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Sample records for hevesy nuclear pioneer

  1. Hevesy, Prof. George Charles de

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Fellowship. Fellow Profile. Elected: 1951 Honorary. Hevesy, Prof. George Charles de. Date of birth: 1 August 1885. Date of death: 5 July 1966. YouTube; Twitter; Facebook; Blog. Academy News. IAS Logo. Theory Of Evolution. Posted on 23 January 2018. Joint Statement by the Three Science Academies of India on ...

  2. Pioneer women in nuclear science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayner-Canham, M. F.; Rayner-Canham, G. W.

    1990-11-01

    It is a commonly accepted myth that Marie Curie and Lise Meitner were the only women working in the field of nuclear science during the early part of this century. In fact, there were at least 14 others who published work in this field between 1900 and 1915. This paper provides biographical notes on these women and explores the role of the supervisors. Part of the reason for the significant number of women researchers could have been the supportive attitude of Ernest Rutherford toward female physics graduates. In addition, we argue that several of these women provide better role models for potential women physicists than Marie Curie.

  3. Optical spectroscopy by Hantaro Nagaoka Pioneer nuclear structure study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inamura, Takashi T.

    2000-08-01

    Hantaro Nagaoka is a Japanese physicist who made an experimental pioneer work on optical spectroscopy for nuclear structure studies in 1920s. Today much attention should be paid to this work rather than to his famous atomic model that died away long time ago along with Thomson's model.

  4. Optical spectroscopy by Hantaro Nagaoka - Pioneer nuclear structure study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inamura, Takashi T. [Warsaw University, Heavy Ion Laboratory (Poland)], E-mail: inamura@slcj.uw.edu.pl

    2000-08-15

    Hantaro Nagaoka is a Japanese physicist who made an experimental pioneer work on optical spectroscopy for nuclear structure studies in 1920s. Today much attention should be paid to this work rather than to his famous atomic model that died away long time ago along with Thomson's model.

  5. Marietta Blau: Pioneer of Photographic Nuclear Emulsions and Particle Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sime, Ruth Lewin

    2013-03-01

    During the 1920s and 1930s, Viennese physicist Marietta Blau (1894-1970) pioneered the use of photographic methods for imaging high-energy nuclear particles and events. In 1937 she and Hertha Wambacher discovered "disintegration stars" - the tracks of massive nuclear disintegrations - in emulsions exposed to cosmic radiation. This discovery launched the field of particle physics, but Blau's contributions were underrecognized and she herself was nearly forgotten. I trace Blau's career at the Institut für Radiumforschung in Vienna and the causes of this "forgetting," including her forced emigration from Austria in 1938, the behavior of her colleagues in Vienna during and after the National Socialist period, and the flawed Nobel decision process that excluded her from a Nobel Prize.

  6. Pioneer ACO PUF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Pioneer ACO PUF - To address the increasing number of requests for Pioneer ACO data, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) has created a standard...

  7. Pioneer Saturn Encounter. [Pioneer 11 space probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The Pioneer Saturn Spacecraft, which began its journey as Pioneer 11, provided the first close view of the rings of Saturn as well as its system of moons. Its payload of 11 operating instruments obtained or confirmed data about the mass, temperature, composition, radiation belts, and atmosphere of the planet and its larger satellite, Titan. It made photometric and polarization measurements of lapetus, Rhea, Dione, and Tethys, as well as discovered additional rings. Scientific highlights of the mission are summarized. Color imagery provided by the photopolarimeter is included along with illustrations of the planet's magnetic field and radiation belts.

  8. Pioneering can be learned

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potters, J.I.; Buurma, J.S.

    2011-01-01

    A pioneer has specific competencies that a follower does not have, or has to a much lesser degree. For example, the capability of gathering information but also processing this information for use in his own business, are skills that a pioneer has developed to a large degree. But people who are not

  9. Pioneer ACO Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Pioneer ACO Model is designed for health care organizations and providers that are already experienced in coordinating care for patients across care settings. It...

  10. The Pioneer Anomaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor T. Toth

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Radio-metric Doppler tracking data received from the Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft from heliocentric distances of 20-70 AU has consistently indicated the presence of a small, anomalous, blue-shifted frequency drift uniformly changing with a rate of ~6 × 10–9 Hz/s. Ultimately, the drift was interpreted as a constant sunward deceleration of each particular spacecraft at the level of aP = (8.74 ± 1.33 × 10–10 m/s2. This apparent violation of the Newton's gravitational inverse square law has become known as the Pioneer anomaly; the nature of this anomaly remains unexplained. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of the physical properties of the anomaly and the conditions that led to its detection and characterization. We review various mechanisms proposed to explain the anomaly and discuss the current state of efforts to determine its nature. A comprehensive new investigation of the anomalous behavior of the two Pioneers has begun recently. The new efforts rely on the much-extended set of radio-metric Doppler data for both spacecraft in conjunction with the newly available complete record of their telemetry files and a large archive of original project documentation. As the new study is yet to report its findings, this review provides the necessary background for the new results to appear in the near future. In particular, we provide a significant amount of information on the design, operations and behavior of the two Pioneers during their entire missions, including descriptions of various data formats and techniques used for their navigation and radio-science data analysis. As most of this information was recovered relatively recently, it was not used in the previous studies of the Pioneer anomaly, but it is critical for the new investigation.

  11. Alasti pioneer / Jelena Skulskaja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Skulskaja, Jelena, 1950-

    2005-01-01

    Teatri- ja filmiuudiseid Venemaalt : Kira Muratova mängufilm "Häälestaja" ("Nastroishtshik"), Aleksandr Sokurovi töös olev mängufilm Thomas Manni ja Johann Wolfgang Goethe ainetel "Faust" ning Kirill Serebrjannikovi lavastus Sovremennikus Mihhail Kononovi romaani "Alasti pioneer" järgi, peaosas Tshulpan Hamatova. Ajalehe tiitellehel kuupäevaks "märtsi lõpp (4/05)"

  12. Similarities between the Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV Nuclear Protein EBNA1 and the Pioneer Transcription Factor FoxA: Is EBNA1 a “Bookmarking” Oncoprotein that Alters the Host Cell Epigenotype?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Helmut Niller

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available EBNA1, a nuclear protein expressed in all EBV-associated neoplasms is indispensable for the maintenance of the viral episomes in latently infected cells. EBNA1 may induce genetic alterations by upregulating cellular recombinases, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS and affecting p53 levels and function. All these changes may contribute to tumorigenesis. In this overview we focus, however, on the epigenetic alterations elicited by EBNA1 by drawing a parallel between EBNA1 and the FoxA family of pioneer transcription factors. Both EBNA1 and FoxA induce local DNA demethylation, nucleosome destabilization and bind to mitotic chromosomes. Local DNA demethylation and nucleosome rearrangement mark active promoters and enhancers. In addition, EBNA1 and FoxA, when associated with mitotic chromatin may “bookmark” active genes and ensure their reactivation in postmitotic cells (epigenetic memory. We speculate that DNA looping induced by EBNA1-EBNA1 interactions may reorganize the cellular genome. Such chromatin loops, sustained in mitotic chromatin similarly to the long-distance interactions mediated by the insulator protein CTCF, may also mediate the epigenetic inheritance of gene expression patterns. We suggest that EBNA1 has the potential to induce patho-epigenetic alterations contributing to tumorigenesis.

  13. Similarities between the Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) Nuclear Protein EBNA1 and the Pioneer Transcription Factor FoxA: Is EBNA1 a "Bookmarking" Oncoprotein that Alters the Host Cell Epigenotype?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niller, Hans Helmut; Minarovits, Janos

    2012-09-17

    EBNA1, a nuclear protein expressed in all EBV-associated neoplasms is indispensable for the maintenance of the viral episomes in latently infected cells. EBNA1 may induce genetic alterations by upregulating cellular recombinases, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and affecting p53 levels and function. All these changes may contribute to tumorigenesis. In this overview we focus, however, on the epigenetic alterations elicited by EBNA1 by drawing a parallel between EBNA1 and the FoxA family of pioneer transcription factors. Both EBNA1 and FoxA induce local DNA demethylation, nucleosome destabilization and bind to mitotic chromosomes. Local DNA demethylation and nucleosome rearrangement mark active promoters and enhancers. In addition, EBNA1 and FoxA, when associated with mitotic chromatin may "bookmark" active genes and ensure their reactivation in postmitotic cells (epigenetic memory). We speculate that DNA looping induced by EBNA1-EBNA1 interactions may reorganize the cellular genome. Such chromatin loops, sustained in mitotic chromatin similarly to the long-distance interactions mediated by the insulator protein CTCF, may also mediate the epigenetic inheritance of gene expression patterns. We suggest that EBNA1 has the potential to induce patho-epigenetic alterations contributing to tumorigenesis.

  14. Similarities between the Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) Nuclear Protein EBNA1 and the Pioneer Transcription Factor FoxA: Is EBNA1 a “Bookmarking” Oncoprotein that Alters the Host Cell Epigenotype?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niller, Hans Helmut; Minarovits, Janos

    2012-01-01

    EBNA1, a nuclear protein expressed in all EBV-associated neoplasms is indispensable for the maintenance of the viral episomes in latently infected cells. EBNA1 may induce genetic alterations by upregulating cellular recombinases, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and affecting p53 levels and function. All these changes may contribute to tumorigenesis. In this overview we focus, however, on the epigenetic alterations elicited by EBNA1 by drawing a parallel between EBNA1 and the FoxA family of pioneer transcription factors. Both EBNA1 and FoxA induce local DNA demethylation, nucleosome destabilization and bind to mitotic chromosomes. Local DNA demethylation and nucleosome rearrangement mark active promoters and enhancers. In addition, EBNA1 and FoxA, when associated with mitotic chromatin may “bookmark” active genes and ensure their reactivation in postmitotic cells (epigenetic memory). We speculate that DNA looping induced by EBNA1-EBNA1 interactions may reorganize the cellular genome. Such chromatin loops, sustained in mitotic chromatin similarly to the long-distance interactions mediated by the insulator protein CTCF, may also mediate the epigenetic inheritance of gene expression patterns. We suggest that EBNA1 has the potential to induce patho-epigenetic alterations contributing to tumorigenesis. PMID:25436603

  15. The impact of nuclear science on medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Kraft, G

    1999-01-01

    From the very beginning, i.e. from the discovery of the natural radioactivity by H. Becquerel and the production of radium by M. Curie, nuclear physics had a strong impact on medicine: Radioactive sources were immediately made use of in tumor therapy long before the action mechanisms of ionizing radiation were understood. The invention of the tracer technique by G. Hevesy opened a new field for the study of chemokinetics as well as for the in-vivo measurement of various organ functions. In the percutane tumor therapy hadrons like neutrons, pions, protons and heavier ions were tested. Presently, proton therapy is a great success and is spreading all over the world. The new techniques of target-conform treatment using heavy ions for an improved tumor targeting and control represent the latest great improvement of radiation tumor therapy.

  16. Pioneers of representation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Curtis, Charles W

    1999-01-01

    The year 1897 was marked by two important mathematical events: the publication of the first paper on representations of finite groups by Ferdinand Georg Frobenius (1849-1917) and the appearance of the first treatise in English on the theory of finite groups by William Burnside (1852-1927). Burnside soon developed his own approach to representations of finite groups. In the next few years, working independently, Frobenius and Burnside explored the new subject and its applications to finite group theory. They were soon joined in this enterprise by Issai Schur (1875-1941) and some years later, by Richard Brauer (1901-1977). These mathematicians' pioneering research is the subject of this book. It presents an account of the early history of representation theory through an analysis of the published work of the principals and others with whom the principals' work was interwoven. Also included are biographical sketches and enough mathematics to enable readers to follow the development of the subject. An introductor...

  17. Pioneering a Biobased UAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Eli; Byemerwa, Jovita; Dispenza, Ross; Doughty, Benjamin; Gillyard, KaNesha; Godbole, Poorwa; Gonzales-Wright, Jeanette; Hull, Ian; Kannappan, Jotthe; Levine, Alexander; hide

    2015-01-01

    With the exponential growth of interest in unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and their vast array of applications in both space exploration and terrestrial uses such as the delivery of medicine and monitoring the environment, the 2014 Stanford-Brown-Spelman iGEM team is pioneering the development of a fully biological UAV for scientific and humanitarian missions. The prospect of a biologically-produced UAV presents numerous advantages over the current manufacturing paradigm. First, a foundational architecture built by cells allows for construction or repair in locations where it would be difficult to bring traditional tools of production. Second, a major limitation of current research with UAVs is the size and high power consumption of analytical instruments, which require bulky electrical components and large fuselages to support their weight. By moving these functions into cells with biosensing capabilities – for example, a series of cells engineered to report GFP, green fluorescent protein, when conditions exceed a certain threshold concentration of a compound of interest, enabling their detection post-flight – these problems of scale can be avoided. To this end, we are working to engineer cells to synthesize cellulose acetate as a novel bioplastic, characterize biological methods of waterproofing the material, and program this material’s systemic biodegradation. In addition, we aim to use an “amberless” system to prevent horizontal gene transfer from live cells on the material to microorganisms in the flight environment. So far, we have: successfully transformed Gluconacetobacter hansenii, a cellulose-producing bacterium, with a series of promoters to test transformation efficiency before adding the acetylation genes; isolated protein bands present in the wasp nest material; transformed the cellulose-degrading genes into Escherichia coli; and we have confirmed that the amberless construct prevents protein expression in wild-type cells. In addition, as

  18. Environmental leaders and pioneers: agents of change?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liefferink, J.D.; Wurzel, R.K.W.

    2017-01-01

    This article distinguishes between states acting as environmental leaders or pioneers. While leaders usually actively seek to attract followers, this is not normally the case for pioneers. Dependent on their internal and external ambitions, states may take on the position of a laggard, pioneer,

  19. Redox Pioneer: Professor Joseph Loscalzo

    OpenAIRE

    Leopold, Jane A.

    2010-01-01

    Dr. Joseph Loscalzo (M.D., 1978; Ph.D., 1977) is recognized here as a Redox Pioneer because he has published two articles in the field of antioxidant/redox biology that have been cited more than 1,000 times and 22 articles that have been cited more than 100 times. Dr. Loscalzo is known for his seminal contributions to our understanding of the vascular biology of nitric oxide. His initial discovery that the antiplatelet effects of organic nitrates are potentiated by thiols through a mechanism ...

  20. Salute to some nursing pioneers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.H. Harrison

    1979-09-01

    Full Text Available This is indeed a very wide meaning for the word, ‘Pioneer’, and it was with some trepidation that I approached this subject. After all, it could end up by being a sort of Biographical Directory of Nurses in South Africa and this is certainly not what our readers would like in this particular journal. In any case, Searle’s History of the Development of Nursing in South Africa covers this field very fully and adequately. So just what sort of people do we regard as pioneers of nursing in our country? Where do we begin? Can one be totally objective about it or would my choice be different from that of readers because of a more subjective attitude.

  1. Pioneers of eye movement research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Nicholas J

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in the technology affording eye movement recordings carry the risk of neglecting past achievements. Without the assistance of this modern armoury, great strides were made in describing the ways the eyes move. For Aristotle the fundamental features of eye movements were binocular, and he described the combined functions of the eyes. This was later given support using simple procedures like placing a finger over the eyelid of the closed eye and culminated in Hering's law of equal innervation. However, the overriding concern in the 19th century was with eye position rather than eye movements. Appreciating discontinuities of eye movements arose from studies of vertigo. The characteristics of nystagmus were recorded before those of saccades and fixations. Eye movements during reading were described by Hering and by Lamare in 1879; both used similar techniques of listening to sounds made during contractions of the extraocular muscles. Photographic records of eye movements during reading were made by Dodge early in the 20th century, and this stimulated research using a wider array of patterns. In the mid-20th century attention shifted to the stability of the eyes during fixation, with the emphasis on involuntary movements. The contributions of pioneers from Aristotle to Yarbus are outlined. PMID:23396982

  2. Pioneers of Eye Movement Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas J Wade

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in the technology affording eye movement recordings carry the risk of neglecting past achievements. Without the assistance of this modern armoury, great strides were made in describing the ways the eyes move. For Aristotle the fundamental features of eye movements were binocular, and he described the combined functions of the eyes. This was later given support using simple procedures like placing a finger over the eyelid of the closed eye and culminated in Hering's law of equal innervation. However, the overriding concern in the 19th century was with eye position rather than eye movements. Appreciating discontinuities of eye movements arose from studies of vertigo. The characteristics of nystagmus were recorded before those of saccades and fixations. Eye movements during reading were described by Hering and by Lamare in 1879; both used similar techniques of listening to sounds made during contractions of the extraocular muscles. Photographic records of eye movements during reading were made by Dodge early in the 20th century, and this stimulated research using a wider array of patterns. In the mid-20th century attention shifted to the stability of the eyes during fixation, with the emphasis on involuntary movements. The contributions of pioneers from Aristotle to Yarbus are outlined.

  3. Pioneer camps in post-Yugoslav context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jankov Sonja

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is revalorisation and architectural analysis of pioneer cities/camps in Zagreb and Belgrade and of the children's camp Mitrovac at Tara. It is divided into an introductory analysis of the context within which pioneer camps were built and four study cases written from contemporary perspective. Artek, one of the best known pioneer camps in world, protected by UNESCO, is analysed in the paper as a paradigm for wider contextualisation of pioneer camps in former Yugoslavia. Chapter Pioneer City in Belgrade and Mitrovac at Tara emphasizes these complexes as important architectural heritage, were Mitrovac at Tara is one of the best preserved and active resorts for children. High Modernism of Vitić's Pioneer City Today summarises the process of protecting this heritage form 1951 in 2015. The paper proposes that these Yugoslav pioneer camps can be used in contemporary art production and graduate education, by opening to resident artists and students who come to Serbia via Erasmus + exchange programme.

  4. Innovation in education, ICT and pioneer teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Bocconi

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Reflections on the role of "pioneer teachers" as a potential key figure in the innovation process of the school, with particular reference to the European Framework Programme project Ulearn eLearning.

  5. Dobzhansky and Evolutionary Cytogenetics-Pioneering ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 10. Dobzhansky and Evolutionary Cytogenetics - Pioneering Evolutionary Studies with Chromosomes. Bimalendu B Nath. General Article Volume 5 Issue 10 October 2000 pp 61-65 ...

  6. Chromatin Pioneers | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taking advantage of their ability to explore provocative ideas, NCI investigators pioneered the study of chromatin to demonstrate its functional importance and lay the groundwork for understanding its role in cancer and other diseases.

  7. Pioneers - The Beginning of Danish Electronic Music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Thomas Bjørnsten

    2009-01-01

    Anmeldelse af dobbelt-cd'en Pioneers - The Beginning of Danish Electronic Music, der dokumenterer de tidligste år af dansk elektronisk musiks historie fra 1960-1978. Udgivelsesdato: 29.10......Anmeldelse af dobbelt-cd'en Pioneers - The Beginning of Danish Electronic Music, der dokumenterer de tidligste år af dansk elektronisk musiks historie fra 1960-1978. Udgivelsesdato: 29.10...

  8. A salute to the pioneers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2001-02-01

    An historical account is given of the pioneers who were instrumental in opening up the electrical frontier and paved the way for its phenomenal growth over the past century. The work of Franklin, Volta and Faraday, experimenters of the 18. and 19. century, is mentioned, along with the musings of Roger Bacon, a 13. century philosopher and scientist who postulated theories about magnetism, and that of William Gilbert of some three centuries later who formulated the definition of 'frictional electricity', noting the properties of attraction created by rubbing together amber and other substances. Mention is also made of the discoveries in the 18. and 19. centuries of Andre Marie Ampere of France, Luigi Galvani of Italy, Georg Simon Ohm and Heinrich Rudolph Hertz of Germany, Hans Christian Oersted of Denmark, Joseph Henry of the United States, William Grove and James Clerk Maxwell of Britain, and Aubrey Fessenden of Canada. An account is given of the discoveries of the Yugoslavian-born Nikola Tesla, whose work bridged the 19. and 20. centuries and who made singularly important contributions to the theory of electrical distribution systems, transformers, arc lights, dynamos, electric motors, steam turbines, thermomagnetics and radio systems. His invention of the polyphase alternating current system in 1888 was the turning point for the age of electricity that pushed the geographical distribution boundaries of electricity beyond the restrictive limitations of direct current used for Thomas Edison's electric light system. His work, with the timely support of George Westinghouse, opened the floodgates to electrical progress to bring new levels of productivity to business and industry and a higher standard of living for everyone. Many of the artifacts and memorabilia associated with the development of electrical technology are preserved in special exhibits and museums throughout the country. Brief accounts of some of the publicly accessible exhibits are

  9. Nuclear medicine: proof of principle for targeted drugs in diagnosis and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitha, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Delivering a drug to a specific target in the body is comparable to the "magic bullet principle" applied in Nuclear Medicine. If clinical medicine today found treatment options by targeting specific receptors, proteins or enzymes by "small-molecule drugs" it utilizes concepts that have been initially described by Nobel Laureate George von Hevesy as "tracer principle". This article is going to show that molecular imaging probes in Nuclear Medicine can be regarded as proof of principle of many of recent trends in diagnosis and therapy and offers exciting opportunities for further developments. Radioiodine therapy of benign and malignant thyroid disease has been established in Nuclear Medicine over six decades ago and is a fine example for using the same highly specific probe for diagnosis and treatment of a given disease. The use of radio labeled monoclonal antibodies against surface receptors of tumor cells (e.g. CEA) dominated diagnostic Nuclear Medicine in the eighties and sees a recent revival in lymphoma treatment radioimmunotherapy. Finally Nuclear Medicine has shown that it may advance drug development by visualizing its biodistribution and site of action. On the other hand some drugs like somatostatin analogues have been reinvented as diagnostic and therapeutic probes over a decade after their initial introduction as therapeutics. Molecular Imaging and targeted therapy are merging and potentiate their individual strength. Nuclear Medicine has ample experience in applying Molecular Imaging in clinical research and practice and has a bright future in this exciting field.

  10. Neurological examination: pioneering authors and their books

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péricles Maranhão-Filho

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to highlight some of the most important pioneering books specifically focused on the neurological examination and their authors. During the XIX Century, Alexander Hammond, William Gowers and Charles Mills pioneered the neurological literature, followed in the XX Century by Aloysio de Castro, Monrad-Krohn, Derek Denny-Brown, Robert Wartenberg, Gordon Holmes, and Russel DeJong. With determination and a marked sense of observation and research, they competently developed and spread the technique and art of the neurological exam.

  11. Grace Murray Hopper-Programming Pioneer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 2. Grace Murray Hopper - Programming Pioneer. V Rajaraman. Article-in-a-Box Volume 6 Issue 2 February 2001 pp 2-3. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/006/02/0002-0003 ...

  12. Guido von Pirquet: Austrian pioneer of astronautics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykora, F.

    1977-01-01

    The works of Guido von Pirquet, Austrian pioneer of rocketry, were assessed. Major emphasis was given to Pirquet's calculation of the route to Venus which in fact was followed by the first Russian rocket to Venus. Of interest also is Pirquet's valuable construction of a space station and his analysis of interstellar space flight.

  13. Pioneering system made information affordable | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-10-27

    Oct 27, 2010 ... Developed in the 1970s by IDRC, a pioneering software tool is still helping organizations in over 60 countries store, manage, and retrieve information for development today. Long before personal computers and the Internet, the huge libraries and databases of UN agencies were accessible in digital form ...

  14. Encounter with Jupiter. [Pioneer 10 space probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Pioneer 10 space probe's encounter with the Jupiter is discussed in detail. Tables are presented which include data on the distances during the encounter, times of crossing satellite orbits, important events in the flight near Jupiter, and time of experiments. Educational study projects are also included.

  15. Pioneers in Astronomy and Space Exploration

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    The pioneers of astronomy and space exploration have advanced humankind's understanding of the universe. These individuals include earthbound theorists such as Aristotle, Ptolemy, and Galileo, as well as those who put their lives on the line travelling into the great unknown. Readers chronicle the lives of individuals positioned at the vanguard of astronomical discovery, laying the groundwork for space exploration past, present, and yet to come.

  16. Portraits of pioneers in developmental psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idonézia Collodel Benetti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho é a recensão da obra Portraits of Pioneers in Developmental Psychology, lançada em 2011 e ainda não traduzida para o português brasileiro. Como sinalizado no título, é uma coletânea que alberga alguns pioneiros da psicologia do desenvolvimento. Em sua extensão, relatos da vida pessoal e acadêmica de 16 estudiosos desta área são oferecidos ao leitor, bem como as experiências e contribuições destes pioneiros para esta especialidade da psicologia.The present paper is a recension of the book Portraits of Pioneers in Developmental Psychology released in 2011 which has not been translated into Brazilian Portuguese yet. It is a collection of works in honor to some pioneers in the developmental psychology field. In its extension, the reader can find some personal and academic reports about 16 scholars in this area of knowledge, as well as their experiences and contributions to this field of psychology.

  17. On fundamentally new sources of energy for rockets in the early works of the pioneers of astronautics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melkumov, T. M.

    1977-01-01

    The research for more efficient methods of propelling a spacecraft, than can be achieved with chemical energy, was studied. During a time when rockets for space flight had not actually been built pioneers in rocket technology were already concerned with this problem. Alternative sources proposed at that time, were nuclear and solar energy. Basic engineering problems of each source were investigated.

  18. Tripler pioneers telemedicine across the Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaplain, C B; Lindborg, C E; Norton, S A; Hastings, J E

    1993-12-01

    Between January and August 1993, 59 medical teleconsultations were conducted successfully between the video teleconference center at Tripler Army Medical Center on Oahu and the video teleconference center on Kwajalein Atoll in the Republic of the Marshall Islands. This pioneer effort in the Pacific connected 2 archipeligoes separated by more than 2,200 nautical miles. Diagnostic and therapeutic decisions were made in the specialties of orthopedics, dermatology, radiology, urology, pediatrics, ophthalmology and physical therapy. Geographic isolation no longer means limited medical specialty care.

  19. Pioneer surgeon drove ultra clean technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkin, Amanda

    2013-04-01

    On the 50th anniversary of the development of his ground-breaking hip replacement surgical technique, Amanda Parkin, communications consultant with clean air technology specialist, Howorth Air Technology, examines Professor Sir John Charnley's influence on orthopaedic surgery, and explains how his realisation that any subsequent infection may not appear until long after the operation, and that keeping bacteria away from the wound during the procedure is the the key to minimising the risk, led to the emergence of 'ultra clean' operating theatre technology - within which Howorth was an early pioneer.

  20. Sigmund Freud: pioneer in energy healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Stephen D; Edwards, David J

    2010-02-01

    Energy healing is a popular contemporary term for forms of healing that facilitate a natural healing process through harmonizing, rebalancing, and releasing energy flow disturbed or blocked by disease and illness. Biographical evidence indicates that Freud used physical, suggestive, and radiant forms of energy healing, and that his personal life, metapsychology, and psychoanalysis were founded on dynamic, energetic experiences and conceptualizations. Analysis of Freud's life and work leads to the conclusion that in experience, theory, and practice, Freud typified the traditional role of therapist and was a pioneer in modern forms of energy healing.

  1. The pioneer projects: Economical exploration of the solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spahr, J. R.; Hall, C. F.

    1975-01-01

    The interplanetary Pioneer missions are reviewed in terms of management implications and cost control. The responsibilities, organizational structure, and management practices of the Pioneer Projects are presented. The lines of authority and areas of responsibility of the principal organizational elements supporting the Pioneer missions are identified, and the methods employed for maintaining effective and timely interactions among these elements are indicated. The technical and administrative functions of the various organizational elements of the Pioneer Project Office at Ames Research Center are described in terms of their management responsibilities and interactions with other elements of the Project Office and with external organizations having Pioneer Project responsibilities. The management and control of activities prior to and during the hardware procurement phase are described to indicate the basis for obtaining visibility of the technical progress, utilization of resources, and cost performance of the contractors and other institutions supporting the Pioneer projects.

  2. Adolf Friedrich Fercher: a pioneer of biomedical optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitzenberger, Christoph K

    2017-11-01

    Adolf Friedrich Fercher, an outstanding pioneer of biomedical optics, passed away earlier this year. He was a brilliant and visionary researcher who pioneered various fields of biomedical optics, such as laser speckle flowgraphy, tissue interferometry, and optical coherence tomography (OCT). On the occasion of the 25th anniversary of OCT, this paper reviews and commemorates Fercher's pioneering work. (2017) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

  3. Atomic Pioneers Book 3 From the Late 19th to the Mid-20th Century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiebert, Ray [University of Maryland; Hiebert, Roselyn

    1973-01-01

    This book tells the story of the atom by presenting a brief account of the lives and work of 24 atomic scientists who brought the world into the complex Age of the Atom by mid-20th century. The 24 are: Albert Einstein, James Franck, Max Born, Peter J.W. Debye, Niels Bohr, George von Hevesy, Henry G.J. Moseley, Gustav Hertz, Erwin Schrodinger, Otto Stern, James Chadwick, Arthur H. Compton, Louis Victor de Broglie, Harold C. Urey, John D. Cockcroft, Patrick M.S. Blackett, Isidor I. Rabi, Leo Szilard, Jean Frederic Joliot-Curie, Irene Joliot-Curie, Wolfgang Pauli, Ernest O. Lawrence, Enrico Fermi, and Robert J. Van de Graaff.

  4. Thomas K. Jeffers: pioneer of coccidiosis research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, H D

    2012-01-01

    Thomas K. Jeffers has made many significant contributions to our understanding of the biology of the parasite Eimeria, the cause of coccidiosis in poultry. His work has had direct practical application for the control of this widespread disease. Topics discussed include Jeffers' pioneering work concerned with genetics of the host response to infection, the nature of biological and immunological intraspecific variation, drug resistance and discovery, field surveys of resistance, and his most recognized achievement-the demonstration that the lifecycle of coccidia may be altered by artificial selection. Parasites so modified are attenuated but retain their immunogenicity, a discovery that has led to the development of live vaccines that are inherently non-pathogenic. This article provides a brief biography and describes the contributions that Jeffers has made to our knowledge of coccidiosis.

  5. Johann von Lamont: A Pioneer in Geomagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soffel, Heinrich

    2006-06-01

    The 200th birthday of John Lamont (1805-1879, Figure 1), a pioneer in the study of geomagnetism, was marked on 13 December 2005. Lamont founded the Munich Geomagnetic Observatory in 1840 and was a member of the group of scientists including Carl Friedrich Gauss, Alexander von Humboldt, Eduard Sabine, Jonas Angstrøm, Humphret Lloyd, Adolf Kupffer, Karl Kreil, and Adolphe Quetelet who composed the Göttingen Magnetic Union. They organized an international network of geomagnetic observatories [Barraclough et al., 1992]. The present knowledge of the geomagnetic field and its secular variation is largely based on the data collected by the global network of geomagnetic observatories during the last 170 years. Lamont's talents and his dedication and enthusiasm for discovery are reflected in the depth and scope of his contributions to a broad variety of natural sciences such as astronomy, meteorology, geomagnetism, and geodesy. However, this article just touches on his merits in geomagnetism.

  6. Mission design of a Pioneer Jupiter Orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, L. D.; Nunamaker, R. R.

    1975-01-01

    The Mission analysis and design work performed in order to define a Pioneer mission to orbit Jupiter is described. This work arose from the interaction with a science advisory 'Mission Definition' team and led to the present mission concept. Building on the previous Jupiter Orbiter-Satellite Tour development at JPL a magnetospheric survey mission concept is developed. The geometric control of orbits which then provide extensive local time coverage of the Jovian system is analyzed and merged with the various science and program objectives. The result is a 'flower-orbit' mission design, yielding three large apoapse excursions at various local times and many interior orbits whose shape and orientation is under continual modification. This orbit design, together with a first orbit defined by delivery of an atmospheric probe, yields a mission of high scientific interest.

  7. Oral history in radiography: Listening to pioneers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferris, Christine [International Development Facilitator, Robert Winston Building, Faculty of Health and Wellbeing, Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield S10 2BP (United Kingdom)], E-mail: c.m.ferris@shu.ac.uk; Winslow, Michelle [University of Sheffield, Oral History Society, Academic Unit of Supportive Care, Sykes House, Little Common Lane, Sheffield S11 9NE (United Kingdom)], E-mail: m.winslow@sheffield.ac.uk

    2009-12-15

    We explore the professional value of the collection and analysis of oral histories in the history of radiography. Drawing on oral histories collected from radiographers, we analyse accounts of experiences to identify common themes, some of which are of current significance, whilst others have faded from existence. 15 oral histories were collected from radiographers whose combined practice spans the years 1930-1973. The sample consists of 6 male and 9 female radiographers. Themes identified in the oral histories include radiographers as invisible pioneers who worked in professionally unclaimed territory and their dangerous working environment. The oral histories reveal the working world of the radiographer as having encompassed a practice ethos where challenges became an accepted part of work. We gain insight into less observable aspects of the radiographer's role, the difficulties they faced, how they invented techniques and equipment, and how they managed their practice including protecting the public from ionising radiation sources.

  8. James Moir (1874–1929) Pioneering Chemical Analyst in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    James Moir (1874–1929) Pioneering Chemical Analyst in. South Africa in the Early 1900s. Peter Loyson*. Chemistry Department, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, P.O. Box 77000, Port Elizabeth, 6031 South Africa. Received 17 October 2013, accepted 26 March 2014. ABSTRACT. James Moir, a pioneering chemist ...

  9. Mission to Jupiter. [Pioneer 10 and 11 space probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    The Pioneer 10 and Pioneer 11 space probes and their missions to Jupiter are discussed along with the experiments and investigations which will be conducted onboard. Jupiter's atmosphere, its magnetic fields, radiation belts, the spacecraft instruments, and the Jovian system will be investigated. Educational study projects are also included.

  10. Grote Reber, Radio Astronomy Pioneer, Dies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-12-01

    Grote Reber, one of the earliest pioneers of radio astronomy, died in Tasmania on December 20, just two days shy of his 91st birthday. Reber was the first person to build a radio telescope dedicated to astronomy, opening up a whole new "window" on the Universe that eventually produced such landmark discoveries as quasars, pulsars and the remnant "afterglow" of the Big Bang. His self- financed experiments laid the foundation for today's advanced radio-astronomy facilities. Grote Reber Grote Reber NRAO/AUI photo "Radio astronomy has changed profoundly our understanding of the Universe and has earned the Nobel Prize for several major contributions. All radio astronomers who have followed him owe Grote Reber a deep debt for his pioneering work," said Dr. Fred Lo, director of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). "Reber was the first to systematically study the sky by observing something other than visible light. This gave astronomy a whole new view of the Universe. The continuing importance of new ways of looking at the Universe is emphasized by this year's Nobel Prizes in physics, which recognized scientists who pioneered X-ray and neutrino observations," Lo added. Reber was a radio engineer and avid amateur "ham" radio operator in Wheaton, Illinois, in the 1930s when he read about Karl Jansky's 1932 discovery of natural radio emissions coming from outer space. As an amateur operator, Reber had won awards and communicated with other amateurs around the world, and later wrote that he had concluded "there were no more worlds to conquer" in radio. Learning of Jansky's discovery gave Reber a whole new challenge that he attacked with vigor. Analyzing the problem as an engineer, Reber concluded that what he needed was a parabolic-dish antenna, something quite uncommon in the 1930s. In 1937, using his own funds, he constructed a 31.4-foot-diameter dish antenna in his back yard. The strange contraption attracted curious attention from his neighbors and became

  11. After SDSS-IV: Pioneering Panoptic Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollmeier, Juna; AS4 Collaboration

    2018-01-01

    I will describe the current plans for a next generation sky survey that will begin After SDSS-IV --- AS4. AS4 will be an unprecedented all-sky spectroscopic survey of over six million objects. It is designed to decode the history of the Milky Way galaxy, trace the emergence of the chemical elements, reveal the inner workings of stars, the growth of black holes, and investigate the origin of planets. It will provide the most comprehensive all-sky spectroscopy to multiply the science from the Gaia, TESS and eROSITA missions. AS4 will also create a contiguous spectroscopic map of the interstellar gas in the Milky Way and nearby galaxies that is 1,000 times larger than the state of the art, uncovering the self-regulation mechanisms of Galactic ecosystems. It will pioneer systematic, spectroscopic monitoring across the whole sky, revealing changes on timescales from 20 minutes to 20 years. The project is now developing new hardware to build on the SDSS-IV infrastructure, designing the detailed survey strategy, and actively seeking to complete its consortium of institutional and individual members.

  12. M. Evangeline Jordon, pioneer in pedodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loevy, Hannelore T; Kowitz, Althea A

    2006-01-01

    At a time when little attention was paid to the care of children's teeth, Evangeline Jordon pioneered new techniques and laid the groundwork for what became the dental specialty, Pedodontia. Jordon went to college and became an elementary school teacher in 1885. By 1897, dissatisfied with her life as teacher and as a result of her work as a dental assistant during summer vacations, she enrolled at the University of California and graduated in dentistry in 1898. Immediately after graduation, Jordon became involved in organized dentistry and in 1901 was elected 2nd vice -president of the Southern California Dental Association. In 1901 she developed a lecture course on "Care of Children's Teeth," started a clinic at the Orphan's Home, and later also became responsible for the development of a clinic for children at the School of Dentistry at the University of California. By 1909 she had limited her practice to children and started publishing papers on dental treatment of children. In 1924 she published the first book in English on pediatric dentistry. She was one of the founders of the Federation of American Women Dentists and was active in the founding of the American Society of Dentistry for Children. She recognized the problem of nursing bottle caries and the need for the psychological training for dentists treating children. Jordon paved the way for much of our progress in pediatric dentistry. She is an example of what can be accomplished if there is a vision, a desire to serve and recognition of the needs of children.

  13. Protecting biotechnology's pioneers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raines, L.J. (Industrial Biotechnology Association, Washington, DC (USA))

    The biotechnology industry is an important new source of economic vitality for the US. American scientists invented genetic engineering and American investors have funded the research and development (R and D) that enables the biotechnology industry to translate cutting-edge science into economic growth. As a result, the US leads the world in the research, development, and manufacture of biotechnology products. In 1991, sales totaled $5.8 billion, an 18% increase over 1990, and net exports exceeded $600 million. The White House Council on Competitiveness projects that by the year 2000, biotechnology will be a $50-billion industry. Thanks to its early lead, the US biotechnology industry should claim a large share of that market. But without adequate legal protection for its innovations, the US industry's early investment and progress will be worth little in global competition. The patent system, which should reward the achievements of biotechnology pioneers, is allowing intellectual pirates to copy innovative biotechnology products without penalty. Under current law, inventors cannot obtain effective patent protection for the products themselves, the processes by which they are created, or even the original materials used in these processes. The threat of domestic or foreign piracy undermines continued investment in R and D. Only statutory changes can protect the US competitive edge in biotechnology.

  14. Precision medicine needs pioneering clinical bioinformaticians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-López, Gonzalo; Dopazo, Joaquín; Cigudosa, Juan C; Valencia, Alfonso; Al-Shahrour, Fátima

    2017-10-25

    Success in precision medicine depends on accessing high-quality genetic and molecular data from large, well-annotated patient cohorts that couple biological samples to comprehensive clinical data, which in conjunction can lead to effective therapies. From such a scenario emerges the need for a new professional profile, an expert bioinformatician with training in clinical areas who can make sense of multi-omics data to improve therapeutic interventions in patients, and the design of optimized basket trials. In this review, we first describe the main policies and international initiatives that focus on precision medicine. Secondly, we review the currently ongoing clinical trials in precision medicine, introducing the concept of 'precision bioinformatics', and we describe current pioneering bioinformatics efforts aimed at implementing tools and computational infrastructures for precision medicine in health institutions around the world. Thirdly, we discuss the challenges related to the clinical training of bioinformaticians, and the urgent need for computational specialists capable of assimilating medical terminologies and protocols to address real clinical questions. We also propose some skills required to carry out common tasks in clinical bioinformatics and some tips for emergent groups. Finally, we explore the future perspectives and the challenges faced by precision medicine bioinformatics. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Some pioneers of European human genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Peter S

    2017-05-10

    Some of the pioneers of human genetics across Europe are described, based on a series of 100 recorded interviews made by the author. These interviews, and the memories of earlier workers in the field recalled by interviewees, provide a vivid picture, albeit incomplete, of the early years of human and medical genetics. From small beginnings in the immediate post-World War 2 years, human genetics grew rapidly across many European countries, a powerful factor being the development of human cytogenetics, stimulated by concerns over the risks of radiation exposure. Medical applications soon followed, with the recognition of human chromosome abnormalities, the need for genetic counselling, the possibility of prenatal diagnosis and later, the applications of human molecular genetics. The evolution of the field has been strongly influenced by the characters and interests of the relatively small number of founding workers in different European countries, as well as by wider social, medical and scientific factors in the individual countries.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 10 May 2017; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2017.47.

  16. Pioneer unmanned air vehicle accomplishments during Operation Desert Storm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christner, James H.

    1991-12-01

    This paper will describe the accomplishments and lessons learned of the Pioneer Unmanned Air Vehicle (UAV) during Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm. The Pioneer UAV has been deployed with three branches of the U.S. military (USA, USN, and USMC) for the past four years. Although the system has compiled over 6,000 flight hours, the recent conflict in the Gulf is the first opportunity to demonstrate its true value in a combat scenario. In a relatively short time (42 days), 307 flights and 1,011 flight hours were completed on Operation Desert Storm. This, coupled with the accuracy of various weapons systems that Pioneer observed/cued for, resulted in timely target engagements. This paper will chronicle the Pioneer deployment and accomplishments on Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm. Various employment methods, tactics, doctrine, and lessons learned will be presented.

  17. The Pioneer Projects - Economical exploration of the solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spahr, J. R.; Hall, C. F.

    1975-01-01

    The interplanetary Pioneer missions are reviewed in terms of management implications and cost control. The responsibilities, organizational structure, and management practices of the Pioneer Projects are presented. The lines of authority and areas of responsibility of the principal organizational elements supporting the Pioneer missions are identified, and the methods employed for maintaining effective and timely interactions among these elements are indicated. The technical and administrative functions of various organizational elements of the project are described. The management and control of activities prior to and during the hardware procurement phase are described to indicate the basis for obtaining visibility of the technical progress, utilization of resources, and cost performance of the contractors and other institutions supporting the Pioneer projects.

  18. Jagadis Chandra Bose and His Pioneering Research on Microwaves

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 10; Issue 12. Jagadis Chandra Bose and His Pioneering Research on Microwaves. C George Verghese George C Verghese. Volume 10 Issue 12 December 2005 pp 83-85 ...

  19. Boekbesprekings/Book Review: "Pioneers of the Waterberg: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. ELIZABETH HUNTER (samesteller) Pioneers of the Waterberg: a photographic journey. Lephalale: Elizabeth Hunter (uitgewer); Johannesburg: Camera Press (drukker&binder), 2010 128 pp. ISBN: 978-0-620-49969-9 ...

  20. 76 FR 83 - Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Availability of Petition and Environmental Assessment for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-03

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Availability of Petition... has received a petition from Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc., seeking a determination of...) from Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc. (Pioneer) of Johnston, IA, seeking a determination of...

  1. Nasseem Husain: homage to a pioneer of cytology automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocjan, G; Herbert, A

    2015-08-01

    Dr Oliver Anthony Nasseem Husain, who died on 22 September 2014, aged 90 years, was one of the great names of European cytology, a pioneer of automated cervical screening and a founding member of both the British Society for Clinical Cytology (BSCC) and the European Federation of Cytology Societies (EFCS). The life of this one remarkable man involved much of the pioneering work, which is reviewed in this article, that has brought conventional cytology to the complex multimodal discipline it is today. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. The contribution of medical physics to nuclear medicine: a physician's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ell, Peter J

    2014-12-01

    This paper is the second in a series of invited perspectives by four pioneers of nuclear medicine imaging and physics. A medical physicist and a nuclear medicine clinical specialist each take a backward look and a forward look at the contributions of physics to nuclear medicine. Here is a backward look from a nuclear medicine physician's perspective.

  3. A pioneering study on cytotoxicity in Australian parakeets (Melopsittacus undulates) exposed to tannery effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Joyce Moreira; Montalvão, Mateus Flores; da Silva, Anderson Rodrigo; de Lima Rodrigues, Aline Sueli; Malafaia, Guilherme

    2017-05-01

    Waste effluent from the tannery industry is a major source of environmental pollution. Considering that the bird intake of water contaminated with tannery effluent constitutes a potential genotoxic source, especially for birds inhabiting areas closest to tanning industries, the aim of this study is to assess the possible mutagenic effects that the intake may have on Melopsittacus undulatus (Australian parakeet). In order to do so, adult male and female M. undulatus were distributed in two experimental groups: control (drinking water) and TE (5%). After 60 days of exposure, the micronucleus test, as well as tests looking for other nuclear abnormalities in the peripheral blood of the birds were performed. The male and female birds exposed to the pollutant have presented the highest total number of nuclear abnormalities, as well as increased individual abnormalities such as nuclei with symmetrical constricted bi-lobed/bi-nucleated erythrocytes, indented nuclei and micro-lobed nuclei (top)/micro-nuclei (bottom). In addition, the exposure to TE has caused a nuclear variant increase rarely reported in the literature concerning poultry erythrocyte nuclei. The birds exposed to the pollutant have presented the highest frequency of displaced nuclei forming different rotation/displacement angles within the cells. Therefore, the current study confirmed the toxicological potential of TE and was pioneer in showing that male and female M. undulatus exposed to pollutant present the highest frequency of erythrocyte nuclear abnormalities, thus corroborating the initial hypothesis herein presented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. VISTA: Pioneering New Survey Telescope Starts Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    A new telescope - VISTA (the Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy) - has just started work at ESO's Paranal Observatory and has made its first release of pictures. VISTA is a survey telescope working at infrared wavelengths and is the world's largest telescope dedicated to mapping the sky. Its large mirror, wide field of view and very sensitive detectors will reveal a completely new view of the southern sky. Spectacular new images of the Flame Nebula, the centre of our Milky Way galaxy and the Fornax Galaxy Cluster show that it is working extremely well. VISTA is the latest telescope to be added to ESO's Paranal Observatory in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile. It is housed on the peak adjacent to the one hosting the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) and shares the same exceptional observing conditions. VISTA's main mirror is 4.1 metres across and is the most highly curved mirror of this size and quality ever made - its deviations from a perfect surface are less than a few thousandths of the thickness of a human hair - and its construction and polishing presented formidable challenges. VISTA was conceived and developed by a consortium of 18 universities in the United Kingdom [1] led by Queen Mary, University of London and became an in-kind contribution to ESO as part of the UK's accession agreement. The telescope design and construction were project-managed by the Science and Technology Facilities Council's UK Astronomy Technology Centre (STFC, UK ATC). Provisional acceptance of VISTA was formally granted by ESO at a ceremony at ESO's Headquarters in Garching, Germany, attended by representatives of Queen Mary, University of London and STFC, on 10 December 2009 and the telescope will now be operated by ESO. "VISTA is a unique addition to ESO's observatory on Cerro Paranal. It will play a pioneering role in surveying the southern sky at infrared wavelengths and will find many interesting targets for further study by the Very Large Telescope, ALMA and

  5. Crippling load test of Budd Pioneer Car 244, test 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    This report summarizes Test 3, a crippling load test on Budd Pioneer Car 244, conducted on June 28, 2011. Before the crippling load test, Transportation Technology Center, Inc., conducted two 800,000-pound (lb) quasi-static tests on Car 244 in accord...

