Sample records for hexagonal dna liquid

  1. Liquid crystalline phases of dendritic lipid-DNA self-assemblies: lamellar, hexagonal, and DNA bundles. (United States)

    Zidovska, Alexandra; Evans, Heather M; Ewert, Kai K; Quispe, Joel; Carragher, Bridget; Potter, Clinton S; Safinya, Cyrus R


    The prospects of gene therapy have generated unprecedented interest in the properties and structures of complexes of nucleic acids (NAs) with cationic liposomes (CLs), which are used as nonviral NA carriers in worldwide clinical trials. An improved understanding of the mechanisms of action of CL-NA complexes is required to enable their widespread therapeutic use. In prior studies of CL-mediated DNA delivery, membrane charge density (sigma(M)) was identified as a key parameter for transfection efficiency (TE) of lamellar (L(alpha)(C)) CL-DNA complexes. The TE of CL-DNA complexes containing cationic lipids with headgroup valencies from 1+ to 5+ follows a universal bell-shaped curve as a function of sigma(M). As we report here, the TE of CL-DNA complexes containing new multivalent lipids with dendritic headgroups (DLs) strongly deviates from this curve at high sigma(M). We have investigated four DLs, MVLG2 (4+), MVLG3 (8+), MVLBisG1 (8+), and MVLBisG2 (16+), in mixtures with neutral 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycerophosphatidyl-choline (DOPC). To understand the TE behavior, we have performed X-ray diffraction (XRD), optical microscopy, and cryo-TEM studies of the DL/DOPC mixtures and their DNA complexes. XRD reveals a complex phase behavior of DL-DNA complexes which strongly depends on the headgroup charge. MVLG2(4+)/DOPC-DNA complexes exhibit the lamellar phase at all molar fractions of DL, Phi(DL). In stark contrast, MVLBisG2(16+)/ DOPC-DNA complexes remain lamellar only for Phi(DL) phase H(I)(C), consisting of a hexagonal lattice of cylindrical lipid micelles and a DNA honeycomb lattice, is formed. At Phi(DL) > 0.3, XRD suggests formation of a distorted H(I)(C) phase. For Phi(DL) > or = 0.5 under high salt conditions, this phase coexists with a bundle phase of DNA condensed by the depletion-attraction effect of DL micelles. The transitions at high sigma(M) from the lamellar phase to the new hexagonal phases of DL-DNA complexes coincide with the deviation from the universal

  2. Multilayer DNA Origami Packed on Hexagonal and Hybrid Lattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ke, Yonggang; Voigt, Niels Vinther; Shih, William M.


    “Scaffolded DNA origami” has been proven to be a powerful and efficient approach to construct two-dimensional or three-dimensional objects with great complexity. Multilayer DNA origami has been demonstrated with helices packing along either honeycomb-lattice geometry or square-lattice geometry. H...... DNA origami with honeycomb-lattice, square-lattice, and hexagonal-lattice packing of helices all in one design. The availability of hexagonal close-packing of helices extends our ability to build complex structures using DNA nanotechnology....

  3. Ionic liquid-modulated preparation of hexagonal tungsten trioxide mesocrystals for lithium-ion batteries (United States)

    Duan, Xiaochuan; Xiao, Songhua; Wang, Lingling; Huang, Hui; Liu, Yuan; Li, Qiuhong; Wang, Taihong


    Hexagonal (h-WO3) mesocrystals with biconical morphology were prepared by a straightforward ionic liquid-assisted hydrothermal route and investigated as anodic materials for lithium-ion batteries. Compared to the alternatives, the biconical tungsten trioxide mesocrystal exhibited excellent lithium insertion with good cyclability and rate capability, making it a promising candidate as the anode material for high-performance lithium-ion batteries.Hexagonal (h-WO3) mesocrystals with biconical morphology were prepared by a straightforward ionic liquid-assisted hydrothermal route and investigated as anodic materials for lithium-ion batteries. Compared to the alternatives, the biconical tungsten trioxide mesocrystal exhibited excellent lithium insertion with good cyclability and rate capability, making it a promising candidate as the anode material for high-performance lithium-ion batteries. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr05717a

  4. Self-assembly and continuous growth of hexagonal graphene flakes on liquid Cu. (United States)

    Cho, Seong-Yong; Kim, Min-Sik; Kim, Minsu; Kim, Ki-Ju; Kim, Hyun-Mi; Lee, Do-Joong; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Kim, Ki-Bum


    Graphene growth on liquid Cu has received great interest, owing to the self-assembly behavior of hexagonal graphene flakes with aligned orientation and to the possibility of forming a single grain of graphene through a commensurate growth of these graphene flakes. Here, we propose and demonstrate a two-step growth process which allows the formation of self-assembled, completely continuous graphene on liquid Cu. After the formation of full coverage on the liquid Cu, grain boundaries were revealed via selective hydrogen etching and the original grain boundaries were clearly resolved. This result indicates that, while the flakes self-assembled with the same orientation, there still remain structural defects, gaps and voids that were not resolved by optical microscopy or scanning electron microscopy. To overcome this limitation, the two-step growth process was employed, consisting of a sequential process of a normal single-layer graphene growth and self-assembly process with a low carbon flux, followed by the final stage of graphene growth at a high degree of supersaturation with a high carbon flux. Continuity of the flakes was verified via hydrogen etching and a NaCl-assisted oxidation process, as well as by measuring the electrical properties of the graphene grown by the two-step process. Two-step growth can provide a continuous graphene layer, but commensurate stitching should be further studied.

  5. Uniform hexagonal graphene flakes and films grown on liquid copper surface. (United States)

    Geng, Dechao; Wu, Bin; Guo, Yunlong; Huang, Liping; Xue, Yunzhou; Chen, Jianyi; Yu, Gui; Jiang, Lang; Hu, Wenping; Liu, Yunqi


    Unresolved problems associated with the production of graphene materials include the need for greater control over layer number, crystallinity, size, edge structure and spatial orientation, and a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms. Here we report a chemical vapor deposition approach that allows the direct synthesis of uniform single-layered, large-size (up to 10,000 μm(2)), spatially self-aligned, and single-crystalline hexagonal graphene flakes (HGFs) and their continuous films on liquid Cu surfaces. Employing a liquid Cu surface completely eliminates the grain boundaries in solid polycrystalline Cu, resulting in a uniform nucleation distribution and low graphene nucleation density, but also enables self-assembly of HGFs into compact and ordered structures. These HGFs show an average two-dimensional resistivity of 609 ± 200 Ω and saturation current density of 0.96 ± 0.15 mA/μm, demonstrating their good conductivity and capability for carrying high current density.

  6. DNA-carbon nano onion aggregate: triangle, hexagon, six-petal flower to dead-end network (United States)

    Babar, Dipak Gorakh; Pakhira, Bholanath; Sarkar, Sabyasachi


    The interaction between calf-thymus (CT) dsDNA and water soluble carbon nano onion (wsCNO) in water follows denaturation of dsDNA (double stranded) to ssDNA (single stranded) as monitored by optical spectroscopy. The ssDNA concomitantly wraps the spiky surface of wsCNO to create triangular aggregate as the building block as observed by time-dependent SEM images. These triangles further aggregate leading to six-petal flower arrangement via hexagon and finally reach a dead end network as imaged by SEM and optical fluorescence microscopy. The dead-end network aggregate lost the intrinsic optical property of DNA suggesting complete loss of its activity.

  7. Templating gold nanorods with liquid crystalline DNA (United States)

    De Sio, Luciano; Annesi, Ferdinanda; Placido, Tiziana; Comparelli, Roberto; Bruno, Vincenzo; Pane, Alfredo; Palermo, Giovanna; Curri, Maria Lucia; Umeton, Cesare; Bartolino, Roberto


    A liquid crystalline, negatively charged, whole-genome DNA is exploited to organize positively charged gold nanorods (GNRs) by means of electrostatic interaction. A mesoscopic alignment of the composite system along a preferred direction is obtained by casting a droplet of the DNA-nanorods solution onto an untreated glass substrate. Gel electrophoresis analysis enables evaluating the effective electric charge of the system, thus minimizing the DNA fragmentation. Polarized optical microscopy, combined with transmission and scanning electron microscopy, shows that, up to 20% in weight of GNR solution, the system exhibits both a long range order, induced by the liquid crystalline phase of the DNA, and a nanoscale organization, due to the DNA self-assembly. These evidences are confirmed by a polarized spectral analysis, which also points out that the optical properties of GNRs strongly depend on the polarization of the impinging probe light. The capability to organize plasmonic nanoparticles by means of DNA material represents a significant advance towards the realization of life science inspired optical materials.

  8. Observation of conical scattering cones from a two-dimensional hexagonal photonic crystal based on a polymer-dispersed liquid crystal. (United States)

    Wu, Shing-Trong; Li, Ming Shian; Fuh, Andy Ying-Guey


    We explore axial scattering from a two-dimensional hexagonal photonic crystal based on a polymer-dispersed liquid crystal at normal incidence. The scattering reveals symmetric cones over a range of frequencies. The observed cones disperse strongly outward, and their radii are determined by the wavelength of the probe beam. Such cones are generated by the coupling of forward-scattered beams of the refracted beams and the refracted beams themselves under momentum conservation.

  9. Spatial angle dependent lasing from a dye-doped two-dimensional hexagonal photonic crystal made of holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystals. (United States)

    Luo, D; Dai, H T; Demir, H V; Sun, X W; Yang, H Z; Ji, W


    The observation of spatial angle dependent lasing from a dye-doped two-dimensional photonic crystal (2D PC) holographic polymer dispersed liquid crystals made of hexagonal lattice structure is reported. With the increasing output angle of the laser beam in the plane perpendicular to the 2D PC, the lasing wavelength is red-shifted. By analyzing the lasing oscillation trace, we found that the effective lattice constant changes with the output angle, causing the spatial angle dependent lasing.

  10. Isolating silkworm genomic DNA without liquid nitrogen suitable for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genomic DNA was isolated from posterior silk gland of silkworms, Antheraea assama. Absolute alcohol was used as tissue fixing solution instead of grinding in liquid nitrogen, which yielded high molecular weight DNA (>40 kb). Samples yielded similar amount of DNA when fixed in absolute alcohol (400 μmg/g of silk gland ...

  11. Visualizing DNA Nanoparticle Motion under Graphene Liquid Cell TEM (United States)

    Chen, Qian; Smith, Jessica; Park, Jungwon; Lee, Somin; Zettl, Alex; Alivisatos, Paul


    We think of a simple colloidal nanocrystal as one type of artificial atoms. They mutually interact, cluster into artificial molecules, and further arrange into macroscopically functional artificial solids. The ``atomic'' resolution dynamics of this bottom-up strategy in materials design is studied here in a system of artificial molecules composed of DNA and nanoparticle. The observation of dynamics in their liquid environment is recently enabled by graphene liquid cell transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In comparison to conventional TEM, wherein the assembled 3D artificial structures are dried out during sample preparation and thus are collapsed, this graphene liquid cell introduces a special local liquid structure that retains the conformations as well as the dynamics of the assemblies. In situ imaging of correlated motions of DNA and nanoparticle provides insights into the design principles of artificial nanocrystal molecules and solids linked by DNA.

  12. 2D analogues of the inverted hexagonal phase self-assembled from 4,6-dialkoxylated isophthalic acids at solid-liquid interfaces (United States)

    Klymchenko, Andrey S.; Furukawa, Shuhei; Balandina, Tanya; Müllen, Klaus; van der Auweraer, Mark; de Feyter, Steven


    Self-assembly of organic molecules at solid-liquid interfaces is a route for developing novel functional materials on surfaces and modeling assembly phenomena in 3D. 5-Alkoxylated isophthalic acids (ISA) are known to self-assemble into two-dimensional (2D) lamellae at the interface between a surface of Au(111) or HOPG (highly oriented pyrolytic graphite) and a solvent. Presently, the self-assembly of 4,6-dialkoxylated isophthalic acid derivatives with variable alkyl chain length is investigated at Au(111)-water, Au(111)-tetradecane and HOPG-tetradecane interfaces with a particular focus on the first one. The main aspect of this study is to evaluate the role of the molecular geometry and different interactions in the 2D assembly of amphiphilic molecules. In contrast to 5-alkoxylated ISA, 4,6-dialkoxylated ISA derivatives self-assemble preferentially into arrays of cyclic pentameric/hexameric structures, which appear as 2D analogues of the inverted hexagonal phase of lipids. As a general trend, the derivatives bearing shorter alkyl chains show a higher level of ordering at Au(111)-liquid interfaces. In particular, at the Au(111)-water interface, the 4,6-diheptyloxy ISA derivative forms exclusively pentamers, which are arranged in a quasi-hexagonal lattice. Moreover, the cyclic pentameric features are not empty but host a single isophthalic acid residue which is found to be dynamic. Finally, the packing of the diheptyloxy derivative shows a distinct potential dependence: while at more negative potentials the pentameric arrangement is converted into lamellae, at more positive potentials a loosely packed zig-zag pattern is formed. The present results show that at different solid-liquid interfaces 4,6-dialkoxylated ISA derivatives tend to form cyclic structures that are 2D analogues of an inverted hexagonal phase, akin to lipids having two hydrophobic alkyl chains and a small polar head group. Moreover, the substrate potential at the Au(111)-water interface can tune the

  13. Birefringence and DNA Condensation of Liquid Crystalline Chromosomes ▿ (United States)

    Chow, Man H.; Yan, Kosmo T. H.; Bennett, Michael J.; Wong, Joseph T. Y.


    DNA can self-assemble in vitro into several liquid crystalline phases at high concentrations. The largest known genomes are encoded by the cholesteric liquid crystalline chromosomes (LCCs) of the dinoflagellates, a diverse group of protists related to the malarial parasites. Very little is known about how the liquid crystalline packaging strategy is employed to organize these genomes, the largest among living eukaryotes—up to 80 times the size of the human genome. Comparative measurements using a semiautomatic polarizing microscope demonstrated that there is a large variation in the birefringence, an optical property of anisotropic materials, of the chromosomes from different dinoflagellate species, despite their apparently similar ultrastructural patterns of bands and arches. There is a large variation in the chromosomal arrangements in the nuclei and individual karyotypes. Our data suggest that both macroscopic and ultrastructural arrangements affect the apparent birefringence of the liquid crystalline chromosomes. Positive correlations are demonstrated for the first time between the level of absolute retardance and both the DNA content and the observed helical pitch measured from transmission electron microscopy (TEM) photomicrographs. Experiments that induced disassembly of the chromosomes revealed multiple orders of organization in the dinoflagellate chromosomes. With the low protein-to-DNA ratio, we propose that a highly regulated use of entropy-driven force must be involved in the assembly of these LCCs. Knowledge of the mechanism of packaging and arranging these largest known DNAs into different shapes and different formats in the nuclei would be of great value in the use of DNA as nanostructural material. PMID:20400466

  14. [Liquid biopsy analysis using cell-free DNA (cfDNA): Opportunities and limitations]. (United States)

    Dahl, E; Kloten, V


    Molecular biological analysis of nucleic acids in blood or other bodily fluids (i.e. liquid biopsy analyses) may supplement the pathologists' diagnostic armamentarium in a reasonable way-particularly in cancer precision medicine. Within the field of oncology, liquid biopsy can potentially be used to monitor tumor burden in the blood and to early detect emerging resistance in the course of targeted cancer therapies. An already approved application of liquid biopsy is the detection of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) driver mutations in blood samples of lung cancer patients in those cases where no tissue biopsy is available. However, there is still currently considerable insecurity associated with blood-based DNA analytic methods that must be solved before liquid biopsy can be implemented for broader routine application in the diagnosis of cancer. In this article, the current state of development of liquid biopsy in molecular diagnostics from a pathology point of view is presented.

  15. Molecular engineering of chiral colloidal liquid crystals using DNA origami (United States)

    Siavashpouri, Mahsa; Wachauf, Christian H.; Zakhary, Mark J.; Praetorius, Florian; Dietz, Hendrik; Dogic, Zvonimir


    Establishing precise control over the shape and the interactions of the microscopic building blocks is essential for design of macroscopic soft materials with novel structural, optical and mechanical properties. Here, we demonstrate robust assembly of DNA origami filaments into cholesteric liquid crystals, one-dimensional supramolecular twisted ribbons and two-dimensional colloidal membranes. The exquisite control afforded by the DNA origami technology establishes a quantitative relationship between the microscopic filament structure and the macroscopic cholesteric pitch. Furthermore, it also enables robust assembly of one-dimensional twisted ribbons, which behave as effective supramolecular polymers whose structure and elastic properties can be precisely tuned by controlling the geometry of the elemental building blocks. Our results demonstrate the potential synergy between DNA origami technology and colloidal science, in which the former allows for rapid and robust synthesis of complex particles, and the latter can be used to assemble such particles into bulk materials.

  16. Extraction of DNA by magnetic ionic liquids: tunable solvents for rapid and selective DNA analysis. (United States)

    Clark, Kevin D; Nacham, Omprakash; Yu, Honglian; Li, Tianhao; Yamsek, Melissa M; Ronning, Donald R; Anderson, Jared L


    DNA extraction represents a significant bottleneck in nucleic acid analysis. In this study, hydrophobic magnetic ionic liquids (MILs) were synthesized and employed as solvents for the rapid and efficient extraction of DNA from aqueous solution. The DNA-enriched microdroplets were manipulated by application of a magnetic field. The three MILs examined in this study exhibited unique DNA extraction capabilities when applied toward a variety of DNA samples and matrices. High extraction efficiencies were obtained for smaller single-stranded and double-stranded DNA using the benzyltrioctylammonium bromotrichloroferrate(III) ([(C8)3BnN(+)][FeCl3Br(-)]) MIL, while the dicationic 1,12-di(3-hexadecylbenzimidazolium)dodecane bis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]imide bromotrichloroferrate(III) ([(C16BnIM)2C12(2+)][NTf2(-), FeCl3Br(-)]) MIL produced higher extraction efficiencies for larger DNA molecules. The MIL-based method was also employed for the extraction of DNA from a complex matrix containing albumin, revealing a competitive extraction behavior for the trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium tetrachloroferrate(III) ([P6,6,6,14(+)][FeCl4(-)]) MIL in contrast to the [(C8)3BnN(+)][FeCl3Br(-)] MIL, which resulted in significantly less coextraction of albumin. The MIL-DNA method was employed for the extraction of plasmid DNA from bacterial cell lysate. DNA of sufficient quality and quantity for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification was recovered from the MIL extraction phase, demonstrating the feasibility of MIL-based DNA sample preparation prior to downstream analysis.

  17. Spatial ordering and abnormal optical activity of DNA liquid-crystalline dispersion particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semenov S.V.


    Full Text Available In our work, we investigate physicochemical and optical properties of double-strand DNA dispersions. The study of these properties is of biological interest, because it allows one to describe the characteristics of certain classes of chromosomes and DNA containing viruses. The package pattern of DNA molecules in the dispersions particles (DP is examined. The consideration of the DNA liquid-crystalline DP optical activity based on the theory of electromagnetic wave absorption by large molecular aggregates has been performed. The investigation is also focused on various effects induced by the interaction between biological active compounds and DNA in the content of liquid-crystalline DP.

  18. Hexagon solar power panel (United States)

    Rubin, Irwin


    A solar energy panel comprises a support upon which silicon cells are arrayed. The cells are wafer thin and of two geometrical types, both of the same area and electrical rating, namely hexagon cells and hourglass cells. The hourglass cells are composites of half hexagons. A near perfect nesting relationship of the cells achieves a high density packing whereby optimum energy production per panel area is achieved.

  19. Hexagon solar power panel (United States)

    Rubin, I. (Inventor)


    A solar energy panel support is described upon which silicon cells are arrayed. The cells are wafer thin and of two geometrical types, both of the same area and electrical rating, namely hexagon cells and hourglass cells. The hourglass cells are composites of half hexagons. A near perfect nesting relationship of the cells achieves a high density packing whereby optimum energy production per panel area is achieved.

  20. Des hexagones dans l'Hexagone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie ADAM


    Full Text Available L'approche des lieux centraux est plus qu'un simple exercice théorique. Elle peut guider la réflexion sur les problèmes actuels, car elle rend compte de l'héritage historique tout autant que des transformations actuelles. Au niveau 5, la trame de la France du Nord-Est est orientée différemment de celle du reste du pays, mais la taille des hexagones est la même dans les deux cas (126 km. Au niveau 6, seuls quelques grands systèmes métropolitains apparaissent.

  1. The Assembly of DNA Amphiphiles at Liquid Crystal-Aqueous Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingsheng Zhou


    Full Text Available In this article, we synthesized a type of DNA amphiphiles (called DNA-lipids and systematically studied its assembly behavior at the liquid crystal (LC—aqueous interface. It turned out that the pure DNA-lipids at various concentrations cannot trigger the optical transition of liquid crystals from planar anchoring to homeotropic anchoring at the liquid crystal—aqueous interface. The co-assembly of DNA-lipid and l-dilauroyl phosphatidylcholine (l-DLPC indicated that the DLPC assembled all over the LC-aqueous interface, and DNA-lipids prefer to couple with LC in certain areas, particularly in polarized and fluorescent image, forming micron sized net-like structures. The addition of DNA complementary to DNA-lipids forming double stranded DNA-lipids caused de-assembly of DNA-lipids from LC-aqueous interface, resulting in the disappearance of net-like structures, which can be visualized through polarized microscope. The optical changes combined with DNA unique designable property and specific interaction with wide range of target molecules, the DNA-lipids decorated LC-aqueous interface would provide a new platform for biological sensing and diagnosis.

  2. Non liquid nitrogen-based-method for isolation of DNA from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A simple, efficient, reliable and cost-effective method for isolation of total genomic DNA from fungi, suitable for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and other molecular applications was described. The main advantages of the method are: (1) does not require the use of liquid nitrogen for preparation of fungi DNA; ...

  3. Controlling the volatility of the written optical state in electrochromic DNA liquid crystals (United States)

    Liu, Kai; Varghese, Justin; Gerasimov, Jennifer Y.; Polyakov, Alexey O.; Shuai, Min; Su, Juanjuan; Chen, Dong; Zajaczkowski, Wojciech; Marcozzi, Alessio; Pisula, Wojciech; Noheda, Beatriz; Palstra, Thomas T. M.; Clark, Noel A.; Herrmann, Andreas


    Liquid crystals are widely used in displays for portable electronic information display. To broaden their scope for other applications like smart windows and tags, new material properties such as polarizer-free operation and tunable memory of a written state become important. Here, we describe an anhydrous nanoDNA-surfactant thermotropic liquid crystal system, which exhibits distinctive electrically controlled optical absorption, and temperature-dependent memory. In the liquid crystal isotropic phase, electric field-induced colouration and bleaching have a switching time of seconds. Upon transition to the smectic liquid crystal phase, optical memory of the written state is observed for many hours without applied voltage. The reorientation of the DNA-surfactant lamellar layers plays an important role in preventing colour decay. Thereby, the volatility of optoelectronic state can be controlled simply by changing the phase of the material. This research may pave the way for developing a new generation of DNA-based, phase-modulated, photoelectronic devices.

  4. A quick DNA extraction protocol: Without liquid nitrogen in ambient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Marker assisted selection is an effective technique for quality traits selection in breeding program which are impossible by visual observation. Marker assisted selection in early generation requires rapid DNA extraction protocol for large number of samples in a low cost approach. A rapid and inexpensive DNA extraction ...

  5. Investigations on the liquid crystalline phases of cation-induced condensed DNA (United States)

    Pillai, C. K. S.; Sundaresan, Neethu; Radhakrishnan Pillai, M.; Thomas, T.; Thomas, T. J.


    Viral and nonviral condensing agents are used in gene therapy to compact oligonucleotides and plasmid DNA into nanostructures for their efficient transport through the cell membranes. Whereas viral vectors are best by the toxic effects on the immune system, most of the nonviral delivery vehicles are not effective for use in clinical system. Recent investigations indicate that the supramolecular organization of DNA in the condensed state is liquid crystalline. The present level of understanding of the liquid crystalline phase of DNA is inadequate and a thorough investigation is required to understand the nature, stability, texture and the influence of various environmental conditions on the structure of the phase. The present study is mainly concerned with the physico-chemical investigations on the liquid crystalline transitions during compaction of DNA by cationic species such as polyamines and metallic cations. As a preliminary to the above investigation, studies were conducted on the evolution of mesophase transitions of DNA with various cationic counterion species using polarized light microscopy. These studies indicated significant variations in the phase behaviour of DNA in the presence of Li and other ions. Apart from the neutralization of the charges on the DNA molecule, these ions are found to influence selectively the hydration sphere of DNA that in turn influences the induction and stabilization of the LC phases. The higher stability observed with the liquid crystalline phases of Li--DNA system could be useful in the production of nanostructured DNA. In the case of the polyamine, a structural specificity effect depending on the nature, charge and structure of the polyamine used has been found to be favoured in the crystallization of DNA.

  6. Liquid biopsy in the diagnosis of HPV DNA in breast lesions. (United States)

    De Carolis, Sabrina; Pellegrini, Alice; Santini, Donatella; Ceccarelli, Claudio; De Leo, Antonio; Alessandrini, Federica; Arienti, Chiara; Pignatta, Sara; Tesei, Anna; Mantovani, Vilma; Zamagni, Claudio; Taffurelli, Mario; Sansone, Pasquale; Bonafé, Massimiliano; Cricca, Monica


    HPV DNA has never been investigated in nipple discharges (ND) and serum-derived extracellular vesicles, although its presence has been reported in ductal lavage fluids and blood specimens. We analyzed 50 ND, 22 serum-derived extracellular vesicles as well as 51 pathologic breast tissues for the presence of 16 HPV DNA types. We show that the presence of HPV DNA in the ND is predictive of HPV DNA-positive breast lesions and that HPV DNA is more represented in intraductal papillomas. We also show the presence of HPV DNA in the serum-derived extracellular vesicles. Our data supports the use of liquid biopsy to detect HPV DNA in breast pathology.

  7. Geant4-DNA simulation of electron slowing-down spectra in liquid water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Incerti, S., E-mail: [Division of Nuclear Physics, Ton Duc Thang University, Tan Phong Ward, District 7, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Faculty of Applied Sciences, Ton Duc Thang University, Tan Phong Ward, District 7, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Univ. Bordeaux, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33170, Gradignan (France); CNRS, IN2P3, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33170 Gradignan (France); Kyriakou, I. [Medical Physics Laboratory, University of Ioannina Medical School, 45110 Ioannina (Greece); Tran, H.N. [Division of Nuclear Physics, Ton Duc Thang University, Tan Phong Ward, District 7, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Faculty of Applied Sciences, Ton Duc Thang University, Tan Phong Ward, District 7, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam)


    This work presents the simulation of monoenergetic electron slowing-down spectra in liquid water by the Geant4-DNA extension of the Geant4 Monte Carlo toolkit (release 10.2p01). These spectra are simulated for several incident energies using the most recent Geant4-DNA physics models, and they are compared to literature data. The influence of Auger electron production is discussed. For the first time, a dedicated Geant4-DNA example allowing such simulations is described and is provided to Geant4 users, allowing further verification of Geant4-DNA track structure simulation capabilities.

  8. Hexagonal Data Base Study. (United States)


    Attribute Data Manegement 0 I GRAM itself has limited attribute data handling capabilities. Such information about nodes as their degree and whether...geographic information . This report presents theresults of an expermental software implementation utilizing hexagonal dat s uctresasapplied to test data... information . The project described in this report was performed to assess the capabilities of the techniques in data representation and handling which have

  9. Hexagonal quartz resonator (United States)

    Peters, Roswell D. M.


    A generally flat, relatively thin AT-cut piezoelectric resonator element structured to minimize the force-frequency effect when mounted and energized in a housing. The resonator is in the form of an equilateral hexagon with the X crystallographic axis of the crystal passing through one set of opposing corners with mounting being effected at an adjacent set of corners respectively away from the X axis which thereby results in a substantially zero frequency shift of the operating frequency.

  10. Hexagonalization of correlation functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleury, Thiago [Instituto de Física Teórica, UNESP - University Estadual Paulista,ICTP South American Institute for Fundamental Research,Rua Dr. Bento Teobaldo Ferraz 271, 01140-070, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Komatsu, Shota [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,31 Caroline St N Waterloo, Ontario N2L 2Y5 (Canada)


    We propose a nonperturbative framework to study general correlation functions of single-trace operators in N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory at large N. The basic strategy is to decompose them into fundamental building blocks called the hexagon form factors, which were introduced earlier to study structure constants using integrability. The decomposition is akin to a triangulation of a Riemann surface, and we thus call it hexagonalization. We propose a set of rules to glue the hexagons together based on symmetry, which naturally incorporate the dependence on the conformal and the R-symmetry cross ratios. Our method is conceptually different from the conventional operator product expansion and automatically takes into account multi-trace operators exchanged in OPE channels. To illustrate the idea in simple set-ups, we compute four-point functions of BPS operators of arbitrary lengths and correlation functions of one Konishi operator and three short BPS operators, all at one loop. In all cases, the results are in perfect agreement with the perturbative data. We also suggest that our method can be a useful tool to study conformal integrals, and show it explicitly for the case of ladder integrals.

  11. Immune cell activation from multivalent interactions with liquid-crystalline polycation-DNA complexes (United States)

    Schmidt, Nathan; Jin, Fan; Lande, Roberto; Curk, Tine; Xian, Wujing; Frasca, Loredana; Dobnikar, Jure; Frenkel, Daan; Gilliet, Michel; Wong, Gerard


    Microbial DNA can trigger type I interferon (IFN) production in plasmacytoid cells (pDCs) by binding to endosomal toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9). TLR9 in pDCs do not normally respond to self-DNA, but in certain autoimmune diseases self-DNA can complex with the polycationic antimicrobial peptide LL37 into condensed structures which allow DNA to access endosomal compartments and stimulate TLR9 in pDCs. We use x-ray studies and cell measurements of IFN secretion by pDCs to show that a broad range of polycation-DNA complexes stimulate pDCs and elucidate the criterion for high IFN production. Furthermore, we show via experiments and computer simulations that the distinguishing factor for why certain complexes activate pDCs while others do not is the self-assembled structure of the liquid-crystalline polycation-DNA complex.

  12. Supercoiled DNA; plectonemic structure and liquid crystal formation

    CERN Document Server

    Maarel, J R C; Jesse, W; Backendorf, C; Egelhaaf, S U; Lapp, A


    We have investigated the phase behaviour of pUC18 plasmid solutions with phase separation experiments and polarized light microscopy. Furthermore, the configuration of the superhelix is monitored with small-angle neutron scattering. The phase diagram is interpreted with liquid crystal theory including the effects of charge, orientation entropy, excluded volume, as well as the elastic, entropic and electrostatic contributions to the molecular free energy.

  13. Hexagonal graphene quantum dots

    KAUST Repository

    Ghosh, Sumit


    We study hexagonal graphene quantum dots, using density functional theory, to obtain a quantitative description of the electronic properties and their size dependence, considering disk and ring geometries with both armchair and zigzag edges. We show that the electronic properties of quantum dots with armchair edges are more sensitive to structural details than those with zigzag edges. As functions of the inner and outer radii, we find in the case of armchair edges that the size of the band gap follows distinct branches, while in the case of zigzag edges it changes monotonically. This behaviour is further analyzed by studying the ground state wave function and explained in terms of its localisation.

  14. Automated pneumococcal MLST using liquid-handling robotics and a capillary DNA sequencer. (United States)

    Jefferies, Johanna; Clarke, Stuart C; Diggle, Mathew A; Smith, Andrew; Dowson, Chris; Mitchell, Tim


    Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) is used by the Scottish Meningococcus and Pneumococcus Reference Laboratory (SMPRL) as a routine method for the characterization of certain bacterial pathogens. The SMPRL recently started performing MLST on strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae, and here we describe a fully automated method for MLST using a 96-well-format liquid-handling robot and a 96-capillary automated DNA sequencer.

  15. Automated extraction of DNA and PCR setup using a Tecan Freedom EVO® liquid handler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frøslev, Tobias Guldberg; Hansen, Anders Johannes; Stangegaard, Michael

    We have implemented and validated automated protocols for DNA extraction and PCR setup using a Tecan Freedom EVO® liquid handler mounted with the TeMagS magnetic separation device. The methods were validated for accredited, forensic genetic work according to ISO 17025 using the Qiagen Mag...

  16. Structural Elucidation of DNA-Protein Crosslinks Using Reductive Desulfurization and Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry (United States)

    Wickramaratne, Susith


    Structural characterization of DNA-protein crosslinks involving cysteine using reductive desulfurization in combination with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry is highlighted. The novel approach was used to identify hydrolytically stable DNA-protein lesions involving alkylguanine DNA alkyltransferase (AGT). PMID:24436288

  17. Novel polymeric ionic liquid microspheres with high exchange capacity for fast extraction of plasmid DNA. (United States)

    Wang, Xiaofeng; Xing, Ligang; Shu, Yang; Chen, Xuwei; Wang, Jianhua


    A novel polymeric ionic liquid (PIL) microsphere, poly(1-vinyl-3-(2-methoxy-2-oxyl ethyl)imidazolium) hexafluorophosphate, is prepared via W/O emulsion polymerization. Rapid ion-exchange between the anionic moieties of PIL and DNA fragments is demonstrated facilitating the exchange equilibrium to be reached within 1 min. The PIL microspheres exhibit a high capacity of 190.7 μg mg(-1) for DNA adsorption. A fast DNA isolation protocol is thus developed with the PIL microspheres as solid phase adsorbent. It is feasible to facilitate DNA adsorption or stripping from the microspheres by simply regulating the concentration of salt. DNA adsorption is facilitated at low salt concentration, while higher concentration of salt entails DNA recovery from the microspheres. In practice, the retained DNA could be readily recovered with 1.0 mol L(-1) NaCl as stripping reagent, giving rise to a recovery of ca. 80.7%. The PIL microspheres are used for the adsorption/isolation of plasmid DNA from E. coli cell culture, demonstrating a superior adsorption performance with respect to that achieved by a commercial Plasmid Miniprep Kit. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Molecular threading: mechanical extraction, stretching and placement of DNA molecules from a liquid-air interface.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew C Payne

    Full Text Available We present "molecular threading", a surface independent tip-based method for stretching and depositing single and double-stranded DNA molecules. DNA is stretched into air at a liquid-air interface, and can be subsequently deposited onto a dry substrate isolated from solution. The design of an apparatus used for molecular threading is presented, and fluorescence and electron microscopies are used to characterize the angular distribution, straightness, and reproducibility of stretched DNA deposited in arrays onto elastomeric surfaces and thin membranes. Molecular threading demonstrates high straightness and uniformity over length scales from nanometers to micrometers, and represents an alternative to existing DNA deposition and linearization methods. These results point towards scalable and high-throughput precision manipulation of single-molecule polymers.

  19. Molecular threading: mechanical extraction, stretching and placement of DNA molecules from a liquid-air interface. (United States)

    Payne, Andrew C; Andregg, Michael; Kemmish, Kent; Hamalainen, Mark; Bowell, Charlotte; Bleloch, Andrew; Klejwa, Nathan; Lehrach, Wolfgang; Schatz, Ken; Stark, Heather; Marblestone, Adam; Church, George; Own, Christopher S; Andregg, William


    We present "molecular threading", a surface independent tip-based method for stretching and depositing single and double-stranded DNA molecules. DNA is stretched into air at a liquid-air interface, and can be subsequently deposited onto a dry substrate isolated from solution. The design of an apparatus used for molecular threading is presented, and fluorescence and electron microscopies are used to characterize the angular distribution, straightness, and reproducibility of stretched DNA deposited in arrays onto elastomeric surfaces and thin membranes. Molecular threading demonstrates high straightness and uniformity over length scales from nanometers to micrometers, and represents an alternative to existing DNA deposition and linearization methods. These results point towards scalable and high-throughput precision manipulation of single-molecule polymers.

  20. [Evaluation of genotyping of human papilomavirus by a new DNA liquid chip based on Luminex XMAP]. (United States)

    Deng, Xiao-mei; Liu, Min; Zheng, Gui-xi; Wang, Chuan-xin; Zhang, Jian; Li, Wei


    To evaluate the diagnostic value of Luminex XMAP liquid chip for HPV detection. Detect HPV DNA with the liquid chip and HC II in 264 cases, including 231 of cervical cancer and 33 of cervical scrapes. The accordance of two methods were compared and DNA sequencing was performed in conflicting samples and single (infection samples. There is an excellent agreement between the methods. The overall incidence of HPV was 82.95%, the most common genotypes were HPV 16, 52, 58, 18, 11, 31, 6, 39, 33, 56, 70. Among all the positive types, 117 were single type and 102 were multiple types, and 87.43% were high-risk HPV genotypes and 12.57% were low-risk genotypes. Based on the criteria of histology and pathology, the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative-predictive value of HPV liquid chip and HC II for detecting all cases of CIN II, III and carcinomas were respectively 93.07%, 87.88%, 98.17%, 64.44% and 94.81%, 87.88%, 98.21%, 70.73%. The common types of HPV infection are 16, 52, 58, 18, 11, 6, 56 and 31. Multiplex HPV genotyping by Luminex XMAP liquid chip appears to be highly suitable for diagnostic screening and large-scale epidemiological studies.

  1. Electrochemical and SEM properties of Co 2 ion in hexagonal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The electrode parameters of Co(II) ion in hexagonal meso phase of the lyotropic liquid crystal ternary system (pluronic P84/cobalt/-xylene) is determined using cyclic voltammetry, deduced convolutive voltammetry and chronoamperometry techniques. The morphology of nanostructured deposited films of Co2+ ion in ...

  2. Determination of 5-methylcytosine from plant DNA by high-performance liquid chromatography. (United States)

    Wagner, I; Capesius, I


    The relative amounts of the five nucleosides (deoxycytidine, 5-methyldeoxycytidine, deoxyadenosine, deoxyguanosine and thymidine) in the DNA of nine plant species, one plant satellite DNA, and one animal species were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. The method allows the clean separation of the nucleosides from 10 microgram samples with 15 min. The following values for the proportion of methylated cytosines among all cytosines were obtained: Lobularia maritima 18.5%, Nicotiana tabacum 32.6%, Pisum sativum 23.2%, Rhinanthus minor 29.2%, Sinapsis alba 12.2%, Vicia faba 30.5%, Viscum album 23.2%, Cymbidium pumilum 18.8%, Cymbidium pumilum AT-rich satellite DNA 15.8%, Triticum aestivum 22.4%. DNA of an animal, the gerbil, Meriones unguiculatus, had a methylation percentage of 3.1%. An estimate of the GC content based on the buoyant density of DNA tends to be lower than the actual value, an estimate based on the melting temperature tends to be higher. This supports the finding by other authors that DNA methylation decreases the buoyant density and may increase the melting temperature at high m5C concentration.

  3. Liquid-crystalline ordering of antimicrobial peptide-DNA complexes controls TLR9 activation (United States)

    Schmidt, Nathan W.; Jin, Fan; Lande, Roberto; Curk, Tine; Xian, Wujing; Lee, Calvin; Frasca, Loredana; Frenkel, Daan; Dobnikar, Jure; Gilliet, Michel; Wong, Gerard C. L.


    Double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) can trigger the production of type I interferon (IFN) in plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) by binding to endosomal Toll-like receptor-9 (TLR9; refs , , , , ). It is also known that the formation of DNA-antimicrobial peptide complexes can lead to autoimmune diseases via amplification of pDC activation. Here, by combining X-ray scattering, computer simulations, microscopy and measurements of pDC IFN production, we demonstrate that a broad range of antimicrobial peptides and other cationic molecules cause similar effects, and elucidate the criteria for amplification. TLR9 activation depends on both the inter-DNA spacing and the multiplicity of parallel DNA ligands in the self-assembled liquid-crystalline complex. Complexes with a grill-like arrangement of DNA at the optimum spacing can interlock with multiple TLR9 like a zipper, leading to multivalent electrostatic interactions that drastically amplify binding and thereby the immune response. Our results suggest that TLR9 activation and thus TLR9-mediated immune responses can be modulated deterministically.

  4. An Explanation for Saturn's Hexagon (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna


    For over three decades, weve been gathering observations of the mysterious hexagonal cloud pattern encircling Saturns north pole. Now, researchers believe they have a model that can better explain its formation.Fascinating GeometrySaturns northern Hexagon is a cloud band circling Saturns north pole at 78 N, first observed by the Voyager flybys in 198081. This remarkable pattern has now persisted for more than a Saturn year (29.5 Earth years).Eight frames demonstrating the motion within Saturns Hexagon. Click to watch the animation! The view is from a reference frame rotating with Saturn. [NASA/JPL-Caltech/SSI/Hampton University]Observations by Voyager and, more recently, Cassini have helped to identify many key characteristics of this bizarre structure. Two interesting things weve learned are:The Hexagon is associated with an eastward zonal jet moving at more than 200 mph.The cause of the Hexagon is believed to be a jet stream, similar to the ones that we experience on Earth. The path of the jet itself appears to follow the hexagons outline.The Hexagon rotates at roughly the same rate as Saturns overall rotation.While we observe individual storms and cloud patterns moving at different speeds within the Hexagon, the vertices of the Hexagon move at almost exactly the same rotational speed as that of Saturn itself.Attempts to model the formation of the Hexagon with a jet stream have yet to fully reproduce all of the observed features and behavior. But now, a team led by Ral Morales-Juberas of the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology believes they have created a model that better matches what we see.Simulating a Meandering JetThe team ran a series of simulations of an eastward, Gaussian-profile jet around Saturns pole. They introduced small perturbations to the jet and demonstrated that, as a result of the perturbations, the jet can meander into a hexagonal shape. With the initial conditions of the teams model, the meandering jet is able to settle into a

  5. Capturing Genomic Evolution of Lung Cancers through Liquid Biopsy for Circulating Tumor DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Offin


    Full Text Available Genetic sequencing of malignancies has become increasingly important to uncover therapeutic targets and capture the tumor’s dynamic changes to drug sensitivity and resistance through genomic evolution. In lung cancers, the current standard of tissue biopsy at the time of diagnosis and progression is not always feasible or practical and may underestimate intratumoral heterogeneity. Technological advances in genetic sequencing have enabled the use of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA analysis to obtain information on both targetable mutations and capturing real-time Darwinian evolution of tumor clones and drug resistance mechanisms under selective therapeutic pressure. The ability to analyze ctDNA from plasma, CSF, or urine enables a comprehensive view of cancers as systemic diseases and captures intratumoral heterogeneity. Here, we describe these recent advances in the setting of lung cancers and advocate for further research and the incorporation of ctDNA analysis in clinical trials of targeted therapies. By capturing genomic evolution in a noninvasive manner, liquid biopsy for ctDNA analysis could accelerate therapeutic discovery and deliver the next leap forward in precision medicine for patients with lung cancers and other solid tumors.

  6. Observation of NanoDNA Liquid Crystal Phases from Four Base Pair Duplexes at Subambient Temperatures (United States)

    Smith, Gregory; Fraccia, Tommaso; Bellini, Tommaso; Walba, David; Clark, Noel


    Based upon conventional Onsager model considerations, liquid crystal (LC) formation in DNA-water mixtures was originally thought to be impossible for DNA polymers of very short length (discovery of chiral nematic (N*), columnar CU and C2 LC phases in NanoDNA oligomers as short as 6 bases in length and have since described additional LC phases involving DNA with random sequences and various blunt or sticky-end duplex architecture, all in the regime of motif where hydrophobic forces or hydrogen bond mediated base-pairing enable unusually short polymers to stack into functionally longer units that permit them to exhibit LC phase behavior. We report now the existence of LC phases of ultra short duplexed NanoDNA, 4 bases in length, in blunt-end, sticky-end and random sequence configurations, all observed at temperatures of ~ 5 °C and not stable >13-15 °C. These oligomers demonstrate an unusual wealth of phase behavior, including the typical N*, CU and C2 phases as well as higher order dark and bright phases, including what we believe to be a Blue Phase. Grant support: NSF DMR 1207606 and NSF MRSEC DMR 0820579.

  7. Implementation of new physics models for low energy electrons in liquid water in Geant4-DNA. (United States)

    Bordage, M C; Bordes, J; Edel, S; Terrissol, M; Franceries, X; Bardiès, M; Lampe, N; Incerti, S


    A new alternative set of elastic and inelastic cross sections has been added to the very low energy extension of the Geant4 Monte Carlo simulation toolkit, Geant4-DNA, for the simulation of electron interactions in liquid water. These cross sections have been obtained from the CPA100 Monte Carlo track structure code, which has been a reference in the microdosimetry community for many years. They are compared to the default Geant4-DNA cross sections and show better agreement with published data. In order to verify the correct implementation of the CPA100 cross section models in Geant4-DNA, simulations of the number of interactions and ranges were performed using Geant4-DNA with this new set of models, and the results were compared with corresponding results from the original CPA100 code. Good agreement is observed between the implementations, with relative differences lower than 1% regardless of the incident electron energy. Useful quantities related to the deposited energy at the scale of the cell or the organ of interest for internal dosimetry, like dose point kernels, are also calculated using these new physics models. They are compared with results obtained using the well-known Penelope Monte Carlo code. Copyright © 2016 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Automated extraction of DNA and PCR setup using a Tecan Freedom EVO® liquid handler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stangegaard, Michael; Frøslev, Tobias G.; Frank-Hansen, Rune


    We have implemented and validated automated methods for DNA extraction and PCR setup developed for a Tecan Freedom EVO« liquid handler mounted with a Te-MagS(TM) magnetic separation device. The DNA was extracted using the Qiagen MagAttract« DNA Mini M48 kit. The DNA was amplified using AmpFlSTR« ......FlSTR« Identifiler«, Y-filer« (Applied Biosystems), GenePrint« FFFL and PowerPlex« Y (Promega). The methods were validated for fresh whole blood and blood from deceased according to EN/ISO 17025...

  9. Whispering gallery modes in deformed hexagonal resonators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grundmann, Marius; Dietrich, Christof P. [Universitaet Leipzig, Fakultaet fuer Physik und Geowissenschaften, Institut fuer Experimentelle Physik II, Linnestr. 5, 04103 Leipzig (Germany)


    Optical resonances in polygonal resonators are due to whispering gallery modes (WGM). We investigate WGM in regular and deformed hexagonal ZnO microwire resonators. Four types of geometries are investigated: regular hexagonal and dodecagonal cross sections, hexagonal cross section elongated for one pair of facets and hexagonal cross section deformed by bending (uniaxial stress). Experimental data on mode energies and angular dispersion are correlated with model calculations and Poincare surfaces of section. Hexagonal ({phi} = 60 ), square ({phi} = 45 ), triangular ({phi} = 30 ), and Fabry-Perot modes ({phi} = 0 ) are observed in the various investigated geometries, {phi} being the angle of incidence at the facets with respect to the normal direction. Hexagonal WGMs (green, 6-WGM), triangular (red, 3-WGM), and double-triangular (blue, D3-WGM) rays in regular hexagons, elongated hexagons and hexagons deformed by bending. Triangular WGMs are stable modes in all three resonators. Hexagonal modes are not stable in the bent hexagon. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. Liquid crystal ordering of DNA and RNA oligomers with partially overlapping sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanchetta, G; Buscaglia, M; Bellini, T [Dipartimento di Chimica, Biochimica e Biotecnologie per la Medicina, Universita di Milano, Milano (Italy); Nakata, M; Clark, N A [Department of Physics and Liquid Crystal Materials Research Center, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309-0390 (United States)], E-mail:, E-mail:


    We have recently shown that solutions of very short double-stranded B-DNA and A-RNA, down to six base pairs in length, can self-organize into chiral nematic and columnar liquid crystal (LC) phases. These observations were made on fully complementary sequences forming duplexes with blunt ends, where the LC ordering is due to base stacking forces promoting end-to-end aggregation of duplexes into living-polymer-type structures. Here we report LC formation in solutions of DNA and RNA 14mers forming double helices having single-stranded dangling ends that are 'sticky', i.e., mutually complementary with similar ends on other duplexes. This finding widens the conditions for spontaneous long range ordering in oligomeric nucleic acids, thus strengthening the notion that nucleic acids have remarkable self-assembly capability. Quantitative analysis of the phase diagram enables the extraction, within a nearest-neighbor interaction approximation, of the free energy associated with the pairing and stacking of nucleobases.

  11. Self-Assembled Functional Nanostructure of Plasmid DNA with Ionic Liquid [Bmim][PF₆]: Enhanced Efficiency in Bacterial Gene Transformation. (United States)

    Soni, Sarvesh K; Sarkar, Sampa; Mirzadeh, Nedaossadat; Selvakannan, P R; Bhargava, Suresh K


    The electrostatic interaction between the negatively charged phosphate groups of plasmid DNA and the cationic part of hydrophobic ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([Bmim][PF6]), initiates spontaneous self-assembly to form the functional nanostructures made up of DNA and ionic liquid (IL). These functional nanostructures were demonstrated as promising synthetic nonviral vectors for the efficient bacterial pGFP gene transformation in cells. In particular, the functional nanostructures that were made up of 1 μL of IL ([Bmim][PF6]) and 1 μg of plasmid DNA can increase the transformation efficiency by 300-400% in microbial systems, without showing any toxicity for E. coli DH5α cells. (31)P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron (XPS) spectroscopic analysis revealed that the electrostatic interaction between negatively charged phosphate oxygen and cationic Bmim(+) tends to initiate the self-assembly process. Thermogravimetric analysis of the DNA-IL functional nanostructures showed that these nanostructures consist of ∼16 wt % ionic liquid, which is considered to provide the stability to the plasmid DNA that eventually enhanced the transformation efficiency.

  12. An insight into structure and stability of DNA in ionic liquids from molecular dynamics simulation and experimental studies. (United States)

    Jumbri, K; Abdul Rahman, M B; Abdulmalek, E; Ahmad, H; Micaelo, N M


    Molecular dynamics simulation and biophysical analysis were employed to reveal the characteristics and the influence of ionic liquids (ILs) on the structural properties of DNA. Both computational and experimental evidence indicate that DNA retains its native B-conformation in ILs. Simulation data show that the hydration shells around the DNA phosphate group were the main criteria for DNA stabilization in this ionic media. Stronger hydration shells reduce the binding ability of ILs' cations to the DNA phosphate group, thus destabilizing the DNA. The simulation results also indicated that the DNA structure maintains its duplex conformation when solvated by ILs at different temperatures up to 373.15 K. The result further suggests that the thermal stability of DNA at high temperatures is related to the solvent thermodynamics, especially entropy and enthalpy of water. All the molecular simulation results were consistent with the experimental findings. The understanding of the properties of IL-DNA could be used as a basis for future development of specific ILs for nucleic acid technology.

  13. Validation of a DNA IQ-based extraction method for TECAN robotic liquid handling workstations for processing casework. (United States)

    Frégeau, Chantal J; Lett, C Marc; Fourney, Ron M


    A semi-automated DNA extraction process for casework samples based on the Promega DNA IQ™ system was optimized and validated on TECAN Genesis 150/8 and Freedom EVO robotic liquid handling stations configured with fixed tips and a TECAN TE-Shake™ unit. The use of an orbital shaker during the extraction process promoted efficiency with respect to DNA capture, magnetic bead/DNA complex washes and DNA elution. Validation studies determined the reliability and limitations of this shaker-based process. Reproducibility with regards to DNA yields for the tested robotic workstations proved to be excellent and not significantly different than that offered by the manual phenol/chloroform extraction. DNA extraction of animal:human blood mixtures contaminated with soil demonstrated that a human profile was detectable even in the presence of abundant animal blood. For exhibits containing small amounts of biological material, concordance studies confirmed that DNA yields for this shaker-based extraction process are equivalent or greater to those observed with phenol/chloroform extraction as well as our original validated automated magnetic bead percolation-based extraction process. Our data further supports the increasing use of robotics for the processing of casework samples. Crown Copyright © 2009. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Analysis of Genomic DNA Methylation Levels in Human Placenta using Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulistyo Emantoko Dwi Putra


    Full Text Available Background: DNA-methylation is a common epigenetic tool which plays a crucial role in gene regulation and is essential for cell differentiation and embryonic development. The placenta is an important organ where gene activity can be regulated by epigenetic DNA modifications, including DNA methylation. This is of interest as, the placenta is the interface between the fetus and its environment, the mother. Exposure to environmental toxins and nutrition during pregnancy may alter DNA methylation of the placenta and subsequently placental function and as a result the phenotype of the offspring. The aim of this study was to develop a reliable method to quantify DNA methylation in large clinical studies. This will be a tool to analyze the degree of DNA methylation in the human placenta in relationship to clinical readouts. Methods: Liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization/multi-stage mass spectrometry (LC-ESI/MS/MS technique was used for the quantification of the 5dmC/dG ratio in placentas from 248 healthy pregnancies. We were able to demonstrate that this method is a reliable and stable way to determine global placental DNA methylation in large clinical trials. Results/Conclusion: The degree of placental DNA methylation seen in our pilot study varies substantially from 2% to 5%. The clinical implications of this variation need to be demonstrated in adequately powered large studies.

  15. Cell-free DNA detected by "liquid biopsy" as a potential prognostic biomarker in early breast cancer. (United States)

    Maltoni, Roberta; Casadio, Valentina; Ravaioli, Sara; Foca, Flavia; Tumedei, Maria Maddalena; Salvi, Samanta; Martignano, Filippo; Calistri, Daniele; Rocca, Andrea; Schirone, Alessio; Amadori, Dino; Bravaccini, Sara


    As conventional biomarkers for defining breast cancer (BC) subtypes are not always capable of predicting prognosis, search for new biomarkers which can be easily detected by liquid biopsy is ongoing. It has long been known that cell-free DNA (CF-DNA) could be a promising diagnostic and prognostic marker in different tumor types, although its prognostic value in BC is yet to be confirmed. This retrospective study evaluated the prognostic role of CF-DNA quantity and integrity of HER2, MYC, BCAS1 and PI3KCA, which are frequently altered in BC. We collected 79 serum samples before surgery from women at first diagnosis of BC at Forlì Hospital (Italy) from 2002 to 2010. Twenty-one relapsed and 58 non-relapsed patients were matched by subtype and age. Blood samples were also collected from 10 healthy donors. All samples were analyzed by Real Time PCR for CF-DNA quantity and integrity of all oncogenes. Except for MYC, BC patients showed significantly higher median values of CF-DNA quantity (ng) than healthy controls, who had higher integrity and lower apoptotic index. A difference nearing statistical significance was observed for HER2 short CF-DNA (p = 0.078, AUC value: 0.6305). HER2 short CF-DNA showed an odds ratio of 1.39 for disease recurrence with p = 0.056 (95% CI 0.991-1.973). Our study suggests that CF-DNA detected as liquid biopsy could have great potential in clinical practice once demonstration of its clinical validity and utility has been provided by prospective studies with robust assays.

  16. A Histone-Like Protein Induces Plasmid DNA to Form Liquid Crystals in Vitro and Gene Compaction in Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiyong Sun


    Full Text Available The liquid crystalline state is a universal phenomenon involving the formation of an ordered structure via a self-assembly process that has attracted attention from numerous scientists. In this study, the dinoflagellate histone-like protein HCcp3 is shown to induce super-coiled pUC18 plasmid DNA to enter a liquid crystalline state in vitro, and the role of HCcp3 in gene condensation in vivo is also presented. The plasmid DNA (pDNA-HCcp3 complex formed birefringent spherical particles with a semi-crystalline selected area electronic diffraction (SAED pattern. Circular dichroism (CD titrations of pDNA and HCcp3 were performed. Without HCcp3, pUC18 showed the characteristic B conformation. As the HCcp3 concentration increased, the 273 nm band sharply shifted to 282 nm. When the HCcp3 concentration became high, the base pair (bp/dimer ratio fell below 42/1, and the CD spectra of the pDNA-HCcp3 complexes became similar to that of dehydrated A-form DNA. Microscopy results showed that HCcp3 compacted the super-coiled gene into a condensed state and that inclusion bodies were formed. Our results indicated that HCcp3 has significant roles in gene condensation both in vitro and in histone-less eukaryotes in vivo. The present study indicates that HCcp3 has great potential for applications in non-viral gene delivery systems, where HCcp3 may compact genetic material to form liquid crystals.

  17. Modeling proton and alpha elastic scattering in liquid water in Geant4-DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran, H.N., E-mail: [Division of Nuclear Physics, Ton Duc Thang University, Tan Phong Ward, District 7, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Faculty of Applied Sciences, Ton Duc Thang University, Tan Phong Ward, District 7, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); El Bitar, Z. [Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien/IN2P3/CNRS, Strasbourg (France); Champion, C. [Univ. Bordeaux, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33170 Gradignan (France); CNRS, IN2P3, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33170 Gradignan (France); Karamitros, M. [Univ. Bordeaux, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33170 Gradignan (France); CNRS, IN2P3, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33170 Gradignan (France); CNRS, INCIA, UMR 5287, F-33400 Talence (France); Bernal, M.A. [Instituto de FísicaGleb Wataghin, Universida de Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil); Francis, Z. [Université Saint Joseph, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, Beirut (Lebanon); The Open University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Sciences, Walton Hall, MK7 6AA Milton Keynes (United Kingdom); Ivantchenko, V. [Ecoanalytica, 119899 Moscow (Russian Federation); Lee, S.B.; Shin, J.I. [Proton Therapy Center, National Cancer Center, 323 Ilsan-ro, Ilsandong-gu, Goyang-si, Gyeonggi-do 410-769 (Korea, Republic of); Incerti, S. [Univ. Bordeaux, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33170 Gradignan (France); CNRS, IN2P3, CENBG, UMR 5797, F-33170 Gradignan (France)


    Elastic scattering of protons and alpha (α) particles by water molecules cannot be neglected at low incident energies. However, this physical process is currently not available in the “Geant4-DNA” extension of the Geant4 Monte Carlo simulation toolkit. In this work, we report on theoretical differential and integral cross sections of the elastic scattering process for 100 eV–1 MeV incident protons and for 100 eV–10 MeV incident α particles in liquid water. The calculations are performed within the classical framework described by Everhart et al., Ziegler et al. and by the ICRU 49 Report. Then, we propose an implementation of the corresponding classes into the Geant4-DNA toolkit for modeling the elastic scattering of protons and α particles. Stopping powers as well as ranges are also reported. Then, it clearly appears that the account of the elastic scattering process in the slowing-down of the charged particle improves the agreement with the existing data in particular with the ICRU recommendations.

  18. Simple, multiplexed, PCR-based barcoding of DNA enables sensitive mutation detection in liquid biopsies using sequencing. (United States)

    Ståhlberg, Anders; Krzyzanowski, Paul M; Jackson, Jennifer B; Egyud, Matthew; Stein, Lincoln; Godfrey, Tony E


    Detection of cell-free DNA in liquid biopsies offers great potential for use in non-invasive prenatal testing and as a cancer biomarker. Fetal and tumor DNA fractions however can be extremely low in these samples and ultra-sensitive methods are required for their detection. Here, we report an extremely simple and fast method for introduction of barcodes into DNA libraries made from 5 ng of DNA. Barcoded adapter primers are designed with an oligonucleotide hairpin structure to protect the molecular barcodes during the first rounds of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and prevent them from participating in mis-priming events. Our approach enables high-level multiplexing and next-generation sequencing library construction with flexible library content. We show that uniform libraries of 1-, 5-, 13- and 31-plex can be generated. Utilizing the barcodes to generate consensus reads for each original DNA molecule reduces background sequencing noise and allows detection of variant alleles below 0.1% frequency in clonal cell line DNA and in cell-free plasma DNA. Thus, our approach bridges the gap between the highly sensitive but specific capabilities of digital PCR, which only allows a limited number of variants to be analyzed, with the broad target capability of next-generation sequencing which traditionally lacks the sensitivity to detect rare variants. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  19. The effect of postadded ethylene glycol surfactants on DNA-cationic surfactant/water mesophases. (United States)

    Leal, Cecilia; Bilalov, Azat; Lindman, Björn


    The addition of amphiphiles grafted with polyethylene glycol units to constructs of DNA-amphiphiles is of most relevance for applications demanding colloidal stability. In this work, we study the self-assembly behavior of a true ternary mixture comprising (i) an electroneutral complex of DNA and a cationic surfactant (dodecyltrimethylammonium, DTA), (ii) water, and (iii) nonionic surfactant (dodecyl tetraethylene glycol, C12EO4; and dodecyl octaethylene glycol, C12EO8). The phase diagrams of the two systems: DNA-DTA/C12EO4/water and DNA-DTA/C12EO8/water were carried out using 2H NMR, and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). In both mixtures, the DNA-DTA complex incorporates the postadded nonionic surfactant and large liquid crystalline regions were found. The supramolecular assemblies evolve from a 2D hexagonal structure of the normal type to a lamellar phase as the content of nonionic surfactant is increased. The effect of ethylene glycol unit size in the phase behavior is discussed. We suggest that when longer ethylene glycol units (C12EO8 vs C12EO4) are used, the DNA-DTA aggregate gets saturated with the nonionic surfactant and there exists a coexistence of a fully swollen mesophase phase of C12EO8 alone presumably of the normal hexagonal type with the lamellar and hexagonal phases of DNA-DTA/C12EO8/water.

  20. Bronze-mean hexagonal quasicrystal (United States)

    Dotera, Tomonari; Bekku, Shinichi; Ziherl, Primož


    The most striking feature of conventional quasicrystals is their non-traditional symmetry characterized by icosahedral, dodecagonal, decagonal or octagonal axes. The symmetry and the aperiodicity of these materials stem from an irrational ratio of two or more length scales controlling their structure, the best-known examples being the Penrose and the Ammann-Beenker tiling as two-dimensional models related to the golden and the silver mean, respectively. Surprisingly, no other metallic-mean tilings have been discovered so far. Here we propose a self-similar bronze-mean hexagonal pattern, which may be viewed as a projection of a higher-dimensional periodic lattice with a Koch-like snowflake projection window. We use numerical simulations to demonstrate that a disordered variant of this quasicrystal can be materialized in soft polymeric colloidal particles with a core-shell architecture. Moreover, by varying the geometry of the pattern we generate a continuous sequence of structures, which provide an alternative interpretation of quasicrystalline approximants observed in several metal-silicon alloys.

  1. High-throughput and cost-effective global DNA methylation assay by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (United States)

    Li, Xingnan; Franke, Adrian A.


    An affordable and fast liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed for the accurate and precise determination of global DNA methylation levels in peripheral blood. Global DNA methylation extent was expressed as the ratio of methylated 2′-deoxycytidine (5MedC) to 2′-deoxyguanosine (dG), which were obtained after DNA extraction and hydrolysis and determined by positive electrospray LC–ESI-MS/MS. The cost-effective internal standards 15N3-dC and 15N5-dG were incorporated for the accurate quantification of 5MedC and dG, respectively. The desired nucleoside analytes were separated and eluted by LC within 2.5 min on a reverse phase column with a limit of detection of 1.4 femtomole on column for 5MedC. Sample preparation in 96-well format has significantly increased the assay throughput and filtration was found to be a necessary step to assure precision. Precision was performed with repeated analysis of four DNA QC sample over 12 days, with mean intra- and inter-day CVs of 6% and 11%, respectively. Accuracy was evaluated by comparison with a previously reported method showing a mean CV of 4% for 5 subjects analyzed. Furthermore, application of the assay using a benchtop orbitrap LCMS in exact mass full scan mode showed comparable sensitivity to tandem LCMS using multiple reaction monitoring. PMID:21843675

  2. Preparation and optical properties of fullerene/ferrocene hybrid hexagonal nanosheets and large-scale production of fullerene hexagonal nanosheets. (United States)

    Wakahara, Takatsugu; Sathish, Marappan; Miyazawa, Kun'ichi; Hu, Chunping; Tateyama, Yoshitaka; Nemoto, Yoshihiro; Sasaki, Toshio; Ito, Osamu


    The supramolecular nanoarchitectures, C(60)/ferrocene nanosheets, were prepared by a simple liquid-liquid interfacial precipitation method and fully characterized by means of SEM, STEM, HRTEM, XRD, Raman and UV-vis-NIR spectra. The highly crystallized C(60)/ferrocene hexagonal nanosheets had a size of ca. 9 microm and the formulation C(60)(ferrocene)(2). A strong charge-transfer (CT) band between ferrocene and C(60) was observed at 782 nm, indicating the presence of donor-acceptor interaction in the nanosheets. Upon heating the nanosheets to 150 degrees C, the CT band disappeared due to the sublimation of ferrocene from the C(60)/ferrocene hybrid, and C(60) nanosheets with an fcc crystal structure and the same shape and size as the C(60)/ferrocene nanosheets were obtained.

  3. Development of Ionic Liquid Modified Disposable Graphite Electrodes for Label-Free Electrochemical Detection of DNA Hybridization Related to Microcystis spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceren Sengiz


    Full Text Available In this present study, ionic liquid (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (IL modified pencil graphite electrode (IL-PGEs was developed for electrochemical monitoring of DNA hybridization related to Microcystis spp. (MYC. The characterization of IL-PGEs was performed using microscopic and electrochemical techniques. DNA hybridization related to MYC was then explored at the surface of IL-PGEs using differential pulse voltammetry (DPV technique. After the experimental parameters were optimized, the sequence-selective DNA hybridization related to MYC was performed in the case of hybridization between MYC probe and its complementary DNA target, noncomplementary (NC or mismatched DNA sequence (MM, or and in the presence of mixture of DNA target: NC (1:1 and DNA target: MM (1:1.

