting material and the calli raised from the hexaploid Triticum aestivum and tetraploid Triticum durum display a high regeneration response and were therefore used as the target tissue for genetic tra...

  10. Anthocyanins in Wheat Seed – A Mini Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Havrlentová Michaela

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Improving the micronutrients in food has become an important field of the Second Green Revolution. In recent years, minor bioactive compounds such as polyphenols, pigments and carotenoids, have attracted more and more interest from both researchers and food manufactures as health-promoting and disease-preventing effects in both in vitro and in vivo studies. One of plant pigments, wheat anthocyanins as plant phenolics are increasingly attractive as natural compounds positively affecting consumer´s health and condition moreover wheat is staple food source consumed usually daily. For a purple, blue, or red colour of wheat seed are responsible glycosylated cyanidins, delphinidins, malvinidins, pelargonidins, petunidins, and peonidins located in aleurone layer or pericarp, respectively. Other than white seed colour is not natural for common hexaploid wheat but this trait can be introduced from donors by aimed breeding programs. The way of wheat anthocyanins to provide positive effects for consumer´s physiology is limited due to their specific occurrence in seed parts usually removed during grain milling practice and lower stability during processing to foods

  11. [Effects of nitrogen application and elevated atmospheric CO2 on electron transport and energy partitioning in flag leaf photosynthesis of wheat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xu-cheng; Yu, Xian-feng; Ma, Yi-fan

    2011-03-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum) plants were pot-cultured in open top chambers at the nitrogen application rate of 0 and 200 mg x kg(-1) soil and the atmospheric CO2 concentration of 400 and 760 micromol x mol(-1). Through the determination of flag leaf nitrogen and chlorophyll contents, photosynthetic rate (Pn)-intercellar CO2 concentration (Ci) response curve, and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters at heading stage, the photosynthetic electron transport rate and others were calculated, aimed to investigate the effects of nitrogen application and elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration on the photosynthetic energy partitioning in wheat flag leaves. Elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration decreased the leaf nitrogen and chlorophyll contents, compared with the ambient one, and the chlorophyll a/b ratio increased at the nitrogen application rate of 200 mg x kg(-1). With the application of nitrogen, no evident variations were observed in the maximal photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm), maximal quantum yield under irradiance (Fv'/Fm') of PS II reaction center, photochemical fluorescence quenching coefficient (q(p)), and actual PS II efficiency under irradiance (phi(PS II) at elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration, and the total photosynthetic electron transport rate (J(F)) of PS II reaction center had no evident increase, though the non-photochemical fluorescence quenching coefficient (NPQ) decreased significantly. With no nitrogen application, the Fv'/Fm', psi(PS II), and NPQ at elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration decreased significantly, and the J(F) had a significant decrease though the Fv/Fm and q(p) did not vary remarkably. Nitrogen application increased the J(F) and photochemical electron transport rate (Jc); while elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration decreased the photorespiration electron transport rate (J0), Rubisco oxidation rate (V0), ratio of photorespiration to photochemical electron transport rate (J0/Jc) , and Rubisco oxidation/carboxylation rate (Vo/Vc), but

  12. Genomics as the key to unlocking the polyploid potential of wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrill, Philippa; Adamski, Nikolai; Uauy, Cristobal

    2015-12-01

    Polyploidy has played a central role in plant genome evolution and in the formation of new species such as tetraploid pasta wheat and hexaploid bread wheat. Until recently, the high sequence conservation between homoeologous genes, together with the large genome size of polyploid wheat, had hindered genomic analyses in this important crop species. In the past 5 yr, however, the advent of next-generation sequencing has radically changed the wheat genomics landscape. Here, we review a series of advances in genomic resources and tools for functional genomics that are shifting the paradigm of what is possible in wheat molecular genetics and breeding. We discuss how understanding the relationship between homoeologues can inform approaches to modulate the response of quantitative traits in polyploid wheat; we also argue that functional redundancy has 'locked up' a wide range of phenotypic variation in wheat. We explore how genomics provides key tools to inform targeted manipulation of multiple homoeologues, thereby allowing researchers and plant breeders to unlock the full polyploid potential of wheat.

  13. Morphological, cytological and molecular analyses of a synthetic hexaploid derived from an interspecific hybrid between Gossypium hirsutum and Gossypium anomalum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Zhang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Gossypium anomalum represents an inestimable source of genes that could potentially be transferred into the gene pool of cultivated cotton. To resolve interspecific hybrid sterility problems, we previously treated triploid hybrids derived from a cross between Gossypium hirsutum and G. anomalum with 0.15% colchicine and obtained a putative fertile hexaploid. In this study, we performed morphological, molecular and cytological analyses to assess the hybridity and doubled status of putative interspecific hybrid plants. Most of the morphological characteristics of the putative hexaploid plants were intermediate between G. hirsutum and G. anomalum. Analysis of mitotic metaphase plates revealed 78 chromosomes, confirming the doubled hybrid status of the hexaploid. Genome-wide molecular analysis with different genome-derived SSR markers revealed a high level of polymorphism (96.6% between G. hirsutum and G. anomalum. The marker transferability rate from other species to G. anomalum was as high as 98.0%. The high percentage of polymorphic markers with additive banding profiles in the hexaploid indicates the hybridity of the hexaploid on a genome-wide level. A-genome-derived markers were more powerful for distinguishing the genomic differences between G. hirsutum and G. anomalum than D-genome-derived markers. This study demonstrates the hybridity and chromosomally doubled status of the (G. anomalum × G. hirsutum2 hexaploid using morphological, cytological and molecular marker methods. The informative SSR markers screened in the study will be useful marker resources for tracking the flow of G. anomalum genetic material among progenies that may be produced by future backcrosses to G. hirsutum.

  14. Morphological, cytological and molecular analyses of a synthetic hexaploid derived from an interspecific hybrid between Gossypium hirsutum and Gossypium anomalum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia; Zhang; Caijiao; Zhai; Linchi; He; Qi; Guo; Xianggui; Zhang; Peng; Xu; Hongmei; Su; Yuanyong; Gong; Wanchao; Ni; Xinlian; Shen

    2014-01-01

    Gossypium anomalum represents an inestimable source of genes that could potentially be transferred into the gene pool of cultivated cotton. To resolve interspecific hybrid sterility problems, we previously treated triploid hybrids derived from a cross between Gossypium hirsutum and G. anomalum with 0.15% colchicine and obtained a putative fertile hexaploid. In this study, we performed morphological, molecular and cytological analyses to assess the hybridity and doubled status of putative interspecific hybrid plants. Most of the morphological characteristics of the putative hexaploid plants were intermediate between G. hirsutum and G.anomalum. Analysis of mitotic metaphase plates revealed 78 chromosomes, confirming the doubled hybrid status of the hexaploid. Genome-wide molecular analysis with different genome-derived SSR markers revealed a high level of polymorphism(96.6%) between G. hirsutum and G. anomalum. The marker transferability rate from other species to G. anomalum was as high as 98.0%. The high percentage of polymorphic markers with additive banding profiles in the hexaploid indicates the hybridity of the hexaploid on a genome-wide level. A-genome-derived markers were more powerful for distinguishing the genomic differences between G. hirsutum and G. anomalum than D-genome-derived markers. This study demonstrates the hybridity and chromosomally doubled status of the(G. anomalum × G. hirsutum)2hexaploid using morphological, cytological and molecular marker methods. The informative SSR markers screened in the study will be useful marker resources for tracking the flow of G. anomalum genetic material among progenies that may be produced by future backcrosses to G. hirsutum.

  15. Eat Wheat!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idaho Wheat Commission, Boise.

    This pamphlet contains puzzles, games, and a recipe designed to teach elementary school pupils about wheat. It includes word games based on the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Guide Pyramid and on foods made from wheat. The Food Guide Pyramid can be cut out of the pamphlet and assembled as a three-dimensional information source and food guide.…

  16. Identification of irradiated wheat using paramagnetic electronic resonance and germination test; Identificacao de trigo irradiado utilizando ressonancia paramagnetica eletronica e teste de germinacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, Adilson C.; Arthur, Valter [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Freund, Maria Teresa L. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Villavicenzio, Ana Lucia C.H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2000-07-01

    The objective of this research was to verify the possibility of detection of irradiated wheat by electron spin resonance spectroscopy, because ionizing radiation cause paramagnetic free radicals in materials and the germination test that established in radiobiological effects of inhibition of root-shoot lengths and germination percentages in seeds due radiation. For ESR spectroscopy, grains and shell have been irradiated with doses as follows: 0 kGy ; 1,0 kGy and 10,0 kGy at a dose rate of 6,20 kGy/h. For germination test only grains have been irradiated with 0 kGy; 0,10 kGy; 0,25 kGy; 0,50 kGy; 0,75 kGy; 1,0 kGy and 2,0 kGy at a dose rate of 1,724 kGy/h and stored by 90 days before germination. The ESR signal decay fast with time but shell have free radicals ten times more than grains by mass unit. As we can observe in germination test, occurs a reduction in development of root-shoot and germination percentages with dose increase. The results indicated that the ESR and germination test may be used for detection of irradiated wheat. (author)

  17. Identification and Characterization of Reverse Transcriptase Domain of Transcriptionally Active Retrotransposons in Wheat Genomes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-Miao TANG; You-Zhi MA; Lian-Cheng LI; Xing-Guo YE

    2005-01-01

    To clarify activation characterization of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) retrotransposons, transcriptionally active Ty1-copia retrotransposons were found in wheat by using RT-PCR to amplify the RT domain. Sequence analysis of random RT-PCR clones reveals that Ty1-copia retrotransposons are highly heterogeneous and can be divided into at least four groups, which are tentatively named TaRT-1 to TaRT-4.Dot blot hybridization indicates that TaRT- 1 exists in the wheat genome as multiple copies (at 30 000 copies/a hexaploid genome (ABD)). Northern blot hybridization showed that TaRT-1 is only expressed at a low level under normal conditions in seedlings, but at a high level when induced by powdery mildew fungus, jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA). These results suggest that the TaRT-1 expression is highly sensitive to biotic and abiotic stresses.

  18. Self-sterility in the hexaploid Handroanthus serratifolius (Bignoniaceae, the national flower of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Ferreira Alves

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Polyploidization is common among angiosperms and might induce typically allogamous plants to become autogamous (self-compatible, relying on sexual self-fertilization or apomictic (achieving asexual reproduction through seeds. This work aimed to determine whether neopolyploidy leads to the breakdown of the self-incompatibility system in the hexaploid non-apomictic species Handroanthus serratifolius (Vahl S. Grose, through analyses of its floral biology, pollination biology and breeding system. Although anthesis lasted for three days, increasing the overall floral display, receptivity decreased as of the second day. Centridini and Euglossini bees were the main pollinators, and low nectar availability (1.95 ± 1.91 µl/flower might have obliged them to visit multiple flowers. We observed low reproductive efficacy. That might be explained by self-sterility and by the great number of flowers per individual, which could increase the frequency of geitonogamy. Ovule penetration by the pollen tubes in self-pollinated pistils with posterior abscission indicated late-acting self-incompatibility in H. serratifolius, as observed in other diploid Bignoniaceae species, although inbreeding depression cannot be excluded. The self-sterility found in the monoembryonic, hexaploid individuals studied here contrasts with the results for other neopolyploid Handroanthus and Anemopaegma species, which are often autogamous and apomictic. Our results suggest that neopolyploidy is not the main factor leading to self-fertility in Handroanthus.

  19. The extraction of gold nanoparticles from oat and wheat biomasses using sodium citrate and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, studied by x-ray absorption spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and UV-visible spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armendariz, Veronica; Parsons, Jason G.; Lopez, Martha L.; Peralta-Videa, Jose R.; Jose-Yacaman, Miguel; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L.

    2009-03-01

    Gold (Au) nanoparticles can be produced through the interaction of Au(III) ions with oat and wheat biomasses. This paper describes a procedure to recover gold nanoparticles from oat and wheat biomasses using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide or sodium citrate. Extracts were analyzed using UV-visible spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and x-ray absorption spectroscopy. The HRTEM data demonstrated that smaller nanoparticles are extracted first, followed by larger nanoparticles. In the fourth extraction, coating of chelating agents is visible on the extracted nanoparticles.

  20. The extraction of gold nanoparticles from oat and wheat biomasses using sodium citrate and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, studied by x-ray absorption spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and UV-visible spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armendariz, Veronica; Parsons, Jason G; Lopez, Martha L; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Jose-Yacaman, Miguel; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2009-03-11

    Gold (Au) nanoparticles can be produced through the interaction of Au(III) ions with oat and wheat biomasses. This paper describes a procedure to recover gold nanoparticles from oat and wheat biomasses using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide or sodium citrate. Extracts were analyzed using UV-visible spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and x-ray absorption spectroscopy. The HRTEM data demonstrated that smaller nanoparticles are extracted first, followed by larger nanoparticles. In the fourth extraction, coating of chelating agents is visible on the extracted nanoparticles.

  1. Soluble carbohydrates in cereal (wheat, rye, triticale) seed after storage under accelerated ageing conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Agnieszka I. Piotrowicz-Cieślak; Maciej Niedzielski; Dariusz J. Michalczyk; Wiesław Łuczak; Barbara Adomas

    2011-01-01

    Germinability and the content of soluble carbohydrates were analysed in cereal seed (winter rye, cv. Warko; spring wheat, cv. Santa; hexaploid winter triticale, cv. Fidelio and cv. Woltario). Seed moisture content (mc) was equilibrated over silica gel to 0.08 g H2O/g dry mass and stored in a desiccator at 20oC for up to 205 weeks or were equilibrated to mc 0.06, 0.08 or 0.10 g H2O/g dm and subjected to artificial aging at 35oC in air-tight laminated aluminium foil packages for 205 weeks. It w...

  2. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Flag Leaves Reveals New Insight into Wheat Heat Adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunze Lu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L. is an important food crop but it is vulnerable to heat. The heat-responsive proteome of wheat remains to be fully elucidated because of previous technical and genomic limitations, and this has hindered our understanding of the mechanisms of wheat heat adaptation and advances in improving thermotolerance. Here, flag leaves of wheat during grain filling stage were subjected to high daytime temperature stress, and 258 heat-responsive proteins (HRPs were identified with iTRAQ analysis. Enrichment analysis revealed that chlorophyll synthesis, carbon fixation, protein turnover, and redox regulation were the most remarkable heat-responsive processes. The HRPs involved in chlorophyll synthesis and carbon fixation were significantly decreased, together with severe membrane damage, demonstrating the specific effects of heat on photosynthesis of wheat leaves. In addition, the decrease in chlorophyll content may result from the decrease in HRPs involved in chlorophyll precursor synthesis. Further analysis showed that the accumulated effect of heat stress played a critical role in photosynthesis reduction, suggested that improvement in heat tolerance of photosynthesis, and extending heat tolerant period would be major research targets. The significantly accumulation of GSTs and Trxs in response to heat suggested their important roles in redox regulation, and they could be the promising candidates for improving wheat thermotolerance. In summary, our results provide new insight into wheat heat adaption and provide new perspectives on thermotolerance improvement.

  3. Homoeologous gene silencing in tissue cultured wheat callus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chapman Natalie H

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In contrast to diploids, most polyploid plant species, which include the hexaploid bread wheat, possess an additional layer of epigenetic complexity. Several studies have demonstrated that polyploids are affected by homoeologous gene silencing, a process in which sub-genomic genomic copies are selectively transcriptionally inactivated. This form of silencing can be tissue specific and may be linked to developmental or stress responses. Results Evidence was sought as to whether the frequency of homoeologous silencing in in vitro cultured wheat callus differ from that in differentiated organs, given that disorganized cells are associated with a globally lower level of DNA methylation. Using a reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP platform to detect the pattern of expression of 20 homoeologous sets of single-copy genes known to be affected by this form of silencing in the root and/or leaf, we observed no silencing in any of the wheat callus tissue tested. Conclusion Our results suggest that much of the homoeologous silencing observed in differentiated tissues is probably under epigenetic control, rather than being linked to genomic instability arising from allopolyploidization. This study reinforces the notion of plasticity in the wheat epi-genome.

  4. Breaking wheat yield barriers requires integrated efforts in developing countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Saeed Rauf; Maria Zaharieva; Marilyn L Warburton; ZHANG Ping-zhi; Abdullah M AL-Sadi; Farghama Khalil; Marcin Kozak; Sultan A Tariq

    2015-01-01

    Most yield progress obtained through the so cal ed“Green Revolution”, particularly in the irrigated areas of Asia, has reached a limit, and major resistance genes are quickly overcome by the appearance of new strains of disease causing organisms. New plant stresses due to a changing environment are dififcult to breed for as quickly as the changes occur. There is con-sequently a continual need for new research programs and breeding strategies aimed at improving yield potential, abiotic stress tolerance and resistance to new, major pests and diseases. Recent advances in plant breeding encompass novel methods of expanding genetic variability and selecting for recombinants, including the development of synthetic hexaploid, hybrid and transgenic wheats. In addition, the use of molecular approaches such as quantitative trait locus (QTL) and asso-ciation mapping may increase the possibility of directly selecting positive chromosomal regions linked with natural variation for grain yield and stress resistance. The present article reviews the potential contribution of these new approaches and tools to the improvement of wheat yield in farmer’s ifelds, with a special emphasis on the Asian countries, which are major wheat producers, and contain the highest concentration of resource-poor wheat farmers.

  5. Wheat: The Whole Story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Education, Oklahoma City.

    This publication presents information on wheat. Wheat was originally a wild grass and not native to the United States. Wheat was not planted there until 1777 (and then only as a hobby crop). Wheat is grown on more acres than any other grain in this country. Soft wheats are grown east of the Mississippi River, and hard wheats are grown west of the…

  6. A new class of wheat gliadin genes and proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olin D Anderson

    Full Text Available The utility of mining DNA sequence data to understand the structure and expression of cereal prolamin genes is demonstrated by the identification of a new class of wheat prolamins. This previously unrecognized wheat prolamin class, given the name δ-gliadins, is the most direct ortholog of barley γ3-hordeins. Phylogenetic analysis shows that the orthologous δ-gliadins and γ3-hordeins form a distinct prolamin branch that existed separate from the γ-gliadins and γ-hordeins in an ancestral Triticeae prior to the branching of wheat and barley. The expressed δ-gliadins are encoded by a single gene in each of the hexaploid wheat genomes. This single δ-gliadin/γ3-hordein ortholog may be a general feature of the Triticeae tribe since examination of ESTs from three barley cultivars also confirms a single γ3-hordein gene. Analysis of ESTs and cDNAs shows that the genes are expressed in at least five hexaploid wheat cultivars in addition to diploids Triticum monococcum and Aegilops tauschii. The latter two sequences also allow assignment of the δ-gliadin genes to the A and D genomes, respectively, with the third sequence type assumed to be from the B genome. Two wheat cultivars for which there are sufficient ESTs show different patterns of expression, i.e., with cv Chinese Spring expressing the genes from the A and B genomes, while cv Recital has ESTs from the A and D genomes. Genomic sequences of Chinese Spring show that the D genome gene is inactivated by tandem premature stop codons. A fourth δ-gliadin sequence occurs in the D genome of both Chinese Spring and Ae. tauschii, but no ESTs match this sequence and limited genomic sequences indicates a pseudogene containing frame shifts and premature stop codons. Sequencing of BACs covering a 3 Mb region from Ae. tauschii locates the δ-gliadin gene to the complex Gli-1 plus Glu-3 region on chromosome 1.

  7. Fine mapping of Hch1, the causal D-genome gene for hybrid chlorosis in interspecific crosses between tetraploid wheat and Aegilops tauschii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirao, Kana; Nishijima, Ryo; Sakaguchi, Kohei; Takumi, Shigeo

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid chlorosis, one of the reproductive barriers between tetraploid wheat and its D-genome progenitor, Aegilops tauschii, inhibits normal growth of synthetic wheat hexaploids. Hybrid chlorosis appears to be due to an epistatic interaction of two loci from the AB and D wheat genomes. Our previous study assigned the causal D-genome gene for hybrid chlorosis, Hch1, to the short arm of chromosome 7D. Here, we constructed a fine map of 7DS near Hch1 using 280 F2 individuals from a cross of two wheat synthetic lines, one showing normal growth and the other showing hybrid chlorosis. The hybrid chlorosis phenotype was controlled by a single dominant allele of the Hch1 locus in the synthetic hexaploids. Hch1 was closely linked to four new markers within 0.2 cM, and may be localized near or within the two Ae. tauschii scaffolds containing the linked markers on 7DS. Comparative analysis of the Hch1 chromosomal region for Ae. tauschii, barley and Brachypodium showed that a local inversion occurred in the region proximal to Hch1 during the divergence between barley and Ae. tauschii, and that the Hch1 region on wheat 7DS is syntenic to Brachypodium chromosome 1. These observations provide useful information for further studies toward map-based cloning of Hch1.

  8. Accelerated senescence and enhanced disease resistance in hybrid chlorosis lines derived from interspecific crosses between tetraploid wheat and Aegilops tauschii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Hiroki; Mizuno, Nobuyuki; Tosa, Yukio; Yoshida, Kentaro; Park, Pyoyun; Takumi, Shigeo

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid chlorosis, a type of hybrid incompatibility, has frequently been reported in inter- and intraspecific crosses of allopolyploid wheat. In a previous study, we reported some types of growth abnormalities such as hybrid necrosis and observed hybrid chlorosis with mild or severe abnormalities in wheat triploids obtained in crosses between tetraploid wheat cultivar Langdon and four Ae. tauschii accessions and in their derived synthetic hexaploids. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying hybrid chlorosis are not well understood. Here, we compared cytology and gene expression in leaves to characterize the abnormal growth in wheat synthetics showing mild and severe chlorosis. In addition, we compared disease resistance to wheat blast fungus. In total 55 and 105 genes related to carbohydrate metabolism and 53 and 89 genes for defense responses were markedly up-regulated in the mild and severe chlorosis lines, respectively. Abnormal chloroplasts formed in the mesophyll cells before the leaves yellowed in the hybrid chlorosis lines. The plants with mild chlorosis showed increased resistance to wheat blast and powdery mildew fungi, although significant differences only in two, third internode length and maturation time, out of the examined agricultural traits were found between the wild type and plants showing mild chlorosis. These observations suggest that senescence might be accelerated in hybrid chlorosis lines of wheat synthetics. Moreover, in wheat synthetics showing mild chlorosis, the negative effects on biomass can be minimized, and they may show substantial fitness under pathogen-polluted conditions.

  9. Accelerated senescence and enhanced disease resistance in hybrid chlorosis lines derived from interspecific crosses between tetraploid wheat and Aegilops tauschii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki Nakano

    Full Text Available Hybrid chlorosis, a type of hybrid incompatibility, has frequently been reported in inter- and intraspecific crosses of allopolyploid wheat. In a previous study, we reported some types of growth abnormalities such as hybrid necrosis and observed hybrid chlorosis with mild or severe abnormalities in wheat triploids obtained in crosses between tetraploid wheat cultivar Langdon and four Ae. tauschii accessions and in their derived synthetic hexaploids. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying hybrid chlorosis are not well understood. Here, we compared cytology and gene expression in leaves to characterize the abnormal growth in wheat synthetics showing mild and severe chlorosis. In addition, we compared disease resistance to wheat blast fungus. In total 55 and 105 genes related to carbohydrate metabolism and 53 and 89 genes for defense responses were markedly up-regulated in the mild and severe chlorosis lines, respectively. Abnormal chloroplasts formed in the mesophyll cells before the leaves yellowed in the hybrid chlorosis lines. The plants with mild chlorosis showed increased resistance to wheat blast and powdery mildew fungi, although significant differences only in two, third internode length and maturation time, out of the examined agricultural traits were found between the wild type and plants showing mild chlorosis. These observations suggest that senescence might be accelerated in hybrid chlorosis lines of wheat synthetics. Moreover, in wheat synthetics showing mild chlorosis, the negative effects on biomass can be minimized, and they may show substantial fitness under pathogen-polluted conditions.

  10. Assessment of Lipid Transfer Protein (LTP1) Gene in Wheat Powdery Mildew Resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ai-li; MENG Cheng-sheng; ZHOU Rong-hua; MA Zhi-ying; JIA Ji-zeng

    2006-01-01

    This study is to investigate the role of lipid transfer protein (LTP1) gene of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici, Bgt) resistance. A pair of primers based on the full length cDNA of wheat LTP1was used for amplifying the coding regions of LTP in hexaploid (AABBDD) wheat and its diploid donors T. urartu (AA),Ae. speltoides ssp speltoide (SS) and Ae. tauchii ssp strangulate (DD). LTP1 and LTP2 of wheat were isolated from the tested two hexaploid (ABD) materials: powdery mildew resistance near isogenic line (NIL) Mardler/7 x B ainong 3217 and its susceptible parent Bainong 3217 at the same time, while only one kind of LTP gene was found in the tested three diploid materials respectively by using the above PCR primer pairs. Two peaks of the expression of LTP1 and LTP2 induced by powdery mildew were observed [one occurred at 3 h after inoculation (hai); the other occurred at 10 hai] in resistant NIL Mardler/7 x Bainong3217 in comparison with a steady transcript level of LTP1 and LTP2 in susceptible Bainong3217.Transient over-expression result showed that LTP1 reduced the penetration efficiency (PE) of powdery mildew in susceptible cultivar by about 28.3%. This result indicated an obvious effectiveness of LTP1 in powdery mildew resistance. Expression analysis also showed that LTP1 and LTP2 of wheat are generally involved in salt/drought, but not in low temperature stress early responses.

  11. A Catalog of Regulatory Sequences for Trait Gene for the Genome Editing of Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makai, Szabolcs; Tamás, László; Juhász, Angéla

    2016-01-01

    Wheat has been cultivated for 10000 years and ever since the origin of hexaploid wheat it has been exempt from natural selection. Instead, it was under the constant selective pressure of human agriculture from harvest to sowing during every year, producing a vast array of varieties. Wheat has been adopted globally, accumulating variation for genes involved in yield traits, environmental adaptation and resistance. However, one small but important part of the wheat genome has hardly changed: the regulatory regions of both the x- and y-type high molecular weight glutenin subunit (HMW-GS) genes, which are alone responsible for approximately 12% of the grain protein content. The phylogeny of the HMW-GS regulatory regions of the Triticeae demonstrates that a genetic bottleneck may have led to its decreased diversity during domestication and the subsequent cultivation. It has also highlighted the fact that the wild relatives of wheat may offer an unexploited genetic resource for the regulatory region of these genes. Significant research efforts have been made in the public sector and by international agencies, using wild crosses to exploit the available genetic variation, and as a result synthetic hexaploids are now being utilized by a number of breeding companies. However, a newly emerging tool of genome editing provides significantly improved efficiency in exploiting the natural variation in HMW-GS genes and incorporating this into elite cultivars and breeding lines. Recent advancement in the understanding of the regulation of these genes underlines the needs for an overview of the regulatory elements for genome editing purposes. PMID:27766102

  12. Karyotype characterization and comparison of three hexaploid species of Bromus Linnaeus, 1753 (Poaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artico, Leonardo Luís; Mazzocato, Ana Cristina; Ferreira, Juliano Lino; Carvalho, Carlos Roberto; Clarindo, Wellington Ronildo

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Chromosome morphometry and nuclear DNA content are useful data for cytotaxonomy and to understand the evolutionary history of different taxa. For the genus Bromus Linnaeus, 1753, distinct ploidy levels have been reported, occurring from diploid to duodecaploid species. The geographic distribution of Bromus species has been correlated with chromosome number and ploidy level. In this study, the aims were to determine the nuclear genome size and characterize the karyotype of the South American Bromus species: Bromus auleticus Trinius ex Nees, 1829, Bromus brachyanthera Döll, 1878 and Bromus catharticus Vahl, 1791. The mean nuclear 2C value ranged from 2C = 12.64 pg for B. catharticus to 2C = 17.92 pg for B. auleticus, meaning a maximum variation of 2C = 5.28 pg, equivalent to 41.70%. Despite this significant difference in 2C value, the three species exhibit the same chromosome number, 2n = 6x = 42, which confirms their hexaploid origin. Corroborating the genome size, the chromosome morphometry (total, short- and long-arm length) and, consequently, the class differed among the karyotypes of the species. Based on the first karyograms for these Bromus species, some morphologically similar and several distinct chromosome pairs were found. Therefore, the karyotype characterization confirmed the hexaploid origin of the studied Bromus species, which differ in relation to the karyogram and the nuclear 2C value. Considering this, cytogenetics and flow cytometry can be used to discriminate Bromus species, contributing to taxonomy and systematic studies and providing information on the evolutionary history of this taxa. PMID:28919960

  13. Genome-Wide Association Mapping for Resistance to Leaf and Stripe Rust in Winter-Habit Hexaploid Wheat Landraces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kertho, Albert; Mamidi, Sujan; Bonman, J Michael; McClean, Phillip E; Acevedo, Maricelis

    2015-01-01

    .... Breeding for disease resistance is the preferred strategy of managing both diseases. The continued emergence of new races of Pt and Pst requires a constant search for new sources of resistance...

  14. Efficient and transgene-free genome editing in wheat through transient expression of CRISPR/Cas9 DNA or RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Liang, Zhen; Zong, Yuan; Wang, Yanpeng; Liu, Jinxing; Chen, Kunling; Qiu, Jin-Long; Gao, Caixia

    2016-08-25

    Editing plant genomes is technically challenging in hard-to-transform plants and usually involves transgenic intermediates, which causes regulatory concerns. Here we report two simple and efficient genome-editing methods in which plants are regenerated from callus cells transiently expressing CRISPR/Cas9 introduced as DNA or RNA. This transient expression-based genome-editing system is highly efficient and specific for producing transgene-free and homozygous wheat mutants in the T0 generation. We demonstrate our protocol to edit genes in hexaploid bread wheat and tetraploid durum wheat, and show that we are able to generate mutants with no detectable transgenes. Our methods may be applicable to other plant species, thus offering the potential to accelerate basic and applied plant genome-engineering research.

  15. Pushing Wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharp, Paul Richard

    This paper documents the evolution of variables central to understanding the creation of an Atlantic Economy in wheat between the US and the UK in the nineteenth century. The cointegrated VAR model is then applied to the period 1838-1913 in order to find long-run relationships between these varia......This paper documents the evolution of variables central to understanding the creation of an Atlantic Economy in wheat between the US and the UK in the nineteenth century. The cointegrated VAR model is then applied to the period 1838-1913 in order to find long-run relationships between...

  16. Duplication and partitioning in evolution and function of homoeologous Q loci governing domestication characters in polyploid wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zengcui; Belcram, Harry; Gornicki, Piotr; Charles, Mathieu; Just, Jérémy; Huneau, Cécile; Magdelenat, Ghislaine; Couloux, Arnaud; Samain, Sylvie; Gill, Bikram S.; Rasmussen, Jack B.; Barbe, Valérie; Faris, Justin D.; Chalhoub, Boulos

    2011-01-01

    The Q gene encodes an AP2-like transcription factor that played an important role in domestication of polyploid wheat. The chromosome 5A Q alleles (5AQ and 5Aq) have been well studied, but much less is known about the q alleles on wheat homoeologous chromosomes 5B (5Bq) and 5D (5Dq). We investigated the organization, evolution, and function of the Q/q homoeoalleles in hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Q/q gene sequences are highly conserved within and among the A, B, and D genomes of hexaploid wheat, the A and B genomes of tetraploid wheat, and the A, S, and D genomes of the diploid progenitors, but the intergenic regions of the Q/q locus are highly divergent among homoeologous genomes. Duplication of the q gene 5.8 Mya was likely followed by selective loss of one of the copies from the A genome progenitor and the other copy from the B, D, and S genomes. A recent V329-to-I mutation in the A lineage is correlated with the Q phenotype. The 5Bq homoeoalleles became a pseudogene after allotetraploidization. Expression analysis indicated that the homoeoalleles are coregulated in a complex manner. Combined phenotypic and expression analysis indicated that, whereas 5AQ plays a major role in conferring domestication-related traits, 5Dq contributes directly and 5Bq indirectly to suppression of the speltoid phenotype. The evolution of the Q/q loci in polyploid wheat resulted in the hyperfunctionalization of 5AQ, pseudogenization of 5Bq, and subfunctionalization of 5Dq, all contributing to the domestication traits. PMID:22042872

  17. 不同诱导培养基对小麦花药培养胚状体诱导率的影响%Effect of Different Media on the Induction Rate of Embryoid in Wheat Anther Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周迪; 孙连发; 陈立君

    2012-01-01

    为明确W14-F诱导培养基对黑龙江省春小麦品种及人工合成小麦材料的花药培养胚状体诱导率,以6份人工合成小麦材料和4个普通小麦品种为材料,采用4种诱导培养基W14-F、MS、N6和c17进行花药培养比较试验。结果表明:不同的诱导培养基对于小麦材料的胚状体诱导率不同,4种诱导培养基的胚状体诱导能力依次为W14-F〉C17〉N6〉MS,W14-F培养基胚状体诱导率明显高于其它3个培养基。人工合成小麦和普通小麦在4种培养基上都得到了相近的胚状体诱导率,说明w14-F培养基同样适合人工合成小麦。利用该技术体系培养人工合成小麦与普通小麦的杂种F1材料,得到了较高的诱导率,这为该技术体系直接应用于利用人工合成小麦改良小麦品种抗病抗逆性研究中提供了可靠的依据。%In order to clarify the effect of W14-F induction media on induction rate of embryoid of synthetic hex-aploid wheat and common wheat, 6 synthetic hexaploid wheat accessions and 4 common wheat varieties were cultivated on four induction media:Wl4-F, MS,N6 and C17. The results showed that different induction media got different induction rate of embryoid,W14-F〉Cl7〉N6〉MS,the induction rate of W14-F was higher than that of the other media evidently; The research on the comparison of synthetic hexaploid wheat and common wheat showed that there was no difference between synthetic hexaploid wheat and common wheat cultivars a- dapted in Heilongjiang on the rate of embryoid in anther culture. The F1 derived from crosses of synthetic hexa-ploid wheat and common wheat got a higher induction rate of embryoid by this technology system, indicating that W14-F medium could be important for enhancing efficiency of breeding for resistance to bio- and abio-stress using synthetic hexaploid wheat.

  18. Structural analysis of the wheat genes encoding NADH-dependent glutamine-2-oxoglutarate amidotransferases and correlation with grain protein content.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenica Nigro

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Nitrogen uptake and the efficient absorption and metabolism of nitrogen are essential elements in attempts to breed improved cereal cultivars for grain or silage production. One of the enzymes related to nitrogen metabolism is glutamine-2-oxoglutarate amidotransferase (GOGAT. Together with glutamine synthetase (GS, GOGAT maintains the flow of nitrogen from NH4 (+ into glutamine and glutamate, which are then used for several aminotransferase reactions during amino acid synthesis. RESULTS: The aim of the present work was to identify and analyse the structure of wheat NADH-GOGAT genomic sequences, and study the expression in two durum wheat cultivars characterized by low and high kernel protein content. The genomic sequences of the three homoeologous A, B and D NADH-GOGAT genes were obtained for hexaploid Triticum aestivum and the tetraploid A and B genes of Triticum turgidum ssp. durum. Analysis of the gene sequences indicates that all wheat NADH-GOGAT genes are composed of 22 exons and 21 introns. The three hexaploid wheat homoeologous genes have high conservation of sequence except intron 13 which shows differences in both length and sequence. A comparative analysis of sequences among di- and mono-cotyledonous plants shows both regions of high conservation and of divergence. qRT-PCR performed with the two durum wheat cvs Svevo and Ciccio (characterized by high and low protein content, respectively indicates different expression levels of the two NADH-GOGAT-3A and NADH-GOGAT-3B genes. CONCLUSION: The three hexaploid wheat homoeologous NADH-GOGAT gene sequences are highly conserved - consistent with the key metabolic role of this gene. However, the dicot and monocot amino acid sequences show distinctive patterns, particularly in the transit peptide, the exon 16-17 junction, and the C-terminus. The lack of conservation in the transit peptide may indicate subcellular differences between the two plant divisions - while the sequence

  19. Divergence in homoeolog expression of the grain length-associated gene GASR7 during wheat allohexaploidization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongdong; Zhang; Bingnan; Wang; Junmin; Zhao; Xubo; Zhao; Lianquan; Zhang; Dengcai; Liu; Lingli; Dong; Daowen; Wang; Long; Mao; Aili; Li

    2015-01-01

    Hexaploid wheat has triplicated homoeologs for most of the genes that are located in subgenomes A, B, and D. GASR7, a member of the Snakin/GASA gene family, has been associated with grain length development in wheat. However, little is known about divergence of its homoeolog expression in wheat polyploids. We studied the expression patterns of the GASR7 homoeologs in immature seeds in a synthetic hexaploid wheat line whose kernels are slender like those of its maternal parent(Triticum turgidum, AABB, PI 94655) in contrast to the round seed shape of its paternal progenitor(Aegilops tauschii, DD, AS2404). We found that the B homoeolog of GASR7 was the main contributor to the total expression level of this gene in both the maternal tetraploid progenitor and the hexaploid progeny, whereas the expression levels of the A and D homoeologs were much lower. To understand possible mechanisms regulating different GASR7 homoeologs, we firstly analyzed the promoter sequences of three homoeologous genes and found that all of them contained gibberellic acid(GA) response elements, with the TaG ASR7 B promoter(pT aG ASR7B) uniquely characterized by an additional predicted transcriptional enhancer. This was confirmed by the GA treatment of spikes where all three homoeologs were induced, with a much stronger response for TaG ASR7 B. McrB C enzyme assays showed that the methylation status at pT aG ASR7 D was increased during allohexaploidization, consistent with the repressed expression of TaG ASR7 D. For pT aG ASR7 A, the distribution of repetitive sequence-derived 24-nucleotide(nt) small interfering RNAs(siR NAs) were found which suggests possible epigenetic regulation because 24-nt siR NAs are known to mediate RNA-dependent DNA methylation. Our results thus indicate that both genetic and epigenetic mechanisms may be involved in the divergence of GASR7 homoeolog expression in polyploid wheat.

  20. Breeding Value of Primary Synthetic Wheat Genotypes for Grain Yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafarzadeh, Jafar; Bonnett, David; Jannink, Jean-Luc; Akdemir, Deniz; Dreisigacker, Susanne; Sorrells, Mark E.

    2016-01-01

    To introduce new genetic diversity into the bread wheat gene pool from its progenitor, Aegilops tauschii (Coss.) Schmalh, 33 primary synthetic hexaploid wheat genotypes (SYN) were crossed to 20 spring bread wheat (BW) cultivars at the International Wheat and Maize Improvement Center. Modified single seed descent was used to develop 97 populations with 50 individuals per population using first back-cross, biparental, and three-way crosses. Individuals from each cross were selected for short stature, early heading, flowering and maturity, minimal lodging, and free threshing. Yield trials were conducted under irrigated, drought, and heat-stress conditions from 2011 to 2014 in Ciudad Obregon, Mexico. Genomic estimated breeding values (GEBVs) of parents and synthetic derived lines (SDLs) were estimated using a genomic best linear unbiased prediction (GBLUP) model with markers in each trial. In each environment, there were SDLs that had higher GEBVs than their recurrent BW parent for yield. The GEBVs of BW parents for yield ranged from -0.32 in heat to 1.40 in irrigated trials. The range of the SYN parent GEBVs for yield was from -2.69 in the irrigated to 0.26 in the heat trials and were mostly negative across environments. The contribution of the SYN parents to improved grain yield of the SDLs was highest under heat stress, with an average GEBV for the top 10% of the SDLs of 0.55 while the weighted average GEBV of their corresponding recurrent BW parents was 0.26. Using the pedigree-based model, the accuracy of genomic prediction for yield was 0.42, 0.43, and 0.49 in the drought, heat and irrigated trials, respectively, while for the marker-based model these values were 0.43, 0.44, and 0.55. The SYN parents introduced novel diversity into the wheat gene pool. Higher GEBVs of progenies were due to introgression and retention of some positive alleles from SYN parents. PMID:27656893

  1. Wheat induced urticaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uppal Monica

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Wheat is widely consumed all over India in various forms - flour, daliya, maida, suji and wheat bran. Very few cases of wheat induced urticaria have been reported. This may be due to unusual features of wheat related hypersensitivity. A 35 year old female presented to us with history of chronic urticaria and angioedema. History revealed correlation between wheat intake and urticaria episodes. Prick testing was done with wheat antigen in the standard series and derivatives of raw wheat. Normal saline and histamine were used as controls. Prick testing was positive. Oral challenge induced urticaria within half an hour. This report discusses clinical features of wheat related hypersensitivity.

  2. Sequencing of chloroplast genomes from wheat, barley, rye and their relatives provides a detailed insight into the evolution of the Triticeae tribe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher P Middleton

    Full Text Available Using Roche/454 technology, we sequenced the chloroplast genomes of 12 Triticeae species, including bread wheat, barley and rye, as well as the diploid progenitors and relatives of bread wheat Triticum urartu, Aegilops speltoides and Ae. tauschii. Two wild tetraploid taxa, Ae. cylindrica and Ae. geniculata, were also included. Additionally, we incorporated wild Einkorn wheat Triticum boeoticum and its domesticated form T. monococcum and two Hordeum spontaneum (wild barley genotypes. Chloroplast genomes were used for overall sequence comparison, phylogenetic analysis and dating of divergence times. We estimate that barley diverged from rye and wheat approximately 8-9 million years ago (MYA. The genome donors of hexaploid wheat diverged between 2.1-2.9 MYA, while rye diverged from Triticum aestivum approximately 3-4 MYA, more recently than previously estimated. Interestingly, the A genome taxa T. boeoticum and T. urartu were estimated to have diverged approximately 570,000 years ago. As these two have a reproductive barrier, the divergence time estimate also provides an upper limit for the time required for the formation of a species boundary between the two. Furthermore, we conclusively show that the chloroplast genome of hexaploid wheat was contributed by the B genome donor and that this unknown species diverged from Ae. speltoides about 980,000 years ago. Additionally, sequence alignments identified a translocation of a chloroplast segment to the nuclear genome which is specific to the rye/wheat lineage. We propose the presented phylogeny and divergence time estimates as a reference framework for future studies on Triticeae.

  3. Functional characterisation of wheat Pgip genes reveals their involvement in the local response to wounding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janni, M; Bozzini, T; Moscetti, I; Volpi, C; D'Ovidio, R

    2013-11-01

    Polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins (PGIPs) are cell wall leucine-rich repeat (LRR) proteins involved in plant defence. The hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum, genome AABBDD) genome contains one Pgip gene per genome. Tapgip1 (B genome) and Tapgip2 (D genome) are expressed in all tissues, whereas Tapgip3 (A genome) is inactive because of a long terminal repeat, Copia retrotransposon insertion within the coding region. To verify whether Tapgip1 and Tapgip2 encode active PGIPs and are involved in the wheat defence response, we expressed them transiently and analysed their expression under stress conditions. Neither TaPGIP1 nor TaPGIP2 showed inhibition activity in vitro against fungal polygalacturonases. Moreover, a wheat genotype (T. turgidum ssp. dicoccoides) lacking active homologues of Tapgip1 or Tapgip2 possesses PGIP activity. At transcript level, Tapgip1 and Tapgip2 were both up-regulated after fungal infection and strongly induced following wounding. This latter result has been confirmed in transgenic wheat plants expressing the β-glucuronidase (GUS) gene under control of the 5'-flanking region of Tdpgip1, a homologue of Tapgip1 with an identical sequence. Strong and transient GUS staining was mainly restricted to the damaged tissues and was not observed in adjacent tissues. Taken together, these results suggest that Tapgips and their homologues are involved in the wheat defence response by acting at the site of the lesion caused by pathogen infection.

  4. Genetic transformation of mature embryos of bread (T. aestivum) and pasta (T. durum) wheat genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaieb, Reda E A; El-Arabi, Nagwa I; Momtaz, Osama A; Youssef, Sawsan S; Soliman, Mohamed H

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to develop an efficient protocol for regeneration of transgenic wheat plants using Agrobacterium- mediated transformation of mature embryos of hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) and tetraploid pasta wheat (Triticum durum). The data indicated that embryogenic calli were formed within 7 days in the presence of 2 mgl-1 2,4-D. Adventitious shoots emerged from the embryonic calli in the presence of 2 mgl-1 BA. Shoot regeneration frequency varied between wheat cultivars according to their genetic background differences. Regeneration frequency was higher in the cultivar Gemmiza 10 (95 %) compared with the other cultivars tested. Mature embryos derived callus of the cultivars Gemmiza 10 and Gemmiza 9 were co-cultivated with A. tumefaciens strain LBA4404 harboring a binary vector pBI-121 containing the neomycin phosphotransferase-II gene (npt-II). The resulted putative transgenic plantlets were able to grow on kanamycin containing medium. A successful integration of the transgene was confirmed by analyzing the T0 plantlets using Southern hybridization and PCR amplification. The gus gene expression can be detected only in the transgenic plants. The reported protocol is reproducible and can be used to regenerate transgenic wheat plants expressing the genes present in A. tumifaciens binary vectors.

  5. A chromosome bin map of 2148 expressed sequence tag loci of wheat homoeologous group 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, K G; Kalavacharla, V; Lazo, G R; Hegstad, J; Wentz, M J; Kianian, P M A; Simons, K; Gehlhar, S; Rust, J L; Syamala, R R; Obeori, K; Bhamidimarri, S; Karunadharma, P; Chao, S; Anderson, O D; Qi, L L; Echalier, B; Gill, B S; Linkiewicz, A M; Ratnasiri, A; Dubcovsky, J; Akhunov, E D; Dvorák, J; Miftahudin; Ross, K; Gustafson, J P; Radhawa, H S; Dilbirligi, M; Gill, K S; Peng, J H; Lapitan, N L V; Greene, R A; Bermudez-Kandianis, C E; Sorrells, M E; Feril, O; Pathan, M S; Nguyen, H T; Gonzalez-Hernandez, J L; Conley, E J; Anderson, J A; Choi, D W; Fenton, D; Close, T J; McGuire, P E; Qualset, C O; Kianian, S F

    2004-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to develop a high-density chromosome bin map of homoeologous group 7 in hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), to identify gene distribution in these chromosomes, and to perform comparative studies of wheat with rice and barley. We mapped 2148 loci from 919 EST clones onto group 7 chromosomes of wheat. In the majority of cases the numbers of loci were significantly lower in the centromeric regions and tended to increase in the distal regions. The level of duplicated loci in this group was 24% with most of these loci being localized toward the distal regions. One hundred nineteen EST probes that hybridized to three fragments and mapped to the three group 7 chromosomes were designated landmark probes and were used to construct a consensus homoeologous group 7 map. An additional 49 probes that mapped to 7AS, 7DS, and the ancestral translocated segment involving 7BS also were designated landmarks. Landmark probe orders and comparative maps of wheat, rice, and barley were produced on the basis of corresponding rice BAC/PAC and genetic markers that mapped on chromosomes 6 and 8 of rice. Identification of landmark ESTs and development of consensus maps may provide a framework of conserved coding regions predating the evolution of wheat genomes.

  6. Quantitative Trait Loci Associated with Micronutrient Concentrations in Two Recombinant Inbred Wheat Lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PU Zhi-en; WEI Yu-ming; ZHENG You-liang; YU Ma; HE Qiu-yi; CHEN Guo-yue; WANG Ji-rui; LIU Ya-xi; JIANG Qian-tao; LI Wei; DAI Shou-fen

    2014-01-01

    Micronutrient malnutrition affects over three billion people worldwide, especially women and children in developing countries. Increasing the bioavailable concentrations of essential elements in the edible portions of crops is an effective resolution to address this issue. To determine the genetic factors controlling micronutrient concentration in wheat, the quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis for iron, zinc, copper, manganese, and selenium concentrations in two recombinant inbred line populations was performed. In all, 39 QTLs for ifve micronutrient concentrations were identiifed in this study. Of these, 22 alleles from synthetic wheat SHW-L1 and seven alleles from the progeny line of the synthetic wheat Chuanmai 42 showed an increase in micronutrient concentrations. Five QTLs on chromosomes 2A, 3D, 4D, and 5B found in both the populations showed signiifcant phenotypic variation for 2-3 micronutrient concentrations. Our results might help understand the genetic control of micronutrient concentration and allow the utilization of genetic resources of synthetic hexaploid wheat for improving micronutrient efifciency of cultivated wheat by using molecular marker-assisted selection.

