WorldWideScience

Sample records for heterotopic ossification avaliacao

  1. Heterotopic Ossification in Wartime Wounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Onhop. Surg. 12:116-125, 2004. 3. Hoffer, M. M., et al. The orthopaedic management of brain-injured children . J. Bone Joint Surg. 53-A:567-577, 1971...Celecoxib versus ibuprofen in the prevention of heterotopic ossification following total hip replacement: a prospective randomised trial. J. Bone Joint

  2. Diagnosis and Treatment of Heterotopic Ossification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    1 Award Number: W81XWH-12-1-0274 TITLE: Diagnosis and Treatment of Heterotopic Ossification PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. Alan R. Davis...STATEMENT 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT We recently developed a model of heterotopic ossification (HO) that suggests blocking the initial...progenitors. We are currently following up on these and other experiments proposed in the application. 15. SUBJECT TERMS BMP2, Heterotopic ossification

  3. Bridging glenohumeral heterotopic ossification at the Kenyatta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heterotopic Ossification (HO) is defined as the process by which trabecular bone forms outside of the skeletal structure, occupying space in soft tissues where it does not normally exist. Three forms have been identified. There are traumatic, neurologic and the rare genetic forms of heterotopic ossification. It is a severe ...

  4. Heterotopic Ossification: An Unusual Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish G. Patil

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Heterotopic ossification (HO is usually seen after-trauma, following traumatic injuries, surgeries involving major joints, neurogenic injury, and burns; however, atraumatic cases have also been reported. HO tends to cause pain, swelling, and limitation of joint movements. HO has been reported in adults as well as in pediatric cases, however, our search in the English literature has not revealed a single case in the infratemporal region, especially in children of developing age, where HO tends to affect the development and growth of adjacent bones. We are reporting a case of HO in close proximity to TMJ affecting the development of mandible and maxilla.

  5. Polyarticular heterotopic ossification complicating critical illness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, J. W.; de Sonnaville, P. B.; Hulsmans, H. M.; van Rinsum, A. C.; Bijlsma, J. W.

    1999-01-01

    A patient with generalized heterotopic ossification (HO) complicating critical illness due to necrotizing pancreatitis is described; data on two other cases with HO are briefly presented. The clinical features, prevention and therapy of HO are discussed. The effect of surgical therapy of the HO in

  6. Heterotopic ossification: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Dafydd S; Clasper, J C

    2015-12-01

    Heterotopic ossification (HO) is the formation of mature lamellar bone in extraskeletal soft tissues. It was first described 1000 years ago in the healing of fractures, and in relation to military wounds, texts from the American Civil War and World War I refer to HO specifically. It continues to cause problems to injured service personnel; the consequences of wound and soft tissue complications in traumatic amputations pose particular problems to rehabilitation and prosthetic use. While HO is seen in rare genetic conditions, it is most prevalent after joint replacement surgery and trauma. In the civilian setting HO has been commonly described in patients after traumatic brain injuries, spinal cord injuries and burns. Militarily, as a consequence of recent operations, and the characteristic injury of blast-related amputations, a renewed interest in HO has emerged due to an increased incidence seen in casualties. The heterogeneous nature of a blast related amputation makes it difficult for a single aetiological event to be identified, although it is now accepted that blast, amputation through the zone of injury, increased injury severity and associated brain injuries are significant risk factors in HO formation. The exact cellular event leading to HO has yet to be identified, and as a consequence its prevention is restricted to the use of anti-inflammatory medication and radiation, which is often contraindicated in the acute complex military casualty. A systematic review in PubMed and the Cochrane Database identified research articles related to HO to illustrate the military problem of HO and its management, current research concepts and experimental theories regarding HO. This also served as a gap analysis providing the researchers detail of any knowledge deficit in this field, in particular to the military aspects of HO; 637 out of 7891 articles initially identified that referenced HO were relevant to this review. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For

  7. Ultrasonography in Early Diagnosis of Heterotopic Ossification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan-Hui Lin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We report here the case of a 32-year-old man with a history of traumatic brain injury who presented with swelling of his right thigh. Soft tissue ultrasonography performed 3 days after the onset of symptoms showed a heterogeneous hyperechoic lesion with the formation of cysts and hypervascularity in the right iliopsoas abutting the surface of the femoral bone. This became a diffuse echogenic plaque with a posterior acoustic shadowing 12 days later. A diagnosis of heterotopic ossification was made on the basis of the presence of typical ultrasonographic findings and was confirmed by pathology. We emphasize that an early diagnosis of heterotopic ossification can be made with ultrasonography and can lead to early treatment.

  8. Severe Heterotopic Ossification following Total Knee Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander L. Dodds

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the incidence of minor heterotopic ossification is probably higher than what is usually expected, severe heterotopic ossification (HO is an extremely rare event following total knee replacement surgery. We present the case of a 66-year-old woman who initially had achieved an excellent range of motion following bilateral uncemented rotating platform total knee replacement, before presenting with pain and loss of range of motion at 2 months after surgery. Severe HO was diagnosed on X-rays. Treatment consisted of nonoperative measures only, including physiotherapy with hydrotherapy and anti-inflammatories. She eventually regained her range of motion when seen at 8 months after operation. This case illustrates that nonoperative treatment without the use of radiotherapy or surgery can be used to safely resolve stiffness caused by HO after total knee replacement.

  9. Heterotopic Ossification Following Combat-Related Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    renal function, bleeding, and stress gastritis have precluded widespread use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs to date. Logistical limitations...orthopaedic extremity wounds67󈨉-71 • Yet, the effects of acute and often prolonged aberrant inflammation62 on muscle-derived mesenchymal cells are...treating acute heterotopic ossification. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2004;18:CD003321. 43. Buschbacher R, McKinley W, Buschbacher L, Devaney CW, Coplin B

  10. Molecular and cellular mechanisms of heterotopic ossification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Diana M; Ramirez, Melissa R; Reginato, Anthony M; Medici, Damian

    2014-10-01

    Heterotopic ossification (HO) is a debilitating condition in which cartilage and bone forms in soft tissues such as muscle, tendon, and ligament causing immobility. This process is induced by inflammation associated with traumatic injury. In an extremely rare genetic disorder called fibrodysplasia ossificans progessiva (FOP), a combination of inflammation associated with minor soft tissue injuries and a hereditary genetic mutation causes massive HO that progressively worsens throughout the patients' lifetime leading to the formation of an ectopic skeleton. An activating mutation in the BMP type I receptor ALK2 has been shown to contribute to the heterotopic lesions in FOP patients, yet recent studies have shown that other events are required to stimulate HO including activation of sensory neurons, mast cell degranulation, lymphocyte infiltration, skeletal myocyte cell death, and endothelial-mesenchymal transition (EndMT). In this review, we discuss the recent evidence and mechanistic data that describe the cellular and molecular mechanisms that give rise to heterotopic bone.

  11. Blast Injuries And Heterotopic Ossification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Increased risk of bleeding, delayed fracture healing, impaired renal function and gastritis are all significant rela- tive contraindications. While this...Haran M, Bhuta T, Lee B. Pharmacological interventions for treating acute hetero- topic ossification. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2004;4:CD003321. 25

  12. Vascular patterning in human heterotopic ossification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocks, Margaret; Mohan, Aditya; Meyers, Carolyn A; Ding, Catherine; Levi, Benjamin; McCarthy, Edward; James, Aaron W

    2017-05-01

    Heterotopic ossification (HO, also termed myositis ossificans) is the formation of extra-skeletal bone in muscle and soft tissues. HO is a tissue repair process gone awry, and is a common complication of surgery and traumatic injury. Medical strategies to prevent and treat HO fall well short of addressing the clinical need. Better characterization of the tissues supporting HO is critical to identifying therapies directed against this common and sometimes devastating condition. The physiologic processes of osteogenesis and angiogenesis are highly coupled and interdependent. However, few efforts have been made to document the vascular patterning within heterotopic ossification. Here, surgical pathology case files of 29 human HO specimens were examined by vascular histomorphometric analysis. Results demonstrate a temporospatial patterning of HO vascularity that depends on the "maturity" of the bony lesion. In sum, human HO demonstrates a time- and space-dependent pattern of vascularization suggesting a coupled pathophysiologic process involving the coordinate processes of osteogenesis and angiogenesis. Further imaging studies may be used to further characterize vasculogenesis within HO and whether anti-angiogenic therapies are a conceivable future therapy for this common condition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Rofecoxib inhibits heterotopic ossification after total hip arthroplasty.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heide, H.J. van der; Koorevaar, R.C.; Lemmens, J.A.M.; Kampen, A. van; Schreurs, B.W.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) prevent heterotopic ossification but gastrointestinal complaints are frequently. Selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibiting NSAID produce less gastrointestinal side effects. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A prospective two-stage study design for

  14. Proteomic Analysis of Trauma-Induced Heterotopic Ossification Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    orthopaedic trauma study population • Harvest serial serum & wound fluid samples from subjects at risk for HO development • Examine clinical fluids for...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-2-0097 TITLE: Proteomic Analysis of Trauma -Induced Heterotopic Ossification Formation PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...Proteomic Analysis of Trauma -Induced Heterotopic Ossification Formation 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-13-2-0097 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT

  15. Is etoricoxib effective in preventing heterotopic ossification after primary total hip arthroplasty?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brunnekreef, J.J.; Hoogervorst, P.; Ploegmakers, M.J.M.; Rijnen, W.H.C.; Schreurs, B.W.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: Heterotopic ossification is a common complication after total hip arthroplasty. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are known to prevent heterotopic ossifications effectively, however gastrointestinal complaints are reported frequently. In this study, we investigated whether

  16. Enhancing Osteoclastic Resorption for the Prevention and Treatment of Heterotopic Ossification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    ossification. Keywords: Heterotopic ossification, Heterotopic bone, Rehabilitation , Neuromusculoskeletal Injuries, Blast trauma, Orthopaedic trauma, HO...resorption may be a novel approach to treat HO. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Heterotopic ossification, Rehabilitation , Neuromusculoskeletal Injuries, Blast trauma... Orthopaedic trauma, Osteoclast, Osteoclastic resorption 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: U 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a

  17. Synostosis Between Pubic Bones due to Neurogenic, Heterotopic Ossification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramanian Vaidyanathan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurogenic, heterotopic ossification is characterised by the formation of new, extraosseous (ectopic bone in soft tissue in patients with neurological disorders. A 33-year-old female, who was born with spina bifida, paraplegia, and diastasis of symphysis pubis, had indwelling urethral catheter drainage and was using oxybutynin bladder instillations. She was prescribed diuretic for swelling of feet, which aggravated bypassing of catheter. Hence, suprapubic cystostomy was performed. Despite anticholinergic therapy, there was chronic urine leak around the suprapubic catheter and per urethra. Therefore, the urethra was mobilised and closed. After closure of the urethra, there was no urine leak from the urethra, but urine leak persisted around the suprapubic catheter. Cystogram confirmed the presence of a Foley balloon inside the bladder; there was no urinary fistula. The Foley balloon ruptured frequently, leading to extrusion of the Foley catheter. X-ray of abdomen showed heterotopic bone formation bridging the gap across diastasis of symphysis pubis. CT of pelvis revealed heterotopic bone lying in close proximity to the balloon of the Foley catheter; the sharp edge of heterotopic bone probably acted like a saw and led to frequent rupture of the balloon of the Foley catheter. Unique features of this case are: (1 temporal relationship of heterotopic bone formation to suprapubic cystostomy and chronic urine leak; (2 occurrence of heterotopic ossification in pubic region; (3 complications of heterotopic bone formation viz. frequent rupture of the balloon of the Foley catheter by the irregular margin of heterotopic bone and difficulty in insertion of suprapubic catheter because the heterotopic bone encroached on the suprapubic track; (4 synostosis between pubic bones as a result of heterotopic ossification..Common aetiological factors for neurogenic, heterotopic ossification, such as forceful manipulation, trauma, or spasticity, were absent in this

  18. [Hip joint arthrolysis due to heterotopic ossification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostakos, Konstantinos; Schmid, Nora; Kohn, Dieter

    2009-12-01

    Restoration of joint mobility with preservation of femoral head perfusion and warranty of joint stability. Pain reduction. Enhancement of the autonomous daily mobility (if possible regarding the cognitive status) as well as the ability to sit. For nonambulatory, bedridden patients ease of sanitary tasks and improvement of patients' convenience. Joint stiffness with limitation of the quality of life. Pain. Joint deformity, especially in cases of progressive subluxation. Relative: radiologically and scintigraphically immature heterotopic ossification (HO) with moderate limitation of motion and patients who are not able to tolerate the demanding postoperative management. The patient is positioned depending on size and location of ectopic bone. Ectopic bone is released from surrounding soft tissue or by making use of a gap between original bone and ectopic bone from the femur or pelvis. If ectopic bone is close to neurovascular structures, these have to be identified and protected. Postoperative irradiation in patients > 50 years. Generally, medicamentous prevention for recurrent cases with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Intensive and aggressive physical therapy, especially in patients with neurologic disorders. Depending on the extent of arthrolysis and the cause of HO, full, partial, or no weight bearing of the extremity over the first 6 postoperative weeks. The literature does not allow to draw firm conclusions regarding the occurrence of HO. The incidence of HO after primary total hip arthroplasty is estimated at 42%. In 9% of these cases, a severe HO with major limitation of motion or ankylosis occurs. In patients with neurologic injuries (brain injuries, spinal cord injuries) the incidence varies between 20-40%, but only one third of these patients show limited function or ankylosis. After surgical arthrolysis, the recurrence rate amounts to 25-30% at a mean follow-up of 6 years.

  19. Prospective heterotopic ossification progenitors in adult human skeletal muscle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Downey, Jennifer; Lauzier, Dominique; Kloen, Peter; Klarskov, Klaus; Richter, Martin; Hamdy, Reggie; Faucheux, Nathalie; Scimè, Anthony; Balg, Frédéric; Grenier, Guillaume

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle has strong regenerative capabilities. However, failed regeneration can lead to complications where aberrant tissue forms as is the case with heterotopic ossification (HO), in which chondrocytes, osteoblasts and white and brown adipocytes can arise following severe trauma. In humans,

  20. 'Bony' cubital tunnel syndrome caused by heterotopic ossification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuxuan; Liu, Meng; Qu, Wei

    2017-10-11

    We reported a rare case of cubital tunnel syndrome caused by heterotopic ossification after burns. The ulnar nerve was encircled by bony tunnel structure which cause nerve compression, resulting in ulnar nerve lesion. Our case sheds light on possible etiological association which may help clinical management.

  1. The role of endothelial-mesenchymal transition in heterotopic ossification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medici, Damian; Olsen, Bjorn R.

    2012-01-01

    Heterotopic ossification (HO) is a process by which bone forms in soft tissues, in response to injury, inflammation or genetic disease. This usually occurs by initial cartilage formation, followed by endochondral ossification. A rare disease called Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva (FOP) allows this mechanism to be induced by a combination of genetic mutation and acute inflammatory responses. FOP patients experience progressive HO throughout their lifetime and form an ectopic skeleton. Recent studies on FOP have suggested that heterotopic cartilage and bone is of endothelial origin. Vascular endothelial cells differentiate into skeletal cells through a mesenchymal stem cell intermediate that is generated by endothelial-mesenchymal transition (EndMT). Local inflammatory signals and/or other changes in the tissue microenvironment mediate the differentiation of endothelial-derived mesenchymal stem cells into chondrocytes and osteoblasts to induce HO. Here we discuss the current evidence for the endothelial contribution to heterotopic bone formation. PMID:22806925

  2. Lifetime Fluorescence and Raman Imaging for Detection of Wound Failure and Heterotopic Ossification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-12-2-0075 TITLE: Lifetime Fluorescence and Raman Imaging for Detection of Wound Failure and Heterotopic Ossification ...15Sep2012 - 14Sep2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Lifetime Fluorescence and Raman Imaging for Detection of Wound Failure and Heterotopic Ossification 5a...with the presence of inflammatory cytokines [1]. An additional wound failure mechanism is the formation of Heterotopic Ossification (HO) [3, 7]. In

  3. HETEROTOPIC OSSIFICATION IN CRITICAL ILL PATIENTS : A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Christakou; Maria Alimatiri; Alexsandros Kouvarakos; Emmanuel Papadopoulos; Irini Patsaki; Anastasia Kotanidou; Serafeim Nanas

    2013-01-01

    Background of the study:Heterotopic ossification is a bone formation in soft tissues around large joints. It is aserious complication affecting critical ill patients following central nervous system disorders, multiple injuries(e.g., neurological and orthopedic injuries), severe respiratory diseases (e.g., ARDS), and burns. It can havelong-lasting effects on patient’s recovery, functional status and quality of life. The present review examines theincidence, clinical symptoms, pathophysiology,...

  4. Extensive heterotopic ossification in patient with tubercular meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijai Prakash Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tubercular meningitis is a severe form of central nervous system tuberculosis with high morbidity and mortality. Apart from neurological deficits, musculoskeletal involvement is also seen in very few cases in the form of heterotopic ossification around immobile joints. A 35-year-old male case of tubercular meningitis with left hemiparesis presented with multiple joint restriction of range of motion. On clinical examination, palpable firm masses around multiple joints with painful restriction of movements were seen. X-ray films of multiple joints revealed heterotopic ossification over left shoulder, hip and knee joint with bony ankylosis of left hip and soft tissue contractures. Very few reports have been published in the literature for association of heterotopic ossification with tubercular meningitis with such extensive joint involvement which compels us to report this clinical association of tubercular meningitis. This report is intended to create caution among physicians and other caregivers for this debilitating complication of tubercular meningitis and in face of high prevalence of tuberculosis and tubercular meningitis, employ methods to prevent and treat.

  5. The pathophysiology of heterotopic ossification: Current treatment considerations in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kengo Shimono

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Heterotopic ossification (HO consists of the formation of ectopic cartilage followed by endochondral bone, and is triggered by major surgeries, large wounds, and other conditions. Daily functions of HO patients can be hampered by the loss of normal posture, pain, inflammation, reduced mobility, formation of pressure ulcers, deep venous thrombosis, and other complications. Research so far revealed the molecular and cellular pathways leading HO formation, and proposed several possible mechanisms behind such pathways. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID regimens and localized low-dose irradiation are currently available as prophylaxis of HO formation. However, they are not always effective and do not target skeletogenic processes directly. New therapeutic modalities targeting pathological process of HO formation, such as bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP inhibitors like Noggin, BMP type 1 receptor inhibitor, and nuclear retinoic acid receptor-gamma (RARγ agonists are currently under investigation. In this review, we will summarize our current understanding of the pathology and molecular and cellular mechanisms of HO, especially endochondral heterotopic ossification, and then discuss its current and future therapies. We will also discuss the potential application of heterotopic ossification in the dental field.

  6. Experimental model of heterotopic ossification in Wistar rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zotz, T.G.G. [Escola Politécnica, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Tecnologia em Saúde, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Paraná, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Paula, J.B. de [Médico,Doutor em Engenharia Biomédica, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Moser, A.D.L. [Escola Politécnica, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Tecnologia em Saúde, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Paraná, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2012-04-05

    Heterotopic ossification (HO) is a metaplastic biological process in which there is newly formed bone in soft tissues adjacent to large joints, resulting in joint mobility deficit. In order to determine which treatment techniques are more appropriate for such condition, experimental models of induced heterotopic bone formation have been proposed using heterologous demineralized bone matrix implants and bone morphogenetic protein and other tissues. The objective of the present experimental study was to identify a reliable protocol to induce HO in Wistar rats, based on autologous bone marrow (BM) implantation, comparing 3 different BM volumes and based on literature evidence of this HO induction model in larger laboratory animals. Twelve male Wistar albino rats weighing 350/390 g were used. The animals were anesthetized for blood sampling before HO induction in order to quantify serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP). HO was induced by BM implantation in both quadriceps muscles of these animals, experimental group (EG). Thirty-five days after the induction, another blood sample was collected for ALP determination. The results showed a weight gain in the EG and no significant difference in ALP levels when comparing the periods before and after induction. Qualitative histological analysis confirmed the occurrence of heterotopic ossification in all 12 EG rats. In conclusion, the HO induction model was effective when 0.35 mL autologous BM was applied to the quadriceps of Wistar rats.

  7. Heterotopic ossification after hip arthroplasty: a randomized double-blind multicenter study tenoxicam in 147 hips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gebuhr, Peter Henrik; Sletgård, J; Dalsgård, J

    1996-01-01

    for 1 year, during which another 10 patients were excluded. At follow-up, significantly fewer patients had heterotopic ossifications in the tenoxicam groups than in the placebo and morphine groups. There was no significant difference between the 2 tenoxicam-treated groups, and we therefore conclude...... that tenoxicam 20 mg for 5 days postoperatively can reduce heterotopic ossification after cemented total hip arthroplasty....

  8. Is radiation superior to indomethacin to prevent heterotopic ossification in acetabular fractures?: a systematic review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blokhuis, T.J.; Frolke, J.P.M.

    2009-01-01

    Heterotopic ossification is a well-known complication after fixation of an acetabular fracture. Indomethacin and radiation therapy are used as prophylaxis to prevent heterotopic ossification. It is unclear, however, whether either is superior, although this may relate to lack of power in individual

  9. Extensive Heterotopic Ossification After Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspey, Brad; Park, Howard Young; Ostrander, Roger

    2015-01-01

    A sixty-three-year-old woman who underwent routine arthroscopic rotator cuff repair developed extensive heterotopic ossification postoperatively. She required a reoperation for excision. Heterotopic ossification should be included in the differential diagnosis for postoperative stiffness after an arthroscopic rotator cuff repair.

  10. Heterotopic ossification of the elbows in a major petrol burn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, Shahriar Raj

    2012-08-27

    A case of a young man who developed heterotopic ossification (HO) in his elbows following an accident where he sustained petrol burns to over 60% of his body. His injuries necessitated intubation, escharotomies and a protracted intensive care unit stay that was complicated by septicaemia. Several weeks after the injury, he was diagnosed with HO in his right elbow, followed by the left elbow a week later. He was commenced on an non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, a long-term course of a bisphosphonate and regular physiotherapy. He is now waiting for the HO bone to mature before having definitive excision of his lesions in 12-18 months time.

  11. The Contribution of Genotype to Heterotopic Ossification after Orthopaedic Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    examined our database of long bone and  acetabulum /pelvic  fractures  (n=1313) for HO after  fracture .   Radiographs were reviewed by a musculoskeletal...potential contributing genetic factors (ADRB2, TLR4, CFH)in the development of heterotopic ossification (HO). HO development in long bone fractures ...Single Nucleotide Polymorphysms, Genetics, Fracture Healing W81XWH-08-1-0384 15 MAY 2011-14 APR 2011Annual01-05-2011 The Vanderbilt University

  12. Brain injury severity and autonomic dysregulation accurately predict heterotopic ossification in patients with traumatic brain injury.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendricks, H.T.; Geurts, A.C.H.; Ginneken, B.C. van; Heeren, A.J.; Vos, P.E.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess brain injury severity, autonomic dysregulation and systemic infection as risk factors for the occurrence of heterotopic ossification in patients with severe traumatic brain injury. DESIGN: Historic cohort study. SETTING: Radboud University Medical Centre. SUBJECTS: All

  13. BMP-9 expression in human traumatic heterotopic ossification: a case report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grenier, Guillaume; Leblanc, Elisabeth; Faucheux, Nathalie; Lauzier, Dominique; Kloen, Peter; Hamdy, Reggie C.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Heterotopic ossification (HO) is defined as the abnormal formation of mature bone in soft tissue, notably skeletal muscle. The morbidity of HO in polytraumatized patients impacts the functional outcome, impairs rehabilitation, and increases costs due to subsequent surgical interventions.

  14. Potential risk factors for developing heterotopic ossification in patients with severe traumatic brain injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampen, P.J. van; Martina, J.D.; Vos, P.E.; Hoedemaekers, C.W.E.; Hendricks, H.T.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Heterotopic ossification (HO) is a frequent complication after traumatic brain injury (TBI). The current preliminary study is intended to provide additional data on the potential roles that brain injury severity, concomitant orthopaedic trauma, and specific intensive care complicating

  15. Vessel formation is induced prior to the appearance of cartilage in BMP-2-mediated heterotopic ossification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heterotopic ossification (HO), or endochondral bone formation at nonskeletal sites, often results from traumatic injury and can lead to devastating consequences. Alternatively, the ability to harness this phenomenon would greatly enhance current orthopedic tools for treating segmental bone defects. ...

  16. Progression of Heterotopic Ossification around the Elbow after Trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk P. ter Meulen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study addresses the null hypothesis that there is no expansion of heterotopic ossification (HO in the elbow beyond what can be seen early on.   Methods: The area of HO was measured on lateral radiographs of 38 consecutive patients that had operative treatment of HO between 2000 and 2013. Measurements from radiographs obtained between 3 to 7 weeks were compared to measurements from radiographs made 3 months or more after injury. Results: There was no significant difference between the average area of HO on the first (median 2.8 square centimeters, Q1: 1.5, Q3: 5.1 and later radiographs (median of 2.8 square centimeters, Q1: 1.4, Q3: 5.0 (P = 0.99. Discussion: According to our results the area of HO does not expand beyond what can be seen early in the disease process.

  17. Effects of Radiation Therapy on Established Neurogenic Heterotopic Ossification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chan Ho; Shim, Su Jung; Kim, Hyun Jung; Yang, Hyuna; Kang, Youn Joo

    2016-12-01

    Heterotopic ossification (HO) is frequently seen on rehabilitation units after spinal cord injuries, fractures, brain injuries, and limb amputations. Currently, there is no effective treatment for HO other than prophylaxis with anti-inflammatory medications, irradiation, and bisphosphonate administration. These prophylactic treatments are not effective for managing ectopic bone once it has formed. Here we describe three cases of established neurogenic HO treated with radiation therapy (RT). All patients had decreased serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and bone-specific ALP levels with decreased pain but increased range of motion immediately after RT. Post-treatment X-rays revealed no further growth of the HO. All patients maintained clinical and laboratory improvements 4 or 6 months after the RT. Our results suggest that RT is safe and effective in decreasing pain and activity of neurogenic HO.

  18. Neurological heterotopic ossification: Current understanding and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Rhys D; Shultz, Sandy R; McDonald, Stuart J; O'Brien, Terence J

    2017-05-16

    Neurological heterotopic ossification (NHO) involves the formation of bone in soft tissue following a neurological condition, of which the most common are brain and spinal cord injuries. NHO often forms around the hip, knee and shoulder joints, causing severe pain and joint deformation which is associated with significant morbidity and reduced quality of life. The cellular and molecular events that initiate NHO have been the focus of an increasing number of human and animal studies over the past decade, with this work largely driven by the need to unearth potential therapeutic interventions to prevent the formation of NHO. This review provides an overview of the present understanding of NHO pathogenesis and pathobiology, current treatments, novel therapeutic targets, potential biomarkers and future directions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Heterotopic ossification (myositis ossificans) in acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Detection by gallium scintigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drane, W E; Tipler, B M

    1987-06-01

    A case of heterotopic ossification (myositis ossificans) secondary to the central nervous system complications of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is reported. Because of the overwhelming suspicion of infection in this patient, this diagnosis was not considered until a gallium scan revealed the typical findings of heterotopic ossification. Because of the increasing utilization of gallium imaging in the AIDS population, every imaging specialist should be aware of this potential disorder.

  20. Use of Calcitonin in Recalcitrant Phantom Limb Pain Complicated by Heterotopic Ossification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Viana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A common complication following amputation is phantom sensation, which may include experiencing pain in the phantom limb. This study details the management of phantom limb pain in a 72-year-old man, in whom comorbid heterotopic ossification was present. In addition, the authors provide a review of the literature regarding phantom limb pain management, and summarize the current understanding of heterotopic ossification and its possible link to peripheral nerve injury.

  1. Treatment of heterotopic ossification through remote ATP hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Jonathan R; De La Rosa, Sara; Eboda, Oluwatobi; Cilwa, Katherine E; Agarwal, Shailesh; Buchman, Steven R; Cederna, Paul S; Xi, Chuanwu; Morris, Michael D; Herndon, David N; Xiao, Wenzhong; Tompkins, Ronald G; Krebsbach, Paul H; Wang, Stewart C; Levi, Benjamin

    2014-09-24

    Heterotopic ossification (HO) is the pathologic development of ectopic bone in soft tissues because of a local or systemic inflammatory insult, such as burn injury or trauma. In HO, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are inappropriately activated to undergo osteogenic differentiation. Through the correlation of in vitro assays and in vivo studies (dorsal scald burn with Achilles tenotomy), we have shown that burn injury enhances the osteogenic potential of MSCs and causes ectopic endochondral heterotopic bone formation and functional contractures through bone morphogenetic protein-mediated canonical SMAD signaling. We further demonstrated a prevention strategy for HO through adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis at the burn site using apyrase. Burn site apyrase treatment decreased ATP, increased adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate, and decreased phosphorylation of SMAD1/5/8 in MSCs in vitro. This ATP hydrolysis also decreased HO formation and mitigated functional impairment in vivo. Similarly, selective inhibition of SMAD1/5/8 phosphorylation with LDN-193189 decreased HO formation and increased range of motion at the injury site in our burn model in vivo. Our results suggest that burn injury-exacerbated HO formation can be treated through therapeutics that target burn site ATP hydrolysis and modulation of SMAD1/5/8 phosphorylation. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  2. Neurogenic heterotopic ossification: epidemiology and morphology on conventional radiographs in an early neurological rehabilitation population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seipel, R.; Langner, S.; Lippa, M.; Kuehn, J.P.; Hosten, N. [Ernst Moritz Arndt Universitaet Greifswald, Institut fuer Diagnostische Radiologie und Neuroradiologie, Greifswald (Germany); Platz, T. [An-Institut der Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universitaet, BDH-Klinik Greifswald GmbH, Neurologisches Rehabilitationszentrum und Querschnittgelaehmtenzentrum, Greifswald (Germany)

    2012-01-15

    To retrospectively evaluate neurogenic heterotopic ossification in an early neurological rehabilitation population (phases B and C) with respect to epidemiology and morphology on conventional radiographs. Over a 4-year period, 1,463 patients treated at a clinic for early neurological rehabilitation were evaluated for clinical symptoms of neurogenic heterotopic ossification. In case of clinical suspicion, plain radiographs of the expected sites were obtained. If heterotopic ossification was detected, the initial and subsequent radiographs were retrospectively analyzed for sites, size, and morphology. Immature lesions were categorized as small (<10 mm) or large (10-100 mm). The prevalence rate of neurogenic heterotopic ossification was 2.05%. The condition was most common in young male adults. The hip was the most common site accounting for more than half of the cases. Two or more ossifications were seen in 56.7% of the affected patients with approximately two-thirds showing bilateral symmetric involvement of corresponding joint regions. The size of ossifications strongly varied interindividually. Small immature lesions demonstrated less progression in size than large lesions during maturation (P < 0.05). Standard radiographs, as a fast and inexpensive technique, allow the expected size progression of heterotopic ossifications during maturation to be estimated, which is relevant in terms of therapeutic decisions, patient mobilization, and neurological rehabilitation. (orig.)

  3. Heterotopic Ossification on the Right Atrial Wall of an 11 year old ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heterotopic ossification (HO) is the formation of mature histologically indistinguishable lamella bone in soft tissues which normally exhibits no properties of ossification. HO does not grow out of bone, is not connected to periosteum and is not formed intra-articularly (Maheswarappa et al., 2004). We report here, the ...

  4. Naproxen for 8 days can prevent heterotopic ossification after hip arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gebuhr, Peter Henrik; Wilbek, H; Soelberg, M

    1995-01-01

    The effect of 1 week of treatment with naproxen on the formation of heterotopic ossification after cemented total hip arthroplasty was studied in a prospective trial. Twenty-seven patients received 500 mg naproxen twice daily for 7 days postoperatively. The medication was started on the morning...... of the operation. The results were compared with a control group of 23 patients from a previous study who had not received any type of non-steroidal antiinflammatory drug. All radiographs were mixed randomly, and patient identification was blinded. Three months after the operation, heterotopic ossification had...... developed in 12 (52%) patients in the control group and in 3 (11%) patients in the naproxen-treated group. One year after the operation, 4 (17%) patients in the naproxen-treated group and 12 (52%) in the control group had heterotopic ossification (p ossification developed in 3 patients...

  5. Naproxen prevention of heterotopic ossification after hip arthroplasty. A prospective control study of 55 patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gebuhr, Peter Henrik; Soelberg, M; Orsnes, T

    1991-01-01

    The effect of naproxen on heterotopic ossification after total hip replacement was studied in a randomized, double-blind trial. Twenty-eight patients received 250 mg naproxen thrice daily for 4 weeks postoperatively starting on the morning of the operation while 27 control patients received...... a placebo. Three months after the operation, 13 patients in the control group had heterotopic ossification compared with 4 patients in the group that received naproxen; and after 1 year, the figures were 15 and 4, respectively (P less than 0.01). Three control patients had severe ossifications. We conclude...... that naproxen given for 4 weeks is sufficient to decrease the incidence of heterotopic ossification after cemented total hip replacement....

  6. Prevention of heterotopic ossification after spinal cord injury with indomethacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banovac, K; Williams, J M; Patrick, L D; Haniff, Y M

    2001-07-01

    A randomized, prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. To determine the effect of indomethacin on the prevention of heterotopic ossification (HO) following spinal cord injury (SCI). County Hospital, Miami, Florida, USA. Sixteen patients were treated with slow-release indomethacin 75 mg daily and 17 patients received placebo for a period of 3 weeks. Prevention was started 21+/-14 days after SCI. In both groups of patients there was similar age of the patients as well as the level of SCI and ASIA impairment scale. Two methods were used to diagnose HO, bone scintigraphy and radiographic examination. Bone scintigraphy with technetium labeled methylene-diphosphonate was used for diagnosis of early stage, while radiography was used for diagnosis of late stage of HO development. A significantly lower incidence of early HO was found in the indomethacin group (25%) than in the placebo group (65%; P<0.001). Similarly there was a significant reduction of late HO in the indomethacin group (12.5%) as compared to the placebo group (41%; P<0.001). Our data suggest that indomethacin used during the first 2 months after SCI is effective in prevention of HO in a significant number of patients.

  7. An Unusual Complication of an Infiltrated Intravenous Catheter: Heterotopic Ossification in a Newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavi Nissim

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available

    Heterotopic ossification refers to formation of lamellar  bone in soft tissues. The etiology is diverse and includes genetic, post-traumatic, and metabolic causes. Elicitation of  bone morphogenic proteins are thought to play a key role in the pathogenic process. Initially, heterotopic ossification presents a clinical and radiographic challenge in that it can be mistaken for other more worrisome entities which present with calcified soft tissue masses. However, a spontaneous clinical resolution, temporal relationship to an inciting agent, and radiographic evolution to a peripherally-calcified lesion are all clues to the diagnosis. Here we present the clinical and radiographic features of heterotopic ossification as a result of an infiltrated peripheral IV. 

  8. Naproxen for 8 days can prevent heterotopic ossification after hip arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gebuhr, Peter Henrik; Wilbek, H; Soelberg, M

    1995-01-01

    The effect of 1 week of treatment with naproxen on the formation of heterotopic ossification after cemented total hip arthroplasty was studied in a prospective trial. Twenty-seven patients received 500 mg naproxen twice daily for 7 days postoperatively. The medication was started on the morning...... developed in 12 (52%) patients in the control group and in 3 (11%) patients in the naproxen-treated group. One year after the operation, 4 (17%) patients in the naproxen-treated group and 12 (52%) in the control group had heterotopic ossification (p ... in the control group and in none in the naproxen-treated group. The authors conclude that naproxen given for 1 week can decrease the incidence of heterotopic ossification after total hip arthroplasty....