  4. [Application of denaturing high performance liquid chromatography for the detection of maternal DNA contamination during prenatal diagnosis]. (United States)

    Gao, Lijie; Long, Yanming; Zhang, Rong; Li, Shuang; Zhang, Fenghuan; He, Guoping


    To establish a high-quality method for detecting short tandem repeats(STR) using denaturing high performance liquid chromatography(DHPLC) in order to exclude maternal contamination and improve the accuracy of prenatal diagnosis. Two families were recruited. DNA was extracted from blood samples from the parents as well as amniotic fluid. Sixteen STR sites were amplified and analyzed based on the range of allele length reported by a STR database. Maternal DNA was mixed with DNA derived from amniotic fluid samples with the ratio 1:1, 1:4, 1:9, 1:19 and 1:99. vWA STR site was detected with DHPLC to confirm the sensitivity of detection. Sixteen STR sites were analyzed by DHPLC, for which at least 10 were found to be different between the mothers and fetuses. The detection rate, with maternal contamination excluded, was 66.7%. And the sensitivity of detection was 1-10%. Maternal contamination of amniotic fluid can be rapidly excluded with accuracy with DHPLC, which features a high sensitivity and good quality control, and can meet the European standards and provide a reliable quality control platform for prenatal diagnosis.

  5. Diamagnetism in zigzag hexagonal graphene rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Ning, E-mail: [Department of Physics, Yancheng Institute of Technology, Yancheng 224051 (China); Chen, Qiao [Department of Physics, Hunan Institute of Engineering, Xiangtan 411104 (China); Tian, Hongyu [Department of Physics, Yancheng Institute of Technology, Yancheng 224051 (China); Wang, Baolin [Department of Physics, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Ding, Jianwen [Department of Physics, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan 411105 (China)


    Highlights: • Hexagonal graphene rings possess unusually large diamagnetic moments. • The magnetic-field-driven carriers flow clockwise and anticlockwise along the inner and outer edge of rings. • The value of magnetic moment is almost proportional to the number of atoms of rings. - Abstract: The electronic structure and magnetic response of hexagonal graphene rings have been studied within the tight-binding formalism. The calculations show that hexagonal graphene rings possess unusually large diamagnetic moments in the presence of a perpendicular magnetic field. The magnetic-field-driven carriers flow clockwise and anticlockwise along the inner and outer edge of rings owing to quantum Hall effect. The value of magnetic moment is almost proportional to the number of atoms of rings, due to more conduction electrons participating in magnetic moment forming process. Additionally, we find the diamagnetic moment shows a relative weak dependence on the temperature.

  6. Controlling the volatility of the written optical state in electrochromic DNA liquid crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Kai; Varghese, Justin; Gerasimov, Jennifer Y.; Polyakov, Alexey O.; Shuai, Min; Su, Juanjuan; Chen, Dong; Zajaczkowski, Wojciech; Marcozzi, Alessio; Pisula, Wojciech; Noheda, Beatriz; Palstra, Thomas T. M.; Clark, Noel A.; Herrmann, Andreas

    Liquid crystals are widely used in displays for portable electronic information display. To broaden their scope for other applications like smart windows and tags, new material properties such as polarizer-free operation and tunable memory of a written state become important. Here, we describe an

  7. Diamagnetism in zigzag hexagonal graphene rings (United States)

    Xu, Ning; Chen, Qiao; Tian, Hongyu; Wang, Baolin; Ding, Jianwen


    The electronic structure and magnetic response of hexagonal graphene rings have been studied within the tight-binding formalism. The calculations show that hexagonal graphene rings possess unusually large diamagnetic moments in the presence of a perpendicular magnetic field. The magnetic-field-driven carriers flow clockwise and anticlockwise along the inner and outer edge of rings owing to quantum Hall effect. The value of magnetic moment is almost proportional to the number of atoms of rings, due to more conduction electrons participating in magnetic moment forming process. Additionally, we find the diamagnetic moment shows a relative weak dependence on the temperature.

  8. Proposition of a Silica Nanoparticle-Enhanced Hybrid Spin-Microcantilever Sensor Using Nonlinear Optics for Detection of DNA in Liquid. (United States)

    Wu, Wen-Hao; Zhu, Ka-Di


    We theoretically propose a method based on the combination of a nonlinear optical mass sensor using a hybrid spin-microcantilever and the nanoparticle-enhanced technique, to detect and monitor DNA mutations. The technique theoretically allows the mass of external particles (ssDNA) landing on the surface of a hybrid spin-microcantilever to be detected directly and accurately at 300 K with a mass responsivity 0.137 Hz/ag in situ in liquid. Moreover, combined with the nanoparticle-enhanced technique, even only one base pair mutation in the target DNA sequence can be identified in real time accurately, and the DNA hybridization reactions can be monitored quantitatively. Furthermore, in situ detection in liquid and measurement of the proposed nonlinear optical spin resonance spectra will minimize the experimental errors.

  9. DNA hosted and aligned in aqueous interstitia of a lamellar liquid crystal – a membrane–biomacromolecule interaction model system

    KAUST Repository

    Carlsson, Nils


    We report that DNA molecules can be intercalated and macroscopically oriented in the aqueous interstitia of a lyotropic lamellar liquid crystal. Using UV-vis linear dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopy we show that double-stranded oligonucleotides (25 base pairs) in the water-octanoate-decanol system remain base-paired in the B conformation and are confined in two dimensions, with the helix axis preferentially parallel to the lipid bilayer surfaces but free to rotate within this plane. The degree of helix confinement and the corresponding 2-D orientation can be improved by decreasing the thickness of the water interstitia via the fraction of water in the ternary mixture. Not surprisingly, the corresponding single-stranded oligonucleotides are not aligned, with their persistence length being short in comparison to the lamellar interstitium thickness. We propose this as a model system for studying interactions of DNA-ligand complexes near a lipid bilayer membrane which we demonstrate by using dye probes that are either covalently attached to one end of the oligonucleotide or reversibly bound by intercalation between the base pairs. Three cationic dyes, all strongly bound by intercalation to DNA when free in solution, are found to not bind to DNA but to prefer the membrane surface. The covalently attached Cy5 also binds to the bilayer while Cy3 tends to end-stack to the oligonucleotide duplex. The orientation of Cy5 parallel to the membrane indicates that electrostatic surface binding predominates over insertion into the hydrophobic interior of the membrane. Anionic and zwitterionic dyes (FAM and ROX) are found to remain randomly oriented in the water between the lipid bilayer surfaces. © The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  10. Digestion of individual DNA molecules by lambda-exonuclease at liquid-solid interface. (United States)

    Kang, Seong Ho; Lee, Seungah; Yeung, Edward S


    Enzyme digestion of single DNA molecules was directly observed in real time by dual-color total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM). Individual lambda-DNA molecules labeled with the fluorescent dye, YOYO-1, were stretched in a laminar flow stream and immobilized on a bare fused-silica prism surface based on hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions. Enzyme digestion was initiated by the influx of lambda-exonuclease enzyme via capillary force. When the dye : bp ratio was higher than 1 : 20, the exact digestion rate could not be measured because of induced photocleavage of the DNA molecules. At a dye : bp ratio of 1 : 50, shortening of the DNA strand was recorded in real time. Unlike previous studies, the length-based digestion rate of lambda-exonuclease showed 3 distinct values in the range of 0.173(+/-0.024) to 0.462(+/-0.152) microm s(-1) at 37 degrees C. That is, different enzyme molecules exhibit different digestion dynamics. Digestion was also monitored based on the decrease in fluorescence intensity, but uncertainties were much larger due to the distance dependent excitation intensity in the TIRF mode.

  11. Intrinsic ferromagnetism in hexagonal boron nitride nanosheets. (United States)

    Si, M S; Gao, Daqiang; Yang, Dezheng; Peng, Yong; Zhang, Z Y; Xue, Desheng; Liu, Yushen; Deng, Xiaohui; Zhang, G P


    Understanding the mechanism of ferromagnetism in hexagonal boron nitride nanosheets, which possess only s and p electrons in comparison with normal ferromagnets based on localized d or f electrons, is a current challenge. In this work, we report an experimental finding that the ferromagnetic coupling is an intrinsic property of hexagonal boron nitride nanosheets, which has never been reported before. Moreover, we further confirm it from ab initio calculations. We show that the measured ferromagnetism should be attributed to the localized π states at edges, where the electron-electron interaction plays the role in this ferromagnetic ordering. More importantly, we demonstrate such edge-induced ferromagnetism causes a high Curie temperature well above room temperature. Our systematical work, including experimental measurements and theoretical confirmation, proves that such unusual room temperature ferromagnetism in hexagonal boron nitride nanosheets is edge-dependent, similar to widely reported graphene-based materials. It is believed that this work will open new perspectives for hexagonal boron nitride spintronic devices.

  12. Hexagonal metal modifications and thin film ferromagnetism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hueger, E.; Wormeester, Herbert; Bauer, E.


    Epitaxial strain-stabilized hexagonal modifications can occur in many metal films grown on (100) surfaces of cubic crystals and can have a strong influence on their magnetic properties. The necessary conditions for the formation of hcp crystals, identification criteria, examples and implications for

  13. Direct hydrothermal synthesis of metal intercalated hexagonal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 115; Issue 5-6. Direct hydrothermal synthesis of metal intercalated hexagonal molybdates, M x + Mo 6 − x / 3 O 18 − x (OH) x . y H2O (M = Li, Rb, Cs, NH4). S Upreti A Ramanan. Volume 115 Issue 5-6 October-December 2003 pp 411-417 ...

  14. Protective effects of Opuntia ficus-indica extract on ram sperm quality, lipid peroxidation and DNA fragmentation during liquid storage. (United States)

    Allai, Larbi; Druart, Xavier; Öztürk, Mehmet; BenMoula, Anass; Nasser, Boubker; El Amiri, Bouchra


    The present study aimed to assess the phenolic composition of the acetone extract from Opuntia ficus indica cladodes (ACTEX) and its effects on ram semen variables, lipid peroxidation and DNA fragmentation during liquid storage at 5°C for up to 72h in skim milk and Tris egg yolk extenders. Semen samples from five rams were pooled extended with Tris-egg yolk (TEY) or skim milk (SM) extenders containing ACTEX (0%, 1%, 2%, 4% and 8%) at a final concentration of 0.8×109 sperm/ml and stored for up to 72h at 5°C. The sperm variables were evaluated at different time periods (8, 24, 48 and 72h). Sperm total motility and viability were superior in TEY than in SM whereas the progressive motility, membrane integrity, abnormality and spontaneous lipid peroxidation were greater in SM compared to TEY (P<0.05). The results also indicated that the inclusion of 1% ACTEX in the SM or TEY extender increased the sperm motility, viability, membrane integrity, and decreased the abnormality, lipids peroxidation up to 72h in storage compared to control group. Similarly, even at 72h of storage, 1% ACTEX can efficiently decrease the negative effects of liquid storage on sperm DNA fragmentation (P<0.05). In conclusion, SM and TEY supplemented with 1% of ACTEX can improve the quality of ram semen. Further studies are required to identify the active components in ACTEX involved in its effect on ram sperm preservation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Non-uniform binding of single-stranded DNA binding proteins to hybrids of single-stranded DNA and single-walled carbon nanotubes observed by atomic force microscopy in air and in liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umemura, Kazuo, E-mail:; Ishizaka, Kei; Nii, Daisuke; Izumi, Katsuki


    Highlights: • Conjugates of protein, DNA, and SWNTs were observed by AFM in liquid. • Non-uniform binding of proteins was visualized in liquid. • Thickness of DNA molecules on SWNT surfaces was well characterized in liquid. - Abstract: Using atomic force spectroscopy (AFM), we observed hybrids of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) with or without protein molecules in air and in an aqueous solution. This is the first report of ssDNA–SWNT hybrids with proteins in solution analyzed by AFM. In the absence of protein, the height of the ssDNA–SWNT hybrids was 1.1 ± 0.3 nm and 2.4 ± 0.6 nm in air and liquid, respectively, suggesting that the ssDNA molecules adopted a flexible structure on the SWNT surface. In the presence of single-stranded DNA binding (SSB) proteins, the heights of the hybrids in air and liquid increased to 6.4 ± 3.1 nm and 10.0 ± 4.5 nm, respectively. The AFM images clearly showed binding of the SSB proteins to the ssDNA–SWNT hybrids. The morphology of the SSB–ssDNA–SWNT hybrids was non-uniform, particularly in aqueous solution. The variance of hybrid height was quantitatively estimated by cross-section analysis along the long-axis of each hybrid. The SSB–ssDNA–SWNT hybrids showed much larger variance than the ssDNA–SWNT hybrids.

  16. Automated extraction of DNA from blood and PCR setup using a Tecan Freedom EVO liquid handler for forensic genetic STR typing of reference samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stangegaard, Michael; Frøslev, Tobias G; Frank-Hansen, Rune


    We have implemented and validated automated protocols for DNA extraction and PCR setup using a Tecan Freedom EVO liquid handler mounted with the Te-MagS magnetic separation device (Tecan, Männedorf, Switzerland). The protocols were validated for accredited forensic genetic work according to ISO...... 17025 using the Qiagen MagAttract DNA Mini M48 kit (Qiagen GmbH, Hilden, Germany) from fresh whole blood and blood from deceased individuals. The workflow was simplified by returning the DNA extracts to the original tubes minimizing the risk of misplacing samples. The tubes that originally contained...

  17. Circulating Tumor DNA as a Liquid Biopsy: Current Clinical Applications and Future Directions. (United States)

    Komatsubara, Kimberly M; Sacher, Adrian G


    Tumor genomic sequencing has become part of routine oncology practice in many tumor types, in order to identify potentially targetable mutations and to personalize cancer care. Plasma genotyping via circulating tumor DNA analysis is a noninvasive and rapid alternative method of detecting and monitoring genomic alterations throughout the course of disease. Multiple assays have been developed to date, each with different test characteristics and degrees of clinical validation. Here we review the clinical data supporting these different plasma genotyping methodologies, and present a practical approach to the interpretation of the results of these tests. While the clinical application of plasma genotyping has been most extensively validated in the metastatic setting-for the detection of targetable alterations at the time of initial diagnosis or disease progression-this technology holds significant promise across many tumor types and stages of disease. We will also review emerging applications of plasma genotyping that are currently under clinical investigation.

  18. Nanocrystalline hexagonal diamond formed from glassy carbon


    Shiell, Thomas. B.; McCulloch, Dougal G.; Bradby, Jodie E.; Haberl, Bianca; Boehler, Reinhard; McKenzie, David. R.


    Carbon exhibits a large number of allotropes and its phase behaviour is still subject to significant uncertainty and intensive research. The hexagonal form of diamond, also known as lonsdaleite, was discovered in the Canyon Diablo meteorite where its formation was attributed to the extreme conditions experienced during the impact. However, it has recently been claimed that lonsdaleite does not exist as a well-defined material but is instead defective cubic diamond formed under high pressure a...

  19. Epitaxial Hexagonal Ferrites for Millimeter Wave Devices. (United States)


    project, LPE films of strontium hexaferrite (SrFe12019) were grown using PbO-B 20 3 solvent. The solution composition was 7 C 8344TCD/sn...which resulted in improved quality of barium hexaferrite films deposited on gallate spinel substrates (indium substituted magnesium gallium oxide...hexagonal ferrite films obtained by this method were more uniform and more strongly bonded to the substrate than films grown without the intermediary

  20. Validation of liquid biopsy: plasma cell-free DNA testing in clinical management of advanced non-small cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veldore VH


    Full Text Available Vidya H Veldore,1,* Anuradha Choughule,2,* Tejaswi Routhu,1 Nitin Mandloi,1 Vanita Noronha,2 Amit Joshi,2 Amit Dutt,3 Ravi Gupta,1 Ramprasad Vedam,1 Kumar Prabhash2 1MedGenome Labs Private Ltd,, Bangalore, India; 2Tata Memorial Centre, Parel, Mumbai, India; 3The Advanced Centre for Treatment, Research and Education in Cancer, Tata Memorial Center, Kharghar, Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra, India *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Plasma cell-free tumor DNA, or circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA, from liquid biopsy is a potential source of tumor genetic material, in the absence of tissue biopsy, for EGFR testing. Our validation study reiterates the clinical utility of ctDNA next generation sequencing (NGS for EGFR mutation testing in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. A total of 163 NSCLC cases were included in the validation, of which 132 patients had paired tissue biopsy and ctDNA. We chose to validate ctDNA using deep sequencing with custom designed bioinformatics methods that could detect somatic mutations at allele frequencies as low as 0.01%. Benchmarking allele specific real time PCR as one of the standard methods for tissue-based EGFR mutation testing, the ctDNA NGS test was validated on all the plasma derived cell-free DNA samples. We observed a high concordance (96.96% between tissue biopsy and ctDNA for oncogenic driver mutations in Exon 19 and Exon 21 of the EGFR gene. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and diagnostic accuracy of the assay were 91.1%, 100% 100%, 95.6%, and 97%, respectively. A false negative rate of 3% was observed. A subset of mutations was also verified on droplet digital PCR. Sixteen percent EGFR mutation positivity was observed in patients where only liquid biopsy was available, thus creating options for targeted therapy. This is the first and largest study from India, demonstrating successful validation of circulating cell-free DNA as a clinically

  1. The use of comet assay to assess DNA integrity of boar spermatozoa following liquid preservation at 5 degrees C and 16 degrees C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Strzezek


    Full Text Available The comet assay, under neutral conditions, allows the assessment of DNA integrity influenced by sperm ageing, which is manifested in DNA double-strand breaks. Here, we attempted to use a modified neutral comet assay test (single-cell gel electrophoresis, to our knowledge for the first time, to assess DNA integrity of boar spermatozoa during liquid storage for 96 h at 5 degrees C and 16 degrees C. In this comet assay protocol we used 2% beta-mercaptoethanol prior to the lysis procedure, to aid in removing nuclear proteins. Ejaculates from 3 boars (designated A, C and G were diluted with a standard semen extender, Kortowo-3 (K-3, which was supplemented with lipoprotein fractions extracted from hen egg yolk (LPFh or ostrich egg yolk (LPFo. Irrespective of the extender type, the percentage of comet-detected spermatozoa with damaged DNA increased gradually during prolonged storage at 5 degrees C and 16 degrees C. Spermatozoa stored in K-3 extender exhibited elevated levels of DNA damage at both storage temperatures. Significant differences in DNA damage among the boars were more pronounced during storage in LPF-based extenders at 5 degrees C: spermatozoa of boars A and G were less susceptible to DNA damage. The percent of tail DNA in comets was lower in LPF-based extenders, and there were individual variations among the boars. We observed that changes in DNA integrity were dependent on the extender type and storage temperature. A higher level of DNA instability was observed in K-3 extended semen compared with K-3/LPFh or K-3/LPFo extended semen during storage at 5 degrees C. No significant difference in the level of DNA damage between K-3/LPFh and K-3/LPFo was observed. It seems that a long-term storage can affect genomic integrity of boar spermatozoa. The modified neutral comet assay can be used to detect low levels of DNA damage in boar spermatozoa during liquid preservation. Therefore, screening for sperm DNA damage may be used as an additional

  2. The use of comet assay to assess DNA integrity of boar spermatozoa following liquid preservation at 5 degrees C and 16 degrees C. (United States)

    Fraser, L; Strzezek, J


    The comet assay, under neutral conditions, allows the assessment of DNA integrity influenced by sperm ageing, which is manifested in DNA double-strand breaks. Here, we attempted to use a modified neutral comet assay test (single-cell gel electrophoresis), to our knowledge for the first time, to assess DNA integrity of boar spermatozoa during liquid storage for 96 h at 5 degrees C and 16 degrees C. In this comet assay protocol we used 2% beta-mercaptoethanol prior to the lysis procedure, to aid in removing nuclear proteins. Ejaculates from 3 boars (designated A, C and G) were diluted with a standard semen extender, Kortowo-3 (K-3), which was supplemented with lipoprotein fractions extracted from hen egg yolk (LPFh) or ostrich egg yolk (LPFo). Irrespective of the extender type, the percentage of comet-detected spermatozoa with damaged DNA increased gradually during prolonged storage at 5 degrees C and 16 degrees C. Spermatozoa stored in K-3 extender exhibited elevated levels of DNA damage at both storage temperatures. Significant differences in DNA damage among the boars were more pronounced during storage in LPF-based extenders at 5 degrees C: spermatozoa of boars A and G were less susceptible to DNA damage. The percent of tail DNA in comets was lower in LPF-based extenders, and there were individual variations among the boars. We observed that changes in DNA integrity were dependent on the extender type and storage temperature. A higher level of DNA instability was observed in K-3 extended semen compared with K-3/LPFh or K-3/LPFo extended semen during storage at 5 degrees C. No significant difference in the level of DNA damage between K-3/LPFh and K-3/LPFo was observed. It seems that a long-term storage can affect genomic integrity of boar spermatozoa. The modified neutral comet assay can be used to detect low levels of DNA damage in boar spermatozoa during liquid preservation. Therefore, screening for sperm DNA damage may be used as an additional test of sperm

  3. Thermal conductivity of hexagonal Si and hexagonal Si nanowires from first-principles (United States)

    Raya-Moreno, Martí; Aramberri, Hugo; Seijas-Bellido, Juan Antonio; Cartoixà, Xavier; Rurali, Riccardo


    We calculate the thermal conductivity, κ, of the recently synthesized hexagonal diamond (lonsdaleite) Si using first-principles calculations and solving the Boltzmann Transport Equation. We find values of κ which are around 40% lower than in the common cubic diamond polytype of Si. The trend is similar for [111] Si nanowires, with reductions of the thermal conductivity that are even larger than in the bulk in some diameter range. The Raman active modes are identified, and the role of mid-frequency optical phonons that arise as a consequence of the reduced symmetry of the hexagonal lattice is discussed. We also show briefly that popular classic potentials used in molecular dynamics might not be suited to describe hexagonal polytypes, discussing the case of the Tersoff potential.

  4. Wargaming in Both Rectilinear and Hexagonal Spaces (United States)

    Hoover, Alex


    There are two main approaches to managing wargame entity interactions (movement, line of sight, area of effect, etc) freespace and gridded In the freespace approach, the units exist as entities in a continuous volume of (usually) Cartesian 3D space. They move in any direction (based on interaction with "terrain" that occupies the same space) and interact with each other based on references and displacements from their position in that space. In the gridded approach, space is broken up into (usually regular) shaped pieces. Units are considered to occupy the entire volume of one of these pieces, movement, line of sight, and other interactions are based on the relationships among the spaces rather than the absolute positions of the units themselves. Both approaches have advantages and drawbacks. The general issue that this discussion has addressed is that there is no "perfect" approach to implementing a wargaming battlespace. Each of them (and this extends to others not discussed) has different sets of advantages and disadvantages. Nothing will change that basic nature of the various approaches, nor would it be desirable to do so. Along with the advantages, the challenges define the feel of the game and focus the thinking of the players on certain aspects and away from others. The proposed approach to combining square and hexagonal approaches, which we will call the rhombus interface, leverages rhombuses constructed from equilateral triangles into which the hexagon can be decomposed to bridge the gap between the approaches, maintain relative consistency between the two as much as possible, and provide most of the feel of the hexagonal approach.

  5. Method for exfoliation of hexagonal boron nitride (United States)

    Lin, Yi (Inventor); Connell, John W. (Inventor)


    A new method is disclosed for the exfoliation of hexagonal boron nitride into mono- and few-layered nanosheets (or nanoplatelets, nanomesh, nanoribbons). The method does not necessarily require high temperature or vacuum, but uses commercially available h-BN powders (or those derived from these materials, bulk crystals) and only requires wet chemical processing. The method is facile, cost efficient, and scalable. The resultant exfoliated h-BN is dispersible in an organic solvent or water thus amenable for solution processing for unique microelectronic or composite applications.

  6. Inserting Stress Analysis of Combined Hexagonal Aluminum Honeycombs


    Xiangcheng Li; Kang Li; Yuliang Lin; Rong Chen; Fangyun Lu


    Two kinds of hexagonal aluminum honeycombs are tested to study their out-of-plane crushing behavior. In the tests, honeycomb samples, including single hexagonal aluminum honeycomb (SHAH) samples and two stack-up combined hexagonal aluminum honeycombs (CHAH) samples, are compressed at a fixed quasistatic loading rate. The results show that the inserting process of CHAH can erase the initial peak stress that occurred in SHAH. Meanwhile, energy-absorbing property of combined honeycomb samples is...

  7. A tri-continuous mesoporous material with a silica pore wall following a hexagonal minimal surface

    KAUST Repository

    Han, Yu


    Ordered porous materials with unique pore structures and pore sizes in the mesoporous range (2-50nm) have many applications in catalysis, separation and drug delivery. Extensive research has resulted in mesoporous materials with one-dimensional, cage-like and bi-continuous pore structures. Three families of bi-continuous mesoporous materials have been made, with two interwoven but unconnected channels, corresponding to the liquid crystal phases used as templates. Here we report a three-dimensional hexagonal mesoporous silica, IBN-9, with a tri-continuous pore structure that is synthesized using a specially designed cationic surfactant template. IBN-9 consists of three identical continuous interpenetrating channels, which are separated by a silica wall that follows a hexagonal minimal surface. Such a tri-continuous mesostructure was predicted mathematically, but until now has not been observed in real materials. © 2009 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  8. Nanocrystalline hexagonal diamond formed from glassy carbon (United States)

    Shiell, Thomas. B.; McCulloch, Dougal G.; Bradby, Jodie E.; Haberl, Bianca; Boehler, Reinhard; McKenzie, David. R.


    Carbon exhibits a large number of allotropes and its phase behaviour is still subject to significant uncertainty and intensive research. The hexagonal form of diamond, also known as lonsdaleite, was discovered in the Canyon Diablo meteorite where its formation was attributed to the extreme conditions experienced during the impact. However, it has recently been claimed that lonsdaleite does not exist as a well-defined material but is instead defective cubic diamond formed under high pressure and high temperature conditions. Here we report the synthesis of almost pure lonsdaleite in a diamond anvil cell at 100 GPa and 400 °C. The nanocrystalline material was recovered at ambient and analysed using diffraction and high resolution electron microscopy. We propose that the transformation is the result of intense radial plastic flow under compression in the diamond anvil cell, which lowers the energy barrier by “locking in” favourable stackings of graphene sheets. This strain induced transformation of the graphitic planes of the precursor to hexagonal diamond is supported by first principles calculations of transformation pathways and explains why the new phase is found in an annular region. Our findings establish that high purity lonsdaleite is readily formed under strain and hence does not require meteoritic impacts.

  9. Thermoelectric properties of hexagonal graphene quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Yonghong, E-mail: [Department of Physics, Shaoxing University, Shaoxing 312000 (China); Liang, Qi-Feng [Department of Physics, Shaoxing University, Shaoxing 312000 (China); Zhao, Hui [Department of Physics, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Wu, Chang-Qin [Department of Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)


    By using the atomistic nonequilibrium Green's function method, we investigate the thermoelectric properties of graphene nanoribbons in the presence of two constrictions (or hexagonal graphene quantum dots). With decreasing widths of the constrictions, the thermal conductance of the nanoribbon can be reduced largely while S{sup 2}G{sub e} (S is the Seebeck coefficient and G{sub e} is the electronic conductance) remains still high as compared with the results of the pristine nanoribbon. Thus, the thermoelectric figure of merit ZT can be enhanced largely. In fact, in the presence of narrowest constrictions the ZT values of the zigzag quantum dots can exceed one at room temperature, while the ZT values of the armchair quantum dots may be close to one, depending on the size of the dot. -- Highlights: ► We study thermoelectric properties of hexagonal graphene quantum dots. ► By point contacts to two leads, the thermal conductance can be reduced greatly while keeping the power factor still high. ► Thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT) can exceed unity.

  10. Heat-transfer resistance at solid-liquid interfaces: a tool for the detection of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in DNA. (United States)

    van Grinsven, Bart; Vanden Bon, Natalie; Strauven, Hannelore; Grieten, Lars; Murib, Mohammed; Monroy, Kathia L Jiménez; Janssens, Stoffel D; Haenen, Ken; Schöning, Michael J; Vermeeren, Veronique; Ameloot, Marcel; Michiels, Luc; Thoelen, Ronald; De Ceuninck, Ward; Wagner, Patrick


    In this article, we report on the heat-transfer resistance at interfaces as a novel, denaturation-based method to detect single-nucleotide polymorphisms in DNA. We observed that a molecular brush of double-stranded DNA grafted onto synthetic diamond surfaces does not notably affect the heat-transfer resistance at the solid-to-liquid interface. In contrast to this, molecular brushes of single-stranded DNA cause, surprisingly, a substantially higher heat-transfer resistance and behave like a thermally insulating layer. This effect can be utilized to identify ds-DNA melting temperatures via the switching from low- to high heat-transfer resistance. The melting temperatures identified with this method for different DNA duplexes (29 base pairs without and with built-in mutations) correlate nicely with data calculated by modeling. The method is fast, label-free (without the need for fluorescent or radioactive markers), allows for repetitive measurements, and can also be extended toward array formats. Reference measurements by confocal fluorescence microscopy and impedance spectroscopy confirm that the switching of heat-transfer resistance upon denaturation is indeed related to the thermal on-chip denaturation of DNA. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  11. Nonlinear Competition Between Small and Large Hexagonal Patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Silber, M; Silber, Mary; Proctor, Michael R.E.


    Recent experiments by Kudrolli, Pier and Gollub on surface waves, parametrically excited by two-frequency forcing, show a transition from a small hexagonal standing wave pattern to a large triangular superlattice pattern. We show that generically the small hexagonal and the large triangular wave patterns bifurcate simultaneously from the flat surface state as the forcing amplitude is increased, and that the experimentally-observed transition can be described by considering a low-dimensional degenerate bifurcation problem. In particular, the transition from the small hexagonal pattern to the triangular superlattice pattern can be favored over the ubiquitous hexagons-to-rolls transition.

  12. Quantitation of 7-ethylguanine in leukocyte DNA from smokers and nonsmokers by liquid chromatography-nanoelectrospray-high resolution tandem mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Balbo, Silvia; Villalta, Peter W; Hecht, Stephen S


    There is considerable evidence for the exposure of humans to an unknown ethylating agent, and some studies indicate that cigarette smoking may be one source of this exposure. Therefore, we have developed a liquid chromatography-nanoelectrospray-high resolution tandem mass spectrometry-selected reaction monitoring (LC-NSI-HRMS/MS-SRM) method for the analysis of 7-ethyl-Gua in human leukocyte DNA, a readily available source of DNA. [(15)N(5)]7-Ethyl-Gua was used as the internal standard. Leukocyte DNA was isolated and treated by thermal neutral hydrolysis. The hydrolysate was partially purified by solid-phase extraction. The fraction containing 7-ethyl-Gua was analyzed by LC-NSI-HRMS/MS-SRM using the transition m/z 180 [M + H](+)→ m/z 152.05669 [Gua + H](+) for 7-ethyl-Gua and m/z 185 → m/z 157.04187 for the internal standard. The detection limit was approximately 10 amol on column, while the limit of quantitation was about 8 fmol/μmol Gua starting with 180 μg DNA (corresponding to 36 μg DNA on-column). Leukocyte DNA samples from 30 smokers and 30 nonsmokers were analyzed. Clear peaks for 7-ethyl-Gua and the internal standard were observed in most of the samples. The mean (±SD) level of 7-ethyl-Gua measured in leukocyte DNA from smokers was 49.6 ± 43.3 (range 14.6-181) fmol/μmol Gua, while that from nonsmokers was 41.3 ± 34.9 (range 9.64-157) fmol/μmol Gua. Although a significant difference between smokers and nonsmokers was not observed, the method described here is unique in the use of high resolution mass spectrometry and establishes for the first time the presence of 7-ethyl-Gua in human leukocyte DNA.

  13. Combinatorics of giant hexagonal bilayer hemoglobins. (United States)

    Hanin, L G; Vinogradov, S N


    The paper discusses combinatorial and probabilistic models allowing to characterize various aspects of spacial symmetry and structural heterogeneity of the giant hexagonal bilayer hemoglobins (HBL Hb). Linker-dodecamer configurations of HBL are described for two and four linker types (occurring in the two most studied HBL Hb of Arenicola and Lumbricus, respectively), and the most probable configurations are found. It is shown that, for HBL with marked dodecamers, the number of 'normal-marked' pairs of dodecamers in homological position follows a binomial distribution. The group of symmetries of the dodecamer substructure of HBL is identified with the dihedral group D6. Under natural symmetry assumptions, the total dipole moment of the dodecamer substructure of HBL is shown to be zero. Biological implications of the mathematical findings are discussed.

  14. Structure of grain boundaries in hexagonal materials

    CERN Document Server

    Sarrazit, F


    which allows the behaviour of line-defects to be studied in complex interfacial processes. The work presented in this thesis describes experimental and theoretical aspects associated with the structure of grain boundaries in hexagonal materials. It has been found useful to classify grain boundaries as low-angle, special or general on the basis of their structure. High-angle grain boundaries were investigated in tungsten carbide (WC) using conventional electron microscopy techniques, and three examples characteristic of the interfaces observed in this material were studied extensively. Three-dimensionally periodic patterns are proposed as plausible reference configurations, and the Burgers vectors of observed interfacial dislocations were predicted using a theory developed recently. The comparison of experimental observations with theoretical predictions proved to be difficult as contrast simulation techniques require further development for analysis to be completed confidently. Another part of this work invol...

  15. Bandgap engineered graphene and hexagonal boron nitride for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this article a double-barrier resonant tunnelling diode (DBRTD) has been modelled by taking advantage of single-layer hexagonal lattice of graphene and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN). The DBRTD performance and operation are explored by means of a self-consistent solution inside the non-equilibrium Green's ...

  16. Synthetic Circulating Cell-free DNA as Quality Control Materials for Somatic Mutation Detection in Liquid Biopsy for Cancer. (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Peng, Rongxue; Li, Ziyang; Gao, Peng; Jia, Shiyu; Yang, Xin; Ding, Jiansheng; Han, Yanxi; Xie, Jiehong; Li, Jinming


    Detection of somatic genomic alterations in tumor-derived cell-free DNA (cfDNA) in the plasma is challenging owing to the low concentrations of cfDNA, variable detection methods, and complex workflows. Moreover, no proper quality control materials are available currently. We developed a set of synthetic cfDNA quality control materials (SCQCMs) containing spike-in cfDNA on the basis of micrococcal nuclease digestion carrying somatic mutations as simulated cfDNA and matched genomic DNA as genetic background to emulate paired tumor-normal samples in real clinical tests. Site-directed mutagenesis DNA that contained 1500-2000 bases with single-nucleotide variants or indels and genomic DNA from CRISPR/Cas9 edited cells with EML4-ALK rearrangements was fragmented, quantified, and added into micrococcal nuclease-digested DNA derived from HEK293T cells. To prove their suitability, the SCQCMs were compared with patient-derived plasma samples and validated in a collaborative study that encompassed 11 laboratories. The results of SCQCM analysis by next-generation sequencing showed strong agreement with those of patient-derived plasma samples, including the size profile of cfDNA and the quality control metrics of the sequencing data. More than 95% of laboratories correctly detected the SCQCMs with EGFR T790M, L858R, KRAS G12D, and a deletion in exon 19, as well as with EML4-ALK variant 2. The SCQCMs were successfully applied in a broad range of settings, methodologies, and informatics techniques. We conclude that SCQCMs can be used as optimal quality controls in test performance assessments for circulating tumor DNA somatic mutation detection. © 2017 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  17. Nanolayering around and thermal resistivity of the water-hexagonal boron nitride interface (United States)

    Akıner, Tolga; Mason, Jeremy K.; Ertürk, Hakan


    The water-hexagonal boron nitride interface was investigated by molecular dynamics simulations. Since the properties of the interface change significantly with the interatomic potential, a new method for calibrating the solid-liquid interatomic potential is proposed based on the experimental energy of the interface. The result is markedly different from that given by Lorentz-Berthelot mixing for the Lennard-Jones parameters commonly used in the literature. Specifically, the extent of nanolayering and interfacial thermal resistivity is measured for several interatomic potentials, and the one calibrated by the proposed method gives the least thermal resistivity.

  18. Hexagon Wilson Loop OPE and Harmonic Polylogarithms

    CERN Document Server

    Papathanasiou, Georgios


    A recent, integrability-based conjecture in the framework of the Wilson loop OPE for N=4 SYM theory, predicts the leading OPE contribution for the hexagon MHV remainder function and NMHV ratio function to all loops, in integral form. We prove that these integrals evaluate to a particular basis of harmonic polylogarithms, at any order in the weak coupling expansion. The proof constitutes an algorithm for the direct computation of the integrals, which we employ in order to obtain the full (N)MHV OPE contribution in question up to 6 loops, and certain parts of it up to 12 loops. We attach computer-readable files with our results, as well as an algorithm implementation which may be readily used to generate higher-loop corrections. The feasibility of obtaining the explicit kinematical dependence of the first term in the OPE in principle at arbitrary loop order, offers promise for the suitability of this approach as a non-perturbative description of Wilson loops/scattering amplitudes.

  19. Whole Core Transport Calculation Methodology for a Hexagonal Core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, J. Y.; Kim, K. S.; Lee, C. C.; Zee, S. Q.; Joo, H. G


    This report discusses the hexagonal module implemented to the DeCART code and the performance of them. The implemented hexagonal module includes the hexagonal ray tracing and the CMFD acceleration modules. The performance of the implemented hexagonal module is examined for 4 tests of: (1) CMFD acceleration test, (2) the accuracy test of the hexagonal module, (3) the performance test for 2-D NGNP problem and (4) the applicability test for 3-D NGNP problem. The features of the implemented hexagonal modules are: (1) The Modular ray tracing scheme based on a hexagonal assembly and a path linking scheme between the modular rays. (2) Segment generation based on the structure unit. (3) Cell ray approximation: This feature is developed to reduce the memory required to store the segment information. (4) Modified cycle ray scheme that begins the ray tracing at a given surface and finishes if the reflected ray meets the starting surface. This feature is developed to reduce the memory required for the angular flux at the core boundary. (5) Fixed assembly geometry. The pin geometry of the single pin per assembly problem is different from that of the multi-pin problem. The core geometry of a single assembly problem is also different from that of the multi-assembly problem. (6) CMFD module based on unstructured cell. This feature is to deal with the irregular gap cells that are positioned at the assembly boundaries. The examination results of the 4 tests can be summarized as: (1) The CMFD acceleration test shows that the CMFD module speedups about greater than 200 for the core problem. (2) The accuracy test shows that the hexagonal MOC module produces an accurate solution of less than 60 pcm of eigenvalue and less than 2 % of local pin power errors. (3) The performance test for 2-D NGNP problem shows that the implemented hexagonal module works soundly and produces a reasonable solution by cooperating with the existing DeCART library and the other modules. (4) The applicability

  20. Pyramidal Image-Processing Code For Hexagonal Grid (United States)

    Watson, Andrew B.; Ahumada, Albert J., Jr.


    Algorithm based on processing of information on intensities of picture elements arranged in regular hexagonal grid. Called "image pyramid" because image information at each processing level arranged in hexagonal grid having one-seventh number of picture elements of next lower processing level, each picture element derived from hexagonal set of seven nearest-neighbor picture elements in next lower level. At lowest level, fine-resolution of elements of original image. Designed to have some properties of image-coding scheme of primate visual cortex.

  1. Study the Postbuckling of Hexagonal Piezoelectric Nanowires with Surface Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Rahmani


    Full Text Available Piezoelectric nanobeams having circular, rectangular and hexagonal cross-sections are synthesized and used in various Nano structures; however, piezoelectric nanobeams with hexagonal cross-sections have not been studied in detail. In particular, the physical mechanisms of the surface effect and the role of surface stress, surface elasticity and surface piezoelectricity have not been discussed thoroughly. The present study investigated post-buckling behavior of piezoelectric nanobeams by examining surface effects. The energy method was applied to post-buckling of hexagonal nanobeams and the critical buckling voltage and amplitude are derived analytically from bulk and surface material properties and geometric factors.

  2. Nylon flocked swab severely reduces Hexagon Obti sensibility. (United States)

    Frippiat, Christophe; De Roy, Gilbert; Fontaine, Louis-Marie; Dognaux, Sophie; Noel, Fabrice; Heudt, Laeticia; Lepot, Laurent


    Hexagon Obti immunological blood test and flocked swab are widely used in forensic laboratories. Nevertheless, up to now, no compatibility tests have been published between sampling with the ethylene oxide treated flocked swab and the Hexagon Obti blood detection strip. In this study, we investigated this compatibility. Our work shows that sampling with ethylene oxide treated flocked swab reduces by a factor of at least 100 the detection threshold of blood using the Hexagon Obti immunological test. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Hexagonal plaquette spin-spin interactions and quantum magnetism in a two-dimensional ion crystal (United States)

    Nath, R.; Dalmonte, M.; Glaetzle, A. W.; Zoller, P.; Schmidt-Kaler, F.; Gerritsma, R.


    We propose a trapped ion scheme en route to realize spin Hamiltonians on a Kagome lattice which, at low energies, are described by emergent {{{Z}}}2 gauge fields, and support a topological quantum spin liquid ground state. The enabling element in our scheme is the hexagonal plaquette spin-spin interactions in a two-dimensional ion crystal. For this, the phonon-mode spectrum of the crystal is engineered by standing-wave optical potentials or by using Rydberg excited ions, thus generating localized phonon-modes around a hexagon of ions selected out of the entire two-dimensional crystal. These tailored modes can mediate spin-spin interactions between ion-qubits on a hexagonal plaquette when subject to state-dependent optical dipole forces. We discuss how these interactions can be employed to emulate a generalized Balents-Fisher-Girvin model in minimal instances of one and two plaquettes. This model is an archetypical Hamiltonian in which gauge fields are the emergent degrees of freedom on top of the classical ground state manifold. Under realistic situations, we show the emergence of a discrete Gauss’s law as well as the dynamics of a deconfined charge excitation on a gauge-invariant background using the two-plaquettes trapped ions spin-system. The proposed scheme in principle allows further scaling in a future trapped ion quantum simulator, and we conclude that our work will pave the way towards the simulation of emergent gauge theories and quantum spin liquids in trapped ion systems.

  4. Percolation crossing probabilities in hexagons: a numerical study (United States)

    Flores, S. M.; Ziff, R. M.; Simmons, J. J. H.


    In a recent article (Simmons 2013 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 46 494015), the last author of this article used c = 0 logarithmic conformal field theory to predict crossing probability formulas for percolation clusters inside a hexagon with free boundary conditions. In the present article, we verify these predictions with high-precision computer simulations for equiangular hexagons with side lengths alternating from short to long. Our simulations generate percolation-cluster perimeters with hull walks on a triangular lattice inside a hexagon. Each sample comprises two hull walks, and the order in which these walks strike the bottom and upper left/right sides of the hexagon determines the crossing configuration of the percolation sample. We compare our numerical results with the predicted crossing probabilities, finding excellent agreement.

  5. Bulk magnetoelectricity in the hexagonal manganites and ferrites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Das, Hena; Wysocki, Aleksander L; Geng, Yanan; Wu, Weida; Fennie, Craig J


    Improper ferroelectricity (trimerization) in the hexagonal manganites RMnO3 leads to a network of coupled structural and magnetic vortices that induce domain wall magnetoelectricity and magnetization (M...

  6. Origin of band gaps in graphene on hexagonal boron nitride

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jung, Jeil; DaSilva, Ashley M; MacDonald, Allan H; Adam, Shaffique


    .... Here we address the intriguing energy gaps that are sometimes observed when a graphene sheet is placed on a hexagonal boron nitride substrate, demonstrating that they are produced by an interesting...

  7. Bifurcation theory for hexagonal agglomeration in economic geography

    CERN Document Server

    Ikeda, Kiyohiro


    This book contributes to an understanding of how bifurcation theory adapts to the analysis of economic geography. It is easily accessible not only to mathematicians and economists, but also to upper-level undergraduate and graduate students who are interested in nonlinear mathematics. The self-organization of hexagonal agglomeration patterns of industrial regions was first predicted by the central place theory in economic geography based on investigations of southern Germany. The emergence of hexagonal agglomeration in economic geography models was envisaged by Krugman. In this book, after a brief introduction of central place theory and new economic geography, the missing link between them is discovered by elucidating the mechanism of the evolution of bifurcating hexagonal patterns. Pattern formation by such bifurcation is a well-studied topic in nonlinear mathematics, and group-theoretic bifurcation analysis is a well-developed theoretical tool. A finite hexagonal lattice is used to express uniformly distri...

  8. Influence of Selected Extenders for Liquid Storage at 4 degrees C of Breeding Chinchilla (Chinchilla lanigera) Semen on Sperm DNA Integrity. (United States)

    Niedbała, Piotr; Szeleszczuk, Olga; Kuchta-Gładysz, Marta; Joneczek, Maria; Dobrzyńska, Małgorzata; Maj, Dorota


    The influence of two commercial and two laboratory oriented extenders on survival rate and DNA integrity of chinchilla (Chinchilla lanigera) sperm was determined during liquid storage. Semen was collected using an electroejaculator from 6 adult male chinchillas. Ejaculates (n = 16) were diluted with extenders to obtain a concentration of 40 x 10 (3) sperm/5 μl. After dilution the semen samples were stored at 4"C. The percent motility, progressive motility, and morphology were assessed conventionally, whereas DNA integrity was evaluated by Single Cell Gel Electrophoresis (comet) assay at 0 (just after dilution), 24, 48 and 72 h. Conventional assessment of sperm quality showed that commercial extenders are characterized by the lowest sperm survival parameters out of the investigated extenders. In commercial extenders spermatozoa lost their capacity for progressive motility compared to laboratory extenders. After 24 h storage, from 21.67% to 30% of motile sperms were observed in commercial extender whereas total sperm motility was 63.33% (41.67% with progressive motility) in samples in which stallion semen extender was used. After 72 h storage, 10% of sperm were motile in stallion semen extender while no sperm movement was observed in tubes containing the commercial extender. Furthermore, a lower percentage of damaged spermatozoa in laboratory oriented extenders was demonstrated. It was also stated that along with the extended time of semen storage at 4 degrees C, commercial extenders lost their protective action. An analysis of DNA content in the heads of sperm cells and tail moment (TM) showed that the most useful extender for liquid preservation of chinchilla semen was the extender for stallions.

  9. Liquid-based cytology and HPV DNA testing using intra-anal specimens from HIV-negative women with and without genital HPV-induced lesions. (United States)

    Eleutério, José; Benício, Givanildo Carneiro; Giraldo, Paulo César; Gonçalves, Ana Katherine Silveira; Eleutério, Renata Mírian Nunes; Oliveira, Denise Nunes; Jacyntho, Cláudia


    Screening for anal cancer using cytology has not been considered in immunocompetent women. The aim of this study was to identify cytological atypia and human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA in intra-anal specimens from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative women with and without genital HPV lesions. This study was a cross-sectional analysis of 142 women who were negative for the HIV: 80 with genital lesions that were associated with HPV and 62 without HPV-induced lesions. The women were evaluated at the Federal University of Ceará from October 2011 to June 2012. The statistical analysis included the Fisher exact test and the odds ratio (CI 95%). Atypical anal cytology was observed in 24 (29.3%) patients in the study group and in 11 (17.8%) patients in the control group. In cases with at least two sites of HPV-associated lesions, 12 (41.4%) presented atypical cytology (P = 0.0220; OR = 2.7621, 1.1579-6.5889). When the practice of anal sex was evaluated, atypical cytology was observed in 22/43 (34%) [P = 0.0214; OR = 2.519, 1.146-5.534]. HPV DNA was detected in 17/27 (63%) cases with at least two sites of lesions (P = 0.0293, OR = 2.4855, 1.0960-5.6367). In the 33 cases who presented positive HPV DNA test results, the liquid-based cytology results were atypical (P = 0.0212, OR = 2.8, 1.1665-6.7208). Based on the results, liquid-based cytology may be used to detect intra-anal lesions, especially among women who have a history of anal intercourse or who have genital HPV-associated lesions at multiple sites. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. PAMAM6 dendrimers and DNA: pH dependent "beads-on-a-string" behavior revealed by small angle X-ray scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Dootz, Rolf; Pfohl, Thomas


    DNA interactions with polycations are not only important for our understanding of chromatin compaction but also for characterizing DNA-binding proteins involved in transcription, replication and repair. DNA is known to form several types of liquid-crystalline phases depending, among other factors, on polycation structure and charge density. Theoretical studies and simulations have predicted the wrapping of DNA around spherical positively charged polycations. As a potential mimic of the histone octamer or other DNA wrapping proteins, poly(amido amine) generation 6 (PAMAM6) dendrimers have been chosen for our study. The self-assembly of DNA induced by PAMAM6 has been investigated using small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) in order to reveal the assemblies' structure dependence on the pH of the environment and on dendrimers concentration. We demonstrate that at pH 8.5 dense phases are formed and characterized by a 2D-columnar hexagonal lattice which is transformed into a 3D hexagonal lattice with increasing dendr...

  11. Quantitative TEM analysis of a hexagonal mesoporous silicate structure. (United States)

    Hudson, S; Tanner, D A; Redington, W; Magner, E; Hodnett, K; Nakahara, S


    TEM analysis of mesoporous materials is generally undertaken to give qualitative results. Accurate quantitative analysis is demonstrated in this study. A systematic image analysis of a powder form of a hexagonal mesoporous material known as KIT-6 is conducted using a transmission electron microscope (TEM). Three types of image contrast typically appear in this material (a hexagonal honeycomb structure, wide and narrow parallel lines). The honeycomb face is used to characterise this material in terms of a conventional 2-D hexagonal structure and the d-spacings for the (100) and (110) planes are experimentally measured in varying focus conditions. A tilting experiment is conducted to determine how the angle of tilt affects the line spacing and their visibility. Tilting has very little effect on the line spacing, whereas it affects the visibility of both the wide and narrow lines by limiting an angle range of visibility. The hexagonal lattice structure parameter determined by TEM method is found to be approximately 7% lower than that calculated by low-angle X-ray diffraction. Thus we conclude that TEM data can be used to determine the geometry and dimensions of hexagonal mesoporous silica materials, with a small error in the hexagonal lattice parameter.

  12. Growth of InAs Wurtzite Nanocrosses from Hexagonal and Cubic Basis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krizek, Filip; Kanne, Thomas; Razmadze, Davydas


    Epitaxially connected nanowires allow for the design of electron transport experiments and applications beyond the standard two terminal device geometries. In this Letter, we present growth methods of three distinct types of wurtzite structured InAs nanocrosses via the vapor-liquid-solid mechanis...... fabricated junctions in radial nanowire heterostructures.......Epitaxially connected nanowires allow for the design of electron transport experiments and applications beyond the standard two terminal device geometries. In this Letter, we present growth methods of three distinct types of wurtzite structured InAs nanocrosses via the vapor-liquid-solid mechanism....... Two methods use conventional wurtzite nanowire arrays as a 6-fold hexagonal basis for growing single crystal wurtzite nanocrosses. A third method uses the 2-fold cubic symmetry of (100) substrates to form well-defined coherent inclusions of zinc blende in the center of the nanocrosses. We show...

  13. The Effect of DNA Extraction Methods on Observed Microbial Communities from Fibrous and Liquid Rumen Fractions of Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jueeli D. Vaidya


    Full Text Available DNA based methods have been widely used to study the complexity of the rumen microbiota, and it is well known that the method of DNA extraction is a critical step in enabling accurate assessment of this complexity. Rumen fluid (RF and fibrous content (FC fractions differ substantially in terms of their physical nature and associated microorganisms. The aim of this study was therefore to assess the effect of four DNA extraction methods (RBB, PBB, FDSS, PQIAmini differing in cell lysis and/or DNA recovery methods on the observed microbial diversity in RF and FC fractions using samples from four rumen cannulated dairy cows fed 100% grass silage (GS100, 67% GS and 33% maize silage (GS67MS33, 33% GS and 67% MS (GS33MS67, or 100% MS (MS100. An ANOVA statistical test was applied on DNA quality and yield measurements, and it was found that the DNA yield was significantly affected by extraction method (p < 0.001 and fraction (p < 0.001. The 260/280 ratio was not affected by extraction (p = 0.08 but was affected by fraction (p = 0.03. On the other hand, the 260/230 ratio was affected by extraction method (p < 0.001 but not affected by fraction (p = 0.8. However, all four extraction procedures yielded DNA suitable for further analysis of bacterial, archaeal and anaerobic fungal communities using quantitative PCR and pyrosequencing of relevant taxonomic markers. Redundancy analysis (RDA of bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequence data at the family level showed that there was a significant effect of rumen fraction (p = 0.012, and that PBB (p = 0.012 and FDSS (p = 0.024 also significantly contributed to explaining the observed variation in bacterial community composition. Whilst the DNA extraction method affected the apparent bacterial community composition, no single extraction method could be concluded to be ineffective. No obvious effect of DNA extraction method on the anaerobic fungi or archaea was observed, although fraction effects were evident for both. In

  14. Formation of the main UV-induced thymine dimeric lesions within isolated and cellular DNA as measured by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Douki, T; Court, M; Sauvaigo, S; Odin, F; Cadet, J


    UVB radiation-induced formation of dimeric photoproducts at bipyrimidine sites within DNA has been unambiguously associated with the lethal and mutagenic properties of sunlight. The main lesions include the cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers and the pyrimidine (6-4) pyrimidone adducts. The latter compounds have been shown in model systems to be converted into their Dewar valence isomers upon exposure to UVB light. A new direct assay, based on the use of liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry, is now available to simultaneously detect each of the thymine photoproducts. It was applied to the determination of the yields of formation of the thymine lesions within both isolated and cellular DNA exposed to either UVC or UVB radiation. The cis-syn cyclobutane thymine dimer was found to be the major photoproduct within cellular DNA, whereas the related (6-4) adduct was produced in an approximately 8-fold lower yield. Interestingly, the corresponding Dewar valence isomer could not be detected upon exposure of human cells to biologically relevant doses of UVB radiation.

  15. The extended family of hexagonal molybdenum oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartl, Monika [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Daemen, Luke [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lunk, J H [NON LANL; Hartl, H [NON LANL; Frisk, A T [NON LANL; Shendervich, I [NON LANL; Mauder, D [NON LANL; Feist, M [NON LANL; Eckelt, R [NON LANL


    Over the last 40 years, a large number of isostructural compounds in the system MoO{sub 3}-NH{sub 3}-H{sub 2}O have been published. The reported molecular formulae of 'hexagonal molybdenum oxide' (HEMO) varied from MoO{sub 3}, MoO{sub 3} {center_dot} 0.33NH{sub 3}, MoO{sub 3} {center_dot} nH{sub 2}O (0.09 {le} n {le} 0.69) to MoO{sub 3} {center_dot} mNH{sub 3} {center_dot} nH{sub 2}O (0.09 {le} m {le} 0.20; 0.18 {le} n {le} 0.60). Samples, prepared by the acidification route, were investigated using thermal analysis coupled on-line to a mass spectrometer for evolved gas analysis; X-ray powder diffraction; Fourier Transform Infrared, Raman and Magic-Angle-Spinning {sup 1}H-NMR spectroscopy; Incoherent Inelastic Neutron Scattering. The X-ray study of a selected monocrystal confirmed the presence of the well-known framework of edge-sharing MoO{sub 6} octahedra: Space group P6{sub 3}/m, a = 10.527(1), c =3.7245(7) {angstrom}, {gamma} = 120{sup o}. The structure of the synthesized samples can best be described by the structural formula (NH{sub 4})[Mo{sub x}{open_square}{sub 1/2+p/2}(O{sub 3x + 1/2-p/2})(OH){sub p}] {center_dot} yH{sub 2}O (x 5.9-7.1; p {approx} 0.1; y = 1.2-2.6), which is consistent with the existence of one vacancy for 12-15 molybdenum sites. The 'chimie douce' reaction of MoO{sub 3} {center_dot} 0.155NH{sub 3} {center_dot} 0.440H{sub 2}O with a 1:1 mixture of NO/NO{sub 2} at 100 C resulted in the synthesis of MoO{sub 3} {center_dot} 0.539H{sub 2}O. Tailored nano-sized molybdenum powders can be produced using HEMO as precursor.

  16. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry quantification of 6-thioguanine in DNA using endogenous guanine as internal standard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Jack Hummeland; Schmiegelow, Kjeld; Nersting, Jakob


    was estimated at 63% (RSD 26%), which is corrected for by the internal standard resulting in stable quantification. The TG levels found were above the LOQ in 18 out of 18 childhood leukemia patients on 6-mercaptopurine/methotrexate maintenance therapy (median 377, range 45-1190 fmol/μg DNA) with intra...

  17. Inserting Stress Analysis of Combined Hexagonal Aluminum Honeycombs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangcheng Li


    Full Text Available Two kinds of hexagonal aluminum honeycombs are tested to study their out-of-plane crushing behavior. In the tests, honeycomb samples, including single hexagonal aluminum honeycomb (SHAH samples and two stack-up combined hexagonal aluminum honeycombs (CHAH samples, are compressed at a fixed quasistatic loading rate. The results show that the inserting process of CHAH can erase the initial peak stress that occurred in SHAH. Meanwhile, energy-absorbing property of combined honeycomb samples is more beneficial than the one of single honeycomb sample with the same thickness if the two types of honeycomb samples are completely crushed. Then, the applicability of the existing theoretical model for single hexagonal honeycomb is discussed, and an area equivalent method is proposed to calculate the crushing stress for nearly regular hexagonal honeycombs. Furthermore, a semiempirical formula is proposed to calculate the inserting plateau stress of two stack-up CHAH, in which structural parameters and mechanics properties of base material are concerned. The results show that the predicted stresses of three kinds of two stack-up combined honeycombs are in good agreement with the experimental data. Based on this study, stress-displacement curve of aluminum honeycombs can be designed in detail, which is very beneficial to optimize the energy-absorbing structures in engineering fields.

  18. A simple microfluidic system for efficient capillary electrophoretic separation and sensitive fluorimetric detection of DNA fragments using light-emitting diode and liquid-core waveguide techniques. (United States)

    Wang, Shi-Li; Fan, Xiao-Feng; Xu, Zhang-Run; Fang, Zhao-Lun


    A miniaturized CE system has been developed for fast DNA separations with sensitive fluorimetric detection using a rectangle type light-emitting diode (LED). High sensitivity was achieved by combining liquid-core waveguide (LCW) and lock-in amplification techniques. A Teflon AF-coated silica capillary on a compact 6x3 cm baseplate served as both the separation channel for CE separation and as an LCW for light transmission of fluorescence emission to the detector. An electronically modulated LED illuminated transversely through a 0.2 mm aperture, the detection point on the LCW capillary without focusing, and fluorescence light was transmitted to the capillary outlet. To simplify the optics and enhance collection of light from the capillary outlet, an outlet reservoir was designed, with a light transmission window, positioned directly in front of a photomultiplier tube (PMT), separated only by a high pass filter. Automated sample introduction was achieved using a sequential injection system through a split-flow interface that allowed effective release of gas bubbles. In the separation of a phiX174 HaeIII DNA digest sample, using ethidium bromide as labeling dye, all 11 fragments of the sample were effectively resolved in 400 s, with an S/N ratio comparable to that of a CE system with more sophisticated LIF.

  19. Comparison of electron bands of hexagonal and cubic diamond (United States)

    Salehpour, M. R.; Satpathy, S.


    Using the local-density-theory and the linear-muffin-tin-orbitals method, we calculate the electron band structures of hexagonal (lonsdaleite) and cubic diamond. Even though the arrangement of atoms is very similar between the two crystal structures, we find significant differences in the electron bands, especially in the conduction bands. In particular, including estimated corrections on top of the local-density results, we find the lowest theoretical gap of hexagonal diamond to be 4.5 eV, i.e., a remarkable 1.1-eV drop as compared to that of cubic diamond. The lowest gap in the hexagonal structure is still indirect as in the cubic structure, but the gap is now from Γ to K. The reduction of the band gap should be observable in optical-absorption or reflectivity experiments.

  20. Kinematic dynamo action in square and hexagonal patterns. (United States)

    Favier, B; Proctor, M R E


    We consider kinematic dynamo action in rapidly rotating Boussinesq convection just above onset. The velocity is constrained to have either a square or a hexagonal pattern. For the square pattern, large-scale dynamo action is observed at onset, with most of the magnetic energy being contained in the horizontally averaged component. As the magnetic Reynolds number increases, small-scale dynamo action becomes possible, reducing the overall growth rate of the dynamo. For the hexagonal pattern, the breaking of symmetry between up and down flows results in an effective pumping velocity. For intermediate rotation rates, this additional effect can prevent the growth of any mean-field dynamo, so that only a small-scale dynamo is eventually possible at large enough magnetic Reynolds number. For very large rotation rates, this pumping term becomes negligible, and the dynamo properties of square and hexagonal patterns are qualitatively similar. These results hold for both perfectly conducting and infinite magnetic permeability boundary conditions.

  1. Hexagonal Array Structure for 2d Nde Applications (United States)

    Dziewierz, J.; Ramadas, S. N.; Gachagan, A.; O'Leary, R. L.


    This paper describes a combination of simulation and experimentation to evaluate the advantages offered by utilizing a hexagonal shaped array element in a 2D NDE array structure. The active material is a 1-3 connectivity piezoelectric composite structure incorporating triangular shaped pillars—each hexagonal array element comprising six triangular pillars. A combination of PZFlex, COMSOL and Matlab has been used to simulate the behavior of this device microstructure, for operation around 2.25 MHz, with unimodal behavior and low levels of mechanical cross-coupling predicted. Furthermore, the application of hexagonal array elements enables the array aperture to increase by approximately 30%, compared to a conventional orthogonal array matrix and hence will provide enhanced volumetric coverage and SNR. Prototype array configurations demonstrate good corroboration of the theoretically predicted mechanical cross-coupling between adjacent array elements (˜23 dB).

  2. Kinematic dynamo action in square and hexagonal patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Favier, B


    We consider kinematic dynamo action in rapidly rotating Boussinesq convection just above onset. The velocity is constrained to have either a square or a hexagonal pattern. For the square pattern, large-scale dynamo action is observed at onset, with most of the magnetic energy being contained in the horizontally-averaged component. As the magnetic Reynolds number increases, small-scale dynamo action becomes possible, reducing the overall growth rate of the dynamo. For the hexagonal pattern, the breaking of symmetry between up and down flows results in an effective pumping velocity. For intermediate rotation rates, this additional effect can prevent the growth of any mean-field dynamo, so that only a small-scale dynamo is eventually possible at large enough magnetic Reynolds number. For very large rotation rates, this pumping term becomes negligible, and the dynamo properties of square and hexagonal patterns are qualitatively similar. These results hold for both perfectly conducting and infinite magnetic permea...

  3. Additive Manufacturing of Dense Hexagonal Boron Nitride Objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marquez Rossy, Andres E [ORNL; Armstrong, Beth L [ORNL; Elliott, Amy M [ORNL; Lara-Curzio, Edgar [ORNL


    The feasibility of manufacturing hexagonal boron nitride objects via additive manufacturing techniques was investigated. It was demonstrated that it is possible to hot-extrude thermoplastic filaments containing uniformly distributed boron nitride particles with a volume concentration as high as 60% and that these thermoplastic filaments can be used as feedstock for 3D-printing objects using a fused deposition system. Objects 3D-printed by fused deposition were subsequently sintered at high temperature to obtain dense ceramic products. In a parallel study the behavior of hexagonal boron nitride in aqueous solutions was investigated. It was shown that the addition of a cationic dispersant to an azeotrope enabled the formulation of slurries with a volume concentration of boron nitride as high as 33%. Although these slurries exhibited complex rheological behavior, the results from this study are encouraging and provide a pathway for manufacturing hexagonal boron nitride objects via robocasting.

  4. Hexagon functions and the three-loop remainder function

    CERN Document Server

    Dixon, Lance J.; von Hippel, Matt; Pennington, Jeffrey


    We present the three-loop remainder function, which describes the scattering of six gluons in the maximally-helicity-violating configuration in planar N=4 super-Yang-Mills theory, as a function of the three dual conformal cross ratios. The result can be expressed in terms of multiple Goncharov polylogarithms. We also employ a more restricted class of "hexagon functions" which have the correct branch cuts and certain other restrictions on their symbols. We classify all the hexagon functions through transcendental weight five, using the coproduct for their Hopf algebra iteratively, which amounts to a set of first-order differential equations. The three-loop remainder function is a particular weight-six hexagon function, whose symbol was determined previously. The differential equations can be integrated numerically for generic values of the cross ratios, or analytically in certain kinematics limits, including the near-collinear and multi-Regge limits. These limits allow us to impose constraints from the operato...