  7. The chloroplast genome of the hexaploid Spartina maritima (Poaceae, Chloridoideae): Comparative analyses and molecular dating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau-Gueutin, M; Bellot, S; Martin, G E; Boutte, J; Chelaifa, H; Lima, O; Michon-Coudouel, S; Naquin, D; Salmon, A; Ainouche, K; Ainouche, M

    2015-12-01

    The history of many plant lineages is complicated by reticulate evolution with cases of hybridization often followed by genome duplication (allopolyploidy). In such a context, the inference of phylogenetic relationships and biogeographic scenarios based on molecular data is easier using haploid markers like chloroplast genome sequences. Hybridization and polyploidization occurred recurrently in the genus Spartina (Poaceae, Chloridoideae), as illustrated by the recent formation of the invasive allododecaploid S. anglica during the 19th century in Europe. Until now, only a few plastid markers were available to explore the history of this genus and their low variability limited the resolution of species relationships. We sequenced the complete chloroplast genome (plastome) of S. maritima, the native European parent of S. anglica, and compared it to the plastomes of other Poaceae. Our analysis revealed the presence of fast-evolving regions of potential taxonomic, phylogeographic and phylogenetic utility at various levels within the Poaceae family. Using secondary calibrations, we show that the tetraploid and hexaploid lineages of Spartina diverged 6-10 my ago, and that the two parents of the invasive allopolyploid S. anglica separated 2-4 my ago via long distance dispersal of the ancestor of S. maritima over the Atlantic Ocean. Finally, we discuss the meaning of divergence times between chloroplast genomes in the context of reticulate evolution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Genome merger: from sequence rearrangements in triticale to their elimination in wheat-rye addition lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bento, Miguel; Gustafson, Perry; Viegas, Wanda; Silva, Manuela

    2010-08-01

    Genetic and epigenetic modifications resulting from different genomes adjusting to a common nuclear environment have been observed in polyploids. Sequence restructuring within genomes involving retrotransposon/microsatellite-rich regions has been reported in triticale. The present study uses inter-retrotransposon amplified polymorphisms (IRAP) and retrotransposon microsatellite amplified polymorphisms (REMAP) to assess genome rearrangements in wheat-rye addition lines obtained by the controlled backcrossing of octoploid triticale to hexaploid wheat followed by self-fertilization. The comparative analysis of IRAP and REMAP banding profiles, involving a complete set of wheat-rye addition lines, and their parental species revealed in those lines the presence of wheat-origin bands absent in triticale, and the absence of rye-origin and triticale-specific bands. The presence in triticale x wheat backcrosses (BC) of rye-origin bands that were absent in the addition lines demonstrated that genomic rearrangement events were not a direct consequence of backcrossing, but resulted from further genome structural rearrangements in the BC plant progeny. PCR experiments using primers designed from different rye-origin sequences showed that the absence of a rye-origin band in wheat-rye addition lines results from sequence elimination rather than restrict changes on primer annealing sites, as noted in triticale. The level of genome restructuring events evaluated in all seven wheat-rye addition lines, compared to triticale, indicated that the unbalanced genome merger situation observed in the addition lines induced a new round of genome rearrangement, suggesting that the lesser the amount of rye chromatin introgressed into wheat the larger the outcome of genome reshuffling.

  9. A wheat cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase TaCAD12 contributes to host resistance to the sharp eyespot disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Rong

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Sharp eyespot, caused mainly by the necrotrophic fungus Rhizoctonia cerealis, is a destructive disease in hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.. In Arabidopsis, certain cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenases (CADs have been implicated in monolignol biosynthesis and in defense response to bacterial pathogen infection. However, little is known about CADs in wheat defense responses to necrotrophic or soil-borne pathogens. In this study, we isolate a wheat CAD gene TaCAD12 in response to R. cerealis infection through microarray-based comparative transcriptomics, and study the enzyme activity and defense role of TaCAD12 in wheat. The transcriptional levels of TaCAD12 in sharp eyespot-resistant wheat lines were significantly higher compared with those in susceptible wheat lines. The sequence and phylogenetic analyses revealed that TaCAD12 belongs to IV group in CAD family. The biochemical assay proved that TaCAD12 protein is an authentic CAD enzyme and possesses catalytic efficiencies towards both coniferyl aldehyde and sinapyl aldehyde. Knock-down of TaCAD12 transcript significantly repressed resistance of the gene-silenced wheat plants to sharp eyespot caused by R. cerealis, whereas TaCAD12 overexpression markedly enhanced resistance of the transgenic wheat lines to sharp eyespot. Furthermore, certain defense genes (Defensin, PR10, PR17c, and Chitinase1 and monolignol biosynthesis-related genes (TaCAD1, TaCCR, and TaCOMT1 were up-regulated in the TaCAD12-overexpressing wheat plants but down-regulated in TaCAD12-silencing plants. These results suggest that TaCAD12 positively contributes to resistance against sharp eyespot through regulation of the expression of certain defense genes and monolignol biosynthesis-related genes in wheat.

  10. Systematic Investigation of FLOWERING LOCUS T-Like Poaceae Gene Families Identifies the Short-Day Expressed Flowering Pathway Gene, TaFT3 in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliwell, Joanna; Borrill, Philippa; Gordon, Anna; Kowalczyk, Radoslaw; Pagano, Marina L.; Saccomanno, Benedetta; Bentley, Alison R.; Uauy, Cristobal; Cockram, James

    2016-01-01

    To date, a small number of major flowering time loci have been identified in the related Triticeae crops, bread wheat (Triticum aestivum), durum wheat (T. durum), and barley (Hordeum vulgare). Natural genetic variants at these loci result in major phenotypic changes which have adapted crops to the novel environments encountered during the spread of agriculture. The polyploid nature of bread and durum wheat means that major flowering time loci in which recessive alleles confer adaptive advantage in related diploid species have not been readily identified. One such example is the PPD-H2 flowering time locus encoded by FLOWERING LOCUS T 3 (HvFT3) in the diploid crop barley, for which recessive mutant alleles confer delayed flowering under short day (SD) photoperiods. In autumn-sown barley, such alleles aid the repression of flowering over the winter, which help prevent the development of cold-sensitive floral organs until the onset of inductive long day (LD) photoperiods the following spring. While the identification of orthologous loci in wheat could provide breeders with alternative mechanisms to fine tune flowering time, systematic identification of wheat orthologs of HvFT3 has not been reported. Here, we characterize the FT gene families in six Poaceae species, identifying novel members in all taxa investigated, as well as FT3 homoeologs from the A, B and D genomes of hexaploid (TaFT3) and tetraploid wheat. Sequence analysis shows TaFT3 homoeologs display high similarity to the HvFT3 coding region (95–96%) and predicted protein (96–97%), with conservation of intron/exon structure across the five cereal species investigated. Genetic mapping and comparative analyses in hexaploid and tetraploid wheat find TaFT3 homoeologs map to the long arms of the group 1 chromosomes, collinear to HvFT3 in barley and FT3 orthologs in rice, foxtail millet and brachypodium. Genome-specific expression analyses show FT3 homoeologs in tetraploid and hexaploid wheat are upregulated

  11. Cold priming drives the sub-cellular antioxidant systems to protect photosynthetic electron transport against subsequent low temperature stress in winter wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xiangnan; Cai, Jian; Liu, Fulai

    2014-01-01

    Low temperature seriously depresses the growth of wheat through inhibition of photosynthesis, while earlier cold priming may enhance the tolerance of plants to subsequent low temperature stress. Here, winter wheat plants were firstly cold primed (5.2°C lower temperature than the ambient temperatu......-cellular antioxidant systems, depressing the oxidative burst in photosynthetic apparatus, hereby enhanced the tolerance to subsequent low temperature stress in winter wheat plants.......Low temperature seriously depresses the growth of wheat through inhibition of photosynthesis, while earlier cold priming may enhance the tolerance of plants to subsequent low temperature stress. Here, winter wheat plants were firstly cold primed (5.2°C lower temperature than the ambient temperature......, viz., 10.0°C) at the Zadoks growth stage 28 (i.e.re-greening stage, starting on 20th of March) for 7d, and after 14d of recovery the plants were subsequently subjected to a 5d low temperature stress (8.4°C lower than the ambient temperature, viz., 14.1°C) at the Zadoks growth stage 31 (i...

  12. Evaluation of the safety of ancient strains of wheat in coeliac disease reveals heterogeneous small intestinal T cell responses suggestive of coeliac toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šuligoj, Tanja; Gregorini, Armando; Colomba, Mariastella; Ellis, H Julia; Ciclitira, Paul J

    2013-12-01

    Coeliac disease is a chronic small intestinal immune-mediated enteropathy triggered by dietary gluten in genetically predisposed individuals. Since it is unknown if all wheat varieties are equally toxic to coeliac patients seven Triticum accessions showing different origin (ancient/modern) and ploidy (di-, tetra- hexaploid) were studied. Selected strains of wheat were ancient Triticum monococcum precoce (AA genome) and Triticum speltoides (BB genome), accessions of Triticum turgidum durum (AABB genome) including two ancient (Graziella Ra and Kamut) and two modern (Senatore Cappelli and Svevo) durum strains of wheat and Triticum aestivum compactum (AABBDD genome). Small intestinal gluten-specific T-cell lines generated from 13 coeliac patients were tested with wheat accessions by proliferation assays. All strains of wheat independent of ploidy or ancient/modern origin triggered heterogeneous responses covering wide ranges of stimulation indices. Ancient strains of wheat, although previously suggested to be low or devoid of coeliac toxicity, should be tested for immunogenicity using gluten-specific T-cell lines from multiple coeliac patients rather than gluten-specific clones to assess their potential toxicity. Our findings provide further evidence for the need for a strict gluten-free diet in coeliac patients, including avoidance of ancient strains of wheat. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  13. Exploring and Mobilizing the Gene Bank Biodiversity for Wheat Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehgal, Deepmala; Vikram, Prashant; Sansaloni, Carolina Paola; Ortiz, Cynthia; Pierre, Carolina Saint; Payne, Thomas; Ellis, Marc; Amri, Ahmed; Petroli, César Daniel; Wenzl, Peter; Singh, Sukhwinder

    2015-01-01

    Identifying and mobilizing useful genetic variation from germplasm banks to breeding programs is an important strategy for sustaining crop genetic improvement. The molecular diversity of 1,423 spring bread wheat accessions representing major global production environments was investigated using high quality genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) loci, and gene-based markers for various adaptive and quality traits. Mean diversity index (DI) estimates revealed synthetic hexaploids to be genetically more diverse (DI= 0.284) than elites (DI = 0.267) and landraces (DI = 0.245). GBS markers discovered thousands of new SNP variations in the landraces which were well known to be adapted to drought (1273 novel GBS SNPs) and heat (4473 novel GBS SNPs) stress environments. This may open new avenues for pre-breeding by enriching the elite germplasm with novel alleles for drought and heat tolerance. Furthermore, new allelic variation for vernalization and glutenin genes was also identified from 47 landraces originating from Iraq, Iran, India, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan. The information generated in the study has been utilized to select 200 diverse gene bank accessions to harness their potential in pre-breeding and for allele mining of candidate genes for drought and heat stress tolerance, thus channeling novel variation into breeding pipelines. This research is part of CIMMYT’s ongoing ‘Seeds of Discovery’ project visioning towards the development of high yielding wheat varieties that address future challenges from climate change. PMID:26176697

  14. Exploring and Mobilizing the Gene Bank Biodiversity for Wheat Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehgal, Deepmala; Vikram, Prashant; Sansaloni, Carolina Paola; Ortiz, Cynthia; Pierre, Carolina Saint; Payne, Thomas; Ellis, Marc; Amri, Ahmed; Petroli, César Daniel; Wenzl, Peter; Singh, Sukhwinder

    2015-01-01

    Identifying and mobilizing useful genetic variation from germplasm banks to breeding programs is an important strategy for sustaining crop genetic improvement. The molecular diversity of 1,423 spring bread wheat accessions representing major global production environments was investigated using high quality genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) loci, and gene-based markers for various adaptive and quality traits. Mean diversity index (DI) estimates revealed synthetic hexaploids to be genetically more diverse (DI= 0.284) than elites (DI = 0.267) and landraces (DI = 0.245). GBS markers discovered thousands of new SNP variations in the landraces which were well known to be adapted to drought (1273 novel GBS SNPs) and heat (4473 novel GBS SNPs) stress environments. This may open new avenues for pre-breeding by enriching the elite germplasm with novel alleles for drought and heat tolerance. Furthermore, new allelic variation for vernalization and glutenin genes was also identified from 47 landraces originating from Iraq, Iran, India, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan. The information generated in the study has been utilized to select 200 diverse gene bank accessions to harness their potential in pre-breeding and for allele mining of candidate genes for drought and heat stress tolerance, thus channeling novel variation into breeding pipelines. This research is part of CIMMYT's ongoing 'Seeds of Discovery' project visioning towards the development of high yielding wheat varieties that address future challenges from climate change.

  15. Exploring and Mobilizing the Gene Bank Biodiversity for Wheat Improvement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepmala Sehgal

    Full Text Available Identifying and mobilizing useful genetic variation from germplasm banks to breeding programs is an important strategy for sustaining crop genetic improvement. The molecular diversity of 1,423 spring bread wheat accessions representing major global production environments was investigated using high quality genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS loci, and gene-based markers for various adaptive and quality traits. Mean diversity index (DI estimates revealed synthetic hexaploids to be genetically more diverse (DI= 0.284 than elites (DI = 0.267 and landraces (DI = 0.245. GBS markers discovered thousands of new SNP variations in the landraces which were well known to be adapted to drought (1273 novel GBS SNPs and heat (4473 novel GBS SNPs stress environments. This may open new avenues for pre-breeding by enriching the elite germplasm with novel alleles for drought and heat tolerance. Furthermore, new allelic variation for vernalization and glutenin genes was also identified from 47 landraces originating from Iraq, Iran, India, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan. The information generated in the study has been utilized to select 200 diverse gene bank accessions to harness their potential in pre-breeding and for allele mining of candidate genes for drought and heat stress tolerance, thus channeling novel variation into breeding pipelines. This research is part of CIMMYT's ongoing 'Seeds of Discovery' project visioning towards the development of high yielding wheat varieties that address future challenges from climate change.

  16. Identification and Validation of a Major Quantitative Trait Locus for Slow-rusting Resistance to Stripe Rust in Wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaohua Cao; Jianghong Zhou; Xiaoping Gong; Guangyao Zhao; Jizeng Jia; Xiaoquan Qi

    2012-01-01

    Stripe (yellow) rust,caused by Puccinia striiformis Westend.f.sp.tritici Eriks (Pst),is one of the most important wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) diseases and causes significant yield losses.A recombinant inbred (RI) population derived from a cross between Yanzhan 1 and Xichang 76-9 cultivars was evaluated for resistance to wheat stripe rust strain CYR32 at both the seedling and adult plant stages.Four resistance quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were detected in this population,in which the major one,designated as Yrq1,was mapped on chromosome 2DS.The strategy of using the Brachypodium distachyon genome,wheat expressed sequence tags and a draft DNA sequences (scaffolds) of the D-genome (Aegilops tauschii Coss.) for the development of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers was successfully used to identify 147 SSRs in hexaploid wheat.Of the 19 polymorphic SSRs in the RI population,17 SSRs were mapped in the homeologous group 2 chromosomes near Yrq1 region and eight SSRs were genetically mapped in the 2.7 cM region of Yrq1,providing abundant DNA markers for fine-mapping of Yrq1 and marker-assisted selection in wheat breeding program.The effectiveness of Yrq1 was validated in an independent population,indicating that this resistance QTL can be successfully transferred into a susceptible cultivar for improvement of stripe rust resistance.

  17. Quantitation of the immunodominant 33-mer peptide from α-gliadin in wheat flours by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalk, Kathrin; Lang, Christina; Wieser, Herbert; Koehler, Peter; Scherf, Katharina Anne

    2017-01-01

    Coeliac disease (CD) is triggered by the ingestion of gluten proteins from wheat, rye, and barley. The 33-mer peptide from α2-gliadin has frequently been described as the most important CD-immunogenic sequence within gluten. However, from more than 890 published amino acid sequences of α-gliadins, only 19 sequences contain the 33-mer. In order to make a precise assessment of the importance of the 33-mer, it is necessary to elucidate which wheat species and cultivars contain the peptide and at which concentrations. This paper presents the development of a stable isotope dilution assay followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry to quantitate the 33-mer in flours of 23 hexaploid modern and 15 old common (bread) wheat as well as two spelt cultivars. All flours contained the 33-mer peptide at levels ranging from 91–603 μg/g flour. In contrast, the 33-mer was absent (wheat, emmer, einkorn), most likely because of the absence of the D-genome, which encodes α2-gliadins. Due to the presence of the 33-mer in all common wheat and spelt flours analysed here, the special focus in the literature on this most immunodominant peptide seems to be justified. PMID:28327674

  18. Molecular, physicochemical and rheological characteristics of introgressive Triticale/Triticum monococcum ssp. monococcum lines with wheat 1D/1A chromosome substitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmanowicz, Bolesław P; Langner, Monika; Wiśniewska, Halina; Apolinarska, Barbara; Kwiatek, Michał; Błaszczyk, Lidia

    2013-07-26

    Three sets of hexaploid introgressive triticale lines, with Triticum monococcum ssp. monococcum (cultivated einkorn wheat) genes and a bread wheat chromosome 1D substituted for chromosome 1A, and one set of secondary triticale lines were evaluated for grain and flour physicochemical and dough rheological characteristics in two generations (F7 and F8). Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) confirmed the 1D/1A chromosome substitution. The presence or absence of einkorn high-molecular-weight (HMW) glutenin subunits and the wheat Glu-D1d locus encoding the 5 + 10 subunits was assessed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), capillary zone electrophoresis, and allele-specific molecular markers. Significant differences were found among physicochemical properties (with the exception of the Hagberg falling number) of all introgressive Triticale/T. monococcum lines and the secondary triticale lines. The wheat 1D/1A chromosome substitution also affected these properties. The results showed that in all introgressive triticale lines, the protein and gluten content, Zeleny sedimentation value, and water absorption capacity, were increased. The rheological parameters estimated using micro-farinograph, reomixer, and Kieffer dough extensibility systems also showed an appreciable increase in dough-mixing properties, maximum resistance to extension (Rmax), and dough extensibility. Introgressive Triticale/T. monococcum lines with 5 + 10 subunits have particularly favorable rheological parameters. The results obtained in this study suggest that the cultivated einkorn genome Am, in the context of hexaploid secondary triticale lines and with a wheat 1D/1A substitution, has the potential to improve gluten polymer interactions and be a valuable genetic resource for triticale quality improvement.

  19. Molecular, Physicochemical and Rheological Characteristics of Introgressive Triticale/Triticum monococcum ssp. monococcum Lines with Wheat 1D/1A Chromosome Substitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Błaszczyk

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Three sets of hexaploid introgressive triticale lines, with Triticum monococcum ssp. monococcum (cultivated einkorn wheat genes and a bread wheat chromosome 1D substituted for chromosome 1A, and one set of secondary triticale lines were evaluated for grain and flour physicochemical and dough rheological characteristics in two generations (F7 and F8. Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH confirmed the 1D/1A chromosome substitution. The presence or absence of einkorn high-molecular-weight (HMW glutenin subunits and the wheat Glu-D1d locus encoding the 5 + 10 subunits was assessed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE, capillary zone electrophoresis, and allele-specific molecular markers. Significant differences were found among physicochemical properties (with the exception of the Hagberg falling number of all introgressive Triticale/T. monococcum lines and the secondary triticale lines. The wheat 1D/1A chromosome substitution also affected these properties. The results showed that in all introgressive triticale lines, the protein and gluten content, Zeleny sedimentation value, and water absorption capacity, were increased. The rheological parameters estimated using micro-farinograph, reomixer, and Kieffer dough extensibility systems also showed an appreciable increase in dough-mixing properties, maximum resistance to extension (Rmax, and dough extensibility. Introgressive Triticale/T. monococcum lines with 5 + 10 subunits have particularly favorable rheological parameters. The results obtained in this study suggest that the cultivated einkorn genome Am, in the context of hexaploid secondary triticale lines and with a wheat 1D/1A substitution, has the potential to improve gluten polymer interactions and be a valuable genetic resource for triticale quality improvement.

  20. Wheat and gluten intolerance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busink-van den Broeck, Hetty; Gilissen, L.J.W.J.; Brouns, F.

    2016-01-01

    With this White Paper, the current state of scientific knowledge on human disorders related to gluten and wheat is presented, with reference to other grains such as spelt, barley, rye, and oats. Backgrounds are described of coeliac disease (gluten intolerance), wheat allergies and any kind of wheat

  1. Discovery and mapping of single feature polymorphisms in wheat using Affymetrix arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Shengwa

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. is a staple food crop worldwide. The wheat genome has not yet been sequenced due to its huge genome size (~17,000 Mb and high levels of repetitive sequences; the whole genome sequence may not be expected in the near future. Available linkage maps have low marker density due to limitation in available markers; therefore new technologies that detect genome-wide polymorphisms are still needed to discover a large number of new markers for construction of high-resolution maps. A high-resolution map is a critical tool for gene isolation, molecular breeding and genomic research. Single feature polymorphism (SFP is a new microarray-based type of marker that is detected by hybridization of DNA or cRNA to oligonucleotide probes. This study was conducted to explore the feasibility of using the Affymetrix GeneChip to discover and map SFPs in the large hexaploid wheat genome. Results Six wheat varieties of diverse origins (Ning 7840, Clark, Jagger, Encruzilhada, Chinese Spring, and Opata 85 were analyzed for significant probe by variety interactions and 396 probe sets with SFPs were identified. A subset of 164 unigenes was sequenced and 54% showed polymorphism within probes. Microarray analysis of 71 recombinant inbred lines from the cross Ning 7840/Clark identified 955 SFPs and 877 of them were mapped together with 269 simple sequence repeat markers. The SFPs were randomly distributed within a chromosome but were unevenly distributed among different genomes. The B genome had the most SFPs, and the D genome had the least. Map positions of a selected set of SFPs were validated by mapping single nucleotide polymorphism using SNaPshot and comparing with expressed sequence tags mapping data. Conclusion The Affymetrix array is a cost-effective platform for SFP discovery and SFP mapping in wheat. The new high-density map constructed in this study will be a useful tool for genetic and genomic research in wheat.

  2. Somaclonal variation for disease resistance in wheat and production of dihaploids through wheat x maize hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeshwant R. Mehta

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Seven wheat cultivars having some degree of resistance to Bipolaris sorokiniana, Magnaporthe grisea or Xanthomonas campestris pv. undulosa (Xcu provided somaclonal variation for disease resistance. Callus induction varied from 69.4 to 100% across the cultivars, whereas regeneration frequency of R1 plants (regenerated plants of first generation varied between 2.7 and 23.1%. Resistance variation in the R2-regenerated second generation plants was observed for B. sorokiniana and M. grisea but not for Xcu. Attempts were made to fix the resistance characteristics of R3-regenerated third generation somaclones through wheat x maize hybrids. Wheat and maize hybridization of seven wheat somaclones yielded 81 embryos. A total of 11,624 somaclone florets were pollinated, of which 8.4% produced haploid embryos across the seven wheat genotypes. Hybrid embryo production varied between 0 and 25%. The somaclones had a constant chromosome number as observed in their original hexaploid wheat genotypes (2n = 6x = 42 whereas the haploid plants had n = 21. Hybrid embryo production and haploid and dihaploid plant production were affected by 2,4-D concentration, but not by the wheat genotype.Sete cultivares de trigo possuindo certo nível de resistência a Bipolaris sorokiniana, Magnaporthe grisea, Xanthomonas campestris pv. undulosa (Xcu, foram usadas para variação somaclonal, a fim de induzir um nível maior de resistência. A freqüência de indução de calos variou entre 69,4 e 100 entre as cultivares, enquanto que, a freqüência de regeneração de plantas R1 variou entre 2,7 e 23,1, dependendo da cultivar. A variação para resistência entre as plantas de R2 foi observada para B. sorokiniana e M. grisea, mas não para Xcu. Procurou-se fixar as características de resistência dos somaclones (R3 através de hibridação com milho. A hibridação entre trigo e milho produziu 81 embriões zigotos. Um total de 11.624 flores de somaclones foram polinizadas, das

  3. Nucleotide diversity maps reveal variation in diversity among wheat genomes and chromosomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGuire Patrick E

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A genome-wide assessment of nucleotide diversity in a polyploid species must minimize the inclusion of homoeologous sequences into diversity estimates and reliably allocate individual haplotypes into their respective genomes. The same requirements complicate the development and deployment of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers in polyploid species. We report here a strategy that satisfies these requirements and deploy it in the sequencing of genes in cultivated hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum, genomes AABBDD and wild tetraploid wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides, genomes AABB from the putative site of wheat domestication in Turkey. Data are used to assess the distribution of diversity among and within wheat genomes and to develop a panel of SNP markers for polyploid wheat. Results Nucleotide diversity was estimated in 2114 wheat genes and was similar between the A and B genomes and reduced in the D genome. Within a genome, diversity was diminished on some chromosomes. Low diversity was always accompanied by an excess of rare alleles. A total of 5,471 SNPs was discovered in 1791 wheat genes. Totals of 1,271, 1,218, and 2,203 SNPs were discovered in 488, 463, and 641 genes of wheat putative diploid ancestors, T. urartu, Aegilops speltoides, and Ae. tauschii, respectively. A public database containing genome-specific primers, SNPs, and other information was constructed. A total of 987 genes with nucleotide diversity estimated in one or more of the wheat genomes was placed on an Ae. tauschii genetic map, and the map was superimposed on wheat deletion-bin maps. The agreement between the maps was assessed. Conclusions In a young polyploid, exemplified by T. aestivum, ancestral species are the primary source of genetic diversity. Low effective recombination due to self-pollination and a genetic mechanism precluding homoeologous chromosome pairing during polyploid meiosis can lead to the loss of diversity from large

  4. Characterization of a gene from chromosome 1B encoding the large subunit of ADPglucose pyrophosphorylase from wheat: evolutionary divergence and differential expression of Agp2 genes between leaves and developing endosperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorneycroft, David; Hosein, Felicia; Thangavelu, Madan; Clark, Joanna; Vizir, Igor; Burrell, Michael M; Ainsworth, Charles

    2003-07-01

    A full-length genomic clone containing the gene encoding the large subunit of the ADPglucose pyrophosphorylase (Agp2), was isolated from a genomic library prepared from etiolated shoots of hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L., cv, Chinese Spring). The coding region of this gene is identical to one of the cDNA clones previously isolated from a developing wheat grain cDNA library and is therefore an actively transcribed gene. The sequence represented by the cDNA spans 4.8 kb of the genomic clone and contains 15 introns. 2852 bp of DNA flanking the transcription start site of the gene was cloned upstream of the GUS (beta-glucuronidase) reporter gene. This Agp2::GUS construct and promoter deletions were used to study the pattern of reporter gene expression in both transgenic tobacco and wheat plants. Histochemical analysis of GUS expression in transgenic tobacco demonstrated that the reporter gene was expressed in guard cells of leaves and throughout the seed. In transgenic wheat, reporter gene expression was confined to the endosperm and aleurone with no expression in leaves. The cloned Agp2 gene was located to chromosome 1B by gene-specific PCR with nullisomic-tetrasomic lines. Northern analysis demonstrated that the Agp2 genes are differentially expressed in leaves and developing endosperm; while all three classes of Agp2 genes are transcribed in developing wheat grain endosperm, only one is transcribed in leaves. The differences between the Agp2 genes are discussed in relation to the evolution of hexaploid wheat.

  5. SNP Discovery and Chromosome Anchoring Provide the First Physically-Anchored Hexaploid Oat Map and Reveal Synteny with Model Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Shiaoman; Jellen, Eric N.; Carson, Martin L.; Rines, Howard W.; Obert, Donald E.; Lutz, Joseph D.; Shackelford, Irene; Korol, Abraham B.; Wight, Charlene P.; Gardner, Kyle M.; Hattori, Jiro; Beattie, Aaron D.; Bjørnstad, Åsmund; Bonman, J. Michael; Jannink, Jean-Luc; Sorrells, Mark E.; Brown-Guedira, Gina L.; Mitchell Fetch, Jennifer W.; Harrison, Stephen A.; Howarth, Catherine J.; Ibrahim, Amir; Kolb, Frederic L.; McMullen, Michael S.; Murphy, J. Paul; Ohm, Herbert W.; Rossnagel, Brian G.; Yan, Weikai; Miclaus, Kelci J.; Hiller, Jordan; Maughan, Peter J.; Redman Hulse, Rachel R.; Anderson, Joseph M.; Islamovic, Emir

    2013-01-01

    A physically anchored consensus map is foundational to modern genomics research; however, construction of such a map in oat (Avena sativa L., 2n = 6x = 42) has been hindered by the size and complexity of the genome, the scarcity of robust molecular markers, and the lack of aneuploid stocks. Resources developed in this study include a modified SNP discovery method for complex genomes, a diverse set of oat SNP markers, and a novel chromosome-deficient SNP anchoring strategy. These resources were applied to build the first complete, physically-anchored consensus map of hexaploid oat. Approximately 11,000 high-confidence in silico SNPs were discovered based on nine million inter-varietal sequence reads of genomic and cDNA origin. GoldenGate genotyping of 3,072 SNP assays yielded 1,311 robust markers, of which 985 were mapped in 390 recombinant-inbred lines from six bi-parental mapping populations ranging in size from 49 to 97 progeny. The consensus map included 985 SNPs and 68 previously-published markers, resolving 21 linkage groups with a total map distance of 1,838.8 cM. Consensus linkage groups were assigned to 21 chromosomes using SNP deletion analysis of chromosome-deficient monosomic hybrid stocks. Alignments with sequenced genomes of rice and Brachypodium provide evidence for extensive conservation of genomic regions, and renewed encouragement for orthology-based genomic discovery in this important hexaploid species. These results also provide a framework for high-resolution genetic analysis in oat, and a model for marker development and map construction in other species with complex genomes and limited resources. PMID:23533580

  6. SNP discovery and chromosome anchoring provide the first physically-anchored hexaploid oat map and reveal synteny with model species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebekah E Oliver

    Full Text Available A physically anchored consensus map is foundational to modern genomics research; however, construction of such a map in oat (Avena sativa L., 2n = 6x = 42 has been hindered by the size and complexity of the genome, the scarcity of robust molecular markers, and the lack of aneuploid stocks. Resources developed in this study include a modified SNP discovery method for complex genomes, a diverse set of oat SNP markers, and a novel chromosome-deficient SNP anchoring strategy. These resources were applied to build the first complete, physically-anchored consensus map of hexaploid oat. Approximately 11,000 high-confidence in silico SNPs were discovered based on nine million inter-varietal sequence reads of genomic and cDNA origin. GoldenGate genotyping of 3,072 SNP assays yielded 1,311 robust markers, of which 985 were mapped in 390 recombinant-inbred lines from six bi-parental mapping populations ranging in size from 49 to 97 progeny. The consensus map included 985 SNPs and 68 previously-published markers, resolving 21 linkage groups with a total map distance of 1,838.8 cM. Consensus linkage groups were assigned to 21 chromosomes using SNP deletion analysis of chromosome-deficient monosomic hybrid stocks. Alignments with sequenced genomes of rice and Brachypodium provide evidence for extensive conservation of genomic regions, and renewed encouragement for orthology-based genomic discovery in this important hexaploid species. These results also provide a framework for high-resolution genetic analysis in oat, and a model for marker development and map construction in other species with complex genomes and limited resources.

  7. Starch facilitates enzymatic wheat gluten hydrolysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hardt, N.A.; Boom, R.M.; Goot, van der A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Wheat gluten can be hydrolyzed by either using (vital) wheat gluten or directly from wheat flour. This study investigates the influence of the presence of starch, the main component of wheat, on enzymatic wheat gluten hydrolysis. Wheat gluten present in wheat flour (WFG) and vital wheat gluten (VWG)

  8. Starch facilitates enzymatic wheat gluten hydrolysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hardt, N.A.; Boom, R.M.; Goot, van der A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Wheat gluten can be hydrolyzed by either using (vital) wheat gluten or directly from wheat flour. This study investigates the influence of the presence of starch, the main component of wheat, on enzymatic wheat gluten hydrolysis. Wheat gluten present in wheat flour (WFG) and vital wheat gluten (VWG)

  9. Genome-wide analysis of complex wheat gliadins, the dominant carriers of celiac disease epitopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Da-Wei; Li, Da; Wang, Junjun; Zhao, Yue; Wang, Zhaojun; Yue, Guidong; Liu, Xin; Qin, Huanju; Zhang, Kunpu; Dong, Lingli; Wang, Daowen

    2017-03-16

    Gliadins, specified by six compound chromosomal loci (Gli-A1/B1/D1 and Gli-A2/B2/D2) in hexaploid bread wheat, are the dominant carriers of celiac disease (CD) epitopes. Because of their complexity, genome-wide characterization of gliadins is a strong challenge. Here, we approached this challenge by combining transcriptomic, proteomic and bioinformatic investigations. Through third-generation RNA sequencing, full-length transcripts were identified for 52 gliadin genes in the bread wheat cultivar Xiaoyan 81. Of them, 42 were active and predicted to encode 25 α-, 11 γ-, one δ- and five ω-gliadins. Comparative proteomic analysis between Xiaoyan 81 and six newly-developed mutants each lacking one Gli locus indicated the accumulation of 38 gliadins in the mature grains. A novel group of α-gliadins (the CSTT group) was recognized to contain very few or no CD epitopes. The δ-gliadins identified here or previously did not carry CD epitopes. Finally, the mutant lacking Gli-D2 showed significant reductions in the most celiac-toxic α-gliadins and derivative CD epitopes. The insights and resources generated here should aid further studies on gliadin functions in CD and the breeding of healthier wheat.

  10. Subgenomic Diversity Patterns Caused by Directional Selection in Bread Wheat Gene Pools

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    Kai Voss-Fels

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Genetic diversity represents the fundamental key to breeding success, providing the basis for breeders to select varieties with constantly improving yield performance. On the other hand, strong selection during domestication and breeding have eliminated considerable genetic diversity in the breeding pools of major crops, causing erosion of genetic potential for adaptation to emerging challenges like climate change. High-throughput genomic technologies can address this dilemma by providing detailed knowledge to characterize and replenish genetic diversity in breeding programs. In hexaploid bread wheat ( L., the staple food for 35% of the world’s population, bottlenecks during allopolyploidisation followed by strong artificial selection have considerably narrowed diversity to the extent that yields in many regions appear to be unexpectedly stagnating. In this study, we used a 90,000 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP wheat genotyping array to assay high-frequency, polymorphic SNP markers in 460 accessions representing different phenological diversity groups from Asian, Australian, European, and North American bread wheat breeding materials. Detailed analysis of subgroup diversity at the chromosome and subgenome scale revealed highly distinct patterns of conserved linkage disequilibrium between different gene pools. The data enable identification of genome regions in most need of rejuvenation with novel diversity and provide a high-resolution molecular basis for genomic-assisted introgression of new variation into chromosome segments surrounding directionally selected metaloci conferring important adaptation and quality traits.

  11. Genome-wide analysis of complex wheat gliadins, the dominant carriers of celiac disease epitopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Da-Wei; Li, Da; Wang, Junjun; Zhao, Yue; Wang, Zhaojun; Yue, Guidong; Liu, Xin; Qin, Huanju; Zhang, Kunpu; Dong, Lingli; Wang, Daowen

    2017-01-01

    Gliadins, specified by six compound chromosomal loci (Gli-A1/B1/D1 and Gli-A2/B2/D2) in hexaploid bread wheat, are the dominant carriers of celiac disease (CD) epitopes. Because of their complexity, genome-wide characterization of gliadins is a strong challenge. Here, we approached this challenge by combining transcriptomic, proteomic and bioinformatic investigations. Through third-generation RNA sequencing, full-length transcripts were identified for 52 gliadin genes in the bread wheat cultivar Xiaoyan 81. Of them, 42 were active and predicted to encode 25 α-, 11 γ-, one δ- and five ω-gliadins. Comparative proteomic analysis between Xiaoyan 81 and six newly-developed mutants each lacking one Gli locus indicated the accumulation of 38 gliadins in the mature grains. A novel group of α-gliadins (the CSTT group) was recognized to contain very few or no CD epitopes. The δ-gliadins identified here or previously did not carry CD epitopes. Finally, the mutant lacking Gli-D2 showed significant reductions in the most celiac-toxic α-gliadins and derivative CD epitopes. The insights and resources generated here should aid further studies on gliadin functions in CD and the breeding of healthier wheat. PMID:28300172

  12. Application of real-time PCR-based SNP detection for mapping of Net2, a causal D-genome gene for hybrid necrosis in interspecific crosses between tetraploid wheat and Aegilops tauschii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Ryusuke; Iehisa, Julio C M; Takumi, Shigeo

    2012-01-01

    Available information on genetically assigned molecular markers is not sufficient for efficient construction of a high-density linkage map in wheat. Here, we report on application of high resolution melting (HRM) analysis using a real-time PCR apparatus to develop single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers linked to a hybrid necrosis gene, Net2, located on wheat chromosome 2D. Based on genomic information on barley chromosome 2H and wheat expressed sequence tag libraries, we selected wheat cDNA sequences presumed to be located near the Net2 chromosomal region, and then found SNPs between the parental Ae. tauschii accessions of the synthetic wheat mapping population. HRM analysis of the PCR products from F(2) individuals' DNA enabled us to assign 44.4% of the SNP-representing cDNAs to chromosome 2D despite the presence of the A and B genomes. In addition, the designed SNP markers were assigned to chromosome 2D of Ae. tauschii. The order of the assigned SNP markers in synthetic hexaploid wheat was confirmed by comparison with the markers in barley and Ae. tauschii. Thus, the SNP-genotyping method based on HRM analysis is a useful tool for development of molecular markers at target loci in wheat.

  13. Genetic diversity, population structure and marker-trait associations for agronomic and grain traits in wild diploid wheat Triticum urartu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Luo, Guangbin; Yang, Wenlong; Li, Yiwen; Sun, Jiazhu; Zhan, Kehui; Liu, Dongcheng; Zhang, Aimin

    2017-07-01

    Wild diploid wheat, Triticum urartu (T. urartu) is the progenitor of bread wheat, and understanding its genetic diversity and genome function will provide considerable reference for dissecting genomic information of common wheat. In this study, we investigated the morphological and genetic diversity and population structure of 238 T. urartu accessions collected from different geographic regions. This collection had 19.37 alleles per SSR locus and its polymorphic information content (PIC) value was 0.76, and the PIC and Nei's gene diversity (GD) of high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GSs) were 0.86 and 0.88, respectively. UPGMA clustering analysis indicated that the 238 T. urartu accessions could be classified into two subpopulations, of which Cluster I contained accessions from Eastern Mediterranean coast and those from Mesopotamia and Transcaucasia belonged to Cluster II. The wide range of genetic diversity along with the manageable number of accessions makes it one of the best collections for mining valuable genes based on marker-trait association. Significant associations were observed between simple sequence repeats (SSR) or HMW-GSs and six morphological traits: heading date (HD), plant height (PH), spike length (SPL), spikelet number per spike (SPLN), tiller angle (TA) and grain length (GL). Our data demonstrated that SSRs and HMW-GSs were useful markers for identification of beneficial genes controlling important traits in T. urartu, and subsequently for their conservation and future utilization, which may be useful for genetic improvement of the cultivated hexaploid wheat.

  14. Induced mutations in the starch branching enzyme II (SBEII) genes increase amylose and resistant starch content in durum wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazard, Brittany; Zhang, Xiaoqin; Colasuonno, Pasqualina; Uauy, Cristobal; Beckles, Diane M; Dubcovsky, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Starch is the largest component of the wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain and consists of approximately 70-80% amylopectin and 20-30% amylose. Amylopectin is a highly-branched, readily digested polysaccharide, whereas amylose has few branches and forms complexes that resist digestion and mimic dietary fiber (resistant starch). Down-regulation of the starch branching enzyme II (SBEII) gene by RNA interference (RNAi) was previously shown to increase amylose content in both hexaploid and tetraploid wheat. We generated ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS) mutants for the SBEIIa-A and SBEIIa-B homoeologs in the tetraploid durum wheat variety Kronos (T. turgidum ssp. durum L.). Single-gene mutants showed non-significant increases in amylose and resistant starch content, but a double mutant combining a SBEIIa-A knock-out mutation with a SBEIIa-B splice-site mutation showed a 22% increase in amylose content (P<0.0001) and a 115% increase in resistant starch content (P<0.0001). In addition, we obtained mutants for the A and B genome copies of the paralogous SBEIIb gene, mapped them 1-2 cM from SBEIIa, and generated double SBEIIa-SBEIIb mutants to study the effect of the SBEIIb gene in the absence of SBEIIa. These mutants are available to those interested in increasing amylose content and resistant starch in durum wheat.

  15. Isolation and sequence analysis of the wheat B genome subtelomeric DNA

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    Huneau Cecile

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Telomeric and subtelomeric regions are essential for genome stability and regular chromosome replication. In this work, we have characterized the wheat BAC (bacterial artificial chromosome clones containing Spelt1 and Spelt52 sequences, which belong to the subtelomeric repeats of the B/G genomes of wheats and Aegilops species from the section Sitopsis. Results The BAC library from Triticum aestivum cv. Renan was screened using Spelt1 and Spelt52 as probes. Nine positive clones were isolated; of them, clone 2050O8 was localized mainly to the distal parts of wheat chromosomes by in situ hybridization. The distribution of the other clones indicated the presence of different types of repetitive sequences in BACs. Use of different approaches allowed us to prove that seven of the nine isolated clones belonged to the subtelomeric chromosomal regions. Clone 2050O8 was sequenced and its sequence of 119 737 bp was annotated. It is composed of 33% transposable elements (TEs, 8.2% Spelt52 (namely, the subfamily Spelt52.2 and five non-TE-related genes. DNA transposons are predominant, making up 24.6% of the entire BAC clone, whereas retroelements account for 8.4% of the clone length. The full-length CACTA transposon Caspar covers 11 666 bp, encoding a transposase and CTG-2 proteins, and this transposon accounts for 40% of the DNA transposons. The in situ hybridization data for 2050O8 derived subclones in combination with the BLAST search against wheat mapped ESTs (expressed sequence tags suggest that clone 2050O8 is located in the terminal bin 4BL-10 (0.95-1.0. Additionally, four of the predicted 2050O8 genes showed significant homology to four putative orthologous rice genes in the distal part of rice chromosome 3S and confirm the synteny to wheat 4BL. Conclusion Satellite DNA sequences from the subtelomeric regions of diploid wheat progenitor can be used for selecting the BAC clones from the corresponding regions of hexaploid wheat

  16. Adenosine diphosphate glucose pyrophosphorylase genes in wheat: differential expression and gene mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainsworth, C; Hosein, F; Tarvis, M; Weir, F; Burrell, M; Devos, K M; Gale, M D

    1995-01-01

    A full-length cDNA clone representing the large (shrunken-2) subunit of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGP; EC 2.7.7.27) has been isolated from a cDNA library prepared from developing grain of hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L., cv. Chinese Spring). The 2084-bp cDNA insert contains an open reading frame of 1566 nucleotides and primer-extension analysis indicated that the 5' end is 10 nucleotides shorter than the mRNA. The deduced protein contains 522 amino acids (57.8 kDa) and includes a putative transit peptide of 62 amino acids (6.5 kDa). The similarity of the deduced protein to the small subunit of AGP and to other AGP genes from plants and microorganisms is discussed. Northern hybridisation shows that the Agp1 genes (encoding the small subunit in the wheat endosperm) and the Agp2 genes (encoding the large subunit in the wheat endosperm) are differentially expressed in the wheat grain. Transcripts from both gene sets accumulate to high levels in the endosperm during grain development with the majority of the expression in the endopsperm rather than the embryo and pericarp layers. Although enzyme activity is detected in developing grains prior to 10 d post anthesis, only the Agp1 genes are active at this time (the Agp2 genes are not expressed until 10 d post anthesis). The possibility that the enzyme expressed during early grain development is a homotetramer of small subunits is discussed. The Agp1 and Agp2 genes are arranged as triplicate sets of single-copy homoeoloci in wheat. The Agp2 genes are located on the long arms of chromosomes 1A, 1B and 1D, about 80 cM from the centromere. The Agp1 genes have been mapped to a position just distal to the centromere on the long arms of chromosomes 7A, 7B and 7D.

  17. Development of genome-specific primers for homoeologous genes in allopolyploid species: the waxy and starch synthase II genes in allohexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L. as examples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brûlé-Babel Anita

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In allopolypoid crops, homoeologous genes in different genomes exhibit a very high sequence similarity, especially in the coding regions of genes. This makes it difficult to design genome-specific primers to amplify individual genes from different genomes. Development of genome-specific primers for agronomically important genes in allopolypoid crops is very important and useful not only for the study of sequence diversity and association mapping of genes in natural populations, but also for the development of gene-based functional markers for marker-assisted breeding. Here we report on a useful approach for the development of genome-specific primers in allohexaploid wheat. Findings In the present study, three genome-specific primer sets for the waxy (Wx genes and four genome-specific primer sets for the starch synthase II (SSII genes were developed mainly from single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and/or insertions or deletions (Indels in introns and intron-exon junctions. The size of a single PCR product ranged from 750 bp to 1657 bp. The total length of amplified PCR products by these genome-specific primer sets accounted for 72.6%-87.0% of the Wx genes and 59.5%-61.6% of the SSII genes. Five genome-specific primer sets for the Wx genes (one for Wx-7A, three for Wx-4A and one for Wx-7D could distinguish the wild type wheat and partial waxy wheat lines. These genome-specific primer sets for the Wx and SSII genes produced amplifications in hexaploid wheat, cultivated durum wheat, and Aegilops tauschii accessions, but failed to generate amplification in the majority of wild diploid and tetraploid accessions. Conclusions For the first time, we report on the development of genome-specific primers from three homoeologous Wx and SSII genes covering the majority of the genes in allohexaploid wheat. These genome-specific primers are being used for the study of sequence diversity and association mapping of the three homoeologous Wx

  18. Evolution of new disease specificity at a simple resistance locus in a crop-weed complex: reconstitution of the Lr21 gene in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Li; Brooks, Steven; Li, Wanlong; Fellers, John; Nelson, James C; Gill, Bikram

    2009-06-01

    The wheat leaf-rust resistance gene Lr21 was first identified in an Iranian accession of goatgrass, Aegilops tauschii Coss., the D-genome donor of hexaploid bread wheat, and was introgressed into modern wheat cultivars by breeding. To elucidate the origin of the gene, we analyzed sequences of Lr21 and lr21 alleles from 24 wheat cultivars and 25 accessions of Ae. tauschii collected along the Caspian Sea in Iran and Azerbaijan. Three basic nonfunctional lr21 haplotypes, H1, H2, and H3, were identified. Lr21 was found to be a chimera of H1 and H2, which were found only in wheat. We attempted to reconstitute a functional Lr21 allele by crossing the cultivars Fielder (H1) and Wichita (H2). Rust inoculation of 5876 F(2) progeny revealed a single resistant plant that proved to carry the H1H2 haplotype, a result attributed to intragenic recombination. These findings reflect how plants balance the penalty and the necessity of a resistance gene and suggest that plants can reuse "dead" alleles to generate new disease-resistance specificity, leading to a "death-recycle" model of plant-resistance gene evolution at simple loci. We suggest that selection pressure in crop-weed complexes contributes to this process.

  19. Effects of wheat bug (Eurygaster spp. and Aelia spp.) infestation in preharvest period on wheat technological quality and gluten composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torbica, Aleksandra M; Mastilović, Jasna S; Pojić, Milica M; Kevrešan, Zarko S

    2014-01-01

    The effects of wheat bug infestation (Eurygaster spp. and Aelia spp.) on the composition of wheat gluten proteins and its influence on flour technological quality were investigated in the present study. Wheat samples of six wheat varieties, collected from two localities in northern Serbia, were characterized by significantly different level of wheat bug infestation. Composition of wheat gluten proteins was determined using sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS PAGE), while the selected parameters of technological quality were determined according to standard and modified empirical rheological methods (Farinograph, Extensograph, Alveograph, and Gluten Index). The surface morphology of the selected samples was viewed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Wheat from wheat bug-infested locality regardless of the variety had deteriorated technological quality expressed with higher Farinograph softening degree, lower or immeasurable Extensograph energy, and Alveograph deformation energy. The most important changes in the gluten proteins composition of bug-infested wheat were related to gliadin subunits with molecular weights below 75 kDa, which consequently caused deterioration of uniaxial and biaxial extensibility and dough softening during mixing.

  20. Impact of gluten-friendly™ technology on wheat kernel endosperm and gluten protein structure in seeds by light and electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landriscina, L; D'Agnello, P; Bevilacqua, A; Corbo, M R; Sinigaglia, M; Lamacchia, C

    2017-04-15

    The main aim of this paper was to assess the impact of Gluten-Friendly™ (GF) technology (Italian priority patent n° 102015000084813 filed on 17th December 2015) on wheat kernel endosperm morphology and gluten protein structure, using SEM, light and immunofluorescent microscopy. Microscopy was combined with immunodetection with specific antibodies for gliadins, γ-gliadins, LMW subunits and antigenic epitopes to gain a better understanding of the technology at a molecular level. The results showed significant changes to gluten proteins after GF treatment; cross-reactivity towards the antibodies recognizing almost the entire range of gluten proteins as well as the antigenic epitopes through the sequences QQSF, QQSY, PEQPFPQGC and QQPFP was significantly reduced. The present study confirms the results from our previous work and shows, for the first time, the mechanism by which a chemical-physical treatment abolishes the antigenic capacity of gluten.

  1. Population- and genome-specific patterns of linkage disequilibrium and SNP variation in spring and winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campbell Kim

    2010-12-01

    among populations. The higher extent of LD in the wheat D-genome versus the A- and B-genomes likely reflects the episodes of recent introgression and population bottleneck accompanying the origin of hexaploid wheat. The assessment of LD and population structure in this assembled panel of diverse lines provides critical information for the development of genetic resources for genome-wide association mapping of agronomically important traits in wheat.

  2. Oxygen and radiation effects on C02 exchange in fight and in darkness of decaploid and hexaploid tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy W. Poskuta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rates of apparent photosynthesis (APS. photorespiration (PR, CO2 compensation (I and dark respiration (DR were determined on attached shoots of decaploid (70 chromosomes and a hexaploid (42 chromosomes genotype of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb. using an infra red CO2 analyzer arranged in a closed circuit system. Plants were grown at a photon flux density 500 µmol m-2s-1 (400-700 nm and at 25°C. Measurements were made at 25°C in O2 concentrations of l, 21 and 100% and at irradiance of 500 or 1800 µmol m-2s-1. The decaploid exhibited rates of APS that was from 26 to 46% higher in 1 and 21% O2 but not in 100% O2, than those of hexaploid. Rates of PR were positively related to rates of APS. Values of r were very similar for both genotypes, they were little affected by irradiance, and were a linear function of O2 Concentration. The percentages of PR in true photosynthesis (TPS = APS+ PR were also similar for the two genotypes, and were a linear function of O2 concentration. Alternatively, rates of DR were by 16-26% higher in the hexaploid than decaploid genotype, and were little affected by O2 concentration or by previous rates of APS.