  9. Massive heterotopic ossification in Guillain-Barré syndrome: a rare case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnmar, H; Roohi, S A; Naicker, A S

    2010-01-01

    Heterotopic ossification (HO) is the abnormal development of bone within soft tissue and a rare complication in Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). Only a few cases had been reported so far. We present the case of a 39-year-old man who had been diagnosed to have GBS about 10 years ago, presenting with severe limitation of both active and passive range of motion in bilateral shoulder, elbow and hip joints and was found to have massive heterotopic ossification. In our patient, it could be a myriad of factors such as prolonged ICU stay with mechanical ventilation and hypoxia, long-standing immobilization and hypomobility with incomplete flaccid paralysis.

  10. [Dynamic changes of matrix metalloproteinase 9 in heterotopic ossification of rat model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Weizhe; Xiao, Haijun; Xue, Feng; Wu, Jiang

    2014-09-01

    To explore the value of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) in predicting the occurrence of heterotopic ossification by observing the expression of MMP-9 in heterotopic ossification of the early trauma rat model. A total of 132 male Sprague Dawley rats, aged 4-5 weeks, weighing (135.0 ± 6.5) g, were randomly divided into experimental group and control group (n = 66). In experimental group, the Achilles tendon was cut off and clamped to prepare heterotopic ossification model; in control group, only Achilles tendon was exposed by making a incision. The general condition of the rats was observed after operation; at 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 days after operation, the Achilles tendon tissue was harvested for gross observation, histological observation, and immunohistochemical staining observation; the serum and Achilles tendon tissue were harvested to detect the expressions of MMP-9 protein and mRNA by ELISA and RT-PCR. The X-ray films at 5 and 10 weeks and histological examination at 10 weeks after operation were used to observe heterotopic ossification. All rats survived to the end of the experiment. The Achilles tendon had no significant change in control group at each time point, showing normal tendon structure. In experimental group, the hardness of Achilles tendon tissue gradually increased with the time; there were a large number of irregular connective tissue and cartilage cells; and immunohistochemical staining for MMP-9 was positive results. The MMP-9 protein and mRNA expression levels of experimental group were significantly higher than those of the control group at each time point (P < 0.05). MMP-9 protein and mRNA expression levels of experimental group showed an increasing tendency (P < 0.05). According to the results of X-ray films and histological observation, heterotopic ossification occurred at 10 weeks after operation in experimental group, but no heterotopic ossification was observed in control group. In early heterotopic ossification of rat Achilles

  11. Radiation therapy for prevention of heterotopic ossification about the elbow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamboglou, Nikolaos [Dept. of Radiotherapy, Klinikum Offenbach Hospital (Germany); Heyd, Reinhard; Buhleier, Thomas

    2009-08-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the radiologic and functional outcome after prophylactic radiation therapy (RT) for prevention of heterotopic ossification (HO) about the elbow joint. Patients and Methods: 20 patients with symptomatic HO were treated using perioperative single-dose RT of 7.0 Gy. 15 patients had excision of preexisting functionally relevant HO, and received RT for prevention of a recurrence, and five patients were treated prophylactically because of risk factors. In 13 patients RT was applied within 5 h preoperatively, seven patients received postoperative RT. The local control was evaluated by plain radiographs and the functional outcome was assessed by use of the Mayo Elbow Performance Score (MEPS). Results: After a mean follow-up of 43.3 months, two patients had recurrence of the HO and were treated with further surgical resection. In the remaining 18 patients no progression of the HO was observed. At follow-up, the MEPS varied from 45 to 100 with 13 patients having no functional impairment (MEPS 100). Five patients experienced a slight limitation of the elbow with an MEPS ranging from 75 to 95, and only two had persistence of marked impairment with an MEPS of 45 and 50, respectively. Adverse effects related to use of RT were observed in none of the treated cases. Conclusion: Pre- or postoperative RT is effective for prevention of HO about the elbow joint and can be recommended as an integral component of interdisciplinary treatment in complicated elbow fractures. At this, the use of MEPS has proven to be a feasible method for evaluation of the functional outcome. (orig.)

  12. The Impact of Body Mass Index on Heterotopic Ossification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mourad, Waleed Fouad, E-mail: Waleed246@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Beth Israel Medical Center, New York, NY (Israel); Department of Radiation Oncology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Bronx, NY (United States); Packianathan, Satya [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States); Shourbaji, Rania A. [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Jackson State University, Jackson, MS (United States); Zhang Zhen; Graves, Mathew [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States); Khan, Majid A. [Department of Radiology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States); Baird, Michael C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States); Russell, George [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States); Vijayakumar, Srinivasan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: To analyze the impact of different body mass index (BMI) as a surrogate marker for heterotopic ossification (HO) in patients who underwent surgical repair (SR) for displaced acetabular fractures (DAF) followed by radiation therapy (RT). Methods and Materials: This is a single-institution retrospective study of 395 patients. All patients underwent SR for DAF followed by RT {+-} indomethacin. All patients received postoperative RT, 7 Gy, within 72 h. The patients were separated into four groups based on their BMI: <18.5, 18.5-24.9, 25-29.9, and >30. The end point of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of RT {+-} indomethacin in preventing HO in patients with different BMI. Results: Analysis of BMI showed an increasing incidence of HO with increasing BMI: <18.5, (0%) 0/6 patients; 18.5-24.9 (6%), 6 of 105 patients developed HO; 25-29.9 (19%), 22 of 117; >30 (31%), 51 of 167. Chi-square and multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the correlation between odds of HO and BMI is significant, p < 0.0001. As the BMI increased, the risk of HO and Brooker Classes 3, 4 HO increased. The risk of developing HO is 1.0 Multiplication-Sign (10%) more likely among those with higher BMI compared with those with lower BMI. For a one-unit increase in BMI the log odds of HO increases by 1.0, 95% CI (1.06-1.14). Chi-square test shows no significant difference among all other factors and HO (e.g., indomethacin, race, gender). Conclusions: Despite similar surgical treatment and prophylactic measures (RT {+-} indomethacin), the risk of HO appears to significantly increase in patients with higher BMI after DAF. Higher single-fraction doses or multiple fractions and/or combination therapy with nonsteroidal inflammatory drugs may be of greater benefit to these patients.

  13. Muscle localization of heterotopic ossification following spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlmeier, Malte; Suero, Eduardo M; Aach, Mirko; Meindl, Renate; Schildhauer, Thomas A; Citak, Mustafa

    2017-10-01

    Heterotopic ossification (HO) is a known complication especially in people with traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI). Although some risk factors have already been described, the pathophysiology of HO is still unknown. The pelvis is the most common region for HO occurrence. However, the prevalence of HO by muscle groups about the hip is not well described. To analyze the prevalence of early HO in muscle groups about the hip in 267 patients with SCI. 267 patients with traumatic SCI and pelvic HO. Between January 2001 and December 2014, 267 patients with SCI were treated in our university hospital and were included in the study. Patients were routinely screened for HO using ultrasound. The diagnosis of HO was validated using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT). The primary outcome measure was the prevalence of HO by muscle groups around the hip. The following muscle groups around the hip were defined: (1) gluteal group, (2) adductor group, (3) iliopsoas group, and (4) deep muscle group. Additionally, the prevalence of concomitant trochanteric bursitis was recorded in all cases. The gluteal group showed the highest HO prevalence with 55.8%, followed by the deep muscle group with 31.1%. Concomitant trochanteric bursitis was found in 62 patients (23.2%). No association between pelvic trauma and HO development was observed (n=16, 11%). The most common muscular location for the occurrence of HO about the hip was the gluteal muscle group. Considering that no laboratory parameters are currently available for screening for HO, highly sensitive ultrasound screening examinations should be routinely performed, with particular attention paid to the gluteal muscles. Additionally, routine range of motion examination for extension and external rotation of the hip joint is warranted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Heterotopic ossification and clinical outcome in nonconstrained cervical arthroplasty 2 years after surgery: the Norwegian Cervical Arthroplasty Trial (NORCAT)

    OpenAIRE

    Sundseth, Jarle; Jacobsen, Eva Astrid; Kolstad, Frode; Sletteberg, Ruth O.; Nygaard, Oystein P.; Johnsen, Lars Gunnar; Pripp, Are Hugo; Andresen, Hege; Fredriksli, Oddrun Anita; Myrseth, Erling; Zwart, John A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Heterotopic ossification is a phenomenon in cervical arthroplasty. Previous reports have mainly focused on various semiconstrained devices and only a few publications have focused on ossification around devices that are nonconstrained. The purpose of this study was to assess the occurrence of heterotopic ossification around a nonconstrained cervical device and how it affects clinical outcome 2 years after surgery. Methods Thirty-seven patients were included from a larger cohort of ...

  15. Role of gender in burn-induced heterotopic ossification and mesenchymal cell osteogenic differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganathan, Kavitha; Peterson, Jonathan; Agarwal, Shailesh; Oluwatobi, Eboda; Loder, Shawn; Forsberg, Jonathan A; Davis, Thomas A; Buchman, Steven R; Wang, Stewart C; Levi, Benjamin

    2015-06-01

    Heterotopic ossification most commonly occurs after burn injury, joint arthroplasty, and trauma. Male gender has been identified as a risk factor for the development of heterotopic ossification. It remains unclear why adult male patients are more predisposed to this pathologic condition than adult female patients. In this study, the authors use their validated tenotomy/burn model to explore differences in heterotopic ossification between male and female mice. The authors used their Achilles tenotomy and burn model to evaluate the osteogenic potential of mesenchymal stem cells of male and female injured and noninjured mice. Groups consisted of injured male (n = 3), injured female (n = 3), noninjured male (n = 3), and noninjured female (n = 3) mice. The osteogenic potential of cells harvested from each group was assessed through RNA and protein levels and quantified using micro-computed tomographic scan. Histomorphometry was used to verify micro-computed tomographic findings, and immunohistochemistry was used to assess osteogenic signaling at the site of heterotopic ossification. Mesenchymal stem cells of male mice demonstrated greater osteogenic gene and protein expression than those of female mice (p ossification site in male mice. The authors demonstrate that male mice form quantitatively more bone compared with female mice using their burn/tenotomy model. These findings can be explained at least in part by differences in bone morphogenetic protein and insulin-like growth factor 1 signaling.

  16. Symptomatic heterotopic ossification after very severe traumatic brain injury in 114 patients: incidence and risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Louise Lau; Sonne-Holm, Stig; Krasheninnikoff, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The incidence of heterotopic ossification (HO) among patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) varies in the literature from 11 to 73.3%. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of HO among patients with very severe TBI treated in a new established intensive rehabilitation Brain...

  17. Heterotopic ossification following internal fixation or arthroplasty for displaced femoral neck fractures: a prospective randomized study

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, T.; Risto, O.; Knutsson, A.; Wahlström, O.

    2001-01-01

    One hundred hips in 99 patients of 75 years or older, with a displaced femoral neck fracture, were studied for heterotopic ossification (HO). The patients were randomized to either internal fixation or total hip arthroplasty (THA). In the THA group HO was found in 32 of 45 hips compared with 1 of 39 in the internal fixation group (P

  18. Similar effects of rofecoxib and indomethacin on the incidence of heterotopic ossification after hip arthroplasty.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heide, H.J. van der; Rijnberg, W.J.; Sorge, A.; Kampen, A. van; Schreurs, B.W.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although indomethacin is effective in preventing heterotopic ossification (HO) after primary total hip arthroplasty, side effects are frequently observed. In the last decade a new class of drugs--the COX-2 selective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs--has been developed. To investigate

  19. Intra-Articular Giant Heterotopic Ossification following Total Knee Arthroplasty for Charcot Arthropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Arata; Tsuge, Shintaro; Aoki, Yasuchika; Sonobe, Masato; Shibata, Yoshifumi; Sasaki, Yu; Nakagawa, Koichi

    2013-01-01

    Although the Charcot arthropathy may be associated with serious complications, total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is the preferred choice of treatment by patients. This case report presents an 80-year-old man with intra-articular giant heterotopic ossification following loosening of femoral and tibial implants and femoral condylar fracture. He had undergone TKA because of Charcot neuropathy seven years ago and had been doing well since. Immediately after a left knee sprain, he became unable to walk. Because he had developed a skin ulcer on his left calf where methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was detected, we postponed revision surgery until the ulcer was completely healed. While waiting, intra-articular bony fragments grew larger and formed giant heterotopic ossified masses. Eventually, the patient underwent revision surgery, and two major ossified masses were carefully and successfully extirpated. It should be noted that intra-articular heterotopic giant ossification is a significant complication after TKA for neuropathic arthropathy.

  20. Intra-Articular Giant Heterotopic Ossification following Total Knee Arthroplasty for Charcot Arthropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arata Nakajima

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the Charcot arthropathy may be associated with serious complications, total knee arthroplasty (TKA is the preferred choice of treatment by patients. This case report presents an 80-year-old man with intra-articular giant heterotopic ossification following loosening of femoral and tibial implants and femoral condylar fracture. He had undergone TKA because of Charcot neuropathy seven years ago and had been doing well since. Immediately after a left knee sprain, he became unable to walk. Because he had developed a skin ulcer on his left calf where methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was detected, we postponed revision surgery until the ulcer was completely healed. While waiting, intra-articular bony fragments grew larger and formed giant heterotopic ossified masses. Eventually, the patient underwent revision surgery, and two major ossified masses were carefully and successfully extirpated. It should be noted that intra-articular heterotopic giant ossification is a significant complication after TKA for neuropathic arthropathy.

  1. Massive heterotopic ossification associated with late deficits in posterior wall of acetabulum after failed acetabular fracture operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuntong; Xie, Yang; Xu, Shuogui; Zhang, Chuncai

    2013-12-26

    Heterotopic ossification is a common postoperative complication of acetabular fracture. However, functionally significant heterotopic ossification with associated late bone defects in the posterior wall of the acetabulum is rare and challenging to treat. When heterotopic ossification is a late complication of failed acetabular fracture operation, it is disabling and may only be treated by THA. THA is highly susceptible to premature failure in young and active patients and may require numerous revisions. This article describes a 40-year-old man with massive heterotopic ossification associated with late bone defects in the posterior wall of the acetabulum after a failed acetabular fracture operation. The primary fracture type was a 62-A2.3 fracture according to the AO/OTA Classification.Surgical excision and anatomical reconstruction of the acetabular wall using heterotopic ossific bone were performed 10 months after the fracture repair. Postoperatively, indomethacin was administered for prophylaxis against recurrence of heterotopic ossification, and hip range of motion was progressively increased. At 5 years and 6 months follow-up, the patient's pain was relieved and hip function had recovered. Though radiography and CT showed minimal subchondral cysts and mild joint-space narrowing, there was no evidence of graft resorption, progressive posttraumatic osteoarthritis or necrosis of the femoral head. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first case of such a challenging condition. Although it is an extremely rare case, it provides an attractive option for avoiding THA, as the long-term follow-up shows a satisfactory outcome.

  2. Radiation therapy of hyperplastic heterotopic ossifications in osteogenesis imperfecta; Two case reports. Strahlentherapie hyperplastischer heterotoper Ossifikationen bei Osteogenesis imperfecta; Zwei Falldarstellungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Micke, O. (Muenster Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie - Radioonkologie); Wagner, W. (Muenster Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie - Radioonkologie); Poetter, R. (Allgemeines Krankenhaus der Stadt Wien, Vienna (Austria). Universitaetsklinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Strahlenbiologie); Prott, F.J. (Muenster Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie - Radioonkologie); Karbowski, A. (Muenster Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Allgemeine Orthopaedie)

    1994-06-01

    Purpose: Osteogenesis imperfecta is a rare hereditary disease of connective tissue with a genetic defect in collagen synthesis. In osteogenesis imperfecta hyperplastic heterotopic ossification can be induced by hyperplastic callus formation caused by trauma or operation. Heterotopic ossifications can be found in numerous benign diseases. The successful use of low dose radiotherapy in the treatment of heterotopic ossifications in well-known from the literature. Patients and Methods: We treated two children (a 13-year old girl and a ten-year old boy) with heterotopic ossifications of the lower extremities in osteogenesis imperfecta type IV (Lobstein) with a low dose irradiation (10x1 Gy, respectively 6x1 Gy) under megavoltage conditions. Results: After radiotherapy the children were painfree and the hyperplastic callus was considerably reduced. The previously immobilized patients could partly be mobilized. Thereby it could be contributed to the rehabilitation of the patients. New hyperplastic callus formation was not observed in the irradiated areas so far. Conclusion: Analogous to the successful radiation of heterotopic ossifications in other benign diseases radiation therapy seems to be a successful treatment of hyperplastic callus formation in osteogenesis imperfecta. Despite the late risks of radiotherapy radiation treatment of benign diseases in children might be indicated. (orig.)

  3. Heterotopic ossification after hip arthroplasty: a randomized double-blind multicenter study tenoxicam in 147 hips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gebuhr, Peter Henrik; Sletgård, J; Dalsgård, J

    1996-01-01

    147 patients due to have a cemented total hip arthroplasty were randomized to 4 groups. They received either tenoxicam 20 mg or 40 mg, or placebo, for 5 days or morphine on the day of operation and placebo for 4 days. During the first 5 days 14 patients were excluded. The patients were followed f...... that tenoxicam 20 mg for 5 days postoperatively can reduce heterotopic ossification after cemented total hip arthroplasty....

  4. Heterotopic mesenteric ossification: Report of two cases with review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mussatto J

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Very few cases of heterotopic mesenteric ossification (HMO have been reported in the literature. We describe two cases, one at an early phase and the other at a more advanced stage of the disease. Both patients developed HMO after multiple major abdominal surgeries. The value of monitoring serum alkaline phosphatase and calcium in a setting of previous abdominal surgery or trauma along with other clinical, radiological and pathologic findings is discussed.

  5. HETEROTOPIC OSSIFICATION OF HIP IN A RARE CASE OF MOYAMOYA DISEASE: A RARE CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A case of extensive ossification around the left hip joint involving lesser trochanter of the femur leading to ankylosis of left hip joint in a 60 years male is being reported. The diagnosis of moyamoya disease was made , which is a rare form of occlusive cerebrovasc ular disorder. Occlusion of an artery may present with Transient Ischemic Attacks , headaches , stroke and seizures. Surgical management is the only option in these cases. This 60 years male had an acute onset hemiplegia 4 ½ years back and at present came wit h complaints of pain and swelling over the left hip. Surgical excision was done and histopathological examination revealed extensive ossification of skeletal muscle. A diagnosis of Moyamoya disease complicated with heterotopic ossification was made. There was no recurrence after 8 months of follow up.

  6. The Contribution of Genotype to Heterotopic Ossification after Orthopaedic Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    site of injury and heterogeneous density compared to typical callus formation at 12 weeks post-injury. No  HO   HO   p-­‐Value   Age   40.67...to trauma which not only contributes to post-traumatic morbidity but also the formation of heterotopic bone. We have genotyped 2869 patients admitted...in a subset of 1313 patients have shown an association of a minor allele of the β2 adrenergic receptor with HO formation . Furthermore, the

  7. Prophylactic Radiotherapy to Prevent the Recurrence of Heterotopic Ossification after Surgical Intervention of the Elbow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hak Jae; Kim, Jin Ho; Kim, Kyu Bo; Choi, Ja Young; Chung, Moon Sang; Kim, Il Han [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-12-15

    Purpose: Heterotopic ossification is a well-known postoperative and post-traumatic complication of the elbow. We reviewed the treatment outcome for the use of low-dose radiation after surgical intervention of the elbow to prevent recurrence of heterotopic ossification (HO). Materials and Methods: Forty-five patients with HO underwent surgical intervention and postoperative radiotherapy of the elbow. The median age of the patients was 29 years (16{approx}75 years), and 27 of the patients were men and 18 were women. The occurrence of HO was mainly due to surgery after fracture (24/45) and traumatic injury (21/45). Limitation of the range of motion (ROM) was the most common symptom of the patients. Thirty-four patients received postoperative radiotherapy with a dose of 8 Gy in 2 fractions; 5 patients received a dose of 10 Gy in 5 fractions and 6 patients received a dose of 7 Gy in 1 fraction. Postoperative radiotherapy was given on the first two postoperative days for most of the patients. Sixteen patients were not given anti-inflammatory medication and 29 patients were given NSAIDs for 1{approx}8 months. Results: After a median follow-up period of 18 months (range 6{approx}72 months), 41 patients showed clinical improvement and two patients did not show improvement. Assessment of the ROM showed a mean improvement from 0{approx}135 .deg. to 60{approx}145 .deg. (p=0.028), and assessment of the functional outcome according to MEPI was from (15{approx}95) to (80{approx}100) (p<0.0001). Two of the 34 patients that were followed-up with radiography had mild radiological recurrence of heterotopic ossification. No complications were observed after the radiotherapy. Conclusion: These results suggested that low-dose radiation administered after surgical intervention is safe and effective to prevent the recurrence of HO in the elbow.

  8. Incidence of Heterotopic Ossification in Patients Receiving Radiation Therapy following Total Hip Arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis Koulouvaris

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Heterotopic ossification (HO is a frequent complication of hip surgery. In this study the incidence of HO is analyzed in high risk patients who received radiation therapy (RT after total hip replacement (THA with regular and miniposterolateral hip approach. Two hundred and thirty five high risk patients received a single dose of 700 rad after THA. The incidence of HO was 15.7%. The incidence of HO in the high risk subgroup with the miniincision was lower (5.7% but not significantly different (P=0.230. Hypertrophic osteoarthritis was demonstrated to be the consistent predisposing factor for HO formation (P=0.005.

  9. Real time early detection imaging system of failed wounds and heterotopic ossification using unique Raman signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papour, Asael; Taylor, Zach; Stafsudd, Oscar; Grundfest, Warren

    2015-03-01

    Our team has established a method to enable imaging of heterotopic ossification and bone growth locations in tissue using Stokes Raman signals with fast acquisition times. This technique relies on the unique Raman signatures of bone to capture parallel, full-field, 1 cm2 field of view, without utilizing a spectrometer. This system was built in mind as a compact complementary tool for in vivo patient monitoring that can offer a high resolution optical characterization for early detection of failed wounds. Preliminary results of bone detection in flesh are presented here and pave the way for further development of this tool in clinical setting.

  10. Surgical excision of heterotopic ossification of hip in a rare case of Moyamoya disease with extra articular ankylosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhanasekararaja Palanisami

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of isolated ossification of iliopsoas with ankylosis of the left hip in a 27-year-old female. The patient was diagnosed to have Moyamoya disease, a rare chronic occlusive disorder of cerebrovascular circulation following an acute onset of hemiplegia. The patient presented 9 months later to us with ankylosis of left hip which was successfully treated by surgical excision of the heterotopic bone and there was no recurrence at the end of 5 years. A review of literature failed to reveal a similar case with isolated and complete ossification of iliopsoas muscle associated with Moyamoya disease which required surgical intervention. Surgical excision resulted in dramatic improvement in the quality of life. Surgical excision of neurogenic type of heterotopic ossification is a very successful procedure and timely intervention after maturity of mass is very important to prevent the onset of secondary complications and to avoid recurrence.

  11. Symptomatic heterotopic ossification after very severe traumatic brain injury in 114 patients: incidence and risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Louise Lau; Sonne-Holm, Stig; Krasheninnikoff, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The incidence of heterotopic ossification (HO) among patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) varies in the literature from 11 to 73.3%. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of HO among patients with very severe TBI treated in a new established intensive rehabilitation Brain...... as well as data about trauma severity and hospital stay of these patients have been registered prospectively in a database (Danish National Head Injury database) at the Brain Injury Unit where the sub acute rehabilitation took place. The present study was based retrospectively on this database, combined...... with X-rays obtained for symptoms of HO and/or as fracture control. Clinically significant HO was found in 7.9% of the patients. Logistic regression showed an independent significant positive correlation between HO, the female gender and a high Injury Severity Score. The low incidence of HO might...

  12. Heterotopic ossification of the quadriceps following distal femoral traction: a report of three cases and a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specht, Lawrence M; Gupta, Salil; Egol, Kenneth A; Koval, Kenneth J

    2004-04-01

    We present the previously unreported complication of symptomatic heterotopic ossification of the quadriceps following placement of a large-diameter Steinmann pin for the purpose of temporary skeletal traction. Following the development of distal quadriceps heterotopic bone formation in three patients, we conducted a comprehensive search of the literature using the Medline database from 1966 to the present. A variety of publications, including review articles, case reports, and randomized prospective studies, were used for the literature review. This potential complication should be considered when using a large-diameter Steinmann pin in the distal femur for skeletal traction.

  13. Heterotopic Mesenteric Ossification After Total Colectomy for Bleeding Diverticulosis of the Colon—A Rare Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang-Jen Lai

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Heterotopic bone formation within an abdominal incision is a rare sequela of abdominal surgery. Only a few previous reports have noted heterotopic ossification in the mesentery of the small intestine and periileostomy. Here, we report the case of a 60-year-old man who underwent emergent laparotomy and total colectomy with end ileostomy and developed this condition 1 month postoperatively. Heterotopic ossification in the peri-ileostomy tissue caused stenosis of the ileostoma. Laparotomy for re-anastomosis due to a large bone formation at an abdominal midline scar is very difficult and results in a massive abdominal wall defect. Therefore, we used a lower transverse incision to avoid the site of bone formation and resected the terminal ileum with its ossified mesentery. Then, we successfully carried out an anastomosis between the ileum and the rectum. The possible pathogenesis is a metaplastic mechanism of differentiation of immature multipotent mesechymal cells. Our case provides the experience of treatment and new perspective on currently held hypotheses of heterotopic bone formation. [J Formos Med Assoc 2007;106(2 Suppl:S32-S36

  14. Methods of the physical medicine therapy in prevention of heterotopic ossification after total hip arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kojović Zoran

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/aim: In the prevention of periarticular heterotopic ossification (HO, a common complication after total hip arthroplasty (THA, nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAID and irradiation are used. Some theories presume that local hypoxia of the soft tissue causes HO. The aim of this study was to investigate if the early use of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF could prevent this ossification since it accelerates the circulation and oxigenation of soft tissue. Methods. The study included three groups of the patients with primary THA. The group C consisted of 66 patients/79 hips who had only kinesitherapy in postoperative rehabilitation. The group B consisted of 117 patients/ 131 hips who had PEMF and interferential current (IC which, on average, started on the 14th day after the surgery combined with the standard kinesitherapy. The group A consisted of 117 patients/131 hips who had PEMF from the third postoperative day and IC from, on average, the 14th postoperative day with the standard kinesitherapy. The classification of HO was done on a standard AP roentgenograms of the hips, taken at least one year after the surgery. Results. The overall HO was seen in 50.63% of the group C patients, in 43.51% of the B group and in 16.67% of the group A. Severe HO (III and IV class according to Brooker was seen in 26.58% of the group C patients and in 6.10% of the group B, but none in the group A. Conclusion. According to the obtained results an early treatment with PEMF could prevent severe HO and reduce the overall HO.

  15. Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva-related activated activin-like kinase signaling enhances osteoclast formation during heterotopic ossification in muscle tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Masato; Kawao, Naoyuki; Okumoto, Katsumi; Tamura, Yukinori; Okada, Kiyotaka; Kaji, Hiroshi

    2014-06-13

    Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva is characterized by extensive ossification within muscle tissues, and its molecular pathogenesis is responsible for the constitutively activating mutation (R206H) of the bone morphogenetic protein type 1 receptor, activin-like kinase 2 (ALK2). In this study, we investigated the effects of implanting ALK2 (R206H)-transfected myoblastic C2C12 cells into nude mice on osteoclast formation during heterotopic ossification in muscle and subcutaneous tissues. The implantation of ALK2 (R206H)-transfected C2C12 cells with BMP-2 in nude mice induced robust heterotopic ossification with an increase in the formation of osteoclasts in muscle tissues but not in subcutaneous tissues. The implantation of ALK2 (R206H)-transfected C2C12 cells in muscle induced heterotopic ossification more effectively than that of empty vector-transfected cells. A co-culture of ALK2 (R206H)-transfected C2C12 cells as well as the conditioned medium from ALK2 (R206H)-transfected C2C12 cells enhanced osteoclast formation in Raw264.7 cells more effectively than those with empty vector-transfected cells. The transfection of ALK2 (R206H) into C2C12 cells elevated the expression of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, whereas the inhibition of TGF-β signaling suppressed the enhanced formation of osteoclasts in the co-culture with ALK2 (R206H)-transfected C2C12 cells and their conditioned medium. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the causal mutation transfection of fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva in myoblasts enhanced the formation of osteoclasts from its precursor through TGF-β in muscle tissues. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  16. Influence of transcutaneous electrical stimulation on heterotopic ossification: an experimental study in Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.G.G. Zotz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Heterotopic ossification (HO is a metaplastic biological process in which there is newly formed bone in soft tissues, resulting in joint mobility deficit and pain. Different treatment modalities have been tried to prevent HO development, but there is no consensus on a therapeutic approach. Since electrical stimulation is a widely used resource in physiotherapy practice to stimulate joint mobility, with analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects, its usefulness for HO treatment was investigated. We aimed to identify the influence of electrical stimulation on induced HO in Wistar rats. Thirty-six male rats (350-390 g were used, and all animals were anesthetized for blood sampling before HO induction, to quantify the serum alkaline phosphatase. HO induction was performed by bone marrow implantation in both quadriceps of the animals, which were then divided into 3 groups: control (CG, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS group (TG, and functional electrical stimulation (FES group (FG with 12 rats each. All animals were anesthetized and electrically stimulated twice per week, for 35 days from induction day. After this period, another blood sample was collected and quadriceps muscles were bilaterally removed for histological and calcium analysis and the rats were killed. Calcium levels in muscles showed significantly lower results when comparing TG and FG (P

  17. Knee pain relief with genicular nerve blockage in two brain injured patients with heterotopic ossification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adiguzel, Emre; Uran, Ayça; Kesikburun, Serdar; Köroğlu, Özlem; Demir, Yasin; Yaşar, Evren

    2015-01-01

    Heterotopic ossification (HO) is the ectopic bone formation in non-osseous tissues. This study aimed to present two patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) who had HO in knee joint and pain relief after genicular nerve blockage. Case 1: A 14-year-old patient with TBI was admitted with bilateral knee pain and limited range of motion. Physical examination and x-ray graphics revealed calcification which was diagnosed as HO. Ultrasonography (US) guided genicular nerve blockage was performed to both knees with 2 ml lidocaine and 1 ml betamethasone. VAS of pain was decreased to 30 mm from 80 mm. At 6-month follow-up, VAS of pain was still 30 mm. Case 2: A 29-year-old patient with TBI was admitted for rehabilitation. He had right knee pain and his pain was 80 mm according to VAS. Investigation revealed HO. US guided genicular nerve blockage was performed to the right knee and pain was decreased to 20 mm. US guided genicular nerve blockage can provide pain relief in HO and this technique may be effective and alternative for pain relief in patients with neurogenic knee HO to increase patient's compliance.

  18. Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2-induced heterotopic ossification of the retroperitoneum, psoas muscle, pelvis and abdominal wall following lumbar spinal fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Raj K. [The George Washington University School of Medicine, Washington, DC (United States); Moncayo, Valeria M.; Pierre-Jerome, Claude; Terk, Michael R. [Emory University School of Medicine, Radiology Department, Musculoskeletal Division, Atlanta, GA (United States); Smitson, Robert D. [Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2010-05-15

    A 45-year-old man presented with vertebral collapse at L5 as an initial manifestation of multiple myeloma and underwent spinal fusion surgery using recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2). Subsequent computed tomography (CT) scans and X-rays revealed heterotopic ossification of the left psoas muscle, pelvis, and anterior abdominal wall. While the occurrence of heterotopic ossification has previously been reported when rhBMP-2 has been used for spinal fusion surgery, this case demonstrates that it can occur to a much greater degree than previously seen. (orig.)

  19. Sciatic nerve compression by neurogenic heterotopic ossification: use of CT to determine surgical indications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salga, Marjorie [Hopital Raymond Poincare, APHP, CIC-IT 805, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Garches (France); Jourdan, Claire [Hopital Raymond Poincare, APHP, CIC-IT 805, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Garches (France); Universite de Versailles Saint Quentin en Yvelines, Handi-Resp, (EA4047), Versailles (France); Durand, Marie-Christine [Hopital Raymond Poincare, APHP, CIC-IT 805, Department of Neurophysiology, Garches (France); Universite de Versailles Saint Quentin en Yvelines, Groupement de Recherche Clinique et Technologique sur le Handicap (GRCTH, EA 4497), Versailles (France); Hangard, Chloe; Carlier, Robert-Yves [Hopital Raymond Poincare, APHP, CIC-IT 805, Department of Medical Imaging, Garches (France); Denormandie, Philippe [Universite de Versailles Saint Quentin en Yvelines, Groupement de Recherche Clinique et Technologique sur le Handicap (GRCTH, EA 4497), Versailles (France); Hopital Raymond Poincare, APHP, CIC-IT 805, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Garches (France); Genet, Francois [Hopital Raymond Poincare, APHP, CIC-IT 805, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Garches (France); Universite de Versailles Saint Quentin en Yvelines, Groupement de Recherche Clinique et Technologique sur le Handicap (GRCTH, EA 4497), Versailles (France); Military Medical Service, Hopital d' Instruction des Armees Percy, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Clamart (France)

    2014-09-14

    To describe the characteristics of neurogenic heterotopic ossification (NHO) based on clinical tests, electroneuromyography (ENMG) and CT in a database of patients with lesions of the central nervous system who required sciatic nerve neurolysis along with posterior hip NHO resection, and to determine the respective roles of ENMG and CT in the management of posterior hip NHOs in patients who are unable to communicate or express pain. The consistency of the ENMG results with clinical findings, CT results and macroscopic signs of lesions was retrospectively assessed after sciatic nerve neurolysis and ablation of 55 posterior hip NHOs. Sciatic nerve neurolysis was necessary in 55 cases (47.4 %; 55 out of 116). CT showed contact of the NHO with the nerve in all cases: 5 in contact with no deflection, 3 in contact with deflection, 21 moulded into a gutter and 26 entrapped in the NHO. There were clinical signs of sciatic nerve lesion in 21.8 % of cases (12 out of 55). ENMG showed signs of sciatic nerve lesions in only 55.6 % (10 out of 18), only 4 of whom presented with clinical signs of a nerve lesion. No significant relationship was found between clinical symptoms and ENMG findings of sciatic nerve compression (n = 13, p = 0.77). Nerve compression by NHO is likely an underdiagnosed condition, particularly in patients who are unable to communicate. Diagnosis of sciatic compression by NHO should be based on regular clinical examinations and CT. ENMG is not sufficiently sensitive to be used alone for surgical decision-making. (orig.)