  6. Pioneering barren land: mitotic bookmarking by transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rada-Iglesias, Alvaro

    2013-02-25

    Genome condensation during mitosis presents a chromatin landscape largely inaccessible to RNA polymerase II and most transcription factors. Caravaca et al. (2013) now report in Genes and Development that the pioneer transcription factor FOXA1 is retained at mitotic chromosomes, bookmarking the genome to enable gene expression reestablishment upon mitotic exit. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Conventional forces can explain the anomalous acceleration of Pioneer 10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffer, Louis K.

    2003-04-01

    Anderson et al. find the measured trajectories of Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecrafts deviate from the trajectories computed from known forces acting on them. This unmodeled acceleration (and the less well known, but similar, unmodeled torque) can be accounted for by non-isotropic radiation of spacecraft heat. Various forms of non-isotropic radiation were proposed by Katz, Murphy, and Scheffer, but Anderson et al. felt that none of these could explain the observed effect. This paper calculates the known effects in more detail and considers new sources of radiation, all based on spacecraft construction. These effects are then modeled over the duration of the experiment. The model reproduces the acceleration from its appearance at a heliocentric distance of 5 AU to the last measurement at 71 AU to within 10%. However, it predicts a larger decrease in acceleration between intervals I and III of the Pioneer 10 observations than is observed. This is a 2σ discrepancy from the average of the three analyses (SIGMA, CHASMP, and Markwardt). A more complex (but more speculative) model provides a somewhat better fit. Radiation forces can also plausibly explain the previously unmodeled torques, including the spindown of Pioneer 10 that is directly proportional to spacecraft bus heat, and the slow but constant spin-up of Pioneer 11. In any case, by accounting for the bulk of the acceleration, the proposed mechanism makes it much more likely that the entire effect can be explained without the need for new physics.

  8. Highlight: Pioneering study reveals importance of land tenure in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-14

    Apr 14, 2016 ... The findings of a pioneering study linking services to justice and land tenure were presented in Nairobi on February 5, 2015. The study, carried out by multiple stakeholders, shows that land tenure is critical to improving basic services and access to justice in informal settlements in Nairobi, Kenya.

  9. News and Event: The pioneer female dentist | Ogunbodede ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    News and Event: The pioneer female dentist. E Ogunbodede, GA Guobadia. Abstract. No abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about ...

  10. Pioneers in South African Anaesthesia: Thomas Voss and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pioneers in South African Anaesthesia: Thomas Voss and the “Elephant Tube”. R Hofmeyr, PC Gordon. Abstract. South Afr J Anaesth Analg 2013;19(5):239-241. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/22201173.2013.

  11. Physical and emotional impact of dissection: findings from a pioneer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We sought to determine the physical and emotional impact of cadaver dissection among medical students in a pioneer class. We administered two questionnaires: one on the first day of dissection, and the second six weeks later. Each examined the symptoms of cadaver exposure, and the emotional impact using the ...

  12. Physics Nobel Prize 2000 goes to Semiconductor Pioneers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 1. Physics Nobel Prize 2000 goes to Semiconductor Pioneers. V Venkataraman. Research News Volume 6 Issue 1 January 2001 pp 79-83. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  13. Highlight: Pioneer of oral rehydration therapy visits IDRC's Asia ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2015-03-16

    Dr Richard A. Cash was a guest lecturer at the IDRC Asia Regional Office in New Delhi on March 16, 2015. Dr Cash is renowned for his pioneering work on oral rehydration therapy (ORT), a practical treatment for cholera and other diseases causing diarrheal dehydration. A visiting professor at the Public Health Foundation ...

  14. Highlight: Pioneer of oral rehydration therapy visits IDRC's Asia ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-15

    Apr 15, 2016 ... Dr Richard A. Cash was a guest lecturer at the IDRC Asia Regional Office in New Delhi on March 16, 2015. Dr Cash is renowned for his pioneering work on oral rehydration therapy (ORT), a practical treatment for cholera and other diseases causing diarrheal dehydration. A visiting professor at the Public ...

  15. "Mid-Week Pictorial": Pioneer American Photojournalism Magazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Keith

    In 1914 (22 years before the inception of "Life" magazine), the "New York Times" began publishing "Mid-Week Pictorial" to absorb a flood of war pictures pouring in from Europe. Several sociological and technological forces shaped "Mid-Week Pictorial" as a pioneer of American photojournalism magazines,…

  16. Evidence Concerning Instabilities of the Distant Geomagnetic Field: Pioneer I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonett, C. P.; Judge, D. L.; Kelso, J. M.

    1959-01-01

    The search-coil magnetometer carried on Pioneer I has yielded evidence of complex geomagnetic behavior at great distances from the earth. This paper is intended to report only some preliminary observations; in particular, what appears to be directional instability in the field. A comprehensive statistical analysis, to be reported later, is still in progress.

  17. Outer planet probe navigation. [considering Pioneer space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, L.

    1974-01-01

    A series of navigation studies in conjunction with outer planet Pioneer missions are reformed to determine navigation requirements and measurement systems in order to target probes. Some particular cases are established where optical navigation is important and some cases where radio alone navigation is suffucient. Considered are a direct Saturn mission, a Saturn Uranus mission, a Jupiter Uranus mission, and a Titan probe mission.

  18. Intraguild predation in pioneer predator communities of alpine glacier forelands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raso, Lorna; Sint, Daniela; Mayer, Rebecca; Plangg, Simon; Recheis, Thomas; Brunner, Silvia; Kaufmann, Rüdiger; Traugott, Michael

    2014-08-01

    Pioneer communities establishing themselves in the barren terrain in front of glacier forelands consist principally of predator species such as carabid beetles and lycosid spiders. The fact that so many different predators can co-inhabit an area with no apparent primary production was initially explained by allochthonous material deposited in these forelands. However, whether these populations can be sustained on allochthonous material alone is questionable and recent studies point towards this assumption to be flawed. Intraguild predation (IGP) might play an important role in these pioneer predator assemblages, especially in the very early successional stages where other prey is scarce. Here, we investigated IGP between the main predator species and their consumption of Collembola, an important autochthonous alternative prey, within a glacier foreland in the Ötztal (Austrian Alps). Multiplex PCR and stable isotope analysis were used to characterize the trophic niches in an early and late pioneer stage over 2 years. Results showed that intraguild prey was consumed by all invertebrate predators, particularly the larger carabid species. Contrary to our initial hypothesis, the DNA detection frequency of IGP prey was not significantly higher in early than in late pioneer stage, which was corroborated by the stable isotope analysis. Collembola were the most frequently detected prey in all of the predators, and the overall prey DNA detection patterns were consistent between years. Our findings show that IGP appears as a constant in these pioneer predator communities and that it remains unaffected by successional changes. © 2014 The Authors. Molecular Ecology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. 75 FR 2592 - Pioneer Industrial Railway Co.-Trackage Rights Exemption-Central Illinois Railroad Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-15

    ... Surface Transportation Board Pioneer Industrial Railway Co.--Trackage Rights Exemption-- Central Illinois...) has agreed to grant non-exclusive local trackage rights to Pioneer Industrial Railway Co. (PIRY) over... Kellar Branch. See STB Docket No. AB-1056X, Pioneer Industrial Railway Co.--Discontinuance of Service...

  20. 78 FR 32231 - Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Availability of Plant Pest Risk Assessment, Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Availability of Plant... regarding a request from Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc., seeking a determination of nonregulated status... regulated under 7 CFR part 340. APHIS received a petition (APHIS Petition Number 11-063-01p) from Pioneer Hi...

  1. 78 FR 37201 - Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Determination of Nonregulated Status of Maize Genetically...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-20

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Determination of... determination that a maize line developed by Pioneer Hi-Bred International Inc., designated as maize event DP... on our evaluation of data submitted by Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc., in its petition for a...

  2. 77 FR 41364 - Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Availability of Petition for Determination of Nonregulated...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Availability of Petition... Hi-Bred ] International, Inc., (Pioneer) seeking a determination of nonregulated status of canola... has received a petition (APHIS Petition Number 11-063-01p) from Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc...

  3. 75 FR 32356 - Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Determination of Nonregulated Status for Genetically...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Determination of... line developed by Pioneer Hi-Bred International, designated as transformation event 305423, which has... evaluation of data submitted by Pioneer Hi-Bred International in its petition for a determination of...

  4. 76 FR 37767 - Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Determination of Nonregulated Status for Corn Genetically...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-28

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Determination of... determination that a corn line developed by Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc., designated as event DP-32138-1... on our evaluation of data submitted by Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc., in its petition for a...

  5. New insights into pioneer root xylem development: evidence obtained from Populus trichocarpa plants grown under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagniewska-Zadworna, Agnieszka; Arasimowicz-Jelonek, Magdalena; Smoliński, Dariusz J; Stelmasik, Agnieszka

    2014-06-01

    Effective programmed xylogenesis is critical to the structural framework of the plant root system and its central role in the acquisition and long-distance transport of water and nutrients. The process of xylem differentiation in pioneer roots under field conditions is poorly understood. In this study it is hypothesized that xylogenesis, an example of developmental programmed cell death (PCD), in the roots of woody plants demonstrates a clearly defined sequence of events resulting in cell death. A comprehensive analysis was therefore undertaken to identify the stages of xylogenesis in pioneer roots from procambial cells to fully functional vessels with lignified cell walls and secondary cell wall thickenings. Xylem differentiation was monitored in the pioneer roots of Populus trichocarpa at the cytological level using rhizotrons under field conditions. Detection and localization of the signalling molecule nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was undertaken and a detailed examination of nuclear changes during xylogenesis was conducted. In addition, analyses of the expression of genes involved in secondary cell wall synthesis were performed in situ. The primary event in initially differentiating tracheary elements (TEs) was a burst of NO in thin-walled cells, followed by H2O2 synthesis and the appearance of TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labelling)-positive nuclei. The first changes in nuclear structure were observed in the early stages of xylogenesis of pioneer roots, prior to lignification; however, the nucleus was detectable under transmission electron microscopy in differentiating cells until the stage at which vacuole integrity was maintained, indicating that their degradation was slow and prolonged. The subsequent sequence of events involved secondary cell wall formation and autophagy. Potential gene markers from the cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) gene family that were related to secondary wall synthesis were

  6. The Pioneer Anomaly and a Rotating Godel Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Thomas; Blome, Hans-Joachim

    2008-01-01

    The Pioneer Anomaly represents an intriguing problem for fundamental physics whose scope still seems to baffle the best of explanations. It involves one of the most precise fine-scale acceleration measurements possible in the space age as the Pioneer 10/11 spacecraft reached distances of 20-70 AU from the Sun. An anomalous acceleration directed back toward the Sun of approx. 8x10(exp -10) m/sq s was discovered. The problem will be summarized and an up-to-date overview of possible explanations for this surprising result will be given. It may even be possible that our cosmic environment such as expansion dynamics and/or dark energy could be influencing the behavior of planets and spacecrafts within our local solar system. Then a new possibility, that of a rotating Godel Universe, will be introduced and examined.

  7. Pedro Paulet: Peruvian Pioneer of the Space Age

    OpenAIRE

    Canales Romero, Martin Juan

    2010-01-01

    1969 was the year when man stepped on the Moon. Many space pioneers have contributed to carry out the major endeavor achieved by humankind. Pedro Paulet (July 2, 1874 in Arequipa, Peru – 1945 in Buenos Aires, Argentina) was a Peruvian scientist who in 1895 conducted experiments on a rocket motor made of vanadium steel that burned a combination of nitrogen peroxide and gasoline. There are indications that actually Paulet had invented the rocket engine in the Sorbonne University, France, where ...

  8. Vladimir P. Demikhov, a pioneer of organ transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, R M

    2011-05-01

    Vladimir P. Demikhov was born in a Russian peasant family in 1916. As a biology student at The Moscow University in 1937, he constructed a metal artificial heart and maintained the circulation of a dog for 5.5 hours. From 1946, after his military service, he worked in the Surgical Institute of The Moscow Academy of Sciences performing heterotopic heart transplantations in dogs. In 1947, he performed the first orthotopic lung transplant. Later he performed complex cardiothoracic transplantations as well as renal and hepatic transplantations. He restarted his investigations with the artificial heart and performed coronary bypass operations in dogs. In 1954 he performed a head transplantation, for which he gained worldwide infamy. Stalinist propaganda advertised this fact as the superiority of Soviet science. In fact, it was the upper body of a smaller dog to the neck of a bigger one. The two heads could eat and drink separately. But he could not overcome the problems of rejection, so the longest survival was 1 month among 20 such operations. His influence on the pioneers of transplantation is unquestionable. He was an innovative creative man, and many pioneers of transplantation highly appreciated his work. Demikhov contributed to clinical heart and lung transplantation by demonstrating the possibility of their experimental realization; furthermore, he motivated the pioneers of coronary bypass operations with his work. He died in 1998, but before that was honored with a high state award and the "Pioneer Award" of the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Impact of saturn ring particles on pioneer 11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humes, D H; O'neal, R L; Kinard, W H; Alvarez, J M

    1980-01-25

    The particle flux measured by the meteoroid detectors on Pioneer 11 increased greatly while the spacecraft was near the rings of Saturn. The data suggest that the particles were associated with the rings and were not interplanetary meteoroids concentrated near the planet by gravitational focusing. The data also suggest that the E ring may be 1800 kilometers thick with an optical thickness greater than 10(-8).

  10. Before Franz Boas: Pioneering Women in American Anthropology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Tarducci

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available One consequence of the impact of the feminist movement in anthropological theory and practice was the recovery of the life and work of women who, despite occupying a peripheral site, made significant contributions to the field. In this paper I focus on the trajectories of these pioneers who, in a time of fast socioeconomic changes (last decades or xix Century and the early xx Century and despite they were self taught, were fundamental to the professionalization of anthropology.

  11. Pioneering Objectives and Activities on the Surface of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toups, Larry; Hoffman, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    Human Mars missions have been a topic of sustained interest within NASA, which continues to use its resources to examine many different mission objectives, trajectories, vehicles, and technologies, the combinations of which are often referred to as reference missions or architectures. The current investigative effort, known as the Evolvable Mars Campaign (EMC), is examining alternatives that can pioneer an extended human presence on Mars that is Earth independent. These alternatives involve combinations of all the factors just mentioned. This paper is focused on the subset of these factors involved with objectives and activities that take place on the surface of Mars. "Pioneering" is a useful phrase to encapsulate the current approach being used to address this situation - one of its primary definitions is "a person or group that originates or helps open up a new line of thought or activity or a new method or technical development". Thus, in this scenario, NASA would be embarking on a path to "pioneer" a suite of technologies and operations that will result in an Earth independent, extended stay capability for humans on Mars. This paper will describe (a) the concept of operation determined to be best suited for the initial emplacement, (b) the functional capabilities determined to be necessary for this emplacement, with representative examples of systems that could carry out these functional capabilities and one implementation example (i.e., delivery sequence) at a representative landing site, and will (c) discuss possible capabilities and operations during subsequent surface missions.

  12. Women in science 50 fearless pioneers who changed the world

    CERN Document Server

    Ignotofsky, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    A charmingly illustrated and educational book, New York Times best seller Women in Science highlights the contributions of fifty notable women to the fields of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) from the ancient to the modern world. Full of striking, singular art, this fascinating collection also contains infographics about relevant topics such as lab equipment, rates of women currently working in STEM fields, and an illustrated scientific glossary. The trailblazing women profiled include well-known figures like primatologist Jane Goodall, as well as lesser-known pioneers such as Katherine Johnson, the African-American physicist and mathematician who calculated the trajectory of the 1969 Apollo 11 mission to the moon.

  13. Mrs Isabella Elder, LL.D., pioneer and philanthropist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlpine, C J

    1988-04-01

    Mrs Isabella Elder contributed much during her lifetime to further the education of women of all ages and of all levels of attainment. She gifted North Park House to Queen Margaret College in Glasgow as a home in 1884. With her encouragement a medical school for women in Glasgow was opened in Queen Margaret College in 1890. The standard was high and when women were admitted to the Universities in 1892, the first Queen Margaret medical students were able to graduate in 1894. She pioneered a system of teaching home economics in Govan, assisted the development of a district nursing service and built the Elder Cottage Hospital.

  14. Pioneers of the Facultad Ciencias de la Salud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Perafán-Simmonds

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available On December 2, 2017 marks the 100th anniversary of the birth of Julio César Perafán Fajardo, who was one of the pioneering doctors who made possible the foundation of the Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud of the Universidad del Cauca. He died on March 30, 2008, at 90 years of age. This editorial is a recognition of the work of a lifetime of Julio César Perafán, dedicated to the service of his city, its people and health sciences.

  15. FATHI YAKAN THE PIONEER OF ISLAMIC ACTIVISM IN LEBANON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G. Rabil

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the ideology of Fathi Yakan, the pioneer of Sunni Islamism in Lebanon and a principal founder of the Islamist party al-­‐Jama'a al-­‐Islamiya.  It also traces the establishment of  al_Jama'a as the first organized Islamist party in Lebanon.  As Secretary General of al-­‐Jama'a, Fathi Yakan blazed the ideological trail for Islamism's participation in Lebanon's political realm.  Significantly, Yakan's political activism, in much the same vein as that of Druze "Socialist" Kamal Jumblat, was also more about removing Maronite hegemony over the state.

  16. 77 FR 35959 - Atlas Pipeline Mid-Continent WestTex, LLC; Pioneer Natural Resources USA, Inc.; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-15

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Atlas Pipeline Mid-Continent WestTex, LLC; Pioneer Natural Resources...Tex, LLC (Atlas) and Pioneer Natural Resources USA, Inc. (Pioneer), filed in the above referenced..., Pioneer Natural Resources USA, Inc., 5205 North O'Connor Blvd., Suite 200, Irving, TX 75039, by telephone...

  17. Postmitotic specification of Drosophila insulinergic neurons from pioneer neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Miguel-Aliaga

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Insulin and related peptides play important and conserved functions in growth and metabolism. Although Drosophila has proved useful for the genetic analysis of insulin functions, little is known about the transcription factors and cell lineages involved in insulin production. Within the embryonic central nervous system, the MP2 neuroblast divides once to generate a dMP2 neuron that initially functions as a pioneer, guiding the axons of other later-born embryonic neurons. Later during development, dMP2 neurons in anterior segments undergo apoptosis but their posterior counterparts persist. We show here that surviving posterior dMP2 neurons no longer function in axonal scaffolding but differentiate into neuroendocrine cells that express insulin-like peptide 7 (Ilp7 and innervate the hindgut. We find that the postmitotic transition from pioneer to insulin-producing neuron is a multistep process requiring retrograde bone morphogenetic protein (BMP signalling and four transcription factors: Abdominal-B, Hb9, Fork Head, and Dimmed. These five inputs contribute in a partially overlapping manner to combinatorial codes for dMP2 apoptosis, survival, and insulinergic differentiation. Ectopic reconstitution of this code is sufficient to activate Ilp7 expression in other postmitotic neurons. These studies reveal striking similarities between the transcription factors regulating insulin expression in insect neurons and mammalian pancreatic beta-cells.

  18. Competing Environmental Ethics in Cooper’s The Pioneers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabri Mnassar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This essay examines the environmental worthiness of James Fenimore Cooper’s The Pioneers and analyzes the various and competing environmental ethics that Cooper introduces in this novel through his descriptions of the different relationships between humans and the natural world. Among these different environmental ethics are the anthropocentric view of nature, the idea that the natural environment should be valued only for the satisfaction of human needs and interests, and the view that nature has intrinsic value and that it should be valued for its own sake. This essay also examines Cooper’s own preferences and attitudes towards these different environmental ethics. It highlights Cooper’s deep regret and disappointment at the thoughtless destruction of nature, the rapid disappearance of wildlife from the American wilderness and the degradation of the nonhuman natural environment. For these reasons, this essay underlines Cooper’s stature as a pioneer of American literary environmentalism and as an early precursor of the modern Environmental Movement. Keywords: Cooper, nature, environment, anthropocentrism, extrinsic value, intrinsic value

  19. On the possible onset of the Pioneer anomaly

    CERN Document Server

    Feldman, Michael R

    2015-01-01

    We explore the possibility that the observed onset of the Pioneer anomaly after Saturn encounter by Pioneer 11 is not necessarily due to mismodeling of solar radiation pressure but instead reflects a physically relevant characteristic of the anomaly itself. We employ the principles of a recently proposed cosmological model termed "the theory of inertial centers" along with an understanding of the fundamental assumptions taken by the Deep Space Network (DSN) to attempt to model this sudden onset. Due to an ambiguity that arises from the difference in the DSN definition of expected light-time with light-time according to the theory of inertial centers, we are forced to adopt a seemingly arbitrary convention to relate DSN-assumed clock-rates to physical clock-rates for this model. We offer a possible reason for adopting the convention employed in our analysis; however, we remain skeptical. Nevertheless, with this convention, one finds that this theory is able to replicate the previously reported Hubble-like beha...

  20. Nuclear Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Parents/Teachers Resource Links for Students Glossary Nuclear Medicine What is nuclear medicine? What are radioactive tracers? ... funded researchers advancing nuclear medicine? What is nuclear medicine? Nuclear medicine is a medical specialty that uses ...

  1. Pioneering of Schools with International Standard to Respond the Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ipnugraha Ipnugraha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to meet respond the challenges of globalization Indonesia Government held a Pioneering of Schools with International Standard (RSBI. As an international standard schools pilot, these schools prepared gradually through the guidance by government and stakeholders. Within a certain period of four years it is expected that the schools is able to fulfill and meet the criteria of Schools with International Standard (SBI. Actually, in it’s implementation, RSBI faces many challenges, among others, were expensive anda require modern infrastructure, require a qualified teacher, SBI criteria and English implementation in education not yet possessed constitutional base. With RSBI it will form a national school with national education standards that have international quality and its graduates are able to compete internationally

  2. COUNTERING RADICALISATION ACROSS EUROPE – THE PIONEERING ISDEP PROJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozila Kana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The changing landscape of the global terrorism threat coupled with increasing concern about home grown extremism means that the need to tackle the root causes of radicalisation across the European Union has never been greater. The pathway to violent extremism and terrorism is, however, undeniably complex. Frontline practitioners working with those vulnerable to radicalisation need to have the right tools to allow them to recognise, respond to and challenge ideologies and narratives associated with any form of terrorism. A pioneering EU Commission funded project is the first of its kind designed to offer consistency around, and increase awareness of, counter radicalisation specifically for frontline practitioners. Improving Security by Democratic Participation (ISDEP is a two year programme based on the EU Commission’s Prevent strand of the Counter Terrorism Strategy. Training themes focus on helping practitioners to identify the influences and vulnerabilities that shape an individual’s thought processes towards violent extremism.

  3. Pioneers in Pediatric Psychology: Smashing Silos and Breaking Boundaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wertlieb, Donald

    2016-11-01

    As part of the Pioneers in Pediatric Psychology series, this article provides a brief personal account of my career as a pediatric psychologist. Educational and professional experiences often involved confrontations with silos and boundaries set by traditions limiting understanding and impact on children's healthy development. A pedigree in developmental psychology clashed with identity, guild, and loyalty dimensions of clinical psychology. A research emphasis challenged the emergent harmony of the scientist-practitioner models. The medical center and its silos collided with those of arts and sciences academia. Evolving as an applied developmental scientist specializing in pediatric psychology allowed for a gratifying and meaningful career with a range of scientific, pedagogical, and policy contributions. An abiding orientation toward human rights and social justice sustained progress and generativity. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Pioneers in pediatric psychology: integrating nutrition and child development interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Maureen M

    2015-05-01

    As part of the Pioneers in Pediatric Psychology series, this article provides a brief personal account of Maureen Black's career as a pediatric psychologist. It traces the transition of the Society of Pediatric Psychology (SPP) from a section of the Division of Clinical Psychology of the American Psychological Association (APA) to an independent division of APA, which occurred during my presidency of SPP. The article addresses three aspects of pediatric psychology that have been central to my career: pediatric nutritional problems, global child development, and the advancement of children's health and development through policy-related strategies. The article concludes with Lessons Learned and Recommendations for the future of pediatric psychology. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. A tribute to Oscar Buneman -- Pioneer of plasma simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buneman, R.; Barker, R.J. (Air Force Office of Scientific Research, Washington, DC (United States)); Peratt, A.L. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Brecht, S.H. (Berkeley Research Associates, Inc., CA (United States)); Langdon, A.B. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States). X-Division); Lewis, H.R. (Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy)

    1994-02-01

    Highlights are presented from among the many contributions made by Oscar Buneman to the science, engineering, and mathematics communities. Emphasis is placed not only on ''what'' this pioneer of computational plasma physics contributed but, of equal importance, on ''how'' he made his contributions. Therein lies the difference between technical competence and scientific greatness. The picture which emerges illustrates the open-mindedness, enthusiasm, intellectual/physical stamina, imagination, intellectual integrity, interdisciplinary curiosity, and deep humanity that made this individual unique. As a gentleman and a scholar, he had mastered the art of making cold technical facts ''come to life.'' Oscar Buneman died peacefully at his home near Stanford University on Sunday, January 24th, 1993. The profound influence he has had on many of his colleagues guarantees his immortality.

  6. Frequency synchronization of blue whale calls near Pioneer Seamount.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Michael D; Garfield, Newell; Bland, Roger W

    2010-07-01

    Vocalizations of blue whales were recorded with a cabled hydrophone array at Pioneer Seamount, 50 miles off the California coast. Most calls occurred in repeated sequences of two-call pairs (A, then B). The B call is a frequency-modulated tone highly repeatable in form and pitch. A model of this sound is described which permits detecting very small frequency shifts. B calls are found to be aligned in frequency to about one part in 180. This requires very fine pitch discrimination and control over calling frequency, and suggests that synchronizing to a common frequency pattern carries some adaptive advantage. Some possibilities for acoustic sensing by whales requiring this fine frequency resolution are discussed.

  7. A Pioneer of Italian Sports Pedagogy and Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isidori Emanuele

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The biography we present here in this issue of our journal refers to the story of Italian scholar, educationist, and philosopher, Emanuele Isidori, Vice-Rector for International Relations and Cooperation and head of the Laboratory of General and Sport Pedagogy of the Foro Italico University of Rome in Italy. The biography of Emanuele tells us the story of a pioneer both in sports pedagogy and sports philosophy in his home country of Italy, where the idealist tradition and some prejudices regarding sport and its science seem to have hindered the development process of the two subjects for many years. What emerges from this story is the commitment and strenuous effort of the scholar to develop sports humanities in his country and to help his university and other Italian researchers interested in the scholarly field develop their knowledge through collaboration with the most prestigious European institutions devoted to the study of sport and physical activity.

  8. Propulsion by light: visions of the German pioneer Eugen Saenger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohn, Willy L.

    2005-03-01

    Although the laser was not yet invented Eugen Sanger, one of the most prominent German personalities in the early development of hypersonic flight and rocket technology suggested to use photons for the propulsion of spacecrafts in the fifties. In contrast to current schemes which are mostly aimed at laser induced ablation processes, Eugen Sanger started with the idea of using the radiation pressure itself for propulsion purposes. A review of his pioneering work in that area will be supported by numerous historical documents and personal remembrance showing his effort to promote unconventional ideas. The paper also emphasizes how some of the original concepts are being revisited and partly implemented by using today's laser technology.

  9. Pioneers of laser propulsion: Saenger, Marx, Moeckel, and Kantrowitz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelis, Max M.; Hey, John D.

    2002-09-01

    The strength of empires and civilizations has often depended on novel forms of transportation: the Viking long boat, the Roman road, Iberian galleons, French and British steam ships, Indian trains, the car of the early twentieth century, the plane of the middle and the rocket of late. But Space has now come up against a barrier: the enormous and barely affordable expense of putting things into orbit and the unaffordable energy required to travel to the stars. The recent advent of very energetic lasers may reduce the cost. The pioneering ideas of the mid sixties appear less fanciful. Laser space propulsion is about to become such an important topic that its scientific origin and engineering roots need to be investigated. This is by no means an exhaustive survey. We review here the laser propulsion work of four eminent experts: Eugen Saenger, George Marx, Wolfgang Moeckel and Arthur Kantrowitz.

  10. Pioneer Venus Orbiter Radar Mapper - Design and operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettengill, G. H.; Horwood, D. F.; Keller, C. H.

    1980-01-01

    The Radar Mapper Experiment, carried aboard the Pioneer Venus Orbiter spacecraft, is designed to obtain a near-global picture of the topography, meter-scale surface slopes and reflectivity of Venus. Constraints imposed by the choice of orbit limit radar coverage to a latitude band lying between 74 deg N and 61 deg S completely around the planet. In addition to the altimetry objectives, the experiment seeks an image of the radar scattering properties of the surface at oblique incidence. Sensitivity limits the imaged region to a band around the planet lying between 45 deg N and 10 deg S. Altimetric error is less than 200 m; altimetric surface 'footprint' size varies from about 10 km in diameter at a spacecraft altitude of 200 km, to 50 km at a maximum altitude of 4700 km. Imaging varies from 20 to 40 km, depending on spacecraft altitude.

  11. Thermal net flux measurements on the Pioneer Venus entry probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revercomb, H. E.; Sromovsky, L. A.; Suomi, V. E.; Boese, R. W.

    1985-01-01

    Corrected thermal net (upward minus downward flux) radiation data from four Pioneer Venus probes at latitudes of 4 deg and 60 deg N, and 27 deg and 31 deg S, are presented. Comparisons of these fluxes with radiative transfer calculations were interpreted in terms of cloud properties and the global distribution of water vapor in the lower atmosphere of Venus. The presence of an as yet undetected source of IR opacity is implied by the fluxes in the upper cloud range. It was also shown that beneath the clouds the fluxes at a given altitude increase with latitude, suggesting greater IR cooling below the clouds at high latitudes and a decrease of the water vapor mixing ratios toward the equator.

  12. The Leo Sachs' legacy: a pioneer's journey through hematopoiesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotem, Joseph; Groner, Yoram

    2017-01-01

    Leo Sachs spent almost his entire scientific career in Israel, at the Weizmann Institute of Science, and became a worldwide renowned scientist for his pioneering studies in normal hematopoiesis, its breakdown in leukemia and the suppression of malignancy by inducing differentiation, thereby bypassing genetic defects that give rise to malignancy. The cell culture system he established in the early 1960s for the clonal development of normal hematopoietic cells, made it possible to discover the proteins that regulate the viability, proliferation and differentiation of different blood cell lineages, the molecular basis of normal hematopoiesis and the changes that drive leukemia. His studies established significant general concepts including: a) the value of a multi-gene cytokine network in regulating the viability, number and development of different cell types; b) the existence of alternative pathways that give flexibility to development in both normal and cancer cells; c) the response of some cancer cells to normal regulators of development; d) suppression of myeloid leukemia by inducing differentiation, bypassing malignancy-driving genetic defects; e) identification of chromosomes that control tumor suppression; f) discovering apoptosis as a major mechanism by which WT-p53 suppresses malignancy and g) the ability of hematopoietic cytokines to suppress apoptosis in both normal and leukemic cells. It is gratifying that Leo had the good fortune to witness his pioneering discoveries and ideas move from the basic science stage to effective clinical applications, augmenting normal hematopoiesis in patients with various hematopoietic deficiencies, in patients requiring hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and in the suppression of malignancy by inducing differentiation and apoptosis.

  13. Building the European Research Area in nuclear fission pioneering steps in actinide science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsstroem, Hans

    2004-07-01

    The concept of the European Research Area (ERA) aims at closer development of research policies in Europe and closer networking of research capacities, to reduce fragmentation of research in Europe. The goal is to make European research more effective and competitive. Several approaches are made to create ERA. The European Research Framework Programme is one tool in this context, with the introduction of the new instruments, Integrated Projects, Networks of Excellence and Integrated Infrastructure Initiatives. Actinide science is one area that could benefit from better coordination and more effective use of the research capacities, both human and physical. The European Commission is thus funding a Network of Excellence (ACTINET-6) and an Integrated Project (EUROPART) in this area within the sixth EURATOM Framework Programme. (author)

  14. RQ-2 Pioneer: The Flawed System that Redefined US Unmanned Aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    Periscope.com, “RQ-2 Pioneer,” http://www.militaryperiscope.com/weapons/aircraft/rpv- dron /w0004685.html 28 Ibid. 29 Jane’s Unmanned Aerial...Military Periscope.com, “RQ-2 Pioneer.” http://www.militaryperiscope.com/weapons/aircraft/rpv- dron /w0004685.html Polmar, Norman, The Naval

  15. 77 FR 9225 - Pioneer Transmission, LLC v. Northern Indiana Public Service Company Midwest Independent...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-16

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Pioneer Transmission, LLC v. Northern Indiana Public Service Company Midwest... (Pioneer) filed a formal complaint against Northern Indiana Public Service Company (NIPSCO) and Midwest... available for review in the Commission's Public Reference Room in Washington, DC. There is an ``e...

  16. Dubai: A Pioneer Smart City in the Arabian Territory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtudes, Ana; Abbara, Arwa; Sá, João

    2017-10-01

    Nowadays, one of the main issues that the cities are facing is related with how they are dealing with the challenges toward smartness, including infrastructures, economic, social and environmental aspects. In this sense, some of the current challenges on the global scale, trying to find solutions regarding urban societies, are based on the concept of “smart city”. Therefore, is clear that new ideas regarding the cities improvements, which are on the top of global agenda, could be found at the concept of “smart city”. As the literature reveals, this is a topic reason among the researchers, which is in a continuous development, in particular regarding societies, countries or regions where it is emerging, such as in the Arabian territories. Dubai, a city in the United Arab Emirates, is an example where in a short period of time, after the oil discovery in the decade of 1970, one small and badly known urban settlement became a pioneer reference in terms of smart cities requirements. Thus, this article presents background information about smart cities, their assets and key pillars, their smart infrastructures and features in cultural, social and environmental terms. The main goals are based on a theoretical approach, developed in order to get more details about smart cities, regarding the features of the Arabian territories. It argues around the case of Dubai, as a pioneer smart city in the Arab world. Among of the main conclusions, there is the idea that the urban transformation process in contemporary societies to secure the smartness, should apply to the use of ICT / information and communication technologies. This use will increase the efficiency concerns to the natural resources, and provide a high quality of life for citizens. The example of Dubai has shown that the decision-makers have built each sector and part of the city in a solid performance, in order to achieve the smart sustainability concept. This city is nowadays a reference on this matter, not

  17. Oxidant-antioxidant balance and tolerance against oxidative stress in pioneer and non-pioneer tree species from the remaining Atlantic Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Marisia Pannia; Nakazato, Ricardo Keiichi; Pedroso, Andrea Nunes Vaz; Lima, Marcos Enoque Leite; Figueiredo, Maurílio Assis; Diniz, Adriana Pedrosa; Kozovits, Alessandra Rodrigues; Domingos, Marisa

    2017-12-28

    The extensive land occupation in Southeast Brazil has resulted in climatic disturbances and environmental contamination by air pollutants, threatening the Atlantic forest remnants that still exist in that region. Based on previous results, we assumed that pioneer tree species are potentially more tolerant against environmental oxidative stress than non-pioneer tree species from that Brazilian biome. We also assumed that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are accumulated in higher proportions in leaves of non-pioneer trees, resulting in changes in the oxidant-antioxidant balance and in more severe oxidative damage at the cellular level than in the leaves of pioneer trees. We tested these hypotheses by establishing the relationship between oxidants (ROS), changes in key antioxidants (among enzymatic and non-enzymatic compounds) and in a lipid peroxidation derivative in their leaves, as well as between ROS accumulation and oscillations in environmental stressors, thus permitting to discuss comparatively for the first time the oxidant-antioxidant balance and the tolerance capacity of tree species of the Atlantic Forest in SE Brazil. We confirmed that the non-pioneer tree species accumulated higher amounts of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide in palisade parenchyma and epidermis, showing a less effective antioxidant metabolism than the pioneer species. However, the non-pioneer species showed differing capacities to compensate the oxidative stress in both years of study, which appeared to be associated with the level of ROS accumulation, which was evidently higher in 2015 than in 2016. We also applied exploratory multivariate statistics, which revealed that the oscillations in these biochemical leaf responses in both functional groups coincided with the oscillations in both climatic conditions and air pollutants, seemingly showing that they had acclimated to the stressful oxidative environment observed and may perpetuate in the disturbed forest remnants located in SE Brazil

  18. The teacher training process through distance education: a pioneer experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Massaru Fujita

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents briefly the actions conducted in the formation process and established partnerships to achieve the pioneering educational process of Distance Education (DE courses of the State University of Londrina (UEL-PR. The methodological design was developed according to the Qualitative Approach of Action-Research type that prioritizes the development and analysis of the process along with the "meaning" that people give to things and your life than actually the product itself. The data collected through questionnaires at the end of the course signal impressions (positive and constructive criticism we received and the meanings experienced teacher students (testimonials, chats, discussion forums, projects in the courses offered. The experience lived in these three courses: Virtual Learning Environment (60 hours; Tutoring in distance education (60 hours and Teaching Materials in Distance Education (60 hours, from its conception to its actual conclusion, make us think that we are on the right way and by TDIC, new horizons may open up to the institution in short- and medium-term.

  19. Erich Frank (1884-1957): unsung pioneer in nephrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sever, Mehmet Sukru; Namal, Arin; Eknoyan, Garabed

    2011-10-01

    The period between the 2 World Wars was a time of budding interest in renal studies and one that closed in major geopolitical unrest, culminating in World War II. The life of Erich Frank (1884-1957) and his contributions to chronic kidney disease provide considerable insight into this period. Frank began his career in Breslau, Germany. His medical thesis and first publication were on the benign nature of orthostatic proteinuria. He went on to define and differentiate essential from renal hypertension, presented evidence for the role of the posterior pituitary in diabetes insipidus, and studied the first oral hypoglycemic agent. As all clinical scientists then, Frank also contributed to other fields of medicine. When Germany turned to Nazism, Frank moved to Turkey, where he was appointed co-chair of the Department of Medicine of the newly established Istanbul University. For the next 23 years, he trained a new generation of modern physicians and laid the foundation of several medical disciplines in Turkey. As author of the first Turkish textbook of nephrology and a teacher who inspired his students, some of whom went on to become the first generation of Turkish nephrologists, Frank was a pioneer in nephrology who helped establish the discipline in his adopted country. Copyright © 2011 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Pioneering Ekofisk system to inject gas at 9200 psi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1974-02-01

    A schematic shows various steps to Ekofisk gas injection. Phillips Petroleum Co. will have in operation late this year or early in 1975 a pioneering type high pressure gas injection system at its North Sea Ekofisk field complex designed to inject up to 500 MMcfd at 9,200 psi. The system will enable Phillips to conserve gas and maintain reservoir pressure in production of Ekofisk crude. Constructed by the packaged compressor division of Dresser Industries, the complete high pressure system, including compressor trains, heat exchangers, injection manifold and headers, and control equipment was built on barges at Dresser's Houston, Texas, facility. The complete system has been installed at 4 Ekofisk platforms, FTP and C after it was towed from Texas to the North Sea. Physical layout of the high pressure system is in 3 sections: a center section contains heat exchangers and control apparatus, and on either side identical compressor trains. All compression equipment, 6 units totalling 110,000 hp, are driven by gas turbines. Discharge pressure of the 2 reinjection compressors, 9,200 psig, represents a record high for centrifugal compressors.

  1. Steven J. Ostro: Pioneer in Asteroid Lightcurve Inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Alan W.

    2009-09-01

    In 1906, Henry Norris Russell wrote a landmark paper (Astrophys. J. 24, 1-18, 1906) that set the field of lightcurve inversion back by more than three quarters of a century, until Steve Ostro and Robert Connolly published a paper on "convex profile inversion” (Icarus 57, 443-463, 1984). Russell's stifling contribution was innocent enough, and entirely correct: he showed that with "two cans of paint", one can decorate any arbitrarily shaped body in an infinite number of ways to yield any particular lightcurve, even, for example, a cigar shape that is brightest viewed end-on. This sufficed to discourage serious mathematical attack on the problem until Ostro & Connolly's landmark paper of 1984. They showed that if you have only "one can of paint", that is, in the absence of albedo variegation, the problem is tractable and one can make remarkable progress in lightcurve inversion to obtain shapes, or at least the "convex profile” of the real shape. As we now know, nature appears to have only one can of paint (per asteroid), that is, asteroids seem to paint themselves grey so that the uniform reflectivity assumption is quite excellent. Both radar and optical lightcurve inversion techniques are now quite mature, thanks to Steve's pioneering insights.

  2. Ondrej Krivanek: A pioneering visionary in electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovejoy, Tracy; Rez, Peter; Dellby, Niklas

    2017-09-01

    This article is a short biographical sketch of the life and times of Ondrej Krivanek. The story starts with his early days in Prague, Czechia, and briefly outlines various events from a PhD in Cambridge to post-docs in Kyoto, Bell Labs, and building his first spectrometer at UC Berkeley. Ondrej's pioneering contributions to electron microscopy as Assistant Professor at Arizona State University and later as Director of R&D at Gatan are covered, as well as his return to academia and focusing on aberration correction. The story wraps up with the founding of Nion, the early success of the Nion aberration correctors, and subsequent progress such as building a complete cutting-edge electron microscope and later a record-breaking monochromator. Ondrej continues to be actively involved in design and in running Nion, and while this article ends at the present, further breakthroughs can be expected from him. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The pioneers of clinical neurology in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegri, Ricardo Francisco

    2008-08-15

    The field of neurology in South America (SA) began to emerge towards the end of the nineteenth century, following the origin of the specialty in Europe. There was a consistent and long-standing admiration for European training, which led to the birth of the discipline in South America. The first steps took place almost simultaneously with European countries in Argentina, Brazil, Uruguay, Chile and Peru. This paper will unearth information on the pioneers of clinical neurology in SA. Taken together, these sources reveal several important milestones in the long history of the field. The department of Neurology at the Hospital San Roque de Buenos Aires was created in 1885 and headed by José María Ramos Mejía, who then took over as Professor of Neurology at the University of Buenos Aires School of Medicine in 1887. The first institute of neurology in Latin America, the Instituto Neurológico de Montevideo, was founded in 1926 under Américo Ricaldoni's direction. Seventeen years later, the Arquivos de Neuropsiquiatria from San Pablo was created, and is still in existence. Up until the present, South America has made dozens of important research contributions, the most important in the diagnosis and treatment of regional endemic diseases.

  4. An historical perspective on the pioneering experiments of John Saunders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tickle, Cheryll

    2017-09-15

    John Saunders was a highly skilled embryologist who pioneered the study of limb development. His studies on chick embryos provided the fundamental framework for understanding how vertebrate limbs develop. This framework inspired generations of scientists and formed the bridge from experimental embryology to molecular mechanisms. Saunders investigated how feathers become organized into tracts in the skin of the chick wing and also identified regions of programmed cell death. He discovered that a region of thickened ectoderm that rims the chick wing bud - the apical ectodermal ridge - is required for outgrowth and the laying down of structures along the proximo-distal axis (long axis) of the wing, identified the zone of polarizing activity (ZPA; polarizing region) that controls development across the anteroposterior axis ("thumb to little finger "axis) and contributed to uncovering the importance of the ectoderm in development of structures along the dorso-ventral axis ( "back of hand to palm" axis). This review looks in depth at some of his original papers and traces how he made the crucial findings about how limbs develop, considering these findings both in the context of contemporary knowledge at the time and also in terms of their immediate impact on the field. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Darwin and Mendel: who was the pioneer of genetics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongsheng

    2005-01-01

    Although Mendel is now widely recognized as the founder of genetics, historical studies have shown that he did not in fact propose the modern concept of paired characters linked to genes, nor did he formulate the two "Mendelian laws" in the form now given. Furthermore, Mendel was accused of falsifying his data, and Mendelism has been met with scepticism because of its failure to provide scientific explanation for evolution, to furnish a basis for the process of genetic assimilation and to explain the inheritance of acquired characters, graft hybridization and many other facts. Darwin was the first to clearly describe almost all genetical phenomena of fundamental importance, and was the first to present a developmental theory of heredity--Pangenesis, which not only greatly influenced many subsequent theories of inheritance, particularly those of de Vries, Galton, Brooks and Weismann, but also tied all aspects of variation, heredity and development together, provided a mechanism for most of the observable facts, and is supported by increasing evidence. It has also been indicated that Darwin's influence on Mendel, primarily from The Origin, is evident. The word "gene" was derived from "pangen", itself a derivative of "Pangenesis" which Darwin had coined. It seems that Darwin should have been regarded as the pioneer, if not of transmissional genetics, of developmental genetics and molecular genetics.

  6. Hermann Karsten, pioneer of geologic mapping in northwestern South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalto, K. R.

    2015-06-01

    In the late 19th century, a regional map of Nueva Granada (present-day Colombia, Panama and parts of Venezuela and Ecuador) was published by German botanist and geologist Hermann Karsten (1817-1908). Karsten's work was incorporated by Agustín Codazzi (1793-1859), an Italian who emigrated to Venezuela and Colombia to serve as a government cartographer and geographer, in his popular Atlas geográfico e histórico de la Republica de Colombia (1889). Geologic mapping and most observations provided in this 1889 atlas were taken from Karsten's Géologie de l'ancienne Colombie bolivarienne: Vénézuela, Nouvelle-Grenade et Ecuador (1886), as cited by Manual Paz and/or Felipe Pérez, who edited this edition of the atlas. Karsten defined four epochs in Earth history: Primera - without life - primary crystalline rocks, Segunda - with only marine life - chiefly sedimentary rocks, Tercera - with terrestrial quadrupeds and fresh water life forms life - chiefly sedimentary rocks, and Cuarta - mankind appears, includes diluvial (glacigenic) and post-diluvial terranes. He noted that Colombia is composed of chiefly of Quaternary, Tertiary and Cretaceous plutonic, volcanic and sedimentary rocks, and that Earth's internal heat (calor central) accounted, by escape of inner gases, for volcanism, seismicity and uplift of mountains. Karsten's regional mapping and interpretation thus constitutes the primary source and ultimate pioneering geologic research.

  7. 77 FR 39696 - Atlas Pipeline Mid-Continent WestTex, LLC; Pioneer Natural Resources USA, Inc.; Notice of Intent...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-05

    ...-000] Atlas Pipeline Mid-Continent WestTex, LLC; Pioneer Natural Resources USA, Inc.; Notice of Intent... Driver Residue Pipeline Project involving construction and operation of facilities by Atlas Pipeline Mid-Continent WestTex, LLC and Pioneer Natural Resources USA, Inc. (Atlas and Pioneer), as joint applicants, in...

  8. 78 FR 13312 - Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Availability of Petition, Plant Pest Risk Assessment, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Availability of Petition... Plant Health Inspection Service has received a petition from Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc... has received a petition (APHIS Petition Number 11-244-01p) from Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc...