  5. The effect of bovine serum albumin and fetal calf serum on sperm quality, DNA fragmentation and lipid peroxidation of the liquid stored rabbit semen. (United States)

    Sarıözkan, Serpil; Türk, Gaffari; Cantürk, Fazile; Yay, Arzu; Eken, Ayşe; Akçay, Aytaç


    The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of the bovine serum albumin (BSA) and fetal calf serum (FCS) on sperm quality, DNA fragmentation and lipid peroxidation of liquid stored rabbit semen stored up to 72 h at 5 °C. Ejaculates were collected from five New Zealand male rabbits by artificial vagina and pooled at 37 °C following evaluation. Each pooled ejaculate was split into three equal experimental groups and diluted to a final concentration of approximately 40 × 10(6)sperm/ml (single step dilution), in an Eppendorf tube, with the Tris based extender containing BSA (5mg/ml), FCS (10%) or no additive (control) at 37 °C, cooled to 5 °C and stored for up to 72 h. The extender supplemented with BSA and FCS did not improve the percentages of motility and acrosomal abnormality during 48 h compared to the control. The additives BSA and FCS had a significant effect in the maintaining of plasma membrane integrity between 48 and 72 h storage period, compared to the control (P<0.01). The supplementation of BSA and FCS had a protective effect on motility (P<0.05), plasma membrane integrity (P<0.01) and acrosomal integrity (P<0.01) at 72 h compared to the control. The supplementations with BSA and FCS led to a reduction in DNA damage of rabbit sperm at 48 and 72 h during storage period, compared to the control (P<0.001). Although supplementation of BSA and FCS caused significant (P<0.01) decreases in malondialdehyde (MDA) level at 48 h and 72 h, they significantly (P<0.01) increased the glutathione peroxidase (GPx) antioxidant activity up to 72 h when compared to the control group. In conclusion, BSA and FCS supplementation to liquid stored rabbit semen provide a protection for spermatozoa against cool storage-induced DNA damage and plasma membrane integrity by their antioxidative properties. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Formation of hexagonal-wurtzite germanium by pulsed laser ablation (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Iqbal, Z.; Vijayalakshmi, S.; Qadri, S.; Grebel, H.


    A stable phase of relatively large hexagonal-wurtzite germanium (lonsdaleite) crystals (up to 10 μm) was formed when germanium was directly deposited at low pressure using pulsed ultraviolet laser ablation. Films were grown on various substrates at room temperature from a single crystal, cubic germanium target. Crystallites of the hexagonal-wurtzite phase of germanium were clearly identified using selected area electron diffraction. Further characterizations of the films were made using X-ray diffraction and confocal scanning micro-Raman spectroscopy.

  7. Communication: Water on hexagonal boron nitride from diffusion Monte Carlo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Hamdani, Yasmine S.; Ma, Ming; Michaelides, Angelos, E-mail: [Thomas Young Centre and London Centre for Nanotechnology, 17–19 Gordon Street, London WC1H 0AH (United Kingdom); Department of Chemistry, University College London, 20 Gordon Street, London WC1H 0AJ (United Kingdom); Alfè, Dario [Thomas Young Centre and London Centre for Nanotechnology, 17–19 Gordon Street, London WC1H 0AH (United Kingdom); Department of Earth Sciences, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Lilienfeld, O. Anatole von [Institute of Physical Chemistry and National Center for Computational Design and Discovery of Novel Materials, Department of Chemistry, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 80, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland); Argonne Leadership Computing Facility, Argonne National Laboratories, 9700 S. Cass Avenue Argonne, Lemont, Illinois 60439 (United States)


    Despite a recent flurry of experimental and simulation studies, an accurate estimate of the interaction strength of water molecules with hexagonal boron nitride is lacking. Here, we report quantum Monte Carlo results for the adsorption of a water monomer on a periodic hexagonal boron nitride sheet, which yield a water monomer interaction energy of −84 ± 5 meV. We use the results to evaluate the performance of several widely used density functional theory (DFT) exchange correlation functionals and find that they all deviate substantially. Differences in interaction energies between different adsorption sites are however better reproduced by DFT.

  8. Scaling Behavior and Beyond Equilibrium in the Hexagonal Manganites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Griffin


    Full Text Available We show that the improper ferroelectric phase transition in the multiferroic hexagonal manganites displays appropriate symmetry-breaking characteristics for testing the Kibble-Zurek mechanism originally proposed to describe early-universe phase transitions. We present an analysis of the Kibble-Zurek theory of topological defect formation applied to the hexagonal manganites, discuss the conditions determining the range of cooling rates in which Kibble-Zurek behavior is expected, and show that recent literature data are consistent with our predictions. Finally, we explore experimentally the crossover out of the Kibble-Zurek regime and find a surprising reversal of the scaling behavior.

  9. Light scattering and random lasing in aqueous suspensions of hexagonal boron nitride nanoflakes (United States)

    O’Brien, S. A.; Harvey, A.; Griffin, A.; Donnelly, T.; Mulcahy, D.; Coleman, J. N.; Donegan, J. F.; McCloskey, D.


    Liquid phase exfoliation allows large scale production of 2D materials in solution. The particles are highly anisotropic and strongly scatter light. While spherical particles can be accurately and precisely described by a single parameter—the radius, 2D nanoflakes, however, cannot be so easily described. We investigate light scattering in aqueous solutions of 2D hexagonal boron nitride nanoflakes in the single and multiple scattering regimes. In the single scattering regime, the anisotropic 2D materials show a much stronger depolarization of light when compared to spherical particles of similar size. In the multiple scattering regime, the scattering as a function of optical path for hexagonal boron nitride nanoflakes of a given lateral length was found to be qualitatively equivalent to scattering from spheres with the same diameter. We also report the presence of random lasing in high concentration suspensions of aqueous h-BN mixed with Rhodamine B dye. The h-BN works as a scattering agent and Rhodamine B as a gain medium for the process. We observed random lasing at 587 nm with a threshold energy of 0.8 mJ.

  10. A low cost route to hexagonal mesostructured carbon molecular sieves. (United States)

    Kim, S S; Pinnavaia, T J


    A mesoporous carbon molecular sieve with a hexagonal framework structure (denoted C-MSU-H) has been prepared using a MSU-H silica template that can be assembled from a low cost soluble silicate precursor at near-neutral pH conditions.

  11. Epitaxial hexagonal materials on IBAD-textured substrates (United States)

    Matias, Vladimir; Yung, Christopher


    A multilayer structure including a hexagonal epitaxial layer, such as GaN or other group III-nitride (III-N) semiconductors, a oriented textured layer, and a non-single crystal substrate, and methods for making the same. The textured layer has a crystalline alignment preferably formed by the ion-beam assisted deposition (IBAD) texturing process and can be biaxially aligned. The in-plane crystalline texture of the textured layer is sufficiently low to allow growth of high quality hexagonal material, but can still be significantly greater than the required in-plane crystalline texture of the hexagonal material. The IBAD process enables low-cost, large-area, flexible metal foil substrates to be used as potential alternatives to single-crystal sapphire and silicon for manufacture of electronic devices, enabling scaled-up roll-to-roll, sheet-to-sheet, or similar fabrication processes to be used. The user is able to choose a substrate for its mechanical and thermal properties, such as how well its coefficient of thermal expansion matches that of the hexagonal epitaxial layer, while choosing a textured layer that more closely lattice matches that layer.

  12. Lattice-polarity-driven epitaxy of hexagonal semiconductor nanowires

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Ping


    Lattice-polarity-driven epitaxy of hexagonal semiconductor nanowires (NWs) is demonstrated on InN NWs. In-polarity InN NWs form typical hexagonal structure with pyramidal growth front, whereas N-polarity InN NWs slowly turn to the shape of hexagonal pyramid and then convert to an inverted pyramid growth, forming diagonal pyramids with flat surfaces and finally coalescence with each other. This contrary growth behavior driven by lattice-polarity is most likely due to the relatively lower growth rate of the (0001 ̅) plane, which results from the fact that the diffusion barriers of In and N adatoms on the (0001) plane (0.18 and 1.0 eV, respectively) are about two-fold larger in magnitude than those on the (0001 ̅) plane (0.07 and 0.52 eV), as calculated by first-principles density functional theory (DFT). The formation of diagonal pyramids for the N-polarity hexagonal NWs affords a novel way to locate quantum dot in the kink position, suggesting a new recipe for the fabrication of dot-based devices.

  13. Influence of strontium on the cubic to ordered hexagonal phase ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... Lecture Workshops · Refresher Courses · Symposia. Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 23; Issue 6. Influence of strontium on the cubic to ordered hexagonal phase transformation in barium magnesium niobate. M Thirumal A K Ganguli. Phase Transitions Volume 23 Issue 6 December 2000 pp 495-498 ...

  14. Hexagonal Boron Nitride Self-Launches Hyperbolic Phonon Polaritons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilburd, Leonid; Kim, Kris S.; Ho, Kevin; Trajanoski, Daniel; Maiti, Aniket; Halverson, Duncan; de Beer, Sissi; Walker, Gilbert C.


    Hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) is a 2D material that supports traveling waves composed of material vibrations and light, and is attractive for nanoscale optical devices that function in the infrared. However, the only current method of launching these traveling waves requires the use of a metal

  15. Crystallization of M-type hexagonal ferrites from mechanically ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 29; Issue 5. Crystallization of -type hexagonal ferrites from mechanically activated mixtures of barium carbonate and goethite. J Temuujin M Aoyama M Senna T Masuko C Ando H Kishi A Minjigmaa. Ceramics and Glasses Volume 29 Issue 5 October 2006 pp 457-460 ...

  16. Band gaps in incommensurable graphene on hexagonal boron nitride

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokdam, Menno; Amlaki, T.; Brocks, G.; Kelly, Paul J.


    Devising ways of opening a band gap in graphene to make charge-carrier masses finite is essential for many applications. Recent experiments with graphene on hexagonal boron nitride (h -BN) offer tantalizing hints that the weak interaction with the substrate is sufficient to open a gap, in

  17. Free vibration of hexagonal panels supported at discrete points (United States)

    Wu, K. Chauncey


    An analytical study to determine the structural dynamic behavior of a hexagonal panel with discrete simple supports is presented. These panels are representative of the facets of a precision reflector surface. The effects of both support point location and panel curvature on the lowest natural frequency of the panel are quantified and discussed.

  18. Spin transport in fully hexagonal boron nitride encapsulated graphene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gurram, M.; Omar, S.; Zihlmann, S.; Makk, P.; Schoenenberger, C.; van Wees, B. J.


    We study fully hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) encapsulated graphene spin valve devices at room temperature. The device consists of a graphene channel encapsulated between two crystalline hBN flakes: thick-hBN flake as a bottom gate dielectric substrate which masks the charge impurities from SiO2/Si

  19. Epitaxial hexagonal materials on IBAD-textured substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matias, Vladimir; Yung, Christopher


    A multilayer structure including a hexagonal epitaxial layer, such as GaN or other group III-nitride (III-N) semiconductors, a <111> oriented textured layer, and a non-single crystal substrate, and methods for making the same. The textured layer has a crystalline alignment preferably formed by the ion-beam assisted deposition (IBAD) texturing process and can be biaxially aligned. The in-plane crystalline texture of the textured layer is sufficiently low to allow growth of high quality hexagonal material, but can still be significantly greater than the required in-plane crystalline texture of the hexagonal material. The IBAD process enables low-cost, large-area, flexible metal foil substrates to be used as potential alternatives to single-crystal sapphire and silicon for manufacture of electronic devices, enabling scaled-up roll-to-roll, sheet-to-sheet, or similar fabrication processes to be used. The user is able to choose a substrate for its mechanical and thermal properties, such as how well its coefficient of thermal expansion matches that of the hexagonal epitaxial layer, while choosing a textured layer that more closely lattice matches that layer.

  20. Growth of InAs Wurtzite Nanocrosses from Hexagonal and Cubic Basis. (United States)

    Krizek, Filip; Kanne, Thomas; Razmadze, Davydas; Johnson, Erik; Nygård, Jesper; Marcus, Charles M; Krogstrup, Peter


    Epitaxially connected nanowires allow for the design of electron transport experiments and applications beyond the standard two terminal device geometries. In this Letter, we present growth methods of three distinct types of wurtzite structured InAs nanocrosses via the vapor-liquid-solid mechanism. Two methods use conventional wurtzite nanowire arrays as a 6-fold hexagonal basis for growing single crystal wurtzite nanocrosses. A third method uses the 2-fold cubic symmetry of (100) substrates to form well-defined coherent inclusions of zinc blende in the center of the nanocrosses. We show that all three types of nanocrosses can be transferred undamaged to arbitrary substrates, which allows for structural, compositional, and electrical characterization. We further demonstrate the potential for synthesis of as-grown nanowire networks and for using nanowires as shadow masks for in situ fabricated junctions in radial nanowire heterostructures.

  1. Fabricating a regular hexagonal lattice structure by interference pattern of six femtosecond laser beams (United States)

    Nakata, Yoshiki; Yoshida, Masataka; Osawa, Kazuhito; Miyanaga, Noriaki


    Interference of six countering femtosecond (fs) laser beams at a wavelength of 785 nm has been utilized to fabricate nanostructures in a regular hexagonal lattice. A diffractive-optical element for six-beam splitting was introduced to a beam correlation system. The lattice structure was in accordance with the simulated structure based on the principle of superposition of electric fields. The unit structures fabricated on gold thin films were nanobit, nanodrop, and metallic hole array. The height and diameter of a representative nanodrop were 450 and 210 nm, respectively. Molten structures such as nanodrops are believed to have been fabricated via a solid-liquid-solid (SLS) mechanism, as in the case of previous experiments using four beams. In addition, multi-shot processing is examined to fabricate through-holes at lower fluences.

  2. Patterning monolayer graphene with zigzag edges on hexagonal boron nitride by anisotropic etching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Guole; Wu, Shuang; Zhang, Tingting; Chen, Peng; Lu, Xiaobo; Wang, Shuopei; Wang, Duoming; Shi, Dongxia; Yang, Rong, E-mail:, E-mail: [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics and Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi [National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba 305-0044 (Japan); Zhang, Guangyu, E-mail:, E-mail: [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics and Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing 100190 (China); Beijing Key Laboratory for Nanomaterials and Nanodevices, Beijing 100190 (China)


    Graphene nanostructures are potential building blocks for nanoelectronic and spintronic devices. However, the production of monolayer graphene nanostructures with well-defined zigzag edges remains a challenge. In this paper, we report the patterning of monolayer graphene nanostructures with zigzag edges on hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) substrates by an anisotropic etching technique. We found that hydrogen plasma etching of monolayer graphene on h-BN is highly anisotropic due to the inert and ultra-flat nature of the h-BN surface, resulting in zigzag edge formation. The as-fabricated zigzag-edged monolayer graphene nanoribbons (Z-GNRs) with widths below 30 nm show high carrier mobility and width-dependent energy gaps at liquid helium temperature. These high quality Z-GNRs are thus ideal structures for exploring their valleytronic or spintronic properties.

  3. Atypical Squamous Cells in Liquid-Based Cervical Cytology: Microbiology, Inflammatory Infiltrate, and Human Papillomavirus-DNA Testing. (United States)

    Gomes de Oliveira, Geilson; Eleutério, Renata Mirian Nunes; Silveira Gonçalves, Ana Katherine; Giraldo, Paulo César; Eleutério, José


    The aim of this study was to assess the correlation between atypical squamous cells (ASC) and inflammatory infiltrate and vaginal microbiota using cervical liquid-based cytological (SurePath®) and high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) tests. A cross-sectional study was conducted using a 6-year database from a laboratory in Fortaleza (Brazil). Files from 1,346 ASC cases were divided into subgroups and results concerning inflammation and vaginal microorganisms diagnosed by cytology were compared with HR-HPV test results. An absence of specific microorganisms (ASM) was the most frequent finding (ASC of undetermined significance, ASC-US = 74%; ASC - cannot exclude high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, ASC-H = 68%), followed by bacterial vaginosis (ASC-US = 20%; ASC- H = 25%) and Candida spp. (ASC-US = 6%; ASC-H = 5%). Leukocyte infiltrate was present in 71% of ASC-US and 85% of ASC-H (p = 0.0040), and in these specific cases HR-HPV tests were positive for 65 and 64%, respectively. A positive HR-HPV test was relatively more frequent when a specific microorganism was present, and Candida spp. was associated with HR-HPV-positive results (p = 0.0156), while an ASM was associated with negative HR-HPV results (p = 0.0370). ASC-US is associated with an absence of inflammation or vaginosis, while ASC-H smears are associated with Trichomonas vaginalis and inflammatory infiltrate. A positive HR-HPV is associated with Candida spp. in ASC cytology. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Resolution comparison between integral-imaging-based hologram synthesis methods using rectangular and hexagonal lens arrays. (United States)

    Chen, Ni; Yeom, Jiwoon; Jung, Jae-Hyun; Park, Jae-Hyeung; Lee, Byoungho


    We compare the resolution of the hologram reconstruction synthesis methods based on integral imaging using rectangular and hexagonal lens arrays. By using a hexagonal lens array instead of conventional rectangular lens array, the three-dimensional objects are sampled with hexagonal grids. Due to more efficient sampling of the hexagonal grid, the resolution of the reconstructed object is higher compared with the case of using rectangular lens array. We analyze the resolution enhancement of the hologram reconstruction quantitatively and verify it experimentally.

  5. Chemical and Bandgap Engineering in Monolayer Hexagonal Boron Nitride. (United States)

    Ba, Kun; Jiang, Wei; Cheng, Jingxin; Bao, Jingxian; Xuan, Ningning; Sun, Yangye; Liu, Bing; Xie, Aozhen; Wu, Shiwei; Sun, Zhengzong


    Monolayer hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) possesses a wide bandgap of ~6 eV. Trimming down the bandgap is technically attractive, yet poses remarkable challenges in chemistry. One strategy is to topological reform the h-BN's hexagonal structure, which involves defects or grain boundaries (GBs) engineering in the basal plane. The other way is to invite foreign atoms, such as carbon, to forge bizarre hybrid structures like hetero-junctions or semiconducting h-BNC materials. Here we successfully developed a general chemical method to synthesize these different h-BN derivatives, showcasing how the chemical structure can be manipulated with or without a graphene precursor, and the bandgap be tuned to ~2 eV, only one third of the pristine one's.

  6. Calculation of Accurate Hexagonal Discontinuity Factors for PARCS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pounders. J., Bandini, B. R. , Xu, Y, and Downar, T. J.


    In this study we derive a methodology for calculating discontinuity factors consistent with the Triangle-based Polynomial Expansion Nodal (TPEN) method implemented in PARCS for hexagonal reactor geometries. The accuracy of coarse-mesh nodal methods is greatly enhanced by permitting flux discontinuities at node boundaries, but the practice of calculating discontinuity factors from infinite-medium (zero-current) single bundle calculations may not be sufficiently accurate for more challenging problems in which there is a large amount of internodal neutron streaming. The authors therefore derive a TPEN-based method for calculating discontinuity factors that are exact with respect to generalized equivalence theory. The method is validated by reproducing the reference solution for a small hexagonal core.

  7. Dislocations in hexagonal and cubic GaN (United States)

    Blumenau, A. T.; Elsner, J.; Jones, R.; Heggie, M. I.; Öberg, S.; Frauenheim, T.; Briddon, P. R.


    The structure and electronic activity of several types of dislocations in both hexagonal and cubic GaN are calculated using first-principles methods. Most of the stoichiometric dislocations investigated in hexagonal GaN do not induce deep acceptor states and thus cannot be responsible for the yellow luminescence. However, it is shown that electrically active point defects, in particular gallium vacancies and oxygen-related defect complexes, can be trapped at the stress field of the dislocations and may be responsible for this luminescence. For cubic GaN, we find the ideal stoichiometric 60° dislocation to be electrically active and the glide set to be more stable than the shuffle. The dissociation of the latter is considered.

  8. Exciton spectrum in multi-shell hexagonal semiconductor nanotube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.M. Makhanets


    Full Text Available The theory of exciton spectrum in multi-shell hexagonal semiconductor nanotube is developed within the effective masses and rectangular potentials approximations using the method of effective potential. It is shown that the exciton binding energy for all states non-monotonously depends on the inner wire diameter, approaching several minimal and maximal magnitudes. The obtained theoretical results explain well the experimental positions of luminescence peaks for GaAs/Al0.4Ga0.6As nanotubes.

  9. Existence of non-abelian representations of the near hexagon

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In [5], a new combinatorial model with four types of points and nine types of lines of the slim dense near hexagon (5, 2) ⊗ (5, 2) was provided and it was then used to construct a non-abelain representation of (5, 2) ⊗ (5, 2) in the extraspecial 2-group 2 − 1 + 18 . In this paper, we give a direct proof for the existence of a ...

  10. Superconductivity from weak repulsion in hexagonal lattice systems


    Nandkishore, Rahul; Thomale, Ronny; Chubukov, Andrey V.


    We analyze the pairing instabilities for fermions on hexagonal lattices (both honeycomb and triangular ones) in a wide range of fermionic densities. We argue that for a generic doping in this range, superconductivity at weak coupling is of Kohn-Luttinger type, and, due to the presence of electronic interactions beyond on-site repulsion, is a threshold phenomenon, with superconductivity emerging only if the attraction generated by the Kohn-Luttinger mechanism exceeds the bare repulsion in some...

  11. Thermodynamic and magnetic properties of the hexagonal type Ising nanowire


    Kocakaplan, Yusuf; Kantar, Ersin


    The thermodynamic and magnetic properties of the mixed spin (1/2-1) hexagonal Ising nanowire (HIN) system with core-shell structure have been presented by means of the effective-field theory (EFT) with correlations. The effects of the physical parameters of the system on thermodynmaic and magnetic properties (magnetizations, susceptibilities, internal energies, and free energies and hysteresis curves) are investigated for both ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic case, in detail. One can find ...

  12. Influence of strontium on the cubic to ordered hexagonal phase ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Abstract. Oxides of the type Ba3–xSrxMgNb2O9 were synthesized by the solid state route. The x = 0 compo- sition (Ba3MgNb2O9) was found to crystallize in a disordered (cubic) perovskite structure when sintered at. 1000C. For higher Sr doping (x ≥ 0⋅5), there was clearly the presence of an ordered hexagonal phase ...

  13. Fractional Hofstadter States in Graphene on Hexagonal Boron Nitride (United States)

    DaSilva, Ashley M.; Jung, Jeil; MacDonald, Allan H.


    In fractionally filled Landau levels there is only a small energy difference between broken translational symmetry electron-crystal states and exotic correlated quantum fluid states. We show that the spatially periodic substrate interaction associated with the long period moiré patterns present in graphene on nearly aligned hexagonal boron nitride tilts this close competition in favor of the former, explaining surprising recent experimental findings.

  14. Liquids and liquid mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Rowlinson, J S; Baldwin, J E; Buckingham, A D; Danishefsky, S


    Liquids and Liquid Mixtures, Third Edition explores the equilibrium properties of liquids and liquid mixtures and relates them to the properties of the constituent molecules using the methods of statistical thermodynamics. Topics covered include the critical state, fluid mixtures at high pressures, and the statistical thermodynamics of fluids and mixtures. This book consists of eight chapters and begins with an overview of the liquid state and the thermodynamic properties of liquids and liquid mixtures, including vapor pressure and heat capacities. The discussion then turns to the thermodynami

  15. Extension of the comet method to 2-D hexagonal geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connolly, Kevin John; Rahnema, Farzad; Zhang, Dingkang, E-mail: [Nuclear and Radiological Engineering Program, George W. Woodruff School, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)


    The capability of the heterogeneous coarse mesh radiation transport (COMET) method developed at Georgia Tech has been expanded. COMET is now able to treat hexagonal geometry in two dimensions, allowing reactor problems to be solved for those next-generation reactors which utilize prismatic block structure and hexagonal lattice geometry in their designs. The COMET method is used to solve whole core reactor analysis problems without resorting to homogenization or low-order transport approximations. The eigenvalue and fission density distribution of the reactor are determined iteratively using response functions. The method has previously proven accurate in solving PWR, BWR, and CANDU eigenvalue problems. In this paper, three simple test cases inspired by high temperature test reactor material cross sections and fuel block geometry are presented. These cases are given not in an attempt to model realistic nuclear power systems, but in order to test the ability of the improved method. Solutions determined by the new hexagonal version of COMET, COMET-Hex, are compared with solutions determined by MCNP5, and the results show the accuracy and efficiency of the improved COMET-Hex method in calculating the eigenvalue and fuel pin fission density in sample full-core problems. COMETHex determines the eigenvalues of these simple problems to an order of within 50 pcm of the reference solutions and all pin fission densities to an average error of 0.2%, and it requires fewer than three minutes to produce these results. (author)

  16. On the dynamical nature of Saturn's North Polar hexagon (United States)

    Rostami, Masoud; Zeitlin, Vladimir; Spiga, Aymeric


    An explanation of long-lived Saturn's North Polar hexagonal circumpolar jet in terms of instability of the coupled system polar vortex - circumpolar jet is proposed in the framework of the rotating shallow water model, where scarcely known vertical structure of the Saturn's atmosphere is averaged out. The absence of a hexagonal structure at Saturn's South Pole is explained similarly. By using the latest state-of-the-art observed winds in Saturn's polar regions a detailed linear stability analysis of the circumpolar jet is performed (i) excluding (;jet-only; configuration), and (2) including (;jet + vortex; configuration) the north polar vortex in the system. A domain of parameters: latitude of the circumpolar jet and curvature of its azimuthal velocity profile, where the most unstable mode of the system has azimuthal wavenumber 6, is identified. Fully nonlinear simulations are then performed, initialized either with the most unstable mode of small amplitude, or with the random combination of unstable modes. It is shown that developing barotropic instability of the ;jet+vortex; system produces a long-living structure akin to the observed hexagon, which is not the case of the ;jet-only; system, which was studied in this context in a number of papers in literature. The north polar vortex, thus, plays a decisive dynamical role. The influence of moist convection, which was recently suggested to be at the origin of Saturn's North Polar vortex system in the literature, is investigated in the framework of the model and does not alter the conclusions.

  17. Inter-band dynamics in a tunable hexagonal lattice (United States)

    Windpassinger, Patrick; Weinberg, Malte; Simonet, Juliette; Struck, Julian; Oelschlaeger, Christoph; Luehmann, Dirk; Sengstock, Klaus


    Hexagonal lattices have recently attracted a lot of attention in the condensed matter community and beyond. Upon other intriguing features, their unique band structure exhibits Dirac cones at the corners of the Brillouin zone of the two lowest energy bands. Here, we report on the experimental observation of momentum-resolved inter-band dynamics of ultracold bosons between the two lowest Bloch bands (s- and p-band) of a hexagonal optical lattice with tunable band structure. Due to the spin-dependency of the lattice potential [1,2], a rotation of the magnetic quantization axis and the choice of the atomic spin state allow for an in-situ manipulation of the lattice structure from hexagonal to triangular geometry. It is thus possible to modify the band structure and open a gap at the Dirac cones. The loading of atoms into the excited band is achieved by a microwave transition between different spin states which in certain cases is only allowed as a result of interaction effects. We observe the time-dependent population of quasi momenta, revealing a striking influence of the existence of Dirac cones on the dynamics of atoms in the first two energy bands.[4pt] [1] P. Soltan-Panahi et al., Nature Physics 7, 43 (2011)[0pt] [2] P. Soltan-Panahi et al., Nature Physics 8, 71 (2012)

  18. Experiment and numerical modeling of asymmetrically initiated hexagonal prism warhead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Li


    Full Text Available Traditional fragmentation warheads are usually initiated on the axis, producing a uniform fragment distribution around the warhead, but only little portion of them can be imposed on the targets. The aimable warhead, on the other hand, using the off-axis initiations or the structure deforming, can improve the warhead energy utilization highly. Seeking methods to both enhance the fragment velocity and density has significant value for improving the target damage probability. In this article, a warhead shaped as hexagonal prism was studied using arena experiment and numerical modeling and compared with the traditional cylindrical structure. The fragment velocities and target hit patterns of the two types of warheads under axial initiation and asymmetrical initiation are obtained. It is revealed that for the hexagonal prism warhead, the asymmetrical initiation can enhance the fragment velocities by 27.71% and enhance fragment density by 34.09% compared to the axial initiation. The fragment velocity enhancement is close to that of the cylindrical warhead, but the fragment density enhancement is far above the cylindrical warhead. This indicates that the asymmetrically initiated hexagonal prism warhead is a very effective aimable warhead.

  19. Discovery of Superconductivity in Hard Hexagonal ε-NbN. (United States)

    Zou, Yongtao; Qi, Xintong; Zhang, Cheng; Ma, Shuailing; Zhang, Wei; Li, Ying; Chen, Ting; Wang, Xuebing; Chen, Zhiqiang; Welch, David; Zhu, Pinwen; Liu, Bingbing; Li, Qiang; Cui, Tian; Li, Baosheng


    Since the discovery of superconductivity in boron-doped diamond with a critical temperature (TC) near 4 K, great interest has been attracted in hard superconductors such as transition-metal nitrides and carbides. Here we report the new discovery of superconductivity in polycrystalline hexagonal ε-NbN synthesized at high pressure and high temperature. Direct magnetization and electrical resistivity measurements demonstrate that the superconductivity in bulk polycrystalline hexagonal ε-NbN is below ∼11.6 K, which is significantly higher than that for boron-doped diamond. The nature of superconductivity in hexagonal ε-NbN and the physical mechanism for the relatively lower TC have been addressed by the weaker bonding in the Nb-N network, the co-planarity of Nb-N layer as well as its relatively weaker electron-phonon coupling, as compared with the cubic δ-NbN counterpart. Moreover, the newly discovered ε-NbN superconductor remains stable at pressures up to ∼20 GPa and is significantly harder than cubic δ-NbN; it is as hard as sapphire, ultra-incompressible and has a high shear rigidity of 201 GPa to rival hard/superhard material γ-B (∼227 GPa). This exploration opens a new class of highly desirable materials combining the outstanding mechanical/elastic properties with superconductivity, which may be particularly attractive for its technological and engineering applications in extreme environments.

  20. Co/Ti-substituted M-type hexagonal ferrites for high-frequency multilayer inductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bierlich, S.; Reimann, T. [University of Applied Sciences Jena, Department of SciTec, Carl-Zeiss-Promenade 2, 07745 Jena (Germany); Bartsch, H. [Technical University Ilmenau, IMN MacroNano, G.-Kirchhoff-Str. 7, 98693 Ilmenau (Germany); Töpfer, J., E-mail: [University of Applied Sciences Jena, Department of SciTec, Carl-Zeiss-Promenade 2, 07745 Jena (Germany)


    The sintering behavior, microstructure and permeability of Co/Ti-substituted M-type hexagonal ferrites BaCo{sub x}Ti{sub x}Fe{sub 12−2x}O{sub 19} (1.0≤x≤1.4) was studied for applications as multilayer inductors in the high-frequency range up to 2 GHz. Single-phase M-type ferrites were obtained after calcination at 1000 °C. The saturation magnetization and coercivity decrease with x and hysteresis measurements illustrate a gradual transition of the anisotropy from uniaxial to planar. Addition of 5 wt% of a BBSZ glass allows densification at 900 °C through liquid-phase sintering. The permeability of samples sintered at 900 °C increases with the Co/Ti substitution and reaches its maximum of µ′=16 at 1 MHz at x=1.3 with a resonance frequency f{sub r}≥1 GHz. Monolithic ferrite multilayer inductors were fabricated with printed Ag coil patterns by co-firing at 900 °C. It is shown that Co/Ti-substituted hexagonal M-type ferrite is an excellent material for the high-frequency multilayer inductors. - Highlights: • Saturation magnetization and coercivity of Co–Ti substituted M-type hexaferrites BaFe{sub 12−2x}Co{sub x}Ti{sub x}O{sub 19} decrease with x. • Ferrites were sintered at low-temperature of T=900 °C using a BBSZ glass additive. • Large initial permeability of µ′=17 was obtained at x=1.3 for low-temperature sintered Co/Ti-substituted ferrites. • Monolithic ferrite multilayer inductor with Co/Ti substituted M-type ferrite layers and Ag metallization was cofired at 900 °C. • Demonstrates, that monolithic ferrite multilayer based on Co/Ti substituted hexagonal ferrites can be operated up to high frequency of 1 GHz.

  1. Are liquid crystalline properties of nucleosomes involved in chromosome structure and dynamics? (United States)

    Livolant, Françoise; Mangenot, Stéphanie; Leforestier, Amélie; Bertin, Aurélie; Frutos, Marta de; Raspaud, Eric; Durand, Dominique


    Nucleosome core particles correspond to the structural units of eukaryotic chromatin. They are charged colloids, 101 Angstrom in diameter and 55 Angstrom in length, formed by the coiling of a 146/147 bp DNA fragment (50 nm) around the histone protein octamer. Solutions of these particles can be concentrated, under osmotic pressure, up to the concentrations found in the nuclei of living cells. In the presence of monovalent cations (Na(+)), nucleosomes self-assemble into crystalline or liquid crystalline phases. A lamello-columnar phase is observed at 'low salt' concentrations, while a two-dimensional hexagonal phase and a three-dimensional quasi-hexagonal phase form at 'high salt' concentrations. We followed the formation of these phases from the dilute isotropic solutions to the ordered phases by combining cryoelectron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analyses. The phase diagram is presented as a function of the monovalent salt concentration and applied osmotic pressure. An alternative method to condense nucleosomes is to induce their aggregation upon addition of divalent or multivalent cations (Mg(2+), spermidine(3+) and spermine(4+)). Ordered phases are also found in the aggregates. We also discuss whether these condensed phases of nucleosomes may be relevant from a biological point of view.

  2. Hexagon functions and the three-loop remainder function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, Lance J.; Drummond, James M.; von Hippel, Matt; Pennington, Jeffrey


    We present the three-loop remainder function, which describes the scattering of six gluons in the maximally-helicity-violating configuration in planar NN = 4 super-Yang-Mills theory, as a function of the three dual conformal cross ratios. The result can be expressed in terms of multiple Goncharov polylogarithms. We also employ a more restricted class of hexagon functions which have the correct branch cuts and certain other restrictions on their symbols. We classify all the hexagon functions through transcendental weight five, using the coproduct for their Hopf algebra iteratively, which amounts to a set of first-order differential equations. The three-loop remainder function is a particular weight-six hexagon function, whose symbol was determined previously. The differential equations can be integrated numerically for generic values of the cross ratios, or analytically in certain kinematic limits, including the near-collinear and multi-Regge limits. These limits allow us to impose constraints from the operator product expansion and multi-Regge factorization directly at the function level, and thereby to fix uniquely a set of Riemann ζ valued constants that could not be fixed at the level of the symbol. The near-collinear limits agree precisely with recent predictions by Basso, Sever and Vieira based on integrability. The multi-Regge limits agree with the factorization formula of Fadin and Lipatov, and determine three constants entering the impact factor at this order. We plot the three-loop remainder function for various slices of the Euclidean region of positive cross ratios, and compare it to the two-loop one. For large ranges of the cross ratios, the ratio of the three-loop to the two-loop remainder function is relatively constant, and close to -7.

  3. Chromatic Dispersion Compensation Using Photonic Crystal Fibers with Hexagonal Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick E. Reyes-Vera


    Full Text Available In this paper we show various configurations of photonic crystal fiber with hexagonal holes distribution for compensation of chromatic dispersion in optical communications links. The vectorial finite element method with scattering boundary condition was used for the analysis of the fibers. From these results it was estimated variation of the dispersion and the dispersion slope with respect to change in the diameter of the holes in the microstructure. With the above was possible to obtain values of dispersion in the C and L bands of telecommunications close to -850 ps / nm * km, with confinement losses 10-3 dB / km

  4. A wave dynamical interpretation of Saturn's polar hexagon (United States)

    Allison, M.; Godfrey, D. A.; Beebe, R. F.


    The hexagonal, pole-centered cloud feature in Saturn's northern atmosphere, as revealed in Voyager close-encounter imaging mosaics, may be interpreted as a stationary Rossby wave. The wave is embedded within a sharply peaked eastward jet (of 100 meters per second) and appears to be perturbed by at least one anticyclonic oval vortex immediately to the south. The effectively exact observational determination of the horizontal wave number and phase speed, applied to a simple model dispersion relation, suggests that the wave is vertically trapped and provides a diagnostic template for further modeling of the deep atmospheric stratification.

  5. Inter-layer potential for hexagonal boron nitride (United States)

    Leven, Itai; Azuri, Ido; Kronik, Leeor; Hod, Oded


    A new interlayer force-field for layered hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) based structures is presented. The force-field contains three terms representing the interlayer attraction due to dispersive interactions, repulsion due to anisotropic overlaps of electron clouds, and monopolar electrostatic interactions. With appropriate parameterization, the potential is able to simultaneously capture well the binding and lateral sliding energies of planar h-BN based dimer systems as well as the interlayer telescoping and rotation of double walled boron-nitride nanotubes of different crystallographic orientations. The new potential thus allows for the accurate and efficient modeling and simulation of large-scale h-BN based layered structures.

  6. Approximation of the Neutron Diffusion Equation on Hexagonal Geometries


    González Pintor, Sebastián


    La ecuación de la difusión neutrónica describe la población de neutrones de un reactor nuclear. Este trabajo trata con este modelo para reactores nucleares con geometría hexagonal. En primer lugar se estudia la ecuación de la difusión neutrónica. Este es un problema diferencial de valores propios, llamado problema de los modos Lambda. Para resolver el problema de los modos Lambda se han comparado diferentes métodos en geometrías unidimensionales, resultando como el mejor el método de elemento...

  7. Hippocampal Spike-Timing Correlations Lead to Hexagonal Grid Fields (United States)

    Monsalve-Mercado, Mauro M.; Leibold, Christian


    Space is represented in the mammalian brain by the activity of hippocampal place cells, as well as in their spike-timing correlations. Here, we propose a theory for how this temporal code is transformed to spatial firing rate patterns via spike-timing-dependent synaptic plasticity. The resulting dynamics of synaptic weights resembles well-known pattern formation models in which a lateral inhibition mechanism gives rise to a Turing instability. We identify parameter regimes in which hexagonal firing patterns develop as they have been found in medial entorhinal cortex.

  8. Electronic structure of superlattices of graphene and hexagonal boron nitride

    KAUST Repository

    Kaloni, Thaneshwor P.


    We study the electronic structure of superlattices consisting of graphene and hexagonal boron nitride slabs, using ab initio density functional theory. We find that the system favors a short C–B bond length at the interface between the two component materials. A sizeable band gap at the Dirac point is opened for superlattices with single graphene layers but not for superlattices with graphene bilayers. The system is promising for applications in electronic devices such as field effect transistors and metal-oxide semiconductors.

  9. Hexagon POPE: effective particles and tree level resummation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Córdova, Lucía [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,Waterloo, Ontario N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy & Guelph-Waterloo Physics Institute,University of Waterloo,Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada)


    We present the resummation of the full Pentagon Operator Product Expansion series of the hexagon Wilson loop in planar N=4 SYM at tree level. We do so by considering the one effective particle states formed by a fundamental flux tube excitation and an arbitrary number of the so called small fermions which are then integrated out. We derive the one effective particle measures at finite coupling. By evaluating these measures at tree level and summing over all one effective particle states we reproduce the full 6 point tree level amplitude.

  10. Tunable Band Gaps of Mono-layer Hexagonal BNC Heterostructures


    Peng, Qing; Zamiri, Amir; De, Suvranu


    Bandgap engineering by substituting C with B and N atoms in graphene has been shown to be a promising way to improve semiconducting properties of graphene. Such hybridized monolayers consisting of hexagonal BN phases in graphene (h-BNC) have been recently synthesized and char- acterized. In this paper, we present an ab initio density functional theory (DFT)-based study of h-BN domain size effect on band gap of mono-layer h-BNC heterostructures. The atomic structures, electronic band structure...

  11. Hexagonal vs. Rectilinear Grids for Explicit Finite Difference Schemes for the Two-dimensional Wave Equation


    Hamilton, Brian; Bilbao, Stefan


    Finite difference schemes for the 2-D wave equation operating on hexagonal grids and the accompanyingnumerical dispersion properties have received little attention in comparison to schemes operating on rectilinear grids. This paper considers the hexagonal tiling of the wavenumber plane in order to show that thehexagonal grid is a more natural choice to emulate the isotropy of the Laplacian operator and the wave equation. Performance of the 7-point scheme on a hexagonal grid is better than pre...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adriani, Alberto; D’Aversa, Emiliano; Oliva, Fabrizio; Filacchione, Gianrico [Institute of Space Astrophysics and Planetology of INAF, Via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Rome (Italy); Moriconi, Maria Luisa, E-mail: [Institute of Atmospheric Sciences and Climate of CNR, Via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Rome (Italy)


    Springtime insolation is presently advancing across Saturn's north polar region. Early solar radiation scattered through the gaseous giant's atmosphere gives a unique opportunity to sound the atmospheric structure at its upper troposphere/lower stratosphere at high latitudes. Here, we report the detection of a tenuous bright structure in Saturn's northern polar cap corresponding to the hexagon equatorward boundary, observed by Cassini Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer on 2013 June. The structure is spectrally characterized by an anomalously enhanced intensity in the 3610–3730 nm wavelength range and near 2500 nm, pertaining to relatively low opacity windows between strong methane absorption bands. Our first results suggest that a strong forward scattering by tropospheric clouds, higher in respect to the surrounding cloud deck, can be responsible for the enhanced intensity of the feature. This can be consistent with the atmospheric dynamics associated with the jet stream embedded in the polar hexagon. Further investigations at higher spectral resolution are needed to better assess the vertical distribution and microphysics of the clouds in this interesting region.

  13. Band gap effects of hexagonal boron nitride using oxygen plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sevak Singh, Ram; Leong Chow, Wai [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Yingjie Tay, Roland [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Temasek Laboratories-NTU, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Hon Tsang, Siu [Temasek Laboratories-NTU, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Mallick, Govind [Temasek Laboratories-NTU, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Weapons and Materials Research Directorate, U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland 21005 (United States); Tong Teo, Edwin Hang, E-mail: [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)


    Tuning of band gap of hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) has been a challenging problem due to its inherent chemical stability and inertness. In this work, we report the changes in band gaps in a few layers of chemical vapor deposition processed as-grown h-BN using a simple oxygen plasma treatment. Optical absorption spectra show a trend of band gap narrowing monotonically from 6 eV of pristine h-BN to 4.31 eV when exposed to oxygen plasma for 12 s. The narrowing of band gap causes the reduction in electrical resistance by ∼100 fold. The x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results of plasma treated hexagonal boron nitride surface show the predominant doping of oxygen for the nitrogen vacancy. Energy sub-band formations inside the band gap of h-BN, due to the incorporation of oxygen dopants, cause a red shift in absorption edge corresponding to the band gap narrowing.

  14. A spin dependent hexagonal optical lattice with complex valued tunneling (United States)

    Weinberg, Malte; Struck, Julian; Oelschlaeger, Christoph; Simonet, Juliette; Windpassinger, Patrick; Sengstock, Klaus


    The realization of ultracold quantum gases in hexagonal optical lattices allows for the investigation of unique topological properties especially in connection to Dirac cones. Here we report on prospects of engineering artificial gauge potentials for bosons in a tunable hexagonal optical lattice. An intrinsic spin-dependency offers a versatile method to lift the degeneracy of this bipartite lattice via the orientation of the quantization axis. It is thus possible to tailor gaps at the Dirac points in the dispersion relation. Moreover, complex tunneling parameters can be experimentally realized by applying an external periodic force which breaks time reversal symmetry. As the resulting Peierls phases range from 0 to 2 π it is possible to emulate artificial gauge potentials in such a system. With these tools at hand, we discuss the feasibility of the emulation of strong field physics with ultracold quantum gases in the honeycomb lattice as a step towards the realization of complex quantum systems, i.e. quantum Hall states and topological insulators.

  15. Landau theory of topological defects in multiferroic hexagonal manganites. (United States)

    Artyukhin, Sergey; Delaney, Kris T; Spaldin, Nicola A; Mostovoy, Maxim


    Topological defects in ordered states with spontaneously broken symmetry often have unusual physical properties, such as fractional electric charge or a quantized magnetic field flux, originating from their non-trivial topology. Coupled topological defects in systems with several coexisting orders give rise to unconventional functionalities, such as the electric-field control of magnetization in multiferroics resulting from the coupling between the ferroelectric and ferromagnetic domain walls. Hexagonal manganites provide an extra degree of freedom: in these materials, both ferroelectricity and magnetism are coupled to an additional, non-ferroelectric structural order parameter. Here we present a theoretical study of topological defects in hexagonal manganites based on Landau theory with parameters determined from first-principles calculations. We explain the observed flip of electric polarization at the boundaries of structural domains, the origin of the observed discrete vortices, and the clamping between ferroelectric and antiferromagnetic domain walls. We show that structural vortices induce magnetic ones and that, consistent with a recent experimental report, ferroelectric domain walls can carry a magnetic moment.

  16. Defect sensitive etching of hexagonal boron nitride single crystals (United States)

    Edgar, J. H.; Liu, S.; Hoffman, T.; Zhang, Yichao; Twigg, M. E.; Bassim, Nabil D.; Liang, Shenglong; Khan, Neelam


    Defect sensitive etching (DSE) was developed to estimate the density of non-basal plane dislocations in hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) single crystals. The crystals employed in this study were precipitated by slowly cooling (2-4 °C/h) a nickel-chromium flux saturated with hBN from 1500 °C under 1 bar of flowing nitrogen. On the (0001) planes, hexagonal-shaped etch pits were formed by etching the crystals in a eutectic mixture of NaOH and KOH between 450 °C and 525 °C for 1-2 min. There were three types of pits: pointed bottom, flat bottom, and mixed shape pits. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy revealed that the pointed bottom etch pits examined were associated with threading dislocations. All of these dislocations had an a-type burgers vector (i.e., they were edge dislocations, since the line direction is perpendicular to the [ 2 11 ¯ 0 ]-type direction). The pit widths were much wider than the pit depths as measured by atomic force microscopy, indicating the lateral etch rate was much faster than the vertical etch rate. From an Arrhenius plot of the log of the etch rate versus the inverse temperature, the activation energy was approximately 60 kJ/mol. This work demonstrates that DSE is an effective method for locating threading dislocations in hBN and estimating their densities.

  17. Roll and hexagonal patterns in a phase-contrast oscillator (United States)

    Grynberg, Gilbert


    This paper presents a new approach to the problem of the optical instabilities for a thin slice of Kerr medium with a feedback mirror. We show how to interpret this instability in terms of the transverse modes of a cavity consisting of a normal mirror and a medium having the properties of both a phase-conjugate mirror and a normal mirror that we called phase-contrast mirror. The threshold condition for this instability and the properties of a few patterns (rolls and hexagons) above the oscillation threshold are discussed. Cet article présente une nouvelle approche au problème des instabilités optiques dans un milieu Kerr face à un miroir de réaction. Il montre comment les instabilités apparaissant peuvent être comprises en termes de modes transverses d'une cavité consistant en un miroir normal et un milieu possédant à la fois les propriétés d'un miroir à conjugaison de phase et celles d'un miroir normal appelé miroir à contraste de phase. La condition de seuil pour l'instabilité est établie ainsi que le comportement de diverses formes (rouleaux, hexagones) au-dessus du seuil d'oscillation.

  18. Anisotropic Hexagonal Boron Nitride Nanomaterials - Synthesis and Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Boron nitride (BN) is a synthetic binary compound located between III and V group elements in the Periodic Table. However, its properties, in terms of polymorphism and mechanical characteristics, are rather close to those of carbon compared with other III-V compounds, such as gallium nitride. BN crystallizes into a layered or a tetrahedrally linked structure, like those of graphite and diamond, respectively, depending on the conditions of its preparation, especially the pressure applied. Such correspondence between BN and carbon readily can be understood from their isoelectronic structures [1, 2]. On the other hand, in contrast to graphite, layered BN is transparent and is an insulator. This material has attracted great interest because, similar to carbon, it exists in various polymorphic forms exhibiting very different properties; however, these forms do not correspond strictly to those of carbon. Crystallographically, BN is classified into four polymorphic forms: Hexagonal BN (h-BN) (Figure 1(b)); rhombohedral BN (r-BN); cubic BN (c-BN); and wurtzite BN (w-BN). BN does not occur in nature. In 1842, Balmain [3] obtained BN as a reaction product between molten boric oxide and potassium cyanide under atmospheric pressure. Thereafter, many methods for its synthesis were reported. h-BN and r-BN are formed under ambient pressure. c-BN is synthesized from h-BN under high pressure at high temperature while w-BN is prepared from h-BN under high pressure at room temperature [1]. Each BN layer consists of stacks of hexagonal plate-like units of boron and nitrogen atoms linked by SP{sup 2} hybridized orbits and held together mainly by Van der Waals force (Fig 1(b)). The hexagonal polymorph has two-layered repeating units: AA'AA'... that differ from those in graphite: ABAB... (Figure 1(a)). Within the layers of h-BN there is coincidence between the same phases of the hexagons, although the boron atoms and nitrogen atoms are alternatively located along the c

  19. Thermal stability of hexagonal OsB{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Zhilin [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816 (United States); Blair, Richard G. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816 (United States); Orlovskaya, Nina, E-mail: [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816 (United States); Cullen, David A. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Andrew Payzant, E. [Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)


    The synthesis of novel hexagonal ReB{sub 2}-type OsB{sub 2} ceramic powder was performed by high energy ball milling of elemental Os and B powders. Two different sources of B powder have been used for this mechanochemical synthesis. One B powder consisted of a mixture of amorphous and crystalline phases and a mixture of {sup 10}B and {sup 11}B isotopes with a fine particle size, while another B powder was a purely crystalline (rhombohedral) material consisting of enriched {sup 11}B isotope with coarse particle size. The same Os powder was used for the synthesis in both cases. It was established that, in the first case, the hexagonal OsB{sub 2} phase was the main product of synthesis with a small quantity of Os{sub 2}B{sub 3} phase present after synthesis as an intermediate product. In the second case, where coarse crystalline {sup 11}B powder was used as a raw material, only Os{sub 2}B{sub 3} boride was synthesized mechanochemically. The thermal stability of hexagonal OsB{sub 2} powder was studied by heating under argon up to 876 °C and cooling in vacuo down to −225 °C. During the heating, the sacrificial reaction 2OsB{sub 2}+3O{sub 2}→2Os+2B{sub 2}O{sub 3} took place due to presence of O{sub 2}/water vapor molecules in the heating chamber, resulting in the oxidation of B atoms and formation of B{sub 2}O{sub 3} and precipitation of Os metal out of the OsB{sub 2} lattice. As a result of such phase changes during heating, the lattice parameters of hexagonal OsB{sub 2} changed significantly. The shrinkage of the a lattice parameter was recorded in 276–426 °C temperature range upon heating, which was attributed to the removal of B atoms from the OsB{sub 2} lattice due to oxidation followed by the precipitation of Os atoms and formation of Os metal. While significant structural changes occurred upon heating due to presence of O{sub 2}, the hexagonal OsB{sub 2} ceramic demonstrated good phase stability upon cooling in vacuo with linear shrinkage of the lattice

  20. Strong 3D and 1D magnetism in hexagonal Fe-chalcogenides FeS and FeSe vs. weak magnetism in hexagonal FeTe. (United States)

    Parker, David S


    We present a comparative theoretical study of the hexagonal forms of the Fe-chalcogenides FeS, FeSe and FeTe with their better known tetragonal forms. While the tetragonal forms exhibit only an incipient antiferromagnetism and experimentally show superconductivity when doped, the hexagonal forms of FeS and FeSe display a robust magnetism. We show that this strong magnetism arises from a van Hove singularity associated with the direct Fe-Fe c-axis chains in the generally more three-dimensional NiAs structure. We also find that hexagonal FeTe is much less magnetic than the other two hexagonal materials, so that unconventional magnetically-mediated superconductivity is possible, although a large T c value is unlikely.

  1. Fluorine-containing triphenylenes. Liquid crystalline properties and surface ordering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Umesh, C.P.; Marcelis, A.T.M.; Zuilhof, H.


    The synthesis and liquid crystalline properties of two novel series of triphenylenes with 4 or 5 pentafuoropentyloxy tails and 1 or 2 alkoxy tails of varying length are reported. All compounds form wide-range hexagonal columnar phases. The isotropisation temperatures and the corresponding enthalpy

  2. Unit cell structure of water-filled monoolein into inverted hexagonal (H(II)) mesophase modeled by molecular dynamics. (United States)

    Kolev, Vesselin L; Ivanova, Anela N; Madjarova, Galia K; Aserin, Abraham; Garti, Nissim


    The study investigates the unit cell structure of inverted hexagonal (H(II)) mesophase composed of monoolein (1-monoolein, GMO) and water using atomistic molecular dynamics methods without imposing any restraints on lipid and water molecules. Statistically meaningful and very contrast images of the radial mass density distribution, scrutinizing also the separate components water, monoolein, the polar headgroups of the lipids, the double bond, and the termini of the hydrocarbon chain (the tail), are obtained. The lipid/water interface structure is analyzed based on the obtained water density distribution, on the estimated number of hydrogen bonds per monoolein headgroup, and on the headgroup-water radial distribution functions. The headgroup mass density distribution demonstrates hexagonal shape of the monoolein/water interface that is well-defined at higher water/monoolein ratios. Water interacts with the headgroups by forming a three-layer diffusive mass density distribution, and each layer's shape is close to hexagonal, which is an indication of long-range structural interactions. It is found that the monoolein headgroups form a constant number of hydrogen bonds leaving an excessive amount of water molecules outside the first lipid coordination sphere. Furthermore, the quantity of water at the monoolein/water interface increases steadily upon extension of the unit cell, so the interface should have a very dynamic structure. Investigation of the hydrocarbon residues reveals high compression and well-expressed structuring of the tails. The tails form a very compressed and constrained structure of defined layers across the unit cell with properties corresponding to a more densely packed nonpolar liquid (oil). Due to the hexagonal shape the 2D packing frustration is constant and does not depend on the water content. All reported structural features are based on averaging of the atomic coordinates over the time-length of the simulation trajectories. That kind of

  3. Thermal conductance of graphene/hexagonal boron nitride heterostructures (United States)

    Lu, Simon; McGaughey, Alan J. H.


    The lattice-based scattering boundary method is applied to compute the phonon mode-resolved transmission coefficients and thermal conductances of in-plane heterostructures built from graphene and hexagonal boron nitride (hBN). The thermal conductance of all structures is dominated by acoustic phonon modes near the Brillouin zone center that have high group velocity, population, and transmission coefficient. Out-of-plane modes make their most significant contributions at low frequencies, whereas in-plane modes contribute across the frequency spectrum. Finite-length superlattice junctions between graphene and hBN leads have a lower thermal conductance than comparable junctions between two graphene leads due to lack of transmission in the hBN phonon bandgap. The thermal conductances of bilayer systems differ by less than 10% from their single-layer counterparts on a per area basis, in contrast to the strong thermal conductivity reduction when moving from single- to multi-layer graphene.

  4. Solitary plane waves in an isotropic hexagonal lattice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zolotaryuk, Yaroslav; Savin, A.V.; Christiansen, Peter Leth


    Solitary plane-wave solutions in a two-dimensional hexagonal lattice which can propagate in different directions on the plane are found by using the pseudospectral method. The main point of our studies is that the lattice model is isotropic and we show that the sound velocity is the same...... for different directions of wave propagation. The pseudospectral method allows us to obtain solitary wave solutions with very narrow profile, the thickness of which may contain a few atoms or even less than one lattice spacing (i.e., essentially discrete solutions). Since these nonlinear waves are quite narrow......, details of lattice microstructure appear to be important for their motion. Particularly, the regime of their propagation qualitatively depends on whether or not the direction of their motion occurs along the lattice bonds. Two types of solitary plane waves are found and studied. The stability...

  5. Structural and Oxygen Storage Properties of Hexagonal Manganites (United States)

    Abughayada, Castro; Dabrowski, Bogdan; Kolesnik, Stan; Chmaissem, Omar; NIU Team


    Complex oxides exhibiting superior reversible oxygen absorption/release capacities have been generating a great deal of interest due to their critical role in the development of energy related technologies, such as oxy-fuel and chemical looping combustion. Based on our previous studies of tolerance factor, we have successfully synthesized hexagonal (P63cm) RMnO3+δ manganites (R =Dy, Ho, Y) for which we discovered a large reversible oxygen storage/release capacities (within the range of oxygen content 3.0 - 3.4) at unusually low temperatures near 300 °C which make them excellent candidates for air separation and production of high purity oxygen. Resistivity, structural, magnetic, and thermal expansion properties are correlated with the oxygen content 3 + δ for these compounds. Work supported by NIU Great Journey Assistantship.

  6. Magnetic tunnel junctions with monolayer hexagonal boron nitride tunnel barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piquemal-Banci, M.; Galceran, R.; Bouzehouane, K.; Anane, A.; Petroff, F.; Fert, A.; Dlubak, B.; Seneor, P. [Unité Mixte de Physique, CNRS, Thales, Univ. Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, Palaiseau 91767 (France); Caneva, S.; Martin, M.-B.; Weatherup, R. S.; Kidambi, P. R.; Robertson, J.; Hofmann, S. [Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB21PZ (United Kingdom); Xavier, S. [Thales Research and Technology, 1 avenue Augustin Fresnel, Palaiseau 91767 (France)


    We report on the integration of atomically thin 2D insulating hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) tunnel barriers into Co/h-BN/Fe magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs). The h-BN monolayer is directly grown by chemical vapor deposition on Fe. The Conductive Tip Atomic Force Microscopy (CT-AFM) measurements reveal the homogeneity of the tunnel behavior of our h-BN layers. As expected for tunneling, the resistance depends exponentially on the number of h-BN layers. The h-BN monolayer properties are also characterized through integration into complete MTJ devices. A Tunnel Magnetoresistance of up to 6% is observed for a MTJ based on a single atomically thin h-BN layer.

  7. Hexagonal photonic crystal waveguide based on barium titanate thin films (United States)

    Li, Jianheng; Liu, Zhifu; Wessels, Bruce W.; Tu, Yongming; Ho, Seng-Tiong; Joshi-Imre, Alexandra; Ocola, Leonidas E.


    The simulation, fabrication and measurement of nonlinear photonic crystals (PhCs) with hexagonal symmetry in epitaxial BaTiO3 were investigated. The optical transmission properties of a PhC were simulated by a 2-D finite-difference time domain (FDTD) method. A complete bandgap exists for both the TE and TM optical modes. The fabricated PhC has a well-defined stop band over the spectral region of 1525 to 1575 nm. A microcavity structure was also fabricated by incorporation of a line defect in the PhC. Transmission of the microcavity structure over the spectral region from 1456 to 1584nm shows a well-defined 5 nm wide window at 1495nm. Simulations indicate that the phase velocity matched PhC microcavity device of 0.5 mm long can potentially serve as modulator with a 3 dB bandwidth of 4 THz.

  8. Functionalised hexagonal-domain graphene for position-sensitive photodetectors (United States)

    De Sanctis, Adolfo; Barnes, Matthew D.; Amit, Iddo; Craciun, Monica F.; Russo, Saverio


    Graphene’s unique photoresponse has been largely used in a multitude of optoelectronics applications ranging from broadband photodetectors to wave-guide modulators. In this work we extend the range of applications to position-sensitive photodetectors (PSDs) using FeCl3-intercalated hexagonal domains of graphene grown by atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition (APCVD). The FeCl3-based chemical functionalisation of APCVD graphene crystals is affected by the presence of wrinkles and results in a non-uniform doping of the graphene layers. This doping profile creates multiple p-p+ photoactive junctions which show a linear and bipolar photoresponse with respect to the position of a focused light spot, which is ideal for the realization of a PSD. Our study paves the way towards the fabrication of flexible and transparent PSDs that could be embedded in smart textile and wearable electronics.

  9. Design considerations for quasi-phase-matching in doubly resonant lithium niobate hexagonal microresonators

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sono, Tleyane J


    Full Text Available . Such nonlinear optical hexagonal micro-resonators are proposed as a platform for second harmonic generation (SHG) by the combined mechanisms of total internal reflection (TIR) and quasi-phase-matching (QPM). The proposed scheme for SHG via TIR-QPM in a hexagonal...

  10. Analytical solutions for some defect problems in 1D hexagonal and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We study some typical defect problems in one-dimensional (1D) hexagonal and two-dimensional (2D) octagonal quasicrystals. The first part of this investigation addresses in detail a uniformly moving screw dislocation in a 1D hexagonal piezoelectric quasicrystal with point group 6. A general solution is derived in terms ...

  11. Macroscopically ordered hexagonal arrays by directed self-assembly of block copolymers with minimal topographic patterns. (United States)

    Choi, Jaewon; Gunkel, Ilja; Li, Yinyong; Sun, Zhiwei; Liu, Feng; Kim, Hyeyoung; Carter, Kenneth R; Russell, Thomas P


    A simple and robust method has been developed for the generation of macroscopically ordered hexagonal arrays from the directed self-assembly (DSA) of cylinder-forming block copolymers (BCPs) based on minimal trench patterns with solvent vapor annealing. The use of minimal trench patterns allows us to probe the guided hexagonal arrays of cylindrical microdomains using grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS), where the sample stage is rotated on the basis of the six-fold symmetry of a hexagonal system. It is found that the (10) planes of hexagonal arrays of cylindrical microdomains are oriented parallel to the underlying trench direction over macroscopic length scales (∼1 × 1 cm2). However, there are misorientations of the hexagonal arrays with short-range ordering. GISAXS patterns show that the hexagonal arrays on the minimal trench pattern are distorted, deviating from a perfect hexagonal lattice. This distortion has been attributed to the absence of topographic constraints in the unconfined direction on the 1-D minimal trench pattern. Also, the frustration of BCP microdomains, arising from the incommensurability between the trench pitch and natural period of the BCP at the base of the trench, influences the distortion of the hexagonal arrays.

  12. High-pressure Al-rich hexagonal phases-What are their kin?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makovicky, Emil; Olsen, Lars Arnskov


    The hexagonal Al-rich high-pressure phases are members of a structural family with the same type of framework composed of double-ribbons of edge-sharing octahedra, but variably occupied trigonal and hexagonal channels. This family includes jaffeite, fluoborite, yeremeyevite, painite, and syntheti...... Ba indates. This kinship broadens the spectrum of elements potentially accommodated by these phases in the mantle....

  13. Carbon-coated hexagonal magnetite nanoflakes production by spray CVD of alcohols in mixture with water (United States)

    Reyes-Reyes, Marisol; Hernández-Arriaga, Daniel; López-Sandoval, Román


    In this study, we report a successful technique for synthesizing magnetite hexagonal nanoflakes coated with carbon layers using spray thermal decomposition, which is a reproducible method that is easy to scale up. We investigated the effects of mixing different volumes of deionized (DI) water with alcohol on the population and quality of single-crystalline Fe3O4 hexagonal nanoflakes. Methanol and ethanol were used as the carbon and oxygen source, while ferrocene was mainly used as the Fe source. To obtain a large quantity of hexagonal structures, a strongly oxidative atmosphere was required. The DI water was used to enhance the oxidative environment during the reaction and was an important component for obtaining well-shaped hexagonal magnetite crystalline nanoflakes. The use of alcohols, water and the spray chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method make this procedure easy to use. In addition, this method provides a one-step process for synthesizing carbon-coated hexagonal Fe3O4 nanocrystals.

  14. The hexagonal lattice marks in the muroids rodent explain molar-cusp enamel line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz Bustos, A.


    Full Text Available The crown enamel line of muroids rodent has geometric traces that coincide exactly with an equilateral triangular lattice. This finding helps to explain the muroids dental pattern from a novel perspective in molar morphology that it is based on hexagonal structures. The adult traces imply that the morphology of the teeth mammals is consequence of a morphogenetic process. This is the study of the hexagonal lattice marks observed in the enamel line, and therefore called odontohexasymmetry. The particular dental pattern, which it is passed down from parents to offspring, it start with a genetic algorithm coded in DNA. This includes a system of intelligent self-control, which during the morphogenesis coordinates the morphology of the all teeth of a specimen to get the best occlusion. The hypothesis of mitosis area loop-development (Ruiz Bustos, 2004a, 2005, 2006 and 2007 explains that in early morphogenesis stage, the initial mass-cell (basal mitosis area, it is repeated in a loop, thereby forming all other mitosis areas of the tooth. At the end of the morphogenesis, the biomineralization processes transform the mitosis areas in the cusps crown.

    La línea de esmalte observada en la corona de los roedores muroideos tiene formas geométricas que coinciden exactamente con una red plana triangular equilateral. Esta conclusión ayuda a explicar el modelo dental de los muroideos con una nueva perspectiva denominada odontohexasimetria, fundamentada en las formas hexagonales observadas en la línea de esmalte. La morfología de la corona del diente de los mamíferos es heredada de padres a hijos. Esto infiere la existencia en cada espécimen de un autocontrol inteligente codificado en el genoma, que coordina la morfología de los dientes durante el desarrollo embriológico y su oclusión. La hipótesis del desarrollo el bucle de las áreas de mitosis (Ruiz Bustos, 2004a, 2005, 2006 y 2007 propone, que en los momentos iniciales de la morfog

  15. An ionic liquid supported CeO2 nanoparticles–carbon nanotubes composite-enhanced electrochemical DNA-based sensor for the detection of Pb2+

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Li


    Full Text Available An electrochemical sensor incorporating a signal enhancement for the determination of lead (II ions (Pb2+ was designed on the basis of the thrombin-binding aptamer (TBA as a molecular recognition element and ionic liquid supported cerium oxide (CeO2 nanoparticles–carbon nanotubes composite modification. The composite comprises nanoparticles CeO2, multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWNTs and hydrophobic room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (EMIMBF4. The electrochemical sensors were fabricated by immersing the CeO2–MWNTs–EMIMBF4 modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE into the solution of TBA probe. In the presence of Pb2+, the TBA probe could form stable G-quartet structure by the specific binding interactions between Pb2+ and TBA. The TBA-bound Pb2+ can be electrochemically reduced, which provides a readout signal for quantitative detection of Pb2+. The reduction peak current is linearly related to the concentration of Pb2+ from 1.0×10–8 M to 1.0×10–5 M with a detection limit of 5×10–9 M. This work demonstrates that the CeO2–MWNTs–EMIMBF4 nanocomposite modified GCE provides a promising platform for immobilizing the TBA probe and enhancing the sensitivity of the DNA-based sensors. Keywords: Electrochemical, DNA-based sensor, Lead (II ion, Ionic liquid, CeO2 nanoparticle, Multi-wall carbon nanotubes

  16. Characteristic component profiling and identification of different Uncaria species based on high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detection tandem ion trap and time of flight mass spectrometry coupled with rDNA ITS sequence. (United States)

    Zhao, Bingqiang; Huang, Yanjun; Chen, Qiulan; Chen, Qizhao; Miao, Hui; Zhu, Shuang; Zeng, Changqing


    Uncaria is a multi-source herb and its species identification has become a bottleneck in quality control. To study the identification method of different Uncaria species herbs through HPLC-MS coupled with rDNA Internal Transcribed Spacer (rDNA ITS) sequence, both plant morphological traits and molecular identification were used to determine the species of every collected Uncaria herb. The genetic analysis of different Uncaria species was performed using their rDNA ITS sequence as a molecular marker. Meanwhile, the phylogenetic relationships of 22 samples from six Uncaria species were divided and classified clearly. By optimizing the chromatographic conditions, a practical HPLC method to differentiate various varieties of Uncaria herbs was set up based on a set of characteristic components across each species. A high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detector tandem ion trap and time of flight mass spectrometry technique combined with reference substances was utilized to derive 21 characteristic compounds containing six groups of six Uncaria species in China. Thus, this study provides a feasible method to solve the current problem of confusion in Uncaria species, and makes a significant step forward in the appropriate clinical use, in-depth research and further utilization of different Uncaria species. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Surface complexation of Pb(II) by hexagonal birnessite nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, K.; Refson, K.; Sposito, G.