  3. A large-scale introgression of genomic components of Brassica rapa into B. napus by the bridge of hexaploid derived from hybridization between B. napus and B. oleracea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qinfei; Mei, Jiaqin; Zhang, Yongjing; Li, Jiana; Ge, Xianhong; Li, Zaiyun; Qian, Wei

    2013-08-01

    Brassica rapa (AA) has been used to widen the genetic basis of B. napus (AACC), which is a new but important oilseed crop worldwide. In the present study, we have proposed a strategy to develop new type B. napus carrying genomic components of B. rapa by crossing B. rapa with hexaploid (AACCCC) derived from B. napus and B. oleracea (CC). The hexaploid exhibited large flowers and high frequency of normal chromosome segregation, resulting in good seed set (average of 4.48 and 12.53 seeds per pod by self and open pollination, respectively) and high pollen fertility (average of 87.05 %). It was easy to develop new type B. napus by crossing the hexaploid with 142 lines of B. rapa from three ecotype groups, with the average crossability of 9.24 seeds per pod. The genetic variation of new type B. napus was diverse from that of current B. napus, especially in the A subgenome, revealed by genome-specific simple sequence repeat markers. Our data suggest that the strategy proposed here is a large-scale and highly efficient method to introgress genomic components of B. rapa into B. napus.

  4. Effect of the Amount and Particle Size of Wheat Fiber on the Physicochemical Properties and Gel Morphology of Starches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qingjie; Wu, Min; Bu, Xianghui; Xiong, Liu

    2015-01-01

    Effects of added wheat fiber, with different levels and particle sizes, on the physicochemical properties and gel morphology of wheat starch and mung bean starch were investigated, using rapid visco analyzer (RVA), texture analyzer (TPA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Each starch was added with wheat fiber at 10, 20, 30 and 40% (weight basis, g/100g), and different sizes of 60, 100 and 180 mesh, respectively. The peak viscosity (PV) of starches with wheat fiber were higher than the control. Starches had the highest PV with 40%, 60 mesh wheat fiber. The starches with wheat fiber showed higher hardness when compared to the control. Wheat starch and mung bean starch, with 40%, 60 mesh wheat fiber, had the highest hardnesses of 147.78 and 1032.11 g, respectively. SEM showed that the dense honeycomb structure of starch gel was diminished with increasing wheat fiber. Additionally, the number of internal pores was reduced, and a large lamellar structure was formed.

  5. 21 CFR 137.195 - Crushed wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Crushed wheat. 137.195 Section 137.195 Food and... Related Products § 137.195 Crushed wheat. Crushed wheat, coarse ground wheat, is the food prepared by so crushing cleaned wheat other than durum wheat and red durum wheat that, when tested by the method...

  6. Investigating the role of respiration in plant salinity tolerance by analyzing mitochondrial proteomes from wheat and a salinity-tolerant Amphiploid (wheat × Lophopyrum elongatum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacoby, Richard P; Millar, A Harvey; Taylor, Nicolas L

    2013-11-01

    The effect of salinity on mitochondrial properties was investigated by comparing the reference wheat variety Chinese Spring (CS) to a salt-tolerant amphiploid (AMP). The octoploid AMP genotype was previously generated by combining hexaploid bread wheat (CS) with the diploid wild wheatgrass adapted to salt marshes, Lophopyrum elongatum. Here we used a combination of physiological, biochemical, and proteomic analyses to explore the mitochondrial and respiratory response to salinity in these two genotypes. The AMP showed greater growth tolerance to salinity treatments and altered respiration rate in both roots and shoots. A proteomic workflow of 2D-DIGE and MALDI TOF/TOF mass spectrometry was used to compare the protein composition of isolated mitochondrial samples from roots and shoots of both genotypes, following control or salt treatment. A large set of mitochondrial proteins were identified as responsive to salinity in both genotypes, notably enzymes involved in detoxification of reactive oxygen species. Genotypic differences in mitochondrial composition were also identified, with AMP exhibiting a higher abundance of manganese superoxide dismutase, serine hydroxymethyltransferase, aconitase, malate dehydrogenase, and β-cyanoalanine synthase compared to CS. We present peptide fragmentation spectra derived from some of these AMP-specific protein spots, which could serve as biomarkers to track superior protein variants.

  7. MEASUREMENT OF WHEAT DENSITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯跟胜; 党金春; 等

    1995-01-01

    A method used for on line determining the change of wheat density with a automatic watering machine in a lqarge flour mill has been studied.The results show that the higher distinguishing ability is obtained when using 241Am as a γ-ray source for measuring the wheat density than using 137Cs.

  8. Infestation of transgenic powdery mildew-resistant wheat by naturally occurring insect herbivores under different environmental conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Álvarez-Alfageme

    Full Text Available A concern associated with the growing of genetically modified (GM crops is that they could adversely affect non-target organisms. We assessed the impact of several transgenic powdery mildew-resistant spring wheat lines on insect herbivores. The GM lines carried either the Pm3b gene from hexaploid wheat, which confers race-specific resistance to powdery mildew, or the less specific anti-fungal barley seed chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase. In addition to the non-transformed control lines, several conventional spring wheat varieties and barley and triticale were included for comparison. During two consecutive growing seasons, powdery mildew infection and the abundance of and damage by naturally occurring herbivores were estimated under semi-field conditions in a convertible glasshouse and in the field. Mildew was reduced on the Pm3b-transgenic lines but not on the chitinase/glucanase-expressing lines. Abundance of aphids was negatively correlated with powdery mildew in the convertible glasshouse, with Pm3b wheat plants hosting significantly more aphids than their mildew-susceptible controls. In contrast, aphid densities did not differ between GM plants and their non-transformed controls in the field, probably because of low mildew and aphid pressure at this location. Likewise, the GM wheat lines did not affect the abundance of or damage by the herbivores Oulema melanopus (L. and Chlorops pumilionis Bjerk. Although a previous study has revealed that some of the GM wheat lines show pleiotropic effects under field conditions, their effect on herbivorous insects appears to be low.

  9. [Sequence polymorphism and mapping of wheat Ca2+-binding protein TaCRT-A gene].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ji-Ping; Mao, Xin-Guo; Li, Run-Zhi; Jing, Rui-Lian

    2012-09-01

    Taking thirty-seven hexaploid wheat (AABBDD) accessions with different drought resistance at seedling stage, three wheat species with A genome (AA), and three tetraploid wheat species (AABB) as test materials, and by direct sequencing the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in TaCRT-A, this paper analyzed the relationships of the SNP with the drought resistance of wheat ( Triticum aestivum) at its seedling stage, and mapped the TaCRT-A on the chromosome of wheat. The full-length sequence of the TaCRT-A genomic DNA was 3887 bp. A total of 202 nucleotide variant loci were observed in the full length sequence of 167141 bp, among which, 165 SNP and 37 InDel with the frequencies of 1 SNP/1013 bp and 1 InDel/4517 bp were detected, respectively. The nucleotide diversity (pi) in coding region of TaCRT-A was lower than that in non-coding region, suggesting that the selection pressure in coding region was stronger than that in non-coding region. The 43 accessions could be classified as 14 haplotypes (H1-H14) by haploid analysis, among which, H1, H2, and H13 all contained one accession which was the donor species of A genome in common wheat, H16 and H7 had one high drought-resistant accession, H8 comprised tetraploid wheat, drought-resistant accessions, and drought-sensitive accessions, whereas H11 included the wheat accessions with drought-resistance and medium-drought resistance. Though the expression of TaCRT was induced by water stress, no significant relationship was identified between TaCRT-A polymorphism and drought resistance. Using a population of recombinant inbred lines derived from a cross of Opata 85 x W7984, the TaCRT-A was mapped between SSR markers Xmwg30 and Xmwg570 on chromosome 3A, and the genetic distances were 10.5 cM and 49.6 cM from the flanking markers, respectively.

  10. The impact of Ty3-gypsy group LTR retrotransposons Fatima on B-genome specificity of polyploid wheats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huneau Cecile

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transposable elements (TEs are a rapidly evolving fraction of the eukaryotic genomes and the main contributors to genome plasticity and divergence. Recently, occupation of the A- and D-genomes of allopolyploid wheat by specific TE families was demonstrated. Here, we investigated the impact of the well-represented family of gypsy LTR-retrotransposons, Fatima, on B-genome divergence of allopolyploid wheat using the fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH method and phylogenetic analysis. Results FISH analysis of a BAC clone (BAC_2383A24 initially screened with Spelt1 repeats demonstrated its predominant localisation to chromosomes of the B-genome and its putative diploid progenitor Aegilops speltoides in hexaploid (genomic formula, BBAADD and tetraploid (genomic formula, BBAA wheats as well as their diploid progenitors. Analysis of the complete BAC_2383A24 nucleotide sequence (113 605 bp demonstrated that it contains 55.6% TEs, 0.9% subtelomeric tandem repeats (Spelt1, and five genes. LTR retrotransposons are predominant, representing 50.7% of the total nucleotide sequence. Three elements of the gypsy LTR retrotransposon family Fatima make up 47.2% of all the LTR retrotransposons in this BAC. In situ hybridisation of the Fatima_2383A24-3 subclone suggests that individual representatives of the Fatima family contribute to the majority of the B-genome specific FISH pattern for BAC_2383A24. Phylogenetic analysis of various Fatima elements available from databases in combination with the data on their insertion dates demonstrated that the Fatima elements fall into several groups. One of these groups, containing Fatima_2383A24-3, is more specific to the B-genome and proliferated around 0.5-2.5 MYA, prior to allopolyploid wheat formation. Conclusion The B-genome specificity of the gypsy-like Fatima, as determined by FISH, is explained to a great degree by the appearance of a genome-specific element within this family for Ae

  11. Allelic Variation and Genetic Diversity at HMW Glutenin Subunits Loci in Yunnan,Tibetan and Xinjiang Wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hai-yan; WANG Xiu-e; CHEN Pei-du; LIU Da-jun

    2004-01-01

    Allelic variation and genetic diversity at HMW glutenin subunits loci, Glu-A1, Glu-B1and Glu-D1 were investigated in 64 accessions of three unique wheats of western China using sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Two HMW glutenin patterns (i.e., "null, 7+8, 2+12" and "null, 7, 2+12") in 34 Yunnan wheat accessions, 3 HMW glutenin patterns (i.e., "null, 7+8, 2+12"; "null, 6+8, 2+12" and "null, 7+8, 2") in 24 Tibetan accessions and 1 HMW glutenin pattern ("null, 7, 2+12") in 6 Xinjiang wheat accessions were found. The Tibetan accession TB18 was found to be with a rare subunit 2 encoded by Glu-D1. A total of 4 (i.e., Glu-A1c, Glu-B1a, Glu-B1b and Glu-D1a), 5 (i.e., Glu-A1c, Glu-B1d, Glu-B1b, Glu-D1a and Glu-D1) and 3 alleles (i.e.,Glu-A1c, Glu-B1a and Glu-D1a) at Glu-1 locus were identified among Yunnan, Tibetan and Xinjiang unique wheat accessions, respectively. For Yunnan wheat, Tibetan wheat and Xinjiang wheat, the Nei′s mean genetic variation indexes were 0.1574, 0.1366 and 0,respectively, which might indicate the higher genetic diversity at HMW glutenin subunits loci of Yunnan and Tibetan wheat accessions as compared to that of Xinjiang wheat accessions. Among the three genomes of hexaploid wheats of western China, the highest Nei′s genetic variation index was appeared in B genome with the mean value of 0.2674,while the indexes for genomes A and D were 0 and 0.0270, respectively. It might be reasonable to indicate that Glu-B1 showed the highest, Glu-D1 the intermediate and GluA1 always the lowest genetic diversity.

  12. Transmission of the Aegilops ovata chromosomes carrying gametocidal factors in hexaploid triticale (×Triticosecale Wittm.) hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatek, M; Majka, M; Ślusarkiewicz-Jarzina, A; Ponitka, A; Pudelska, H; Belter, J; Wiśniewska, H

    2016-08-01

    The main aim of this work was to induce the chromosome rearrangements between Aegilops ovata (UUMM) and hexaploid triticale (AABBRR) by expression of the gametocidal factor located on the chromosome 4M. The Aegilops ovata × Secale cereale (UUMMRR) amphiploids and triticale 'Moreno' were used to produce hybrids by reciprocal crosses. Chromosome dynamics was observed in subsequent generations of hybrids during mitotic metaphase of root meristems and first metaphase of meiosis of pollen mother cells. Chromosomes were identified by genomic in situ hybridisation (GISH) and fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) using pTa71, pTa791, pSc119.2 and pAs1 DNA probes. It has been shown that the origin of the genetic background had an influence on Aegilops chromosome transmission. Moreover, it has been reported that the preferential transmission of chromosome 4M appeared during both androgenesis and gynogenesis. It is also hypothesised that the expression of the triticale Gc gene suppressor had an influence on the semi-fertility of hybrids but did not inhibit the chromosome rearrangements. This paper also describes the double haploid production, which enabled to obtain plants with two identical copies of triticale chromosomes with translocations of Aegilops chromatin segments.

  13. MARKER ASSISTED SELECTION (MAS FOR DEVELOPMENT OF BARLEY AND WHEAT LINES WITH REQUESTED TRAITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hudcovicová

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Molecular markers closely linked to interesting genes enable early, proper and fast detection of plant individuals with desired allele during backcross breeding, what can make plant breeding faster and cheaper. We are focused on molecular breeding of barley and wheat lines for disease resistance and some important quality traits. As acceptors of interesting genes we use especially elite Slovak and Czech cultivars and lines. After five backcross generations with the help of MAS new created lines carrying markers linked to desired genes undergo resistance, agronomic and technological tests. In breeding of winter barley for resistance to BaYMV/BaMMV viruses we use codominant STS and SSR markers linked to rym4 and rym11 resistance genes. Cultivar Romanze has been used as a donor of rym4 gene and landrace Russia57 as gene rym11 donor. In spring barley we are focused on transfer of Yd2 gene from landraces Shannon and Sutter resistant to BYDV by use of dominant ASPCR marker. We are also working on transfer of effective leaf rust resistance genes Lr19, Lr24 derived from Thinopyrum ponticum and gene Lr35 from Aegilops speltoides into hexaploid wheat by use of dominant STS and SCAR markers. Near isogenic lines with these genes are used in gene pyramiding to develop a single line with all three genes. By use of protein markers we develop near isogenic wheat lines for higher sedimentation values, higher dough strength and better breadmaking quality. These are lines with new combination of HMW glutenin subunits (21*, 7+8, 5+10 as well as wheat lines with new unknown HMW-GS and with new HMW-GS pair.

  14. Dissemination of the highly expressed Bx7 glutenin subunit (Glu-B1al allele) in wheat as revealed by novel PCR markers and RP-HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butow, B J; Gale, K R; Ikea, J; Juhász, A; Bedö, Z; Tamás, L; Gianibelli, M C

    2004-11-01

    Increased expression of the high molecular weight glutenin subunit (HMW-GS) Bx7 is associated with improved dough strength of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) flour. Several cultivars and landraces of widely different genetic backgrounds from around the world have now been found to contain this so-called 'over-expressing' allelic form of the Bx7 subunit encoded by Glu-B1al. Using three methods of identification, SDS-PAGE, RP-HPLC and PCR marker analysis, as well as pedigree information, we have traced the distribution and source of this allele from a Uruguayan landrace, Americano 44D, in the mid-nineteenth century. Results are supported by knowledge of the movement of wheat lines with migrants. All cultivars possessing the Glu-B1al allele can be identified by the following attributes: (1) the elution of the By sub-unit peak before the Dx sub-unit peak by RP-HPLC, (2) high expression levels of Bx7 (>39% Mol% Bx), (3) a 43 bp insertion in the matrix-attachment region (MAR) upstream of the gene promoter relative to Bx7 and an 18 bp nucleotide duplication in the coding region of the gene. Evidence is presented indicating that these 18 and 43 bp sequence insertions are not causal for the high expression levels of Bx7 as they were also found to be present in a small number of hexaploid species, including Chinese Spring, and species expressing Glu-B1ak and Glu-B1a alleles. In addition, these sequence inserts were found in different isolates of the tetraploid wheat, T. turgidum, indicating that these insertion/deletion events occurred prior to hexaploidization.

  15. Similarities of omega gliadins from Triticum urartu to those encoded on chromosome 1A of hexaploid wheat and evidence for their post-translational processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuPont, F M; Vensel, W; Encarnacao, T; Chan, R; Kasarda, D D

    2004-05-01

    The omega-gliadins encoded on chromosome 1 of the A genome were purified from Triticum aestivum L. (2n=6 x=42, AABBDD) cv. Butte86, nullisomic 1D-tetrasomic 1A of cv. Chinese Spring (CS N1DT1A), and the diploid T. urartu (2n=2 x=14, AA ). Reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography combined with sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of gliadin extracts from CS nullisomic-tetrasomic (NT) lines confirmed the assignment to chromosome 1A. The purified omega-gliadins were characterized by mass spectrometry and N-terminal sequencing. The 1A-encoded omega-gliadins were smaller than 1B- or 1D-encoded omega-gliadins. The N-terminal amino acid sequences for 1A omega-gliadin mature peptides were nearly identical to those for the T. urartu omega-gliadins and were more similar to 1D omega-gliadin sequences than to sequences for T. monococum omega-gliadins, barley C-hordeins, or rye omega-secalins. They diverged greatly from the N-terminal sequences for the 1B omega-gliadins. The data suggest that T. urartu is the A-genome donor, and that post-translational cleavage by an asparaginyl endoprotease produces those omega-gliadins with N-terminal sequences beginning with KEL.

  16. 人工合成六倍体小麦醇溶蛋白遗传多样性分析%Gliadin Genetic Diversity in Artificially Synthesized Hexaploid Wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈国跃; 李立会

    2006-01-01

    运用酸性聚丙烯酰胺凝胶电泳(A-PAGE)技术,对96份人工合成六倍体小麦的醇溶蛋白多样性进行了分析.结果显示,96份人工合成小麦中,共分离出65条不同的醇溶蛋白谱带,其中ω区22条,β和γ区各17条,α区9条,但各醇溶蛋白在电泳图谱中出现的频率差异较大,其变化范围为1.04%~91.67%.醇溶蛋白遗传多样性指数(H′)及多态性信息含量(PIC)分析结果显示,β、ω两个谱带区醇溶蛋白组成最为丰富,而α区最低;聚类分析结果显示,材料间的平均遗传距离为0.86,在遗传距离为0.83水平上, 96份材料被划分为4个主要类群,类群间的关系基本反映了合成双二倍体的亲缘关系.研究结果表明,人工合成六倍体小麦醇溶蛋白基因位点表现出广泛的遗传变异,具有丰富的遗传多样性.

  17. Genome-Wide Association Mapping for Resistance to Leaf and Stripe Rust in Winter-Habit Hexaploid Wheat Landraces: e0129580

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Albert Kertho; Sujan Mamidi; J Michael Bonman; Phillip E McClean; Maricelis Acevedo

    2015-01-01

    .... Breeding for disease resistance is the preferred strategy of managing both diseases. The continued emergence of new races of Pt and Pst requires a constant search for new sources of resistance...

  18. Isolation and characterization of a gene encoding a polyethylene glycol-induced cysteine protease in common wheat

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Qing-Wei Zang; Cai-Xiang Wang; Xu-Yan Li; Zhi-Ai Guo; Rui-Lian Jing; Jun Zhao; Xiao-Ping Chang

    2010-09-01

    Plant cysteine protease (CP) genes are induced by abiotic stresses such as drought, yet their functions remain largely unknown. We isolated the full-length cDNA encoding a Triticum aestivum CP gene, designated TaCP, from wheat by the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) method. Sequence analysis revealed that TaCP contains an open reading frame encoding a protein of 362 amino acids, which is 96% identical to barley cysteine protease HvSF42. The TaCP transcript level in wheat seedlings was upregulated during polyethylene glycol (PEG) stress, with a peak appearing around 12 h after treatment. TaCP expression level increased rapidly with NaCl treatment at 48 h. TaCP responded strongly to low temperature (4°C) treatment from 1 h post-treatment and reached a peak of about 40-fold at 72 h. However, it showed only a very slight response to abscisic acid (ABA). More than one copy of TaCP was present in each of the three genomes of hexaploid wheat and its diploid donors. TaCP fused with green fluorescent protein (GFP) was located in the plasma membrane of onion epidermis cells. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing TaCP showed stronger drought tolerance and higher CP activity under water-stressed conditions than wild-type Arabidopsis plants. The results suggest that TaCP plays a role in tolerance to water deficit.

  19. Effects of heavy-ion beams on chromosomes of common wheat, Triticum aestivum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, Shinji; Saito, Yoshinaka [Laboratory of Plant Genetics and Breeding Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Tottori University, 4-101 Koyama-Minami, Tottori 680-8553 (Japan); Ryuto, Hiromichi; Fukunishi, Nobuhisa; Abe, Tomoko [RIKEN Nishina Center, RIKEN, Hirosawa, Wako 351-0198 (Japan); Tanaka, Hiroyuki [Laboratory of Plant Genetics and Breeding Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Tottori University, 4-101 Koyama-Minami, Tottori 680-8553 (Japan); Tsujimoto, Hisashi, E-mail: tsujim@muses.tottori-u.ac.jp [Laboratory of Plant Genetics and Breeding Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Tottori University, 4-101 Koyama-Minami, Tottori 680-8553 (Japan)

    2009-10-02

    To investigate the nature of plant chromosomes irradiated by heavy-ion beams, the effects of nitrogen (N) and neon (Ne) ion beams on hexaploid wheat chromosomes were compared with those of X-ray. Chromosome aberrations, such as short, ring and dicentric chromosomes appeared in high frequency. The average numbers of chromosome breaks at LD-50 by irradiation with X-ray, N and Ne ion beams were 32, 20 and 20, respectively. These values may be underestimated because chromosome rearrangement without change in chromosome morphology was not counted. Thus, we subsequently used a wheat line with a pair of extra chromosomes from an alien species (Leymus racemosus) and observed the fate of the irradiated marker chromosomes by genomic in situ hybridization. This analysis revealed that 50 Gy of neon beam induced about eight times more breaks than those induced by X-ray. This result suggests that heavy-ion beams induce chromosome rearrangement in high frequency rather than loss of gene function. This suggests further that most of the novel mutations produced by ion beam irradiation, which have been used in plant breeding, may not be caused by ordinary gene disruption but by chromosome rearrangements.

  20. Bio-agronomic Evaluation of Old and Modern Wheat, Spelt and Emmer Genotypes for Low-input Farming in Mediterranean Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Codianni

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Low-input cropping systems are characterised by the reduction of pesticides and chemical fertilizers and, often, by the use of old cultivars to realize sustainable crop production which can easily integrate in the European Union agricultural subsidies. Market prices and environmental concerns favour low-input wheat production systems, nevertheless protein standards become particularly difficult to achieve in these conditions due to a minimal nitrogen supply. This study assesses the efficiency of a specific breeding program dedicated to improve yield and quality in emmer and spelt wheat in low-input environments. Ten tetraploid (emmer and durum wheat and four hexaploid (spelt and bread wheat wheat genotypes (including parent cultivars and offspring breeding lines selected for adaptation to low-input conditions were investigated for 1 yr (2003-2004 in Italy in three locations in conventional and low-input cropping systems. The main agro-morphological and qualitative traits were recorded (HD, PH, GY, PC GPY, TKW, TW, GC. The results of this study show encouraging agronomic performances of new emmer and spelt genotypes under conventional and low-input cropping systems. The new genotypes are characterized by a yield potential similar to that of the modern wheat cultivar as well as by a protein content higher than old emmer and spelt accessions. The new genetic materials were also characterized by a higher responsiveness to improved environmental conditions. The results described in this study support the suitability of modern emmer and spelt genotypes, improved by introgressing wheat yield and quality traits, for organic farming in Mediterranean environments.

  1. Bio-agronomic Evaluation of Old and Modern Wheat, Spelt and Emmer Genotypes for Low-input Farming in Mediterranean Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Fornara

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Low-input cropping systems are characterised by the reduction of pesticides and chemical fertilizers and, often, by the use of old cultivars to realize sustainable crop production which can easily integrate in the European Union agricultural subsidies. Market prices and environmental concerns favour low-input wheat production systems, nevertheless protein standards become particularly difficult to achieve in these conditions due to a minimal nitrogen supply. This study assesses the efficiency of a specific breeding program dedicated to improve yield and quality in emmer and spelt wheat in low-input environments. Ten tetraploid (emmer and durum wheat and four hexaploid (spelt and bread wheat wheat genotypes (including parent cultivars and offspring breeding lines selected for adaptation to low-input conditions were investigated for 1 yr (2003-2004 in Italy in three locations in conventional and low-input cropping systems. The main agro-morphological and qualitative traits were recorded (HD, PH, GY, PC GPY, TKW, TW, GC. The results of this study show encouraging agronomic performances of new emmer and spelt genotypes under conventional and low-input cropping systems. The new genotypes are characterized by a yield potential similar to that of the modern wheat cultivar as well as by a protein content higher than old emmer and spelt accessions. The new genetic materials were also characterized by a higher responsiveness to improved environmental conditions. The results described in this study support the suitability of modern emmer and spelt genotypes, improved by introgressing wheat yield and quality traits, for organic farming in Mediterranean environments.

  2. Metabolite profiling of a diverse collection of wheat lines using ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawna B Matthews

    Full Text Available Genetic differences among major types of wheat are well characterized; however, little is known about how these distinctions affect the small molecule profile of the wheat seed. Ethanol/water (65% v/v extracts of seed from 45 wheat lines representing 3 genetically distinct classes, tetraploid durum (Triticum turgidum subspecies durum (DW and hexaploid hard and soft bread wheat (T. aestivum subspecies aestivum (BW were subjected to ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-TOF-MS. Discriminant analyses distinguished DW from BW with 100% accuracy due to differences in expression of nonpolar and polar ions, with differences attributed to sterol lipids/fatty acids and phospholipids/glycerolipids, respectively. Hard versus soft BW was distinguished with 100% accuracy by polar ions, with differences attributed to heterocyclic amines and polyketides versus phospholipid ions, respectively. This work provides a foundation for identification of metabolite profiles associated with desirable agronomic and human health traits and for assessing how environmental factors impact these characteristics.

  3. Resistance to Soil-borne cereal mosaic virus in durum wheat is controlled by a major QTL on chromosome arm 2BS and minor loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccaferri, Marco; Ratti, Claudio; Rubies-Autonell, Concepcion; Vallega, Victor; Demontis, Andrea; Stefanelli, Sandra; Tuberosa, Roberto; Sanguineti, Maria Corinna

    2011-08-01

    Soil-borne cereal mosaic (SBCM) is a viral disease, which seriously affects hexaploid as well as tetraploid wheat crops in Europe. In durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.), the elite germplasm is characterized by a wide range of responses to SBCMV, from susceptibility to almost complete resistance. In this study, the genetic analysis of SBCMV resistance was carried out using a population of 181 durum wheat recombinant inbred lines (RILs) obtained from Meridiano (resistant) × Claudio (moderately susceptible), which were profiled with SSR and DArT markers. The RILs were characterized for SBCMV response in the field under severe and uniform SBCMV infection during 2007 and 2008. A wide range of disease reactions (as estimated by symptom severity and DAS-ELISA) was observed. A large portion of the variability for SBCMV response was explained by a major QTL (QSbm.ubo-2BS) located in the distal telomeric region of chromosome 2BS near the marker triplet Xbarc35-Xwmc661-Xgwm210, with R(2) values ranging from 51.6 to 91.6%. The favorable allele was contributed by Meridiano. Several QTLs with minor effects on SBCMV response were also detected. Consistently with the observed transgressive segregation, the resistance alleles at minor QTLs were contributed by both parents. The presence and effects of QSbm.ubo-2BS were validated through association mapping in a panel of 111 elite durum wheat accessions.

  4. Alien Introgression in Wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Molnár-Láng, M.; Ceoloni, C; Doležel, J

    2015-01-01

    This book provides an overview of the latest advancements in the field of alien introgression in wheat. The discovery and wide application of molecular genetic techniques including molecular markers, in situ hybridization, and genomics has led to a surge in interspecific and intergeneric hybridization in recent decades. The work begins with the taxonomy of cereals, especially of those species which are potential gene sources for wheat improvement. The text then goes on to cover.

  5. 21 CFR 137.190 - Cracked wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cracked wheat. 137.190 Section 137.190 Food and... Related Products § 137.190 Cracked wheat. Cracked wheat is the food prepared by so cracking or cutting into angular fragments cleaned wheat other than durum wheat and red durum wheat that, when tested by...

  6. Wheat for Kids! [and] Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idaho Wheat Commission, Boise.

    "Wheat for Kids" contains information at the elementary school level about: the structure of the wheat kernel; varieties of wheat and their uses; growing wheat; making wheat dough; the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Guide Pyramid and nutrition; Idaho's part of the international wheat market; recipes; and word games based on the…

  7. Wheat for Kids! [and] Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idaho Wheat Commission, Boise.

    "Wheat for Kids" contains information at the elementary school level about: the structure of the wheat kernel; varieties of wheat and their uses; growing wheat; making wheat dough; the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Guide Pyramid and nutrition; Idaho's part of the international wheat market; recipes; and word games based on the…

  8. A High-Density Consensus Map of Common Wheat Integrating Four Mapping Populations Scanned by the 90K SNP Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Weie; He, Zhonghu; Gao, Fengmei; Liu, Jindong; Jin, Hui; Zhai, Shengnan; Qu, Yanying; Xia, Xianchun

    2017-01-01

    A high-density consensus map is a powerful tool for gene mapping, cloning and molecular marker-assisted selection in wheat breeding. The objective of this study was to construct a high-density, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based consensus map of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) by integrating genetic maps from four recombinant inbred line populations. The populations were each genotyped using the wheat 90K Infinium iSelect SNP assay. A total of 29,692 SNP markers were mapped on 21 linkage groups corresponding to 21 hexaploid wheat chromosomes, covering 2,906.86 cM, with an overall marker density of 10.21 markers/cM. Compared with the previous maps based on the wheat 90K SNP chip detected 22,736 (76.6%) of the SNPs with consistent chromosomal locations, whereas 1,974 (6.7%) showed different chromosomal locations, and 4,982 (16.8%) were newly mapped. Alignment of the present consensus map and the wheat expressed sequence tags (ESTs) Chromosome Bin Map enabled assignment of 1,221 SNP markers to specific chromosome bins and 819 ESTs were integrated into the consensus map. The marker orders of the consensus map were validated based on physical positions on the wheat genome with Spearman rank correlation coefficients ranging from 0.69 (4D) to 0.97 (1A, 4B, 5B, and 6A), and were also confirmed by comparison with genetic position on the previously 40K SNP consensus map with Spearman rank correlation coefficients ranging from 0.84 (6D) to 0.99 (6A). Chromosomal rearrangements reported previously were confirmed in the present consensus map and new putative rearrangements were identified. In addition, an integrated consensus map was developed through the combination of five published maps with ours, containing 52,607 molecular markers. The consensus map described here provided a high-density SNP marker map and a reliable order of SNPs, representing a step forward in mapping and validation of chromosomal locations of SNPs on the wheat 90K array. Moreover, it can be

  9. Physical mapping of a large plant genome using global high-information-content-fingerprinting: the distal region of the wheat ancestor Aegilops tauschii chromosome 3DS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You Frank M

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical maps employing libraries of bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC clones are essential for comparative genomics and sequencing of large and repetitive genomes such as those of the hexaploid bread wheat. The diploid ancestor of the D-genome of hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum, Aegilops tauschii, is used as a resource for wheat genomics. The barley diploid genome also provides a good model for the Triticeae and T. aestivum since it is only slightly larger than the ancestor wheat D genome. Gene co-linearity between the grasses can be exploited by extrapolating from rice and Brachypodium distachyon to Ae. tauschii or barley, and then to wheat. Results We report the use of Ae. tauschii for the construction of the physical map of a large distal region of chromosome arm 3DS. A physical map of 25.4 Mb was constructed by anchoring BAC clones of Ae. tauschii with 85 EST on the Ae. tauschii and barley genetic maps. The 24 contigs were aligned to the rice and B. distachyon genomic sequences and a high density SNP genetic map of barley. As expected, the mapped region is highly collinear to the orthologous chromosome 1 in rice, chromosome 2 in B. distachyon and chromosome 3H in barley. However, the chromosome scale of the comparative maps presented provides new insights into grass genome organization. The disruptions of the Ae. tauschii-rice and Ae. tauschii-Brachypodium syntenies were identical. We observed chromosomal rearrangements between Ae. tauschii and barley. The comparison of Ae. tauschii physical and genetic maps showed that the recombination rate across the region dropped from 2.19 cM/Mb in the distal region to 0.09 cM/Mb in the proximal region. The size of the gaps between contigs was evaluated by comparing the recombination rate along the map with the local recombination rates calculated on single contigs. Conclusions The physical map reported here is the first physical map using fingerprinting of a complete

  10. Allelic variations in Glu-1 and Glu-3 loci of historical and modern Iranian bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ali Izadi-Darbandi; Bahman Yazdi-Samadi; Ali-Akbar Su-Boushehri; Mohsen Mohammadi

    2010-08-01

    Proline and glutamine-rich wheat seed endosperm proteins are collectively referred to as prolamins. They are comprised of HMW-GSs, LMW-GSs and gliadins. HMW-GSs are major determinants of gluten elasticity and LMW-GSs considerably affect dough extensibility and maximum dough resistance. The inheritance of glutenin subunits follows Mendelian genetics with multiple alleles in each locus. Identification of the banding patterns of glutenin subunits could be used as an estimate for screening high quality wheat germplasm. Here, by means of a two-step 1D-SDS-PAGE procedure, we identified the allelic variations in high and low-molecular-weight glutenin subunits in 65 hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars representing a historical trend in the cultivars introduced or released in Iran from the years 1940 to 1990. Distinct alleles 17 and 19 were detected for Glu-1 and Glu-3 loci, respectively. The allelic frequencies at the Glu-1 loci demonstrated unimodal distributions. At Glu-A1, Glu-B1 and Glu-D1, we found that the most frequent alleles were the null, 7 + 8, 2 + 12 alleles, respectively, in Iranian wheat cultivars. In contrast, Glu-3 loci showed bimodal or trimodal distributions. At Glu-A3, the most frequent alleles were c and e. At Glu-B3 the most frequent alleles were a, b and c. At Glu-D3 locus, the alleles b and a, were the most and the second most frequent alleles in Iranian wheat cultivars. This led to a significantly higher Nei coefficient of genetic variations in Glu-3 loci (0.756) as compared to Glu-1 loci (0.547). At Glu-3 loci, we observed relatively high quality alleles in Glu-A3 and Glu-D3 loci and low quality alleles at Glu-B3 locus.

  11. Wheat Production and Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elgilany Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The crop in the irrigated scheme has faced by manifold problems contributed to low level of productivity and high cost of production of wheat. The crop is commonly produced under pump irrigation from the River Nile. In River Nile State (RNS, wheat is grown under the irrigated sector, the State is considered as a suitable environment for producing this crop. The study was conducted at Elzeidab irrigated scheme of RNS which is regarded as the oldest and biggest scheme belonging to the Ministry of Agriculture of RNS. Approach: Primary data was collected by using structured questionnaire for (70 randomly selected respondents. More than one technique used to assess economic aspects of the crop. Cobb-Douglas production function, descriptive statistics and partial budgeting have been employed to analyze the primary data. The study detected that the major socioeconomic characteristics of Elzeidab farmers were educated, the scheme tenants have had a cumulative experience in agriculture and average farm size is found to be small and the majority 50% of surveyed tenants in Elzeidab scheme were rented. The farming system of Elzeidab scheme is dominated by wheat production which counts to 25% of the farm land. The yield gab with the potential yield obtained by Agricultural Research Corporation (ARC in the State amounts 66%. The microfinance market in Elzeidab scheme is not well developed. Water charges in the scheme were high. About 53% of the annual running expenses were allocated for fuel that made irrigation costs to be the highest single component of production costs of the crop, while irrigation water cost was considered as the most agricultural constraint, this item was found to be as 19% of the total cost of production as the highest percentage overall the variable cost items. Results: The regression analysis revealed that the most factors affecting wheat productivity under the study were: the average of tenants age, family labor

  12. Wheat Quality Council, Hard Spring Wheat Technical Committee, 2015 Crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nine experimental lines of hard spring wheat were grown at up to five locations in 2015 and evaluated for kernel, milling, and bread baking quality against the check variety Glenn. Wheat samples were submitted through the Wheat Quality Council and processed and milled at the USDA-ARS Hard Red Sprin...

  13. New Uses for Wheat and Modified Wheat Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hard wheat from the Great Plains historically has been used as a source of flour for the production of leavened bakery products. However, potentially applications of wheat in both new markets and new products has necessitated the need to develop wheats with novel processing attributes. The most lo...

  14. PESTICIDES EFFICIENCY IN WHEAT PRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    It is suggested that the Karate Zeon insecticide is highly effective in wheat protection against pests. The profitability of soft spring wheat production with the above preparation used is about 176%. The economic effect of Karate Zeon is the same as that of Krezatsin, Mival and TMTD Plus preparations that are used for wheat seeds treatment against plant diseases

  15. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes in alfalfa and wheat: toxicology and uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miralles, Pola; Johnson, Errin; Church, Tamara L; Harris, Andrew T

    2012-12-07

    Data on the bioavailability and toxicity of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in the environment, and, in particular, on their interactions with vascular plants, are limited. We investigated the effects of industrial-grade multiwalled CNTs (75 wt% CNTs) and their impurities on alfalfa and wheat. Phytotoxicity assays were performed during both seed germination and seedling growth. The germinations of both species were tolerant of up to 2560 mg l(-1) CNTs, and root elongation was enhanced in alfalfa and wheat seedlings exposed to CNTs. Remarkably, catalyst impurities also enhanced root elongation in alfalfa seedlings as well as wheat germination. Thus the impurities, not solely the CNTs, impacted the plants. CNT internalization by plants was investigated using electron microscopy and two-dimensional Raman mapping. The latter showed that CNTs were adsorbed onto the root surfaces of alfalfa and wheat without significant uptake or translocation. Electron microscopy investigations of internalization were inconclusive owing to poor contrast, so Fe(3)O(4)-functionalized CNTs were prepared and studied using energy-filter mapping of Fe(3)O(4). CNTs bearing Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles were detected in the epidermis of one wheat root tip only, suggesting that internalization was possible but unusual. Thus, alfalfa and wheat tolerated high concentrations of industrial-grade multiwalled CNTs, which adsorbed onto their roots but were rarely taken up.

  16. Thermoformed wheat gluten biopolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallos, Ferenc M; Robertson, George H; Pavlath, Attila E; Orts, William J

    2006-01-25

    The quantity of available wheat gluten exceeds the current food use markets. Thermoforming is an alternative technical means for transforming wheat gluten. Thermoforming was applied here to wheat gluten under chemically reductive conditions to form pliable, translucent sheets. A wide variety of conditions, i.e., temperature, reducing agents, plasticizers and additives were tested to obtain a range of elastic properties in the thermoformed sheets. These properties were compared to those of commercially available polymers, such as polypropylene. Elasticity of the gluten formulations were indexed by Young's modulus and were in the range measured for commercial products when tested in the 30-70% relative humidity range. Removal of the gliadin subfraction of gluten yielded polymers with higher Young's modulus since this component acts as a polymer-chain terminator. At relative humidity less than 30% all whole gluten-based sheets were brittle, while above 70% they were highly elastic.

  17. Wheat allergy: diagnosis and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cianferoni A

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Antonella Cianferoni Department of Pediatrics, Division of Allergy and Immunology, The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, PA, USA Abstract: Triticum aestivum (bread wheat is the most widely grown crop worldwide. In genetically predisposed individuals, wheat can cause specific immune responses. A food allergy to wheat is characterized by T helper type 2 activation which can result in immunoglobulin E (IgE and non-IgE mediated reactions. IgE mediated reactions are immediate, are characterized by the presence of wheat-specific IgE antibodies, and can be life-threatening. Non-IgE mediated reactions are characterized by chronic eosinophilic and lymphocytic infiltration of the gastrointestinal tract. IgE mediated responses to wheat can be related to wheat ingestion (food allergy or wheat inhalation (respiratory allergy. A food allergy to wheat is more common in children and can be associated with a severe reaction such as anaphylaxis and wheat-dependent, exercise-induced anaphylaxis. An inhalation induced IgE mediated wheat allergy can cause baker’s asthma or rhinitis, which are common occupational diseases in workers who have significant repetitive exposure to wheat flour, such as bakers. Non-IgE mediated food allergy reactions to wheat are mainly eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE or eosinophilic gastritis (EG, which are both characterized by chronic eosinophilic inflammation. EG is a systemic disease, and is associated with severe inflammation that requires oral steroids to resolve. EoE is a less severe disease, which can lead to complications in feeding intolerance and fibrosis. In both EoE and EG, wheat allergy diagnosis is based on both an elimination diet preceded by a tissue biopsy obtained by esophagogastroduodenoscopy in order to show the effectiveness of the diet. Diagnosis of IgE mediated wheat allergy is based on the medical history, the detection of specific IgE to wheat, and oral food challenges. Currently, the main treatment of a

  18. Durum wheat modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toscano, P.; Ranieri, R.; Matese, A.

    2012-01-01

    durum wheat during phenological development, at regional scale. We present an innovative system capable of predicting spatial yield variation and temporal yield fluctuation in long-term analysis, that are the main purposes of regional crop simulation study. The Delphi system was applied to simulate...... growth and yield of durum wheat in the major Italian supply basins (Basilicata, Capitanata, Marche, Tuscany). The model was validated and evaluated for three years (1995–1997) at 11 experimental fields and then used in operational mode for eleven years (1999–2009), showing an excellent/good accuracy...

  19. Wheat production and wheat rust management in Canada%加拿大小麦生产和锈病防治

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Allen G. Xue; Dawn T. Chi; 张淑珍; 李卓夫; 徐鹏飞; 姜良宇; 范素杰; 王欣

    2012-01-01

    Wheat is Canada's largest crop with most of the production in the western Canadian Prairie Provinces of Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta. There were approximately ten million hm2 seeded to wheat in Canada, including seven million hm2 of hexaploid spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L), two million hm2 of durum wheat (T. Turgkjum L ssp. Durum (Desf.) Husn.), and one million hm2 of winter wheat (T. Aestivum). Within hexaploid wheat there has been diversification into a number of market classes based on differentend-use quality criteria. The predominant spring bread wheat class has been the Canada Western Red Spring (CWRS) class. Historically, the disease of major concern in wheat was stem rust, caused by Pucdnia graminis f. Sp. Tritid. The first significant stem rust resistant cuttivar in Canada was Thatcher, grown extensively from 1939 until the early 1970s. Thatcher, however, was very susceptible to leaf rust, caused by Pucdnia triticina. Over the years, improved resistance to both stem and leaf rust was achieved with the release of cultivars with additional genes for resistance, primarily Sr2, Sr6, Sr7a, Sr9b, Lr13, Lr14a, Lr16, and Lr34. The genetic resistance has adequately controlled stem rust but leaf rust continues to cause significant losses, partially due to changes in the P. Triticina population which reduced the effectiveness of resistance genes such as Lr13 and Lr16. Stripe rust on wheat, caused by Pucdnia striiformis f. Sp. Tritid, was historically a problem under irrigation in southern Alberta, but since 2000 it has been found annually in the central Canadian prairies and southern Ontario. The genetic basis of resistance to stripe rust in most Canadian wheat cultivars has not been determined, although VTI8 provides partial resistance in many cultivars. In the future, other rust diseases such as wheat stripe rust, or highly virulent new pathotypes of current rust pathogens, such as P. Graminis f. Sp. Tritid race Ug-99, may pose new threats to cereal

  20. Wheat-Aegilops biuncialis amphiploids have efficient photosynthesis and biomass production during osmotic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulai, Sándor; Molnár, István; Szopkó, Dóra; Darkó, Éva; Vojtkó, András; Sass-Gyarmati, Andrea; Molnár-Láng, Márta

    2014-04-15

    Osmotic stress responses of water content, photosynthetic parameters and biomass production were investigated in wheat-Aegilops biuncialis amphiploids and in wheat genotypes to clarify whether they can use to improve the drought tolerance of bread wheat. A decrease in the osmotic pressure of the medium resulted in considerable water loss, stomatal closure and a decreased CO2 assimilation rate for the wheat genotypes, while the changes in these parameters were moderate for the amphiploids. Maximal assimilation rate was maintained at high level even under severe osmotic stress in the amphiploids, while it decreased substantially in the wheat genotypes. Nevertheless, the effective quantum yield of PS II was higher and the quantum yield of non-photochemical quenching of PS II and PS I was lower for the amphiploids than for the wheat cultivars. Parallel with this, higher cyclic electron flow was detected in wheat than in the amphiploids. The elevated photosynthetic activity of amphiploids under osmotic stress conditions was manifested in higher biomass production by roots and shoots as compared to wheat genotypes. These results indicate that the drought-tolerant traits of Ae. biuncialis can be manifested in the wheat genetic background and these amphiploids are suitable genetic materials for improving drought tolerance of wheat.

  1. Chromosome arm-specific BAC end sequences permit comparative analysis of homoeologous chromosomes and genomes of polyploid wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sehgal Sunish K

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bread wheat, one of the world’s staple food crops, has the largest, highly repetitive and polyploid genome among the cereal crops. The wheat genome holds the key to crop genetic improvement against challenges such as climate change, environmental degradation, and water scarcity. To unravel the complex wheat genome, the International Wheat Genome Sequencing Consortium (IWGSC is pursuing a chromosome- and chromosome arm-based approach to physical mapping and sequencing. Here we report on the use of a BAC library made from flow-sorted telosomic chromosome 3A short arm (t3AS for marker development and analysis of sequence composition and comparative evolution of homoeologous genomes of hexaploid wheat. Results The end-sequencing of 9,984 random BACs from a chromosome arm 3AS-specific library (TaaCsp3AShA generated 11,014,359 bp of high quality sequence from 17,591 BAC-ends with an average length of 626 bp. The sequence represents 3.2% of t3AS with an average DNA sequence read every 19 kb. Overall, 79% of the sequence consisted of repetitive elements, 1.38% as coding regions (estimated 2,850 genes and another 19% of unknown origin. Comparative sequence analysis suggested that 70-77% of the genes present in both 3A and 3B were syntenic with model species. Among the transposable elements, gypsy/sabrina (12.4% was the most abundant repeat and was significantly more frequent in 3A compared to homoeologous chromosome 3B. Twenty novel repetitive sequences were also identified using de novo repeat identification. BESs were screened to identify simple sequence repeats (SSR and transposable element junctions. A total of 1,057 SSRs were identified with a density of one per 10.4 kb, and 7,928 junctions between transposable elements (TE and other sequences were identified with a density of one per 1.39 kb. With the objective of enhancing the marker density of chromosome 3AS, oligonucleotide primers were successfully designed from

  2. Structural features of reconstituted wheat wax films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pambou, Elias; Li, Zongyi; Campana, Mario; Hughes, Arwel; Clifton, Luke; Gutfreund, Philipp; Foundling, Jill; Bell, Gordon; Lu, Jian R

    2016-07-01

    Cuticular waxes are essential for the well-being of all plants, from controlling the transport of water and nutrients across the plant surface to protecting them against external environmental attacks. Despite their significance, our current understanding regarding the structure and function of the wax film is limited. In this work, we have formed representative reconstituted wax film models of controlled thicknesses that facilitated an ex vivo study of plant cuticular wax film properties by neutron reflection (NR). Triticum aestivum L. (wheat) waxes were extracted from two different wheat straw samples, using two distinct extraction methods. Waxes extracted from harvested field-grown wheat straw using supercritical CO2 are compared with waxes extracted from laboratory-grown wheat straw via wax dissolution by chloroform rinsing. Wax films were produced by spin-coating the two extracts onto silicon substrates. Atomic force microscopy and cryo-scanning electron microscopy imaging revealed that the two reconstituted wax film models are ultrathin and porous with characteristic nanoscale extrusions on the outer surface, mimicking the structure of epicuticular waxes found upon adaxial wheat leaf surfaces. On the basis of solid-liquid and solid-air NR and ellipsometric measurements, these wax films could be modelled into two representative layers, with the diffuse underlying layer fitted with thicknesses ranging from approximately 65 to 70 Å, whereas the surface extrusion region reached heights exceeding 200 Å. Moisture-controlled NR measurements indicated that water penetrated extensively into the wax films measured under saturated humidity and under water, causing them to hydrate and swell significantly. These studies have thus provided a useful structural basis that underlies the function of the epicuticular waxes in controlling the water transport of crops.

  3. 21 CFR 184.1322 - Wheat gluten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Wheat gluten. 184.1322 Section 184.1322 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1322 Wheat gluten. (a) Wheat gluten (CAS Reg. No. 8002-80-0) is the principal protein component of wheat and consists mainly of gliadin and glutenin. Wheat gluten is...