  9. Computational nuclear quantum many-body problem: The UNEDF project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogner, S.; Bulgac, A.; Carlson, J.; Engel, J.; Fann, G.; Furnstahl, R. J.; Gandolfi, S.; Hagen, G.; Horoi, M.; Johnson, C.; Kortelainen, M.; Lusk, E.; Maris, P.; Nam, H.; Navratil, P.; Nazarewicz, W.; Ng, E.; Nobre, G. P. A.; Ormand, E.; Papenbrock, T.; Pei, J.; Pieper, S. C.; Quaglioni, S.; Roche, K. J.; Sarich, J.; Schunck, N.; Sosonkina, M.; Terasaki, J.; Thompson, I.; Vary, J. P.; Wild, S. M.

    2013-10-01

    The UNEDF project was a large-scale collaborative effort that applied high-performance computing to the nuclear quantum many-body problem. The primary focus of the project was on constructing, validating, and applying an optimized nuclear energy density functional, which entailed a wide range of pioneering developments in microscopic nuclear structure and reactions, algorithms, high-performance computing, and uncertainty quantification. UNEDF demonstrated that close associations among nuclear physicists, mathematicians, and computer scientists can lead to novel physics outcomes built on algorithmic innovations and computational developments. This review showcases a wide range of UNEDF science results to illustrate this interplay.

  10. Duchenne De Boulogne: a pioneer in neurology and medical photography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, André

    2005-08-01

    Guillaume-Benjamin-Amand Duchenne was born 200 years ago in Boulogne-sur-Mer (Pas-de-Calais, France). He studied medicine in Paris and became a physician in 1831. He practiced general medicine in his native town for about 11 years and then returned to Paris to initiate pioneering studies on electrical stimulation of muscles. Duchenne used electricity not only as a therapeutic agent, as it was commonly the case earlier in the 19th century, but chiefly as a physiological investigation tool to study the anatomy of the living body. Without formal appointment he visited hospital wards across Paris searching for rare cases of neuromuscular disorders. He built a portable electrical device that he used to functionally map all bodily muscles and to study their coordinating action in health and disease. He gave accurate descriptions of many neuromuscular disorders, including pseudohypertrophic muscular dystrophy to which his name is still attached (Duchenne muscular dystrophy). He also invented a needle system (Duchenne's histological harpoon) for percutaneous sampling of muscular tissue without anesthesia, a forerunner of today's biopsy. Duchenne summarized his work in two major treatises entitled De l'électrisation localisée (1855) and Physiologie des mouvements (1867). Duchenne's iconographic work stands at the crossroads of three major discoveries of the 19th century: electricity, physiology and photography. This is best exemplified by his investigation of the mechanisms of human physiognomy in which he used localized faradic stimulation to reproduce various forms of human facial expression. The album that complements his book on this issue is considered a true incunabulum of photography. Duchenne de Boulogne, a shy but hard-working, acute and ingenious observer, became one of most original clinicians of the 19th century. He died in Paris in 1875.

  11. [Otto Ulmgren--a distinguished pioneer in oral surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordenram, Ake

    2006-01-01

    Otto Ulmgren (1844-1932) was graduated in 1874 as medical doctor. During sex months in 1875-76 he studied the diseases of teeth, mouth and neck at "Erste Wiener Zahntechnische Schule" in Wien. Then he auscultated at some prominent dental practitionars in Berlin. After that he practised further as dental surgeon in Stockholm. He was strongly engaged to improve dental education and contributed actively for starting the School of Dentistry in Stockholm in 1898. He appointed director of the school and chief of the Department of oral surgery. Otto Ulmgren's doctor's thesis was "Ofversigt af tandläkarekonstens historia" (Survey of the History of Dentistry) in 1877. He also published about 60 scientific articles especially dealing with dental education and oral surgery. Otto Ulmgren was one of the founders of Odontologiska Sällskapet i Stockholm (Dental Society in Stockholm) in 1901 and was its president during the period 1901-21. He was also one of the founders of Sveriges Tandläkareförbund (Dental Association of Sweden) in 1908. He was honorary member of many dental associations. Otto Ulmgren was regarded as a man of principle, an eminent teacher, a skilful clinician and scientist and a strong pioneer of dentistry, particularly in oral surgery. In leisure hours Otto Ulmgren devoted himself to singing and he was a member of the famous men's choir "Orphei drängar". He was also very interested in hunting and had a kennel with hunting dogs. He was appointed honorary member of the Swedish Kennel Club.

  12. Sophus Peter Tromholt: an outstanding pioneer in auroral research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, K.; Stauning, P.

    2012-03-01

    The Danish school teacher Sophus Peter Tromholt (1851-1896) was self-taught in physics, astronomy, and auroral sciences. Still, he was one of the brightest auroral researchers of the 19th century. He was the first scientist ever to organize and analyse correlated auroral observations over a wide area (entire Scandinavia) moving away from incomplete localized observations. Tromholt documented the relation between auroras and sunspots and demonstrated the daily, seasonal and solar cycle-related variations in high-latitude auroral occurrence frequencies. Thus, Tromholt was the first ever to deduce from auroral observations the variations associated with what is now known as the auroral oval termed so by Khorosheva (1962) and Feldstein (1963) more than 80 yr later. He made reliable and accurate estimates of the heights of auroras several decades before this important issue was finally settled through Størmer's brilliant photographic technique. In addition to his three major scientific works (Tromholt, 1880a, 1882a, and 1885a), he wrote numerous short science notes and made huge efforts to collect historical auroral observations (Tromholt, 1898). Furthermore, Tromholt wrote a large number of popular science articles in newspapers and journals and made lecture tours all over Scandinavia and Germany, contributing to enhance the public educational level and awareness. He devoted most of his life to auroral research but as a self-taught scientist, he received little acclaim within the contemporary academic scientific society. With his non-academic background, trained at a college of education - not a university - he was never offered a position at a university or a research institution. However, Sophus Tromholt was an outstanding pioneer in auroral research.

  13. Notes on Pioneer Anomaly Explanation by Sattellite-Shift Formula of Quaternion Relativity: Remarks on "Less Mundane Explanation of Pioneer Anomaly from Q-Relativity"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yefremov A.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Use of satellite shift formula emerging in Quaternion (Q- model of relativity theory for explanation of Pioneer anomaly [1] is critically discussed. A cinematic scheme more suitable for the case is constructed with the help of Q-model methods. An appropriate formula for apparent deceleration resulting from existence of observer- object relative velocity is derived. Preliminary quantitative assessments made on the base of Pioneer 10/11 data demonstrate closure of the assumed “relativistic deceleration” and observed “Doppler deceleration” values.

  14. Understanding the joint effects of Cognitive Distance and Competition on Pioneering Innovations through the Dynamics between Suppliers and Competitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Ying; Salomo, Søren

    2010-01-01

    types. The inquiry on the relationship between competition and innovation will be relevant and meaningful only when the content of competition and the type of innovation activities are specified. In this study, competition is specified as the number of competitors, and pioneering innovation is defined...... between cognitive distance and pioneering innovations, and a negative effect of competition on pioneering innovations. It also suggests that the relationship between cognitive distance and pioneering innovations is negatively moderated by competition. These findings and the research design in this study...... advance our understanding why and how firms take potential external learning opportunities to undertake pioneering innovations under various levels of competitive pressure....

  15. CRED 20 m Gridded bathymetry of Pioneer Bank, Hawaii, USA (Arc ASCII format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry of the shelf and slope environments of Pioneer Bank, Hawaii, USA. Bottom coverage was achieved in depths between 20 and 1000 meters. The ASCII...

  16. 76 FR 33306 - Medicare Program; Pioneer Accountable Care Organization Model, Request for Applications; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    ... and Medicaid Innovation (CMMI) Web site and in the Pioneer ACO Application. (For more information see... Request for Application posted on the CMMI Web site, which is postmarked on or before July 18, 2011. III...

  17. San Francisco's Pioneer Mother Monument: maternalism, racial order, and the politics of memorialization, 1907–1915.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frink, Brenda D

    2012-01-01

    The 1907–1915 campaign to create San Francisco's Pioneer Mother Monument provides both a case study of conservative uses of maternalism and a window into the political mutability of maternalist rhetoric. Ella Sterling Mighels, a pioneer descendant, utilized the monument campaign to promote white women's moral influence over middle-class men, to argue against Asian immigration and labor unrest, and to inculcate old-fashioned moral values among urban children. Although some of Mighels's contemporaries cited pioneer mothers as proof of women's fitness for suffrage, Mighels herself used the pioneer mother to argue against suffrage. The final statue, created by the sculptor Charles Grafly, failed to encapsulate Mighels's multivalent political message and to express her ideals about gender, race, class, and morality.

  18. Brand Evaluation and Consumers' Preference towards Pioneer and Follower Brands: Empirical Study on Dairy Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SP Syahlani

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The aims of this research were to identify brand recall as well as to analyze consumers’ attitude and consumers’ preference toward pioneer and follower brands on processed dairy product. One hundred and fifty housewives were engaged as respondents in this research. The techniques used in the data analysis were non parametric two related sample test, one sample t-test and independent sample t-test. The result indicated that each of the product category, the percentage of the pioneer brand preference was higher than follower brand, namely Ultra Milk (87.30%, Yakult (94.70%, Anlene (93.30% and Kraft (98.70%. The result showed that from 150 respondents were able to correctly recall Ultra Milk (66.70%, Yakult (86.70%, Anlene (82.70% and Kraft (96.00% as the pioneer brand on each product category. Furthermore, the results showed that the average consumer attitudes were higher toward the pioneer brands than the follower brands. The result also indicated that consumers preferred pioneer brands than follower brands for the same flavour, quality and price. The result led to conclusion that consumers retrieved or recalled pioneer brands more correctly than follower brands. Moreover, consumers had a more favourable attitude to pioneer brands than to follower brands, in which consumers preferred to purchase the pioneer brands products to those of the follower brands concerning the farm-manufactured products of UHT milk, pro-biotic milk, high-calcium milk and cheese. Key Words: brand retrieval, brand recall, attitudes, preference

  19. Catalytic-Independent Functions of PARP-1 Determine Sox2 Pioneer Activity at Intractable Genomic Loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ziying; Kraus, W Lee

    2017-02-16

    Pioneer transcription factors (TFs) function as genomic first responders, binding to inaccessible regions of chromatin to promote enhancer formation. The mechanism by which pioneer TFs gain access to chromatin remains an important unanswered question. Here we show that PARP-1, a nucleosome-binding protein, cooperates with intrinsic properties of the pioneer TF Sox2 to facilitate its binding to intractable genomic loci in embryonic stem cells. These actions of PARP-1 occur independently of its poly(ADP-ribosyl) transferase activity. PARP-1-dependent Sox2-binding sites reside in euchromatic regions of the genome with relatively high nucleosome occupancy and low co-occupancy by other transcription factors. PARP-1 stabilizes Sox2 binding to nucleosomes at suboptimal sites through cooperative interactions on DNA. Our results define intrinsic and extrinsic features that determine Sox2 pioneer activity. The conditional pioneer activity observed with Sox2 at a subset of binding sites may be a key feature of other pioneer TFs operating at intractable genomic loci. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The United States Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program - Over 151 Million Miles Safely Steamed on Nuclear Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2015-03-01

    NNSA’s third mission pillar is supporting the U.S. Navy’s ability to protect and defend American interests across the globe. The Naval Reactors Program remains at the forefront of technological developments in naval nuclear propulsion and ensures a commanding edge in warfighting capabilities by advancing new technologies and improvements in naval reactor performance and reliability. In 2015, the Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program pioneered advances in nuclear reactor and warship design – such as increasing reactor lifetimes, improving submarine operational effectiveness, and reducing propulsion plant crewing. The Naval Reactors Program continued its record of operational excellence by providing the technical expertise required to resolve emergent issues in the Nation’s nuclear-powered fleet, enabling the Fleet to safely steam more than two million miles. Naval Reactors safely maintains, operates, and oversees the reactors on the Navy’s 82 nuclear-powered warships, constituting more than 45 percent of the Navy’s major combatants.

  1. Underground nuclear astrophysics: why and how

    CERN Document Server

    Best, A; Fülöp, Zs; Gyürky, Gy; Laubenstein, M; Napolitani, E; Rigato, V; Roca, V; Szücs, T

    2016-01-01

    The goal of nuclear astrophysics is to measure cross sections of nuclear physics reactions of interest in astrophysics. At stars temperatures, these cross sections are very low due to the suppression of the Coulomb barrier. Cosmic ray induced background can seriously limit the determination of reaction cross sections at energies relevant to astrophysical processes and experimental setups should be arranged in order to improve the signal-to-noise ratio. Placing experiments in underground sites, however, reduces this background opening the way towards ultra low cross section determination. LUNA (Laboratory for Underground Nuclear Astrophysics) was pioneer in this sense. Two accelerators were mounted at the INFN National Laboratories of Gran Sasso (LNGS) allowing to study nuclear reactions close to stellar energies. A summary of the relevant technology used, including accelerators, target production and characterisation, and background treatment is given.

  2. Interspecific variation in vitamin E levels and the extent of lipid peroxidation in pioneer and non-pioneer species used in tropical forest restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contin, Daniele R; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2016-09-01

    Reforestation projects have gained interest over recent years due to the loss of biodiversity in tropical regions as a result of large deforestation by anthropogenic actions. However, better knowledge on the tolerance of plant species to environmental stresses is needed for reforestation success. Here, we evaluated the photoprotective and antioxidant capacity, in terms of vitamin E accumulation, of five pioneer (Platypodium elegans Vogel, Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, Lafoensia pacari A. St.-Hil, Cecropia pachystachya Trécul. and Aegiphila sellowiana Cham.) and five non-pioneer (Myracrodruon urundeuva Allemão, Cedrela fissilis Vell., Genipa americana L., Copaifera langsdorffii Desf. and Hymenaea courbaril L.) species, in relation to the extent of lipid peroxidation in leaves. Furthermore, we examined differences between sun and shade leaves on vitamin E accumulation and the extent of lipid peroxidation. Pioneer plants showed on average 33% higher malondialdehyde levels, an indicator of lipid peroxidation, than non-pioneer species, but no significant differences in vitamin E contents. In contrast, a marked interspecific variation was observed in the levels of α-tocopherol and its precursor, γ-tocopherol. Natural variation revealed interesting relationships between vitamin E levels and the extent of lipid peroxidation in leaves. The pioneer species, P. elegans, did not accumulate α-tocopherol and displayed the highest levels of malondialdehyde. Sun and shade leaves accumulated vitamin E levels to a similar extent, except for the pioneer L. pacari and the non-pioneer C. langsdorffii, the former accumulating more α-tocopherol in sun leaves and the latter in shade leaves. We conclude that interspecific variation is higher than both leaf type and successional-group variation in terms of vitamin E accumulation and the extent of lipid peroxidation, and that vitamin E levels, particularly those of α-tocopherol, negatively correlate with the extent of lipid

  3. Men of physics pioneer in solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, V A

    2013-01-01

    Men of Physics: Karl Lark-Horovitz presents the biography of Karl Lark-Horovitz, a physicist who significantly contributed in the then-young field of experimental nuclear physics. This book discusses the Lark-Horovitz important work in structure determination by X-ray and electron diffraction methods. Organized into two parts encompassing 19 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the biographical account of Karl Lark-Horovitz. This text then describes Lark-Horovitz's creation of a highly regarded graduate program in physics at Purdue University, which is a feat involving both the acqui

  4. The changing roles of registered nurses in Pioneer Accountable Care Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittman, Patricia; Forrest, Emily

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on whether and how Pioneer Accountable Care Organization (ACO) leaders believe the deployment of the registered nurse workforce is changing in response to the shared savings incentives. Semistructured phone interviews with leaders from 18 of the original 32 Pioneer ACOs were conducted. Narrative analysis suggests that all of the organizations are developing new and enhanced roles for registered nurses across the continuum of care. Overall, eight types of changes were reported: enhancement of roles, substitution, delegation, increased numbers of nurses, relocation of services, transfer of nurses from one setting to another, the use of liaison nurses across settings, and partnerships between nurses coordinating care in primary and acute care settings. This exploratory study suggests that Pioneer ACO leaders believe that payment models are affecting the deployment of the health workforce and that these changes are, in turn, driving outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Nuclear Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Provides a brief review of the latest developments in nuclear chemistry. Nuclear research today is directed toward increased activity in radiopharmaceuticals and formation of new isotopes by high-energy, heavy-ion collisions. (Author/BB)

  6. Nuclear Scans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuclear scans use radioactive substances to see structures and functions inside your body. They use a special ... images. Most scans take 20 to 45 minutes. Nuclear scans can help doctors diagnose many conditions, including ...

  7. The pioneer cohort of curriculum reform: Guinea pigs or trail-blazers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McLean Michelle

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract With curriculum reform, whether we admit it or not, the first cohort of students will be 'test-driving' the new programme. Not only are they the pioneers of a new curriculum, but as they progress through their studies, they experience each year of the innovation for the first time. As curriculum designers, we learn from their experiences and their feedback to improve the programme content and delivery, invariably for subsequent cohorts. A considerable onus therefore rests with this pioneer group, and their contribution to curriculum design, evaluation and programme revision should be valued.

  8. Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome: the 60th anniversary of Eaton and Lambert's pioneering article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzoni, Paulo José; Kay, Cláudia Suemi Kamoi; Werneck, Lineu Cesar; Scola, Rosana Herminia

    2018-02-01

    This historical review describes the contribution of Drs. Lee M. Eaton and Edward H. Lambert to the diagnosis of myasthenic syndrome on the 60th anniversary of their pioneering article (JAMA 1957) on the disease. There are important landmarks in their article on a disorder of the neuromuscular junction associated with thoracic neoplasm and the electrophysiological criteria for Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS). After 60 years, the main electrophysiological criteria described in Eaton and Lambert's pioneering article are still currently useful in the diagnosis of LEMS.

  9. A question of strategy: To be a pioneer or a follower?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaličanin Đorđe

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important questions faced by business leaders in the strategic management process is a choice of timing to launch new product/technologies and enter new markets. There are two options: to be a pioneer or to be a follower. Both have advantages and risks. Pioneers often have higher profitability, greater market share, and a longer business life, but the relative success of each strategy depends on several factors, both internal and external (pace of evolution of technology and markets.

  10. Sliding-mode adaptive control of Pioneer 3-DX wheeled mobile robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian FILIPESCU

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Parameter identification scheme and discrete-time adaptive sliding-mode controller applied to Pioneer 3-DX wheeled mobile robot (WMR are presented in this paper. The dynamical model for mobile robot with one pair of active wheels, time–varying mass and moment of inertia have been used in sliding-mode control. Two closed-loop, on-line parameter estimators have been used in order to achieve robustness against parameter uncertainties (robot mass and moment of inertia. Two sliding-mode adaptive controllers corresponding to angular and position motion have been designed. Closed-loop circular trajectory tracking Pioneer 3-DX real-time control is presented.

  11. Nuclear weapons, nuclear effects, nuclear war

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bing, G.F.

    1991-08-20

    This paper provides a brief and mostly non-technical description of the militarily important features of nuclear weapons, of the physical phenomena associated with individual explosions, and of the expected or possible results of the use of many weapons in a nuclear war. Most emphasis is on the effects of so-called ``strategic exchanges.``

  12. Maverick genius the pioneering odyssey of Freeman Dyson

    CERN Document Server

    Schewe, Phillip F

    2013-01-01

    Scientist. Innovator. Rebel. For decades, Freeman Dyson has been regarded as one of the world’s most important thinkers. The Atlantic wrote, “In the range of his genius, Freeman Dyson is heir to Einstein – a visionary who has reshaped thinking in fields from math to astrophysics to medicine, and who has conceived nuclear-propelled spaceships designed to transport human colonists to distance planets.” Salon.com says that, “what sets Dyson apart among an elite group of scientists is the conscience and compassion he brings to his work.” Now, in this first complete biography of Dyson, author Phillip F. Schewe examines the life of a man whose accomplishments have shaped our world in many ways. From quantum physics to national defense, from space to biotechnology, Dyson’s work has cemented his position as a man whose influence goes far beyond the field of theoretical physics. It even won him the million dollar Templeton prize for his writing about science and religion. Recently, Dyson has made head...

  13. Tracing the first steps of American sturgeon pioneers in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benecke Norbert

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A Baltic population of Atlantic sturgeon was founded ~1,200 years ago by migrants from North America, but after centuries of persistence, the population was extirpated in the 1960s, mainly as a result of over-harvest and habitat alterations. As there are four genetically distinct groups of Atlantic sturgeon inhabiting North American rivers today, we investigated the genetic provenance of the historic Baltic population by ancient DNA analyses using mitochondrial and nuclear markers. Results The phylogeographic signal obtained from multilocus microsatellite DNA genotypes and mitochondrial DNA control region haplotypes, when compared to existing baseline datasets from extant populations, allowed for the identification of the region-of-origin of the North American Atlantic sturgeon founders. Moreover, statistical and simulation analyses of the multilocus genotypes allowed for the calculation of the effective number of individuals that originally founded the European population of Atlantic sturgeon. Our findings suggest that the Baltic population of A. oxyrinchus descended from a relatively small number of founders originating from the northern extent of the species' range in North America. Conclusion These results demonstrate that the most northerly distributed North American A. oxyrinchus colonized the Baltic Sea ~1,200 years ago, suggesting that Canadian specimens should be the primary source of broodstock used for restoration in Baltic rivers. This study illustrates the great potential of patterns obtained from ancient DNA to identify population-of-origin to investigate historic genotype structure of extinct populations.

  14. Tracing the first steps of American sturgeon pioneers in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, A.; Arndt, U.; Lippold, S.; Benecke, N.; Debus, L.; King, T.L.; Matsumura, S.

    2008-01-01

    Background. A Baltic population of Atlantic sturgeon was founded ???1,200 years ago by migrants from North America, but after centuries of persistence, the population was extirpated in the 1960s, mainly as a result of over-harvest and habitat alterations. As there are four genetically distinct groups of Atlantic sturgeon inhabiting North American rivers today, we investigated the genetic provenance of the historic Baltic population by ancient DNA analyses using mitochondrial and nuclear markers. Results. The phylogeographic signal obtained from multilocus microsatellite DNA genotypes and mitochondrial DNA control region haplotypes, when compared to existing baseline datasets from extant populations, allowed for the identification of the region-of-origin of the North American Atlantic sturgeon founders. Moreover, statistical and simulation analyses of the multilocus genotypes allowed for the calculation of the effective number of individuals that originally founded the European population of Atlantic sturgeon. Our findings suggest that the Baltic population of A. oxyrinchus descended from a relatively small number of founders originating from the northern extent of the species' range in North America. Conclusion. These results demonstrate that the most northerly distributed North American A. oxyrinchus colonized the Baltic Sea ???1,200 years ago, suggesting that Canadian specimens should be the primary source of broodstock used for restoration in Baltic rivers. This study illustrates the great potential of patterns obtained from ancient DNA to identify population-of-origin to investigate historic genotype structure of extinct populations. ?? 2008 Ludwig et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  15. JPRS Report, Nuclear Developments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1989-01-01

    Partial Contents: Nuclear Weapons, Nuclear Development, Nuclear Power Plant, Uranium, Missiles, Space Firm Protested, Satellite, Rocket Launching, Nuclear Submarine, Environmental, Radioactivity, Nuclear Plant...

  16. Nuclear and Radiochemistry: the First 100 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedlander, G.; Herrmann, G.

    This chapter gives a brief overview of the development of nuclear and radiochemistry from Mme. Curie's chemical isolation of radium toward the end of the twentieth century. The first four sections deal with fairly distinct time periods: (1) the pioneering years when the only radioactive materials available were the naturally occurring ones; (2) the decade of rapid growth and expansion of both the fundamental science and its applications following the discoveries of the neutron and artificial radioactivity; (3) the World War II period characterized by the intense exploration of nuclear fission and its ramifications; (4) what can be called the “golden era” - the 3 to 4 decades following World War II when nuclear science was generously supported and therefore flourished. In the final section, research trends pursued near the end of the century are briefly touched upon.

  17. Nuclear spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Ajzenberg-Selove, Fay

    1960-01-01

    Nuclear Spectroscopy, Part B focuses on the ways in which experimental data may be analyzed to furnish information about nuclear parameters and nuclear models in terms of which the data are interpreted.This book discusses the elastic and inelastic potential scattering amplitudes, role of beta decay in nuclear physics, and general selection rules for electromagnetic transitions. The nuclear shell model, fundamental coupling procedure, vibrational spectra, and empirical determination of the complex potential are also covered. This publication is suitable for graduate students preparing for exper

  18. Nuclear networking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wei; Burke, Brian

    2017-07-04

    Nuclear lamins are intermediate filament proteins that represent important structural components of metazoan nuclear envelopes (NEs). By combining proteomics and superresolution microscopy, we recently reported that both A- and B-type nuclear lamins form spatially distinct filament networks at the nuclear periphery of mouse fibroblasts. In particular, A-type lamins exhibit differential association with nuclear pore complexes (NPCs). Our studies reveal that the nuclear lamina network in mammalian somatic cells is less ordered and more complex than that of amphibian oocytes, the only other system in which the lamina has been visualized at high resolution. In addition, the NPC component Tpr likely links NPCs to the A-type lamin network, an association that appears to be regulated by C-terminal modification of various A-type lamin isoforms. Many questions remain, however, concerning the structure and assembly of lamin filaments, as well as with their mode of association with other nuclear components such as peripheral chromatin.

  19. The Lunar Occultation Observer (LOCO) - A Nuclear Astrophysics All-Sky Survey Mission Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R. S.; Bonamente, M.; Burgess, J. M.; Harmon, B. A.; Jenke, P.; Lawrence, D. J.; O'Brien, S.; Orr, M. R.; Paciesas, W. S.; Young, C. A.

    2008-07-01

    The Lunar Occultation Observer (LOCO) is a new lunar-based concept to probe the nuclear astrophysics regime. It will be a pioneering mission in high-energy astrophysics: the first to employ occultation as the principle detection and imaging method.

  20. The pioneer income tax relief as an investment incentive in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Taxation is one of the major fiscal policy instruments used by government in regulating the economy, boosting investments and regulating inflation. Many developing nations formulate tax policies aimed at stimulating rapid economic growth. One of such policies in Nigeria is the Pioneer Income Tax Relief with the main goal ...

  1. Harry E. Burke and John M. Miller, pioneers in Western forest entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd E. Wickman

    2005-01-01

    This history was compiled from the memoirs, diaries, and other personal documents of the two forest entomologists in charge of the first forest insect laboratories on the west coast. It traces the lives of the two pioneers from 1902 to 1952 as they pursued their careers in the USDA Bureau of Entomology, Division of Forest Insect Investigations. Cooperative bark beetle...

  2. Age-dependent radial increases in wood specific gravity of tropical pioneers in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce G. Williamson; Michael C. Wiemann

    2010-01-01

    Wood specific gravity is the single best descriptor of wood functional properties and tree life-history traits, and it is the most important variable in estimating carbon stocks in forests. Tropical pioneer trees produce wood of increasing specific gravity across the trunk radius as they grow in stature. Here, we tested whether radial increases in wood specific gravity...

  3. Albert W. Frenkel (1919-2015): photosynthesis research pioneer, much-loved teacher, and scholar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindjee; Frenkel, Susanna

    2015-06-01

    Albert W. Frenkel, a pioneer in photosynthesis research, and discoverer of photophosphorylation in photosynthetic bacteria, is remembered here by two of us: Govindjee (historical corner editor of photosynthesis research) and Susanna Frenkel (SF; Albert Frenkel's daughter, who provided most of the family information).

  4. Pioneering Mars: Turning the Red Planet Green with Earth's Smallest Settlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cwikla, Julie; Milroy, Scott; Reider, David; Skelton, Tara

    2014-01-01

    Pioneering Mars: Turning the Red Planet Green with the Earth's Smallest Settlers (http://pioneeringmars.org) provides a partnership model for STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) learning that brings university scientists together with high school students to investigate whether cyanobacteria from Antarctica could survive on…

  5. Robert Owen: A Historiographic Study of a Pioneer of Human Resource Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the ideals and activities of the nineteenth century Welsh industrialist and reformer Robert Owen (1771-1858), and how they informed modern human resource development (HRD) concepts and practices and provided evidence of Owen as a HRD pioneer. Design/methodology/approach: Historiography provided…

  6. Two Good Gay Teachers: Pioneering Advocate-Practitioners Confronting Homophobia in Schooling in British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, André P.

    2017-01-01

    This article investigates the political, cultural, and educational work of two pioneering Canadian gay teachers during the 1990s: James Chamberlain and Murray Corren. These advocate-practitioners took up roles as social activists, cultural workers, and engaged teachers whose transgressive acts focused on the social and cultural transformation of…

  7. Black Skin, White Pioneer: Non-Traditional Casting in an Israeli School Pageant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shem-Tov, Naphtaly

    2013-01-01

    The casting of a black Ethiopian Jewish girl to play a white Zionist pioneer character in an Israeli school pageant causes feelings of discomfort among the teachers, especially the vice-principal. The vice-principal uses theatrical and historical reasons to justify her opposition to the casting which can actually be perceived as new/colour-blind…

  8. A Comparative Assessment of Determinate Sentencing in the Four Pioneer States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagoy, Stephen P.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    In examining the nature of the determinate sentencing schemes in four pioneer states, the authors compare and contrast the provisions for determinacy in each of the revised criminal codes, with the objective of informing legislators, planners, and practitioners about the variation possible within the apparently straightforward guidelines…

  9. Founder and Pioneer of Systems Theory Ludwig von Bertalanffy: 45th Anniversary of His Death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branislav Lacko

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The special issue of Acta Informatica Pragensia journal is focused on the issue of systems, when experts in this field, as well as in other disciplines, commemorate the 45th anniversary of the death of the founder and pioneer of systems theory – Ludwig von Bertalanffy. The presented article summarizes his contribution to systems science.

  10. Founder and Pioneer of Systems Theory Ludwig von Bertalanffy: 45th Anniversary of His Death

    OpenAIRE

    Branislav Lacko

    2017-01-01

    The special issue of Acta Informatica Pragensia journal is focused on the issue of systems, when experts in this field, as well as in other disciplines, commemorate the 45th anniversary of the death of the founder and pioneer of systems theory – Ludwig von Bertalanffy. The presented article summarizes his contribution to systems science.

  11. Remembering in a Context of Forgetting: Hauntings and the Old Durham Road Black Pioneer Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norquay, Naomi

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the data produced from an oral history project about a Black pioneer settlement in Grey County, Ontario. Twelve area residents were interviewed and the data produced points to various community practices of both remembering and forgetting. I employ Avery Gordon's (2008) theorization of ghosts and hauntings to make sense of the…

  12. L.T. Marole: A Forgotten Pioneer in Tshivend√a Lexicography ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract: L.T. Marole is a pioneer in Tshivend√a lexicography. He is especially known for the compilation of word lists and phrase books. Through his production of these lexicographic works, Marole has preserved some Tshivend√a terminology which is now regarded as obsolete; for example, terminology regarding ...

  13. Ten-year mortality review in a pioneer psychiatric hospital in West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the mortality among admitted patients in the study centre, a pioneer psychiatric facility in the West African sub-region. Design: A detailed retrospective study of the records of all deaths among the inpatients during the ten-year period of January, 1991 to December, 2000. Setting: Psychiatric Hospital ...

  14. Stealing the gold a celebration of the pioneering physics of Sam Edwards

    CERN Document Server

    Goldenfeld, Nigel; Sherrington, D C; Edwards, S F

    2004-01-01

    This title presents a survey of some of the most exciting topics in condensed matter physics today, from the perspective of the pioneering work of Sam Edwards. Original articles from leaders in the field highlight the historical development as well as new and emerging areas.

  15. Student training opportunities offered in pioneering field of scientific publication ethics

    OpenAIRE

    Bland, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Area college undergraduates and high school students have the opportunity to work side-by-side with accomplished scientists, conducting cutting-edge research in a pioneering field in computer science, thanks to a new summer program being offered at the Virginia Bioinformatics Institute at Virginia Tech.

  16. A political end to a pioneering career: Marianne Beth and the psychology of religion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belzen, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Although forgotten in both Religionswissenschaft (the Science of Religion) and psychology, Marianne Beth (1880-1984), initially trained as a lawyer and already in 1928 called a "leading European woman", must be considered as one of the female pioneers of these fields. She has been active especially

  17. Bronislawa and Mieczyslaw Konopacki - pioneers of the application of histochemistry to embryology in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielanska-Osuchowska, Zofia

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we review the life and work of Mieczyslaw Konopacki and his wife Bronislawa Konopacka. These Polish scientists introduced histochemical methods to embryological studies at the beginning of the XXth century; they were pioneers in this regard in Poland and among the first in the world to implement such methods in this way.

  18. CRED Gridded Bathymetry near South Pioneer Bank (100-003), Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — File 100-003b is a 60-m ASCII grid of depth data collected near south Pioneer Bank in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands as of May 2003. This grid has been produced...

  19. Pioneer intertidal population and the related general vertical distribution of marine Algae in Hawaii

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doty, Maxwell S.

    1967-01-01

    The populations of the seaward intertidal ends of the 1955 lava flows in Hawaii were studied during the first few years of their development. Different seral phenomena were recognized such as pioneer colonization, succession, disclimax, and subclimax. The term climax is used as a practical term to

  20. The Now Frontier. Pioneer to Jupiter. Man Links Earth and Planets. Issue No. 1-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973

    This packet of space science instructional materials includes five issues related to the planet Jupiter. Each issue presents factual material about the planet, diagramatic representations of its movements and positions relative to bright stars or the earth, actual photographs and/or tables of data collected relevant to Pioneer 10, the spacecraft…

  1. Electrotherapy for melancholia: the pioneering contributions of Benjamin Franklin and Giovanni Aldini

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolwig, Tom G; Fink, Max

    2009-01-01

    The electrical induction of seizures with a therapeutic aim began in 1938, but the history of electric currents to relieve mental illness began 2 centuries earlier with the pioneering work of the Italian Giovanni Aldini and the American Benjamin Franklin.These early experiments are described demo...

  2. De Vries & Mul, A.M. Cooper, Pioneer of Puppet Animation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wells, Paul

    2012-01-01

    abstractReview of Tjitte de Vries and Ati Mul, ‘They Thought it was a Marvel’. Arthur Melbourne Cooper (1874-1961) Pioneer of Puppet Animation. Amsterdam (Pallas Publications/AmsterdamUniversity Press) 2009, 576 p., 105 ill.; includesdvd of 6 films, isbn 978 908 555016 7

  3. Limit on the photon mass deduced from Pioneer-10 observations of Jupiter's magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, L., Jr.; Goldhaber, A. S.; Nieto, M. M.

    1975-01-01

    Analysis of the Pioneer-10 data on Jupiter's magnetic field, in which the mass of the photon was treated as a free parameter. An upper limit of 8 to the negative 49th grams was set for the photon mass. This is the smallest limit so far obtained from direct measurements.

  4. 77 FR 65937 - Pioneer Railcorp-Continuation in Control Exemption-Rail Switching Services, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-31

    ... TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Pioneer Railcorp--Continuation in Control Exemption--Rail Switching... exemption pursuant to 49 CFR 1180.2(d)(2) to continue in control of Rail Switching Services, Inc. (RSS... of exemption in Rail Switching Services, Inc.--Operation Exemption-- Pemiscot County Port Authority...

  5. Pioneering the human development revolution: Analysing the trajectory of Mahbub ul Haq

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractMahbub ul Haq's work to coordinate, establish and propagate the human development approach offers an example of effective leadership in promoting more ethical socio-economic development. This article reviews Pioneering the Human Development Revolution-An Intellectual Biography of Mahbub

  6. CRED Gridded Bathymetry near Lisianski Island and Pioneer Bank (100-002), Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — File 100-002b is a 60-m ASCII grid of depth data collected near Lisianski Island and Pioneer Bank in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands as of May 2003. This grid has...

  7. A Comparative Study of Pioneer Entry Decisions in the United States and China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Y. Lisa; Song, Michael; Parry, Mark E.

    2014-01-01

    According to the resource-based view of the firm, competitive advantages arise from control and deployment of productive resources that are rare and difficult to imitate. Through early entry, pioneers can gain preferential access to key resources. However, the value of that access depends on the

  8. 75 FR 57289 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Pioneer Historical Society of Bent County, Las Animas, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-20

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Pioneer Historical Society of Bent County, Las Animas... Animas, CO. The human remains were removed from unknown locations. This notice is published as part of... Animas, ] CO 81045, telephone (719) 469-8818, before October 20, 2010. Disposition of the human remains...

  9. Initial soil development under pioneer plant species in metal mine waste deposits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arocena, J.M.; van Mourik, J.M.; Schilder, M.L.M.; Faz Cano, A.

    2010-01-01

    Mine waste materials are often inhospitable to plants due to extreme pH, high salinity, very low organic matter, elevated metal contents, and poor physical conditions. We investigated initial soil development in three study areas under different pioneer plant species in degraded landscapes left

  10. 76 FR 10581 - Pioneer Trail Wind Farm, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Pioneer Trail Wind Farm, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... above-referenced proceeding of Pioneer Trail Wind Farm, LLC's application for market-based rate...

  11. 33 CFR 147.847 - Safety Zone; BW PIONEER Floating Production, Storage, and Offloading System Safety Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Production, Storage, and Offloading System Safety Zone. 147.847 Section 147.847 Navigation and Navigable... ZONES § 147.847 Safety Zone; BW PIONEER Floating Production, Storage, and Offloading System Safety Zone. (a) Description. The BW PIONEER, a Floating Production, Storage and Offloading (FPSO) system, is in...

  12. Lise Meitner: The Interpreter of Nuclear Fission [Lise Meitner: A Intérprete da Cisão Nuclear

    OpenAIRE

    Raquel Gonçalves - Maia

    2012-01-01

    Lise Meitner was a pioneer. Born in Vienna, Austria, in 1878, of Jewish ancestry but converted to Protestantism, shy but with strong professional connections and the pleasure of teamwork, she studied physics "seriously". She overpassed the Great War and, in a first breath, she gave us protactinium and false transuranium elements. In a second breath, she gave us the interpretation of nuclear fission. She overpassed World War II. No, she said, I did not design any atomic bomb

  13. Thirty years from now: future physics contributions in nuclear medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Dale L

    2014-12-01

    This paper is the first in a series of invited perspectives by pioneers of nuclear medicine imaging and physics. A medical physicist and a nuclear medicine physician each take a backward and a forward look at the contributions of physics to nuclear medicine. Here, we provide a forward look from the medical physicist's perspective. The author examines a number of developments in nuclear medicine and discusses the ways in which physics has contributed to these. Future developments are postulated in the context of an increasingly personalised approach to medical diagnostics and therapies. A skill set for the next generation of medical physicists in nuclear medicine is proposed in the context of the increasing complexity of 'Molecular Imaging' in the next three decades. The author sees a shift away from 'traditional' roles in instrumentation QA to more innovative approaches in understanding radiobiology and human disease.

  14. Nuclear astrophysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haxton, W.C.

    1992-01-01

    The problem of core-collapse supernovae is used to illustrate the many connections between nuclear astrophysics and the problems nuclear physicists study in terrestrial laboratories. Efforts to better understand the collapse and mantle ejection are also motivated by a variety of interdisciplinary issues in nuclear, particle, and astrophysics, including galactic chemical evolution, neutrino masses and mixing, and stellar cooling by the emission of new particles. The current status of theory and observations is summarized.

  15. Nuclear astrophysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haxton, W.C.

    1992-12-31

    The problem of core-collapse supernovae is used to illustrate the many connections between nuclear astrophysics and the problems nuclear physicists study in terrestrial laboratories. Efforts to better understand the collapse and mantle ejection are also motivated by a variety of interdisciplinary issues in nuclear, particle, and astrophysics, including galactic chemical evolution, neutrino masses and mixing, and stellar cooling by the emission of new particles. The current status of theory and observations is summarized.

  16. Nuclear Safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silver, E G [ed.

    1989-01-01

    This document is a review journal that covers significant developments in the field of nuclear safety. Its scope includes the analysis and control of hazards associated with nuclear energy, operations involving fissionable materials, and the products of nuclear fission and their effects on the environment. Primary emphasis is on safety in reactor design, construction, and operation; however, the safety aspects of the entire fuel cycle, including fuel fabrication, spent-fuel processing, nuclear waste disposal, handling of radioisotopes, and environmental effects of these operations, are also treated.

  17. The contribution of Medical Physics to Nuclear Medicine: looking back - a physicist's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, Brian F

    2014-12-01

    This paper is the first in a series of invited perspectives by four pioneers of Nuclear Medicine imaging and physics. A medical physicist and a Nuclear Medicine clinical specialist each take a backward look and a forward look at the contributions of Medical Physics to Nuclear Medicine. Contributions of Medical Physics are presented from the early discovery of radioactivity, development of first imaging devices, computers and emission tomography to recent development of hybrid imaging. There is evidence of significant contribution of Medical Physics throughout the development of Nuclear Medicine.

  18. Nuclear Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drago, Alessandro

    2005-04-01

    The activity of the Italian nuclear physicists community in the field of Nuclear Astrophysics is reported. The researches here described have been performed within the project "Fisica teorica del nucleo e dei sistemi a multi corpi", supported by the Ministero dell'Istruzione, dell'Università e della Ricerca.

  19. Nuclear Astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Langanke, K

    1999-01-01

    The manuscript reviews progress achieved in recent years in various aspects of nuclear astrophysics, including stellar nucleosynthesis, nuclear aspects of supernova collapse and explosion, neutrino-induced reactions and their possible role in the supernova mechanism and nucleosynthesis, explosive hydrogen burning in binary systems, and finally the observation of gamma-rays from supernova remnants.

  20. Nuclear stress test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Persantine stress test; Thallium stress test; Stress test - nuclear; Adenosine stress test; Regadenoson stress test; CAD - nuclear stress; Coronary artery disease - nuclear stress; Angina - nuclear ...

  1. Nuclear questions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durrani, M. [Physics World (United Kingdom)

    2006-01-01

    The future of nuclear power has returned to centre stage. Freezing weather on both sides of the Atlantic and last month's climate-change talks in Montreal have helped to put energy and the future of nuclear power right back on the political agenda. The issue is particularly pressing for those countries where existing nuclear stations are reaching the end of their lives. In the UK, prime minister Tony Blair has commissioned a review of energy, with a view to deciding later this year whether to build new nuclear power plants. The review comes just four years after the Labour government published a White Paper on energy that said the country should keep the nuclear option open but did not follow this up with any concrete action. In Germany, new chancellor and former physicist Angela Merkel is a fan of nuclear energy and had said she would extend the lifetime of its nuclear plants beyond 2020, when they are due to close. However, that commitment has had to be abandoned, at least for the time being, following negotiations with her left-wing coalition partners. The arguments in favour of nuclear power will be familiar to all physicists - it emits almost no carbon dioxide and can play a vital role in maintaining a diverse energy supply. To over-rely on imported supplies of oil and gas can leave a nation hostage to fortune. The arguments against are equally easy to list - the public is scared of nuclear power, it generates dangerous waste with potentially huge clean-up costs, and it is not necessarily cheap. Nuclear plants could also be a target for terrorist attacks. Given political will, many of these problems can be resolved, or at least tackled. China certainly sees the benefits of nuclear power, as does Finland, which is building a new 1600 MW station - the world's most powerful - that is set to open in 2009. Physicists, of course, are essential to such developments. They play a vital role in ensuring the safety of such plants and developing new types of

  2. Measurements of electron density irregularities in the ionosphere of Jupiter by Pioneer 10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, R.; Yang, F.-C.

    1976-01-01

    It is demonstrated that when the frequency spectrum of log amplitude fluctuations is used, the radio-occultation experiment is a powerful tool for detecting, identifying, and studying ionospheric irregularities. Analysis of Pioneer 10 radio-occultation measurements reveals that the Jovian ionosphere possesses electron-density irregularities which are very similar to those found in the earth's ionosphere. This is the first time such irregularities have been found in a planetary ionosphere other than that of the earth. The Pioneer 10 results indicate that the spatial wave-number spectrum of the electron-density irregularities is close to the Kolmogorov spectrum and that the outer scale size is greater than the Fresnel size (6.15 km). This type of spectrum suggests that the irregularities are probably produced by the turbulent dissipation of irregularities larger than the outer scale size.

  3. Nuclear war and nuclear peace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segal, G.; Moreton, E.; Freedman, L.; Baylis, J.

    1983-01-01

    This book is an in-depth examination of East-West tactical and strategic nuclear weapons policy. The contributors explore such issues as the history and implications of tactical weapons in Europe, the general conflicts that have characterized US and Soviet interaction, the development of British nuclear weapons policy, and arms control including SALT I and II and the START talks.

  4. The pioneer cohort of curriculum reform: Guinea pigs or trail-blazers?

    OpenAIRE

    McLean Michelle

    2005-01-01

    Abstract With curriculum reform, whether we admit it or not, the first cohort of students will be 'test-driving' the new programme. Not only are they the pioneers of a new curriculum, but as they progress through their studies, they experience each year of the innovation for the first time. As curriculum designers, we learn from their experiences and their feedback to improve the programme content and delivery, invariably for subsequent cohorts. A considerable onus therefore rests with this p...

  5. The History with Two Prehistories. On the design of the Moscow Palace of Young Pioneers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Novikov

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The article refers to the history of design of the Moscow Palace of Young Pioneers architectural complex on Leninskie (now Vorobievy Gory viewed in the context of evolution of the national architecture. While speaking about how the project came into being and which way was chosen to find the architectural character, the author proves that the Palace was a pivotal point in the history of Russian architecture and became one of the symbols of Soviet Modernism.

  6. Restoration potential of pioneer plants growing on lead-zinc mine tailings in Lanping, southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Dongmei; Duan, Changqun

    2008-01-01

    This study focused on the restoration potential of ten pioneer plants (Artemisia roxburghiana, Artemisia tangutica, Carex inanis, Cyperaceae hebecarpus, Plantago depresa, Cynoglossum lanceolatum, Potentilla saundesiana, Coriaria sinica, Oxyria sinensis, and Miscanthus nepalensis) during the early phase of Pb-Zn mine tailings phytostabilization, in Lanping, China. The concentrations of heavy metals (Pb, Zn, and Cu) and soil fertility (the available N, P, K, and organic matter) in the rhizosphere of these species have been compared. The results showed a general improvement in the rhizosphere soil properties of pioneer plants. Of the ten species, the concentrations of Pb, Zn, and Cu in the rhizosphere of A. roxburghiana have the greatest reduction of 56.23%, 83.00%, and 84.36%, respectively, compared to the bulk soil. The best improvement in soil fertility was found in the rhizosphere of P. saundesiana, with an increase of 241.83%, 170.76%, 49.09%, and 81.60%, respectively, in the available N, P, K, and organic matter. Metals accumulated by the plants have been mainly distributed in the root tissues, and only small amounts transferred to the aboveground tissues. The highest contents of Pb and Zn have been recorded in C. hebecarpus with 57.84 and 87.92 mg/kg dry weight (dw), respectively. The maximum Cu content was observed in C. inanis with 1.19 mg/kg dw. Overall, pioneer plants will be ideal species for the phytostabilization of mine tailings, but the potential use varies in different pioneer plant species. Among these ten species, A. roxburghiana has been identified to be the most suitable for phytostabilization programs, due to its greatest improvement on physical-chemical properties in the rhizosphere soil.