  20. Risk of Radiation-Induced Malignancy With Heterotopic Ossification Prophylaxis: A Case–Control Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheybani, Arshin, E-mail: arshin-sheybani@uiowa.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, Iowa (United States); TenNapel, Mindi J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, Iowa (United States); Lack, William D. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Rehabilitation, Loyola University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Clerkin, Patrick; Hyer, Daniel E.; Sun, Wenqing [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, Iowa (United States); Jacobson, Geraldine M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Purpose: To determine the risk of radiation-induced malignancy after prophylactic treatment for heterotopic ossification (HO). Methods and Materials: A matched case–control study was conducted within a population-based cohort of 3489 patients treated either for acetabular fractures with acetabular open reduction internal fixation or who underwent total hip arthroplasty from 1990 to 2009. Record-linkage techniques identified patients who were diagnosed with a malignancy from our state health registry. Patients with a prior history of malignancy were excluded from the cohort. For each documented case of cancer, 2 controls were selected by stratified random sampling from the cohort that did not develop a malignancy. Matching factors were sex, age at time of hip treatment, and duration of follow-up. Results: A total of 243 patients were diagnosed with a malignancy after hip treatment. Five patients were excluded owing to inadequate follow-up time in the corresponding control cohort. A cohort of 238 cases (control, 476 patients) was included. Mean follow-up was 10 years, 12 years in the control group. In the cancer cohort, 4% of patients had radiation therapy (RT), compared with 7% in the control group. Of the 9 patients diagnosed with cancer after RT, none occurred within the field. The mean latency period was 5.9 years in the patients who received RT and 6.6 years in the patients who did not. Median (range) age at time of cancer diagnosis in patients who received RT was 62 (43-75) years, compared with 70 (32-92) years in the non-RT patients. An ad hoc analysis was subsequently performed in all 2749 patients who were not matched and found neither an increased incidence of malignancy nor a difference in distribution of type of malignancy. Conclusion: We were unable to demonstrate an increased risk of malignancy in patients who were treated with RT for HO prophylaxis compared with those who were not.

  1. Combined radiotherapy and indomethacin for the prevention of heterotopic ossification after total hip arthroplasty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pakos, Emilios E.; Stafilas, Kosmas S.; Politis, Aggelos N.; Mitsionis, Gregory; Xenakis, Theodore A. [Dept. of Orthopedic Surgery, Univ. Hospital of Ioannina (Greece); Tsekeris, Pericles G. [Dept. of Radiation Therapy, Univ. Hospital of Ioannina (Greece)

    2009-08-15

    Background and Purpose: Heterotopic ossification (HO) is a frequent complication following total hip arthroplasty. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of combined radiotherapy and indomethacin as compared to indomethacin alone for the prevention of HO after hip arthroplasty. Patients and Methods: 96 patients were prospectively enrolled to receive either a single dose of postoperative radiotherapy of 7.0 Gy and indomethacin for the first 15 postoperative days or indomethacin alone for the same period. A historical group of 50 patients that received indomethacin alone served as control. Primary endpoint was the radiographic evidence of HO at 6 months. Secondary endpoints were the evaluation of factors related to HO development, side effects from each treatment, and group differences in the clinical assessment with the Merle d'Aubigne Score. Results: Four patients in the combined-therapy group developed HO compared to 13 patients in the indomethacin group (p < 0.05) and 13 patients in the historical group (p < 0.05). One patient each in the combined group and the historical group developed Brooker III HO (nonsignificant difference). Duration of surgery and congenital hip disease were associated with HO development in the indomethacin groups, while age and congenital hip disease showed such an association in the combined-therapy group. The side effects and mean Merle d'Aubigne Score did not differ significantly between the three groups. Conclusion: Combined radiotherapy and indomethacin was more efficacious in preventing HO after total hip arthroplasty compared to indomethacin alone and should be considered for future investigation. (orig.)

  2. Heterotopic ossification as rare complication of hemiplegia following stroke: two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurcay, Eda; Ozturk, Erhan Arif; Erdem, Tuba; Gurcay, Ahmet Gurhan; Cakci, Aytul

    2013-01-01

    Heterotopic ossification (HO), characterized by new bone formation in the periarticular regions of large joints, is frequently seen after spinal cord injury, traumatic brain injury, burn and trauma. It is a rare complication of hemiplegia following stroke, with a reported incidence of 1% or less. This study reports two unusual presentations of HO: (1) A 56-year-old male with a history of atrial fibrillation on warfarin developed sudden-onset left hemiplegia. Eight months after the event, he was diagnosed with HO of the hip joint including both the affected and unaffected sides. (2) A 55-year-old female with left hemiplegia due to subarachnoid bleeding developed HO on the left hip joint 7 months later. In both cases, spasticity around the hip muscle groups, especially hip flexors, adductors and knee extensors, and limited range of motion accompanied by pain were present. X-ray and pelvic computed tomography revealed HO around the hip joints. After 4 weeks of inpatient rehabilitation, the ranges of hip joint motion improved, without exceeding 10° in the direction of flexion and rotations, and ambulation levels were wheelchair-bound for the first case and dependent on a cane for the second case. Considering the presented cases, it is suggested that HO should be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis in stroke patients presenting with spontaneous joint pain or limitation. The clinical importance of HO development on both the affected and unaffected sides in post-stroke hemiplegia is emphasized, since it may worsen the patient's functional status.

  3. Use of calcitonin in recalcitrant phantom limb pain complicated by heterotopic ossification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Ricardo; Payne, Michael W C

    2015-01-01

    Phantom limb pain (PLP) is a common complication after amputation, affecting up to 80% of the amputee population. However, only 5% to 10% of amputees have severe PLP impacting daily function. The present report details the management of severe, treatment-resistant PLP in a 72-year-old man with a traumatic left transradial amputation and a comorbid complication of heterotopic ossification (HO). To describe a case of PLP with HO and the possible role of calcitonin in the treatment of both conditions. A systematic review of the literature regarding the management of PLP. Seventeen articles that directly addressed PLP were identified; 11 were randomized controlled trials. All involved small samples and follow-up ranged from 6 h to one year, with the majority limited to six weeks. In the present case, medication management was limited by side effects, lack of response and the patient's desire to avoid long-term medication. Investigations revealed HO, which was suspected to envelop the median nerve in the proximal forearm. After several unsuccessful medication trials, the literature was reviewed in search of common variables between HO formation and persistent PLP. Ultimately, the biochemical effects associated with nerve injury were identified to be a possible factor in both HO and PLP development. Calcitonin's proposed mechanisms of action may help to manage HO and PLP at multiple stages of disease development and maintenance. In the present case, a four-week trial of intranasal calcitonin was successful, with pain control lasting at least 18 months. The present case report provided a review of the current literature in PLP pharmacological management and the current understanding of the etiology of PLP and HO, as well as how the two may coexist. It also provided an opportunity to discuss the proposed mechanisms of action of calcitonin in the management of PLP and HO.

  4. Inhibition of Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Signaling with Rapamycin Prevents Trauma-Induced Heterotopic Ossification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Ammar T; Dey, Devaveena; Sanders, Erin M; Seavey, Jonathan G; Tomasino, Allison M; Moss, Kaitlyn; Wheatley, Benjamin; Cholok, David; Loder, Shawn; Li, John; Levi, Benjamin; Davis, Thomas A

    2017-11-01

    A pressing clinical need exists for 63% to 65% of combat-wounded service members and 11% to 20% of civilians who develop heterotopic ossification (HO) after blast-related extremity injury and traumatic injuries, respectively. The mammalian target of rapamycin pathway is a central cellular sensor of injury. We evaluated the prophylactic effects of rapamycin, a selective inhibitor of mammalian target of rapamycin signaling, on HO formation in a rat model of blast-related, polytraumatic extremity injury. Rapamycin was administered intraperitoneally daily for 14 days at 0.5 mg/kg or 2.5 mg/kg. Ectopic bone formation was monitored by micro-computed tomography and confirmed by histologic examination. Connective tissue progenitor cells, platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α-positive cells, and α-smooth muscle actin-positive blood vessels were assayed at postoperative day 7 by colony formation and immunofluorescence. Early gene expression changes were determined by low-density microarray. There was significant attenuation of 1) total new bone and soft tissue ectopic bone with 0.5 mg/kg (38.5% and 14.7%) and 2.5 mg/kg rapamycin (90.3% and 82.9%), respectively, 2) connective tissue progenitor cells, 3) platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α-positive cells, 4) α-smooth muscle actin-positive blood vessels, and 5) of key extracellular matrix remodeling (CD44, Col1a1, integrins), osteogenesis (Sp7, Runx2, Bmp2), inflammation (Cxcl5, 10, IL6, Ccl2), and angiogenesis (Angpt2) genes. No wound healing complications were noted. Our data demonstrate the efficacy of rapamycin in inhibiting blast trauma-induced HO by a multipronged mechanism. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The impact of race on the development of severe heterotopic ossification following acetabular fracture surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slone, Harris S; Walton, Zeke J; Daly, Charles A; Chapin, Russell W; Barfield, William R; Leddy, Lee R; Hartsock, Langdon A

    2015-01-01

    To determine the association between race on severe heterotopic ossification (HO) following acetabular fracture surgery. Retrospective case control study. Level I university trauma centre. Two hundred and fifty-three patients who were surgically treated for acetabular fractures were retrospectively evaluated. Postoperative radiographs were evaluated for HO by a blinded musculoskeletal radiologist, and classified based on a modified Brooker classification. Of the 253 patients that met inclusion and exclusion criteria, 175 (69%) were male and 78 (31%) were female. One hundred and fifty-four (61%) patients were Caucasian, and 99 (39%) were African American (AA). Fifty-five (21%) patients developed severe HO. Of those who developed severe HO, 25 were Caucasian (45%), 30 were African American (55%). Forty-one patients (75%) with severe HO were male, and 14 (25%) were female. No statistical differences (p>0.05) were found between groups in terms of age, days to surgery, GCS at presentation, surgical approach, perioperative HO prophylaxis, or AO/OTA fracture classification. The patient population was then stratified by race, gender, and race/gender. AA were more likely than Caucasians to develop severe HO (odds ratio [OR], 2.24; confidence interval [CI], 1.22-4.11). When gender was considered independent of race, no statistical differences (p>0.05) were observed (OR, 1.40; CI, 0.71-2.75). AA males were much more likely to develop severe HO when compared to Caucasian females (OR, 4.4; CI, 1.38-14.06). Race is associated with different rates of severe HO formation following acetabular fracture surgery. AA patients are significantly more likely to develop severe HO following acetabular fracture surgery when compared to Caucasian patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Do Surrogates of Injury Severity Influence the Occurrence of Heterotopic Ossification in Fractures of the Acetabulum?

    Science.gov (United States)

    dʼHeurle, Albert; Archdeacon, Michael T; Hiratzka, Shannon; Casstevens, Christopher; Finnan, Ryan; McCoy, Brett

    2016-04-01

    To determine the relationship between injury severity surrogates and other patient factors with the development and severity of heterotopic ossification (HO) following open reduction internal fixation of acetabular fractures treated with a posterior approach. Retrospective review. Academic level 1 trauma center. Two hundred forty-one patients who were treated through a posterior approach with a minimum of 6-month radiographic follow-up were identified from an acetabular fracture database. None. The occurrence and severity (Brooker Grade III/IV) of HO 6 months postsurgery. Length of stay (LOS) in the intensive care unit (ICU), non-ICU LOS >10 days, and HO prophylaxis with external radiation beam therapy (XRT) were significantly associated with the development of HO in a multivariate model [ICU LOS: 1-2 days, odds ratio (OR) = 4.33, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03-18.25; 3-6 days, OR = 4.1, 95% CI, 1.27-13.27; >6 days, OR = 11.7, 95% CI, 3.24-42.22; non-ICU LOS >10 days (vs. 0-6 days): OR = 7.6, 95% CI, 2.6-22.25; XRT HO prophylaxis: OR = 0.29, 95% CI, 0.10-0.85]. Other variables evaluated in multivariate modeling not significantly associated with development and severity of HO included age, gender, mechanism of injury, injury severity score, presence of neurologic injury, Letournel fracture type, occurrence of hip dislocation, interval from injury to surgery, operative time, and estimated blood loss. Surrogates of injury severity, including days in the ICU and non-ICU hospital LOS >10 days, were associated with the development of HO in our cohort of acetabular fracture patients. Prophylaxis with XRT was significantly protective against the development of HO, and the ability to provide prophylaxis is very likely related to the severity of injury. Prognostic Level II. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  7. Inhalant abuse of 1,1-difluoroethane (DFE leading to heterotopic ossification: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hileman Barbara

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heterotopic ossification (HO is the formation of mature, lamellar bone within soft tissues other than the periosteum. There are three recognized etiologies of HO: traumatic, neurogenic, and genetic. Presently, there are no definitively documented causal factors of HO. The following factors are presumed to place a patient at higher risk: 60 years of age or older, male, previous HO, hypertrophic osteoarthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis, prior hip surgery, and surgical risk factors. Case presentation A 33-year-old male, involved in a motor vehicle crash, sustained an irreducible acetabulum fracture/dislocation, displaced proximal humerus fracture, and an impacted pilon fracture. During the time of injury, he was intoxicated from inhaling the aerosol propellant used in "dust spray" cans (1,1-difluoroethane, C2H4F2. Radiographs identified rapid pathologic bone formation about the proximal humeral metaphysis, proximal femur, elbow, and soft tissue several months following the initial injury. Discussion The patient did not have any genetic disorders that could have attributed to the bone formation but had some risk factors (male, fracture with dislocation. Surgically, the recommended precautions were followed to decrease the chance of HO. Although the patient did not have neurogenic injuries, the difluoroethane in dusting spray can cause damage to the central nervous system. Signals may have been mixed causing the patient's body to produce bone instead of tissue to strengthen the injured area. Conclusion What is unusual in this case is the rate at which the pathological bone formation appeared, which was long outside the 4–6 week window in which HO starts to appear. The authors are not certain as to the cause of this rapid formation but suspect that the patient's continued abuse of inhaled aerosol propellants may be the culprit.

  8. Heterotopic Ossification around the Knee after Internal Fixation of a Complex Tibial Plateau Fracture Combined with the Use of Demineralized Bone Matrix (DBM): A Case Report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nota, Sjoerd P. F. T.; Kloen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Demineralized bone matrix has been successfully commercialized as an alternative bone graft material that not only can function as filler but also as an osteoinductive graft. Numerous studies have confirmed its beneficial use in clinical practice. Heterotopic ossification after internal fixation

  9. A case of the management of Heterotopic ossification as the result of acetabular fracture in a patient with traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Rollo

    2015-01-01

    Discussion and conclusion: Heterotopic ossification represents a disease which is not very common, but has particular characteristics with debilitating consequences. The disease is responsible for reduction of functionality of the affected joint. There are many different treatments available, but it is necessary to choose the most appropriate one, considering: responsible cause, location, Brooker's classification, the articular functionality.

  10. Cancer risk estimates from radiation therapy for heterotopic ossification prophylaxis after total hip arthroplasty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazonakis, Michalis; Berris, Theoharris; Damilakis, John [Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Crete, P.O. Box 2208, 71003 Iraklion, Crete (Greece); Lyraraki, Efrossyni [Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, University Hospital of Iraklion, 71110 Iraklion, Crete (Greece)

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: Heterotopic ossification (HO) is a frequent complication following total hip arthroplasty. This study was conducted to calculate the radiation dose to organs-at-risk and estimate the probability of cancer induction from radiotherapy for HO prophylaxis.Methods: Hip irradiation for HO with a 6 MV photon beam was simulated with the aid of a Monte Carlo model. A realistic humanoid phantom representing an average adult patient was implemented in Monte Carlo environment for dosimetric calculations. The average out-of-field radiation dose to stomach, liver, lung, prostate, bladder, thyroid, breast, uterus, and ovary was calculated. The organ-equivalent-dose to colon, that was partly included within the treatment field, was also determined. Organ dose calculations were carried out using three different field sizes. The dependence of organ doses upon the block insertion into primary beam for shielding colon and prosthesis was investigated. The lifetime attributable risk for cancer development was estimated using organ, age, and gender-specific risk coefficients.Results: For a typical target dose of 7 Gy, organ doses varied from 1.0 to 741.1 mGy by the field dimensions and organ location relative to the field edge. Blocked field irradiations resulted in a dose range of 1.4–146.3 mGy. The most probable detriment from open field treatment of male patients was colon cancer with a high risk of 564.3 × 10{sup −5} to 837.4 × 10{sup −5} depending upon the organ dose magnitude and the patient's age. The corresponding colon cancer risk for female patients was (372.2–541.0) × 10{sup −5}. The probability of bladder cancer development was more than 113.7 × 10{sup −5} and 110.3 × 10{sup −5} for males and females, respectively. The cancer risk range to other individual organs was reduced to (0.003–68.5) × 10{sup −5}.Conclusions: The risk for cancer induction from radiation therapy for HO prophylaxis after total hip arthroplasty varies considerably by

  11. Osteogenic gene expression correlates with development of heterotopic ossification in war wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Korboi N; Potter, Benjamin K; Brown, Trevor S; Davis, Thomas A; Elster, Eric A; Forsberg, Jonathan A

    2014-02-01

    Heterotopic ossification (HO) is a frequent complication of modern wartime extremity injuries. The biological mechanisms responsible for the development of HO in traumatic wounds remain elusive. The aims of our study were to (1) characterize the expression profile of osteogenesis-related gene transcripts in traumatic war wounds in which HO developed; and (2) determine whether expression at the mRNA level correlated with functional protein expression and HO formation. Biopsy specimens from 54 high-energy penetrating extremity wounds obtained at the initial and final surgical débridements were evaluated. The levels of selected osteogenic-related gene transcripts from RNA extracts were assessed by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis. As a result of its key role in osteogenesis, the concentration of BMP-2 in the effluent of 29 wounds also was determined. The transcripts of 13 genes (ALPL [p = 0.006], BMP-2 [p < 0.001], BMP-3 [p = 0.06], COL2A1 [p < 0.001], COLL10A1 [p < 0.001], COL11A1 [p = 0.006], COMP [p = 0.02], CSF2 [p = 0.003], CSF3 [p = 0.012], MMP8 [p < 0.001], MMP9 [p = 0.014], SMAD1 [p = 0.024], and VEGFA [p = 0.017]) were upregulated greater than twofold in wounds in which HO developed compared with wounds in which it did not develop. Gene transcript expression of BMP-2 also correlated directly with functional protein expression in the wounds that formed HO (p = 0.029). Important differences exist in the osteogenic gene expression profile of wounds in which HO developed compared with wounds in which it did not develop. The upregulation of multiple osteogenesis-related gene transcripts indicates the presence of a proosteogenic environment necessary for ectopic bone formation in traumatic wounds. Understanding the osteogenic environment associated with war wounds may allow for the development of novel therapeutic strategies for HO.

  12. Early Characterization of Blast-related Heterotopic Ossification in a Rat Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Ammar T; Crump, Erica K; Pavey, Gabriel J; Hope, Donald N; Forsberg, Jonathan A; Davis, Thomas A

    2015-09-01

    Heterotopic ossification (HO) affects the majority of combat-related lower extremity wounds involving severe fracture and amputation. Defining the timing of early osteogenic-related genes may help identify candidate prophylactic agents and guide the timing of prophylactic therapy after blast and other combat-related extremity injuries. Using a recently developed animal model of combat-related HO, we sought to determine (1) the timing of early chondrogenesis, cartilage formation, and radiographic ectopic bone development; and (2) the early cartilage and bone-related gene and protein patterns in traumatized soft tissue. We used an established rat HO model consisting of blast exposure, controlled femur fracture, crush injury, and transfemoral amputation through the zone of injury. Postoperatively, rats were euthanized on Days 3 to 28. We assessed evidence of early ectopic bone formation by micro-CT and histology and performed proteomic and gene expression analysis. All rats showed radiographic evidence of HO within 28 days. Key chondrogenic (collagen type I alpha 1 [COL1α1], p = 0.016) and osteogenic-related genes (Runt-related transcription factor 2 [RUNX-2], p = 0.029; osteoclacin [OCN], p = 0.032; phosphate-regulating neutral endopeptidase, X-linked [PHEX], p = 0.0290, and POU domain class 5 transcription factor [POU5F], p = 0.016) and proteins (Noggin [NOG], p = 0.04, OCN, p = 0.02, RUNX- 2, p = 0.04, and substance P-1 [SP-1], p = 0.01) in the injured soft tissue, normalized to the contralateral limb and/or sham-treated naïve rats, increased on Days 3 to 14 postinjury. By 14 days, foci of hypertrophic chondrocytes, hyaline cartilage, and woven bone were present in the soft tissue surrounding the amputation site. We found that genes that regulate early chondrogenic and osteogenic signaling and bone development (COL1α1, RUNX-2, OCN, PHEX, and POU5F1) are induced early during the tissue reparative/healing phase in a rat model simulating a combat-related extremity

  13. Evaluation of Salivary Cytokines for Diagnosis of both Trauma-Induced and Genetic Heterotopic Ossification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Levi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available PurposeHeterotopic ossification (HO occurs in the setting of persistent systemic inflammation. The identification of reliable biomarkers can serve as an early diagnostic tool for HO, especially given the current lack of effective treatment strategies. Although serum biomarkers have great utility, they can be inappropriate or ineffective in traumatic acute injuries and in patients with fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP. Therefore, the goal of this study is to profile the cytokines associated with HO using a different non-invasive source of biomarkers.MethodsSerum and saliva were collected from a model of trauma-induced HO (tHO with hind limb Achilles’ tenotomy and dorsal burn injury at indicated time points (pre-injury, 48 h, 1 week, and 3 weeks post-injury and a genetic non-trauma HO model (Nfatc1-Cre/caAcvr1fl/wt. Samples were analyzed for 27 cytokines using the Bio-Plex assay. Histologic evaluation was performed in Nfatc1-Cre/caAcvr1fl/wt mice and at 48 h and 1 week post-injury in burn tenotomy mice. The mRNA expression levels of these cytokines at the tenotomy site were also quantified with quantitative real-time PCR. Pearson correlation coefficient was assessed between saliva and serum.ResultsLevels of TNF-α and IL-1β peaked at 48 h and 1 week post-injury in the burn/tenotomy cohort, and these values were significantly higher when compared with both uninjured (p < 0.01, p < 0.03 and burn-only mice (p < 0.01, p < 0.01. Immunofluorescence staining confirmed enhanced expression of IL-1β, TNF-α, and MCP-1 at the tenotomy site 48 h after injury. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 and VEGF was detected in saliva showing elevated levels at 1 week post-injury in our tHO model when compared with both uninjured (p < 0.001, p < 0.01 and burn-only mice (p < 0.005, p < 0.01. The Pearson correlation between serum MCP-1 and salivary MCP-1 was statistically significant (r = 0

  14. What Risk Factors Predict Recurrence of Heterotopic Ossification After Excision in Combat-related Amputations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavey, Gabriel J; Polfer, Elizabeth M; Nappo, Kyle E; Tintle, Scott M; Forsberg, Jonathan A; Potter, Benjamin K

    2015-09-01

    Heterotopic ossification (HO) is common after combat-related amputations and surgical excision remains the only definitive treatment for persistently symptomatic HO. There is no consensus in the literature regarding the timing of surgery, and recurrence frequency, reexcision, and complications have not been reported in large numbers of patients. (1) What are the rates of symptomatic recurrence resulting in reexcision and other complications resulting in reoperation in patients with HO? (2) Is either radiographic or symptomatic recurrence dependent on timing and type of initial surgery, the experience of the surgeon in performing the procedure, the severity of preexcision HO, the presence of concomitant neurologic injury, or the use of postoperative HO prophylaxis? Between March 2005 and March 2013 our institution treated 994 patients with 1377 combat-related major extremity amputations; of those, 172 amputations underwent subsequent excision of symptomatic HO. The mechanism of injury resulting in nearly all amputations (n = 168) was blast-related trauma. We reviewed medical records and radiographs to collect initial grade of HO, radiographic recurrence, complete compared with partial excision, concomitant neurologic injury, timing to initial surgery, surgeon experience, and use of postexcision prophylaxis with our primary study outcome being a return to the operating room (OR) for repeat excision of symptomatic HO. All 172 combat-related amputations were considered for this study irrespective of followup, which was noted to be robust, with 157 (91%) amputations having at least 6 months clinical followup by an orthopaedic surgeon or physiatrist (median, 20 months; range, 0-88 months). Eleven of 172 patients (6.5%) underwent reexcision of HO, and 67 complications resulting in return to the OR occurred in 53 patients (31%) of patients. Multivariate analysis of our primary outcome measure showed more frequent symptomatic recurrences requiring reexcision when initial

  15. Do inflammatory markers portend heterotopic ossification and wound failure in combat wounds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsberg, Jonathan A; Potter, Benjamin K; Polfer, Elizabeth M; Safford, Shawn D; Elster, Eric A

    2014-09-01

    After a decade of war in Iraq and Afghanistan, we have observed an increase in combat-related injury survival and a paradoxical increase in injury severity, mainly because of the effects of blasts. These severe injuries have a devastating effect on each patient's immune system resulting in massive upregulation of the systemic inflammatory response. By examining inflammatory mediators, preliminary data suggest that it may be possible to correlate complications such as wound failure and heterotopic ossification (HO) with distinct systemic and local inflammatory profiles, but this is a relatively new topic. We asked whether systemic or local markers of inflammation could be used as an objective means, independent of demographic and subjective factors, to estimate the likelihood of (1) HO and/or (2) wound failure (defined as wounds requiring surgical débridement after definitive closure, or wounds that were not closed or covered within 21 days of injury) in patients sustaining combat wounds. Two hundred combat wounded active-duty service members who sustained high-energy extremity injuries were prospectively enrolled between 2008 and 2012. Of these 200 patients, 189 had adequate followups to determine the presence or absence of HO, and 191 had adequate followups to determine the presence or absence of wound failure. In addition to injury-specific and demographic data, we quantified 24 cytokines and chemokines during each débridement. Patients were followed clinically for 6 weeks, and radiographs were obtained 3 months after definitive wound closure. Associations were investigated between these markers and wound failure or HO, while controlling for known confounders. The presence of an amputation (p wound surface area (p = 0.001; OR, 1.01; 95% CI, 1.002-1.009), serum interleukin (IL)-3 (p = 0.002; OR, 2.41; 95% CI, 1.5-4.5), serum IL-12p70 (p = 0.01; OR, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.27-0.81), effluent IL-3 (p = 0.02; OR, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.2-2.9), and effluent IL-13 (p = 0.006; OR, 0

  16. Results from the surgical resection of severe heterotopic ossification of the hip: a case series of 26 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macheras, George A; Lepetsos, Panagiotis; Leonidou, Andreas; Anastasopoulos, Panagiotis P; Galanakos, Spyridon P; Tsiridis, Eleftherios

    2017-12-01

    Surgical resection of heterotopic ossification (HO) around the hip joint is often challenging. The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical and radiological outcomes following surgical resection of Brooker's type III and IV HO of the hip. We retrospectively reviewed clinical and radiological data, between November 2006 and January 2013, of all patients who underwent surgical resection of severe HO of the hip. Brooker's grading, range of motion and the Harris Hip Score before and after surgery were recorded in all cases. The combined radiation (700 cGy preoperatively) and indomethacin regimen was used to prevent heterotopic ossification recurrence. Twenty-six patients (22 males and 4 females) were included in our study. Mean patient age was 47.38 years (range 24-72). The HO was graded as Brooker grade III in 3 patients (11.5%) and Brooker grade IV in 23 patients (88.5%). Mean time interval between HO development and resection was 40.8 months (range 13-156 months). All patients had CT scans prior to surgery. Mean follow-up was 31.4 months (range 24-40 months). There was no severe HO recurrence. Complications included one intraoperative injury of a femoral artery branch, one intraoperative femoral neck fracture treated with intramedullary nailing, one sciatic nerve injury and one superficial infection treated conservatively. Surgical resection of severe HO of the hip along with preoperative radiation and indomethacin provides excellent results; however, the complication rate is relatively high. Careful evaluation of the preoperative CT scan and wide exposure are required in order to identify all the involved neurovascular structures.

  17. Leptin accelerates the pathogenesis of heterotopic ossification in rat tendon tissues via mTORC1 signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Huaji; Chen, Yuhui; Chen, Guorong; Tian, Xinggui; Tang, Jiajun; Luo, Lei; Huang, Minjun; Yan, Bin; Ao, Xiang; Zhou, Wen; Wang, Liping; Bai, Xiaochun; Zhang, Zhongmin; Wang, Liang; Xian, Cory J

    2018-02-01

    Leptin, an adipocyte-derived cytokine associated with bone metabolism, is believed to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of heterotopic ossification (HO). The effect and underlying action mechanism of leptin were investigated on osteogenic differentiation of tendon-derived stem cells (TDSCs) in vitro and the HO formation in rat tendons. Isolated rat TDSCs were treated with various concentrations of leptin in the presence or absence of mTORC1 signaling specific inhibitor rapamycin in vitro. A rat model with Achilles tenotomy was employed to evaluate the effect of leptin on HO formation together with or without rapamycin treatment. In vitro studies with TDSCs showed that leptin increased the expression of osteogenic biomarkers (alkaline phosphatase, runt-related transcription factor 2, osterix, osteocalcin) and enhanced mineralization of TDSCs via activating the mTORC1 signal pathway (as indicated by phosphorylation of p70 ribosomal S6 kinase 1 and p70 ribosomal S6). However, mTORC1 signaling blockade with rapamycin treatment suppressed leptin-induced osteogenic differentiation and mineralization. In vivo studies showed that leptin promoted HO formation in the Achilles tendon after tenotomy, and rapamycin treatment blocked leptin-induced HO formation. In conclusion, leptin can promote TDSC osteogenic differentiation and heterotopic bone formation via mTORC1 signaling in both vitro and vivo model, which provides a new potential therapeutic target for HO prevention. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma of the perineum with heterotopic ossification: case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Anna F; Yip, Stephen; Smith, Adam C; Hayes, Malcolm M; Nielsen, Torsten O; O'Connell, John X

    2011-11-01

    Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma was first described more than 20 years ago. Subsequently, it was discovered to carry the recurrent chromosomal translocation t(7;16)(q33;p11) encoding a FUS-CREB3L2 fusion oncoprotein. Molecular tests for this pathognomonic gene fusion can confirm the identity of histologic variants (such as hyalinizing spindle cell tumor with giant rosettes) and suggest that some cases of sclerosing epithelioid fibrosarcoma may represent a high-grade version of this entity. We present a case of an ossifying tumor of the perineum that required an open biopsy and fluorescent in situ hybridization testing for FUS and CREB3L2 for diagnosis as a variant of low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma. Subsequent excision revealed characteristic areas with collagen rosettes as well as foci of heterotopic ossification. Significant ossification, which is well documented in entities such as synovial sarcoma, ossifying fibromyxoid tumor, and extraskeletal osteosarcoma, has not been reported previously in low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma. This case demonstrates the value of having a distinctive confirmatory molecular pathology test for diagnosis and expands our knowledge of the histologic variants possible in low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. An analysis of heterotopic ossification in cervical disc arthroplasty: a novel morphologic classification of an ossified mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yong Jun; Park, Sung Bae; Kim, Min Jeong; Kim, Ki-Jeong; Kim, Hyun-Jib

    2013-04-01

    Although the precise cause of heterotopic ossification (HO) remains unclear, it is certain that it increases with time. The reason why the reported occurrence rate has been given as a wider range is that there were no clinical reports that have addressed the occurrence rate based on the morphology and position. The aim of this retrospective study was to determine whether radiological parameters had an influence on the formation of HO and to compare the results after cervical arthroplasty using Bryan (Medtronic Sofamor Danek, Memphis, TN, USA), PCM (Cervitech, Rockaway, NJ, USA), and Prestige LP (Medtronic Sofamor Danek) implants. A retrospective study. Eighty-one patients were included. The occurrence of HO was determined at the four corners of the disc space according to the McAfee classification system. Heterotopic ossifications were classified into Type 1, Type 2, and Type 3 HOs (end plate, traction spur, and teardrop types) based on their morphologic features. The presence of preoperative ossifications, sex, type of device, operated level, hybrid implantation, depth behind the prosthesis, cervical lordotic angle, and segmental angle between the footplates of the prosthesis were assessed as predictors in terms of location and morphologic features. Eighty-one patients after 95 cervical arthroplasties using the Bryan (35 segments), PCM (30 segments), and Prestige LP implants (30 segments) underwent postoperative radiographs or three-dimensional computed tomography with a mean follow-up period of 46, 39, and 30 months, respectively, after the operation. The overall incidence of all cases and one-level subgroup were 64.2% and 60.3%, respectively. According to the types of device, the incidence of HO was 49% (Bryan), 80% (PCM), and 60% (Prestige). Type 1 HO (62.1%) was found only in the posterosuperior disc space. Type 2 HO (13.7%) was primarily detected in the anterosuperior disc space rather than the posterosuperior disc space (3.2%). Type 3 HO (4.2%) developed

  20. Influence of Bone and Muscle Injuries on the Osteogenic Potential of Muscle Progenitors: Contribution of Tissue Environment to Heterotopic Ossification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molligan, Jeremy; Mitchell, Reed; Schon, Lew; Achilefu, Samuel; Zahoor, Talal; Cho, Young; Loube, Jeffery; Zhang, Zijun

    2016-06-01

    : By using surgical mouse models, this study investigated how the tissue environment influences the osteogenic potential of muscle progenitors (m-progenitors) and potentially contributes to heterotopic ossification (HO). Injury was induced by clamping the gluteus maximus and medius (group M) or osteotomy of greater trochanter (group O) on the right hip, as well as combined muscle injury and osteotomy of greater trochanter (group M+O). The gluteus maximus and medius of the operated hips were harvested at days 1, 3, 5, and 10 for isolation of m-progenitors. The cells were cultured in an osteogenic medium for 3 weeks, and osteogenesis was evaluated by matrix mineralization and the expression of osteogenesis-related genes. The expression of type I collagen, RUNX2 (runt-related transcription factor 2), and osteocalcin by the m-progenitors of group M+O was significantly increased, compared with groups M and O. Osteogenic m-progenitors in group O increased the expression of bone morphogenetic protein 2 and also bone morphogenetic protein antagonist differential screening-selected gene aberrative in neuroblastoma. On histology, there was calcium deposition mostly in the muscles of group M+O harvested at day 10. CD56, representing myogenic progenitors, was highly expressed in the m-progenitors isolated from group M (day 10), but m-progenitors of group M+O (day 10) exhibited the highest expression of platelet-derived growth factor receptor α (PDGFR-α), a marker of muscle-derived mesenchymal stem cells (M-MSCs). The expressions of PDGFR-α and RUNX2 were colocalized in osteogenic m-progenitors. The data indicate that the tissue environment simulated in the M+O model is a favorable condition for HO formation. Most likely, M-MSCs, rather than myogenic progenitors, in the m-progenitors participate in HO formation. The prevalence of traumatic heterotopic ossification (HO) is high in war injury. The pathogenesis of HO is still unknown. This study clarified the contribution of a

  1. Characterization of Brown Adipose-Like Tissue in Trauma-Induced Heterotopic Ossification in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salisbury, Elizabeth A; Dickerson, Austin R; Davis, Thomas A; Forsberg, Jonathan A; Davis, Alan R; Olmsted-Davis, Elizabeth A

    2017-09-01

    Heterotopic ossification (HO), the abnormal formation of bone within soft tissues, is a major complication after severe trauma or amputation. Transient brown adipocytes have been shown to be a critical regulator of this process in a mouse model of HO. In this study, we evaluated the presence of brown fat within human HO lesions. Most of the excised tissue samples displayed histological characteristics of bone, fibroproliferative cells, blood vessels, and adipose tissue. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed extensive expression of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), a definitive marker of brown adipocytes, within HO-containing tissues but not normal tissues. As seen in the brown adipocytes observed during HO in the mouse, these UCP1 + cells also expressed the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α. However, further characterization showed these cells, like their mouse counterparts, did not express PR domain containing protein 16, a key factor present in brown adipocytes found in depots. Nor did they express factors present in beige adipocytes. These results identify a population of UCP1 + cells within human tissue undergoing HO that do not entirely resemble either classic brown or beige adipocytes, but rather a specialized form of brown adipocyte-like cells, which have a unique function. These cells may offer a new target to prevent this unwanted bone. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Analysis of Bone-Cartilage-Stromal Progenitor Populations in Trauma Induced and Genetic Models of Heterotopic Ossification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Shailesh; Loder, Shawn J; Sorkin, Michael; Li, Shuli; Shrestha, Swati; Zhao, Bin; Mishina, Yuji; James, Aaron W; Levi, Benjamin

    2016-06-01

    Heterotopic ossification (HO), the formation of extra-skeletal bone in soft tissues, is a pathologic process occurring after substantial burns or trauma, or in patients with type I bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) receptor hyperactivating mutations. Identifying the cells responsible for de novo bone formation during adulthood is of critical importance for therapeutic and regenerative purposes. Using a model of trauma-induced HO with hind limb Achilles' tenotomy and dorsal burn injury and a genetic nontrauma HO model (Nfatc1-Cre/caAcvr1(fl/wt) ), we demonstrate enrichment of previously defined bone-cartilage-stromal progenitor cells (BCSP: AlphaV+/CD105+/Tie2-/CD45-/Thy1-/6C3-) at the site of HO formation when compared with marrow isolated from the ipsilateral hind limb, or from tissue of the contralateral, uninjured hind limb. Upon transplantation into tenotomy sites soon after injury, BCSPs isolated from neonatal mice or developing HO incorporate into the developing lesion in cartilage and bone and express chondrogenic and osteogenic transcription factors. Additionally, BCSPs isolated from developing HO similarly incorporate into new HO lesions upon transplantation. Finally, adventitial cells, but not pericytes, appear to play a supportive role in HO formation. Our findings indicate that BCSPs contribute to de novo bone formation during adulthood and may hold substantial regenerative potential. Stem Cells 2016;34:1692-1701. © 2016 AlphaMed Press.