  4. Evolutionary analysis of the CACTA DNA-transposon Caspar across wheat species using sequence comparison and in situ hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeeva, Ekaterina M; Salina, Elena A; Adonina, Irina G; Chalhoub, Boulos

    2010-07-01

    Mobile elements constitute a considerable part of the eukaryotic genome. This work is focused on the distribution and evolution of DNA-transposons in the genomes of diploid and allopolyploid Triticeae species and their role in the formation of functionally important chromosomal subtelomeric regions. The Caspar family is among the most abundant of CACTA DNA-transposons in Triticeae. To study the evolution of Caspar-like elements in Triticeae genomes, we analyzed their sequences and distribution in chromosomes by in situ hybridization. In total, 46 Caspar-like elements from the wheat and barley Caspar, Clifford, and Donald families were analyzed after being extracted from databases using the transposase consensus sequence. Sequence alignment and subsequent phylogenetic analyses revealed that the transposase DNA sequences formed three major distinct groups: (1) Clifford, (2) Caspar_Triticinae, and (3) Caspar_Hordeinae. Additionally, in situ hybridization demonstrated that Caspar_Triticinae transposons are predominantly compartmentalized in the subtelomeric chromosomal regions of wheat and its progenitors. Analysis of data suggested that compartmentalization in the subtelomeric chromosomal region was a characteristic feature of all the main groups of Caspar-like elements. Furthermore, a dot plot analysis of the terminal repeats demonstrated that the divergence of these repeats strictly correlated with the divergence of Caspar coding sequences. A clear distinction in the Caspar DNA sequences among the species Triticum/Aegilops (Caspar_Triticinae), Hordeum (Caspar_Hordeinae), and different distributions in individual hexaploid wheat genomes (A/B and D) suggest an independent proliferation of these elements in wheat (or its progenitors) and barley genomes. Thus, Caspar-like transposons can significantly contribute to the formation and differentiation of subtelomeric regions in Triticeae species.

  5. Identification and Preliminary Analysis of Several Centromere-associated Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Clones from a Diploid Wheat Library

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Although the centromeres of some plants have been investigated previously, our knowledge of the wheat centromere is still very limited. To understand the structure and function of the wheat centromere, we used two centromeric repeats (RCS1 and CCS1-5ab) to obtain some centromere-associated bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones in 32 RCS1-related BAC clones that had been screened out from a diploid wheat (Triticum boeoticum Boiss.; 2n=2x=14) BAC library. Southern hybridization results indicated that, of the 32 candidates,there were 28 RCS1-positive clones. Based on gel blot patterns, the frequency of RCS1 was approximately one copy every 69.4 kb in these 28 RCS1-positive BAC clones. More bands were detected when the same filter was probed with CCS1-5ab. Furthermore, the CCS1 bands covered all the bands detected by RCS1, which suggests that some CCS1 repeats were distributed together with RCS1. The frequency of CCS1 families was once every 35.8 kb, nearly twice that of RCS1. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis indicated that the five BAC clones containing RCS1 and CCS1 sequences all detected signals at the centromeric regions in hexaploid wheat, but the signal intensities on the A-genome chromosomes were stronger than those on the B- and/or D-genome chromosomes. The FISH analysis among nine Triticeae cereals indicated that there were A-genomespecific (or rich) sequences dispersing on chromosome arms in the BAC clone TbBAC5. In addition, at the interphase cells, the centromeres of diploid species usually clustered at one pole and formed a ring-like allocation in the period before metaphase.

  6. Transgene inheritance and quality improvement by expressing novel HMW glutenin subunit (HMW-GS) genes in winter wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The expression vector pBPC30, which carries the high molecular weight glutenin subunit (HMW-GS) 1Dx5 and 1Dy10 genes, was transferred into hexaploid winter wheat cv. Jinghua No. 1, Jing411 and Jingdong No. 6 explants of immature embryos and immature inflorescence by particle bombardment. A large number of resistant transgenic plants were obtained under the selection of herbicide bialaphos or phosphinothricin (PPT). Confirmed transgenic plants of T0 generation showed successful integration of HMW-GS genes and bar gene into the wheat genome. T1 generation of transgenic plants can resist 20-150 mg/L PPT. Protein analysis of T2 seed by SDS-PAGE showed that HMW-GS 1Dx5 and 1Dy10 genes were well expressed in offspring seed of transgenic lines by co-expression with or substitution of endogenous 1Dx2 or 1Dy10. In one transgenic line, TG3-74, a new protein band between endogenous protein subunits 7 and 8 (marked as 8*) of glutenin appeared, but endogenous subunit 8 (encoded by 1By8 gene) was absent. Analysis of gluten rheological quality on seed proteins of 102 T3 plants showed that the sedimentation value of 5 transgenic lines (44.2-49.0 mL) was remarkably improved, 59.6%-64.3% higher than that of wild type Jinghua No. 1 and Jingdong No. 6, similar to bread wheat Cheyenne (48.0 mL). Analysis of dough rheological properties of transgenic lines showed that the dough stable time of 5 transgenic lines range from 16 to 30 min, whereas the dough stable time of wild type was only between 3-7 min. Our research suggests that introducing novel HMW-GS genes into wheat is an efficient way to improve its bread-making quality.

  7. Registration of 'Tiger' wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘Tiger’ hard white winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed at Research Center-Hays, Kansas State University and released by Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station in 2010. Tiger was selected from a three-way cross KS98H245/’Trego’//KS98HW518 made in 1999 at Hays, KS. The objective of this ...

  8. Wheat - Aegilops introgressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aegilops is the most closely related genus to Triticum in the tribe Triticeae. Aegilops speltoides Tausch (B genome donor) and Ae. tauschii Coss. (D genome donor) contributed two of the three genomes present in common wheat (Triticum aestivum L., 2n = 6x = 42, AABBDD genomes). The Aegilops genus c...

  9. Wheat allergy: diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianferoni, Antonella

    2016-01-01

    Triticum aestivum (bread wheat) is the most widely grown crop worldwide. In genetically predisposed individuals, wheat can cause specific immune responses. A food allergy to wheat is characterized by T helper type 2 activation which can result in immunoglobulin E (IgE) and non-IgE mediated reactions. IgE mediated reactions are immediate, are characterized by the presence of wheat-specific IgE antibodies, and can be life-threatening. Non-IgE mediated reactions are characterized by chronic eosinophilic and lymphocytic infiltration of the gastrointestinal tract. IgE mediated responses to wheat can be related to wheat ingestion (food allergy) or wheat inhalation (respiratory allergy). A food allergy to wheat is more common in children and can be associated with a severe reaction such as anaphylaxis and wheat-dependent, exercise-induced anaphylaxis. An inhalation induced IgE mediated wheat allergy can cause baker's asthma or rhinitis, which are common occupational diseases in workers who have significant repetitive exposure to wheat flour, such as bakers. Non-IgE mediated food allergy reactions to wheat are mainly eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) or eosinophilic gastritis (EG), which are both characterized by chronic eosinophilic inflammation. EG is a systemic disease, and is associated with severe inflammation that requires oral steroids to resolve. EoE is a less severe disease, which can lead to complications in feeding intolerance and fibrosis. In both EoE and EG, wheat allergy diagnosis is based on both an elimination diet preceded by a tissue biopsy obtained by esophagogastroduodenoscopy in order to show the effectiveness of the diet. Diagnosis of IgE mediated wheat allergy is based on the medical history, the detection of specific IgE to wheat, and oral food challenges. Currently, the main treatment of a wheat allergy is based on avoidance of wheat altogether. However, in the near future immunotherapy may represent a valid way to treat IgE mediated reactions to

  10. Fate of Aegilops speltoides-derived, repetitive DNA sequences in diploid Aegilops species, wheat-Aegilops amphiploids and derived chromosome addition lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S; Friebe, B; Gill, B S

    2010-07-01

    The present study reports the cloning and characterization of an Aegilops speltoides-derived subtelomeric repeat, designated as pSp1B16. Clone pSp1B16 has 98% sequence homology with the previously isolated Ae. speltoides repeat Spelt1. The distribution of pSp1B16 and another Ae. speltoides repeat, pGc1R1, was analyzed in diploid Aegilops species, tetra- and hexaploid wheats, wheat-Aegilops amphiploids and derived chromosome addition lines by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Clones pSp1B16 and pGc1R1 revealed FISH sites in Ae. speltoides, Ae. sharonensis and Triticum timopheevii, whereas additional pGc1R1 FISH sites were observed in Ae. longissima and Ae. caudata. The pSp1B16 and pGc1R1 FISH patterns of the Aegilops chromosomes in the wheat-Aegilops amphiploids and chromosome addition lines are similar to those present in the Aegilops parent accession. We did not observe any evidence of pSp1B16 and pGc1R1 sequence elimination, which is in contrast to previous studies using similar hybrids and repeats. The presented data suggest that the genomic changes in synthetic amphiploids observed in previous studies might be caused by homoeologous recombination, which was suppressed in the amphiploid analyzed in this study.

  11. REARRANGEMENT IN THE B-GENOME FROM DIPLOID PROGENITOR TO WHEAT ALLOPOLYPOLID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salina E.A.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Three key periods that were accompanied by considerable rearrangements in the B genome of wheat and its progenitor can be considered. The first period covers the period from the divergence of diploid Triticum and Aegilops species from their common progenitor (2.5–6 million years ago to formation of the tetraploid T. diccocoides (about 500 thousand years ago. Significant genomic rearrangements in the diploid progenitor of the B genome, Ae. speltoides (SS genome, involved a considerable amplification of repeated DNA sequences, which led to an increase in the number of heterochromatin blocks on chromosomes relative to other diploid Aegilops and Triticum species. Our analysis has demonstrated that during this period the Spelt1 repeats intensively amplified as well as several mobile elements proliferated, in particular, the genome-specific gypsy LTR-retrotransposon Fatima and CACTA DNA-transposon Caspar. The second period in the B-genome evolution was associated with the emergence of tetraploid (BBAA genome and its subsequent evolution. The third most important event leading to the next rearrangement of the B genome took place relatively recently, 7000–9500 years ago, being associated with the emergence of hexaploid wheat with the genomic formula BBAADD. The evolution of the B/S genome involved intergenomic and intragenomic translocations and chromosome inversions. So far, five rearrangements in the B-genome chromosomes of polyploid wheats has been observed and described; the majority of them took place during the formation and evolution of tetraploid species. The mapping of the S-genome chromosomes and comparison with the B-genome chromosome maps have demonstrated that individual rearrangements pre-existed in Ae. speltoides; moreover, Ae. speltoides is polymorphic for these rearrangements.Chromosome 5B is nearly 870 Mbp (5BL = 580 Mbp and 5BS = 290 Mbp and is known to carry important genes controlling the key aspects of wheat biology, in

  12. Fine mapping and genetic association analysis of Net2, the causative D-genome locus of low temperature-induced hybrid necrosis in interspecific crosses between tetraploid wheat and Aegilops tauschii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Kouhei; Nishijima, Ryo; Iehisa, Julio Cesar Masaru; Takumi, Shigeo

    2016-10-01

    Hybrid necrosis has been observed in many interspecific hybrids from crosses between tetraploid wheat and the wheat D-genome donor Aegilops tauschii. Type II necrosis is a kind of hybrid incompatibility that is specifically characterized by low-temperature induction and growth suppression. Two complementary genes, Net1 on the AB genome and Net2 on the D genome, putatively control type II necrosis in ABD triploids and synthetic hexaploid wheat. Toward map-based cloning of Net2, a fine map around the Net2 region on 2DS was constructed in this study. Using the draft genome sequence of Ae. tauschii and the physical map of the barley genome, the Net2 locus was mapped within a 0.6 cM interval between two closely linked markers. Although local chromosomal rearrangements were observed in the Net2-corresponding region between the barley/Brachypodium and Ae. tauschii genomes, the two closely linked markers were significantly associated with type II necrosis in Ae. tauschii. These results suggest that these markers will aid efficient selection of Net2 non-carrier individuals from the Ae. tauschii population and intraspecific progeny, and could help with introgression of agriculturally important genes from Ae. tauschii to common wheat.

  13. A Novel Retrotransposon Inserted in the Dominant Vrn-B1 Allele Confers Spring Growth Habit in Tetraploid Wheat (Triticum turgidum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, C-G; Tan, C T; Yu, G-T; Zhong, S; Xu, S S; Yan, L

    2011-12-01

    Vernalization genes determine winter/spring growth habit in temperate cereals and play important roles in plant development and environmental adaptation. In wheat (Triticum L. sp.), it was previously shown that allelic variation in the vernalization gene VRN1 was due to deletions or insertions either in the promoter or in the first intron. Here, we report a novel Vrn-B1 allele that has a retrotransposon in its promoter conferring spring growth habit. The VRN-B1 gene was mapped in a doubled haploid population that segregated for winter-spring growth habit but was derived from two spring tetraploid wheat genotypes, the durum wheat (T. turgidum subsp. durum) variety 'Lebsock' and T. turgidum subsp. carthlicum accession PI 94749. Genetic analysis revealed that Lebsock carried the dominant Vrn-A1 and recessive vrn-B1 alleles, whereas PI 94749 had the recessive vrn-A1 and dominant Vrn-B1 alleles. The Vrn-A1 allele in Lebsock was the same as the Vrn-A1c allele previously reported in hexaploid wheat. No differences existed between the vrn-B1 and Vrn-B1 alleles, except that a 5463-bp insertion was detected in the 5'-UTR region of the Vrn-B1 allele. This insertion was a novel retrotransposon (designated as retrotrans_VRN), which was flanked by a 5-bp target site duplication and contained primer binding site and polypurine tract motifs, a 325-bp long terminal repeat, and an open reading frame encoding 1231 amino acids. The insertion of retrotrans_VRN resulted in expression of Vrn-B1 without vernalization. Retrotrans_VRN is prevalent among T. turgidum subsp. carthlicum accessions, less prevalent among T. turgidum subsp. dicoccum accessions, and rarely found in other tetraploid wheat subspecies.

  14. Related physicochemical properties to microstructure of hard and soft wheat grains with different kernel thickness and specific density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yinian; Wang, Jun; Xie, Weizhong; Lu, Daxin; Ding, Weimin

    2013-10-01

    Physicochemical properties of wheat grains with largest kernel thickness always was lowest than the other sections, examination of microstructure of wheat grains can help us understand this phenomena. Two varieties of wheat, soft white winter wheat Yangmai 11 and hard white winter wheat Zhengmai 9023, were fractionated into five sections by kernel thickness. Then the fractionated wheat grains in 2.7-3.0 mm section were separated into three fractions by kernel specific density sequentially. Microstructure of the fractured surface were evaluated at different scale level to two varieties wheat with different kernel thickness and specific density by using environmental scanning electron microscopy. Compactness and size of endosperm cell tended to decrease with decreasing wheat kernel thickness and specific density. Protein matrix tended to increase with decreasing wheat kernel thickness and specific density. Size of starch granules and proportion for different type starch granules also varied with different wheat kernel thickness and specific density. Those microstructure properties of the fractured surface, formation of endosperm cells, protein matrix and starch granules were close related to rheological properties and pasting properties of wheat grains.

  15. [Allelic Composition in the VRN-A1, VRN-B1, and VRN-B3 Genes of Double Haploid Lines of Hexaploid Triticale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitseva, O I; Lemesh, V A

    2015-07-01

    Vernalization genes are associated with the adaptation capability, heading dates, and yield potential of grain crops. The allelic composition in the Vrn-A1, Vrn-B1, and Vrn-B3 genes was defined in 42 lines of double haploids of hexaploid triticale, which were produced through in vitro anther culture. Two alleles (Vrn-A1a and vrn-A1) were found at the Vrn-A1[ital] locus and three alleles (Vrn-B1a, Vrn-B1c, and vrn-B1) were found at the Vrn-B1 locus. All double haploids carried the recessive allele at the Vrn-B3[ital] locus. Twelve lines of spring triticale were selected, and they were characterized by an allelic composition associated with early maturity and high potential of grain yield.

  16. Heat tolerance in wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Dew Kumari

    climate, wheat is sensitive to heat stress. We need to understand how our crops will perform in these changing climatic conditions and how we can develop varieties, which are more tolerant. The PhD study focussed on understanding heat tolerance in wheat with a combined approach of plant physiology...... II (PSII), which is a fundamental process in photosynthesis. The first study was conducted to identify cultivars differing in Fv/Fm as a measure of heat tolerance during reproductive phase. The proportion of the total variation in cultivar Fv/Fm that was due to the genotypic difference was termed...... among cultivars due to heat stress as the GD of most of them remained similar in control and stress. The second study investigated if it was possible to use detached leaves to screen for heat tolerance instead of intact plants. The previously selected 41 cultivars, known to differ in v/Fm, were used...

  17. Transcriptome de novo assembly from next-generation sequencing and comparative analyses in the hexaploid salt marsh species Spartina maritima and Spartina alterniflora (Poaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira de Carvalho, J; Poulain, J; Da Silva, C; Wincker, P; Michon-Coudouel, S; Dheilly, A; Naquin, D; Boutte, J; Salmon, A; Ainouche, M

    2013-02-01

    Spartina species have a critical ecological role in salt marshes and represent an excellent system to investigate recurrent polyploid speciation. Using the 454 GS-FLX pyrosequencer, we assembled and annotated the first reference transcriptome (from roots and leaves) for two related hexaploid Spartina species that hybridize in Western Europe, the East American invasive Spartina alterniflora and the Euro-African S. maritima. The de novo read assembly generated 38 478 consensus sequences and 99% found an annotation using Poaceae databases, representing a total of 16 753 non-redundant genes. Spartina expressed sequence tags were mapped onto the Sorghum bicolor genome, where they were distributed among the subtelomeric arms of the 10 S. bicolor chromosomes, with high gene density correlation. Normalization of the complementary DNA library improved the number of annotated genes. Ecologically relevant genes were identified among GO biological function categories in salt and heavy metal stress response, C4 photosynthesis and in lignin and cellulose metabolism. Expression of some of these genes had been found to be altered by hybridization and genome duplication in a previous microarray-based study in Spartina. As these species are hexaploid, up to three duplicated homoeologs may be expected per locus. When analyzing sequence polymorphism at four different loci in S. maritima and S. alterniflora, we found up to four haplotypes per locus, suggesting the presence of two expressed homoeologous sequences with one or two allelic variants each. This reference transcriptome will allow analysis of specific Spartina genes of ecological or evolutionary interest, estimation of homoeologous gene expression variation using RNA-seq and further gene expression evolution analyses in natural populations.

  18. Genetic mapping of race-specific stem rust resistance in the synthetic hexaploid W7984 x Opata M85 mapping population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stem rust (caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici) has historically caused severe yield losses of wheat (Triticum aestivum) worldwide and has been one of the most feared diseases of wheat and barley (Hordeum vulgare). Stem rust has been controlled successfully through the use of resistant varie...

  19. CHROMOSOME LOCATION OF GENETIC FACTORS DETERMINIG PHYSIOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL PROCESSES ASSOCIATED WITH DROUGHT TOLERANCE IN WHEAT TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osipova S.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Drought tolerance is characterized as the most recalcitrant trait to improve for its complexity and considered target for genomic-assisted improvement. A profitable genetic strategy lies in the discovery and exploitation of quantitative trait loci (QTL involved in determining tolerance to water deficit at the cellular level. Enzymes of the antioxidant system participating in detoxification of reactive oxygen species accumulating under stress are the essential component of the common protective systems in cell. The same is lipoxygenase – a key enzyme of jasmonate-dependent signaling pathway initiating the development of adaptive programs in cell. Understanding of the genetic basis of wheat drought tolerance as a polygenic trait and identification of the QTL is facilitated by the availability of a number of sets of inter-varietal single chromosome substitution lines (ISCSLs in bread wheat Triticum aestivum L. Two sets of bread wheat ISCSLs were used in this study. In the first set, 'Saratovskaya' 29 (S29 / 'Janetzkis Probat' (JP, the recipient was a drought tolerant cultivar and the donor of individual pairs of homologous chromosomes was a sensitive one. In the second set, 'Chinese Spring' (CS / 'Synthetic 6x' (Syn 6x, the donor of separate chromosomes was a synthetic hexaploid wheat (T. dicoccoides X Ae. tauschii. In the set S29/JP the chromosomes of the second homoeological group and 4D chromosome were found to be critical for drought tolerance. A decrease of tolerance correlated with decreasing of antioxidant enzymes cumulative activity in leaves. In the set CS/Syn, chromosomes 4B and 4D were found to be critical for drought tolerance. The levels of LOX activity in leaves of both sets differently correlated with grain productivity but influenced positively on retaining a grain size under drought. Besides the structural genes for LOX biosynthesis situated on chromosomes of 4 and 5 homoeological groups, in both sets, the genetic factors on

  20. 77 FR 21685 - United States Standards for Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-11

    ... believe that the blending of wheat would facilitate the marketing of wheat, as a buyer may purchase Mixed... marketing of wheat. DATES: Comments must be received on or before June 11, 2012. ADDRESSES: You may submit... (SWH) wheat, Unclassed wheat, and Mixed wheat. Wheat is consumed primarily as a human food but is also...

  1. Structural development of aleurone and its function in common wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Fei; Yu, Xu-Run; Zhou, Liang; Wang, Zhong; Wang, Feng; Xiong, Ai-Sheng

    2013-12-01

    The wheat aleurone is formed from surface endosperm cells, and its developmental status reflects its biogenesis, structural characteristics, and physiological functions. In this report, wheat caryopses at different development stages were embedded in Spurr's low-viscosity embedding medium for observation of the development of aleurone cells (ACs) by light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and fluorescence microscopy, respectively. According to their structures and physiological characterization, the ACs development process was divided into five stages: endosperm cellulization, spherosome formation, aleurone grain formation, filling material proliferation, and maturation. Furthermore, ACs in different parts of the caryopsis formed differently. ACs near the vascular bundle developed earlier and formed transfer cells, but other ACs formed slowly and did not form transfer cells. ACs on the caryopsis backside were a regular square shape; however, ACs in the caryopsis abdomen were mainly irregular. There were also differences in development between wheat varieties. ACs were rectangular in hard wheat but square in soft wheat. ACs were larger and showed a greater degree of filling in hard compared to soft wheat. The storage materials in ACs were different compared to inner endosperm cells (IECs). The concentrations of minerals such as sodium, magnesium, silicon, phosphorus and potassium were higher in ACs than in IECs. ACs contained many aleurone grains and spherosomes, which store lipids and mineral nutrients, respectively. The cell nucleus did not disappear and the cells were still alive during aleurone maturation. However, IECs were dead and mainly contained amyloplast and protein bodies, which store starch and protein, respectively. Overall, the above results characterized major structural features of aleurone and revealed that the wheat aleurone has mainly four functions.

  2. Identification of a hidden resistance gene in tetraploid wheat using laboratory strains of Pyricularia oryzae produced by backcrossing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumagun, Christian Joseph R; Anh, Vu Lan; Vy, Trinh Thi Phuong; Inoue, Yoshihiro; Asano, Hokuto; Hyon, Gang-Su; Chuma, Izumi; Tosa, Yukio

    2014-06-01

    In the process (BC3F1 generation) of backcrossing an Avena isolate of Pyricularia oryzae with a Triticum isolate, color mutants with white mycelia were obtained. These white mutants lacked virulence on all (31/31) hexaploid and most (28/32) tetraploid wheat lines tested. In a BC4F1 population, white and black cultures segregated in a 1:1 ratio, suggesting that the mutant phenotype is controlled by a single gene. Furthermore, the mycelial color was perfectly linked with avirulence in the BC4F1 population; white cultures were all avirulent on common wheat (Triticum aestivum) 'Norin 4' (N4) whereas black cultures were all virulent. White cultures in the BC3F1 and BC4F1 generations were also avirulent on tetraploid wheat (T. dicoccoides) accession 'KU109' (Tat4), which was susceptible to all cultures derived from the parental wild isolates through the BC2F1 generation. A cross between Tat4 and a susceptible tetraploid (T. paleocolchicum) accession 'KU196' (Tat14) produced resistant and susceptible F2 seedlings in a 3:1 ratio against the white cultures. In the F3 generation homozygous resistant/segregating/homozygous susceptible lines segregated in a 1:2:1 ratio. These results suggest that the resistance of Tat4 to the white cultures is controlled by a single major gene. This gene, tentatively designated as RmgTd(t), is considered to be a hidden resistance gene because it was not detected with the Br58, F1, BC1F1, or BC2F1 cultures. Cytological analysis revealed that the moderate resistance controlled by RmgTd(t) was associated with a hypersensitive reaction of mesophyll cells.

  3. Transcriptome and proteomic analyses reveal multiple differences associated with chloroplast development in the spaceflight-induced wheat albino mutant mta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Kui; Gu, Jiayu; Guo, Huijun; Zhao, Linshu; Xie, Yongdun; Xiong, Hongchun; Li, Junhui; Zhao, Shirong; Song, Xiyun; Liu, Luxiang

    2017-01-01

    Chloroplast development is an integral part of plant survival and growth, and occurs in parallel with chlorophyll biosynthesis. However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying chloroplast development in hexaploid wheat. Here, we obtained a spaceflight-induced wheat albino mutant mta. Chloroplast ultra-structural observation showed that chloroplasts of mta exhibit abnormal morphology and distribution compared to wild type. Photosynthetic pigments content was also significantly decreased in mta. Transcriptome and chloroplast proteome profiling of mta and wild type were done to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and proteins (DEPs), respectively. In total 4,588 DEGs including 1,980 up- and 2,608 down-regulated, and 48 chloroplast DEPs including 15 up- and 33 down-regulated were identified in mta. Classification of DEGs revealed that most were involved in chloroplast development, chlorophyll biosynthesis, or photosynthesis. Besides, transcription factors such as PIF3, GLK and MYB which might participate in those pathways were also identified. The correlation analysis between DEGs and DEPs revealed that the transcript-to-protein in abundance was functioned into photosynthesis and chloroplast relevant groups. Real time qPCR analysis validated that the expression level of genes encoding photosynthetic proteins was significantly decreased in mta. Together, our results suggest that the molecular mechanism for albino leaf color formation in mta is a thoroughly regulated and complicated process. The combined analysis of transcriptome and proteome afford comprehensive information for further research on chloroplast development mechanism in wheat. And spaceflight provides a potential means for mutagenesis in crop breeding.

  4. Effect of Pre-Harvest Sprouting on Physicochemical Properties of Starch in Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senay Simsek

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Pre-harvest sprouting (PHS in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. occurs when physiologically mature kernels begin germinating in the spike. The objective of this study was to provide fundamental information on physicochemical changes of starch due to PHS in Hard Red Spring (HRS and Hard White Spring (HWS wheat. The mean values of α-amylase activity of non-sprouted and sprouted wheat samples were 0.12 CU/g and 2.00 CU/g, respectively. Sprouted samples exhibited very low peak and final viscosities compared to non-sprouted wheat samples. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM images showed that starch granules in sprouted samples were partially hydrolyzed. Based on High Performance Size Exclusion Chromatography (HPSEC profiles, the starch from sprouted samples had relatively lower molecular weight than that of non-sprouted samples. Overall, high α-amylase activity caused changes to the physicochemical properties of the PHS damaged wheat.

  5. Path Through the Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Middleton

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The hillside’s tidal waves of yellow-green Break downward into full-grown stalks of wheat In which a peasant, shouldering his hoe Passes along a snaking narrow path -- A teeming place through which his hard thighs press And where his head just barely stays above The swaying grain, drunken in abundance, Farm buildings almost floating on the swells Beyond which sea gulls gliding white in air Fly down on out of sight to salty fields, Taking the channel fish off Normandy, A surfeit fit for Eden i...

  6. Drought Tolerance in Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Nezhadahmadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Drought is one of the most important phenomena which limit crops’ production and yield. Crops demonstrate various morphological, physiological, biochemical, and molecular responses to tackle drought stress. Plants’ vegetative and reproductive stages are intensively influenced by drought stress. Drought tolerance is a complicated trait which is controlled by polygenes and their expressions are influenced by various environmental elements. This means that breeding for this trait is so difficult and new molecular methods such as molecular markers, quantitative trait loci (QTL mapping strategies, and expression patterns of genes should be applied to produce drought tolerant genotypes. In wheat, there are several genes which are responsible for drought stress tolerance and produce different types of enzymes and proteins for instance, late embryogenesis abundant (lea, responsive to abscisic acid (Rab, rubisco, helicase, proline, glutathione-S-transferase (GST, and carbohydrates during drought stress. This review paper has concentrated on the study of water limitation and its effects on morphological, physiological, biochemical, and molecular responses of wheat with the possible losses caused by drought stress.

  7. Genes encoding 4-Cys antimicrobial peptides in wheat Triticum kiharae Dorof. et Migush.: multimodular structural organization, instraspecific variability, distribution and role in defence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utkina, Lyubov L; Andreev, Yaroslav A; Rogozhin, Eugene A; Korostyleva, Tatyana V; Slavokhotova, Anna A; Oparin, Peter B; Vassilevski, Alexander A; Grishin, Eugene V; Egorov, Tsezi A; Odintsova, Tatyana I

    2013-08-01

    A novel family of antifungal peptides was discovered in the wheat Triticum kiharae Dorof. et Migusch. Two members of the family, designated Tk-AMP-X1 and Tk-AMP-X2, were completely sequenced and shown to belong to the α-hairpinin structural family of plant peptides with a characteristic C1XXXC2-X(n)-C3XXXC4 motif. The peptides inhibit the spore germination of several fungal pathogens in vitro. cDNA and gene cloning disclosed unique structure of genes encoding Tk-AMP-X peptides. They code for precursor proteins of unusual multimodular structure, consisting of a signal peptide, several α-hairpinin (4-Cys) peptide domains with a characteristic cysteine pattern separated by linkers and a C-terminal prodomain. Three types of precursor proteins, with five, six or seven 4-Cys peptide modules, were found in wheat. Among the predicted family members, several peptides previously isolated from T. kiharae seeds were identified. Genes encoding Tk-AMP-X precursors have no introns in the protein-coding regions and are upregulated by fungal pathogens and abiotic stress, providing conclusive evidence for their role in stress response. A combined PCR-based and bioinformatics approach was used to search for related genes in the plant kingdom. Homologous genes differing in the number of peptide modules were discovered in phylogenetically-related Triticum and Aegilops species, including polyploid wheat genome donors. Association of the Tk-AMP-X genes with A, B/G or D genomes of hexaploid wheat was demonstrated. Furthermore, Tk-AMP-X-related sequences were shown to be widespread in the Poaceae family among economically important crops, such as barley, rice and maize. © 2013 FEBS.

  8. Marker-assisted selection of highmolecular weight glutenin alleles related to bread-making quality in Iranian common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ali Izadi-Darbandi; Bahman Yazdi-Samadi

    2012-08-01

    Bread-making quality in hexaploid wheats is a complex trait. It has been shown that the amount and composition of protein can influence dough rheological properties. The high-molecular-weight (HMW) glutenins are encoded by a complex locus, Glu-1, on the long arm of group-1 homoeologus chromosome of the A, B and D genomes. In this work we used PCR-based DNA markers as a substitution tool to distinguish wheat bread-making quality. We detected PCR-based DNA markers for coding sequence of Glu-A1x, Glu-B1x and Glu-D1x to be 2300 bp, 2400 bp and 2500 bp respectively. DNA markers related to coding sequence of Glu-A1y, Glu-B1y and Glu-D1y were; 1800 bp, 2100 bp and 1950 bp, however, the repetitive region of their coding sequence were shown to be about 1300 bp, 1500 bp and 1600 bp. The results demonstrate that the size variation was due to different lengths of the central repetitive domain. Good or poor bread-making quality in wheat is associated with two allelic pairs of Glu-D1, designated 1Dx5-1Dy10 and IDx2-1Dy12. The 1Bx7 allele has moderate-to-good quality score. The specific DNA markers, of 450 bp, 576 bp, 612 bp and 2400 bp respectively were characterized for 1Dx5, 1Dy10, 1Dy12 and 1Bx7 alleles. These markers are very important in screening of wheat for bread-making quality.

  9. O-Glucosyltransferase activities toward phenolic natural products and xenobiotics in wheat and herbicide-resistant and herbicide-susceptible black-grass (Alopecurus myosuroides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazier, Melissa; Cole, David J; Edwards, Robert

    2002-01-01

    Herbicide safeners manipulate herbicide selectivity by enhancing the activities of detoxifying enzymes, such as glutathione transferases (GSTs) and cytochrome P450 mono-oxygenases (CYPs) in cereal crops. As part of a study examining the importance of O-glucosyltransferases (OGTs) in pesticide metabolism in hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), seedlings were grown in the presence of dichlormid, a safener used in maize and cloquintocet mexyl, a wheat safener. The efficacy of the treatments was confirmed by monitoring changes in the abundance of phi and tau class GSTs. OGT activities in the root and shoot tissue were assayed using phenolics of natural and xenobiotic origin to determine if they were enhanced by safeners. Cloquintocet mexyl selectively increased OGT activities toward xenobiotics (4-nitrophenol and 2,4,5-trichlorophenol) and flavonoids, (quercetin, luteolin, genistein and coumestrol) in both the roots and shoots. However, OGT activity towards simple phenols and phenylpropanoids was not enhanced by cloquintocet mexyl. Dichlormid was a much weaker enhancer of OGT activity, with the same subset of OGT activities increased as determined with cloquintocet mexyl, but with the effect being largely restricted to the roots. OGT activities were also determined in black-grass (Alopecurus myosuroides L.), an agronomically important weed in wheat. Two populations of black-grass differing in their sensitivity to herbicides were analysed. The population Peldon, which is resistant to multiple classes of herbicides due in part to the elevated expression of CYPs and GSTs active in herbicide detoxification, contained higher OGT activities than herbicide sensitive black-grass. Unlike wheat, treatment with cloquintocet mexyl or dichlormid, had no effect on OGT activities in either black-grass population.

  10. Characterization of a Low-Molecular-Weight Glutenin Subunit Gene from Bread Wheat and the Corresponding Protein That Represents a Major Subunit of the Glutenin Polymer1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masci, Stefania; D'Ovidio, Renato; Lafiandra, Domenico; Kasarda, Donald D.

    1998-01-01

    Both high- and low-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GS) play the major role in determining the viscoelastic properties of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) flour. To date there has been no clear correspondence between the amino acid sequences of LMW-GS derived from DNA sequencing and those of actual LMW-GS present in the endosperm. We have characterized a particular LMW-GS from hexaploid bread wheat, a major component of the glutenin polymer, which we call the 42K LMW-GS, and have isolated and sequenced the putative corresponding gene. Extensive amino acid sequences obtained directly for this 42K LMW-GS indicate correspondence between this protein and the putative corresponding gene. This subunit did not show a cysteine (Cys) at position 5, in contrast to what has frequently been reported for nucleotide-based sequences of LMW-GS. This Cys has been replaced by one occurring in the repeated-sequence domain, leaving the total number of Cys residues in the molecule the same as in various other LMW-GS. On the basis of the deduced amino acid sequence and literature-based assignment of disulfide linkages, a computer-generated molecular model of the 42K subunit was constructed. PMID:9847089

  11. Genome-wide quantitative trait locus mapping identifies multiple major loci for brittle rachis and threshability in Tibetan semi-wild wheat (Triticum aestivum ssp. tibetanum Shao.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Feng Jiang

    Full Text Available Tibetan semi-wild wheat (Triticum aestivum ssp. tibetanum Shao is a semi-wild hexaploid wheat resource that is only naturally distributed in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Brittle rachis and hard threshing are two important characters of Tibetan semi-wild wheat. A whole-genome linkage map of T. aestivum ssp. tibetanum was constructed using a recombinant inbred line population (Q1028×ZM9023 with 186 lines, 564 diversity array technology markers, and 117 simple sequence repeat markers. Phenotypic data on brittle rachis and threshability, as two quantitative traits, were evaluated on the basis of the number of average spike rachis fragments per spike and percent threshability in 2012 and 2013, respectively. Quantitative trait locus (QTL mapping performed using inclusive composite interval mapping analysis clearly identified four QTLs for brittle rachis and three QTLs for threshability. However, three loci on 2DS, 2DL, and 5AL showed pleiotropism for brittle rachis and threshability; they respectively explained 5.3%, 18.6%, and 18.6% of phenotypic variation for brittle rachis and 17.4%, 13.2%, and 35.2% of phenotypic variation for threshability. A locus on 3DS showed an independent effect on brittle rachis, which explained 38.7% of the phenotypic variation. The loci on 2DS and 3DS probably represented the effect of Tg and Br1, respectively. The locus on 5AL was in very close proximity to the Q gene, but was different from the predicted q in Tibetan semi-wild wheat. To our knowledge, the locus on 2DL has never been reported in common wheat but was prominent in T. aestivum ssp. tibetanum accession Q1028. It remarkably interacted with the locus on 5AL to affect brittle rachis. Several major loci for brittle rachis and threshability were identified in Tibetan semi-wild wheat, improving the understanding of these two characters and suggesting the occurrence of special evolution in Tibetan semi-wild wheat.

  12. Physical mapping resources for large plant genomes: radiation hybrids for wheat D-genome progenitor Aegilops tauschii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Ajay

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Development of a high quality reference sequence is a daunting task in crops like wheat with large (~17Gb, highly repetitive (>80% and polyploid genome. To achieve complete sequence assembly of such genomes, development of a high quality physical map is a necessary first step. However, due to the lack of recombination in certain regions of the chromosomes, genetic mapping, which uses recombination frequency to map marker loci, alone is not sufficient to develop high quality marker scaffolds for a sequence ready physical map. Radiation hybrid (RH mapping, which uses radiation induced chromosomal breaks, has proven to be a successful approach for developing marker scaffolds for sequence assembly in animal systems. Here, the development and characterization of a RH panel for the mapping of D-genome of wheat progenitor Aegilops tauschii is reported. Results Radiation dosages of 350 and 450 Gy were optimized for seed irradiation of a synthetic hexaploid (AABBDD wheat with the D-genome of Ae. tauschii accession AL8/78. The surviving plants after irradiation were crossed to durum wheat (AABB, to produce pentaploid RH1s (AABBD, which allows the simultaneous mapping of the whole D-genome. A panel of 1,510 RH1 plants was obtained, of which 592 plants were generated from the mature RH1 seeds, and 918 plants were rescued through embryo culture due to poor germination (1 seeds. This panel showed a homogenous marker loss (2.1% after screening with SSR markers uniformly covering all the D-genome chromosomes. Different marker systems mostly detected different lines with deletions. Using markers covering known distances, the mapping resolution of this RH panel was estimated to be cM/cR ratio of 1:5.2 and 15 distinct bins. Additionally, with this small set of lines, almost all the tested ESTs could be mapped. A set of 399 most informative RH lines with an average deletion frequency of ~10% were identified for developing high density marker

  13. Shortcomings in wheat yield predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenov, Mikhail A.; Mitchell, Rowan A. C.; Whitmore, Andrew P.; Hawkesford, Malcolm J.; Parry, Martin A. J.; Shewry, Peter R.

    2012-06-01

    Predictions of a 40-140% increase in wheat yield by 2050, reported in the UK Climate Change Risk Assessment, are based on a simplistic approach that ignores key factors affecting yields and hence are seriously misleading.

  14. The development of hexaploid tobacco by hybridization of heteroploid tobaccos%不同倍性烟草杂交获得六倍体烟草植株

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏烨昕; 党江波; 刘超; 吴天姣; 汪卫星; 郭启高; 梁国鲁

    2013-01-01

    以本实验室自行创制的云烟87八倍体(2n=8x=96)为母本,L-8四倍体为父本进行杂交,成功获得烟草六倍体(2n=6x=72)植株。经观察统计其花器官特征,花粉特征,并通过体外萌发及杂交试验对其育性进行初步研究。结果显示:烟草六倍体花蕾和花药明显大于云烟87四倍体×L-8四倍体杂交组合四倍体(简称四倍体杂种)后代的花蕾和花药,但花粉量较少;其花粉体外萌发率仅9.78%,明显低于四倍体杂种;六倍体花粉在六倍体及云烟87四倍体柱头上只极少量萌发并穿过花柱;以六倍体为父本,与云烟87四倍体烟草品种杂交以及六倍体自交,不能坐果;而以六倍体为母本、云烟87四倍体为父本可得到一定量种子,其单果种子数与杂种四倍体作母本、云烟87四倍体为父本时差异不大,但发芽率只有21.2%。这表明本研究中的六倍体植株作父本不育,而作母本具有一定的育性,后续研究利用中可将其用作母本。%Tobacco hexaploid plants were obtained successfully by crossingYunyan87 octoploids (2n=8x=96) with L-8 tetraploids, with octoploids as maternal parent. Fertility was studied with traits of flower and pollen, pollen germination in vitro and cross experiment. Results showed that:flower buds and anthers of hexaploid tobaccos were bigger than those of tetraploid tobaccos, with less amount of pollen. Under in vitro conditions, pollen germination rate of hexaploids was only 9.78%, significantly lower than that of tetraploid. Only a very small amount of hexaploid pollen could germinate on Yunyan87 stigma. There was no fruit when hexaploid as male parent while only some mature seeds were harvested when hexaploid as maternal parent. Germination rate of these seeds was only 21.2%. Our data suggested that hexaploid tobacco plants was male sterile and could be used as female parent in future breeding and genetic study.

  15. Microencapsulation of wheat germ oil

    OpenAIRE

    Yazicioglu, Basak; Sahin, Serpil; Sumnu, Gulum

    2014-01-01

    Wheat germ oil (WGO) is beneficial for health since it is a rich source of omega-3, omega-6 and tocopherol. However, as it contains polyunsaturated fatty acids, it is prone to oxidation. The aim of this study was to encapsulate wheat germ oil and determine the effects of core to coating ratio, coating materials ratio and ultrasonication time on particle size distribution of emulsions and encapsulation efficiency (EE) and surface morphology of capsules. Maltodextrin (MD) and whey protein conce...

  16. WHEAT GRASS HEALTH BENEFITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akula Annapurna

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Nutraceutical is a food or food product that provides health and medical benefits, including the preventionand treatment of disease. Nutraceuticals are the products typically claim to prevent chronic diseases, improve health,delay the aging process, and increase life expectancy.Let us know something about one such nutraceutical.Wheatgrass is a commonly found herb in India contains enzymes like protease, cytrochrome, amylase, lipase,transhydrogenase and SOD (super oxide dismutase. Besides these enzymes, it also contains all the essential aminoacids especially alanine, asparatic acid, glutamic acid, arginine and serine, which are helpful in providing good amountof protein in body which builds and repair tissues. Wheatgrass contains chlorophyll and flavonoids in good amount.It also contains vitamins like vitamin A, vitamin C, and vitamin E and minerals like iron, calcium and magnesium.Chlorophyll has been shown to build red blood cells quickly,cures anemia, normalise blood pressure by dilating theblood vessels. Chlorophyll has been shown to produce an unfavourable environment for bacterial growth in the bodyand therefore effective in increasing the body's resistance to illness. Probably the most important benefit ofwheatgrass is, it is a cancer fighting agent. Many people strongly believe that the benefits of wheatgrass on cancerare real and that consuming wheat grass can help in the treatment and even in the prevention of cancer. Wheatgrassproduces an immunization effect against many dietary carcinogens..Additional benefits of wheatgrass are bettercomplexion and a healthy glow. The slowing of graying hair is also a benefit believed to come from wheatgrass. Wecan grow wheat grass in small cups, pots and trays very conveniently in our homes, so that we will have fresh juiceand powder with minimum cost.

  17. GENOMIC RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN TWO SPECIES OF TURNERA HEXAPLOID, T. ORIENTALIS AND T. VELUTINA, AND A DIPLOID, T.GRANDIFLORA (TURNERACEAE SERIES TURNERA RELACIONES GENÓMICAS ENTRE DOS ESPECIES HEXAPLOIDES DE TURNERA, T. ORIENTALIS y T. VELUTINA, Y UNA DIPLOIDE, T. GRANDIFLORA (TURNERACEAE, SERIE TURNERA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aveliano Fernández

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available

    We hybridized two hexaploid species (2n=6x=30 T. orientalis and T. velutina and one diploid species (2n=2x=10, T. grandiflora. These species had regular meiosis forming 15 II the hexaploids and 5 11 the diploid. One hexaploid, 2n=6x=30 (T. orientalis x T. velutina, one pentaploid, 2n=5x=25 (T. orientalis x T. grandiflora and one tetraploid, 2n=4x=20 (T. velutina x T. grandiflora hybrids were obtained and studied cytologically to deter ine their genomic relationships. Meiotic behavior in the T. orientalis x T. velutina hybrid was very irregular, with many laggard chromosomes and bridges at AI and AII. Mean pairing relationships were 10,38 I,9,66 II,0,07III and 0,03 IV. The hybrid T. orientalisx T. grandiflora presented irregular meiosis. Mean pairing relationships were 14,66 I and 5,16 II. T. velutina x T. grandiflora presented the most irregular meiosis, with mean pairing relationships of 6,94 I, 6,42 II an 0,05 IV. The three hybrids were sterile. The genome constitution of T. orientalis is AºAºBBBºBº and of T. grandiflora is Cg Cg. On the basis of chromosome associations in the hybrids, we propose the genomic formula AAAvAvCvCv for T. velutina. One genome of T. orientalis is similar to one of the three genomes of T. velutina. The latter species shows one genome similar to the genome of T. grandiflora. Both T. orientalis and T. velutina are segmentary alohexaploids
    Hemos hibridizado dos especies hexaploides (2n = 6x = 30 T. orientalis y T. velutina y una especie diploide (2n = 2x = 10, T. grandiflora. Estas especies habían meiosis regular la formación de 15 II de la hexaploides y 5 11 diploide el. Una hexaploide, 2n = 6x = 30 (T. orientalis x T. velutina, un pentaploide, 2n = 5x = 25 (T. orientalis x T. grandiflora y un tetraploide, 2n = 4x = 20 (x T. velutina T . grandiflora híbridos se han obtenido y estudiado citológicamente para

  18. Dough Rheology and Wet Milling of Hard Waxy Wheat Flours

    Science.gov (United States)

    To realize the full potential of waxy wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), wet milling of waxy wheat flour to produce gluten and waxy wheat starch was investigated. Flours of six advanced lines of waxy hard wheats, one normal hard wheat (‘Karl 92’), and one partial waxy wheat (‘Trego’) were fractionated by...

  19. 19 CFR 19.32 - Wheat manipulation; reconditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wheat manipulation; reconditioning. 19.32 Section... Bonded for the Storage of Wheat § 19.32 Wheat manipulation; reconditioning. (a) The mixing, blending, or commingling of imported wheat and domestic wheat, or of imported wheat of different classes and grades, as...

  20. Genetic and comparative genomics mapping reveals that a powdery mildew resistance gene Ml3D232 originating from wild emmer co-segregates with an NBS-LRR analog in common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongtao; Guan, Haiying; Li, Jingting; Zhu, Jie; Xie, Chaojie; Zhou, Yilin; Duan, Xiayu; Yang, Tsomin; Sun, Qixin; Liu, Zhiyong

    2010-11-01

    Powdery mildew caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici is one of the most important wheat diseases worldwide and breeding for resistance using diversified disease resistance genes is the most promising approach to prevent outbreaks of powdery mildew. A powdery mildew resistance gene, originating from wild emmer wheat (Triticum turgidum var. dicoccoides) accessions collected from Israel, has been transferred into the hexaploid wheat line 3D232 through crossing and backcrossing. Inoculation results with 21 B. graminis f. sp. tritici races indicated that 3D232 is resistant to all of the powdery mildew isolates tested. Genetic analyses of 3D232 using an F(2) segregating population and F(3) families indicated that a single dominant gene, Ml3D232, confers resistance in the host seedling stage. By applying molecular markers and bulked segregant analysis (BSA), we have identified polymorphic simple sequence repeats (SSR), expressed sequence tags (EST) and derived sequence tagged site (STS) markers to determine that the Ml3D232 is located on chromosome 5BL bin 0.59-0.76. Comparative genetic analyses using mapped EST markers and genome sequences of rice and Brachypodium established co-linearity of the Ml3D232 genomic region with a 1.4 Mb genomic region on Brachypodium distachyon chromosome 4, and a 1.2 Mb contig located on the Oryza sativa chromosome 9. Our comparative approach enabled us to develop new EST-STS markers and to delimit the genomic region carrying Ml3D232 to a 0.8 cM segment that is collinear with a 558 kb region on B. distachyon. Eight EST markers, including an NBS-LRR analog, co-segregated with Ml3D232 to provide a target site for fine genetic mapping, chromosome landing and map-based cloning of the powdery mildew resistance gene. This newly developed common wheat germplasm provides broad-spectrum resistance to powdery mildew and a valuable resource for wheat breeding programs.

  1. Effect of the Amount and Particle Size of Wheat Fiber on the Physicochemical Properties and Gel Morphology of Starches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingjie Sun

    Full Text Available Effects of added wheat fiber, with different levels and particle sizes, on the physicochemical properties and gel morphology of wheat starch and mung bean starch were investigated, using rapid visco analyzer (RVA, texture analyzer (TPA and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Each starch was added with wheat fiber at 10, 20, 30 and 40% (weight basis, g/100g, and different sizes of 60, 100 and 180 mesh, respectively. The peak viscosity (PV of starches with wheat fiber were higher than the control. Starches had the highest PV with 40%, 60 mesh wheat fiber. The starches with wheat fiber showed higher hardness when compared to the control. Wheat starch and mung bean starch, with 40%, 60 mesh wheat fiber, had the highest hardnesses of 147.78 and 1032.11 g, respectively. SEM showed that the dense honeycomb structure of starch gel was diminished with increasing wheat fiber. Additionally, the number of internal pores was reduced, and a large lamellar structure was formed.