  7. A political end to a pioneering career: Marianne Beth and the psychology of religion

    OpenAIRE

    Jacob A.BELZEN

    2011-01-01

    Although forgotten in both Religionswissenschaft (the Science of Religion) and psychology, Marianne Beth (1880-1984), initially trained as a lawyer and already in 1928 called a “leading European woman”, must be considered as one of the female pioneers of these fields. She has been active especially in the psychology of religion, a field in which she, together with her husband Karl Beth, founded a research institute, an international organization and a journal. In 1932, the Beths organized in ...

  8. A Trustworthy Collaboration: Eleanor Roosevelt and Martha Graham’s Pioneering of American Cultural Diplomacy

    OpenAIRE

    Lenart, Camelia

    2017-01-01

    The article analyzes Eleanor Roosevelt’s intricate and innovative relationship with American arts during a time when Americans did not believe yet in the power of the arts in making (and un-making) political and diplomatic statements. Focusing on the collaboration between the First Lady and the modern dancer Martha Graham, it also proves that their partnership and its valuable and long lasting outcomes qualify them as pioneers of American cultural diplomacy. As the article shows, Roosevelt in...

  9. Social insect histology from the nineteenth century: the magnificent pioneer sections of Charles Janet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billen, Johan; Wilson, Edward O

    2008-05-01

    Charles Janet (1849-1932) was the leading pioneer in the histological description of the internal anatomy of social insects, in particular of ants and wasps. Because many of the original Janet sections still exist, this article is able to illustrate the amazing skills through some selected pictures taken from this more than a century old material, and thus to pay tribute to this French founder of insect morphology.

  10. Modelling the reflective thermal contribution to the acceleration of the Pioneer spacecraft

    CERN Document Server

    Francisco, F; Gil, P J S; Páramos, J

    2011-01-01

    We present an improved method to compute the radiative momentum transfer in the Pioneer 10 & 11 spacecraft that takes into account both diffusive and specular reflection. The method allows for more reliable results regarding the thermal acceleration of the deep-space probes, confirming previous findings. A parametric analysis is performed in order to set an upper and lower-bound for the thermal acceleration and its evolution with time.

  11. A Pioneer Study on Online Learning Environments Following the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez-Sabater, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    This paper shows the results of a pioneer study on how technology is used to complement face-to face teaching in universities following the directives of the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFRL). The paper examines the students¿ and teachers¿ perception of the effectiveness of autonomous language practice. Findings reveal that while teachers value the incorporation of autonomous learning in traditional university classrooms, students don¿t seem to agree unanimously on ...

  12. Nuclear regulatory process in the UK: the road to nuclear license; Proceso regulatorio nuclear en el Reino Unido: el camino hacia la licencia nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prieto, M.

    2012-07-01

    Relaunching a nuclear-based electric power generating system in any country, even in one like the United Kingdom (UK) that already has an adequate regulatory system that is pioneering in Europe and the world and has had several plants in operation for many years, always involves a series of far-reaching reforms of an institutional and national nature which, at the same time, serve to raise the standards of nuclear safety to the highest level, in order to reduce the risk run by the investors in the program and to ensure that both regulatory bodies and governments fulfill their fundamental function; serve and protect the citizen and always strive to improve the country's well-being. (Author)

  13. Nuclear Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Savage, Martin J

    2016-01-01

    Lattice QCD is making good progress toward calculating the structure and properties of light nuclei and the forces between nucleons. These calculations will ultimately refine the nuclear forces, particularly in the three- and four-nucleon sector and the short-distance interactions of nucleons with electroweak currents, and allow for a reduction of uncertainties in nuclear many-body calculations of nuclei and their reactions. After highlighting their importance, particularly to the Nuclear Physics and High-Energy Physics experimental programs, I discuss the progress that has been made toward achieving these goals and the challenges that remain.

  14. Exploration of pioneering as a major element of ethical leadership in nursing: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkhordari-Sharifabad, Maasoumeh; Ashktorab, Tahereh; Atashzadeh-Shoorideh, Foroozan

    2017-07-01

    Commitment to ethical behavior is considered as an essential part of occupational responsibilities of nursing, and leaders' pioneering in ethical growth and development has led to the emergence of the concept of ethical leadership. The purpose of this study was to explain the nursing leaders' perception and experiences of pioneering in the field of ethical leadership. In this qualitative study, data were collected through semi-structured individual interviews. A total of 14 nursing leaders at different levels who were selected by purposeful sampling method participated in the study. Latent content analysis was used to analyze the data. Of 14 participants of the study, 8 were male and 6 were female aged 38 to 56 years old with a mean managerial experience of 12 years. In the analysis of interviews, 4 subcategories of "Role Modeling", "Empowerment", "Knowledge and Skill", and "Recognition" were obtained which formed two main categories. These categories included "Leader as mentor" and "Professional insight". Pioneering leaders are an important part of ethical leadership, and nursing leaders should not only be moral people, but also go a step further and actively promote moral behavior with a role as a mentor and model as well as having professional insight. Nursing leaders with a better understanding of these aspects can develop their capacity of strong ethical leadership and consider the aspects in their activities.

  15. Exploration of pioneering as a major element of ethical leadership in nursing: A qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkhordari-Sharifabad, Maasoumeh; Ashktorab, Tahereh; Atashzadeh-Shoorideh, Foroozan

    2017-01-01

    Background Commitment to ethical behavior is considered as an essential part of occupational responsibilities of nursing, and leaders’ pioneering in ethical growth and development has led to the emergence of the concept of ethical leadership. Objective The purpose of this study was to explain the nursing leaders’ perception and experiences of pioneering in the field of ethical leadership. Methods In this qualitative study, data were collected through semi-structured individual interviews. A total of 14 nursing leaders at different levels who were selected by purposeful sampling method participated in the study. Latent content analysis was used to analyze the data. Results Of 14 participants of the study, 8 were male and 6 were female aged 38 to 56 years old with a mean managerial experience of 12 years. In the analysis of interviews, 4 subcategories of “Role Modeling”, “Empowerment”, “Knowledge and Skill”, and “Recognition” were obtained which formed two main categories. These categories included “Leader as mentor” and “Professional insight”. Conclusion Pioneering leaders are an important part of ethical leadership, and nursing leaders should not only be moral people, but also go a step further and actively promote moral behavior with a role as a mentor and model as well as having professional insight. Nursing leaders with a better understanding of these aspects can develop their capacity of strong ethical leadership and consider the aspects in their activities. PMID:28894529

  16. The Pioneer Effect as a Local Manifestation of the Global Non-Holonomity of Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabounski, Dmitri

    2010-02-01

    This study answers the Pioneer effect - the anomalous braking acceleration gained by the NASA deep space missions, and first observed on Pioneer 10 and 11. The problem is considered by means of the General Theory of Relativity, using the mathematical apparatus of physically observable quantities (Zelmanov A.L., Soviet Physics Doklady, 1956, vol.1, 227-230). A globally non-holonomic space is considered: there the time lines are non-orthogonal to the three-dimensional spatial section, which is manifested as three-dimensional rotation of the space. If the non-holonomity field is vortexless, it does not produce forces of inertia, or anisotropy of the space; only a uniformly distributed field of the linear velocity of the space rotation, manifested equally in any direction in which we measure it, is present. It is shown, through the geodesic equations, that any body travelling in the space gains an additional braking acceleration along the direction of its travel due to the space non-holonomity. This effect increases with the distance travelled by the body. This calculation meets the Pioneer effect that gives a complete theoretical explanation to it. )

  17. Pioneering bacterial and algal communities and potential extracellular enzyme activities of stream biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohlon, Elisabeth; Marxsen, Jürgen; Küsel, Kirsten

    2010-03-01

    Microbial biofilms are important for the turnover of organic matter in small streams. A rapid colonization of the epilithic surface will become more important given the predicted increase of flood events. Here, we elucidated the pioneering community structure and activity of stream biofilms. Colonization of glass slides exposed in a small stream for 1, 4, 8, 12, and 24 h was compared with those exposed for 7 days or 5 months. Forty thousand microbial cells and 10 algae cm(-2) attached to the glass slides within 1 h of exposure. Catalyzed reporter deposition-FISH demonstrated that the pioneer community that settled within 12 h was dominated by Cytophago-Flavobacteria. Later stages were characterized by an enrichment of Gammaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria. However, a major fraction of the detected bacterial cells could not be identified beyond the domain level. Green algae dominated the pioneering algal groups, but were outnumbered by filamentous algae after the attachment period. Potential activity of alkaline phosphatase was already detected after 4 h, beta-glucosidase after 8 h, and beta-xylosidase only after 7 days of biofilm formation. Thus, biofilm formation occurred rapidly and the functionality of the assemblages was evident within a few hours. However, the ratios of beta-xylosidase : beta-glucosidase suggested that the initial biofilms relied more on autochthonous than on allochthonous carbon sources in contrast to mature biofilms.

  18. Different pioneer plant species select specific rhizosphere bacterial communities in a high mountain environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccazzo, Sonia; Esposito, Alfonso; Rolli, Eleonora; Zerbe, Stefan; Daffonchio, Daniele; Brusetti, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    The rhizobacterial communities of 29 pioneer plants belonging to 12 species were investigated in an alpine ecosystem to assess if plants from different species could select for specific rhizobacterial communities. Rhizospheres and unvegetated soils were collected from a floristic pioneer stage plot at 2,400 m a.s.l. in the forefield of Weisskugel Glacier (Matsch Valley, South Tyrol, Italy), after 160 years of glacier retreat. To allow for a culture-independent perspective, total environmental DNA was extracted from both rhizosphere and bare soil samples and analyzed by Automated Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis (ARISA) and Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE). ARISA fingerprinting showed that rhizobacterial genetic structure was extremely different from bare soil bacterial communities while rhizobacterial communities clustered strictly together according to the plant species. Sequencing of DGGE bands showed that rhizobacterial communities were mainly composed of Acidobacteria and Proteobacteria whereas bare soil was colonized by Acidobacteria and Clostridia. UniFrac significance calculated on DGGE results confirmed the rhizosphere effect exerted by the 12 species and showed different bacterial communities (P < 0.05) associated with all the plant species. These results pointed out that specific rhizobacterial communities were selected by pioneer plants of different species in a high mountain ecosystem characterized by oligotrophic and harsh environmental conditions, during an early primary succession.

  19. Safety Test Program Summary SNAP 19 Pioneer Heat Source Safety Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1971-07-01

    Sixteen heat source assemblies have been tested in support of the SNAP 19 Pioneer Safety Test Program. Seven were subjected to simulated reentry heating in various plasma arc facilities followed by impact on earth or granite. Six assemblies were tested under abort accident conditions of overpressure, shrapnel impact, and solid and liquid propellant fires. Three capsules were hot impacted under Transit capsule impact conditions to verify comparability of test results between the two similar capsule designs, thus utilizing both Pioneer and Transit Safety Test results to support the Safety Analysis Report for Pioneer. The tests have shown the fuel is contained under all nominal accident environments with the exception of minor capsule cracks under severe impact and solid fire environments. No catastrophic capsule failures occurred in this test which would release large quantities of fuel. In no test was fuel visible to the eye following impact or fire. Breached capsules were defined as those which exhibit thoria contamination on its surface following a test, or one which exhibited visible cracks in the post test metallographic analyses.

  20. (Nuclear theory). [Research in nuclear physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haxton, W.

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses research in nuclear physics. Topics covered in this paper are: symmetry principles; nuclear astrophysics; nuclear structure; quark-gluon plasma; quantum chromodynamics; symmetry breaking; nuclear deformation; and cold fusion. (LSP)

  1. Nuclear reaction

    CERN Multimedia

    Penwarden, C

    2001-01-01

    At the European Research Organization for Nuclear Research, Nobel laureates delve into the mysteries of particle physics. But when they invited artists from across the continent to visit their site in Geneva, they wanted a new kind of experiment.

  2. Nuclear Fusion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ghoranneviss, Mahmood; Parashar, S. K. S; Aslan, Necdet; Aslaninejad, Morteza; Salar Elahi, A

    2014-01-01

    ... in both inertial and magnetic confinement fusion, with attendees from major fusion energy research centers worldwide. It is one of the most important issues in this field. Nuclear fusion continues t...

  3. Nuclear Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargano, Angela

    2003-04-01

    An account of recent studies in the field of theoretical nuclear structure is reported. These studies concern essentially research activities performed under the Italian project "Fisica Teorica del Nucleo e dei Sistemi a Molti Corpi". Special attention is addressed to results obtained during the last two years as regards the development of new many-body techniques as well as the interpretation of new experimental aspects of nuclear structure.

  4. Nuclear Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Morgan C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-01-23

    PowerPoint presentation targeted for educational use. Nuclear data comes from a variety of sources and in many flavors. Understanding where the data you use comes from and what flavor it is can be essential to understand and interpret your results. This talk will discuss the nuclear data pipeline with particular emphasis on providing links to additional resources that can be used to explore the issues you will encounter.

  5. Industrial pioneers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wassink, J.

    2014-01-01

    With their knowledge of metallurgy, mechanics and thermodynamics, mechanical engineers had to give shape to the industrial revolution in the Netherlands 150 years ago. This revolution only slowly gathered momentum, however, especially in comparison with England.

  6. Green pioneers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trueland, Jennifer

    The government has set tough targets for the NHS in England to reduce its carbon footprint. In this article, nurses and managers at Nottinghamshire Healthcare NHS Trust explain how a programme of 'greening' initiatives - including a trial of electric cars for community staff - have slashed the trust's CO2 output.

  7. Nuclear safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-07-01

    The Program on Nuclear Safety comprehends Radioprotection, Radioactive Waste Management and Nuclear Material Control. These activities are developed at the Nuclear Safety Directory. The Radioactive Waste Management Department (GRR) was formally created in 1983, to promote research and development, teaching and service activities in the field of radioactive waste. Its mission is to develop and employ technologies to manage safely the radioactive wastes generated at IPEN and at its customer’s facilities all over the country, in order to protect the health and the environment of today's and future generations. The Radioprotection Service (GRP) aims primarily to establish requirements for the protection of people, as workers, contractors, students, members of the general public and the environment from harmful effects of ionizing radiation. Furthermore, it also aims to establish the primary criteria for the safety of radiation sources at IPEN and planning and preparing for response to nuclear and radiological emergencies. The procedures about the management and the control of exposures to ionizing radiation are in compliance with national standards and international recommendations. Research related to the main activities is also performed. The Nuclear Material Control has been performed by the Safeguard Service team, which manages the accountability and the control of nuclear material at IPEN facilities and provides information related to these activities to ABACC and IAEA. (author)

  8. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging ... the limitations of Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch ...

  9. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses small amounts ... Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging ...

  10. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses small amounts ... Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging ...

  11. General Nuclear Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z General Nuclear Medicine Nuclear medicine imaging uses small amounts of radioactive ... of General Nuclear Medicine? What is General Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging ...

  12. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses ... limitations of Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of ...

  13. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses small ... of Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical ...

  14. Nuclear scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friar, J.L.

    1998-12-01

    Nuclear scales are discussed from the nuclear physics viewpoint. The conventional nuclear potential is characterized as a black box that interpolates nucleon-nucleon (NN) data, while being constrained by the best possible theoretical input. The latter consists of the longer-range parts of the NN force (e.g., OPEP, TPEP, the {pi}-{gamma} force), which can be calculated using chiral perturbation theory and gauged using modern phase-shift analyses. The shorter-range parts of the force are effectively parameterized by moments of the interaction that are independent of the details of the force model, in analogy to chiral perturbation theory. Results of GFMC calculations in light nuclei are interpreted in terms of fundamental scales, which are in good agreement with expectations from chiral effective field theories. Problems with spin-orbit-type observables are noted.

  15. Nuclear astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penionzhkevich, Yu. E.

    2010-08-01

    The International Year of Astronomy 2009 (IYA2009) was declared by the 62nd General Assembly of the United Nations and was also endorsed by UNESCO. Investigations in the realms of particle and nuclear physicsmake a large contribution in the development of our ideas of the properties of the Universe. The present article discusses some problems of the evolution of the Universe, nucleosyntheses, and cosmochronology from the point of view of nuclear and particle physics. Processes occurring in the Universe are compared with the mechanisms of the production and decay of nuclei, as well as with the mechanisms of their interaction at high energies. Examples that demonstrate the potential of nuclearphysics methods for studying cosmic objects and the properties of the Universe are given. The results that come from investigations into nuclear reactions induced by beams of radioactive nuclei and which make it possible to take a fresh look at the nucleosynthesis scenario in the range at light nuclei are presented.

  16. Nuclear enthalpies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozynek Jacek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Even small departures from a nuclear equilibrium density with constant nucleon masses require an increase of a nucleon enthalpy. This process can be described as volume corrections to a nucleon rest energy, which are proportional to pressure and absent in a standard Relativistic Mean Field (RMF with point-like nucleons. Bag model and RMF calculations show the modifications of nucleon mass, nucleon radius and a Parton Distribution Function (PDF of Nuclear Matter (NM above the saturation point originated from the pressure correction.

  17. Nuclear spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Ajzenberg-Selove, Fay

    1960-01-01

    Nuclear Spectroscopy, Part A deals with the experimental and theoretical techniques involved in nuclear spectroscopy.This book discusses the interactions of charged particles with matter, gaseous ionization detectors, and particular mass attenuation coefficients. The magnetic gamma-ray spectrometers for photo or internal-conversion electrons, general characteristics of cross-section variation with energy, and measurement of fast neutron spectra are also elaborated. This text likewise covers the elastic scattering of photons by nuclei and measurement of widths of gamma-radiating levels.This pub

  18. LipidPioneer : A Comprehensive User-Generated Exact Mass Template for Lipidomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulmer, Candice Z.; Koelmel, Jeremy P.; Ragland, Jared M.; Garrett, Timothy J.; Bowden, John A.

    2017-03-01

    Lipidomics, the comprehensive measurement of lipid species in a biological system, has promising potential in biomarker discovery and disease etiology elucidation. Advances in chromatographic separation, mass spectrometric techniques, and novel substrate applications continue to expand the number of lipid species observed. The total number and type of lipid species detected in a given sample are generally indicative of the sample matrix examined (e.g., serum, plasma, cells, bacteria, tissue, etc.). Current exact mass lipid libraries are static and represent the most commonly analyzed matrices. It is common practice for users to manually curate their own lists of lipid species and adduct masses; however, this process is time-consuming. LipidPioneer, an interactive template, can be used to generate exact masses and molecular formulas of lipid species that may be encountered in the mass spectrometric analysis of lipid profiles. Over 60 lipid classes are present in the LipidPioneer template and include several unique lipid species, such as ether-linked lipids and lipid oxidation products. In the template, users can add any fatty acyl constituents without limitation in the number of carbons or degrees of unsaturation. LipidPioneer accepts naming using the lipid class level (sum composition) and the LIPID MAPS notation for fatty acyl structure level. In addition to lipid identification, user-generated lipid m/z values can be used to develop inclusion lists for targeted fragmentation experiments. Resulting lipid names and m/z values can be imported into software such as MZmine or Compound Discoverer to automate exact mass searching and isotopic pattern matching across experimental data.

  19. On the Origin of the Dark Matter/Energy in the Universe and the Pioneer Anomaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham A. Ungar

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Einstein's special relativity is a theory rich of paradoxes, one of which is the recently discovered Relativistic Invariant Mass Paradox. According to this Paradox, the relativistic invariant mass of a galaxy of moving stars exceeds the sum of the relativistic invariant masses of the constituent stars owing to their motion relative to each other. This excess of mass is the mass of virtual matter that has no physical properties other than positive relativistic invariant mass and, hence, that reveals its presence by no means other than gravity. As such, this virtual matter is the dark matter that cosmologists believe is necessary in order to supply the missing gravity that keeps galaxies stable. Based on the Relativistic Invariant Mass Paradox we offer in this article a model which quantifies the anomalous acceleration of Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecrafts and other deep space missions, and explains the presence of dark matter and dark energy in the universe. It turns out that the origin of dark matter and dark energy in the Universe lies in the Paradox, and that the origin of the Pioneer anomaly results from neglecting the Paradox. In order to appreciate the physical significance of the Paradox within the frame of Einstein's special theory of relativity, following the presentation of the Paradox we demonstrate that the Paradox is responsible for the extension of the kinetic energy theorem and of the additivity of energy and momentum from classical to relativistic mechanics. Clearly, the claim that the acceleration of Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecrafts is anomalous is incomplete, within the frame of Einstein's special relativity, since those who made the claim did not take into account the presence of the Relativistic Invariant Mass Paradox (which is understandable since the Paradox, published in the author's 2008 book, was discovered by the author only recently. It remains to test how well the Paradox accords with observations.

  20. EFFECT OF INOCULANT PIONEER 1188 IN MAIZE SILAGE ON COW MILKING CAPACITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Zimmer

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available First investigation part, started on 1 September 2001 by feeding 473 cows (401 dairy and 72 dry and finished on 13 November by feeding 474 cows (409 dairy and 65 dry, was characterized by the main ration consisting of maize silage without inoculant. This period was known for a maximum number of housed cows being 490 (423 dairy and 67 dry and minimum 469 (395 dairy and 74 dry. Daily average of stable milk production was 17.06 l with 3.48% of lactic fat on the average. Second part of the investigation, started on 14 November 2001 by feeding 474 cows (411 dairy and 63 dry and finished on 31 March 2002 by feeding 464 cows (395 dairy and 69 dry, was known for the basic ration contained maize silage enriched by inoculant Pioneer 1188.This period was characterized by a maximum number of housed cows being 482 (404 dairy and 57 dry. Daily average of stable milk production was 18.67 l and 3.58% of lactic fat. The main ration was composed of silage maize, highly wet maize, pearl barley, stock meal, sunflower cake, hay, salt and VAM. Inoculant Pioneer contained 6 strains of lactic-sour fermentation selected bacteria whose viability is basis of a successful product. In fact, it is a micro-granulated product added, by Gandy doser, to amount of 0.5 kg per green mass/t. Inoculant Pioneer 1188 was in this research added in a dose of 0.436 kg t-1 silage maize. Daily average of stable milk production increased by 1.61l i.e. 9.4% and lactic fat from 3.48% to 3.58% i.e. 2.9%.

  1. On the Origin of the Dark Matter/Energy in the Universe and the Pioneer Anomaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ungar A. A.

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Einstein’s special relativity is a theory rich of paradoxes, one of which is the recently discovered Relativistic Invariant Mass Paradox . According to this Paradox, the rela- tivistic invariant mass of a galaxy of moving stars exceeds the sum of the relativistic invariant masses of the constituent stars owing to their motion relative to each other. This excess of mass is the mass of virtual matter that has no physical properties other than positive relativistic invariant mass and, hence, that reveals its presence by no means other than gravity. As such, this virtual matter is the dark matter that cosmologists be- lieve is necessary in order to supply the missing gravity that keeps galaxies stable. Based on the Relativistic Invariant Mass Paradox we offer in this article a model which quan- tifies the anomalous acceleration of Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecrafts and other deep space missions, and explains the presence of dark matter and dark energy in the universe. It turns out that the origin of dark matter and dark energy in the Universe lies in the Para- dox, and that the origin of the Pioneer anomaly results from neglecting the Paradox. In order to appreciate the physical significance of the Paradox within the frame of Ein- stein’s special theory of relativity, following the presentation of the Paradox we demon- strate that the Paradox is responsible for the extension of the kinetic energy theorem and of the additivity of energy and momentum from classical to relativistic mechanics. Clearly, the claim that the acceleration of Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecrafts is anomalous is incomplete, within the frame of Einstein’s special relativity, since those who made the claim did not take into account the presence of the Relativistic Invariant Mass Paradox (which is understandable since the Paradox, published in the author’s 2008 book, was discovered by the author only recently. It remains to test how well the Paradox accords with observations.

  2. Jewish Family and Children's Services: a pioneering human service organization (1850-2008).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Sara L; Austin, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    Jewish Family and Children's Services of San Francisco, the Peninsula, Marin, and Sonoma Counties is a pioneering nonprofit human service organization that has delivered services for 157 years. Over the course of its history, the organization has transformed itself from an all-volunteer agency delivering aid to immigrant families during the Gold Rush era to a $30 million nonprofit human service organization offering a full-range of services to adults, children, and families. The history of Jewish Family and Children's Services sheds light on the importance of strong leadership, strategic planning, external relationships, and strong donor support.

  3. Jupiter's clouds - Equatorial plumes and other cloud forms in the Pioneer 10 images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fountain, J. W.; Coffeen, D. L.; Doose, L. R.; Gehrels, T.; Swindell, W.; Tomasko, M. G.

    1974-01-01

    The imaging photopolarimeter experiment aboard the Pioneer 10 spacecraft produced two-dimensional maps of intensity and polarization in red and blue light at high resolution during flyby of Jupiter in December 1973. The present article describes cloud forms seen in the equatorial zone and compares them with rotational periods as a function of latitude derived from earth-based observations of features on Jupiter. A striking new feature consists of a bright, well-defined nucleus in the equatorial zone, with a plume apparently drawn out from the core of the nucleus.

  4. Victor Kandinsky (1849-89): pioneer of modern Russian forensic psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Vladimir; Margolin, Jacob; Witztum, Eliezer

    2012-06-01

    The paper describes Victor Kandinsky's professional achievements within nineteenth-century Russian forensic psychiatry. A thorough review of nineteenth-century Russian psychiatry is presented, followed by a short biographical account of Kandinsky's personal life. Within the backdrop of Russian forensic psychiatry toward the end of nineteenth century, Kandinsky's pioneer innovations in psychopathology and classification as well as his contributions to Russian forensic psychiatry are reviewed. These are exemplified by two of his forensic case studies relating to forensic responsibility and malingering, which are included in his famous book 'On Irresponsibility'.

  5. Radiocarbon evidence for maritime pioneer colonization at the origins of farming in west Mediterranean Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilhão, João

    2001-01-01

    Most radiocarbon dates for the earliest Neolithic cultures of west Mediterranean Europe are on samples of unidentified charcoal. If only results obtained on short lived samples (seeds, shells, and bone) of diagnostic material (domesticates, artifacts, and human remains) are considered, then the dates for the first appearance of the Neolithic package are indistinguishable statistically from central Italy to Portugal and cluster around 5400 calendar B.C. This rapidity of spread, no more than six generations, can be best explained in the framework of a maritime pioneer colonization model. PMID:11707599

  6. Definition of Saturn's magnetospheric model parameters for the Pioneer 11 flyby

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Belenkaya

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a description of a method for selection parameters for a global paraboloid model of Saturn's magnetosphere. The model is based on the preexisting paraboloid terrestrial and Jovian models of the magnetospheric field. Interaction of the solar wind with the magnetosphere, i.e. the magnetotail current system, and the magnetopause currents screening all magnetospheric field sources, is taken into account. The input model parameters are determined from observations of the Pioneer 11 inbound flyby.

  7. William and Caroline Herschel pioneers in late 18th-century astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Hoskin, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This beautifully structured book presents the essentials of William and Caroline Herschel's pioneering achievements in late 18th-century astronomy. Michael Hoskin shows that William Herschel was the first observational cosmologist and one of the first observers to attack the sidereal universe beyond the solar system:Herschel built instruments far better than any being used at the royal observatory. Aided by his sister Caroline, he commenced a great systematic survey that led to his discovery of Uranus in 1781.Unlike observers before him, whose telescopes did not reveal them as astronomical obj

  8. Nuclear energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Peter D

    2010-01-01

    The technical principles and practices of the civil nuclear industry are described with particular reference to fission and its products, natural and artificial radioactivity elements principally concerned and their relationships, main types of reactor, safety issues, the fuel cycle, waste management, issues related to weapon proliferation, environmental considerations and possible future developments.

  9. Applied nuclear physics in support of SBSS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strottman, D.

    1995-10-01

    Since the advent of the 800-MeV proton linear accelerator over 3 decades ago, the facilities on the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) mesa have pioneered many developments that provide unique capabilities within the Department of Energy (DOE) complex and in the world. New technologies based on the use of the world`s most intense, medium-energy linac, LAMPF, are being developed. They include destruction of long-lived components of nuclear waste, plutonium burning, energy production, production of tritium, and experiments for the science-based stockpile stewardship (SBSS) program. The design, assessment, and safety analysis of potential facilities involve the understanding of complex combinations of nuclear processes, which in turn establish new requirements on nuclear data that transcend the traditional needs of the fission and fusion reactor communities. Other areas of technology such as neutron and proton therapy applications are also placing new requirements on nuclear data. The proposed Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) now under discussion combined with the appropriate instrumentation will have unique features and capabilities of which there were previously only aspirations.

  10. Doomed pioneers: Gravity-flow deposition and bioturbation in marine oxygen-deficient environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Föilmi, Karl B.; Grimm, Kurt A.

    1990-11-01

    Isolated horizons of Thalassinoides and Gyrolithes burrows appear in exclusive association with gravity-flow deposits within sequences of nonbioturbated hernipelagic sedimentary rocks of the Miocene Monterey Formation of California and the Oligocene-Miocene San Gregorio Formation of Baja California. These burrowed levels are not associated with other ichnogenera such as Zoophycos and Chondrites. We infer a causal relation between gravity flow deposition and the presence of Thalassinoides and Gyrolithes and suggest that these gravity flows entrained thalassinidean crustacea. Upon deposition in oxygen-deficient environments, the surviving borrowers reworked substantial quantities of aminated, commonly organic-rich sediments in an environment from which they were previously excluded. The persistence of or the ecologically rapid return to oxygen-depleted conditions limited the survival time and ecological complexity of the transported infaunal dwellers and rendered them doomed pioneers. Ecological and physiological data support this hypothesis: thalassinidean crustacea have the capability to endure turbulent transport and survive up to 5-7 days of anoxia without being severely limited in their biological activities. The accurate recognition of doomed pioneer trace-fossil assemblages as ephemeral ecological phenomena in otherwise laminated successions may contribute to a better understanding and interpretation of paleo-oxygen levels and basin history.

  11. Elevation, Not Deforestation, Promotes Genetic Differentiation in a Pioneer Tropical Tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilla, Antonio R; Pope, Nathaniel; Jaffé, Rodolfo; Jha, Shalene

    2016-01-01

    The regeneration of disturbed forest is an essential part of tropical forest ecology, both with respect to natural disturbance regimes and large-scale human-mediated logging, grazing, and agriculture. Pioneer tree species are critical for facilitating the transition from deforested land to secondary forest because they stabilize terrain and enhance connectivity between forest fragments by increasing matrix permeability and initiating disperser community assembly. Despite the ecological importance of early successional species, little is known about their ability to maintain gene flow across deforested landscapes. Utilizing highly polymorphic microsatellite markers, we examined patterns of genetic diversity and differentiation for the pioneer understory tree Miconia affinis across the Isthmus of Panama. Furthermore, we investigated the impact of geographic distance, forest cover, and elevation on genetic differentiation among populations using circuit theory and regression modeling within a landscape genetics framework. We report marked differences in historical and contemporary migration rates and moderately high levels of genetic differentiation in M. affinis populations across the Isthmus of Panama. Genetic differentiation increased significantly with elevation and geographic distance among populations; however, we did not find that forest cover enhanced or reduced genetic differentiation in the study region. Overall, our results reveal strong dispersal for M. affinis across human-altered landscapes, highlighting the potential use of this species for reforestation in tropical regions. Additionally, this study demonstrates the importance of considering topography when designing programs aimed at conserving genetic diversity within degraded tropical landscapes.

  12. Long-term persistence of pioneer species in tropical forest soil seed banks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalling, J W; Brown, T A

    2008-10-05

    In tropical forests, pioneer species regenerate from seeds dispersed directly into canopy gaps, and from seeds that persisted in soil seed banks before gap formation. However, life-history models suggest that selection for long-term persistence of seeds in soil should be weak, as persistence incurs a fitness cost resulting from prolonged generation time. We use a carbon dating technique to provide the first direct measurements of seed persistence in undisturbed tropical forest seed banks. We show that seeds germinate successfully from surface soil microsites up to 38 years after dispersal. Decades-long persistence may be common in pioneers with relatively large mass, and appears to be unrelated to specific regeneration requirements. In Croton billbergianus, a sub-canopy tree that recruits in abundant small gaps, long-term persistence is associated with short-distance ballistic seed dispersal. In Trema micrantha, a canopy tree with widespread dispersal, persistence is associated with a requirement for large gaps that form infrequently in old-growth forest.

  13. Bacterial Rhizosphere Biodiversity from Several Pioneer Desert Sand Plants Near Jizan, Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Osman, Jorge R.

    2016-04-08

    Life in arid regions and, in particular, hot deserts is often limited due to their harsh environmental conditions, such as large temperature fluctuations and low amounts of water. These extreme environments can influence the microbial community present on the surface sands and any rhizosphere members surrounding desert plant roots. The Jizan desert area, located in Saudi Arabia, supports particular vegetation that grows in the large sandy flat terrain. We examined five different samples, four from the rhizosphere of pioneer plants plus a surface sand sample, and used pyrosequencing of PCR-amplified V1-V3 regions of 16S rDNA genes from total extracted DNA to reveal and compare the bacterial population diversity of the samples. The results showed a total of 3,530 OTUs in the five samples, calculated using ≥ 97% sequence similarity levels. The Chao1 estimation of the bacterial diversity fluctuated from 637 to 2,026 OTUs for a given sample. The most abundant members found in the samples belong to the Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria phyla. This work shows that the Jizan desert area of Saudi Arabia can contain a diverse bacterial community on the sand and surrounding the roots of pioneer desert plants. It also shows that desert sand microbiomes can vary depending on conditions, with broad implications for sandstone monument bacterial communities

  14. Geochronology and Geomorphology of the Pioneer Archaeological Site (10BT676), Upper Snake River Plain, Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keene, Joshua L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-04-01

    The Pioneer site in southeastern Idaho, an open-air, stratified, multi-component archaeological locality on the upper Snake River Plain, provides an ideal situation for understanding the geomorphic history of the Big Lost River drainage system. We conducted a block excavation with the goal of understanding the geochronological context of both cultural and geomorphological components at the site. The results of this study show a sequence of five soil formation episodes forming three terraces beginning prior to 7200 cal yr BP and lasting until the historic period, preserving one cultural component dated to ~3800 cal yr BP and multiple components dating to the last 800 cal yr BP. In addition, periods of deposition and stability at Pioneer indicate climate fluctuation during the middle Holocene (~7200-3800 cal yr BP), minimal deposition during the late Holocene, and a period of increased deposition potentially linked to the Little Ice Age. In addition, evidence for a high-energy erosion event dated to ~3800 cal yr BP suggest a catastrophic flood event during the middle Holocene that may correlate with volcanic activity at the Craters of the Moon lava fields to the northwest. This study provides a model for the study of alluvial terrace formations in arid environments and their potential to preserve stratified archaeological deposits.

  15. Pioneering Russian wind tunnels and first experimental investigations, 1871-1915

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbushin, A. R.

    2017-11-01

    A review of foreign and Russian sources is given mentioning the pioneering wind tunnels built in Russia at the turn of 19th and 20th centuries. The first wind tunnel in Russia was constructed by V.A. Pashkevich at the Mikhailovsky Artillery Academy in St. Petersburg in 1871. In total from 1871 through 1915, 18 wind tunnels were constructed in Russia: 11 in Moscow, 5 in St. Petersburg and 2 in Kaluga. An overview of the pioneering Russian wind tunnels built by V.A. Pashkevich, K.E. Tsiolkovsky, prof. N.E. Zhukovsky, D.P. Ryabushinsky and prof. K.P. Boklevsky is given. Schemes, photographs, formulas, description of the research and test results taken from the original papers published by the wind tunnel designers are given. Photographs from the N.E. Zhukovsky Scientific and Memorial Museum and the Archive of the Russian Academy of Sciences are used in the article. Methods of flow visualization and results of their application are presented. The Russian scientists and researchers' contribution to the development of techniques and methods of aerodynamic experiment is shown, including one of the most important aspects - the wall interference problem.

  16. Neotropical woodlice (isopoda colonizing leaf-litter of pioneer plants in a coal residue disposal environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Regina Podgaiski

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The irregular disposal of coal combustion residues has adverse impacts on terrestrial ecosystems. Pioneer plants and soil invertebrates play an important role in the recovery of these areas. The goal of this study was to investigate the colonization patterns of terrestrial isopods (Oniscidea in leaf litter of three spontaneous pioneer plants (grass - Poaceae, shrub - Euphorbiaceae, tree - Anarcadiaceae at sites used for fly ash or boiler slag disposal. The experiment consisted of eight blocks (four per disposal site of 12 litter bags each (four per plant species that were randomly removed after 6, 35, 70 or 140 days of field exposure. Three isopod species were found in the litter bags: Atlantoscia floridana (van Name, 1940 (Philosciidae; n = 116, Benthana taeniata Araujo & Buckup, 1994 (Philosciidae; n = 817 and Balloniscus sellowii (Brandt, 1833 (Balloniscidae; n = 48. The isopods colonized the three leaf-litter species equally during the exposure period. However, the pattern of leaf-litter colonization by these species suggests a conflict of objectives between high quality food and shelter availability. The occurrence of A. floridana and the abundance and fecundity of B. taeniata were influenced by the residue type, indicating that the isopods have different degrees of tolerance to the characteristics of the studied sites. Considering that terrestrial isopods are abundant detritivores and stimulate the humus-forming processes, it is suggested that they could have an indirect influence on the soil restoration of this area.

  17. Nuclear structure studies for the astrophysical r-process

    CERN Document Server

    Pfeiffer, B; Thielemann, F K; Walters, W B

    2001-01-01

    The production of the heaviest elements in nature occurs via the r-process, i.e. a combination of rapid neutron captures, the inverse photodisintegrations, and slower beta sup - -decays, beta-delayed processes as well as fission and possibly interactions with intense neutrino fluxes. A correct understanding and modeling requires the knowledge of nuclear properties far from stability and a detailed prescription of the astrophysical environment. Experiments at radioactive ion beam facilities have played a pioneering role in exploring the characteristics of nuclear structure in terms of masses and beta-decay properties. Initial examinations paid attention to highly unstable nuclei with magic neutron numbers and their beta-decay properties, related to the location and height of r-process peaks, while recent activities focus on the evolution of shell effects at large distances from the valley of stability. We show in site-independent applications the effect of both types of nuclear properties on r-process abundanc...

  18. Nuclear politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranson, John

    2009-04-01

    The sentiments expressed by Sidney Drell in his forum article "The nuclear threat: a new start" (February pp16-17) are laudable, but it was disappointing to find this almost entirely political story in isolation. The article, which outlined the prospects for reducing weapons stockpiles under the new US administration, would have been more pertinent as an introduction to a series describing the technology used in detecting nuclear-testing activity. It would have been interesting to discuss the specific equipment and methods used, together with the analysis and correlation techniques - along with an indication of how sensitive and reliable they are (if the information is not classified). It is far easier to detect an explosive event than it is to detect and quantify weapons stores, which is a key factor for any negotiated solution. Apart from deductions based on actual inspection and satellite surveillance, are there other techniques that can be applied to this issue?

  19. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are the limitations of Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a ... top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Children's (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging is ...

  20. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebe, J.J.

    1959-07-14

    High temperature reactors which are uniquely adapted to serve as the heat source for nuclear pcwered rockets are described. The reactor is comprised essentially of an outer tubular heat resistant casing which provides the main coolant passageway to and away from the reactor core within the casing and in which the working fluid is preferably hydrogen or helium gas which is permitted to vaporize from a liquid storage tank. The reactor core has a generally spherical shape formed entirely of an active material comprised of fissile material and a moderator material which serves as a diluent. The active material is fabricated as a gas permeable porous material and is interlaced in a random manner with very small inter-connecting bores or capillary tubes through which the coolant gas may flow. The entire reactor is divided into successive sections along the direction of the temperature gradient or coolant flow, each section utilizing materials of construction which are most advantageous from a nuclear standpoint and which at the same time can withstand the operating temperature of that particular zone. This design results in a nuclear reactor characterized simultaneously by a minimum critiral size and mass and by the ability to heat a working fluid to an extremely high temperature.

  1. Nuclear photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habs, D.; Günther, M. M.; Jentschel, M.; Thirolf, P. G.

    2012-07-01

    With the planned new γ-beam facilities like MEGa-ray at LLNL (USA) or ELI-NP at Bucharest (Romania) with 1013 γ/s and a band width of ΔEγ/Eγ≈10-3, a new era of γ beams with energies up to 20MeV comes into operation, compared to the present world-leading HIγS facility at Duke University (USA) with 108 γ/s and ΔEγ/Eγ≈3ṡ10-2. In the long run even a seeded quantum FEL for γ beams may become possible, with much higher brilliance and spectral flux. At the same time new exciting possibilities open up for focused γ beams. Here we describe a new experiment at the γ beam of the ILL reactor (Grenoble, France), where we observed for the first time that the index of refraction for γ beams is determined by virtual pair creation. Using a combination of refractive and reflective optics, efficient monochromators for γ beams are being developed. Thus, we have to optimize the total system: the γ-beam facility, the γ-beam optics and γ detectors. We can trade γ intensity for band width, going down to ΔEγ/Eγ≈10-6 and address individual nuclear levels. The term "nuclear photonics" stresses the importance of nuclear applications. We can address with γ-beams individual nuclear isotopes and not just elements like with X-ray beams. Compared to X rays, γ beams can penetrate much deeper into big samples like radioactive waste barrels, motors or batteries. We can perform tomography and microscopy studies by focusing down to μm resolution using Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence (NRF) for detection with eV resolution and high spatial resolution at the same time. We discuss the dominating M1 and E1 excitations like the scissors mode, two-phonon quadrupole octupole excitations, pygmy dipole excitations or giant dipole excitations under the new facet of applications. We find many new applications in biomedicine, green energy, radioactive waste management or homeland security. Also more brilliant secondary beams of neutrons and positrons can be produced.

  2. Technology readiness levels for advanced nuclear fuels and materials development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmack, W.J., E-mail: jon.carmack@inl.gov [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Braase, L.A.; Wigeland, R.A. [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Todosow, M. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • Definition of nuclear fuels system technology readiness level. • Identification of evaluation criteria for nuclear fuel system TRLs. • Application of TRLs to fuel systems. - Abstract: The Technology Readiness process quantitatively assesses the maturity of a given technology. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) pioneered the process in the 1980s to inform the development and deployment of new systems for space applications. The process was subsequently adopted by the Department of Defense (DoD) to develop and deploy new technology and systems for defense applications. It was also adopted by the Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate the maturity of new technologies in major construction projects. Advanced nuclear fuels and materials development is needed to improve the performance and safety of current and advanced reactors, and ultimately close the nuclear fuel cycle. Because deployment of new nuclear fuel forms requires a lengthy and expensive research, development, and demonstration program, applying the assessment process to advanced fuel development is useful as a management, communication, and tracking tool. This article provides definition of technology readiness levels (TRLs) for nuclear fuel technology as well as selected examples regarding the methods by which TRLs are currently used to assess the maturity of nuclear fuels and materials under development in the DOE Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) Program within the Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC).

  3. Nuclear tele medicine; Telemedicina nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas, L.; Hernandez, F.; Fernandez, R. [Departamento de Medicina Nuclear, Imagenologia Diagnostica, Xalapa, Veracruz (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    The great majority of the digital images of nuclear medicine are susceptible of being sent through internet. This has allowed that the work in diagnosis cabinets by image it can benefit of this modern technology. We have presented in previous congresses works related with tele medicine, however, due to the speed in the evolution of the computer programs and the internet, becomes necessary to make a current position in this modality of work. (Author)

  4. Gravity Field of the Jovian System from Pioneer and Voyager Tracking Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, J. K.; Synnott, S. P.

    1985-01-01

    Data sets from the Voyager and Pioneer flybys of Jupiter and the Galilean satellites are employed to characterize the Jovian magnetic field and the effects of the Io torus on transmissions. Both optical and Doppler radio data are considered, except for periods when the Jovian radiation environment disturbed the oscillator stability of the radio transmitters. Account is taken of small accelerations of the spacecraft by tidal forces of a single rising satellite, density differences in the Great Red Spot producing a columnar gravitational change, and three unknown objects in the inner Jovian system. Correction parameters are developed for the effects on the S-band data induced by the Jovian plasmasphere inwards from the Io torus. Calculations are then made of the planet and satellite masses, gravity harmonic coefficients, and orientation of the rotational pole. Large reductions in the uncertainties in previous mass esimates are obtained.

  5. Coleman Advocates for Children And Youth: a pioneering child advocacy organization (1974-2008).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnochan, Sarah; Austin, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    Coleman Advocates for Youth and Children is a pioneering 30-year-old child advocacy organization founded by several affluent community members and children's service professionals to stop housing abused and neglected children in juvenile hall. Today, low-income youth and parents in families of color are now assuming leadership in developing a unique hybrid approach that integrates community organizing with more traditional child advocacy strategies and focuses on increasing affordable housing and improving the city's educational system. The strategies employed by Coleman have also evolved, shifting from insider advocacy with administrative officials to public campaigns targeting the city budget process, to local initiative campaigns, and most recently to electoral politics. This organizational history features the issues mission and structure, leadership, managing issues, advocacy strategies and community relations, and funding.

  6. Pioneer women in veterinary medicine, their history and where they studied.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Howard H

    2012-05-01

    The women described in this paper were the early pioneers in veterinary medicine; they studied in some of the best veterinary colleges in the world at that time. They paved the way for other women who studied veterinary medicine in later years. According to Drum and Whitely,25 by 1936, there were only 30 female veterinarians in the United States; this was an era when admission to veterinary college for women was nearly impossible. In 1963, there were 277 female veterinarians in the United States, but by 1987 women made up 17% of the veterinary profession. The February 15, 2010 issue of the JAVMA reported that male enrollment in U.S. veterinary colleges decreased from 89% for the 1969-70 school year to 22.4% for 2008-09. During the same period female enrollment increased from 11.0% to 77.6%.

  7. O. Ivar lovaas: pioneer of applied behavior analysis and intervention for children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Tristram; Eikeseth, Svein

    2011-03-01

    O. Ivar Lovaas (1927-2010) devoted nearly half a century to ground-breaking research and practice aimed at improving the lives of children with autism and their families. In the 1960s, he pioneered applied behavior analytic (ABA) interventions to decrease severe challenging behaviors and establish communicative language. Later, he sought to improve outcomes by emphasizing early intervention for preschoolers with autism, provided in family homes with active parental participation. His studies indicated that many children who received early intensive ABA made dramatic gains in development. Lovaas also disseminated ABA widely through intervention manuals, educational films, and public speaking. Moreover, as an enthusiastic teacher and devoted mentor, he inspired many students and colleagues to enter the field of ABA and autism intervention.

  8. INFLUANCE OF TRAINING PROCESS ON DEVELOPMENT OF EXSPLOSIVE STRENGHT OF LEGS AT PIONEER BASKETBALL PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukašin Badža

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The research is trying to give an answer on a question whether the training process which lasted two years influenced on development of exsplosive strenght of legs (one of basic psysical abilities at pioneer basketball players. The sample in a research are basketball players from „Danubius - Vojvodina Srbijagas” team, from Novi Sad. The group counts 20 players who participated in training process and on who measuring was conducted. Data were collected per two years, and measuring were exert three times during this period. Tests that were used in this research are: long jump, high jump and running 20m. The obtained data will be processed statistically, using ANOVA for repeated measures and descriptive statistics. Research results will be represented in tables and discussed in text.