    Natural hexagonal birnessite is a poorly-crystalline layer type Mn(IV) oxide precipitated by bacteria and fungi which has a particularly high adsorption affinity for Pb(II). X-ray spectroscopic studies have shown that Pb(II) forms strong inner-sphere surface complexes mainly at two sites on hexagonal birnessite nanoparticles: triple corner-sharing (TCS) complexes on Mn(IV) vacancies in the interlayers and double edge-sharing (DES) complexes on lateral edge surfaces. Although the TCS surface complex has been well characterized by spectroscopy, some important questions remain about the structure and stability of the complexes occurring on the edge surfaces. First-principles simulation techniques such as density functional theory (DFT) offer a useful way to address these questions by providing complementary information that is difficult to obtain by spectroscopy. Following this computational approach, we used spin-polarized DFT to perform total-energy-minimization geometry optimizations of several possible Pb(II) surface complexes on model birnessite nanoparticles similar to those that have been studied experimentally. We first validated our DFT calculations by geometry optimizations of (1) the Pb-Mn oxyhydroxide mineral, quenselite (PbMnO{sub 2}OH), and (2) the TCS surface complex, finding good agreement with experimental structural data while uncovering new information about bonding and stability. Our geometry optimizations of several protonated variants of the DES surface complex led us to conclude that the observed edge-surface species is very likely to be this complex if the singly-coordinated terminal O that binds to Pb(II) is protonated. Our geometry optimizations also revealed that an unhydrated double corner-sharing (DCS) species that has been proposed as an alternative to the DES complex is intrinsically unstable on nanoparticle edge surfaces, but could become stabilized if the local coordination environment is well-hydrated. A significant similarity exists

  18. Controllable synthesis of hexagonal ZnO–carbon core–shell microrods and the removal of ZnO to form hexagonal carbon microtubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Yong, E-mail: [Department of Applied Chemistry, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642 (China); He, Wenqi; Gao, Chuang [Department of Chemistry and Institute of Nanochemistry, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Zheng, Mingtao; Lie, Bingfu; Liu, Xiaotang [Department of Applied Chemistry, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642 (China); Liu, Yingliang, E-mail: [Department of Applied Chemistry, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642 (China)


    A simple and efficient approach was developed to produce regular and uniform shaped hexagonal ZnO–C core–shell micro-rods and carbon micro-tubes. A single-source raw material, zinc acetate dihydrate, has been used for the in situ generation of the hexagonal ZnO–C micro-rods in a sealed autoclave system at 500 °C for 12 h without a catalyst. The resulting products were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray analysis and room-temperature photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL). The partial or complete carbon coating on the ZnO surfaces plays an important role in modifying the PL properties. Impacting factors including thermolysis temperature, time and dose of the reactant on the evolution of the hexagonal shape were investigated. A possible formation diagram for the materials has been proposed and discussed based on the features of the reaction system. - Highlights: • Hexagonal ZnO–C core–shell microrods were synthesized by the lower temperature decomposition of zinc acetate. • The novel hexagonal carbon microtubes can gain by simply handling with dilute acid. • The partial or complete carbon coating on the ZnO surfaces plays an important role in modifying the PL properties. • A possible formation diagram for the materials has been proposed.

  19. Twist-induced birefringence in hexagonal photonic fibers (United States)

    Tentori, D.; Garcia-Weidner, A.; Torres-Gómez, I.


    Photonic crystal optical fibers have much more degrees of freedom concerning the geometries and index contrasts than step-index fibers; therefore, the theoretical analysis of their performance is usually based on the finite element method. In this work, taking advantage of the similarities observed for twisted single-mode fibers: standard (SMF-28 and SMF- 28e) and hexagonal photonic fibers, we propose that in regard with polarization performance, photonic fibers can be described using a simpler model based on classical polarization optics. The main advantages of the matrix model we propose lie in its accuracy and generality: for each one of the selected wavelengths and input states of polarization, it allows a precise prediction of the output polarization state. The comparison of the experimental results measured for standard and photonic fibers with the theoretical model predictions indicates that in both cases, twist induced birefringence is produced not only by the medium's photoelasticity, but also by the waveguide (cladding/core structure and asymmetry) modification. In addition, for the photonic fiber, the non-symmetrical response to right and left twist allowed the identification of an initial twist as part of the residual elliptical birefringence.

  20. Understanding Multiferroic Hexagonal Manganites by Static and Ultrafast Optical Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Ting Wang


    Full Text Available Multiferroic hexagonal manganites ReMnO3 studied by optics are reviewed. Their electronic structures were revealed by static linear and nonlinear spectra. Two transitions located at ~1.7 eV and ~2.3 eV have been observed and attributed to the interband transitions from the lower-lying Mn3+dxy/dx2-y2 and dxz/dyz states to the Mn3+d3z2-r2 state, respectively. These so-called d-d transitions exhibit a blueshift as decreasing temperatures and an extra blueshift near TN. This dramatic change indicates that the magnetic ordering seriously influences the electronic structure. On the other hand, the ultrafast optical pump-probe spectroscopy has provided the important information on spin-charge coupling and spin-lattice coupling. Because of the strongly correlation between electronic structure and magnetic ordering, the amplitude of the initial rising component in ΔR/R shows striking changes at the vicinity of TN. Moreover, the coherent optical and acoustic phonons were observed on optical pump-probe spectroscopy. Both the amplitude and dephasing time of coherent phonons also exhibit significant changes at TN, which provide the evidence for spin-lattice interaction in these intriguing materials.

  1. Facile synthesis and structure characterization of hexagonal tungsten bronzes crystals (United States)

    Lee, Jiann-Shing; Liu, Hao-Chuan; Peng, Gao-De; Tseng, Yawteng


    A facile molten-salt route was used to synthesize hexagonal Cs0.33WO3, Rb0.33WO3 and K0.30WO3 crystals. The three isostructural compounds were successfully prepared from the reaction of MxWO3 powders (M = Cs, Rb, K) in the CsCl/NaCl, RbCl/NaCl and KCl/NaCl fluxes, respectively. The structure determination and refinement, based on single-crystal X-ray diffraction data, are in agreement with previous works, possessing space group P63/mcm. The a and c parameters vary non-linearly with increasing radii of the M+ cations (rM) that is coordinated to twelve oxygen atoms. Both the volumes of unit-cell and WO6 octahedra vary linearly with rM, which become smaller from Cs0.33WO3 to K0.30WO3. The distortion of WO6 octahedra as well as isotropic displacement parameters increases from Cs0.33WO3 to K0.30WO3. The geometry of the WO6 octahedron becomes more regular with increasing rM. These structural trends arise from the effective size of the M+ cation.

  2. Thermal stability of simple tetragonal and hexagonal diamond germanium (United States)

    Huston, L. Q.; Johnson, B. C.; Haberl, B.; Wong, S.; Williams, J. S.; Bradby, J. E.


    Exotic phases of germanium, that form under high pressure but persist under ambient conditions, are of technological interest due to their unique optical and electrical properties. The thermal evolution and stability of two of these exotic Ge phases, the simple tetragonal (st12) and hexagonal diamond (hd) phases, are investigated in detail. These metastable phases, formed by high pressure decompression in either a diamond anvil cell or by nanoindentation, are annealed at temperatures ranging from 280 to 320 °C for st12-Ge and 200 to 550 °C for hd-Ge. In both cases, the exotic phases originated from entirely pure Ge precursor materials. Raman microspectroscopy is used to monitor the phase changes ex situ following annealing. Our results show that hd-Ge synthesized via a pure form of a-Ge first undergoes a subtle change in structure and then an irreversible phase transformation to dc-Ge with an activation energy of (4.3 ± 0.2) eV at higher temperatures. St12-Ge was found to transform to dc-Ge with an activation energy of (1.44 ± 0.08) eV. Taken together with results from previous studies, this study allows for intriguing comparisons with silicon and suggests promising technological applications.

  3. Global Formation of Topological Defects in the Multiferroic Hexagonal Manganites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. N. Meier


    Full Text Available The spontaneous transformations associated with symmetry-breaking phase transitions generate domain structures and defects that may be topological in nature. The formation of these defects can be described according to the Kibble-Zurek mechanism, which provides a generic relation that applies from cosmological to interatomic length scales. Its verification is challenging, however, in particular at the cosmological scale where experiments are impractical. While it has been demonstrated for selected condensed-matter systems, major questions remain regarding, e.g., its degree of universality. Here, we develop a global Kibble-Zurek picture from the condensed-matter level. We show theoretically that a transition between two fluctuation regimes (Ginzburg and mean field can lead to an intermediate region with reversed scaling, and we verify experimentally this behavior for the structural transition in the series of multiferroic hexagonal manganites. Trends across the series allow us to identify additional intrinsic features of the defect formation beyond the original Kibble-Zurek paradigm.

  4. Exfoliation of Hexagonal Boron Nitride via Ferric Chloride Intercalation (United States)

    Hung, Ching-cheh; Hurst, Janet; Santiago, Diana; Rogers, Richard B.


    Sodium fluoride (NaF) was used as an activation agent to successfully intercalate ferric chloride (FeCl3) into hexagonal boron nitride (hBN). This reaction caused the hBN mass to increase by approx.100 percent, the lattice parameter c to decrease from 6.6585 to between 6.6565 and 6.6569 ?, the x-ray diffraction (XRD) (002) peak to widen from 0.01deg to 0.05deg of the full width half maximum value, the Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrum's broad band (1277/cm peak) to change shape, and new FTIR bands to emerge at 3700 to 2700 and 1600/cm. This indicates hBN's structural and chemical properties are significantly changed. The intercalated product was hygroscopic and interacted with moisture in the air to cause further structural and chemical changes (from XRD and FTIR). During a 24-h hold at room temperature in air with 100 percent relative humidity, the mass increased another 141 percent. The intercalated product, hydrated or not, can be heated to 750 C in air to cause exfoliation. Exfoliation becomes significant after two intercalation-air heating cycles, when 20-nm nanosheets are commonly found. Structural and chemical changes indicated by XRD and FTIR data were nearly reversed after the product was placed in hydrochloric acid (HCl), resulting in purified, exfoliated, thin hBN products.

  5. Quantum Light in Curved Low Dimensional Hexagonal Boron Nitride Systems. (United States)

    Chejanovsky, Nathan; Kim, Youngwook; Zappe, Andrea; Stuhlhofer, Benjamin; Taniguchi, Takashi; Watanabe, Kenji; Dasari, Durga; Finkler, Amit; Smet, Jurgen H; Wrachtrup, Jörg


    Low-dimensional wide bandgap semiconductors open a new playing field in quantum optics using sub-bandgap excitation. In this field, hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) has been reported to host single quantum emitters (QEs), linking QE density to perimeters. Furthermore, curvature/perimeters in transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) have demonstrated a key role in QE formation. We investigate a curvature-abundant BN system - quasi one-dimensional BN nanotubes (BNNTs) fabricated via a catalyst-free method. We find that non-treated BNNT is an abundant source of stable QEs and analyze their emission features down to single nanotubes, comparing dispersed/suspended material. Combining high spatial resolution of a scanning electron microscope, we categorize and pin-point emission origin to a scale of less than 20 nm, giving us a one-to-one validation of emission source with dimensions smaller than the laser excitation wavelength, elucidating nano-antenna effects. Two emission origins emerge: hybrid/entwined BNNT. By artificially curving h-BN flakes, similar QE spectral features are observed. The impact on emission of solvents used in commercial products and curved regions is also demonstrated. The 'out of the box' availability of QEs in BNNT, lacking processing contamination, is a milestone for unraveling their atomic features. These findings open possibilities for precision engineering of QEs, puts h-BN under a similar 'umbrella' of TMDC's QEs and provides a model explaining QEs spatial localization/formation using electron/ion irradiation and chemical etching.

  6. The ARIANNA Hexagonal Radio Array – performance and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hallgren Allan


    Full Text Available The origin of the highest energy cosmic rays at ∼1020 eV is still unknown. Ultra-high energy neutrinos from the GZK process should provide information on the sources and their properties. A promising and cost effective method for observing GZK-neutrinos is based on detection of Askaryan radio pulses with antennas installed in ice. The ARIANNA project aims at instrumenting a 36*36 km2 large area on the Ross Ice Shelf with an array of radio detection stations. The deployment of a test system for ARIANNA, the Hexagonal Radio Array (HRA, was completed in December 2014. The three first stations were installed in 2012. Solar panels are used to drive the < 10 W stations. The system hibernated at sunset in April and all stations returned to operation in September. The site is essentially free of anthropogenic noise. Simple cuts eliminate background and provides for efficient selection of neutrino events. Prospects for the sensitivity of the full ARIANNA array to the flux of GZK neutrinos are shown.

  7. Step flow versus mosaic film growth in hexagonal boron nitride. (United States)

    Lu, Jiong; Yeo, Pei Shan Emmeline; Zheng, Yi; Xu, Hai; Gan, Chee Kwan; Sullivan, Michael B; Castro Neto, A H; Loh, Kian Ping


    Many emerging applications of hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) in graphene-based nanoelectronics require high-quality monolayers as the ultrathin dielectric. Here, the nucleation and growth of h-BN monolayer on Ru(0001) surface are investigated using scanning tunneling microscopy with a view toward understanding the process of defect formation on a strongly interacted interface. In contrast to homoelemental bonding in graphene, the heteroelemental nature of h-BN gives rise to growth fronts with elemental polarity. This can have consequences in the different stages of film growth, from the nucleation of h-BN magic clusters and their sintering to form compact triangular islands to the growth of patchwork mosaic monolayer with a high density of misfit boundaries. The parallel alignment of triangular islands on the same terrace produces translational fault lines when growth fronts merge, while antiparallel alignment of islands on adjacent terraces produces non-bonded fault lines between domains terminated by like atoms. With these insights into the generation of void defects and fault lines at grain boundaries, we demonstrate a strategy to obtain high-quality h-BN monolayer film based on step flow growth.

  8. Graphene on hexagonal boron nitride as a tunable hyperbolic metamaterial. (United States)

    Dai, S; Ma, Q; Liu, M K; Andersen, T; Fei, Z; Goldflam, M D; Wagner, M; Watanabe, K; Taniguchi, T; Thiemens, M; Keilmann, F; Janssen, G C A M; Zhu, S-E; Jarillo-Herrero, P; Fogler, M M; Basov, D N


    Hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) is a natural hyperbolic material, in which the dielectric constants are the same in the basal plane (ε(t) ≡ ε(x) = ε(y)) but have opposite signs (ε(t)ε(z) graphene on h-BN. Tunability originates from the hybridization of surface plasmon polaritons in graphene with hyperbolic phonon polaritons in h-BN, so that the eigenmodes of the graphene/h-BN heterostructure are hyperbolic plasmon-phonon polaritons. The hyperbolic plasmon-phonon polaritons in graphene/h-BN suffer little from ohmic losses, making their propagation length 1.5-2.0 times greater than that of hyperbolic phonon polaritons in h-BN. The hyperbolic plasmon-phonon polaritons possess the combined virtues of surface plasmon polaritons in graphene and hyperbolic phonon polaritons in h-BN. Therefore, graphene/h-BN can be classified as an electromagnetic metamaterial as the resulting properties of these devices are not present in its constituent elements alone.

  9. Hexagonal boron nitride nanowalls: physical vapour deposition, 2D/3D morphology and spectroscopic analysis (United States)

    BenMoussa, B.; D'Haen, J.; Borschel, C.; Barjon, J.; Soltani, A.; Mortet, V.; Ronning, C.; D'Olieslaeger, M.; Boyen, H.-G.; Haenen, K.


    Hexagonal boron nitride nanowalls were synthesized using reactive radio-frequency magnetron sputtering in combination with a hexagonal BN target. The nanowall formation is purely governed by addition of hydrogen to the nitrogen/argon gas mixture, and leads to a decreased incorporation of carbon and oxygen impurities. The surface morphology is assessed with scanning electron microscopy, while stoichiometry and reduced impurity content of the material was evidenced using Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy. Transmission electron microscopy confirms the hexagonal nature of the nanowalls, whose luminescent properties are studied with cathodoluminescence spectroscopy, shedding more light on the location and nature of the excitonic emission and crystalline quality of the h-BN nanowalls.

  10. Comparison between SVPWM two level in internal and external circle of hexagon (United States)

    Giyantara, Andhika; Rameli, Mochammad


    This study presents a space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM) method. Switching time for SVPWM two level is used to generate a sinusoidal waveform from the inverter. This waveform using as input for the induction motor. Usually, we use the internal circle to generate sinusoidal method. However, from the calculation, we can get two different equations, for the internal circle in hexagon and external circle for the hexagon. Comparison between voltage vector in the internal and external circle of hexagon using THD (Total Harmonic Distortion) value for each circle.

  11. Ancient DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willerslev, Eske; Cooper, Alan


    ancient DNA, palaeontology, palaeoecology, archaeology, population genetics, DNA damage and repair......ancient DNA, palaeontology, palaeoecology, archaeology, population genetics, DNA damage and repair...

  12. Fluorinated monolayers at liquid-liquid and liquid-vapor interfaces (United States)

    Zhang, Zhongjian

    Microscopic structure of several fluorinated monolayers at water-vapor and water-oil interfaces were examined using x-ray specular reflectivity and grazing incidence diffraction (GID) techniques. Grazing incidence x-ray diffraction measurements of monolayers of perfluoro-n-eicosane (F(CFsb2)sb{20}F) and F(CFsb2)sb{m}(CHsb2)sb{n}H (denoted as Fsb{m}Hsb{n}) supported at the air-water interface demonstrated that even without the conventional polar head group, the surfactant molecules are capable of forming ordered in-plane structures defined by hexagonal close packing of the fluorinated blocks of adsorbed molecules due to the stronger chain-chain interaction between fluorocarbon chains than the corresponding hydrocarbons. The specular reflectivity data reveals a hydrocarbon-down, fluorocarbon-up orientation for Fsb{12}Hsb{18}. In contrast to the conventional expectation that soluble surfactants form disordered monolayers at the liquid-liquid interface, the studies on a fluoroalcohol (F(CFsb2)sb{10}(CHsb2)sb2OH) monolayer at water-hexane interface indicate that the surfactants are in a close packed hexagonal phase, similar to the in-plane structure of other fluorocarbon molecules at water-air interface. Above a transition temperature the monolayer is in a low density gas phase. Preliminary study shows that hysteresis effect occurs around the transition temperature. The first measurements of microscopic structure at common high interfacial tension liquid-liquid interfaces such as a simple oil-water (hexane-water) interface is also reported. Thermal expansion coefficient measurements indicate subtle structural differences in these monolayers.

  13. Shock-synthesized hexagonal diamonds in Younger Dryas boundary sediments. (United States)

    Kennett, Douglas J; Kennett, James P; West, Allen; West, G James; Bunch, Ted E; Culleton, Brendan J; Erlandson, Jon M; Que Hee, Shane S; Johnson, John R; Mercer, Chris; Shen, Feng; Sellers, Marilee; Stafford, Thomas W; Stich, Adrienne; Weaver, James C; Wittke, James H; Wolbach, Wendy S


    The long-standing controversy regarding the late Pleistocene megafaunal extinctions in North America has been invigorated by a hypothesis implicating a cosmic impact at the Allerød-Younger Dryas boundary or YDB (approximately 12,900 +/- 100 cal BP or 10,900 +/- 100 (14)C years). Abrupt ecosystem disruption caused by this event may have triggered the megafaunal extinctions, along with reductions in other animal populations, including humans. The hypothesis remains controversial due to absence of shocked minerals, tektites, and impact craters. Here, we report the presence of shock-synthesized hexagonal nanodiamonds (lonsdaleite) in YDB sediments dating to approximately 12,950 +/- 50 cal BP at Arlington Canyon, Santa Rosa Island, California. Lonsdaleite is known on Earth only in meteorites and impact craters, and its presence strongly supports a cosmic impact event, further strengthened by its co-occurrence with other nanometer-sized diamond polymorphs (n-diamonds and cubics). These shock-synthesized diamonds are also associated with proxies indicating major biomass burning (charcoal, carbon spherules, and soot). This biomass burning at the Younger Dryas (YD) onset is regional in extent, based on evidence from adjacent Santa Barbara Basin and coeval with broader continent-wide biomass burning. Biomass burning also coincides with abrupt sediment mass wasting and ecological disruption and the last known occurrence of pygmy mammoths (Mammuthus exilis) on the Channel Islands, correlating with broader animal extinctions throughout North America. The only previously known co-occurrence of nanodiamonds, soot, and extinction is the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K/T) impact layer. These data are consistent with abrupt ecosystem change and megafaunal extinction possibly triggered by a cosmic impact over North America at approximately 12,900 +/- 100 cal BP.

  14. Charge carrier transport properties in layer structured hexagonal boron nitride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. C. Doan


    Full Text Available Due to its large in-plane thermal conductivity, high temperature and chemical stability, large energy band gap (˜ 6.4 eV, hexagonal boron nitride (hBN has emerged as an important material for applications in deep ultraviolet photonic devices. Among the members of the III-nitride material system, hBN is the least studied and understood. The study of the electrical transport properties of hBN is of utmost importance with a view to realizing practical device applications. Wafer-scale hBN epilayers have been successfully synthesized by metal organic chemical deposition and their electrical transport properties have been probed by variable temperature Hall effect measurements. The results demonstrate that undoped hBN is a semiconductor exhibiting weak p-type at high temperatures (> 700 °K. The measured acceptor energy level is about 0.68 eV above the valence band. In contrast to the electrical transport properties of traditional III-nitride wide bandgap semiconductors, the temperature dependence of the hole mobility in hBN can be described by the form of μ ∝ (T/T0−α with α = 3.02, satisfying the two-dimensional (2D carrier transport limit dominated by the polar optical phonon scattering. This behavior is a direct consequence of the fact that hBN is a layer structured material. The optical phonon energy deduced from the temperature dependence of the hole mobility is ħω = 192 meV (or 1546 cm-1, which is consistent with values previously obtained using other techniques. The present results extend our understanding of the charge carrier transport properties beyond the traditional III-nitride semiconductors.

  15. Hexagonal boron nitride neutron detectors with high detection efficiencies (United States)

    Maity, A.; Grenadier, S. J.; Li, J.; Lin, J. Y.; Jiang, H. X.


    Neutron detectors fabricated from 10B enriched hexagonal boron nitride (h-10BN or h-BN) epilayers have demonstrated the highest thermal neutron detection efficiency among solid-state neutron detectors to date at about 53%. In this work, photoconductive-like vertical detectors with a detection area of 1 × 1 mm2 were fabricated from 50 μm thick free-standing h-BN epilayers using Ni/Au and Ti/Al bilayers as ohmic contacts. Leakage currents, mobility-lifetime (μτ) products under UV photoexcitation, and neutron detection efficiencies have been measured for a total of 16 different device configurations. The results have unambiguously identified that detectors incorporating the Ni/Au bilayer on both surfaces as ohmic contacts and using the negatively biased top surface for neutron irradiation are the most desired device configurations. It was noted that high growth temperatures of h-10BN epilayers on sapphire substrates tend to yield a higher concentration of oxygen impurities near the bottom surface, leading to a better device performance by the chosen top surface for irradiation than by the bottom. Preferential scattering of oxygen donors tends to reduce the mobility of holes more than that of electrons, making the biasing scheme with the ability of rapidly extracting holes at the irradiated surface while leaving the electrons to travel a large average distance inside the detector at a preferred choice. When measured against a calibrated 6LiF filled micro-structured semiconductor neutron detector, it was shown that the optimized configuration has pushed the detection efficiency of h-BN neutron detectors to 58%. These detailed studies also provided a better understanding of growth-mediated impurities in h-BN epilayers and their effects on the charge collection and neutron detection efficiencies.

  16. Triggering the atomic layers control of hexagonal boron nitride films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Yangxi [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Ceramic Fibers and Composites, College of Aerospace Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China); Zhang, Changrui, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Ceramic Fibers and Composites, College of Aerospace Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China); Li, Bin [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Ceramic Fibers and Composites, College of Aerospace Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China); Jiang, Da; Ding, Guqiao; Wang, Haomin [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 865 Changning Road, Shanghai 200050 (China); Xie, Xiaoming, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 865 Changning Road, Shanghai 200050 (China)


    Highlights: • Thickness of h-BN films can be controlled from double atomic layers to over ten atomic layers by adjusting the CVD parameters, quite different from the reported thickness control of up to tens of nanometers. (The interlayer distance of h-BN is 0.333 nm.) • Growth mechanisms of h-BN are discussed, especially for bilayer h-BN films. • Both epitaxial growth and diffusion-segregation process are involved in the synthesis of bilayer h-BN films. - Abstract: In this work, we report the successful synthesis of large scale hexagonal boron nitride films with controllable atomic layers. The films are grown on thin nickel foils via ambient pressure chemical vapor deposition with borazine as the precursor. The atomic layers of h-BN films can be controlled in a narrow range by adjusting growth time and the cooling rates. Transmission electron microscope results shows the h-BN films exhibit high uniformity and good crystalline. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy shows the B/N elemental ratio is about 1.01. The h-BN films exhibit a pronounced deep ultraviolet absorption at 203.0 nm with a large optical band gap of 6.02 ± 0.03 eV. The results suggest potential applications of h-BN films in deep ultraviolet and dielectric materials. Growth mechanisms of h-BN films with thickness control are discussed, especially when the synthesized h-BN films after a higher cooling rate show an in-plane rotation angle between bilayers. Both epitaxial growth and diffusion-segregation process are involved in the synthesis of bilayer h-BN films.

  17. Magnetic vortex dynamics on a picosecond timescale in a hexagonal permalloy pattern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, J.-H.; Kim, D.-H.; Mesler, B.; Moon, J.-H.; Lee, K.-J.; Anderson, E. H.; Fischer, P.


    We have observed a motion of magnetic vortex core in a hexagonal Permalloy pattern by means of Soft X-ray microscopy. Pump-probe stroboscopic observation on a picosecond timescale has been carried out after exciting a ground state vortex structure by an external field pulse of 1 ns duration. Vortex core is excited off from the center position of the hexagonal pattern but the analysis of the core trajectory reveals that the motion is nongyrotropic.

  18. Electronic properties of Mn-decorated silicene on hexagonal boron nitride

    KAUST Repository

    Kaloni, Thaneshwor P.


    We study silicene on hexagonal boron nitride, using first-principles calculations. Since hexagonal boron nitride is semiconducting, the interaction with silicene is weaker than for metallic substrates. It therefore is possible to open a 50 meV band gap in the silicene. We further address the effect of Mn decoration by determining the onsite Hubbard interaction parameter, which turns out to differ significantly for decoration at the top and hollow sites. The induced magnetism in the system is analyzed in detail.

  19. Magnetic properties of the Ising system on alternate layers of a hexagonal lattice (United States)

    Masrour, R.; Jabar, A.; Benyoussef, A.; Hamedoun, M.


    The magnetic properties of the mixed spin-1 and spin-5/2 Ising ferrimagnetic model on a hexagonal lattice have been studied using the Monte Carlo simulations. The hexagonal lattice study is formed by alternate layers of spins σ = 1 and S = 5 / 2. The thermal variations of the magnetizations are given. The magnetic hysteresis cycles are established for different values of exchange interactions, crystal-field and temperatures. The magnetic coercive field is deduced.

  20. The hexagonal lattice marks in the muroids rodent explain molar-cusp enamel line


    Ruiz Bustos, A.


    The crown enamel line of muroids rodent has geometric traces that coincide exactly with an equilateral triangular lattice. This finding helps to explain the muroids dental pattern from a novel perspective in molar morphology that it is based on hexagonal structures. The adult traces imply that the morphology of the teeth mammals is consequence of a morphogenetic process. This is the study of the hexagonal lattice marks observed in the enamel line, and therefore called odontohexasymmetry. ...

  1. Characterization of Thioether-Linked Protein Adducts of DNA Using a Raney-Ni Mediated Desulfurization Method and Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray-Tandem Mass Spectrometry (United States)

    Chowdhury, Goutam; Guengerich, F. Peter


    This unit contains a complete procedure for the detection and structural characterization of DNA protein crosslinks (DPCs). The procedure also describes an approach for the quantitation of the various structurally distinct DPCs. Although various methods have been described in the literature for labile DPCs, characterization of non-labile adducts remain a challenge. Here we present a novel approach for characterization of both labile and non-labile adducts by the use of a combination of chemical, enzymatic, and mass spectrometric approaches. A Raney Ni-catalyzed reductive desulfurization method was used for removal of the bulky peptide adducts, enzymatic digestion was used to digest the protein to smaller peptides and DNA to nucleosides, and finally LC-ESI-tandem mass spectrometry (MS) was utilized for detection and characterization of nucleoside adducts. PMID:25754888

  2. A Stable Isotope Dilution Nanoflow Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry Assay for the Simultaneous Detection and Quantification of Glyoxal-Induced DNA Cross-Linked Adducts in Leukocytes from Diabetic Patients. (United States)

    Chen, Hauh-Jyun Candy; Chang, Ya-Lang; Teng, Yi-Chun; Hsiao, Chiung-Fong; Lin, Tsai-Shiuan


    Glyoxal (gx) is a bifunctional electrophile capable of cross-linking DNA. Although it is present in foods and from the environment, endogenous formation of glyoxal occurs through metabolism of carbohydrates and oxidation of lipids and nucleic acids. Plasma concentrations of glyoxal are elevated in in diabetes mellitus patients compared to nondiabetics. The most abundant 2'-deoxyribonucleoside adducts cross-linked by glyoxal are dG-gx-dC, dG-gx-dA, and dG-gx-dG. These DNA cross-links can be mutagenic by damaging the integrity of the DNA structure. Herein, we developed a highly sensitive and specific assay for the simultaneous detection and quantification of the dG-gx-dC and dG-gx-dA cross-links based on stable isotope dilution (SID) nanoflow liquid chromatography nanospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (nanoLC-NSI/MS/MS) under the highly selected reaction monitoring mode and using a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. The entire assay procedure involved addition of the stable isotope standards [15N5]dG-gx-dC and [15N5]dG-gx-dA as internal standards, enzyme hydrolysis to release the cross-links as nucleosides, enrichment by a reversed-phase solid-phase extraction column, and nanoLC-NSI/MS/MS analysis. The detection limit is 0.19 amol for dG-gx-dC and 0.89 amol for dG-gx-dA, which is 400 and 80 times more sensitive, respectively, than capillary LC-NSI/MS/MS assay of these adducts. The lower limit of quantification was 94 and 90 amol for dG-gx-dC and dG-gx-dA, respectively, which is equivalent to 0.056 and 0.065 adducts in 108 normal nucleotides in 50 μg of DNA. In type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients (n = 38), the levels of dG-gx-dC and dG-gx-dA in leukocyte DNA were 1.94 ± 1.20 and 2.10 ± 1.77 in 108 normal nucleotides, respectively, which were significantly higher than those in nondiabetics (n = 39: 0.83 ± 0.92 and 1.05 ± 0.99 in 108 normal nucleotides, respectively). Excluding the factor of smoking, an exogenous source of glyoxal, levels of these

  3. Hexagonal ZnO nanorods assembled flowers for photocatalytic dye degradation: Growth, structural and optical properties (United States)

    Rahman, Qazi Inamur; Ahmad, Musheer; Misra, Sunil Kumar; Lohani, Minaxi B.


    A facile hydrothermal method was used to synthesize highly crystalline hexagonal ZnO nanorods assembled flowers by the reaction of zinc acetate and hexamethylenetetraamine (HMTA) at 105 °C. The morphological characterizations revealed that well defined ZnO nanorods were assembled into flowers morphology. X-rays diffraction patterns showed the highly crystalline nature of ZnO with hexagonal wurtzite structure. The structural and optical properties of hexagonal ZnO nanorods assembled flowers were measured by Fourier transform infra-red (FT-IR) and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) measurements. The as-synthesized hexagonal ZnO nanorods assembled flowers were applied as an efficient photocatalyst for the photodegradation of organic dyes under UV-light irradiation. The methylene blue (MB) and rhodamine B (RhB) over the surface of hexagonal ZnO nanorods assembled flowers considerably degraded by ∼91% and ∼80% within 140 min respectively. The degradation rate constants were found to be kapp (0.01313 mint-1) and kapp(0.0104 mint-1) for MB and RhB dye respectively. The enhanced dye degradation might be attributed to the efficient charge separation and the large number of oxyradicals generation on the surface of the hexagonal ZnO nanorods assembled flowers.

  4. Anomalous lattice compressibility of hexagonal Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irshad, K.A.; Chandra Shekar, N.V., E-mail:


    Monoclinic Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3} was investigated in a Mao-Bell type diamond anvil cell using angle dispersive x-ray diffraction up to a pressure of 26 GPa. Pressure induced structural phase transition from monoclinic to hexagonal phase was observed at 4.3 GPa with 2% volume collapse. Birch –Murnaghan equation of state fit to the pressure volume data yielded a bulk modulus of 159(9) GPa and 165(6) GPa for the monoclinic and hexagonal phases respectively. Equation of state fitting to the structural parameters yielded an axial compressibility of β{sub a} > β{sub c} > β{sub b} for the parent monoclinic phase, showing the least compressibility along b axis. Contrary to the available reports, an anomalous lattice compressibility behavior is observed for the high pressure hexagonal phase, characterized by pronounced hardening of a axis above 15 GPa. The observed incompressible nature of the hexagonal a axis in the pressure range 15–25 GPa is found to be compensated by doubling the compressibility along the c axis. - Highlights: • Structural phase transition in Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3} from monoclinic to hexagonal phase. • Anomalous lattice compressibility in the hexagonal phase has reported first time. • Quantitative analysis of lattice compressibility.

  5. Evaluation of glycidyl methacrylate-based monolith functionalized with weak anion exchange moiety inside 0.5 mm i.d. column for liquid chromatographic separation of DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aprilia Nur Tasfiyati


    Full Text Available In this study, the organic polymer monolith was developed as a weak anion exchanger column in high performance liquid chromatography for DNA separation. Methacrylate-based monolithic column was prepared in microbore silicosteel column (100 × 0.5 mm i.d. by in-situ polymerization reaction using glycidyl methacrylate as monomer; ethylene dimethacrylate as crosslinker; 1-propanol, 1,4-butanediol, and water as porogenic solvents, with the presence of initiator α,α′-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN. The monolith matrix was modified with diethylamine to create weak anion exchanger via ring opening reaction of epoxy groups. The morphology of the monolithic column was studied by SEM. The properties of the monolithic column, such as permeability, mechanical stability, binding capacity and pore size distribution, were characterized in detail. From the results of the characterization, monoliths poly-(GMA-co-EDMA with total monomer percentage (%T 40 and crosslinker percentage (%C 25 was found to be the ideal composition of monomer and crosslinker. It has good mechanical stability and high permeability, adequate molecular recognition sites (represented with binding capacity value of 36 mg ml−1, and has relatively equal proportion of flow-through pore and mesopores (37.2% and 41.1% respectively. Poly-(GMA-co-EDMA with %T 40 and %C 25 can successfully separate oligo(dT12–18 and 50 bp DNA ladder with good resolution.

  6. Fermi liquids and Luttinger liquids


    Schulz, H. J.; Cuniberti, G.; Pieri, P.


    In these lecture notes, the basic physics of Fermi liquids and Luttinger liquids is presented. Fermi liquids are discussed both from a phenomenological viewpoint, in relation to microscopic approaches, and as renormalization group fixed points. Luttinger liquids are introduced using the bosonization formalism, and their essential differences with Fermi liquids are pointed out. Applications to transport effects, the effect of disorder, quantum spin chains, and spin ladders, both insulating and...

  7. Zone-Center Raman Active Modes In Cubic And Hexagonal Diamond (United States)

    Mehl, Michael J.; Pickard, Warren E.


    The recent interest in the growth of thin diamond films has led us to consider the differences between the hexagonal (lonsdaleite) and cubic structures. Both phases have very similar properties, and empirical and theoretical considerations indicate that their structural energies are nearly identical. When thin films are grown the hexagonal phase may compete with the cubic phase, making characterization of the film difficult. Cubic diamond has one Raman active mode, while hexagonal diamond has three. The opportunity thus exists for Raman spectroscopy to differentiate between the two tetrahedrally bonded phases (as well as "amorphous" or graphitic phases). Electronic structure calculations can be used to obtain theoretical Q=0 frequencies of the Raman active modes in both structures. We have used the first principles Linearized Augmented Plane Wave method within the local density approximation to calculate the zone center phonon frequencies. The calculated frequency of the cubic diamond Raman mode is 1336 cm-1, very close to the experimental value of 1333 cm-1. Our calculations indicate that the hexagonal structure A t has a zone-center frequency of 1269 cm-1, the Elg mode is at 1215 cm-1, and the E1g mode is at 430 cm-1. Anharmonic corrections are rather large (2-3%) in the cubic diamond Raman mode and in the hexagonal Al mode, but are not important in the E2g and Elg modes. We will compare our results with the available experimental information.

  8. Comparative Raman studies of cubic and hexagonal GaN epitaxial layers (United States)

    Tabata, A.; Enderlein, R.; Leite, J. R.; da Silva, S. W.; Galzerani, J. C.; Schikora, D.; Kloidt, M.; Lischka, K.


    Hexagonal and cubic GaN layers are grown on (001) GaAs substrates by means of molecular beam epitaxy. First order Raman spectra are taken from these layers at various incident laser wavelengths and temperatures. The T2 transverse-optical (TO) and longitudinal-optical (LO) frequencies of cubic GaN are determined, as well as the A1 TO and LO, E1 TO, and E2 frequencies of hexagonal GaN. The T2 TO frequency of cubic GaN lies between the A1 and E1 TO frequencies of hexagonal GaN as one expects comparing the lattice dynamics of zincblende and wurtzite type crystals. The T2 TO frequency is close to the calculated value but disagrees with a recently reported experimental value. For the hexagonal layer, all frequencies are close to those previously measured. A broad Raman structure below the A1 LO peak is interpreted in terms of a disturbed long range order of the hexagonal layer.

  9. Grid cell hexagonal patterns formed by fast self-organized learning within entorhinal cortex. (United States)

    Mhatre, Himanshu; Gorchetchnikov, Anatoli; Grossberg, Stephen


    Grid cells in the dorsal segment of the medial entorhinal cortex (dMEC) show remarkable hexagonal activity patterns, at multiple spatial scales, during spatial navigation. It has previously been shown how a self-organizing map can convert firing patterns across entorhinal grid cells into hippocampal place cells that are capable of representing much larger spatial scales. Can grid cell firing fields also arise during navigation through learning within a self-organizing map? This article describes a simple and general mathematical property of the trigonometry of spatial navigation which favors hexagonal patterns. The article also develops a neural model that can learn to exploit this trigonometric relationship. This GRIDSmap self-organizing map model converts path integration signals into hexagonal grid cell patterns of multiple scales. GRIDSmap creates only grid cell firing patterns with the observed hexagonal structure, predicts how these hexagonal patterns can be learned from experience, and can process biologically plausible neural input and output signals during navigation. These results support an emerging unified computational framework based on a hierarchy of self-organizing maps for explaining how entorhinal-hippocampal interactions support spatial navigation. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Test-retest reliability and minimal detectable change of the hexagon agility test. (United States)

    Beekhuizen, Kristina S; Davis, Maurice D; Kolber, Morey J; Cheng, Ming-Shun S


    The purpose of this study was to examine the test-retest reliability and minimal detectable change (MDC95) of the hexagon test. The hexagon test is a routinely used measure of agility in the sports and rehabilitation professions, yet its reliability has not been investigated in prior research. A total of 26 college-aged men (n = 17) and women (n = 9) of various activity levels were recruited to participate in 3 testing sessions: baseline, 1 hour after baseline, and 48 hours after baseline. The results of this study indicated excellent test-retest reliability for both same-day intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) model 3,1 = 0.938 and between-day ICC (3,1) = 0.924 analyses. The MDC95 for the hexagon test was 1.015 seconds. A significant difference in the mean times was identified during the same-day test-retest sessions (p learning effect. The hexagon test shows excellent reliability for measuring agility, which supports its use as a tool to assess athletic performance and lower-extremity agility. Evidence of reliability, in addition to its ease of administration, makes the hexagon test a practical and effective method to measure agility. When using this test as a measure of agility, a change of greater than 1.015 seconds is necessary to be 95% certain that the change in time reflects improvement and exceeds measurement error. A practice trial is recommended prior to recording scores to attenuate the possibility of a learning effect.

  11. Modelling of CANDU-SCWR unit cell with DRAGON: from cartesian to hexagonal geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bejaoui, N.; Marleau, G. [Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, Institute of Nuclear Engineering, Montreal, QC (Canada)


    A new hexagonal model of the Canadian supercritical water-cooled reactor unit cell geometry is compared with the Cartesian model in DRAGON. This hexagonal model is considered for a compact core since further savings in the construction costs can be achieved by a reduction in the heavy water inventory in the core while still satisfying the constraints on the mechanical size of the pressure tube header. In our study, we investigate two options: using a reduced lattice pitch while preserving the same pressure tube; and increasing the outer radius of the pressure tube while using an hexagonal cell that has the same 2-D volume as the original Cartesian model. Preliminary results indicate that the effective multiplication factor of the equivalent hexagonal unit cell is slightly lower than of the original Cartesian cell (0.15 mk). Reducing the lattice pitch of the hexagonal cell to that of the Cartesian cell decreases further the reactivity (20 mk) but reduces the moderator volume by more than 20 %. Other options for reducing the moderator volume that consists in increasing the outer radius of the pressure tube are analyzed, including replacing the moderator by super critical light water coolant or other structure material. (author)

  12. Growth of Atomic Hexagonal Boron Nitride Layers and Graphene/Hexagonal Boron Nitride Heterostructures by Molecular Beam Epitaxy (United States)

    Xu, Zhongguang

    Graphene, as a famous Van der Waals material, has attracted intensive attention from research group and industry all over the world after 2004, while hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), as an excellent two-dimensional (2D) dielectric layer, has been studied intensively mainly for its compatibility with graphene and other 2D materials. To realize the technological potential of 2D system, it is essential to synthesize large-area, high-quality 2D thin films through a scalable and controllable method in order to investigate novel phenomenon in fundamental physics and promising device applications. In this thesis, the growth of graphene, h-BN and their vertical and lateral heterostructures by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) is mainly discussed. In addition, the growth mechanism, fundamental physics and possible applications are also studied. In-situ epitaxial growth of graphene/h-BN heterostructures on cobalt (Co) film substrate was achieved by using plasma-assisted MBE in Chapter 2. We demonstrated a solution for direct fabricating graphene/h-BN vertical stacking structures. Various characterizations, such as Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), were carried out to confirm and evaluate the heterostructures. Wafer-scale heterostructures consisting of single-layer/bilayer graphene and multilayer h-BN were achieved. The mismatch angle between graphene and h-BN is below 1°. Chapter 3 studied the growth of graphene/h-BN heterostructures on Co foil substrate by plasma-assisted MBE. It is found that the coverage of h-BN layers on the epitaxial thin graphite layer is growth-time dependent. Large-area, uniform-quality h-BN film was successfully deposited on thin graphite layer. Based on the as-grown h-BN (5-6 nm)/G (26-27 nm) heterostructure, without using any transferring process, we fabricated capacitor devices with Co(foil)/G/h-BN/Co(contact) configuration to evaluate the

  13. Thermodynamics of the hexagonal close-packed iron-nitrogen system from first-principles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakkedal, Morten Bjørn

    is assumed fixed.The models are developed entirely from first-principles calculations based on fundamen-tal quantum mechanical calculation through the density functional theory approach with the atomic numbers and crystal structures as the only input parameters. A complete thermody-namic description should......First-principles thermodynamic models are developed for the hexagonal close-packed ε-Fe-N system. The system can be considered as a hexagonal close-packed host lattice of iron atoms and with the nitrogen atoms residing on a sublattice formed by the octahedral interstices. The iron host lattice...... to hexagonal systems and a numerically tractable extended equation of state is developed to describe thermody-namic equilibrium properties at finite temperature.The model is applied to ε-Fe3N specifically. Through the versatility of the model, equi-librium lattice parameters, the bulk modulus, and the thermal...

  14. A planar carbon allotrope with linear bipentagon-octagon and hexagon arrangement (United States)

    Zheng, Guohui; Jia, Yalei; Gao, Song; Ke, San-Huang


    A two-dimensional (2D) metallic carbon allotrope is proposed, which consists of linearly aligned bipentagon-octagon and hexagon rings in a planar sheet. The relatively high percentage of hexagon and the regular arrangement of the polygons make it energetically more favorable than most of other predicted 2D carbon allotropes. Phonon dispersions without negative frequencies also indicate its stability. Electronic structure calculations show that its metallic nature is mainly due to the atoms shared by the pentagon, hexagon and octagon. Its lattice thermal conductivity is only about one fifth of that of graphene. Armchair- and zigzag-edged nanoribbons of this structure are also studied. The former is metallic while the latter has a small band gap due to the spin-polarized edge states. The appropriate band gap and the significantly reduced thermal conductivity suggest potential applications in thermoelectricity.

  15. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis of triclinic and hexagonal birnessites (United States)

    Ling, Florence T.; Post, Jeffrey E.; Heaney, Peter J.; Kubicki, James D.; Santelli, Cara M.


    The characterization of birnessite structures is particularly challenging for poorly crystalline materials of biogenic origin, and a determination of the relative concentrations of triclinic and hexagonal birnessite in a mixed assemblage has typically required synchrotron-based spectroscopy and diffraction approaches. In this study, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) is demonstrated to be capable of differentiating synthetic triclinic Na-birnessite and synthetic hexagonal H-birnessite. Furthermore, IR spectral deconvolution of peaks resulting from Mnsbnd O lattice vibrations between 400 and 750 cm- 1 yield results comparable to those obtained by linear combination fitting of synchrotron X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) data when applied to known mixtures of triclinic and hexagonal birnessites. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations suggest that an infrared absorbance peak at 1628 cm- 1 may be related to OH vibrations near vacancy sites. The integrated intensity of this peak may show sensitivity to vacancy concentrations in the Mn octahedral sheet for different birnessites.

  16. Precursor salt assisted syntheses of high-index faceted concave hexagon and nanorod-like polyoxometalates (United States)

    Pal, Jaya; Ganguly, Mainak; Mondal, Chanchal; Negishi, Yuichi; Pal, Tarasankar


    This paper describes an effective method for a precursor salt assisted fabrication and reshaping of two different polyoxometalates [(NH4)2Cu(MoO4)2 (ACM) and Cu3(MoO4)2(OH)2 (CMOH)] into five distinctive shapes through straightforward and indirect routes. Explicit regulation of the structural arrangements of ACM and CMOH has been studied in detail with altered precursor salt concentration employing our laboratory developed modified hydrothermal (MHT) method. Morphologically different ACM 3D architectures are evolved with higher molybdate concentration, whereas 1D growth of CMOH is observed with increased copper concentration. Interesting morphological transformation of the products has been accomplished employing one precursor salt at a time without using any other foreign reagent. It has been proven that large ACMs become labile in the presence of incoming Cu(ii) and NH4+ ions of the precursor salts. A new strategy for the conversion of faceted ACMs (hexagonal plate, circular plate and hollow flower) to exclusive CMOH nanorods through a Cu(ii) assisted reaction has been adopted. According to thermodynamic consideration, the synthesis of rare concave nanostructures with high index facet is still challenging due to their higher reactivity. In this study, concave hexagonal ACM with high index facet {hkl} has been successfully prepared for the first time from hexagonal ACM through simple etching with ammonium heptamolybdate (AHM), which is another precursor salt. Hexagonal ACM corrugates to a concave hexagon because of the higher reactivity of the {001} crystal plane than that of the {010} plane. It has been shown that high index facet exposed concave hexagonal ACM serves as a better catalyst for the photodegradation of dye than the other microstructures enclosed by low index facets.This paper describes an effective method for a precursor salt assisted fabrication and reshaping of two different polyoxometalates [(NH4)2Cu(MoO4)2 (ACM) and Cu3(MoO4)2(OH)2 (CMOH)] into

  17. Effective Hamiltonian for surface states of topological insulator thin films with hexagonal warping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siu, Zhuo Bin; Jalil, Mansoor B. A. [Computational Nanoelectronics and Nanodevices Laboratory, Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Tan, Seng Ghee [Data Storage Institute, Agency for Science, Technology and Research - A*STAR (Singapore)


    The effective Hamiltonian of the surface states on semi-infinite slabs of the topological insulators (TI) Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} and Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} require the addition of a cubic momentum hexagonal warping term on top of the usual Dirac fermion Hamiltonian in order to reproduce the experimentally measured constant energy contours at intermediate values of Fermi energy. In this work, we derive the effective Hamiltonian for the surface states of a Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} thin film incorporating the corresponding hexagonal warping terms. We then calculate the dispersion relation of the effective Hamiltonian and show that the hexagonal warping leads distorts the equal energy contours from the circular cross sections of the Dirac cones.

  18. Formation of long-lived resonances in hexagonal cavities by strong coupling of superscar modes (United States)

    Song, Qinghai; Ge, Li; Wiersig, Jan; Cao, Hui


    The recent progresses in single crystalline wide bandgap hexagonal disk have stimulated intense research attention on pursuing ultraviolet (UV) laser diodes with low thresholds. While whispering-gallery modes based UV lasers have been successfully obtained in GaN, ZnO nanorods, and nanopillars, the reported thresholds are still very high, due to the low-quality (Q) factors of the hexagonal resonances. Here we demonstrate resonances whose Q factors can be more than two orders of magnitude higher than the hexagonal modes, promising the reduction of the energy consumption. The key to our finding is the avoided resonance crossing between superscar states along two sets of nearly degenerated triangle orbits, which leads to the formation of hexagram modes. The mode couplings suppress the field distributions at the corners and the deviations from triangle orbits simultaneously and therefore enhance the Q factors significantly.

  19. Hexagonally ordered nanoparticles templated using a block copolymer film through Coulombic interactions (United States)

    Lee, Wonjoo; Lee, Seung Yong; Zhang, Xin; Rabin, Oded; Briber, R. M.


    We present a novel and simple method for forming hexagonal gold nanoparticle arrays that uses Coulombic interactions between negatively charged gold nanoparticles on positively charged vertically oriented poly(4-vinylpyridine) cylinders formed in a spin cast polystyrene-b-poly(4-vinylpyridine) block copolymer film. Exposure of the block copolymer film to dibromobutane vapor quaternizes and crosslinks the poly(4-vinylpyridine) domains which allows for the templated deposition of gold nanoparticles into a self-assembled hexagonal array through electrostatic interactions. These systems can form the basis for sensors or next generation nanoparticle based electronics.

  20. Substrate integrated waveguide cross-coupling filter with multilayer hexagonal cavity. (United States)

    Wu, B; Xu, Z Q; Liao, J X


    Hexagonal cavities and their applications to multilayer substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) filters are presented. The hexagonal SIW cavity which can combine flexibility of rectangular one and performance of circular one is convenient for bandpass filter's design. Three types of experimental configuration with the same central frequency of 10 GHz and bandwidth of 6%, including three-order and four-order cross-coupling topologies, are constructed and fabricated based on low temperature cofired ceramic (LTCC) technology. Both theoretical and experimental results are presented.

  1. Elaboration of nickel-impregnated over hexagonal mesoporous materials and their catalytic application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Laribi


    Full Text Available Hexagonal mesoporous silicas with different nickel contents have been synthesized and characterized by several techniques such as N2 physical adsorption, elemental analysis, XRD, TEM and temperature programmed reduction (TPR. In fact, the nickel-impregnated over hexagonal mesoporous silicas showed both high activity and high selectivity for Friedel–Crafts alkylations of benzene with benzyl chloride. The kinetics of the reaction over these catalysts have been investigated and the reaction has been extended to other substrates like toluene, p-xylene, anisole, naphthalene and methylnaphthalene.

  2. Quasi free-standing silicene in a superlattice with hexagonal boron nitride

    KAUST Repository

    Kaloni, T. P.


    We study a superlattice of silicene and hexagonal boron nitride by first principles calculations and demonstrate that the interaction between the layers of the superlattice is very small. As a consequence, quasi free-standing silicene is realized in this superlattice. In particular, the Dirac cone of silicene is preserved. Due to the wide band gap of hexagonal boron nitride, the superlattice realizes the characteristic physical phenomena of free-standing silicene. In particular, we address by model calculations the combined effect of the intrinsic spin-orbit coupling and an external electric field, which induces a transition from a semimetal to a topological insulator and further to a band insulator.

  3. Non-linear excitation of quantum emitters in hexagonal boron nitride multiplayers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas W. Schell


    Full Text Available Two-photon absorption is an important non-linear process employed for high resolution bio-imaging and non-linear optics. In this work, we realize two-photon excitation of a quantum emitter embedded in a two-dimensional (2D material. We examine defects in hexagonal boron nitride (hBN and show that the emitters exhibit similar spectral and quantum properties under one-photon and two-photon excitation. Furthermore, our findings are important to deploy two-dimensional hexagonal boron nitride for quantum non-linear photonic applications.

  4. Fabrication of Tungsten-UO 2 Hexagonal-Celled Fuel-Element Configurations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetsch, R.R.; Cover, P.W.; Gripshover, P.J.; Wilson, W.J.


    The gas-pressure-bonding process is being evaluated as a means of fabricating tungsten-UO 2 hexagonal-celled fuel geometries. A two-part study was initiated to optimize the fuel materials and to develp the required fixturing and loading techniques. Production of fueled tungsten-coated UO 2 particles in in progress so that geometries embodying coated particles or coated particles plus fine tungsten powder can be evaluated. Tests to data have shown the rquirement for a pretreatment in which a gaseous oxide phase is removed. Initial loading and fixturing procedures were proven satisfactory by the fabrication of a 19-cylindrical-hole hexagonal-type composite.

  5. Acoustic phonons in the hexagonal perovskite CsNiCl3 around the Gamma-point

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visser, D.; Monteith, A.R.; Rønnow, H.M.


    The acoustic phonon dispersion curves of the hexagonal perovskite CsNiCl3 were measured at room temperature in the vicinity of the Gamma-point along the [0 0 1] and [1 1 0] directions. The derived velocity of sound values for the longitudinal and transverse acoustic phonons are compared with the ......The acoustic phonon dispersion curves of the hexagonal perovskite CsNiCl3 were measured at room temperature in the vicinity of the Gamma-point along the [0 0 1] and [1 1 0] directions. The derived velocity of sound values for the longitudinal and transverse acoustic phonons are compared...

  6. UV-light driven photocatalytic performance of hydrothermally-synthesized hexagonal CePO4 nanorods (United States)

    Zhu, Zhongqi; Zhang, Ke; Zhao, Heyun; Zhu, Jing


    Hexagonal CePO4 nanorods were synthesized via a simple hydrothermal method without the presence of surfactants and then characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) absorption and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. UV-light driven photocatalytic activities of hexagonal CePO4 nanorods were detailedly demonstrated via degrading different organic dyes such as congo red (CR), organic rhodamine B (RB), methyl orange (MO) and methylene blue (MB) since these nanorods exhibit strong UV absorption with the cutoff edge of about 420 nm.

  7. Detection of 1,N(2)-propano-2'-deoxyguanosine adducts in genomic DNA by ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry in combination with stable isotope dilution. (United States)

    Zhang, Ning; Song, Yuanyuan; Wu, Danni; Xu, Tian; Lu, Meiling; Zhang, Weibing; Wang, Hailin


    Crotonaldehyde (Cro) is one of widespread and genotoxic α,β-unsaturated aldehydes and can react with the exocyclic amino group of 2'-deoxyguanosine (dG) in genomic DNA to form 1,N(2)-propano-2'-deoxyguanosine (ProdG) adducts. In this study, two diastereomers of high purity were prepared, including non-isotope and stable isotope labeled ProdG adducts, and exploited stable isotope dilution-based calibration method. By taking advantage of synthesized ProdG standards, we developed a sensitive ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS) method for accurate quantification of two diastereomers of ProdG adducts. In addition to optimization of the UHPLC separation, ammonium bicarbonate (NH4HCO3) was used as additive in the mobile phase for enhancing the ionization efficiency to ProdG adducts and facilitating MS detection. The limits of detection (LODs, S/N=3) and the limits of quantification (LOQs, S/N=10) are estimated about 50 amol and 150 amol, respectively. By the use of the developed method, both diastereomers of ProdG adducts can be detected in untreated human MRC5 cells with a frequency of 2.4-3.5 adducts per 10(8) nucleotides. Crotonaldehyde treatment dramatically increases the levels of ProdG adducts in human MRC5 in a concentration-dependent manner. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. [Effect of TUBB3, TS and ERCC1 mRNA expression on chemoresponse and clinical outcome of advanced gastric cancer by multiplex branched-DNA liquid chip technology]. (United States)

    Huang, Jin; Hu, Huabin; Xie, Yangchun; Tang, Youhong; Liu, Wei; Zhong, Meizuo


    To analyze the impact of β-tubulin-III (TUBB3), thymidylate synthase (TS) and excision repair cross complementation group 1 (ERCC1) mRNA expression on chemoresponse and clinical outcome of patients with advanced gastric cancer treated with TXT/CDDP/FU (DCF) regimen chemotherapy. The study population consisted of 48 patients with advanced gastric cancer. All patients were treated with DCF regimen palliative chemotherapy. The mRNA expressions of TUBB3, TS and ERCC1 of primary tumors were examined by multiplex branched-DNA liquid chip technology. The patients with low TUBB3 mRNA expression had higher response rate to chemotherapy than patients with high TUBB3 expression (P=0.011). There were no significant differences between response rate and TS or ERCC1 expression pattern. Median overall survival (OS) and median time to progression (TTP) were significantly longer in patients with low TUBB3 mRNA expression (P=0.002, PTS or ERCC1 expression was not correlated with TTP and OS. In the combined analysis including TUBB3, TS and ERCC1, the patients with 0 or 1 high expression gene had better response rate, TTP and OS than the remaining patients (all PTS and ERCC1 expression can promote the individual treatment in advanced gastric cancer.

  9. Moment of inertia of liquid in a tank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyeong Joong Lee


    Full Text Available In this study, the inertial properties of fully filled liquid in a tank were studied based on the potential theory. The analytic solution was obtained for the rectangular tank, and the numerical solutions using Green's 2nd identity were obtained for other shapes. The inertia of liquid behaves like solid in recti-linear acceleration. But under rotational acceleration, the moment of inertia of liquid becomes small compared to that of solid. The shapes of tank investigated in this study were ellipse, rectangle, hexagon, and octagon with various aspect ratios. The numerical solutions were compared with analytic solution, and an ad hoc semi-analytical approximate formula is proposed herein and this formula gives very good predictions for the moment of inertia of the liquid in a tank of several different geometrical shapes. The results of this study will be useful in analyzing of the motion of LNG/LPG tanker, liquid cargo ship, and damaged ship.

  10. Control of stripelike and hexagonal self-assembly of gold nanoparticles by the tuning of interactions between triphenylene ligands. (United States)

    Shen, Zhongrong; Yamada, Mami; Miyake, Mikio


    We describe the self-assembly of gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) protected with newly synthesized discotic liquid crystalline molecules of hexaalkoxy-substituted triphenylene (TP) in mixed toluene/methanol solvent. The stripelike (i.e., 2D consisting of linear 1D in stripe) self-assembly is realized successfully by the aid of pi-pi stacking of TP ligand on Au NPs. The smaller Au NPs with TP (AuTP) or the longer alkyl chain between TP and the gold core provide more free spaces among TP moieties. These spaces allow easy insertion of TP on adjacent AuTPs to lead an interparticle pi-pi interaction to form the stripelike arrangement. The solvent hydrophilicity can also serve as a controlled index to tune arrangement among stripelike, hexagonal close packed (hcp), or disorder. We have changed the solvent hydrophilicity by changing the ratio of methanol to toluene, which affects the balance of solution of AuTP (in toluene) and deposition (in methanol). The larger space between TPs and appropriate solvent hydrophilicity realize stripelike self-assembly caused by a strong pi-pi interaction between TPs, which was characterized by TEM, as well as fluorescence, dynamic light scattering, and 1H NMR spectra.

  11. Liquid Ventilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qutaiba A. Tawfic


    Full Text Available Mammals have lungs to breathe air and they have no gills to breath liquids. When the surface tension at the air-liquid interface of the lung increases, as in acute lung injury, scientists started to think about filling the lung with fluid instead of air to reduce the surface tension and facilitate ventilation. Liquid ventilation (LV is a technique of mechanical ventilation in which the lungs are insufflated with an oxygenated perfluorochemical liquid rather than an oxygen-containing gas mixture. The use of perfluorochemicals, rather than nitrogen, as the inert carrier of oxygen and carbon dioxide offers a number of theoretical advantages for the treatment of acute lung injury. In addition, there are non-respiratory applications with expanding potential including pulmonary drug delivery and radiographic imaging. The potential for multiple clinical applications for liquid-assisted ventilation will be clarified and optimized in future. Keywords: Liquid ventilation; perfluorochemicals; perfluorocarbon; respiratory distress; surfactant.

  12. The effects of three different grinding methods in DNA extraction of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rapid DNA extraction is a prerequisite for molecular studies. Generally, plant tissue is ground in liquid nitrogen to isolate DNA; but, liquid nitrogen is dangerous and volatile. Besides, liquid nitrogen is not always available in many developing countries. To investigate if high quality DNA could be obtained for downstream ...

  13. The effects of three different grinding methods in DNA extraction of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Apr 17, 2013 ... Rapid DNA extraction is a prerequisite for molecular studies. Generally, plant tissue is ground in liquid nitrogen to isolate DNA; but, liquid nitrogen is dangerous and volatile. Besides, liquid nitrogen is not always available in many developing countries. To investigate if high quality DNA could be obtained for.

  14. Quasi-hexagonal vortex-pinning lattice using anodized aluminum oxide nanotemplates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallet, X.; Mátéfi-Tempfli, M.; Michotte, S.


    The bottom barrier layer of well-ordered nanoporous alumina membranes reveals a previously unexploited nanostructured template surface consisting of a triangular lattice of hemispherical nanoscale bumps. Quasi-hexagonal vortex-pinning lattice arrays are created in superconducting Nb films deposit...

  15. A highly porous three-dimensional aluminum phosphonate with hexagonal channels: synthesis, structure and adsorption properties. (United States)

    Tang, Si-Fu; Cai, Jin-Jun; Li, Liang-Jun; Lv, Xiao-Xia; Wang, Chao; Zhao, Xue-Bo


    A 3D porous aluminum(III) trisphosphonate, constructed from 1D inorganic aluminum phosphate chains and tripodal organic linkers, contains large hexagonal channels (1.24 nm in diameter) and a highly accessible void (50.3%) which allow it to have a fast and relatively high uptake of H2, N2 and CO2.

  16. A transfer technique for high mobility graphene devices on commercially available hexagonal boron nitride

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zomer, P. J.; Dash, S. P.; Tombros, N.; van Wees, B. J.


    We present electronic transport measurements of single and bilayer graphene on commercially available hexagonal boron nitride. We extract mobilities as high as 125 000 cm(2) V-1 s(-1) at room temperature and 275 000 cm(2) V-1 s(-1) at 4.2 K. The excellent quality is supported by the early

  17. Hexagonal wheel formation through the hydrogen-bonded assembly of cobalt Pacman complexes. (United States)

    Leeland, James W; White, Fraser J; Love, Jason B


    A cobalt aquo-hydroxo complex of a ditopic Schiff-base pyrrole-crown ether macrocycle has been prepared and forms a rigid Pacman-clefted structure that assembles through hydrogen-bonding into a hexagonal wheel motif in the solid state.