  2. Cadmium minimization in wheat: A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizwan, Muhammad; Ali, Shafaqat; Abbas, Tahir; Zia-Ur-Rehman, Muhammad; Hannan, Fakhir; Keller, Catherine; Al-Wabel, Mohammad I; Ok, Yong Sik

    2016-08-01

    Cadmium (Cd) accumulation in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and its subsequent transfer to food chain is a major environmental issue worldwide. Understanding wheat response to Cd stress and its management for aiming to reduce Cd uptake and accumulation in wheat may help to improve wheat growth and grain quality. This paper reviewed the toxic effects, tolerance mechanisms, and management of Cd stress in wheat. It was concluded that Cd decreased germination, growth, mineral nutrients, photosynthesis and grain yield of wheat and plant response to Cd toxicity varies with cultivars, growth conditions and duration of stress applied. Cadmium caused oxidative stress and genotoxicity in wheat plants. Stimulation of antioxidant defense system, osmoregulation, ion homeostasis and over production of signalling molecules are important adaptive strategies of wheat under Cd stress. Exogenous application of plant growth regulators, inorganic amendments, proper fertilization, silicon, and organic, manures and biochar, amendments are commonly used for the reduction of Cd uptake in wheat. Selection of low Cd-accumulating wheat cultivars, crop rotation, soil type, and exogenous application of microbes are among the other agronomic practices successfully employed in reducing Cd uptake by wheat. These management practices could enhance wheat tolerance to Cd stress and reduce the transfer of Cd to the food chain. However, their long-term sustainability in reducing Cd uptake by wheat needs further assessment.

  3. 75 FR 41963 - Wheat and Oilseed Programs; Durum Wheat Quality Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-20

    ... Corporation 7 CFR Part 1413 RIN 0560-AH72 Wheat and Oilseed Programs; Durum Wheat Quality Program AGENCY: Farm... specific requirements for the Durum Wheat Quality Program (DWQP) authorized by the Food, Conservation, and... through 2012 to partially compensate producers for the cost of fungicides applied to durum wheat to...

  4. Wheat in the Mediterranean revisited - tetraploid wheat landraces assessed with elite bread wheat Single Nucleotide Polymorphism markers

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Hugo R; Hagenblad, Jenny; Leino, Matti W.; Leigh, Fiona J; Lister, Diane L.; Peña-Chocarro, Leonor; Jones, Martin K.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) panels recently developed for the assessment of genetic diversity in wheat are primarily based on elite varieties, mostly those of bread wheat. The usefulness of such SNP panels for studying wheat evolution and domestication has not yet been fully explored and ascertainment bias issues can potentially affect their applicability when studying landraces and tetraploid ancestors of bread wheat. We here evaluate whether population structure...

  5. Colonization of Endophytic Bacillus amyloliquefaciens CC09 in Wheat Roots Observed under Transmission Electron Microscopy and Its Biocontrol Efficiency against Diseases%内生解淀粉芽孢杆菌CC09在小麦根部定殖的电镜观察及防病效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨洪凤; 余向阳; 薛雅蓉; 刘常宏

    2014-01-01

    采用抗利福平标记菌株的平板菌落计数法,检测了内生解淀粉芽孢杆菌 Bacillus amyloliquefaciens CC09在小麦根部的定殖能力及消长动态,发现菌株CC09在小麦根内、根表和根际均能定殖,接种后5 d定殖量分别稳定维持在2.7×105、2.0×105和5.5×105 cfu/g。透射电镜观察发现,菌株CC09能够在小麦根组织的皮层细胞、细胞间隙、中柱鞘及髓腔中定殖,且不影响根组织细胞结构。室内盆栽试验表明,用菌株CC09发酵液灌根处理小麦,对由禾谷镰刀菌Fusarium graminearum侵染引起的麦苗赤霉病的防效高达90.7%,表明菌株CC09是潜在的防治小麦赤霉病的生防菌,具有良好的开发和应用价值。%Bacillus amyloliquefaciens can colonize many plant roots, promote plant growth and suppress pathogenic fungi. However, its colonization process and potential disease control efficacy on wheat roots and rhizosphere are rarely studied. By applying the rifampicin resistant mutant and plate diluting method, we have investigated the colonization capacity and population dynamics of endophytic B. amyloliquefaciens CC09 within wheat root tissues, surface and rhizosphere. Results showed that CC09 strain colonized well within root tissues, surfaces and rhizosphere with a density of 2.7×105, 2.0×105 and 5.5×105 cfu/g, respectively, at 5 d after inoculation, and maintained at these population levels thereafter. Moreover, the strain could colonize in the cortical cells, intercellular spaces, pericycle cells and canal tissues in wheat root tissues and did not show clear adverse impacts on the cell ultra-structures based on the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation. In addition, the cultural broth of the strain exhibited 90.7% control efficiency against wheat seedling blight caused by Fusarium graminearum using root-drenching pot assay under the greenhouse conditions. These results suggested that the endophytic B. amyloliquefaciens

  6. Durum Wheat Products%多伦小麦产品

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G. A. HARELAND

    2004-01-01

    Durum wheat (Triticum durum) is tetrapolid (28 chromosomes) and contains two basic genomes (AB), whereas common bread wheat (Triticum spp.) is hexaploid and contains three basic gonomes (ABD). Durum is best adapted to growing in arid regions of the world: Italy and other areas in Southern Europe; Turkey and Syria in the Near East; Morocco and Algeria in Africa; Soviet Union; and Canada and Northern United States in North America. The major uses of durum vary throughout the world. In the U.S. And Europe, durum is used primarily for pasta products, while in the Middle East and North Africa durum is used primarily for bread with lesser amounts used for pasta, couscous, and bulgur. Durum is the hardest of all wheat and typically contains higher average protein content (12%~ 14%)than wheat of other classes. With a general shortage of protein in the world, breeders focus on improving the total amount of protein in wheat. Compared with protein from animal sources and some other grains, wheat protein generally lacks the essential amino acids (eg., lysine) necessary for good nutritional value.However, products that are made with durum are oftentimes fortified to increase nutritional value. The importance of durum in world markets is reflected in the protein composition, ie., gliadins which contribute to dough extensibility and glutenins which contribute to dough elasticity within the gluten protein matrix. Furthermore, the superior cooking quality of pasta products that are made with durum is linked to the high glutenin-gliadin ratio or high percentage of insoluble proteins. Durum is unique for its utility in the production of numerous extruded pasta products in addition to specialty products such as couscous and bulgur. However, durum is also gaining worldwide attention for bread products because of its high water binding capacity, which inhibits the staling process and leads to longer shelf life.%多伦小麦产品(Triticum durum)是四倍体(28个染色体)并包含

  7. Soft durum wheat - a paradigm shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two traits define most aspects of wheat quality and utilization: kernel texture (hardness) and gluten. The former is far simpler genetically and is controlled by two genes, Puroindoline a and Puroindoline b. Durum wheat lacks puroindolines and has very hard kernels. As such, durum wheat when milled ...

  8. Growing Wheat. People on the Farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC. Office of Governmental and Public Affairs.

    This booklet, one in a series about life on modern farms, describes the daily life of the Don Riffel family, wheat farmers in Kansas. Beginning with early morning, the booklet traces the family's activities through a typical harvesting day in July, while explaining how a wheat farm is run. The booklet also briefly describes the wheat growing…

  9. The value of wheat landraces (Editorial)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whether man was domesticated by wheat, or wheat was domesticated by man is but two faces of the same coin; both incidents marked a turning point in human history and led to the emergence of human civilization in the Fertile Crescent of the Old World. The complex history of wheat domestication from i...

  10. Hard Spring Wheat Technical Committee 2016 Crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seven experimental lines of hard spring wheat were grown at up to five locations in 2016 and evaluated for kernel, milling, and bread baking quality against the check variety Glenn. Wheat samples were submitted through the Wheat Quality Council and processed and milled at the USDA-ARS Hard Red Spri...

  11. Biotechnology Assisted Wheat Breeding for Organic Agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffan, Philipp Matthias

    Common bunt of wheat is a major seed borne disease of wheat worldwide. It is of particular importance to organic farming, where systemic fungicides cannot be applied. The knowledge about location and mechanisms of common bunt resistance in wheat is limited, and only three race specific genes have...

  12. Biotechnology Assisted Wheat Breeding for Organic Agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffan, Philipp Matthias

    Common bunt of wheat is a major seed borne disease of wheat worldwide. It is of particular importance to organic farming, where systemic fungicides cannot be applied. The knowledge about location and mechanisms of common bunt resistance in wheat is limited, and only three race specific genes have...

  13. Floral Transformation of Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Sujata; Loar, Star; Steber, Camille; Zale, Janice

    A method is described for the floral transformation of wheat using a protocol similar to the floral dip of Arabidopsis. This method does not employ tissue culture of dissected embryos, but instead pre-anthesis spikes with clipped florets at the early, mid to late uninucleate microspore stage are dipped in Agrobacterium infiltration media harboring a vector carrying anthocyanin reporters and the NPTII selectable marker. T1 seeds are examined for color changes induced in the embryo by the anthocyanin reporters. Putatively transformed seeds are germinated and the seedlings are screened for the presence of the NPTII gene based on resistance to paromomycin spray and assayed with NPTII ELISAs. Genomic DNA of putative transformants is digested and analyzed on Southern blots for copy number to determine whether the T-DNA has integrated into the nucleus and to show the number of insertions. The non-optimized transformation efficiencies range from 0.3 to 0.6% (number of transformants/number of florets dipped) but the efficiencies are higher in terms of the number of transformants produced/number of seeds set ranging from 0.9 to 10%. Research is underway to maximize seed set and optimize the protocol by testing different Agrobacterium strains, visual reporters, vectors, and surfactants.

  14. Detection of the Molecular Marker and Chromosomal Segment linked to Un-reduced Gamete Gene in Common Wheat%小麦未减数配子基因的连锁标记及染色体区段检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    寇春兰; 赵来宾; 刘梦; 郝明; 甯顺腙; 袁中伟; 刘登才; 张连全

    2016-01-01

    六倍体普通小麦(Triticumaestivum L., AABBDD,2n =42)由四倍体小麦(T. turgidum, AABB,2n =28)与节节麦(Aegilops tauschiiCosson, DD,2n=14)天然杂交,然后通过染色体自动加倍形成。加倍过程主要受四倍体小麦未减数配子基因控制,且不同四倍体小麦存在不同的遗传效应。本研究利用位于3B 染色体上未减数配子基因QTug.sau-3B的连锁SSR标记Xgpw1146和高通量DArTseq分子标记,筛选出可能转入四倍体小麦未减数配子基因的人工合成小麦改良后代。在105份改良材料中检测出17份具有四倍体小麦的Xgpw1146等位位点,表明四倍体小麦的未减数配子基因可能转入了这17份材料。利用DArTseq高通量标记技术分析人工合成小麦SHW-L1的88份改良后代,发现含四倍体小麦Xgpw1146等位位点的材料均具有来自SHW-L1、且可能包含Xgpw1146的一个染色体区段,表明未减数配子基因临近区域以一个区段传递到改良后代。这些人工合成小麦改良材料在加倍单倍体育种中有重要的应用潜力。%Hexaploid common wheat (Triticum aestivumL., AABBDD, 2n= 42) arose from spontaneous chromosome doubling of the hybrid betweenT. turgidumandAegilops tauschiiCosson. The process of chromosomes doubling is mainly determined by unreduced gametes (UG) genes inT. turgidum. The genetic effects on the UG production may vary amongT. turgidum lines. In this study, a SSR marker close to the UG geneQTug.sau-3B(Xgpw1146) and high throughput DArTseq genotyping technique were used to screen the UG gene in common wheat lines transferred fromT. turgidum via synthetic hexaploid wheat (SHW) as a bridge. Out of the analyzed 105 SHW-derived elite lines, 17 had theXgpw1146 allele fromT. turgidum, indicating that the UG gene was probably transferred into these wheat lines. According to the DArTseq genotyping data on 88 lines derived from the synthetic hexaploid wheat SHW-L1, all these lines with theT. turgidumXgpw1146 allele

  15. Genetic transformation of Indian bread (T. aestivum and pasta (T. durum wheat by particle bombardment of mature embryo-derived calli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khurana Paramjit

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Particle bombardment has been successfully employed for obtaining transgenics in cereals in general and wheat in particular. Most of these procedures employ immature embryos which are not available throughout the year. The present investigation utilizes mature seeds as the starting material and the calli raised from the hexaploid Triticum aestivum and tetraploid Triticum durum display a high regeneration response and were therefore used as the target tissue for genetic transformation by the biolistic approach. Results Mature embryo-derived calli of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum, cv. CPAN1676 and durum wheat (T. durum, cv. PDW215 were double bombarded with 1.1 gold microprojectiles coated with pDM302 and pAct1-F at a target distance of 6 cm. Southern analysis using the bar gene as a probe revealed the integration of transgenes in the T0 transformants. The bar gene was active in both T0 and T1 generations as evidenced by phosphinothricin leaf paint assay. Approximately 30% and 33% primary transformants of T. aestivum and T. durum, respectively, were fertile. The transmission of bar gene to T1 progeny was demonstrated by PCR analysis of germinated seedlings with primers specific to the bar gene. Conclusions The transformation frequency obtained was 8.56% with T. aestivum and 10% with T. durum. The optimized protocol was subsequently used for the introduction of the barley gene encoding a late embryogenesis abundant protein (HVA1 in T. aestivum and T. durum. The presence of the HVA1 transgene was confirmed by Southern analysis in the T0 generation in case of Triticum aestivum, and T0 and T1 generation in Triticum durum.

  16. Isolation of a wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) mutant in ABA 8′-hydroxylase gene: effect of reduced ABA catabolism on germination inhibition under field condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chono, Makiko; Matsunaka, Hitoshi; Seki, Masako; Fujita, Masaya; Kiribuchi-Otobe, Chikako; Oda, Shunsuke; Kojima, Hisayo; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Kawakami, Naoto

    2013-01-01

    Pre-harvest sprouting, the germination of mature seeds on the mother plant under moist condition, is a serious problem in cereals. To investigate the effect of reduced abscisic acid (ABA) catabolism on germination in hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), we cloned the wheat ABA 8′-hydroxyase gene which was highly expressed during seed development (TaABA8′OH1) and screened for mutations that lead to reduced ABA catabolism. In a screen for natural variation, one insertion mutation in exon 5 of TaABA8′OH1 on the D genome (TaABA8′OH1-D) was identified in Japanese cultivars including ‘Tamaizumi’. However, a single mutation in TaABA8′OH1-D had no clear effect on germination inhibition in double haploid lines. In a screen for a mutation, one deletion mutant lacking the entire TaABA8′OH1 on the A genome (TaABA8′OH1-A), TM1833, was identified from gamma-ray irradiation lines of ‘Tamaizumi’. TM1833 (a double mutant in TaABA8′OH1-A and TaABA8′OH1-D) showed lower TaABA8′OH1 expression, higher ABA content in embryos during seed development under field condition and lower germination than those in ‘Tamaizumi’ (a single mutant in TaABA8′OH1-D). These results indicate that reduced ABA catabolism through mutations in TaABA8′OH1 may be effective in germination inhibition in field-grown wheat. PMID:23641187

  17. Isolation of a wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) mutant in ABA 8'-hydroxylase gene: effect of reduced ABA catabolism on germination inhibition under field condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chono, Makiko; Matsunaka, Hitoshi; Seki, Masako; Fujita, Masaya; Kiribuchi-Otobe, Chikako; Oda, Shunsuke; Kojima, Hisayo; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Kawakami, Naoto

    2013-03-01

    Pre-harvest sprouting, the germination of mature seeds on the mother plant under moist condition, is a serious problem in cereals. To investigate the effect of reduced abscisic acid (ABA) catabolism on germination in hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), we cloned the wheat ABA 8'-hydroxyase gene which was highly expressed during seed development (TaABA8'OH1) and screened for mutations that lead to reduced ABA catabolism. In a screen for natural variation, one insertion mutation in exon 5 of TaABA8'OH1 on the D genome (TaABA8'OH1-D) was identified in Japanese cultivars including 'Tamaizumi'. However, a single mutation in TaABA8'OH1-D had no clear effect on germination inhibition in double haploid lines. In a screen for a mutation, one deletion mutant lacking the entire TaABA8'OH1 on the A genome (TaABA8'OH1-A), TM1833, was identified from gamma-ray irradiation lines of 'Tamaizumi'. TM1833 (a double mutant in TaABA8'OH1-A and TaABA8'OH1-D) showed lower TaABA8'OH1 expression, higher ABA content in embryos during seed development under field condition and lower germination than those in 'Tamaizumi' (a single mutant in TaABA8'OH1-D). These results indicate that reduced ABA catabolism through mutations in TaABA8'OH1 may be effective in germination inhibition in field-grown wheat.

  18. Removing celiac disease-related gluten proteins from bread wheat while retaining technological properties: a study with Chinese Spring deletion lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bosch Dirk

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gluten proteins can induce celiac disease (CD in genetically susceptible individuals. In CD patients gluten-derived peptides are presented to the immune system, which leads to a CD4+ T-cell mediated immune response and inflammation of the small intestine. However, not all gluten proteins contain T-cell stimulatory epitopes. Gluten proteins are encoded by multigene loci present on chromosomes 1 and 6 of the three different genomes of hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum (AABBDD. Results The effects of deleting individual gluten loci on both the level of T-cell stimulatory epitopes in the gluten proteome and the technological properties of the flour were analyzed using a set of deletion lines of Triticum aestivum cv. Chinese Spring. The reduction of T-cell stimulatory epitopes was analyzed using monoclonal antibodies that recognize T-cell epitopes present in gluten proteins. The deletion lines were technologically tested with respect to dough mixing properties and dough rheology. The results show that removing the α-gliadin locus from the short arm of chromosome 6 of the D-genome (6DS resulted in a significant decrease in the presence of T-cell stimulatory epitopes but also in a significant loss of technological properties. However, removing the ω-gliadin, γ-gliadin, and LMW-GS loci from the short arm of chromosome 1 of the D-genome (1DS removed T-cell stimulatory epitopes from the proteome while maintaining technological properties. Conclusion The consequences of these data are discussed with regard to reducing the load of T-cell stimulatory epitopes in wheat, and to contributing to the design of CD-safe wheat varieties.

  19. Adverse Effects of Wheat Gluten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koning, Frits

    2015-01-01

    Man began to consume cereals approximately 10,000 years ago when hunter-gatherers settled in the fertile golden crescent in the Middle East. Gluten has been an integral part of the Western type of diet ever since, and wheat consumption is also common in the Middle East, parts of India and China as well as Australia and Africa. In fact, the food supply in the world heavily depends on the availability of cereal-based food products, with wheat being one of the largest crops in the world. Part of this is due to the unique properties of wheat gluten, which has a high nutritional value and is crucial for the preparation of high-quality dough. In the last 10 years, however, wheat and gluten have received much negative attention. Many believe that it is inherently bad for our health and try to avoid consumption of gluten-containing cereals; a gluten-low lifestyle so to speak. This is fueled by a series of popular publications like Wheat Belly; Lose the Wheat, Lose the Weight, and Find Your Path Back to Health. However, in reality, there is only one condition where gluten is definitively the culprit: celiac disease (CD), affecting approximately 1% of the population in the Western world. Here, I describe the complexity of the cereals from which gluten is derived, the special properties of gluten which make it so widely used in the food industry, the basis for its toxicity in CD patients and the potential for the development of safe gluten and alternatives to the gluten-free diet.

  20. Fusarium graminearum forms mycotoxin producing infection structures on wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boenisch Marike J

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mycotoxin producing fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum is the causal agent of Fusarium head blight (FHB of small grain cereals in fields worldwide. Although F. graminearum is highly investigated by means of molecular genetics, detailed studies about hyphal development during initial infection stages are rare. In addition, the role of mycotoxins during initial infection stages of FHB is still unknown. Therefore, we investigated the infection strategy of the fungus on different floral organs of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. under real time conditions by constitutive expression of the dsRed reporter gene in a TRI5prom::GFP mutant. Additionally, trichothecene induction during infection was visualised with a green fluorescent protein (GFP coupled TRI5 promoter. A tissue specific infection pattern and TRI5 induction were tested by using different floral organs of wheat. Through combination of bioimaging and electron microscopy infection structures were identified and characterised. In addition, the role of trichothecene production for initial infection was elucidated by a ΔTRI5-GFP reporter strain. Results The present investigation demonstrates the formation of foot structures and compound appressoria by F. graminearum. All infection structures developed from epiphytic runner hyphae. Compound appressoria including lobate appressoria and infection cushions were observed on inoculated caryopses, paleas, lemmas, and glumes of susceptible and resistant wheat cultivars. A specific trichothecene induction in infection structures was demonstrated by different imaging techniques. Interestingly, a ΔTRI5-GFP mutant formed the same infection structures and exhibited a similar symptom development compared to the wild type and the TRI5prom::GFP mutant. Conclusions The different specialised infection structures of F. graminearum on wheat florets, as described in this study, indicate that the penetration strategy of this fungus is far more

  1. 7 CFR 810.2201 - Definition of wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definition of wheat. 810.2201 Section 810.2201... GRAIN United States Standards for Wheat Terms Defined § 810.2201 Definition of wheat. Grain that, before the removal of dockage, consists of 50 percent or more common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), club wheat...

  2. Multimodel ensembles of wheat growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martre, Pierre; Wallach, Daniel; Asseng, Senthold

    2015-01-01

    , but such studies are difficult to organize and have only recently begun. We report on the largest ensemble study to date, of 27 wheat models tested in four contrasting locations for their accuracy in simulating multiple crop growth and yield variables. The relative error averaged over models was 24...

  3. IPR 118 - Bread wheat cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto Riede

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheat cultivar IPR 118 developed by IAPAR has a good yield potential and is widely adapted. It is earlymaturing and moderately tolerant to shattering and soil aluminum, moderately resistant to leaf rust and presents high glutenstrength for bread-making. The overall yield exceeded controls by 13%.

  4. WHEAT FLOUR (DUBBIE) IN RATS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    food product to be widely distributed was a blend of wheat, defatted soy flour, .... drops of blood from the retroocular capillary bed (under light diethyl ether ..... Bioavaiiability to rats of the iron contents in selected cereals and pulses. Nutr. Rep.

  5. HULLED WHEAT FARMING IN DEVELI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sancar Bulut

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Emmer (Triticum dicoccum and einkorn (T. monococcum cultivation has a long history in Anatolia. The crops, cultivated in Anatolia over thousands years, can still be found in some parts of the country, especially Develi in the Kayseri province. The total cultivation area of these crops was around 36 000 ha in 2015. The species is mainly cultivated in sloping and marginal lands by poor farmers, where no other crops can be economically grown. Cultivation area is rapidly declining, and if such trend continues, hulled wheats will be shortly completely wiped out from Turkey. Present-day distribution of emmer and spelt within Turkey is concentrated in countryside areas of Develi where traditional farming systems still survive. This group of wheats is called in Turkish the general name of ‘kaplìca’ which means ‘covered’ or ‘hulled’. More specifically, the tetraploid species (emmer is called ‘gacer’ in the Develi. Being a low-yielding type of wheat, emmer was replaced by other improved varieties of Triticum. This decrease was mainly due to the widespread use of improved cultivars of wheat and the adoption of new agricultural techniques, but also to social and economic factors. In fact, wheat yielded 2840 t/ha, whereas hulled wheats yielded 1200 t/ha. The cultivation of these two crops shows disadvantages that relate to the harvesting techniques used and the need to dehisce the spikelets to obtain the grain for human consumption. The increasing interest in low-input systems due to the actual ecological and economical situation has led to a growing interest in specific genetic variability. Organic agriculture and health food products have been gaining increasing popularity that has led to a renewed interest in hulled wheat species such as emmer and spelt. The objective of this study was to estimate agronomical and grain quality characteristics of some Turkey (Develi emmer landraces. This effort was motivated by the fact that autochthonous

  6. Enhanced ethanol production by removal of cutin and epicuticular waxes of wheat straw by plasma assisted pretreatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kádár, Zsófia; Schultz-Jensen, Nadja; Jensen, J. S.

    2015-01-01

    The removal of cutin and epicuticular waxes of wheat straw by PAP (plasma assisted pretreatment) was investigated. Wax removal was observed by Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) as chemical change on the surface of most intensively pretreated samples as well...... as with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) imaging. Compounds resulting from wax degradation were analyzed in the washing water of PAP wheat straw. The wax removal enhanced enzymatic hydrolysis yield and, consequently, the efficiency of wheat straw conversion into ethanol. In total, PAP increased the conversion...

  7. Soluble Dietary Fiber Fractions in Wheat Bran and Their Interactions with Wheat Gluten Have Impacts on Dough Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Liu, Rui; Wu, Tao; Wang, Man; Zhang, Min

    2016-11-23

    Six soluble dietary fiber (SDF) fractions were prepared via stepwise ethanol precipitation from natural and fermented wheat bran. The chemical composition, molecular weight distribution, and glycosidic linkage and substitution pattern of each SDF fraction were elucidated by sugar analysis, periodate oxidation and Smith degradation, molecular determination, and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis. The impacts of SDF fractions on the rheological properties and morphologies of doughs were investigated by farinography, rheometry, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to clarify the relationship between the microstructural features of SDF fractions and the macroscopic properties of SDF-containing doughs. The interactions between SDF fractions and wheat glutens in doughs were further studied by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The experimental results indicated that the SDF fraction with an intermediate molecular weight but a higher substitution degree and a larger disubstitution ratio was most compatible with the dough network and beneficial to dough quality.

  8. Effect of Sucrose Esters on the Physicochemical Properties of Wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Sucrose Esters on the Physicochemical Properties of Wheat Starch. ... Methods: Sucrose ester was mixed with wheat starch extracted from normal soft wheat cultivars and heated. Change in starch properties arising ... Article Metrics.

  9. Wheat yield dynamics: a structural econometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Afsin; Akdi, Yilmaz; Arslan, Fahrettin

    2007-10-15

    In this study we initially have tried to explore the wheat situation in Turkey, which has a small-open economy and in the member countries of European Union (EU). We have observed that increasing the wheat yield is fundamental to obtain comparative advantage among countries by depressing domestic prices. Also the changing structure of supporting schemes in Turkey makes it necessary to increase its wheat yield level. For this purpose, we have used available data to determine the dynamics of wheat yield by Ordinary Least Square Regression methods. In order to find out whether there is a linear relationship among these series we have checked each series whether they are integrated at the same order or not. Consequently, we have pointed out that fertilizer usage and precipitation level are substantial inputs for producing high wheat yield. Furthermore, in respect for our model, fertilizer usage affects wheat yield more than precipitation level.

  10. Concept, Characteristics and Future of Cold-type Wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Songwu

    2007-01-01

    Cold types of wheat are the kinds of wheat whose canopy temperature keeps slightly lower and has a series of advantageous traits, which are favorable for wheat to have high and stable yield and stable high quality. The paper expatiates on the advances and important problems in the research of cold types of wheat and predicts the future of cold types of wheat and the influences of the research about cold types of wheat on other crops and plants.

  11. Evaluation and reselection of wheat resistance to Russian wheat aphid biotype 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russian wheat aphid (RWA, Diuraphis noxia, Mordvilko) biotype 2 (RWA2) is virulent to most known RWA resistance genes and severely threatens wheat production in the hard winter wheat area of the US western Great Plains. We determined RWA2 reactions of 386 cultivars from China, 227 advanced breeding...

  12. Aroma of wheat porridge and bread-crumb is influenced by the wheat variety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starr, Gerrard; Hansen, Åse Solvej; Petersen, Mikael Agerlin

    2015-01-01

    Sensory evaluations were conducted on wheat-flour porridge and baked-bread samples, made from wheat varieties with known odour and flavour variations. The purpose was to determine if these odour and flavour variations were expressed in baked-bread. In all, 24 wheat varieties were used for porridge...

  13. Effects of protein in wheat flour on retrogradation of wheat starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xijun, Lian; Junjie, Guo; Danli, Wang; Lin, Li; Jiaran, Zhu

    2014-08-01

    Albumins, globulins, gliadins, and glutenins were isolated from wheat flour and the effects of those proteins on retrogradation of wheat starch were investigated. The results showed that only glutenins retarded retrogradation of wheat starch and other 3 proteins promoted it. The results of IR spectra proved that no S-S linkage formed during retrogradation of wheat starch blended with wheat proteins. Combination of wheat starch and globulins or gliadins through glucosidic bonds hindered the hydrolysis of wheat starch by α-amylase. The melting peak temperatures of retrograded wheat starch attached to different proteins were 128.46, 126.14, 132.03, 121.65, and 134.84 °C for the control with no protein, albumins, glutenins, globulins, gliadins groups, respectively, and there was no second melting temperature for albumins group. Interaction of wheat proteins and starch in retrograded wheat starch greatly decreased the endothermic enthalpy (△H) of retrograded wheat starch. Retrograded wheat starch bound to gliadins might be a new kind of resistant starch based on glycosidic bond between starch and protein.

  14. BIOPULPING OF WHEAT STRAW WITH PHANEROCHAETE CHRYSOSPORIUM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HongYu; MenghuaQin; XuemeiLu; YinboQu; PeijiGao

    2004-01-01

    Wheat straw was cut into a certain size range and treated with a strain of the white rot fungus Phaneroehatete Chrysosporium for 5 days before subjected to a chemi-mechanical treatment. Chemical analyses revealed the effects of the white rot fungus on the wheat straw components. SEM was applied to observe the changes in fiber micromorphological structures. CODcr of the effluent from the sulfonation treatment of wheat straw was also discussed. Handsheets made from the treated anduntreated wheat straw exhibited different optical and physical properties after chemi-mechanical pulping.

  15. BIOPULPING OF WHEAT STRAW WITH PHANEROCHAETE CHRYSOSPORIUM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Yu; Menghua Qin; Xuemei Lu; Yinbo Qu; Peiji Gao

    2004-01-01

    Wheat straw was cut into a certain size range and treated with a strain of the white rot fungus Phanerochatete Chrysosporium for 5 days before subjected to a chemi-mechanical treatment. Chemical analyses revealed the effects of the white rot fungus on the wheat straw components. SEM was applied to observe the changes in fiber micromorphological structures. CODcr of the effluent from the sulfonation treatment of wheat straw was also discussed. Handsheets made from the treated and untreated wheat straw exhibited different optical and physical properties after chemi-mechanical pulping.

  16. Interference of allelopathic wheat with different weeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Song-Zhu; Li, Yong-Hua; Kong, Chui-Hua; Xu, Xiao-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Interference of allelopathic wheat with weeds involves a broad spectrum of species either independently or synergistically with competitive factors. This study examined the interference of allelopathic wheat with 38 weeds in relation to the production of allelochemical 2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one (DIMBOA) in wheat with and without root-root interactions. There were substantial differences in weed biomass and DIMBOA concentration in wheat-weed coexisting systems. Among 38 weeds, nine weeds were inhibited significantly by allelopathic wheat but the other 29 weeds were not. DIMBOA levels in wheat varied greatly with weed species. There was no significant relationship between DIMBOA levels and weed suppression effects. Root segregation led to great changes in weed inhibition and DIMBOA level. Compared with root contact, the inhibition of eight weeds was lowered significantly, while significantly increased inhibition occurred in 11 weeds with an increased DIMBOA concentration under root segregation. Furthermore, the production of DIMBOA in wheat was induced by the root exudates from weeds. Interference of allelopathic wheat with weeds not only is determined by the specificity of the weeds but also depends on root-root interactions. In particular, allelopathic wheat may detect certain weeds through the root exudates and respond by increasing the allelochemical, resulting in weed identity recognition. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Allelic Variations of Puroindoline a and Puroindoline b Genes in New Type of Synthetic Hexaploid Wheats from CIMMYT%CIMMYT新型人工合成小麦Pina和Pinb基因等位变异

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李根英; 夏先春; 何中虎; 孙其信

    2007-01-01

    六倍体人工合成小麦由硬粒小麦(Triticum turgidum subsp. durum)与粗山羊草 (Aegilops tauschii Coss.)杂交产生,是研究小麦进化过程中基因变异的重要材料.以国际玉米小麦改良中心(CIMMYT)提供的57份由野生二粒小麦(T.turgidum subsp. dicoccoides)与粗山羊草杂交产生的新型人工合成六倍体小麦为材料,用单籽粒特性测定仪和 Pina、Pinb特异性PCR引物对其籽粒硬度变异以及控制籽粒硬度的主效基因Pina和Pinb的分布情况进行了研究.结果表明,这些材料的SKCS硬度值变异较大,从10.5到42.6,其中15~30 的占78%.共有Pina-D1a、Pina-D1c、Pinb-D1h和Pinb-D1j 4种等位变异型,基因型为Pina-D1a/Pinb-D1j 的8个,占14%;基因型为Pina-D1c/Pinb-D1h的49个,占86%.方差分析表明,基因型Pina-D1a/Pinb-D1j与Pina-D1c/Pinb-D1h对籽粒硬度的影响差异不显著,但父本粗山羊草和母本野生二粒小麦以及二者间的互作对籽粒硬度有显著影响,说明除Pina和Pinb外, 还有其他微效基因影响籽粒硬度的形成.

  18. Molecular linkage map of Einkorn wheat: mapping of storage-protein and soft-glume genes and bread-making quality QTLs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taenzler, B; Esposti, R F; Vaccino, P; Brandolini, A; Effgen, S; Heun, M; Schäfer-Pregl, R; Borghi, B; Salamini, F

    2002-10-01

    Two molecular maps of Triticum monococcum L were produced and integrated. The integrated map includes a total of 477 markers, 32 RFLPs, 438 AFLPs, one morphological (soft glume (Sog)) and six storage-protein markers, and covers 856 cM. The trait Sog with the recessive allele sog maps to linkage group 2S. Probably, this is the T. monococcum homologue of Tg and Tg2 in hexaploid and tetraploid wheats, respectively. Loci coding for seed storage proteins were allocated to chromosomes 1L (HMW GLU1,2 and Glu1), 1S (LMW GLU6,7, LMW GLU1-4, omega GLI1-4, gamma GLI5 and Gli-1) and 6L (alpha/beta GLI7-14). Parameters related to bread-making quality (SDS sedimentation volume, specific sedimentation volume (SSV) and total protein content) were studied in one of the two populations. A QTL that is consistently present across environments was detected for SDS sedimentation volume and for SSV. The position of the QTL on chromosome 1S was in close agreement with the map positions of storage-protein loci. A second QTL was mapped on chromosome 5. For protein content, two significant QTLs were mapped to linkage groups 1 and 5.

  19. [Effect of rye chromosomes on features of androgenesis in wheat-rye substituted lines of Triticum aestivum L. sort Saratovskaya 29/Secale cerale L. sort Onokhoiskaia and Triticale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrovolskaia, O B; Pershina, L A; Kravtsova, L A; Silkova, O G; Shchapova, A I

    2001-05-01

    The characteristic features of androgenesis in six wheat-rye substitution lines Triticum aestivum L. (cv. Saratovskaya 29)/Secale cereale L. (cv. Onokhoiskaya) and triticale (2n = 56) using anther culture at different concentrations of 2,4-D in the growth medium were studied. Under variable cultivation conditions, the significant effect of genotypic diversity on the variability of such androgenesis parameters as the frequency of productive anthers, the frequency of embryoid formation, and the frequency of total regenerated plantlets, was shown. It was demonstrated that chromosomes 1R, 3R, and 7R stimulated the formation of androgenous embryoids, while chromosome 5R produced an opposite effect. In triticale and substitution lines, the regeneration ability of androgenous embryoids induced by elevated 2,4-D concentrations was inhibited. Chromosome 1R of the Onokhoiskaya cultivar was suggested to contain genes suppressing regeneration of green plantlets, while chromosome 3R, conversely, stimulated their formation. Chromosomes 1R, 2R, 3R, and 7R of the Onokhoiskaya cultivar did not inhibit the spontaneous formation of androgenous hexaploids in the substitution lines.

  20. Effects of crop rotation on weed density, biomass and yield of wheat (Titicum aestivum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zareafeizabadi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the weed populations in wheat, under different crop rotations an experiment was carried out at Agricultural Research Station of Jolgeh Rokh, Iran. During growing season this project was done in five years, based on Randomized Complete Bloch Design with three replications, on Crop rotations included: wheat monoculture for the whole period (WWWWW, wheat- wheat- wheat- canola- wheat (WWWCW, wheat- sugar beet- wheat-sugar beet- wheat (WSWSW, wheat- potato- wheat- potato- wheat (WPWPW, wheat- potato- wheat- canola- wheat (WPWCW, wheat- sugar beet- wheat- potato- wheat (WSWPW, wheat- maize- wheat- potato- wheat (WMWPW, wheat- maize- wheat- sugar beet- wheat (WMWSW. Data analysis was done in fifth year. Weed sampling was done at four growth stages of wheat, including tillering, shooting, heading and soft dough stage of grains. Density, dry and fresh weight of each weed species per unit area, besides wheat grain yield were determined. All analysis of variances for traits related to weed were statistically significant (p≤0.01. The highest weed biomass was obtained in heading stage of wheat, and the greatest weed dry matter in all four growth stages was achieved in WWWWW rotation and the least one in WMWSW rotation. The highest weed density in different growth stages was achieved in rotations 7, 3, and 6. Wheat grain yield in all crop rotation treatments had a significant increase compared to monoculture. It seems that, yield reduction of wheat monoculture is related to weed density, its population and higher weed biomass in this treatment.

  1. Programmed cell death or desiccation tolerance : two possible routes for wheat endosperm cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golovina, E.A.; Hoekstra, F.A.; Aelst, van A.C.

    2000-01-01

    The fate of cells in the endosperm of developing wheat kernels was investigated under normal conditions and upon premature slow drying on the cut ear. To follow the changes in membrane integrity and cellular ultrastructure, an electron spin resonance (ESR) spin probe technique and low temperature sc

  2. [Properties of the initial stages of embryoidogenesis in vitro in wheat calli of various origin ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sel'dimirova, O A; Kruglova, N N

    2013-01-01

    The formation of embryoids obtained in vitro both in the culture of anthers and in the culture of the germs of spring soft wheat was analyzed using light microscopy and electron microscopy. The features ofembryoid for- mation in the calli of both types are detected.

  3. Nano chitosan-NPK fertilizer enhances the growth and productivity of wheat plants grown in sandy soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Aziz, H.M.M.; Hasaneen, M.N.A.; Ome, A.M.

    2016-11-01

    Nanofertilizers have become a pioneer approach in agriculture research nowadays. In this paper we investigate the delivery of chitosan nanoparticles loaded with nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK) for wheat plants by foliar uptake. Chiotsan-NPK nanoparticles were easily applied to leaf surfaces and entered the stomata via gas uptake, avoiding direct interaction with soil systems. The uptake and translocation of nanoparticles inside wheat plants was investigated by transmission electron microscopy. The results revealed that nano particles were taken up and transported through phloem tissues. Treatment of wheat plants grown on sandy soil with nano chitosan-NPK fertilizer induced significant increases in harvest index, crop index and mobilization index of the determined wheat yield variables, as compared with control yield variables of wheat plants treated with normal non-fertilized and normal fertilized NPK. The life cycle of the nano-fertilized wheat plants was shorter than normal-fertilized wheat plants with the ratio of 23.5% (130 days compared with 170 days for yield production from date of sowing). Thus, accelerating plant growth and productivity by application of nanofertilizers can open new perspectives in agricultural practice. However, the response of plants to nanofertilizers varies with the type of plant species, their growth stages and nature of nanomaterials. (Author)

  4. Nano chitosan-NPK fertilizer enhances the growth and productivity of wheat plants grown in sandy soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed N. A. Hasaneen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Nanofertilizers have become a pioneer approach in agriculture research nowadays. In this paper we investigate the delivery of chitosan nanoparticles loaded with nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK for wheat plants by foliar uptake. Chiotsan-NPK nanoparticles were easily applied to leaf surfaces and entered the stomata via gas uptake, avoiding direct interaction with soil systems. The uptake and translocation of nanoparticles inside wheat plants was investigated by transmission electron microscopy. The results revealed that nano particles were taken up and transported through phloem tissues. Treatment of wheat plants grown on sandy soil with nano chitosan-NPK fertilizer induced significant increases in harvest index, crop index and mobilization index of the determined wheat yield variables, as compared with control yield variables of wheat plants treated with normal non-fertilized and normal fertilized NPK. The life cycle of the nano-fertilized wheat plants was shorter than normal-fertilized wheat plants with the ratio of 23.5% (130 days compared with 170 days for yield production from date of sowing. Thus, accelerating plant growth and productivity by application of nanofertilizers can open new perspectives in agricultural practice. However, the response of plants to nanofertilizers varies with the type of plant species, their growth stages and nature of nanomaterials.

  5. Deoxynivalenol in wheat and wheat products from a harvest affected by fusarium head blight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidiane Viera MACHADO

    Full Text Available Abstract Fusarium head blight is an important disease occurring in wheat, caused mainly by the fungus Fusarium graminearum. In addition to direct damage to crops, reduced quality and yield losses, the infected grains can accumulate mycotoxins (toxic metabolites originating from prior fungal growth, especially deoxynivalenol (DON. Wheat crops harvested in 2014/2015 in southern Brazil were affected by high levels of Fusarium head blight. In this context, the aim of this study was evaluate the mycotoxicological quality of Brazilian wheat grains and wheat products (wheat flour and wheat bran for DON. DON contamination was evaluated in 1,504 wheat and wheat product samples produced in Brazil during 2014. It was determined by high performance liquid chromatograph fitted to a mass spectrometer (LC-MS / MS. The results showed that 1,000 (66.5% out of the total samples tested were positive for DON. The mean level of sample contamination was 1047 µg.kg-1, but only 242 samples (16.1% had contamination levels above the maximum permissible levels (MPL - the maximum content allowed by current Brazilian regulation. As of 2017, MPL will be stricter. Thus, research should be conducted on DON contamination of wheat and wheat products, since wheat is a raw material widely used in the food industry, and DON can cause serious harm to public health.

  6. Cloning and Functional Marker of GDH1 Gene in Wheat%小麦 GDH1基因克隆及其功能标记开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李冰; 张照贵; 王佳佳; 李斯深

    2014-01-01

    Glutamate dehydrogenase ( GDH ) is an enzyme catalyzing a reversible reaction of compoun-ding L-glutamate.Assimilation of ammonia via GDH is more energy -efficient than that via glutamate syn-thase .GDH1 gene was the dominant form in most of examined tissues , perhaps suggesting its greater functional significance than other GDH genes.In this study, the genomic sequence on chromosome A , B and D of a no-vel gene, designated TaGDH1, was isolated from the hexaploid wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) genome data-bases .An InDel marker was designed based on the insert /deletion divergence in the 1 900~1 983 bp position of TaGDH1a gene sequence, and was located on the chromosome 5A in wheat.%谷氨酸脱氢酶( glutamate dehydrogenase , GDH)在植物体内催化合成谷氨酸的可逆反应,通过GDH固氮比谷氨酸合成酶途径更节省能量。在植物大多数组织中,GDH1是该基因家族中表达最高的基因,比其他GDH成员具有更为重要的作用。本研究从普通小麦基因组中分离了TaGDH1基因在A、B、D染色体组的序列。针对TaGDH1 a基因在基因组DNA序列1900~1983 bp位置存在的核苷酸差异设计了一个插入/缺失标记,同时将该标记定位在5A染色体上。

  7. Inhibitory serpins from wheat grain with reactive centers resembling glutamine-rich repeats of prolamin storage proteins. Cloning and characterization of five major molecular forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostergaard, H; Rasmussen, S K; Roberts, T H; Hejgaard, J

    2000-10-27

    Genes encoding proteins of the serpin superfamily are widespread in the plant kingdom, but the properties of very few plant serpins have been studied, and physiological functions have not been elucidated. Six distinct serpins have been identified in grains of hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) by partial purification and amino acid sequencing. The reactive centers of all but one of the serpins resemble the glutamine-rich repetitive sequences in prolamin storage proteins of wheat grain. Five of the serpins, classified into two protein Z subfamilies, WSZ1 and WSZ2, have been cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli, and purified. Inhibitory specificity toward 17 proteinases of mammalian, plant, and microbial origin was studied. All five serpins were suicide substrate inhibitors of chymotrypsin and cathepsin G. WSZ1a and WSZ1b inhibited at the unusual reactive center P(1)-P(1)' Gln-Gln, and WSZ2b at P(2)-P(1) Leu-Arg-one of two overlapping reactive centers. WSZ1c with P(1)-P(1)' Leu-Gln was the fastest inhibitor of chymotrypsin (k(a) = 1.3 x 10(6) m(-1) s(-1)). WSZ1a was as efficient an inhibitor of chymotrypsin as WSZ2a (k(a) approximately 10(5) m(-1) s(-1)), which has P(1)-P(1)' Leu-Ser-a reactive center common in animal serpins. WSZ2b inhibited plasmin at P(1)-P(1)' Arg-Gln (k(a) approximately 10(3) m(-1) s(-1)). None of the five serpins inhibited Bacillus subtilisin A, Fusarium trypsin, or two subtilisin-like plant serine proteinases, hordolisin from barley green malt and cucumisin D from honeydew melon. Possible functions involving interactions with endogenous or exogenous proteinases adapted to prolamin degradation are discussed.

  8. Genetic mapping of flavor loci in wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flavor is an essential aspect of consumer acceptance, especially with whole-wheat foods. However, little if any selection is performed during breeding of new wheat cultivars for flavor, and little is known regarding the genetics of flavor. Our research is aimed at identifying genes that impart eithe...

  9. Registration of 'Sunshine' Hard White Winter Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    ’Sunshine’ (Reg. No. CV-XXXX, PI 674741) hard white winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed by the Colorado Agricultural Experiment Station and released in August 2014 through a marketing agreement with the Colorado Wheat Research Foundation. In addition to researchers at Colorado State Un...

  10. Agronomic Performance of Low Phytic Acid Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low phytic acid (LPA) genotypes of wheat are one approach to improving the nutritional quality of wheat by reducing the concentration of phytic acid in the aleurone layer, thus reducing the chelation of nutritionally important minerals and improving the bioavailability of phosphorus. Field studies ...

  11. WHEAT PATHOGEN RESISTANCE AND CHITINASE PROFILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Gregorová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The powdery mildew and leaf rust caused by Blumeria graminis and Puccinia recondita (respectively are common diseases of wheat throughout the world. These fungal diseases greatly affect crop productivity. Incorporation of effective and durable disease resistance is an important breeding objective for wheat improvement. We have evaluated resistance of four bread wheat (Triticum aestivum and four spelt wheat (Triticum spelta cultivars. Chitinases occurrence as well as their activity was determined in leaf tissues. There was no correlation between resistance rating and activity of chitinase. The pattern of chitinases reveals four isoforms with different size in eight wheat cultivars. A detailed understanding of the molecular events that take place during a plant–pathogen interaction is an essential goal for disease control in the future.

  12. End-use quality of soft kernel durum wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernel texture is a major determinant of end-use quality of wheat. Durum wheat has very hard kernels. We developed soft kernel durum wheat via Ph1b-mediated homoeologous recombination. The Hardness locus was transferred from Chinese Spring to Svevo durum wheat via back-crossing. ‘Soft Svevo’ had SKC...

  13. 21 CFR 137.205 - Bromated whole wheat flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bromated whole wheat flour. 137.205 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.205 Bromated whole wheat flour. Bromated whole wheat flour... of ingredients, prescribed for whole wheat flour by § 137.200, except that potassium bromate is added...

  14. 21 CFR 139.140 - Wheat and soy macaroni products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wheat and soy macaroni products. 139.140 Section... Macaroni and Noodle Products § 139.140 Wheat and soy macaroni products. (a) Wheat and soy macaroni products... percent of the combined weight of the wheat and soy ingredients used (the soy flour used is made from...

  15. 7 CFR 782.17 - Wheat purchased for resale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wheat purchased for resale. 782.17 Section 782.17... § 782.17 Wheat purchased for resale. (a) This section applies to an importer or subsequent buyer who imports or purchases Canadian-produced wheat for the purpose of reselling the wheat. (b) The importer...

  16. 21 CFR 139.180 - Wheat and soy noodle products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wheat and soy noodle products. 139.180 Section 139... and Noodle Products § 139.180 Wheat and soy noodle products. (a) Wheat and soy noodle products are the... wheat and soy ingredients used (the soy flour used is made from heat-processed, dehulled soybeans,...