  9. Venus - Magellan Data Superimposed on Pioneer Venus Data - Devana Chasma and Phoebe Regio

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    This image covers part of the 150 kilometer (90 mile) wide, 1 to 1.5 kilometer (0.6 to 0.9 mile) deep valley, Devana Chasma. The image is a composite of the first two orbits recorded by the Magellan spacecraft in August 1990 superimposed on Pioneer Venus topography. This image is located at the intersection of Devana Chasma and the Phoebe Regio upland. It covers a region approximately 525 by 525 kilometers (315 by 315 miles), centered 288 degrees east longitude on the equator. Devana Chasma consists of radar bright lineaments, interpreted to be fault scarps, oriented in a north-northeast direction. This part of the planet is thought to be an area where the crust is being stretched and pulled apart producing a rift valley, similar to the East African rift.

  10. Hooked on a New Technology: The Automation Pioneers in Post-War Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stig Kvaal

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the initial activities in servo engineering in Norway originating in the early 1950s based on contacts at the Massachusets Institute of Technology. The activities were initiated by a small group of servo enthusiasts who, through the Feedback Control Committee in the research council, managed to coordinate national activities and establish strong research groups in Trondheim, Bergen and Oslo. After the initial phase of establishing the research groups, there was a continuous strong focus on connections with industry and industrial applications. In the mid-1960s the committee was strengthened and became the Automation and Data Processing Committee. The initial group of automation pioneers have left a lasting impact on the academic and industrial fields of servo engineering and automation in Norway.

  11. A renaissance for the pioneering 16S rRNA gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tringe, Susannah; Hugenholtz, Philip

    2008-09-07

    Culture-independent molecular surveys using the 16S rRNA gene have become a mainstay for characterizing microbial community structure over the last quarter century. More recently this approach has been overshadowed by metagenomics, which provides a global overview of a community's functional potential rather than just an inventory of its inhabitants. However, the pioneering 16S rRNA gene is making a comeback in its own right thanks to a number of methodological advancements including higher resolution (more sequences), analysis of multiple related samples (e.g. spatial and temporal series) and improved metadata and use of metadata. The standard conclusion that microbial ecosystems are remarkably complex and diverse is now being replaced by detailed insights into microbial ecology and evolution based only on this one historically important marker gene.

  12. [Dr. Mehmed Emin Fehmi's pioneering medical history work: the Hakayik-i Tababet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinç, Gülten

    Mehmed Emin Fehmi, who graduated in 1866 with the rank of captain from the Ottoman Medical School (Mekteb-i Tibbiye), died in 1871, During his short life, Dr. Fehmi taught physics classes and translated two books, as well as writing two books and several articles himself. Mehmed Emin Fehmi's "Hakayik-1 Tababet [Facts of Medicine], "published for the first time in 1870, was the earliest printed Ottoman Turkish work on the history of medicine. In the Hakayik-1 Tababet, the medical history of the Greek and Roman eras, the duties of physicians and medical care, and the advancement of medicine are examined from a philosophical and critical perspective. In our research we aimed to clarify the importance and significance of the work in medical history by analyzing its physical characteristics and contents, since it is a pioneering work in Turkish medical history among Ottoman medical publications.

  13. Propulsion by light: a tribute to the German pioneer Eugen Saenger (Plenary Paper)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohn, Willy L.

    2004-09-01

    Although the laser was not yet invented Eugen Saenger, one of the most prominent German personalities in the early development of rocket science and technology suggested to use photons for the propulsion of spacecrafts in the fifties. In contrast to current schemes which are basically aimed at laser induced ablation processes, Eugen Saenger started with the idea of using the radiation pressure itself for propulsion purposes. A review of his pioneering work in that area will be supported by numerous historical documents and personal remembrance showing his effort to promote unconventional ideas. The paper also emphasizes how some of the original concepts are being revisited and partly implemented by using today"s laser technology.

  14. Samuel Latham Mitchill (1764-1831). A neglected American pioneer of anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, N A

    1985-02-01

    In 1795, Samuel Latham Mitchill, MD, of New York City published a theory of contagion. He proposed that the cause of plaguelike disease was exposure to "gaseous oxide of azote" (nitrous oxide). During the course of his exposition of this theory, Mitchill presented a clear and vivid description of the effects of nitrous oxide inhalation and the resulting anesthetic state. This earliest description of nitrous oxide narcosis appears to have been overlooked. It antedates that of Humphry Davy by five years. Samuel Latham Mitchill should be accorded an important position among the pioneers of anesthesia because of this description and also because his interest in nitrous oxide was the direct stimulus for Humphry Davy's investigations, ultimately leading to introduction of anesthesia into clinical practice.

  15. Stem cell research and therapy in the Islamic republic of Iran: pioneering in the Islamic world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miremadi, Tahereh; Salekdeh, Ghasem Hosseini; Aghdami, Nasser; Gharanfoli, Mohsen; Vasei, Mohammad; Kouhkan, Azam; Baharvand, Hossein

    2013-01-01

    In the early 2000s, the Iranian stem cell research and technology had a relatively strong start that benefited from religious blessings, political and public support, as well as scientific endeavors on the part of non-governmental and public research organizations and universities. Later on, it developed a dynamic niche market of public, private start-up, and spin-off companies and organizations that pioneered in the Islamic world in terms of ISI papers, clinical trials, and cell therapy. However, at present, it faces new challenges stemming from the insufficient finance and a comprehensive law and regulation structure to keep its momentum. To remedy this situation, the scientific community and other stakeholders need to have a series of shared long-time goals and try to build consensus on how to achieve them through nationally approved policy documents.

  16. Book Review: Sustainable Luxury and Social Entrepreneurship. Volume II: More Stories from the Pioneers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjold, Else

    2017-01-01

    volume Sustainable Luxury and Social Entrepreneurship: Stories of the Pioneers, published in 2014. The book series, as well as the awards, seeks to investigate and promote the motives, context, and practical endeavours of sustainable entrepreneurs within the premium and luxury sector.......This book is based on the result of the 2016 IE Awards for Sustainability in the Premium and Luxury Sectors, hosted by IE University and IE Business School in Madrid. It is co-edited by Executive Director of the awards Eugenia Girón and President and Director of the award, Miguel Angel Gardetti......, who is also Director of the IE University Center for Studies for Sustainable Luxury. As such, it represents an overview of the content, ideas and visions of this particular event, which has been held annually since 2011 in Buenos Aires and Madrid, respectively. It succeeds the two editors’ first...

  17. The life, science and times of Lev Vasilevich Shubnikov pioneer of Soviet cryogenics

    CERN Document Server

    Reinders, L J

    2018-01-01

    This book describes the life, times and science of the Soviet physicist Lev Vasilevich Shubnikov (1901-1937).  From 1926 to 1930 Shubnikov worked in Leiden where he was the co-discoverer of the Shubnikov-De Haas effect. After his return to the Soviet Union he founded in Kharkov in Ukraine the first low-temperature laboratory in the Soviet Union, which in a very short time became the foremost physics institute in the country and among other things led to the discovery of type-II superconductivity. In August 1937 Shubnikov, together with many of his colleagues, was arrested and shot early in November 1937. This gripping story gives deep insights into the pioneering work of Soviet physicists before the Second World War, as well as providing much previously unpublished information about their brutal treatment at the hands of the Stalinist regime.

  18. Pioneering space research in the ussr and mathematical modelling of large problem of radiation transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sushkevich, T. A.

    2011-09-01

    This review is to recall to scientists of the older generation about some historical pages of our memory and about many famous researchers, teachers and colleagues. As to the younger researchers and foreign colleagues, it will be useful for them to get to know about pioneer advancements of the Soviet scientists in the field of information and mathematical supply for cosmonautic problems on the eve of the space era. Main attention is paid down to the scientific experiments conducted on the piloted space vehicles and the research collectives who created the information and mathematical tools for the first space projects. The role of Mstislav Vsevolodovich Keldysh, the Major Theoretician of cosmonautics, is in particular emphasized, who determined in the most degree the basic directions of development of space research and remote sensing of the Earth and planets that are shortly called as REMOTE SENSING.

  19. The Venus precursor - An environmental effect on the Pioneer Venus spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, William C.; Luhmann, Janet G.; Russell, Christopher T.; Scarf, Frederick L.

    1989-01-01

    Data obtained by the Pioneer Venus Orbiter's retarding potential analyzer during two orbits with periapsis in the subpolar region of Venus are presented. Two electron populations are observed: a low-temperature population that is interpreted to be an electron sheath population trapped in the positive spacecraft potential well, and a high-temperature population representing the ambient solar wind electron population. The sheath population's increase and decrease by a factor of 5, as the spacecraft approaches and recedes from a position near periapsis (independently of the bow shock's position relative to the spacecraft), is interpreted as being due to an increase and decrease in the density of cold electrons trapped in the spacecraft potential well.

  20. Venus in motion: An animated video catalog of Pioneer Venus Orbiter Cloud Photopolarimeter images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limaye, Sanjay S.

    1992-01-01

    Images of Venus acquired by the Pioneer Venus Orbiter Cloud Photopolarimeter (OCPP) during the 1982 opportunity have been utilized to create a short video summary of the data. The raw roll by roll images were first navigated using the spacecraft attitude and orbit information along with the CPP instrument pointing information. The limb darkening introduced by the variation of solar illumination geometry and the viewing angle was then modelled and removed. The images were then projected to simulate a view obtained from a fixed perspective with the observer at 10 Venus radii away and located above a Venus latitude of 30 degrees south and a longitude 60 degrees west. A total of 156 images from the 1982 opportunity have been animated at different dwell rates.

  1. Development and certification of the innovative pioneer oil burner for residential heating appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamath, B. [Heat Wise Inc., Ridge, NY (United States)

    1997-09-01

    The Pioneer burner represents another important milestone for the oil heat industry. It is the first practical burner design that is designated for use in small capacity heating appliances matching the needs of modern energy efficient home designs. Firing in the range of 0.3 GPH to 0.65 GPH (40,000-90,000 Btu/hr) it allows for new oil heating appliance designs to compete with the other major fuel choices in the small design load residential market. This market includes energy efficient single family houses, town-houses, condominiums, modular units, and mobile homes. The firing range also is wide enough to cover a large percentage of more conventional heating equipment and home designs as well. Having recently passed Underwriters Laboratory certification tests the burner in now being field tested in several homes and samples are being made available to interested boiler and furnace manufacturers for product development and application testing.

  2. Pioneers on the Astrosociological Frontier: Introduction to the First Symposium on Astrosociology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pass, Jim

    2009-03-01

    Astrosociology is a relatively new multidisciplinary field that scientifically investigates astrosocial phenomena (i.e., social, cultural, and behavioral patterns related to space exploration and related issues). The "astrosociological frontier" represents an analogous framework to that of space as the "final frontier," as both territories are quite empty of human activity and ripe for exploration. This focus on the astrosociological frontier provides insights about the need for a social-scientific field to place the human dimension in its proper place alongside familiar space community concerns such as engineering. The astrosociological frontier refers to the lack of development of astrosociology as a scientific field—or anything like it earlier during the space age. It includes both the 1) unoccupied "landscape" in academia characterized by the lack of astrosociology in its curricula and 2) dearth of space research focused on social-scientific (i.e., astrosociological) topics both inside and outside of traditional academia in collaboration with traditional space community members and the new space entrepreneurs. Within academia, the "frontier" is characterized by a lack of courses, programs, and departments dedicated to astrosociology. In the future, proponents of this new field expect the astrosociological frontier to become characterized by a growing number of "settlements" in curricula across the country and world. As things stand, however, the early "astrosociological pioneers" include those who seek to explore these underappreciated issues within academic and professional climates that discourage them from pursuing their interests. Thus, the "1st Symposium on Astrosociology" at the 2009 SPESIF conference represents an important expedition consisting of pioneering participants willing to venture into a little-explored territory with the goal of developing astrosociology.

  3. Pioneer Factors FOXA1 and FOXA2 Assist Selective Glucocorticoid Receptor Signaling in Human Endometrial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whirledge, Shannon; Kisanga, Edwina P; Taylor, Robert N; Cidlowski, John A

    2017-11-01

    Successful pregnancy relies on dynamic control of cell signaling to achieve uterine receptivity and the necessary biological changes required for endometrial decidualization, embryo implantation, and fetal development. Glucocorticoids are master regulators of intracellular signaling and can directly regulate embryo implantation and endometrial remodeling during murine pregnancy. In immortalized human uterine cells, we have shown that glucocorticoids and estradiol (E2) coregulate thousands of genes. Recently, glucocorticoids and E2 were shown to coregulate the expression of Left-right determination factor 1 (LEFTY1), previously implicated in the regulation of decidualization. To elucidate the molecular mechanism by which glucocorticoids and E2 regulate the expression of LEFTY1, immortalized and primary human endometrial cells were evaluated for gene expression and receptor recruitment to regulatory regions of the LEFTY1 gene. Glucocorticoid administration induced expression of LEFTY1 messenger RNA and protein and recruitment of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and activated polymerase 2 to the promoter of LEFTY1. Glucocorticoid-mediated recruitment of GR was dependent on pioneer factors FOXA1 and FOXA2. E2 was found to antagonize glucocorticoid-mediated induction of LEFTY1 by reducing recruitment of GR, FOXA1, FOXA2, and activated polymerase 2 to the LEFTY1 promoter. Gene expression analysis identified several genes whose glucocorticoid-dependent induction required FOXA1 and FOXA2 in endometrial cells. These results suggest a molecular mechanism by which E2 antagonizes GR-dependent induction of specific genes by preventing the recruitment of the pioneer factors FOXA1 and FOXA2 in a physiologically relevant model. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society.

  4. Science From Beyond: NASA's Pioneer Plaque and the History of Interstellar Communication, 1957- 1972

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macauley, William

    2012-05-01

    In the late twentieth century, science and technology facilitated exploration beyond the Solar System and extended human knowledge through messages comprised of pictures and mathematical symbols, transmitted from radio telescopes and inscribed on material artifacts attached to spacecraft. ‘Interstellar communication' refers to collective efforts by scientists and co-workers to detect and transmit intelligible messages between humans and supposed extraterrestrial intelligence in remote star systems. Interstellar messages are designed to communicate universal knowledge without recourse to text, human linguistic systems or anthropomorphic content because it is assumed that recipients have no prior knowledge of humankind or the planet we inhabit. Scientists must therefore imagine how extraterrestrials will relate to human knowledge and culture. The production and transmission of interstellar messages became interdisciplinary design problems that involved collaboration and exchange of ideas between scientists, visual artists, and others. My proposed paper will review sociocultural aspects of interstellar communication since the late 1950s and focus on key issues regarding conception, design and production of a specific interstellar message launched into space during the early 1970s - NASA's Pioneer plaque. The paper will explore how research on the history of interstellar communication relates to previous historical and sociological studies on rhetorical aspects of visual representation and mathematics in scientific practice. In particular, I will explain how the notion of ‘inscription' is an appropriate conceptual tool for analyzing how scientists have used pictures to articulate and validate knowledge claims and scientific facts. I argue that scientific knowledge carried on interstellar messages such as the Pioneer plaque is constituted in material practices and inscription technologies that translate natural objects, agency and culture into legible forms

  5. Applications of nuclear physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, A. C.

    2017-02-01

    Today the applications of nuclear physics span a very broad range of topics and fields. This review discusses a number of aspects of these applications, including selected topics and concepts in nuclear reactor physics, nuclear fusion, nuclear non-proliferation, nuclear-geophysics, and nuclear medicine. The review begins with a historic summary of the early years in applied nuclear physics, with an emphasis on the huge developments that took place around the time of World War II, and that underlie the physics involved in designs of nuclear explosions, controlled nuclear energy, and nuclear fusion. The review then moves to focus on modern applications of these concepts, including the basic concepts and diagnostics developed for the forensics of nuclear explosions, the nuclear diagnostics at the National Ignition Facility, nuclear reactor safeguards, and the detection of nuclear material production and trafficking. The review also summarizes recent developments in nuclear geophysics and nuclear medicine. The nuclear geophysics areas discussed include geo-chronology, nuclear logging for industry, the Oklo reactor, and geo-neutrinos. The section on nuclear medicine summarizes the critical advances in nuclear imaging, including PET and SPECT imaging, targeted radionuclide therapy, and the nuclear physics of medical isotope production. Each subfield discussed requires a review article unto itself, which is not the intention of the current review; rather, the current review is intended for readers who wish to get a broad understanding of applied nuclear physics.

  6. Applications of nuclear physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, A C

    2017-02-01

    Today the applications of nuclear physics span a very broad range of topics and fields. This review discusses a number of aspects of these applications, including selected topics and concepts in nuclear reactor physics, nuclear fusion, nuclear non-proliferation, nuclear-geophysics, and nuclear medicine. The review begins with a historic summary of the early years in applied nuclear physics, with an emphasis on the huge developments that took place around the time of World War II, and that underlie the physics involved in designs of nuclear explosions, controlled nuclear energy, and nuclear fusion. The review then moves to focus on modern applications of these concepts, including the basic concepts and diagnostics developed for the forensics of nuclear explosions, the nuclear diagnostics at the National Ignition Facility, nuclear reactor safeguards, and the detection of nuclear material production and trafficking. The review also summarizes recent developments in nuclear geophysics and nuclear medicine. The nuclear geophysics areas discussed include geo-chronology, nuclear logging for industry, the Oklo reactor, and geo-neutrinos. The section on nuclear medicine summarizes the critical advances in nuclear imaging, including PET and SPECT imaging, targeted radionuclide therapy, and the nuclear physics of medical isotope production. Each subfield discussed requires a review article unto itself, which is not the intention of the current review; rather, the current review is intended for readers who wish to get a broad understanding of applied nuclear physics.

  7. Dictionary of nuclear engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sube, R.

    1985-01-01

    Ralf Sube, an experienced compiler of three wellknown four-language reference works has now prepared this glossary of nuclear engineering terms in English, German, French and Russian. Based on the proven lexicography of the Technik-Worterbuch series, it comprises about 30,000 terms in each language covering the following: Nuclear and Atomic Physics; Nuclear Radiation and Isotopes; Nuclear Materials; Nuclear Facilties; Nuclear Power Industry; Nuclear Weapons.

  8. Applications of Nuclear Physics

    OpenAIRE

    Hayes, Anna C.

    2017-01-01

    Today the applications of nuclear physics span a very broad range of topics and fields. This review discusses a number of aspects of these applications, including selected topics and concepts in nuclear reactor physics, nuclear fusion, nuclear non-proliferation, nuclear-geophysics, and nuclear medicine. The review begins with a historic summary of the early years in applied nuclear physics, with an emphasis on the huge developments that took place around the time of World War II, and that und...

  9. Rocketship Education: Pioneering Charter Network Innovates Again, Bringing Tech Closer to Teachers. An Opportunity Culture Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Sharon Kebschull; Ableidinger, Joe

    2013-01-01

    When Rocketship Education, a pioneering, rapidly expanding charter school network, looked at its results, it could have rested on its laurels. With seven schools in California together ranking as the top public school system for low-income elementary students, Rocketship had proof that its blended-learning model--combining online learning with…

  10. 75 FR 19880 - Safety Zone; BW PIONEER at Walker Ridge 249, Outer Continental Shelf FPSO, Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-16

    ... shuttle tanker will connect its bow to the FPSO BW PIONEER and its stern to an attendant tug that will.... Basis and Purpose The Coast Guard is establishing a safety zone of 500 meters around the stern of the...) around the stern of the FPSO when it is moored to the turret buoy is a safety zone. If the FPSO detaches...

  11. The selector gene Pax7 dictates alternate pituitary cell fates through its pioneer action on chromatin remodeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Budry, L.; Balsalobre, A.; Gauthier, Y.; Khetchoumian, K.; L'Honore, A.; Vallette-Kasic, S.; Brue, T; Figarella-Branger, D.; Meij, B.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/164045805; Drouin, J.

    2012-01-01

    Genes Dev. 2012 Oct 15;26(20):2299-310. doi: 10.1101/gad.200436.112. The selector gene Pax7 dictates alternate pituitary cell fates through its pioneer action on chromatin remodeling. Budry L, Balsalobre A, Gauthier Y, Khetchoumian K, L'honoré A, Vallette S, Brue T, Figarella-Branger D, Meij B,

  12. Recovering a Forgotten Pioneer of Science Studies: C. E. Ayers' Deweyan Critique of Science and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddington, David I.

    2013-01-01

    This paper brings to light the ideas of a pioneering but largely forgotten social critic, C. E. Ayres. In his first book, "Science: The False Messiah" (1927), which was written in consultation with John Dewey, Ayres advanced a forceful and original critique of science and technology. He argued that technological change was occurring at a…

  13. The influence of biosurfactants released by S-mitis BMS on the adhesion of pioneer strains and cariogenic bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hoogmoed, CG; Van der Mei, HC; Busscher, HJ

    2004-01-01

    The influence of Streptococcus mitis BMS biosurfactants on the adhesion of eight pioneer and four cariogenic oral bacterial strains was, for a first screening, examined in a microtiter plate assay. The adhesion to pellicle-coated wells of three cariogenic strains was inhibited >70% by the

  14. Hydraulic architecture of two species differing in wood density: opposing strategies in co-occurring tropical pioneer trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katherine A. McCulloh; Daniel M. Johnson; Frederick C. Meinzer; Steven L. Voelker; Barbara Lachenbruch; Jean-Christophe. Domec

    2012-01-01

    Co-occurring species often have different strategies for tolerating daily cycles of water stress. One underlying parameter that can link together the suite of traits that enables a given strategy is wood density. Here we compare hydraulic traits of two pioneer species from a tropical forest in Panama that differ in wood density: Miconia argentea...

  15. D. Carlos de Braganca, a Pioneer of Experimental Marine Oceanography: Filling the Gap between Formal and Informal Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Claudia; Pereira, Goncalo; Chagas, Isabel

    2012-01-01

    The activities presented in this paper are part of a wider project that investigates the effects of infusing the history of science in science teaching, toward students' learning and attitude. Focused on the work of D. Carlos de Braganca, King of Portugal from 1889 to 1908, and a pioneer oceanographer, the activities are addressed at the secondary…

  16. Benefits, Barriers and Prerequisites for Web 2.0 Learning Activities in the Classroom: The View of Greek Pioneer Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaigeorgiou, George; Grammatikopoulou, Athina

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to identify the learning benefits and the challenges of Web 2.0 educational activities when applied in typical learning settings and as perceived by pioneer educators with extensive Web 2.0 experience. Design/Methodology/Approach: The testimonies of 26 Greek primary and secondary education teachers were collected. All…

  17. Angelo Sismonda (1807–1878), pioneer of geological mapping in the Alps of Savoy and the Piedmont: a bibliography

    CERN Document Server

    Hollier, John; Basaglia, Tullio; Hollier, Anita

    2016-01-01

    Angelo Sismonda (Ange Sismonda) was an Italian mineralogist and geologist based in Turin during the Risorgimento who produced pioneering maps of the Alps in the Kingdom of Sardinia. Well known during his lifetime, he is now mentioned only in passing by historians and no comprehensive bibliography of his work exists. To render his work more accessible, we present a short biography and a bibliography.

  18. Selection of a common communication link geometry for Saturn, Uranus and Titan. [mission planning for Pioneer and Mariner space probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, T.

    1974-01-01

    Mission analysis link parametrics, considering a Pioneer baseline, are developed through launch energies, flyby radii, and trip time calculations. Projected is also a 1979 Jupiter Uranus opportunity for a derivative Mariner to fly to Uranus by using the gravity field of Jupiter.

  19. Pioneering farmers cultivating new lands in the North – The expansion of agrarian societies during the Neolithic and Bronze Age in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lasse

    2012-01-01

    Pioneering farmers cultivating new lands in the North – The expansion of agrarian societies during the Neolithic and Bronze Age in Scandinavia......Pioneering farmers cultivating new lands in the North – The expansion of agrarian societies during the Neolithic and Bronze Age in Scandinavia...

  20. Nuclear "waffles"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, A. S.; Berry, D. K.; Briggs, C. M.; Caplan, M. E.; Horowitz, C. J.

    2014-11-01

    Background: The dense neutron-rich matter found in supernovae and inside neutron stars is expected to form complex nonuniform phases, often referred to as nuclear pasta. The pasta shapes depend on density, temperature and proton fraction and determine many transport properties in supernovae and neutron star crusts. Purpose: To characterize the topology and compute two observables, the radial distribution function (RDF) g (r ) and the structure factor S (q ) , for systems with proton fractions Yp=0.10 ,0.20 ,0.30 , and 0.40 at about one-third of nuclear saturation density, n =0.050 fm-3 , and temperatures near k T =1 MeV . Methods: We use two recently developed hybrid CPU/GPU codes to perform large scale molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with 51 200 and 409 600 nucleons. From the output of the MD simulations we obtain the two desired observables. Results: We compute and discuss the differences in topology and observables for each simulation. We observe that the two lowest proton fraction systems simulated, Yp=0.10 and 0.20 , equilibrate quickly and form liquidlike structures. Meanwhile, the two higher proton fraction systems, Yp=0.30 and 0.40 , take a longer time to equilibrate and organize themselves in solidlike periodic structures. Furthermore, the Yp=0.40 system is made up of slabs, lasagna phase, interconnected by defects while the Yp=0.30 systems consist of a stack of perforated plates, the nuclear waffle phase. Conclusions: The periodic configurations observed in our MD simulations for proton fractions Yp≥0.30 have important consequences for the structure factors S (q ) of protons and neutrons, which relate to many transport properties of supernovae and neutron star crust. A detailed study of the waffle phase and how its structure depends on temperature, size of the simulation, and the screening length showed that finite-size effects appear to be under control and, also, that the plates in the waffle phase merge at temperatures slightly above 1.0 MeV and

  1. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, H.I.; Smith, R.C.

    1958-01-21

    This patent relates to nuclear reactors of the type which use a liquid fuel, such as a solution of uranyl sulfate in ordinary water which acts as the moderator. The reactor is comprised of a spherical vessel having a diameter of about 12 inches substantially surrounded by a reflector of beryllium oxide. Conventionnl control rods and safety rods are operated in slots in the reflector outside the vessel to control the operation of the reactor. An additional means for increasing the safety factor of the reactor by raising the ratio of delayed neutrons to prompt neutrons, is provided and consists of a soluble sulfate salt of beryllium dissolved in the liquid fuel in the proper proportion to obtain the result desired.

  2. On China's Nuclear Doctrine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Liping

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear weapons have played an important role in China's national strategy. China’s nuclear doctrine has a very strong continuity. Nevertheless, China has made readjustments in its nuclear doctrine according to the changes of its internal and external situation and its general strategic threat perception. China’s nuclear doctrine has experienced a process of evolution from anti-nuclear blackmail to minimum deterrence. There are five major parts in China's nuclear doctrine: policy of declaration, nuclear development, nuclear deployment, nuclear employment, and nuclear disarmament. Because China is faced with a different situation from other nuclear powers and has its own strategic culture, China has a nuclear doctrine with its own characteristics. China’s nuclear doctrine has been affiliated with and has served the national development strategy, national security strategy, national defense policy and military strategy of China.

  3. Managing the Nuclear Fuel Cycle, The Big Picture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brett W Carlsen

    2010-07-01

    The nuclear industry, at least in the United States, has failed to deliver on its promise of cheap, abundant energy. After pioneering the science and application and becoming a primary exporter of nuclear technologies, domestic use of nuclear power fell out-of-favor with the public and has been relatively stagnant for several decades. Recently, renewed interest has generated optimism and talk of a nuclear renaissance characterized by a new generation of safe, clean nuclear plants in this country. But, as illustrated by recent policy shifts regarding closure of the fuel cycle and geologic disposal of high-level radioactive wastes, significant hurdles have yet to be overcome. Using the principles of system dynamics, this paper will take a holistic look at the nuclear industry and the interactions between the key players to explore both the intended and unintended consequences of efforts to address the issues that have impeded the growth of the industry and also to illustrate aspects which must be effectively addressed if the renaissance of our industry is to be achieved and sustained.

  4. Reconversion of nuclear weapons

    CERN Document Server

    Kapitza, Sergei P

    1992-01-01

    The nuclear predicament or nuclear option. Synopsis of three lectures : 1- The physical basis of nuclear technology. Physics of fission. Chain reaction in reactors and weapons. Fission fragments. Separration of isotopes. Radiochemistry.2- Nuclear reactors with slow and fast neutrons. Power, size, fuel and waste. Plutonium production. Dose rate, shielding and health hazard. The lessons of Chernobyl3- Nuclear weapons. Types, energy, blast and fallout. Fusion and hydrogen bombs. What to do with nuclear weapons when you cannot use them? Testing. Nonmilittary use. Can we get rid of the nuclear weapon? Nuclear proliferation. Is there a nuclear future?

  5. Nuclear fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beauvy, M.; Berthoud, G.; Defranceschi, M.; Ducros, G.; Guerin, Y.; Limoge, Y.; Madic, Ch.; Santarini, G.; Seiler, J.M.; Sollogoub, P.; Vernaz, E.; Guillet, J.L.; Ballagny, A.; Bechade, J.L.; Bonin, B.; Brachet, J.Ch.; Delpech, M.; Dubois, S.; Ferry, C.; Freyss, M.; Gilbon, D.; Grouiller, J.P.; Iracane, D.; Lansiart, S.; Lemoine, P.; Lenain, R.; Marsault, Ph.; Michel, B.; Noirot, J.; Parrat, D.; Pelletier, M.; Perrais, Ch.; Phelip, M.; Pillon, S.; Poinssot, Ch.; Vallory, J.; Valot, C.; Pradel, Ph.; Bonin, B.; Bouquin, B.; Dozol, M.; Lecomte, M.; Vallee, A.; Bazile, F.; Parisot, J.F.; Finot, P.; Roberts, J.F

    2009-07-01

    Fuel is one of the essential components in a reactor. It is within that fuel that nuclear reactions take place, i.e. fission of heavy atoms, uranium and plutonium. Fuel is at the core of the reactor, but equally at the core of the nuclear system as a whole. Fuel design and properties influence reactor behavior, performance, and safety. Even though it only accounts for a small part of the cost per kilowatt-hour of power provided by current nuclear power plants, good utilization of fuel is a major economic issue. Major advances have yet to be achieved, to ensure longer in-reactor dwell-time, thus enabling fuel to yield more energy; and improve ruggedness. Aside from economics, and safety, such strategic issues as use of plutonium, conservation of resources, and nuclear waste management have to be addressed, and true technological challenges arise. This Monograph surveys current knowledge regarding in-reactor behavior, operating limits, and avenues for R and D. It also provides illustrations of ongoing research work, setting out a few noteworthy results recently achieved. Content: 1 - Introduction; 2 - Water reactor fuel: What are the features of water reactor fuel? 9 (What is the purpose of a nuclear fuel?, Ceramic fuel, Fuel rods, PWR fuel assemblies, BWR fuel assemblies); Fabrication of water reactor fuels (Fabrication of UO{sub 2} pellets, Fabrication of MOX (mixed uranium-plutonium oxide) pellets, Fabrication of claddings); In-reactor behavior of UO{sub 2} and MOX fuels (Irradiation conditions during nominal operation, Heat generation, and removal, The processes involved at the start of irradiation, Fission gas behavior, Microstructural changes); Water reactor fuel behavior in loss of tightness conditions (Cladding, the first containment barrier, Causes of failure, Consequences of a failure); Microscopic morphology of fuel ceramic and its evolution under irradiation; Migration and localization of fission products in UOX and MOX matrices (The ceramic under

  6. Soil organic matter from pioneer species and its implications to phytostabilization of mined sites in the Sierra de Cartagena (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottenhof, C J M; Faz Cano, A; Arocena, J M; Nierop, K G J; Verstraten, J M; van Mourik, J M

    2007-11-01

    Pioneer plant species were observed growing on mined areas despite unfavourable conditions such as extreme pH, high salinity and phytotoxic levels of several elements. This study evaluated the contribution of pioneer species to the accumulation of soil organic matter (SOM). We collected 51 samples from 17 non-vegetated, natural and pioneer-vegetated sites in five highly saline mined areas in the Sierra de Cartagena (Spain). The composition of SOM was determined using total C, N and S elemental anlayzer, pyrolysis and solid state (13)C NMR spectroscopy. Results showed that pioneer species like Lygeum spartum had contributed approximately 11 kg SOM kg(-1) soil into the Balsa Rosa sites since 1991; it will take approximately 120 years of continuous growth for this plant to increase the SOM level comparable to natural site. In the Portman Bay area, Sarconia ramosissima and Phragmites australis can contribute SOM equivalent to present day SOM in natural sites in the next 30 years. Low quality SOM (C/N>20) deposited by pioneer plants was dominated by lignin-derived organic compounds such as phenols, guaiacols, syringols and aromatics while polyssacharides and alkyls were the major components in high quality SOM (C/N<20). The addition of SOM to mine wastes is similar to early stages of soil formation and with time, we expect the formation of well-developed Ah horizon on the surface of mine wastes. The presence of P. australis on several sites makes it a very good candidate for successful revegetation of hostile conditions found in many mined sites.

  7. Trends in Nuclear Astrophysics

    OpenAIRE

    Schatz, Hendrik

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear Astrophysics is a vibrant field at the intersection of nuclear physics and astrophysics that encompasses research in nuclear physics, astrophysics, astronomy, and computational science. This paper is not a review. It is intended to provide an incomplete personal perspective on current trends in nuclear astrophysics and the specific role of nuclear physics in this field.

  8. ATOC/Pioneer Seamount cable after 8 years on the seafloor: Observations, environmental impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, Irina; Paull, Charles K.; Kuhnz, Linda A.; Burton, Erica J.; von Thun, Susan; Gary Greene, H.; Barry, James P.

    2006-04-01

    A study was conducted on the impacts of the presence of the Acoustic Thermometry of Ocean Climate (ATOC)/Pioneer Seamount cable on the benthos from nearshore waters adjacent to its origin at Pillar Point Air Force Station in Half Moon Bay, California to its terminus 95 km along its length on Pioneer Seamount. The coaxial Type SD cable was installed, unburied on the seafloor in 1995. Thirteen sites along the cable route were surveyed using the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI) ROVs Ventana and Tiburon equipped with cable-tracking tools. Quantitative comparisons of biological communities and seafloor features between cable and control sites were performed at nine stations. Forty-two hours of video footage and 138 push cores were collected over 15.1 km of seafloor. Approximately 12.1 km of the cable was observed (13% of the cable route). This study documents the appearance and condition of the cable and the underlying seafloor, and the effects of the cable on biological communities along its route. Limited self-burial of the cable has occurred during the 8-year deployment, particularly over the continental shelf and upper slope. Cable strumming by nearshore wave action has incised rocky siltstone outcrops. Several observations of kinks and snags in the cable on the upper slope (˜240 m depth) suggest contact with trawling gear. Few changes in the abundance or distribution of benthic fauna were detectable from video observations (epifaunal) and sediment core samples (infauna). Of 17 megafaunal groups and 19 infaunal taxa, no tests evaluating the overall effect of the cable were statistically significant. While these results indicate that the biological impacts of the cable are minor at most, three megafaunal groups exhibited cable-related changes at one or more stations. Actiniarians (sea anemones) colonized the cable when it was exposed on the seafloor, and were therefore generally more abundant on the cable than in surrounding, sediment

  9. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... What are the limitations of Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is ... this time is PET/MRI. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Children's ( ...

  10. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... previous nuclear medicine exam. top of page What are the limitations of Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine procedures can be time consuming. It can take several hours to days ...

  11. Mean nuclear volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, O.; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Bichel, P.

    1999-01-01

    We evaluated the following nine parameters with respect to their prognostic value in females with endometrial cancer: four stereologic parameters [mean nuclear volume (MNV), nuclear volume fraction, nuclear index and mitotic index], the immunohistochemical expression of cancer antigen (CA125...

  12. Nuclear Quadrupole Moments and Nuclear Shell Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townes, C. H.; Foley, H. M.; Low, W.

    1950-06-23

    Describes a simple model, based on nuclear shell considerations, which leads to the proper behavior of known nuclear quadrupole moments, although predictions of the magnitudes of some quadrupole moments are seriously in error.

  13. Nuclear energy data 2010

    CERN Document Server

    2010-01-01

    This 2010 edition of Nuclear Energy Data , the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency's annual compilation of official statistics and country reports on nuclear energy, provides key information on plans for new nuclear plant construction, nuclear fuel cycle developments as well as current and projected nuclear generating capacity to 2035 in OECD member countries. This comprehensive overview provides authoritative information for policy makers, experts and other interested stakeholders.

  14. Nuclear Fuel Cycle & Vulnerabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyer, Brian D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-18

    The objective of safeguards is the timely detection of diversion of significant quantities of nuclear material from peaceful nuclear activities to the manufacture of nuclear weapons or of other nuclear explosive devices or for purposes unknown, and deterrence of such diversion by the risk of early detection. The safeguards system should be designed to provide credible assurances that there has been no diversion of declared nuclear material and no undeclared nuclear material and activities.

  15. Nuclear weapons modernizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristensen, Hans M. [Federation of American Scientists, Washington, DC (United States)

    2014-05-09

    This article reviews the nuclear weapons modernization programs underway in the world's nine nuclear weapons states. It concludes that despite significant reductions in overall weapons inventories since the end of the Cold War, the pace of reductions is slowing - four of the nuclear weapons states are even increasing their arsenals, and all the nuclear weapons states are busy modernizing their remaining arsenals in what appears to be a dynamic and counterproductive nuclear competition. The author questions whether perpetual modernization combined with no specific plan for the elimination of nuclear weapons is consistent with the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and concludes that new limits on nuclear modernizations are needed.

  16. Nuclear energy data 2011

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

     . Nuclear Energy Data, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency's annual compilation of statistics and country reports on nuclear energy, contains official information provided by OECD member country governments on plans for new nuclear plant construction, nuclear fuel cycle developments as well as current and projected nuclear generating capacity to 2035. For the first time, it includes data for Chile, Estonia, Israel and Slovenia, which recently became OECD members. Key elements of this edition show a 2% increase in nuclear and total electricity production and a 0.5% increase in nuclear generating ca

  17. Bookmarking by specific and nonspecific binding of FoxA1 pioneer factor to mitotic chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caravaca, Juan Manuel; Donahue, Greg; Becker, Justin S; He, Ximiao; Vinson, Charles; Zaret, Kenneth S

    2013-02-01

    While most transcription factors exit the chromatin during mitosis and the genome becomes silent, a subset of factors remains and "bookmarks" genes for rapid reactivation as cells progress through the cell cycle. However, it is unknown whether such bookmarking factors bind to chromatin similarly in mitosis and how different binding capacities among them relate to function. We compared a diverse set of transcription factors involved in liver differentiation and found markedly different extents of mitotic chromosome binding. Among them, the pioneer factor FoxA1 exhibits the greatest extent of mitotic chromosome binding. Genomically, ~15% of the FoxA1 interphase target sites are bound in mitosis, including at genes that are important for liver differentiation. Biophysical, genome mapping, and mutagenesis studies of FoxA1 reveals two different modes of binding to mitotic chromatin. Specific binding in mitosis occurs at sites that continue to be bound from interphase. Nonspecific binding in mitosis occurs across the chromosome due to the intrinsic chromatin affinity of FoxA1. Both specific and nonspecific binding contribute to timely reactivation of target genes post-mitosis. These studies reveal an unexpected diversity in the mechanisms by which transcription factors help retain cell identity during mitosis.

  18. Does the Neptunian system of satellites challenge a gravitational origin for the Pioneer anomaly?

    CERN Document Server

    Iorio, Lorenzo

    2009-01-01

    If the Pioneer Anomaly was a genuine dynamical effect of gravitational origin, it should also affect the orbital motions of the solar system's bodies moving in the space regions in which the PA manifested itself in its presently known form, i.e. as a constant and uniform acceleration approximately directed towards the Sun with a non-zero magnitude (8.74+/-1.33) x 10^-10 m s^-2 after 20 au from the Sun. We preliminarily investigate its effects on the orbital motions of the Neptunian satellites Triton, Nereid and Proteus, located at about 30 au from the Sun, both analytically and numerically. The analytical calculations show that the PA-induced radial and transverse perturbations of Triton are of the order of a few km yr^-1, those of Nereid are about 10+/-100 km yr^-1, while Proteus experiences radial and transverse shifts of the order of 0.1 km yr^-1. The out-of-plane perturbations are negligible, apart from that of Nereid which amounts to about 20 km yr^-1. The corresponding orbital uncertainties obtained fro...

  19. The origins of oncological pancreatic surgery in Spain. A tribute to pioneers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabater Ortí, Luis; Martín-Pérez, Elena; Artigas Raventós, Vicens

    2017-04-01

    Pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) is a very complex operation. Its development took place very slowly at the most prestigious centers in the world. The aim of this investigation is to know who were the first surgeons to perform a PD in Spain as well as its historical circumstances. Despite all kinds of difficulties and very few resources, the first PD in Spain were carried out in Barcelona at the Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau where from the mid-50s a school of gastrointestinal surgery emerged with surgeons soon to become the spearhead of the Spanish surgery and a reference for the whole country: Pi-Figueras, Vicente Artigas, Antonio Soler-Roig and Antonio Llauradó. Almost simultaneously, in Oviedo, Luis Estrada also introduced the PD and total pancreaticoduodenectomy after a period of training with the pioneers of pancreatic surgery in the United States. Copyright © 2017 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Behaviour based Mobile Robot Navigation Technique using AI System: Experimental Investigation on Active Media Pioneer Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Parasuraman, V.Ganapathy

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A key issue in the research of an autonomous robot is the design and development of the navigation technique that enables the robot to navigate in a real world environment. In this research, the issues investigated and methodologies established include (a Designing of the individual behavior and behavior rule selection using Alpha level fuzzy logic system  (b Designing of the controller, which maps the sensors input to the motor output through model based Fuzzy Logic Inference System and (c Formulation of the decision-making process by using Alpha-level fuzzy logic system. The proposed method is applied to Active Media Pioneer Robot and the results are discussed and compared with most accepted methods. This approach provides a formal methodology for representing and implementing the human expert heuristic knowledge and perception-based action in mobile robot navigation. In this approach, the operational strategies of the human expert driver are transferred via fuzzy logic to the robot navigation in the form of a set of simple conditional statements composed of linguistic variables.Keywards: Mobile robot, behavior based control, fuzzy logic, alpha level fuzzy logic, obstacle avoidance behavior and goal seek behavior

  1. Dynamics of microbial communities during decomposition of litter from pioneering plants in initial soil ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Esperschütz

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In initial ecosystems, concentrations of all macro- and micronutrients can be considered as extremely low. Plant litter therefore strongly influences the development of a degrader's food web and is an important source for C and N input into soil in such ecosystems. In the present study, a 13C litter decomposition field experiment was performed for 30 weeks in initial soils from a post-mining area near the city of Cottbus (Germany. Two of this region's dominant but contrasting pioneering plant species (Lotus corniculatus L. and Calamagrostis epigejos L. were chosen to investigate the effects of litter quality on the litter decomposing microbial food web in initially nutrient-poor substrates. The results clearly indicate the importance of litter quality, as indicated by its N content, its bioavailability for the degradation process and the development of microbial communities in the detritusphere and soil. The degradation of the L. corniculatus litter, which had a low C / N ratio, was fast and showed pronounced changes in the microbial community structure 1–4 weeks after litter addition. The degradation of the C. epigejos litter material was slow and microbial community changes mainly occurred between 4 and 30 weeks after litter addition to the soil. However, for both litter materials a clear indication of the importance of fungi for the degradation process was observed both in terms of fungal abundance and activity (13C incorporation activity

  2. [Pioneering surgical innovations in Germany : Part 2: public funding and origins of surgical innovations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, S; Haverich, A

    2016-05-01

    In recent years research that conforms with evidence-based medicine (EBM) has been demanded even in surgery. Uniform studies were carried out to prove the benefits of new procedures; however, compared to other research sectors, public third party funding for surgical research was significantly cut back. Collation of special features in surgery with respect to external funding of surgical top level research. Examination of the benefits of a continuous promotion and of organizations involved in research. Part one of this investigation presented the methods used to identify and analyze pioneering research in surgery. Out of a total of 15 revolutionary innovations only 3 projects were financed by external funding and 2 projects received indirect financial support as a result of a cooperation with the medical industry. This demonstrates that the majority of projects were neither directly nor indirectly subsidized. Apart from one instance the majority of innovations were generated by university hospitals highly active in research. In effect, the non-existing external funding for outstanding surgical innovations and hospitals suggests that a reformation of surgical research is required. To strengthen the quality of innovations in surgery a concentration of funding to institutions that are highly active in research makes sense. Institutional funding directly linked to a project should form a key component of support particularly in the early stages of development.

  3. [Norman Edward Shumway - pioneer of cardiac surgery (February 9, 1923 to February 10, 2006)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitto, Jan D; Grossmann, Marius; Kubbe, Eric; Liakopoulos, Oliver J; Popov, Aron F; Mirzaie, Masoud; Seipelt, Ralf; Schöndube, Friedrich A

    2008-07-01

    After a fulfilled life, Norman E. Shumway, the great pioneer of cardiac transplantation, died of lung cancer 1 day after his 83rd birthday in Palo Alto, California, USA. Already at the beginning of the 1960s, he and his colleague Richard R. Lower did revolutionary experimental work on developing and establishing the technique of orthotopic cardiac transplantation in dogs. Several studies on cardiac transplantation were carried out in his department and a few years later, Shumway and his team were on their way to perform the worldwide first human-to-human cardiac transplantation. On December 3, 1967, Christiaan Neethling Barnard, a cardiac surgeon from South Africa, forestalled Shumway and performed this operation in Cape Town, South Africa. This event initiated a global boom of cardiac transplantations in the following years." Many heart centers started their own cardiac transplant programs but high mortality rates led again to stagnancy of transplant activities. Shumway remained stable in believing in good results of cardiac transplantation and continued his program steadily. At the beginning of the 1970s, he and his group were responsible for most cardiac transplantations worldwide.

  4. Cecilia Payne-Gaposchkin: A Stellar Pioneer (The Dorritt Hoffleit Lecture)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haramundanis, Katherine

    2006-04-01

    In a world of Newtonian mechanics and Darwinian evolution, we also have Paynian composition of the stars and universe. While Payne, later Payne-Gaposchkin, did not extend her data and conclusions to the universe, her 1925 monograph, described by Otto Struve as ``the most brilliant PhD thesis ever written in astronomy,'' is a pioneering landmark that for the first time combined astronomical observations of stellar spectra with the then new atomic theories of Bohr and Saha. Her conclusions were suppressed by her advisor, H.N. Russell, but she wisely published her data with a disclaimer. Though facing overt gender discrimination throughout her career, and suffering the ``pink paycheck'' so well known to many women, she persevered and, towards the end of her working lifetime at Harvard University, became Chairman of the Department of Astronomy, a department she had helped to establish with the exuberant director Harlow Shapley in the 1920s and 1930s. One colleague, who called her ``An Astronomer's Astronomer,'' admired her as a person of great kindness, graciousness, humor and humility, who conveyed her love for the science ``lucidly and enthusiastically.'' She never lost her love and ardor for astronomy and astrophysics and made innumerable contributions to these sciences. Her work continues to inspire and provoke those working in the field, and she remains a model for all scientists to follow.