  18. Achieving a multi-band metamaterial perfect absorber via a hexagonal ring dielectric resonator (United States)

    Li, Li-Yang; Wang, Jun; Du, Hong-Liang; Wang, Jia-Fu; Qu, Shao-Bo


    A multi-band absorber composed of high-permittivity hexagonal ring dielectric resonators and a metallic ground plate is designed in the microwave band. Near-unity absorptions around 9.785 GHz, 11.525 GHz, and 12.37 GHz are observed for this metamaterial absorber. The dielectric hexagonal ring resonator is made of microwave ceramics with high permittivity and low loss. The mechanism for the near-unity absorption is investigated via the dielectric resonator theory. It is found that the absorption results from electric and magnetic resonances where enhanced electromagnetic fields are excited inside the dielectric resonator. In addition, the resonance modes of the hexagonal resonator are similar to those of standard rectangle resonators and can be used for analyzing hexagonal absorbers. Our work provides a new research method as well as a solid foundation for designing and analyzing dielectric metamaterial absorbers with complex shapes. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61331005, 11204378, 11274389, 11304393, and 61302023), the Aviation Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 20132796018 and 20123196015), the Natural Science Foundation for Post-Doctoral Scientists of China (Grant Nos. 2013M532131 and 2013M532221), the Natural Science Foundation of Shaanxi Province, China (Grant No. 2013JM6005), and the Special Funds for Authors of Annual Excellent Doctoral Degree Dissertations of China (Grant No. 201242).

  19. Periodic mesoporous organosilicas consisting of 3d hexagonally ordered interconnected globular pores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vercaemst, C.; Friedrich, H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304837350; de Jongh, P.E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/186125372; Neimark, A.V.; Goderis, B.; Verpoort, F.; van der Voort, P.


    A new family of periodic mesoporous organosilicas with 100% E-configured ethenylene-bridges and controllable pore systems is presented. 2D hexagonally ordered hybrid nanocomposites consisting of cylindrical pores are obtained, of which some are filled with solid material. The architectural

  20. Self-diffusion in the hexagonal structure of Zirconium and Hafnium: computer simulation studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Hernán Ruiz


    Full Text Available Self-diffusion by vacancy mechanism is studied in two metals of hexagonal close packed structure, namely Hafnium and Zirconium. Computer simulation techniques are used together with many-body potentials of the embedded atom type. Defect properties are calculated at 0 K by molecular static while molecular dynamic is used to explore a wide temperature range.

  1. Tensile Behaviour of Welded Wire Mesh and Hexagonal Metal Mesh for Ferrocement Application (United States)

    Tanawade, A. G.; Modhera, C. D.


    Tension tests were conducted on welded mesh and hexagonal Metal mesh. Welded Mesh is available in the market in different sizes. The two types are analysed viz. Ø 2.3 mm and Ø 2.7 mm welded mesh, having opening size 31.75 mm × 31.75 mm and 25.4 mm × 25.4 mm respectively. Tensile strength test was performed on samples of welded mesh in three different orientations namely 0°, 30° and 45° degrees with the loading axis and hexagonal Metal mesh of Ø 0.7 mm, having opening 19.05 × 19.05 mm. Experimental tests were conducted on samples of these meshes. The objective of this study was to investigate the behaviour of the welded mesh and hexagonal Metal mesh. The result shows that the tension load carrying capacity of welded mesh of Ø 2.7 mm of 0° orientation is good as compared to Ø2.3 mm mesh and ductility of hexagonal Metal mesh is good in behaviour.

  2. Holland's Hexagonal Personality Model for a Sample of Greek University Students (United States)

    Sidiropoulou-Dimakakou, Despina; Mylonas, Kostas; Argyropoulou, Katerina


    The aim of this study was to describe the hexagonal person-environment fit for the Holland personality types for a Greek sample of 156 university students. The statistical analysis followed both exploratory--such as multidimensional scaling--and confirmatory methods--such as covariance structure models. These methods were employed in an…

  3. 2D of hexagonal plasmonic necklaces for enhanced second harmonic generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez-Tornero, Alejandro; Tserkezis, Christos; Mateos, Luis


    Hexagonal plasmonic necklaces of silver nanoparticles organized in 2D superlattices on functional ferroelectric templates are fabricated in large-scale spatial regions by using a surfactant-free photo-deposition process. The plasmonic necklaces support broad radiative plasmonic resonances allowin...

  4. Direct synthesis of inverse hexagonally ordered diblock copolymer/polyoxometalate nanocomposite films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lunkenbein, T.; Kamperman, M.M.G.; Li, Z.; Bojer, C.; Drechsler, M.; Forster, S.; Wiesner, U.; Muller, A.; Breu, J.


    Nanostructured inverse hexagonal polyoxometalate composite films were cast directly from solution using poly(butadiene-block-2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) (PB-b-PDMAEMA) diblock copolymers as structure directing agents for phosphomolybdic acid (H(3)[PMo(12)O(40)], H(3)PMo). H(3)PMo units are

  5. Eigenstates of a particle in an array of hexagons with periodic boundary condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Nemati


    Full Text Available In this paper the problem of a particle in an array of hexagons with periodic boundary condition is solved. Using the projection operators, we categorize eigenfunctions corresponding to each of the irreducible representations of the symmetry group . Based on these results, the Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions are discussed.

  6. Discovery of new hexagonal supramolecular nanostructures formed by squalenoylation of an anticancer nucleoside analogue. (United States)

    Couvreur, Patrick; Reddy, L Harivardhan; Mangenot, Stéphanie; Poupaert, Jacques H; Desmaële, Didier; Lepêtre-Mouelhi, Sinda; Pili, Barbara; Bourgaux, Claudie; Amenitsch, H; Ollivon, Michel


    In this study, the dynamically folded conformation of squalene (SQ) is taken advantage of to link this natural compound to the anticancer nucleoside analogue gemcitabine (gem) in order to achieve the spontaneous formation of nanoassemblies (SQgem) in water. Cryogenic transmission electron microscopy examination reveals particles (104 nm) with a hexagonal or multifaceted shape that display an internal structure made of reticular planes, each particle being surrounded by an external shell. X-ray diffraction evidences the hexagonal molecular packing of SQgem, resulting from the stacking of direct or inverse cylinders. The respective volumes of the gem and SQ molecules as well as molecular modeling of SQgem suggest the stacking of inverse hexagonal phases, in which the central aqueous core, consisting of water and gem molecules, is surrounded by SQ moieties. These SQgem nanoassemblies also exhibit impressively greater anticancer activity than gem against a solid subcutaneously grafted tumor, following intravenous administration. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of hexagonal phase organization with a SQ derivative.

  7. Laplace type problems for a lattice with cell composed by two triangles and one hexagon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Stoka


    Full Text Available We solve a Laplace type problem for a lattice of the Euclidean plane with cell composed by two triangles and one hexagon. We compute the probability that a segment of random position and constant length intersects a side of the lattice.

  8. Comparative study of the interfaces of graphene and hexagonal boron nitride with silver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garnica, Manuela; Schwarz, Martin; Ducke, Jacob


    Silver opens up interesting perspectives in the fabrication of complex systems based on heteroepitaxial layers after the growth of a silicene layer on its (111) face has been proposed. In this work we explore different synthesis methods of hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) and graphene sheets on sil...

  9. A study on the behaviour of M-type barium hexagonal ferrite based ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper deals with development of single- and double-layer microwave absorbing paints using Mn-substituted barium hexagonal ferrite. The comparative studies of both theoretical and experimental results at Ku band have been reported. It has been found that the single layer absorbing paint exhibits peak absorption of ...

  10. Analisa Faktor Penyebab Kegagalan Mesin Grinder pada Proses Produksi Plastic Film di PT. Mutiara Hexagon


    Hidayat, Imam; Pratiwi, Swandya Eka


    Bila suatu mesin memiliki tingkat kegagalan yang tinggi, maka perlu dilakukan analisis mengenai penyebab – penyebab kegagalan tersebut hingga ke akar permasalahannya sehingga dapat menentukan tindakan yang sesuai untuk meningkatkan kinerja suatu mesin. PT. Mutiara Hexagon merupakan sebuah Perusahaan yang bergerak dibidang industri pembuatan plastik kemasan. Dalam line pembuatan lembaran film diperlukan mesin CPP (Cast Poly Propylene Machine) dan mesin grinder dalam prosesnya....

  11. Structural hierarchy in flow-aligned hexagonally self-organized microphases with parallel polyelectrolytic structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruotsalainen, T; Torkkeli, M; Serimaa, R; Makela, T; Maki-Ontto, R; Ruokolainen, J; ten Brinke, G; Ikkala, O; Mäkelä, Tapio; Mäki-Ontto, Riikka


    We report a novel structural hierarchy where a flow-aligned hexagonal self-organized structure is combined with a polyelectrolytic self-organization on a smaller length scale and where the two structures are mutually parallel. Polystyrene-block-poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PS-block-P4VP) is selected with

  12. Strain mismatch induced tilted heteroepitaxial (000l) hexagonal ZnO films on (001) cubic substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Bo Soo [Department of Applied Physics, Hanyang University Ansan (Korea, Republic of); Stan, Liliana; Usov, Igor O.; DePaula, Raymond F.; Arendt, Paul N.; Nastasi, Michael; Jia, Quanxi [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lee, Jung-Kun [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Harriman, Tres A.; Lucca, Don A. [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Oklahoma State University Stillwater, OK (United States); MacManus-Driscoll, Judith L. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge (United Kingdom); Park, Bae Ho [Division of Quantum Phases and Devices, Department of Physics, Konkuk University Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    A novel strain mismatch induced tilted epitaxy method has been demonstrated for producing high quality (000l) hexagonal films on (001) cubic substrates. Highly oriented hexagonal (000l) ZnO films are grown on cubic (001) MgO substrates using Sm{sub 0.28}Zr{sub 0.72}O{sub 2-{delta}} (SZO) as a template. The large lattice mismatch of >13% between the obvious crystallographic matching directions of the template and substrate means that cube-on-cube epitaxy is energetically unfavorable, leading to growth instead of two high index, low energy compact planes, close to the {l_brace}111{r_brace} orientation. These planes give three different in-plane orientations resulting from coincidence site lattice matching (12 in-plane orientations in total) and provide a pseudo-hexagonal symmetry surface for the ZnO to grow on. The texture of the ensuing (000l) ZnO layer is markedly improved over the template. The work opens up both a new avenue for growing technologically important hexagonal structures on a range of readily available, (001) cubic substrates, as well as showing that there are wide possibilities for heteroepitaxial growth of a range of dissimilar materials. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. Pyramidal dislocation induced strain relaxation in hexagonal structured InGaN/AlGaN/GaN multilayer (United States)

    Yan, P. F.; Du, K.; Sui, M. L.


    Due to the special dislocation slip systems in hexagonal lattice, dislocation dominated deformations in hexagonal structured multilayers are significantly different from that in cubic structured systems. In this work, we have studied the strain relaxation mechanism in hexagonal structured InGaN/AlGaN/GaN multilayers with transmission electron microscopy. Due to lattice mismatch, the strain relaxation was found initiated with the formation of pyramidal dislocations. Such dislocations locally lie at only one preferential slip direction in the hexagonal lattice. This preferential slip causes a shear stress along the basal planes and consequently leads to dissociation of pyramidal dislocations and operation of the basal plane slip system. The compressive InGaN layers and "weak" AlGaN/InGaN interfaces stimulate the dissociation of pyramidal dislocations at the interfaces. These results enhance the understanding of interactions between dislocations and layer interfaces and shed new lights on deformation mechanism in hexagonal-lattice multilayers.

  14. Subsidizing Liquidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malinova, Katya; Park, Andreas


    Facing increased competition over the last decade, many stock exchanges changed their trading fees to maker-taker pricing, an incentive scheme that rewards liquidity suppliers and charges liquidity demanders. Using a change in trading fees on the Toronto Stock Exchange, we study whether and why...... the breakdown of trading fees between liquidity demanders and suppliers matters. Posted quotes adjust after the change in fee composition, but the transaction costs for liquidity demanders remain unaffected once fees are taken into account. However, as posted bid-ask spreads decline, traders (particularly...... retail) use aggressive orders more frequently, and adverse selection costs decrease....

  15. The interaction of membrane DNA-binding protein with DNA (United States)

    Gabrielyan, A. G.; Arakhelyan, H. H.; Zakharyan, R. A.


    A 31-kDa protein specifically binding to double-stranded DNA (ds-DNA) was isolated from plasmatic membranes of rat liver cells by means of affinity chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Some of the properties of this protein were determined. Judging by the UV and circular dichroism spectroscopic data, the protein forms a complex with DNA, stabilizing its native structure, mainly in the regions rich in AT pairs. The 31-kDa protein-pAO3 plasmid DNA binding constant was determined by nitrocellulose filter analysis of protein labelled DNA complexes. The results obtained correspond to cooperative binding with DNA molecules of extended interacting ligands, having AT specificity. A possible role of the 31-kDa protein in DNA transmembrane transition processes is discussed.

  16. Synthesis, characterization and catalytic activity of highly ordered hexagonal and cubic composite monoliths. (United States)

    El-Safty, Sherif A


    Design of nanocatalysts for efficient heterogeneous catalytic systems is needed to high ingredients for environmental cleanup of organic pollutant species. Here, well-defined order NiO-silica monolithic catalysts with hexagonal P6mm and cubic Pm3n mesostructures were successfully fabricated by using an instant direct-templating method of lyotropic and microemulsion phases of Brij 76 (C18H37(OCH2CH2)10 OH, C18EO 10). Ordered hexagonal P6mm NiO/HOM-2 monoliths could be fabricated in lyotropic system of Brij 76 at phase composition domains of TMOS/Brij 76 (50 wt%). However, periodically ordered cubic Pm3n NiO-supported monoliths were synthesized in microemulsion system formed by addition of C12-alkane to the hexagonal phase domains. This synthetic strategy also revealed that the NiO particles were well-dispersed into the silicate pore surface matrices of mesostructures. Monolithic NiO-silica composites with 2D hexagonal and 3D cubic geometries and with large particle morphologies show promise to act as catalysts. The current study revealed evidence of the advantages of nanoscale pore geometry and shape, and particle morphology of the supported silica monoliths in the design of nanocatalysts that can efficiently enhance the catalytic functionality in terms of stability, reversibility and reactivity. Furthermore, a key finding in our study was that 2D hexagonal and 3D cubic mesostructured NiO-silica catalysts retained the specific activity towards the oxidation reaction even after several regeneration/reuse cycles. Significant study of the mechanistic cyclization of the organic reactant using the density functional (DFT) calculations provided evidence of the key components of conformations of the functional model during the formation of the oxidation product.

  17. 7-Hexagon Multifocal Electroretinography for an Objective Functional Assessment of the Macula in 14 Seconds. (United States)

    Schönbach, Etienne M; Chaikitmongkol, Voraporn; Annam, Rachel; McDonnell, Emma C; Wolfson, Yulia; Fletcher, Emily; Scholl, Hendrik P N


    We present the multifocal electroretinogram (mfERG) with a 7-hexagon array as an objective test of macular function that can be recorded in 14 s. We provide normal values and investigate its reproducibility and validity. Healthy participants underwent mfERG testing according to International Society for Clinical Electrophysiology of Vision (ISCEV) standards using the Espion Profile/D310 multifocal ERG system (Diagnosys, LLC, Lowell, MA, USA). One standard recording of a 61-hexagon array and 2 repeated recordings of a custom 7-hexagon array were obtained. A total of 13 subjects (mean age 46.9 years) were included. The median response densities were 12.5 nV/deg2 in the center and 5.2 nV/deg2 in the periphery. Intereye correlations were strong in both the center (ρCenter = 0.821; p < 0.0001) and the periphery (ρPeriphery = 0.862; p < 0.0001). Intraeye correlations were even stronger: ρCenter = 0.904 with p < 0.0001 and ρPeriphery = 0.955 with p < 0.0001. Bland-Altman plots demonstrated an acceptable retest mean difference in both the center and periphery, and narrow limits of agreement. We found strong correlations of the center (ρCenter = 0.826; p < 0.0001) and periphery (ρPeriphery = 0.848; p < 0.0001), with recordings obtained by the 61-hexagon method. The 7-hexagon mfERG provides reproducible results in agreement with results obtained according to the ISCEV standard. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Hexagonal OsB{sub 2}: Sintering, microstructure and mechanical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Zhilin [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816 (United States); Lugovy, Mykola [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816 (United States); Institute for Problems of Materials Science, 3 Krzhizhanivskii Str., Kyiv 03142 (Ukraine); Orlovskaya, Nina, E-mail: [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816 (United States); Graule, Thomas; Kuebler, Jakob [Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Laboratory for High Performance Ceramics, CH-8600 Dubendorf (Switzerland); Mueller, Martin [Laboratory of Mechanical Metallurgy, EPFL, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Gao, Huili [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Radovic, Miladin [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Cullen, David A. [Materials Science & Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)


    Highlights: • ReB{sub 2}-type hexagonal OsB{sub 2} powder has been densified by spark plasma sintering. • The sintered OsB{sub 2} contains ∼80 wt.% hexagonal and ∼20 wt.% orthorhombic phases. • The average grain size of the sintered OsB{sub 2} sample was 0.56 ± 0.26 μm. • H = 31 ± 9 GPa and E = 574 ± 112 GPa measured by nanoindentation. - Abstract: The metastable high pressure ReB{sub 2}-type hexagonal OsB{sub 2} bulk ceramics was produced by spark plasma sintering. The phase composition, microstructure, and mechanical behavior of the sintered OsB{sub 2} were studied by X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, TEM, SEM, EDS, and nanoindentation. The produced ceramics was rather porous and contained a mixture of hexagonal (∼80 wt.%) and orthorhombic (∼20 wt.%) phases as identified by X-ray diffraction and EBSD analysis. Two boron-rich phases, which do not contain Os, were also identified by TEM and SEM/EDS analysis. Nanoindentation measurements yielded a hardness of 31 ± 9 GPa and Young’s modulus of 574 ± 112 GPa, indicating that the material is rather hard and very stiff; however, it is very prone to crack formation and propagation, which is indicative of a very brittle nature of this material. Improvements in the sintering regime are required in order to produce dense, homogeneous and single phase hexagonal OsB{sub 2} bulk ceramics.

  19. Production of Self-Assembled Fullerene (C60) Nanocrystals at Liquid-Liquid Interface. (United States)

    Shrestha, Rekha Goswami; Shrestha, Lok Kumar; Abe, Masahiko; Ariga, Katsuhiko


    Here we present self-assembled nanostructure of functional molecule fullerene (C60) at liquid-liquid interface. The nanostructured nanocrystals were grown at liquid-liquid interface of isopropyl alcohol (IPA) and C60 solution in butylbenzene under ambient condition of temperature and pressure, and characterized by Raman scattering, power X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The crystal formation mechanism is driven by supersaturation related to the low solubility of C60 in IPA. A slow diffusion of IPA towards the C60 solution causes unsaturation of C60 at the liquid-liquid interface and consequently small clusters of C60 is formed at the interface, which acts as the nucleation site. Further diffusion of IPA supplies the C60 molecules from bulk to the interface promoting the crystal growth. Based on SEM and TEM observation, the average size of the individual hexagonal bipyramid nanocrystal is found to be ca. 1.4 µm and the average size of their assembly is found to be approximately 2 µm. XRD measurements have shown that these materials are crystalline with mixed face-centered cubic (cell dimension: a = 1.352 nm, and V = 2.475 nm3) and hexagonal (cell dimension: a = 1.452 nm, c = 1.207 nm, c/a = 0.831, and V = 2.475 nm3) structures. Raman scattering measurements showed two Ag and six Hg vibration bands, which are similar to those obtained in the pristine C60.

  20. A novel lyotropic liquid crystal formed by triphilic star-polyphiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campo, Liliana de; Varslot, Trond; Moghaddam, Minoo J.


    crystalline mesophase found in star-polyphiles as compared to the corresponding double-chain surfactant to determine whether the hydrocarbon and fluorocarbon chains are in fact demixed in these star-polyphile systems, or whether both hydrocarbon and fluorocarbon chains are miscible, leading to a single......Triphilic star-polyphiles are short-chain oligomeric molecules with a radial arrangement of hydrophilic, hydrocarbon and fluorocarbon chains linked to a common centre. They form a number of liquid crystalline structures when mixed with water. In this contribution we focus on a hexagonal liquid...... hydrophobic domain, making the star-polyphile effectively amphiphilic. We report SANS contrast variation data that are compatible only with the presence of three distinct immiscible domains within this hexagonal mesophase, confirming that these star-polyphile liquid crystals are indeed hydrophilic...

  1. A δ-plane simulation of anticyclones perturbing circumpolar flows to form a transient north polar hexagon (United States)

    Cosgrove, J. M.; Forbes, L. K.


    Saturn's North Polar Hexagon was discovered by Godfrey who pieced together map projections of images captured by the Voyager mission to unveil a hexagonal structure over the north pole of Saturn. This article attempts to answer whether or not a hexagonal structure can be formed through anticyclones impinging on the dominant eastward circumpolar flow and is in part based upon the proposed theory by Allison et al. that the Hexagon may be the result of at least one impinging anticyclone perturbing a circumpolar jet centrally located around the 76°N latitude. A high-latitude δ-plane approximation is used to simulate the interaction between an initially circular circumpolar jet and at least one perturbing anticyclone. Our simulations with one perturbing anticyclone failed to form a hexagonal structure; yet by including an additional anticyclone it was found that depending on the strength, location and radius of the perturbing anticyclones a hexagonal feature could develop. However, the longevity and drift rate of the actual Hexagon must be attributed to other factors not considered in this paper.

  2. The B35 cluster with a double-hexagonal vacancy: a new and more flexible structural motif for borophene. (United States)

    Li, Wei-Li; Chen, Qiang; Tian, Wen-Juan; Bai, Hui; Zhao, Ya-Fan; Hu, Han-Shi; Li, Jun; Zhai, Hua-Jin; Li, Si-Dian; Wang, Lai-Sheng


    Elemental boron is electron-deficient and cannot form graphene-like structures. Instead, triangular boron lattices with hexagonal vacancies have been predicted to be stable. A recent experimental and computational study showed that the B36 cluster has a planar C6v structure with a central hexagonal hole, providing the first experimental evidence for the viability of atom-thin boron sheets with hexagonal vacancies, dubbed borophene. Here we report a boron cluster with a double-hexagonal vacancy as a new and more flexible structural motif for borophene. Photoelectron spectrum of B35(-) displays a simple pattern with certain similarity to that of B36(-). Global minimum searches find that both B35(-) and B35 possess planar hexagonal structures, similar to that of B36, except a missing interior B atom that creates a double-hexagonal vacancy. The closed-shell B35(-) is found to exhibit triple π aromaticity with 11 delocalized π bonds, analogous to benzo(g,h,i)perylene (C22H12). The B35 cluster can be used to build atom-thin boron sheets with various hexagonal hole densities, providing further experimental evidence for the viability of borophene.

  3. Managing liquidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pokutta, Sebastian; Schmaltz, Christian


    Large banking groups face the question of how to optimally allocate and generate liquidity: in a central liquidity hub or in many decentralized branches. We translate this question into a facility location problem under uncertainty. We show that volatility is the key driver behind (de-)centraliza......Large banking groups face the question of how to optimally allocate and generate liquidity: in a central liquidity hub or in many decentralized branches. We translate this question into a facility location problem under uncertainty. We show that volatility is the key driver behind (de......-)centralization. We provide an analytical solution for the 2-branch model and show that a liquidity center can be interpreted as an option on immediate liquidity. Therefore, its value can be interpreted as the price of information, i.e., the price of knowing the exact demand. Furthermore, we derive the threshold...... above which it is advantageous to open a liquidity center and show that it is a function of the volatility and the characteristic of the bank network. Finally, we discuss the n-branch model for real-world banking groups (10-60 branches) and show that it can be solved with high granularity (100 scenarios...

  4. Research on the comparison of extension mechanism of cellular automaton based on hexagon grid and rectangular grid (United States)

    Zhai, Xiaofang; Zhu, Xinyan; Xiao, Zhifeng; Weng, Jie


    Historically, cellular automata (CA) is a discrete dynamical mathematical structure defined on spatial grid. Research on cellular automata system (CAS) has focused on rule sets and initial condition and has not discussed its adjacency. Thus, the main focus of our study is the effect of adjacency on CA behavior. This paper is to compare rectangular grids with hexagonal grids on their characteristics, strengths and weaknesses. They have great influence on modeling effects and other applications including the role of nearest neighborhood in experimental design. Our researches present that rectangular and hexagonal grids have different characteristics. They are adapted to distinct aspects, and the regular rectangular or square grid is used more often than the hexagonal grid. But their relative merits have not been widely discussed. The rectangular grid is generally preferred because of its symmetry, especially in orthogonal co-ordinate system and the frequent use of raster from Geographic Information System (GIS). However, in terms of complex terrain, uncertain and multidirectional region, we have preferred hexagonal grids and methods to facilitate and simplify the problem. Hexagonal grids can overcome directional warp and have some unique characteristics. For example, hexagonal grids have a simpler and more symmetric nearest neighborhood, which avoids the ambiguities of the rectangular grids. Movement paths or connectivity, the most compact arrangement of pixels, make hexagonal appear great dominance in the process of modeling and analysis. The selection of an appropriate grid should be based on the requirements and objectives of the application. We use rectangular and hexagonal grids respectively for developing city model. At the same time we make use of remote sensing images and acquire 2002 and 2005 land state of Wuhan. On the base of city land state in 2002, we make use of CA to simulate reasonable form of city in 2005. Hereby, these results provide a proof of

  5. Controlled synthesis of Ni-doped ZnO hexagonal microdiscs and their gas sensing properties at low temperature (United States)

    Ganesh, R. Sankar; Durgadevi, E.; Navaneethan, M.; Patil, V. L.; Ponnusamy, S.; Muthamizhchelvan, C.; Kawasaki, S.; Patil, P. S.; Hayakawa, Y.


    High sensitivity ammonia (NH3) gas sensor based on nickel-doped ZnO (NZO) hexagonal microdisc like-nanostructures is reported in this work. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that the undoped ZnO revealed interconnected hexagonal microdiscs transformed into hollow square shaped interconnected hexagonal microdiscs. NZO (6 wt%) showed higher response compared with other wt% and exhibited highest response of 15.1 when exposed to 100 ppm concentration of ammonia (NH3) gas at 150 °C. NZO (6 wt%) possessed good response time of 5.5 s at 100 ppm.

  6. Phonon symmetries in hexagonal boron nitride probed by incoherent light emission (United States)

    Vuong, T. Q. P.; Cassabois, G.; Valvin, P.; Jacques, V.; Van Der Lee, A.; Zobelli, A.; Watanabe, K.; Taniguchi, T.; Gil, B.


    Layered compounds are stacks of weakly bound two-dimensional atomic crystals, with a prototypal hexagonal structure in graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides and boron nitride. This crystalline anisotropy results in vibrational modes with specific symmetries depending on the in-plane or out-of-plane atomic displacements. We show that polarization-resolved photoluminescence measurements in hexagonal boron nitride reflect the phonon symmetries in this layered semiconductor. Experiments performed with a detection on the sample edge, perpendicular to the c-axis, reveal the strong polarization-dependence of the emission lines corresponding to the recombination assisted by the three acoustic phonon modes. We elucidate the dipole orientation of the fundamental indirect exciton. We demonstrate evidence of the so-far missing phonon replica due to the optical out-of-plane phonon mode.

  7. Hollow hexagonal pattern with surface discharges in a dielectric barrier discharge (United States)

    Feng, Jianyu; Dong, Lifang; Li, Caixia; Liu, Ying; Du, Tian; Hao, Fang


    The hollow hexagonal pattern involved in surface discharges is firstly investigated in a dielectric barrier discharge system. The spatiotemporal structures of the pattern are studied using an intensified charge-coupled device and photomultiplier. Instantaneous images taken by an intensified charge-coupled device and optical correlation measurements show that the surface discharges are induced by volume discharges. The optical signals indicate that the discharge filaments constituting the hexagonal frame discharge randomly at the first current pulse or the second pulse, once or twice. There is no interleaving of several sub-lattices, which indicates that the ‘memory’ effect is no longer in force due to surface discharges. By using the emission spectrum method, both the molecule vibration temperature and electron density of the surface discharges are larger than that of the volume discharges.

  8. Novel hexagonal dual-mode substrate integrated waveguide filter with source-load coupling. (United States)

    Xu, Ziqiang; Zhang, Gen; Xia, Hong; Xu, Meijuan


    Hexagonal dual-mode cavity and its application to substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) filter are presented. The hexagonal SIW resonator which can combine flexibility of rectangular cavity and performance of circular cavity is convenient for dual-mode bandpass filters design. By introducing coupling between source and load, the filter not only has good selectivity due to two controllable transmission zeros, but also has a small size by the virtue of its single-cavity structure. A demonstration filter with a center frequency of 10 GHz and a 3 dB fractional bandwidth of 4% is designed and fabricated to validate the proposed structure. Measured results are in good agreement with simulated ones.

  9. Vibroacoustic optimization of anti-tetrachiral and auxetic hexagonal sandwich panels with gradient geometry (United States)

    Ranjbar, Mostafa; Boldrin, Luca; Scarpa, Fabrizio; Neild, Simon; Patsias, Sophoclis


    The work describes the vibroacoustic behavior of anti-tetrachiral and auxetic hexagonal gradient sandwich panels using homogenized finite element models to determine the mechanical properties of the auxetic structures, the natural frequencies and radiated sound power level of sandwich panels made by the auxetic cores. The mechanical properties and the vibroacoustic behavior of auxetic hexagonal sandwich panels are investigated as a benchmark. The radiated sound power level of the structure over the frequency range of 0-1000 Hz is minimized by modifying the core geometry of the gradient auxetic sandwich panels. Several excitation cases are considered. First-order and random optimization methods are used for the minimization of radiated sound power level of the structures. The results of this study present significant insights into the design of auxetic structures with respect to their vibroacoustical properties.

  10. Stepwise Growth of Hollow Hexagonal α-Fe2O3 Nanocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqun Wang


    Full Text Available Magnetic nanocrystals have attracted much attention in various fields because of their fundamental size and shape dependent magnetism and many technological applications. In this study, hollow hexagonal α-Fe2O3 nanocrystals were synthesized using a normal hydrothermal method. A full growth evolution map of nanocrystals with different shapes was investigated to elucidate the growth mechanism. We had demonstrated the growth mechanism using the selective adsorption and dissolution theory and interestingly found that K+ cations were also a key point during the process of α-Fe2O3 nanocrystals growing. At last, the magnetic properties of the hexagonal α-Fe2O3 nanocrystals were also investigated.

  11. 'Magic' Configurations of Three-Qubit Observables and Geometric Hyperplanes of the Smallest Split Cayley Hexagon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metod Saniga


    Full Text Available Recently Waegell and Aravind [J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 45 (2012, 405301, 13 pages] have given a number of distinct sets of three-qubit observables, each furnishing a proof of the Kochen-Specker theorem. Here it is demonstrated that two of these sets/configurations, namely the 18_2−12_3 and 2_4 14_2−4_3 6_4 ones, can uniquely be extended into geometric hyperplanes of the split Cayley hexagon of order two, namely into those of types V_{22}(37;0,12,15,10 and V_4(49;0,0,21,28 in the classification of Frohardt and Johnson [Comm. Algebra 22 (1994, 773-797]. Moreover, employing an automorphism of order seven of the hexagon, six more replicas of either of the two configurations are obtained.

  12. Generating a hexagonal lattice wave-field with a gradient basis structure

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Manish


    We present a new, single step approach for generating a hexagonal lattice wave-field with a gradient local basis structure. We incorporate this by coherently superposing two (or more) hexagonal lattice wave-fields which differ in their basis structures. The basis of the resultant lattice wave-field is highly dependent on the relative strengths of constituent wave-fields and a desired spatial modulation of basis structure is thus obtained by controlling the spatial modulation of relative strengths of constituent wave-fields. The experimental realization of gradient lattice is achieved by using a phase only spatial light modulator (SLM) in an optical 4f Fourier filter setup where the SLM is displayed with numerically calculated gradient phase mask. The presented method is wavelength independent and is completely scalable making it very promising for micro-fabrication of corresponding structures.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Wang


    Full Text Available Discrete global grid system is a new data model which supports the fusion processing of multi-source geospatial data. In discrete global grid systems, all cell operations can be completed by codes theoretically, but most of current spatial data are in the forms of geographic coordinates and projected coordinates. It is necessary to study the transform between geographic coordinates and grid codes, which will support data entering and getting out of the systems. This paper chooses the icosahedral hexagonal discrete global system as a base, and builds the mapping relationships between the sphere and the icosahedron. Then an encoding scheme of planar aperture 4 hexagonal grid system is designed and applied to the icosahedron. Basing on this, a new algorithm of transforms between geographic coordinates and grid codes is designed. Finally, experiments test the accuracy and efficiency of this algorithm. The efficiency of code addition of HLQT is about 5 times the efficiency of code addition of HQBS.

  14. The Transform Between Geographic Coordinates and Location Codes of Aperture 4 Hexagonal Grid System (United States)

    Wang, R.; Ben, J.; Li, Y.; Du, L.


    Discrete global grid system is a new data model which supports the fusion processing of multi-source geospatial data. In discrete global grid systems, all cell operations can be completed by codes theoretically, but most of current spatial data are in the forms of geographic coordinates and projected coordinates. It is necessary to study the transform between geographic coordinates and grid codes, which will support data entering and getting out of the systems. This paper chooses the icosahedral hexagonal discrete global system as a base, and builds the mapping relationships between the sphere and the icosahedron. Then an encoding scheme of planar aperture 4 hexagonal grid system is designed and applied to the icosahedron. Basing on this, a new algorithm of transforms between geographic coordinates and grid codes is designed. Finally, experiments test the accuracy and efficiency of this algorithm. The efficiency of code addition of HLQT is about 5 times the efficiency of code addition of HQBS.

  15. Edge-functionalization of armchair graphene nanoribbons with pentagonal-hexagonal edge structures (United States)

    Ryou, Junga; Park, Jinwoo; Kim, Gunn; Hong, Suklyun


    Using density functional theory calculations, we have studied the edge-functionalization of armchair graphene nanoribbons (AGNRs) with pentagonal-hexagonal edge structures. While the AGNRs with pentagonal-hexagonal edge structures (labeled (5,6)-AGNRs) are metallic, the edge-functionalized (5,6)-AGNRs with substitutional atoms opens a band gap. We find that the band structures of edge-functionalized (5,6)-N-AGNRs by substitution resemble those of defect-free (N-1)-AGNR at the Γ point, whereas those at the X point show the original ones of the defect-free N-AGNR. The overall electronic structures of edge-functionalized (5,6)-AGNRs depend on the number of electrons, supplied by substitutional atoms, at the edges of functionalized (5,6)-AGNRs.

  16. Microstructure and Pinning Properties of Hexagonal Disc Shaped Single Crystalline MgB2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, J. R.


    We synthesized hexagonal-disc-shaped MgB{sub 2} single crystals under high-pressure conditions and analyzed the microstructure and pinning properties. The lattice constants and the Laue pattern of the crystals from X-ray micro-diffraction showed the crystal symmetry of MgB{sub 2}. A thorough crystallographic mapping within a single crystal showed that the edge and c-axis of hexagonal-disc shape exactly matched the (10-10) and the (0001) directions of the MgB{sub 2} phase. Thus, these well-shaped single crystals may be the best candidates for studying the direction dependences of the physical properties. The magnetization curve and the magnetic hysteresis for these single crystals showed the existence of a wide reversible region and weak pinning properties, which supported our single crystals being very clean.

  17. Transformation of shock-compressed graphite to hexagonal diamond in nanoseconds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turneaure, Stefan J.; Sharma, Surinder M.; Volz, Travis J.; Winey, J. M.; Gupta, Yogendra M.


    The graphite-to-diamond transformation under shock compression has been of broad scientific interest since 1961. The formation of hexagonal diamond (HD) is of particular interest because it is expected to be harder than cubic diamond and due to its use in terrestrial sciences as a marker at meteorite impact sites. However, the formation of diamond having a fully hexagonal structure continues to be questioned and remains unresolved. Using real-time (nanosecond), in situ x-ray diffraction measurements, we show unequivocally that highly oriented pyrolytic graphite, shock-compressed along the c axis to 50 GPa, transforms to highly oriented elastically strained HD with the (100)HD plane parallel to the graphite basal plane.

  18. Low-temperature oxidation effects on the morphological and structural properties of hexagonal Zn nano disks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, R.; Villa S, G.; Rosales D, J. [Tecnologico de Estudios Superiores de Jocotitlan, Carretera Toluca-Atlacomulco Km 44.8, Jocotitlan, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Vigueras S, E.; Hernandez L, S. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Laboratorio de Investigacion y Desarrollo de Materiales Avanzados, Paseo Colon esquina Paseo Tollocan, Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Acuna, P. [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Programa de Doctorado en Ciencia de Materiales, Paseo Colon esquina Paseo Tollocan, Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Argueta V, A.; Colin B, N., E-mail: [Tecnologico de Estudios Superiores de Jocotitlan, Programa de Ingenieria Mecatronica, Carretera Toluca-Atlacomulco Km 44.8, Jocotitlan, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)


    Ambient-atmosphere oxidation in the temperature range of 90-450 degrees Celsius was performed over Zn films composed by well-faceted hexagonal nano disks, which were deposited by thermal evaporation. Morphological and structural properties of oxidized Zn nano disks were studied by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and Raman scattering measurements. It was found that Zn nano disks keep its original shape only when they are annealed at 90 or 150 degrees Celsius. Smooth oxidation occurred only on the rectangular faces of Zn nano disks heated at 150 degrees Celsius. Thermal oxidation at 250 degrees Celsius favored growth of Zn O nano needles over the surface of the Zn nano disks. Hexagonal-shape of Zn nano disks was transformed completely into a complex morphology composed by different shaped particles, with further increase in oxidation temperature to 450 degrees Celsius. (Author)

  19. The adhesive contact problem in one-dimensional hexagonal quasicrystals with complex variable function method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHAO Xuefen


    Full Text Available This paper considers the adhesive contact problem in aperiodical plane of one-dimensional hexagonal quasicrystals. By complex variable method, the adhesive contact problem is converted into a Riemann-Hilbert boundary problem. By solving that, we obtain the explicit expressions of stress functions and contact stress for a rigid flat punch. The results how that: (1 the contact displacement is proportional to the indentation force under a flat rigid punch; (2 The contact stress exhibits the oscillatory singularities at the edge of the contact zone. Because phonon field and phason field are coupled in one-dimensional hexagonal quasicrystals, the distribution of contact stress under punch is different from the results of contact problems in the classical elasticity theory. Without the contribution of phason field, the above solutions degenerate into the classical ones. Here is the abstract of your article.

  20. Liquid explosives

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jiping


    The book drawing on the author's nearly half a century of energetic materials research experience intends to systematically review the global researches on liquid explosives. The book focuses on the study of the conception, explosion mechanism, properties and preparation of liquid explosives. It provides a combination of theoretical knowledge and practical examples in a reader-friendly style. The book is likely to be interest of university researchers and graduate students in the fields of energetic materials, blasting engineering and mining.

  1. Lattice dynamics of hexagonal and cubic InN: Raman-scattering experiments and calculations (United States)

    Kaczmarczyk, G.; Kaschner, A.; Reich, S.; Hoffmann, A.; Thomsen, C.; As, D. J.; Lima, A. P.; Schikora, D.; Lischka, K.; Averbeck, R.; Riechert, H.


    We present results of first- and second-order Raman-scattering experiments on hexagonal and cubic InN covering the acoustic and optical phonon and overtone region. Using a modified valence-force model, we calculated the phonon dispersion curves and the density of states in both InN modifications. The observed Raman shifts agree well the calculated Γ-point frequencies and the corresponding overtone density of states. A tentative assignment to particular phonon branches is given.

  2. Quantitative determination of hexagonal minority phase in cubic GaN using Raman spectroscopy (United States)

    Siegle, H.; Eckey, L.; Hoffmann, A.; Thomsen, C.; Meyer, B. K.; Schikora, D.; Hankeln, M.; Lischka, K.


    We show that Raman scattering is a very sensitive and straightforward tool for the quantitative determination of a structural minority phase in GaN. In- and on-plane excitations, as well as polarization dependent measurements on predominantly cubic and hexagonal GaN samples, were performed and forward scattering effects were found. We were able to verify as an example the phase purity of a cubic GaN sample down to the 1% level.

  3. On the tensor reduction of one-loop pentagons and hexagons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diakonidis, T.; Riemann, T.; Tausk, J.B. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Zeuthen (Germany); Fleischer, J. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Zeuthen (Germany)]|[Bielefeld Univ. (Germany). Fakultaet fuer Physik; Gluza, J.; Kajda, K. [Uniwersytet Slaski, Katowice (Poland). Inst. of Physics and Chemistry of Metals


    We perform analytical reductions of one-loop tensor integrals with 5 and 6 legs to scalar master integrals. They are based on the use of recurrence relations connecting integrals in different space-time dimensions. The reductions are expressed in a compact form in terms of signed minors, and have been implemented in a mathematica package called hexagon.m. We present several numerical examples. (orig.)

  4. A novel color filter array and demosaicking algorithm for hexagonal grids (United States)

    Fröhlich, Alexander; Unterweger, Andreas


    We propose a new color filter array for hexagonal sampling grids and a corresponding demosaicking algorithm. By exploiting properties of the human visual system in their design, we show that our proposed color filter array and its demosaicking algorithm are able to outperform the widely used Bayer pattern with state-of-the-art demosaicking algorithms in terms of both, objective and subjective image quality.

  5. High optical transmittance of aluminum ultrathin film with hexagonal nanohole arrays as transparent electrode

    KAUST Repository

    Du, Qing Guo


    We fabricate samples of aluminum ultrathin films with hexagonal nanohole arrays and characterize the transmission performance. High optical transmittance larger than 60% over a broad wavelength range from 430 nm to 750 nm is attained experimentally. The Fano-type resonance of the excited surface plasmon plaritons and the directly transmitted light attribute to both of the broadband transmission enhancement and the transmission suppression dips. © 2016 Optical Society of America.

  6. Finding confined water in the hexagonal phase of Bi0. 05Eu0. 05Y0 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1H MAS NMR spectra of Bi0.05Eu0.05Y0.90PO4·H2O show chemical shift from −0.56 ppm at 300 K to −3.8 ppm at 215 K and another one at 5–6 ppm, which are related to the confined or interstitial water in the hexagonal structure and water molecules on the surface of the particles, respectively. Negative value of the ...

  7. Synthesis and magnetic properties of hexagonal Y(Mn,Cu)O{sub 3} multiferroic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeuvrey, L., E-mail: [Sciences Chimiques de Rennes, UMR-CNRS 6226, Universite de Rennes 1, 35042 Rennes cedex (France); Pena, O. [Sciences Chimiques de Rennes, UMR-CNRS 6226, Universite de Rennes 1, 35042 Rennes cedex (France); Moure, A.; Moure, C. [Electroceramics Department, Instituto de Ceramica y Vidrio, CSIC, C/Kelsen 5, 28049, Madrid (Spain)


    Single-phase hexagonal-type solid solutions based on the multiferroic YMnO{sub 3} material were synthesized by a modified Pechini process. Copper doping at the B-site (YMn{sub 1-x}Cu{sub x}O{sub 3}; x<0.15) and self-doping at the A-site (Y{sub 1+y}MnO{sub 3}; y<0.10) successfully maintained the hexagonal structure. Self-doping was limited to y(Y)=2 at% and confirmed that excess yttrium avoids formation of ferromagnetic manganese oxide impurities but creates vacancies at the Mn site. Chemical substitution at the B-site inhibits the geometrical frustration of the Mn{sup 3+} two-dimensional lattice. The magnetic transition at T{sub N} decreases from 70 K down to 49 K, when x(Cu) goes from 0 to 15 at%. Weak ferromagnetic Mn{sup 3+}-Mn{sup 4+} interactions created by the substitution of Mn{sup 3+} by Cu{sup 2+}, are visible through the coercive field and spontaneous magnetization but do not modify the overall magnetic frustration. Presence of Mn{sup 3+}-Mn{sup 4+} pairs leads to an increase of the electrical conductivity due to thermally-activated small-polaron hopping mechanisms. Results show that local ferromagnetic interactions can coexist within the frustrated state in the hexagonal polar structure. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hexagonal-type solid solutions of Y(Mn,Cu)O{sub 3} synthesized by Pechini process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chemical substitution at B site inhibits geometrical magnetic frustration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Magnetic transition decreases with Cu-doping. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Local ferromagnetic Mn-Mn interactions coexist with the frustrated state.

  8. Hydrothermal synthesis of hexagonal CeO{sub 2} nanosheets and their room temperature ferromagnetism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Fanming, E-mail: [School of Physics and Materials Science, Anhui University, Hefei 230601 (China); Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams, Dalian University of Technology, Ministry of Education, Dalian 116024 (China); Zhang, Cheng; Fan, Zhenghua; Gong, Jinfeng; Li, Aixia; Ding, Zongling; Tang, Huaibao; Zhang, Miao; Wu, Guifang [School of Physics and Materials Science, Anhui University, Hefei 230601 (China)


    Hexagonal CeO{sub 2} nanosheets of 40–50 nm in thickness and 300–400 nm in side-length have been successfully synthesized via controlling the morphology of CeCO{sub 3}OH precursors by a facile hydrothermal technique using CeCl{sub 3}·7H{sub 2}O as cerium source, ammonium hydrogen carbonate as precipitants, and ethylenediamine as complexant. The reaction time and the amount of CeCl{sub 3}·7H{sub 2}O and ethylenediamine were systematically investigated. The as-synthesized hexagonal CeO{sub 2} nanosheets were examined by XRD, SEM, TEM, XPS, Raman scattering and magnetization measurements. It is found that the amount of CeCl{sub 3}·7H{sub 2}O and ethylenediamine are key parameters for controlling the final morphology. The hexagonal CeO{sub 2} nanosheets have a fluorite cubic structure and there are Ce{sup 3+} ions and oxygen vacancies in surface of samples. The synthesized CeO{sub 2} shows excellent room temperature optical properties. M–H curve exhibits excellent room-temperature ferromagnetism (RTFM) with saturation magnetization (M{sub s}) of 3.02 × 10{sup −2} emu/g, residual magnetization (M{sub r}) of 0.68 × 10{sup −2} emu/g and coercivity (H{sub c}) of 210 Oe, which is likely attributed to the effects of the Ce{sup 3+} ions and oxygen vacancies. - Highlights: • Hexagonal CeO{sub 2} nanosheets with superexerllent RTFM are synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method. • RTFM mechanism of CeO{sub 2} nanosheets can be attributed to the influences of oxygen vacancies and Ce{sup 3+} ions. • A defect driven dissolution–recrystallization mechanism is suggested to explain the transformation from nanowires to nanosheets.

  9. Fabrication Improvement of Cold Forging Hexagonal Nuts by Computational Analysis and Experiment Verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-Yi Hsia


    Full Text Available Cold forging has played a critical role in fasteners and has been applied to the automobile industry, construction industry, aerospace industry, and living products so that cold forging presents the opportunities for manufacturing more products. By using computer simulation, this study attempts to analyze the process of creating machine parts, such as hexagonal nuts. The DEFORM-3D forming software is applied to analyze the process at various stages in the computer simulation, and the compression test is also used for the flow stress equation in order to compare the differences between the experimental results and the equation that is built into the computer simulation software. At the same time, the metallography and hardness of experiments are utilized to understand the cold forging characteristics of hexagonal nuts. The research results would benefit machinery businesses to realize the forging load and forming conditions at various stages before the fastener formation. In addition to planning proper die design and production, the quality of the produced hexagonal nuts would be more stable to promote industrial competitiveness.

  10. Direct numerical simulation of turbulence and heat transfer in a hexagonal shaped duct (United States)

    Marin, Oana; Obabko, Aleks; Schlatter, Philipp


    Flows in hexagonal shapes frequently occur in nuclear reactor applications, and are also present in honeycomb-shaped settling chambers for e.g. wind tunnels. Whereas wall-bounded turbulence has been studied comprehensively in two-dimensional channels, and to a lesser degree also in square and rectangular ducts and triangles, only very limited data for hexagonal ducts is available, including resistance correlations and mean profiles. Here, we use resolved spectral-element simulations to compute velocity and temperature in fully-developed (periodic) hexagonal duct flow. The Reynolds number, based on the fixed flow rate and the hydraulic diameter, ranges between 2000 and 20000. The temperature assumes constant wall flux or constant wall temperature. First DNS results are focused on the mean characteristics such a head loss, Nusselt number, and critical Reynolds number for sustained turbulence. Profiles, both for mean and fluctuating quantities, are extracted and discussed in the context of square ducts and pipes. Comparisons to existing experiments, RANS and empirical correlations are supplied as well. The results show a complicated and fine-scale pattern of the in-plane secondary flow, which clearly affects the momentum and temperature distribution throughout the cross section.

  11. Photoluminescence Segmentation within Individual Hexagonal Monolayer Tungsten Disulfide Domains Grown by Chemical Vapor Deposition. (United States)

    Sheng, Yuewen; Wang, Xiaochen; Fujisawa, Kazunori; Ying, Siqi; Elias, Ana Laura; Lin, Zhong; Xu, Wenshuo; Zhou, Yingqiu; Korsunsky, Alexander M; Bhaskaran, Harish; Terrones, Mauricio; Warner, Jamie H


    We show that hexagonal domains of monolayer tungsten disulfide (WS2) grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) with powder precursors can have discrete segmentation in their photoluminescence (PL) emission intensity, forming symmetric patterns with alternating bright and dark regions. Two-dimensional maps of the PL reveal significant reduction within the segments associated with the longest sides of the hexagonal domains. Analysis of the PL spectra shows differences in the exciton to trion ratio, indicating variations in the exciton recombination dynamics. Monolayers of WS2 hexagonal islands transferred to new substrates still exhibit this PL segmentation, ruling out local strain in the regions as the dominant cause. High-power laser irradiation causes preferential degradation of the bright segments by sulfur removal, indicating the presence of a more defective region that is higher in oxidative reactivity. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) images of topography and amplitude modes show uniform thickness of the WS2 domains and no signs of segmentation. However, AFM phase maps do show the same segmentation of the domain as the PL maps and indicate that it is caused by some kind of structural difference that we could not clearly identify. These results provide important insights into the spatially varying properties of these CVD-grown transition metal dichalcogenide materials, which may be important for their effective implementation in fast photo sensors and optical switches.

  12. Theoretical study on critical thickness of heteroepitaxial h-BN on hexagonal crystals (United States)

    Yu, Jiadong; Wang, Lai; Hao, Zhibiao; Luo, Yi; Sun, Changzheng; Han, Yanjun; Xiong, Bing; Wang, Jian; Li, Hongtao


    Hexagonal crystals are suitable underlayer candidates for hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) heteroepitaxy due to their similar in-plane atomic arrangement. When the thickness of h-BN is beyond a critical value, its accumulated stress resulting from the lattice mismatch can be relaxed by generating dislocation or changing into three-dimensional growth. Here we calculate the evolution of h-BN critical thickness with the growth temperature when it is grown on various frequently-used hexagonal crystals for both cases. The results show that in order to minimize the lattice mismatch, a low growth temperature is preferred when grown on GaN or Si(1 1 1) while on the contrary when grown on 6H-SiC or α-Al2O3. Besides, AlN is the most unique underlayer as its lattice mismatch with h-BN is relatively small (100 nm) growth. Moreover, large area of two-dimensional thin h-BN (5-15 nm) layer can be obtained on GaN, 6H-SiC, Si(1 1 1) or α-Al2O3 except for graphene. On the other hand, calculation indicates that large area of graphene can be grown on h-BN.

  13. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis of triclinic and hexagonal birnessites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ling, Florence T.; Post, Jeffrey E.; Heaney, Peter J.; Kubicki, James D.; Santelli, Cara M.


    The characterization of birnessite structures is particularly challenging for poorly crystalline materials of biogenic origin, and a determination of the relative concentrations of triclinic and hexagonal birnessite in a mixed assemblage has typically required synchrotron-based spectroscopy and diffraction approaches. In this study, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) is demonstrated to be capable of differentiating synthetic triclinic Na-birnessite and synthetic hexagonal H-birnessite. Furthermore, IR spectral deconvolution of peaks resulting from Mnsingle bondO lattice vibrations between 400 and 750 cm- 1 yield results comparable to those obtained by linear combination fitting of synchrotron X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) data when applied to known mixtures of triclinic and hexagonal birnessites. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations suggest that an infrared absorbance peak at ~ 1628 cm- 1 may be related to OH vibrations near vacancy sites. The integrated intensity of this peak may show sensitivity to vacancy concentrations in the Mn octahedral sheet for different birnessites.

  14. Synthesis of Phase Pure Hexagonal YFeO3 Perovskite as Efficient Visible Light Active Photocatalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Ismael


    Full Text Available Hexagonal perovskite YFeO3 was synthesized by a complex-assisted sol-gel technique allowing crystallization at calcination temperatures below 700 °C. As determined by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS and Tauc plots, the hexagonal YFeO3 exhibits a lower optical band gap (1.81 eV than the orthorhombic structure (about 2.1 eV or even higher being typically obtained at elevated temperatures (>700 °C, and thus enables higher visible light photocatalysis activity. Structure and morphology of the synthesized YFeO3 perovskites were analyzed by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD and nitrogen adsorption, proving that significantly smaller crystallite sizes and higher surface areas are obtained for YFeO3 with a hexagonal phase. The photocatalytic activity of the different YFeO3 phases was deduced via the degradation of the model pollutants methyl orange and 4-chlorophenol. Experiments under illumination with light of different wavelengths, in the presence of different trapping elements, as well as photoelectrochemical tests allow conclusions regarding band positions of YFeO3 and the photocatalytic degradation mechanism. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicates that a very thin layer of Y2O3 might support the photocatalysis by improving the separation of photogenerated charge carriers.

  15. Pin-wheel hexagons: a model for anthraquinone ordering on Cu(111). (United States)

    Simenas, M; Tornau, E E


    The 4-state model of anthraquinone molecules ordering in a pin-wheel large-pore honeycomb phase on Cu(111) is proposed and solved by Monte Carlo simulation. The model is defined on a rescaled triangular lattice with the lattice constant a being equal to intermolecular distance in the honeycomb phase. The pin-wheel triangle formations are obtained taking into account the elongated shape of the molecules and anisotropic interactions for main two attractive short range (double and single dimeric) H-bond interactions. The long-range intermolecular interactions, corresponding to repulsive dipole-dipole forces, are assumed to be isotropic. Also, a very small (compared to short-range forces) isotropic attractive long-range interaction at the "characteristic" distance of a pore diameter is employed, and its effect carefully studied. This interaction is crucial for a formation of closed porous ordered systems, pin-wheel hexagons in particular. If each side of a pin-wheel hexagon is formed of n parallel molecules, the distance of this characteristic interaction is a√(3n(2)+1). The phase diagrams including different pin-wheel hexagon phases and a variety of other ordered structures are obtained. By changing the distance of characteristic interaction, different ordering routes into the experimental pin-wheel honeycomb phase are explored. The results obtained imply that classical explanation of the origin of the pin-wheel honeycomb phase in terms of some balance of attractive and repulsive forces cannot be totally discounted yet.

  16. Sunflower oil mediated biomimetic synthesis and cytotoxicity of monodisperse hexagonal silver nanoparticles. (United States)

    Thakore, Sonal; Rathore, Puran Singh; Jadeja, Ravirajsinh N; Thounaojam, Menaka; Devkar, Ranjitsinh V


    In this work, sunflower oil was utilized for the biomimetic synthesis of silver (Ag) nanoparticles (NPs), leading to highly mono-dispersed hexagonal-shaped silver nanoparticles (NPs) at various concentrations. It was found that the biomolecules of the oil not only have the capability to reduce silver ions, due to its extended phenolic system, but also appear to recognize and affect the Ag nanocrystal growth on the (110) face, leading to hexagonal growth of the NPs of 50 nm size. Initially, some spherical AgNPs of less than 10nm diameter were observed; however, over a longer period of time, a majority of hexagonal-shaped nanocrystals were formed. The one step synthesis can be extended for other metals. The as prepared sunflower oil capped AgNPs being completely free of toxic chemicals can be directly utilized for in vitro studies and offer a more rational approach for cellular applications. The NP solution exhibited dose-dependent cytotoxicity in human lung carcinoma cells and physiologically relevant cell model (3T3L1 cells). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Curvature and ionization-induced reversible hydrogen storage in metalized hexagonal B36 (United States)

    Liu, Chun-Sheng; Wang, Xiangfu; Ye, Xiao-Juan; Yan, Xiaohong; Zeng, Zhi


    The synthesis of quasiplanar boron clusters (B36) with a central hexagonal hole provides the first experimental evidence that a single-atomic-layer borophene with hexagonal vacancies is potentially viable [Z. Piazza, H. Hu, W. Li, Y. Zhao, J. Li, and L. S. Wang, Nat. Commun. 5, 3113 (2014)]. However, owing to the hexagonal holes, tunning the electronic and physical properties of B36 through chemical modifications is not fully understood. Based on (van der Waals corrected-) density functional theory, we show that Li adsorbed on B36 and B^-_{36} clusters can serve as reversible hydrogen storage media. The present results indicate that the curvature and ionization of substrates can enhance the bond strength of Li due to the energetically favorable B 2p-Li 2p orbitals hybridization. Both the polarization mechanism and the orbital hybridization between H-s orbitals and Li-2s2p orbitals contribute to the adsorption of H2 molecules and the resulting adsorption energy lies between the physisorbed and chemisorbed states. Interestingly, the number of H2 in the hydrogen storage medium can be measured by the appearance of the negative differential resistance behavior at different bias voltage regions. Furthermore, the cluster-assembled hydrogen storage materials constructed by metalized B36 clusters do not cause a decrease in the number of adsorbed hydrogen molecules per Li. The system reported here is favorable for the reversible hydrogen adsorption/desorption at ambient conditions.

  18. Maxillary zygomatic hexagonal implant system (MZH system) for severe resorption: a new technique. (United States)

    Ruben, Muñoz; Jose, Golaszewski; Alvaro, Diaz; Grace, Speranza


    The biomechanical demands of the severely resorbed maxilla have prompted the search for alternative points of anchorage for zygomatic implants that allows stabilizing a prosthesis in young patients (30 years old or more) for restitution of function and form. The purpose of this study is to describe the protocol of zygomatic hexagonal implants in patients with severe maxillary bone resorption. Ten patients with severe maxillary resorption were treated with hexagonal implants system, they were evaluated at the preoperative and the postoperative periods for a minimal of 24 months, and the evaluation was clinical and trough conventional radiographs and CT scans. Six implants according to prosthetic prior planning were placed in each patient. Anteroposterior severely resorbed maxilla was evidence. Patients were rehabilitated with immediate provisional prosthesis. Ten days after surgery, definitive prosthesis metal structures were designed and adapted. Force distribution and load concentration were balanced; adjustment of the metal bar was passive. Correction of skeletal relationship was evident. No fatigue in the later additions in controls was observable. No complications were found in the immediate postoperative period and late (6-24 months), no patients dropped out from the study, and all were followed up to 24 months. The zygomatic hexagonal implants' protocol guarantees barrier function, biomechanical stability, load distribution, and preventing fatigue bone/implant interface, which allows distributing of the forces through the pillars, anterior masticatory load reduction, and correcting the skeletal class III type which occurs in patients with severe resorption.

  19. Curvature and ionization-induced reversible hydrogen storage in metalized hexagonal B36. (United States)

    Liu, Chun-Sheng; Wang, Xiangfu; Ye, Xiao-Juan; Yan, Xiaohong; Zeng, Zhi


    The synthesis of quasiplanar boron clusters (B36) with a central hexagonal hole provides the first experimental evidence that a single-atomic-layer borophene with hexagonal vacancies is potentially viable [Z. Piazza, H. Hu, W. Li, Y. Zhao, J. Li, and L. S. Wang, Nat. Commun. 5, 3113 (2014)]. However, owing to the hexagonal holes, tunning the electronic and physical properties of B36 through chemical modifications is not fully understood. Based on (van der Waals corrected-) density functional theory, we show that Li adsorbed on B36 and B36 (-) clusters can serve as reversible hydrogen storage media. The present results indicate that the curvature and ionization of substrates can enhance the bond strength of Li due to the energetically favorable B 2p-Li 2p orbitals hybridization. Both the polarization mechanism and the orbital hybridization between H-s orbitals and Li-2s2p orbitals contribute to the adsorption of H2 molecules and the resulting adsorption energy lies between the physisorbed and chemisorbed states. Interestingly, the number of H2 in the hydrogen storage medium can be measured by the appearance of the negative differential resistance behavior at different bias voltage regions. Furthermore, the cluster-assembled hydrogen storage materials constructed by metalized B36 clusters do not cause a decrease in the number of adsorbed hydrogen molecules per Li. The system reported here is favorable for the reversible hydrogen adsorption/desorption at ambient conditions.

  20. Reversed hexagonal phase formation in lecithin-alkane-water systems with different acyl chain unsaturation and alkane length. (United States)

    Sjölund, M; Rilfors, L; Lindblom, G


    Investigations of lipid-alkane systems are important for an understanding of the interactions between lipids and hydrophobic/amphiphilic peptides or other hydrophobic biological molecules. A study of the formation of nonlamellar phases in several phosphatidylcholine (PC)-alkane-2H2O systems has been performed. The PC molecules chosen in this work are dipalmitoyl-PC (DPPC), 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-PC (POPC), dioleoyl-PC (DOPC), and dilinoleoyl-PC (DLiPC), lipids that in excess water form just a lamellar liquid-crystalline phase up to at least 90 degrees C. The addition of n-alkanes (C8-C20) to these PC-2H2O systems induces the formation of reversed hexagonal (HII) and isotropic phases. The water and dodecane concentrations required to form these phases depend on the degree of acyl chain unsaturation of the PC molecules and increase in the order DLiPC approximately DOPC less than POPC less than DPPC. The most likely explanation to this result is that the diameter of the lipid-water cylinders in the HII phase grows gradually larger with increased acyl chain saturation and more water and dodecane are consequently needed to fill the water cylinders and the void volumes between the cylinders, respectively. The ability of the alkanes to promote the formation of an HII phase is strongly chain length dependent. Although the number of alkane carbon atoms added per DOPC molecule in the DOPC-n-alkane-2H2O mixtures was kept constant, this ability decreased on going from octane to eicosane. The thermal history of a DPPC-n-dodecane-2H2O sample was important for its phase behavior.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Crystallographic structure of human tooth enamel by electron microscopy and x‐ray diffraction: hexagonal or monoclinic?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library



    Recently reports on the major stability of the monoclinic phase of hydroxyapatite compared with the hexagonal phase have established it as the most observable structure of hydroxyapatite in natural...

  2. Raman mapping of hexagonal hillocks in N-polar GaN grown on c-plane sapphire (United States)

    Jiang, Teng; Lin, Zhiyu; Zhang, Jincheng; Xu, Shengrui; Huang, Jun; Niu, Mutong; Gao, Xiaodong; Guo, Lixin; Hao, Yue


    A large amount of huge hexagonal hillocks were observed on the surface of N-polar GaN film grown on c-plane sapphire substrate by MOCVD. The distribution of residual stress and dislocation density in a typical hexagonal hillock was investigated by the mapping measurement of Micro-Raman and Cathodoluminescence (CL) spectroscopy. It is found that the residual stress at the top region of the hillock is much smaller than that of the sidewall region and the region around the hillock. Meanwhile, the CL images confirmed that the dislocation density around the hexagonal hillock is higher than the top region of the hillock. The bending and annihilation of the dislocations during the growth of the hexagonal hillock result in the relaxation of residual stress which should be responsible for the spatial variation of dislocation density and residual stress.

  3. Complex magnetism of Ho-Dy-Y-Gd-Tb hexagonal high-entropy alloy (United States)

    Lužnik, J.; Koželj, P.; Vrtnik, S.; Jelen, A.; Jagličić, Z.; Meden, A.; Feuerbacher, M.; Dolinšek, J.