  17. Effects of nitrogen application and elevated atmospheric CO2 on electron transport and energy partitioning in flag leaf photosynthesis of wheat%施氮和大气CO2浓度升高对小麦旗叶光合电子传递和分配的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张绪成; 于显枫; 马一凡

    2011-01-01

    Wheat ( Triticum aestivum) plants were pot-cultured in open top chambers at the nitrogen application rate of 0 and 200 mg · kg-1 soil and the atmospheric CO2 concentration of 400 and 760 μmol · mol-1. Through the determination of flag leaf nitrogen and chlorophyll contents, photosynthetic rate (Pn)-intercellar CO2 concentration (Ci) response curve, and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters at heading stage, the photosynthetic electron transport rate and others were calculated,aimed to investigate the effects of nitrogen application and elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration on the photosynthetic energy partitioning in wheat flag leaves. Elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration decreased the leaf nitrogen and chlorophyll contents, compared with the ambient one, and the chlorophyll a/b ratio increased at the nitrogen application rate of 200 mg · kg-1. With the application of nitrogen, no evident variations were observed in the maximal photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm) , maximal quantum yield under irradiance (Fv'/Fm') of PS Ⅱ reaction center, photochemical fluorescence quenching coefficient (qp), and actual PS Ⅱ efficiency under irradiance (ΦPSⅡ) at elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration, and the total photosynthetic electron transport rate ( JF ) of PS Ⅱ reaction center had no evident increase, though the non-photochemical fluorescence quenching coefficient (NPQ ) decreased significantly. With no nitrogen application, the Fv'/ Fm', ΦPSⅡ , and NPQ) at elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration decreased significantly, and the JF had a significant decrease though the Fv/Fm and qp did not vary remarkably. Nitrogen application increased the JF and photochemical electron transport rate (JC); while elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration decreased the photorespiration electron transport rate (J0) , Rubisco oxidation rate ( V0 ), ratio of photorespiration to photochemical electron transport rate ( J0/JC ), and Rubisco oxidation/carboxylation rate ( V0/VC ), but

  18. Effects of Processing on Wheat Tortilla Quality: Benefits of Hard White Wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael Tilley; Valquiria Pierucci; Katherine A Tilley; Okkyung Kim Chung

    2006-01-01

    The suitability of Kansas hard white winter (HWW) wheat milled at a high extraction rate for tortilla production was investigated. All of the Kansas varieties of white wheat, milled to 80% extraction, performed as well as, if not better than, a standard commercial tortilla flour milled to 72% extraction when various quality factors were compared. Tortillas were made from eight wheat cultivars milled at 80% extraction: four HWW wheat cultivars included Betty, Heyne, Oro Blanco and NuWest; three hard red winter (HRW) wheat samples were Jagger and Ike grown at Hutchinson, Kansas (Ike-Hutch) and at Hays, Kansas (Ike-Hays); and one hard white spring (HWS) wheat cultivar, Idaho 377-S. Tortillas made from these flours were compared to tortillas made from one commercial tortilla-flour milled to 72% extraction from a blend of HRW wheat. Mixograph parameters, starch pasting properties,dough-handling characteristics and tortilla- making attributes of the new Kansas HWW wheat cultivars, Betty and Heyne, were superior. In summary, Kansas HWW wheat flours, milled to 80% extraction, produced tortillas which were equal to, or superior to,those made from 80%-extraction HRW wheat flours and 72%-extraction commercial tortilla flour.

  19. Using multispectral imagery to compare the spatial pattern of injury to wheat caused by Russian wheat aphid and greenbug

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko), and greenbug, Schizaphis graminum (Rondani), are important aphid pests of wheat. Outbreaks of both pests in commercial wheat fields occur almost every year in the Great Plains of the United States. Infestations of both pests in wheat fields are...

  20. End-use quality of CIMMYT-derived soft kernel durum wheat germplasm. I. Grain, milling and soft wheat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat kernel texture is used in part to define U.S. wheat market class due to its importance in end-use quality and utilization. Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum subsp. durum) has lower demand and fewer culinary end-uses compared to bread wheat because of its extremely hard kernel texture, which precl...

  1. Transcriptome analysis reveals key differentially expressed genes involved in wheat grain development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yonglong Yu; Dong Zhu; Chaoying Ma; Hui Cao; Yaping Wang; Yanhao Xu; Wenying Zhang; Yueming Yan

    2016-01-01

    Wheat seed development is an important physiological process of seed maturation and directly affects wheat yield and quality. In this study, we performed dynamic transcriptome microarray analysis of an elite Chinese bread wheat cultivar (Jimai 20) during grain development using the GeneChip Wheat Genome Array. Grain morphology and scanning electron microscope observations showed that the period of 11–15 days post-anthesis (DPA) was a key stage for the synthesis and accumulation of seed starch. Genome-wide transcriptional profiling and significance analysis of microarrays revealed that the period from 11 to 15 DPA was more important than the 15–20 DPA stage for the synthesis and accumulation of nutritive reserves. Series test of cluster analysis of differential genes revealed five statistically significant gene expression profiles. Gene ontology annotation and enrichment analysis gave further informa-tion about differentially expressed genes, and MapMan analysis revealed expression changes within functional groups during seed development. Metabolic pathway network analysis showed that major and minor metabolic pathways regulate one another to ensure regular seed development and nutritive reserve accumulation. We performed gene co-expression network analysis to identify genes that play vital roles in seed development and identified several key genes involved in important metabolic pathways. The transcriptional expression of eight key genes involved in starch and protein synthesis and stress defense was further validated by qRT-PCR. Our results provide new insight into the molecular mechanisms of wheat seed development and the determinants of yield and quality.

  2. Transcriptome analysis reveals key differentially expressed genes involved in wheat grain development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonglong Yu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Wheat seed development is an important physiological process of seed maturation and directly affects wheat yield and quality. In this study, we performed dynamic transcriptome microarray analysis of an elite Chinese bread wheat cultivar (Jimai 20 during grain development using the GeneChip Wheat Genome Array. Grain morphology and scanning electron microscope observations showed that the period of 11–15 days post-anthesis (DPA was a key stage for the synthesis and accumulation of seed starch. Genome-wide transcriptional profiling and significance analysis of microarrays revealed that the period from 11 to 15 DPA was more important than the 15–20 DPA stage for the synthesis and accumulation of nutritive reserves. Series test of cluster analysis of differential genes revealed five statistically significant gene expression profiles. Gene ontology annotation and enrichment analysis gave further information about differentially expressed genes, and MapMan analysis revealed expression changes within functional groups during seed development. Metabolic pathway network analysis showed that major and minor metabolic pathways regulate one another to ensure regular seed development and nutritive reserve accumulation. We performed gene co-expression network analysis to identify genes that play vital roles in seed development and identified several key genes involved in important metabolic pathways. The transcriptional expression of eight key genes involved in starch and protein synthesis and stress defense was further validated by qRT-PCR. Our results provide new insight into the molecular mechanisms of wheat seed development and the determinants of yield and quality.

  3. Effects of rhizobial bacteria on K, Ca and Na concentration of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. in saline soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S homayoon

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Soil salinity is one of the major agricultural problems and it is limiting crop productivity in many parts of the cultivated areas all over the world. Saline soils are differentiated by the presence of great ratios of Na/Ca, Na/K, Ca2+, Mg2+, and Cl/NO3 (Gratan & Catherine, 1993 and high levels of neutral salts in the surface layers, which are resulting from the capillary action (Al-Falih, 2002. Osmotic stress occurs when soluble salts increase in the soils and then results in specific ion toxicity (Agarwal & Ahmad, 2010. Therefore, one of the most important side effects of salinity is nutritional disorders. High concentration of NaCl in the root medium usually reduces nutrients uptake and affects the transportation of potassium and calcium ions in plant. (Gratan & Catherine, 1993 reported that the salinity of soils changes ionic strength of the substrate and it can influence mineral nutrient uptake and translocation. Salinity also changes the mineral nutrient availability and disrupts the mineral relations of plants. Hence, the main purpose of this research is to evaluate the effects of rhizobial bacteria inoculation on K, Ca and Na concentration of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. in saline soils. Material and methods Soil sample was collected from Astan Ghodse Razavi farm, Mashhad Iran, and then was dried and passed through a 12-mesh (approximately 2 mm screen. Soil sample was divided into three parts and then was placed into three containers. Each container was watered by a different proportion of saline water (EC= 10 dS.m-1. Salinity of soils was regularly monitored until three salinities (2, 6 and 10 dS.m-1 came out. Then, a completely randomized design with a factorial arrangement was carried out in a greenhouse condition. The experimental factors included four levels of inoculation (Sinorhizobium meliloti, Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Rhizobium leguminosarum and control and three levels of soil salinity (2, 6 and 10 dS.m-1 with

  4. GRAIN QUALITY AND NORTH AMERICAN HARD WHEAT EXPORTS

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, William W.; Dahl, Bruce L.

    1998-01-01

    Past debate on competition and quality in international wheat markets has focused on class and country of origin as the salient source of differentiation. This study analyzes changes in demand for both wheat classes and grades. Comparisons are made between Canadian and U.S. hard wheats, principal competitors in the hard wheat market. Both countries are dominant producers of Hard Red Spring Wheat (HRS in the United States and Canadian Western Red Spring [CWRS] in Canada); the United States is ...

  5. Micromilling enhances iron bioaccessibility from wholegrain wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latunde-Dada, G O; Li, X; Parodi, A; Edwards, C H; Ellis, P R; Sharp, P A

    2014-11-19

    Cereals constitute important sources of iron in human diet; however, much of the iron in wheat is lost during processing for the production of white flour. This study employed novel food processing techniques to increase the bioaccessibility of naturally occurring iron in wheat. Iron was localized in wheat by Perl's Prussian blue staining. Soluble iron from digested wheat flour was measured by a ferrozine spectrophotometric assay. Iron bioaccessibility was determined using an in vitro simulated peptic-pancreatic digestion, followed by measurement of ferritin (a surrogate marker for iron absorption) in Caco-2 cells. Light microscopy revealed that iron in wheat was encapsulated in cells of the aleurone layer and remained intact after in vivo digestion and passage through the gastrointestinal tract. The solubility of iron in wholegrain wheat and in purified wheat aleurone increased significantly after enzymatic digestion with Driselase, and following mechanical disruption using micromilling. Furthermore, following in vitro simulated peptic-pancreatic digestion, iron bioaccessibility, measured as ferritin formation in Caco-2 cells, from micromilled aleurone flour was significantly higher (52%) than from whole aleurone flour. Taken together our data show that disruption of aleurone cell walls could increase iron bioaccessibility. Micromilled aleurone could provide an alternative strategy for iron fortification of cereal products.

  6. Aluminium toxicity in winter wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szabó A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium is the most frequent metal of the earth crust; it occurs mainly as biologically inactive, insoluble deposit. Environmental problems, industrial contaminations and acid rains increase the soil acidity, leading to the mobilization of Al. Half of the world’s potential arable lands are acidic; therefore, Al-toxicity decreases crop productivity. Wheat is a staple food for 35% of the world population. The effects of Al-stress (0.1 mM were studied on winter wheat; seedlings were grown hydroponically, at acidic pH. After two weeks, the root weight was decreased; a significant difference was found in the P- and Ca-content. The shoot weight and element content changed slightly; Al-content in the root was one magnitude higher than in the shoot, while Al-translocation was limited. The root plasma membrane H+-ATPase has central role in the uptake processes; Al-stress increased the Mg2+-ATPase activity of the microsomal fraction.

  7. Microencapsulation of wheat germ oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazicioglu, Basak; Sahin, Serpil; Sumnu, Gulum

    2015-06-01

    Wheat germ oil (WGO) is beneficial for health since it is a rich source of omega-3, omega-6 and tocopherol. However, as it contains polyunsaturated fatty acids, it is prone to oxidation. The aim of this study was to encapsulate wheat germ oil and determine the effects of core to coating ratio, coating materials ratio and ultrasonication time on particle size distribution of emulsions and encapsulation efficiency (EE) and surface morphology of capsules. Maltodextrin (MD) and whey protein concentrate (WPC) at different ratios (3:1, 2:2, 1:3) were used as coating materials. Total solid content of samples was 40 % (w/w). Five core to coating ratios (1:8, 1:4, 1:2, 3:4, 1:1) were tried. Ultrasound was used at 320 W and 20 kHz for 2, 5, 10 min to obtain emulsions. Then, emulsions were freeze dried to obtain microcapsules. It was observed that, increasing WPC ratio in the coating resulted in higher encapsulation efficiency and smaller particle size. Microcapsules prepared with MD:WPC ratio of 1:3 were found to have higher EE (74.35-89.62 %). Increase in oil load led to decrease in EE. Thus 1:8 core to coating ratio gave better results. Increasing ultrasonication time also had a positive effect on encapsulation efficiency.

  8. Study on Homogeneous Particleboard of Wheat Straw

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    In the paper homogeneous particleboard of wheat straw is researched. The result shows the technology of homogeneous particleboard from cost and quality. The moisture content of straw particle is 2.0%~2.5 %. The temperature of hot-pressing is 150℃. The time of hot-pressing is 48 sec/mm ( panel thickness). The ratio between MDI and UF is 0.40. The glue content for surface layer of wheat straw particle is 10% (MDI 2.86%, UF 7.14%). The glue content for core layer of wheat straw particle is 8% (MDI 2.29%, U...

  9. Pelletizing properties of torrefied wheat straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stelte, Wolfgang; Nielsen, Niels Peter; Hansen, Hans Ove;

    2013-01-01

    of wheat straw have been analyzed. Laboratory equipment has been used to investigate the pelletizing properties of wheat straw torrefied at temperatures between 150 and 300 °C. IR spectroscopy and chemical analyses have shown that high torrefaction temperatures change the chemical properties of the wheat...... straw significantly, and the pelletizing analyses have shown that these changes correlate to changes in the pelletizing properties. Torrefaction increase the friction in the press channel and pellet strength and density decrease with an increase in torrefaction temperature....

  10. On the Parable of Weeds and Wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Wei

    2013-01-01

    This paper probes on one of the famous parables of Jesus-the Wheat and Weeds, and demonstrates some implied meaning and morals connoted in it. Through an interesting contrast between the calm restraint of the householder and high anxi-ety of his slaves, this parable suggests that people should stay calm and learn from God to be tolerate and lenient religiously to“let wheat and weeds grow together until the harvest”. Meanwhile, God drops a subtle hint to seed wheat positively in stead of sug-gesting people to remove weeds negatively.

  11. Durum wheat quality prediction in Mediterranean environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toscano, P.; Gioli, B.; Genesio, L.

    2014-01-01

    Durum wheat is one of the most important agricultural crops in the Mediterranean area. In addition to yield, grain quality is very important in wheat markets because of the demand for high-quality end products such as pasta, couscous and bulgur wheat. Grain quality is directly affected by several...... agronomic and environmental factors. Our objective is to determine the general principles underlying how, in Mediterranean environments, grain protein content (GPC) is affected by these factors and provide a system model with high predictive ability. We initially evaluated the capability of the Delphi...

  12. Patterns of suspected wheat-related allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junker Christensen, Morten; Eller, Esben; Mortz, Charlotte G

    2014-01-01

    ). All children had atopic dermatitis, and most (13/15) outgrew their wheat allergy. Most children (13/15) had other food allergies. Challenge positive patients showed significantly higher levels of sIgE to wheat and significantly more were SPT positive than challenge negative. Group 2: Eleven out of 13...... adults with occupational asthma or rhinitis were challenge positive. None outgrew their allergy. Seven had positive sIgE and 10 had positive SPT to wheat. Group 3: Ten of 48 (adolescent/adults) were positive when challenged during exercise. Challenge positive patients showed significantly higher levels...

  13. Chronic headaches and sleepiness caused by facial soap (containing hydrolyzed wheat proteins)-induced wheat allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iseki, Chifumi; Kawanami, Toru; Tsunoda, Takahiko; Chinuki, Yuko; Kato, Takeo

    2014-01-01

    A 38-year-old woman was suffering from irregular headaches and sleepiness. She had used soap containing Glupearl 19S (hydrolyzed wheat proteins) every day for approximately one year and had experienced an episode of rash eruption on her face seven months ago. Wheat-specific IgE antibodies were detected in her serum. A Western blot analysis revealed a high titer of IgE antibodies against Glupearl 19S and wheat proteins. The patient was sensitive to these compounds in a skin prick test. After avoiding eating wheat, her headaches and sleepiness disappeared. A hidden food allergy is a possible cause of these symptoms.

  14. Wheat Bran Phenolic Acids: Bioavailability and Stability in Whole Wheat-Based Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Laddomada

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Wheat bran is generally considered a byproduct of the flour milling industry, but it is a great source of fibers, minerals, and antioxidants that are important for human health. Phenolic acids are a specific class of wheat bran components that may act as antioxidants to prevent heart disease and to lower the incidence of colon cancer. Moreover, phenolic acids have anti-inflammatory properties that are potentially significant for the promotion of gastrointestinal health. Evidence on the beneficial effects of phenolic acids as well as of other wheat bran components is encouraging the use of wheat bran as an ingredient of functional foods. After an overview of the chemistry, function, and bioavailability of wheat phenolic acids, the discussion will focus on how technologies can allow the formulation of new, functional whole wheat products with enhanced health-promoting value and safety without renouncing the good-tasting standards that are required by consumers. Finally, this review summarizes the latest studies about the stability of phenolic acids in wheat foods fortified by the addition of wheat bran, pearled fractions, or wheat bran extracts.

  15. Wheat Bran Phenolic Acids: Bioavailability and Stability in Whole Wheat-Based Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laddomada, Barbara; Caretto, Sofia; Mita, Giovanni

    2015-08-28

    Wheat bran is generally considered a byproduct of the flour milling industry, but it is a great source of fibers, minerals, and antioxidants that are important for human health. Phenolic acids are a specific class of wheat bran components that may act as antioxidants to prevent heart disease and to lower the incidence of colon cancer. Moreover, phenolic acids have anti-inflammatory properties that are potentially significant for the promotion of gastrointestinal health. Evidence on the beneficial effects of phenolic acids as well as of other wheat bran components is encouraging the use of wheat bran as an ingredient of functional foods. After an overview of the chemistry, function, and bioavailability of wheat phenolic acids, the discussion will focus on how technologies can allow the formulation of new, functional whole wheat products with enhanced health-promoting value and safety without renouncing the good-tasting standards that are required by consumers. Finally, this review summarizes the latest studies about the stability of phenolic acids in wheat foods fortified by the addition of wheat bran, pearled fractions, or wheat bran extracts.

  16. Durum wheat and allelopathy: toward wheat breeding for natural weed management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragasso, Mariagiovanna; Iannucci, Anna; Papa, Roberto

    2013-09-24

    Wheat-derived foodstuffs represent about one-fifth of the calories consumed by humans worldwide. Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is one of the most important crops throughout the world, and it has been extensively studied for its allelopathic potential. In contrast, for allelopathy in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum), our knowledge is partial and fragmentary. Through highlighting recent advances in using allelopathy as a crop-breeding tool, we provide an overview of allelopathy in Triticum spp., to stimulate further coordinated breeding-oriented studies, to favor allelopathy exploitation for the sustainable cultivation of wheat, and in particular, to achieve improved biological weed control.

  17. Segregation ratios of colored grains in F1 hybrid wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zifeng Guo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutritious and functional foods from wheat have received great attention in recent years. Colored-grain wheat contains a large number of nutrients such as anthocyanins and hence the breeding is interesting. In this work, colored-grained wheat lines of mixed pollination of einkorn wheat (Triticum boeoticum, AA and French rye (French Secale cereale, RR were used as male parents and wheat line Y1642 (derived from common wheat and Agropyron elongatum, AABBDD was used as the female parent. These colored wheat were used for diallel cross to study the segregation ratios of F1 colored grains. Results show that the color inheritance of purple-grained wheat follows a maternal inheritance pattern and that the blue-grained wheat expresses xenia in most cases. In some circumstances, the grains with different color shades appear in the same spike.

  18. Research and application of hybrid wheat in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Changping

    2013-01-01

    Hybrid wheat is recognized as a preferred approach to improve wheat yield,and it will be a competi-tion focus in high-tech seed industry in the future. We have made a breakthrough for the first time in creation of two-line hybrid wheat system,which reaches the world leading level in wheat research and has laid an important foundation for the future direction of the world wheat research. Similar to hybrid rice,the innovation of two-line hybrid wheat system is another achievement in science and technology. The application of hybrid wheat in China will greatly increase the food production,and make a great significance to food production and food security. This paper introduces the development process and major breakthrough of hybrid wheat in China,and the main bottle-neck and countermeasures in the application of hybrid wheat.

  19. One step conversion of wheat straw to sugars by simultaneous ball milling, mild acid, and fungus Penicillium simplicissimum treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Li; Chen, Zhenhua; Zhu, Yonghua; Liu, Xuanming; Liao, Hongdong; Chen, Ding

    2012-05-01

    Wheat straw is one of the major lignocellulosic plant residues in many countries including China. An attractive alternative is the utilization of wheat straw for bioethanol production. This article mainly studies a simple one-step wet milling with Penicillium simplicissimum and weak acid to hydrolysis of wheat straw. The optimal condition for hydrolysis was ball milling 48 h in citrate solvent (pH = 4) with P. simplicissimum H5 at the speed of 500 rpm and the yield of sugar increased with increased milling time. Corresponding structure transformations before and after milling analyzed by X-ray diffraction, transmission Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and environmental scanning electron microscopy clearly indicated that this combined treatment could be attributed to the crystalline and chemical structure changes of cellulose in wheat straw during ball milling. This combined treatment of ball milling, mild acid, and fungus hydrolysis enabled the conversion of the wheat straw. Compared with traditional method of ball milling, this work showed a more simple, novel, and environmentally friendly way in mechanochemical treatment of wheat straw.

  20. Influence of dextran-producing Weissella cibaria on baking properties and sensory profile of gluten-free and wheat breads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolter, Anika; Hager, Anna-Sophie; Zannini, Emanuele; Czerny, Michael; Arendt, Elke K

    2014-02-17

    Breads based on gluten-free buckwheat, quinoa, sorghum and teff flours were produced with addition of 20% sourdough fermented with exopolysaccharide (EPS) producing Weissella cibaria MG1. Wheat bread was baked as a reference. Dough rheology, bread quality parameters and sensory properties of the sourdough-containing breads were compared to sourdough non-containing control breads of the respective flour. The specific volume remained unaffected by sourdough application. In buckwheat, sorghum, teff and wheat sourdough breads acidification increased crumb porosity compared to control breads. Crumb hardness was significantly reduced in buckwheat (-122%), teff (-29%), quinoa (-21%) and wheat sourdough breads (-122%). The staling rate was significantly reduced in buckwheat, teff and wheat sourdough breads. Water activity of the sourdough containing bread crumb was not influenced by the presence of EPS. Due to the presence of exopolysaccharides (EPS) and influence of acidification, the dough strength, AF, as measured by oscillation tests decreased significantly in sourdough-containing buckwheat, sorghum and wheat dough, but increased in sourdough-containing quinoa and teff dough. Microbial shelf-life was significantly prolonged neither for gluten-free sourdough nor for wheat sourdough breads. Scanning electron microscopy of control and sourdough bread crumbs did not show differences concerning structural starch features. In addition, the aroma of most bread was not improved by sourdough addition.

  1. 抗旱性不同品种的小麦叶片中光合电子传递和分配对氮素水平的响应%Responses of Photosynthetic Electron Transport and Partition in the Winter Wheat Leaves of Different Drought Resistances to Nitrogen Levels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张绪成; 上官周平

    2009-01-01

    在大田控制条件下,以植物叶片气体交换和叶绿素荧光测定相结合的方法,研究抗旱性不同品种冬小麦拔节期叶片的光合电子传递及激发能利用分配对氮素响应的结果表明,施氮可提高抗旱性不同品种小麦叶片天线色素吸收光能的能力,虽然氮素不能改变激发能在光合碳还原(PCR)和光合碳氧化(PCO)之间的分配比例,但可提高PSII总电子传递速率(J_F)和P_n.低氮下不同品种小麦叶片的热耗散比例有差异,但中高氮下叶片之间无显著差异.旱地品种的JF值随氮素水平的提高而先增加后下降,而水地品种则表现为持续升高;2个小麦品种的叶片J_0值随氮素水平的提高而呈持续升高的变化趋势.氮素对叶片PSII反应中心活性有影响,而不同抗旱性品种之间亦有差别,说明施氮可改善小麦叶片热耗散和光化学反应对激发能的竞争关系,从而增强光合机构的自我保护能力.%The responses of photosynthetic electron transport and excitation energy distribution in winter wheat leaves at the jointing stage to nitrogen levels were studied in the field experiment, both leaf gas exchange parameter and chlorophyll fluorescence were measured. The light energy absorbed by antenna pigment of both cultivars increased with the treatment of nitrogen. Although nitrogen could not obviously change the distribution proportion of photosynthetic carbon reduction and photosynthetic carbon oxidation, nitrogen could increase J_F of PSII and photosynthetic rate. The heat dissipation proportion in different winter wheat cultivar leaves was significantly different under low nitrogen condition. But there were no obvious differences in leaves under middle or high nitrogen condition. J_F of dryland cultivar increased with the increasing levels of nitrogen at first and then decreased, while J_F of watered cultivar increased continuously with the increasing levels of nitrogen. J_0 of the two cultivars also

  2. Common bunt resistant wheat composite cross populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffan, Philipp Matthias; Borgen, A.; Backes, Gunter Martin

    stability. However, a number of challenges must be met before diverse wheat populations can be introduced into commercial wheat production: one of these is the development of breeding technologies based on mass selection which enable breeders and farmers to improve specific traits in populations...... and maintain diversity at the same time. BIOBREED is a project which commenced in Denmark in 2011 to meet these challenges for wheat population breeding. The project focuses on the development of tools and methods for mass selection of traits relevant for organic and low input production, where it is expected...... that the highest benefits of utilizing diverse populations can be achieved. BIOBREED focuses on three main aspects of wheat population breeding for organic and low input production systems: i) common bunt (caused by Tilletia caries) resistance, ii) selection for improved protein content and iii) the influence...

  3. Evaluation of wheat by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2010-01-11

    Jan 11, 2010 ... SDS-PAGE gels cluster analysis was performed to check the ... It is concluded that SDS-PAGE analysis of wheat endosperm protein is useful for evaluation of ..... Comparison of phenotypic and molecular marker-based.

  4. QUALITY PARAMETRES OF EMMER WHEAT LANDRACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr KONVALINA

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Emmer wheat, Triticum dicoccum SCHUEBL, is an old variety of cereals which has been traditionally grown in aride areas. Nowdays, it is mainly grown in Italy, Spain, Turkey, Austria and in the Czech republic. This article deals with a study of quality parametres and selected economic parametres of 6 varieties coming from the genetic resources of emmer wheat. High crude protein content in grain was proved during the trials. Nevertheless, such a characteristic is not suitable for the classical bakery processing (production of leavened products. Low figure of the harvest index is supposed to be the most problematic economic character. However, emmer wheat is a suitable variety for organic farming system. Growing of emmer wheat contributes to an extension of the agrobiodiversity in the countryside and to the suistainable development of a region.

  5. Benchmark data set for wheat growth models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asseng, S; Ewert, F.; Martre, P;

    2015-01-01

    The data set includes a current representative management treatment from detailed, quality-tested sentinel field experiments with wheat from four contrasting environments including Australia, The Netherlands, India and Argentina. Measurements include local daily climate data (solar radiation, max...

  6. Production of ethanol from wheat straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smuga-Kogut Małgorzata

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a method for the production of ethanol from wheat straw lignocellulose where the raw material is chemically processed before hydrolysis and fermentation. The usefulness of wheat straw delignification was evaluated with the use of a 4:1 mixture of 95% ethanol and 65% HNO3 (V. Chemically processed lignocellulose was subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis to produce reducing sugars, which were converted to ethanol in the process of alcoholic fermentation. Chemical processing damages the molecular structure of wheat straw, thus improving ethanol yield. The removal of lignin from straw improves fermentation by eliminating lignin’s negative influence on the growth and viability of yeast cells. Straw pretreatment facilitates enzymatic hydrolysis by increasing the content of reducing sugars and ethanol per g in comparison with untreated wheat straw.

  7. Prevalence of Wheat Allergy in Japanese Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eishin Morita

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: The prevalence of wheat allergy in Japanese adults was found to be 0.21% by using a combination of questionnaire-based examination, skin prick test and serum omega-5 gliadin-specific IgE test.

  8. AGRONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF EMMER WHEAT VARIETIES

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Magdaléna Lacko - Bartosová; Veronika Curná

    2015-01-01

    ...) of four emmer wheat varieties - Agnone, Farvento, Molise sel Colli, Guardiaregia cultivated under the conditions of organic farming system in the south region of the Slovak republic during 2010...

  9. Rising Temperatures Reduce Global Wheat Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asseng, S.; Ewert, F.; Martre, P.; Rötter, R. P.; Lobell, D. B.; Cammarano, D.; Kimball, B. A.; Ottman, M. J.; Wall, G. W.; White, J. W.; Reynolds, M. P.; Alderman, P. D.; Prasad, P. V. V.; Aggarwal, P. K.; Anothai, J.; Basso, B.; Biernath, C.; Challinor, A. J.; De Sanctis, G.; Doltra, J.; Fereres, E.; Garcia-Vila, M.; Gayler, S.; Hoogenboom, G.; Hunt, L. A.; Izaurralde, R. C.; Jabloun, M.; C. D. Jones,; Kersebaum, K. C.; Koehler, A-K.; Müller, C.; Naresh Kumar, S.; Nendel, C.; O’Leary, G.; Olesen, J. E.; Palosuo, T.; Priesack, E.; Eyshi Rezaei, E.; Ruane, A. C.; Semenov, M. A.; Shcherbak, I.; Stöckle, C.; Stratonovitch, P.; Streck, T.; Supit, I.; Tao, F.; Thorburn, P. J.; Waha, K.; Wang, E.; Wallach, D.; Wolf, J.; Zhao, Z.; Zhu, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Crop models are essential tools for assessing the threat of climate change to local and global food production. Present models used to predict wheat grain yield are highly uncertain when simulating how crops respond to temperature. Here we systematically tested 30 different wheat crop models of the Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project against field experiments in which growing season mean temperatures ranged from 15 degrees C to 32? degrees C, including experiments with artificial heating. Many models simulated yields well, but were less accurate at higher temperatures. The model ensemble median was consistently more accurate in simulating the crop temperature response than any single model, regardless of the input information used. Extrapolating the model ensemble temperature response indicates that warming is already slowing yield gains at a majority of wheat-growing locations. Global wheat production is estimated to fall by 6% for each degree C of further temperature increase and become more variable over space and time.

  10. Lead- induced genotoxicity in wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Truta

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The changes induced in cytogenetic parameters from root meristems of Triticum aestivum cv. Maruca seedlings have been studied after treatment with lead acetate and lead nitrate solutions, at four concentrations (10, 25, 50, 100 μM containing 2.07, 5.18, 10.36, respectively 20.72 μg ml-1 Pb2+. Lead induced mitosis disturbances in root meristematic cells of wheat seedlings, expressed mainly in decrease of mitotic index and changes in preponderance of division phases. This heavy metal has genotoxic effects, expressed in the occurrence of many chromosomal aberrations in all Pb2+ treated variants. Pb2+ nitrate shows a more pronounced genotoxic potential than lead acetate trihydrate.

  11. Adjuvants for spraying of fungicides in wheat

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The foliar diseases and spike can markedly reduce the yield of wheat. Despite prevailing chemical control in the management of disease, studies with adjuvants to improve the performance of fungicides are still incipient. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of adding adjuvants to chemical fungicides to control leaf diseases and spike, as well as on the yield of wheat crop. The experimental design was a randomized block design with 05 treatments: control (no fungicide application i...

  12. Drought tolerance in modern and wild wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budak, Hikmet; Kantar, Melda; Kurtoglu, Kuaybe Yucebilgili

    2013-01-01

    The genus Triticum includes bread (Triticum aestivum) and durum wheat (Triticum durum) and constitutes a major source for human food consumption. Drought is currently the leading threat on world's food supply, limiting crop yield, and is complicated since drought tolerance is a quantitative trait with a complex phenotype affected by the plant's developmental stage. Drought tolerance is crucial to stabilize and increase food production since domestication has limited the genetic diversity of crops including wild wheat, leading to cultivated species, adapted to artificial environments, and lost tolerance to drought stress. Improvement for drought tolerance can be achieved by the introduction of drought-grelated genes and QTLs to modern wheat cultivars. Therefore, identification of candidate molecules or loci involved in drought tolerance is necessary, which is undertaken by "omics" studies and QTL mapping. In this sense, wild counterparts of modern varieties, specifically wild emmer wheat (T. dicoccoides), which are highly tolerant to drought, hold a great potential. Prior to their introgression to modern wheat cultivars, drought related candidate genes are first characterized at the molecular level, and their function is confirmed via transgenic studies. After integration of the tolerance loci, specific environment targeted field trials are performed coupled with extensive analysis of morphological and physiological characteristics of developed cultivars, to assess their performance under drought conditions and their possible contributions to yield in certain regions. This paper focuses on recent advances on drought related gene/QTL identification, studies on drought related molecular pathways, and current efforts on improvement of wheat cultivars for drought tolerance.

  13. Biodegradation of wheat straw by Pleurotus ostreatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, V K; Singh, M P

    2014-12-24

    Wheat straw pretreated with chemicals as well as hot water was subjected to degradation by edible mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus. Lignin, cellulose and hemicelluloses component of both chemically as well as hot water treated wheat straw was degraded by the fungus and in turn the edible and nutritious fruiting body of the mushroom was produced. Biodegradation of wheat straw in terms of loss of lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose showed positive correlation with cellulases, xylanase, laccase and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity of the fungus. During vegetative growth of the fungus, lignin degradation was faster and during fructification, lignin degradation was slower than cellulose and hemicellulose. The carbon content of the wheat straw decreased while, nitrogen content increased during degradation of the waste. Hot water treated wheat straw supported better production of enzymatic activity and degraded more efficiently than chemically sterilized substrate. The cumulative yield and biological efficiency (BE) of the mushroom was maximum on the hot water treated substrate. Degradation of the hot water treated wheat straw was better and faster than chemically treated substrate.

  14. Amelioration of drought tolerance in wheat by the interaction of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gontia-Mishra, I; Sapre, S; Sharma, A; Tiwari, S

    2016-11-01

    Drought stress adversely affects the growth and yield of wheat. The present study was planned to investigate the effect of inoculation of plant-growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) strains IG 3 (Klebsiella sp.), IG 10 (Enterobacter ludwigii) and IG 15 (Flavobacterium sp.) in improving drought tolerance in wheat. These PGPR strains were screened for drought tolerance in nutrient broth supplemented with different concentrations (0-25%) of polyethylene glycol (PEG6000). Effect of PGPR inoculation on various physiological, biochemical parameters and gene expression of stress responsive genes were studied under drought stress. Root colonization at the surface and interiors of roots was demonstrated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and tetrazolium staining, respectively. Drought stress significantly affected various growth parameters, water status, membrane integrity, osmolyte accumulation and stress-responsive gene expressions, which were positively altered by PGPR-inoculation in wheat. Quantitative real-time (qRT)-PCR analysis revealed the up regulation of some stress-related genes (DREB2A and CAT1) in un-inoculated wheat plants exposed to drought stress. PGPR-inoculated plants showed attenuated transcript levels suggesting improved drought tolerance due to interaction of PGPRs. The PGPR strain IG 3 was found to be the best in terms of influencing biochemical and physiological status of the seedlings under drought stress. Our report demonstrates the role of PGPRs Enterobacter ludwigii and Flavobacterium sp. in plant growth promotion of wheat plants under drought stress. The study reports the potential of PGPR in alleviating drought stress in wheat which could be used as potent biofertilizers.

  15. Deoxynivalenol. Derivation of concentration limits in wheat and wheat containing food products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters MN; Fiolet DCM; Baars AJ; CSR

    1999-01-01

    The mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) produced by fungi of the Fusarium genus may occur in various cereal crops. A provisional TDI of 1.1 ug per kg body weight was derived to calculate concentration limits for the mycotoxin, deoxynivalenol (DON), in wheat and wheat food products. Children (1-4 years

  16. Quality of shear fractionated wheat gluten – comparison to commercial vital wheat gluten

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zalm, van der E.E.J.; Goot, van der A.J.; Boom, R.M.

    2011-01-01

    The functional properties of gluten obtained with a shear-induced separation process, recently proposed by Peighambardoust et al. (2008), are compared with a commercially available vital wheat gluten. Two tests were performed. First, a relatively strong wheat flour, Soissons, was enriched with

  17. Deoxynivalenol. Derivation of concentration limits in wheat and wheat containing food products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters MN; Fiolet DCM; Baars AJ; CSR

    1999-01-01

    The mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) produced by fungi of the Fusarium genus may occur in various cereal crops. A provisional TDI of 1.1 ug per kg body weight was derived to calculate concentration limits for the mycotoxin, deoxynivalenol (DON), in wheat and wheat food products. Children (1-4 years o

  18. Strategies to reduce or prevent wheat coeliacimmunogenicity and wheat sensitivity through food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilissen, L.J.W.J.; Meer, van der I.M.; Smulders, M.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Cereals are among the oldest foods of humans. Wheat is one of these. In present times,several syndromes are, whether true or false, increasingly attributed to the consumption of wheat, with increasing costs for medical care and decreasing turnover for the food industry, especially the bakery sector.

  19. The surface-associated proteins of wheat starch granules: suitability of wheat starch for celiac patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat starch is used to make baked products for celiac patients in several European countries, but is avoided in the US because of uncertainty about the amounts of associated grain storage (gluten) proteins. People with celiac disease (CD) must avoid wheat, rye and barley proteins and products that...

  20. Comparison of Volatiles Profile and Contents of Trichothecenes Group B, Ergosterol, and ATP of Bread Wheat, Durum Wheat, and Triticale Grain Naturally Contaminated by Mycobiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buśko, Maciej; Stuper, Kinga; Jeleń, Henryk; Góral, Tomasz; Chmielewski, Jarosław; Tyrakowska, Bożena; Perkowski, Juliusz

    2016-01-01

    In natural conditions cereals can be infested by pathogenic fungi. These can reduce the grain yield and quality by contamination with mycotoxins which are harmful for plants, animals, and humans. To date, performed studies of the compounds profile have allowed for the distinction of individual species of fungi. The aim of this study was to determine the profile of volatile compounds and trichothecenes of group B, ergosterol, adenosine triphosphate content carried out on a representative sample of 16 genotypes of related cereals: triticale, bread wheat, and durum wheat. Based on an analysis of volatile compounds by means of gas chromatography mass spectrometry and with the use of an electronic nose, volatile profiles for cereals were determined. Differentiation is presented at four levels through discriminant analysis, heatmaps, principal component analysis (PCA), and electronic nose maps. The statistical model was built by subsequent incorporation of chemical groups such as trichothecenes (GC/MS), fungal biomass indicators ergosterol (HPLC) and ATP (luminometric) and volatiles. The results of the discriminatory analyses showed that the volatile metabolites most markedly differentiated grain samples, among which were mainly: lilial, trichodiene, p-xylene. Electronic nose analysis made it possible to completely separate all the analyzed cereals based only on 100 ions from the 50-150 m/z range. The research carried out using chemometric analysis indicated significant differences in the volatile metabolites present in the grain of bread wheat, durum wheat and triticale. The end result of the performed analyses was a complete discrimination of the examined cereals based on the metabolites present in their grain.

  1. Comparison of volatiles profile and contents of trichothecenes group B, ergosterol and ATP of bread wheat, durum wheat and triticale grain naturally contaminated by mycobiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Buśko

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In natural conditions cereals can be infested by pathogenic fungi. These can reduce the grain yield and quality by contamination with mycotoxins which are harmful for plants, animals and humans. To date, performed studies of the compounds profile have allowed for the distinction of individual species of fungi. The aim of this study was to determine the profile of volatile compounds and trichothecenes of group B, ergosterol, adenosine triphosphate content carried out on a representative sample of 16 genotypes of related cereals: triticale, bread wheat and durum wheat. Based on an analysis of volatile compounds by means of gas chromatography mass spectrometry and with the use of an electronic nose, volatile profiles for cereals were determined. Differentiation is presented at four levels through discriminant analysis, heatmaps, principal component analysis (PCA and electronic nose maps. The statistical model was built by subsequent incorporation of chemical groups such as trichothecenes (GC/MS, fungal biomass indicators (ergosterol (HPLC and ATP (luminometric and volatiles. The results of the discriminatory analyses showed that the volatile metabolites most markedly differentiated grain samples, among which were mainly: lilial, trichodiene, p-xylene. Electronic nose analysis made it possible to completely separate all the analyzed cereals based only on 100 ions from the 50-150 m/z range.The research carried out using chemometric analysis indicated significant differences in the volatile metabolites present in the grain of bread wheat, durum wheat and triticale. The end result of the performed analyses was a complete discrimination of the examined cereals based on the metabolites present in their grain.

  2. Comparison of Volatiles Profile and Contents of Trichothecenes Group B, Ergosterol, and ATP of Bread Wheat, Durum Wheat, and Triticale Grain Naturally Contaminated by Mycobiota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buśko, Maciej; Stuper, Kinga; Jeleń, Henryk; Góral, Tomasz; Chmielewski, Jarosław; Tyrakowska, Bożena; Perkowski, Juliusz

    2016-01-01

    In natural conditions cereals can be infested by pathogenic fungi. These can reduce the grain yield and quality by contamination with mycotoxins which are harmful for plants, animals, and humans. To date, performed studies of the compounds profile have allowed for the distinction of individual species of fungi. The aim of this study was to determine the profile of volatile compounds and trichothecenes of group B, ergosterol, adenosine triphosphate content carried out on a representative sample of 16 genotypes of related cereals: triticale, bread wheat, and durum wheat. Based on an analysis of volatile compounds by means of gas chromatography mass spectrometry and with the use of an electronic nose, volatile profiles for cereals were determined. Differentiation is presented at four levels through discriminant analysis, heatmaps, principal component analysis (PCA), and electronic nose maps. The statistical model was built by subsequent incorporation of chemical groups such as trichothecenes (GC/MS), fungal biomass indicators ergosterol (HPLC) and ATP (luminometric) and volatiles. The results of the discriminatory analyses showed that the volatile metabolites most markedly differentiated grain samples, among which were mainly: lilial, trichodiene, p-xylene. Electronic nose analysis made it possible to completely separate all the analyzed cereals based only on 100 ions from the 50–150 m/z range. The research carried out using chemometric analysis indicated significant differences in the volatile metabolites present in the grain of bread wheat, durum wheat and triticale. The end result of the performed analyses was a complete discrimination of the examined cereals based on the metabolites present in their grain. PMID:27597856

  3. [Wheat dependent exercise induced anaphylaxis possibly sensitized by the hydrolyzed wheat proteins in a facial cleansing soap].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Miwa; Okura, Risa; Yoshioka, Haruna; Hiromasa, Kana; Yoshioka, Manabu; Nakamura, Motonobu

    2012-03-01

    There are increasing cases of wheat dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (WDEIA) with transcutaneous or transmucosal sensitization. Hydrolyzed wheat included in a certain brand of soap was identified as a cause of sensitization. The useful clues to detect this disorder consist of the patient's past usage of a soap containing hydrolyzed wheat, the appearance of cutaneous or mucosal symptoms after the intake of wheat or washing with this soap, and a high level of specific IgE for wheat gluten. Because hydrolyzed wheat is used as an additive in a wide variety of cosmetics, we should pay careful attention to the ingredients of cosmetics when observing WDEIA.

  4. Annual variation of deoxynivalenol in Danish wheat flour 1998-2003 and estimated daily intake by the Danish population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter Have; Petersen, A.; Pasikhani, Faranak Ghorbani

    2007-01-01

    The occurrence of deoxynivalenol ( DON) in Danish wheat flour was studied during the period 1998 - 2003 by either capillary gas chromatography with electron capture detection and liquid chromatography coupled to an ion trap mass spectrophotometer. A total of 151 samples were collected from mills...

  5. [A Complex Morpho-Histological Approach to the In Vitro Study of Morphogenic Structures in a Wheat Anther Culture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seldimirova, O A; Titova, G E; Kruglova, N N

    2016-01-01

    The external morphological and internal histological features of morphogenic structures (embryoids, calli with embryoids, and calli with buds and roots) have been studied in vitro in a wheat anther culture by light microscopy. The results of this study have been compared with data obtained earlier by scanning electron microscopy.

  6. Gluten and wheat intolerance today: are modern wheat strains involved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lorgeril, Michel; Salen, Patricia

    2014-08-01

    Celiac disease is a food-induced enteropathy resulting from exposure to gluten in genetically predisposed individuals. The non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) is a less known syndrome whose prevalence is under-estimated. The last decades have seen changes in the clinical presentation of both diseases. One possible explanation is that changes in the gluten-rich cereals themselves were the principal causes. Celiac-triggering gluten proteins are indeed expressed to higher levels in modern cereals while non-triggering proteins are expressed less. Sophisticated hybridization techniques have been used to produce new strains of modern wheat, the most high-yielding of which have since made their way into human foods in the absence of animal or human safety testing. The dramatic changes in the clinical presentation of celiac disease and NCGS have taken place when new cereal hybrids were introduced into human foods. This is a critical medical and environmental issue which needs to be investigated by appropriate studies.

  7. Relationship between lutein and mycotoxin content in durum wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Rosa M; Sulyok, Michael; Jirsa, Ondřej; Spitzer, Tomáš; Krska, Rudolf; Polišenská, Ivana

    2014-01-01

    Levels of lutein and a number of mycotoxins were determined in seven varieties of durum wheat (Triticum durum) and two varieties of common wheat (Triticum aestivum) in order to explore possible relationships amongst these components. Durum wheat cultivars always showed both higher lutein and mycotoxin contents than common wheat cultivars. The mycotoxins detected in both common and durum wheat cultivars were produced by the genera Fusarium, Claviceps, Alternaria and Aspergillus. Fusarium was the major producer of mycotoxins (26 mycotoxins) followed by Claviceps (14 mycotoxins), which was present only in some cultivars such as Chevalier (common wheat), Lupidur and Selyemdur (both durum wheat), Alternaria (six mycotoxins) and Aspergillus (three mycotoxins). Positive correlations between the levels of lutein and mycotoxins in durum wheat cultivars were found for the following mycotoxins: deoxynivalenol (DON), its derivative DON-3-glucoside, moniliformin, culmorin and its derivatives (5-hydroxyculmorin and 15-hydroxyculmorin).

  8. Morphological features and physicochemical properties of waxy wheat starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huanxin; Zhang, Wei; Xu, Chunzhong; Zhou, Xing

    2013-11-01

    Morphological features, granule composition, and physicochemical properties of waxy wheat starch were compared with those of normal wheat starch. The morphologies and granule populations were found to be similar for the two starches. However, waxy wheat starch contained a smaller proportion of B-type granules, had a larger average granule diameter, and a higher degree of crystallinity than normal wheat starch, as measured by particle size analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. These differences resulted in a higher gelatinization temperature, transition enthalpy, peak viscosity, breakdown, swelling power, lower peak viscosity temperature and final viscosity in waxy wheat starch. These points suggest that waxy wheat starch should have greater resistance to retrogradation during cooling and higher water-holding capacity under dry conditions. Highlighting the differences in physicochemical properties of waxy and normal wheat starches should help point toward effective applications of waxy wheat starch in the food industry.

  9. Study on genetic diversity in Pakistani wheat varieties using simple ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-09-01

    Sep 1, 2009 ... genetic diversity of 10 varieties of wheat (T. aestivum) were analyzed using 14 simple sequence repeat. (SSR) primer sets ... wheat every year. To increase .... All PCR reactions were carried out in 25 µl reaction containing 50 -.

  10. Cultivation of Agaricus bisporus on wheat straw and waste tea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-12-17

    Dec 17, 2007 ... waste tea leaves based composts and locally available ... protein, and carbohydrate contents of the fruit bodies of Agaricus bisporus. Results showed ... residues, such as rice and wheat straw, is a value-added ... Wheat bran.

  11. Chapter Three - Weed Dynamics and Management in Wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jabran, Khawar; Mahmood, Khalid; Melander, Bo

    2017-01-01

    pest of wheat causing in total 24% losses in wheat grain yield. In this chapter, we discuss the (i) weed flora in different wheat-growing regions of world; (ii) the yield losses caused by weeds in wheat; (iii) the preventive and cultural options for weed management; (iv) physical weed control; (v......) chemical weed control; and (vi) integrated weed management strategy in wheat. A critical analysis of recent literature indicated that broadleaved weeds are the most common group of weeds in wheat fields followed by grass weeds, while sedges were rarely noted in wheat fields. Across the globe, the most...... important weeds in wheat fields were Avena fatua L., Chenopodium album L., Phalaris minor Retz., Galium aparine L., Stellaria media (L.) Vill., and Veronica persica Poir., respectively. Adoption of wise weed management strategies may help control weeds and avoid yield losses. Both preventive measures...

  12. Wheat Breeding Technologies for a Shifting Global Climate

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — This dataset will contain phenotypic observations of a large number of wheat genotypes evaluated in 2016-2017 and 2017-2018 at the International Maize and Wheat...

  13. Characterization of Brazilian wheat cultivars for specific technological applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Matos Scheuer

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Functional and technological properties of wheat depend on its chemical composition, which together with structural and microscopic characteristics, define flour quality. The aim of the present study was to characterize four Brazilian wheat cultivars (BRS Louro, BRS Timbauva, BRS Guamirim and BRS Pardela and their respective flours in order to indicate specific technological applications. Kernels were analyzed for test weight, thousand kernel weight, hardness, moisture, and water activity. Flours were analyzed for water activity, color, centesimal composition, total dietary fiber, amylose content and identification of high molecular weight glutenins. The rheological properties of the flours were estimated by farinography, extensography, falling number, rapid visco amylography, and glutomatic and glutork equipment. Baking tests and scanning electron microscopy were also performed. The data were subjected to analysis of variance and principal component analysis. BRS Timbauva and BRS Guamirim presented results that did not allow for specific technological application. On the other hand, BRS Louro presented suitable characteristics for the elaboration of products with low dough strength such as cakes, pies and biscuits, while BRS Pardela seemed suitable for bread and pasta products.

  14. Adjustment of wheat production to market reform in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Kherallah, Mylène; Minot,Nicholas; Gruhn, Peter

    1999-01-01

    In response to slow growth in the agricultural sector and as part of a general shift towards a more market-oriented economy, the Government of Egypt started liberalizing the agricultural sector in 1987. Controls over wheat production and marketing were eliminated and wheat producer prices were brought closer to international levels. As a result, there has been remarkable increases in wheat crop area and yields, causing wheat production to triple from 1986 to 1998. This study analyzes the resu...