  3. Synergistic Inhibition of Endochondral Bone Formation by Silencing Hif1α and Runx2 in Trauma-induced Heterotopic Ossification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lin; Shen, Qi; Leng, Huijie; Duan, Xiaoning; Fu, Xin; Yu, Changlong

    2011-01-01

    Angiogenesis and osteogenesis are tightly coupled during bone development. We studied the effect of inhibition of Hif1α and Runt-related protein 2 (Runx2) on the formation of heterotopic ossification (HO). We constructed lentivirus vectors expressing Hif1α small interfering RNA (siRNA) and Runx2 siRNA. The inhibition of Hif1α function impaired osteoblast proliferation while osteoblasts differentiated normally. Osteoblasts lacking Runx2 proliferated normally while the differentiation was impaired. The osteoblast differentiation was significantly inhibited by co-Runx2 and Hif1α siRNA treatment. The formation of HO by inhibiting Runx2 and Hif1α in an animal model induced by Achilles tenotomy was investigated. The results showed that lacking of Runx2 and Hif1α could inhibit HO formation. Inhibition of Hif1α prevented HO formation only at the initial step and inhibition of Runx2 worked both at the initial step and after chondrogenesis. Angiogenesis and the expressions of osteogenic genes were downregulated in the Hif1α siRNA group. We found synergistic inhibition of endochondral bone formation by silencing Hif1α and Runx2. Our study provided new insight into the roles of Hif1α and Runx2 during the processes of endochondral bone formation, and had important implications for the new therapeutic methods to inhibit HO or to enhance bone formation. PMID:21629226

  4. Pulse low-intensity electromagnetic field as prophylaxis of heterotopic ossification in patients with traumatic spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurović Aleksandar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Heterotopic ossification (HO is an important complication of head and spinal cord injuries (SCI. Pulse low-intensity electromagnetic field (PLIMF therapy increases blood flow to an area of pain or inflammation, bringing more oxygen to that area and helps to remove toxic substances. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of PLIMF as prophylaxis of HO in patients with SCI. Methods. This prospective random control clinical study included 29 patients with traumatic SCI. The patients were randomly divided into experimental (n = 14 and control group (n = 15. The patients in the experimental group, besides exercise and range of motion therapy, were treated by PLIMF of the following characteristics: induction of 10 mT, frequency of 25 Hz and duration of 30 min. Pulse low-intensity electromagnetic field therapy started in the 7th week after the injury and lasted 4 weeks. The presence or absence of HO around the patients hips we checked by a plane radiography and Brookers classification. Functional capabilities and motor impairment were checked by Functional Independent Measure (FIM, Barthel index and American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA impairment class. Statistic analysis included Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Shapiro-Wilk test, Mann Whitney Exact test, Exact Wilcoxon signed rank test and Fischer Exact test. Statistical significance was set up to p < 0.05. Results. At the end of the treatment no patient from the experimental group had HO. In the control group, five patients (33.3% had HO. At the end of the treatment the majority of the patients from the experimental group (57.14% moved from ASIA-A to ASIA-B class. Conclusion. Pulse low-intensity electromagnetic field therapy could help as prophylaxis of HO in patients with traumatic SCI.

  5. A Prolonged Time Interval Between Trauma and Prophylactic Radiation Therapy Significantly Increases the Risk of Heterotopic Ossification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mourad, Waleed F., E-mail: Waleed246@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Beth Israel Medical Center, New York, NY (Israel); Packianathan, Satyaseelan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States); Shourbaji, Rania A. [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Jackson State University, Jackson, MS (United States); Zhang Zhen; Graves, Mathew [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States); Khan, Majid A. [Department of Radiology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States); Baird, Michael C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States); Russell, George [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States); Vijayakumar, Srinivasan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: To ascertain whether the time from injury to prophylactic radiation therapy (RT) influences the rate of heterotopic ossification (HO) after operative treatment of displaced acetabular fractures. Methods and Materials: This is a single-institution, retrospective analysis of patients referred for RT for the prevention of HO. Between January 2000 and January 2009, 585 patients with displaced acetabular fractures were treated surgically followed by RT for HO prevention. We analyzed the effect of time from injury on prevention of HO by RT. In all patients, 700 cGy was prescribed in a single fraction and delivered within 72 hours postsurgery. The patients were stratified into five groups according to time interval (in days) from the date of their accident to the date of RT: Groups A {<=}3, B {<=}7, C {<=}14, D {<=}21, and E >21days. Results: Of the 585 patients with displaced acetabular fractures treated with RT, (18%) 106 patients developed HO within the irradiated field. The risk of HO after RT increased from 10% for RT delivered {<=}3 days to 92% for treatment delivered >21 days after the initial injury. Wilcoxon test showed a significant correlation between the risk of HO and the length of time from injury to RT (p < 0.0001). Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression analysis showed no significant association between all other factors and the risk of HO (race, gender, cause and type of fracture, surgical approach, or the use of indomethacin). Conclusions: Our data suggest that there is higher incidence and risk of HO if prophylactic RT is significantly delayed after a displaced acetabular fracture. Thus, RT should be administered as early as clinically possible after the trauma. Patients undergoing RT >3 weeks from their displaced acetabular fracture should be informed of the higher risk (>90%) of developing HO despite prophylaxis.

  6. Sustained delivery of rhBMP-2 via PLGA microspheres: cranial bone regeneration without heterotopic ossification or craniosynostosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wink, Jason D.; Gerety, Patrick A.; Sherif, Rami D.; Lim, Youngshin; A.Clarke, Nadya; Rajapakse, Chamith S.; Nah, Hyun-Duck; Taylor, Jesse A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Commercially available recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP2) has demonstrated efficacy in bone regeneration, but not without significant side effects. In this study, we utilize rhBMP2 encapsulated in PLGA microspheres (PLGA-rhBMP2) placed in a rabbit cranial defect model to test whether low-dose, sustained, delivery can effectively induce bone regeneration. Methods rhBMP2 was encapsulated in 15% poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid), using a double emulsion, solvent extraction/evaporation technique, and its release kinetics and bioactivity were tested. Two critical-size defects (10mm) were created in the calvarium of New Zealand White rabbits (5-7 mos of age, M/F) and filled with a collagen scaffold containing one of four groups: 1) no implant, 2) collagen scaffold only, 3) PLGA-rhBMP2(0.1ug/implant), or 4) free rhBMP2 (0.1ug/implant). After 6 weeks, the rabbits were sacrificed and defects were analyzed by μCT, histology, and finite element analysis. Results RhBMP2 delivered via bioactive PLGA microspheres resulted in higher volumes and surface area coverage of new bone than an equal dose of free rhBMP2 by μCT and histology (p=0.025, 0.025). FEA indicated that the mechanical competence using the regional elastic modulus did not differ with rhBMP2 exposure (p=0.70). PLGA-rhBMP2 did not demonstrate heterotopic ossification, craniosynostosis, or seroma formation. Conclusions Sustained delivery via PLGA microspheres can significantly reduce the rhBMP2 dose required for de novo bone formation. Optimization of the delivery system may be a key to reduce the risk for recently reported rhBMP2 related adverse effects. Level of Evidence Animal Study PMID:24622573

  7. Determining early markers of disease using Raman spectroscopy in a rat combat-trauma model of heterotopic ossification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cilwa, Katherine E.; Qureshi, Ammar T.; Forsberg, Jonathan A.; Davis, Thomas A.; Crane, Nicole J.

    2016-02-01

    Traumatic heterotopic ossification (HO) is the pathological formation of bone in soft tissue and is a debilitating sequela following acute trauma involving blast-related extremity musculoskeletal injuries, severe burns, spinal cord injury, and traumatic brain injury. Over 60% of combat related injuries and severe burns develop HO; often resulting in reduced mobility, chronic pain, ulceration, tissue entrapment, and reduced ambulation. Detection and prognosis is limited by current clinical imaging modalities (computed tomography, radiography, and ultrasound). This study identifies Raman spectral signatures corresponding to histological changes in a combat-trauma induced rat HO model at early time points prior to radiographic evidence of HO. HO was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats via blast over pressure injury, mid-femoral fracture, soft tissue crush injury, and limb amputation through the zone of injury. Rats were euthanized, and amputated limbs were formalin fixed and embedded in paraffin; 10 μm sections were placed on gold slides, and paraffin was chemically removed. Tissues from sham-treated animals served as controls. Tissue maps consisting of Raman spectra were generated using a Raman microprobe system with an 80-90 μm spot size and 785 nm excitation in regions exhibiting histological evidence of early HO development according to adjacent HE sections. Factors were extracted from mapping data using Band-Target Entropy Minimization algorithms. Areas of early HO were highlighted by a Raman factor indicative of the presence of collagen. Identification of collagen as an early marker of HO prior to radiographic detection in a clinically relevant animal model serves to inform future clinical work.

  8. The role of the adaptive immune system in burn-induced heterotopic ossification and mesenchymal cell osteogenic differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganathan, Kavitha; Agarwal, Shailesh; Cholok, David; Loder, Shawn; Li, Jonathan; Sung Hsieh, Hsiao Hsin; Wang, Stewart C; Buchman, Steven R; Levi, Benjamin

    2016-11-01

    Heterotopic ossification (HO) is the pathologic process of extraskeletal bone formation. Although the exact etiology remains unknown, inflammation appears to catalyze disease progression. The goal of this study is to determine the impact of the adaptive immune system on HO. HO was induced in 8-wk-old control C57BL/6 and immunocompromised Rag1tm1Mom (Rag1 KO) male mice deficient in B- and T-lymphocytes via combined Achilles tenotomy and burn injury. Microcomputed tomography quantified the extent of HO formation at the tenotomy site. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells were harvested to evaluate osteogenic differentiation potential. Areas of developing HO demonstrated substantial enrichment of CD45 + leukocytes at 3 wk after injury. HO from Rag1 KO mice was substantially less mature with foci of cartilage and disorganized trabecular bone present 12 wk after injury. Rag1 KO mice formed 60% less bone compared to immunocompetent controls (4.67 ± 1.5 mm versus 7.76 ± 0.65 mm; P = 0.001). Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining and immunofluorescent analysis of osteoprotegerin and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells demonstrated no appreciable difference in osteoclast number or activation. Alizarin red staining in vitro demonstrated a significant decrease in osteogenic potential in immunocompromised mice compared to controls (29.1 ± 0.54 mm versus 12.1 ± 0.14 mm; P < 0.001). We demonstrate a prominent role for the adaptive immune system in the development of HO. In the absence of mature B- and T-lymphocytes, HO growth and development are attenuated. Furthermore, we demonstrate that mesenchymal populations from B- and T-cell deficient mice are inherently less osteogenic. This study identifies a potential therapeutic role for modulation of the adaptive immune system in the treatment of HO. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. SU-G-JeP3-07: Real-Time Image Guided Radiation Therapy for Heterotopic Ossification in Patients After Hip Replacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le, A; Jiang, S; Timmerman, R; Choy, H; Pompos, A [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To demonstrate the feasibility of using CBCT in a real-time image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) for single fraction heterotopic ossification (HO) in patients after hip replacement. In this real-time procedure, all steps, from simulation, imaging, planning to treatment delivery, are performed at the treatment unit in one appointment time slot. This work promotes real-time treatment to create a paradigm shift in the single fraction radiation therapy. Methods: An integrated real-time IGRT for HO was developed and tested for radiation treatment of heterotopic ossification for patient after hip replacement. After CBCT images are acquired at the linac, and sent to the treatment planning system, the physician determines the field and/or draws a block. Subsequently, a simple 2D AP/PA plan with prescription of 700 cGy is created on-the-fly for physician to review. Once the physician approves the plan, the patient is treated on the same simulation position. This real-time treatment requires the team of attending physician, physicist, therapists, and dosimetrist to work in harmony to achieve all the steps in a timely manner. Results: Ten patients have been treated with this real-time treatment, having the same beams arrangement treatment plan and prescription as our clinically regular CT-based 2D plans. The average time for these procedures are 52.9 ±10.7 minutes from the time patient entered the treatment room until s/he exited, and 37.7 ±8.6 minutes from starting CBCT until last beam delivered. Conclusion: The real-time IGRT for HO treatment has been tested and implemented to be a clinically accepted procedure. This one-time appointment greatly enhances the waiting time, especially when patients in high level of pain, and provides a convenient approach for the whole clinical staff. Other disease sites will be also tested with this new technology.

  10. Palovarotene Inhibits Heterotopic Ossification and Maintains Limb Mobility and Growth in Mice With the Human ACVR1(R206H) Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva (FOP) Mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakkalakal, Salin A; Uchibe, Kenta; Convente, Michael R; Zhang, Deyu; Economides, Aris N; Kaplan, Frederick S; Pacifici, Maurizio; Iwamoto, Masahiro; Shore, Eileen M

    2016-09-01

    Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP), a rare and as yet untreatable genetic disorder of progressive extraskeletal ossification, is the most disabling form of heterotopic ossification (HO) in humans and causes skeletal deformities, movement impairment, and premature death. Most FOP patients carry an activating mutation in a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) type I receptor gene, ACVR1(R206H) , that promotes ectopic chondrogenesis and osteogenesis and, in turn, HO. We showed previously that the retinoic acid receptor γ (RARγ) agonist palovarotene effectively inhibited HO in injury-induced and genetic mouse models of the disease. Here we report that the drug additionally prevents spontaneous HO, using a novel conditional-on knock-in mouse line carrying the human ACVR1(R206H) mutation for classic FOP. In addition, palovarotene restored long bone growth, maintained growth plate function, and protected growing mutant neonates when given to lactating mothers. Importantly, palovarotene maintained joint, limb, and body motion, providing clear evidence for its encompassing therapeutic potential as a treatment for FOP. © 2016 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. © 2016 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  11. Impact of low-frequency pulsed electromagnetic fields and interference currents in the formation of heterotopic ossification after total hip instalation in the hip joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivković S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the extension of life expectancy, the number of elderly people increases, and thus the number of disease and injuries of the locomotor system, especially the hip joint. One of the persistent trend is an increasing trend in the number of patients with coxarthrosis and implanted total hip endoprosthesis. One of the postoperative complications that occurred after implantation a total hip endoprosthesis is heterotopic ossification (HO. HO is the most common complication that occurs after the implantation a total hip endoprosthesis with recorded cases in the range of 9-90%. HO are insufficiently understood phenomenon, which is characterized by the formation of bone in periarticular tissues. We prospectively followed patients who implanted total hip endoprostheses in the department of orthopedics ZC in Kos. Mitrovica in 2008. and 2009. year. We examined the influence of physical agents on the prevention of HO near the hip joint. In these patients the treatment was carried out kinesiotherapeutic at the Center for Rehabilitation Health Center Kosovska Mitrovica, as well as pulse therapy low frequency magnetic field frequency of 30 Hz, 30 minutes, 8 mT intensity and 15 minutes interferential current, 0-100 Hz frequency. All patients were on the rehabilitation of one month (20 days. Based on this research we confirmed the assumption that the use of low frequency pulsed magnetic fields, interference currents and kinesitherapy prevents HO in patients after implantation of total endoprosthesis of the hip joint.

  12. Heterotopic ossification in combat amputees from Afghanistan and Iraq wars: five case histories and results from a small series of patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melcer, Ted; Belnap, Brian; Walker, G Jay; Konoske, Paula; Galarneau, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Heterotopic ossification (HO) is excess bone growth in soft tissues that frequently occurs in the residual limbs of combat amputees injured in Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom, or Iraq and Afghanistan wars, respectively. HO can interfere with prosthetic use and walking and delay patient rehabilitation. This article describes symptomatic and/or radiographic evidence of HO in a patient series of combat amputees rehabilitating at a military amputee care clinic (27 patients/33 limbs). We conducted a retrospective review of patient records and physician interviews to document evidence of HO symptoms in these limbs (e.g., pain during prosthetic use, skin breakdown). Results showed HO-related symptoms in 10 of the 33 residual limbs. Radiographs were available for 25 of the 33 limbs, and a physician identified at least moderate HO in 15 of the radiographs. However, 5 of the 15 patients who showed at least moderate radiographic HO did not report adverse symptoms. Five individual patient histories described HO onset, symptoms, treatments, and outcomes. These case histories illustrated how HO location relative to pressure-sensitive/pressure-tolerant areas of the residual limb may determine whether patients experienced symptoms. These histories revealed the uncommon but novel finding of potential benefits of HO for prosthetic suspension.

  13. A preliminary investigation on the effect of extracorporeal shock wave therapy as a treatment for neurogenic heterotopic ossification following traumatic brain injury. Part I: Effects on pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reznik, J E; Biros, E; Lamont, A C; Sacher, Y; Kibrik, O; Milanese, S; Gordon, S; Galea, M P

    2017-01-01

    Neurogenic heterotopic ossification (NHO) is a complication of a neurological injury following traumatic brain injury (TBI) and may be present around major synovial joints. It is often accompanied by severe pain, which may lead to limitation in activities of daily living. Currently, a common intervention for NHO is surgery, which has been reported to carry many additional risks. This study was designed to assess the effect of extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) on pain in patients with TBI with chronic NHO. A series of single-case studies (n = 11) was undertaken with patients who had TBI and chronic NHO at the hip or knee. Each patient received four applications of high-energy EWST delivered to the affected joint over 8 weeks. Two-weekly follow-up assessments were carried out, and final assessments were made 3 and 6 months post-intervention. Pain was measured using the Faces Rating Scale, and X-rays were taken at baseline and 6-months post-intervention to physiologically measure the size of the NHO. The application of high-energy ESWT was associated with significant overall reduction of pain in patients with TBI and NHO (Tau-0.412, 95% confidence interval -0.672 to -0.159, p = 0.002). ESWT is a novel non-invasive intervention for reducing pain resulting from NHO in patients with TBI.

  14. A preliminary investigation on the effect of extracorporeal shock wave therapy as a treatment for neurogenic heterotopic ossification following traumatic brain injury. Part II: Effects on function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reznik, J E; Biros, E; Sacher, Y; Kibrik, O; Milanese, S; Gordon, S; Galea, M P

    2017-01-01

    Neurogenic heterotopic ossification (NHO) occurs as a complication of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Management of clinically significant NHO remains variable. Complications of mature NHO include limitation of mobility. The effect of the extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) on range of motion at hip and knee, and function in patients with TBI with chronic NHO was investigated. A series of single-case studies applying ESWT to chronic NHO at the hip or knee of 11 patients with TBI were undertaken at a rehabilitation hospital. Participants received four applications of high-energy EWST delivered to the affected hip or knee over a period of 8 weeks. Two-weekly follow- up assessments were carried out; final assessments were made 3 and 6 months post-intervention. Range of motion (ROM) and Functional Reach (FR) or Modified Functional Reach (MFR) were measured. Application of high-energy ESWT was associated with significant improvement in ROM (flexion) of the NHO-affected knee (Tau = 0.833, 95% CI 0.391-1.276, p = 0.002) and significant improvement of FR (Overall Tau 0.486, 95% CI 0.141-0.832, p = 0.006); no significant improvement in hip ROM or MFR. ESWT may improve mobility and balance of patients with TBI who have chronic NHO.

  15. Sustained delivery of rhBMP-2 by means of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) microspheres: cranial bone regeneration without heterotopic ossification or craniosynostosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wink, Jason D; Gerety, Patrick A; Sherif, Rami D; Lim, Youngshin; Clarke, Nadya A; Rajapakse, Chamith S; Nah, Hyun-Duck; Taylor, Jesse A

    2014-07-01

    Commercially available recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP2) has demonstrated efficacy in bone regeneration, but not without significant side effects. The authors used rhBMP2 encapsulated in poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres placed in a rabbit cranial defect model to test whether low-dose, sustained delivery can effectively induce bone regeneration. The rhBMP2 was encapsulated in 15% PLGA using a double-emulsion, solvent extraction/evaporation technique, and its release kinetics and bioactivity were tested. Two critical-size defects (10 mm) were created in the calvaria of New Zealand white rabbits (5 to 7 months of age, male and female) and filled with a collagen scaffold containing either (1) no implant, (2) collagen scaffold only, (3) PLGA-rhBMP2 (0.1 μg per implant), or (4) free rhBMP2 (0.1 μg per implant). After 6 weeks, the rabbits were killed and defects were analyzed by micro-computed tomography, histology, and finite element analysis. The rhBMP2 delivered by means of bioactive PLGA microspheres resulted in higher volumes and surface area coverage of new bone than an equal dose of free rhBMP2 by micro-computed tomography (p=0.025 and p=0.025). Finite element analysis indicated that the mechanical competence using the regional elastic modulus did not differ with rhBMP2 exposure (p=0.70). PLGA-rhBMP2 did not demonstrate heterotopic ossification, craniosynostosis, or seroma formation. Sustained delivery by means of PLGA microspheres can significantly reduce the rhBMP2 dose required for de novo bone formation. Optimization of the delivery system may be a key to reducing the risk for recently reported rhBMP2-related adverse effects.

  16. Delivery of siRNA silencing Runx2 using a multifunctional polymer-lipid nanoparticle inhibits osteogenesis in a cell culture model of heterotopic ossification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Swati; Vaughn, Asa D; Devore, David I; Roth, Charles M

    2012-12-01

    Heterotopic ossification (HO) associated with traumatic neurological or musculoskeletal injuries remains a major clinical challenge. One approach to understanding better and potentially treating this condition is to silence one or more genes believed to be responsible for osteogenesis by small interfering RNA (siRNA) post-injury. Improved methods of delivering siRNA to myoprogenitor cells as well as relevant cell culture models of HO are needed to advance this approach. We utilize a model of HO featuring C2C12 myoprogenitor cells stimulated to the osteogenic phenotype by addition of BMP-2. For siRNA delivery, we utilize a nanocomposite consisting of DOTAP-based cationic liposomes coated with a graft copolymer of poly(propylacrylic acid) grafted with polyetheramine (Jeffamine), as this system has been shown previously to deliver antisense oligonucleotides safely into cells and out of endosomes for gene silencing in vitro and in vivo. Delivery of siRNA targeting Runx2, a transcription factor downstream of BMP-2, to stimulated C2C12 cells produced greater than 60% down-regulation of the Runx2 gene. This level of gene silencing was sufficient to inhibit alkaline phosphatase activity over the course of several days and calcium phosphate deposition over the course of 2 weeks. These results show the utility of the BMP-2/C2C12 model for capturing the cellular cell-fate decision in HO. Further, they suggest DOTAP/PPAA-g-Jeffamine as a promising delivery system for siRNA-based therapy for HO.

  17. Targeted stimulation of retinoic acid receptor-γ mitigates the formation of heterotopic ossification in an established blast-related traumatic injury model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavey, Gabriel J; Qureshi, Ammar T; Tomasino, Allison M; Honnold, Cary L; Bishop, Danett K; Agarwal, Shailesh; Loder, Shawn; Levi, Benjamin; Pacifici, Maurizio; Iwamoto, Masahiro; Potter, Benjamin K; Davis, Thomas A; Forsberg, Jonathan A

    2016-09-01

    Heterotopic ossification (HO) involves formation of endochondral bone at non-skeletal sites, is prevalent in severely wounded service members, and causes significant complications and delayed rehabilitation. As common prophylactic treatments such as anti-inflammatory drugs and irradiation cannot be used after multi-system combat trauma, there is an urgent need for new remedies. Previously, we showed that the retinoic acid receptor γ agonist Palovarotene inhibited subcutaneous and intramuscular HO in mice, but those models do not mimic complex combat injury. Thus, we tested Palovarotene in our validated rat trauma-induced HO model that involves blast-related limb injury, femoral fracture, quadriceps crush injury, amputation and infection with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from combat wound infections. Palovarotene was given orally for 14days at 1mg/kg/day starting on post-operative day (POD) 1 or POD-5, and HO amount, wound dehiscence and related processes were monitored for up to 84days post injury. Compared to vehicle-control animals, Palovarotene significantly decreased HO by 50 to 60% regardless of when the treatment started and if infection was present. Histological analyses showed that Palovarotene reduced ectopic chondrogenesis, osteogenesis and angiogenesis forming at the injury site over time, while fibrotic tissue was often present in place of ectopic bone. Custom gene array data verified that while expression of key chondrogenic and osteogenic genes was decreased within soft tissues of residual limb in Palovarotene-treated rats, expression of cartilage catabolic genes was increased, including matrix metalloproteinase-9. Importantly, Palovarotene seemed to exert moderate inhibitory effects on wound healing, raising potential safety concerns related to dosing and timing. Our data show for the first time that Palovarotene significantly inhibits HO triggered by blast injury and associated complications, strongly indicating that it may prevent

  18. Heterotopic bone formation following total shoulder arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaersgaard-Andersen, P.; Frich, Lars Henrik; Sjøbjerg, J.O.

    1989-01-01

    The incidence and location of heterotopic bone formation following total shoulder arthroplasty were evaluated in 58 Neer Mark-II total shoulder replacements. One year after surgery, 45% had developed some ectopic ossification. In six shoulders (10%) the ossifications roentgenographically bridged...... the glenohumeral and/or the glenoacromial space. There was no correlation between shoulder pain and the development of ossification. Shoulders with grade III heterotopic bone formation had a limited range of active elevation compared with shoulders without or with only a milder lesion. Men and patients...... with osteoarthritis of the shoulder joint were significantly disposed to the development of heterotopic bone. Heterotopic bone formation following total shoulder arthroplasty is frequent, but disabling heterotopic ossifications seem to be rare....

  19. The impact of preoperative hip heterotopic ossification extent on recurrence in patients with head and spinal cord injury: a case control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Genêt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The preoperative Heterotopic Ossification (HO extent is usually one of the main used criteria to predict the recurrence before excision. Brooker et al built a radiologic scale to assess this pre operative extent around the hip. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between the recurrence risk after hip HO excision in Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI and Spinal Cord Injury (SCI patients and the preoperative extent of HO. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A case control study including TBI or SCI patients following surgery for troublesome hip HO with (case, n = 19 or without (control, n = 76 recurrence. Matching criteria were: sex, pathology (SCI or TBI and age at the time of surgery (+/-4.5 years. For each etiology (TBI and SCI, the residual cognitive and functional status (Garland classification, the preoperative extent (Brooker status, the modified radiological and functional status (GCG-BD classification, HO localization, side, mean age at the CNS damage, mean delay for the first HO surgery, and for the case series, the mean operative delay for recurrence after the first surgical intervention were noted. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The median delay for first HO surgery was 38.6 months (range 4.5 to 414.5; for the case subgroup and 17.6 months (range 5.7 to 339.6 for the control group. No significant link was found between recurrence and operative delay (p = 0.51; the location around the joint (0.07; the Brooker (p = 0.52 or GCG-BD status (p = 0.79. Including all the matching factors, no significant relationship was found between the recurrence HO risk and the preoperative extent of troublesome hip HO using Brooker status (OR = 1.56(95% CI: 0.47-5.19 or GCG-BD status (OR class 3 versus 2 = 0.67(95% CI: 0.11-4.24 and OR class 4 versus 2 = 0.79(95%CI: 0.09-6.91. Until the pathophysiology of HO development is understood, it will be difficult to create tools which can predict HO recurrence.

  20. Preventative Therapeutics for Heterotopic Ossification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER The Geneva Foundation 917 Pacific Ave , Suite 600 Tacoma, WA 98402 9. SPONSORING / MONITORING...All rats developed HO evident by the mCT, and the ectopic bone volume increased until D-28. Histological analysis at day-3 showed edema , degenerative

  1. Preventative Therapeutics for Heterotopic Ossification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    induction of HO by Matrigel implantation, but its effectiveness decreased progressively when treatment started later than day 4 (Fig. 2). Importantly...rhBMP2 at two prescribed subdermal ventral sites. This higher dose of rhBMP-2 turned out to be needed for induction of HO in a maximal and... callus , histomorphometry and pathology that need to be consistent and accurate from specimen to specimen. Dr. Sinha has honed her surgical procedures

  2. Preventative Therapeutics for Heterotopic Ossification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Animal Care Products, St Paul, MN, USA). Post-surgically, sustained release Buprenorphine (1.2mg/kg) was administered subcutaneously on day of surgery...examination, cohorts of rats at the specified time points were euthanized (Fatal Plus 50 mg/kg IP; Patterson Veterinary , Devens, MA) and disarticulation...conducted by veterinary and research staff for clinical evidence of wound complications to include purulent infection, physiological distress, and

  3. Intraabdominal knoglenydannelse – heterotop mesenteriel ossifikation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nerup, Nikolaj; Hansen, Philip; Gocht-Jensen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Calcified bowel mesentery – heterotopic mesenteric ossification A 64-year-old man suffered blunt abdominal trauma. He developed ischaemic colon and had a colectomy with primary anastomosis, complicated with anastomotic leakage. A temporary stoma was created. Six months later when the stoma...... was to be reversed, the bowel mesentery was found to be extensively calcified. Heterotopic mesenteric ossification is an extremely rare condition. The pathogenesis is unknown but associated with mesenteric ischaemia, generalised peritonitis or abdominal trauma. Treatment should be as conservative as possible...

  4. Ossification of abdominal scar tissue: a case series with a translational review on its development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fennema, E.M.; de Boer, Jan; Mastboom, W.J.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: Bone formation in abdominal scar tissue is a form of heterotopic ossification. It is a rare and underreported phenomenon following abdominal surgery. Heterotopic ossification (HO) is the formation of bone where normally no bone is present and two theories on its pathogenesis prevail: (1)

  5. Risk factors of heterotopic ossification in traumatic spinal cord injury Fatores de risco da ossificação heterotópica na lesão medular traumática

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Virgínia C. Coelho

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Heterotopic ossification (HO is a complication of the spinal cord injury (SCI. It can result in anchylosis, harming the rehabilitation and quality of life. Previous publications had not elucidated the relation between possible independent variables, the aim of this study. METHOD: From 230 patients with SCI, admitted in 1998 at Hospital SARAH Brasilia, 33 with HO (14.3%; CI95% 10.1-19.6 were compared with 33 controls. The risk factors had been tested in bivariate analysis and in a model of logistic regression. RESULTS: Spasticity (odds ratio=3.8; CI95% 1.15-12.30, number of pressure ulcers (2.1; CI95% 1.08-3.89 and time lapsed since the injury (1.1; CI95% 1.02-1.24 were independently associated with HO. There was a confounder effect among these variables, without interaction. CONCLUSION: Spasticity, pressure ulcer and time of injury are associated with HO in spinal cord injury. The first two factors can be prevented and treatable.OBJETIVO: A ossificação heterotópica (OH é uma complicação da lesão medular traumática (LMT. Pode resultar em anquilose, prejudicando a reabilitação e a qualidade de vida. Estudos prévios não elucidaram a relação entre as potenciais variáveis independentes, propósito desse estudo. MÉTODO: De 230 pacientes com LMT, admitidos em 1998 no Hospital SARAH Brasília, 33 tiveram o diagnóstico de OH (14,4%; IC95% 10,1-19,6, que foram comparados a 33 controles. Os fatores de risco foram testados de forma bivariada e num modelo de regressão logística. RESULTADOS: Espasticidade (razão de chances 3,8; IC95% 1,15-12,30, número de escaras (2,1; 1,08-3,89 e tempo de lesão (1,1; 1,02-1,24 encontraram-se associadas, de forma independente, à presença de OH. Havia um efeito confundidor entre essas variáveis, porém sem interação. CONCLUSÃO: Espasticidade, escaras e tempo de lesão estão associados à OH na lesão medular traumática. Os dois primeiros são passíveis de prevenção e tratamento.

  6. [Heterotopic pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez Cruz, Oswaldo; Romero Sánchez, Guadalupe; Velasco Pérez, Luis

    2006-07-01

    The heterotopic pregnancy is a combination of an intra-uterine and extra-uterine pregnancy, at the same time. The spontaneous heterotopic pregnancy is a rare illness with an estimated frequency below one per 20,000 and one per 30,000. The first case was reported in France by Duverney in 1708 during an autopsy. The frequency of this pregnancy has increased with the implementation of assisted reproduction techniques. This paper is the report of a case of spontaneous heterotopic pregnancy seen at the Angeles Mexico Hospital. A 32 year old woman, gravida 1; dilatation and curettage was performed on 13th February because of a blighted ovum, a lot of products of conception were obtained. The patient was discharged the next day only with analgesics. She returns to the emergency room on February 16th with hypovolemic shock and acute abdomen. A normocitic normocromic anemia was found on the hematic biometry, the transvaginal ultrasound reported amount of blood in the cul-de-sac, echogenic adnexal mass, suggesting a gestational sac with embryo. An emergency laparotomy was used to perform a left cornual resection; the findings were 600 cc of hemoperitoneum and a left ruptured ectopic pregnancy. She had an uneventful postoperative course, and was discharged 72 hours later without complications. Heterotopic pregnancy is a rare illness and must always be considered for the increase in pregnancy related with assisted reproduction techniques, although, it should be considered in a spontaneous pregnancy too.

  7. Prevention and Treatment of Heterotopic Ossification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    neural stem cells during migration, cannot produce brown fat 12. Dock 7 has also been shown to be involved in the regulation of breast cancer cell...that diseases such as Ewing’s sarcoma, neurofibromatosis, and tuberous sclerosis, which involve bone defects as well as tumors, are obvious extensions...of this reasoning. However, it is not unlikely that major cancers, including breast and prostate, have their basis within these cells because these

  8. Bridging glenohumeral heterotopic ossification at the Kenyatta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader). If you would like more information about how to print, save, and work with PDFs, Highwire Press provides a helpful Frequently Asked Questions about PDFs.

  9. bridging glenohumeral heterotopic ossification at the kenyatta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    shoulder with a concommitant posterior axillary fold contracture which was treated by closed serial manipulations followed by contracture ... fractures and fracture-dislocations (4,11) and at the knee after total knee arthroplasty (1). .... patient received physiotherapy which was reported as maintaining the achieved elevation.