    Rare earth based equimolar Ho-Dy-Y-Gd-Tb hexagonal high-entropy alloy (HEA) is a prototype of an ideal HEA, stabilized by the entropy of mixing at any temperature with random mixing of elements on the hexagonal close-packed lattice. In order to determine intrinsic properties of an ideal HEA characterized by the enormous chemical (substitutional) disorder on a weakly distorted simple lattice, we have performed measurements of its magnetic and electrical response and the specific heat. The results show that the Ho-Dy-Y-Gd-Tb hexagonal HEA exhibits a rich and complex magnetic field-temperature (H ,T ) phase diagram, as a result of competition among the periodic potential arising from the electronic band structure that favors periodic magnetic ordering, the disorder-induced local random potential that favors spin glass-type spin freezing in random directions, the Zeeman interaction with the external field that favors spin alignment along the field direction, and the thermal agitation that opposes any spin ordering. Three characteristic temperature regions were identified in the (H ,T ) phase diagram between room temperature and 2 K. Within the upper temperature region I (roughly between 300 and 75 K), thermal fluctuations average out the effect of local random pinning potential and the spin system behaves as a pure system of compositionally averaged spins, undergoing a thermodynamic phase transition to a long-range ordered helical antiferromagnetic state at the Néel temperature TN=180 K that is a compositional average of the Néel temperatures of pure Tb, Dy, and Ho metals. Region II (between 75 and 20 K) is an intermediate region where the long-range periodic spin order "melts" and the random ordering of spins in the local random potential starts to prevail. Within the low-temperature region III (below 20 K), the spins gradually freeze in a spin glass configuration. The spin glass phase appears to be specific to the rare earths containing hexagonal HEAs, sharing

  4. Template-engaged solid-state synthesis of barium–strontium silicate hexagonal tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xuncai; Kim, Woo-Sik, E-mail:


    Solid materials with hollow structures are of significant interest due to their beneficial features, such as a high surface to volume ratio, high void space in the structure, and low apparent density, allowing such applications as high efficiency catalysts and drug delivery agent. This study presents a new synthetic method for generating hexagonal hollow tubes of (BaSr)SiO{sub 4} via a template-engaged solid–solid reaction. First, the composition tuneable (BaSr)CO{sub 3} hexagonal rods were prepared as the template by the co-precipitation of Ba{sup 2+}, Sr{sup 2+}, and then uniformly shelled with the silica (SiO{sub 2}) using CTAB, thereby forming (BaSr)CO{sub 3}–SiO{sub 2} core–shell rods. The SiO{sub 2} shell thickness is adjustable based on the TEOS concentration in the sol–gel process. The (BaSr)CO{sub 3}–SiO{sub 2} core–shell rods were converted to the (BaSr)SiO{sub 4} hexagonal hollow tubes by an interfacial solid–solid reaction between the (BaSr)CO{sub 3} core and SiO{sub 2} shell at 750 °C. During this interfacial solid–solid reaction, the (BaSr)CO{sub 3} hexagonal rods are the template for hexagonal tubes of (BaSr)SiO{sub 4}. Kirkendall effect contributes to the formation of hollow tube structure of (BaSr)SiO{sub 4}. The proposed synthetic method demonstrated a significant advantage for the preparation of (BaSr)SiO:Eu{sup 2+} phosphor, where the synthetic temperature was reduced from 1200 °C to 500 °C when compared with the conventional method. The photoluminescence property of the hollow tubular (BaSr)SiO:Eu{sup 2+} showed a green emission between 480 nm and 600 nm with the maximum peak intensity at 517 nm under UV excitation. This synthetic method could also be applied to the preparation of hollow-structured multi-component metal silicates.

  5. Studium lokální struktury hexagonálních feritů metodami NMR


    Kouřil, Karel


    Title: Local structure of hexagonal ferrites studied by NMR Author: Karel Kouřil Department/Institute: Department of Low Temperature Physics Supervisor of the doctoral thesis: prof. RNDr. Helena Štěpánková, CSc. Abstract: Hexagonal ferrites of M, W, X and Y structure types were studied by means of NMR, electronic structure calculations and magnetoelectric experi- ments. Presented results deal with cation distribution, localization of ferrous ions, interpretation of NMR spectra of studied mate...

  6. Application of ultrasonic guided waves to the characterization of texture in metal sheets of cubic and hexagonal crystallites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yan.


    Ultrasonic techniques have recently been applied to the texture characterization in polycrystalline aggregates of hexagonal crystals. The basis of this application lies in the relations between the elastic constants {bar C}{sub ij} of the aggregates, which can be inferred from ultrasonic wave velocity measurements, and the orientation distribution coefficients. This communication present such relations for aggregates which possess orthotopic material symmetry and hexagonal crystal symmetry for Voigt, Reuss, and Hill averaging methods in a unified and concise representation.

  7. Amplification-free liquid biopsy by fluorescence approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uhd, Jesper; Okholm, Anders; Kjems, Jargen


    Liquid biopsy is an attractive new paradigm of modern cancer research and clinical oncology. Synergy of fluorescence microscopy with mutation specific molecular probes is a method that we developed for the detection of tumor related circulating DNA, ctDNA. The present detection methods of ctDNA s...

  8. Liquid Crystals (United States)


    Thermochromic liquid crystals, or TLCs, are a type of liquid crystals that react to changes in temperature by changing color. The Hallcrest/NASA collaboration involved development of a new way to visualize boundary layer transition in flight and in wind tunnel testing of aircraft wing and body surfaces. TLCs offered a new and potentially better method of visualizing the boundary layer transition in flight. Hallcrest provided a liquid crystal formulation technique that afforded great control over the sensitivity of the liquid crystals to varying conditions. Method is of great use to industry, government and universities for aerodynamic and hydrodynamic testing. Company's principal line is temperature indicating devices for industrial use, such as non-destructive testing and flaw detection in electric/electronic systems, medical application, such as diagnostic systems, for retail sale, such as room, refrigerator, baby bath and aquarium thermometers, and for advertising and promotion specials. Additionally, Hallcrest manufactures TLC mixtures for cosmetic applications, and liquid crystal battery tester for Duracell batteries.

  9. Complex variable method for an anti-plane elliptical cavity of one-dimensional hexagonal piezoelectric quasicrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Jing


    Full Text Available Based on the fundamental equations of piezoelasticity of quasicrystal media, using the symmetry operations of point groups, the linear piezoelasticity behavior of one-dimensional (1D hexagonal quasicrystals is investigated and the piezoelasticity problem of 1D hexagonal quasicrystals is decomposed into two uncoupled problems, i.e., the classical plane elasticity problem of conventional hexagonal crystals and the phonon–phason-electric coupling elasticity problem of 1D hexagonal quasicrystals. The final governing equations are derived for the phonon–phason-electric coupling anti-plane elasticity of 1D hexagonal quasicrystals. The complex variable method for an anti-plane elliptical cavity in 1D hexagonal piezoelectric quasicrystals is proposed and the exact solutions of complex potential functions, the stresses and displacements of the phonon and the phason fields, the electric displacements and the electric potential are obtained explicitly. Reducing the cavity into a crack, the explicit solutions in closed forms of electro–elastic fields, the field intensity factors and the energy release rate near the crack tip are derived.

  10. Transformations of Liquid Metals in Ionic Liquid


    Liu, Fujun; Yu, Yongze; Liu, Jing


    Experimental studies were carried out on the motions and transformations of liquid metal in ionic liquid under applied electric field. The induced vortex rings and flows of ionic liquid were determined via the photographs taken sequentially over the experiments. The polarization of electric double layer of liquid metals was employed to explain the flow of ionic liquid with the presence of liquid metal. Unlike former observation of liquid metal machine in conventional solution, no gas bubble w...

  11. Lipoplexes formed from sugar-based gemini surfactants undergo a lamellar-to-micellar phase transition at acidic pH. Evidence for a non-inverted membrane-destabilizing hexagonal phase of lipoplexes. (United States)

    Wasungu, Luc; Stuart, Marc C A; Scarzello, Marco; Engberts, Jan B F N; Hoekstra, Dick


    The present study aims at a better understanding of the mechanism of transfection mediated by two sugar-based gemini surfactants GS1 and GS2. Previously, these gemini surfactants have been shown to be efficient gene vectors for transfection both in vitro and in vivo. Here, using Nile Red, a solvatochromic fluorescent probe, we investigated the phase behavior of these gemini surfactants in complexes with plasmid DNA, so-called lipoplexes. We found that these lipoplexes undergo a lamellar-to-non-inverted micellar phase transition upon decreasing the pH from neutral to mildly acidic. This normal (non-inverted) phase at acidic pH is confirmed by the colloidal stability of the lipoplexes as shown by turbidity measurements. We therefore propose a normal hexagonal phase, H(I), for the gemini surfactant lipoplexes at acidic endosomal pH. Thus, we suggest that besides an inverted hexagonal (H(II)) phase as reported for several transfection-potent cationic lipid systems, another type of non-inverted non-bilayer structure, different from H(II), may destabilize the endosomal membrane, necessary for cytosolic DNA delivery and ultimately, cellular transfection.

  12. Mitochondrial DNA. (United States)

    Wright, Russell G.; Bottino, Paul J.


    Provides background information for teachers on mitochondrial DNA, pointing out that it may have once been a free-living organism. Includes a ready-to-duplicate exercise titled "Using Microchondrial DNA to Measure Evolutionary Distance." (JN)

  13. Liquid Marbles

    KAUST Repository

    Khalil, Kareem


    Granulation, the process of formation of granules from a combination of base powders and binder liquids, has been a subject of research for almost 50 years, studied extensively for its vast applications, primarily to the pharmaceutical industry sector. The principal aim of granulation is to form granules comprised of the active pharmaceutical ingredients (API’s), which have more desirable handling and flowability properties than raw powders. It is also essential to ensure an even distribution of active ingredients within a tablet with the goal of achieving time‐controlled release of drugs. Due to the product‐specific nature of the industry, however, data is largely empirical [1]. For example, the raw powders used can vary in size by two orders of magnitude with narrow or broad size distributions. The physical properties of the binder liquids can also vary significantly depending on the powder properties and required granule size. Some significant progress has been made to better our understanding of the overall granulation process [1] and it is widely accepted that the initial nucleation / wetting stage, when the binder liquid first wets the powders, is key to the whole process. As such, many experimental studies have been conducted in attempt to elucidate the physics of this first stage [1], with two main mechanisms being observed – classified by Ivenson [1] as the “Traditional description” and the “Modern Approach”. See Figure 1 for a graphical definition of these two mechanisms. Recent studies have focused on the latter approach [1] and a new, exciting development in this field is the Liquid Marble. This interesting formation occurs when a liquid droplet interacts with a hydrophobic (or superhydrophobic) powder. The droplet can become encased in the powder, which essentially provides a protective “shell” or “jacket” for the liquid inside [2]. The liquid inside is then isolated from contact with other solids or liquids and has some

  14. An on-line high-performance liquid chromatography-diode-array detector-multi-stage mass spectrometry-deoxyribonucleic acid-4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole-fluorescence detector system for screening the DNA-binding active compounds in Fufang Banbianlian Injection. (United States)

    Li, Sensen; Jiang, Haixiu; Lin, Zongtao; Deng, Shanshan; Guan, Yanqing; Wang, Hong; Chen, Shizhong


    Fufang Banbianlian Injection (FBI), a well-known traditional Chinese medicine formula, has been recently approved and extensively used as a newly anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor drug. This prescription comprises an equal ratio of three traditional Chinese herbs, Lobelia chinensis Lour, Scutellaria barbata D. Don and Hedyotis diffusa Willd. The relationships between its chemical compositions and activities have not been understood well yet. To investigate the ingredients and their DNA-binding activities in FBI, an on-line high-performance liquid chromatography-diode-array detector-multi-stage mass spectrometry-deoxyribonucleic acid-4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole-fluorescence detector (HPLC-DAD-MS(n)-DNA-DAPI-FLD) system was developed using a combination of chromatographic, mass spectrometric and fluorescent detection techniques. 4',6-Diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) specifically binds to three ATT base pairs on the DNA minor groove, and thus can be used as a fluorescent probe for screening active compounds that compete ATT sequences with DAPI. Using this system, 21 of 58 identified or tentatively characterized compounds in FBI showed DNA-binding activities, with most of the active compounds being flavone glycosides. In addition, the structure-activity relationships of these active compounds suggested that conjugated planar structures are favorable for DNA-binding activities, and adjacent hydroxyl groups in flavonoids can significantly improve their activities. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first application of DAPI as a fluorescent probe for the screening of DNA-binding active compounds in complex samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Geometric triangular chiral hexagon crystal-like complexes organization in pathological tissues biological collision order.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo A Díaz

    Full Text Available The present study describes and documents self-assembly of geometric triangular chiral hexagon crystal like complex organizations (GTCHC in human pathological tissues. The authors have found this architectural geometric expression at macroscopic and microscopic levels mainly in cancer processes. This study is based essentially on macroscopic and histopathologic analyses of 3000 surgical specimens: 2600 inflammatory lesions and 400 malignant tumours. Geometric complexes identified photographically at macroscopic level were located in the gross surgical specimen, and these areas were carefully dissected. Samples were taken to carry out histologic analysis. Based on the hypothesis of a collision genesis mechanism and because it is difficult to carry out an appropriate methodological observation in biological systems, the authors designed a model base on other dynamic systems to obtain indirect information in which a strong white flash wave light discharge, generated by an electronic device, hits over the lines of electrical conductance structured in helicoidal pattern. In their experimental model, the authors were able to reproduce and to predict polarity, chirality, helicoid geometry, triangular and hexagonal clusters through electromagnetic sequential collisions. They determined that similar events among constituents of extracelular matrix which drive and produce piezoelectric activity are responsible for the genesis of GTCHC complexes in pathological tissues. This research suggests that molecular crystals represented by triangular chiral hexagons derived from a collision-attraction event against collagen type I fibrils emerge at microscopic and macroscopic scales presenting a lateral assembly of each side of hypertrophy helicoid fibers, that represent energy flow in cooperative hierarchically chiral electromagnetic interaction in pathological tissues and arises as a geometry of the equilibrium in perturbed biological systems. Further

  16. Y-type hexagonal ferrites for microwave absorber and antenna applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stergiou, Charalampos A., E-mail: [Laboratory of Inorganic Materials, Centre for Research and Technology Hellas, 57001 Thermi (Greece); Litsardakis, George [Laboratory of Materials for Electrotechnics, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)


    This article examines the potential of the Y-type hexagonal ferrites, BaSrCo{sub 2−x}Ni{sub x}Fe{sub 12}O{sub 22}, as passive microwave absorbing materials and magneto-dielectric antenna substrates. To this effect, we investigated the electromagnetic properties of the fabricated samples up to 18 GHz, in conjunction with the composition, microstructure and static magnetic characteristics. It was found that the Ni substitution yields the increase of permeability μ* and permittivity ε* as a consequence of the weaker magnetocrystalline anisotropy and enhanced dielectric orientation polarization. By virtue of their different ε* and μ* spectra, the Co-rich hexagonal ferrites appear as appropriate for narrowband-yet tunable-reflection reduction in the 2.6–18 GHz range (>20 dB), whereas with Ni addition wideband attenuation of the transmitted waves (>20 dB) is attained in the 7–18 GHz band. In addition, the persistence of high refractive index up to 1 GHz enables the utilization of these hexagonal ferrites in UHF antenna designs with smaller dimensions. Among them, designs with Co{sub 2}-Y compound are liable to higher radiation efficiency, while Ni{sub 2}-Y favours the achievement of wider bandwidth. On this basis, the performance of the produced materials in high frequency applications is evaluated and certain improvement directions are indicated. - Highlights: • Permeability μ and permittivity ε in Co{sub 2}-Y hexaferrites increase with Ni addition. • High Co content favours narrowband tunable reflection damping (RL>20 dB at 3–18 GHz). • High Ni content induces broadband transmission loss peaks at 7–18 GHz (TL>20 dB). • Antenna downsizing is enabled, but high ε substrate compromises performance.

  17. Synthesis and adsorption performance of Mg(OH)2 hexagonal nanosheet-graphene oxide composites (United States)

    Liu, Mengdi; Xu, Jing; Cheng, Bei; Ho, Wingkei; Yu, Jiaguo


    A series of Mg(OH)2 hexagonal nanosheet-graphene oxide (GO) composites were synthesized through a simple hydrothermal method using magnesium nitrate and GO as precursors, sodium nitrate and sodium oxalate as additives, and sodium hydroxide and ammonia as precipitants. The as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms, Raman spectroscopy, zeta potential analysis, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The adsorption affinity of the as-prepared samples toward congo red (CR) in water was analyzed and investigated. Results indicated that GO addition influenced the thickness, morphology, and adsorption performance of Mg(OH)2 hexagonal nanosheets. As GO concentration increased, the thickness decreased. Especially at high GO concentration (1 wt%), Mg(OH)2 hexagonal nanosheets changed into aggregated flower-like spheres. Addition of small amounts of GO also increased the adsorption capacity of Mg(OH)2. The equilibrium adsorption data of CR on the composite were further investigated by Langmuir and Freundlich models, indicating that the Langmuir model was much more suitable for the experimental data. The sample prepared with 0.5 wt% GO showed the highest adsorption capacity with 118 mg g-1. The experimental data were then fitted using pseudo-second order kinetics, suggesting that pseudo-second order kinetics could well describe the adsorption of CR on composites. Adsorption thermodynamics analysis showed that the adsorption activation energy was 29.2 kJ mol-1, suggesting that the adsorption of CR onto the samples was physical adsorption. Adsorption between the samples and CR was mainly due to the strong electrostatic attraction between them because they had opposite charges. These findings indicated that Mg(OH)2-GO composite was an effective adsorbent for the removal of CR in water.

  18. Neutron diffraction reveals the existence of confined water in triangular and hexagonal channels of modified YPO4 at elevated temperatures (United States)

    Mishra, S. K.; Ningthoujam, R. S.; Mittal, R.; Vatsa, R. K.; Zbiri, M.; Sharma, K. Shitaljit; Singh, B. P.; Sastry, P. U.; Hansen, T.; Schober, H.; Chaplot, S. L.


    We provide experimental evidence for confinement of water molecules in the pores of hexagonal structure of YPO4 at elevated temperatures up to 600 K using powder neutron diffraction. In order to avoid the large incoherent scattering from the hydrogen, deuterated samples of doped YPO4:Ce-Eu were used for diffraction measurements. The presence of water molecules in the triangular and hexagonal pores in the hexagonal structure was established by detailed simulation of the diffraction pattern and Rietveld refinement of the experimental data. It was observed that the presence of water leads specifically to suppression of the intensity of a peak around Q = 1.04 Å-1 while the intensity of peaks around Q = 1.83 Å-1 is enhanced in the neutron-diffraction pattern. We estimate the number of water molecules as 2.36 (6) per formula units at 300 K and the sizes of the hexagonal and triangular pores as 7.2 (1) and 4.5 (1) Å, respectively. With an increase in temperature, the water content in both pores decreases above 450 K and vanishes around 600 K. Analysis of the powder-diffraction data reveals that the hexagonal structure with the pores persist up to 1273 K, and transforms to another structure at 1323 K. The high-temperature phase is not found to have the zircon- or monazite-type structure, but a monoclinic structure (space group P 2 /m ) with lattice parameters am= 6.826 (4 ) Å ,bm= 6.645 (4 ) Å ,cm= 10.435 (9 ) Å , and β = 107.21 (6) ∘ . The monoclinic structure has about 14% smaller volume than the hexagonal structure which essentially reflects the collapse of the pores. The phase transition and the change in the volume are also confirmed by x-ray-diffraction measurements. The hexagonal-to-monoclinic phase transition is found to be irreversible on cooling to room temperature.

  19. Modeling DNA (United States)

    Robertson, Carol


    Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is life's most amazing molecule. It carries the genetic instructions that almost every organism needs to develop and reproduce. In the human genome alone, there are some three billion DNA base pairs. The most difficult part of teaching DNA structure, however, may be getting students to visualize something as small as a…

  20. Fronts between hexagons and squares in a generalized Swift-Hohenberg equation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kubstrup, Christian; Herrero, H.; Pérez-García, C.


    Pinning effects in domain walls separating different orientations in patterns in nonequilibrium systems, are studied. Usually; theoretical studies consider perfect structures, but in experiments, point defects, grain boundaries, etc., always appear. The aim of this paper is to perform an analysis...... of the stability of fronts between hexagons and squares in a generalized Swift-Hohenberg model equation. We focus the analysis on pinned fronts between domains with different symmetries by using amplitude equations and by considering the small-scale structure in the pattern. The conditions for pinning effects...

  1. Self-poling with oxygen off-stoichiometry in ferroelectric hexagonal manganites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueyun Wang


    Full Text Available Topological vortices with complex domains and domain walls exist in hexagonal manganites, which undergo a structural transition accompanying ferroelectric polarization and trimerization. We have systematically studied the origin of two different types (type-I and type-II of vortex domains with controlled oxygen stoichiometry and found that the evolution between type-I and type-II vortex domains and the presence of charged walls between two different trimerization antiphase domains result from an oxygen vacancy gradient. We have also discovered a rare phenomenon of vortex core split, which appears to stem from the instability of charged ferroelectric walls between domains with the same trimerization antiphase.

  2. Magnetic exchange interaction between rare-earth and Mn ions in multiferroic hexagonal manganites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talbayev, Diyar [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Trugman, Stuart A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Taylor, Antoinette J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Averitt, Richard D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Namjung, Hur [INHA UNIV; Andrew, Laforge D [UCSD; Dimitri, Basov N [UCSD


    The authors report a study of magnetic dynamics in multiferroic hexagonal manganite HoMnO{sub 3} by far-infrared spectroscopy. Low-temperature magnetic excitation spectrum of HoMnO{sub 3} consists of magnetic-dipole transitions of Ho ions within the crystal-field split J = 8 manifold and of the triangular antiferromagnetic resonance of Mn ions. They determine the effective spin Hamiltonian for the Ho ion ground state. The magnetic-field splitting of the Mn antiferromagnetic resonance allows us to measure the magnetic exchange coupling between the rare-earth and Mn ions.

  3. Variational method of determining effective moduli of polycrystals: (A) hexagonal symmetry, (B) trigonal symmetry (United States)

    Peselnick, L.; Meister, R.


    Variational principles of anisotropic elasticity have been applied to aggregates of randomly oriented pure-phase polycrystals having hexagonal symmetry and trigonal symmetry. The bounds of the effective elastic moduli obtained in this way show a considerable improvement over the bounds obtained by means of the Voigt and Reuss assumptions. The Hill average is found to be in most cases a good approximation when compared to the bounds found from the variational method. The new bounds reduce in their limits to the Voigt and Reuss values. ?? 1965 The American Institute of Physics.

  4. 2D Arrays of Hexagonal Plasmonic Necklaces for Enhanced Second Harmonic Generation. (United States)

    Gómez-Tornero, Alejandro; Tserkezis, Christos; Mateos, Luis; Bausá, Luisa E; Ramírez, Mariola O


    Hexagonal plasmonic necklaces of silver nanoparticles organized in 2D superlattices on functional ferroelectric templates are fabricated in large-scale spatial regions by using a surfactant-free photo-deposition process. The plasmonic necklaces support broad radiative plasmonic resonances allowing the enhancement of second harmonic generation (SHG) at the ferroelectric domain boundaries. A 400-fold SHG enhancement is achieved at the near-UV spectral region with subsequent interest for technological applications. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Origin of Improved Optical Quality of Monolayer Molybdenum Disulfide Grown on Hexagonal Boron Nitride Substrate. (United States)

    Wan, Yi; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Wei; Sheng, Bowen; Zhang, Kun; Wang, Yilun; Song, Qingjun; Mao, Nannan; Li, Yanping; Wang, Xinqiang; Zhang, Jin; Dai, Lun


    Monolayer MoS2 is synthesized on hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) flakes with a simple, high-yield method. Monolayer MoS2 on h-BN exhibits improved optical quality. Combining the theoretical and experimental analysis, it is concluded that the enhanced photoluminescence and Raman intensities of monolayer MoS2 probably originate from the relatively weak doping effect from the h-BN substrate rather than the optical interference effect. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Hexagonal 2H-MoSe2 broad spectrum active photocatalyst for Cr(VI) reduction


    Haipeng Chu; Xinjuan Liu; Baibai Liu; Guang Zhu; Wenyan Lei; Huigang Du; Junying Liu; Jianwei Li; Can Li; Changqing Sun


    To make full use of the solar energy, exploring broad spectrum active photocatalysts has become one of the core issues for photocatalysis. Here we report a novel hexagonal 2H-MoSe2 photocatalyst with ultraviolet (UV)-visible-near infrared (NIR) light response for the first time. The results indicate that the MoSe2 displays excellent photo-absorption and photocatalytic activity in the reduction of Cr(VI) under UV and visible even NIR light irradiation. MoSe2 synthesized at pH value of 2 achiev...

  7. Enhancing Thermal Conductivity of Hexagonal Boron Nitride Filled Thermoplastics for Thermal Interface Management (United States)

    Prindl, John

    Hexagonal Boron Nitride has been shown to enhance thermal conductivity in polymer composites more so than conventional ceramic fillers. However, to see a significant increase in thermal conductivity a high loading level of the advanced ceramic is often needed which can have an adverse effect on the mechanical behavior of the composite part. Applications for thermal management using thermal interface materials (TIM) continue to grow with thermoplastic injection molded parts emerging as an area for market growth. There is a growing need for published technical data in this particular area of application. In the current study, the thermal conductivity and mechanical behavior of hexagonal Boron Nitride (hBN) loaded thermoplastic composites is investigated. The main objectives of this work is produce a novel data package which illustrates the effects of hBN, loaded at high concentrations, across several different thermoplastic resins with the ultimate goal being to find a desirable formulation for specific thermal management applications. The desired properties for such applications being high thermal conductivity and high electrical resistivity with a minimal decrease in mechanical properties. Hexagonal BN cooling filler agglomerates were compounded into polypropylene (PP), nylon-6 (PA-6), and thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) via twin-screw extruder at 3 different loading levels. Injection molded samples were produced and characterized to show varying degrees of thermal conductivity and mechanical strength. Results from this research showed that in all cases, the thermal conductivity increased with increasing levels of hBN addition. The largest increases in thermal conductivity were seen in the PA-6 and TPE systems with the possible indication of exceeding the percolation threshold in the TPE system. This is hypothesized to occur due to the preferential migration of hBN to form conduction pathways around the elastomeric domains in the TPE matrix. Though TPE produced

  8. Four-channel optical demultiplexer based on hexagonal photonic crystal ring resonators (United States)

    Fallahi, Vahid; Seifouri, Mahmood; Olyaee, Saeed; Alipour-Banaei, Hamed


    In this paper, photonic crystal ring resonators with hexagonal lattice structure are used to design a four-channel optical demultiplexer. The structure size, the average transfer coefficient, the quality factor, and the channel spacing are equal to 424.5 µm2, 95.8%, 1943, and 2 nm, respectively. The average crosstalk is also computed to be -18.11 dB. In this study, the plane wave expansion (PWE) and finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) methods are used, respectively, to characterize the photonic bandgap and to investigate the optical behavior of the structure. The proposed design can be used in dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) systems.

  9. Pressure-induced phase transitions of hexagonal perovskite-like oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoba, Tomoya [Department of Chemistry, Aalto University, FI-00076 Espoo (Finland); Extreme Energy-Density Research Institute, Nagaoka University of Technology, Niigata 940-2188 (Japan); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology, Aichi 441-8580 (Japan); Tiittanen, Taneli [Department of Chemistry, Aalto University, FI-00076 Espoo (Finland); Suematsu, Hisayuki [Extreme Energy-Density Research Institute, Nagaoka University of Technology, Niigata 940-2188 (Japan); Karppinen, Maarit, E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, Aalto University, FI-00076 Espoo (Finland)


    We have stabilized two new cubic (3C structured) A{sub 2}B′B′′O{sub 6}-type double-perovskite phases, Ba{sub 2}CoSbO{sub 6} and Ba{sub 2}ZnTeO{sub 6}, by means of a high-pressure heat-treatment of corresponding hexagonal (6H and 12R structured, respectively) non-perovskite phases at 4 GPa and 1000 °C. Similar treatments on hexagonal Ba{sub 2}TiMnO{sub 6} (12R) and Ba{sub 2}NiTeO{sub 6} (12R) phases did not yield the 3C double-perovskite structure but converted the 12R structure to the 6H structure. The pressure-induced phase conversion in each A{sub 2}B′B′′O{sub 6} system apparently goes from the 12R structure towards the 6H and 3C structures with increasing pressure, where the pressure ranges required most likely depend (among other possible factors) on the tolerance factor for the particular combination of A, B′ and B′′. We foresee that yet a number of novel B-site ordered double-perovskite compounds are to be discovered through the high-pressure high-temperature treatment. - Graphical abstract: High-pressure (HP) heat-treatment is an efficient tool to synthesize novel B-site ordered double-perovskite materials. This is demonstrated for two new cubic (3C structured) perovskite phases, Ba{sub 2}CoSbO{sub 6} and Ba{sub 2}ZnTeO{sub 6}, obtained through a HP conversion of corresponding hexagonal (6H and 12R structured, respectively) non-perovskite phases at 4 GPa and 1000 °C. Similar treatments on hexagonal Ba{sub 2}TiMnO{sub 6} (12R) and Ba{sub 2}NiTeO{sub 6} (12R) phases yield the intermediate 6H structure.



    Imam Hidayat; Swandya Eka Pratiwi


    Bila suatu mesin memiliki tingkat kegagalan yang tinggi, maka perlu dilakukan analisis mengenai  penyebab  –  penyebab  kegagalan  tersebut  hingga  ke  akar  permasalahannya sehingga dapat menentukan tindakan yang sesuai untuk meningkatkan kinerja suatu mesin. PT. Mutiara Hexagon merupakan sebuah perusahaan yang bergerak dibidang industri pembuatan plastik  kemasan.  Dalam  line  pembuatan lembaran film  diperlukan mesin  CPP  (Cast  Poly Propylene Machine) dan mesin grinder dalam prosesnya....

  11. A Simple Approach to the Synthesis of Hexagonal-Shaped Silver Nanoplates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Cynthia Jemima Swarnavalli


    Full Text Available This paper deals with the synthesis of hexagonal-shaped silver nanoplates with diameters ranging from 15 to 20 nm along with a smooth nanobulk of 120 nm. These nanoplates were prepared by a kinetically controlled solution growth method using mild reducing agent dextrose, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP Mw 40 k Da as the capping agent and urea as a habit modifier and at a moderate temperature of 50°C. The crystal structure of the highly faceted particles consists mostly of (111 surfaces as revealed by both X-ray diffraction (XRD studies and transmission electron microscopy (TEM.

  12. Density functional theory analysis of hexagonal close-packed elemental metal photocathodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuo Li


    Full Text Available A density function theory based analysis of photoemission from hexagonal close packed (hcp metals is presented and the calculated values of the rms transverse momentum (Δp_{T} are in good agreement with the available experimental data on Be [Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 237401 (2013] and Mg [Proceedings of LINAC 2002, Gyeongju, Korea (2002]. The lattice constants and work functions of the hcp metals are also examined and are consistent with the available experimental values. In addition, emission from (0001-oriented Be is examined due to the presence of a strong surface state.

  13. Modeling of Stacking Fault Energy in Hexagonal-Close-Packed Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Ding


    Full Text Available The deformation of metals is known to be largely affected by their stacking fault energies (SFEs. In the review, we examine the theoretical background of three normally used models, supercell model, Ising model, and bond orientation model, for the calculation of SFE of hexagonal-close-packed (hcp metals and their alloys. To predict the nature of slip in nanocrystalline metals, we further review the generalized stacking fault (GSF energy curves in hcp metals and alloys. We conclude by discussing the outstanding challenges in the modeling of SFE and GSF energy for studying the mechanical properties of metals.

  14. A history of gap junction structure: hexagonal arrays to atomic resolution. (United States)

    Grosely, Rosslyn; Sorgen, Paul L


    Gap junctions are specialized membrane structures that provide an intercellular pathway for the propagation and/or amplification of signaling cascades responsible for impulse propagation, cell growth, and development. Prior to the identification of the proteins that comprise gap junctions, elucidation of channel structure began with initial observations of a hexagonal nexus connecting apposed cellular membranes. Concomitant with technological advancements spanning over 50 years, atomic resolution structures are now available detailing channel architecture and the cytoplasmic domains that have helped to define mechanisms governing the regulation of gap junctions. Highlighted in this review are the seminal structural studies that have led to our current understanding of gap junction biology.

  15. Whole exome sequencing for determination of tumor mutation load in liquid biopsy from advanced cancer patients. (United States)

    Koeppel, Florence; Blanchard, Steven; Jovelet, Cécile; Genin, Bérengère; Marcaillou, Charles; Martin, Emmanuel; Rouleau, Etienne; Solary, Eric; Soria, Jean-Charles; André, Fabrice; Lacroix, Ludovic


    Tumor mutation load (TML) has been proposed as a biomarker of patient response to immunotherapy in several studies. TML is usually determined by tumor biopsy DNA (tDNA) whole exome sequencing (WES), therefore TML evaluation is limited by informative biopsy availability. Circulating cell free DNA (cfDNA) provided by liquid biopsy is a surrogate specimen to biopsy for molecular profiling. Nevertheless performing WES on DNA from plasma is technically challenging and the ability to determine tumor mutation load from liquid biopsies remains to be demonstrated. In the current study, WES was performed on cfDNA from 32 metastatic patients of various cancer types included into MOSCATO 01 (NCT01566019) and/or MATCHR (NCT02517892) molecular triage trials. Results from targeted gene sequencing (TGS) and WES performed on cfDNA were compared to results from tumor tissue biopsy. In cfDNA samples, WES mutation detection sensitivity was 92% compared to targeted sequencing (TGS). When comparing cfDNA-WES to tDNA-WES, mutation detection sensitivity was 53%, consistent with previously published prospective study comparing cfDNA-TGS to tDNA-TGS. For samples in which presence of tumor DNA was confirmed in cfDNA, tumor mutation load from liquid biopsy was correlated with tumor biopsy. Taken together, this study demonstrated that liquid biopsy may be applied to determine tumor mutation load. Qualification of liquid biopsy for interpretation is a crucial point to use cfDNA for mutational load estimation.

  16. Liquid/liquid heat exchanger (United States)

    Miller, C. G.


    Conceptual design for heat exchanger, utilizing two immiscible liquids with dissimilar specific gravities in direct contact, is more efficient mechanism of heat transfer than conventional heat exchangers with walls or membranes. Concept could be adapted for collection of heat from solar or geothermal sources.

  17. New chiral liquid crystal with unconventional dioxane terminal unit

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Perkowski, P.; Bubnov, Alexej; Mrukiewicz, M.; Pociecha, D.; Piecek, W.; Hamplová, Věra; Kašpar, Miroslav


    Roč. 87, 10-11 (2014), s. 1024-1037 ISSN 0141-1594 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 7AMB13PL041; GA MŠk(CZ) LD14007; GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB14PL035; GA ČR GA13-14133S Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) M100101211; AVČR(CZ) M100101204; EU - ICT(XE) COST Action IC1208 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : chiral liquid crysta * pentaglyform unit * structural properties * smectic phase * hexagonal ordering * self-assembling Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials Impact factor: 0.954, year: 2014

  18. Self-Assembled Supramolecular Architectures Lyotropic Liquid Crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Garti, Nissim


    This book will describe fundamentals and recent developments in the area of Self-Assembled Supramolecular Architecture and their relevance to the  understanding of the functionality of  membranes  as delivery systems for active ingredients. As the heirarchial architectures determine their performance capabilities, attention will be paid to theoretical and design aspects related to the construction of lyotropic liquid crystals: mesophases such as lamellar, hexagonal, cubic, sponge phase micellosomes. The book will bring to the reader mechanistic aspects, compositional c

  19. Liquid helium

    CERN Document Server

    Atkins, K R


    Originally published in 1959 as part of the Cambridge Monographs on Physics series, this book addresses liquid helium from the dual perspectives of statistical mechanics and hydrodynamics. Atkins looks at both Helium Three and Helium Four, as well as the properties of a combination of the two isotopes. This book will be of value to anyone with an interest in the history of science and the study of one of the universe's most fundamental elements.

  20. Tunable liquid crystal multifocal microlens array. (United States)

    Algorri, José Francisco; Bennis, Noureddine; Urruchi, Virginia; Morawiak, Przemek; Sánchez-Pena, José Manuel; Jaroszewicz, Leszek R


    A novel liquid crystal microlens array with tunable multifocal capability, high optical power and fill-factor is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. A specific hole pattern design produces a multifocal array with only one voltage control. Three operations modes are possible, "Off", "Tunable Multifocal" and "Unifocal". The design is patterned in both substrates. Then, the substrates are arranged in symmetrical configuration. The result is a high optical power in comparison with typical hole patterned structures. Besides, it is proposed a hexagonal pattern that produces a high fill factor, specially indicated for some applications as Integral Imaging. The array has several useful characteristics for this type of application: tunability for the loss of resolution; multifocal for extended DOF; high fill factor for increase the number of views; and low power consumption for integration in portable devices. Moreover, the optical characteristics of the proposed device could bring new applications in other fields.

  1. On the role of Mn(IV) vacancies in the photoreductive dissolution of hexagonal birnessite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, K.D.; Refson, K.; Sposito, G.


    Photoreductive dissolution of layer type Mn(IV) oxides (birnessite) under sunlight illumination to form soluble Mn(II) has been observed in both field and laboratory settings, leading to a consensus that this process is a key driver of the biogeochemical cycling of Mn in the euphotic zones of marine and freshwater ecosystems. However, the underlying mechanisms for the process remain unknown, although they have been linked to the semiconducting characteristics of hexagonal birnessite, the ubiquitous Mn(IV) oxide produced mainly by bacterial oxidation of soluble Mn(II). One of the universal properties of this biogenic mineral is the presence of Mn(IV) vacancies, long-identified as strong adsorption sites for metal cations. In this paper, the possible role of Mn vacancies in photoreductive dissolution is investigated theoretically using quantum mechanical calculations based on spin-polarized density functional theory (DFT). Our DFT study demonstrates unequivocally that Mn vacancies significantly reduce the band-gap energy for hexagonal birnessite relative to a hypothetical vacancy-free MnO{sub 2} and thus would increase the concentration of photo-induced electrons available for Mn(IV) reduction upon illumination of the mineral by sunlight. Calculations of the charge distribution in the presence of vacancies, although not fully conclusive, show a clear separation of photo-induced electrons and holes, implying a slow recombination of these charge-carriers that facilitates the two-electron reduction of Mn(IV) to Mn(II).

  2. Mesoporous hexagonal and cubic aluminosilica adsorbents for toxic nitroanilines from water. (United States)

    El-Safty, Sherif A; Ismael, M; Shahat, A; Shenashen, M A


    In the present study, ordered mesocage hexagonal P6mm and cubic Pm3n aluminosilica nanoadsorbents with monolith-like morphology and micro-, meso-, and macro-pores were fabricated using a simple, reproducible, direct synthesis. Our results suggest that the aluminosilica nanoadsorbents attained the ordering and uniform hexagonal and cubic pores even at the high Si/Al ratio of 4. The acidity of nanoadsorbents significantly based on the amount of aluminum species in the walls of the silica pore framework. Aluminosilica nanoadsorbents were used as a removal of environmentally toxic aromatic amines, namely p-nitroaniline (p-NA), from wastewater. The loading amount of Bronsted acid sites, mesostructural geometries, and multi-directional pores (3D) of the aluminosilica adsorbents played a key factor in the enhancement of the coverage adsorbent surfaces and intraparticle diffusion of adsorbate molecules onto the network surfaces and into the pore architectures of monoliths. Significantly, we developed theoretical models to explain the 3D microscopic geometry and the pore orientation of aluminosilica monoliths. A key component of the nanoadsorbents is the ability to create revisable p-NA adsorption systems with multiple reuse cycles. However, simple treatment using an acidic aqueous solution was found to remove effectively the p-NA and to form "p-NA-free" pore surfaces without any mesostructural damage.

  3. Hybridization and Field Driven Phase Transitions in Hexagonally Warped Topological Insulators (United States)

    Menon, Anirudha; Chowdhury, Debashree; Basu, Banasri


    In this paper, we discuss the role of material parameters and external field effects on a thin film topological insulator(TI) in the context of quantum phase transition (QPT). First, we consider an in-plane tilted magnetic field and determine the band structure of the surface states as a function of the tilt angle. We show that the presence of either a hybridization term or hexagonal warping or a combination of both leads to a semi-metal to insulator phase transition which is facilitated by their 𝒫𝒯 symmetry breaking character. We then note that while the introduction of an electric field does not allow for this QPT since it does not break 𝒫𝒯 symmetry, it can be used in conjunction with a tunneling element to reach a phase transition efficiently. The corresponding critical point is then nontrivially dependent on the electric field, which is pointed out here. Then, we demonstrate that including a hexagonal warping term leads to an immediate 𝒫𝒯 symmetry violating QPT.

  4. Microstructure and magnetic properties of M-type strontium hexagonal ferrites with Y-Co substitution (United States)

    Liu, Chaocheng; Liu, Xiansong; Feng, Shuangjiu; Rehman, Khalid Mehmood Ur; Li, Mingling; Zhang, Cong; Li, Haohao; Meng, Xiangyu


    According to the formula Sr0.95Y0.05Fe12-xCoxO19 (x = 0.00, 0.08, 0.16, 0.24, 0.32, 0.40), the replacement of Y-Co in M-type strontium hexagonal ferrites have been successfully prepared by ceramic process for the first time. The phase compositions of magnetic powders were examined by X-ray diffraction. The results of XRD showed that the single phase was obtained in magnetic powders with the increase of Co content (x), and α-Fe2O3 occurred when x > 0.24. The morphology of the magnets was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The micro-morphology of the particles exhibited the uniform plane hexagonal structures of M-type ferrites with different Co content. Magnetic properties of the ferrite magnets were measured by a physical property measurement system-vibrating sample magnetometer (PPMS-VSM). The Ms increases constantly with the increase of Co content. The Hc first increases and then decreases with the increase of Co content, and the value of coercivity (Hc) is up to 3774 Oe when x = 0.24.

  5. Growth of cubic and hexagonal CdTe thin films by pulsed laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandey, S.K. [Solid State Physics Laboratory, Lucknow Road, Timarpur, Delhi 110 054 (India)]. E-mail:; Tiwari, Umesh [Solid State Physics Laboratory, Lucknow Road, Timarpur, Delhi 110 054 (India); Raman, R. [Solid State Physics Laboratory, Lucknow Road, Timarpur, Delhi 110 054 (India); Prakash, Chandra [Solid State Physics Laboratory, Lucknow Road, Timarpur, Delhi 110 054 (India); Krishna, Vamsi [Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi 110 016 (India); Dutta, Viresh [Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi 110 016 (India); Zimik, K. [Laser Science and Technology Centre, Metcalfe House, Delhi 110 054 (India)


    The paper reports the growth of cadmium telluride (CdTe) thin films by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) using excimer laser (KrF, {lambda}=248 nm, 10 Hz) on corning 7059 glass and SnO{sub 2}-coated glass (SnO{sub 2}/glass) substrates at different substrate temperatures (T{sub s}) and at different laser energy pulses. Single crystal target CdTe was used for deposition of thin films. With 30 min deposition time, 1.8- to {approx}3-{mu}m-thick films were obtained up to 200 deg. C substrate temperature. However, the film re-evaporates from the substrate surface at temperatures >275 deg. C. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) shows an average grain size {approx}0.3 {mu}m. X-ray diffraction analysis confirms the formation of CdTe cubic phase at all pulse energies except at 200 mJ. At 200 mJ laser energy, the films show hexagonal phase. Optical properties of CdTe were also investigated and the band gap of CdTe films were found as 1.54 eV for hexagonal phase and {approx}1.6 eV for cubic phase.

  6. Calcination temperature effect on the microstructure and dielectric properties of M-type strontium hexagonal ferrites (United States)

    Mohammed, J.; Sharma, Jyoti; Kumar, Sachin; Trudel, T. T. Carol; Srivastava, A. K.


    M-type hexagonal ferrites have found wide application in electronics industry due to the possibility of tuning properties such as dielectric properties. An improved dielectric property is useful in high frequency application. In this paper, we studied the effect of calcination temperature on structural and dielectric properties of Al-Mn substituted M-type strontium hexagonal ferrites with chemical composition Sr1-xAlxFe12-yMnyO19 (x=0.3 and y=0.6) synthesized by sol-gel auto-combustion method. The prepared sample was sintered at four different temperatures (T=750°C, 850°C, 950°C and 1050°C) for 5 hours. Characterisations of the synthesized samples were carried out using X-ray diffraction (XRD), impedance analyser, field emission electron microscope (FE-SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. The dielectric properties were explained on the basis of Koop's phenomenological theory and Maxwell Wagner theory. The sample calcinated at 750°C shows the highest value of dielectric constant and AC conductivity whereas that calcinated at 1050°C exhibit the lowest dielectric losses.

  7. Facile synthesis of Co3O4 hexagonal plates by flux method (United States)

    Han, Ji-Long; Meng, Qing-Fen; Gao, Sheng-Li


    Using a novel flux method, a hexagonal plate of Co3O4 was directly synthesized. In this method, CoCl2·6H2O, NaOH, and the cosolvent H3BO3 were heated to 750 °C for 2 h in a corundum crucible. The products were characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), and high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM). Furthermore, XRD studies indicated that the product consisted of a cubic phase of Co3O4, and the phase existed in a completely crystalline form. Then, SEM results indicated that these hexagonal plates tiered up and they had diameters in the range of 2-10 μm. According to the results of SAED and HRTEM analyses, the interlayer spacing was about 0.24 nm, which corresponds to the interlayer distance of (3 1 1) crystal plane of cubic Co3O4.

  8. Whispering gallery mode lasing from hexagonal shaped layered lead iodide crystals. (United States)

    Liu, Xinfeng; Ha, Son Tung; Zhang, Qing; de la Mata, Maria; Magen, César; Arbiol, Jordi; Sum, Tze Chien; Xiong, Qihua


    We report on the synthesis and optical gain properties of regularly shaped lead iodide (PbI2) platelets with thickness ranging from 10-500 nm synthesized by chemical vapor deposition methods. The as-prepared single crystalline platelets exhibit a near band edge emission of ∼ 500 nm. Whispering gallery mode (WGM) lasing from individual hexagonal shaped PbI2 platelets is demonstrated in the temperature-range of 77-210 K, where the lasing modes are supported by platelets as thin as 45 nm. The finite-difference time-domain simulation and the edge-length dependent threshold confirm the planar WGM lasing mechanism in such hexagonal shaped PbI2 platelet. Through a comprehensive study of power-dependent photoluminescence (PL) and time-resolved PL spectroscopy, we ascribe the WGM lasing to be biexcitonic in nature. Moreover, for different thicknesses of platelet, the lowest lasing threshold occurs in platelets of ∼ 120 nm, which attributes to the formation of a good Fabry-Pérot resonance cavity in the vertical direction between the top and bottom platelet surfaces that enhances the reflection. Our present study demonstrates the feasibility of planar light sources based on layered semiconductor materials and that their thickness-dependent threshold characteristic is beneficial for the optimization of layered material based optoelectronic devices.

  9. Electric field driven evolution of topological domain structure in hexagonal manganites (United States)

    Yang, K. L.; Zhang, Y.; Zheng, S. H.; Lin, L.; Yan, Z. B.; Liu, J.-M.; Cheong, S.-W.


    Controlling and manipulating the topological state represents an important topic in condensed matters for both fundamental researches and applications. In this work, we focus on the evolution of a real-space topological domain structure in hexagonal manganites driven by electric field, using the analytical and numerical calculations based on the Ginzburg-Landau theory. It is revealed that the electric field drives a transition of the topological domain structure from the type-I pattern to the type-II one. In particular, it is identified that a high electric field can enforce the two antiphase-plus-ferroelectric (AP +FE ) domain walls with Δ Φ =π /3 to approach each other and to merge into one domain wall with Δ Φ = 2 π /3 eventually if the electric field is sufficiently high, where Δ Φ is the difference in the trimerization phase between two neighboring domains. Our simulations also reveal that the vortex cores of the topological structure can be disabled at a sufficiently high critical electric field by suppressing the structural trimerization therein, beyond which the vortex core region is replaced by a single ferroelectric domain without structural trimerization (Q = 0 ). Our results provide a stimulating reference for understanding the manipulation of real-space topological domain structure in hexagonal manganites.

  10. Nodal Green’s Function Method Singular Source Term and Burnable Poison Treatment in Hexagonal Geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.A. Bingham; R.M. Ferrer; A.M. ougouag


    An accurate and computationally efficient two or three-dimensional neutron diffusion model will be necessary for the development, safety parameters computation, and fuel cycle analysis of a prismatic Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design under Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project (NGNP). For this purpose, an analytical nodal Green’s function solution for the transverse integrated neutron diffusion equation is developed in two and three-dimensional hexagonal geometry. This scheme is incorporated into HEXPEDITE, a code first developed by Fitzpatrick and Ougouag. HEXPEDITE neglects non-physical discontinuity terms that arise in the transverse leakage due to the transverse integration procedure application to hexagonal geometry and cannot account for the effects of burnable poisons across nodal boundaries. The test code being developed for this document accounts for these terms by maintaining an inventory of neutrons by using the nodal balance equation as a constraint of the neutron flux equation. The method developed in this report is intended to restore neutron conservation and increase the accuracy of the code by adding these terms to the transverse integrated flux solution and applying the nodal Green’s function solution to the resulting equation to derive a semi-analytical solution.

  11. Synthesis hexagonal ZrW2O8 and its thermal properties (United States)

    Fang, Leiming; Chen, Xiping; Sun, Guangai; Chen, Bo; Peng, Shuming


    ZrW2O8 as the typical negative thermal expansion (NTE) material has attracted much attention for the potential applications in various fields such as tailored coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) composites. The hexagonal ZrW2O8 (h-ZrW2O8), with the combination of ZrO2 and WO3 in a composite, was synthesized at a pressure of 2 GPa and the temperature between 600°C and 700°C. We found h-ZrW2O8 decomposes to ZrO2+WO3 oxides that start from 500°C and end at 800°C, and determined the CTE of h-ZrW2O8 is-16.3×10-6°C-1 in the temperature range from 150°C to 450°C. The results show that ZrW2O8 with a hexagonal structure is metastable and exhibits high NTE property like its cubic structure.

  12. Biaxial-stress-driven full spin polarization in ferromagnetic hexagonal chromium telluride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Xiang-Bo; Li, Jun [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Liu, Bang-Gui, E-mail: [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); School of Physical Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)


    It is important to spintronics to achieve fully-spin-polarized magnetic materials that are stable and can be easily fabricated. Here, through systematical density-functional-theory investigations, we achieve high and even full spin polarization for carriers in the ground-state phase of CrTe by applying tensile biaxial stress. The resulting strain is tensile in the xy plane and compressive in the z axis. With the in-plane tensile strain increasing, the ferromagnetic order is stable against antiferromagnetic fluctuations, and a half-metallic ferromagnetism is achieved at an in-plane strain of 4.8%. With the spin-orbit coupling taken into account, the spin polarization is equivalent to 97% at the electronic transition point, and then becomes 100.0% at the in-plane strain of 6.0%. These make us believe that the full-spin-polarized ferromagnetism in this stable and easily-realizable hexagonal phase could be realized soon, and applied in spintronics. - Highlights: • Full spin polarization in the hexagonal ground-state phase of CrTe by biaxial stress. • The stress produces in-plane tensile strain and perpendicular compressive strain. • Reliable electronic structure is calculated with improved exchange functional. • Spin polarization is calculated with spin-orbit coupling taken into account.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales-Juberías, R.; Cosentino, R. G. [Physics Department, New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Sayanagi, K. M. [Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences Department, Hampton University, Hampton VA 23668 (United States); Simon, A. A. [Solar System Exploration Division, NASA/GSFC, Greenbelt MD 20771 (United States); Fletcher, L. N., E-mail: [Atmospheric, Oceanic and Planetary Physics, Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom)


    The Voyager flybys of Saturn in 1980–1981 revealed a circumpolar Hexagon at ∼78° north planetographic latitude that has persisted for over 30 Earth years, more than one Saturn year, and has been observed by ground-based telescopes, Hubble Space Telescope and multiple instruments on board the Cassini orbiter. Its average phase speed is very slow with respect to the System III rotation rate, defined by the primary periodicity in the Saturn Kilometric Radiation during the Voyager era. Cloud tracking wind measurements reveal the presence of a prograde jet-stream whose path traces the Hexagon’s shape. Previous numerical models have produced large-amplitude, n = 6, wavy structures with westward intrinsic phase propagation (relative to the jet). However, the observed net phase speed has proven to be more difficult to achieve. Here we present numerical simulations showing that instabilities in shallow jets can equilibrate as meanders closely resembling the observed morphology and phase speed of Saturn’s northern Hexagon. We also find that the winds at the bottom of the model are as important as the winds at the cloud level in matching the observed Hexagon’s characteristics.

  14. First-principles calculations on double-walled inorganic nanotubes with hexagonal chiralities (United States)

    Zhukovskii, Yuri F.; Evarestov, Robert A.; Bandura, Andrei V.; Losev, Maxim V.


    The two sets of commensurate double-walled boron nitride and titania hexagonally-structured nanotubes (DW BN and TiO2 NTs) possessing either armchair- or zigzag-type chiralities have been considered, i.e., (n1,n1)@(n2,n2) or (n1,0)@(n2,0), respectively. For symmetry analysis of these nanotubes, the line symmetry groups for one-periodic (1D) nanostructures with rotohelical symmetry have been applied. To analyze the structural and electronic properties of hexagonal DW NTs, a series of large-scale ab initio DFT-LCAO calculations have been performed using the hybrid Hartree-Fock/Kohn-Sham exchange-correlation functional PBE0 (as implemented in CRYSTAL-09 code). To establish the optimal inter-shell distances within DW NTs corresponding to the minima of calculated total energy, the chiral indices n1 and n2 of the constituent single-walled (SW) nanotubes have been successively varied.

  15. First-principles calculations on double-walled inorganic nanotubes with hexagonal chiralities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhukovskii, Yuri F [Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia, 8 Kengaraga Str., LV-1063, Riga (Latvia); Evarestov, Robert A; Bandura, Andrei V; Losev, Maxim V, E-mail: [Department of Quantum Chemistry, St. Petersburg State University, 26 Universitetsky Ave., 198504, Petrodvorets (Russian Federation)


    The two sets of commensurate double-walled boron nitride and titania hexagonally-structured nanotubes (DW BN and TiO{sub 2} NTs) possessing either armchair- or zigzag-type chiralities have been considered, i.e., (n{sub 1},n{sub 1})-(n{sub 2},n{sub 2}) or (n{sub 1},0)-(n{sub 2},0), respectively. For symmetry analysis of these nanotubes, the line symmetry groups for one-periodic (1D) nanostructures with rotohelical symmetry have been applied. To analyze the structural and electronic properties of hexagonal DW NTs, a series of large-scale ab initio DFT-LCAO calculations have been performed using the hybrid Hartree-Fock/Kohn-Sham exchange-correlation functional PBE0 (as implemented in CRYSTAL-09 code). To establish the optimal inter-shell distances within DW NTs corresponding to the minima of calculated total energy, the chiral indices n{sub 1} and n{sub 2} of the constituent single-walled (SW) nanotubes have been successively varied.

  16. Isotope engineering of van der Waals interactions in hexagonal boron nitride (United States)

    Vuong, T. Q. P.; Liu, S.; van der Lee, A.; Cuscó, R.; Artús, L.; Michel, T.; Valvin, P.; Edgar, J. H.; Cassabois, G.; Gil, B.


    Hexagonal boron nitride is a model lamellar compound where weak, non-local van der Waals interactions ensure the vertical stacking of two-dimensional honeycomb lattices made of strongly bound boron and nitrogen atoms. We study the isotope engineering of lamellar compounds by synthesizing hexagonal boron nitride crystals with nearly pure boron isotopes (10B and 11B) compared to those with the natural distribution of boron (20 at% 10B and 80 at% 11B). On the one hand, as with standard semiconductors, both the phonon energy and electronic bandgap varied with the boron isotope mass, the latter due to the quantum effect of zero-point renormalization. On the other hand, temperature-dependent experiments focusing on the shear and breathing motions of adjacent layers revealed the specificity of isotope engineering in a layered material, with a modification of the van der Waals interactions upon isotope purification. The electron density distribution is more diffuse between adjacent layers in 10BN than in 11BN crystals. Our results open perspectives in understanding and controlling van der Waals bonding in layered materials.

  17. Meandering Shallow Atmospheric Jet as a Model of Saturn's North-polar Hexagon (United States)

    Morales-Juberías, R.; Sayanagi, K. M.; Simon, A. A.; Fletcher, L. N.; Cosentino, R. G.


    The Voyager flybys of Saturn in 1980-1981 revealed a circumpolar Hexagon at ˜78° north planetographic latitude that has persisted for over 30 Earth years, more than one Saturn year, and has been observed by ground-based telescopes, Hubble Space Telescope and multiple instruments on board the Cassini orbiter. Its average phase speed is very slow with respect to the System III rotation rate, defined by the primary periodicity in the Saturn Kilometric Radiation during the Voyager era. Cloud tracking wind measurements reveal the presence of a prograde jet-stream whose path traces the Hexagon’s shape. Previous numerical models have produced large-amplitude, n = 6, wavy structures with westward intrinsic phase propagation (relative to the jet). However, the observed net phase speed has proven to be more difficult to achieve. Here we present numerical simulations showing that instabilities in shallow jets can equilibrate as meanders closely resembling the observed morphology and phase speed of Saturn’s northern Hexagon. We also find that the winds at the bottom of the model are as important as the winds at the cloud level in matching the observed Hexagon’s characteristics.

  18. Dynamical generation of superconducting order of different symmetries in hexagonal lattices (United States)

    Dehghani, Hossein; Mitra, Aditi


    The growth of superconducting order after an interaction quench in a hexagonal lattice is studied. The cases of both time-reversal (TR) preserving graphene, as well as the TR broken Haldane model, are explored. Spin singlet superconducting order is studied where the s ,d +i d , and d -i d wave orders are the irreducible representations of the hexagonal lattice. For small quenches, the d -wave order parameter grows the fastest, a result also expected when the system is in thermal equilibrium. For the TR symmetry preserving case, the growth rate of the two d -wave orders is identical, while the TR-broken case prefers one of the chiral d -wave orders over the other, leading to a TR broken topological superconductor. As the interaction quench becomes larger, a smooth crossover is found where eventually the growth rate of the s wave becomes the largest. Thus for large interaction quenches, the s wave is preferred over the d wave for both TR preserving and TR broken systems. This result is explained in terms of the high energy quasiparticles responsible for the dynamics as the interaction quench amplitude grows. The results are relevant for time-resolved measurements that can probe the symmetry of the superconducting fluctuations in a transient regime.

  19. High Numerical Aperture Hexagonal Stacked Ring-Based Bidirectional Flexible Polymer Microlens Array. (United States)

    Ahmed, Rajib; Yetisen, Ali K; Butt, Haider


    Flexible imprinted photonic nanostructures that are able to diffract/focus narrow-band light have potential applications in optical lenses, filters, tunable lasers, displays, and biosensing. Nanophotonic structures through holography and roll-to-roll printing may reduce fabrication complexities and expenses and enable mass production. Here, 3D photonic nanostructures of a stacked ring array were imprinted on acrylate polymer (AP) over poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) substrate through holography and lift-off processes to create a microlens array (MLA). The surface structure of the array consisted of circular nonostepped pyramids, and repeated patterns were in hexagonal arrangements. Stacked-ring-based MLA (SMLA) on a flexible AP-PET substrate showed efficient bidirectional light focusing and maximum numerical aperture (NA = 0.60) with a reasonable filling factor. The nanostructures produced a well-ordered hexagonally focused diffraction pattern in the far field, and power intensities were measured through angle-resolved experiments. The variation of nanostep dimensions (width and height) and the number of steps resulted in different photonic bandgaps, and the arrays produced distance-dependent narrow-band light focusing. The validation of the SMLA was demonstrated through the text, image, and hologram projection experiments. It is anticipated that imprinted bidirectional SMLA over flexible substrates may find applications in optical systems, displays, and portable sensors.

  20. In-situ electrochemical route to aerogel electrode materials of graphene and hexagonal CeO₂. (United States)

    Chen, Kunfeng; Xue, Dongfeng


    We reported a one-step in-situ electrochemical route to synthesize 3D aerogel electrode materials including graphene and hexagonal CeO2 composites. The graphene/CeO2 aerogel can be formed via freeze-drying graphene/CeO2 colloidal solution that was obtained by electrochemical exfoliation of graphite anode and in-situ deposition of CeO2 nanoparticles on graphene sheets in mixing electrolyte of (NH4)2SO4/Ce(NO3)3 and (NH4)2SO4/(NH4)2Ce(NO3)6. The as-obtained CeO2 nanoparticles were closely contacted with graphene, which can enhance the synergistic effect between graphene and CeO2. It is interesting that the as-obtained CeO2 products possessed hexagonal crystal structure that was rarely reported. The Faradaic reactivity of the graphene/CeO2 composites as supercapacitor was enhanced with the increase of the concentration of Ce salts in initial electrolyte. The introduction of CeO2 to graphene electrode can lead to the presence of additional pseudocapacitance besides the electric double-layer capacitance. This simple one-step in-situ electrochemical route can be extended to synthesize various graphene/metal oxide aerogel electrode materials for electric energy storage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Strain-induced extrinsic high-temperature ferromagnetism in the Fe-doped hexagonal barium titanate. (United States)

    Zorko, A; Pregelj, M; Gomilšek, M; Jagličić, Z; Pajić, D; Telling, M; Arčon, I; Mikulska, I; Valant, M


    Diluted magnetic semiconductors possessing intrinsic static magnetism at high temperatures represent a promising class of multifunctional materials with high application potential in spintronics and magneto-optics. In the hexagonal Fe-doped diluted magnetic oxide, 6H-BaTiO3-δ, room-temperature ferromagnetism has been previously reported. Ferromagnetism is broadly accepted as an intrinsic property of this material, despite its unusual dependence on doping concentration and processing conditions. However, the here reported combination of bulk magnetization and complementary in-depth local-probe electron spin resonance and muon spin relaxation measurements, challenges this conjecture. While a ferromagnetic transition occurs around 700 K, it does so only in additionally annealed samples and is accompanied by an extremely small average value of the ordered magnetic moment. Furthermore, several additional magnetic instabilities are detected at lower temperatures. These coincide with electronic instabilities of the Fe-doped 3C-BaTiO3-δ pseudocubic polymorph. Moreover, the distribution of iron dopants with frozen magnetic moments is found to be non-uniform. Our results demonstrate that the intricate static magnetism of the hexagonal phase is not intrinsic, but rather stems from sparse strain-induced pseudocubic regions. We point out the vital role of internal strain in establishing defect ferromagnetism in systems with competing structural phases.

  2. Thermal transport characterization of hexagonal boron nitride nanoribbons using molecular dynamics simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asir Intisar Khan


    Full Text Available Due to similar atomic bonding and electronic structure to graphene, hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN has broad application prospects such as the design of next generation energy efficient nano-electronic devices. Practical design and efficient performance of these devices based on h-BN nanostructures would require proper thermal characterization of h-BN nanostructures. Hence, in this study we have performed equilibrium molecular dynamics (EMD simulation using an optimized Tersoff-type interatomic potential to model the thermal transport of nanometer sized zigzag hexagonal boron nitride nanoribbons (h-BNNRs. We have investigated the thermal conductivity of h-BNNRs as a function of temperature, length and width. Thermal conductivity of h-BNNRs shows strong temperature dependence. With increasing width, thermal conductivity increases while an opposite pattern is observed with the increase in length. Our study on h-BNNRs shows considerably lower thermal conductivity compared to GNRs. To elucidate these aspects, we have calculated phonon density of states for both h-BNNRs and GNRs. Moreover, using EMD we have explored the impact of different vacancies, namely, point vacancy, edge vacancy and bi-vacancy on the thermal conductivity of h-BNNRs. With varying percentages of vacancies, significant reduction in thermal conductivity is observed and it is found that, edge and point vacancies are comparatively more destructive than bi-vacancies. Such study would contribute further into the growing interest for accurate thermal transport characterization of low dimensional nanostructures.

  3. Pitch Control of Hexagonal Non-Close-Packed Nanosphere Arrays Using Isotropic Deformation of an Elastomer. (United States)

    Huang, Xiaolu; Bjork, Matthew; Ratchford, Daniel C; Yeom, Junghoon


    Self-assembly of colloidal nanospheres combined with various nanofabrication techniques produces an ever-increasing range of two-dimensional (2D) ordered nanostructures, although the pattern periodicity is typically bound to the original interparticle spacing. Deformable soft lithography using controlled deformation of elastomeric substrates and subsequent contact printing transfer offer a versatile method to systematically control the lattice spacing and arrangements of the 2D nanosphere array. However, the anisotropic nature of uniaxial and biaxial stretching as well as the strain limit of solvent swelling makes it difficult to create well-separated, ordered 2D nanosphere arrays with large-area hexagonal arrangements. In this paper, we report a simple, facile approach to fabricate such arrays of polystyrene nanospheres using a custom-made radial stretching apparatus. The maximum stretchability and spatial uniformity of the poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) elastomeric substrate is systematically investigated. A pitch increase as large as 213% is demonstrated using a single stretching-and-transfer process, which is at least 3 times larger than the maximum pitch increase achievable using a single swelling-and-transfer process. Unlike the colloidal arrays generated by the uniaxial and biaxial stretching, the isotropic expansion of radial stretching allows the hexagonal array to retain its original structure across the entire substrate. Upon radial strain applied to the PDMS sheet, the nanosphere array with modified pitch is transferred to a variety of target substrates, exhibiting different optical behaviors and serving as an etch mask or a template for molding.