  15. Do we need to worry about eating wheat?

    OpenAIRE

    Shewry, P. R.; Hey, S. J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Wheat is a staple food throughout the temperate world and an important source of nutrients for many millions of people. However, the last few years have seen increasing concerns about adverse effects of wheat on health, particularly in North America and Europe, with the increasing adoption of wheat‐free or gluten‐free diets. This relates to two concerns: that wheat products are disproportionally responsible for increases in obesity and type 2 diabetes and that wheat gluten proteins c...

  16. THE PERFORMANCE OF AGRICULTURAL MARKET ADVISORY SERVICES IN MARKETING WHEAT

    OpenAIRE

    Jirik, Mark A.; Irwin, Scott H.; Good, Darrel L.; Jackson, Thomas E.; Martines-Filho, Joao Gomes

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the performance of agricultural market advisory services in marketing wheat. Two key performance questions are addressed: 1) Do market advisory services, on average, outperform an appropriate wheat market benchmark? and 2) Do market advisory services exhibit persistence in their wheat performance from year-to-year? Market advisory service recommendations for wheat are available from the AgMAS Project for the 1995, 1996, 1997 and 1998 marketing years...

  17. Recombinant Wheat Endoplasmic Reticulum Oxidoreductin 1 Improved Wheat Dough Properties and Bread Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guang; Wang, JingJing; Hou, Yi; Huang, Yan-Bo; Zhang, Ya-Ping; Li, Cunzhi; Li, Lin; Hu, Song-Qing

    2017-03-15

    Recombinant wheat endoplasmic reticulum oxidoreductin 1 (wEro1) with considerable ability was expressed in Escherichia coli. The functional roles of wEro1 in flour processing quality were investigated by farinographic, rheological, texture profile analysis, electrophoresis, size exclusion chromatography, scanning electron microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. wEro1 exhibited an obvious oxidation activity of sulfhydryl groups in small molecule and protein. Addition of wEro1 could strengthen the processing quality of dough, indicated by the improved mixing characteristics, viscoelastic properties, and bread qualities. These improvement effects of wEro1 could be attributed to the formation of macromolecular gluten polymers and massive gluten networks by disulfide cross-linking. Additionally, the increased β-turn structure further demonstrated the enhancement of dough strength. Moreover, the amount of peroxide in dough was improved significantly from 2.36 to 2.82 μmol/g of flour with 0.15% wEro1 treatment. Therefore, the results suggested that wEro1 is a promising novel flour improver.

  18. Histology and Ultrastructure of Incompatible Combination Between Puccinia striiformis and Wheat Cultivars with Low Reaction Type Resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KANG Zhen-sheng; WANG Yao; HUANG Li-li; WEI Guo-rong; ZHAO Jie

    2003-01-01

    The incompatible combinations between races of Puccinia striiformis and wheat cuitivars withlow reaction type resistance were examined by means of fluorescent microscopy, differential interference con-trast microscopy and electron microscopy. The incompatible combinations consisted of wheat cultivar Niuzhuteplus CY28, Hybrid46 plus CY29 and Tianxuan882 plus CY29, while the compatible combination was wheatcultivar Huixianhong plus CY28. The observation revealed a striking difference in the fungal development andthe host responses between susceptible and resistant wheat cuitivars following infection by the pathogen. Themain histological manifestation of the pathogen development in the resistant wheat cultivars include inhibitionof hyphal growth, delay of hyphal branching and colony formation, decrease of formation of haustorial mothercells and haustoria, and occurrence of host cell necrosis. The observation by electron microscopy demonstratedthat a series of abnormal changes occurred in intercellular hyphae, haustorial mother cells and haustoria dur-ing pathogen development in the resistant wheat cultivars. The cytoplasm became more electron-dense and vac-uoles in the cytoplasm increased in number and size. The cell walls of hyphae, haustorial mother cells werethickened irregularly. The organeiles were disorderly distributed in the cytoplasm and the haustorial mothercells and haustoria lost their physiological function. In the final stage of the pathogen development, the inter-cellular hyphae, haustorial mother cells and haustoria became necrotic and collapsed. The structural defensereactions such as formation of cell wall apposition, collar and encasement of haustorium were essentially morepronounced in the infected wheat leaves of the resistant cultivars than in the susceptible one. In addition, therelationship between the host resistance expression and the histological and cytological features occurred in theincompatible combination was discussed in this paper.

  19. Proteomic analysis of secreted saliva from Russian wheat aphid (Diuraphis noxia Kurd.) biotypes that differ in virulence to wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diuraphis noxia, Russian Wheat Aphid (RWA), biotypes are classified by their differential virulence to wheat varieties containing resistance genes. RWA salivary proteins, unlike those of most aphid species, cause foliar damage and physiological alterations in plants. A comparative proteomic analys...

  20. Phenolics in the Bran of Waxy Wheat and Triticale Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present study was designed to determine total phenolic acid contents (TPC) and compositions of bran from newly developed near-isogenic waxy wheat and triticale translocation lines. Two sets of near-isogenic waxy wheats, Svevo (durum) and N11 (bread wheat), consisting of partial and waxy null li...

  1. 77 FR 23420 - United States Standards for Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-19

    ...-AB12 United States Standards for Wheat AGENCY: Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration... Wheat under the U.S. Grain Standards Act. The proposed rule would change the definition of Contrasting classes in Hard White wheat and change the grade limits for shrunken and broken kernels. GIPSA believes...

  2. 78 FR 27857 - United States Standards for Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-13

    ... Standards for Wheat AGENCY: Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration, USDA. ACTION: Final... United States Standards for Wheat under the United States Grain Standards Act (USGSA) to change the definition of Contrasting classes (CCL) in the class Hard White wheat. This change will help facilitate the...

  3. Thermal transitions of the amorphous polymers in wheat straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stelte, Wolfgang; Clemons, Craig; Holm, Jens K.

    2011-01-01

    extracted wheat straw samples and spruce. This specific transition was further investigated and confirmed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) of extracted wheat straw wax. Information about the thermal transitions is of great importance for the utilization of wheat straw in pelletizing, briquetting...

  4. End-use quality of soft kernel durum wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernel texture is a major determinant of end-use quality of wheat. Durum wheat is known for its very hard texture, which influences how it is milled and for what products it is well suited. We developed soft kernel durum wheat lines via Ph1b-mediated homoeologous recombination with Dr. Leonard Joppa...

  5. The vanishing wheat landraces of the Fertile Crescent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic diversity of wheat landraces constituted a sizable portion of the mega diversity in the Fertile Crescent as a center of origin and of diversity of major crop plants. Following wheat domestication in the Fertile Crescent, early farmers developed diverse wheat landraces, and contributed to the...

  6. 7 CFR 782.18 - Wheat purchased for export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wheat purchased for export. 782.18 Section 782.18... § 782.18 Wheat purchased for export. (a) This section applies to an importer or subsequent buyer who imports or purchases Canadian-produced wheat for the purpose of export to a foreign country or...

  7. WHEAT STRAW AS RAW MATERIAL FOR MANUFACTURE OF STRAW MDF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sören Bernhard Halvarsson

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Wheat straw was used to produce medium-density fiberboard (MDF. The chemical and physical characteristics of fractionated size-reduced wheat straw were investigated. The pH, pH-buffering capacity, ash, and silicon content increased as wheat straw particle size decreased. Ash of the finest straw

  8. Adapting wheat in Europe for climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenov, M A; Stratonovitch, P; Alghabari, F; Gooding, M J

    2014-05-01

    Increasing cereal yield is needed to meet the projected increased demand for world food supply of about 70% by 2050. Sirius, a process-based model for wheat, was used to estimate yield potential for wheat ideotypes optimized for future climatic projections for ten wheat growing areas of Europe. It was predicted that the detrimental effect of drought stress on yield would be decreased due to enhanced tailoring of phenology to future weather patterns, and due to genetic improvements in the response of photosynthesis and green leaf duration to water shortage. Yield advances could be made through extending maturation and thereby improve resource capture and partitioning. However the model predicted an increase in frequency of heat stress at meiosis and anthesis. Controlled environment experiments quantify the effects of heat and drought at booting and flowering on grain numbers and potential grain size. A current adaptation of wheat to areas of Europe with hotter and drier summers is a quicker maturation which helps to escape from excessive stress, but results in lower yields. To increase yield potential and to respond to climate change, increased tolerance to heat and drought stress should remain priorities for the genetic improvement of wheat.

  9. Ancestral QTL Alleles from Wild Emmer Wheat Improve Drought Resistance and Productivity in Modern Wheat Cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchuk-Ovnat, Lianne; Barak, Vered; Fahima, Tzion; Ordon, Frank; Lidzbarsky, Gabriel A; Krugman, Tamar; Saranga, Yehoshua

    2016-01-01

    Wild emmer wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides) is considered a promising source for improving stress resistances in domesticated wheat. Here we explored the potential of selected quantitative trait loci (QTLs) from wild emmer wheat, introgressed via marker-assisted selection, to enhance drought resistance in elite durum (T. turgidum ssp. durum) and bread (T. aestivum) wheat cultivars. The resultant near-isogenic lines (BC3F3 and BC3F4) were genotyped using SNP array to confirm the introgressed genomic regions and evaluated in two consecutive years under well-watered (690-710 mm) and water-limited (290-320 mm) conditions. Three of the introgressed QTLs were successfully validated, two in the background of durum wheat cv. Uzan (on chromosomes 1BL and 2BS), and one in the background of bread wheat cvs. Bar Nir and Zahir (chromosome 7AS). In most cases, the QTL x environment interaction was validated in terms of improved grain yield and biomass-specifically under drought (7AS QTL in cv. Bar Nir background), under both treatments (2BS QTL), and a greater stability across treatments (1BL QTL). The results provide a first demonstration that introgression of wild emmer QTL alleles can enhance productivity and yield stability across environments in domesticated wheat, thereby enriching the modern gene pool with essential diversity for the improvement of drought resistance.

  10. Ancestral QTL Alleles from Wild Emmer Wheat Improve Drought Resistance and Productivity in Modern Wheat Cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchuk-Ovnat, Lianne; Barak, Vered; Fahima, Tzion; Ordon, Frank; Lidzbarsky, Gabriel A.; Krugman, Tamar; Saranga, Yehoshua

    2016-01-01

    Wild emmer wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides) is considered a promising source for improving stress resistances in domesticated wheat. Here we explored the potential of selected quantitative trait loci (QTLs) from wild emmer wheat, introgressed via marker-assisted selection, to enhance drought resistance in elite durum (T. turgidum ssp. durum) and bread (T. aestivum) wheat cultivars. The resultant near-isogenic lines (BC3F3 and BC3F4) were genotyped using SNP array to confirm the introgressed genomic regions and evaluated in two consecutive years under well-watered (690–710 mm) and water-limited (290–320 mm) conditions. Three of the introgressed QTLs were successfully validated, two in the background of durum wheat cv. Uzan (on chromosomes 1BL and 2BS), and one in the background of bread wheat cvs. Bar Nir and Zahir (chromosome 7AS). In most cases, the QTL x environment interaction was validated in terms of improved grain yield and biomass—specifically under drought (7AS QTL in cv. Bar Nir background), under both treatments (2BS QTL), and a greater stability across treatments (1BL QTL). The results provide a first demonstration that introgression of wild emmer QTL alleles can enhance productivity and yield stability across environments in domesticated wheat, thereby enriching the modern gene pool with essential diversity for the improvement of drought resistance. PMID:27148287

  11. Ancestral QTL alleles from wild emmer wheat improve drought resistance and productivity in modern wheat cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianne eMerchuk-Ovnat

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Wild emmer wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides is considered a promising source for improving stress resistances in domesticated wheat. Here we explored the potential of selected quantitative trait loci (QTLs from wild emmer wheat, introgressed via marker-assisted selection, to enhance drought resistance in elite durum (T. turgidum ssp. durum and bread (T. aestivum wheat cultivars. The resultant near-isogenic lines (BC3F3 and BC3F4 were genotyped using SNP array to confirm the introgressed genomic regions and evaluated in two consecutive years under well-watered (690–710 mm and water-limited (290–320 mm conditions. Three of the introgressed QTLs were successfully validated, two in the background of durum wheat cv. Uzan (on chromosomes 1BL and 2BS, and one in the background of bread wheat cvs. Bar Nir and Zahir (chromosome 7AS. In most cases, the QTL x environment interaction was validated in terms of improved grain yield and biomass - specifically under drought (7AS QTL in cv. Bar Nir background, under both treatments (2BS QTL, and a greater stability across treatments (1BL QTL. The results provide a first demonstration that introgression of wild emmer QTL alleles can enhance productivity and yield stability across environments in domesticated wheat, thereby enriching the modern gene pool with essential diversity for the improvement of drought resistance.

  12. A novel fungal hyperparasite of Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, the causal agent of wheat stripe rust.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gangming Zhan

    Full Text Available Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst, the causal fungus of wheat stripe rust, was previously reported to be infected by Lecanicillium lecanii, Microdochium nivale and Typhula idahoensis. Here, we report a novel hyperparasite on Pst. This hyperparasitic fungus was identified as Cladosporium cladosporioides (Fresen. GA de Vries based on morphological characteristics observed by light and scanning electron microscopy together with molecular data. The hyperparasite reduced the production and viability of urediniospores and, therefore, could potentially be used for biological control of wheat stripe rust.

  13. Variation in Susceptibility to Wheat dwarf virus among Wild and Domesticated Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygren, Jim; Shad, Nadeem; Kvarnheden, Anders; Westerbergh, Anna

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the variation in plant response in host-pathogen interactions between wild (Aegilops spp., Triticum spp.) and domesticated wheat (Triticum spp.) and Wheat dwarf virus (WDV). The distribution of WDV and its wild host species overlaps in Western Asia in the Fertile Crescent, suggesting a coevolutionary relationship. Bread wheat originates from a natural hybridization between wild emmer wheat (carrying the A and B genomes) and the wild D genome donor Aegilops tauschii, followed by polyploidization and domestication. We studied whether the strong selection during these evolutionary processes, leading to genetic bottlenecks, may have resulted in a loss of resistance in domesticated wheat. In addition, we investigated whether putative fluctuations in intensity of selection imposed on the host-pathogen interactions have resulted in a variation in susceptibility to WDV. To test our hypotheses we evaluated eighteen wild and domesticated wheat taxa, directly or indirectly involved in wheat evolution, for traits associated with WDV disease such as leaf chlorosis, different growth traits and WDV content. The plants were exposed to viruliferous leafhoppers (Psammotettix alienus) in a greenhouse trial and evaluated at two time points. We found three different plant response patterns: i) continuous reduction in growth over time, ii) weak response at an early stage of plant development but a much stronger response at a later stage, and iii) remission of symptoms over time. Variation in susceptibility may be explained by differences in the intensity of natural selection, shaping the coevolutionary interaction between WDV and the wild relatives. However, genetic bottlenecks during wheat evolution have not had a strong impact on WDV resistance. Further, this study indicates that the variation in susceptibility may be associated with the genome type and that the ancestor Ae. tauschii may be useful as genetic resource for the improvement of WDV resistance in wheat. PMID

  14. Variation in susceptibility to Wheat dwarf virus among wild and domesticated wheat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Nygren

    Full Text Available We investigated the variation in plant response in host-pathogen interactions between wild (Aegilops spp., Triticum spp. and domesticated wheat (Triticum spp. and Wheat dwarf virus (WDV. The distribution of WDV and its wild host species overlaps in Western Asia in the Fertile Crescent, suggesting a coevolutionary relationship. Bread wheat originates from a natural hybridization between wild emmer wheat (carrying the A and B genomes and the wild D genome donor Aegilops tauschii, followed by polyploidization and domestication. We studied whether the strong selection during these evolutionary processes, leading to genetic bottlenecks, may have resulted in a loss of resistance in domesticated wheat. In addition, we investigated whether putative fluctuations in intensity of selection imposed on the host-pathogen interactions have resulted in a variation in susceptibility to WDV. To test our hypotheses we evaluated eighteen wild and domesticated wheat taxa, directly or indirectly involved in wheat evolution, for traits associated with WDV disease such as leaf chlorosis, different growth traits and WDV content. The plants were exposed to viruliferous leafhoppers (Psammotettix alienus in a greenhouse trial and evaluated at two time points. We found three different plant response patterns: i continuous reduction in growth over time, ii weak response at an early stage of plant development but a much stronger response at a later stage, and iii remission of symptoms over time. Variation in susceptibility may be explained by differences in the intensity of natural selection, shaping the coevolutionary interaction between WDV and the wild relatives. However, genetic bottlenecks during wheat evolution have not had a strong impact on WDV resistance. Further, this study indicates that the variation in susceptibility may be associated with the genome type and that the ancestor Ae. tauschii may be useful as genetic resource for the improvement of WDV resistance in

  15. Microsatellite-based molecular diversity of bread wheat germplasm and association mapping of wheat resistance to the Russian wheat aphid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, J H; Bai, Y; Haley, S D; Lapitan, N L V

    2009-01-01

    Genetic diversity of a set of 71 wheat accessions, including 53 biotype 2 Russian wheat aphid (RWA2)-resistant landraces and 18 RWA2 susceptible accessions, was assessed by examining molecular variation at multiple microsatellite (SSR) loci. Fifty-one wheat SSR primer pairs were used, 81 SSR loci were determined, and 545 SSR alleles were detected. These SSR loci covered all the three genomes, 21 chromosomes, and at least 41 of the 42 chromosome arms. Diversity values averaged over SSR loci were high with mean number of SSR alleles/locus = 6.7, mean Shannon's index (H) = 1.291, and mean Nei's gene diversity (He) = 0.609. The three wheat genomes ranked as A > D > B and the homoeologous groups ranked as 7 > 3 > 1 > 2 > 6 > 5 > 4 based on the number of alleles per locus. Xgwm136 on chromosome arm 1AS is the most polymorphic SSR locus with the largest number of observed and effective alleles and the highest H and He. Among all 2485 pairs of wheat accessions, genetic distance (GD) ranged from 0.054 to 1.933 and averaged 0.9832. A dendrogram based on GD matrix showed that all the wheat accessions could be grouped into distinct clusters. Most of the susceptible cultivars (13/18) were clustered into groups that contains all or mostly susceptible accessions. Most of the U.S. cultivars belong to a group that is distinguishable from all the different RWA2 resistant groups. Diversity analysis was also conducted separately for subgroups containing 53 RWA2-resistant accessions and 18 RWA2-susceptible accessions. Association mapping revealed 28 SSR loci significantly associated with leaf chlorosis, and 8 with leaf rolling. New chromosome regions associated with RWA2 resistance were detected, and indicated existence of new RWA resistance genes located on chromosomes of all other homoeologous groups in addition to the groups 1 and 7 in bread wheat. This information is helpful for development of mapping populations for RWA2 resistance genes from different phylogenetic groups, and for

  16. Evaluation of broiler performance when fed roundup ready wheat event mon 71800, control, and commercial wheat varieties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kan, C.A.; Hartnell, G.F.

    2004-01-01

    We evaluated the nutritional value of broiler diets containing approximately 40% wheat grain from Roundup Ready wheat (MON 71800), its similar nontransgenic control (MON 71900), or reference commercial wheat varieties. The feeding trial lasted 40 d, and each treatment consisted of 10 replicates of

  17. NUTRITIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF EMMER WHEAT VARIETIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdaléna Lacko - Bartošová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the nutritional compounds (fat, sugars, crude protein, soluble fiber, ash and starch of four emmer wheat varieties grown under the conditions of organic farming system. The experiment was established on Scientific Research base Dolná Malanta, near Nitra in Slovakia during 2010 – 2011 and 2011 – 2012 growing seasons. Nutritional parameters, except crude protein content, were not influenced by the variety and weather conditions. Agnone variety had the highest content of fat, crude protein and starch but the lowest content of soluble dietary fiber. The lowest values of fat, crude protein had Molise sel Colli variety; Farvento variety had the lowest sugars and starch content. Emmer wheat as ancient wheat has a unique composition in secondary components, such as starch, which may play a role as functional food ingredients.

  18. Soft wheat instead of hard wheat in pelleted diets results in high starch digestibility in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carré, B; Muley, N; Gomez, J; Ouryt, F X; Laffitte, E; Guillou, D; Signoret, C

    2005-02-01

    (1) The aim of the experiment was to re-examine variations in digestibilities of food components in 3-week-old broiler chickens fed on pelleted diets based on wheats differing in lipase activity and hardness. Fourteen wheat (Triticum aestivum) samples, each from a different cultivar, were included at 550 g/kg in 14 different diets given to male Ross broiler chicks from 7 d of age. The other main ingredients consisted of soyabean meal (353 g/kg) and rapeseed oil (55 g/kg). A 15th diet containing durum wheat (Triticum durum) was also tested. (2) Hardness of wheats (Triticum aestivum) varied between 14 (very soft) and 88 (very hard), and lipase activity of wheats varied from 1 to 13.1 (relative scale). No significant correlation was found between in vitro viscosities and other parameters such as hardness, particle size of wheat flours and lipase. Hardness was correlated with the mean particle size of wheat flours and durability of pellets. (3) Individual lipid digestibilities were negatively correlated with in vitro viscosities of wheats. (4) Individual starch digestibilities were negatively correlated with wheat hardness, particle size of wheat flour before pelleting, and pellet durability. The ratio of measured AME(N) to predicted AME(N) was also negatively correlated with wheat hardness. Simple regression calculation showed that a 100-point increase in wheat hardness resulted in a 3% decrease in the AME(N) value of diets. Multiple regression calculation showed the food/gain ratio (d 10 to d 21) to be positively related to wheat hardness and negatively related to pellet durability. (5) Wheat lipase activity was positively correlated with individual starch digestibility, which was the reverse of a result obtained in a previous experiment. Thus, wheat lipase activity did not seem consistent for predicting starch digestibility and AME(N) values. (6) Among all wheat samples, durum wheat showed the highest protein content and the lowest content of water-insoluble cell

  19. Drought Tolerance in Modern and Wild Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budak, Hikmet; Kantar, Melda; Yucebilgili Kurtoglu, Kuaybe

    2013-01-01

    The genus Triticum includes bread (Triticum aestivum) and durum wheat (Triticum durum) and constitutes a major source for human food consumption. Drought is currently the leading threat on world's food supply, limiting crop yield, and is complicated since drought tolerance is a quantitative trait with a complex phenotype affected by the plant's developmental stage. Drought tolerance is crucial to stabilize and increase food production since domestication has limited the genetic diversity of crops including wild wheat, leading to cultivated species, adapted to artificial environments, and lost tolerance to drought stress. Improvement for drought tolerance can be achieved by the introduction of drought-grelated genes and QTLs to modern wheat cultivars. Therefore, identification of candidate molecules or loci involved in drought tolerance is necessary, which is undertaken by “omics” studies and QTL mapping. In this sense, wild counterparts of modern varieties, specifically wild emmer wheat (T. dicoccoides), which are highly tolerant to drought, hold a great potential. Prior to their introgression to modern wheat cultivars, drought related candidate genes are first characterized at the molecular level, and their function is confirmed via transgenic studies. After integration of the tolerance loci, specific environment targeted field trials are performed coupled with extensive analysis of morphological and physiological characteristics of developed cultivars, to assess their performance under drought conditions and their possible contributions to yield in certain regions. This paper focuses on recent advances on drought related gene/QTL identification, studies on drought related molecular pathways, and current efforts on improvement of wheat cultivars for drought tolerance. PMID:23766697

  20. Drought Tolerance in Modern and Wild Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hikmet Budak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Triticum includes bread (Triticum aestivum and durum wheat (Triticum durum and constitutes a major source for human food consumption. Drought is currently the leading threat on world's food supply, limiting crop yield, and is complicated since drought tolerance is a quantitative trait with a complex phenotype affected by the plant's developmental stage. Drought tolerance is crucial to stabilize and increase food production since domestication has limited the genetic diversity of crops including wild wheat, leading to cultivated species, adapted to artificial environments, and lost tolerance to drought stress. Improvement for drought tolerance can be achieved by the introduction of drought-grelated genes and QTLs to modern wheat cultivars. Therefore, identification of candidate molecules or loci involved in drought tolerance is necessary, which is undertaken by “omics” studies and QTL mapping. In this sense, wild counterparts of modern varieties, specifically wild emmer wheat (T. dicoccoides, which are highly tolerant to drought, hold a great potential. Prior to their introgression to modern wheat cultivars, drought related candidate genes are first characterized at the molecular level, and their function is confirmed via transgenic studies. After integration of the tolerance loci, specific environment targeted field trials are performed coupled with extensive analysis of morphological and physiological characteristics of developed cultivars, to assess their performance under drought conditions and their possible contributions to yield in certain regions. This paper focuses on recent advances on drought related gene/QTL identification, studies on drought related molecular pathways, and current efforts on improvement of wheat cultivars for drought tolerance.

  1. Injection-molded nanocomposites and materials based on wheat gluten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, S-W; Gällstedt, M; Johansson, E; Hedenqvist, M S

    2011-01-01

    This is, to our knowledge, the first study of the injection molding of materials where wheat gluten (WG) is the main component. In addition to a plasticizer (glycerol), 5 wt.% natural montmorillonite clay was added. X-ray indicated intercalated clay and transmission electron microscopy indicated locally good clay platelet dispersion. Prior to feeding into the injection molder, the material was first compression molded into plates and pelletized. The filling of the circular mold via the central gate was characterized by a divergent flow yielding, in general, a stronger and stiffer material in the circumferential direction. It was observed that 20-30 wt.% glycerol yielded the best combination of processability and mechanical properties. The clay yielded improved processability, plate homogeneity and tensile stiffness. IR spectroscopy and protein solubility indicated that the injection molding process yielded a highly aggregated structure. The overall conclusion was that injection molding is a very promising method for producing WG objects.

  2. GLASS TRANSITION OF HYDRATED WHEAT GLIADIN POWDERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shao-min Sun; Li Zhao; Yi-hu Song; Qiang Zheng

    2011-01-01

    Modulated-temperature differential scanning calorimetric and dynamic mechanical analyses and dielectric spectroscopy were used to investigate the glass transition of hydrated wheat gliadin powders with moisture absorption ranged from 2.30 db% to 18.21 db%. Glass transition temperature (Tg) of dry wheat gliadin was estimated according to the GordonTaylor equation. Structural heterogeneity at high degrees of hydration was revealed in dielectric temperature and frequency spectra. The activation energies (Ea) of the two relaxations were calculated from Arrhenius equation.

  3. Iron Biofortification of Modern Wheat Cultivar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shirvanehdeh, Behrooz Darbani; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik; Tauris, Birgitte

    2011-01-01

    -bombardment using Bar and ferritin cassettes. This, allows the possible out segregation of the antibiotic resistance gene and paves the way to meet biosafety and breeding criteria. We have created transgenic plants by a cisgenic approach. The genomic sequence including the coding part and the 3’ untranslated part...... to be translocated into the endosperm and stored. We have cloned the Vit1-1 and Vit1-2 genes from wheat and have made constructs for aleurone specific regulation. We have also found aleurone specific barley Ltp2 promoter in a same expression pattern in wheat. At present, transgenic plants are in the process...

  4. [Direct embryogenesis from protoplast of winter wheat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, T M; Zhang, R D; Qin, F L; Yu, Y J; Xie, Y F

    2000-09-01

    Friable embryogenic calli were obtained on a modified N6 medium (NBD medium) from a winter wheat cultivar "Jinghua No. 1" (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Jinghua No. 1) and were transferred to a modified MS liquid medium (MSDL medium) to initiate embryogenic suspension cultures. Protoplasts were isolated from the suspensions and cultured on a modified MS medium (MSDP medium). The somatic embryoids were formed directly from the protoplasts and germinated into entire plants. The development of the somatic embryoids was very similar to that of zygotic embryos of wheat.

  5. Leaf Gas Exchange and Fluorescence of Two Winter Wheat Varieties in Response to Drought Stress and Nitrogen Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiubo; Wang, Lifang; Shangguan, Zhouping

    2016-01-01

    Water and nitrogen supply are the two primary factors limiting productivity of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). In our study, two winter wheat varieties, Xinong 979 and large-spike wheat, were evaluated for their physiological responses to different levels of nitrogen and water status during their seedling stage grown in a phytotron. Our results indicated that drought stress greatly reduced the net photosynthetic rate (Pn), transpiration rate (E), and stomatal conductance (Gs), but with a greater increase in instantaneous water use efficiency (WUE). At the meantime, the nitrogen (N) supply improved photosynthetic efficiency under water deficit. Parameters inferred from chlorophyll a measurements, i.e., photochemical quenching coefficient (qP), the maximum photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm), the quantum yield of photosystemII(ΦPSII), and the apparent photosynthetic electron transport rate (ETR) decreased under water stress at all nitrogen levels and declined in N-deficient plants. The root–shoot ratio (R/S) increased slightly with water stress at a low N level; the smallest root–shoot ratio was found at a high N level and moderate drought stress treatment. These results suggest that an appropriate nitrogen supply may be necessary to enhance drought resistance in wheat by improving photosynthetic efficiency and relieving photoinhibition under drought stress. However, an excessive N supply had no effect on drought resistance, which even showed an adverse effect on plant growth. Comparing the two cultivars, Xinong 979 has a stronger drought resistance compared with large-spike wheat under N deficiency. PMID:27802318

  6. Study on Wheat Cold Source and Its Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Song-wu; WANG Chang-fa

    2002-01-01

    On the basis of tests and studies for many years, wheat cold source has been discovered in natural world. It is a donor material supplying a low temperature and causing stronger cooling effect, that is,the canopy temperature of its progeny can be descended universally and some non-cold type acceptor wheat can turn into cold type wheat having good metabolic functions under the condition of that acceptor wheat accepts the gamete of donor wheat supplying a low temperature. Contrast between wheat cold source and general wheat having no the ability of supplying a low temperature shows that second heat source temperature and plant temperature of wheat cold source not only are lower than those of general wheat but its root vigor, rate of awn etiolation, functional duration of leaf, chlorophyll content, soluble protein content, SOD activity, net photosynthetic rate, etc, are also more excellent than those of general wheat, and these all provide certain ecological and physiological bases for the distinction and selection of wheat cold source.

  7. Antioxidant properties of wheat germ protein hydrolysates evaluated in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Yun-hui; WANG Zhang; XU Shi-ying

    2006-01-01

    Wheat germ protein hydrolysates were prepared by protease hydrolysis, ultrafiltration and dynamical adsorption of resin. The total amount of amino acids in 100 g wheat germ protein hydrolysates is 93.95 g. Wheat germ protein hydrolysates are primarily composed of 4 fractions: 17.78 % in the relative molecular mass range of 11 563 -1 512, 17.50% in 1512 -842, 27.38% in 842- 372 and 30.65% in 372- 76, respectively. The antioxidant properties of wheat germ protein hydrolysates were evaluated by using different antioxidant tests in vitro. 1.20 g/L wheat germ protein hydrolysates exhibit 78.75% inhibition of peroxidation in linolei acid system; and 1.6 g/L wheat germ protein hydrolysates show 81.11% scavenging effect on the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhrazyl radical. The reducing power of 2.50 g/L wheat germ protein hydrolysates is 0. 84. Furthermore, the scavenging activity of 0.60 g/L wheat germ protein hydrolysates against superoxide radical is 75. 40%; 0. 50 g/L wheat germ protein hydrolysates exhibit63.35 % chelating effect on ferrous ion. These antioxidant activities of wheat germ protein hydrolsates increase with the increase of its concentration. Experimental results suggest that wheat germ protein hydrolysate is a suitable natural antioxidant rich in nutrition and nontoxic.

  8. Dough rheology and wet milling of hard waxy wheat flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Lan; Seib, Paul A; Graybosch, Robert A; Bean, Scott; Shi, Yong-Cheng

    2009-08-12

    To realize the full potential of waxy wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), the wet milling properties of waxy wheat flours including their dough-mixing properties were investigated. Flours of six waxy hard wheats, one normal hard wheat ('Karl 92'), and one partial waxy hard wheat ('Trego') were fractionated by the dough-washing (Martin) process, and the yields and recoveries of starch and gluten were compared. When waxy and normal wheat starches each were blended with a wheat gluten to give a mixture containing 14.5% protein, they gave very different mixograms even though the protein was the same in those blends. Waxy wheat starch absorbed more water than normal wheat starch, which apparently retarded hydration of gluten and dough development. Higher water content had to be used for some waxy wheat flours to develop optimum dough. Washing waxy wheat flour dough under a stream of water caused dough to become slack, spread out more on the sieve, and break apart into several pieces, which when thoroughly washed, coalesced into an elastic dough like the controls. By mixing a weak dough with 2% NaCl solution or by adding hemicellulase, stickiness of the dough subsided during the washing step and thereby improved the recovery of the gluten and starch fractions.

  9. Natural variation in grain composition of wheat and related cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shewry, Peter R; Hawkesford, Malcolm J; Piironen, Vieno; Lampi, Ann-Maija; Gebruers, Kurt; Boros, Danuta; Andersson, Annica A M; Åman, Per; Rakszegi, Mariann; Bedo, Zoltan; Ward, Jane L

    2013-09-04

    The wheat grain comprises three groups of major components, starch, protein, and cell wall polysaccharides (dietary fiber), and a range of minor components that may confer benefits to human health. Detailed analyses of dietary fiber and other bioactive components were carried out under the EU FP6 HEALTHGRAIN program on 150 bread wheat lines grown on a single site, 50 lines of other wheat species and other cereals grown on the same site, and 23-26 bread wheat lines grown in six environments. Principal component analysis allowed the 150 bread wheat lines to be classified on the basis of differences in their contents of bioactive components and wheat species (bread, durum, spelt, emmer, and einkorn wheats) to be clearly separated from related cereals (barley, rye, and oats). Such multivariate analyses could be used to define substantial equivalence when novel (including transgenic) cereals are considered.

  10. Ancient wheat and health: a legend or the reality? A review on KAMUT khorasan wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordoni, Alessandra; Danesi, Francesca; Di Nunzio, Mattia; Taccari, Annalisa; Valli, Veronica

    2017-05-01

    After WWII, the industrialized agriculture selected modern varieties of Triticum turgidum spp. durum and spp. aestivum (durum wheat and common wheat) based on higher yields and technological characteristics. Nowadays, the use of whole ancient grains and pseudo cereals is considered nutritionally important. How ancient grains have positive effects is not entirely known, the fragmentation of the scientific knowledge being also related to the fact that ancient grains are not a homogeneous category. The KAMUT(®) trademark indicates a specific and ancient variety of grain (Triticum turgidum ssp. turanicum, commonly khorasan wheat), and guarantees certain attributes making studies sufficiently comparable. In this work, studies on KAMUT(®) khorasan wheat have been systematically reviewed, evidencing different aspects supporting its benefits. Although it is not possible to establish whether all ancient grains share these positive characteristics, in total or in part, this review provides further evidences supporting the consumption of ancient grains.

  11. Garlic powder and wheat bran as fillers: Their effect on the physicochemical properties of edible biocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fama, Lucia [Physics Department, School of Exact and Natural Sciences, University of Buenos Aires (UBA) and CONICET, Ciudad Universitaria, (1428) Buenos Aires (Argentina); Bittante, Ana Monica B.Q.; Sobral, Paulo J.A. [Food Engineering Department, FZEA, University of Sao Paulo, PO Box 23, 13635-900 Pirassununga (SP) (Brazil); Goyanes, Silvia [Physics Department, School of Exact and Natural Sciences, University of Buenos Aires (UBA) and CONICET, Ciudad Universitaria, (1428) Buenos Aires (Argentina); Gerschenson, Lia N., E-mail: lia@di.fcen.uba.ar [Industry Department, School of Exact and Natural Sciences, University of Buenos Aires (UBA) and CONICET, Ciudad Universitaria, (1428) Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2010-07-20

    Biocomposites with two different fillers, garlic and wheat bran, were studied. They were based on cassava starch and contained glycerol as a plasticizer and potassium sorbate as an antimicrobial agent and were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and infrared spectroscopy (IR). The mechanical performance at room and lower temperatures was also studied. SEM micrographies of fractured surfaces of the wheat bran composite films showed some ruptured particles of fiber while fibrils of garlic on the order of nanometers were observed when garlic composite films were studied. Mechanical tests, at room temperature, showed that the addition of wheat bran led to an increment in the storage modulus (E') and hardening and a decrease in Tan {delta}, while the garlic composite showed a diminishing in the E' and hardening and did not produce significant changes in Tan {delta} values when compared with systems without fillers (matrix). In the range between -90 deg. C and 20 deg. C, all the materials studied presented two peaks in the Tan {delta} curve. In the case of the wheat bran composite, both relaxation peaks shifted slightly to higher temperatures, broadened and diminished their intensity when compared with those of the matrix; however garlic composite showed a similar behavior to the matrix. DSC thermograms of aqueous systems showed a slight shift of gelatinization temperature (T{sub gelatinization}) to higher values when the fillers were present. Thermograms of films showed that both, garlic and wheat bran composites, had a lower melting point than the matrix. IR data indicated that interaction between starch and fillers determined an increase in the availability of hydroxyl groups to be involved in a dynamic exchange with water.

  12. Binary mixtures of waxy wheat and conventional wheat as measured by NIR reflectance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delwiche, Stephen R; Graybosch, Robert A

    2016-01-01

    Waxy wheat contains very low concentration (generally industries seek to have a rapid technique to ensure the purity of identity preserved waxy wheat lots. Near infrared (NIR) reflectance spectroscopy, a technique widely used in the cereals industry for proximate analysis, is a logical candidate for measuring contamination level and thus is the subject of this study. Two sets of wheat samples, harvested, prepared and scanned one year apart, were used to evaluate the NIR concept. One year consisted of nine pairs of conventional:waxy preparations, with each preparation consisting of 29 binary mixtures ranging in conventional wheat fraction (by weight) of 0-100% (261 spectral samples). The second year was prepared in the same fashion, with 12 preparations, thus producing 348 spectral samples. One year's samples were controlled for protein content and moisture level between pair components in order to avoid the basis for the conventional wheat fraction models being caused by something other than spectral differences attributed to waxy and nonwaxy endosperm. Likewise the second year was controlled by selection of conventional wheat for mixture preparation based on either protein content or cluster analysis of principal components of candidate spectra. Partial least squares regression, one and two-term linear regression, and support vector machine regression models were examined. Validation statistics arising from sets within the same year or across years were remarkably similar, as were those among the three regression types. A single wavelength on second derivative transformed spectra, namely 2290 nm, was effective at estimating the mixture level by weight, with standard errors of performance in the 6-9% range. Thus, NIR spectroscopy may be used for measuring conventional hard wheat 'contamination' in waxy wheat at mixture levels above 10% w/w.

  13. Chitinase Activities in Wheat and Its Relative Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moravčíková Jana

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Defense components such as chitinases (EC 3.2.1.14 are crucial for plants to cope diseases. Despite of that the pattern and activities of these enzymes in agronomically important Triticale is unexplored. This work is aimed to study chitinase activities in the leaves of plants of early developmental stages in two diploids (Aegilops tauschii Coss., Triticum monococcum L., four tetraploids (Ae. cylindrical Host, Ae. triuncialis L., T. araraticum Jakubyz, T. dicoccum Schrank and two hexaploids (T. aestivum L., T. spelta L.. The leaves were subjected to quantitative and qualitative activity assays using synthetic 4-methylumbelliferyl-β-D-N,N´,N´´-triacetylchitotrioside and glycolchitin as substrates, respectively. Our results showed that the activities of chitinases with specificity towards short oligomers were variable and genotype dependent. The enzyme activities in the tetra- and hexaploid genotypes were significantly higher than in diplod counterparts. In the gel detection assays were revealed up to four fractions (~20, 30, 42 and 95 kDa of proteins with the chitinase activity towards long chain polymers. The isoform of ~30 kDa was identified in all analyzed genotypes. Among the seven acidic and three basic chitinase fractions identified, three acidic (ChiA, ChiB, ChiC and two (ChiH, ChiI fractions were present in all genotypes. None of the isoforms can be assigned as specific with respect to ploidy.

  14. Cuticular wax accumulation is associated with drought tolerance in wheat near-isogenic lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianmin Song

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that wheat grain yield is seriously affected by drought stress, and leaf cuticular wax is reportedly associated with drought tolerance. However, most studies have focused on cuticular wax biosynthesis and model species. The effects of cuticular wax on wheat drought tolerance have rarely been studied. The aims of the current study were to study the effects of leaf cuticular wax on wheat grain yield under drought stress using the above-mentioned wheat NILs and to discuss the possible physiological mechanism of cuticular wax on high grain yield under drought stress. Compared to water-irrigated (WI conditions, the cuticular wax content (CWC in glaucous and non-glaucous NILs under drought-stress (DS conditions both increased; mean increase values were 151.1% and 114.4%, respectively, which was corroborated by scanning electronic microscopy images of large wax particles loaded on the surfaces of flag leaves. The average yield of glaucous NILs was higher than that of non-glaucous NILs under DS conditions in 2014 and 2015; mean values were 7368.37 kg·ha-1 and 7103.51 kg·ha-1. This suggested that glaucous NILs were more drought-tolerant than non-glaucous NILs (P = 0.05, which was supported by the findings of drought tolerance indices TOL and SSI in both years, the relatively high water potential and relative water content, and the low ELWL. Furthermore, the photosynthesis rate (Pn of glaucous and non-glaucous wheat NILs under DS conditions decreased by 7.5% and 9.8%, respectively; however, glaucous NILs still had higher mean values of Pn than those of non-glaucous NILs, which perhaps resulted in the higher yield of glaucous NILs. This could be explained by the fact that glaucous NILs had a smaller Fv/Fm reduction, a smaller PI reduction and a greater ABS/RC increase than non-glaucous NILs under DS conditions. This is the first report to show that wheat cuticular wax accumulation is associated with drought tolerance. Moreover

  15. Wheat-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis sensitized with hydrolyzed wheat protein in soap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinuki, Yuko; Morita, Eishin

    2012-12-01

    Wheat-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (WDEIA) is a specific form of wheat allergy typically induced by exercise after ingestion of wheat products. Wheat ω-5 gliadin is a major allergen associated with conventional WDEIA, and detection of serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) specific to recombinant ω-5 gliadin is a reliable method for its diagnosis. Recently, an increased incidence of a new subtype of WDEIA, which is likely to be sensitized via a percutaneous and/or rhinoconjunctival route to hydrolyzed wheat protein (HWP), has been observed. All of the patients with this new subtype had used the same brand of soap, which contained HWP. Approximately half of these patients developed contact allergy several months later and subsequently developed WDEIA. In each of these patients, contact allergy with soap exposure preceded food ingestion-induced reactions. Other patients directly developed generalized symptoms upon ingestion of wheat products. The predominant observed symptom of the new WDEIA subtype was angioedema of the eyelids; a number of patients developed anaphylaxis. This new subtype of WDEIA has little serum ω-5 gliadin-specific serum IgE.

  16. Binding of zinc and iron to wheat bread, wheat bran, and their components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail-Beigi, F; Faraji, B; Reinhold, J G

    1977-10-01

    Wholemeal wheat bread decreases the availability and intestinal absorption of divalent metals. To define this action further, binding of zinc in vitro to a wheat wholemeal bread (Tanok), dephytinized Tanok, and cellulose was determined at pH 5.0 to 7.5. Zinc binding by each was highly pH-dependent and reached a maximum at pH 6.5 to 7.5. Removal of phytate from Tanok did not reduce its binding capability. Wheat bran at pH 6.5 and 6.8 bound 72% of iron (0.5 microgram/ml of solution) and 82.5% of zinc (1.43 microgram/ml solution), respectively. Lignin and two of the hemicellulose fractions of wheat bran and high binding capabilities for zinc (85.6, 87.1, and 82.1%, respectively) whereas a third had a lower zinc-binding capability (38.7%). Binding of zinc to various celluloses and dextrans is also demonstrated. Formation of complexes of these metals with wheat fiber can explain, at least in part, the decreased availability of dietary iron and zinc in wholemeal wheat bread.

  17. Genomic dissection of drought resistance in durum wheat x wild emmer wheat recombinant inbreed line population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg, Zvi; Fahima, Tzion; Krugman, Tamar; Abbo, Shahal; Yakir, Dan; Korol, Abraham B; Saranga, Yehoshua

    2009-07-01

    Drought is the major factor limiting wheat productivity worldwide. The gene pool of wild emmer wheat, Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides, harbours a rich allelic repertoire for morpho-physiological traits conferring drought resistance. The genetic and physiological bases of drought responses were studied here in a tetraploid wheat population of 152 recombinant inbreed lines (RILs), derived from a cross between durum wheat (cv. Langdon) and wild emmer (acc# G18-16), under contrasting water availabilities. Wide genetic variation was found among RILs for all studied traits. A total of 110 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were mapped for 11 traits, with LOD score range of 3.0-35.4. Several QTLs showed environmental specificity, accounting for productivity and related traits under water-limited (20 QTLs) or well-watered conditions (15 QTLs), and in terms of drought susceptibility index (22 QTLs). Major genomic regions controlling productivity and related traits were identified on chromosomes 2B, 4A, 5A and 7B. QTLs for productivity were associated with QTLs for drought-adaptive traits, suggesting the involvement of several strategies in wheat adaptation to drought stress. Fifteen pairs of QTLs for the same trait were mapped to seemingly homoeologous positions, reflecting synteny between the A and B genomes. The identified QTLs may facilitate the use of wild alleles for improvement of drought resistance in elite wheat cultivars.

  18. Wheat-Dependent Exercise-Induced Anaphylaxis Sensitized with Hydrolyzed Wheat Protein in Soap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuko Chinuki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheat-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (WDEIA is a specific form of wheat allergy typically induced by exercise after ingestion of wheat products. Wheat ω-5 gliadin is a major allergen associated with conventional WDEIA, and detection of serum immunoglobulin E (IgE specific to recombinant ω-5 gliadin is a reliable method for its diagnosis. Recently, an increased incidence of a new subtype of WDEIA, which is likely to be sensitized via a percutaneous and/or rhinoconjunctival route to hydrolyzed wheat protein (HWP, has been observed. All of the patients with this new subtype had used the same brand of soap, which contained HWP. Approximately half of these patients developed contact allergy several months later and subsequently developed WDEIA. In each of these patients, contact allergy with soap exposure preceded food ingestion-induced reactions. Other patients directly developed generalized symptoms upon ingestion of wheat products. The predominant observed symptom of the new WDEIA subtype was angioedema of the eyelids; a number of patients developed anaphylaxis. This new subtype of WDEIA has little serum ω-5 gliadin-specific serum IgE.

  19. Effect of fatty acids on functional properties of normal wheat and waxy wheat starches: A structural basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shujun; Wang, Jinrong; Yu, Jinglin; Wang, Shuo

    2016-01-01

    The effects of three saturated fatty acids on functional properties of normal wheat and waxy wheat starches were investigated. The complexing index (CI) of normal wheat starch-fatty acid complexes decreased with increasing carbon chain length. In contrast, waxy wheat starch-fatty acid complexes presented much lower CI. V-type crystalline polymorphs were formed between normal wheat starch and three fatty acids, with shorter chain fatty acids producing more crystalline structure. FTIR and Raman spectroscopy presented the similar results with XRD. The formation of amylose-fatty acid complex inhibited granule swelling, gelatinization progression, retrogradation and pasting development of normal wheat starch, with longer chain fatty acids showing greater inhibition. Amylopectin can also form complexes with fatty acids, but the amount of complex was too little to be detected by XRD, FTIR, Raman and DSC. As a consequence, small changes were observed in the functional properties of waxy wheat starch with the addition of fatty acids.

  20. Boron rates for triticale and wheat crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrêa Juliano Corulli

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available No reports are registered on responses to boron fertilization nutrient deficiency and toxicity in triticale crops. The aim of this study was to evaluate triticale response to different rates of boron in comparison to wheat in an hapludox with initial boron level at 0.08 mg dm-3 4 4 factorial design trial completely randomized blocks design (n = 4. Boron rates were 0; 0.62; 1.24 and 1.86 mg dm-3; triticale cultivars were IAC 3, BR 4 and BR 53 and IAPAR 38 wheat crop was used for comparison. The wheat (IAPAR 38 crop presented the highest boron absorption level of all. Among triticale cultivars, the most responsive was IAC 53, presenting similar characteristics to wheat, followed by BR 4; these two crops are considered tolerant to higher boron rates in soil. Regarding to BR 53, no absorption effect was observed, and the cultivars was sensitive to boron toxicity. Absorption responses differed for each genotype. That makes it possible to choose and use the best-adapted plants to soils with different boron rates.

  1. Wheat breeding for quality: an historical review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat (Triticum spp. L.) is a leading cereal contributing to the nourishment of humankind. Since its domestication ca. 12 000 years ago, humans have profoundly influenced its evolution. In the more recent past, breeding via cross-hybridization and the selection of progeny with superior end-use quali...

  2. Plasma-Assisted Pretreatment of Wheat Straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz-Jensen, Nadja; Leipold, Frank; Bindslev, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    O3 generated in a plasma at atmospheric pressure and room temperature, fed with dried air (or oxygen-enriched dried air), has been used for the degradation of lignin in wheat straw to optimize the enzymatic hydrolysis and to get more fermentable sugars. A fixed bed reactor was used combined with ...

  3. Landrace groups of bread wheat, Triticum aestivum.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeven, A.C.

    1986-01-01

    Bread wheat was introduced in the Old World some 8000 years ago. Owing to local specific natural and human selection a landrace spread over a large area fragmented into locally adapted landraces. These related landraces can be grouped again in a landrace group indicating their evolution from a commo

  4. Molecular and genetic study of wheat rusts

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nicholas Le Maitre

    Wheat rusts can cause losses as high as 70%. The rusts ability to ... Rotation of genes, that is, where different major resis- tance genes are ... and generate accurate results the same day (Brown,. 1996 ..... More work is required to assign these ...