  5. Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr. (1809-1894): physician, jurist, poet, inventor, pioneer, and anatomist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubbs, R Shane; Shoja, Mohammadali M; Loukas, Marios; Carmichael, Stephen W

    2012-11-01

    Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr. was a physician, dean of the Harvard Medical School, one of the best regarded American poets of the 19th century, father of a future United States Supreme Court Justice, inventor and - unknown to many - an anatomist. His friends included Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, and Louis Pasteur. He trained with some of the most influential anatomists/surgeons of his day including Lisfranc, Larrey, Velpeau, Bigelow, and Dupuytren. As a teacher of anatomy, he had strong feelings regarding medical curricular reform and to some, was considered one of the best lecturers in the discipline. As dean, he pioneered social reform by admitting both white women and free black men to Harvard Medical School. He coined the term "anesthesia," was the first American to introduce microscopy to a medical curriculum, and made important contributions to the understanding of the spread of infectious disease. Herein, we review the life of this influential American academic and focus on his contributions to the field of anatomy. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Substantial Physician Turnover And Beneficiary 'Churn' In A Large Medicare Pioneer ACO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, John; Vogeli, Christine; Price, Mary; Brand, Richard; Chernew, Michael E; Mohta, Namita; Chaguturu, Sreekanth K; Weil, Eric; Ferris, Timothy G

    2017-04-01

    Alternative payment models, such as accountable care organizations (ACOs), attempt to stimulate improvements in care delivery by better alignment of payer and provider incentives. However, limited attention has been paid to the physicians who actually deliver the care. In a large Medicare Pioneer ACO, we found that the number of beneficiaries per physician was low (median of seventy beneficiaries per physician, or less than 5 percent of a typical panel). We also found substantial physician turnover: More than half of physicians either joined (41 percent) or left (18 percent) the ACO during the 2012-14 contract period studied. When physicians left the ACO, most of their attributed beneficiaries also left the ACO. Conversely, about half of the growth in the beneficiary population was because of new physicians affiliating with the ACO; the remainder joined after switching physicians. These findings may help explain the muted financial impact ACOs have had overall, and they raise the possibility of future gaming on the part of ACOs to artificially control spending. Policy refinements include coordinated and standardized risk-sharing parameters across payers to prevent any dilution of the payment incentives or confusion from a cacophony of incentives across payers. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  7. Dr. S. Donald (Don) Stookey (1915-2014): Pioneering Researcher and Adventurer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beall, George H.

    2016-07-01

    Don Stookey, the father of glass-ceramics, was a pioneer in inducing and understanding internal nucleation phenomena in glass. His early work on dense opal glasses and photosensitive precipitation of gold and silver in glass led to an amazing series of inventions: Fotalite, a photosensitive opal, chemically machined Fotoform and Fotoceram, and TiO2-nucleated Pyroceram products including missile nosecones and oven-proof cookware. He received a basic patent on glass-ceramics, which was contested and affirmed in court. Don was able to demonstrate a clear photochromic glass that showed reversible darkening for thousands of cycles. This material became a fixture in the ophthalmic industry. He went on to invent a full-color polychromatic glass, capable of yielding a permanent patterned and monolithic stained glass. In his life outside science, Don chaired an interfaith group that founded a home for the elderly in Corning. He was also a wilderness enthusiast, surviving a plane crash in the Arctic and two boat capsizings. Even in his later years, he continued fishing off the coast of Florida and on Lake Ontario and went solo on a trip to the Patagonian Andes. Don Stookey was a special person by any measure: an unassuming optimist, eminent scientist and inventor, adventurer, and a beloved family man. Introduction

  8. The state-of-the-art in the rehabilitation of a PIONEER Crane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosmin Bledea

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on the analysis about the state of stress in the girder of a PIONEER crane with a prescribed vertical loading of 0,75 tones belonging to the thermal power-station Timisoara. The analysis has been performed with a FEA software (COSMOS/M which is able to conduct to important results regarding the map of stress, especially in areas where high stress concentration are present. There have been automatically combined a wide range of finite elements: shell, brick, beam,truss-cable simulating the different zones of the girder. The combination of the most advanced standard components as well the implementation of the modular product concepts and the state-of-the-art regarding the design of cranes must be in a perfect agreement with the state of stress in the metallic structure. In the end, a comparison between the FEA results and the classical calculus with the strength of materials theory has been performed.

  9. Pioneering Integrated Education and Research Program in Graduate School of Engineering and its Inquiry by Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamino, Yoritoshi

    Department of Adaptive Machine Systems, Department of Materials and Manufucturing Science and Department of Business engineering have constructed the educational programs of consecutive system from master to doctor courses in graduate school of engineering, “Pioneering Integrated Education and Research Program (PP) ”, to produce volitional and original mind researchers with high abilities of research, internationality, leader, practice, management and economics by cooperation between them for reinforcement of their ordinary curriculums. This program consists of the basic PP for master course students and the international exchange PP, leadership pp and tie-up PP of company and University for Doctor course students. In 2005th the basic PP was given to the master course students and then their effectiveness of the PP was investigated by questionnaire. The results of questionnaire proved that the graduate school students improved their various abilities by the practical lesson in cooperation between companies and our Departments in the basic PP, and that the old boys after basic PP working in companies appreciated the advantages to business planning, original conception, finding solution, patents, discussion, report skills required in companies.

  10. The birth of NASA the work of the Space Task Group, America's first true space pioneers

    CERN Document Server

    von Ehrenfried, Dutch

    2016-01-01

    This is the story of the work of the original NASA space pioneers; men and women who were suddenly organized in 1958 from the then National Advisory Committee on Aeronautics (NACA) into the Space Task Group. A relatively small group, they developed the initial mission concept plans and procedures for the U. S. space program. Then they boldly built hardware and facilities to accomplish those missions. The group existed only three years before they were transferred to the Manned Spacecraft Center in Houston, Texas, in 1962, but their organization left a large mark on what would follow. Von Ehrenfried's personal experience with the STG at Langley uniquely positions him to describe the way the group was structured and how it reacted to the new demands of a post-Sputnik era. He artfully analyzes how the growing space program was managed and what techniques enabled it to develop so quickly from an operations perspective. The result is a fascinating window into history, amply backed up by first person documentation ...

  11. Dynamics of microbial communities during decomposition of litter from pioneering plants in initial soil ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esperschütz, J.; Zimmermann, C.; Dümig, A.; Welzl, G.; Buegger, F.; Elmer, M.; Munch, J. C.; Schloter, M.

    2013-07-01

    In initial ecosystems, concentrations of all macro- and micronutrients can be considered as extremely low. Plant litter therefore strongly influences the development of a degrader's food web and is an important source for C and N input into soil in such ecosystems. In the present study, a 13C litter decomposition field experiment was performed for 30 weeks in initial soils from a post-mining area near the city of Cottbus (Germany). Two of this region's dominant but contrasting pioneering plant species (Lotus corniculatus L. and Calamagrostis epigejos L.) were chosen to investigate the effects of litter quality on the litter decomposing microbial food web in initially nutrient-poor substrates. The results clearly indicate the importance of litter quality, as indicated by its N content, its bioavailability for the degradation process and the development of microbial communities in the detritusphere and soil. The degradation of the L. corniculatus litter, which had a low C / N ratio, was fast and showed pronounced changes in the microbial community structure 1-4 weeks after litter addition. The degradation of the C. epigejos litter material was slow and microbial community changes mainly occurred between 4 and 30 weeks after litter addition to the soil. However, for both litter materials a clear indication of the importance of fungi for the degradation process was observed both in terms of fungal abundance and activity (13C incorporation activity)

  12. Ludwig Robert Müller (1870-1962)--a pioneer of autonomic nervous system research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neundörfer, B; Hilz, M J

    1998-02-01

    Ludwig Robert Müller, MD, professor of internal medicine, born in 1870 in Augsburg, Bavaria, studied medicine from 1890 to 1893 in various European cities and specialized in pathology and bacteriology. In 1895, he joined A. Strümpell, one of Germany's outstanding internists and neurologists, in Erlangen, Germany. Henceforth, Müller focused on the autonomic nervous system. In his 1898 Habilitation, a thesis required to join the academic faculty, which he entitled Anatomy and pathology of the lower spinal cord, he presented studies on the autonomic innervation of the bladder and colon. Based on animal studies, he continued to publish essential findings on the autonomic innervation of heart, lungs, and gastrointestinal tract. Müller was the first to report afferent pathways from internal organs to the brain. His book The vegetative nervous system was first published in 1920. In 1931, he wrote the book Lebensnerven und Lebenstriebe (Life nerves and life instincts). Many of his papers dealt with the regulation of thirst, hunger and sleep. He was Chairman of Internal Medicine in Würzburg, Germany, from 1914 to 1920, and also in Erlangen as Strümpell's successor from 1920 to 1936. The broad scope of Müller's publications makes him one of the important pioneers of autonomic nervous system research.

  13. 'Sax-sess'-- genetics of primary succession in a pioneer species on two parallel glacier forelands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffl, C; Schönswetter, P; Erschbamer, B

    2006-08-01

    The primary succession on glacier forelands is characterized by a sequence of early and late successional species, but whether there is also a chronosequence at the intraspecific, genetic level is a matter of debate. Two opposing hypotheses differ in their prediction of genetic diversity in colonizing populations due to founder effects and postcolonization gene immigration. The development of genetic diversity in the pioneer Saxifraga aizoides was investigated along a successional gradient on two parallel glacier forelands, in order to test whether populations from older successional stages were less genetically diverse than populations from younger successional stages, and to locate the sources of the propagules that originally colonized new glacier foreland. Genetic diversity was determined with amplified fragment length polymorphisms, and potential sources of colonizing propagules were assessed via assignment tests. Our results indicate considerable postcolonization gene flow among populations on glacier forelands, since population differentiation was low and genetic diversity within populations was significantly higher. Molecular diversity and differentiation of populations did not develop linearly. Dispersal events within the glacier foreland, from the adjacent valley slopes, and from parallel glacier valleys were identified. In summary, it seems that the colonization of glacier forelands in the European Alps is highly dynamic and stochastic.

  14. Two new pioneer communities of Sorbus aucuparia and Sorbus aria in the southern Julian Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dakskobler Igor

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the southern Julian Alps we described two communities whose tree layer is dominated by species from the genus Sorbus and noted two successional stages in the overgrowing of abandoned agricultural land (pastures, hay meadows. In the secondary succession on former subalpine pastures above the alp Planina Razor und under the Breginjski Stol ridge, where potential natural vegetation consists of subalpine beech forest, dwarf pine has been overgrown with mountain ash (Sorbus aucuparia whose stands are classified into the new association Rhododendro hirsuti-Sorbetum aucupariae. Whitebeam (Sorbus aria has established itself on steep former hay meadows in the belt of altimontane beech forests under Mts. Jalovnik and Krikov Vrh, on gullied slopes on mixed geological bedrock dominated by chert, and these stands are classified into the association Calamagrostio arundinaceae-Sorbetum ariae. While occupying only small areas these two pioneer stages, as the sites of some rare or protected species, are nevertheless important biotopes and play a vital role in protection against avalanches.

  15. Historical first descriptions of Cajal-Retzius cells: from pioneer studies to current knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa eGil

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Santiago Ramón y Cajal developed a great body of scientific research during the last decade of 19th century, mainly between 1888 and 1892, when he published more than 30 manuscripts. The neuronal theory, the structure of dendrites and spines, and fine microscopic descriptions of numerous neural circuits are among these studies. In addition, numerous cell types (neuronal and glial were described by Ramón y Cajal during this time using this ‘reazione nera’ or Golgi method. Among these neurons were the special cells of the molecular layer of the neocortex. These cells were also termed Cajal cells or Retzius cells by other colleagues. Today these cells are known as Cajal-Retzius cells. From the earliest description, several biological aspects of these fascinating cells have been analyzed (e.g., cell morphology, physiological properties, origin and cellular fate, putative function during cortical development, etc. In this review we will summarize in a temporal basis the emerging knowledge concerning this cell population with specific attention the pioneer studies of Santiago Ramón y Cajal.

  16. Pioneers of Gentrification: Transformation in Global Neighborhoods in Urban America in the Late Twentieth Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jackelyn

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have considered the role of immigration in the rise of gentrification in the late twentieth century. Analysis of U.S. Census and American Community Survey data over 24 years and field surveys of gentrification in low-income neighborhoods across 23 U.S. cities reveal that most gentrifying neighborhoods were “global” in the 1970s or became so over time. An early presence of Asians was positively associated with gentrification; and an early presence of Hispanics was positively associated with gentrification in neighborhoods with substantial shares of blacks and negatively associated with gentrification in cities with high Hispanic growth, where ethnic enclaves were more likely to form. Low-income, predominantly black neighborhoods and neighborhoods that became Asian and Hispanic destinations remained ungentrified despite the growth of gentrification during the late twentieth century. The findings suggest that the rise of immigration after 1965 brought pioneers to many low-income central-city neighborhoods, spurring gentrification in some neighborhoods and forming ethnic enclaves in others. PMID:26689938

  17. Antoni marian gabryszewski as a pioneer of orthopaedics and rehabilitation in poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandziś, Sławomir

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the work of Dr. Antoni Marian Gabryszewski, orthopaedic surgeon, associate professor at Lvov University, towards the development of orthopaedics and rehabilitation in Poland before World War I. It is based on archival materials, publications in medical journals and articles from the daily press of that time. The author presents little-known facts concerning Dr. Gabryszewski's occupational and academic activity and his work at the Surgery Dept. of Lvov University as well as his habilitation dissertation, regarded as the first attempt to position orthopaedics as distinct from surgery in Poland. The article also describes his long-term work at the private Orthopaedic Facility established in 1898 in Lvov which later incorporated the Zander Institute in 1908. The Zander Institute was the first in Galicia to offer exercise machines designed by Dr. Gustav Zander, imported from Stockholm and enjoying an extraordinary popularity in the world. Dr. Gabryszewski's practice as a spa doctor, which he pursued in Iwonicz Zdrój in the summer months, is also presented. Dr. A. Gabryszewski introduced comprehensive rehabilitation to the treatment of orthopaedic patients both at the Surgery Dept. of Lvov University and at his Orthopaedic Facility. He used therapeutic gymnastics (particularly mechanotherapy), therapeutic massage, physical therapy and orthopaedic aids. Analysis of the source materials leads to unequivocal conclusions attesting to Dr. A. Gabryszewski's pioneering role and significant contribution to the development of orthopaedics and rehabilitation in Poland.

  18. Pioneers of invasive cardiovascular medicine - Charles Theodore dotter and colleagues: Short historical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostić Jelena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Within modern medicine at the beginning of 21st century, we are witnessing a revolutionary development of the invasive diagnostics and therapy of cardiovascular system diseases. With the discovery of X-rays at the end of 19th century by Wilhelm Roentgen, it is appropriate to reflect on the gifted individuals whose efforts drastically altered radiology and cardiology. The early techniques used in peripheral percutaneous transluminal angioplasty form the basis for subsequent percutaneous intervention both in the peripheral and coronary arteries and are largely the contribution of Charles Dotter. The main goal of his work was the use of catheters for diagnosis and treatment in an attempt to replace the scalpel. He was 20 years ahead of his time, especially with percutaneous transluminal angioplasty. The first percutaneous transluminal angioplasty marked a new era in the treatment of peripheral atherosclerotic lesions. This practical genius dedicated his considerable energy to the belief that there is always a better way to treat disease. His personal contributions to clinical medicine, research, and teaching have saved millions of limbs and lives all over the world. European physicians, who were more open to unproven techniques, almost immediately embraced percutaneous transluminal angioplasty. Without the contribution and help of his colleagues, Forssmann, Sones and Gruntzig, all of them pioneers, nothing would be done. They were all ahead of there time and opened completely new chapter in medicine.

  19. Exploring the emerging profession of speech-language pathology in Vietnam through pioneering eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atherton, Marie; Davidson, Bronwyn; McAllister, Lindy

    2017-04-01

    In September 2012, 18 Vietnamese health professionals graduated as Vietnam's first university qualified speech-language pathologists (SLPs). This study details the reflections of these pioneering health professionals at 12 months following their graduation, drawing attention to their scope of practice as SLPs and to the opportunities and challenges to progressing the practice of speech-language pathology (SLP) in Vietnam. Thirteen graduates participated in small group interviews where they described their work and their perceptions of their emerging practice. Thematic analysis of the interview transcripts was employed to identify key concepts and themes within the data. Four overarching themes were identified-scope of practice, establishing identity, confidence to practise and progressing the profession. Overall analysis revealed evolving professional practice characterised by new learning, fluctuations in confidence and an active forging of professional identity. Mentoring and support by international colleagues and advancing professional recognition were identified as critical to the profession's progression and to the development of context-specific and culturally appropriate services. Participants' reflections draw focus to an important role for the international SLP community as it works in partnership with colleagues to enhance awareness of and services for people with communication disabilities in under-served communities such as Vietnam.

  20. Professor Mansour Ali Haseeb: Highlights from a pioneer of biomedical research, physician and scientist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salih, Mustafa Abdalla M

    2013-01-01

    The article highlights the career of Professor Mansour Ali Haseeb (1910 - 1973; DKSM, Dip Bact, FRCPath, FRCP [Lond]), a pioneer worker in health, medical services, biomedical research and medical education in the Sudan. After his graduation from the Kitchener School of Medicine (renamed, Faculty of Medicine, University of Khartoum [U of K]) in 1934, he devoted his life for the development of laboratory medicine. He became the first Sudanese Director of Stack Medical Research Laboratories (1952 - 1962). He made valuable contributions by his services in the vaccine production and implementation programs, most notably in combating small pox, rabies and epidemic meningitis. In 1963 he became the first Sudanese Professor of Microbiology and Parasitology and served as the first Sudanese Dean of the Faculty of Medicine, U of K (1963-1969). He was an active loyal citizen in public life and served in various fields outside the medical profession. As Mayor of Omdurman, he was invited to visit Berlin in 1963 by Willy Brandt, Mayor of West Berlin (1957-1966) and Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany (1969 to 1974). Also as Mayor of Omdurman, he represented the City in welcoming Queen Elizabeth II during her visit to Sudan in February 1965. He also received State Medals from Egypt and Ethiopia. In 1973 he was appointed Chairman of the Sudan Medical Research Council, and was awarded the international Dr. Shousha Foundation Prize and Medal by the WHO for his contribution in the advancement of health, research and medical services.

  1. John Goodsir FRS (1814-1867): Pioneer of cytology and microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Dugald

    2017-05-01

    John Goodsir, pioneer of the concept that all tissues are formed of cells, was born in 1814 into a family of medical practitioners in Anstruther, Fife, Scotland where he was captivated by the marine life he saw daily in his childhood. His ambition was to follow his father and grandfather in medicine. Aged 13, he studied at St Andrews University before being apprenticed to an Edinburgh dentist and completing an original analysis of the embryology of human dentition. He became the student of Robert Knox at the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh and then Conservator of the University Anatomy museum. He exchanged this position for one at the College of Surgeons before accepting the full University post. Beginning in 1830 with the compound microscope, he studied natural history and anatomy, describing his discoveries to many societies. Appointed to the Edinburgh Chair of Anatomy in 1846, his investigations of the cell as the unit of all tissues were recognised internationally. A critic of Darwin, he believed that Man could not evolve. However, malnutrition, the death of a brother and of a friend and collaborator, Edward Forbes, contributed to progressive illness and Goodsir died at Wardie, Edinburgh in 1867.

  2. [Study on the 19(th) century puerperal fever epidemic: Semmelweis-an often neglected pioneer epidemiologist].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Q; Tang, J L

    2017-08-10

    Puerperal fever was a major cause of maternal death in Europe in the 19(th) century. Many efforts were made to investigate the cause of the epidemic but failed. In 1846, Semmelweis, a young obstetrician in Vienna General Hospital, started his historical investigation. His breakthrough was largely due to his doctor friend's accidental injury during autopsy and his consequential death. Semmelweis found the pathological findings in his friend's post mortem examination were very similar to puerperal fever. He postulated his friend's death might be caused by "cadaverous particles" from cadavers and further inferred that puerperal fever might also be caused by the cadaverous particles that doctors brought to the delivering women after autopsy classes. He advocated hand-washing with chlorinated lime solution to wash off those particles, which rapidly reduced the maternal mortality in his department by 80% (from 10.65% to 1.98%). However, what his unprecedented work brought him was only denial, mockery and career setback rather than support, honor and compliments. Under substantial psychological pressure, he had a mental breakdown and died in a psychiatry asylum at the age of 47. He was a pioneer in epidemiological investigations before John Snow and in aseptic techniques before Joseph Lister, but his work is still often neglected.

  3. Assessment of slurry pressure letdown valve and slurry block valve technology for direct coal liquefaction demonstration and pioneer commercial plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnan, R.P.

    1984-10-01

    This report examines the status of the technology of high pressure slurry letdown valves and slurry block valves in coal liquefaction service. All of the demonstration and pioneer commercial direct liquefaction plant designs call for the use of high pressure slurry letdown valves for flow control and slurry block valves for flow isolation. Successful performance and reliability of these valves is a serious concern because of the severity of the process streams and the limited experience and performance data on these valves under such conditions. The objectives of this report are: (1) to examine the existing data base on these valves from the four major direct coal liquefaction pilot plants in the US, (2) to present the recommendations from the pilot plant experience, (3) to examine the specifications for the letdown and block valves in the demonstration/pioneer commercial designs, and (4) to identify the scale-up issues, data gaps, and development and testing needs. 23 references, 20 figures, 7 tables.

  4. Pioneer colonizer microorganisms in biofilm formation on galvanized steel in a simulated recirculating cooling-water system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doğruöz, Nihal; Göksay, Duygu; Ilhan-Sungur, Esra; Cotuk, Ayşin

    2009-09-01

    Some bacteria have a higher tendency to produce biofilm than others. Especially, Pseudomonas and Aeromonas strains are acknowledged to be pioneer colonizers and are predominant in biofilm formation. We examined biofilm formation and first attachment maintance of biofilms of Pseudomonas spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Aeromonas spp, sulphate reducing bacteria and filamentous fungi. A simulated recirculating cooling-water system was used. Heterotrophic bacteria counts on galvanized steel and glass surfaces rose during the tidy period of 720 hours. In addition, we determined that although Pseudomonas spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Aeromonas spp. were the pioneer colonizers, they surprisingly could not be determined in the biofilms on both types of surface after 456 hours. Sulphate reducing bacteria were observed in biofilms on both surfaces from the outset of the experiments. Filamentous fungi were seen on the galvanized steel and glass surfaces after 0.5 h. Copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Evaluation of Pioneer eco-backpack sprayer and Twister XL backpack sprayer using Aqualuer against caged adult Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Rui-De; Qualls, Whitney A; Smith, Mike L; Zhao, Tong-Yan; Brown, James R

    2012-12-01

    A Pioneer Eco-Backpack electric cold ultra-low volume (ULV) sprayer and a gas-powered Twister XL 3950 series 2 motorized knapsack ULV sprayer with Aqualuer (20.6% permethrin AI) were evaluated against caged adult Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus in St. Augustine, FL. The Pioneer Eco-Backpack sprayer provided 100% knockdown of both species of mosquitoes at 15 min; the Twister XL backpack sprayer resulted in 17-23% knockdown at 15 min. Both backpack sprayers with Aqualuer resulted in 100% mortality of both species at 24 h. The new Pioneer Eco-Backpack sprayer powered by electricity could be a potential tool for mosquito control.

  6. New powerful thermal modelling for high-precision gravity missions with application to Pioneer 10/11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rievers, Benny; Laemmerzahl, Claus; List, Meike; Bremer, Stefanie; Dittus, Hansjoerg [ZARM, Universitaet Bremen, Am Fallturm, 28359 Bremen (Germany)], E-mail: rievers@zarm.uni-bremen.de

    2009-11-15

    The evaluation of about 25 years of Doppler data has shown an anomalous constant deceleration of the deep space probes Pioneer 10 and 11. This observation became known as the Pioneer anomaly (PA) and has been confirmed independently by several groups. Many disturbing effects that could cause a constant deceleration of the craft have been excluded as possible source of the PA. However, a potential asymmetric heat dissipation of the spacecraft surface leading to a resulting acceleration still remains to be analysed in detail. We developed a method to calculate this force with very high precision by means of finite element (FE) modelling and ray tracing algorithms. The elaborated method is divided into two separate parts. The first part consists of the modelling of the spacecraft geometry in FE and the generation of a steady state temperature surface map of the craft. In the second part, this thermal map is used to compute the force with a ray-tracing algorithm, which gives the total momentum generated by the radiation emitted from the spacecraft surface. The modelling steps and the force computation are presented for a simplified geometry of the Pioneer 10/11 spacecraft including radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG), equipment/experiment section and the high gain antenna. Analysis results how that the magnitude of the forces to be expected are non-negligible with respect to the PA and that more detailed investigations are necessary. The method worked out here for the first time is not restricted to the modelling of the Pioneer spacecraft but can be used for many future fundamental physics (in particular gravitational physics) and geodesy missions like LISA, LISA Pathfinder or MICROSCOPE for which an exact disturbance modelling is crucial.

  7. Women’s Peace Movements and Pioneers of Social Work at the Dawn of World War I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Joya Valbuena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Reseña del capítulo “Women’s Peace Movements and Pioneers of Social Work at the Dawn of World War I” de Gaby Franger en Peacebuilding-Gender-Social Work: International Human rights Dialogue: Celebrating the 100th Anniversary of the Women’s Peace Congress. Gaby Franger y Claudia Lohrenscheit (Editoras. Oldenburg: Paulo Freire Verlag. 2015, 31-48 pp.

  8. Pioneer Vegetation Detection by Hyperspectral Images on Temporal Landslides: A case study of Tzengwen catchment upstream, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Youg-Sin; Yu, Teng-To; Egozi, Roey; Tarolli, Paolo

    2017-04-01

    In the southern part of Taiwan, shallow landslides are common natural disasters i.e. in the Alishan region. One unique example is the typhoon Morakot in 2009 during which heavy rainfall triggered many scattered but massive landslides at the upstream area of Tzengwen catchment in Alishan. Landslide scars could be easily identified due to the bare soil that remained after most of the vegetation had been removed. After the event, observations made at the same area documented the establishment of few pioneer plants that started covering the bare land and survived several typhoons in the following years. This study examines the links between the pioneering vegetation and shallow landslides dynamic. High temporal resolution of satellite images, i.e. after heavy rainfall events from 2009 to 2015, were used to detect landslides. We then classified the landslides into three categorise 1) old stable landslide - no significant change in its area has been detected and quantified; 2) old dynamic landslide - landslide was growing, a major change in its area has been detected; 3) new landslide - a landslide that formed after an event. In total 159 landslides were mapped in the study area, most of them formed after typhoon Morakot ( 50%) of which 23% landslides which had been triggered by typhoon Morakot remained dynamic and continued to grow or triggered again. The succession of pioneered vegetation, such as Arundo formosana - one of the native pioneer plants is examined with 1-m hyperspectral images taken in 2016 for the same area. To enhance the landslide volume of the slope-failure assessments, a variety of data processing have been conducted. After finalizing the atmospheric correction, the NDVI technique to remove the non-vegetation area, and the Minimum Noise Component (MNF), we expect to that certain types of vegetation would be considered as markers for landslides detection. This would allow sophisticated indirect method in order to study post event landslides dynamics or

  9. [Water use of re-vegetation pioneer tree species Schima superba and Acacia mangium in hilly land of South China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen-Zhen; Zhao, Ping; Ni, Guang-Yan; Zhu, Li-Wei; Zhao, Xiu-Hua; Zhao, Pei-Qiang; Niu, Jun-Feng

    2014-04-01

    The xylem sap flows of two pioneer tree species, i.e., Acacia mangium and Schima superba, in degraded hill lands of South China, were continually monitored with Granier' s thermal dissipation probes during 2004-2007 and 2008-2012, respectively, and their seasonal transpiration changes at different tree age levels were compared. The results showed that the annual transpiration of both species increased with tree ages, and S. superba demonstrated a higher value than A. mangium. The average annual whole-tree transpiration of S. superba (7014.76 kg) was higher than that of A. mangium (3704.97 kg). A. mangium (511.46-1802.17 kg) had greater seasonal variation than S. superba (1346.48-2349.35 kg). The standard regression coefficients (beta) of transpiration (Eh), photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and vapor pressure deficit (VPD) for both species increased with soil moisture, suggesting the increase of soil moisture generated a greater sensitivity of plants to environmental factors. Partial correlation analysis revealed that soil moisture played an important role in the seasonal variation of transpiration of both species. The optimum soil moistures of S. superba and A. mangium were 0.22-0.40 and 0.29-0.30 (V/V), respectively, indicating the native pioneer species S. superba better adapted to water deficit compared with exotic pioneer species A. mangium.

  10. Hydrogen peroxide and central redox theory for aerobic life: A tribute to Helmut Sies: Scout, trailblazer, and redox pioneer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Dean P

    2016-04-01

    When Rafael Radi and I wrote about Helmut Sies for the Redox Pioneer series, I was disappointed that the Editor restricted us to the use of "Pioneer" in the title. My view is that Helmut was always ahead of the pioneers: He was a scout discovering paths for exploration and a trailblazer developing strategies and methods for discovery. I have known him for nearly 40 years and greatly enjoyed his collegiality as well as brilliance in scientific scholarship. He made monumental contributions to 20th century physiological chemistry beginning with his first measurement of H2O2 in rat liver. While continuous H2O2 production is dogma today, the concept of H2O2 production in mammalian tissues was largely buried for half a century. He continued this leadership in research on oxidative stress, GSH, selenium, and singlet oxygen, during the timeframe when physiological chemistry and biochemistry transitioned to contemporary 21st century systems biology. His impact has been extensive in medical and health sciences, especially in nutrition, aging, toxicology and cancer. I briefly summarize my interactions with Helmut, stressing our work together on the redox code, a set of principles to link mitochondrial respiration, bioenergetics, H2O2 metabolism, redox signaling and redox proteomics into central redox theory. Copyright © 2015 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A c-Myb mutant causes deregulated differentiation due to impaired histone binding and abrogated pioneer factor function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuglerud, Bettina M; Lemma, Roza B; Wanichawan, Pimthanya; Sundaram, Arvind Y M; Eskeland, Ragnhild; Gabrielsen, Odd S

    2017-07-27

    The transcription factor c-Myb is involved in early differentiation and proliferation of haematopoietic cells, where it operates as a regulator of self-renewal and multi-lineage differentiation. Deregulated c-Myb plays critical roles in leukaemias and other human cancers. Due to its role as a master regulator, we hypothesized it might function as a pioneer transcription factor. Our approach to test this was to analyse a mutant of c-Myb, D152V, previously reported to cause haematopoietic defects in mice by an unknown mechanism. Our transcriptome data from K562 cells indicates that this mutation specifically affects c-Myb's ability to regulate genes involved in differentiation, causing failure in c-Myb's ability to block differentiation. Furthermore, we see a major effect of this mutation in assays where chromatin opening is involved. We show that each repeat in the minimal DNA-binding domain of c-Myb binds to histones and that D152V disrupts histone binding of the third repeat. ATAC-seq data indicates this mutation impairs the ability of c-Myb to cause chromatin opening at specific sites. Taken together, our findings support that c-Myb acts as a pioneer factor and show that D152V impairs this function. The D152V mutant is the first mutant of a transcription factor specifically destroying pioneer factor function. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  12. Energy from nuclear fission(*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ripani M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main features of nuclear fission as physical phenomenon will be revisited, emphasizing its peculiarities with respect to other nuclear reactions. Some basic concepts underlying the operation of nuclear reactors and the main types of reactors will be illustrated, including fast reactors, showing the most important differences among them. The nuclear cycle and radioactive-nuclear-waste production will be also discussed, along with the perspectives offered by next generation nuclear assemblies being proposed. The current situation of nuclear power in the world, its role in reducing carbon emission and the available resources will be briefly illustrated.

  13. [Chilean nuclear policy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobadilla, E

    1996-06-01

    This official document is statement of the President of the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission, Dr. Eduardo Bobadilla, about the nuclear policy of the Chilean State, Thanks to the international policy adopted by presidents Aylwin (1990-1994) and his successor Frei Ruiz Tagle (1994-), a nuclear development plan, protected by the Chilean entrance to the nuclear weapons non proliferation treaty and Tlatelolco Denuclearization treaty, has started. Chile will be able to develop without interference, an autonomous nuclear electrical system and other pacific uses of nuclear energy. Chile also supports a new international treaty to ban nuclear weapon tests.

  14. IAEA nuclear security program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ek, D. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    2006-07-01

    Although nuclear security is a State responsibility, it is nevertheless an international concern, as the consequences of a nuclear security incident would have worldwide impact. These concerns have resulted in the development of numerous international instruments on nuclear security since the terrorist events in the USA on September 11, 2001. The IAEA Office of Nuclear Security has been charged to assist Member States to improvement their nuclear security and to meet the intent of these international obligations in order to ensure a cohesive thread of nuclear security protects the global community. The programs underway and planned by the Office of Nuclear Security will be discussed in this paper. (author)

  15. «Karavella» Pioneers Detachment – a Look in Half a Century Light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Krapivina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is dedicated to the fiftieth anniversary of the children’s organization founded by the well-known writer Vladislav Krapivin. Analyzing the example of «Karavella» – the Experimental Pioneer Detachment, the author outlines the systematic ways of teenagers’ involvement with the mass multi-age organization propagating the strong moral and ethic ideas and values. The process of educational system development in «Karavella» is revealed with the emphasis on active position, empathy, creativity, self-reliance, self-respect, emotional and intellectual independence.The manifest and underlying factors having an impact on developing the organizational spirit are indicated. The system of psychological support developed during the decades and concerning both children and adults is reviewed, as well as the life arrangement forms combining the romantic, heroic, patriotic and symbolic aspects; educational and social growth; carrier development system with its hierarchy of ranks and titles; collective rules and regulations, and joint management; program methods and methodological provision; teaching staff training etc. The above organizational programs are based on the notion that the personally valued knowledge has the main priority for teenagers and adolescents because of their strong need for self-actualization. Only due to the personal experience derived in real life conditions the actual personality growth can be achieved. Therefore, the long time expertise of that unique children’s organization is a valuable and up-to- date recourse for those who are responsible for ethic and emotional education of the coming generation. 

  16. Research on the weed control degree and glyphosate soil biodegradation in apple plantations (Pioneer variety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersilia ALEXA

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study we follow control degree of glyphosate herbicide on weeds in apple plantations (Pioneer variety of the Research Station Timisoara. It was also followed glyphosate biodegradation capacity in the soil by determining the amount of CO2 released by the action of microorganisms on C14 glyphosate marked isotope. Laboratory analysis of glyphosate residues in soil was made using a Liquid Scintillation TRIATHLER. Glyphosate biodegradation ability in the presence of soil microorganisms is high, so glyphosate residues remaining in soil, in terms of its use in weed combating, are minimal. Study of glyphosate biodegradation capacity in the experimental field indicates that the CO2 fraction accumulated after 50 days is 28.02% for samples exposed in the experimental field. Weather conditions, especially temperature variations between day and night, influences the activity of soilmicroorganisms and affect biodegraded glyphosate percentage.Chemical method of weed control consisted in: herbicide used was Roundup 3 l/ha (glyphosate isopropyl amine salt 360 g/l and are based on chemical application on weeds, on the rows of trees, on their uptake and translocation in their organs having as principal scope the total destruction of weeds. The experimental results obtained reveal a weed combat degree of 82.98% , in the case of chemical variant, compared with control variant. The species combated mainly due to glyphosate herbicide, which is no longer found in the final mapping are: Capsella bursa-pastoris, Chenopodium album, Echinochloa crus-galli, Plantago major, Polygonum aviculare. Total combated weeds /m2 with glyphosate is 126.67.

  17. DR AVRAM JOZEF VINAVER (1862-1915) - PIONEER OF RADIOLOGY IN SERBIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babić, Rade Radomir; Stanković Babić, Gordana

    2015-01-01

    Dr Abraham Joseph Vinaver (1862-1915), a Jew from Poland, was a pioneer of radiology in Serbia. He graduated from the Faculty of Medicine in Warsaw (1887), but lived and worked in abac (the Kingdom of Serbia) since 1890. Dr Abraham Joseph Vinarev - Career Development. He procured the first X-ray machine and developed radiological service in Sabac five years after the discovery of X-rays. These were the beginnings of radiology in Serbia. He introduced the application of artesian wells. Dr Abraham Joseph Vinarev - a Participant at the First Congress of Serbian Physicians and Naturalists, Belgrade 1904. "The diagnostic importance of X-rays in lung disease, especially in initial tuberculosis" and "Five Years of Treatment by X-Ray Machines" were the first works in the field of radiology in Serbia by this author. Dr Abraham Joseph Vinaver - Reserve Medical Officer in the Serbian Army. During the Balkan Wars, he was a volunteer with the rank of major engaged in military corps and he participated in the First World War as well. He died of malaria in 1915 in Gevgelija. "Dr Avram Vinaver"- Stanislav Vinarev. His dedication to work during the typhus epidemics was put into verses of a poem by his son Stanislav Vinarev. Dr Avram Vinaver Joseph was a noble man with a great heart, who selflessly sacrificed himself for the Serbian people and Serbia. He gave his contribution to the development of health services in Serbia, both in peacetime and wartime conditions. Dr Abraham Joseph Vinaver laid the foundations for today's radiology in Serbia.

  18. [A review of biographical studies on Goroji Nakagawa, a Japanese pioneer of Jennerian vaccination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuki, Akitomo

    2007-09-01

    The first detailed biographical study of Goroji Nakagawa, a Japanese pioneer of Jennerian vaccination, dates back to 1885, when Yotoku Onuki wrote his paper on Nakagawa after his field survey in the Matsumae district. Since then information about him gradually began to be compiled by medical historians as well as local historians. Tatsuo Abe, a pediatrician, studied about Nakagawa in depth to publish a monograph entitled "Goroji Nakagawa and the Introduction of Vaccination" in 1943, on the 120th anniversary of the first trial of vaccination by him. This marked a great progress in the biographical study of Nakagawa. At the beginning of the 1960s Sichiro Murayama of Juntendo University identified one of the two Russian books that had been brought back by Nakagawa from Siberia and he translated it into modern Japanese. At that time the author made extensive bibliographical studies on various manuscripts of "Tonka Hiketu," a classical Japanese translation of the Russian book by Sadayosi Baba in 1820. The author also made a wide field survey on burial records and gravestones of the Nakagawa's family at Matsumae and Kawauchi where Nakagawa was born and died, and elucidated that Nakagawa was buried at Hogenji temple at Matsumae. The most recent advance was observed in the beginning of the Heisei period, when the author edited and published three volumes of "Hokkaido Iji Siryo Shusei" (Collected Papers on Medical Culture in Hokkaido) in which almost all the papers and manuscripts concerning Nakagawa which would be very beneficial for investigators were reproduced. During the past 120 years since 1885 numerous educational and medical historical papers about Nakagawa have appeared for the public as well as medical historians; however, most of them have conveyed incorrect information of his biography, resulting from repeated citation of inadequate and erroneous references.

  19. YANG Bong-keun as a Health Reformer and a Pioneer of Social Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHIN Young-Jeon

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available YANG Bong-keun (1897-1982 had lived as a medical doctor and a social and public health reformer during the turbulent period of the opening of the port to the western society occupation by and liberation from Japan and the partition of the Korean Peninsular He actively participated in the March First Movement Shinganhoe and other activities for Korea’s liberation from Japan He also founded Bogunwoondongsa an organization for public health movement for Korean people and published Bogeunwoondong a magazine for introducing and educating new ideas and knowledge of health for Korean people After the defeat of Japan in the World War II he worked for the protection and repatriation of Korean residents in the Manjoo area as a head of policy division of the Northeastern office of the Korean Provisional Government He also participated in the foundation of Yanbian Hospital and medical school for Korean-Chinese in China His holistic approach of health and public health movement accentuation of preventive medicine and a body under his/her own will public health movement as a part of everyday life movement and minjoong oriented humanism were closely linked with the idea of social medicine that originated from the European society in the 19th century Those are also valuable ideas to be considered and implemented in this time Moreover his effort of health for Korean people on the way of modernization and liberation of Korea provides an example of being a respectable health reformer and pioneer of social medicine

  20. Missed Opportunities: Early Attempts to Obtain Bukovynian Orthodox Clergy for the Ukrainian Pioneers of Alberta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslaw Ihor Balan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Immigration from the Austro-Hungarian crown land of Bukovyna to the Canadian West was initiated in 1897-98, continuing thereafter until the outbreak of the First World War. Comprised mostly of ethnic Ukrainians, but including a small number of Romanians and families of mixed marriages, the peasant farmers from Bukovyna took out homesteads alongside the fledgling colony established northeast of Edmonton a few years earlier by Ukrainians from Galicia. An immediate concern of the settlers was the lack of any priests to serve their pastoral needs and to provide leadership for the communities that they were struggling to establish in challenging circumstances in the New World. Although itinerant priests dispatched by the Russian Orthodox mission based in San Francisco began visiting the Ukrainian settlers in Alberta beginning in July 1897 at the request of Russophiles among the first Galician homesteaders, the new arrivals from Bukovyna found them to be less than satisfactory because of linguistic and cultural differences. Almost immediately, the Bukovynians began appealing to the Orthodox Church in Bukovyna for clergy who could speak the Bukovynian Ukrainian dialect and “Wallachian,” so that they would not be dependent on priests from the Russian Mission. Despite numerous requests sent to the Metropolitanate of Bukovyna over the course of the next decade and a half—not only from Alberta, but also from other Bukovynian colonies in Canada—no Ukrainian clergy were ever assigned by church officials in Chernivtsi to serve the Orthodox faithful overseas. Drawing on archival sources, press reports and secondary sources, this article reconstructs these efforts by the pioneer era Ukrainian settlers from Bukovyna to obtain Orthodox clergy from their native land, at the same time suggesting reasons for their failure.

  1. Ricardo Dyrgalla (1910-1970), pioneer of rocket development in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    de León, Pablo

    2009-12-01

    One of the most important developers of liquid propellant rocket engines in Argentina was Polish-born Ricardo Dyrgalla. Dyrgalla immigrated to Argentina from the United Kingdom in 1946, where he had been studying German weapons development at the end of the Second World War. A trained pilot and aeronautical engineer, he understood the intricacies of rocket propulsion and was eager to find practical applications to his recently gained knowledge. Dyrgalla arrived in Argentina during Juan Perón's first presidency, a time when technicians from all over Europe were being recruited to work in various projects for the recently created Argentine Air Force. Shortly after immigrating, Dyrgalla proposed to develop an advanced air-launched weapon, the Tábano, based on a rocket engine of his design, the AN-1. After a successful development program, the Tábano was tested between 1949 and 1951; however, the project was canceled by the government shortly after. Today, the AN-1 rocket engine is recognized as the first liquid propellant rocket to be developed in South America. Besides the AN-1, Dyrgalla also developed several other rockets systems in Argentina, including the PROSON, a solid-propellant rocket launcher developed by the Argentine Institute of Science and Technology for the Armed Forces (CITEFA). In the late 1960s, Dyrgalla and his family relocated to Brazil due mostly to the lack of continuation of rocket development in Argentina. There, he worked for the Institute of Aerospace Technology (ITA) until his untimely death in 1970. Ricardo Dyrgalla deserves to be recognized among the world's rocket pioneers and his contribution to the science and engineering of rocketry deserves a special place in the history of South America's rocketry and space flight advocacy programs.

  2. Russell Meyers (1905-1999): pioneer of functional and ultrasonic neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Taylor J; Walch, Timothy; Howard, Matthew A

    2016-12-01

    Advances in functional neurosurgery, including neuromodulation and more recently ultrasonic ablation of basal ganglia structures, have improved the quality of life for patients with debilitating movement disorders. What is little known, however, is that both of these neurosurgical advances, which remain on the cutting edge, have their origin in the pioneering work of Russell Meyers, whose contributions are documented in this paper. Meyers' published work and professional correspondence are reviewed, in addition to documents held by the Department of Neurosurgery at the University of Iowa. Meyers was born in Brooklyn, New York, and received his neurosurgical training at hospitals in New York City under Jefferson Browder. In 1939, a chance encounter with a young woman with damaged bilateral ventral striata convinced Meyers that the caudate could be resected to treat Parkinsonism without disrupting consciousness. Shortly thereafter, he performed the first caudate resection for postencephalitic Parkinsonism. In 1946, Meyers became the first chairman of neurosurgery at the State University of Iowa (now the University of Iowa), which led to the recruitment of 8 faculty members and the training of 18 residents during his tenure (1946-1963). Through collaboration with the Fry brothers at the University of Illinois, Meyers performed the first stereotactic ultrasonic ablations of deep brain structures to treat tremor, choreoathetosis, dystonia, intractable pain, and hypothalamic hamartoma. Meyers left academic neurosurgery in 1963 for reasons that are unclear, but he continued clinical neurosurgery work for several more years. Despite his early departure from academic medicine, Meyers' contributions to functional neurosurgery provided a lasting legacy that has improved the lives of many patients with movement disorders.

  3. Institutional pioneers in world politics: Regional institution building and the influence of the European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, Tobias; Burilkov, Alexandr

    2016-01-01

    What drives processes of institution building within regional international organizations? We challenge those established theories of regionalism, and of institutionalized cooperation more broadly, that treat different organizations as independent phenomena whose evolution is conditioned primarily by internal causal factors. Developing the basic premise of ‘diffusion theory’ — meaning that decision-making is interdependent across organizations — we argue that institutional pioneers, and specifically the European Union, shape regional institution-building processes in a number of discernible ways. We then hypothesize two pathways — active and passive — of European Union influence, and stipulate an endogenous capacity for institutional change as a key scope condition for their operation. Drawing on a new and original data set on the institutional design of 34 regional international organizations in the period from 1950 to 2010, the article finds that: (1) both the intensity of a regional international organization’s structured interaction with the European Union (active influence) and the European Union’s own level of delegation (passive influence) are associated with higher levels of delegation within other regional international organizations; (2) passive European Union influence exerts a larger overall substantive effect than active European Union influence does; and (3) these effects are strongest among those regional international organizations that are based on founding contracts containing open-ended commitments. These findings indicate that the creation and subsequent institutional evolution of the European Union has made a difference to the evolution of institutions in regional international organizations elsewhere, thereby suggesting that existing theories of regionalism are insufficiently able to account for processes of institution building in such contexts. PMID:29400350

  4. Nuclear energy data 2005

    CERN Document Server

    Publishing, OECD

    2005-01-01

    This 2005 edition of Nuclear Energy Data, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency's annual compilation of essential statistics on nuclear energy in OECD countries, offers a projection horizon lengthened to 2025 for the first time.  It presents the reader with a comprehensive overview on the status and trends in nuclear electricity generation in OECD countries and in the various sectors of the nuclear fuel cycle.