  4. Raman studies of hexagonal MoO{sub 3} at high pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, C.C.; Zhang, Z.M.; Dai, R.C.; Zhang, J.W.; Ding, Z.J. [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale, Department of Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Zheng, L. [Department of Nanomaterials and Nanochemistry, Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Wang, Z.P. [The Centre for Physical Experiments, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)


    The transition-metal oxide MoO{sub 3} is an important semiconductor and has various technological applications in catalysts, electrochromic and photochromic devices, gas sensors, and battery electrodes. In this study, the hexagonal MoO{sub 3} prepared by a hydrothermal method is in morphology of microrod with diameter of 0.8-1.2 {mu}m and length of 2.0-4.3 {mu}m. Its structural stability was investigated by an in situ Raman scattering method in a diamond anvil cell up to 28.7 GPa at room temperature. The new Raman peak around 1000 cm{sup -1} implies that a phase transition from hexagonal to amorphous starts at 5.6 GPa, and the evolution of the Raman spectra indicates that the structural transition is completed at about 13.2 GPa. After releasing pressure to ambient condition, the Raman spectrum pattern of the high pressure phase was retained, revealing that the phase transition is irreversible. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  5. Hexagonally-arranged-nanoporous and continuous NiO films with varying electrical conductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutiérrez, A., E-mail: [Departamento de Física Aplicada and Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales Nicolás Cabrera, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Domínguez-Cañizares, G. [Departamento de Física Aplicada and Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales Nicolás Cabrera, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Jiménez, J.A. [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalúrgicas, CSIC, Avda Gregorio del Amo 8, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Preda, I. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, BP 220, F-38043 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Díaz-Fernández, D. [Departamento de Física Aplicada and Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales Nicolás Cabrera, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Jiménez-Villacorta, F. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Northeastern University, 360 Huntington Ave., Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Castro, G.R. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, BP 220, F-38043 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz, 3, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Chaboy, J. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragón, CSIC, and Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Soriano, L. [Departamento de Física Aplicada and Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales Nicolás Cabrera, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain)


    Nickel oxide (NiO) thin films have been prepared by magnetron sputtering, with different Ar/O{sub 2} ratios in the plasma, on several substrates, including hexagonally arranged nanoporous anodic alumina membranes (AAM). The obtained films exhibit columnar growth, which makes it possible to preserve the hexagonal order of the AAM substrates in the NiO thin films. X ray diffraction patterns show a polycrystalline structure with a crystallographic texture that depends on the plasma composition. Additionally, the NiO lattice parameter increases with the oxygen content of the plasma. The presence of oxygen during deposition is responsible for these structural changes, as well as for an oxygen enrichment in the NiO films, which leads to changes in their electrical properties. The electrical resistivity of the films decreases with the oxygen content of the plasma, which suggests p-type conductivity due to oxygen enrichment in the NiO lattice. Indeed, an analysis of the EXAFS oscillations at the Ni–K edge confirms the lattice expansion and a decrease of the Ni–Ni coordination number when the oxygen content of the plasma increases, which points towards an increasing presence of Ni vacancies for larger values of the O{sub 2}/Ar ratio.

  6. Hierarchically self-assembled hexagonal honeycomb and kagome superlattices of binary 1D colloids. (United States)

    Lim, Sung-Hwan; Lee, Taehoon; Oh, Younghoon; Narayanan, Theyencheri; Sung, Bong June; Choi, Sung-Min


    Synthesis of binary nanoparticle superlattices has attracted attention for a broad spectrum of potential applications. However, this has remained challenging for one-dimensional nanoparticle systems. In this study, we investigate the packing behavior of one-dimensional nanoparticles of different diameters into a hexagonally packed cylindrical micellar system and demonstrate that binary one-dimensional nanoparticle superlattices of two different symmetries can be obtained by tuning particle diameter and mixing ratios. The hexagonal arrays of one-dimensional nanoparticles are embedded in the honeycomb lattices (for AB 2 type) or kagome lattices (for AB 3 type) of micellar cylinders. The maximization of free volume entropy is considered as the main driving force for the formation of superlattices, which is well supported by our theoretical free energy calculations. Our approach provides a route for fabricating binary one-dimensional nanoparticle superlattices and may be applicable for inorganic one-dimensional nanoparticle systems.Binary mixtures of 1D particles are rarely observed to cooperatively self-assemble into binary superlattices, as the particle types separate into phases. Here, the authors design a system that avoids phase separation, obtaining binary superlattices with different symmetries by simply tuning the particle diameter and mixture composition.

  7. Electronic structure of triangular, hexagonal and round graphene flakes near the Fermi level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiskanen, H P; Manninen, M; Akola, J [Nanoscience Center, Department of Physics, PO Box 35, FI-40014 University of Jyvaeskylae (Finland)], E-mail:


    The electronic shell structure of triangular, hexagonal and round graphene quantum dots (flakes) near the Fermi level has been studied using a tight-binding method. The results show that close to the Fermi level the shell structure of a triangular flake is that of free massless particles, and that triangles with an armchair edge show an additional sequence of levels ('ghost states'). These levels result from the graphene band structure and the plane wave solution of the wave equation, and they are absent for triangles with a zigzag edge. All zigzag triangles exhibit a prominent edge state at {epsilon}{sub F}, and few low-energy conduction electron states occur both in triangular and hexagonal flakes due to symmetry reasons. Armchair triangles can be used as building blocks for other types of flakes that support the ghost states. Edge roughness has only a small effect on the level structure of the triangular flakes, but the effect is considerably enhanced in the other types of flakes. In round flakes, the states near the Fermi level depend strongly on the flake radius, and they are always localized on the zigzag parts of the edge.

  8. Saturn's north polar cyclone and hexagon at depth revealed by Cassini/VIMS (United States)

    Baines, K.H.; Momary, T.W.; Fletcher, L.N.; Showman, A.P.; Roos-Serote, M.; Brown, R.H.; Buratti, B.J.; Clark, R.N.; Nicholson, P.D.


    A high-speed cyclonic vortex centered on the north pole of Saturn has been revealed by the visual-infrared mapping spectrometer (VIMS) onboard the Cassini-Huygens Orbiter, thus showing that the tropospheres of both poles of Saturn are occupied by cyclonic vortices with winds exceeding 135 m/s. High-spatial-resolution (~200 km per pixel) images acquired predominantly under night-time conditions during Saturn's polar winter-using a thermal wavelength of 5.1 ??m to obtain time-lapsed imagery of discrete, deep-seated (>2.1-bar) cloud features viewed in silhouette against Saturn's internally generated thermal glow-show a classic cyclonic structure, with prograde winds exceeding 135 m/s at its maximum near 88.3?? (planetocentric) latitude, and decreasing to <30 m/s at 89.7?? near the vortex center and<20 m/s at 80.5??. High-speed winds, exceeding 125 m/s, were also measured for cloud features at depth near 76?? (planetocentric) latitude within the polar hexagon consistent with the idea that the hexagon itself, which remains nearly stationary, is a westward (retrograde) propagating Rossby wave - as proposed by Allison (1990, Science 247, 1061-1063) - with a maximum wave speed near 2-bars pressure of ~125 m/s. Winds are ~25 m/s stronger than observed by Voyager, suggesting temporal variability. Images acquired of one side of the hexagon in dawn conditions as the polar winter wanes shows the hexagon is still visible in reflected sunlight nearly 28 years since its discovery, that a similar 3-lane structure is observed in reflected and thermal light, and that the cloudtops may be typically lower in the hexagon than in nearby discrete cloud features outside of it. Clouds are well-correlated in visible and 5.1 ??m images, indicating little windshear above the ~2-bar level. The polar cyclone is similar in size and shape to its counterpart at the south pole; a primary difference is the presence of a small (<600 km in diameter) nearly pole-centered cloud, perhaps indicative of

  9. Optical and structural properties of ZnO hexagonal rods prepared by thermal chemical vapor deposition technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Reyhani


    Full Text Available In this research, ZnO nanostructure hexagonal pyramid rods with high optical and structural quality were synthesized by the simple thermal chemical vapor deposition of Zn powder without a metal catalyst. Surface morphologies were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. XRD analyses demonstrated that ZnO hexagonal pyramid rods had a wurtzite structure with the orientation of (002. Investigation of optical properties of samples by photoluminescence spectrum exhibited a sharp UV emission peak at 380nm. The quality and composition of the ZnO pyramid rods were characterized using the Fourier transform infrared spectrum (FTIR at room temperature. In addition, the growth mechanism of ZnO hexagonal rods is also briefly discussed.

  10. Constructed ILs coated porous magnetic nickel cobaltate hexagonal nanoplates sensing materials for the simultaneous detection of cumulative toxic metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Lei, E-mail:


    Highlights: • A novel sensor material based on ionic liquids@nickel cobaltate was constructed. • Various morphologies of NiCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} were synthesized for electrocatalytic comparison. • ILs@NiCo{sub 2}O{sub 4}-P was used to detect cumulative toxic metals for the first time. • The sensor displayed well reproducibility, excellent selectivity and sensitivity. • The method was applied to detect practical samples with satisfactory results. - Abstract: The different morphologies of magnetic nickel cobaltate (NiCo{sub 2}O{sub 4}) electrocatalysts, consisting of nanoparticles (NiCo{sub 2}O{sub 4}-N), nanoplates (NiCo{sub 2}O{sub 4}-P) and microspheres (NiCo{sub 2}O{sub 4}-S) were fabricated. It was found that the electrocatalytic properties of the sensing materials were strongly dependent on morphology and specific surface area. The porous NiCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} hexagonal nanoplates coupled with ILs as modified materials (ILs@NiCo{sub 2}O{sub 4}-P) for the simultaneous determination of thallium (Tl{sup +}), lead (Pb{sup 2+}) and copper (Cu{sup 2+}), exhibited high sensitivity, long-time stability and good repeatability. The enhanced electrocatalytic activity was attributed to relatively large specific surface area, excellent electronic conductivity, and unique porous nanostructure. The analytical performance of the constructed electrode on detection of Tl{sup +}, Pb{sup 2+} and Cu{sup 2+} was examined using differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV). Under optimal conditions, the electrode showed a good linear response to Tl{sup +}, Pb{sup 2+}and Cu{sup 2+} in the concentration range of 0.1–100.0, 0.1–100.0 and 0.05–100.0 μg/L, respectively. The detection limits (S/N = 3) were 0.046, 0.034 and 0.029 μg/L for Tl{sup +}, Pb{sup 2+} and Cu{sup 2+}, respectively. The fabricated sensor was successfully applied to detect trace Tl{sup +}, Pb{sup 2+} and Cu{sup 2+} in various water and soil samples with satisfactory results. Hence, this work

  11. Generalization of first-principles thermodynamic model: Application to hexagonal close-packed ε-Fe3N

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakkedal, Morten B.; Shang, Shu- Li; Liu, Zi-Kui


    A complete first-principles thermodynamic model was developed and applied to hexagonal close-packed structure ε-Fe3N. The electronic structure was calculated using density functional theory and the quasiharmonic phonon approximation to determine macroscopic thermodynamic properties at finite...... temperatures was generalized in terms of the partition function for any lattice of interest. Specially, thermal expansion of the hexagonal close-packed ε phase with two independent lattice parameters was studied by means of the present model and first-principles phonon calculations. The present predictions...

  12. Pressure-induced transformation of 6H hexagonal to 3C Perovskite structure in PbMnO3. (United States)

    Oka, Kengo; Azuma, Masaki; Hirai, Shigeto; Belik, Alexei A; Kojitani, Hiroshi; Akaogi, Masaki; Takano, Mikio; Shimakawa, Yuich


    A tetragonal perovskite PbMnO(3) was obtained by treating the 6H hexagonal perovskite phase at 15 GPa and 1273 K. Structural analysis using synchrotron X-ray diffraction suggested that PbMnO(3) crystallizes in the centrosymmetric space group P4/mmm, unlike PbTiO(3) and PbVO(3) which have a polar structure in space group P4mm. Iodometric titration revealed the presence of the oxygen deficiency of x = 0.06 for PbMnO(3-x). The hexagonal 6H and the 3C perovskite phases exhibited antiferromagnetic ordering at 155 and 20 K, respectively.

  13. Controllable fabrication and optical properties of Sn-doped ZnO hexagonal microdisk for whispering gallery mode microlaser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Dai


    Full Text Available We report a controllable method for fabricating hexagonal Sn doped ZnO microdisks. The photoluminescence mechanism of the Sn doped ZnO microdisks is investigated, the defect emission is attributed to the singly charged oxygen vacancy. Under the excitation of a femtosecond pulsed laser with a wavelength of 325 nm, exciton-exciton collision process is clearly demonstrated, and amplified spontaneous emission is further realized under strong excitation. Using the perfect hexagonal symmetric structure of the Sn doped ZnO microdisks, the whispering-gallery mode lasing with high quality factor and fine mode structure is obtained from a single microdisk.

  14. Photoluminescence of Hexagonal ZnO Nanorods Hydrothermally Grown on Zn Foils in KOH Solutions with Different Values of Basicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuengruethai Ekthammathat


    Full Text Available Aligned hexagonal ZnO nanorods on pure Zn foils were hydrothermally synthesized in 30 mL solutions containing 0.05–0.50 g KOH. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and photoluminescence (PL spectroscopy. In this research, wurtzite hexagonal ZnO nanorods grown along the [002] direction with green light emission at 541 nm caused by singly ionized oxygen vacancies inside were detected.

  15. Structural and magnetic properties of Ca-substituted barium W-type hexagonal hexaferrites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Kai [Engineering Technology Research Center of Magnetic Materials, Anhui Province, School of Physics & Materials Science, Anhui University, Hefei 230601 (China); Department of Mathmatic and Physics, Anhui Jianzhu University, Hefei 230601 (China); Liu, Xiansong, E-mail: [Engineering Technology Research Center of Magnetic Materials, Anhui Province, School of Physics & Materials Science, Anhui University, Hefei 230601 (China); Feng, Shuangjiu; Zhang, Zhanjun [Engineering Technology Research Center of Magnetic Materials, Anhui Province, School of Physics & Materials Science, Anhui University, Hefei 230601 (China); Yu, Jiangying [Department of Mathmatic and Physics, Anhui Jianzhu University, Hefei 230601 (China); Niu, Xiaofei; Lv, Farui; Huang, Xing [Engineering Technology Research Center of Magnetic Materials, Anhui Province, School of Physics & Materials Science, Anhui University, Hefei 230601 (China)


    A series of W-type hexagonal ferrites with the composition Ba{sub 1−x}Ca{sub x}Co{sub 2}Fe{sub 16}O{sub 27} (x=0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5) were synthesized using a sol–gel method. The effects of doping on structural and magnetic properties are studied by X-ray diffraction, thermal analyzer, scanning electron microscopy, vibrating sample magnetometer and vector network analyzer, respectively. The X-ray diffraction analysis shows that the samples belong to the W-type hexagonal ferrite. The lattice constants a and c decreases as Ca contents increases. The grains exhibit well defined hexagonal shape. The saturation magnetization and the intrinsic coercive force increases with the increase of the Ca substitution amount. The real part of complex permittivity (ε′) and imaginary part (ε″) increase with more addition of Ca{sup 2+} amount. The imaginary part of complex permittivity (μ′) increases and the real part (μ′′) goes down after Ca{sup 2+} is doped. Furthermore, the Ca{sup 2+} ions doped in the ferrite improved microwave absorbency. - Highlights: • Various Ba{sub 1−x}Ca{sub x}Co{sub 2}Fe{sub 16}O{sub 27} (x=0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5) ferrites are W-type phase with a space group of p63/mmc and no any extra peak were observed in the powder XRD patterns.The lattice constants a and c decrease as Ca contents increases. • Three weight loss steps corresponding to one sharp exothermic peak have been observed in the TG curve. • The shape and diameters of most the grains remains almost independent of Ca{sup 2+} substitution by scanning electron microscopy. • The saturation magnetization and the intrinsic coercive force increases with the increase of the Ca substitution amount. • The real part of complex permittivity (ε′) and imaginary part (ε″) increase with more addition of Ca{sup 2+} amount. The imaginary part of complex permittivity (μ′) increases and the real part (μ′′) goes down after Ca{sup 2+} is doped. Furthermore, the Ca{sup 2

  16. Organosulfonic acid-functionalized mesoporous composites based on natural rubber and hexagonal mesoporous silica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuntang, Sakdinun; Poompradub, Sirilux [Fuels Research Center, Department of Chemical Technology, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Patumwan, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Butnark, Suchada [PTT Research and Technology Institute, PTT Public Company Limited, Wangnoi, Ayutthaya 13170 (Thailand); Yokoi, Toshiyuki; Tatsumi, Takashi [Chemical Resources Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8503 (Japan); Ngamcharussrivichai, Chawalit, E-mail: [Fuels Research Center, Department of Chemical Technology, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Patumwan, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Center of Excellence on Petrochemical and Materials Technology (PETROMAT), Chulalongkorn University, Patumwan, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand)


    This study is the first report on synthesis, characterization and catalytic application of propylsulfonic acid-functionalized mesoporous composites based on natural rubber (NR) and hexagonal mesoporous silica (HMS). In comparison with propylsulfonic acid-functionalized HMS (HMS-SO{sub 3}H), a series of NR/HMS-SO{sub 3}H composites were prepared via an in situ sol–gel process using tetrahydrofuran as the synthesis media. Tetraethylorthosilicate as the silica source, was simultaneously condensed with 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane in a solution of NR followed by oxidation with hydrogen peroxide to achieve the mesoporous composites containing propylsulfonic acid groups. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and {sup 29}Si MAS nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy results verified that the silica surfaces of the NR/HMS-SO{sub 3}H composites were functionalized with propylsulfonic acid groups and covered with NR molecules. After the incorporation of NR and organo-functional group into HMS, the hexagonal mesostructure remained intact concomitantly with an increased framework wall thickness and unit cell size, as evidenced by the X-ray powder diffraction analysis. Scanning electron microscopy analysis indicated a high interparticle porosity of NR/HMS-SO{sub 3}H composites. The textural properties of NR/HMS-SO{sub 3}H were affected by the amount of MPTMS loading to a smaller extent than that of HMS-SO{sub 3}H. NR/HMS-SO{sub 3}H exhibited higher hydrophobicity than HMS-SO{sub 3}H, as revealed by H{sub 2}O adsorption–desorption measurements. Moreover, the NR/HMS-SO{sub 3}H catalysts possessed a superior specific activity to HMS-SO{sub 3}H in the esterification of lauric acid with ethanol, resulting in a higher conversion level. - Highlights: • Acidic NR/HMS-SO{sub 3}H composites were prepared by in situ sol–gel process. • Propylsulfonic acid was functionalized onto HMS surface by direct co-condensation. • NR/HMS-SO{sub 3}H exhibited a hexagonal

  17. Quantum well state of cubic inclusions in hexagonal silicon carbide studied with ballistic electron emission microscopy (United States)

    Ding, Yi

    SiC is a polytypic material that may crystallize in many different close-packing sequences with cubic, hexagonal, or rhombohedral Bravais lattices. All SiC polytypes have wide bandgaps ranging from 2.39 eV in cubic SiC to 3.023--3.330 eV in common hexagonal polytypes. This, as well as many other properties favorable to electrical applications, makes SiC a very promising material in electronic device fabrication. However, the many lattice stacking sequences may impair the stability of SiC devices. In the hexagonal 4H polytype, it has been found that thin cubic SiC inclusions may be formed due to stacking fault expansion, and it has been proposed that the inclusions may behave as quantum wells because of the lower bandgap of cubic SiC. We performed ultra-high vacuum ballistic electron emission microscopy (BEEM) measurements on n-type 4H-SiC samples containing double-stacking-fault cubic inclusions to characterize the electrical properties of individual inclusions. Thin Pt films are deposited in ultra-high vacuum on the sample surfaces to form Schottky contacts. A Schottky barrier height of ˜1.01 eV is observed over the inclusions in a background of normal 4H-SiC barrier height of 1.54 eV, which directly confirms the cubic inclusions support two-dimensional propagating quantum well states, and the 0.53 eV lowering of barrier height indicates the two-dimensional conduction band minimum is located at ˜0.53 eV below the conduction band minimum of bulk 4H-SIC. We also used BEEM to study the Schottky contact between Pt and p-type 4H-SiC, and observed a second transmission channel in the BEEM spectrum that suggests a split-off valence band at ˜0.11 eV below the valence band maximum. We also measured the barrier heights of p-type and n-type Schottky contacts prepared under identical conditions and the results suggest the existence of an interfacial layer. An earlier study of threading dislocations in GaN using BEEM is also described. Although threading dislocations in Ga

  18. Three-gradient regular solution model for simple liquids wetting complex surface topologies


    Akerboom, Sabine; Kamperman, Marleen; Leermakers, Frans A M


    We use regular solution theory and implement a three-gradient model for a liquid/vapour system in contact with a complex surface topology to study the shape of a liquid drop in advancing and receding wetting scenarios. More specifically, we study droplets on an inverse opal: spherical cavities in a hexagonal pattern. In line with experimental data, we find that the surface may switch from hydrophilic (contact angle on a smooth surface θY < 90°) to hydrophobic (effective advancing contact angl...

  19. Amphiphilic dendritic peptides: Synthesis and behavior as an organogelator and liquid crystal. (United States)

    Gao, Baoxiang; Li, Hongxia; Xia, Defang; Sun, Sufang; Ba, Xinwu


    New amphiphilic dendritic peptides on dendritic polyaspartic acid were designed and synthesized. The organogel and liquid crystal properties of these amphiphilic dendritic peptides were fully studied by field-emission SEM, temperature dependent FT-IR, differential scanning calorimetry, polarization optical microscopy and X-ray diffraction experiments. Amphiphilic dendritic peptides G3 show good organogel properties with a minimum gelation concentration as low as 1 wt %. Furthermore, amphiphilic dendritic peptides G3 can form a hexagonal columnar liquid crystal assembly over a wide temperature range.

  20. Amphiphilic dendritic peptides: Synthesis and behavior as an organogelator and liquid crystal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinwu Ba


    Full Text Available New amphiphilic dendritic peptides on dendritic polyaspartic acid were designed and synthesized. The organogel and liquid crystal properties of these amphiphilic dendritic peptides were fully studied by field-emission SEM, temperature dependent FT-IR, differential scanning calorimetry, polarization optical microscopy and X-ray diffraction experiments. Amphiphilic dendritic peptides G3 show good organogel properties with a minimum gelation concentration as low as 1 wt %. Furthermore, amphiphilic dendritic peptides G3 can form a hexagonal columnar liquid crystal assembly over a wide temperature range.

  1. DNA glue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filichev, Vyacheslav V; Astakhova, Irina V.; Malakhov, Andrei D.


    Significant alterations in thermal stability of parallel DNA triplexes and antiparallel duplexes were observed upon changing the attachment of ethynylpyrenes from para to ortho in the structure of phenylmethylglycerol inserted as a bulge into DNA (TINA). Insertions of two ortho-TINAs as a pseudo...

  2. DNA Vaccines

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    research interests include: eukaryotic gene expres- sion and infectious diseases. Keywords. DNA vaccine, immune response, antibodies, infectious diseases. GENERAL I ... T -cells: Lymphocytes that differentiate primarily in the thymus and are central to the control and ... enhance DNA delivery into skeletal muscle.

  3. Enhanced sensitivity in a butterfly gyroscope with a hexagonal oblique beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Dingbang; Cao, Shijie; Hou, Zhanqiang, E-mail:; Chen, Zhihua; Wang, Xinghua; Wu, Xuezhong [College of Mechatronics Engineering and Automation, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha, Hunan, 410073 (China)


    A new approach to improve the performance of a butterfly gyroscope is developed. The methodology provides a simple way to improve the gyroscope’s sensitivity and stability, by reducing the resonant frequency mismatch between the drive and sense modes. This method was verified by simulations and theoretical analysis. The size of the hexagonal section oblique beam is the major factor that influences the resonant frequency mismatch. A prototype, which has the appropriately sized oblique beam, was fabricated using precise, time-controlled multilayer pre-buried masks. The performance of this prototype was compared with a non-tuned gyroscope. The scale factor of the prototype reaches 30.13 mV/ °/s, which is 15 times larger than that obtained from the non-tuned gyroscope. The bias stability of the prototype is 0.8 °/h, which is better than the 5.2 °/h of the non-tuned devices.

  4. Hexagonal VS2 Anchored MWCNTs: First Approach to Design Flexible Solid-State Symmetric Supercapacitor Device. (United States)

    Pandit, Bidhan; Karade, Swapnil S; Sankapal, Babasaheb R


    Transition metal chalcogenides (TMCs) embedded with a carbon network are gaining much attention because of their high power capability, which can be easily integrated to portable electronic devices. Facile chemical route has been explored to synthesize hexagonal structured VS2 nanoparticles onto multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) matrix. Such surface-modified VS2/MWCNTs electrode has boosted the electrochemical performance to reach high capacitance to 830 F/g and excellent stability to 95.9% over 10 000 cycles. Designed flexible solid-state symmetric supercapacitor device (FSSD) with a wide voltage window of 1.6 V exhibited maximum gain in specific capacitance value of 182 F/g at scan rate of 2 mV/s along with specific energy of 42 Wh/kg and a superb stability of 93.2% over 5000 cycles. As a practical approach, FSSD has lightened up "VNIT" panel consisting of 21 red LEDs.

  5. First-principles study of coronene adsorption on hexagonal boron nitride substrate (United States)

    Nishida, Yasutaka; Yoshida, Takashi; Ifuku, Ryota; Sakai, Tadashi


    The adsorption energy of coronene on hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) substrate has been calculated using the first-principles calculation with van der Waals interaction. As a benchmark for validating our computational calculations, the adsorption energy of coronene on graphene was also calculated. Our calculations indicate that the adsorption energy of the AB-stacked configuration of coronene on h-BN, where N-atom is located below the center of coronene, is slightly larger than the adsorption energy of that on graphene substrate, and consequently the AB-stacked coronene on h-BN can be pinned to a specific in-plane rotation angle at room temperature. A simple explanation of the stable coronene configuration is provided in terms of the repulsive interaction with substrates.

  6. Engineering and localization of quantum emitters in large hexagonal boron nitride layers

    CERN Document Server

    Choi, Sumin; ElBadawi, Christopher; Lobo, Charlene; Wang, Xuewen; Juodkazis, Saulius; Seniutinas, Gediminas; Toth, Milos; Aharonovich, Igor


    Hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) is a wide bandgap van der Waals material that has recently emerged as promising platform for quantum photonics experiments. In this work we study the formation and localization of narrowband quantum emitters in large flakes (up to tens of microns wide) of hBN. The emitters can be activated in as-grown hBN by electron irradiation or high temperature annealing, and the emitter formation probability can be increased by ion implantation or focused laser irradiation of the as-grown material. Interestingly, we show that the emitters are always localized at edges of the flakes, unlike most luminescent point defects in 3D materials. Our results constitute an important step on the road map of deploying hBN in nanophotonics applications.

  7. Search for giant magnetic anisotropy in transition-metal dimers on defected hexagonal boron nitride sheet (United States)

    Li, Jie; Wang, Hui; Hu, Jun; Wu, Ruqian

    For a magnetic units at the nanometer scale, one of the most important issues is how to hold thermal fluctuation of its magnetization, i.e., how to enhance its blocking temperature (TB) to above 300K. Through systematic density functional calculations, the structural stability and magnetic properties of many transition-metal dimers embedded in a defected hexagonal boron nitride monolayer are investigated. We find twelve cases that may have magnetic anisotropy energies (MAEs) larger than 30 meV. In particular, Ir-Ir@Dh-BN has both large MAE (~126 meV) and high structural stability, which makes it a promising candidate of magnetic unit in spintronics and quantum computing devices. Work at Fudan was supported by the Chinese National Science Foundation (11474056) and National Basic Research Program of China (2015CB921400). Work at UCI was supported by DOE-BES (Grant No. DE-FG02-05ER46237).

  8. Whispering-gallery-mode microlaser based on self-assembled organic single-crystalline hexagonal microdisks. (United States)

    Wang, Xuedong; Liao, Qing; Kong, Qinghua; Zhang, Yi; Xu, Zhenzhen; Lu, Xiaomei; Fu, Hongbing


    Whispering-gallery-mode (WGM) resonators of semiconductor microdisks have been applied for achieving low-threshold and narrow-linewidth microlasers, but require sophisticated top-down processing technology. Organic single-crystalline hexagonal microdisks (HMDs) of p-distyrylbenzene (DSB) self-assembled from solution can function as WGM microresonators with a cavity quality factor (Q) of 210. Both multiple- and single-mode lasing had been achieved using DSB HMDs with an edge length of 4.3 and 1.2 μm, respectively. These organic microdisks fabricated by bottom-up self-assembly approach may offer potential applications as low-threshold microlaser sources for photonic circuit integration. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Synthesis characterization and catalytic action of hexagonal gold nanoparticles using essential oils extracted from Anacardium occidentale (United States)

    Sheny, D. S.; Mathew, Joseph; Philip, Daizy


    A new phytochemical method for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles is reported. The essential oils extracted from the fresh leaves of Anacardium occidentale are used for the reduction of auric acid to Au nanoparticles (NPs). The formation and morphology of synthesized NPs are investigated with the help of UV-visible, TEM and FTIR spectroscopy. The NPs synthesized at room temperature are mono-dispersed and hexagonal in shape with an average size of 36 nm while those prepared at higher temperature are composed of a mixture of anisotropic particles. The UV-visible absorption spectra of these anisotropic NPs show asymmetry in the longer wavelength side. The quantity of oil is an important criterion modulating the shape of NPs. Possible biochemical mechanism leading to the formation of NPs is studied using FTIR spectroscopy. The potential of synthesized Au NPs as catalyst is explored for the hydrogenation of p-nitro phenol to p-amino phenol at room temperature.

  10. Raman study of annealed two-dimensional heterostructure of graphene on hexagonal boron nitride (United States)

    Souibgui, Mourad; Ajlani, Hosni; Cavanna, Antonnella; Oueslati, Meherzi; Meftah, Abdelaziz; Madouri, Ali


    In this paper, we investigate stacked 2D graphene layers on hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN). The graphene is obtained by high-quality chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and transferred to the h-BN substrate. We focus our attention on annealing effect at 1040 °C on single graphene layer (SGL) and bilayer graphene (BLG) on h-BN substrate using Raman spectroscopy. Our results show, before annealing, a twist angle θ = 0.63 ° between the SGL and the h-BN substrate and a twist angle 3 ° graphene layers of the BLG. After annealing, the analysis of the graphene G and 2D bands show a rotational reorientation of the graphene layer with respect to the h-BN substrate. Raman mapping also shows that the rotational reorientation is spatially dependent.

  11. Intrinsic magnetic properties of hexagonal LuFeO3 and the effects of nonstoichiometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarrett A. Moyer


    Full Text Available We used oxide molecular-beam epitaxy in a composition-spread geometry to deposit hexagonal LuFeO3 (h-LuFeO3 thin films with a monotonic variation in the Lu/Fe cation ratio, creating a mosaic of samples that ranged from iron rich to lutetium rich. We characterized the effects of composition variation with x-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, scanning transmission electron microscopy, and superconducting quantum interference device magnetometry. After identifying growth conditions leading to stoichiometric film growth, an additional sample was grown with a rotating sample stage. From this stoichiometric sample, we determined stoichiometric h-LuFeO3 to have a TN = 147 K and Ms = 0.018 μB/Fe.

  12. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy of hexagonal and rhombohedral molybdenum disulfide crystals. (United States)

    Isshiki, T; Nishio, K; Saijo, H; Shiojiri, M; Yabuuchi, Y; Takahashi, N


    Natural (molybdenite) and synthesized molybdenum disulfide crystals have been studied by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The image simulation demonstrates that the [0001] and [0110] HRTEM images of hexagonal and rhombohedral MoS2 crystals hardly disclose their stacking sequences, and that the [2110] images can distinguish the Mo and S columns along the incident electron beam and enable one to determine not only the crystal structure but also the fault structure. Observed [0001] images of cleaved molybdenite and synthesized MoS2 crystals, however, reveal the strain field around partial dislocations limiting an extended dislocation. A cross-sectional image of a single molecular (S-Mo-S) layer cleaved from molybdenite has been observed. Synthesized MoS2 flakes which were prepared by grinding have been found to be rhombohedral crystals containing many stacking faults caused by glides between S/S layers.

  13. Neutron diffraction studies of the low-temperature magnetic structure of hexagonal FeGe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernhard, J.; Lebech, Bente; Beckman, O.


    The magnetic structure of the hexagonal polymorph of FeGe has been investigated by means of neutron diffraction on single crystals at low temperature and for magnetic fields applied perpendicular to the c axis. Between 410 and approximately 55K the magnetic structure is collinear c......-axis antiferromagnetic. Below approximately 55K the structure changes to c-axis double-cone antiferromagnetic with an inter-layer turn angle for the basal-plane moment component of 194.4 degrees , independent of temperature and applied field. The cone half-angle increases with decreasing temperature to approximately 14...... degrees at 4.2K, but its temperature dependence shows a pronounced kink at 30K, indicating a phase change at this temperature. At 4.2K the authors observe an anomalous decrease of the basal-plane moment component at a critical field (B perpendicular to c) of 1.4 T. As the temperature is increased...

  14. Synthesis of ZnO Hexagonal Micro Discs on Glass Substrates Using the Spray Pyrolysis Technique (United States)

    Ikhmayies, Shadia J.; Zbib, Mohamad B.


    Zinc oxide (ZnO) is an important transparent conducting oxide of potential use in solar cells, electronics, photoelectronics, and sensors. In this work ZnO micro discs were synthesized in thin film form on glass substrates using the low cost spray pyrolysis method. The films were prepared from a precursor solution of ZnCl2 in distilled water at a substrate temperature of 300 ± 5°C. The as-synthesized samples were analyzed with x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and x-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The morphology of the films showed randomly distributed micro discs of hexagonal shape. The EDS reports showed that the films contained Cl and Fe. Size analysis was performed using ImageJ software, where the average diameter was found to be 4.8 ± 0.9 μm, and the average thickness was found to be 254 ± 43 nm.

  15. Valley-dependent spin-orbit torques in two-dimensional hexagonal crystals

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Hang


    We study spin-orbit torques in two-dimensional hexagonal crystals such as graphene, silicene, germanene, and stanene. The torque possesses two components, a fieldlike term due to inverse spin galvanic effect and an antidamping torque originating from Berry curvature in mixed spin-k space. In the presence of staggered potential and exchange field, the valley degeneracy can be lifted and we obtain a valley-dependent Berry curvature, leading to a tunable antidamping torque by controlling the valley degree of freedom. The valley imbalance can be as high as 100% by tuning the bias voltage or magnetization angle. These findings open new venues for the development of current-driven spin-orbit torques by structural design.

  16. Oxygen-assisted synthesis of hexagonal boron nitride films for graphene transistors (United States)

    Zhuang, Pingping; Lin, Weiyi; Xu, Binbin; Cai, Weiwei


    We grow high-quality two-dimensional hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) films on copper pockets by chemical vapor deposition. A piece of sapphire embedded in the pocket serves as an oxygen supply during the growth process. To obtain clean h-BN films, source powders are placed in a U-shaped quartz tube and heated up in a water bath without the carrier-gas flow. These films are characterized by using SEM, Raman, XPS, and selected area electron diffraction analyses. As dielectric substrates, h-BN films significantly enhance the charge-carrier mobility of graphene transistors. This facile and robust method can be a scalable approach to synthesize large-area high-quality h-BN films for related electronic applications.

  17. Electrochemical synthesis of hexagonal closed pack nickel: A hydrogen storage material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahiri, Abhishek; Das, Rupak; Reddy, Ramana G. [Department of Metallurgical and Material Engineering, The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States)


    An in situ hydrogen generation and storage technique is demonstrated during the electrodeposition of hexagonal closed pack (HCP) nickel from NiCl{sub 2}-1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (NiCl{sub 2}-EmimCl) and NiCl{sub 2}.6H{sub 2}O-1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (NiCl{sub 2}.6H{sub 2}O-EmimCl) melts. During electrolysis, the dissolution of hydrogen in nickel takes place due to the electrolysis of water. This results in the production of HCP nickel. The hydrogen content of the electrodeposited nickel from NiCl{sub 2}-EmimCl was found to be 1.2 wt.%. Thermal analysis showed that the phase transformation from HCP nickel to FCC occurred at 462 C, releasing hydrogen in the process. (author)

  18. Carbon Substitution on N24 Cages: Crossover between Triangular and Hexagonal Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrie Sanders


    Full Text Available Complex forms of nitrogen are of interest for their potential as high-energy materials, but many all-nitrogen systems lack the stability for practical high-energy applications. Inclusion of carbon atoms in an otherwise all-nitrogen structure can increase stability. Nitrogen cages are known for energetically preferring cylindrical structures with triangular endcaps, but carbon cages prefer the pentagon-hexagon structure of the fullerenes. Previous calculations on N22C2 have shown that carbon inclusion narrows the gap between triangular and fullerene-like structures. In the current study, three isomers of N24 are used as frameworks for carbon substitution. Theoretical calculations are carried out on isomers of N20C4, N18C6, and N16C8, with the goal of determining what level of carbon substitution causes the carbon fullerene-like structures to become energetically preferred.

  19. Redetermination of the hexagonal struvite analogue Cs[Mg(OH26](PO4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Weil


    Full Text Available The structure of the hexagonal modification of caesium hexaaquamagnesium phosphate has been redetermined from single-crystal X-ray data. The previous refinement from photographic data [Ferrari, Calvaca & Nardelli (1955. Gazz. Chim. Ital. 85, 1232–1238] was basically confirmed, but with all H atoms located and with all non H-atoms refined with anisotropic displacement parameters. The structure can be derived from the NiAs structure type: the PO4 tetrahedra (3m. symmetry are on the Ni positions and the complex [Mg(OH26] octahedra (3m. symmetry are on the As positions. The building units are connected to each other by hydrogen bonds. The Cs+ cations (3m. symmetry are located in the voids of this arrangement and exhibit a distorted cuboctahedral 12-coordination by the O atoms of the water molecules.

  20. Synthesis and Thermal Conductivity of Exfoliated Hexagonal Boron Nitride/Alumina Ceramic Composite (United States)

    Hung, Ching-cheh; Hurst, Janet; Santiago, Diana; Lizcano, Maricela; Kelly, Marisabel


    Exfoliated hexagonal boron nitride (hBN)/alumina composite can be fabricated by following the process of (1) heating a mixture of hBN, AlCl3, and NaF in nitrogen for intercalation; (2) heating the intercalated product in air for exfoliation and at the same time converting the intercalate (AlCl3) into Al2O3, (3) rinsing the oxidized product, (4) coating individual exfoliated hBN platelets that contain Al2O3 with new layers of aluminum oxide, and finally, (5) hot pressing the product into the composite. The composite thus obtained has a composition of approximately 60 percent by weight hBN and 40 percent by weight alumina. Its in-plane and through-plane thermal conductivity were measured to be 86 and 18 watts per meter Kelvin, respectively, at room temperature.

  1. Formation and analysis of ZnO-PAni hexagonal prisms composite prepared by chemical method (United States)

    Talib, Rawnaq A.; Abdullah, M. J.; Mohammad, Sabah M.


    ZnO-polyaniline (PAni) nanocomposites were fabricated through a chemical method using Zinc acetate hexahydrate, ammonium hydroxide and different ratios (5, 15, 20 wt %) polyaniline. The FESEM images of the nanocomposites revealed that ZnO-PAni nanocomposites have a twin-prism structure. The XRD analysis has shown the hexagonal wurtzite structure of ZnO. Presence of P Ani did not cause any change in crystal structure of ZnO. Results of UV-Vis spectra indicate that the ZnO-PAni nanocomposites absorbed visible and ultraviolet light. This may be may be one of the interesting qualities of the prepared ZnO-PAni nanocomposites. Remarkable changes in the properties of the composites were observed, which are due to the interfacial interactions between ZnO and PAni, The interactions caused by hydrogen linkages and surface effects were observed by Raman spectrum analyses.

  2. Controlled Synthesis of Atomically Layered Hexagonal Boron Nitride via Chemical Vapor Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juanjuan Liu


    Full Text Available Hexagonal boron nitrite (h-BN is an attractive material for many applications including electronics as a complement to graphene, anti-oxidation coatings, light emitters, etc. However, the synthesis of high-quality h-BN is still a great challenge. In this work, via controlled chemical vapor deposition, we demonstrate the synthesis of h-BN films with a controlled thickness down to atomic layers. The quality of as-grown h-BN is confirmed by complementary characterizations including high-resolution transition electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy. This work will pave the way for production of large-scale and high-quality h-BN and its applications as well.

  3. High Sensitivity Refractive Index Sensor Based on Dual-Core Photonic Crystal Fiber with Hexagonal Lattice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyang Wang


    Full Text Available A refractive index sensor based on dual-core photonic crystal fiber (PCF with hexagonal lattice is proposed. The effects of geometrical parameters of the PCF on performances of the sensor are investigated by using the finite element method (FEM. Two fiber cores are separated by two air holes filled with the analyte whose refractive index is in the range of 1.33–1.41. Numerical simulation results show that the highest sensitivity can be up to 22,983 nm/RIU(refractive index unit when the analyte refractive index is 1.41. The lowest sensitivity can reach to 21,679 nm/RIU when the analyte refractive index is 1.33. The sensor we proposed has significant advantages in the field of biomolecule detection as it provides a wide-range of detection with high sensitivity.

  4. High Sensitivity Refractive Index Sensor Based on Dual-Core Photonic Crystal Fiber with Hexagonal Lattice. (United States)

    Wang, Haiyang; Yan, Xin; Li, Shuguang; An, Guowen; Zhang, Xuenan


    A refractive index sensor based on dual-core photonic crystal fiber (PCF) with hexagonal lattice is proposed. The effects of geometrical parameters of the PCF on performances of the sensor are investigated by using the finite element method (FEM). Two fiber cores are separated by two air holes filled with the analyte whose refractive index is in the range of 1.33-1.41. Numerical simulation results show that the highest sensitivity can be up to 22,983 nm/RIU(refractive index unit) when the analyte refractive index is 1.41. The lowest sensitivity can reach to 21,679 nm/RIU when the analyte refractive index is 1.33. The sensor we proposed has significant advantages in the field of biomolecule detection as it provides a wide-range of detection with high sensitivity.

  5. Prediction of mechanical properties for hexagonal boron nitride nanosheets using molecular mechanics model (United States)

    Natsuki, Toshiaki; Natsuki, Jun


    Mechanical behaviors of nanomaterials are not easy to be evaluated in the laboratory because of their extremely small size and difficulty controlling. Thus, a suitable model for the estimation of the mechanical properties for nanomaterials becomes very important. In this study, the elastic properties of boron nitride (BN) nanosheets, including the elastic modulus, the shear modulus, and the Poisson's ratio, are predicted using a molecular mechanics model. The molecular mechanics force filed is established to directly incorporate the Morse potential function into the constitutive model of nanostructures. According to the molecular mechanics model, the chirality effect of hexagonal BN nanosheets on the elastic modulus is investigated through a closed-form solution. The simulated result shows that BN nanosheets exhibit an isotropic elastic property. The present analysis yields a set of very simple formulas and is able to be served as a good approximation on the mechanical properties for the BN nanosheets.

  6. Chemical reaction of hexagonal boron nitride and graphite nanoclusters in mechanical milling systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muramatsu, Y.; Grush, M.; Callcott, T.A. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)] [and others


    Synthesis of boron-carbon-nitride (BCN) hybrid alloys has been attempted extensively by many researchers because the BCN alloys are considered an extremely hard material called {open_quotes}super diamond,{close_quotes} and the industrial application for wear-resistant materials is promising. A mechanical alloying (MA) method of hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) with graphite has recently been studied to explore the industrial synthesis of the BCN alloys. To develop the MA method for the BCN alloy synthesis, it is necessary to confirm the chemical reaction processes in the mechanical milling systems and to identify the reaction products. Therefore, the authors have attempted to confirm the chemical reaction process of the h-BN and graphite in mechanical milling systems using x-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) methods.

  7. Experimental investigation of chimney-enhanced natural convection in hexagonal honeycombs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohu Yang


    Full Text Available The natural convective heat transfer performance of an aluminum hexagonal honeycomb acting as a novel heat sink for LED cooling is experimentally investigated. The concept of adding an adiabatic square chimney extension for heat transfer enhancement is proposed, and the effects of chimney shape, height, and diameter are quantified. The average N uav of a heated honeycomb with straight chimney is significantly higher than that without chimney, and the enhancement increases with increasing chimney height. At a given chimney height, honeycombs with divergent chimneys perform better than those with convergent ones. For a fixed divergent angle, the N uav number increases monotonically with increasing chimney height. In contrast, with the convergent angle fixed, there exists an optimal chimney height to achieve maximum heat transfer.

  8. A transmitting antenna with hexagon illumination shape for four-color VLC (United States)

    Liu, Kexin; Zhang, Lijun; Hu, Shanshan; Xing, Jichuan; Li, Ping'an


    This paper demonstrated a compact white light transmitting antenna based on four-color VLC system, which included an integrating rod and a Fresnel lens system. This paper mainly analyzed the homogenizer: the hexagon integrating rod. After simulation and optimizing, the size of this rod is designed as 60mm (length) x 4.35mm (D). As a result of experiments, this antenna which mixes RGBY-LEDs' beam into white light with high uniformity (67.18%), and illuminate the area of 0.75m x 0.75m at 1.77m transmission distance. The color temperature of the detection surface is 5583K, the chromatic aberration is 0.0021, compared with light source E of standard illumination, less than eye solution (0.005). Also, we verified that this antenna could ensure a stable SNR in mobile communication.

  9. Synthesis of gold hexagonal bipyramids directed by planar-twinned silver triangular nanoprisms. (United States)

    Personick, Michelle L; Langille, Mark R; Wu, Jinsong; Mirkin, Chad A


    The direct growth of planar-twinned Au nanoparticles (NPs) in high yield remains a challenge in shape-controlled NP synthesis largely because suitable planar-twinned seeds for Au NP growth have not been identified to date. Herein we describe the use of planar-twinned Ag triangular nanoprisms as a means to dictate Au NP twin structure. In a one-pot process, the Ag triangular nanoprisms first undergo oxidative Au replacement, forming Ag-Au alloy nanoframes and concomitantly releasing Ag(+) into solution, which then directs subsequent Au NP growth through an underpotential deposition process. The planar-twinned structure of the initial Ag nanoprism is maintained throughout particle growth. Using this method, we have successfully synthesized Au hexagonal bipyramids in high yield for the first time.

  10. Spin tunnelling of trigonal and hexagonal ferromagnets in an arbitrarily directed magnetic field (United States)

    Lü, Rong; Zhu, Jia-Lin; Liu, Zhi-Rong; Chang, Lee; Gu, Bing-Lin


    The quantum tunnellings of the magnetization vector in single-domain ferromagnetic nanoparticles placed in an external magnetic field at an arbitrarily directed angle in the ZX-plane are studied theoretically. We consider magnetocrystalline anisotropies with trigonal and hexagonal crystal symmetry. By applying the instanton technique in the spin-coherent-state path-integral representation, we calculate the tunnel splittings, the tunnelling rates, and the crossover temperatures in the low-barrier limit for different angle ranges of the external magnetic field (θH = π/2, π/2crossover temperatures depend distinctly on the orientation of the external magnetic field, which provides a possible experimental test for magnetic quantum tunnelling in nanometre-scale single-domain ferromagnets.

  11. Three-point functions in N=4 SYM: the hexagon proposal at three loops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eden, Burkhard [Institut für Mathematik & Institut für Physik, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin,Zum großen Windkanal 6, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Sfondrini, Alessandro [Institut für Theoretische Physik, ETH Zürich,Wolfgang-Pauli-Str. 27, CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland)


    Basso, Komatsu and Vieira recently proposed an all-loop framework for the computation of three-point functions of single-trace operators of N=4 super-Yang-Mills, the “hexagon program”. This proposal results in several remarkable predictions, including the three-point function of two protected operators with an unprotected one in the SU(2) and SL(2) sectors. Such predictions consist of an “asymptotic” part — similar in spirit to the asymptotic Bethe Ansatz of Beisert and Staudacher for two-point functions — as well as additional finite-size “wrapping” Lüscher-like corrections. The focus of this paper is on such wrapping corrections, which we compute at three-loops in the SL(2) sector. The resulting structure constants perfectly match the ones obtained in the literature from four-point correlators of protected operators.

  12. Dislocation Dynamics Simulations of Junctions in Hexagonal Close-Packed Crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, C; Aubry, S; Chung, P; Arsenlis, A


    The formation and strength of dislocations in the hexagonal closed packed material beryllium are studied through dislocation junctions and the critical stress required to break them. Dislocation dynamics calculations (using the code ParaDiS) of junction maps are compared to an analytical line tension approximation in order to validate our model. Results show that the two models agree very well. Also the critical shear stress necessary to break 30{sup o} - 30{sup o} and 30{sup o} - 90{sup o} dislocation junctions is computed numerically. Yield surfaces are mapped out for these junctions to describe their stability regions as function of resolved shear stresses on the glide planes. The example of two non-coplanar binary dislocation junctions with slip planes [2-1-10] (01-10) and [-12-10] (0001) corresponding to a prismatic and basal slip respectively is chosen to verify and validate our implementation.

  13. Diagonal form factors and hexagon form factorsII. Non-BPS light operator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Yunfeng [Institut für Theoretische Physik, ETH Zürich,Wolfgang Pauli Strasse 27, CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland)


    We study the asymptotic volume dependence of the heavy-heavy-light three-point functions in the N=4 Super-Yang-Mills theory using the hexagon bootstrap approach, where the volume is the length of the heavy operator. We extend the analysis of our previous short letter to the general case where the heavy operators can be in any rank one sector and the light operator being a generic non-BPS operator. We prove the conjecture of Bajnok, Janik and Wereszczynski up to leading finite size corrections.

  14. Deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty for the management of iatrogenic keratectasia occurring after hexagonal keratotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paras Mehta


    Full Text Available Iatrogenic keratectasia has been reported subsequent to refractive surgery or trauma. Hexagonal keratotomy (HK is a surgical incisional technique to correct hyperopia. A number of complications have been reported following this procedure, including irregular astigmatism, wound healing abnormalities and corneal ectasia. When visual acuity is poor because of ectasia or irregular astigmatism and contact lens fitting is not possible, penetrating or lamellar keratoplasty can be performed. Since incisions in refractive keratotomy are set at 90-95% depth of cornea, intraoperative microperforations are known to occur and lamellar keratoplasty may become difficult. We describe deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK used to successfully manage keratectasia after HK. Pre DALK vision was 20/400 and post DALK vision was 20/30 two months after surgery. This report aims to show improved visual outcome in corneal ectasia secondary to HK. DALK can be a procedure of choice with proper case selection.

  15. Dichotomous Saturn in infrared images: huge northern hexagon against smaller southern hurricane (United States)

    Kochemasov, G.


    Saturn's polar dichotomy was observed as color hues: gold south and azure north. Now infrared images of NASA/JPL/University of Arizona allow to see substantial structural differences of two polar regions. First was observed a large centered on the south pole hurricane 8000 km across with a central eye about 1500 km across (PIA08333). Then on the northern night hemisphere was observed a huge centered on the pole hexagon about 25000 km across (PIA09186). The dichotomous structure of celestial bodies is their first characteristic feature marked as Theorem 1 of the wave planetology [1, 2, 3 & others]. Origin of this ubiquitous feature is due to an interference of warping waves 1 of four directions appearing in any rotating body (but all bodies rotate!) moving in elliptical orbit with periodically changing accelerations (I. Kepler has shown that all planetary bodies move in such orbits) [3]. The fundamental warping inertia-gravity wave 1 has overtones of which wave 2 - the first overtone is most prominent in structures of celestial bodies. It makes tectonic sectors superimposed on tectonic dichotomy (e.g., continents and secondary oceans of Earth; the Pacific basin is the primary ocean - one of the dichotomous segments of Earth). Interfering waves tend to produce in globes geometrical figures according to their lengths. Thus, wave 1 makes tetrahedron, wave 2 octahedron, wave 4 cube. Naturally, significant gravity of relatively large bodies (more than 400 to 500 km across) "smashes" this would -be figures in favor of a sphere. What is left, it is axes and planes of symmetry of this figures and perching but obliterated vertices (e.g., the Pamirs-Hindukush and antepodean to it the Easter Island). A tetrahedron - the simplest polyhedron of Plato - has three faces narrowing to a vertex and widening to a fourth face. Thus, tetrahedron is a dichotomous body because cut amidst any of its 4 axes it always has an opposition of a vertex (contraction) to a face (expansion). Traces

  16. Effect of hexagonal boron nitride and graphite nanoparticles on the mechanical and physical properties of magnesium (United States)

    Drozd, Z.; Trojanová, Z.; Arlic, U.; Kasakewitsch, A.; Dash, K.


    Magnesium nanocomposites reinforced with 3 vol.% of hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) and ultrafine-grained magnesium with 3 vol.% of graphite (Gr) nanoparticles were prepared by milling followed by hot extrusion. The influence of the hBN and Gr nanoparticles on the mechanical and physical properties of magnesium were subsequently investigated. The microstructure of the nanocomposites was analysed by electron microscopy. The nanocomposites were deformed in compression over a wide temperature range from room temperature to 300 °C and true stress-true strain curves were determined. The linear thermal expansion coefficient was measured over a wide temperature range from room temperature up to 400 °C. Pre-deformation in compression was used to estimate the influence of twins on the thermal expansion coefficient. The results are analysed and possible physical mechanisms for the observed mechanical and physical properties are discussed.

  17. Hexagonally Ordered Arrays of α-Helical Bundles Formed from Peptide-Dendron Hybrids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barkley, Deborah A. [Department; Rokhlenko, Yekaterina [Department; Marine, Jeannette E. [Department; David, Rachelle [Department; Sahoo, Dipankar [Department; Watson, Matthew D. [Department; Koga, Tadanori [Department; Department; Osuji, Chinedum O. [Department; Rudick, Jonathan G. [Department


    Combining monodisperse building blocks that have distinct folding properties serves as a modular strategy for controlling structural complexity in hierarchically organized materials. We combine an α-helical bundle-forming peptide with self-assembling dendrons to better control the arrangement of functional groups within cylindrical nanostructures. Site-specific grafting of dendrons to amino acid residues on the exterior of the α-helical bundle yields monodisperse macromolecules with programmable folding and self-assembly properties. The resulting hybrid biomaterials form thermotropic columnar hexagonal mesophases in which the peptides adopt an α-helical conformation. Bundling of the α-helical peptides accompanies self-assembly of the peptide-dendron hybrids into cylindrical nanostructures. The bundle stoichiometry in the mesophase agrees well with the size found in solution for α-helical bundles of peptides with a similar amino acid sequence.

  18. Prediction of mechanical properties for hexagonal boron nitride nanosheets using molecular mechanics model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natsuki, Toshiaki [Shinshu University, Faculty of Textile Science and Technology, Ueda (Japan); Shinshu University, Institute of Carbon Science and Technology, Nagano (Japan); Natsuki, Jun [Shinshu University, Institute of Carbon Science and Technology, Nagano (Japan)


    Mechanical behaviors of nanomaterials are not easy to be evaluated in the laboratory because of their extremely small size and difficulty controlling. Thus, a suitable model for the estimation of the mechanical properties for nanomaterials becomes very important. In this study, the elastic properties of boron nitride (BN) nanosheets, including the elastic modulus, the shear modulus, and the Poisson's ratio, are predicted using a molecular mechanics model. The molecular mechanics force filed is established to directly incorporate the Morse potential function into the constitutive model of nanostructures. According to the molecular mechanics model, the chirality effect of hexagonal BN nanosheets on the elastic modulus is investigated through a closed-form solution. The simulated result shows that BN nanosheets exhibit an isotropic elastic property. The present analysis yields a set of very simple formulas and is able to be served as a good approximation on the mechanical properties for the BN nanosheets. (orig.)

  19. Photodynamics of quantum emitters in hexagonal boron nitride revealed by low-temperature spectroscopy (United States)

    Sontheimer, Bernd; Braun, Merle; Nikolay, Niko; Sadzak, Nikola; Aharonovich, Igor; Benson, Oliver


    Quantum emitters in hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) have recently emerged as promising bright single photon sources. In this Rapid Communication we investigate in detail their optical properties at cryogenic temperatures. In particular, we perform temperature-resolved photoluminescence studies and measure photon coherence times from the hBN emitters. The obtained value of 81 (1 )ps translates to a width of ˜6.5 GHz which is higher than the Fourier transform limited value of ˜32 MHz . To account for the photodynamics of the emitter, we perform ultrafast spectral diffusion measurements that partially account for the coherence times. Our results provide important insight into the relaxation processes in quantum emitters in hBN which is mandatory to evaluate their applicability for quantum information processing.

  20. Detailed Structures of Hexagonal Diamond (lonsdaleite) and Wurtzite-type BN (United States)

    Yoshiasa, Akira; Murai, Yu; Ohtaka, Osamu; Katsura, Tomoo


    Hexagonal diamond (hDIA) and wurtzite-type BN (wBN) powders were synthesized using a Kawai-type high-pressure apparatus and the essential details of their structures were examined by Reitveld refinements in order to investigate their thermodynamic stability and transition mechanism. X-ray diffraction profiles of the products were well explained by a mixture of hDIA and cubic diamond (cDIA) with stacking faults. The mass fraction of hDIA and cDIA was 50:50 for the products annealed between 800 and 1400°C and it became 20:80 for the product annealed at 1600°C. Temperatures higher than 1600°C seem to favor the formation of cDIA or to induce the conversion from hDIA to cDIA. Structure refinement revealed that a decrease and an increase in the basal and apical distances of C-C and B-N bonds in hDIA and wBN, respectively, are introduced by lowering the symmetry from cubic to hexagonal. Since the relative stability of wurtzite-type compounds largely depends on the distortion of the tetrahedral bond angle, the deviation from the ideal tetrahedron in both hDIA and wBN was refined to discuss their stability. The transition mechanism from graphite and graphite-like BN to hDIA and wBN is discussed by comparing the present results and those of previous simulation studies. Based on analogous features observed in the synthetic hDIA and lonsdaleite (natural hDIA found in meteorites), the formation mechanism of hDIA in meteorites is proposed.

  1. Sensory enhancing insoles improve athletic performance during a hexagonal agility task. (United States)

    Miranda, Daniel L; Hsu, Wen-Hao; Gravelle, Denise C; Petersen, Kelsey; Ryzman, Rachael; Niemi, James; Lesniewski-Laas, Nicholas


    Athletes incorporate afferent signals from the mechanoreceptors of their plantar feet to provide information about posture, stability, and joint position. Sub-threshold stochastic resonance (SR) sensory enhancing insoles have been shown to improve balance and proprioception in young and elderly participant populations. Balance and proprioception are correlated with improved athletic performance, such as agility. Agility is defined as the ability to quickly change direction. An athlete's agility is commonly evaluated during athletic performance testing to assess their ability to participate in a competitive sporting event. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of SR insoles during a hexagonal agility task routinely used by coaches and sports scientists. Twenty recreational athletes were recruited to participate in this study. Each athlete was asked to perform a set of hexagonal agility trials while SR stimulation was either on or off. Vicon motion capture was used to measure feet position during six successful trials for each stimulation condition. Stimulation condition was randomized in a pairwise fashion. The study outcome measures were the task completion time and the positional accuracy of footfalls. Pairwise comparisons revealed a 0.12s decrease in task completion time (p=0.02) with no change in hopping accuracy (p=0.99) when SR stimulation was on. This is the first study to show athletic performance benefits while wearing proprioception and balance improving equipment on healthy participants. With further development, a self-contained sensory enhancing insole device could be used by recreational and professional athletes to improve movements that require rapid changes in direction. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Simulating debris flows through a hexagonal cellular automata model: SCIDDICA S3–hex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. D’Ambrosio


    Full Text Available Cellular Automata (CA represent a formal frame for dynamical systems, which evolve on the base of local interactions. Some types of landslide, such as debris flows, match well this requirement. The latest hexagonal release (S3–hex of the deterministic model SCIDDICA, specifically developed for simulating debris flows, is described. For CA simulation purposes, landslides can be viewed as a dynamical system, subdivided into elementary parts, whose state evolves exclusively as a consequence of local interactions within a spatial and temporal discretum. Space is the world of the CA, here constituted by hexagonal cells. The attributes of each cell ("substates" describe physical characteristics. For computational reasons, the natural phenomenon is "decomposed" into a number of elementary processes, whose proper composition makes up the "transition function" of the CA. By simultaneously applying this function to all the cells, the evolution of the phenomenon can be simulated in terms of modifications of the substates. SCIDDICA S3–hex exhibits a great flexibility in modelling debris flows. With respect to the previous releases of the model, the mechanism of progressive erosion of the soil cover has been added to the transition function. Considered substates are: altitude; thickness and energy of landslide debris; depth of erodable soil cover; debris outflows. Considered elementary processes are: mobilisation triggering and effect (T1, debris outflows (I1, update of landslide debris thickness and energy (I2, and energy loss (T2.  Simulations of real debris flows, occurred in Campania (Southern Italy in May 1998 (Sarno and December 1999 (San Martino V.C. and Cervinara, have been performed for model calibration purposes; some examples of analysis are briefly described. Possible applications of the method are: risk mapping, also based on a statistical approach; evaluating the effects of mitigation actions (e.g. stream deviations, topographic

  3. Load to failure of different titanium abutments for an internal hexagon implant. (United States)

    Yilmaz, Burak; Salaita, Louai G; Seidt, Jeremy D; Clelland, Nancy L; McGlumphy, Edwin A


    Several aftermarket abutments are available for a commonly used internal hexagonal connection implant. However, their load to failure performance is unknown when compared with the manufacturer's abutment. The purpose of this in vitro study was to conduct a load to failure comparison of 5 different titanium abutments (manufacturer's and aftermarket) for cement-retained restorations used on an implant with an internal hexagon connection. Five implants (Tapered Screw-Vent, 4.1×11.5 mm; Zimmer Dental) were individually secured in a loading apparatus, and 3 abutment specimens of each of the 5 different titanium abutments (Atlantis, AstraTech TiDesign, Legacy Straight Contoured, Inclusive Custom, and Zimmer PSA) (n=15 total) were loaded at a 30-degree angle until fracture of the implant abutment complex. Data for load to fracture were compared with analysis of variance and a Tukey-Kramer post hoc test (α=.05). Significant differences were noted between the fracture loads of some abutment pairs; Atlantis-AstraTech TiDesign, Atlantis-Legacy Straight Contoured, AstraTech TiDesign-Legacy Straight Contoured, Inclusive Custom-AstraTech TiDesign, and Inclusive Custom-Legacy Straight Contoured (P<.05). The highest overall resistance to fracture was achieved by the Legacy Straight Contoured Abutment, which was significantly greater than all other aftermarket abutments (P<.05). Tested abutments fractured at an average of 649.17 N. The Zimmer PSA abutment was the only abutment that showed no fracture of any of the components before implant failure. When comparing manufacturer's versus aftermarket brands, the manufacturer's abutment (Zimmer PSA) was the only abutment without fracture of any of the components. Aftermarket brands experienced screw fractures, which could result in further clinical prosthetic complications. The clinical implications of these findings need further investigation. Copyright © 2015 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by

  4. Load to failure of different zirconia abutments for an internal hexagon implant. (United States)

    Yilmaz, Burak; Salaita, Louai G; Seidt, Jeremy D; McGlumphy, Edwin A; Clelland, Nancy L


    Various zirconia abutment designs are available to restore implant systems. Fracture resistance is one of the criteria involved in selecting among these options. The purpose of this in vitro study was to measure and compare load to failure for 5 zirconia abutments for an internally hexagon implant. Five 4.1×11.5-mm Zimmer tapered screw-vent implants were individually secured in a loading apparatus, and 3 specimens of each of the 5 different abutments (Zimmer Contour with a Ti ring, anatomic-contour Atlantis-Zr, anatomic-contour Inclusive-Zr, anatomic-contour Astra Tech ZirDesign, Legacy Straight Contoured abutment with Ti core) (N=15) were loaded at a 30-degree angle until the implant abutment complex failed. Data for load to failure were compared with analysis of variance and a Tukey-Kramer post hoc test (α=.05). The custom anatomic-contour abutment (Inclusive) showed the lowest load to fracture, and the stock anatomic-contour (AstraTech ZirDesign) the second lowest load to fracture. These were significantly lower than all other abutments (Pload of 842 N for zirconia abutments with titanium component (P<.05). The stock zirconia abutment with a titanium ring and the zirconia abutment with a titanium core-hexagon (Legacy Straight Contoured) had significantly greater fracture resistance than that of any of the 1-piece anatomic-contour zirconia abutments tested. Copyright © 2015 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Catalytically-etched hexagonal boron nitride flakes and their surface activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Do-Hyun, E-mail: [School of Electrical Engineering, Korea University, 5-ga, Anam-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Minwoo; Ye, Bora [Green Manufacturing 3Rs R& D Group, Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, Ulsan 681-310 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Ho-Kyun; Kim, Gyu Tae [School of Electrical Engineering, Korea University, 5-ga, Anam-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dong-Jin [New Functional Components Research Team, Korea Institute of Footware & Leather Technology, 152 Danggamseo-ro, Busanjin-gu, Busan 614-100 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Eok-Soo [Green Manufacturing 3Rs R& D Group, Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, Ulsan 681-310 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hong Dae, E-mail: [Green Manufacturing 3Rs R& D Group, Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, Ulsan 681-310 (Korea, Republic of)


    Highlights: • Hexagonal boron nitride flakes are etched at low temperature in air by catalysts. • The presence of transition metal oxides produces an etched structure in the flakes. • Etched surfaces become highly active due to vacancy defects formed in the flakes. - Abstract: Hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) is a ceramic compound which is thermally stable up to 1000 °C in air. Due to this, it is a very challenging task to etch h-BN under air atmosphere at low temperature. In this study, we report that h-BN flakes can be easily etched by oxidation at 350 °C under air atmosphere in the presence of transition metal (TM) oxide. After selecting Co, Cu, and Zn elements as TM precursors, we simply oxidized h-BN sheets impregnated with the TM precursors at 350 °C in air. As a result, microscopic analysis revealed that an etched structure was created on the surface of h-BN flakes regardless of catalyst type. And, X-ray diffraction patterns indicated that the air oxidation led to the formation of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}, CuO, and ZnO from each precursor. Thermogravimetric analysis showed a gradual weight loss in the temperature range where the weight of h-BN flakes increased by air oxidation. As a result of etching, pore volume and pore area of h-BN flakes were increased after catalytic oxidation in all cases. In addition, the surface of h-BN flakes became highly active when the h-BN samples were etched by Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} and CuO catalysts. Based on these results, we report that h-BN flakes can be easily oxidized in the presence of a catalyst, resulting in an etched structure in the layered structure.