  10. Postoperative radiation therapy after hip replacement in high-risk patients for development of heterotopic bone formation; Role de la radiotherapie dans la prevention de l'ossification heterotopique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashem, R.; Rene, N.; Souhami, L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Montreal General Hospital, McGill University Health Centre, 1650 Cedar Avenue, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1A4 (Canada); Tanzer, M. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Montreal General Hospital, McGill University Health Centre, 1650 Cedar Avenue, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1A4 (Canada); Evans, M. [Department of Medical Physics, Montreal General Hospital, McGill University Health Centre, 1650 Cedar Avenue, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1A4 (Canada)

    2011-07-15

    Purpose. - To report the results of postoperative radiation therapy in preventing the development of heterotopic bone formation after hip replacement surgery in high-risk patients. Patients and methods. - Between 1991 and 2007, 44 patients were preventively treated with postoperative RT after total hip replacement. In total, 47 hips were treated. All patients were considered at high risk for developing heterotopic bone formation. Most patients (63.5%) were treated because of a history of severe osteoarthritis or ankylosing spondylitis. All patients were treated with shaped parallel-opposed fields with a single fraction of 7 Gy using 6 or 18 MV photons. Most patients (94%) received radiation therapy within 72 hours postoperative and in only three patients radiation therapy was delivered after 72 hours post-surgery (5-8 days). Results. - Minimum follow-up was 1 year. There were 18 females and 26 males. Median age was 63 years (range: 18-80). Treatments were well tolerated and no acute toxicity was seen post-radiation therapy. Only one of the 47 hips (2%) developed heterotopic bone formation. This patient received postoperative radiation therapy to both hips but only developed heterotopic bone formation in one of them. None of the three patients treated beyond 72 hours failed. To date no late toxicity has been observed. Conclusion. - The use of postoperative radiation therapy was an effective and safe treatment in the prevention of heterotopic bone formation in a high-risk group of patients undergoing total hip replacement. (authors)

  11. A Rare Colon Cancer with Ossification: Pathogenetic Analysis of Bone Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Byeong-Joo; Kim, Youn Wha; Park, Yong-Koo

    2016-07-01

    Heterotopic ossification occurring in colon cancer is an exceedingly rare event. The pathogenetic mechanism of tumor-related heterotopic bone formation remains unclear. Herein, we describe a rare case of colon cancer with ossification in a 76-year-old woman. We also highlight the etiology of heterotopic ossification by immunohistochemical evaluation of novel markers such as bone morphogenetic protein 9 (BMP9), osteocalcin, osteopontin, and β-catenin. BMP9 is one of the most potent osteogenetic BMPs. However, no previous research has been performed concerning BMP9 in heterotopic ossification arising in colon cancer. Subsequently, we suggest a hypothesis of tumor-associated heterotopic bone formation through this case. When osteoblastic indicators including BMP9, osteocalcin, and osteopontin are upregulated in tumor cells, osteoblast-like transformation of such tumor cells occurs. These tumor cells augment the release of interactive osteogenetic factors (BMP9, osteocalcin, and osteopontin) and stimulate uncommitted mesenchymal stromal cells into specific osteoblastic differentiation, contributing to heterotopic bone formation. This transformation of tumor cells is considered a type of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) because of overexpression of BMP9 and β-catenin. Patients should be followed closely because EMT has a tendency toward local recurrence. Our findings provide insight into the pathogenetic etiology of heterotopic ossification in colon cancer. © 2016 by the Association of Clinical Scientists, Inc.

  12. Indomethacin induces differential effects on in vitro endochondral ossification depending on the chondrocyte's differentiation stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, Marjolein M J; Emans, Pieter J; Cremers, Andy; Surtel, Don A M; van Rhijn, Lodewijk W; Welting, Tim J M

    2017-04-01

    Heterotopic ossification (HO) is the abnormal formation of bone in soft tissues and is a frequent complication of hip replacement surgery. Heterotopic ossifications are described to develop via endochondral ossification and standard treatment is administration of indomethacin. It is currently unknown how indomethacin influences heterotopic ossification on a molecular level; therefore, we aimed to determine whether indomethacin might influence heterotopic ossification via impairing the chondrogenic phase of endochondral ossification. Progenitor cell models differentiating in the chondrogenic lineage (ATDC5, primary human bone marrow stem cells and ex vivo periosteal agarose cultures) were treated with increasing concentrations of indomethacin and a decrease in gene- and protein expression of chondrogenic and hypertrophic markers (measured by RT-qPCR and immunoblotting) as well as decreased glycosamino-glycan content (by alcian blue histochemistry) was observed. Even when hypertrophic differentiation was provoked, the addition of indomethacin resulted in decreased hypertrophic marker expression. Interestingly, when mature chondrocytes were treated with indomethacin, a clear increase in collagen type 2 expression was observed. Similarly, when ATDC5 cells and bone marrow stem cells were pre-differentiated to obtain a chondrocyte phenotype and indomethacin was added from this time point onward, low concentrations of indomethacin also resulted in increased chondrogenic differentiation. Indomethacin induces differential effects on in vitro endochondral ossification, depending on the chondrocyte's differentiation stage, with complete inhibition of chondrogenic differentiation as the most pronounced action. This observation may provide a rational behind the elusive mode of action of indomethacin in the treatment of heterotopic ossifications. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:847-857, 2017. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research

  13. Early Detection of Heterotopic Ossification for Effective Prevention and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    80mg/kg and Xylazine 10mg/kg). After skin preparation, an incision about 2 cm was made over the right hip to expose gluteus maximus and medius. Each...glycerophosphate, 100 nM dexamethasone, and 50µg/ml ascorbate , for 3 weeks. M-MSCs were also cultured in regular tissue culture medium for...stain of matrix mineralization (Millipore). Briefly, after Alizarin red staining, 10% acetic acid M group O group M+O group Day1 5 5 5 Day3 7(3) 8(3

  14. Proteomic Analysis of Trauma-Induced Heterotopic Ossification Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    and analyzed by mass spectroscopy by Dr. Michael Freitas and his graduate student (Michael Hoover) using bioinformatics approaches. 2. A panel of...in the profiles of 280 individual proteins. These specimens were further evaluated using bioinformatic approaches to correlate changes in protein

  15. Mechanisms and Treatments of Heterotopic Ossification Following Spinal Cord Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    developed the first animal model of NHO in genetically unmodified mice. This model shows that formation of NHO requires the combined insult of SCI and...SCI.  NHO  occurs  in  15‐29%  of  patients  suffering  SCI,  often  young  men  in  car/ sport   accidents.  In  the  case  of  US  soldiers...use our novel model, which is the first pre‐clinical SCI  model of NHO that can be induced in laboratory mice without  genetic  modification. Our model

  16. Proteomic Analysis of Trauma Induced Heterotopic Ossification Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    often requires additional surgeries to remove the rock hard tissue that has replaced their fat and muscle. While there are theories to explain why HO...brief list of keywords (limit to 20 words). Adenylate Cycle (AC) Adipose-derived Stromal/stem Cells (ASC) Bone Marrow-derived Stromal/stem Cells (BMSC

  17. The Contribution of Genotype to Heterotopic Ossification after Orthopaedic Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    initial  considerations in the high incidence of HO in the combat amputee population was the potential  prevalence  of occult head injury incurred by the...Haque S, Ahmad M, et al. Novel mutations in the EXT1 gene in two consanguineous families affected with multiple hereditary exostoses (familial

  18. Prevention of heterotopic ossification after total hip replacement with NSAIDs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fijn, R; Koorevaar, RT; Brouwers, JRBJ

    Introduction: non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs ( NSAIDs) and prophylactic radiotherapy can prevent ectopic bone formation around the hip after total hip arthroplasty. Methods: We retrieved from Medline, Embase and the Cochrane Register ( clinical) trials and other relevant literature on the

  19. Heterotopic pregnancy: Sonographic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Tae Hee [CHA General Hospital of Seoul, Pochon CHA University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-03-15

    To evaluate the sonographic findings of the heterotopic pregnancy which is increasing recently. Thirty-nine cases of heterotopic pregnancy after ovulation induction and IVF-ET (In Vitro Fertilization-Embryo Transfer) during the recent 3 years were analyzed. They were diagnosed by ultrasonography and proved surgically afterwards. Sonographic findings were analyzed focusing on gestational week of intrauterine pregnancy and location of ectopic pregnancy. In particular, adnexal mass was evaluated with regard to size and the characteristic findings such as ectopic gestational sac (echogenic ring). Also, overian cyst and fluid collection in cul-de-sac space were reviewed carefully. Heterotopic pregnancy was proved surgically by salpingectomy in 33 cases and by resection of cornus in six cases. Sonographic diagnosis using transvaginal ultrasound was made from five weeks to nine weeks two days (six weeks and four days in average) from last menstral period in all 39 cases. Ectopic pregnancy was identified in ampullary part in 29 cases, in the isthmic portion of tube in four cases and in the cornus of uterus in six cases. The intrauterine pregnancy was diagnosed by identifying the intrauterine gestational saccontaining a yolk sac in seven cases and the embryo with fetal heart beat in the remaining 32 cases. Adnexal masses of heterotopic pregnancy were less than 3 cm in diameter in 2 cases (57%), 3-4 cm in 11 cases (28%) and more than 4 cm in 6 cases (15%). A characteristic finding of ectopic mass was echogenic ring which was visible in 33 (84.6%) cases by transvaginal ultrasound. Six cases had pelvic hematosalpinx and two had pelvic hematoma. Of 10 cases (26%) which were identified to have ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, eight (21%) had large amount of fluid collection in cul-de-sac and abdomen. Ultrasonographic identification of the intrauterine pregnancy and the ectopic chorion ring is effective for the early diagnosis of the heterotopic pregnancy.

  20. Heterotopic pregnancy in HIV women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Savasi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Heterotopic pregnancy occurs when intrauterine and ectopic pregnancy are concomitant; overall rate rises from 1/30.000 to 1.5/1000 in assisted reproductive technology pregnancies. HIV (human immunodeficiency virus patients are at increased risk of heterotopic pregnancies due to the greater frequency of assisted reproductive technology and pelvic inflammatory disease. We report the first case of heterotopic pregnancy in HIV woman.

  1. Soft tissue ossification and condylar cartilage degeneration following TMJ disc perforation in a rabbit pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embree, Mildred C.; Iwaoka, George M.; Kong, Danielle; Martin, Brittany N.; Patel, Ryan K.; Lee, Andrew; Nathan, John M.; Eisig, Sidney B.; Safarov, Aram; Koslovsky, David A; Koch, Alia; Romanov, Alex; Mao, Jeremy J

    2015-01-01

    Objective There are limited clinical treatments for temporomandibular joint pathologies, including degenerative disease, disc perforation and heterotopic ossification. One barrier hindering the development of new therapies is that animal models recapitulating TMJ diseases are poorly established. The objective of this study was to develop an animal model for TMJ cartilage degeneration and disc pathology, including disc perforation and soft tissue heterotopic ossification. Methods New Zealand white rabbits (n=9 rabbits) underwent unilateral TMJ disc perforation surgery and sham surgery on the contralateral side. A 2.5 mm defect was created using a punch biopsy in rabbit TMJ disc. The TMJ condyles and discs were evaluated macroscopically and histologically after 4, 8 and 12 weeks. Condyles were blindly scored by 4 independent observers using OARSI recommendations for macroscopic and histopathological scoring of osteoarthritis in rabbit tissues. Results Histological evidence of TMJ condylar cartilage degeneration was apparent in experimental condyles following disc perforation relative to sham controls after 4 and 8 weeks, including surface fissures and loss of Safranin O staining. At 12 weeks, OARSI scores indicated experimental condylar cartilage erosion into the subchondral bone. Most strikingly, heterotopic ossification occurred within the TMJ disc upon perforation injury in 6 rabbits after 8 and 12 weeks. Conclusion We report for the first time a rabbit TMJ injury model that demonstrates condylar cartilage degeneration and disc ossification, which is indispensible for testing the efficacy of potential TMJ therapies. PMID:25573797

  2. Radiotherapy of heterotopic bone formation in patients with paraplegia. Preliminary results; Strahlentherapie heterotoper Ossifikationen bei Querschnittsgelaehmten. Praeliminaere Ergebnisse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sautter-Bihl, M.L. [Klinik fuer Strahlentherapie, Staedtisches Klinikum Karlsruhe (Germany); Liebermeister, E. [Klinik fuer Strahlentherapie, Staedtisches Klinikum Karlsruhe (Germany); Heinze, H.G. [Klinik fuer Strahlentherapie, Staedtisches Klinikum Karlsruhe (Germany); Nanassy, A. [Klinik fuer Orthopaedie, Rehabilitationskrankenhaus Langensteinbach (Germany); Stoltze, D. [Klinik fuer Orthopaedie, Rehabilitationskrankenhaus Langensteinbach (Germany)

    1995-08-01

    In 20 patients with paralysis, 25 regions were irradiated with (mostly) 10 Gy in single fractions of 2 to 2.5 Gy using 8 MW photons. In 15 patients radiotherapy was performed as a primary treatment in the status of myositis; 7 patients were treated after (subtotal) resection of already manifest ossifications (2 patients were treated twice, primarily and postoperatively). In a minimum follow-up 12 weeks, none of the 20 irradiated patients showed any progression of the developing or already manifest ossification; thus mobilisation and rehabilitation could be carried out as desired. No side effects occurred. The preliminary results of the present study suggest that radiotherapy is an effective local treatment with minimal side effects for the prevention of heterotopic bone formation in patients with paraplegia. (orig.) [Deutsch] Bei 20 Patienten (18 Maenner, zwei Frauen, Alter 19 bis 62 Jahre) mit Querschnittssyndrom wurden 25 Regionen mit ueberwiegend 10 Gy a 2 bis 2,5 Gy Einzeldosis mit 8-MW-Photonen bestrahlt. Die Radiatio erfolgte bei 15 Patienten als Primaerprophylaxe im entzuendlichen Stadium, bei sieben Patienten sekundaer nach (subtotaler) Resektion von Ossifikationen (zwei Patienten wurden sowohl primaer als auch sekundaer bestrahlt). Bei einer Mindestnachbeobachtungszeit von zwoelf Wochen trat in keinem Fall eine Progression der sich entwickelnden bzw. bereits bestehenden heterotopen Ossifikationen auf: saemtliche Patienten konnten wunschgemaess mobilisiert und im Rahmen ihrer neurologischen Ausfaelle rehabilitiert werden. Nebenwirkungen traten nicht auf. Die vorliegende praeliminaeren Ergebnisse deuten hin, dass die Strahlentherapie eine effektive und nebenwirkungsarme lokale Therapie zur Verhinderung heterotoper Ossifikationen beim Querschnittssyndrom darstellt. (orig.)

  3. [Peri-articular ossifications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guastavino, V; Dijs, H; Herheyen, G; Driessens, M

    1990-01-01

    Restriction of motion of the joints due to peri-articular ossifications constitute a major problem in the rehabilitation of patients with transverse spinal cord lesion. The therapeutic possibilities as well as the preventive measurements are described and illustrated with a few case reports.

  4. Human penile ossification: case report

    OpenAIRE

    Arruda,Homero Oliveira de; Lima, Hudson; Ortiz, Valdemar

    2007-01-01

    CONTEXT: Ossification in the human penis is such a rare condition that only 34 histologically evident cases have previously been reported. Among several conditions that have been correlated with this problem the most frequent is Peyronie disease. In all these conditions, human penile ossification appears to be a metaplastic bone formation process. CASE REPORT: A 59-year-old white man presented with a one-year history of slight pain upon erection and during intercourse. He also complained of h...

  5. Achondroplasia manifesting as enchondromatosis and ossification of the spinal ligaments: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Kaissi Ali

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction A girl presented with achondroplasia manifested as mild knee pain associated with stiffness of her back. A skeletal survey showed enchondroma-like metaphyseal dysplasia and ossification of the spinal ligaments. Magnetic resonance imaging of the spine further clarified the pathological composites. Case presentation A 7-year-old girl presented with the classical phenotypic features of achondroplasia. Radiographic documentation showed the co-existence of metaphyseal enchondromatosis and development of spinal bony ankylosis. Magnetic resonance imaging showed extensive ossification of the anterior and posterior spinal ligaments. Additional features revealed by magnetic resonance imaging included calcification of the peripheral vertebral bodies associated with anterior end-plate irregularities. Conclusion Enchondromas are metabolically active and may continue to grow and evolve throughout the patient's lifetime; thus, progressive calcification over a period of years is not unusual. Ossification of the spinal ligaments has a specific site of predilection and often occurs in combination with senile ankylosing vertebral hyperostosis. Nevertheless, ossification of the spinal ligaments has been encountered in children with syndromic malformation complex. It is a multifactorial disease in which complex genetic and environmental factors interact, potentially leading to chronic pressure on the spinal cord and nerve roots with subsequent development of myeloradiculopathy. Our patient presented with a combination of achondroplasia, enchondroma-like metaphyseal dysplasia and calcification of the spinal ligaments. We suggest that the development of heterotopic bone formation along the spinal ligaments had occurred through an abnormal ossified enchondral mechanism. We postulate that ossification of the spinal ligaments and metaphyseal enchondromatous changes are related to each other and represent impaired terminal differentiation of

  6. Heterotopic pancreatic tissue in gallbladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aylhin Joana Lopez Marcano

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The heterotopic pancreas (PH is the atypical presence of pancreatic tissue without any anatomic or vascular continuity with the pancreas. PH is a rare condition that can be observed at any level of the gastrointestinal tract and even in other organs. Histopathological characterization of PH allows surgeons to distinguish it from other lesions. Although it is usually a benign and asymptomatic disease, it can occasionally cause complications (obstruction, hemorrhage, inflammation, or malignant transformation. In conclusion, localization in the gallbladder in the few cases of PH is very rare. We present two cases in which, after cholecystectomy indicated by other causes, in the pathological study of the surgical specimen, type 2 pancreatic tissue was found according to the Heinrich classification. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2016; 5(4.000: 250-253

  7. Hedgehog Signaling in Endochondral Ossification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinsuke Ohba

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hedgehog (Hh signaling plays crucial roles in the patterning and morphogenesis of various organs within the bodies of vertebrates and insects. Endochondral ossification is one of the notable developmental events in which Hh signaling acts as a master regulator. Among three Hh proteins in mammals, Indian hedgehog (Ihh is known to work as a major Hh input that induces biological impact of Hh signaling on the endochondral ossification. Ihh is expressed in prehypertrophic and hypertrophic chondrocytes of developing endochondral bones. Genetic studies so far have demonstrated that the Ihh-mediated activation of Hh signaling synchronizes chondrogenesis and osteogenesis during endochondral ossification by regulating the following processes: (1 chondrocyte differentiation; (2 chondrocyte proliferation; and (3 specification of bone-forming osteoblasts. Ihh not only forms a negative feedback loop with parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP to maintain the growth plate length, but also directly promotes chondrocyte propagation. Ihh input is required for the specification of progenitors into osteoblast precursors. The combinatorial approaches of genome-wide analyses and mouse genetics will facilitate understanding of the regulatory mechanisms underlying the roles of Hh signaling in endochondral ossification, providing genome-level evidence of the potential of Hh signaling for the treatment of skeletal disorders.

  8. Ossification sequence heterochrony among amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Sean M; Harrison, Luke B; Sheil, Christopher A

    2013-01-01

    Heterochrony is an important mechanism in the evolution of amphibians. Although studies have centered on the relationship between size and shape and the rates of development, ossification sequence heterochrony also may have been important. Rigorous, phylogenetic methods for assessing sequence heterochrony are relatively new, and a comprehensive study of the relative timing of ossification of skeletal elements has not been used to identify instances of sequence heterochrony across Amphibia. In this study, a new version of the program Parsimov-based genetic inference (PGi) was used to identify shifts in ossification sequences across all extant orders of amphibians, for all major structural units of the skeleton. PGi identified a number of heterochronic sequence shifts in all analyses, the most interesting of which seem to be tied to differences in metamorphic patterns among major clades. Early ossification of the vomer, premaxilla, and dentary is retained by Apateon caducus and members of Gymnophiona and Urodela, which lack the strongly biphasic development seen in anurans. In contrast, bones associated with the jaws and face were identified as shifting late in the ancestor of Anura. The bones that do not shift late, and thereby occupy the earliest positions in the anuran cranial sequence, are those in regions of the skull that undergo the least restructuring throughout anuran metamorphosis. Additionally, within Anura, bones of the hind limb and pelvic girdle were also identified as shifting early in the sequence of ossification, which may be a result of functional constraints imposed by the drastic metamorphosis of most anurans. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Spontaneous Heterotopic Triplet Pregnancy With Tubal Rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lima Arsala MBBS, BBMedSci

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The recent increase in heterotopic pregnancies has been largely attributed to the increased use of assisted reproduction technologies. We report the rare case of a multiparous woman with a spontaneous conception resulting in a triplet heterotopic pregnancy: a twin intrauterine pregnancy and a single right tubal ectopic pregnancy. Heterotopic pregnancy is a rare and potentially life-threatening condition in which simultaneous gestations occur at 2 or more implantation sites. It is infrequent in natural conception cycles, occurring in 1:30 000 pregnancies. However, the prevalence is rising with the increased use of assisted reproduction techniques to that of 1:100 to 1:500 in these patient subgroups, highlighting the need to incorporate it into a clinician’s diagnostic algorithm.

  10. Evaluation of heterotopic bone formation induced by squalane and bone morphogenetic protein composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, T; Kawai, T; Takei, N; Kise, T; Eda, S; Urist, M R

    1997-04-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein is an important molecule whose bioactivity depends on the carrier. Squalane is used in the formulation of various kinds of cosmetics because it is easily emulsified and has the property of spreading well. Thus, squalane might be effective as a bone morphogenetic protein delivery system. As a test for this possibility, gelatin capsules containing squalane and bone morphogenetic protein (bovine derived partially purified) composite were implanted under the hind-quarter perimuscular membrane of ddY mice. Control capsules containing only bone morphogenetic protein were used for controls. The implants were radiographically and histologically examined at 1 to 4 weeks after the operation. According to the radiographic analysis, squalane and bone morphogenetic protein composite and bone morphogenetic protein only control specimens formed widespread heterotopic bone tissues. The amount of heterotopic bone formation in the composite experimental specimens was approximately 40% greater than that in the controls. Histologic examination of experimental and control specimens revealed varying amounts of perichondral ossification by 2 weeks. By 3 and 4 weeks, the bone deposits were colonized by hematopoietic bone marrow. Squalane was effective for the slow local release of bone morphogenetic protein. Furthermore, the squalane and bone morphogenetic protein composite was a reliable osteoinductive biomaterial.

  11. Adult Intussusception Caused by Heterotopic Pancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Va-Kei Kok

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Heterotopic pancreas causing small bowel intussusception is rare. We report the case of a 24-year-old woman who presented with intermittent episodes of abdominal cramping and pain that had persisted for 10 days. A target-shaped lesion consisting of multiple concentric rings was found on the left side on contrast-enhanced computed tomography. Surgical intervention demonstrated jejunal intussusception caused by a jejunal heterotopic pancreas. Microscopically, several nesidioblastoses of pancreas were identified. Although very rare, small intestinal pancreatic rests may cause subacute bowel obstruction.

  12. Human penile ossification: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homero Oliveira de Arruda

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Ossification in the human penis is such a rare condition that only 34 histologically evident cases have previously been reported. Among several conditions that have been correlated with this problem the most frequent is Peyronie disease. In all these conditions, human penile ossification appears to be a metaplastic bone formation process. CASE REPORT: A 59-year-old white man presented with a one-year history of slight pain upon erection and during intercourse. He also complained of hard plaque near the base of the penis. One year earlier, he had sustained blunt trauma during intercourse. Examination of the penis revealed a fixed firm mass extending over the proximal third of the penile shaft, measuring 3.0 x 3.0 x 2.0 cm and involving the corporal sponge, without surface extension. There was no impotence or other relevant clinical finding. Radiography on the penis revealed irregular calcification in the same position as the palpable mass and in the septum of the proximal inner third of the penis. The importance of this report lies in the extent of the human penile ossification, as demonstrated by the radiological and histological confirmation.

  13. Investigation of a Translatable Animal Model in Order to Understand the Etiology of Heterotopic Ossification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    portions of this data which are subject to such limitations, shall be included on any reproduction hereof which includes any part of the portions...wound therapy (NPWT), i.e., wound vacuum assisted closure (VAC). As such, several groups of sheep in this study have also been treated with NPWT...animal model. • Aim 2: Analyze resected HO masses from the ovine model with advanced histological techniques (SEM, MAR, microscopy, bone stains). Goals

  14. Establishing the Mineral Apposition Rate of Heterotopic Ossification for Prevention of Recurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    schedule since resection. 5 Figure 1: Gross photography and micro/macro radiography from one of the bone samples removed from the wounded...A detailed literature review concludes virtual reality-based gait training programs have demonstrated the ability to directly influence

  15. Heterotopic ossification induced by hypoxia in a retrosternal gastric tube following transhiatal oesophagectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.C. Buscher; J.J.B. van Lanschot (Jan); A.H. Mulder; H.W. Tilanus (Hugo)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractA 71 year old man underwent retrosternal gastric tube reconstruction following transhiatal oesophagectomy for squamous cell carcinoma. On the second post-operative day, the patient developed a cardiac arythmia with secondary hypotension followed by

  16. Early Identification of Molecular Predictors of Heterotopic Ossification Following Extremity Blast Injury with a Biomarker Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    From these genes, 10 genes (Ctsk, Fn1, Runx2, Col5a1, Cdh11, Bgn, Bmp1, Col4a1 , Mmp2, and Fgf2) showed a significant p-value (at least three...identified from only the 4 week and 24hr stages, respectively (Figure 2A). Specifically, 11 genes (B2m, Col4a1 , Col6a1, Itga2, Itgav, Rplp1, Tgfb3, Tgfbr1

  17. Establishing the Mineral Apposition Rate of Heterotopic Ossification for Prevention of Recurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Pilliar RM, Weatherly GC. Biologic fixation and bone modeling with an unconstrained canine total knee prosthesis. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1982;(166):301...treatment has been discontinued, infection may recur. This cycle may continue for years until a bio- film-ridden device or tissue is removed [89] [91

  18. Combat-Related Heterotopic Ossification: Development of Animal Models for Identifying Mechanisms and Testing Therapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    examination, cohorts of rats at specified time points post were euthanized (Fatal Plus 50 mg/kg IP; Patterson Veterinary , Devens, MA) and...pronounced systemic inflammatory response with 70% to 90% survivability.26-28 The rats were anaesthetised with isoflurane and received buprenorphine ...sutures (Ethicon Inc., Somerville, New Jersey). Post-operatively, all rats received sustained release buprenorphine (1.2 mg/kg subcutaneously

  19. Early Identification of Molecular Predictors of Heterotopic Ossification Following Extremity Blast Injury with a Biomarker Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    with a Biomarker Assay PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: LTC Leon J Nesti MD PhD RECIPIENT: The Henry M. Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of...UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER The Henry M. Jackson Foundation for the...area of combined error-control and constrained coding. Funding Support: The Ford Foundation (Complete only if the funding support is provided from

  20. Early Diagnosis and Intervention Strategies for Post-Traumatic Heterotopic Ossification in Severely Injured Extremities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    vitro hydroxyapatite crystal proliferation and growth. Matrix 11, 442-446. 4.) Aya, K.L., Stern, R., Hyaluronan in wound healing: rediscovering a...application of high glucose preparations (e.g. honey ) have been used historically as a topical wound healing agent without known toxicity. Heparin is a...51462-51468 3.) Boskey, A.L., and Dick, B.L. (1991), Hyaluronan interactions with hydroxyapatite no not alter in vitro hydroxyapatite crystal

  1. Early Diagnosis and Intervention Strategies for Post-Traumatic Heterotopic Ossification in Severely Injured Extremities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    band decreased indicative of marked protein disorder and digestion following muscle trauma (Figure 25, left, grey arrow). For Palovarotene treated...Tasks a. Animal Care and Use Committee approval NMRC and ACURO approval for animal protocol (NMRC: time frame: months 27-29). b. Complete protocol on...liquid nitrogen and stored at -80°C until analysis. Serum and wound effluent proteins were quantitated using a Luminex 100 IS xMAP Bead Array

  2. Heterotopic Ossification Following Extremity Blast Amputation: An Animal Model in the Sprague Dawley Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    the local and systemic inflammatory response and prevent extracellular matrix mineralization11. Administration of single dose of radiation within 24...all soft tissue calcifications.18 The process is thought to start in membrane-bound vesicles within cells. When the membrane of a vesicle is damaged

  3. Case Report - Heterotopic pregnancy following intrauterine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report the first case of a heterotopic pregnancy (HP) following ovulation induction and intrauterine insemination (IUI) with resultant normal intrauterine pregnancy after salpingectomy. A 41‑year‑old para 0+0 that presented with primary infertility due to azoospermia and polycystic ovaries after laparoscopic evaluation.

  4. spontaneous heterotopic pregnancy with live infant: report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-12-12

    Dec 12, 2008 ... Heterotopic pregnancy is a potentially fatal condition that rarely occurs in natural conception cycles. We report two cases diagnosed within one month in a 20 year old gravida 3, para 0+2 without any known risk factor and a 38 year old gravida 12, para. 6+5 with risk factors. The ectopic pregnancies were ...

  5. Fractionated and single-dose radiotherapy for heterotopic bone formation in patients with spinal cord injury. A phase-I/II study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sautter-Bihl, M.L.; Hueltenschmidt, B.; Liebermeister, E. [Staedtisches Klinikum Karlsruhe (Germany). Klinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Nuklearmedizin; Nanassy, A. [Klinikum Karlsbad-Langensteinbach (Germany). Orthopaedie I

    2001-04-01

    Background: Heterotopic ossification occur in about 20% of patients with spinal cord injury and may seriously compromise the rehabilitation process. Aim of the present study was to evaluate if radiotherapy administered early in the course of the disease prevents the manifestation of heterotopic ossification and if in patients whose bone formations have been resected recurrence can be avoided. Patients and Methods: 52 patients (44 males, eight females, median age 33 years) and 75 joints were irradiated between December 1989 and March 2000. 49 patients (70 joints, 65 hips, three knees, one shoulder, one elbow) were evaluable. Median follow-up was 11 months. In 58 joints radiotherapy was performed as a primary treatment in the inflammatory phase of soft tissue swelling that precedes manifestation of heterotopic ossifications. Twelve joints were treated after resection of manifest heterotopic bone, two patients had primary and postoperative irradiation in different joints. The dose was 10 Gy in single fractions of 2-2,5 Gy in 34 joints and 7.5-20 Gy in six joints. >From July 1996 on, 30 joints received single-dose irradiation with 8 Gy. Results: 50/70 joints (71%) remained free from progression. This was the case for 47/65 (72%) hips, whereas in 18 hips (27%) the Brooker score increased for 1-2 grades and caused a moderate decrease of mobility in five joints. Out of the other five joints, two knees developed progression. No relevant side effects occurred. Conclusion: The present results suggest that radiotherapy is an effective local treatment option for spinal cord injured patients with heterotopic ossifications. (orig.) [German] Hintergrund: Heterotope Ossifikationen treten bei bis zu 20% von Patienten mit verletzungsbedingter Querschnittslaehmung auf und koennen die Rehabilitation erheblich erschweren. Ziel der vorliegenden Studie war zu evaluieren, ob durch eine primaer im Anfangsstadium der Erkrankung eingesetzte Strahlentherapie die Manifestation heterotoper

  6. Symptomatic heterotopic suprarenal splenic tissue; Symptomatisches heterotopes Milzgewebe in der Nebennierenloge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heider, J.; Kreft, B. [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Radiologische Klinik; Winter, P. [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Urologie

    1998-05-01

    We report on a 33-year-old man with symptomatic heterotopic suprarenal splenic tissue. Heterotopic splenic tissue can often be found after posttraumatic splenectomy. It is a result of autotransplantation induced by trauma (splenosis). Additionally it can grow during embryogenic development. Such an accessory spleen is found in 10-44% of all autopsies. In this case report the patient was treated by resection due to increasing flank pain and suspected neoplasm. (orig.) [Deutsch] Wir berichten ueber einen 33jaehrigen Patienten mit symptomatischen heterotopem Milzgewebe in der linken Nebennierenlage. Heterotopes Milzgewebe wird haeufig nach posttraumatischer Splenektomie gefunden und auf eine traumabedingte Autotransplantation von Milzgewebe zurueckgefuehrt (Splenose). Es kann auch waehrend der embryologischen Entwicklung der Milz als akzessorisches Milzgewebe entstehen und wird autopisch in 10-44% der Faelle gefunden. Im vorliegenden Fall wurde der Patient aufgrund der zunehmenden Flankenschmerzen und bestehendem Tumorverdacht operiert. Es werden die Differentialdiagnosen sowie die unterschiedlichen diagnostischen Moeglichkeiten und deren Stellenwert besprochen. (orig.)

  7. Ruptured heterotopic pregnancy and subsequent vaginal delivery at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Heterotopic pregnancy is the co- existence of intrauterine and extrauterine gestation at the same time. The condition is life threatening when the ectopic pregnancy ruptures and it is unrecognized. Objective: To report the first successfully managed case of heterotopic pregnancy in a woman without obvious risk ...

  8. Heterotopic Pancreas: Histopathologic Features, Imaging Findings, and Complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezvani, Maryam; Menias, Christine; Sandrasegaran, Kumaresan; Olpin, Jeffrey D; Elsayes, Khaled M; Shaaban, Akram M

    2017-01-01

    Heterotopic pancreas is a congenital anomaly in which pancreatic tissue is anatomically separate from the main gland. The most common locations of this displacement include the upper gastrointestinal tract-specifically, the stomach, duodenum, and proximal jejunum. Less common sites are the esophagus, ileum, Meckel diverticulum, biliary tree, mesentery, and spleen. Uncomplicated heterotopic pancreas is typically asymptomatic, with the lesion being discovered incidentally during an unrelated surgery, during an imaging examination, or at autopsy. The most common computed tomographic appearance of heterotopic pancreas is that of a small oval intramural mass with microlobulated margins and an endoluminal growth pattern. The attenuation and enhancement characteristics of these lesions parallel their histologic composition. Acinus-dominant lesions demonstrate avid homogeneous enhancement after intravenous contrast material administration, whereas duct-dominant lesions are hypovascular and heterogeneous. At magnetic resonance imaging, the heterotopic pancreas is isointense to the orthotopic pancreas, with characteristic T1 hyperintensity and early avid enhancement after intravenous gadolinium-based contrast material administration. Heterotopic pancreatic tissue has a rudimentary ductal system in which an orifice is sometimes visible at imaging as a central umbilication of the lesion. Complications of heterotopic pancreas include pancreatitis, pseudocyst formation, malignant degeneration, gastrointestinal bleeding, bowel obstruction, and intussusception. Certain complications may be erroneously diagnosed as malignancy. Paraduodenal pancreatitis is thought to be due to cystic degeneration of heterotopic pancreatic tissue in the medial wall of the duodenum. Recognizing the characteristic imaging features of heterotopic pancreas aids in differentiating it from cancer and thus in avoiding unnecessary surgery. © RSNA, 2017.

  9. Ossification of the infraspinatus tendon-bursa in 13 dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, W M; Macias, C; May, C; Scurrell, E J

    Ossification of the infraspinatus tendon-bursa was diagnosed in 13 labrador retrievers, 12 of which were lame in one thoracic limb and the other in both. They ranged in age from 28 to 121 months (mean 69.4 months). The lameness developed gradually and was progressive in 11 of the 14 affected joints. Scapular muscle atrophy and signs of pain on direct pressure over the infraspinatus tendon of insertion were key clinical signs. Caudocranial radiographs revealed multiple mineralised masses lateral to the proximal humerus or glenohumeral joint in 11 of the 26 joints and single masses in 12. An arthroscopic examination revealed concomitant ligament or tendon abnormalities in six of seven shoulders. The dogs were followed up from one to 55 months (mean 20 months). Of five shoulders treated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (nsaids), one resolved, two improved and two were managed surgically. Of six shoulders treated by the injection of long-acting intra-articular corticosteroid (five before and one after surgery), three resolved, two improved and one was unchanged. Of six shoulders treated by the surgical resection of the infraspinatus tendon and bursa (three before and two after treatment with nsaids, and one after treatment with a long-acting intra-articular corticosteroid), four improved, one was unchanged and one was managed with an intra-articular long-acting corticosteroid. One shoulder was managed by restricted exercise and the lameness resolved. Histological examination of the excised tissues revealed heterotopic bone within the infraspinatus tendon and/or bursa.