  5. Heavy-ion double charge exchange reactions: A tool toward 0 νββ nuclear matrix elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappuzzello, F.; Bondi, M. [Universita di Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Catania (Italy); INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Cavallaro, M.; Agodi, C.; Carbone, D.; Cunsolo, A. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Catania (Italy); Foti, A. [Universita di Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Catania (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Catania, Catania (Italy)

    2015-11-15

    The knowledge of the nuclear matrix elements for the neutrinoless double beta decay is fundamental for neutrino physics. In this paper, an innovative technique to extract information on the nuclear matrix elements by measuring the cross section of a double charge exchange nuclear reaction is proposed. The basic point is that the initial- and final-state wave functions in the two processes are the same and the transition operators are similar. The double charge exchange cross sections can be factorized in a nuclear structure term containing the matrix elements and a nuclear reaction factor. First pioneering experimental results for the {sup 40}Ca({sup 18}O,{sup 18}Ne){sup 40}Ar reaction at 270 MeV incident energy show that such cross section factorization reasonably holds for the crucial 0{sup +} → 0{sup +} transition to {sup 40}Ar{sub gs}, at least at very forward angles. (orig.)

  6. Quantum nuclear pasta and nuclear symmetry energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattoyev, F. J.; Horowitz, C. J.; Schuetrumpf, B.

    2017-05-01

    Complex and exotic nuclear geometries, collectively referred to as "nuclear pasta," are expected to appear naturally in dense nuclear matter found in the crusts of neutron stars and supernovae environments. The pasta geometries depend on the average baryon density, proton fraction, and temperature and are critically important in the determination of many transport properties of matter in supernovae and the crusts of neutron stars. Using a set of self-consistent microscopic nuclear energy density functionals, we present the first results of large scale quantum simulations of pasta phases at baryon densities 0.03 ≤ρ ≤0.10 fm-3 , proton fractions 0.05 ≤Yp≤0.40 , and zero temperature. The full quantum simulations, in particular, allow us to thoroughly investigate the role and impact of the nuclear symmetry energy on pasta configurations. We use the Sky3D code that solves the Skyrme Hartree-Fock equations on a three-dimensional Cartesian grid. For the nuclear interaction we use the state-of-the-art UNEDF1 parametrization, which was introduced to study largely deformed nuclei, hence is suitable for studies of the nuclear pasta. Density dependence of the nuclear symmetry energy is simulated by tuning two purely isovector observables that are insensitive to the current available experimental data. We find that a minimum total number of nucleons A =2000 is necessary to prevent the results from containing spurious shell effects and to minimize finite size effects. We find that a variety of nuclear pasta geometries are present in the neutron star crust, and the result strongly depends on the nuclear symmetry energy. The impact of the nuclear symmetry energy is less pronounced as the proton fractions increase. Quantum nuclear pasta calculations at T =0 MeV are shown to get easily trapped in metastable states, and possible remedies to avoid metastable solutions are discussed.

  7. Technology Roadmaps: Nuclear Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This nuclear energy roadmap has been prepared jointly by the IEA and the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA). Unlike most other low-carbon energy sources, nuclear energy is a mature technology that has been in use for more than 50 years. The latest designs for nuclear power plants build on this experience to offer enhanced safety and performance, and are ready for wider deployment over the next few years. Several countries are reactivating dormant nuclear programmes, while others are considering nuclear for the first time. China in particular is already embarking on a rapid nuclear expansion. In the longer term, there is great potential for new developments in nuclear energy technology to enhance nuclear's role in a sustainable energy future.

  8. Embryonic development of a peripheral nervous system: nerve tract associated cells and pioneer neurons in the antenna of the grasshopper Schistocerca gregaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyan, G S; Williams, J L D

    2007-09-01

    The grasshopper antenna is an articulated appendage associated with the deutocerebral segment of the head. In the early embryo, the meristal annuli of the antenna represent segment borders and are also the site of differentiation of pioneer cells which found the dorsal and ventral peripheral nerve tracts to the brain. We report here on another set of cells which appear earlier than the pioneers during development and are later found arrayed along these tracts at the border of epithelium and lumen. These so-called nerve tract associated cells differ morphologically from pioneers in that they are bipolar, have shorter processes, and are not segmentally organized in the antenna. Nerve tract associated cells do not express horseradish peroxidase and so are not classical neurons. They do not express antigens such as repo and annulin which are associated with glia cells in the nervous system. Nerve tract associated cells do, however, express the mesodermal/mesectodermal cell surface marker Mes-3 and putatively derive from the antennal coelom and then migrate to the epithelium/lumen border. Intracellular recordings show that such nerve tract associated cells have resting potentials similar to those of pioneer cells and can be dye coupled to the pioneers. Similar cell types are present in the maxilla, a serially homologous appendage on the head. The nerve tract associated cells are organized into a cellular scaffold which we speculate may be relevant to the navigation of pioneer and sensory axons in the early embryonic antennal nervous system.

  9. Nuclear and radiochemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Konya, Jozsef

    2012-01-01

    The field of nuclear and radiochemistry is wide-reaching, with results having functions and use across a variety of disciplines. Drawing on 40 years of experience in teaching and research, this concise book explains the basic principles and applications of the primary areas of nuclear and radiochemistry. Separate chapters cover each main area of recent radiochemistry. This includes nuclear medicine and chemical aspects of nuclear power plants, namely the problems of nuclear wastes and nuclear analysis (both bulk and surface analysis), with the analytical methods based on the interactions of

  10. Nuclear Science References Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritychenko, B.; Běták, E.; Singh, B.; Totans, J.

    2014-06-01

    The Nuclear Science References (NSR) database together with its associated Web interface, is the world's only comprehensive source of easily accessible low- and intermediate-energy nuclear physics bibliographic information for more than 210,000 articles since the beginning of nuclear science. The weekly-updated NSR database provides essential support for nuclear data evaluation, compilation and research activities. The principles of the database and Web application development and maintenance are described. Examples of nuclear structure, reaction and decay applications are specifically included. The complete NSR database is freely available at the websites of the National Nuclear Data Center http://www.nndc.bnl.gov/nsr.

  11. Darwinian hydrology: can the methodology Charles Darwin pioneered help hydrologic science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harman, C.; Troch, P. A.

    2013-05-01

    There have been repeated calls for a Darwinian approach to hydrologic science or for a synthesis of Darwinian and Newtonian approaches, to deepen understanding the hydrologic system in the larger landscape context, and so develop a better basis for predictions now and in an uncertain future. But what exactly makes a Darwinian approach to hydrology "Darwinian"? While there have now been a number of discussions of Darwinian approaches, many referencing Harte (2002), the term is potentially a source of confusion while its connections to Darwin remain allusive rather than explicit. Here we discuss the methods that Charles Darwin pioneered to understand a variety of complex systems in terms of their historical processes of change. We suggest that the Darwinian approach to hydrology follows his lead by focusing attention on the patterns of variation in populations, seeking hypotheses that explain these patterns in terms of the mechanisms and conditions that determine their historical development, using deduction and modeling to derive consequent hypotheses that follow from a proposed explanation, and critically testing these hypotheses against new observations. It is not sufficient to catalogue the patterns or predict them statistically. Nor is it sufficient for the explanations to amount to a "just-so" story not subject to critical analysis. Darwin's theories linked present-day variation to mechanisms that operated over history, and could be independently test and falsified by comparing new observations to the predictions of corollary hypotheses they generated. With a Darwinian framework in mind it is easy to see that a great deal of hydrologic research has already been done that contributes to a Darwinian hydrology - whether deliberately or not. The various heuristic methods that Darwin used to develop explanatory theories - extrapolating mechanisms, space for time substitution, and looking for signatures of history - have direct application in hydrologic science. Some

  12. Na Bahia Setecentista, um pioneiro do abolicionismo? In eighteenth-century Bahia, a pioneer of abolitionism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OFM Fr. Hugo Fragoso

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available No ano de 1992, foi republicado por Paulo Suess Etíope Resgatado, de autoria do Pe. Manuel Ribeiro Rocha. Tratava-se de obra raríssima, pois, quanto consta, só havia em todo o Brasil um único exemplar, na Biblioteca Nacional do Rio de Janeiro. Já vinha eu fazendo pesquisas em torno do Pe. Ribeiro Rocha, a quem costumava qualificar de "pioneiro do abolicionismo" no Brasil. Com a reedição de Etíope Resgatado, tomei conhecimento da leitura de Paulo Suess, numa direção quase totalmente contrária. Para este, Ribeiro Rocha não passaria de um simples "reformista", que nada acrescentara de ideia libertária ao problema da escravidão negra. Aliás, essa tinha sido a tese de Ronaldo Vainfas e José Honório Rodrigues, que veem na obra de Ribeiro Rocha mais um exemplar do "pensamento escravista", que apenas condenava, como o faziam todos os homens de Igreja, os excessos e barbaridades da escravidão negra. Todo este nosso trabalho se orienta, portanto, na direção de uma leitura "abolicionista" do Etíope Resgatado, embora admita as evidências claras de "concessões" feitas por Ribeiro Rocha à situação escravocrata de seu tempo.In 1992, there was republished by Paulo Suess "Etíope resgatado", written by Father Manuel Ribeiro Rocha. It was very rare work, because, as stated, there was a single copy in the National Library of Rio de Janeiro in Brazil. I had, at this point, already started a research about the Father Ribeiro Rocha, whom used to be described as "a pioneer of abolitionism" in Brazil. With the reissue of "Etíope resgatado", I took notice about Paulo Suess lecture, in an almost completely opposite direction. According to Suess, Ribeiro Rocha was nothing more than a simple "reformer" who had added nothing to the problem of libertarian idea of black slavery. Incidentally, this was the thesis Vainfas Ronaldo and Jose Honorio Rodrigues argued, who saw the work of Ribeiro Rocha another copy of "slavery thought" which only condemned

  13. Statistical distribution of pioneer vegetation: the role of local stream power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouzy, B.; Edmaier, K.; Pasquale, N.; Perona, P.

    2012-12-01

    We discuss results of a flume experiment on the colonization of river bars by pioneer vegetation and focus on the role of a non-constant local stream power in determining the statistics of riverbed and uprooted biomass characteristics (root length, number of roots and stem height). We verify the conjecture that the statistical distribution of riverbed vegetation subject to the action of flood disturbances can be obtained from the distribution before the flooding events combined to the relative resilience to floods of plants with given traits. By using fast growing vegetation (Avena sativa) we can access the competition between growth-associated root stabilization and uprooting by floods. We fix the hydrological timescale (in our experiment the arrival time between periodic flooding events) to be comparable with the biological timescales (plant germination and development rates). The sequence of flooding events is repeated until the surviving riverbed vegetation has grown out of scale with the uprooting capacity of the flood and the competition has stopped. We present and compare laboratory results obtained using converging and parallel channel walls to highlight the role of the local stream power in the process. The convergent geometry can be seen as the laboratory analog of different field conditions. At the scale of the bar it represents regions with flow concentration while at a larger scale it is an analog for a river with convergent banks, for an example see the work on the Tagliamento River by Gurnell and Petts (2006). As expected, we observe that for the convergent geometry the variability in the local stream power results in a longer tail of the distribution of root length for uprooted material compared to parallel geometries with an equal flow rate. More surprisingly, the presence of regions with increased stream power in the convergent experiments allows us to access two fundamentally different regimes. We observe that depending on the development stage

  14. Nuclear Security for Floating Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skiba, James M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Scherer, Carolynn P. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-10-13

    Recently there has been a lot of interest in small modular reactors. A specific type of these small modular reactors (SMR,) are marine based power plants called floating nuclear power plants (FNPP). These FNPPs are typically built by countries with extensive knowledge of nuclear energy, such as Russia, France, China and the US. These FNPPs are built in one country and then sent to countries in need of power and/or seawater desalination. Fifteen countries have expressed interest in acquiring such power stations. Some designs for such power stations are briefly summarized. Several different avenues for cooperation in FNPP technology are proposed, including IAEA nuclear security (i.e. safeguards), multilateral or bilateral agreements, and working with Russian design that incorporates nuclear safeguards for IAEA inspections in non-nuclear weapons states

  15. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... child is taking as well as vitamins and herbal supplements and if he or she has any ... What are the limitations of Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine procedures can be time consuming. It ...

  16. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... MRI. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Children's (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging ... at birth) or that develop during childhood. Physicians use nuclear medicine imaging to evaluate organ systems, including ...

  17. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... nuclear medicine procedures are able to pinpoint molecular activity within the body, they offer the potential to ... otherwise, your child may resume his/her normal activities after the nuclear medicine scan. If the child ...

  18. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of page How does the nuclear medicine procedure work? With ordinary x-ray examinations, an image is ... until the nuclear physician checks the images in case additional images are needed. top of page What ...

  19. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... bones. liver and gallbladder. gastrointestinal tract. heart. lungs. brain. thyroid. Nuclear medicine scans are typically used to ... A radiologist or other physician who has specialized training in nuclear medicine will interpret the images and ...

  20. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... liver and gallbladder. gastrointestinal tract. heart. lungs. brain. thyroid. Nuclear medicine scans are typically used to help ... children. epilepsy . location, anatomy and function of the thyroid gland. top of page How does the nuclear ...

  1. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... function of the thyroid gland. top of page How does the nuclear medicine procedure work? With ordinary ... area of your child's body. top of page How is the procedure performed? Nuclear medicine imaging is ...

  2. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... usually mild. Nevertheless, you should inform the nuclear medicine personnel of any allergies your child may have or other problems that may have occurred during a previous nuclear ...

  3. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Because nuclear medicine procedures are able to pinpoint molecular activity within the body, they offer the potential ... or imaging device that produces pictures and provides molecular information. In many centers, nuclear medicine images can ...

  4. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of page How does the nuclear medicine procedure work? With ordinary x-ray examinations, an image is ... with other imaging techniques, such as CT or MRI. However, nuclear medicine scans are more sensitive than ...

  5. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tell your doctor about your child’s recent illnesses, medical conditions, medications and allergies. Depending on the type ... Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging that uses small amounts of radioactive material ...

  6. Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    This report contains brief papers that discusses the following topics: Fundamental Symmetries in the Nucleus; Internucleon Interactions; Dynamics of Very Light Nuclei; Facets of the Nuclear Many-Body Problem; and Nuclear Instruments and Methods.

  7. Nuclear disarmament verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeVolpi, A.

    1993-12-31

    Arms control treaties, unilateral actions, and cooperative activities -- reflecting the defusing of East-West tensions -- are causing nuclear weapons to be disarmed and dismantled worldwide. In order to provide for future reductions and to build confidence in the permanency of this disarmament, verification procedures and technologies would play an important role. This paper outlines arms-control objectives, treaty organization, and actions that could be undertaken. For the purposes of this Workshop on Verification, nuclear disarmament has been divided into five topical subareas: Converting nuclear-weapons production complexes, Eliminating and monitoring nuclear-weapons delivery systems, Disabling and destroying nuclear warheads, Demilitarizing or non-military utilization of special nuclear materials, and Inhibiting nuclear arms in non-nuclear-weapons states. This paper concludes with an overview of potential methods for verification.

  8. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Children's (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging is performed ... the thyroid gland. top of page How does the nuclear medicine procedure work? With ordinary x-ray ...

  9. RBC nuclear scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003835.htm RBC nuclear scan To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. An RBC nuclear scan uses small amounts of radioactive material to ...

  10. Nuclear fear revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crease, Robert P.

    2010-10-01

    In 1988 the science historian Spencer Weart published a groundbreaking book called Nuclear Fear: A History of Images, which examined visions of radiation damage and nuclear disaster in newspapers, television, film, literature, advertisements and popular culture.

  11. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... body. jaundice in newborns and older children. epilepsy . location, anatomy and function of the thyroid gland. top ... Epilepsy Images related to Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Videos related to Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Sponsored by ...

  12. Guidebook to nuclear reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nero, A.V. Jr.

    1976-05-01

    A general introduction to reactor physics and theory is followed by descriptions of commercial nuclear reactor types. Future directions for nuclear power are also discussed. The technical level of the material is suitable for laymen.

  13. JPRS Report, Nuclear Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-06-03

    Nuclear Power Station Projected for Jorf Lasfar [Casablanca LA VIE ECONOMIQUE , 18 Mar 88] 26 WEST EUROPE IRELAND Energy Minister Fights UK...factors mili- tate against further expansion. MOROCCO Nuclear Power Station Projected for Jorf Lasfar 51004603 Casablanca LA VIE ECONOMIQUE in...body to oversee nuclear activities at the national level and to hire and train personnel in nuclear sciences and techniques. A bill relating to the

  14. NUCLEAR REACTOR CONTROL SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epler, E.P.; Hanauer, S.H.; Oakes, L.C.

    1959-11-01

    A control system is described for a nuclear reactor using enriched uranium fuel of the type of the swimming pool and other heterogeneous nuclear reactors. Circuits are included for automatically removing and inserting the control rods during the course of normal operation. Appropriate safety circuits close down the nuclear reactor in the event of emergency.

  15. Effects of Nuclear Weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartori, Leo

    1983-01-01

    Fundamental principles governing nuclear explosions and their effects are discussed, including three components of a nuclear explosion (thermal radiation, shock wave, nuclear radiation). Describes how effects of these components depend on the weapon's yield, its height of burst, and distance of detonation point. Includes effects of three…

  16. Workflow in nuclear medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laet, G D; Naudts, J; Vandevivere, J

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses a workflow management system for nuclear medicine. It augments the more conventional PACS with automatic transfer of studies along the chain of activities making up an examination in nuclear medicine. A prototype system has been designed, built, and installed in a department of nuclear medicine, active in a network of hospitals.

  17. Nuclear energy technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buden, David

    1992-01-01

    An overview of space nuclear energy technologies is presented. The development and characteristics of radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG's) and space nuclear power reactors are discussed. In addition, the policy and issues related to public safety and the use of nuclear power sources in space are addressed.

  18. Nuclear fact book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, O. F.; Platt, A. M.; Robinson, J. V. [comps

    1983-05-01

    This reference provides significant highlights and summary facts in the following areas: general energy; nuclear energy; nuclear fuel cycle; uranium supply and enrichment; nuclear reactors; spent fuel and advanced repacking concepts; reprocessing; high-level waste; gaseous waste; transuranic waste; low-level waste; remedial action; transportation; disposal; radiation information; environment; legislation; socio-political aspects; conversion factors; and a glossary. (GHT)

  19. Basic Nuclear Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.

    Basic concepts of nuclear structures, radiation, nuclear reactions, and health physics are presented in this text, prepared for naval officers. Applications to the area of nuclear power are described in connection with pressurized water reactors, experimental boiling water reactors, homogeneous reactor experiments, and experimental breeder…

  20. Prof. James Stuart and the Rochdale Pioneers: How Astronomy as food for thought became a Co-op dividend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, P. A. J.

    2013-03-01

    In the mid-nineteenth century, formal education for many people, of all ages and especially the poorer members of society, left much to be desired. The Acts of Parliament needed to redress the deficiency lay in the future. For adults at this time community organisations such as The Rochdale Equitable Pioneers Society, and the Mechanics' Institutes set up by local industrialists and railway companies, became vehicles for self-improvement. James Stuart (1843-1913) of the University of Cambridge became one of the most important advocates of universal education, and he used astronomy as one means of achieving his goal - University Extension.

  1. Annie Marion MacLean: “the mother of contemporary etnography” and pioneer in sociology distance learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia García Dauder

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The article introduces Anne Marion MacLean into the United States' scientific sociology at its very origins (1892, when the Department of Sociology of the Chicago University was created. It also puts MacLean in a network called "Women's School of Chicago", and the forgotten contributions of these social sciences' pioneers, submitted to the American Journal of Sociology, are analyzed. Two MacLean's key contributions are highlighted: the correspondence courses in teaching sociology and her research by means of participant observation in workplaces focusing on women's work.

  2. Mapas de Entornos Mediante Navegacion Difusa y Sistema de Teleoperacion de una Plataforma Pioneer P3-DX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Granda

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available El presente proyecto describe el diseno e implementacion de aplicaciones de Teleoperacion, Adquisicion de Datos, Control Difuso de Velocidad y Mapeo de Entornos en 2D, para la plataforma movil Pioneer P3-DX mediante el uso de sonares, odometrıa y software libre GNU/Linux. El proyecto brinda una guıa para utilizar los conceptos de programacion en Python, que permite crear aplicaciones de manera versatil mediante el uso de librerıas como: GTK para el desarrollo del entorno grafico, PYFUZZY para el desarrollo del controlador difuso de velocidad y OPENCV para mostrar los mapas del entorno.

  3. The Fort Lewis maternity care project: a pioneering program for enlisted military families in a Prewar Washington State Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Nena J

    2014-01-01

    The Fort Lewis maternity project begun in Tacoma, Washington in 1941, was considered a pioneering project that met the identified maternal/child health care needs of enlisted military families. From the outset, local medical leaders as well as Children's Bureau advisors intended that the project would provide physician-managed pregnancy as well as hospital births and that public health nursing would play a critical role in this maternal/child initiative. The project proved so successful that the model of care established under this program was reinterpreted to meet similar needs for military families in other states as America entered World War II.

  4. Nuclear Structure Studies at ISOLDE and their Impact on the Astrophysical r-Process

    CERN Document Server

    Kratz, K L; Thielemann, F K; Walters, W B

    2001-01-01

    The focus of the present review is the production of the heaviest elements in nature via the r-process. A correct understanding and modeling requires the knowledge of nuclear properties far from stability and a detailed prescription of the astrophysical environment. Experiments at CERN/ISOLDE have played a pioneering role in exploring the characteristics of nuclear structure in terms of masses and beta-decay properties. Initial examinations paid attention to far unstable nuclei with magic neutron numbers related to r-process peaks, while present activities are centered on the evolution of shell effects with the distance from the valley of stability. We first show in site-independent applications the effect of both types of nuclear properties on r-process abundances. Then, we explore the results of calculations related to two different `realistic' astrophysical sites, (i) the supernova neutrino wind and (ii) neutron star mergers. We close with a list of remaining theoretical and experimental challenges needed ...

  5. Pioneering mass measurements in the rare-earth region for the astrophysical r-process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, James M.; Vilen, Markus; Brodeur, Maxime; Kankainen, Anu; Igisol Team

    2017-09-01

    The astrophysical r-process generates around half of the elements heavier than iron, yet precisely where or how this occurs remains a topic of intense inquiry. Understanding the formation of one of its hallmarks, the rare-earth abundance peak, could shed light on the astrophysical sites because this feature is very sensitive to underlying nuclear properties, particularly to nuclear binding energies which have so far been largely derived from theoretical mass models. We have performed precise atomic mass measurements of 12 neutron-rich rare-earth isotopes using the JYFLTRAP double Penning trap mass spectrometer. The atomic masses of 158Nd, 160Pm, 162Sm, and 164-166Gd have been experimentally determined for the first time, and the precisions for 156Nd, 158Pm, 162,163Eu, 163Gd, and 164Tb have been significantly improved. The 163Gd measurement also indicates the presence of a previously suspected isomeric state. Trends in two-neutron separation energies are compared to theoretical mass model predictions, and the effects of these new mass measurements on r-process abundance calculations will be examined.

  6. Reconstruction of Ladislav Palfi's pioneering work in the development of pianism in Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordanoska Trena

    2017-01-01

    Macedonian public Ladislav Palfi still lives as greatness and undisputed peak in the Macedonian pianism. In addition to this, Palfi is remembered for his unusual, unconventional lifestyle, creating an aura which turned him into a legend. Despite these findings, he is not adequately presented in the Macedonian musicological literature, i.e., Palfi has rarely been studied until now. There is a literary work (novel, Evgenij Ladislav Palfi (not forgotten genius, dedicated to his life and work, which was written by Dr Vladan Velkov (electronic edition, 2008; and the book, 2009, a neuropsychiatrist who was taking care of Palfi for five years. The book sheds light on the personality and reconstruction of (part the biographical data, but excludes the musicological and artistic analysis and evaluation. The lack of work on Palfi as a pianist has been the main reason to start this research. 362 collected items on Palfi and by Palfi, were annotated and entered in the main artifact catalogue. In order to avoid an overload of the main catalog with a large number of columns, we have created additional four sub-catalogues of audio recordings, photographs, concerts and TV music programs (the second and the fourth have been omitted in the paper, due to the specific nature and the number of available artifacts. The audio recordings catalogue consists of 200 performances for the Macedonian Radio and the Music Production of the National Broadcast Service. The concerts catalogue analyses 63 program notes on Palfi's concerts. Ladislav Palfi's pioneering role for the pianism in Macedonia has been confirmed through a range of activities, with emphasis on Palfi as a concert pianist, Palfi as a recording artist, Palfi as a Opera and Ballet accompanist, and Palfi as a piano pedagogue, respectively.

  7. Pioneer plant species contributing to phytoestabilization of contaminated soils in mine areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    João Batista, Maria; Gonzalez-Fernandez, Oscar; Abreu, Maria Manuela; Carvalho, Luisa; Queralt, Ignasi

    2013-04-01

    . However, in this study, sulfur concentrations show an opposite behaviour. Soil total and available fraction concentrations of the chemical elements have similar behaviour between sites. Chemical elements concentrations in plant leaves are independent of the same elements concentrations in soils where plants were developed. The obtained results showed the difficulty to understand the soil-plant system in heterogeneous materials such as mining sites. Other parameters such as plant physiology are responsible for the different uptake in the same species, contributing to the uncertainty of the remediation strategies. The studied native plants are well adapted to soils or spoils with different characteristics and high content of hazardous chemical elements. These species are adequate for stabilization strategies of a great variety of substrata. To improve and optimize remediation programs for mine areas in the Mediterranean region it is important to use several pioneer plants at the same time. This can contribute to reduce the costs of remediation with less environmental impact.

  8. Nuclear reactor physics

    CERN Document Server

    Stacey, Weston M

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear reactor physics is the core discipline of nuclear engineering. Nuclear reactors now account for a significant portion of the electrical power generated worldwide, and new power reactors with improved fuel cycles are being developed. At the same time, the past few decades have seen an ever-increasing number of industrial, medical, military, and research applications for nuclear reactors. The second edition of this successful comprehensive textbook and reference on basic and advanced nuclear reactor physics has been completely updated, revised and enlarged to include the latest developme

  9. Nuclear energy; Le nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This digest document was written by members of the union of associations of ex-members and retired people of the Areva group (UARGA). It gives a comprehensive overview of the nuclear industry world, starting from radioactivity and its applications, and going on with the fuel cycle (front-end, back-end, fuel reprocessing, transports), the nuclear reactors (PWR, BWR, Candu, HTR, generation 4 systems), the effluents from nuclear facilities, the nuclear wastes (processing, disposal), and the management and safety of nuclear activities. (J.S.)

  10. Nuclear parton distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulagin S. A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We review a microscopic model of the nuclear parton distribution functions, which accounts for a number of nuclear effects including Fermi motion and nuclear binding, nuclear meson-exchange currents, off-shell corrections to bound nucleon distributions and nuclear shadowing. We also discuss applications of this model to a number of processes including lepton-nucleus deep inelastic scattering, proton-nucleus Drell-Yan lepton pair production at Fermilab, as well as W± and Z0 boson production in proton-lead collisions at the LHC.

  11. History of Nuclear India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Ram

    2000-04-01

    India emerged as a free and democratic country in 1947, and entered into the nuclear age in 1948 by establishing the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), with Homi Bhabha as the chairman. Later on the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) was created under the Office of the Prime Minister Jawahar Lal Nehru. Initially the AEC and DAE received international cooperation, and by 1963 India had two research reactors and four nuclear power reactors. In spite of the humiliating defeat in the border war by China in 1962 and China's nuclear testing in 1964, India continued to adhere to the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. On May 18, 1974 India performed a 15 kt Peaceful Nuclear Explosion (PNE). The western powers considered it nuclear weapons proliferation and cut off all financial and technical help, even for the production of nuclear power. However, India used existing infrastructure to build nuclear power reactors and exploded both fission and fusion devices on May 11 and 13, 1998. The international community viewed the later activity as a serious road block for the Non-Proliferation Treaty and the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty; both deemed essential to stop the spread of nuclear weapons. India considers these treaties favoring nuclear states and is prepared to sign if genuine nuclear disarmament is included as an integral part of these treaties.

  12. Sustainable nuclear energy dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afgan Naim H.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable energy development implies the need for the emerging potential energy sources which are not producing adverse effect to the environment. In this respect nuclear energy has gained the complimentary favor to be considered as the potential energy source without degradation of the environment. The sustainability evaluation of the nuclear energy systems has required the special attention to the criteria for the assessment of nuclear energy system before we can make firm justification of the sustainability of nuclear energy systems. In order to demonstrate the sustainability assessment of nuclear energy system this exercise has been devoted to the potential options of nuclear energy development, namely: short term option, medium term option, long term option and classical thermal system option. Criteria with following indicators are introduced in this analysis: nuclear indicator, economic indicator, environment indicator, social indicator... The Sustainability Index is used as the merit for the priority assessment among options under consideration.

  13. Dynamic nuclear spin polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuhrmann, H.B. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany)

    1996-11-01

    Polarized neutron scattering from dynamic polarized targets has been applied to various hydrogenous materials at different laboratories. In situ structures of macromolecular components have been determined by nuclear spin contrast variation with an unprecedented precision. The experiments of selective nuclear spin depolarisation not only opened a new dimension to structural studies but also revealed phenomena related to propagation of nuclear spin polarization and the interplay of nuclear polarisation with the electronic spin system. The observation of electron spin label dependent nuclear spin polarisation domains by NMR and polarized neutron scattering opens a way to generalize the method of nuclear spin contrast variation and most importantly it avoids precontrasting by specific deuteration. It also likely might tell us more about the mechanism of dynamic nuclear spin polarisation. (author) 4 figs., refs.

  14. WELCOME SPEECH: EPS Euroconference XIX Nuclear Physics Divisional Conference: New Trends in Nuclear Physics Applications and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R. C.

    2006-06-01

    Ladies and gentlemen, On behalf of the European Physical Society it is my pleasure to welcome you to the Conference: NEW TRENDS IN NUCLEAR PHYSICS APPLICATIONS AND TECHNOLOGY This is the 19th International Nuclear Physics Divisional Conference of the Nuclear Physics Board of the EPS. It is a relatively new experience for the Board to support a Conference in an area so closely linked to applications and technology. I am therefore very pleased to see such a good response to the initiative of Professor Scannicchio and his local Organizing Committee under Professor Zenoni's Chairmanship. I would like to take this opportunity to say a few words about the EPS Nuclear Physics Board. The Board consists of 18 people (10 elected plus up to 10 co-opted) from across Europe, with me as Chair. Elections by members of the Division are held if there is competition for a vacancy, which is announced in Europhysics News. The Board exchanges observers with NuPECC. The Board has 3 major activities: 1. Divisional Scientific Meetings of which this is one. There are usually two per year, but this year there are three. Nuclear Physics in Astrophysics 2 (NPA2), Debrecen, Hungary, 16 20 May 2005. This conference, New Trends in Nuclear Physics Applications and Technology, Pavia, 5 9 September 2005. "Sandanski 3" Co-ordination Meeting in Nuclear Science organized by the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, and the Institute for Nuclear Research and Energy, Sofia, which will be held in Albena, Bulgaria, 25 September to 2 October 2005. This grew out of two earlier meetings in 1995 and 2001 in Sandanski, Bulgaria. The aim of these meetings was to foster and support scientific collaborations in nuclear physics between eastern and western European countries. 2. The Board awards two prizes, usually in alternate years: The Lise Meitner Prize for outstanding contributions in the field of Nuclear Science. The 2004 recipients were Bent Herskind and Peter Twin for their pioneering work on rapidly

  15. Marine protected areas in areas beyond national jurisdiction
    The pioneering efforts under the OSPAR Convention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik J. Molenaar

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The international community has committed itself to establishing a coherent network of marine protected areas (MPAs by 2012. This network should also extend to areas beyond national jurisdiction (ABNJ, namely the high seas and the ‘Area’ (the seabed and ocean floor and the subsoil thereof beyond the limits of national jurisdiction. This article examines the pioneering efforts of OSPAR to establish MPAs in ABNJ in the North-East Atlantic Ocean. In that connection, OSPAR has to work out how to deal with the applicable international governance and regulatory framework, most importantly the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS and the various ‘competent’ international organizations functioning thereunder. The article’s most important conclusion is that an effective regime for ABNJ in general and also for holistic MPAs in ABNJ requires complementary action at the global and regional levels. OSPAR’s pioneering approach may, if pursued carefully – among other things by respecting the competence of other global and regional bodies – have a decisive impact on the development of the global legal regime in respect of the role of regional environmental organizations in the management of ABNJ.

  16. Pioneer 10 and 11 orbit determination analysis shows no discrepancy with Newton-Einstein's laws of gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Modenini, Dario

    2013-01-01

    The present work describes the investigation of the navigation anomaly of Pioneer 10 and 11 probes which became known as the Pioneer Anomaly. It appeared as a linear drift in the Doppler data received by the spacecraft, which has been ascribed to an approximately constant sunward acceleration of about $8.5 \\times 10^{-13} km/s^2$. Since then, the existence of the anomaly has been confirmed independently by several groups and a large effort was devoted to find its origin. The present study consists of two main parts: thermal modeling of the spacecraft throughout its trajectory, and orbit determination analysis. Based on existing documentation and published telemetry data we built a thermal finite element model of the spacecraft, whose complexity has been constrained to a degree allowing for sensitivity analysis, leading to the computation of its formal uncertainty. The trajectory analysis and orbit determination was carried out using NASA/JPL's ODP (Orbit Determination Program) and our results show that orbita...

  17. [Doctor Manuel Cobas Núñez (1885-1956), pioneer of urology and uroradiology in Galicia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fariña Pérez, L A

    2004-02-01

    The development of urologic radiology with intracavitary and intravenous contrast agents played an essential role in the rise of Urology as a surgical speciality, in agreement with other circumstances that made it both possible (the invention of endoscopic instruments and laboratory technics to study the urine and the kidney function, advances in anaesthesia, asepsis, control of hemorrhage and infection), and necessary (because of social request for these specialised medical services). Study of the life and work of Manuel Cobas Núñez (1885-1956), whose surgical practice and publications pioneered the modern Urology and Uroradiology in Galicia (Spain). After being trained in Necker Hospital (Paris) and Instituto Rubio (Madrid), Cobas was one of the first to practice urology in Galicia, with a high interest in surgical diseases of the upper urinary tract. His knowledge of renoureteral surgery was outstanding for the time. In august 1931 he published "Pielografia ascendente y pielografia descendente", one of the first and best documented books on upper urinary tract examination using retrograde and intravenous pyelography, written only months after marketing of the first intravenous contrasts agents. Working in private practice, out of the academic fields, Cobas was a protagonists of the beginning of Galician modern urology. His publications and book on pyelography show that he was one of the first experts in renal surgery and must be also recognized as a pioneer of uroradiology in Galicia and Spain.

  18. Population dynamics of Agriophyllum squarrosum, a pioneer annual plant endemic to mobile sand dunes, in response to global climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Chaoju; Yin, Hengxia; Shi, Yong; Zhao, Jiecai; Yin, Chengliang; Luo, Wanyin; Dong, Zhibao; Chen, Guoxiong; Yan, Xia; Wang, Xiao-Ru; Ma, Xiao-Fei

    2016-05-23

    Climate change plays an important role in the transition of ecosystems. Stratigraphic investigations have suggested that the Asian interior experienced frequent transitions between grassland and desert ecosystems as a consequence of global climate change. Using maternally and bi-parentally inherited markers, we investigated the population dynamics of Agriophyllum squarrosum (Chenopodiaceae), an annual pioneer plant endemic to mobile sand dunes. Phylogeographic analysis revealed that A. squarrosum could originate from Gurbantunggut desert since ~1.6 Ma, and subsequently underwent three waves of colonisation into other deserts and sandy lands corresponding to several glaciations. The rapid population expansion and distribution range shifts of A. squarrosum from monsoonal climate zones suggested that the development of the monsoonal climate significantly enhanced the population growth and gene flow of A. squarrosum. These data also suggested that desertification of the fragile grassland ecosystems in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau was more ancient than previously suggested and will be aggravated under global warming in the future. This study provides new molecular phylogeographic insights into how pioneer annual plant species in desert ecosystems respond to global climate change, and facilitates evaluation of the ecological potential and genetic resources of future crops for non-arable dry lands to mitigate climate change.

  19. Pioneer Axon Navigation Is Controlled by AEX-3, a Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor for RAB-3 in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Jaffar M.; Hutter, Harald

    2016-01-01

    Precise and accurate axon tract formation is an essential aspect of brain development. This is achieved by the migration of early outgrowing axons (pioneers) allowing later outgrowing axons (followers) to extend toward their targets in the embryo. In Caenorhabditis elegans the AVG neuron pioneers the right axon tract of the ventral nerve cord, the major longitudinal axon tract. AVG is essential for the guidance of follower axons and hence organization of the ventral nerve cord. In an enhancer screen for AVG axon guidance defects in a nid-1/Nidogen mutant background, we isolated an allele of aex-3. aex-3 mutant animals show highly penetrant AVG axon navigation defects. These defects are dependent on a mutation in nid-1/Nidogen, a basement membrane component. Our data suggest that AEX-3 activates RAB-3 in the context of AVG axon navigation. aex-3 genetically acts together with known players of vesicular exocytosis: unc-64/Syntaxin, unc-31/CAPS, and ida-1/IA-2. Furthermore our genetic interaction data suggest that AEX-3 and the UNC-6/Netrin receptor UNC-5 act in the same pathway, suggesting AEX-3 might regulate the trafficking and/or insertion of UNC-5 at the growth cone to mediate the proper guidance of the AVG axon. PMID:27116976

  20. Observations of galactic cosmic ray energy spectra between 1 and 9 AU. [Pioneer space probes and Helios 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcdonald, F. B.; Lal, N.; Vanhollebeke, M. A. I.; Trainor, J. H.; Webber, W. R.

    1977-01-01

    The variation of the 5 to 500 MeV/nuc cosmic ray helium component was studied between 1 and 9 A.U. using essentially identical detector systems on Pioneer 10 and 11 and Helios I. Between 100 and 200 MeV/nuc a radial gradient of 3.3?1.3%/A.U. is found. At 15 MeV/nuc this value increases to 20?4%/A.U. Between 4 and 9 A.U. a well defined intensity maximum is observed at approximately 17 MeV/nuc. The average adiabatic energy loss between 1 and 9 A.U. is approximately 4 MeV/nuc/A.U. The observed radial variation between 1 and 9 A.U. is well described by the Gleeson-Axford force field solution of the modulation equations over an energy range extending from 15 to 500 MeV/nuc and is in good agreement with the results reported by other Pioneer experiments. These values are much smaller than had been theoretically predicted.

  1. The pioneer factor OCT4 requires the chromatin remodeller BRG1 to support gene regulatory element function in mouse embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Hamish W; Klose, Robert J

    2017-03-13

    Pioneer transcription factors recognise and bind their target sequences in inaccessible chromatin to establish new transcriptional networks throughout development and cellular reprogramming. During this process, pioneer factors establish an accessible chromatin state to facilitate additional transcription factor binding, yet it remains unclear how different pioneer factors achieve this. Here, we discover that the pluripotency-associated pioneer factor OCT4 binds chromatin to shape accessibility, transcription factor co-binding, and regulatory element function in mouse embryonic stem cells. Chromatin accessibility at OCT4-bound sites requires the chromatin remodeller BRG1, which is recruited to these sites by OCT4 to support additional transcription factor binding and expression of the pluripotency-associated transcriptome. Furthermore, the requirement for BRG1 in shaping OCT4 binding reflects how these target sites are used during cellular reprogramming and early mouse development. Together this reveals a distinct requirement for a chromatin remodeller in promoting the activity of the pioneer factor OCT4 and regulating the pluripotency network.

  2. Nuclear emulsion readout techniques developed for the CHORUS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Papadopoulos, I M

    2000-01-01

    The CHORUS experiment is pursuing the study of the production and decay of short lived particles from neutrino interactions in a nuclear emulsion target. The extraction of the full information from the emulsion sheets has been possible only thanks to the development of fully automatic microscopes. The technique of automatic scanning, pioneered in Nagoya, involves precision mechanics, high quality optics and a readout scheme allowing for fast decisions. From the R&D efforts within the various institutes of the CHORUS collaboration, the complementary approaches adopted by the Nagoya and CERN/NIKHEF groups are described here. Both are based on the principle that all information from the emulsion sheets should be extracted at the highest possible rate, limited only by the camera readout and the mechanical stability of the microscope stage. (12 refs).

  3. High-energy nuclear optics of polarized particles

    CERN Document Server

    Baryshevsky, Vladimir G

    2012-01-01

    The various phenomena caused by refraction and diffraction of polarized elementary particles in matter have opened up a new research area in the particle physics: nuclear optics of polarized particles. Effects similar to the well-known optical phenomena such as birefringence and Faraday effects, exist also in particle physics, though the particle wavelength is much less than the distance between atoms of matter. Current knowledge of the quasi-optical effects, which exist for all particles in any wavelength range (and energies from low to extremely high), will enable us to investigate different properties of interacting particles (nuclei) in a new aspect. This pioneering book will provide detailed accounts of quasi-optical phenomena in the particle polarization, and will interest physicists and professionals in experimental particle physics.

  4. Whole earth discipline why dense cities, nuclear power, transgenic crops, restored wildlands, and geoengineering are necessary

    CERN Document Server

    Brand, Stewart

    2010-01-01

    This eye-opening book by the legendary author of the National Book Award-winning Whole Earth Catalog persuasively details a new approach to our stewardship of the planet. Lifelong ecologist and futurist Stewart Brand relies on scientific rigor to shatter myths concerning nuclear energy, urbanization, genetic engineering, and other controversial subjects, showing exactly where the sources of our dilemmas lie and offering a bold, inventive set of policies and design- based solutions for shaping a more sustainable society. Thought- provoking and passionately argued, this is a pioneering book on one of the hottest issues facing humanity today.

  5. Nuclear energy - some aspects; Energia nuclear - alguns aspectos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandeira, Fausto de Paula Menezes

    2005-05-15

    This work presents a brief history of research and development concerning to nuclear technology worldwide and in Brazil, also information about radiations and radioactive elements as well; the nuclear technology applications; nuclear reactor types and functioning of thermonuclear power plants; the number of existing nuclear power plants; the nuclear hazards occurred; the national fiscalization of nuclear sector; the Brazilian legislation in effect and the propositions under proceduring at House of Representatives related to the nuclear energy.

  6. The ash in forest fire affected soils control the soil losses. Part 1. The pioneer research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Pereira, Paulo

    2013-04-01

    After forest fires, the ash and the remaining vegetation cover on the soil surface are the main protection against erosion agents. The control ash exert on runoff generation mechanism was researched during the 90's (Cerdà, 1998a; 1998b). This pioneer research demonstrated that after forest fires there is a short period of time that runoff and surface wash by water is controlled by the high infiltration rates achieved by the soil, which were high due to the effect of ash acting as a mulch. The research of Cerdà (1998a; 1998b) also contributed to demonstrate that runoff was enhanced four month later upon the wash of the ash by the runoff, but also due to the removal of ash due to dissolution and water infiltration. As a consequence of the ephemeral ash cover the runoff and erosion reached the peak after the removal of the ash (usually four month), and for two years the soil erosion reached the peak (Cerdà, 1998a). Research developed during the last decade shown that the ash and the litter cover together contribute to reduce the soil losses after the forest fire (Cerdà and Doerr, 2008). The fate of the ash is related to the climatic conditions of the post-fire season, as intense thunderstorms erode the ash layer and low intensity rainfall contribute to a higher infiltration rate and the recovery of the vegetation. Another, key factor found during the last two decades that determine the fate of the ash and the soil and water losses is the impact of the fauna (Cerdà and Doerr, 2010). During the last decade new techniques were developed to study the impact of ash in the soil system, such as the one to monitor the ash changes by means of high spatial resolution photography (Pérez Cabello et al., 2012), and laboratory approaches that show the impact of ash as a key factor in the soil hydrology throughout the control they exert on the soil water repellency (Bodí et al., 2012). Laboratory approaches also shown that the fire severity is a key factor on the ash chemical

  7. Analysis of Relationship between Pioneer Brand Status and Consumer’s Attitude toward a Brand (Case on Yamaha Automatic vs. Honda Automatic Transmission Motorcycle in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arga Hananto

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous research have indicated that brand pioneership provide some advantages such as high market share barriers to entry and consumers preference as well as higher consumer attitude. This paper intends to explore the relationship between perceived brand pioneership on consumers’ brand attitude. The study focuses on two competing brands from automatic transmission motorcycle category, namely Yamaha and Honda.Based on result from 90 respondents, this study confirms the perception that Yamaha (although not the true pioneer is perceived by the majority of respondents as the pioneering brand in the automatic transmission motorcycle. This study also found that those respondents who perceived that Yamaha is the pioneer brand tend to ascribe higher brand attitude toward Yamaha than toward Honda. Result from this study adds to the repository of studies concerning brand pioneership as well as adding to repository of knowledge about Indonesian consumer behavior.

  8. Nuclear Thermal Rocket - An Established Space Propulsion Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Milton

    2004-02-01

    From the late 1950s to the early 1970s a major program successfully developed the capability to conduct space exploration using the advanced technology of nuclear rocket propulsion. The program had two primary elements: pioneering and advanced technology work-Rover-at Los Alamos National Laboratory and its contractors provided the basic reactor design, fuel materials development, and reactor testing capability; and engine development-NERVA-by the industrial team of Aerojet and Westinghouse building on and extending the Los Alamos efforts to flight system development. This presentation describes the NERVA program, the engine system testing that demonstrated the space-practical operation capabilities of nuclear thermal rockets, and the mission studies that point the way to most effectively use the NTR capabilities. Together, the two programs established a technology base that includes proven NTR capabilities of (1) over twice the specific impulse of chemical propulsion systems, (2) thrust capabilities ranging from 44kN to 1112kN, and (3) practical thrust-to-weight ratios for future NASA space exploration missions, both manned payloads to Mars and unmanned payloads to the outer planets. The overall nuclear rocket program had a unique management structure that integrated the efforts of the two government agencies involved-NASA and the then-existing Atomic Energy Commission. The objective of this paper is to summarize and convey the technical and management lessons learned in this program as the nation considers the design of its future space exploration activities.

  9. Nuclear power industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-28

    This press dossier presented in Shanghai (China) in April 1999, describes first the activities of the Framatome group in the people`s republic of China with a short presentation of the Daya Bay power plant and of the future Ling Ao project, and with a description of the technological cooperation with China in the nuclear domain (technology transfers, nuclear fuels) and in other industrial domains (mechanics, oil and gas, connectors, food and agriculture, paper industry etc..). The general activities of the Framatome group in the domain of energy (nuclear realizations in France, EPR project, export activities, nuclear services, nuclear fuels, nuclear equipments, industrial equipments) and of connectors engineering are presented in a second and third part with the 1998 performances. (J.S.)