  6. Microstructure and magnetic properties of M-type strontium hexagonal ferrites with Y-Co substitution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Chaocheng [School of Physics and Materials Science, Anhui University, Hefei 230601 (China); Liu, Xiansong, E-mail: [School of Physics and Materials Science, Anhui University, Hefei 230601 (China); Engineering Technology Research Center of Magnetic Materials, School of Physics & Materials Science, Anhui University, Hefei 230601 (China); Feng, Shuangjiu; Rehman, Khalid Mehmood Ur; Li, Mingling; Zhang, Cong; Li, Haohao; Meng, Xiangyu [School of Physics and Materials Science, Anhui University, Hefei 230601 (China)


    Highlights: • Y-Co substitution in strontium hexaferrites have been prepared and investigated systematically for the first time. • Lattice constants a and c for all the samples are very different with that of unsubstituted ferrites. • The M{sub s} and H{sub c} are very high, from which may provide an important significance of research and development of high performance products. - Abstract: According to the formula Sr{sub 0.95}Y{sub 0.05}Fe{sub 12−x}Co{sub x}O{sub 19} (x = 0.00, 0.08, 0.16, 0.24, 0.32, 0.40), the replacement of Y-Co in M-type strontium hexagonal ferrites have been successfully prepared by ceramic process for the first time. The phase compositions of magnetic powders were examined by X-ray diffraction. The results of XRD showed that the single phase was obtained in magnetic powders with the increase of Co content (x), and α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} occurred when x > 0.24. The morphology of the magnets was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The micro-morphology of the particles exhibited the uniform plane hexagonal structures of M-type ferrites with different Co content. Magnetic properties of the ferrite magnets were measured by a physical property measurement system-vibrating sample magnetometer (PPMS-VSM). The M{sub s} increases constantly with the increase of Co content. The H{sub c} first increases and then decreases with the increase of Co content, and the value of coercivity (H{sub c}) is up to 3774 Oe when x = 0.24.

  7. Etching of hexagonal SiC surfaces in chlorine-containing gas media at ambient pressure (United States)

    Zinovev, A. V.; Moore, J. F.; Hryn, J.; Pellin, M. J.


    The modification of the silicon carbide (4H-SiC) single-crystal surface in a chlorine-containing gas mixture at high temperature (800-1000 °C) and ambient pressure was investigated. The results of silicon carbide chlorination are found to strongly depend on the hexagonal surface orientation. Due to the thermodynamically more favorable reaction of chlorine with silicon rather than carbon, the C-terminated side (0 0 0 1¯) clearly undergoes considerable changes, resulting in coverage by a black-colored carbon film, whereas the Si-side (0 0 0 1) surprisingly remains visually untouched. With using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), angle-resolved XPS and SEM it is shown that this drastic change in behavior is associated with a different structure of oxicarbide/silicate adlayer formed on the C- and Si-terminated sides of silicon carbide surface during experimental pre-treatment and air exposure. The presence of oxygen bridges connecting the silicate adlayer with the bulk SiC in the case of Si-side inhibits the chlorination reaction and makes this surface strongly resistant to chlorine attack. Only some places on the Si-terminated side demonstrate traces of chlorine etching in the form of hexagonal-shaped voids, which are possibly initiated by distortion of the initial crystalline structure by micropipes. In contrast, a thin carbon layer resulted on the C-terminated side as a consequence of the chlorination process. XPS, ARXPS, SEM and Raman spectroscopy study of created film allows us to argue that it consists mainly of sp2-bonded carbon, mostly in the form of nanoscale graphene sheets. The absence of a protective oxygen bridge between the silicate adlayer and the bulk silicon carbide crystal leads to unlimited growth of carbon film on the SiC(0 0 0 1¯) side.

  8. Spin Seebeck effect in Y-type hexagonal ferrite thin films (United States)

    Hirschner, J.; Maryško, M.; Hejtmánek, J.; Uhrecký, R.; Soroka, M.; Buršík, J.; Anadón, A.; Aguirre, M. H.; Knížek, K.


    The longitudinal spin Seebeck effect (SSE) has been investigated using Pt/ferrite bilayers employing two Y-hexagonal ferrites Ba2Zn2Fe12O22 (Zn2Y) and Ba2Co2Fe12O22 (Co2Y) deposited by a spin-coating method on SrTiO3(111 ) substrates. The prepared hexagonal ferrites are highly oriented with c axes perpendicular to the substrate plane. The room-temperature magnetic moments of both ferrimagnetic ferrites amount to similar values and, most importantly, both have easy magnetization normal to the c axis. Despite their similar magnetic response the notable SSE signal is only observed for Zn2Y whereas the SSE signal of Co2Y is below the experimental noise level. A plausible explanation for this surprising discrepancy is magnetic disorder induced by cobalt cations, the random distribution of which in the Co2Y ferrite structure might critically limit the spin-wave propagation. This results in suppression of the SSE signal in Co2Y, while the Zn2Y with nonmagnetic substituent exhibits significant SSE signal. The temperature dependence of SSE for Zn2Y was measured over the 30 -300 -K range and quantitatively analyzed considering the heat flow through the Pt/Zn2Y bilayer and thermal gradient across the Zn2Y thin layer as the most relevant parameters. Using this approach the normalized SSE smoothly increases with lowering temperature, which correlates to increasing magnon propagation length and magnetization with decreasing temperature.

  9. Abutment rotational freedom evaluation of external hexagon single-implant restorations after mechanical cycling. (United States)

    Junqueira, Marcela C; Silva, Thales Eduardo P; Ribeiro, Ricardo F; Faria, Adriana Cláudia L; Macedo, Ana Paula; de Almeida, Rossana P


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the rotational freedom between implant and abutment counterpart of two abutments types over external hexagon implants submitted to mechanical cycling. Ten implants with external hexagon (3.75 mm × 13 mm), five cast abutments, and five premachined abutments both with 4.1 mm plataform size were used in this study. Ten metallic crowns were fabricated using the two types of abutments and were fixed to each implant using titanium screws (Ti6Al4V). Rotational freedom measurements were made before and after the cast procedure and after the mechanical cycling. Groups were classified according to the rotational misfit register using University of California, Los Angeles abutment and implants as new (group 1 = G1); using crowns and implants after crown casting (group 2 = G2); and using crowns and implants after mechanical cycling (group 3 = G3). Oblique loading of 120N at 1.8 Hz and 5 × 10(5) cycles was applied on specimen. Statistical analysis (p < .05) showed that no significant difference was observed when cast abutment was compared with premachined abutment after casting (p = .390) and mechanical cycling (p = .439); however, significant difference was noted before the casting (p = .005) with higher values for the cast abutments. Within the limitations of this in vitro study, it could be concluded that the abutment type used do not influenced the rotational freedom after casting and the amount of applied cycles (500,000 cycles) was not sufficient to significantly alter the values of rotational freedom at the implant/abutment joint. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Nanoscale heterogeneity as remnant hexagonal-type local structures in shocked Cu-Pb and Zr (United States)

    Tayal, Akhil; Conradson, Steven D.; Batuk, Olga N.; Fensin, Saryu; Cerreta, Ellen; Gray, George T.; Saxena, Avadh


    Extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy was used to determine the local structure in: (1) Zr that had undergone quasistatic elongation; (2) Zr that had undergone plastic deformation by shock at pressures above and below the ω-phase transformation; and (3) shocked Cu that contained a few percent of insoluble Pb. Below the transition pressure, Zr samples showed only general disorder as increases in the widths of the Zr-Zr pair distributions. Above this pressure, Zr that was a mixture of the original hcp and the high pressure ω-phase when measured by diffraction showed two sets of peaks in its distribution corresponding to these two phases. Some of the ones from the ω-phase were at distances substantially different from those calculated from the diffraction pattern, although they are still consistent with small domains exhibiting stacking faults associated with hexagonal-type structural components exhibiting variability in the [0001] basal plane spacing. A similar result, new pairs at just over 3 and 4 Å consistent with hexagonal-type stacking faults in addition to the original fcc structure, is found in shocked Cu despite the absence of a second diffraction pattern and peak pressures being far below those expected to induce an fcc to hcp transition. This result, therefore, demonstrates that the correlation between high strain rates and reduced stacking fault energy continues down to the length scale of atom pairs. These findings are significant as: (1) a microscopic description of the behavior of systems far from equilibrium; (2) a demonstration of the importance of strain rate at short length scales; and (3) a bridge between the abruptness of macroscopic pressure-induced phase transitions and the continuity of martensitic ones over their fluctuation region in terms of the inverse relationship between the length scale of the martensitic texture, manifested here as ordered lattice distortions and the lower pressure at which such texture first appears

  11. Biphasic quantum dots of cubic and hexagonal Mn doped CdS; necessity of Rietveld analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiba, Zein K., E-mail: [Ain Shams University, Faculty of Science, Physics Department, Cairo (Egypt); Taif University, Faculty of Science, Physics Department (Saudi Arabia); Mohamed, Mohamed Bakr [Ain Shams University, Faculty of Science, Physics Department, Cairo (Egypt); Imam, N.G. [Experimental Physics Department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, 13759 Cairo (Egypt)


    Highlights: • Mn{sup 2+} doped CdS quantum dots (QDs) were prepared via a simple chemical synthesis procedure. • Biphasic composite of CdS QDs was revealed with maximum magnetism at 10 at.% of Mn{sup 2+}. • Rietveld structural analysis is a necessity for dealing with nano or quantum dots chalcogenides. • Full investigation of effects of Mn doping on the structural, optical and magnetic parameters. - Abstract: Mn{sup 2+} doped CdS quantum dots (QDs) were prepared via a simple chemical synthesis method. Incorporation of Mn ions into CdS QDs was monitored by structural, magnetic and optical spectroscopy analysis. Although the diffraction patterns seemed to be single wurtzite hexagonal structure, analysis revealed biphasic composite of CdS QDs hexagonal wurtzite and cubic zinc blende. The band gap, crystal phase and the morphology of CdS QDs were found not to be greatly affected by Mn{sup 2+} doping, however there was an optimal Mn{sup 2+} doping content of 10% where the magnetism is maximum. The recorded photoluminescence (PL) emission spectra, excited at 370 nm, depict emission lines in the UV and blue-shift regions. The emission band reveals that the band gap of pure CdS QDs is around 3 eV which is greater than that of bulk CdS (2.42 eV). The band gap of Mn:CdS QDs is almost independent of Mn content (x) and the crystallite size remains almost the same for all values of x. The observed structural, magnetic and optical properties have been explained on the basis of formation of two phases of CdS doped with Mn. This work aims to highlight recent advances in the synthesis of Mn:CdS diluted magnetic semiconductor quantum dots and their wonderful performance.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Hidayat


    Full Text Available Bila suatu mesin memiliki tingkat kegagalan yang tinggi, maka perlu dilakukan analisis mengenai  penyebab  –  penyebab  kegagalan  tersebut  hingga  ke  akar  permasalahannya sehingga dapat menentukan tindakan yang sesuai untuk meningkatkan kinerja suatu mesin. PT. Mutiara Hexagon merupakan sebuah perusahaan yang bergerak dibidang industri pembuatan plastik  kemasan.  Dalam  line  pembuatan lembaran film  diperlukan mesin  CPP  (Cast  Poly Propylene Machine dan mesin grinder dalam prosesnya. Pada penelitian yang dilakukan di PT. Mutiara Hexagon, terdapat beberapa kegagalan yang terjadi pada mesin grinder pada proses produksi plastic film, sehingga menyebabkan seluruh line pada divisi film mengalami downtime. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk melakukan analisa mengenai faktor penyebab kegagalan mesin grinder, penulis melakukan observasi secara langsung dan melihat proses produksi plastic film.Penulis menggunakan metode Failure Effect and Mode Analysis (FMEA dan Fault Tree Analysis (FTA. Penerapan analisis Failure Effect and  Mode Analysis (FMEA dapat menentukan sejauh mana tingkat kegagalan terjadi. Dari hasil analisis FMEA kemudian dapat dilanjutkan dengan menggunakan Fault Tree Analysis (FTA guna mengetahui lebih lanjut penyebab-penyebab dasar suatu kegagalan.Dari hasil perhitungan nilai Risk Priority Number (RPN pada tiap-tiap kegagalan yang terjadi  diantaranya yang  paling  tinggi  adalah kegagalan mesin  grinder rusak  dengan nilai kegagalannya mencapai 120. Kemudian dianalisa penyebab kegagalan tersebut dengan menggunakan metode FTA di dapatkan minimal cut sets yaitu: as grinder patah, katup hisap blower terbuka terlalu besar, kegagalan pada motor blower, baut pada dudukan pisau patah, pisau tumpul dan human error. Berdasarkan nilai probabilitas masing-masing cut set didapatkan nilai probabilitas kegagalan grinder periode 1 Juni 2012 -1 Juni 2013 mencapai 60%.

  13. Heating- and pressure-induced transformations in amorphous and hexagonal ice: A computer simulation study using the TIP4P/2005 model (United States)

    Engstler, Justin; Giovambattista, Nicolas


    We characterize the phase behavior of glassy water by performing extensive out-of-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations using the TIP4P/2005 water model. Specifically, we study (i) the pressure-induced transformations between low-density (LDA) and high-density amorphous ice (HDA), (ii) the pressure-induced amorphization (PIA) of hexagonal ice (Ih), (iii) the heating-induced LDA-to-HDA transformation at high pressures, (iv) the heating-induced HDA-to-LDA transformation at low and negative pressures, (v) the glass transition temperatures of LDA and HDA as a function of pressure, and (vi) the limit of stability of LDA upon isobaric heating and isothermal decompression (at negative pressures). These transformations are studied systematically, over a wide range of temperatures and pressures, allowing us to construct a P-T phase diagram for glassy TIP4P/2005 water. Our results are in qualitative agreement with experimental observations and with the P-T phase diagram obtained for glassy ST2 water that exhibits a liquid-liquid phase transition and critical point. We also discuss the mechanism for PIA of ice Ih and show that this is a two-step process where first, the hydrogen-bond network (HBN) is distorted and then the HBN abruptly collapses. Remarkably, the collapse of the HB in ice Ih occurs when the average molecular orientations order, a measure of the tetrahedrality of the HBN, is of the same order as in LDA, suggesting a common mechanism for the LDA-to-HDA and Ih-to-HDA transformations.

  14. Honeycomb core material for sandwich construction - with common hexagonal walls bonded by thermoplastic resin and free walls carrying layer of resin and masking agent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Undetermined, U.


    Abstract of NL 8902116 (A) In a honeycomb core material for a sandwich construction, the common hexagonal walls are bonded together by a thermoplastic resin, and the free hexagonal walls carry a layer of the same resin and also a masking agent. - A number of plates of raw material are given strips

  15. Boosted electrochemistry properties of Cu4[(OH)0.29Cl0.71](OH)6 hexagonal prisms by 3D-cage atomic configuration of (100) facet (United States)

    Zhang, An; Teng, Fei; Zhang, Qiqi; Zhai, Yifei; Liu, Zailun; Liu, Zhe; Gu, Wenhao; Hao, Weiyi; Abideen, Zain Ul; Teng, Yiran


    The Cu4[(OH)0.29Cl0.71](OH)6 hexagonal prisms, nanoplates and nanosheets are prepared by a simple hydrothermal method, and we have mainly investigated their electrochemistry properties. At 31.25, 62.5, 125, 250 and 500 mAg-1, the discharge capacitances of hexagonal prisms (S0) electrode are 1186, 1023, 969, 934 and 918 mFg-1, respectively; whereas 547, 508, 469, 438 and 375 mFg-1 for hexagonal nanosheets (S10), respectively. The capacitance of 3-8 μm-long hexagonal prisms (0.25 m2g-1) is 2 times higher than that of 50-100 nm-thick hexagonal nanosheets (3.54 m2g-1), which is obviously beyond our imagination. The high capacitance of the former sample has been mainly attributed to the atom configuration of {100} facets and the high electrical conductivity. Compared with the hexagonal tunnel atom configuration of {001} facets, the three-dimensional (3D) cage atom configuration in {100} facets favors for the charge storage, thus leading to a higher capacitance of hexagonal prisms, which has rarely been reported yet. Further, the hexagonal prisms have a higher electrical conductivity than nanoplates and nanosheets, suggesting that the one-dimensional (1D) microstructure is beneficial to the electron transfer. This work enlightens us that the electrochemistry properties of materials can be improved by the exposed facets with unique atom configuration.

  16. Effects of Fe doping on the structures and properties of hexagonal birnessites - Comparison with Co and Ni doping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yin, H.; Liu, F.; Feng, X.H.; Hu, T.D.; Zheng, L.R.; Qiu, G.H.; Koopal, L.K.; Tan, W.F.


    Fe-doped hexagonal birnessite was synthesized by adding Fe3+ to the initial reactants, and the effects of Fe doping on the structures and properties of birnessite were investigated and compared with the effects of Co and Ni doping. The underlying mechanisms controlling the incorporation of

  17. In situ study of the endotaxial growth of hexagonal CoSi{sub 2} nanoplatelets in Si(001)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Costa, Daniel da; Kellermann, Guinther, E-mail: [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Caixa Postal 19044, Curitiba, Paraná 81531-990 (Brazil); Huck-Iriart, Cristián; Giovanetti, Lisandro J.; Requejo, Félix G. [Instituto de Investigaciones Fisicoquímicas Teóricas y Aplicadas (INIFTA, CONICET, Departamento de Química, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata), CC/16 suc. 4, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Craievich, Aldo F. [Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, CP 66318, CEP 05315-970, São Paulo (Brazil)


    This investigation aims at studying–by in situ grazing-incidence small-angle x-ray scattering–the process of growth of hexagonal CoSi{sub 2} nanoplatelets endotaxially buried in a Si(001) wafer. The early formation of spherical Co nanoparticles with bimodal size distribution in the deposited silica thin film during a pretreatment at 500 °C and their subsequent growth at 700 °C were also characterized. Isothermal annealing at 700 °C promotes a drastic reduction in the number of the smallest Co nanoparticles and a continuous decrease in their volume fraction in the silica thin film. At the same time, Co atoms diffuse across the SiO{sub 2}/Si(001) interface into the silicon wafer, react with Si, and build up thin hexagonal CoSi{sub 2} nanoplatelets, all of them with their main surfaces parallel to Si(111) crystallographic planes. The observed progressive growths in thickness and lateral size of the hexagonal CoSi{sub 2} nanoplatelets occur at the expense of the dissolution of the small Co nanoparticles that are formed during the pretreatment at 500 °C and become unstable at the annealing temperature (700 °C). The kinetics of growth of the volume fraction of hexagonal platelets is well described by the classical Avrami equation.

  18. Comparison of turbulent flow through hexagram and hexagon orifices in circular pipes using large-eddy simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wei; Nicolleau, Franck C G A; Qin, Ning, E-mail: [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield, S1 3JD (United Kingdom)


    Characteristics of turbulent flow through a circular, a hexagon and a hexagram orifice with the same flow area in circular pipes are investigated using wall-modelled large-eddy simulation. Good agreements to available experimental data were obtained in both the mean velocity and turbulent kinetic energy. The hexagram orifice with alternating convex and concave corners introduces outwards radial velocity around the concave corners downstream of the orifice plate stronger than the hexagon orifice. The stronger outwards radial velocity transfers high momentum from the pipe centre towards the pipe wall to energize the orifice-forced vortex sheet rolling-up and leads to a delayed vortex break-down. Correspondingly, the hexagram has a more gradual flow recovery to a pipe flow and a reduced pressure drop than the hexagon orifice. Both the hexagon and hexagram orifices show an axis-switching phenomenon, which is observed from both the streamwise velocity and turbulent kinetic energy contours. To the best knowledge of the authors, this is the first comparison of orifice-forced turbulence development, mixing and flow dynamics between a regular and a fractal-based polygonal orifice. (paper)

  19. Formation of graphene and hexagonal boron nitride on Rh(111) studied by in-situ scanning tunneling microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dong, Guocai


    In this thesis, the formation of hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) ‘nanomesh’ structures and of graphene on Rhodium (111) is studied experimentally. The structures of h-BN and graphene are extremely similar: both of them are single atomic layers with a honeycomb lattice, and the lattice constants are

  20. Evaluation of the hexagonal and spherical model of vocational interests in the young people in Serbia and Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedrih Vladimir


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to validate Holland’s hexagonal and Tracey’s spherical model of vocational interests in young adults in Serbia and Bulgaria. To this end, 1250 participants, 560 from Serbia and 690 from Bulgaria, filled in Serbian and Bulgarian versions of the Personal Globe Inventory (PGI, Tracey, 2002. Hubert and Arabie’s randomization test of hypothetical orders, multidimensional scaling with fixed coordinates, Myors test and exploratory factor analysis were used. The results showed that the hexagonal and spherical models well explained the structure of vocational interests in both samples. The level of fit of the hexagonal model to the data obtained by using the PGI was generally higher than those established in the studies that used other Holland-based instruments. Furthermore, the levels of fit of both hexagonal and spherical model were in the same range like those obtained in previous studies in other countries. The results also pointed out a remarkable similarity in the structure of vocational interests in the Bulgarian and Serbian samples. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179002

  1. Inversion of Spin Signal and Spin Filtering in Ferromagnet/Hexagonal Boron Nitride-Graphene van der Waals Heterostructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venkata Kamalakar, M; Dankert, Andre; Kelly, Paul J.; Dash, S.P.


    Two dimensional atomically thin crystals of graphene and its insulating isomorph hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) are promising materials for spintronic applications. While graphene is an ideal medium for long distance spin transport, h-BN is an insulating tunnel barrier that has potential for

  2. Structural investigations of the two polymorphs of synthetic Fe-cordierite and Raman spectroscopy of hexagonal Fe-cordierite. (United States)

    Haefeker, Udo; Kaindl, Reinhard; Tropper, Peter; Krüger, Hannes; Kahlenberg, Volker; Orlova, Maria

    The crystal structures of synthetic hexagonal and orthorhombic Fe-cordierite polymorphs with the space groups P6/mcc and Cccm were refined from single-crystal X-ray diffraction data to R1, hex = 3.14 % and R1, ortho = 4.48 %. The substitution of the larger Fe2+ for Mg leads to multiple structural changes and an increase of the unit cell volumes, with a, c (hex) = 9.8801(16) Å, 9.2852(5) Å and a, b, c (ortho) = 17.2306(2) Å, 9.8239(1) Å, 9.2892(1) Å in the end-members. Furthermore Fe incorporation results in an increase of the volumes of the octahedra, although the diameters of the octahedra in direction of the c-axis decrease in both polymorphs. X-ray powder diffraction analysis indicates a high degree of Al/Si ordering in the orthorhombic polymorph, the Miyashiro distortion index is ~0.24. Estimations of site occupancies based on the determined tetrahedral volumes result in the following values for hexagonal Fe-cordierite: ~73 % Al for T1 and ~28 % Al for T2. For the first time Raman spectroscopy was performed on the hexagonal Fe-cordierite polymorph. In the hexagonal Fe-cordierite polymorph most Raman peaks are shifted towards lower wavenumbers when compared with the Mg-end-member.

  3. An Examination of Muscle Activation and Power Characteristics While Performing the Deadlift Exercise With Straight and Hexagonal Barbells. (United States)

    Camara, Kevin D; Coburn, Jared W; Dunnick, Dustin D; Brown, Lee E; Galpin, Andrew J; Costa, Pablo B


    The deadlift exercise is commonly performed to develop strength and power, and to train the lower-body and erector spinae muscle groups. However, little is known about the acute training effects of a hexagonal barbell vs. a straight barbell when performing deadlifts. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the hexagonal barbell in comparison with the straight barbell by analyzing electromyography (EMG) from the vastus lateralis, biceps femoris, and erector spinae, as well as peak force, peak power, and peak velocity using a force plate. Twenty men with deadlifting experience volunteered to participate in the study. All participants completed a 1 repetition maximum (1RM) test with each barbell on 2 separate occasions. Three repetitions at 65 and 85% 1RM were performed with each barbell on a third visit. The results revealed that there was no significant difference for 1RM values between the straight and hexagonal barbells (mean ± SD in kg = 181.4 ± 27.3 vs. 181.1 ± 27.6, respectively) (p > 0.05). Significantly greater normalized EMG values were found from the vastus lateralis for both the concentric (1.199 ± 0.22) and eccentric (0.879 ± 0.31) phases of the hexagonal-barbell deadlift than those of the straight-barbell deadlift (0.968 ± 0.22 and 0.559 ± 1.26), whereas the straight-barbell deadlift led to significantly greater EMG values from the bicep femoris during the concentric phase (0.835 ± 0.19) and the erector spinae (0.753 ± 0.28) during the eccentric phase than the corresponding values for the hexagonal-barbell deadlift (0.723 ± 0.20 and 0.614 ± 0.21) (p ≤ 0.05). In addition, the hexagonal-barbell deadlift demonstrated significantly greater peak force (2,553.20 ± 371.52 N), peak power (1,871.15 ± 451.61 W), and peak velocity (0.805 ± 0.165) values than those of the straight-barbell deadlift (2,509.90 ± 364.95 N, 1,639.70 ± 361.94 W, and 0.725 ± 0.138 m·s, respectively) (p ≤ 0.05). These results suggest that the barbells led

  4. Amplification-free liquid biopsy by fluorescence approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uhd, Jesper; Okholm, Anders; Kjems, Jargen


    Liquid biopsy is an attractive new paradigm of modern cancer research and clinical oncology. Synergy of fluorescence microscopy with mutation specific molecular probes is a method that we developed for the detection of tumor related circulating DNA, ctDNA. The present detection methods of ct...

  5. Molecular Dynamics Simulation of High Density DNA Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Podgornik


    Full Text Available Densely packed DNA arrays exhibit hexagonal and orthorhombic local packings, as well as a weakly first order transition between them. While we have some understanding of the interactions between DNA molecules in aqueous ionic solutions, the structural details of its ordered phases and the mechanism governing the respective phase transitions between them remains less well understood. Since at high DNA densities, i.e., small interaxial spacings, one can neither neglect the atomic details of the interacting macromolecular surfaces nor the atomic details of the intervening ionic solution, the atomistic resolution is a sine qua non to properly describe and analyze the interactions between DNA molecules. In fact, in order to properly understand the details of the observed osmotic equation of state, one needs to implement multiple levels of organization, spanning the range from the molecular order of DNA itself, the possible ordering of counterions, and then all the way to the induced molecular ordering of the aqueous solvent, all coupled together by electrostatic, steric, thermal and direct hydrogen-bonding interactions. Multiscale simulations therefore appear as singularly suited to connect the microscopic details of this system with its macroscopic thermodynamic behavior. We review the details of the simulation of dense atomistically resolved DNA arrays with different packing symmetries and the ensuing osmotic equation of state obtained by enclosing a DNA array in a monovalent salt and multivalent (spermidine counterions within a solvent permeable membrane, mimicking the behavior of DNA arrays subjected to external osmotic stress. By varying the DNA density, the local packing symmetry, and the counterion type, we are able to analyze the osmotic equation of state together with the full structural characterization of the DNA subphase, the counterion distribution and the solvent structural order in terms of its different order parameters and

  6. DNA methylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Kristine; Christensen, Jesper; Helin, Kristian


    DNA methylation is involved in key cellular processes, including X-chromosome inactivation, imprinting and transcriptional silencing of specific genes and repetitive elements. DNA methylation patterns are frequently perturbed in human diseases such as imprinting disorders and cancer. The recent...... discovery that the three members of the TET protein family can convert 5-methylcytosine (5mC) into 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) has provided a potential mechanism leading to DNA demethylation. Moreover, the demonstration that TET2 is frequently mutated in haematopoietic tumours suggests that the TET...... proteins are important regulators of cellular identity. Here, we review the current knowledge regarding the function of the TET proteins, and discuss various mechanisms by which they contribute to transcriptional control. We propose that the TET proteins have an important role in regulating DNA methylation...

  7. DNA data (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Raw DNA chromatogram data produced by the ABI 373, 377, 3130 and 3730 automated sequencing machines in ABI format. These are from fish (primarily Sebastes spp.,...

  8. DNA nanotechnology (United States)

    Seeman, Nadrian C.; Sleiman, Hanadi F.


    DNA is the molecule that stores and transmits genetic information in biological systems. The field of DNA nanotechnology takes this molecule out of its biological context and uses its information to assemble structural motifs and then to connect them together. This field has had a remarkable impact on nanoscience and nanotechnology, and has been revolutionary in our ability to control molecular self-assembly. In this Review, we summarize the approaches used to assemble DNA nanostructures and examine their emerging applications in areas such as biophysics, diagnostics, nanoparticle and protein assembly, biomolecule structure determination, drug delivery and synthetic biology. The introduction of orthogonal interactions into DNA nanostructures is discussed, and finally, a perspective on the future directions of this field is presented.

  9. DNA Chip

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    involved in the pathology of schizophrenia. In the human ge- nome, the ratio between coding and non-coding DNA is very low (less than 3% of the human .... construction of a Tm-specific chip, i.e. all the oligos/cDNA on the chip will hybridize at the same temperature. The techniques available are still not able to create a chip ...

  10. DNA expressions - A formal notation for DNA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, Rudy van


    We describe a formal notation for DNA molecules that may contain nicks and gaps. The resulting DNA expressions denote formal DNA molecules. Different DNA expressions may denote the same molecule. Such DNA expressions are called equivalent. We examine which DNA expressions are minimal, which

  11. Emerging concepts in liquid biopsies. (United States)

    Perakis, Samantha; Speicher, Michael R


    Characterizing and monitoring tumor genomes with blood samples could achieve significant improvements in precision medicine. As tumors shed parts of themselves into the circulation, analyses of circulating tumor cells, circulating tumor DNA, and tumor-derived exosomes, often referred to as "liquid biopsies", may enable tumor genome characterization by minimally invasive means. Indeed, multiple studies have described how molecular information about parent tumors can be extracted from these components. Here, we briefly summarize current technologies and then elaborate on emerging novel concepts that may further propel the field. We address normal and detectable mutation levels in the context of our current knowledge regarding the gradual accumulation of mutations during aging and in light of technological limitations. Finally, we discuss whether liquid biopsies are ready to be used in routine clinical practice.

  12. Four highly pseudosymmetric and/or twinned structures of d(CGCGCG) 2 extend the repertoire of crystal structures of Z-DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Zhipu; Dauter, Zbigniew; Gilski, Miroslaw


    DNA oligomer duplexes containing alternating cytosines and guanines in their sequences tend to form left-handed helices of the Z-DNA type, with the sugar and phosphate backbone in a zigzag conformation and a helical repeat of two successive nucleotides. Z-DNA duplexes usually crystallize as hexagonally arranged parallel helical tubes, with various relative orientations and translation of neighboring duplexes. Four novel high-resolution crystal structures of d(CGCGCG)2duplexes are described here. They are characterized by a high degree of pseudosymmetry and/or twinning, with three or four independent duplexes differently oriented in a monoclinicP21lattice of hexagonal metric. The various twinning criteria give somewhat conflicting indications in these complicated cases of crystal pathology. The details of molecular packing in these crystal structures are compared with other known crystal forms of Z-DNA.

  13. Moment of inertia of liquid in a tank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Gyeong Joong


    Full Text Available In this study, the inertial properties of fully filled liquid in a tank were studied based on the potential theory. The analytic solution was obtained for the rectangular tank, and the numerical solutions using Green’s 2nd identity were obtained for other shapes. The inertia of liquid behaves like solid in recti-linear acceleration. But under rotational acceleration, the moment of inertia of liquid becomes small compared to that of solid. The shapes of tank investigated in this study were ellipse, rectangle, hexagon, and octagon with various aspect ratios. The numerical solu¬tions were compared with analytic solution, and an ad hoc semi-analytical approximate formula is proposed herein and this formula gives very good predictions for the moment of inertia of the liquid in a tank of several different geometrical shapes. The results of this study will be useful in analyzing of the motion of LNG/LPG tanker, liquid cargo ship, and damaged ship.

  14. "Hexagonal molybdenum trioxide"--known for 100 years and still a fount of new discoveries. (United States)

    Lunk, Hans-Joachim; Hartl, Hans; Hartl, Monika A; Fait, Martin J G; Shenderovich, Ilya G; Feist, Michael; Frisk, Timothy A; Daemen, Luke L; Mauder, Daniel; Eckelt, Reinhard; Gurinov, Andrey A


    In 1906, the preparation of “molybdic acid hydrate” was published by Arthur Rosenheim. Over the past 40 years, a multitude of isostructural compounds, which exist within a wide phase range of the system MoO3−NH3−H2O, have been published. The reported molecular formulas of “hexagonal molybdenum oxide” varied from MoO3 to MoO3·0.33NH3 to MoO3·nH2O (0.09 ≤ n ≤ 0.69) to MoO3·mNH3·nH2O (0.09 ≤ m ≤ 0.20; 0.18 ≤ n ≤ 0.60). Samples, prepared by the acidification route were investigated using thermal analysis coupled online to a mass spectrometer for evolved gas analysis, X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier transform infrared, Raman, magic-angle-spinning 1H- and 15N NMR spectroscopy, and incoherent inelastic neutron scattering. A comprehensive characterization of these samples will lead to a better understanding of their structure and physical properties as well as uncover the underlying relationship between the various compositions. The synthesized polymeric parent samples can be represented by the structural formula (NH4)(x∞)(3)[Mo(y square 1−y)O(3y)(OH)(x)(H2O)(m−n)]·nH2O with 0.10 ≤ x ≤ 0.14, 0.84 ≤ y ≤ 0.88, and m + n ≥ 3 − x − 3y. The X-ray study of a selected monocrystal confirmed the presence of the well-known 3D framework of edge- and corner-sharing MoO6 octahedra. The colorless monocrystal crystallizes in the hexagonal system with space group P6(3)/m, Z = 6, and unit cell parameters of a = 10.527(1) Å, c = 3.7245(7) Å, V = 357.44(8) Å3, and ρ = 3.73 g·cm(−3). The structure of the prepared monocrystal can best be described by the structural formula (NH4)(0.13∞)(3)[Mo(0.86 square 0.14)O2.58(OH)0.13(H2O)(0.29−n)]·nH2O, which is consistent with the existence of one vacancy (square) for six molybdenum sites. The sample MoO3·0.326NH3·0.343H2O, prepared by the ammoniation of a partially dehydrated MoO3·0.170NH3·0.153H2O with dry gaseous ammonia, accommodates NH3 in the hexagonal tunnels, in addition to [NH4

  15. Thermodynamics of ice nucleation in liquid water. (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Wang, Shui; Xu, Qinzhi; Mi, Jianguo


    We present a density functional theory approach to investigate the thermodynamics of ice nucleation in supercooled water. Within the theoretical framework, the free-energy functional is constructed by the direct correlation function of oxygen-oxygen of the equilibrium water, and the function is derived from the reference interaction site model in consideration of the interactions of hydrogen-hydrogen, hydrogen-oxygen, and oxygen-oxygen. The equilibrium properties, including vapor-liquid and liquid-solid phase equilibria, local structure of hexagonal ice crystal, and interfacial structure and tension of water-ice are calculated in advance to examine the basis for the theory. The predicted phase equilibria and the water-ice surface tension are in good agreement with the experimental data. In particular, the critical nucleus radius and free-energy barrier during ice nucleation are predicted. The critical radius is similar to the simulation value, suggesting that the current theoretical approach is suitable in describing the thermodynamic properties of ice crystallization.

  16. What Is Mitochondrial DNA? (United States)

    ... DNA What is mitochondrial DNA? What is mitochondrial DNA? Although most DNA is packaged in chromosomes within ... proteins. For more information about mitochondria and mitochondrial DNA: Molecular Expressions, a web site from the Florida ...

  17. CFD analysis of transverse flow in a wire-wrapped hexagonal seven-pin bundle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Pinghui, E-mail: [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Liu, Jiaming; Ge, Zhihao [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Wang, Xi; Cheng, Xu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute of Fusion and Reactor Technologies, Kaiserstrasse 12, Karlsruhe (Germany)


    Highlights: • Transverse flow in a wire-wrapped hexagonal seven-pin bundle are simulated. • Four kinds of subchannels are taken as the object. • Effects of wire number and position on transverse velocities are studied. • Parameter studies reveal P/D and H/D have a great influence than Re. • Present transverse velocity correlations need to be modified. - Abstract: Transverse flow induced by helical spacer wires has important effects on the flow and heat transfer behavior of reactor core. In this paper, transverse flow in a wire-wrapped hexagonal seven-pin bundle was simulated by the open source code, OpenFOAM, based on computational fluid dynamic (CFD) method. The Shear Stress Transport (SST) k-ω model and Spalding wall function were used to resolve the momentum field. Hexahedral dominated meshes were generated to achieve high grid quality. Periodic boundary condition and parallel processing were adopted to save the computational cost. Transverse velocity distributions in four different kinds of subchannel gaps were analyzed. The results show that the influence of wire number and position on the transverse velocity distribution is obvious. For an interior gap, transverse flow seems to be dominated by wires near the gap, and its direction changes periodically in one helical pitch. However, for a peripheral gap, transverse velocity is affected by more wires and its direction is decided by the direction of wire rotation. Parameter studies reveal that the Reynolds number (Re, at the range of 6000–100,000) has little effect on the normalized transverse flow, while the pitch to pin diameter ratio (P/D, at the range of 1.11–1.22) and the helical pitch to pin diameter ratio (H/D, at the range of 12–24) have a great influence on it, especially the P/D. Large discrepancies between our simulation results and some existing correlations were observed. This indicates that new correlations comprehensively considering both P/D and H/D effects need to be developed

  18. Further insights into glacier changes derived from declassified reconnaissance imagery (Corona and Hexagon) (United States)

    Goerlich, Franz; Paul, Frank; Bolch, Tobias


    The variable and often complex dynamics of the glaciers in High Mountain Asia have recently been studied intensively from satellite imagery. Time-series of optical and SAR imagery revealed rapid changes and strong trends in glacier extent and surface flow velocities as well as elevation changes from differencing of DEMs and altimetry sensors over the 1990 to 2015 period. In contrast to nearly all other regions in the world, especially glaciers in the Karakoram had balanced budgets and often rapidly advanced during surge events and retreated thereafter. This complicates the interpretation of climate change impacts on the glaciers in the region and leaves high uncertainties for calculation of future glacier and run-off development. A key for an improved understanding of glacier dynamics in this region is an extension of the observation period. This can be achieved using Corona and Hexagon reconnaissance satellite imagery from the 1960s and 1970s providing a comparably high spatial resolution between 2.7 and 7.6 m. Thereby, the keyhole satellites allow both, determination of glacier extents and calculation of DTMs from stereo image pairs that can be used to determine geodetic volume/ mass changes. The latter has already been performed on a regional scale for glaciers in the Himalaya and Tien Shan using Hexagon and Corona imagery with high accuracies. However, due to a particular camera model and complex distortion effects, which is especially the case for Corona images, the analysis is a challenging task. Therefore, we have developed a workflow to generate DTMs and orthophotos from Corona that considers the complex camera model. This study will present the workflow with its limitations, challenges and the obtained accuracy over stable ground. With our generated DTMs and Orthophotos, we already calculated mass balances and length changes for the Ak-Shirak range in Tian Shan and currently adapting the workflow to the Karakoram and Pamir mountains. Furthermore, the DTMs

  19. Water Assisted Growth of C60 Rods and Tubes by Liquid–Liquid Interfacial Precipitation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheuk-Wai Tai


    Full Text Available C60 nanorods with hexagonal cross sections are grown using a static liquid–liquid interfacial precipitation method in a system of C60/m-dichlorobenzene solution and ethanol. Adding water to the ethanol phase leads instead to C60 tubes where both length and diameter of the C60 tubes can be controlled by the water content in the ethanol. Based on our observations we find that the diameter of the rods/tubes strongly depends on the nucleation step. We propose a liquid-liquid interface growth model of C60 rods and tubes based on the diffusion rate of the good C60 containing solvent into the poor solvent as well as on the size of the crystal seeds formed at the interface between the two solvents. The grown rods and tubes exhibit a hexagonal solvate crystal structure with m-dichlorobenzene solvent molecules incorporated into the crystal structure, independent of the water content. An annealing step at 200 °C at a pressure < 1 kPa transforms the grown structures into a solvent-free face centered cubic structure. Both the hexagonal and the face centered cubic structures are very stable and neither morphology nor structure shows any signs of degradation after three months of storage.

  20. CCR investigators use liquid biopsies to uncover cancer in the blood of lymphoma patients | Center for Cancer Research (United States)

    CCR investigators are using circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) as a type of noninvasive liquid biopsy for patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), the most common type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. are using circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) as a type of noninvasive liquid biopsy for patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), the most common type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

  1. Extension of the analytic nodal diffusion solver ANDES to triangular-Z geometry and coupling with COBRA-IIIc for hexagonal core analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lozano, Juan-Andres, E-mail: lozano@din.upm.e [Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (UPM), Jose G. Abascal, 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Jimenez, Javier; Garcia-Herranz, Nuria; Aragones, Jose-Maria [Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (UPM), Jose G. Abascal, 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain)


    In this paper the extension of the multigroup nodal diffusion code ANDES, based on the Analytic Coarse Mesh Finite Difference (ACMFD) method, from Cartesian to hexagonal geometry is presented, as well as its coupling with the thermal-hydraulic (TH) code COBRA-IIIc for hexagonal core analysis. In extending the ACMFD method to hexagonal assemblies, triangular-Z nodes are used. In the radial plane, a direct transverse integration procedure is applied along the three directions that are orthogonal to the triangle interfaces. The triangular nodalization avoids the singularities, that appear when applying transverse integration to hexagonal nodes, and allows the advantage of the mesh subdivision capabilities implicit within that geometry. As for the thermal-hydraulics, the extension of the coupling scheme to hexagonal geometry has been performed with the capability to model the core using either assembly-wise channels (hexagonal mesh) or a higher refinement with six channels per fuel assembly (triangular mesh). Achieving this level of TH mesh refinement with COBRA-IIIc code provides a better estimation of the in-core 3D flow distribution, improving the TH core modelling. The neutronics and thermal-hydraulics coupled code, ANDES/COBRA-IIIc, previously verified in Cartesian geometry core analysis, can also be applied now to full three-dimensional VVER core problems, as well as to other thermal and fast hexagonal core designs. Verification results are provided, corresponding to the different cases of the OECD/NEA-NSC VVER-1000 Coolant Transient Benchmarks.

  2. Optimal loading range for the development of peak power output in the hexagonal barbell jump squat. (United States)

    Turner, Thomas S; Tobin, Daniel P; Delahunt, Eamonn


    Recent studies indicate that the utilization of the hexagonal barbell jump squat (HBJS) compared with the traditional barbell jump squat may offer a superior method of developing peak power. The notion that a single optimal load may be prescribed in training programs aiming to develop peak power is subject to debate. The purpose of this study was to identify the optimal load corresponding with peak power output during the HBJS in professional rugby union players. Seventeen professional rugby union players participated in this study. Participants performed 3 unloaded countermovement jumps on a force plate and 3 HBJS at each of the following randomized loads: 10, 20, 30, and 40% of box squat 1 repetition maximum (1RM). Peak power output was the dependent variable of interest. A one-way repeated measures analysis of variance was conducted to compare peak power output across each load. Peak power output was the dependent variable of interest. A significant main effect for load was observed (Wilk's Lambda = 0.11, F(4,13) = 18.07, p power output in the HBJS is optimized at a load range between 10 and 20% of box squat 1RM. The results of this study indicate that the use of the HBJS with a training load between 10 and 20% of box squat 1RM optimizes peak power output in professional rugby union players.

  3. Layer-structured hexagonal boron nitride carbon semiconductor alloys for deep UV photonics (United States)

    Uddin, Md Rakib; Li, Jing; Lin, Jingyu; Jiang, Hongxing


    Hexagonal boron nitride carbon alloys, h - (BN)1-x(C2)x, are layer-structured semiconductor materials with a tunable bandgap energy from 0 eV (graphite) to 6.5 eV (h-BN). We report on synthesizing (BN)-rich h - (BN)1-x(C2)x semiconductor alloys using standard MOCVD growth technique on sapphire substrate. Bandgap energy variation with carbon concentration in the deep UV spectral range has been demonstrated through optical absorption measurements. Experimental results suggest that the critical carbon concentration (xc) to form the homogenous h - (BN)1-x(C2)x alloys is about 3.2% at a growth temperature of 1300 °C. It is expected that homogenous h - (BN)1-x(C2)x alloys with higher x can be achieved by increasing the growth temperature. This is a huge advantage over the InGaN alloy system in which higher growth temperatures cannot be utilized to close the miscibility gap. Together with our ability for producing high quality h-BN epilayers, h-(BN)C alloys and quantum wells open up new possibilities for realizing novel 2D optoelectronic devices with tunable physical properties. National Science Foundation.

  4. An integrated diffusion-transport method for hexagonal geometry: A proof-of-concept study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayward, Robert M.; Rahnema, Farzad; Zhang, Dingkang, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Georgia Institute of Technology, Nuclear and Radiological Engineering/Medical Physics Programs, Atlanta, GA (United States)


    The current state-of-the-art in nodal diffusion codes is optimized for Light Water Reactor (LWRs) but is incapable of modeling Very-High-Temperature Reactors (VHTRs) with high fidelity. There are two reasons for this. First, nodal diffusion codes rely heavily on homogenization calculations; this presents a problem with VHTR designs, which can have control rods isolated from any fissile material. Second, diffusion theory is not valid in the presence of strong absorbers or near material discontinuities, yet VHTR designs can be strongly heterogeneous. We introduce an Integrated Diffusion-Transport (IDT) methodology to address this problem. The new method uses diffusion theory where it is valid and uses a response-based transport method everywhere else. Here we present an implementation of the method in hexagonal geometry. This implementation is based on the Purdue Advance Reactor Core Simulator (PARCS) diffusion code and is aimed at validating the diffusion-transport interface conditions. The new implementation is tested with a toy problem, and the results are compared to a reference MCNP5 calculation. The method is found to be capable of transport-theory accuracy while maintaining diffusion-theory speed; the computed eigenvalue k is accurate to within 25pcm, and the assembly-wise fluxes are accurate to 0.60% RMS all within a calculation that takes approximately one tenth of a second. (author)

  5. Stress on external hexagon and Morse taper implants submitted to immediate loading. (United States)

    Odo, Caroline H; Pimentel, Marcele J; Consani, Rafael L X; Mesquita, Marcelo F; Nóbilo, Mauro A A


    This study aimed to evaluate the stress distribution around external hexagon (EH) and Morse taper (MT) implants with different prosthetic systems of immediate loading (distal bar (DB), casting technique (CT), and laser welding (LW)) by using photoelastic method. Three infrastructures were manufactured on a model simulating an edentulous lower jaw. All models were composed by five implants (4.1 mm × 13.0 mm) simulating a conventional lower protocol. The samples were divided into six groups. G1: EH implants with DB and acrylic resin; G2: EH implants with titanium infrastructure CT; G3: EH implants with titanium infrastructure attached using LW; G4: MT implants with DB and acrylic resin; G5: MT implants with titanium infrastructure CT; G6: MT implants with titanium infrastructure attached using LW. After the infrastructures construction, the photoelastic models were manufactured and a loading of 4.9 N was applied in the cantilever. Five pre-determined points were analyzed by Fringes software. Data showed significant differences between the connection types (p < 0.0001), and there was no significant difference among the techniques used for infrastructure. The reduction of the stress levels was more influenced by MT connection (except for CT). Different bar types submitted to immediate loading not influenced stress concentration.

  6. Processing and characterization of PMMA/PI composites reinforced with surface functionalized hexagonal boron nitride (United States)

    Mittal, Garima; Rhee, Kyong Yop; Park, Soo Jin


    Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) is acknowledged as a conventional polymer matrix because of its light weight, low friction, optical clarity, and environmental stability, with properties including UV resistance and moisture resistance. In the present study, PMMA/polyimide (PI)/hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) composites were processed by incorporating PI and hBN powder into the PMMA matrix. To augment the dispersion, the surfaces of hBN particles were functionalized with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (3-APTS), which serves as a coupling agent. Two cases of composites were considered: one with as-received hBN and another one with silanized hBN. For validation of changes after silane treatment, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infra-red were performed. The changes in morphology after surface treatment were analyzed through field-emission scanning electron microscope and high-resolution transmission electron microscope. The effects of hBN functionalization on the thermal properties of the composites were analyzed by thermo-gravimetric analysis. The tribological properties of the composites were studied by friction and wear tests and the morphology of the wear track was investigated using a surface profilometer and field-emission scanning electron microscope. The outcomes of these investigations indicated that the composite with silanized hBN exhibited superior tribological properties in comparison to the composites with as-received hBN.

  7. First-principles study of nanotubes within the tetragonal, hexagonal and dodecagonal cycle structures (United States)

    BabaeiPour, M.; Safari, E. Keshavarz; Shokri, A. A.


    A systematic study has been done on the structural and electronic properties of carbon, boron nitride and aluminum nitride nanotubes with structure consisting of periodically distributed tetragonal (T ≡A2X2), hexagonal (H ≡A3X3) and dodecagonal (D ≡A6X6) (AX=C2, BN, AlN) cycles. The method has been performed using first-principles calculations based on density functional theory (DFT). The optimized lattice parameters, density of state (DOS) curves and band structure of THD-NTs are obtained for (3, 0) and (0, 2) types. Our calculation results indicate that carbon nanotubes of these types (THD-CNTs) behave as a metallic, but the boron nitride nanotubes (THD-BNNTs) (with a band gap of around 4 eV) as well as aluminum nitride nanotubes (THD-AlNNTs) (with a band gap of around 2.6 eV) behave as an semiconductor. The inequality in number of atoms in different directions is affected on structures and diameters of nanotubes and their walls curvature.

  8. Memristive properties of hexagonal WO3 nanowires induced by oxygen vacancy migration (United States)


    Tungsten trioxide (WO3) is always oxygen-deficient or non-stoichiometric under atmospheric conditions. Positively charged oxygen vacancies prefer to drift as well as electrons when the electric field is strong enough, which will alter the distribution of oxygen vacancies and then endow WO3 with memristive properties. In Au/WO3 nanowire/Au sandwich structures with two ohmic contacts, the axial distribution of oxygen vacancies and then the electrical transport properties can be more easily modulated by bias voltage. The threshold electric field for oxygen vacancy drifting in single-crystal hexagonal WO3 nanowire is about 106 V/m, one order of magnitude less than that in its granular film. At elevated temperatures, the oxygen vacancy drifts and then the memristive effect can be enhanced remarkably. When the two metallic contacts are asymmetric, the WO3 nanowire devices even demonstrate good rectifying characteristic at elevated temperatures. Based on the drift of oxygen vacancies, nanoelectronic devices such as memristor, rectifier, and two-terminal resistive random access memory can be fabricated on individual WO3 nanowires. PMID:23347429

  9. Modulating memristive performance of hexagonal WO3 nanowire by water-oxidized hydrogen ion implantation (United States)

    Zhou, Yong; Peng, Yuehua; Yin, Yanling; Zhou, Fang; Liu, Chang; Ling, Jing; Lei, Le; Zhou, Weichang; Tang, Dongsheng


    In a two-terminal Au/hexagonal WO3 nanowire/Au device, ions drifting or carriers self-trapping under external electrical field will modulate the Schottky barriers between the nanowire and electrodes, and then result in memristive effect. When there are water molecules adsorbed on the surface of WO3 nanowire, hydrogen ions will generate near the positively-charged electrode and transport in the condensed water film, which will enhance the memristive performance characterized by analogic resistive switching remarkably. When the bias voltage is swept repeatedly under high relative humidity level, hydrogen ions will accumulate on the surface and then implant into the lattice of the WO3 nanowire, which leads to a transition from semiconducting WO3 nanowire to metallic HxWO3 nanowire. This insulator-metal transition can be realized more easily after enough electron-hole pairs being excited by laser illumination. The concentration of hydrogen ions in HxWO3 nanowire will decrease when the device is exposed to oxygen atmosphere or the bias voltage is swept in atmosphere with low relative humidity. By modulating the concentration of hydrogen ions, conductive hydrogen tungsten bronze filament might form or rupture near electrodes when the polarity of applied voltage changes, which will endow the device with memristive performance characterized by digital resistive switching. PMID:27600368

  10. HIGH: A Hexagon-based Intelligent Grouping Approach in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FAN, C.-S.


    Full Text Available In a random deployment or uniform deployment strategy, sensor nodes are scattered randomly or uniformly in the sensing field, respectively. Hence, the coverage ratio cannot be guaranteed. The coverage ratio of uniform deployment, in general, is larger than that of the random deployment strategy. However, a random deployment or uniform deployment strategy may cause unbalanced traffic pattern in wireless sensor networks (WSNs. Therefore, cluster heads (CHs around the sink have larger loads than those farther away from the sink. That is, CHs close to the sink exhaust their energy earlier. In order to overcome the above problem, we propose a Hexagon-based Intelligent Grouping approacH in WSNs (called HIGH. The coverage, energy consumption and data routing issues are well investigated and taken into consideration in the proposed HIGH scheme. The simulation results validate our theoretical analysis and show that the proposed HIGH scheme achieves a satisfactory coverage ratio, balances the energy consumption among sensor nodes, and extends network lifetime significantly.

  11. Large-scale fabrication and utilization of novel hexagonal/turbostratic composite boron nitride nanosheets

    KAUST Repository

    Zhong, Bo


    In this report, we have developed a scalable approach to massive synthesis of hexagonal/turbostratic composite boron nitride nanosheets (h/t-BNNSs). The strikingly effective, reliable, and high-throughput (grams) synthesis is performed via a facile chemical foaming process at 1400°C utilizing ammonia borane (AB) as precursor. The characterization results demonstrate that high quality of h/t-BNNSs with lateral size of tens of micrometers and thickness of tens of nanometers are obtained. The growth mechanism of h/t-BNNSs is also discussed based on the thermogravimetric analysis of AB which clearly shows two step weight loss. The h/t-BNNSs are further used for making thermoconductive h/t-BNNSs/epoxy resin composites. The thermal conductivity of the composites is obviously improved due to the introduction of h/t-BNNSs. Consideration of the unique properties of boron nitride, these novel h/t-BNNSs are envisaged to be very valuable for future high performance polymer based material fabrication.

  12. From Growth Surface to Device Interface: Preserving Metallic Fe under Monolayer Hexagonal Boron Nitride. (United States)

    Caneva, Sabina; Martin, Marie-Blandine; D'Arsié, Lorenzo; Aria, Adrianus I; Sezen, Hikmet; Amati, Matteo; Gregoratti, Luca; Sugime, Hisashi; Esconjauregui, Santiago; Robertson, John; Hofmann, Stephan; Weatherup, Robert S


    We investigate the interfacial chemistry between Fe catalyst foils and monolayer hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) following chemical vapor deposition and during subsequent atmospheric exposure, using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, and scanning photoelectron microscopy. We show that regions of the Fe surface covered by h-BN remain in a metallic state during exposure to moist air for ∼40 h at room temperature. This protection is attributed to the strong interfacial interaction between h-BN and Fe, which prevents the rapid intercalation of oxidizing species. Local Fe oxidation is observed on bare Fe regions and close to defects in the h-BN film (e.g., domain boundaries, wrinkles, and edges), which over the longer-term provide pathways for slow bulk oxidation of Fe. We further confirm that the interface between h-BN and metallic Fe can be recovered by vacuum annealing at ∼600 °C, although this is accompanied by the creation of defects within the h-BN film. We discuss the importance of these findings in the context of integrated manufacturing and transfer-free device integration of h-BN, particularly for technologically important applications where h-BN has potential as a tunnel barrier such as magnetic tunnel junctions.

  13. Silica-modified monodisperse hexagonal lanthanide nanocrystals: synthesis and biological properties. (United States)

    Kostiv, U; Janoušková, O; Šlouf, M; Kotov, N; Engstová, H; Smolková, K; Ježek, P; Horák, D


    Oleic acid-stabilized hexagonal NaYF4:Yb(3+)/Er(3+) nanocrystals, emitting green and red luminescence, were prepared by the high-temperature co-precipitation of lanthanide chlorides. By varying the reaction time and the Ln(3+)/Na(+) ratio, the nanocrystal size can be controlled within the range 16-270 nm. The maximum upconversion quantum yield is achieved under 970 nm excitation. The reverse microemulsion technique using hydrolysis and condensation of tetraethoxysilane is a suitable method to coat the nanocrystal surface with a silica shell to make the particles dispersible and colloidally stable in aqueous media. During the subsequent functionalization, (3-aminopropyl)trimethoxysilane introduced amino groups onto the silica to enable future bioconjugation with the target molecules. All specimens were characterized by TEM microscopy, electron and X-ray diffraction, ATR FT-IR spectroscopy, and upconversion luminescence. Finally, in vitro cytotoxicity and intracellular nanoparticle uptake (using confocal microscopy) were determined with human cervical carcinoma HeLa and mRoGFP HeLa cells, respectively. From the investigated particles, amino-functionalized NaYF4:Yb(3+)/Er(3+) nanocrystals internalized into the cells most efficiently. The nanoparticles proved to be nontoxic at moderate concentrations, which is important when considering their prospective application in biolabeling and luminescence imaging of various cell types.

  14. Point defects and composition in hexagonal group-III nitride monolayers: A first-principles calculation (United States)

    Gao, Han; Ye, Han; Yu, Zhongyuan; Zhang, Yunzhen; Liu, Yumin; Li, Yinfeng


    In this paper, we systematically investigate the structural, electronic and magnetic properties of hexagonal group-III nitride monolayers with point defects and alloying on the basis of first-principles calculations. Six typical point defects including three vacancies and three antisites are modeled in pure AlN, GaN and InN monolayers. The defect-induced modifications of band gaps and magnetic properties are demonstrated. The vacancy of nitrogen, with lowest formation energy, metalizes the semiconducting nitride monolayers. The defects losing single group-III atom introduce net magnetic moment to the systems, while others maintain non-magnetic. For ordered alloy monolayers, the AlGaN and InGaN systems are taken into consideration. The compositional variation is achieved by atomic substitution in supercells with different sizes. We find that the lattice constant and cohesive energy follow good linear relation with concentration while a slight bowing effect is observed for the band gap. These results provide a development in defective and alloy nitride monolayers and extend the potential applications.

  15. Polarization and angular sensibility in the natural hyperbolic hexagonal boron nitride arrays (United States)

    Cheng, Le; Wang, Tao; Jiang, Xiaoyun; Yan, Xicheng; Xiao, Shuyuan


    This paper demonstrates a tunable and flexible metamaterial with the cuboid hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) arrays on a dielectric substrate. We numerically investigated the effect of the polarization together with the incident angle of the probe light on the transmission spectra of metamaterials and designed different geometric structures tuning the resonant frequency near the Reststrahlen bands of the h-BN in the mid-infrared. We further simulated the electric field distribution and calculated charge density associated to the specific responses that respectively exhibit the strong electric dipole resonances between the adjacent unit cells and inside the h-BN cuboids. The results show that both the positions of the resonance and the coupling strength strongly depend on geometric construction and corresponding external excitation condition. Hence the amplitude of the resonance can be actively modulated via altering excitation conditions and the metamaterial arrays can be designed to control the resonance in different spectra positions. Such metamaterials are important for its strong anisotropy and the extraordinary sensitivity which may find numerous applications in the design of metamaterials with specific sensing, nonlinear optical response and imaging capabilities creating new avenues for the development of devices in the mid-infrared.

  16. Anomalous enhancement of Seebeck coefficients of the graphene/hexagonal boron nitride composites (United States)

    Nakamura, Jun; Akaishi, Akira


    Thermoelectric devices convert heat energy to electric power. The dimensionless thermoelectric figure of merit, ZT, is used as a standard criterion for efficiency of thermoelectric conversion. This criterion requires a high Seebeck coefficient, a high electric conductivity, and a low thermal conductivity. In this regard, PbTe, BiTe, and their alloys consisting of relatively heavier elements have been found to show higher values of ZT. In this paper, we focus on the potential of graphene-based composites as thermoelectric materials. Graphene was considered to be a disadvantageous material because of its extremely high thermal conductance and relatively low Seebeck coefficient. However, it has been reported recently that a structural modulation is an effective way of raising the thermoelectric ability of graphene. We introduce the recent progress in the design of graphene-based materials for thermoelectric devices. In particular, we provide a focused investigation of our recent progress regarding the thermopower enhancement in nanoarchitectonics, superlattices, and composites consisting of graphene and hexagonal BN nanoribbons. It has been shown that low-dimensional modulations are effective ways of obtaining a high thermoelectric performance of graphene-based materials.

  17. Two-dimensional hexagonal boron nitride as lateral heat spreader in electrically insulating packaging (United States)

    Bao, Jie; Edwards, Michael; Huang, Shirong; Zhang, Yong; Fu, Yifeng; Lu, Xiuzhen; Yuan, Zhichao; Jeppson, Kjell; Liu, Johan


    The need for electrically insulating materials with a high in-plane thermal conductivity for lateral heat spreading applications in electronic devices has intensified studies of layered hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) films. Due to its physicochemical properties, h-BN can be utilised in power dissipating devices such as an electrically insulating heat spreader material for laterally redistributing the heat from hotspots caused by locally excessive heat flux densities. In this study, two types of boron nitride based heat spreader test structures have been assembled and evaluated for heat dissipation. The test structures separately utilised a few-layer h-BN film with and without graphene enhancement drop coated onto the hotspot test structure. The influence of the h-BN heat spreader films on the temperature distribution across the surface of the hotspot test structure was studied at a range of heat flux densities through the hotspot. It was found that the graphene-enhanced h-BN film reduced the hotspot temperature by about 8-10 °C at a 1000 W cm-2 heat flux density, a temperature decrease significantly larger than for h-BN film without graphene enhancement. Finite element simulations of the h-BN film predict that further improvements in heat spreading ability are possible if the thermal contact resistance between the film and test chip are minimised.

  18. Negligible environmental sensitivity of graphene in a hexagonal boron nitride/graphene/h-BN sandwich structure. (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Chen, Zheyuan; Dean, Cory R; Taniguchi, Takashi; Watanabe, Kenji; Brus, Louis E; Hone, James


    Using Raman spectroscopy, we study the environmental sensitivity of mechanically exfoliated and electrically floating single-layer graphene transferred onto a hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) substrate, in comparison with graphene deposited on a SiO(2) substrate. In order to understand and isolate the substrate effect on graphene electrical properties, we model and correct for Raman optical interference in the substrates. As-deposited and unannealed graphene shows a large I(2D)/I(G) ratio on both substrates, indicating extremely high quality, close to that of graphene suspended in vacuum. Thermal annealing strongly activates subsequent environmental sensitivity on the SiO(2) substrate; such activation is reduced but not eliminated on the h-BN substrate. In contrast, in a h-BN/graphene/h-BN sandwich structure, with graphene protected on both sides, graphene remains pristine despite thermal processing. Raman data provide a deeper understanding of the previously observed improved graphene electrical conductivity on h-BN substrates. In the sandwich structure, the graphene 2D Raman feature has a higher frequency and narrower line width than in pristine suspended graphene, implying that the local h-BN environment modestly yet measurably changes graphene electron and phonon dispersions.

  19. Synthesis and applications of two-dimensional hexagonal boron nitride in electronics manufacturing (United States)

    Bao, Jie; Jeppson, Kjell; Edwards, Michael; Fu, Yifeng; Ye, Lilei; Lu, Xiuzhen; Liu, Johan


    In similarity to graphene, two-dimensional (2D) hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) has some remarkable properties, such as mechanical robustness and high thermal conductivity. In addition, hBN has superb chemical stability and it is electrically insulating. 2D hBN has been considered a promising material for many applications in electronics, including 2D hBN based substrates, gate dielectrics for graphene transistors and interconnects, and electronic packaging insulators. This paper reviews the synthesis, transfer and fabrication of 2D hBN films, hBN based composites and hBN-based van der Waals heterostructures. In particular, this review focuses on applications in manufacturing electronic devices where the insulating and thermal properties of hBN can potentially be exploited. 2D hBN and related composite systems are emerging as new and industrially important materials, which could address many challenges in future complex electronics devices and systems. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  20. Hexagonal boron nitride: a promising substrate for graphene with high heat dissipation (United States)

    Zhang, Zhongwei; Hu, Shiqian; Chen, Jie; Li, Baowen


    Supported graphene on a standard SiO2 substrate exhibits unsatisfactory heat dissipation performance that is far inferior to the intrinsic ultrahigh thermal conductivity of a suspended sample. A suitable substrate for enhancing thermal transport in supported graphene is highly desirable for the development of graphene devices for thermal management. By using molecular dynamics simulations, here we demonstrate that bulk hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) is a more appealing substrate to achieve high performance heat dissipation in supported graphene. Notable length dependence and high thermal conductivity are observed in h-BN-supported single-layer graphene (SLG), suggesting that the thermal transport characteristics are close to that of suspended SLG. At room temperature, the thermal conductivity of h-BN-supported SLG is as high as 1347.3 ± 20.5 Wm-1 K-1, which is about 77% of that for the suspended case, and is more than twice that of the SiO2-supported SLG. Furthermore, we find that the smooth and atomically flat h-BN substrate gives rise to a regular and weak stress distribution in graphene, resulting in a less affected phonon relaxation time and dominant phonon mean free path. We also find that stacking and rotation significantly impacts the thermal transport in h-BN-supported graphene. Our study provides valuable insights towards the design of graphene devices on realistic substrate for high performance heat dissipation applications.