  10. Heterotopic muscle pulleys or oblique muscle dysfunction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, R A; Miller, J M; Rosenbaum, A L; Demer, J L

    1998-02-01

    The description of connective tissue sleeves that function as pulleys for the rectus extraocular muscles (EOMs) suggests that abnormalities of EOM pulley position might provide a mechanical basis for some forms of incomitant strabismus. Pulleys determine the paths and thus the pulling directions of EOMs. High-resolution magnetic resonance images spanning the orbits were obtained in primary position, upgaze, and downgaze for each subject. Paths of the EOMs were measured with reference to the orbital center and permitted inference of pulley locations. Data from 18 orbits of orthotropic subjects defined means and SDs of normal EOM pulley coordinates. Eight patients, aged 17 to 60 years, had heterotopic EOM pulleys, defined as displaced at least 2 SDs from normal. We found one to eight heterotopic pulleys (considering both orbits) in each of four patients who had been diagnosed with marked superior oblique (SO) overaction and mild to marked inferior oblique (IO) underaction. Each patient had superior mislocation of at least one lateral rectus pulley by 1.8 to 4.9 mm. Three patients diagnosed with mild to moderate IO overaction and mild to moderate SO underaction in only one orbit had one to three heterotopic EOM pulleys. Each of those patients had at least one lateral rectus pulley inferiorly dislocated by 1.9 to 4.9 mm. The final patient, who was diagnosed with mild IO underaction and normal SO function bilaterally, had bilateral superior mislocation of the medial rectus pulleys by greater than 2 mm. Computer simulations using the Orbit program (Eidactics, San Francisco) incorporating individually measured pulley positions reproduced the clinical patterns of incomitant strabismus in all cases without postulating abnormalities of oblique muscle innervation or contractility. Heterotopic EOM pulleys can cause patterns of incomitant strabismus that have been attributed to oblique muscle dysfunction. Even isolated mislocations of less than 2 mm, coupled with smaller

  11. Primary palpebral and orbital ossification in pseudo-pseudohypoparathyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klauber, S.; Heegaard, S.; Prause, J.U.

    2002-01-01

    ophthalmology, Albright's heriditary osteodystrophy, ossification, pseudo-pseudohypoparathyroidism, pseodohypoparathyroidism, hypothyroidism, GNAS1 gene, history, eyelid, orbit......ophthalmology, Albright's heriditary osteodystrophy, ossification, pseudo-pseudohypoparathyroidism, pseodohypoparathyroidism, hypothyroidism, GNAS1 gene, history, eyelid, orbit...

  12. Does static precede dynamic osteogenesis in endochondral ossification as occurs in intramembranous ossification?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferretti, Marzia; Palumbo, Carla; Bertoni, Laura; Cavani, Francesco; Marotti, Gastone

    2006-11-01

    Endochondral ossification takes place with calcified cartilage cores providing a rigid scaffold for new bone formation. Intramembranous ossification begins in connective tissue and new bone formed by a process of static ossification (SO) followed by dynamic ossification (DO) as previously described. The aim of the present study was to determine if the process of endochondral ossification is similar to that of intramembranous ossification with both a static and a dynamic phase of osteogenesis. Endochondral ossification centers of the tibiae and humeri of newborn and young growing rabbits were studied by light and transmission electron microscopy. The observations clearly showed that in endochondral ossification, the calcified trabeculae appeared to be lined first by osteoclasts. The osteoclasts were then replaced by flattened cells (likely cells of the reversal phase) and finally by irregularly arranged osteoblastic laminae, typical of DO. This cellular sequence did not include osteoblasts seen in the phase of SO. These findings clearly support our working hypothesis that SO only forms in soft tissues to provide a rigid framework for DO, and that DO requires a rigid mineralized surface. The presence of osteocytes in contact with the calcified cartilage also suggests the existence of stationary osteoblasts in endochondral ossification. Stationary osteoblasts did not appear to be a unique feature of SO. The presence of stationary osteoblasts may appear to provide the initial osteocytes during osteogenesis that may function as mechanosensors throughout the bone tissue. If this is the case, then bone would be capable of sensing mechanical strains from its inception. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Ossification of the discoid meniscus: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Duran, Semra; Çavuşoğlu, Mehtap; Kocadal, Onur

    2014-01-01

    Meniscal ossification, or bone formation within the substance of the meniscus, is a rare entity. Magnetic resonance imaging allows the unequivocal diagnosis of a meniscal ossification. We aimed to present a case of discoid meniscal ossification, which is quite rare, with the emphasis on imaging findings.

  14. Ossification of the Ligaments in the Cervical Spine, Including Ossification of the Anterior Longitudinal Ligament, Ossification of the Posterior Longitudinal Ligament, and Ossification of the Ligamentum Flavum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohara, Yukoh

    2018-01-01

    Ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL), ossification of the anterior longitudinal ligament (OALL), and ossification of the ligamentum flavum (OLF) sometimes are seen in the same patients, but the exact coexisting frequencies are not clear especially in the cervical region. The most frequent combination is OPLL and OALL. Cervical OPLL can coexist with thoracic OLF but is rarely associated with cervical OLF. All of these ossifying diseases of the cervical spinal ligaments are influenced by dynamic factors of the spinal column. The most frequent levels in the cervical spine affected by OPLL, OALL, and OLF are different because of anatomic differences inherent to each ligament. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Heterotopic pancreas presenting as suspicious mass in the gallbladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foucault, Amélie; Veilleux, Hubert; Martel, Guillaume; Lapointe, Réal; Vandenbroucke-Menu, Franck

    2012-11-10

    Heterotopic pancreas is a rare entity. Thirty-three cases in the gallbladder have been reported. We describe the first case of heterotopic pancreas mimicking a gallbladder cancer, identified within a calcified lesion in the thickened posterior wall of the gallbladder. A 72-year-old woman with right upper quadrant pain was referred with a suspicion of gallbladder neoplasia. A CT scan demonstrated a 1 cm thickened posterior wall of the gallbladder with a 2 mm punctate calcification. An open cholecystectomy was carried out without complication. The frozen section demonstrated pancreatic tissue. Heterotopic pancreas of the gallbladder is highly uncommon. It can mimic a neoplastic process in the gallbladder, particularly in the context of calcification. Its malignant potential in the gallbladder is unknown, in contrast to previously described neoplastic transformation with gastric heterotopic pancreas.

  16. Spontaneous Heterotopic Pregnancy: Dual Case Report and Review of Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika Chadee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Heterotopic pregnancy is a rare complication usually seen in populations at risk for ectopic pregnancy or those undergoing fertility treatments. It is a potentially dangerous condition occurring in only 1 in 30,000 spontaneous pregnancies. With the advent of Assisted Reproduction Techniques (ART and ovulation induction, the overall incidence of heterotopic pregnancy has risen to approximately 1 in 3,900 pregnancies. Other risk factors include a history of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID, tubal damage, pelvic surgery, uterine Mullerian abnormalities, and prior tubal surgery. Heterotopic pregnancy is a potentially fatal condition, rarely occurring in natural conception cycles. Most commonly, heterotopic pregnancy is diagnosed at the time of rupture when surgical management is required. Case. This paper represents two cases of heterotopic pregnancies as well as a literature review. Conclusion. Heterotopic pregnancy should be suspected in patients with an adnexal mass, even in the absence of risk factors. Clinicians must be alert to the fact that confirming an intrauterine pregnancy clinically or by ultrasound does not exclude the coexistence of an ectopic pregnancy. A high index of suspicion in women is needed for early and timely diagnosis, and management with laparotomy or laparoscopy can result in a favorable and successful obstetrical outcome.

  17. Heterotopic pancreatic tissue obstructing the gallbladder neck: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weppner, Justin L; Wilson, Matthew R; Ricca, Robert; Lucha, Paul A

    2009-09-04

    Heterotopic pancreatic tissue is defined as pancreatic tissue outside the boundaries of the pancreas that has neither anatomic nor vascular continuity with the pancreas. Heterotopic pancreatic tissue in the gallbladder is uncommon and has rarely been reported to cause symptoms. We report a case of heterotopic pancreatic tissue obstructing the gallbladder neck resulting in cholecystitis. A 26-year-old female presented with right upper quadrant abdominal pain and fever. On physical examination the right upper quadrant was tender to palpation with a positive Murphy's sign. Laboratory tests were significant for elevated aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase. Transabdominal sonography showed gallbladder wall thickening, a positive sonographic Murphy's sign, and an apparent large non-mobile stone at the gallbladder neck. Pathologic examination revealed cholecystitis but instead of a large stone there was a tan-yellow necrotic mass at the gallbladder neck. Microscopically, the mass consisted of heterotopic pancreatic tissue containing exocrine pancreatic acini, ducts, and islets of Langerhans. The final diagnosis was acute cholecystitis secondary to obstruction by heterotopic pancreatic tissue. Although heterotopic pancreatic tissue is usually an incidental finding on pathologic exam, one should not exclude it in the differential diagnosis of symptomatic gallbladder disease of indefinite etiology.

  18. Effect of therapeutic ultrasound on endochondral ossification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiltink, A.; Nijweide, P.J.; Oosterbaan, W.A.; Hekkenberg, R.T.; Helders, P.J.M.

    1995-01-01

    The effect of therapeutic doses of ultrasound was tested on endochondral ossification of in vitro developing metatarsal long bone rudiments of 16- and 17-day-old fetal mice. Bone growth, calcification and resorption following exposure to several doses of pulse-wave (PW) or continuous-wave (CW)

  19. [Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis with dendriform pulmonary ossification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, Ana Madeleine; Vargas, Leslie

    2016-12-01

    Pulmonary ossification is a rare and usually asymptomatic finding reported as incidental in lung biopsies. Similarly, idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis is a rare cause of pulmonary infiltrates. We report the case of a 64-year old man with chronic respiratory symptoms in whom these two histopathological findings converged.

  20. The role of vascular endothelial growth factor in ossification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yan-Qi; Tan, Ying-Ying; Wong, Ricky; Wenden, Alex; Zhang, Lin-Kun; Rabie, A Bakr M

    2012-01-01

    Osteogenesis and angiogenesis are two closely correlated processes during bone growth, development, remodelling and repair. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an essential mediator during the process of angiogenesis. Based on an extensive literature search, which was carried out using the PubMed database and the keywords of osteogenesis, VEGF, endochondral ossification and intramembranous ossification, this manuscript reviews the role of VEGF in ossification, with emphasis on its effect in endochondral and intramembranous ossification. Osteogenesis and angiogenesis are closely correlated processes. VEGF acts as an essential mediator during these processes. It not only functions in bone angiogenesis but also in various aspects of bone development. PMID:22722639

  1. El concepto de heterotopía en Michel Foucault

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Cristina Toro Zambrano

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available El análisis del concepto de heterotopía, explicado por Michel Foucault en su conferencia “Los espacios otros”, tiene importancia dentro del proyecto general de una historia crítica del pensamiento. Las heterotopías pertenecen a un tipo específico de espacio, que tiene dentro de sí poderes, fuerzas, ideas, regularidades o discontinuidades, se pueden clasificar según el tiempo o el lugar al que pertenecen y abren la posibilidad de crear nuevos espacios con sus propias lógicas.

  2. Management of multijoint stiffness of bilateral upper limbs secondary to heterotopic ossification: case report and literature review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Min, Hong-wei; Liu, Ke-min; Han, Xin-zuo; Gu, Rui

    2014-01-01

    ... affecting one or more joints, the cases of multijoint stiffness secondary to HO are rare. This article describes a rare case of HO affecting both upper limbs of a 32-year-old man that severely interfered with activities of daily living...

  3. Liposarcoma of the thigh with mixed calcification and ossification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy R. Child, MD

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Liposarcoma is one of the most common soft-tissue sarcomas. Calcification and ossification can occur in liposarcoma; however, the presence of both ossification and calcification is a very rare entity. We present a case of a partially calcified and ossified dedifferentiated liposarcoma of the thigh in a 76-year-old woman, which contained heterologous elements of chondrosarcoma and rhabdomyosarcoma.

  4. Pulmonary ossification and microlithiasis in a bitch with multicentric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microliths and ossification were found in the lungs of a 12-year-old bitch suffering from compound mammary gland tumor which has disseminated in the inguinal lymph node glands and the lungs. Pulmonary ossification appeared grossly as irregular stony sharp particles which infiltrated the lung tissue and were readily ...

  5. Idiopathic Pulmonary Calcification and Ossification in an Elderly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is a case of idiopathic pulmonary calcification and ossification in a 70 year old with long-standing diabetes and hypertension. Thirteen years prior to her demise, she was first noticed to have multiple calcific deposits in her lungs on a chest X-ray film. She had no risk factors for soft tissue calcification and ossification.

  6. Developmental ossification sequences of the appendicular and axial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A pre-hatch developmental study on ossification sequences of axial and appendicular skeletal system in Kuttanad duck embryos was undertaken using 78 viable embryos. From day 3 to day 7 of incubation no ossification densities were seen both by alizarin red staining and computerized radiography. The first indication of ...

  7. Ossification sequence and genetic patterning in the mouse axial skeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hautier, Lionel; Charles, Cyril; Asher, Robert J; Gaunt, Stephen J

    2014-12-01

    We provide novel data on vertebral ontogeny in the mouse, the mammalian model-of-choice for developmental studies. Most previous studies on ossification sequences in mice have focused on pooled elements of the spine (cervicals, thoracics, lumbars, sacrals, and caudals). Here, we contribute data on ossification sequences in the neural arches and centra to provide a comparative basis upon which to evaluate mammalian diversity of the axial skeleton. In attempt to explain the ossification pattern observed, we compared our observations with the phenotype of Cdx over-expresser mice. We use high-resolution X-ray microtomography and clearing and staining techniques to quantify the precise sequential ossification pattern of the mouse spine. We show that micro-CT scans perform better in all cases whereas clearing and staining exhibit sensitivity to the presence of semi-opaque tissue. We observe that the centra of wild-type mice always ossify after neural arches and that the ossification of the neural arches proceeds from two loci. The ossification of the centra appears more complex, especially in the neck where ossification is delayed and does not just follow the order of the vertebrae along the anterior-posterior axis. Our findings also suggest that Cdx genes' expression levels may be involved in the delayed ossification in the neck centra. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Spontaneous Heterotopic Pregnancy With Live Infant: Report Of Two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heterotopic pregnancy is a potentially fatal condition that rarely occurs in natural conception cycles. We report two cases diagnosed within one month in a 20 year old gravida 3, para 0+2 without any known risk factor and a 38 year old gravida 12, para 6+5 with risk factors. The ectopic pregnancies were diagnosed after ...

  9. Splenosis: CT demonstration of heterotopic autotransplantation of splenic tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gentry, L.R.; Brown, J.M.; Lindgren, R.D.

    1982-12-01

    Splenosis is a rare condition manifested by heterotopic autotransplantation of splenic tissue. A case of splenosis initially diagnosed with computed tomography (CT) and confirmed with radionuclide imaging is presented. This condition can be confused with other causes of peritoneal based masses and must be differentiated from them to assure optimum patient care. The clinical, pathologic, and CT features of this condition are briefly reviewed.

  10. Case Report; Heterotopic Pregnancy Following Induction of Ovulation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... in the early phase of an obvious intrauterine pregnancy following fertility treatment. Transvaginal ultrasonography is a useful diagnostic adjunct. Early intervention is essential to salvage the intrauterine pregnancy and avoid maternal morbidity and mortality. Key Words: Pregnancy, Ectopic, Heterotopic, Ovulation Induction

  11. Heterotopic pregnancy in a natural conception cycle. A case report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A pelvic scan confirmed an intrauterine pregnancy. While being managed as a case of threatened abortion, her condition deteriorated and the likelihood of an ectopic pregnancy was entertained. A repeat scan revealed significant peritoneal collection, suggestive of haemoperitoneum, and laparotomy confirmed heterotopic ...

  12. Heterotopic pregnancy in an assisted reproduction conception; case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Infertility management by assisted reproduction techniques has had rapid increase. While there is robust evidence supporting the efficacy and safety of assisted reproduction technique (ART), complications are encountered. Heterotopic pregnancy, defined as the presence of both an intrauterine and an ectopic gestation, ...

  13. Fungal osteomyelitis with vertebral re-ossification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O Guinn, Devon J; Serletis, Demitre; Kazemi, Noojan

    2016-01-01

    We present a rare case of thoracic vertebral osteomyelitis secondary to pulmonary Blastomyces dermatitides. A 27-year-old male presented with three months of chest pains and non-productive cough. Examination revealed diminished breath sounds on the right. CT/MR imaging confirmed a right-sided pre-/paravertebral soft tissue mass and destructive lytic lesions from T2 to T6. CT-guided needle biopsy confirmed granulomatous pulmonary Blastomycosis. Conservative management with antifungal therapy was initiated. Neurosurgical review confirmed no clinical or profound radiographic instability, and the patient was stabilized with TLSO bracing. Serial imaging 3 months later revealed near-resolution of the thoracic soft tissue mass, with vertebral re-ossification from T2 to T6. Fungal osteomyelitis presents a rare entity in the spectrum of spinal infections. In such cases, lytic spinal lesions are classically seen in association with a large paraspinous mass. Fungal infections of the spinal column may be treated conservatively, with surgical intervention reserved for progressive cases manifesting with neurological compromise and/or spinal column instability. Here, we found unexpected evidence for vertebral re-ossification across the affected thoracic levels (T2-6) in response to IV antibiotic therapy and conservative bracing, nearly 3 months later. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. [Radiologic study on postnatal ossification of the first metatarsal bone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareja-Esteban, J A; García-López, M; Pizones-Arce, F J; Benito-Martín, E; Fernández-Camacho, F J; Plasencia-Arriba, M A

    2013-01-01

    Classical descriptions of the ossification of the first metatarsal bone show the existence of a single proximal secondary ossification nucleus, mimicking the typical ossification of a phalanx. However, there are studies that show the presence of a second distal ossification nucleus and discuss its nature: epiphysis or pseudoepiphysis. The objective of the study is to establish the prevalence of such distal nucleus, determine its role in the growth of the radius and its relation with different qualitative variables. We conducted a retrospective study that included 971 dorsoplantar images from 225 patients. We analyzed the presence of such nucleus, the age of appearance and closure, the relation with different qualitative variables and their contribution to the longitudinal growth of the first metatarsal bone. The distal ossification nucleus appears in 40% of all images and in 81.1% of cases ages 4-7 years. Mean age of appearance is 3.07 years, while physeal closure occurs at a mean of 7.67 years. We found a significantly higher frequency of physeal closure in children, patients with Egyptian type foot, flat foot, and index-plus and Egyptian type foot combinations. The definitive length of the first metatarsal bone is greater in patients with a distal ossification nucleus. We may state the presence of the distal ossification nucleus of the first metatarsal bone that behaves as a fertile growth cartilage.

  15. Asymmetrical Achilles tendon ossification and rare rear heel pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Abu Bakar Siddiq

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Achilles tendon ossification is not a frequent association of posterior heel pain in pain physicians’ daily practice. The condition has been reportedly common following rear heel trauma (repetitive heel stress injury, surgery (club foot surgery; however, some endocrino-metabolic, haematological disorders can also contribute to Achilles tendon ossification. Shape of ossified tendon mass varies from discrete (single/multiple to extensive variety; and as per literature review, in bilateral cases they are alike. To be intriguing, here in this write-up, we demonstrate asymmetrical (in terms of clinical features and radioimaging findings, bilateral Achilles tendon ossification in a 70-year-old retired farmer, first time in literature.

  16. Heterotopic cesarean scar pregnancy: diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    OuYang, Zhenbo; Yin, Qian; Xu, Yujing; Ma, Yunyan; Zhang, Qiushi; Yu, Yanhong

    2014-09-01

    Heterotopic cesarean scar pregnancy is a rare, life-threatening form of ectopic pregnancy. To provide information regarding the clinical manifestations, diagnosis, management, and prognosis of this condition, we reviewed all cases reported in the English literature. All literature on heterotopic cesarean scar pregnancy was retrieved by searching the PubMed database and tracking references of the relevant literature. Full texts were reviewed, and clinical manifestations, diagnostic methods, and the relationship between the treatment and prognosis were summarized. A total of 14 patients with heterotopic cesarean scar pregnancies were identified, including 6 spontaneous pregnancies and 8 following in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer. Gestational ages at diagnosis ranged from 5 weeks to 8 weeks 4 days. Only 5 cases presented with vaginal bleeding, and the others were asymptomatic. All 14 cases were diagnosed by transvaginal sonography. One patient with no future fertility requirements underwent pregnancy termination by methotrexate. Of the remaining 13 patients who desired to preserve their intrauterine gestations, 10 were treated by sonographically guided selective embryo reduction in situ (by embryo aspiration, drug injection, or both); 2 underwent laparoscopic and hysteroscopic excision of the ectopic pregnancy masses; and 1 was treated by expectant management. All operations were successful and maintained a living intrauterine gestation. Twelve cases resulted in live births by cesarean delivery (3 at term and 9 preterm). One patient underwent pregnancy termination at 12 weeks because of a fetal malformation confirmed by sonography. The possibility of heterotopic cesarean scar pregnancy after cesarean delivery should be considered, especially when pregnancy follows assisted reproductive technology. Transvaginal sonography is an important tool for diagnosis and management. Despite the many options, the best treatment for this condition remains unclear. Selective

  17. A new heterotopic transplant animal model of intestinal fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausmann, Martin; Rechsteiner, Thomas; Caj, Michaela; Benden, Christian; Fried, Michael; Boehler, Annette; Rogler, Gerhard

    2013-10-01

    Severe mucosal tissue damage requiring efficient wound healing is a main feature of inflammatory bowel disease but excessive tissue repair promotes fibrosis. The clinical investigation of fibrosis is confined to the limited amount of biological material available from patients. This makes the establishment of a new animal model, a highly desirable goal. We investigated whether intestinal fibrosis occurs after heterotopic transplantation of small bowel resections in rats. Donor (Brown Norway or Lewis rats) small bowel resections were transplanted subcutaneously into the neck of recipients (Lewis rats). Grafts were explanted 2, 7, 14, and 21 days after transplantation. Heterotopic intestinal transplants remained viable for 21 days. Rapid loss of crypt structures at day 2 after intestinal transplantation was followed by lymphocyte infiltration and obliteration of the intestinal lumen by fibrous tissue at day 21. Loss of the intestinal epithelium was confirmed by the lack of cytokeratin staining in immunohistochemistry. Collagen expression was increased with time after transplantation as confirmed by real-time PCRs, Elastica van Gieson, and Sirius Red staining. Lumen obliteration was connected with increased expression of potent mediators of fibrosis such as α5β6 integrin, interleukin (IL)-13, and transforming growth factor β. Myofibroblast phenotype was demonstrated by the presence of both α-smooth muscle actin and vimentin in the obliterated lumen. We established a method for heterotopic transplantation of small bowel resections. A variety of histologic and molecular features of fibrosis were observed in the heterotopic intestinal grafts which suggests, that this new in vivo model will be instrumental in studying pathogenesis and treatment of intestinal fibrosis.

  18. Developmental anomaly of ossification type patella partita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oohashi, Yoshikazu

    2015-04-01

    Bipartite patella has been recognized as an incidental radiographic finding. However, symptomatic bipartite patella is occasionally diagnosed in adolescents and young athletes. The incidence of bipartite patella has been reported at 0.2-1.7, and 1-2 % of these cases are symptomatic. The purpose of this review article was to discuss current concepts relevant to developmental anomaly of ossification type patella partita. A PubMed database search using the key words "bipartite patella" was performed. Clinical papers reporting the bipartite patella were included. Four German-language studies were also included, three for incidence of bipartite patella and one for classification. A new classification of developmental anomaly of ossification type patella partita based on location and number of fragment was recently proposed. It is simple and useful and applicable to all types of bipartite or tripartite patella. Several imaging studies have reportedly been used to evaluate symptomatic bipartite patella. MRI is currently the most appropriate method used to assess patients with bipartite patella. Although surgical procedures have been developed that reduce excessive traction force by the vastus lateralis muscle on the bipartite fragment, there is not sufficient evidence to support their use for routine treatment of painful bipartite patella. In most symptomatic cases, movement at the interface between the bipartite fragment and the body of the patella presumably causes the pain. Therefore, the existence of apparent motion at the interface should be confirmed by specific imaging studies before surgery. Magnetic resonance imaging findings may provide such evidence by demonstrating a fluid bright signal across the segmentation, typical of pseudoarthrosis. V.

  19. Successful pregnancy following medical management of heterotopic pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Lavanya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of sonographic demonstration of quadruplet heterotopic pregnancy consisting of twin intrauterine (IU pregnancy and a twin adnexal pregnancy after ovulation induction (OI with clomiphene citrate (CC and timed intercourse (TI. Both heterotopic pregnancy and spontaneous twinning are frequent after OI, this combination although extremely rare must be kept in mind. The role of early transvaginal sonography and serum beta human chorionic gonadotrophin after missed periods helps in early diagnosis. It gives us an opportunity for medical management, saving the patient the agony of surgery along with loss of pregnancy. The management of heterotopic pregnancy is controversial. This patient did not have a viable IU pregnancy and both the sacs in the adnexa were small. Thus, we treated her successfully by medical management with systemic methotrexate, with regular follow-up. This patient successfully conceived after 6 months with OI and TI, with ovulation occurring from the same side of the previous ectopic. She had a viable IU gestation corresponding to 12 weeks.

  20. A simple novel technique for heterotopic intestinal transplantation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X; Song, P; Tian, J; Zhou, S; Yan, S; Tan, Z; Haller, H; Rong, S

    2013-03-01

    The murine heterotopic intestinal transplant model is of particular value for addressing the unique immune response in the gut and addressing the underlying immune mechanism during transplantation. Anastomotic stenosis, anastomotic bleeding, and septic shock continue to hamper procedures and plague the success. In this study, we assessed a refined technique designed to improve the success of heterotopic intestinal transplant in mice. Important factors in our refined technique included (1) a refined procedure for graft portal vein preparation, (2) a novel procedure for graft exteriorization, and most importantly (3) a knotless suturing technique designed to allow the surgeon to alter the size of the anastomosis, thus reducing anastomotic bleeding and stenosis rate. Our refined knotless method improved recipient survival to 67.5% when compared to the standard technique (53.8%). In comparison to standard knot suturing technique, which had an anastomotic stenosis rate of 8.3%, the knotless suturing technique significantly reduced the rate of anastomotic stenosis to only 2.4%. Anastomotic bleeding presented in the knotless technique in only 1.2%, whereas it presented in 6.2%, of mice in the standard technique (P < .05). This refined knotless technique offers an easy and effective method for murine heterotopic intestinal transplantation. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Heterotopic Vascularized Joint Transfer in Mutilating Hand Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Nai-Jen; Chang, Johnny T; Hsu, Chung-Chen; Lin, Cheng-Hung; Lin, Chih-Hung; Lin, Yu-Te

    2016-03-01

    In cases of mutilating hand injuries, the primary goal is recovery of prehensile function. This is particularly true in the case of joints, which are extremely difficult to replace or reconstruct adequately when damaged. Heterotopic vascularized joint transfer is indicated when salvageable joints are available for transfer to a more functionally optimal position on the hand. Seven cases of mutilating hand injuries treated with heterotopic vascularized joint transfers from 2003 to 2012 were retrospectively identified. All patients sustained severe metacarpophalangeal joint (MPJ) or proximal interphalangeal joint (PIPJ) damage that threatened recovery of optimal hand function. All patients were men, with an average age of 34.7 years. Operative, perioperative, and postoperative details including final active range of motion were collected and analyzed. Seven joints were taken from nonsalvageable amputated digits: 4 from the amputated parts, and 3 from the proximal stumps. Five joints were transferred as free flaps requiring microvascular anastomosis, and 2 were transferred on neurovascular pedicles. One joint was lost due to vasospasm. Average active range of motion was 68.3° for homojoint transfers (MPJ to MPJ, PIPJ to PIPJ), and 35° for heterojoint transfers. All but 1 patient were able to achieve tripod pinch; the remaining patient achieved only side-to-side pinch. Heterotopic vascularized joint transfer is a useful technique to consider in cases of mutilating hand injuries. Improved recovery of prehensile function can be achieved with thoughtful design and execution, followed by proper patient education and rehabilitation.

  2. Ossification of the Achilles tendon: imaging abnormalities in 12 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, J.S. [Dept. of Radiology, Veterans Administration Medical Center, San Diego, CA (United States); Witte, D. [Dept. of Radiology, Veterans Administration Medical Center, San Diego, CA (United States); Resnick, D. [Dept. of Radiology, Veterans Administration Medical Center, San Diego, CA (United States); Pogue, W. [Dept. of Radiology, AMI Valley Medical Center, El Cajon, CA (United States)

    1994-02-01

    Ossification of the Achilles tendon is a rare clinical entity that is characterized by the presence of an ossific mass contained within the fibrocartilaginous substance of the tendon. Because the radiographic features of this condition have not been documented entirely and the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings have not been determined, a review of 16 affected tendons in 12 patients was performed in an attempt to characterize the imaging abnormalities associated with this process. MR imaging was performed in three Achilles tendons which demonstrated thickening of the tendons at the level of the ossifications and a lack of intratendinous signal abnormalities compatible with acute tendinitis. Signal intensity similar to that of bone marrow was present in the ossifications. (orig.)

  3. Patellar tendon ossification after partial patellectomy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guven Melih

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Patellar tendon ossification is a rare pathology that may be seen as a complication after sleeve fractures of the tibial tuberosity, total patellectomy during arthroplasty, intramedullary nailing of tibial fractures, anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with patellar tendon autograft and knee injury without fracture. However, its occurrence after partial patellectomy surgery has never been reported in the literature. Case presentation We present the case of a 35-year-old Turkish man with a comminuted inferior patellar pole fracture that was treated with partial patellectomy. During the follow-up period, his patellar tendon healed with ossification and then ruptured from the inferior attachment to the tibial tubercle. The ossification was excised and the tendon was subsequently repaired. Conclusion To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of patellar tendon ossification occurring after partial patellectomy. Orthopaedic surgeons are thus cautioned to be conscious of this rare complication after partial patellectomy.

  4. Secondary ossification centers in the development of the medial malleolus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMont, Lauren; Ladenhauf, Hannah N; Edobor-Osula, Folorunsho; Bogner, Eric; Do, Huong T; Green, Daniel W

    2015-01-01

    Accessory ossicles of the medial malleolus have been reported, however, these have not been linked to a pattern of development and are considered anomalies. Here, we describe a pattern of ossification of the medial malleolus in children including a secondary ossification center. Twenty anteroposterior (AP) and mortise x-rays of each sex and age from 4 to 12 were randomly selected from skeletally immature patients identified at our institution. X-rays were excluded if there was a cast or splint, fracture, hardware, or obvious tibial deformity. Each x-ray was evaluated and categorized to a 4-part stage of development. These stages were then applied to randomly selected AP hip to ankle films from the same age groups. Four distinct stages of medial malleolus ossification were identified on ankle x-rays. Stage 1 consists of the widening of the epiphysis that did not reach the medial border of the metaphysis. In stage 2, the epiphysis had widened medially to the level of the metaphysis, however, had not extended distally to the level of the dome of the talus. In stage 3, the proximal portion of the medial malleolus has ossified distal to the dome of the talus with ossification centers at this level identified. Stage 4 consisted of a completely fused ossification center extending distally to a mature medial malleolus. The stages were reconfirmed on AP standing hip to ankle to have a similar distribution, secondary ossification centers were more common in females aged 6 to -9 and males aged 8 to 11 years. The medial malleolus develops in predictable stages which may involve a secondary ossification center in the final stages of development. These findings were initially described on AP and mortise views, then confirmed on AP hip to ankle radiographs were evaluated to exclude potentially confounding ankle pain. These secondary ossification centers were seen at similar ages on both ankle and hip to ankle x-rays. Level III.

  5. Restricted Mandibular Movement Attributed to Ossification of Mandibular Depressors and Medial Pterygoid Muscles in Patients With Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva: A Report of 3 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuno, Tetsuko; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Inoue, Akio; Kusukawa, Jingo

    2017-09-01

    Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) is an extremely rare genetic condition characterized by congenital malformation and progressive heterotopic ossification (HO) caused by a recurrent single nucleotide substitution at position 617 in the ACVR1 gene. As the condition progresses, HO leads to joint ankylosis, breathing difficulties, and mouth-opening restriction, and it can shorten the patient's lifespan. This report describes 3 cases of FOP confirmed by genetic testing in patients with restricted mouth opening. Each patient presented a different onset and degree of jaw movement restriction. The anatomic ossification site of the mandibular joint was examined in each patient using reconstructed computed tomographic (CT) images and 3-dimensional reconstructed CT (3D-CT) images. A 29-year-old woman complained of jaw movement restriction since 13 years of age. 3D-CT image of the mandibular joint showed an osseous bridge, formed by the mandibular depressors that open the mouth, between the hyoid bone and the mentum of the mandible. A 39-year-old man presented with jaw movement restriction that developed at 3 years of age after a mouth injury. 3D-CT image of the jaw showed ankylosis of the jaw from ossification of the mandibular depressors that was worse than in patient 1. CT images showed no HO findings of the masticatory muscles. To the authors' knowledge, these are the first 2 case descriptions of the anatomic site of ankylosis involving HO of the mandibular depressors in the jaw resulting from FOP. In contrast, a 62-year-old bedridden woman with an interincisal distance longer than 10 mm (onset, 39 years of age) had no HO of the mandibular depressors and slight HO of the medial pterygoid muscle on the right and left sides. These findings suggest that restricted mouth opening varies according to the presence or absence of HO of the mandibular depressors. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. A potential mechanism of dural ossification in ossification of ligamentum flavum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Guo, Shigong; Qiu, Guixing; Li, Wenjing; Liu, Yongsheng; Zhao, Yu

    2016-07-01

    Ossification of the ligamentum flavum (OLF) mostly occurs in the thoracic spine, leading to thoracic spinal stenosis. Surgical treatment is considered as the best option for OLF patients. When the dura mater ossifies, the difficulty of surgery and the risk of complications significantly increase. The cause of dural ossification (DO) is still unknown. Based on the existing research and clinical studies, we propose a potential mechanism of DO in OLF. Firstly, with the progression of OLF, it will compress the dura mater and even the spinal cord. Then, with flexion and extension of spine, relative movement (friction) between the ossified ligamentum flavum and compressed dura mater will lead to local inflammation, subsequently causing dural adhesion. Finally, the adhesion tissue can serve as a pathway for the transportation of osteogenic cytokines (BMP for example) from the ossified ligamentum flavum to the compressed dura mater. Dura will ossify under exposure of these osteogenic cytokines. If this hypothesis is confirmed, it will contribute to the prevention and management of DO. For progressive OLF patients, early surgical treatment before DO should be recommended. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Yap/Taz transcriptional activity in endothelial cells promotes intramembranous ossification via the BMP pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uemura, Mami; Nagasawa, Ayumi; Terai, Kenta

    2016-01-01

    Osteogenesis is categorized into two groups based on developmental histology, intramembranous and endochondral ossification. The role of blood vessels during endochondral ossification is well known, while their role in intramembranous ossification, especially the intertissue pathway, is poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate endothelial Yap/Taz is a novel regulator of intramembranous ossification in zebrafish. Appropriate blood flow is required for Yap/Taz transcriptional activation in endothelial cells and intramembranous ossification. Additionally, Yap/Taz transcriptional activity in endothelial cells specifically promotes intramembranous ossification. BMP expression by Yap/Taz transactivation in endothelial cells is also identified as a bridging factor between blood vessels and intramembranous ossification. Furthermore, the expression of Runx2 in pre-osteoblast cells is a downstream target of Yap/Taz transcriptional activity in endothelial cells. Our results provide novel insight into the relationship between blood flow and ossification by demonstrating intertissue regulation. PMID:27273480

  8. Multimodality Imaging Evaluation of an Uncommon Entity: Esophageal Heterotopic Pancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takman Mack

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 25-year-old male was referred to the Radiology Department with new onset of right upper quadrant and epigastric abdominal pain. He had no past medical or surgical history. Physical exam was unremarkable. The patient underwent computed tomography (CT, fluoroscopic upper gastrointestinal (GI evaluation, endoscopic ultrasound (EUS, and positron emission tomography (PET evaluation, revealing the presence of a heterogeneous esophageal mass. In light of imaging findings and clinical workup, the patient was ultimately referred for thorascopic surgery. Surgical findings and histology confirmed the diagnosis of esophageal heterotopic pancreas.