  10. Nuclear Threats and Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garry Jacobs

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This article presents highlights and insights from the International Conference on “Nuclear Threats and Security” organized by the World Academy of Art and Science in association with the European Leadership Network and the Dag Hammarskjöld University College of International Relations and Diplomacy and sponsored by NATO at the Inter-University Centre, Dubrovnik on September 14-16, 2012. The conference examined important issues related to nuclear non-proliferation and disarmament, the legality of nuclear weapons and their use, illicit trade in nuclear materials, the dangers of nuclear terrorism, nuclear- and cyber-security. Papers and video recordings of the major presentations and session summaries can be found here.

  11. Nuclear Science References Database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pritychenko, B., E-mail: pritychenko@bnl.gov [National Nuclear Data Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States); Běták, E. [Institute of Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, 84511 Bratislava (Slovakia); Singh, B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8S 4M1 (Canada); Totans, J. [National Nuclear Data Center, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States)

    2014-06-15

    The Nuclear Science References (NSR) database together with its associated Web interface, is the world's only comprehensive source of easily accessible low- and intermediate-energy nuclear physics bibliographic information for more than 210,000 articles since the beginning of nuclear science. The weekly-updated NSR database provides essential support for nuclear data evaluation, compilation and research activities. The principles of the database and Web application development and maintenance are described. Examples of nuclear structure, reaction and decay applications are specifically included. The complete NSR database is freely available at the websites of the National Nuclear Data Center (http://www.nndc.bnl.gov/nsr) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (http://www-nds.iaea.org/nsr)

  12. Absolute nuclear material assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Manoj K [Pleasanton, CA; Snyderman, Neal J [Berkeley, CA; Rowland, Mark S [Alamo, CA

    2012-05-15

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  13. Financing the Nuclear Renaissance

    OpenAIRE

    NUTTALL, William J.; Taylor, S

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers the key economic risks associated with nuclear power. The authors observe that the bulk of the risks of a nuclear power station project fall during the roughly five year period of plant construction. This window of risk follows a lengthy siting process and comes before power station operations lasting up to sixty years. As a consequence of the nature of the economic risks, operational nuclear power plants are more attractive targets for initial investment than new build p...

  14. Nuclear Parity with China?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Comprehensive Nuclear-Test- Ban Treaty (CTBT) in 1996, and applied for membership in the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR) in 2004. Since at least the...first nuclear test ban agreements? Is the United States seeking to gain relative advantage under the guise of nuclear parity? Caroline Ziemke-Dickens...of what senior State Department officials call “doing our homework ” for future arms control negotiations, and even there is has a low standing

  15. Nuclear Fabrication Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levesque, Stephen [EWI, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2013-04-05

    This report summarizes the activities undertaken by EWI while under contract from the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) for the management and operation of the Nuclear Fabrication Consortium (NFC). The NFC was established by EWI to independently develop, evaluate, and deploy fabrication approaches and data that support the re-establishment of the U.S. nuclear industry: ensuring that the supply chain will be competitive on a global stage, enabling more cost-effective and reliable nuclear power in a carbon constrained environment. The NFC provided a forum for member original equipment manufactures (OEM), fabricators, manufacturers, and materials suppliers to effectively engage with each other and rebuild the capacity of this supply chain by : Identifying and removing impediments to the implementation of new construction and fabrication techniques and approaches for nuclear equipment, including system components and nuclear plants. Providing and facilitating detailed scientific-based studies on new approaches and technologies that will have positive impacts on the cost of building of nuclear plants. Analyzing and disseminating information about future nuclear fabrication technologies and how they could impact the North American and the International Nuclear Marketplace. Facilitating dialog and initiate alignment among fabricators, owners, trade associations, and government agencies. Supporting industry in helping to create a larger qualified nuclear supplier network. Acting as an unbiased technology resource to evaluate, develop, and demonstrate new manufacturing technologies. Creating welder and inspector training programs to help enable the necessary workforce for the upcoming construction work. Serving as a focal point for technology, policy, and politically interested parties to share ideas and concepts associated with fabrication across the nuclear industry. The report the objectives and summaries of the Nuclear Fabrication Consortium

  16. Absolute nuclear material assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Manoj K [Pleasanton, CA; Snyderman, Neal J [Berkeley, CA; Rowland, Mark S [Alamo, CA

    2010-07-13

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  17. Changes in Low-Value Services in Year 1 of the Medicare Pioneer Accountable Care Organization Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Aaron L; Chernew, Michael E; Landon, Bruce E; McWilliams, J Michael

    2015-11-01

    Wasteful practices are widespread in the US health care system. It is unclear if payment models intended to improve health care efficiency, such as the Medicare accountable care organization (ACO) programs, discourage the provision of low-value services. To assess whether the first year of the Medicare Pioneer ACO program was associated with a reduction in use of low-value services. In a difference-in-differences analysis, we compared use of low-value services between Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries attributed to health care provider groups that entered the Pioneer program (ACO group) and beneficiaries attributed to other health care providers (control group) before (2009-2011) vs after (2012) Pioneer ACO contracts began. Data analysis was conducted from December 1, 2014, to June 27, 2015. Comparisons were adjusted for beneficiaries' sociodemographic and clinical characteristics as well as for geography. We decomposed estimates according to service characteristics (clinical category, price, and sensitivity to patient preferences) and compared estimates between subgroups of ACOs with higher vs lower baseline use of low-value services. Use of, and spending on, 31 services in instances that provide minimal clinical benefit, measured as annual service counts per 100 beneficiaries and price-standardized annual service spending per 100 beneficiaries. During the precontract period, trends in the use of low-value services were similar for the ACO and control groups. The first year of ACO contracts was associated with a differential reduction (95% CI) of 0.8 low-value services per 100 beneficiaries for the ACO group (-1.2 to -0.4; P low-value services (-7.5% to -1.4%; P = .004). Differential reductions were similar for services less sensitive vs more sensitive to patient preferences and for higher- vs lower-priced services. The ACOs with higher than their markets' mean baseline levels of low-value service use experienced greater service reductions (-1.2 services

  18. Nuclear reactor apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Elman E.

    1978-01-01

    A lifting, rotating and sealing apparatus for nuclear reactors utilizing rotating plugs above the nuclear reactor core. This apparatus permits rotation of the plugs to provide under the plug refueling of a nuclear core. It also provides a means by which positive top core holddown can be utilized. Both of these operations are accomplished by means of the apparatus lifting the top core holddown structure off the nuclear core while stationary, and maintaining this structure in its elevated position during plug rotation. During both of these operations, the interface between the rotating member and its supporting member is sealingly maintained.

  19. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... variety of diseases, including many types of cancers, heart disease, gastrointestinal, endocrine, neurological disorders and other abnormalities within the body. Because nuclear medicine procedures are ...

  20. Nuclear medicine physics

    CERN Document Server

    De Lima, Joao Jose

    2011-01-01

    Edited by a renowned international expert in the field, Nuclear Medicine Physics offers an up-to-date, state-of-the-art account of the physics behind the theoretical foundation and applications of nuclear medicine. It covers important physical aspects of the methods and instruments involved in modern nuclear medicine, along with related biological topics. The book first discusses the physics of and machines for producing radioisotopes suitable for use in conventional nuclear medicine and PET. After focusing on positron physics and the applications of positrons in medicine and biology, it descr

  1. Nuclear structure theory

    CERN Document Server

    Irvine, J M

    1972-01-01

    Nuclear Structure Theory provides a guide to nuclear structure theory. The book is comprised of 23 chapters that are organized into four parts; each part covers an aspect of nuclear structure theory. In the first part, the text discusses the experimentally observed phenomena, which nuclear structure theories need to look into and detail the information that supports those theories. The second part of the book deals with the phenomenological nucleon-nucleon potentials derived from phase shift analysis of nucleon-nucleon scattering. Part III talks about the phenomenological parameters used to de

  2. Nuclear criticality safety guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruvost, N.L.; Paxton, H.C. [eds.

    1996-09-01

    This technical reference document cites information related to nuclear criticality safety principles, experience, and practice. The document also provides general guidance for criticality safety personnel and regulators.

  3. PACS in nuclear medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Keon Wook [National Cancer Center, Koyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-12-01

    PACS (Picture Archiving and Communication System) is being rapidly spread and installed in many hospitals, but most of the system do not include nuclear medicine field. Although additional costs of hardware for nuclear medicine PACS is low, the complexity in developing viewing software and little market have made the nuclear medicine PACS not popular. Most PACS utilize DICOM 3.0 as standard format, but standard format in nuclear medicine has been Interfile. Interfile should be converted into DICOM format if nuclear images are to be stored and visualized in most PACS. Nowadays, many vendors supply the DICOM option in gamma camera and PET. Several hospitals in Korea have already installed nucler PACS with DICOM, but only the screen captured images are supplied. Software for visualizing pseudo-color with color lookup tables and expressing with volume view should be developed to fulfill the demand of referring physicians and nuclear medicine physicians. PACS is going to integrate not only radiologic images but also endoscopic and pathologic images. Web and PC based PACS is now a trend and is much compatible with nuclear medicine PACS. Most important barrier for nuclear medicine PACS that we encounter is not a technical problem, but indifference of investor such as administrator of hospital or PACS. Now it is time to support and invest for the development of nuclear medicine PACS.

  4. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... heart disease, gastrointestinal, endocrine, neurological disorders and other abnormalities within the body. Because nuclear medicine procedures are able to pinpoint molecular activity ...

  5. Acute genetic manipulation of neuronal activity for the functional dissection of neural circuits-a dream come true for the pioneers of behavioral genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshihara, Moto; Ito, Kei

    2012-03-01

    Abstract: This review summarizes technical development of the functional manipulation of specific neural circuits through genetic techniques in Drosophila. Long after pioneers' efforts for the genetic dissection of behavior using this organism as a model, analyses with acute activation of specific neural circuits have finally become feasible using transgenic Drosophila that expresses light-, heat-, or cold-activatable cation channels by xxx/upstream activation sequence (Gal4/UAS)-based induction system. This methodology opened a new avenue to dissect functions of neural circuits to make dreams of the pioneers into reality.

  6. Data analysis to separate particles of different speed regimes and charges. [lunar ejecta and meteorite experiment and pioneer space probe data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, H.

    1977-01-01

    Although the instruments on the lunar ejecta and meteorite experiment (LEAM) and the Pioneer 8 and 9 space probes were essentially similar, a comparison of their results indicates that different sets of particles caused the different responses. On Pioneer, the events were caused by the impact of cosmic dust, the so-called beta particles expelled from the vicinity of the sun by solar radiation pressure, augmented by extremely high energy but definitely identifiable interstellar grains. On the moon, the events were due to the impact of slowly moving, highly charged lunar dust being propelled electrostatically across the terminator. Both theoretical analysis and experimental testing confirming these conclusions are discussed.

  7. Commercial nuclear power 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-28

    This report presents the status at the end of 1989 and the outlook for commercial nuclear capacity and generation for all countries in the world with free market economies (FME). The report provides documentation of the US nuclear capacity and generation projections through 2030. The long-term projections of US nuclear capacity and generation are provided to the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) for use in estimating nuclear waste fund revenues and to aid in planning the disposal of nuclear waste. These projections also support the Energy Information Administration's annual report, Domestic Uranium Mining and Milling Industry: Viability Assessment, and are provided to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. The foreign nuclear capacity projections are used by the DOE uranium enrichment program in assessing potential markets for future enrichment contracts. The two major sections of this report discuss US and foreign commercial nuclear power. The US section (Chapters 2 and 3) deals with (1) the status of nuclear power as of the end of 1989; (2) projections of nuclear capacity and generation at 5-year intervals from 1990 through 2030; and (3) a discussion of institutional and technical issues that affect nuclear power. The nuclear capacity projections are discussed in terms of two projection periods: the intermediate term through 2010 and the long term through 2030. A No New Orders case is presented for each of the projection periods, as well as Lower Reference and Upper Reference cases. 5 figs., 30 tabs.

  8. Daredevils and early birds: Belgian pioneers in automobile racing and aerial sports during the belle époque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameye, Thomas; Gils, Bieke; Delheye, Pascal

    2011-01-01

    During the belle époque, Belgium was a trend-setting nation in many domains, including motorised sports. Belgian automobile racers and pilots shattered world records and became international stars. Striking was the shift in sports. Indeed, around 1896, sporting members of the leisure class stepped from the bicycle into the automobile and, around 1908, from the automobile into the airplane. Although these motorised sports were extremely expensive, this article shows that sportsmen and sportswomen from the working class could achieve upward social mobility through their performances. The achievements of these motorised pioneers had a major impact and wide-ranging significance. They laid the foundations for the expansion of the automobile industry and the emergence of civilian and military aviation.

  9. Dante Moreira Leite: um pioneiro da psicologia social no Brasil Dante Moreira Leite: a pioneer of social psychology in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo José de Paiva

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Apresenta-se o trabalho pioneiro no Brasil, na área da Psicologia Social, de Dante Moreira Leite, consignado em três obras: O Caráter Nacional Brasileiro, Psicologia Diferencial e Psicologia e Literatura. Nessas obras examinam-se em particular os tópicos relações interpessoais, caráter nacional e vinculações entre Literatura e Psicologia. Apresentam-se também, brevemente, o Autor em suas atividades de professor, pesquisador, escritor, tradutor e administrador acadêmico.Dante Moreira Leite’s pioneer work in Brazilian Social Psychology is presented through the analysis of three of his main books: Brazilian National Character, Differential Psychology and Psychology and Literature. The subjects especially considered in these writings are interpersonal relations, national character and the links between Literature and Psychology. His activities as professor, researcher, writer, translator and academic manager are also introduced.

  10. Pioneer hydraulic fracturing intervention on Brazilian Amazon Forest; Operacao pioneira de fraturamento hidraulico na selva Amazonica brasileira

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Cledeilson; Silva, Luis A.; Duque, Luis H.; Steffan, Rodolfo H.P.; Guimaraes, Zacarias [Baker Hughes, Houston, TX (United States); Sabino, Afonso H. dos S.; Corregio, Fabio; Ferreira, Jose Carlos da Silva; Melo, Marcelo Moura; Ludovice, Roberto C. [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Hydraulic fracturing is a stimulation technique where fluid is pumped with enough energy to create a fracture in the reservoir and to propagate it filling the broken zone with proppant agent. To the end of the treatment the proppant agent will support the fracture creating a production flow path, once it will have permeability higher than the original formation. Since a long time it was desired to use that technique to explore tight reservoirs in the Solimoes basin. However the lack of information on the interest zones, the great amount of equipment and fluids volumes involved hindered the application in an area that withholds a environmental certification. In November 10th of 2011 these challenges were surpassed. This article describes the technique, job details and results of the pioneering hydraulic fracturing intervention in the heart of the Amazon forest that became economically viable the gas production in tight reservoirs of the Solimoes basin with minimum environmental impact. (author)

  11. Field testing and evaluation of Zerpol (trade name) at pioneer metal finishing. Report for June 1991-September 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saqa, H.J.; Watts, D.J.; Elsaady, M.; Springer, J.

    1995-08-01

    The project examines the Zerpol process. The Zerpol process, as used in metal plating operations, captures all aqueous effluent from the manufacturing operations, conditions the effluent to remove any metal or cyanide that may be present, and permits the reuse of the conditioned water in rinsing operations. About 30% of the recovered water is fed into the plant boiler to generate distilled water for critical rinsing. The goals of the study include confirmation that the quality of the water derived from the Zeropol process is appropriate for the intended use, that the process is safe, and to estimate the economics of the installation and use of the process as compared to other alternatives. The evaluation was carried out at Pioneer Metal Finishing in Franklinville, New Jersey.

  12. [The physicist Félix Savart (1791-1841). Physician/Surgeon, pioneer in the study of acoustics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ségal, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Félix Savart (1791-1841) was both a physician and a physicist, and also a pioneer of acoustics and psycho-acoustics. In 1819 Savart scientifically devised and contructed a trapezoidal violin with the advice of Paris string-instrument maker J-B Vuillaume. This violin drew the attention of J-B Biot who suggested young Savart to work with him on such acoustic researches. From this collaboration proceeded the so-called "law of Biot-Savart" about magnetic power which was in fact formulated by Pierre Simon de Laplace (1749-1827). Savart worked on numerous and diversified acoustic researches. Lord John Rayleigh described them as "beautiful experiments", and he became a foreign correspondant member of the Royal Society in 1839.

  13. Netrin-DCC signaling regulates corpus callosum formation through attraction of pioneering axons and by modulating Slit2-mediated repulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fothergill, Thomas; Donahoo, Amber-Lee S; Douglass, Amelia; Zalucki, Oressia; Yuan, Jiajia; Shu, Tianzhi; Goodhill, Geoffrey J; Richards, Linda J

    2014-05-01

    The left and right sides of the nervous system communicate via commissural axons that cross the midline during development using evolutionarily conserved molecules. These guidance cues have been particularly well studied in the mammalian spinal cord, but it remains unclear whether these guidance mechanisms for commissural axons are similar in the developing forebrain, in particular for the corpus callosum, the largest and most important commissure for cortical function. Here, we show that Netrin1 initially attracts callosal pioneering axons derived from the cingulate cortex, but surprisingly is not attractive for the neocortical callosal axons that make up the bulk of the projection. Instead, we show that Netrin-deleted in colorectal cancer signaling acts in a fundamentally different manner, to prevent the Slit2-mediated repulsion of precrossing axons thereby allowing them to approach and cross the midline. These results provide the first evidence for how callosal axons integrate multiple guidance cues to navigate the midline.

  14. Growth and resilience of pioneering nonprofit human service organizations: a cross-case analysis of organizational histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimberlin, Sara E; Schwartz, Sara L; Austin, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge of organizational history is important for recognizing patterns in effective management and understanding how organizations respond to internal and external challenges. This cross-case analysis of 12 histories of pioneering nonprofit human service organizations contributes an important longitudinal perspective on organizational history, complementing the cross-sectional case studies that dominate the existing research on nonprofit organizations. The literature on organizational growth, including lifecycle models and growth management, is reviewed, along with the literature on organizational resilience. Based on analysis of the 12 organizational histories, a conceptual model is presented that synthesizes key factors in the areas of leadership, internal operations, and external relations that influence organizational growth and resilience to enable nonprofit organizations to survive and thrive over time. Both cross-sectional and longitudinal examples from the organizational histories illustrate the conceptual map. The paper concludes with a discussion of directions for future research on nonprofit organizational history.

  15. Pioneer Venus Lyman-alpha observations of Comet P/Giacobini-Zinner and the life expectancy of cometary hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combi, M. R.; Smyth, W. H.; Stewart, A. I. F.

    1986-01-01

    Results are given of the Pioneer Venus observation of the hydrogen coma of Comet P/Giacobini-Zinner on September 11, 1985 during the fly-by conducted by the International Cometary Explorer (ICE). Analysis of the data with a time-dependent 3-D particle-trajectory model implies a water production rate of 2.2 x 10 to the 28 per second on that day. The model includes the irregular variations in the H lifetime and the H Lyman-alpha fluorescence rate determined from simultaneous measurements of the solar wind by ICE and of the solar UV by the Solar Mesosphere Explorer (SME), respectively. The H lifetime varied from 2 x 10 to the 5 to 3 x 10 to the 6 seconds during the 42 days preceding the observation.

  16. Pioneer 10 and 11 Spacecraft Anomalous Acceleration in the light of the Nonsymmetric Kaluza-Klein (Jordan-Thiry) Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Kalinowski, M W

    2015-01-01

    The Nonsymmetric Kaluza-Klein (Jordan-Thiry) Theory leads to a model of a modified acceleration that can fit an anomalous acceleration experienced by the Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft. The future positions of those spacecrafts are predicted using distorted hyperbolic orbit. A mysterious connection between an anomalous acceleration and a Hubble constant is solved in the theory. In the paper we consider an exact solution of a point mass motion in the Solar System under an influence of an anomalous acceleration. We find two types of orbits: periodic and chaotic. Both orbits are bounded. This means there is no possibility to escape from the Solar System. Some possibilities to avoid this conclusion are considered. We resolve also some mysterious coincidence between an anomalous acceleration and the cosmological constant using a paradigm of modern cosmology. Relativistic effects and a cosmological drifting of a gravitational constant are considered.The model of an anomalous acceleration does not cause any contradict...

  17. Gamma-ray burst observations with the [ital Compton]/[ital Ulysses]/[ital Pioneer]-[ital Venus] network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cline, T.L. (NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 661, Greenbelt, Maryland 20771 (United States)); Hurley, K.C. (University of California, Space Sciences Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)); Sommer, M. (Max-Planck Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, Garching (Germany)); Boer, M.; Niel, M. (Centre d' Etude Spatiale des Rayonnements, Toulouse (France)); Fishman, G.J.; Kouveliotou, C.; Meegan, C.A.; Paciesas, W.S.; Wilson, R.B. (NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center, ES-62, Huntsville, Alabama 35812 (United States)); Fenimore, E.E.; Laros, J.G.; Klebesadel, R.W. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, MS D436, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States))

    1993-07-05

    The third and latest interplanetary network for the precise directional analysis of gamma ray bursts consists of the Burst and Transient Source Experiment in [ital Compton] [ital Gamma] [ital Ray] [ital Observatory] and instruments on [ital Pioneer]-[ital Venus] [ital Orbiter] and the deep-space mission [ital Ulysses]. The unsurpassed resolution of the BATSE instrument, the use of refined analysis techniques, and [ital Ulysses]' distance of up to 6 AU all contribute to a potential for greater precision than had been achieved with former networks. Also, the departure of [ital Ulysses] from the ecliptic plane in 1992 avoids any positional alignment of the three instruments that would lessen the source directional accuracy.

  18. Christian Theodor Vaupell, a Danish 19th century naturalist and a pioneering developer of the Quaternary geoscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, J. K.; Helama, S.

    2012-09-01

    Christian Theodor Vaupell (1821-1862) was a Danish scholar with pioneering investigations particularly on the late Quaternary development of bog forests, but also microscopy of plant anatomy and vegetative reproduction. His studies contributed to the early scientific thinking of the Quaternary environmental changes. Before his academic efforts, he had already survived the war between Prussia and Denmark albeit he became severely wounded and his left arm was amputated. The drama of his academic efforts, on the other hand, lies in the more or less suspicious dispute of his first doctoral thesis and his dismissal from the academic world during the following years. At the same time, he earned praise for his first thesis (never accepted as thesis but published as a regular book) from abroad; he was also able to attract private foundations for financial support of his scientific work. Following the enthusiasm of his time, Vaupell became attracted to the pine megafossils known to have been preserved in the bogs in north-west Europe. The megafossils led him to study not only the life systems of the ancient and modern bog forests but also their associations with Earth processes. As an interesting detail of his research, Vaupell made compound interpretations on the occurrence of megafossil stumps and their tree-ring growth patterns. In the course of the 20th century, Vaupell's studies have been cited as a general reference of post-glacial vegetation change and plant succession rather than clearly pioneering investigations of palaeoecology, an angle that we would like put into a contrasting perspective. To do so, we provide a brief portrait of Christian Vaupell and his research career. In conclusion, we wish to emphasize the comprehensiveness of Vaupell's views on the late Quaternary vegetation changes and the role of plant succession in that development.

  19. Christian Theodor Vaupell, a Danish 19th century naturalist and a pioneering developer of the Quaternary geoscience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. K. Nielsen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Christian Theodor Vaupell (1821–1862 was a Danish scholar with pioneering investigations particularly on the late Quaternary development of bog forests, but also microscopy of plant anatomy and vegetative reproduction. His studies contributed to the early scientific thinking of the Quaternary environmental changes. Before his academic efforts, he had already survived the war between Prussia and Denmark albeit he became severely wounded and his left arm was amputated. The drama of his academic efforts, on the other hand, lies in the more or less suspicious dispute of his first doctoral thesis and his dismissal from the academic world during the following years. At the same time, he earned praise for his first thesis (never accepted as thesis but published as a regular book from abroad; he was also able to attract private foundations for financial support of his scientific work. Following the enthusiasm of his time, Vaupell became attracted to the pine megafossils known to have been preserved in the bogs in north-west Europe. The megafossils led him to study not only the life systems of the ancient and modern bog forests but also their associations with Earth processes. As an interesting detail of his research, Vaupell made compound interpretations on the occurrence of megafossil stumps and their tree-ring growth patterns. In the course of the 20th century, Vaupell's studies have been cited as a general reference of post-glacial vegetation change and plant succession rather than clearly pioneering investigations of palaeoecology, an angle that we would like put into a contrasting perspective. To do so, we provide a brief portrait of Christian Vaupell and his research career. In conclusion, we wish to emphasize the comprehensiveness of Vaupell's views on the late Quaternary vegetation changes and the role of plant succession in that development.

  20. Canada's early nuclear policy : fate, chance, and character

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckley, B

    2000-07-01

    The advent of nuclear weapons introduced a complex new factor into world politics, drawing a line through history and ensuring that international relations would never be the same. By both accident and design, Canada was a central player in the new nuclear era, as countries grappled with the implications of this revolutionary new development. Canada's decision, unique among pioneer atomic powers, not to acquire a nuclear arsenal has been used to buttress widely differing political agendas, while the factors that shaped the policy-making process have been largely ignored. In Canada's Early Nuclear Policy Brian Buckley weaves information from a number of disciplines to shed new light on Canada's early policies. Filling a longstanding gap in the national story, he explores the country's role in the early post-war period, cautioning against simplistic explanations and pointing to the continuing roles of contingency and personality in decision making. While the threat of nuclear war has receded in recent years, the number of states with nuclear weapons, the number of weapons, and their killing power are all far greater than they were five decades ago. Virtually all the issues that emerged fifty years ago remain on the international agenda and are as relevant today as ever.

  1. Nuclear Energy and the Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria).

    "Nuclear Energy and the Environment" is a pocket folder of removable leaflets concerned with two major topics: Nuclear energy and Nuclear Techniques. Under Nuclear Energy, leaflets concerning the topics of "Radiation--A Fact of Life,""The Impact of a Fact: 1963 Test Ban Treaty,""Energy Needs and Nuclear Power,""Power Reactor Safety,""Transport,"…

  2. Nuclear Power Plant Technician

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, George A.

    1975-01-01

    The author recognizes a body of basic knowledge in nuclear power plant technoogy that can be taught in school programs, and lists the various courses, aiming to fill the anticipated need for nuclear-trained manpower--persons holding an associate degree in engineering technology. (Author/BP)

  3. JPRS Report, Nuclear Developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-09-18

    105 of them new internationally) and a determination of their characteris- tics ; it includes a uniform quantum mechanical descrip- tion of the... Empresas Nucleares Brasileiras S.A. (Nuclebras) to Industrias Nucleares do Brasil S.A. (INB), and trans- ferred the shares of its capital stock

  4. Nuclear Weapons and Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howie, David I.

    1984-01-01

    The growing debate on nuclear weapons in recent years has begun to make inroads into school curricula. Elementary and secondary school teachers now face the important task of educating their students on issues relating to nuclear war without indoctrinating them to a particular point of view. (JBM)

  5. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging ...

  6. Nuclear-Powered Debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arce, Gary

    1992-01-01

    Describes an exercise to develop interest and understanding about nuclear energy in which students make presentations regarding a proposal to build a hypothetical nuclear power plant. Students spend two weeks researching the topic; give testimony before a "Senate Energy Committee"; and vote on the proposal. Background information is…

  7. Exotic nuclear matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenske H.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments of nuclear structure theory for exotic nuclei are addressed. The inclusion of hyperons and nucleon resonances is discussed. Nuclear multipole response functions, hyperon interactions in infinite matter and in neutron stars and theoretical aspects of excitations of nucleon resonances in nuclei are discussed.

  8. Nuclear Energy Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-27

    Down by Lengthy Outages,” Nucleonics Week, April 1, 2010, p. 1. Totals are for gross generation, including electricity used for reactor operation. 5...would 7World Nuclear Performance in 2009 Pushed Down by Lengthy Outages,” Nucleonics Week... Nucleonics Week, April 15, 2010, p. 1. 12 ESBWR: Economic Simplified Boiling Water Reactor; APWR: Advanced Pressurized Water Reactor. Nuclear Energy

  9. Nuclear Power Plants. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyerly, Ray L.; Mitchell, Walter, III

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. Among the topics discussed are: Why Use Nuclear Power?; From Atoms to Electricity; Reactor Types; Typical Plant Design Features; The Cost of Nuclear Power; Plants in the United States; Developments in Foreign…

  10. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... radioactive energy that is emitted from the patient's body and converts it into an image. The gamma camera itself does not emit any ... View full size with caption Related Articles and Media General Nuclear ... to Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Videos related ...

  11. Nuclear multifragmentation: Basic concepts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-05-02

    May 2, 2014 ... Abstract. We present a brief overview of nuclear multifragmentation reaction. Basic formalism of canonical thermodynamical model based on equilibrium statistical mechanics is described. This model is used to calculate basic observables of nuclear multifragmentation like mass distribution, fragment ...

  12. Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... medicine refers to imaging examinations done in babies, young children and teenagers. Nuclear medicine imaging procedures are noninvasive ... exams at the same time. An emerging imaging technology, but not readily available at ... procedure? Children's (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging is performed to help ...

  13. Themes in nuclear law; Temas de Derecho Nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    The nuclear law was analyzed during a workshop. The main aspects were: the law of population to access to information on nuclear energy and the relationship between the Regulator Organism and the nuclear power plants managers.

  14. Nuclear-pumped lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Prelas, Mark

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on Nuclear-Pumped Laser (NPL) technology and provides the reader with a fundamental understanding of NPLs, a review of research in the field, and exploration of large scale NPL system design and applications. Early chapters look at the fundamental properties of lasers, nuclear-pumping and nuclear reactions that may be used as drivers for nuclear-pumped lasers. The book goes on to explore the efficient transport of energy from the ionizing radiation to the laser medium and then the operational characteristics of existing nuclear-pumped lasers. Models based on Mathematica, explanations and a tutorial all assist the reader’s understanding of this technology. Later chapters consider the integration of the various systems involved in NPLs and the ways in which they can be used, including beyond the military agenda. As readers will discover, there are significant humanitarian applications for high energy/power lasers, such as deflecting asteroids, space propulsion, power transmission and mining....

  15. Nuclear physics today

    CERN Document Server

    Galès, Sydney

    1999-01-01

    This brief review explores the future perspectives of nuclear physics at the dawn of the next millennium, a century after the great discoveries of H. Becquerel, Marie and Pierre Curie. Nuclear physics plays an important role in the understanding of the formation of matter in the universe. Today, fundamental research is moving towards new frontiers. Challenging physics issues like the quest for the quark-gluon plasma, the structure and the dynamics of hadrons, the properties of nuclei under extreme conditions of spin, mass, temperature and/or far off stability are the main research avenues for the future. The methods and the tools developed both experimentally and theoretically to probe and understand the nucleus at the microscopic level have a broad spectrum of applications both in other fields of sciences and in our society. Specific examples related to nuclear medicine and nuclear energy will illustrate the possible impact of the applications of Nuclear Physics to our everyday life.

  16. Nuclear power economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emsley, Ian; Cobb, Jonathan [World Nuclear Association, London (United Kingdom)

    2017-04-15

    Many countries recognize the substantial role which nuclear power has played in providing energy security of supply, reducing import dependence and reducing greenhouse gas and polluting emissions. Nevertheless, as such considerations are far from being fully accounted for in liberalized or deregulated power markets, nuclear plants must demonstrate their viability in these markets on commercial criteria as well as their lifecycle advantages. Nuclear plants are operating more efficiently than in the past and unit operating costs are low relative to those of alternative generating technologies. The political risk facing the economic functioning of nuclear in a number of countries has increased with the imposition of nuclear-specific taxes that in some cases have deprived operators of the economic incentive to continue to operate existing plants.

  17. Latest nuclear emulsion technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokujo, Hiroki; Kawahara, Hiroaki; Komatani, Ryosuke; Morishita, Misaki; Nakano, Toshiyuki; Otsuka, Naoto; Yoshimoto, Masahiro

    2017-06-01

    Nuclear emulsion is a extremely high-resolution 3D tracking detector. Since the discovery of the pion by C.F. Powell et al. in 1946, experiments with nuclear emulsions have contributed to the development of particle physics. (e.g. the OPERA collaboration reported the discovery of νμ * ντ oscillations in appearance mode in 2015) The technology of nuclear emulsion still keeps making progress. Since 2010, we have introduced a system of nuclear emulsion gel production to our laboratory in Nagoya University, and have started self-development of the new gel, instead of from the photographic film companies. Moreover, a faster automated emulsion scanning system is developed. Its scanning speed reaches 4000 cm2/h, and the load for analyzing becomes more and more lighter. In this presentation, we report the status of nuclear emulsion technologies for cosmic ray experiments.

  18. World nuclear outlook 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-29

    As part of the EIA program to provide energy information, this analysis report presents the current status and projections through 2015 of nuclear capacity, generation, and fuel cycle requirements for all countries in the world using nuclear power to generate electricity for commercial use. It also contains information and forecasts of developments in the uranium market. Long-term projections of US nuclear capacity, generation, and spent fuel discharges for two different scenarios through 2040 are developed for the Department of Energy`s Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM). In turn, the OCRWM provides partial funding for preparation of this report. The projections of uranium requirements are provided to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) for preparation of the Nuclear Energy Agency/OECD report, Summary of Nuclear Power and Fuel Cycle Data in OECD Member Countries.

  19. World nuclear outlook 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-01

    As part of the EIA program to provide energy information, this analysis report presents the current status and projections through 2010 of nuclear capacity, generation, and fuel cycle requirements for all countries in the world using nuclear power to generate electricity for commercial use. It also contains information and forecasts of developments in the uranium market. Long-term projections of US nuclear capacity, generation, and spent fuel discharges for three different scenarios through 2040 are developed for the Department of Energy`s Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM). In turn, the OCRWM provides partial funding for preparation of this report. The projections of uranium requirements are provided to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) for preparation of the Nuclear Energy Agency/OECD report, Summary of Nuclear Power and Fuel Cycle Data in OECD Member Countries.

  20. Fundamentals of nuclear physics

    CERN Document Server

    Takigawa, Noboru

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces the current understanding of the fundamentals of nuclear physics by referring to key experimental data and by providing a theoretical understanding of principal nuclear properties. It primarily covers the structure of nuclei at low excitation in detail. It also examines nuclear forces and decay properties. In addition to fundamentals, the book treats several new research areas such as non-relativistic as well as relativistic Hartree–Fock calculations, the synthesis of super-heavy elements, the quantum chromodynamics phase diagram, and nucleosynthesis in stars, to convey to readers the flavor of current research frontiers in nuclear physics. The authors explain semi-classical arguments and derivation of its formulae. In these ways an intuitive understanding of complex nuclear phenomena is provided. The book is aimed at graduate school students as well as junior and senior undergraduate students and postdoctoral fellows. It is also useful for researchers to update their knowledge of diver...

  1. Comprehensive nuclear materials

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, Todd; Stoller, Roger; Yamanaka, Shinsuke

    2012-01-01

    Comprehensive Nuclear Materials encapsulates a panorama of fundamental information on the vast variety of materials employed in the broad field of nuclear technology. The work addresses, in five volumes, 3,400 pages and over 120 chapter-length articles, the full panorama of historical and contemporary international research in nuclear materials, from Actinides to Zirconium alloys, from the worlds' leading scientists and engineers. It synthesizes the most pertinent research to support the selection, assessment, validation and engineering of materials in extreme nuclear environments. The work discusses the major classes of materials suitable for usage in nuclear fission, fusion reactors and high power accelerators, and for diverse functions in fuels, cladding, moderator and control materials, structural, functional, and waste materials.

  2. Nuclear war, nuclear proliferation, and their consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanruddin, A.K.

    1986-01-01

    The proceedings of a colloquium convened by the Groupe de Bellerive offers the contributions of Carl Sagan, Gabriel Garcia Marquez, Kenneth Galbraith, Pierre Trudeau, Edward Kennedy, and other eminent scientists, politicians, and strategists on the subject of the proliferation of nuclear weaponry and its potential ramifications.

  3. Nuclear Powerplant Safety: Source Terms. Nuclear Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC. Nuclear Energy Office.

    There has been increased public interest in the potential effects of nuclear powerplant accidents since the Soviet reactor accident at Chernobyl. People have begun to look for more information about the amount of radioactivity that might be released into the environment as a result of such an accident. When this issue is discussed by people…

  4. The nuclear pore complex and nuclear transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wente, Susan R; Rout, Michael P

    2010-10-01

    Internal membrane bound structures sequester all genetic material in eukaryotic cells. The most prominent of these structures is the nucleus, which is bounded by a double membrane termed the nuclear envelope (NE). Though this NE separates the nucleoplasm and genetic material within the nucleus from the surrounding cytoplasm, it is studded throughout with portals called nuclear pore complexes (NPCs). The NPC is a highly selective, bidirectional transporter for a tremendous range of protein and ribonucleoprotein cargoes. All the while the NPC must prevent the passage of nonspecific macromolecules, yet allow the free diffusion of water, sugars, and ions. These many types of nuclear transport are regulated at multiple stages, and the NPC carries binding sites for many of the proteins that modulate and modify the cargoes as they pass across the NE. Assembly, maintenance, and repair of the NPC must somehow occur while maintaining the integrity of the NE. Finally, the NPC appears to be an anchor for localization of many nuclear processes, including gene activation and cell cycle regulation. All these requirements demonstrate the complex design of the NPC and the integral role it plays in key cellular processes.

  5. 77 FR 76541 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-28

    ... Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION... Nuclear Operations, Inc. (the licensee), for operation of the Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station (Pilgrim... Renewal of Nuclear Plants Regarding Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station, Final Report- Appendices,'' published...

  6. US nuclear weapons policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, M.

    1990-12-05

    We are closing chapter one'' of the nuclear age. Whatever happens to the Soviet Union and to Europe, some of the major determinants of nuclear policy will not be what they have been for the last forty-five years. Part of the task for US nuclear weapons policy is to adapt its nuclear forces and the oganizations managing them to the present, highly uncertain, but not urgently competitive situation between the US and the Soviet Union. Containment is no longer the appropriate watchword. Stabilization in the face of uncertainty, a more complicated and politically less readily communicable goal, may come closer. A second and more difficult part of the task is to deal with what may be the greatest potential source of danger to come out of the end of the cold war: the breakup of some of the cooperative institutions that managed the nuclear threat and were created by the cold war. These cooperative institutions, principally the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), the Warsaw Pact, the US-Japan alliance, were not created specifically to manage the nuclear threat, but manage it they did. A third task for nuclear weapons policy is that of dealing with nuclear proliferation under modern conditions when the technologies needed to field effective nuclear weapons systems and their command and control apparatus are ever more widely available, and the leverage over some potential proliferators, which stemmed from superpower military support, is likely to be on the wane. This paper will make some suggestions regarding these tasks, bearing in mind that the unsettled nature of that part of the world most likely to become involved in nuclear weapons decisions today must make any suggestions tentative and the allowance for surprise more than usually important.

  7. 77 FR 70847 - Entergy Nuclear Indian Point 2, LLC; Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Indian Point Nuclear...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Indian Point 2, LLC; Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Indian Point Nuclear Generating Unit No. 2, Request for Action AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Request for Action...

  8. 77 FR 8904 - Entergy Nuclear Indian Point 3, LLC.; Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Indian Point Nuclear...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Indian Point 3, LLC.; Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Indian Point Nuclear Generating Unit 3; Exemption 1.0 Background Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc. (Entergy or the licensee) is the...

  9. 75 FR 39057 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Entergy Nuclear Vermont Yankee, LLC; Vermont Yankee Nuclear...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Entergy Nuclear Vermont Yankee, LLC; Vermont Yankee Nuclear... CFR), Section 2.206, ``Requests for Action under this Subpart,'' the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory...

  10. 76 FR 19148 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Entergy Nuclear Vermont Yankee, LLC, Vermont Yankee Nuclear...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Entergy Nuclear Vermont Yankee, LLC, Vermont Yankee Nuclear... (10 CFR), Section 2.206, ``Requests for Action under this Subpart,'' the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory...

  11. PREFACE: XXXIII Symposium on Nuclear Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrón-Palos, Libertad; Bijker, Roelof; Fossion, Ruben; Lizcano, David

    2010-04-01

    The attached PDF gives a full listing of contributors and organisation members. In the present volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series we publish the proceedings of the "XXXIII Symposium on Nuclear Physics", that was held from January 5-8, 2010 at the Hacienda Cocoyoc, Morelos, Mexico. The proceedings contain the plenary talks that were presented during the conference. The abstracts of all contributions, plenary talks and posters, were published in the Conference Handbook. The Symposium on Nuclear Physics has a long and distinguished history. From the beginning it was intended to be a relatively small meeting designed to bring together some of the leading nuclear scientists in the field. Its most distinctive feature is to provide a forum for specialists in different areas of nuclear physics, both theorists and experimentalists, students, postdocs and senior scientists, in a relaxed and informal environment providing them with a unique opportunity to exchange ideas. After the first meeting in Oaxtepec in 1978, the Symposium was organized every year without interruption which makes the present one the 33rd in a row. This year's meeting was dedicated to the memory of Marcos Moshinsky, who passed away on April 1, 2009. Dr. Moshinsky was the most distinguished pioneer and promoter of nuclear physics in Mexico and Latin America and holds the record of 31 (out of 32) participations at the Symposium. In the inaugural session, Alejandro Frank (ICN-UNAM), Peter Hess (ICN-UNAM) and Jorge Flores (IF-UNAM) spoke in his honor and recalled the virtues that characterized him as a teacher, scientist, founder of schools and academic institutions, colleague and friend. His generosity, excellence and honesty were emphasized as the personal qualities that characterized both his personal and academic life. moshinksky_photo "Marcos Moshinsky (1921-2009)" The scientific program consisted of 26 invited talks and 20 posters on a wide variety of hot topics in contemporary nuclear

  12. Reviewing the Pioneering Roles of Gallaudet University Alumni in Advancing Deaf Education and Services in Developing Countries: Insights and Challenges from Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eleweke, C. Jonah; Agboola, Isaac O.; Guteng, Simon I.

    2015-01-01

    The advancement of deaf education and services in numerous developing countries can be traced to the pioneering efforts of many Gallaudet University alumni. In Africa, for instance, the work of one such great alumnus, Dr. Andrew Foster, stands out. Foster is credited with efforts that resulted in the establishment of over 30 educational…

  13. [Patient preferences versus evidence-based medicine: did the pioneers of evidence-based medicine take the patient's preferences into account?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoemaker, C.G.; Weijden, T.T. van der

    2016-01-01

    A patient's values and preferences are one of the three 'pillars' of evidence-based medicine (EBM). How can we explain that this one pillar has hardly been elaborated in the EBM-literature?? Were the EBM pioneers really committed to the patient's preferences, were they not ready yet, or were they

  14. Radiological Effects of Nuclear War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Charles S.

    1988-01-01

    Described are the global effects of nuclear war. Discussed are radiation dosages, limited nuclear attacks, strategic arms reductions, and other results reported at the workshop on nuclear war issues in Moscow in March 1988. (CW)

  15. Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org Hello! ... d like to talk to you about nuclear medicine. Nuclear medicine offers the potential to identify disease ...

  16. Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Sponsored by Image/Video Gallery Your Radiologist Explains Nuclear Medicine Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org ... I’d like to talk to you about nuclear medicine. Nuclear medicine offers the potential to identify ...

  17. Nuclear Material Management Abstract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jesse C. Schreiber

    2007-07-10

    Nevada Test Site (NTS) has transitioned from its historical and critical role of weapons testing to another critical role for the nation. This new role focuses on being a integral element in solving the multiple challenges facing the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) with nuclear material management. NTS is positioned to be a solution for other NNSA sites challenged with safe nuclear materials storage and disposition. NNSA, with site involvement, is currently transforming the nuclear stockpile and supporting infrastructure to meet the 2030 vision. Efforts are under way to consolidate and modernize the production complex . With respect to the nuclear material stockpile, the NNSA sites are currently reducing the complex nuclear material inventory through disposition and consolidation. This includes moving material from other sites to NTS. State of the art nuclear material management and control practices at NTS are essential for NTS to ensure that assigned activities are accomplished in a safe, secure, efficient, and environmentally responsible manner. NTS activities and challenges will be addressed.

  18. Advances in nuclear physics

    CERN Document Server

    Vogt, Erich

    1975-01-01

    Review articles on three topics of considerable current interest make up the present volume. The first, on A-hypernuclei, was solicited by the editors in order to provide nuclear physicists with a general description of the most recent developments in a field which this audience has largely neglected or, perhaps, viewed as a novelty in which a bizarre nuclear system gave some information about the lambda-nuclear intersection. That view was never valid. The very recent developments reviewed here-particularly those pertaining to hypernuclear excitations and the strangeness exchange reactions-emphasize that this field provides important information about the models and central ideas of nuclear physics. The off-shell behavior of the nucleon-nucleon interaction is a topic which was at first received with some embarrassment, abuse, and neglect, but it has recently gained proper attention in many nuclear problems. Interest was first focused on it in nuclear many-body theory, but it threatened nuclear physicists'comf...

  19. Evaluated Nuclear Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oblozinsky, P.; Oblozinsky,P.; Herman,M.; Mughabghab,S.F.

    2010-10-01

    This chapter describes the current status of evaluated nuclear data for nuclear technology applications. We start with evaluation procedures for neutron-induced reactions focusing on incident energies from the thermal energy up to 20 MeV, though higher energies are also mentioned. This is followed by examining the status of evaluated neutron data for actinides that play dominant role in most of the applications, followed by coolants/moderators, structural materials and fission products. We then discuss neutron covariance data that characterize uncertainties and correlations. We explain how modern nuclear evaluated data libraries are validated against an extensive set of integral benchmark experiments. Afterwards, we briefly examine other data of importance for nuclear technology, including fission yields, thermal neutron scattering and decay data. A description of three major evaluated nuclear data libraries is provided, including the latest version of the US library ENDF/B-VII.0, European JEFF-3.1 and Japanese JENDL-3.3. A brief introduction is made to current web retrieval systems that allow easy access to a vast amount of up-to-date evaluated nuclear data for nuclear technology applications.

  20. Nuclear forensics: Soil content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beebe, Merilyn Amy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-08-31

    Nuclear Forensics is a growing field that is concerned with all stages of the process of creating and detonating a nuclear weapon. The main goal is to prevent nuclear attack by locating and securing nuclear material before it can be used in an aggressive manner. This stage of the process is mostly paperwork; laws, regulations, treaties, and declarations made by individual countries or by the UN Security Council. There is some preliminary leg work done in the form of field testing detection equipment and tracking down orphan materials; however, none of these have yielded any spectacular or useful results. In the event of a nuclear attack, the first step is to analyze the post detonation debris to aid in the identification of the responsible party. This aspect of the nuclear forensics process, while reactive in nature, is more scientific. A rock sample taken from the detonation site can be dissolved into liquid form and analyzed to determine its chemical composition. The chemical analysis of spent nuclear material can provide valuable information if properly processed and analyzed. In order to accurately evaluate the results, scientists require information on the natural occurring elements in the detonation zone. From this information, scientists can determine what percentage of the element originated in the bomb itself rather than the environment. To this end, element concentrations in soils from sixty-nine different cities are given, along with activity concentrations for uranium, thorium, potassium, and radium in various building materials. These data are used in the analysis program Python.