  5. Bioactive compounds in whole grain wheat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mateo Anson, N.

    2010-01-01

    Bread can be healthier! Consuming whole-grain foods can prevent cardiovascular diseases, type-2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. This is due to bioactive compounds in whole grain, such as antioxidants and anti-inflammatory compounds. We found that the different fractions of a wheat grain vary much

  6. Registration of ‘Coral’ Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘Coral’ soft white winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed by the Michigan Agricultural Experiment Station and released March 28, 2008, via an exclusive licensing agreement through Michigan State University (MSU) Technologies. Coral was selected from the cross MSU D3913 / MSU D0331 made i...

  7. Extraction and fractionation of wheat flour proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graveland, A.; Bosveld, P.; Lichtendonk, W.J.; Moonen, H.H.E.; Scheepstra, A.

    1982-01-01

    Extraction of wheat flour with 1.5% sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) solution dissolved 65–67% of the total flour nitrogen. The SDS‐insoluble proteinaceous material was separated into glycoproteins‐I, II and III by ultracentrifugation. Part of the SDS‐soluble proteinaceous material was precipitated by

  8. Bioactive compounds in whole grain wheat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mateo Anson, N.

    2010-01-01

    Bread can be healthier! Consuming whole-grain foods can prevent cardiovascular diseases, type-2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. This is due to bioactive compounds in whole grain, such as antioxidants and anti-inflammatory compounds. We found that the different fractions of a wheat grain vary much i

  9. Registration of ‘UI Darwin’ Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘UI Darwin’ (PI 639953) is a hard white winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) developed by the Idaho Agricultural Experiment Station and released in February 2006. UI Darwin, named for English naturalist Charles Darwin, was released for selected improvements in bread quality relative to hard white wi...

  10. Registration of ‘Faller’ Spring Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘Faller’ (Reg. No. CV-1026, PI 648350) hard red spring wheat (HRSW) (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed at North Dakota State University(NDSU) and released by the North Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station (NDAES). Faller was derived from the ND2857/ND2814 cross made at NDSU in fall 1997. ND2857 ...

  11. Bioactive compounds in whole grain wheat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mateo Anson, N.

    2010-01-01

    Bread can be healthier! Consuming whole-grain foods can prevent cardiovascular diseases, type-2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. This is due to bioactive compounds in whole grain, such as antioxidants and anti-inflammatory compounds. We found that the different fractions of a wheat grain vary much i

  12. Selection procedures for durable resistance in wheat.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    A wheat breeding programme for durable resistance to all locally important pathogens: leaf rust, stem rust, powdery mildew, Septoria nodorum, Septoria tritici, Cochliobolus sativus, Fusarium graminearum, Common Root Rot, Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus and Soil Borne Mosaic Virus was conducted in Brazil.

  13. Dehalogenation and decolorization of wheat straw- basedbleachery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB SERVER

    2007-02-05

    Feb 5, 2007 ... naf, flax, cotton and rag fibers are generally lower in lignin, higher in silica and ... first adsorbed onto pure activated carbon particles and then filtered ... 1Wheat straw-based composite bleachery effluent (CEH) + P. camemberti ...

  14. The quest for celiac-safe wheat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeck, van den H.C.

    2010-01-01

    Gluten proteins from wheat have the unique property to interact with each other and form a network in dough preparation. In this gluten network gas bubbles can be retained that are produced by yeast, which is added during dough preparation. The result is a voluminous, viscoelastic dough for bread ma

  15. The quest for celiac-safe wheat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeck, van den H.C.

    2010-01-01

    Gluten proteins from wheat have the unique property to interact with each other and form a network in dough preparation. In this gluten network gas bubbles can be retained that are produced by yeast, which is added during dough preparation. The result is a voluminous, viscoelastic dough for bread

  16. Nutraceutical and functional scenario of wheat straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasha, Imran; Saeed, Farhan; Waqas, Khalid; Anjum, Faqir Muhammad; Arshad, Muhammad Umair

    2013-01-01

    In the era of nutrition, much focus has been remunerated to functional and nutraceutical foodstuffs. The health endorsing potential of such provisions is attributed to affluent phytochemistry. These dynamic constituents have functional possessions that are imperative for cereal industry. The functional and nutraceutical significance of variety of foods is often accredited to their bioactive molecules. Numerous components have been considered but wheat straw and its diverse components are of prime consideration. In this comprehensive dissertation, efforts are directed to elaborate the functional and nutraceutical importance of wheat straw. Wheat straw is lignocellulosic materials including cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. It hold various bioactive compounds such as policosanols, phytosterols, phenolics, and triterpenoids, having enormous nutraceutical properties like anti-allergenic, anti-artherogenic, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, antioxidant, anti-thrombotic, cardioprotective and vasodilatory effects, antiviral, and anticancer. These compounds are protecting against various ailments like hypercholesterolemia, intermittent claudication, benign prostatic hyperplasia and cardiovascular diseases. Additionally, wheat straw has demonstrated successfully, low cost, renewable, versatile, widely distributed, easily available source for the production of biogas, bioethanol, and biohydrogen in biorefineries to enhance the overall effectiveness of biomass consumption in protected and eco-friendly environment. Furthermore, its role in enhancing the quality and extending the shelf life of bakery products through reducing the progression of staling and retrogradation is limelight of the article.

  17. Specific patterns of gene space organisation revealed in wheat by using the combination of barley and wheat genomic resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waugh Robbie

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because of its size, allohexaploid nature and high repeat content, the wheat genome has always been perceived as too complex for efficient molecular studies. We recently constructed the first physical map of a wheat chromosome (3B. However gene mapping is still laborious in wheat because of high redundancy between the three homoeologous genomes. In contrast, in the closely related diploid species, barley, numerous gene-based markers have been developed. This study aims at combining the unique genomic resources developed in wheat and barley to decipher the organisation of gene space on wheat chromosome 3B. Results Three dimensional pools of the minimal tiling path of wheat chromosome 3B physical map were hybridised to a barley Agilent 15K expression microarray. This led to the fine mapping of 738 barley orthologous genes on wheat chromosome 3B. In addition, comparative analyses revealed that 68% of the genes identified were syntenic between the wheat chromosome 3B and barley chromosome 3 H and 59% between wheat chromosome 3B and rice chromosome 1, together with some wheat-specific rearrangements. Finally, it indicated an increasing gradient of gene density from the centromere to the telomeres positively correlated with the number of genes clustered in islands on wheat chromosome 3B. Conclusion Our study shows that novel structural genomics resources now available in wheat and barley can be combined efficiently to overcome specific problems of genetic anchoring of physical contigs in wheat and to perform high-resolution comparative analyses with rice for deciphering the organisation of the wheat gene space.

  18. Organic Wheat Farming Improves Grain Zinc Concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfenstein, Julian; Müller, Isabel; Grüter, Roman; Bhullar, Gurbir; Mandloi, Lokendra; Papritz, Andreas; Siegrist, Michael; Schulin, Rainer; Frossard, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) nutrition is of key relevance in India, as a large fraction of the population suffers from Zn malnutrition and many soils contain little plant available Zn. In this study we compared organic and conventional wheat cropping systems with respect to DTPA (diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid)-extractable Zn as a proxy for plant available Zn, yield, and grain Zn concentration. We analyzed soil and wheat grain samples from 30 organic and 30 conventional farms in Madhya Pradesh (central India), and conducted farmer interviews to elucidate sociological and management variables. Total and DTPA-extractable soil Zn concentrations and grain yield (3400 kg ha-1) did not differ between the two farming systems, but with 32 and 28 mg kg-1 respectively, grain Zn concentrations were higher on organic than conventional farms (t = -2.2, p = 0.03). Furthermore, multiple linear regression analyses revealed that (a) total soil zinc and sulfur concentrations were the best predictors of DTPA-extractable soil Zn, (b) Olsen phosphate taken as a proxy for available soil phosphorus, exchangeable soil potassium, harvest date, training of farmers in nutrient management, and soil silt content were the best predictors of yield, and (c) yield, Olsen phosphate, grain nitrogen, farmyard manure availability, and the type of cropping system were the best predictors of grain Zn concentration. Results suggested that organic wheat contained more Zn despite same yield level due to higher nutrient efficiency. Higher nutrient efficiency was also seen in organic wheat for P, N and S. The study thus suggests that appropriate farm management can lead to competitive yield and improved Zn concentration in wheat grains on organic farms.

  19. Wheat Transpiration Response to Soil Heterogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langensiepen, M.; Kupisch, M.; Cai, G.; Vanderborght, J.; Stadler, A.; Hüging, H.; Ewert, F.

    2014-12-01

    Measuring sap-flow in thin wheat tillers has been difficult so far due to technical difficulties associated with the application of the heat-balance method for this purpose. We developed a new method which solved this problem (Langensiepen et al. 2014) and applied it during four consecutive vegetation seasons for determining tiller transpiration rates in a wheat field with strong soil heterogeneity. The transpiration rates differed insignificantly between different field sections characterized by strong differences in physical soil conditions, regardless whether the crop was irrigated or supplied with variable rainwater. Tiller transpiration in a sheltered section was slightly reduced. Maximum leaf vapor conductance didn't differ among these different conditions, except under severe water stress conditions. Leaf water potential varied considerably during daily cycles under all circumstances. These responses are typical for plants with anisohydric behaviors which are characterized by small sensitivities of guard cells to critical leaf water potential thresholds and high photosynthetic productivity under absent or mild water stress. Recent studies conducted in Eucalyptus, tomato, and Arabidopsis plants have shown that the transition from mild to severe stress in anisohydric plants is marked by an increasing sensitivity of stomatal control to the transpiration rate. The results of this study demonstrate that this also seems to be the case for wheat. This practically implies that the parameterization of models calculating wheat canopy flux responses to soil heterogeneity patterns must not only account for the crop-type specific soil-vegetation pattern interaction under absent or mild stress, but also for additional mechanisms which kick in when water stress becomes severe. Langensiepen, M., Kupisch, M., Graf, A., Schmidt, M., Ewert, F. (2014) Improving the stem heat balance method for determining sap-flow in wheat. Agric. For. Met. 186: 34-42

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF A FUNCTIONAL PURPOSE WHIPPED BREAD WHOLE GRAIN WHEAT, RYE AND WHEAT BRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. O. Magomedov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the development of whipped bakery products enriched with dietary fiber, minerals, vitamins retinol, tocopherol, group, polyunsaturated fatty acids through the use of rye and wheat bran and flour of wholegrain wheat. The main raw material for enrichment whipped bakery products used wheat bran and rye. Choice of rye and wheat bran as supplementation prepared whipped bread is explained not only from the point of view of the rationality of the use of this secondary raw materials, but also its rich vitamin and mineral composition. Wheat bran contain the necessary man of b vitamins, including B1, B2, B6, PP and others. Found provitamin a (carotene and vitamin E (tocopherol. Bran is rich in mineral substances. Among them potassium, magnesium, chromium, zinc, copper, selenium and other trace elements. Thanks to this composition bran are essential dietary product. They are rich in insoluble fiber and can be useful to reduce the risk of developing colon cancer. Rye bran contain dietary fiber, tocopherol E, thiamin B1, Riboflavin B2, Pantothenic acid B5, B4 (choline, nicotinic acid B3, etc. In the bran rich set of microelements and macroelements such as iron, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, zinc, iodine, selenium, chromium, etc. the Introduction in the diet, bran rye contribute to the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis, diabetes and anemia. They restore blood pressure, reduce blood sugar levels and improve the cardiovascular system. Flour from wholegrain wheat is the main supplier of bread protein and starch, while preserving the maximum of the original nutritional value of the grain, enriched whipped bread macro - and micronutrients. The analysis of the chemical composition of flour from wholegrain wheat, rye and wheat bran leads to the conclusion that the choice of these types of materials suitable for making the recipe whipped bakery products, because their use can increase the content in bread is not only the

  1. Cytoskeletal arrangement and its intercellular connection in wheat young leaf cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SEIXIANGYUN; LINGCHENGJIAN

    1993-01-01

    By using the techniques of partial digestion of cell wall and selective extraction,we examined the cytoskeleton of wheat yong leaf cells under scanning electron microscope(SEM).A 3-dimensional cytoskeletal system,showing some new features,was observed.The cortical network located beneath the cross wall was an anastomosing organization.The association of nucleus with the cell wall by some skeletal filaments was also found.It is notice able that there were cytoskeletal filaments,which passed through cell wall and connected together with cytoskeletal arrays of adjacent cells,Thus,it is possible that an integral skeletal network existed within the yong leaf tissue of wheat.

  2. Microstructural, textural, and sensory properties of whole-wheat noodle modified by enzymes and emulsifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Meng; Hou, Gary G; Kindelspire, Julie; Krishnan, Padmanaban; Zhao, Siming

    2017-05-15

    With the utilization of enzymes including endoxylanase, glucose oxidase (GOX) and transglutaminase (TG), and emulsifiers comprising sodium stearoyl lactate (SSL) and soy lecithin, the microstructural, textural, and sensory properties of whole-wheat noodle (WWN) were modified. The development time and stability of whole-wheat dough (WWD) were enhanced by TG due to the formation of a more compact gluten network, and by SSL resulting from the enhanced gluten strength. Microstructure graphs by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) verified that TG and SSL promoted the connectivity of gluten network and the coverage of starch granules in WWN. TG increased the hardness and elasticity of cooked WWN, while two emulsifiers increased the noodle cohesiveness. Additionally, TG and SSL improved the sensory properties of noodle such as bite, springiness, and mouth-feel. The results suggest that TG and SSL are effective ingredients in enhancing the gluten strength of WWD and improving the qualities of WWN. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of amaranth flour (Amaranthus mantegazzianus) on the technological and sensory quality of bread wheat pasta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Cristina S; Ribotta, Pablo D; Añón, María Cristina; León, Alberto E

    2014-03-01

    The technological and sensory quality of pasta made from bread wheat flour substituted with wholemeal amaranth flour (Amaranthus mantegazzianus) at four levels, 15, 30, 40 and 50% w/w was investigated. The quality of the resulted pasta was compared to that of control pasta made from bread wheat flour. The flours were analyzed for chemical composition and pasting properties. Cooking behavior, color, raw and cooked pasta texture, scanning electron microscopy and sensory evaluation were determined on samples. The pasta obtained from amaranth flour showed some detriment of the technological and sensory quality. So, a maximum substitution level of 30% w/w was defined. This is an equilibrium point between an acceptable pasta quality and the improved nutritional and functional properties from the incorporation of amaranth flour.

  4. Physico-chemical and metabolomic characterization of KAMUT® Khorasan and durum wheat fermented dough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestra, Federica; Laghi, Luca; Taneyo Saa, Danielle; Gianotti, Andrea; Rocculi, Pietro; Pinnavaia, GianGaetano

    2015-11-15

    Investigations were made in order to evaluate the influence of the flour type, chemical acidification and fermentation on characteristics of doughs obtained with durum wheat and KAMUT® Khorasan flour. Doughs were observed immediately after mixing, 90 and 360 min of leavening at 30 °C. Fundamental rheology, yeasts heat production by isothermal microcalorimetry and the interaction between water and biopolymers by means of time domain nuclear magnetic resonance were evaluated. In addition aromatic metabolite development was followed by means of the combined application of gas-chromatography and electronic nose. KAMUT® Khorasan flour was found to be more suitable than durum wheat for the fermentation processes tested, especially at acidic conditions, as shown by the increase of the volume and the metabolic heat production by yeast. In acidified dough the pattern of volatile metabolites allowed a clear distinction between the types of dough. Moreover the water/starch proton pool was characterized by higher T2 values in the KAMUT® Khorasan samples.

  5. Detection of Hexaploid and Mechanisms of Polyploidy Formation in Allium wallichii Kunth%六倍体多星韭的发现及多星韭种内倍性组成及演化的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹晓菊; 黄瑞复; 翟书华

    2013-01-01

    采用染色体常规制片技术,对云南西北部和中部地区11个多星韭居群进行了细胞学分析.结果显示:(1)云南西北部多星韭二倍体、四倍体混合分布的太子阁和华首门四倍体居群中发现了三倍体(2n=3x=21),核型公式分别为:2n=3x=21=6m(2sat)+ 8sm]+(3m+4sm)和2n=3x=21=[4m(2sat)+ 10sm]+(2m+4sm十lst).三倍体含2条随体染色体,它的21条染色体含2个同源染色体组和一个与它们同源性稍差的染色体组.(2)在云南中部的多星韭四倍体居群中首次发现了六倍体,核型公式为2n=6x=42=15m(3sat)+27sm,核型类型2A.(3)结合核型特征及地理分布对多星韭三倍体和六倍体的成因进行分析,提示多星韭三倍体来源于二倍体与四倍体的杂交,六倍体是通过四倍体产生的未减数配子(n=4x=28)与正常减数配子(n=2x=14)的结合形成的.本研究结果支持多星韭的分化中心是云南西北部高海拔地区的观点,并结合前人的研究和本工作的结果,对多星韭种内的倍性组成和演化进行了分析和讨论.%In this study,we examined the chromosomes numbers and karyotypes of 11 populations of Allium wallichii Kunth from the northwest and central region of Yunnan.(1)Triploid individuals were found in two tetraploid populations which grew near diploid populations.The karyotypes were 2n=3x=21 =[6m (2sat) +8sm] + (3m+ 4sm) and 2n=3x=21 =[4m(2sat) + 10sm] + (2m+ 4sm+ lst),respectively.(2)Hexaploid seeds were found in tetraploid population for the first time.The karyotype were 2n=6x=42 =15m(3sat)+27sm.(3)Considering the karyotypes and cytogeographic information,it can be inferred that the triploid was formed via hybrid between diploid and tetraploid,while fusion of an unreduced tetraploid gamete(n=4x=28) with a reduced diploid gamete(n=2x=14) formed hexaploid.Our results supported that A.wallichii Kunth originated in the high elevation region of northwest Yunnan.In addition,combining both previous studies and our present

  6. Research Status Quo and Future of Low Temperature Wheat Genotypes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Low temperature wheat genotypes are a group of wheat with a slightly low canopy (plant) temperature, and the research on their biological characters and utilization in wheat breeding has been done at home and abroad for more than 20 years, and has made great progress. The research contents and advances include the following respects: Wheat genotypes with slightly low canopy temperature have been verified to exist in nature; these wheat genotypes, which present cold temperature, are superior to conventional wheat materials in some important biological characters and particularly prominently in metabolic function and cellular structure; when they suffer stresses such as drought, high temperature and overcast and rainy weather, they still retain their superiority in some of their important biological characters and therefore have a wide range of ecological adaptability; slightly low canopy temperatures of these genotypes are closely correlated with low temperatures of their second heat sources and their vigorous plants; since their low canopy temperatures can be inherited, they can exert favorable influence on the temperatures of their offspring while crossing with other wheat materials, and in particular, the discovery of cold-source wheat as a contributor to low temperature, has further formed good conditions for breeding high and stable quality low temperature wheat varieties with a high and stable yield. Thus, low temperature wheat genotypes are of great research importance and have great prospects.

  7. Molecular Characteristics of New Wheat Starch and Its Digestion Behaviours

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Zhong-kai; HUA Ze-tian; YANG Yan; ZHENG Pai-yun; ZHANG Yan; CHEN Xiao-shan

    2014-01-01

    In order to understand the effect of starch molecular characteristics on the gel structure, which subsequently inlfuence the gel digestion behaviours, three wheat starches, control (conventional wheat starch), two new wheat cultivars with different genetic backgrounds (by knocking out SBE IIb and SBE IIa, respectively) were used in this study. In comparison with control, slight differences in the morphology of the starch granules of new wheat 1 were observed, whereas the starch granules of new wheat 2 had irregular shapes both for A-type granules and B-type granules. Starch molecular weight size was determined by SE-HPLC, and the results indicate that there was a subtle increase in the amylose content in the starch of new wheat 1 compared to that of control. The starch of new wheat 2 had the highest amylose content, and the molecular weight (MW) of its amylopectin was the lowest among the three starches. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was employed to investigate starch gel structure and the results suggest that the molecules of starch gel from new wheat 2 are more likely to re-associate to form an organized conformation. The digestion behaviours of the three starch gels were measured using a mixture of pancreatinα-amylase and amyloglucosidase. The results indicated that the starch gels of control and new wheat 1 had very high digestibility of 91.7 and 91.9%, respectively, whereas the digestibility of wheat 2 starch gel was only 36.2%. In comparison with the digestion curve patterns of control and new wheat 1 starch gels, the new wheat 2 exhibited a much lower initial velocity. These results indicated that the molecules in the starch of new wheat 2 are more readily to re-associate to form an organized structure during gel formation because of its unique molecular characteristics.

  8. Plasmodesmatal Dynamics in Both Woody Poplar and Herbaceous Winter Wheat Under Controlled Short Day and in Field Winter Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANLing-Cheng; WANGHong

    2004-01-01

    Electron microscopic observation revealed that poplar (Populus deltoides Marsh.) and winterwheat ( Triticum aestivum L. cv. Seward 80004) plasmodesmatal structures significantly changed undershort day (SD, 8 h light) and in winter period, and such changes differed also noticeably between these twowoody and herbaceous plants. Under long day (LD, 16 h light), many plasmodesmata with strong stainappeared in the cell wall of both poplar apical buds and winter wheat young leaf tissues, and connections ofcytoplasmic endoplasmic reticulum (ER) with the ER in some plasmodesmata were observed. In addition,the typical “neck type” plasmodesmata were observed in winter wheat young leaf tissues, and their centraldesmotubules (appressed-ER) could be clearly identified. Under SD, many poplar plasmodesmata showedonly a partial structure in the cell wall and appeared to be discontinued; some plasmodesmata swelled in themid-wall, forming the cavity, and no appressed-ER appeared, in winter wheat, however, no noticeablealterations of plasmodesmata occurred, and the plasmodesmatal structure essentially remained the sameas it was under LD. In winter period, poplar plasmodesmata had a similar morphology as those observedunder SD, however, winter wheat manifested at least two types of significant plasmodesmatal alterations:one plugged by electron-dense materials and the other of reduced neck region compared to those underLD. The above dynamic difference of the two species plasmodesmata under SD and winter period revealedthe difference of their dormancy development under those environmental conditions.

  9. Evaluation of crossability between triticale (X Triticosecale Wittmack) and common wheat, durum wheat and rye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hills, Melissa J; Hall, Linda M; Messenger, Doug F; Graf, Robert J; Beres, Brian L; Eudes, François

    2007-01-01

    Development of transgenic triticale as a platform for novel bio-industrial products is predicated on an environmental biosafety assessment that quantifies the potential risks associated with its release. Pollen-mediated gene flow to related species and conventional triticale varieties is one pathway for transgene movement. A tier 1 quantification of triticale hybridization was conducted by emasculating and hand pollinating flowers under greenhouse conditions. Approximately 2000 manual pollinations were conducted for each cross and its reciprocal between two triticale genotypes: a modern triticale cultivar (AC Alta) and primary triticale (89TT108), and common wheat, durum wheat and rye. The frequency of outcrossing, hybrid seed appearance and weight, and F(1) emergence and fertility were recorded. Outcrossing, F(1) emergence and fertility rates were high from crosses between triticale genotypes. Outcrossing in inter-specific crosses was influenced by the species, and the genotype and gender of the triticale parent. In crosses to common and durum wheat where triticale was the male parent, outcrossing was > or =73.0% and > or =69.5%, respectively, but triticale was the female parent. Overall, outcrossing with rye was lower than with common and durum wheat. F(1) hybrid emergence was greater when triticale was the female parent. With the exception of a single seed, all wheat-triticale F(1) hybrid seeds were non-viable when triticale was the male parent in the cross. Only seven durum wheat-triticale F(1) hybrids emerged from 163 seeds sown, and all were produced with triticale 89TT108 as female parent. With rye, 8 F(1) hybrids emerged from 38 seeds sown, and all were produced from crosses to AC Alta; five with AC Alta as the female parent and three as the male. Interspecific F(1) hybrids were self-sterile, with the exception of those produced in crosses between common wheat and triticale where triticale was the female parent. Tier 2 hybridization quantification will be

  10. Alterations and abnormal mitosis of wheat chromosomes induced by wheat-rye monosomic addition lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shulan Fu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Wheat-rye addition lines are an old topic. However, the alterations and abnormal mitotic behaviours of wheat chromosomes caused by wheat-rye monosomic addition lines are seldom reported. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Octoploid triticale was derived from common wheat T. aestivum L. 'Mianyang11'×rye S. cereale L. 'Kustro' and some progeny were obtained by the controlled backcrossing of triticale with 'Mianyang11' followed by self-fertilization. Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH using rye genomic DNA and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH using repetitive sequences pAs1 and pSc119.2 as probes were used to analyze the mitotic chromosomes of these progeny. Strong pSc119.2 FISH signals could be observed at the telomeric regions of 3DS arms in 'Mianyang11'. However, the pSc119.2 FISH signals were disappeared from the selfed progeny of 4R monosomic addition line and the changed 3D chromosomes could be transmitted to next generation stably. In one of the selfed progeny of 7R monosomic addition line, one 2D chromosome was broken and three 4A chromosomes were observed. In the selfed progeny of 6R monosomic addition line, structural variation and abnormal mitotic behaviour of 3D chromosome were detected. Additionally, 1A and 4B chromosomes were eliminated from some of the progeny of 6R monosomic addition line. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results indicated that single rye chromosome added to wheat might cause alterations and abnormal mitotic behaviours of wheat chromosomes and it is possible that the stress caused by single alien chromosome might be one of the factors that induced karyotype alteration of wheat.

  11. Sterilization of foods with low-energy electrons (``soft-electrons'')

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Toru; Takahashi, Yoko; Todoriki, Setsuko

    1998-06-01

    Electrons with an energy of 300 keV or lower were defined as "Soft-electrons", which showed several advantages over conventional irradiation with gamma-rays or high-energy electrons in decontamination of grains and spices. Energies of electrons necessary to reduce microbial loads to levels lower than 10 CFU/g were 60 keV for brown rice, 75 keV for wheat, 100 keV for white pepper, coriander and basil, 130 keV for buckwheat, 160 keV for rough rice, and 210 keV for black pepper. Electrons with such energies did not significantly influence the quality.

  12. Sterilization of foods with low-energy electrons ('soft-electrons')

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Toru; Takahashi, Yoko; Todoriki, Setsuko

    1998-06-01

    Electrons with an energy of 300 keV or lower were defined as 'Soft-electrons', which showed several advantages over conventional irradiation with gamma-rays or high-energy electrons in decontamination of grains and spices. Energies of electrons necessary to reduce microbial loads to levels lower than 10 CFU/g were 60 keV for brown rice, 75 keV for wheat, 100 keV for white pepper, coriander and basil, 130 keV for buckwheat, 160 keV for rough rice, and 210 keV for black pepper. Electrons with such energies did not significantly influence the quality.

  13. Causes for improvement in nutritive value of broiler chicken diets with whole wheat instead of ground wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svihus, B; Juvik, E; Hetland, H; Krogdahl, A

    2004-02-01

    1. Two experiments were conducted with broiler chicks to compare nutritive values of ground and whole wheat diets containing titanium oxide as indigestible marker. 2. In Experiment 1, a wheat and soy isolate based cold-pelleted diet, in which all the wheat was ground in a hammer mill to pass through a 3 mm sieve, was compared with a diet in which about half (375 g/kg) of the ground wheat was taken out of the diet and supplied as whole wheat mixed into the diet after pelleting. 3. In Experiment 2, a diet based on ground wheat and soy isolate which was pelleted after preconditioning (final temperature 81 degrees C) was compared with a diet in which 500 g of the ground wheat was replaced by whole wheat mixed into the diet before pelleting. 4. In Experiment 1, replacement of ground wheat with whole wheat increased apparent metabolisable energy (AME) content and starch digestibility measured at ileal as well as faecal level, while weight gain and feed conversion efficiency (FCE) were not affected. Jejunal chyme showed increased amylase activity and bile salt concentration. 5. In Experiment 2, replacement of ground wheat with whole wheat increased dry matter content as well as bile content of gizzard, and stimulated an increase in gizzard as well as pancreas weight. Jejunal amylase and bile concentrations were not significantly affected and neither were growth, FCE or AME. 6. Results from this experiment indicate that the improved feed value sometimes observed with whole wheat may be associated with modulation of digestive processes resulting in increased pancreas and liver secretions.

  14. Impact of Wheat streak mosaic virus and Triticum mosaic virus co-infection of wheat on transmission rates by wheat curl mites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) and Triticum mosaic virus (TriMV) are transmitted by the wheat curl mite (WCM, Aceria tosichella Keifer). Previous work has shown that different mite genotypes transmit TriMV at different rates. The objective of this research was to determine if mite genotypes differ...

  15. Electronics and electronic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Olsen, George H

    1987-01-01

    Electronics and Electronic Systems explores the significant developments in the field of electronics and electronic devices. This book is organized into three parts encompassing 11 chapters that discuss the fundamental circuit theory and the principles of analog and digital electronics. This book deals first with the passive components of electronic systems, such as resistors, capacitors, and inductors. These topics are followed by a discussion on the analysis of electronic circuits, which involves three ways, namely, the actual circuit, graphical techniques, and rule of thumb. The remaining p

  16. Biological nitrate removal using wheat straw and PLA as substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zhenxing; Hu, Jun; Wang, Jianlong

    2012-01-01

    Biological nitrate removal using wheat straw and polylactic acid (PLA) as both carbon source and biofilm support was investigated. The results showed that biofilm could develop on the surface of wheat straw within 15 d, the denitrification rate was 0.067 mg-N/(g-wheat straw x h) and nitrate removal efficiency was about 100%. For PLA, the time required for biofilm development was 40 d, the denitrification rate was 0.0026 mg-N/(g-PLA x h) and nitrate removal efficiency could also reach 100%. Temperature had a substantial influence on the denitrification performance of both wheat straw and PLA. The FTIR analysis and SEM observation confirmed that wheat straw and PLA were used for denitrification, and explained some reasons for the differences between the two substrates. The wheat straw was superior to PLA when used as carbon source for nitrate removal, in terms of the denitrification rate.

  17. Investigation on Paste Property of Chinese Bread Wheat Varieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Jun; ZHANG Yong; HE Zhong-hu

    2002-01-01

    Starch viscosity is closely associated with noodle quality. RVA(rapid viscosity analyzer)was used to investigate the paste property of leading Chinese wheat varieties and 38 Australian wheat lines. Results showed that significant variability for RVA parameters was observed among Chinese wheat varieties, particularly among spring wheat varieties. In general, Australia wheat lines performed better paste characters than that of Chinese winter wheats. Genotype (G), environment (E) and genotype by environment (G × E) interaction affected all paste traits. Correlation analysis indicated that peak viscosity correlated highly and significantly with viscosity, breakdown, setback, final viscosity, peak time, and falling number(r = 0.56-0.93, P < 0.01 ). However breakdown was not significantly associated with most paste properties. Paste characters increased from low to high latitude both in the north and south part of Yellow and Huai Valley.

  18. Variation of volatile compounds among wheat varieties and landraces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, G; Petersen, M A; Jespersen, B M; Hansen, Å S

    2015-05-01

    Analysis of volatile compounds was performed on 81 wheat varieties and landraces, grown under controlled greenhouse conditions, in order to investigate the possibility of differentiating wheat varieties according to their volatile compound profiles. Volatile compounds from wheat samples were extracted by dynamic headspace extraction and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Seventy-two volatile compounds were identified in the wheat samples. Multivariate analysis of the data showed a large diversity in volatile profiles between samples. Differences occurred between samples from Austria compared to British, French and Danish varieties. Landraces were distinguishable from modern varieties and they were characterised by higher averaged peak areas for esters, alcohols, and some furans. Modern varieties were characterised by higher averaged peak areas for terpenes, pyrazines and straight-chained aldehydes. Differences in volatile profiles are demonstrated between wheat samples for the first time, based on variety. These results are significant to plant breeders and commercial users of wheat.

  19. Antifungal properties of wheat histones (H1-H4) and purified wheat histone H1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lucca, Anthony J; Heden, Lars-Olof; Ingber, Bruce; Bhatnagar, Deepak

    2011-07-13

    Wheat ( Triticum spp.) histones H1, H2, H3, and H4 were extracted, and H1 was further purified. The effect of these histones on specific fungi that may or may not be pathogenic to wheat was determined. These fungi included Aspergillus flavus , Aspergillus fumigatus , Aspergillus niger , Fusarium oxysporum , Fusarium verticillioides , Fusarium solani , Fusarium graminearum , Penicillium digitatum , Penicillium italicum , and Greeneria uvicola . Non-germinated and germinating conidia of these fungi were bioassayed separately. The non-germinated and germinating conidia of all Fusarium species were highly susceptible to the mixture (H1-H4) as well as pure H1, with viability losses of 99-100% found to be significant (p histone mixture and pure H1. F. graminearum was the most sensitive to histone activity. The histones were inactive against all of the non-germinated Penicillium spp. conidia. However, they significantly reduced the viability of the germinating conidia of the Penicillium spp. conidia, with 95% loss at 2.5 μM. Non-germinated and germinating conidia viability of the Aspergillus spp. and G. uvicola were unaffected when exposed to histones up to 10 μM. Results indicate that Fusarium spp. pathogenic to wheat are susceptible to wheat histones, indicating that these proteins may be a resistance mechanism in wheat against fungal infection.

  20. Hybrid breeding in wheat: technologies to improve hybrid wheat seed production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitford, Ryan; Fleury, Delphine; Reif, Jochen C; Garcia, Melissa; Okada, Takashi; Korzun, Viktor; Langridge, Peter

    2013-12-01

    Global food security demands the development and delivery of new technologies to increase and secure cereal production on finite arable land without increasing water and fertilizer use. There are several options for boosting wheat yields, but most offer only small yield increases. Wheat is an inbred plant, and hybrids hold the potential to deliver a major lift in yield and will open a wide range of new breeding opportunities. A series of technological advances are needed as a base for hybrid wheat programmes. These start with major changes in floral development and architecture to separate the sexes and force outcrossing. Male sterility provides the best method to block self-fertilization, and modifying the flower structure will enhance pollen access. The recent explosion in genomic resources and technologies provides new opportunities to overcome these limitations. This review outlines the problems with existing hybrid wheat breeding systems and explores molecular-based technologies that could improve the hybrid production system to reduce hybrid seed production costs, a prerequisite for a commercial hybrid wheat system.

  1. Traditional Mediterranean Durum Wheat-Based Food Products

    OpenAIRE

    Mandato, Sandra; ABECASSIS, JOEL; Mayer-Laigle, Claire; De Vries, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    Durum wheat plays a major role on nutritional, cultural, economic and social development of the Mediterranean basin, where almost two-thirds of the worldwide annual durum wheat production is consumed. The specific features of durum wheat (glassy texture, amber color, high protein level, etc.) makes it suitable to undergo primary and secondary transformations leading to a lot of diverse food products such as pasta, couscous, bulgur, frekeh, a variety of breads and pastries. For ...

  2. BRS 331 – Early cycle double-haploid wheat cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Luiz Scheeren

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The wheat cultivar ‘BRS 331’ was developed by Embrapa. It results from an interspecific cross between wheat and maize by double-hapolid method. ‘BRS 331’ shows solid stem in the base of the plant, short leaves and super-early cycle to maturity. It is classified as bread wheat in all of the regions that is recommended in the States of Rio Grande do Sul, Paraná and Santa Catarina, Brazil.

  3. The Efficient Transformation of Wheat in Planta by Agrobacterium tumefaciens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Dao-yi; LI Zhong-cun; WANG Hong-gang

    2003-01-01

    Transformation of wheat was performed by pipetting spikelets with Agrobacterium tumefaciens which contained expression vectors using Npt Ⅱ as reporter gene. Transformants were identified through kanamycin resistance, PCR and Southern blot. The results showed that transformation efficiency was within 2.0 to 3. 2 % in all tested varieties of wheat. Then the simple and efficient protocol of wheat transformation by Agrobacterium tumefaciens in planta was primarily established.

  4. Genetic diversity for drought resistance in wild emmer wheat and its ecogeographical associations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    PELEG, Z; FAHIMA, T; ABBO, S; KRUGMAN, T; NEVO, E; YAKIR, D; SARANGA, Y

    2005-01-01

    Wild emmer wheat ( Triticum turgidum spp. dicoccoides (Körn.) Thell.), the tetraploid progenitor of cultivated wheat, is a potential source for various agronomical traits, including drought resistance...

  5. The Marketing Performance of Illinois and Kansas Wheat Farmers

    OpenAIRE

    Dietz, Sarah N.; Nicole M. Aulerich; Irwin,Scott H.; Good, Darrel L.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the marketing performance of wheat farmers in Illinois and Kansas over 1982-2004. The results show that farmer benchmark prices for wheat in Illinois and Kansas fall in the middle-third of the price range about half to three-quarters of the time. Consistent with previous studies, this refutes the contention that Illinois and Kansas wheat farmers routinely market the bulk of their wheat crop in the bottom portion of the price range. Tests of the aver...

  6. Preparation, properties and applications of wheat gluten edible films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. TANADA-PALMU

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Edible films from wheat gluten were prepared with various amounts of glycerol as a plasticizer. Water vapor permeability, oxygen permeability, tensile strength and percentage elongation at break at different water activities ( aw were measured. Films with low amounts of glycerol had lower water vapor and oxygen permeabilities, higher tensile strength and lower elongation at break. Wheat gluten coatings reduced weight loss during two weeks of storage for cherry tomatoes and sharon fruits compared to uncoated controls. A bilayer film of wheat gluten and beeswax significantly lowered weight loss from coated cheese cubes compared to single layer coating of wheat gluten.;

  7. Water dynamics and retrogradation of ultrahigh pressurized wheat starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doona, Christopher J; Feeherry, Florence E; Baik, Moo-Yeol

    2006-09-06

    The water dynamics and retrogradation kinetics behavior of gelatinized wheat starch by either ultrahigh pressure (UHP) processing or heat are investigated. Wheat starch completely gelatinized in the condition of 90, 000 psi at 25 degrees C for 30 min (pressurized gel) or 100 degrees C for 30 min (heated gel). The physical properties of the wheat starches were characterized in terms of proton relaxation times (T2 times) measured using time-domain nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and evaluated using commercially available continuous distribution modeling software. Different T2 distributions in both micro- and millisecond ranges between pressurized and heated wheat starch gels suggest distinctively different water dynamics between pressurized and heated wheat starch gels. Smaller water self-diffusion coefficients were observed for pressurized wheat starch gels and are indicative of more restricted translational proton mobility than is observed with heated wheat starch gels. The physical characteristics associated with changes taking place during retrogradation were evaluated using melting curves obtained with differential scanning calorimetry. Less retrogradation was observed in pressurized wheat starch, and it may be related to a smaller quantity of freezable water in pressurized wheat starch. Starches comprise a major constituent of many foods proposed for commercial potential using UHP, and the present results furnish insight into the effect of UHP on starch gelatinization and the mechanism of retrogradation during storage.

  8. Forecasting Moroccan Wheat Yields using Two Statistical Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wechsung, F.; Childers, K.; Frieler, K.; Hoffmann, P.

    2015-12-01

    The economy of Morocco is highly dependent on fluctuations in wheat yield. Since very little of the Moroccan wheat harvest is irrigated, this leaves the annual wheat yield dependent on precipitation fluctuations and large scale weather patterns over the north Atlantic. Here we suggest two predictors of the annual change in Moroccan wheat yield based on these relationships. The first, pre-planting indicator relies on the sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies of the north Atlantic in September through November and are reinforced by a mid-season predictor based on the weighted precipitation from October through February. Partial least squares regression is used to determine the three most relevant patterns of Atlantic SST which offer an early indication of the upcoming wheat yield. The prediction is greatly enhanced by the inclusion of the cumulative monthly precipitation weighted by the wheat cultivation areas, from October through the wheat harvest. It is not surprising that the total precipitation in Morocco influences the annual wheat yield, however it is remarkable the degree to which early season precipitation sums are able to forecast the national wheat yield. Higher resolution precipitation reanalysis products from AgMERRA and NOAA have coefficients of determination greater than 0.5 by February (r2=0.78 and 0.57, respectively). The more frequently updated NOAA 0.5° resolution precipitation product has a slightly lower but still significant correlation (r2=0.48).

  9. A Study on Phosphorus Use Efficiency of Wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuanyuan YUAN; Kai GUO; Bei DONG; Rongting ZHANG; Liwen SUN

    2016-01-01

    Wheat is one of the most important grain crops in China with great demand. It plays an important role to use phosphorus fertilizer for improving wheat yield. Therefore,application and foundation studies on wheat phosphorus use efficiency are so vital nowadays. Here,we have a simple review on definition of phosphorus use efficiency,response to phosphate starvation in plant,relevant genes cloning,impact factors,screening high phosphorus efficiency genotype and QTL analysis of phosphorus utilization efficiency in wheat.

  10. Wet explosion og wheat straw and codigestion with swine manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Guangtao; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Skiadas, Ioannis V.

    2009-01-01

    with wheat straw in a continuous operated system was investigated, as a method to increase the efficiency of biogas plants that are based on anaerobic digestion of swine manure. Also, the pretreatment of wheat straw with the wet explosion method was studied and the efficiency of the wet explosion process...... was evaluated based on (a) the sugars release and (b) the methane potential of the pretreated wheat straw compared to that of the raw biomass. It was found that, although a high release of soluble sugars was observed after wet explosion, the methane obtained from the wet-exploded wheat straw was slightly lower...

  11. The Marketing Performance of Illinois and Kansas Wheat Farmers

    OpenAIRE

    Dietz, Sarah N.; Aulerich, Nicole M.; Irwin, Scott H.; Good, Darrel L.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the marketing performance of wheat farmers in Illinois and Kansas over 1982-2004. The results show that farmer benchmark prices for wheat in Illinois and Kansas fall in the middle-third of the price range about half to three-quarters of the time. Consistent with previous studies, this refutes the contention that Illinois and Kansas wheat farmers routinely market the bulk of their wheat crop in the bottom portion of the price range. Tests of the aver...

  12. RECYCLING OF CHEMICAL PULP FROM WHEAT STRAW AND CORN STOVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Barsness

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Handsheets produced from corn stalks and wheat straw soda AQ pulps were recycled in the lab. Pulping of corn stalks resulted in a low pulp yield, low bonding strength, and low recyclability. Conversely, wheat straw fiber had a better yield, very good tensile properties, and showed a considerably better response to recycling. The tensile index of wheat straw fibers retained 67% of its original value after four cycles. It could be shown that recycling caused only small changes in chemical compo-sition, but that the crystallinity index increased considerably. To be able to understand the behavior of wheat straw fiber as part of a commercial papermaking furnish, a paper containing 20% wheat straw fiber was produced on a 24 inch pilot paper machine and was recycled using a handsheet mold with white water return. Chemical analysis of the control (no wheat fiber and the wheat-containing paper demonstrated slightly higher xylan content for the wheat-containing material. Recyclability increased slightly with addition of wheat fibers to a commercial furnish.

  13. Biolistic- and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation protocols for wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamás-Nyitrai, Cecília; Jones, Huw D; Tamás, László

    2012-01-01

    After rice, wheat is considered to be the most important world food crop, and the demand for high-quality wheat flour is increasing. Although there are no GM varieties currently grown, wheat is an important target for biotechnology, and we anticipate that GM wheat will be commercially available in 10-15 years. In this chapter, we summarize the main features and challenges of wheat transformation and then describe detailed protocols for the production of transgenic wheat plants both by biolistic and Agrobacterium-mediated DNA-delivery. Although these methods are used mainly for bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), they can also be successfully applied, with slight modifications, to tetraploid durum wheat (T. turgidum L. var. durum). The appropriate size and developmental stage of explants (immature embryo-derived scutella), the conditions to produce embryogenic callus tissues, and the methods to regenerate transgenic plants under increasing selection pressure are provided in the protocol. To illustrate the application of herbicide selection system, we have chosen to describe the use of the plasmid pAHC25 for biolistic transformation, while for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation the binary vector pAL156 (incorporating both the bar gene and the uidA gene) has been chosen. Beside the step-by-step methodology for obtaining stably transformed and normal fertile plants, procedures for screening and testing transgenic wheat plants are also discussed.

  14. Genetic diversity of Brazilian triticales evaluated with genomic wheat microsatellites Diversidade genética de triticales brasileiros avaliada com microssatélites genômicos de trigo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibele Tesser da Costa

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to determine the genetic variability available for triticale (X Triticosecale Wittmack crop improvement in Brazil. Forty-two wheat genomic microsatellites were used to estimate the molecular diversity of 54 genotypes, which constitute the base of one of the major triticale breeding programs in the country. Average heterozygosity was 0.06 and average and effective number of alleles per locus were 2.13 and 1.61, respectively, with average allelic frequency of 0.34. The set of genomic wheat microsatellites used clustered the genotypes into seven groups, even when the germplasm was originated primarily from only two triticale breeding programs, a fact reflected on the average polymorphic information content value estimated for the germplasm (0.36. The 71.42% transferability achieved for the tested microsatellites indicates the possibility of exploiting these transferable markers in further triticale genetic and breeding studies, even those mapped on the D genome of wheat, when analyzing hexaploid triticales.O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a variabilidade disponível para o melhoramento de triticale (X Triticosecale Wittmack no Brasil. Quarenta e dois microssatélites de trigo foram empregados para estimar a diversidade molecular de 54 genótipos, que constituem a base de um dos principais programas de melhoramento da espécie no país. A heterozigosidade média foi 0,06, e os números médio e efetivo de alelos por lócus foram de 2,13 e 1,61, respectivamente, com freqüência alélica média de 0,34. O conjunto de microssatélites de trigo possibilitou reunir os genótipos em sete grupos, mesmo que o germoplasma utilizado seja originado de apenas duas instituições de pesquisa, o que refletiu em baixo índice de polimorfismo médio (0,36. A taxa de transferência dos marcadores testados (71,42% indica a possibilidade de uso desses microssatélites de trigo, até mesmo os mapeados no genoma D da espécie, na

  15. Wheat allergens associated with Baker's asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salcedo, G; Quirce, S; Diaz-Perales, A

    2011-01-01

    Baker's asthma is a frequent occupational allergic disease caused mainly by inhalation of cereal flour, particularly wheat flour. This review deals with the current diagnosis and immunomodulatory treatments, as well as the role of wheat allergens as molecular tools to enhance management and knowledge of this disease. The review also discusses the current status of several salt-soluble proteins (albumins and globulins)--cereal alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitors, peroxidase, thioredoxin, nonspecific lipid transfer protein, serine proteinase inhibitor, and thaumatin-like protein-as well as salt-insoluble storage proteins (prolamins, namely, gliadins and glutenins) as allergens associated with baker's asthma. Finally, current limitations to using these proteins as molecular tools for diagnosis and immunotherapy are highlighted.

  16. Evaluation of trends in wheat yield models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, M. C.

    1982-01-01

    Trend terms in models for wheat yield in the U.S. Great Plains for the years 1932 to 1976 are evaluated. The subset of meteorological variables yielding the largest adjusted R(2) is selected using the method of leaps and bounds. Latent root regression is used to eliminate multicollinearities, and generalized ridge regression is used to introduce bias to provide stability in the data matrix. The regression model used provides for two trends in each of two models: a dependent model in which the trend line is piece-wise continuous, and an independent model in which the trend line is discontinuous at the year of the slope change. It was found that the trend lines best describing the wheat yields consisted of combinations of increasing, decreasing, and constant trend: four combinations for the dependent model and seven for the independent model.

  17. Antioxidant activity of wheat and buckwheat flours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedej Ivana J.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidative activities of wheat flours (type 500 and wholegrain and buckwheat flours (light and wholegrain were tested using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH·-scavenging activity, reducing power and chelating activity on Fe2+. Also, the content of the total phenolics of ethanolic extracts was estimated. Polyphenolics content (expressed as gallic acid equivalent, GAE in wheat flours varied between 37.1 and 137.2 μg GAE/g extract, while its content in buckwheat flour were at least four time higher and ranged between 476.3 and 618.9μg GAE/g extract. Ethanolic extracts of buckwheat flours exhibited higher antioxidant activities in all the assays, except for chelating activity. Regarding all the obtained results, it can be concluded that bakery products produced with buckwheat flour could be regarded as potential functional foods.

  18. Drought Tolerance in Modern and Wild Wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Hikmet Budak; Melda Kantar; Kuaybe Yucebilgili Kurtoglu

    2013-01-01

    The genus Triticum includes bread (Triticum aestivum) and durum wheat (Triticum durum) and constitutes a major source for human food consumption. Drought is currently the leading threat on world's food supply, limiting crop yield, and is complicated since drought tolerance is a quantitative trait with a complex phenotype affected by the plant's developmental stage. Drought tolerance is crucial to stabilize and increase food production since domestication has limited the genetic diversity of c...

  19. Bioactive compounds in whole grain wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Mateo Anson, N.

    2010-01-01

    Bread can be healthier! Consuming whole-grain foods can prevent cardiovascular diseases, type-2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. This is due to bioactive compounds in whole grain, such as antioxidants and anti-inflammatory compounds. We found that the different fractions of a wheat grain vary much in their content. The external fractions of the grain, the bran and specially the aleurone, are the richest. We observed that processing the bran in whole-grain breads increased three times the leve...

  20. Transgenic Wheat, Barley and Oats: Future Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunwell, Jim M.

    Following the success of transgenic maize and rice, methods have now been developed for the efficient introduction of genes into wheat, barley and oats. This review summarizes the present position in relation to these three species, and also uses information from field trial databases and the patent literature to assess the future trends in the exploitation of transgenic material. This analysis includes agronomic traits and also discusses opportunities in expanding areas such as biofuels and biopharming.