  9. Meniscal ossification in spontaneous osteoarthritis in the guinea-pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapadia, R D; Badger, A M; Levin, J M; Swift, B; Bhattacharyya, A; Dodds, R A; Coatney, R W; Lark, M W

    2000-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ossification state of the meniscus in the guinea-pig stifle joint using micro-computerized tomography. Hind limbs from six (N=12) and 24 (N=11) month-old male Hartley guinea-pigs were removed and the joints were imaged using high resolution micro-computerized tomography. The ossified volume of the medial and lateral menisci from both groups of animals was quantified. Ossification of both the medial and lateral menisci of the both the 6- and 24-month-old animals was observed. In both age groups, the ossified region of the medial meniscus was significantly larger than the lateral meniscus. In addition, there is a significant increase in ossified volume of the medial meniscus between 6 and 24 months of age. There is a significant amount of ossification of the menisci in the male Hartley guinea-pig, with the medial compartment showing more bone than the lateral. In addition, as the animals age, there is an increase in ossification within the medial compartment. Bone remodeling and cartilage degeneration is evident in the medial compartment within these animals as they age. It is possible that the increased ossification of the medial meniscus could alter the joint biomechanics and, in part, stimulate this medial compartment joint destruction. Copyright 2000 OsteoArthritis Research Society International.

  10. Penile ossification: A traumatic event or evolutionary throwback? Case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Ibrahim Edhem; Barazani, Yagil; Tareen, Basir

    2013-01-01

    Penile ossification is very rare, with only a handful of histologically confirmed reported cases. The most common condition leading to penile ossification is Peyronie's disease. Other conditions, such as gout, end-stage renal disease, diabetes mellitus, hyperparathyroidism and local trauma, have also been associated with penile ossification. We report a unique case of near-complete penile ossification of the corporal bodies with histologic confirmation on pathologic review. Our report summarizes the literature regarding this rare entity.

  11. Cochlear ossification in patients with profound hearing loss following bacterial meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caye-Thomasen, Per; Dam, Mikkel Seidelin; Omland, Silje Haukali

    2012-01-01

    Cochlear ossification following bacterial meningitis is related to causative pathogen, but not age at disease or time point of evaluation. However, progression may occur over time, especially in case of primary signs of ossification.......Cochlear ossification following bacterial meningitis is related to causative pathogen, but not age at disease or time point of evaluation. However, progression may occur over time, especially in case of primary signs of ossification....

  12. Cervical myelopathy due to ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, L; Merlini, L; Savini, R; Davidovits, P

    1983-09-01

    Ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament in the cervical spine may be a cause of cervical myelopathy. This ossification has often been encountered in Japan, but only sporadically among the Caucasian races. It is therefore probable that racial factors are relevant to the pathology. During the past four years, due to the routine use of computerised axial tomography (CAT) in the pre-operative study of cervical myelopathy, we were able to show that in 13 cases stenosis of the vertebral canal was due to ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament. This was visible in the standard radiographs in only two out of these 13 cases. The clinical data, diagnostic criteria and results of treatment are reported. This is the largest series yet reported outside Japan.

  13. Heterotopic gastric mucosa involving the gallbladder and biliary tree

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madrid, Carmen; Berrocal, Teresa; Gorospe, Luis; Prieto, Consuelo [Department of Paediatric Radiology, Hospital Infantil ' ' La Paz' ' , Paseo de la Castellana 261, 28046 Madrid (Spain); Gamez, Manuel [Department of Paediatric Surgery, Hospital Infantil ' ' La Paz' ' , Madrid (Spain)

    2003-02-01

    A case of heterotopic gastric mucosa in the common bile duct, cystic duct and gallbladder is reported in a 3-year-old girl with abdominal pain and jaundice. Abdominal US and CT showed dilatation of the biliary tree and a well-defined mass in the common bile duct that narrowed its lumen. The gallbladder was contracted in both examinations. The common bile duct and the gallbladder were resected and a choledochojejunostomy was performed. Although gastric heterotopy has been described throughout the entire length of the gastrointestinal tract, it is a very uncommon finding in the gallbladder and extremely rare in the biliary tree. A firm diagnosis of gastric heterotopia is based on the presence of fundal mucosa replete with parietal and chief cells. To our knowledge, this is the fifth reported case of heterotopic gastric tissue within the common bile duct, and the first to describe the US and CT findings. A relevant literature review and brief outline of the histological and radiological features are included in the discussion. (orig.)

  14. Dural ossification associated with ossification of ligamentum flavum in the thoracic spine: a retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Qiu, Guixing; Guo, Shigong; Li, Wenjing; Li, Ye; Peng, Huiming; Wang, Chu; Zhao, Yu

    2016-12-20

    To investigate the incidence, distribution and radiological characteristics of dural ossification (DO) associated with ossification of ligamentum flavum (OLF) in the thoracic spine. A retrospective radiographical analysis. This study was conducted at a single institution in China. 53 patients with OLF who underwent posterior decompression surgery between January 2011 and July 2015 in a single institution were enrolled in this study. The decompression segments were grouped according to imaging evaluation and intraoperative evidences. The demographic distribution, radiological data and detailed surgical records were collected. First, preoperative CT images of decompressed segments were evaluated to identify imaging signs of DO. The 'tram tack sign' (TTS), 'comma sign' and 'bridge sign' were considered as characteristic imaging findings of DO in OLF. 4 kinds of confusing signs (false TTS) were identified and excluded. Then detailed surgical records were reviewed to finally identify segments with DO. The incidence of DO in patients with OLF was 43.4%. The incidence of DO in OLF segments was 21.5%. OLF was more common in the lower thoracic spine, and more than half (53.8%) of the DO was located in T9-T12. TTS was the most common sign, but it might be misdiagnosed. After excluding 4 kinds of false TTS, the sensitivity and specificity of imaging diagnosis were 94.23% and 94.21%, respectively. DO was relatively common in thoracic OLF, especially in T9-T12. TTS might be misdiagnosed. After excluding 4 kinds of false TTS, the accuracy of imaging diagnosis was relatively high. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  15. Indian hedgehog signaling promotes chondrocyte differentiation in enchondral ossification in human cervical ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugita, Daisuke; Yayama, Takafumi; Uchida, Kenzo; Kokubo, Yasuo; Nakajima, Hideaki; Yamagishi, Atsushi; Takeura, Naoto; Baba, Hisatoshi

    2013-10-15

    Histological, immunohistochemical, and immunoblot analyses of the expression of Indian hedgehog (Ihh) signaling in human cervical ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL). To examine the hypothesis that Ihh signaling in correlation with Sox9 and parathyroid-related peptide hormone (PTHrP) facilitates chondrocyte differentiation in enchondral ossification process in human cervical OPLL. In enchondral ossification, certain transcriptional factors regulate cell differentiation. OPLL is characterized by overexpression of these factors and disturbance of the normal cell differentiation process. Ihh signaling is essential for enchondral ossification, especially in chondrocyte hypertrophy. Samples of ossified ligaments were harvested from 45 patients who underwent anterior cervical decompressive surgery for symptomatic OPLL, and 6 control samples from patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy/radiculopathy without OPLL. The harvested sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and toluidine blue, examined by transmission electron microscopy, and immunohistochemically stained for Ihh, PTHrP, Sox9, type X, XI collagen, and alkaline phosphatase. Immunoblot analysis was performed in cultured cells derived from the posterior longitudinal ligaments in the vicinity of the ossified plaque and examined for the expression of these factors. The ossification front in OPLL contained chondrocytes at various differentiation stages, including proliferating chondrocytes in fibrocartilaginous area, hypertrophic chondrocytes around the calcification front, and apoptotic chondrocytes near the ossified area. Immunoreactivity for Ihh and Sox9 was evident in proliferating chondrocytes and was strongly positive for PTHrP in hypertrophic chondrocytes. Mesenchymal cells with blood vessel formation were positive for Ihh, PTHrP, and Sox9. Cultured cells from OPLL tissues expressed significantly higher levels of Ihh, PTHrP, and Sox9 than those in non-OPLL cells. Our results

  16. Effect of method of anesthesia on the reproductive and obstetric outcomes of heterotopic pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, F; Liu, Y F; Liu, J; Huang, Y; Xu, G F; Cai, J; Chen, Y; Wu, Y Q; Ying, Y Y; Zhang, R J; Zhang, D

    2017-12-07

    Anesthesia is commonly used for surgical termination of the extrauterine component of heterotopic pregnancy. We sought to evaluate the effects of general and regional anesthesia during salpingectomy on reproductive and obstetric outcomes of heterotopic pregnancies. A two-center, retrospective cohort study was conducted, and 49 heterotopic pregnancies were included. Baseline characteristics, reproductive and obstetric outcomes were compared between the general anesthesia and regional anesthesia groups. Baseline characteristics were comparable for age, weeks of gestation at diagnosis, and duration of anesthesia. No significant difference was found in pregnancy outcome, perinatal outcome or neonatal weight (P >0.05). The rate of miscarriage in the general anesthesia group was 23.5% versus the regional anesthesia group 15.6% (P >0.05). With respect to reproductive and obstetric outcomes, this retrospective study found no difference between general anesthesia and regional anesthesia used for early heterotopic pregnancy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Just a mirage: heterotopic intrauterine and twin ectopic pregnancy mimicked by mirror imaging on ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Rimsha; Samardzic, Dejan; Santos, Michael A; Mesina, Anna; Maines, Jaimie

    2017-06-01

    Heterotopic pregnancies are rare and are usually diagnosed by transvaginal ultrasound. Despite the routine use of sonography in early pregnancy, artifact created by mirror imaging can drastically and erroneously alter medical decision making by interfering with image interpretation. A heterotopic pregnancy with a single intrauterine gestation and twin left adnexal ectopic gestational sacs was observed on ultrasound in a woman presenting with abdominal pain. During laparoscopy, an ectopic pregnancy was not identified, and subsequent intraoperative ultrasound reproduced the heterotopic pregnancy through manipulation of bowel, confirming mirror image artifact. This phenomenon is rarely seen in obstetric imaging; therefore, lack of awareness can lead to false diagnosis of heterotopic pregnancy. Techniques to verify correct diagnosis should be used to resolve potential mirror artifact before proceeding with surgical management.

  18. Heterotopic pancreatic tissue of the stomach leading to gastric diverticulum and upper gastro-intestinal bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviu Stoian

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Heterotopic pancreatic tissue of the stomach is a rare condition. Gastric diverticulum is also a rare condition, mostly located at the fornix. Therefore, the existence of a pyloric gastric diverticulum containing a submucosal tumor proved to be heterotopic pancreatic tissue of the stomach is an extremely rare condition. The patient was a young thin male with epigastralgia chronically treated for gastritis/ulcer. Following an episode of melena, he underwent gastroscopy that diagnosed antral gastric diverticulum containing a polyp. The lesion was surgically removed. The pathology report stated: heterotopic pancreatic tissue of the stomach with secondary development of a traction diverticulum. Heterotopic pancreas tissue of the stomach is a rare condition but the association with gastric diverticulum is completely unusual. The possibility of the ectopic tissue leading to secondary diverticulum development should be considered.

  19. Case Report: Multiple cervical vertebral fusion with ossification of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fusions of all zygapophyseal joints were observed. The CT image of the specimen confirmed the ossification of the anterior longitudinal ligament with mild calcification of intervertebral discs. With the above features and bony ankylosis of articular facets, it was concluded that this fusion might be due to ankylosing spondylitis.

  20. Jagged1 is essential for osteoblast development during maxillary ossification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Cynthia R.; Yuasa, Masato; Schoenecker, Jonathan; Goudy, Steven L.

    2015-01-01

    Maxillary hypoplasia occurs due to insufficient maxillary intramembranous ossification, leading to poor dental occlusion, respiratory obstruction and cosmetic deformities. Conditional deletion of Jagged1 (Jag1) in cranial neural crest (CNC) cells using Wnt1-cre; Jagged1f/f (Jag1CKO) led to maxillary hypoplasia characterized by intrinsic differences in bone morphology and density using μCT evaluation. Jag1CKO maxillas had altered collagen deposition, delayed ossification, and reduced expression of early and late determinants of osteoblast development during maxillary ossification. In vitro bone cultures on Jag1CKO mouse embryonic maxillary mesenchymal (MEMM) cells demonstrated decreased mineralization that was also associated with diminished induction of osteoblast determinants. BMP receptor expression was dysregulated in the Jag1CKO MEMM cells suggesting that these cells were unable to respond to BMP-induced differentiation. JAG1-Fc rescued in vitro mineralization and osteoblast gene expression changes. These data suggest that JAG1 signaling in CNC-derived MEMM cells is required for osteoblast development and differentiation during maxillary ossification. PMID:24491691

  1. Jagged1 is essential for osteoblast development during maxillary ossification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Cynthia R; Yuasa, Masato; Schoenecker, Jonathan; Goudy, Steven L

    2014-05-01

    Maxillary hypoplasia occurs due to insufficient maxillary intramembranous ossification, leading to poor dental occlusion, respiratory obstruction and cosmetic deformities. Conditional deletion of Jagged1 (Jag1) in cranial neural crest (CNC) cells using Wnt1-cre; Jagged1(f/f) (Jag1CKO) led to maxillary hypoplasia characterized by intrinsic differences in bone morphology and density using μCT evaluation. Jag1CKO maxillas revealed altered collagen deposition, delayed ossification, and reduced expression of early and late determinants of osteoblast development during maxillary ossification. In vitro bone cultures on Jag1CKO mouse embryonic maxillary mesenchymal (MEMM) cells demonstrated decreased mineralization that was also associated with diminished induction of osteoblast determinants. BMP receptor expression was dysregulated in the Jag1CKO MEMM cells suggesting that these cells were unable to respond to BMP-induced differentiation. JAG1-Fc rescued in vitro mineralization and osteoblast gene expression changes. These data suggest that JAG1 signaling in CNC-derived MEMM cells is required for osteoblast development and differentiation during maxillary ossification. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Thinking Meillassoux's Factiality: A Pedagogical Movement against Ossification of Bodymind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oral, Sevket Benhur

    2015-01-01

    This article is about a pedagogical movement I discern in Quentin Meillassoux's ontology. The goal of the essay is to introduce his approach to reality in outline form and offer it as a possible route to conceptualize education as the practice of keeping the bodymind attentive and agile against its unsound ossification by way of providing a…

  3. FGFR3 mutation causes abnormal membranous ossification in achondroplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Rocco, Federico; Biosse Duplan, Martin; Heuzé, Yann; Kaci, Nabil; Komla-Ebri, Davide; Munnich, Arnold; Mugniery, Emilie; Benoist-Lasselin, Catherine; Legeai-Mallet, Laurence

    2014-06-01

    FGFR3 gain-of-function mutations lead to both chondrodysplasias and craniosynostoses. Achondroplasia (ACH), the most frequent dwarfism, is due to an FGFR3-activating mutation which results in impaired endochondral ossification. The effects of the mutation on membranous ossification are unknown. Fgfr3(Y367C/+) mice mimicking ACH and craniofacial analysis of patients with ACH and FGFR3-related craniosynostoses provide an opportunity to address this issue. Studying the calvaria and skull base, we observed abnormal cartilage and premature fusion of the synchondroses leading to modifications of foramen magnum shape and size in Fgfr3(Y367C/+) mice, ACH and FGFR3-related craniosynostoses patients. Partial premature fusion of the coronal sutures and non-ossified gaps in frontal bones were also present in Fgfr3(Y367C/+) mice and ACH patients. Our data provide strong support that not only endochondral ossification but also membranous ossification is severely affected in ACH. Demonstration of the impact of FGFR3 mutations on craniofacial development should initiate novel pharmacological and surgical therapeutic approaches.

  4. Normotopic and heterotopic cortical representations of mystacial vibrissae in rats with subcortical band heterotopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schottler, F; Fabiato, H; Leland, J M; Chang, L Y; Lotfi, P; Getachew, F; Lee, K S

    2001-01-01

    The tish rat is a neurological mutant exhibiting bilateral cortical heterotopia similar to those found in certain epileptic patients. Previous work has shown that thalamocortical fibers originating in the ventroposteromedial nucleus, which in normal animals segregate as 'barrel' representations for individual whiskers, terminate in both normotopic and heterotopic areas of the tish cortex (Schottler et al., 1998). Thalamocortical innervation terminates as barrels in layer IV and diffusely in layer VI of the normotopic area. Discrete patches of terminals are also observed in the underlying heterotopic area suggesting that representations of individual vibrissa may be present in the heterotopic somatosensory areas. The present study examines this issue by investigating the organization of the vibrissal somatosensory system in the tish cortex. Staining for cytochrome oxidase or Nissl substance reveals a normal complement of vibrissal barrels in the normotopic area of the tish cortex. Dense patches of cytochrome oxidase staining are also found in the underlying lateral portions of the heterotopic area (i.e. the same area that is innervated by the ventroposteromedial nucleus). Injections of retrograde tracers into vibrissal areas of either the normotopic or heterotopic area produce topographically organized labeling of neurons restricted to one or a small number of barreloids within the ventroposteromedial nucleus of the thalamus. Physical stimulation of a single whisker (D3 or E3) elicits enhanced uptake of [(14)C]2-deoxyglucose in restricted zones of both the normotopic and heterotopic areas, demonstrating that single whisker stimulation can increase functional activity in both normotopic and heterotopic neurons. These findings indicate that the barrels are intact in the normotopic area and are most consistent with the hypothesis that at least some of the individual vibrissae are 'dually' represented in normotopic and heterotopic positions in the primary somatosensory

  5. Nasal polyps with metaplastic ossification: CT and MR imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yi Kyung; Kim, Hyung-Jin; Kim, Eunhee; Kim, Sung Tae [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jinna [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Seung-Kyu [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Young-Hyeh [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    Metaplastic ossification is a rare event in nasal polyps. The purpose of this study was to review the computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings of nasal polyps with metaplastic ossification. CT (n = 5) and MR (n = 3) images of five patients (four men and one woman; mean age, 59 years) with surgically proven nasal polyp with metaplastic ossification were retrospectively reviewed. The location and morphologic characteristics of metaplastic ossification were documented as well. All lesions were seen as lobulated (n = 3), ovoid (n = 1), or dumbbell-shaped (n = 1) benign-looking masses with a mean size of 3.7 cm (range, 2.4-6.5 cm), located unilaterally in the posterior nasal cavity and nasopharynx (n = 2), posterior nasoethmoidal tract (n = 2), and maxillary sinus and nasal cavity (n = 1). Compared with the brain stem, the soft tissue components of all lesions demonstrated isoattenuation on precontrast CT scans, slight hypointensity on T1-weighted MR images, and hyperintensity on T2-weighted MR images. On contrast-enhanced MR images, heterogeneous enhancement with marked peripheral enhancement was seen in two and homogeneous moderate enhancement in one. All lesions contained centrally located radiodense materials on CT scans, the shape of which was multiple clustered in three, single nodular in one, and single large lobulated in one. Although rare, metaplastic ossification can occur within nasal polyps. The possibility of its diagnosis may be raised when one sees a benign-looking sinonasal mass with centrally located radiodense materials on CT scans. MR imaging may be useful when mycetoma or inverted papilloma cannot be ruled out on CT scans. (orig.)

  6. Genetic analysis of Runx2 function during intramembranous ossification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takarada, Takeshi; Nakazato, Ryota; Tsuchikane, Azusa; Fujikawa, Koichi; Iezaki, Takashi; Yoneda, Yukio; Hinoi, Eiichi

    2016-01-15

    Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) is an essential transcriptional regulator of osteoblast differentiation and its haploinsufficiency leads to cleidocranial dysplasia because of a defect in osteoblast differentiation during bone formation through intramembranous ossification. The cellular origin and essential period for Runx2 function during osteoblast differentiation in intramembranous ossification remain poorly understood. Paired related homeobox 1 (Prx1) is expressed in craniofacial mesenchyme, and Runx2 deficiency in cells of the Prx1 lineage (in mice referred to here as Runx2prx1 (-/-)) resulted in defective intramembranous ossification. Runx2 was heterogeneously expressed in Prx1-GFP(+) cells located at the intrasutural mesenchyme in the calvaria of transgenic mice expressing GFP under the control of the Prx1 promoter. Double-positive cells for Prx1-GFP and stem cell antigen-1 (Sca1) (Prx1(+)Sca1(+) cells) in the calvaria expressed Runx2 at lower levels and were more homogeneous and primitive than Prx1(+)Sca1(-) cells. Osterix (Osx) is another transcriptional determinant of osteoblast lineages expressed by osteoblast precursors; Osx is highly expressed by Prx1(-)Runx2(+) cells at the osteogenic front and on the surface of mineralized bone in the calvaria. Runx2 deficiency in cells of the Osx lineage (in mice referred to here as Runx2osx (-/-)) resulted in severe defects in intramembranous ossification. These findings indicate that the essential period of Runx2 function in intramembranous ossification begins at the Prx1(+)Sca1(+) mesenchymal stem cell stage and ends at the Osx(+)Prx1(-)Sca1(-) osteoblast precursor stage. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  7. MRI differentiates femoral condylar ossification evolution from osteochondritis dissecans. A new sign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jans, Lennart B.O.; Huysse, Wouter C.; Verstraete, Koenraad L. [Ghent University Hospital, Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, Ghent (Belgium); Jaremko, Jacob L.; Ditchfield, Michael [University of Melbourne Royal Children' s Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, Melbourne, Vic (Australia)

    2011-06-15

    To determine if MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) of the femoral condyles in children can differentiate variations in ossification from osteochondritis dissecans (OCD). MRI studies of the knee of 315 patients demonstrated ossification defects of the femoral condyles involving the subchondral bone plate. MRI features categorized the defects as ossification variability (N = 150) or OCD (N = 165). Both groups were compared for age, residual physeal cartilage, site, configuration, 'lesion angle' and associated findings. (a) Ossification variability did not occur in girls >10 year. and boys >13 year., OCD did not occur in children younger than 8 year. (b) Ossification variability was not seen in patients with 10% or less residual physeal cartilage, OCD was rare in patients with 30% or greater residual physeal cartilage. (c) Ossification variability was located in the posterior third of the femoral condyle, OCD occurred most commonly in the middle third. (d) Intracondylar extension was seen in OCD and not in ossification variability. (e) Perilesional oedema was very common with OCD and absent with ossification variability. (f) Lesion angle <105 was a feature of ossification variability. MRI may help differentiate variations in ossification of the femoral condyles from OCD. (orig.)

  8. Skeletal development in the African elephant and ossification timing in placental mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hautier, Lionel; Stansfield, Fiona J.; Allen, W. R. Twink; Asher, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    We provide here unique data on elephant skeletal ontogeny. We focus on the sequence of cranial and post-cranial ossification events during growth in the African elephant (Loxodonta africana). Previous analyses on ossification sequences in mammals have focused on monotremes, marsupials, boreoeutherian and xenarthran placentals. Here, we add data on ossification sequences in an afrotherian. We use two different methods to quantify sequence heterochrony: the sequence method and event-paring/Parsimov. Compared with other placentals, elephants show late ossifications of the basicranium, manual and pedal phalanges, and early ossifications of the ischium and metacarpals. Moreover, ossification in elephants starts very early and progresses rapidly. Specifically, the elephant exhibits the same percentage of bones showing an ossification centre at the end of the first third of its gestation period as the mouse and hamster have close to birth. Elephants show a number of features of their ossification patterns that differ from those of other placental mammals. The pattern of the initiation of the ossification evident in the African elephant underscores a possible correlation between the timing of ossification onset and gestation time throughout mammals. PMID:22298853

  9. Meniscal ossification. II. The normal pattern in the tiger knee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganey, T M; Ogden, J A; Abou-Madi, N; Colville, B; Zdyziarski, J M; Olsen, J H

    1994-04-01

    Examination of knee menisci of Bengal tigers revealed ossicles within the cartilaginous anterior horn of each medial meniscus. This ossification was not evident in the neonatal animal, but was present in animals aged 20 months or older. The ossicle appeared prior to the completion of skeletal maturation at the knee, and was composed of normal remodeling trabecular bone. While most animals had a single, variably sized ossicle, multiple ossicles also occurred. The meniscal cartilage apposed to the femoral articulation exhibited a distinct columnar pattern in the region of the ossicle, in contrast to the non-columnar pattern throughout the bulk of the meniscus, including the ossicle side apposed to the tibial plateau. In this particular large mammalian species medial meniscal ossification appears to be a normal anatomical variation that progressively develops following birth, and may serve as a model for the phylogenetic (developmental) theory of etiology.

  10. Could Ossification of the Achilles Tendon Have a Hereditary Component?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chawki Cortbaoui

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ossification of the Achilles tendon (OTA is an unusual clinical condition. It is characterized by the presence of an ossified mass within the fibrocartilaginous substance of the Achilles tendon. The etiology of the ossification of the Achilles tendon is unknown. Review of the literature suggests that its etiology is multifactorial. The major contributing factors are trauma and surgery with other minor causes such as systemic diseases, metabolic conditions, and infections. To our knowledge, no previous reports suggest any genetic/hereditary predisposition in OAT. We report 3 siblings who have OAT with no history of any of the aforementioned predisposing factors. Could OAT have a hereditary component as one of its etiologies?

  11. Heterotopic transplantation of a decellularized and recellularized whole porcine heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitahara, Hiroto; Yagi, Hiroshi; Tajima, Kazuki; Okamoto, Kazuma; Yoshitake, Akihiro; Aeba, Ryo; Kudo, Mikihiko; Kashima, Ichiro; Kawaguchi, Shinji; Hirano, Akinori; Kasai, Mio; Akamatsu, Yuta; Oka, Hidetoshi; Kitagawa, Yuko; Shimizu, Hideyuki

    2016-05-01

    One of the final treatments for end-stage heart failure is heart transplantation. However, a shortage of donor hearts has created a long waiting list and limited benefits. Our ultimate goal is to create a whole beating heart fabricated on an organ scaffold for human heart transplantation. Here, we successfully performed the first transplantation using a decellularized whole porcine heart with mesenchymal stem cells. A porcine heart was harvested following cardiac arrest induced by a high-potassium solution and stored at -80°C for 24 h. The porcine heart was completely decellularized with 1% sodium dodecyl sulphate and 1% Triton X-100 under the control of perfusion pressure (100 mmHg) and maintained at 37°C. A decellularized whole-heart scaffold was sterilized with gamma irradiation. Cultured mesenchymal stem cells were collected and either infused into the ascending aorta or injected directly into the left ventricular wall. Finally, recellularized whole-heart scaffolds were transplanted into pigs under systemic anticoagulation treatment with heparin. Coronary artery angiography of the transplanted heart graft was performed. In our decellularization method, all cellular components were removed, preserving the heart extracellular matrix. Heterotopic transplantations were successfully performed using a decellularized heart and a recellularized heart. The scaffolds were well perfused, without bleeding from the surface or anastomosis site. Coronary angiography revealed a patent coronary artery in both scaffolds. The transplanted decellularized heart was harvested on Day 3. Haematoxylin and eosin staining showed thrombosis in the coronary arteries and migrated inflammatory cells. Haematoxylin and eosin staining of the transplanted recellularized heart showed similar findings, with the exception of injected mesenchymal stem cells. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of heterotopic transplantation of a decellularized whole porcine heart with

  12. Medial patellar ossification after patellar instability: a radiographic finding indicative of prior patella subluxation/dislocation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jerabek, Seth A. [Harvard Combined Orthopaedic Surgery Residency Program, Boston, MA (United States); Asnis, Peter D.; Poon, Steven K.; Gill, Thomas J. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Boston, MA (United States); Bredella, Miriam A.; Ouellette, Hugue A. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2009-08-15

    To describe the correlation between medial patellar ossification and prior patella subluxation and/or dislocation. A retrospective billing database search identified 544 patients who had been diagnosed with patellar instability over a 13-year period. One hundred twenty-eight patients met the inclusion criteria. After review by a staff orthopedic surgeon and two musculoskeletal radiologists, 28 patients were found to have medial patellar ossification. The size and location of medial patellar ossification was recorded. Of the 28 patients (20 males, eight females, age 13-66 years, mean 28 years) who were found to have medial patellar ossification, 22 had radiographs, 16 had magnetic resonance imaging, and ten had both. The medial patellar ossification ranged in size from 2 to 18 mm with an average of 6.8 mm. Twelve were located in the medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL), 14 in the medial joint capsule, and two in both the MPFL and joint capsule. Twenty-seven of 28 patients had a single ossification, and one patient had two ossifications. The timing from injury to first imaging of the lesion ranged from 10 days to a chronic history ({>=}35 years) of patellar instability. Medial patellar ossification correlates with a history of prior patella subluxation and/or dislocation. The medial ossification can be seen within the MPFL or the medial joint capsule, suggesting remote injury to these structures. The presence of this lesion will prompt physicians to evaluate for patellar instability. (orig.)

  13. Ossification of the posterior atlantoaxial membrane associated with atlas hypoplasia: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yichen; Zhou, Dongxiao; Gao, Rui; Ma, Jun; Wang, Ce; Zhou, Xuhui

    2016-11-01

    Hypoplasia with an intact posterior arch of the atlas and ossification of the posterior atlantoaxial membrane (PAAM) are individually rare. The patient presented with a 6-month history of progressive weakness and paresthesia of his lower extremities. Cervical myelopathy resulting from atlas hypoplasia and ossification of the posterior atlantoaxial membrane. Laminectomy of the atlas with duroplasty. Preoperative symptoms were alleviated. In most reported cases, either atlas hypoplasia or ossification of the PAAM is responsible for patients' myelopathy. The case illustrated here, to the best of our knowledge, is the first one with coexistent atlas hypoplasia and ossification of the PAAM. And laminectomy of the atlas with duroplasty provided satisfied outcome.

  14. Adenocarcinoma arising in a heterotopic pancreas (Heinrich type III: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egashira Yutaro

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Heterotopic pancreatic cancer in the duodenum is a very rare disease. Only twelve cases have been reported worldwide to date. We report a rare case of malignant transformation of heterotopic pancreas (Heinrich type III in the duodenum with long-term survival of the patient, and review the 12 cases in the literature. Case presentation A 75-year-old Japanese man was admitted to our hospital complaining of nausea and vomiting. Endoscopy and upper gastrointestinal contrast study showed marked duodenal stenosis. A pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy was performed. Histopathological examination of the surgically resected specimen showed malignant transformation of heterotopic pancreas (Heinrich type III in the duodenum. The postoperative course was uneventful, and the patient was discharged from the hospital on postoperative day 30. He is well and shows no signs of recurrence at the time of writing, six years after the surgery. Conclusion Adenocarcinoma arising within the heterotopic pancreas appears to be rare. It is difficult to obtain a correct diagnosis preoperatively. The management of heterotopic pancreas depends on the presence or absence of symptoms. If the patient is asymptomatic or benign, conservative treatment with regular follow-up is recommended. When the patient is symptomatic or there is a suspicion of malignancy, surgical management with intra-operative frozen section diagnosis is indicated.

  15. Relationship between the chondrocyte maturation cycle and the endochondral ossification in the diaphyseal and epiphyseal ossification centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazzaglia, Ugo E; Congiu, Terenzio; Sibilia, Valeria; Pagani, Francesca; Benetti, Anna; Zarattini, Guido

    2016-09-01

    The chondrocyte maturation cycle and endochondral ossification were studied in human, fetal cartilage Anlagen and in postnatal meta-epiphyses. The relationship between the lacunar area, the inter-territorial fibril network variations, and calcium phosphorus nucleation in primary and secondary ossification centers were assessed using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) morphometry. The Anlage topographic, zonal classification was derived from the anatomical nomenclature of the completely developed long bone (diaphysis, metaphyses and epiphyses). A significant increase in the chondrocyte lacunar area was documented in the Anlage of epiphyseal zones 4 and 3 to zone 2 (metaphysis) and zone 1 (diaphysis), with the highest variation from zone 2 to zone 1. An inverse reduction in the intercellular matrix area and matrix interfibrillar empty space was also documented. These findings are consistent with the osmotic passage of free cartilage water from the interfibrillar space into the swelling chondrocytes, which increased the ion concentrations to a critical threshold for mineral precipitation in the matrix. The mineralized cartilage served as a scaffold for osteoblast apposition both in primary and secondary ossification centers and in the metaphyseal growth plate cartilage, though at different periods of bone Anlage development and with distinct patterns for each zone. All developmental processes shared a common initial pathway but progressed at different rates, modes and organization in diaphysis, metaphysis and epiphysis. In the ossification phase the developing vascular supply appeared to play a key role in determining the cortical or trabecular structure of the long bones. J. Morphol. 277:1187-1198, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Thyroid Sporadic Goiter with Adult Heterotopic Bone Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handra-Luca, Adriana; Dumuis-Gimenez, Marie-Laure; Bendib, Mouna; Anagnostis, Panagiotis

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid heterotopic bone formation (HBF) in goiter is a rare finding. Five thyroid resection specimens were analyzed for HBF. The results were correlated with clinicomorphological features. All patients were women (33–82 years). The preoperative diagnosis was thyroid goiter or nodule. Treatment consisted in thyroidectomy and lobectomy (3 and 2, resp.). Microscopy showed sporadic nodular goiter. Malformative blood vessels and vascular calcifications were seen in intra- and extrathyroid location (5 and 3, resp.). The number and size of HBFs (total: 28) ranged between 1 and 23/thyroid gland (one bilateral) and 1 and 10 mm, respectively. Twelve HBFs were in contact with the thyroid capsule. Most were extranodular (21, versus 6 intranodular). The medical history was positive for dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, renal dysfunction, and hyperuricemia (2, 3, and 3 cases and 1 case, resp.) without any parathyroid abnormality. In conclusion, thyroid HBF may be characterized by subcapsular or extranodular location, various size (usually ≥2 mm), and vascular calcifications and malformations. Features of metabolic syndrome and renal dysfunction may be present, but their exact role in the pathogenesis of HBFs remains to be elucidated. PMID:26697239

  17. Thyroid Sporadic Goiter with Adult Heterotopic Bone Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Handra-Luca

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid heterotopic bone formation (HBF in goiter is a rare finding. Five thyroid resection specimens were analyzed for HBF. The results were correlated with clinicomorphological features. All patients were women (33–82 years. The preoperative diagnosis was thyroid goiter or nodule. Treatment consisted in thyroidectomy and lobectomy (3 and 2, resp.. Microscopy showed sporadic nodular goiter. Malformative blood vessels and vascular calcifications were seen in intra- and extrathyroid location (5 and 3, resp.. The number and size of HBFs (total: 28 ranged between 1 and 23/thyroid gland (one bilateral and 1 and 10 mm, respectively. Twelve HBFs were in contact with the thyroid capsule. Most were extranodular (21, versus 6 intranodular. The medical history was positive for dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, renal dysfunction, and hyperuricemia (2, 3, and 3 cases and 1 case, resp. without any parathyroid abnormality. In conclusion, thyroid HBF may be characterized by subcapsular or extranodular location, various size (usually ≥2 mm, and vascular calcifications and malformations. Features of metabolic syndrome and renal dysfunction may be present, but their exact role in the pathogenesis of HBFs remains to be elucidated.

  18. Hand reconstruction using heterotopic replantation of amputated index and little fingers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Gong-lin

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】In cases of severe segmental injury across the hand and wrist, but one or other fingers are still in peak condition, the fingers can be selected for replantation at the forearm bones to restore pinch function. Here we reported an unusual case with a severe crush-avulsion amputated injury to the right hand caused by a machine accident. We conducted hand reconstruction using heterotopic replantation of the amputated index and little fingers. During 19 months follow-up, the bone union healed well with satisfactory outcome. The interphalangeal and metacarpophalangeal joint of the fingers after the heterotopic replantation had a good holding activity. This is a worthwhile procedure and the patient is satisfied with the result. The major disadvantage of this method is the poor appearance of the reconstructed fingers. Key words: Amputation traumatic; Hand injuries; Replantation; Transplantation heterotopic

  19. Heterotopic salivary gland presenting as a discharging sinus in the base of the neck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shraddha Jain

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of congenital heterotopic salivary gland with draining sinus in the lower neck on the right side of a 10-year-old female, which we initially thought to be a branchial fistula. Heterotopic salivary glands are rare lesions in the neck and when present appear very similar to branchial cleft sinus or fistula. This congenital lesion is rare. This is probably the first report from India. It is important to report this case to raise the awareness of this condition.

  20. Ossification of the vertebral column in human foetuses: histological and computed tomography studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skórzewska, A; Grzymisławska, M; Bruska, M; Lupicka, J; Woźniak, W

    2013-08-01

    There is no agreement in the literature as to the time of the onset and progress of the vertebral column ossification. The aim of the present study was to determine the precise sequence of ossification of the neural arches and vertebral centra.Histological and radiographic studies were performed on 27 human foetuses aged from 9 to 21 weeks. It was found that the ossification of vertebrae commences in foetuses aged 10 and 11 weeks. Ossification centres appear first for neuralarches in the cervical and upper thoracic vertebrae and by the end of 11th week they are present in all thoracic and lumbar neural arches. In the vertebral centrain foetus of 10 weeks ossification was found in the lower 7 thoracic and first lumbar vertebrae. By the end of 11th week ossification is present in the lower 4 cervical, all thoracic, all lumbar and 4 sacral vertebral centra. The study indicates that ossification of the neural arches proceeds in the craniocaudal direction,whereas in the vertebral centra it progresses from the lower thoracic vertebrae into both directions. Different shapes of ossification centres were also described.

  1. Heterotopic heart transplantation: a single-centre experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boffini, M; Ragni, T; Pellegrini, C; Goggi, C; D'Armini, A M; Rinaldi, M; Viganò, M

    2004-04-01

    Orthotopic heart transplantation (OHTx) represents the therapy of choice for end-stage heart disease not treatable with medical or conservative surgical approach. Heterotopic heart transplantation (HHTx) is a surgical procedure in which the graft is connected to the native heart in a parallel fashion and it was especially employed in precyclosporine era. The aim of this paper is to present our experience with HHTx. From November 1985 till May 2003, 713 heart transplanted patients included 12 (1.7%) received HHTx. Eleven were male, mean age was 50.7 +/- 5.8 years. Five patients suffered from dilated cardiomyopathy and seven from ischemic cardiomyopathy. Indication for HHTx was: a body size mismatch in 11 cases and availability of a marginal organ in one case. Mean ischemic time was 149 +/- 48 minutes and mean cross-clamp time was 82.3 +/- 19.1 minutes. In four cases left ventricle aneurysm resection was associated with HHTx. Hospital mortality was 8.3% (one patient due to multiorgan failure). The actuarial survival rates were 92% and 64% at 1 and 5 years, respectively. The causes of death were: liver cancer, liver cirrosis, aortic dissection, cerebrovascular accident, and chronic rejection. In our experience, HHTx survival rate is comparable to OHTx. Because of the scarcity of donors, use of an undersized or marginal graft is a valid option to increase the number of transplanted patients. The major disadvantages of HHTx are the need for anticoagulant therapy, the more difficult hemodynamic and immunologic follow-up, and the presence of the diseased native heart.

  2. Dentigerous cyst (Heterotopic polydontia in a horse - A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago C. Peixoto

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Peixoto T.C., Nogueira V.A., Oliveira M.C., Pires A.P.C., Veiga C.C.P., D’Ávila M.S., Souza B.G. & França T.N. [Dentigerous cyst (Heterotopic polydontia in a horse - A case report.] Cisto dentígero (Polidontia Heterotópica em equino - Relato de caso. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 38(Supl.2:139-142, 2016. Setor de Anatomia Patológica, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Rodovia BR-465 Km 7, Seropédica, RJ 23890-000, Brasil. E-mail: vivianmedvet@yahoo.com.br It is described a case of dentigerous cyst in a 2-year-old female pampa horse that showed swelling in the right temporal region and a draining tract near the right pinna. The diagnosis is established with clinical, radiographic and histopathological examination of the surrounding structures. Dentigerous cyst is an uncommon condition in horses and it occurs most frequently in young animals. Twelve 1,3-4 cm white firm structures were removed, some with central pulp canal and longitudinal grooves in the external surface, grossly resembling teeth. Microscopic examination showed a structure compatible with dental tissue lined by a non-keratinezed epithelium. A lympho-plasmocitary inflammatory reaction was also seem in the dermis. Differential diagnoses includes congenital deformities of the bone, trauma, abscess and perforating foreign bodies. Post- -operative complications include haemorrhage, fracture of the temporal bone and permanent neurological damage. This case highlights the importance of the investigation of recurrent abscess in horses that are resistant to antibiotics.

  3. Endochondral ossification in vitro is influenced by mechanical bending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trepczik, Britta; Lienau, Jasmin; Schell, Hanna; Epari, Devakara R; Thompson, Mark S; Hoffmann, Jan-Erik; Kadow-Romacker, Anke; Mundlos, Stefan; Duda, Georg N

    2007-03-01

    Bone development is influenced by the local mechanical environment. Experimental evidence suggests that altered loading can change cell proliferation and differentiation in chondro- and osteogenesis during endochondral ossification. This study investigated the effects of three-point bending of murine fetal metatarsal bone anlagen in vitro on cartilage differentiation, matrix mineralization and bone collar formation. This is of special interest because endochondral ossification is also an important process in bone healing and regeneration. Metatarsal preparations of 15 mouse fetuses stage 17.5 dpc were dissected en bloc and cultured for 7 days. After 3 days in culture to allow adherence they were stimulated 4 days for 20 min twice daily by a controlled bending of approximately 1000-1500 microstrain at 1 Hz. The paraffin-embedded bone sections were analyzed using histological and histomorphometrical techniques. The stimulated group showed an elongated periosteal bone collar while the total bone length was not different from controls. The region of interest (ROI), comprising the two hypertrophic zones and the intermediate calcifying diaphyseal zone, was greater in the stimulated group. The mineralized fraction of the ROI was smaller in the stimulated group, while the absolute amount of mineralized area was not different. These results demonstrate that a new device developed to apply three-point bending to a mouse metatarsal bone culture model caused an elongation of the periosteal bone collar, but did not lead to a modification in cartilage differentiation and matrix mineralization. The results corroborate the influence of biophysical stimulation during endochondral bone development in vitro. Further experiments with an altered loading regime may lead to more pronounced effects on the process of endochondral ossification and may provide further insights into the underlying mechanisms of mechanoregulation which also play a role in bone regeneration.

  4. Ossification of coracoclavicular ligament in complete paraplegia: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, A Z; AlSaleh, A J; AlHalemi, A A

    2015-01-01

    A case report. The objective of this study was to highlight the possible etiological factors and functional implications of coracoclavicular ligament ossification in a man with paraplegia. This study was conducted in King Fahad Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A 25-year-old man was admitted as a case of complete traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) at the T3 level for comprehensive rehabilitation after 4 months of injury. He also had a right clavicular fracture, which was managed conservatively. During his rehabilitation course, he complained of chronic right shoulder pain, which limited his activities of daily living, transfers and wheelchair mobility. His shoulder examination was unremarkable for impingement but range of motion was restricted, which rendered the need for imaging. A computed tomography scan showed ossification of coracoclavicular ligament, illustrating a rare synostosis between the clavicle and scapula. In addition to pain management, the patient was trained on shoulder conservation techniques for performing functional tasks and showed enhanced independence in various activities of daily living. SCI has an association with neurogenic heterotropic ossification (HO), which usually develops below the level of injury. A low threshold for investigating HO may be considered at fracture sites even if they are above the level of SCI, for early prevention and treatment of this disabling complication. The abnormal cross-union between the clavicle and the scapula owing to HO can alter the mechanics of the shoulder girdle along with soft tissue injuries and early degenerative changes. Formation of shoulder HO can be particularly accelerated in SCI patients due to excessive use of upper limbs and to the neurogenic nature of the injury.

  5. MEMO1 drives cranial endochondral ossification and palatogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Otterloo, Eric; Feng, Weiguo; Jones, Kenneth L; Hynes, Nancy E; Clouthier, David E; Niswander, Lee; Williams, Trevor

    2016-07-15

    The cranial base is a component of the neurocranium and has a central role in the structural integration of the face, brain and vertebral column. Consequently, alteration in the shape of the human cranial base has been intimately linked with primate evolution and defective development is associated with numerous human facial abnormalities. Here we describe a novel recessive mutant mouse strain that presented with a domed head and fully penetrant cleft secondary palate coupled with defects in the formation of the underlying cranial base. Mapping and non-complementation studies revealed a specific mutation in Memo1 - a gene originally associated with cell migration. Expression analysis of Memo1 identified robust expression in the perichondrium and periosteum of the developing cranial base, but only modest expression in the palatal shelves. Fittingly, although the palatal shelves failed to elevate in Memo1 mutants, expression changes were modest within the shelves themselves. In contrast, the cranial base, which forms via endochondral ossification had major reductions in the expression of genes responsible for bone formation, notably matrix metalloproteinases and markers of the osteoblast lineage, mirrored by an increase in markers of cartilage and extracellular matrix development. Concomitant with these changes, mutant cranial bases showed an increased zone of hypertrophic chondrocytes accompanied by a reduction in both vascular invasion and mineralization. Finally, neural crest cell-specific deletion of Memo1 caused a failure of anterior cranial base ossification indicating a cell autonomous role for MEMO1 in the development of these neural crest cell derived structures. However, palate formation was largely normal in these conditional mutants, suggesting a non-autonomous role for MEMO1 in palatal closure. Overall, these findings assign a new function to MEMO1 in driving endochondral ossification in the cranium, and also link abnormal development of the cranial base

  6. Characteristic calcaneal ossification: an additional early radiographic finding in infants with fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, Sachi [Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Nagoya, Aichi (Japan); Victoria, Teresa [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Kayserili, Huelya [Koc University School of Medicine (KUSOM), Medical Genetics Department, Istanbul (Turkey); Zackai, Elaine [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Medical Genetics, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Nishimura, Gen; Haga, Nobuhiko; Nakashima, Yasuharu; Miyazaki, Osamu [The Research Committee on Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva, Tokyo (Japan); Kitoh, Hiroshi [Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Nagoya, Aichi (Japan); The Research Committee on Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva, Tokyo (Japan)

    2016-10-15

    We have clinically encountered children with fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva who had abnormal calcaneal ossification. To evaluate whether calcaneal ossification variants are significant radiographic findings in children with fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva. Lateral feet radiographs in nine children who fulfilled the diagnostic criteria of fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva were reviewed. The studies were obtained during infancy or early childhood. Fourteen lateral foot radiographs of fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva were available for this study (ages at examination: 1-104 months). Four children ages 2 months to 11 months showed double calcaneal ossification centers; 7 children had plantar calcaneal spurs that decreased in size with age. Overall, eight of nine children with fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva demonstrated double calcaneal ossifications and/or plantar calcaneal spurs in infancy or childhood. Double calcaneal ossification centers in early infancy and plantar calcaneal spurs in childhood are frequently seen in children with fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva and may be a useful radiologic indicator for early diagnosis. (orig.)

  7. Gestation length and racing performance in 115 Thoroughbred foals with incomplete tarsal ossification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haywood, L; Spike-Pierce, D L; Barr, B; Mathys, D; Mollenkopf, D

    2018-01-01

    Incomplete ossification of the cuboidal bones of the carpus and tarsus in foals has the potential for significant consequences including chronic lameness and decreased athletic ability. To determine if the degree of ossification of the cuboidal bones is associated with gestational length and if the diagnosis of incomplete ossification is a predictor of performance in Thoroughbred racehorses. Retrospective cohort study. The medical records of Thoroughbred foals less than 90 days of age from 1994 to 2011 were examined and records containing tarsal radiographs identified. Radiographs of the tarsus were examined for signs of incomplete ossification and those that were incompletely ossified graded on a scale of 1-4 using a modification of a previously reported index, with Grade 1 being the least ossified and Grade 4 being the most. Gestational length was determined by examining breeding records and foaling dates reported to the Jockey Club. Race records for 2- and 3-year-old affected foals and their maternal siblings were obtained and compared. Foals with Grades 1 and 2 ossification were usually premature (gestation length ossification were significantly less likely to race than their maternal siblings and Grades 1, 2, 3 and 4 foals earned less money. A larger sample size of foals with Grade 1 ossification would increase the power of the study. Foals radiographed at an older age may have had lower ossification scores if radiographed earlier. Incomplete ossification, especially Grades 1 and 2, is associated with a short gestation length. Foals with Grades 2 and 3 incomplete ossification were less likely to race and Grades 1, 2 and 3 earned around $30,000 less than their maternal siblings. © 2017 EVJ Ltd.

  8. Comparison of histomorphometry and 85Sr uptake in induced heterotopic bone in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solheim, E; Pinholt, E M; Bang, G

    1992-01-01

    Heterotopic bone formation in the abdominal muscle of 45 male 8-week-old Wistar rats induced by implantation of 5, 10, or 15 mg demineralized bone (DBM) powder was evaluated at 4 weeks by 85Sr uptake of the implants and area histomorphometry of the induced bone. Two indices of 85Sr uptake were ca...

  9. Heterotopic neuroglial tissue: two cases involving the tongue and the buccal region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanaes, Kasper; Hasselby, Jane Preuss; Bilde, Anders

    2008-01-01

    for these heterotopias. The first lesion was located in the buccal area in an 8-year-old boy and the second lesion in the tongue of a 2-year-old boy. They had relatively small lesions with few clinical symptoms. Complete excision was made and the follow-up was unremarkable. Heterotopic neuroglial tissue is considered...

  10. Neural correlates of heterotopic facilitation induced after high frequency electrical stimulation of nociceptive pathways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeke, E.N. van den; Heck, C.H. van; Rijn, C.M. van; Wilder-Smith, O.H.G.

    2011-01-01

    Background High frequency electrical stimulation (HFS) of primary nociceptive afferents in humans induce a heightened sensitivity in the surrounding non-stimulated skin area. Several studies suggest that this heterotopic effect is the result of central (spinal) plasticity. The aim of this study is

  11. Neural correlates of heterotopic facilitation induced after high frequency electrical stimulation of nociceptive pathways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeke, E.N. van den; Heck, C.H. van; Rijn, C.M. van; Wilder-Smith, O.H.G.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: High frequency electrical stimulation (HFS) of primary nociceptive afferents in humans induce a heightened sensitivity in the surrounding non-stimulated skin area. Several studies suggest that this heterotopic effect is the result of central (spinal) plasticity. The aim of this study is

  12. “Her letters cut are generally nothing of interest”:1 The Heterotopic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    “Her letters cut are generally nothing of interest”:1 The Heterotopic Persona of Olive Schreiner and the Alterity-Persona of Cronwright-Schreiner. L Stanley, A Salter. Abstract. The writings of feminist writer and social theorist Olive Schreiner (1855- 1920), author of The Story of an African Farm, Dreams, From Man to Man,

  13. Ossificação pulmonar dendriforme Dendriform pulmonary ossification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrezza Araújo de Oliveira Duarte

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A ossificação pulmonar difusa é uma condição rara, de etiologia desconhecida, na qual osso maduro é encontrado no parênquima pulmonar. É quase sempre descoberta como um achado incidental de autópsias. Freqüentemente afeta homens de meia-idade e é assintomática. Relata-se o caso de um paciente de 75 anos, que apresentou uma radiografia torácica com comprometimento pulmonar difuso e cujo diagnóstico foi baseado no exame histopatológico de fragmento pulmonar obtido através da biópsia a céu aberto, o qual demonstrou fibrose intersticial acentuada com ossificação do parênquima pulmonar.Diffuse pulmonary ossification is a rare condition of unknown pathogenesis in which mature bone is found in the pulmonary parenchyma. It is almost invariably discovered as an incidental finding at autopsy. Most commonly, it affects middle-aged men and is asymptomatic. We present the case of a 75-year-old man in which the chest X-ray showed diffuse interstitial infiltrate. Diagnosis was based on histopathological examination by open-lung biopsy, which revealed interstitial fibrosis with pulmonary ossification.

  14. Pathogenesis of ligaments ossification in spondyloarthritis: insights and doubts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neve, Anna; Maruotti, Nicola; Corrado, Addolorata; Cantatore, Francesco Paolo

    2017-05-01

    Despite intensive research in spondyloarthritis pathogenesis, some important questions still remain unanswered, particularly concerning enthesis new bone formation. Several evidences suggest that it prevalently occurs by endochondral ossification, however it remains to identify factors that can induce and influence its initiation and progression. Recent progress, achieved in animal models and in vitro and genetic association studies, has led us to hypothesize that several systemic factors (adipokines and gut hormones) and local factors (BMP and Wnt signaling) as well as angiogenesis and mechanical stress are involved. We critically review and summarize the available data and delineate the possible mechanisms involved in enthesis ossification, particularly at spinal ligament level. KEY MESSAGES Complete understanding of spondyloarthritis pathophysiology requires insights into inflammation, bone destruction and bone formation, which are all located in entheses and lead all together to ankylosis and functional disability. Several factors probably play a role in the pathogenesis of bone formation in entheses including not only cytokines but also several systemic factors such as adipokines and gut hormones, and local factors, such as BMP and Wnt signaling, as well as angiogenesis and mechanical stress. Data available about pathophysiology of new bone formation in spondyloarthritis are limited and often conflicting and future studies are needed to better delineate it and to develop new therapeutic approaches.

  15. Prenatal cranial ossification of the humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampe, Oliver; Franke, Helena; Hipsley, Christy A; Kardjilov, Nikolay; Müller, Johannes

    2015-05-01

    Being descendants of small terrestrial ungulate mammals, whales underwent enormous transformations during their evolutionary history, that is, extensive changes in anatomy, physiology, and behavior were evolved during secondary adaptations to life in water. However, still only little is known about whale ontogenetic development, which help to identify the timing and sequence of critical evolutionary events, such as modification of the cetacean ear. This is particularly true for baleen whales (Mysticeti), the group including the humpback whale Megaptera novaeangliae. We use high-resolution X-ray computed tomography to reinvestigate humpback whale fetuses from the Kükenthal collection at the Museum für Naturkunde, Berlin, thus, extending historic descriptions of their skeletogenesis and providing for the first time sequences of cranial ossification for this species. Principally, the ossification sequence of prenatal Megaptera follows a typical mammalian pattern with the anterior dermal bones being the first ossifying elements in the skull, starting with the dentary. In contrast to other mammals, the ectotympanic bone ossifies at an early stage. Alveolar structure can be observed in both the maxillae and dentaries in these early prenatal specimens but evidence for teeth is lacking. Although the possibility of obtaining new embryological material is unlikely due to conservation issues, our study shows that reexamination of existing specimens employing new technologies still holds promise for filling gaps in our knowledge of whale evolution and ontogeny. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Gray, White Matter Concentration Changes and Their Correlation with Heterotopic Neurons in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tae, Woo Suk; Joo, Eun Yun; Kim, Sung Tae; Hong, Seung Bong [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-02-15

    To identify changes in gray and white matter concentrations (GMC, WMC), and their relation to heterotopic neuron numbers in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE). The gray matter or white matter concentrations of 16 left and 15 right mTLE patients who achieved an excellent surgical outcome were compared with those of 24 healthy volunteers for the left group and with 23 healthy volunteers for the right group, by optimized voxel-based morphometry using unmodulated and modulated images. A histologic count of heterotopic neurons was obtained in the white matter of the anterior temporal lobe originating from the patients' surgical specimens. In addition, the number of heterotopic neurons were tested to determine if there was a correlation with the GMC or WMC. The GMCs of the left and right mTLE groups were reduced in the ipsilateral hippocampi, bilateral thalami, precentral gyri, and in the cerebellum. The WMCs were reduced in the ipsilateral white matter of the anterior temporal lobe, bilateral parahippocampal gyri, and internal capsules, but increased in the pons and bilateral precentral gyri. The heterotopic neuron counts in the left mTLE group showed a positive correlation (r = 0.819, p < 0.0001) with GMCs and a negative correlation (r = - 0.839, p < 0.0001) with WMCs in the white matter of the anterior temporal lobe. The present study shows the abnormalities of the cortico-thalamo- hippocampal network including a gray matter volume reduction in the anterior frontal lobes and an abnormality of brain tissue concentration in the pontine area. Furthermore, heterotopic neuron numbers were significantly correlated with GMC or WMC in the left white matter of anterior temporal lobe.

  17. Ossification variants of the femoral condyles are not associated with osteochondritis dissecans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jans, L., E-mail: lennartjans@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, Ghent University Hospital, De Pintelaan 185, 9000 Gent (Belgium); Jaremko, J., E-mail: jjaremko@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, University of Alberta Hospital, 8440-112 Street, Edmonton T6G 2B7, Alberta (Canada); Ditchfield, M., E-mail: Michael.ditchfield@southernhealth.org.au [Department of Radiology, Monash University Clayton Campus, Wellington Road, Clayton 3800, VIC (Australia); De Coninck, T., E-mail: Tinekedeconinck@ugent.be [Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, Ghent University Hospital, De Pintelaan 185, 9000 Gent (Belgium); Huysse, W., E-mail: Wouter.huysse@ugent.be [Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, Ghent University Hospital, De Pintelaan 185, 9000 Gent (Belgium); Moon, A., E-mail: Anna.moon@rch.org.au [Department of Radiology, Royal Children' s Hospital, Flemington Road, Parkville 3052, VIC (Australia); Verstraete, K., E-mail: Koenraad.verstraete@ugent.be [Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, Ghent University Hospital, De Pintelaan 185, 9000 Gent (Belgium)

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: To determine if ossification variants of the femoral condyles involving the subchondral bone plate are associated with osteochondritis dissecans (OCD). Materials and methods: The prevalence of ossification variants of the unaffected femoral condyle in 116 patients (aged 9-14 years) with unicondylar OCD on MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) of the knee was compared to a control group of 579 patients (aged 9-14 years) without OCD. The evolution of the ossification variants in both groups was studied by reviewing follow-up MR imaging side by side with the baseline study. Results: The prevalence of ossification variants in the unaffected condyle in patients with OCD (12.9%) and in the control group of patients without OCD (12.6%) was similar (p = 0.88). Evolution of ossification variants to OCD was not seen on follow-up MRI examinations. All variants had decreased in size or were no longer visible. Conclusion: Ossification variants of the femoral condyle that involve the subchondral bone plate are not associated with OCD. Clinical relevance statement: Ossification variants are not associated with OCD, indicating that routine MRI follow-up in affected children is not mandatory.

  18. Ossification of the femur and tibia of the post-hatching Japanese quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Yasser A; Soliman, Soha A; Abdel-Hafez, Enas A

    2013-09-01

    The current study aimed to describe the histological changes of the femur and tibia of the post-hatching quail. Femur and tibia from 1-day- to 6-weeks post-hatching quail were processed for light microscopy. Histological examination revealed that endochondral ossification was a delayed process in the development of femur and tibia preceded by periosteal ossification. Femur and tibia of 1-day-post-hatching quail consisted of growth cartilage enclosed in a tube of periosteal bone collar. The collar extended toward the epiphysis dividing it into articular cartilage proper and lateral articular cartilage. Down to the articular cartilage, there was a physeal growth cartilage, in which the chondrocytes were organized into resting, proliferative and hypertrophic zones. Focal areas of hypertrophic chondrocytes were observed in the epiphysis of the tibia but not of the femur, which acted as a nidus for formation of the secondary ossification centre after in 2-week-posthathcing quail. Primary ossification centre was seen in both femur and tibia after 2 weeks and ossification continued replacing the cartilage until the 6th week when only permanent articular cartilage remained. Cartilage canals were present in both femur and tibia starting from the day 1, but chondrified and completely disappeared after the 6th week. The current study suggests that the periosteal ossification preceded the endochondral ossification and plays an important role in quail long bones development.

  19. Prognostic Value of the Radiologic Appearance of the Navicular Ossification Center in Congenital Talipes Equinovarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanda, Abiola A; Oni, Julius K; Ramsden, David M; Yoon, Richard S; Ahmad, Alaa A; Otsuka, Norman Y

    2015-01-01

    Congenital talipes equinovarus (CTEV), more commonly known as clubfoot, is a deformity of the foot that is not well understood. The tarsal navicular is at the center of the disease process and exhibits abnormal development and delayed ossification. However, its role in the pathologic process is not clear. The aim of the present study was to better understand the role of the tarsal navicular in CTEV by correlating the presence of the navicular ossification center and relapse of clubfoot deformity after surgical treatment. The medical records and radiographs of 34 patients (41 feet) with surgically treated CTEV were reviewed for the presence of the navicular ossification center and the lateral talocalcaneal angles. Of the 41 feet, 17 (41.46%) did not have the tarsal navicular ossification center present before surgery, and 24 (58.54%) did have the ossification center present. The talocalcaneal angles were similar between those with and without the navicular ossification center present. No significant difference was found in the incidence of relapse between the nonossified navicular group (17.6%) and the ossified navicular group (16.7%; p = .63). The presence of the navicular ossification center before surgery does not appear to have prognostic value for the relapse of CTEV after surgical intervention. Copyright © 2015 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Extraspinal ossifications after implantation of vertical expandable prosthetic titanium ribs (VEPTRs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivkovic, Vanja; Büchler, Philippe; Ovadia, Dror; Riise, Rolf; Stuecker, Ralf; Hasler, Carol

    2014-05-01

    Though developed for thoracic insufficiency syndrome, the spinal growth-stimulating potential and the ease of placement of vertical expandable titanium ribs (VEPTRs) has resulted in their widespread use for early-onset spine deformity. Observation of implant-related ossifications warrants further assessment, since they may be detrimental to the function-preserving non-fusion strategy. Radiographs (obtained pre and post index procedure, and at 4-year follow-up) and the records of 65 VEPTR patients from four paediatric spine centres were analysed. Ossifications were classified as type I (at anchor points), type II (along the central part) or type III (re-ossification after thoracostomy). The average age at the index procedure was 6.5 years (min 1, max 13.7). The most prevalent spine problem was congenital scoliosis (37) with rib fusions (34), followed by neuromuscular and syndromic deformities (13 and 8, respectively). Idiopathic and secondary scoliosis (e.g. after thoracotomy) were less frequent (3 and 4, respectively). Forty-two of the 65 (65 %) patients showed ossifications, half of which were around the anchors. Forty-five percent (15/33) without pre-existing rib fusions developed a type II ossification along the implant. Re-ossifications of thoracostomies were less frequent (5/34, 15 %). The occurrence of ossifications was not associated with patient-specific factors. Implant-related ossifications around VEPTR are common. In contrast to harmless bone formation around anchors, ossifications around the telescopic part and the rod section are troublesome in view of their possible negative impact on chest cage compliance and spinal mobility. This potential side effect needs to be considered during implant selection, particularly in patients with originally normal thoracic and spinal anatomy.

  1. The ossification of the pelvic girdle and leg skeleton of the quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourlis, A F; Antonopoulos, J

    2014-08-01

    The onset of ossification centres of the pelvic girdle and leg skeleton of the quail in embryos and juvenile birds were studied. Specimens, which were cleared and were stained with Alcian Blue and Alizarin Red S, were examined at the stereomicroscope. The ilium and the pubis began to ossify at the 8th day (E8), whereas the ischium at E9. Perichondral ossification was observed at E6 in the femur, tibia and fibula. A secondary ossification centre was detected in the proximal epiphysis of the tibiotarsus at the 15th post-hatching day (P15). The patella began to ossify at P30. Regarding the tarsal bones tibiale, pre-tibiale and fibulare, ossification was observed at the E15, E12 and E16, respectively. The metatarsals II, III, IV ossified at E7, whereas the metatarsal I at E11. The centres of ossification of the 1st phalanges of all digits were observed at E9. At the same day, the ossification centres of the 2nd phalanx of digits II and III as well as the 3rd phalanx of digit III appeared. At E10, ossification was observed in the 2nd phalanx of digit I, in the 3rd phalanx of digit II and in the 2nd and 3rd phalanx of digit IV. In the 4th phalanx of digit III and in the terminal phalanges of digit IV, ossification was observed at E11. The data presented here provide useful baseline information on the normal sequential pattern of ossification in the pelvic girdle and leg skeleton in this species. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. MR Imaging of the Pituitary Gland and Postsphenoid Ossification in Fetal Specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehemed, T M; Fushimi, Y; Okada, T; Kanagaki, M; Yamamoto, A; Okada, T; Takakuwa, T; Yamada, S; Togashi, K

    2016-08-01

    A thorough knowledge of fetal growth and development is key to understanding both the normal and abnormal fetal MR imaging findings. We investigated the size and signal intensity of the normal pituitary gland and the intrasphenoidal ossification around the Rathke pouch in formalin-fixed fetuses on MR imaging. Thirty-two fetuses with undamaged brains were included in this study (mean age, 19.93 weeks; age range, 12-31 weeks). Visual inspection of the pituitary and ossification around the Rathke pouch in the sphenoid bone or the postsphenoid ossification was conducted. The extent of pituitary and postsphenoid ossification, pituitary/pons signal ratio, and postsphenoidal ossification/sphenoid bone signal ratio was compared according to gestational age. The pituitary gland was identified as a hyperintense intrasellar structure in all cases, and postsphenoid ossification was identified as an intrasphenoidal hyperintense area in 27 of the 32 cases (84%). The mean pituitary/pons signal ratio was 1.13 ± 0.18 and correlated weakly with gestational age (R(2) = 0.243), while the mean postsphenoid ossification/sphenoid bone signal ratio was 2.14 ± 0.56 and did not show any increase with gestational age (R(2) = 0.05). No apparent change in the size of pituitary hyperintensity was seen with gestational age (R(2) = 0.001). Postsphenoid ossification showed an increase in size with gestational age (R(2) = 0.307). The fetal pituitary gland was hyperintense on T1-weighted images and the pituitary/pons ratio and extent of postsphenoid ossification correlated weakly with gestational age. © 2016 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  3. Cubital tunnel syndrome due to heterotrophic ossification caused by radial head fracture: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyitali Gumustas

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Compression of the ulnar nerve in the cubital tunnel is the second most common nerve entrapment syndrome in the upper extremity after carpal tunnel syndrome. Although various etiologies have been described, heterotrophic ossification is rarely seen. Heterotrophic ossification should be kept in mind as a cause of ulnar nerve entrapment after elbow trauma. Early diagnosis and surgical intervention are important in such cases before completion of the maturation phase. We report a case of heterotrophic ossification due to elbow trauma that caused cubital tunnel syndrome. [Hand Microsurg 2014; 3(1.000: 24-28

  4. Pulmonary Idiopathic Alveolar Ossification in a Raccoon (Procyon lotor)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamir, Amir N; Rupprecht, Charles E

    2010-01-01

    Here we describe gross and histopathologic findings in a laboratory-confined adult male raccoon (Procyon lotor) with microscopic ossified areas in pulmonary alveoli. At the time of necropsy, gross lesions were present in the kidneys and in one thyroid gland. Noteworthy microscopic findings included multifocal foci of osseous tissue within the alveoli of the lungs, bilateral thyroid adenomas, pancreatic islet cell amyloidosis, cortical kidney infarcts, cystic adenomatous hyperplasia of urinary bladder, and mineralizations (psommama bodies) of small blood vessels of meninges and choroid plexus. Pulmonary ossification in raccoons has not been reported previously. The other histopathologic lesions have been documented to occur as incidental findings in raccoons and do not appear to have any apparent association with the formation of osseous foci in the lungs of the animal described. PMID:20858368

  5. Age estimation based on pelvic ossification using regression models from conventional radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kui; Dong, Xiao-Ai; Fan, Fei; Deng, Zhen-Hua

    2016-07-01

    To establish regression models for age estimation from the combination of the ossification of iliac crest and ischial tuberosity. One thousand three hundred and seventy-nine conventional pelvic radiographs at the West China Hospital of Sichuan University between January 2010 and June 2012 were evaluated retrospectively. The receiver operating characteristic analysis was performed to measure the value of estimation of 18 years of age with the classification scheme for the iliac crest and ischial tuberosity. Regression analysis was performed, and formulas for calculating approximate chronological age according to the combination developmental status of the ossification for the iliac crest and ischial tuberosity were developed. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were above 0.9 (p ossification and the ischial tuberosity may be used for age estimation. And the present established cubic regression model according to the combination developmental status of the ossification for the iliac crest and ischial tuberosity can be used for age estimation.

  6. Diffuse arachnoid ossification and multiple arachnoid cysts presenting with progressive thoracic myelopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, Toshinori; Sairyo, Koichi; Kashima, Masahiro; Kosaka, Hirofumi; Katoh, Shinsuke; Yasui, Natsuo [The University of Tokushima Graduate School, Department of Orthopedics, Institute of Health Biosciences, Tokushima (Japan)

    2010-03-15

    An ossified arachnoid membrane combined with cystic formation is rarely reported as a cause of spinal cord compression. We report the case of a 60-year-old man who presented with diffuse ossification of the arachnoid membrane (arachnoid ossification) and multiple cystic changes (arachnoid cyst) at the thoracic and lumbar spine. The lesions were surgically removed and progressive deterioration was prevented, although no marked improvement of neurological symptoms was attained. (orig.)

  7. Ossifications after vertical expandable prosthetic titanium rib treatment in children with thoracic insufficiency syndrome and scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenefeld, Bastian; Hell, Anna K

    2013-06-01

    Retrospective analysis of 1328 spinal radiographs of 57 patients after vertical expandable prosthetic titanium rib (VEPTR) implantation with an average follow-up of 30 months. To evaluate the incidence, time of onset, as well as the underlying factors influencing the occurrence of ossifications in children treated with VEPTR. Spontaneous spinal fusions and ossifications are well known in children treated with spinal implants. In theory, children with spinal deformity and VEPTR implantation are less likely to develop these complications because of either little or no implant contact to the spine. Fifty-seven patients had a primary VEPTR implantation due to spinal deformity and thoracic insufficiency syndrome and repeated lengthening procedures. The mean age at the time of primary surgery was 7.7 years, the mean duration of follow-up was 29.8 months, and the mean number of operations was 5.9. A total of 1328 spinal radiographs were analyzed with respect to the occurrence and growth of ossifications, implant migration, and other complications. Overall, 24% of the patients (n = 13) had ossifications, which affected in 92% the main load sharing VEPTR implant. The fusions involved in 54% of cases the lumbar spine and in each 23% the ribs and the iliac crest. Ossifications developed in 11% of children within the first year of treatment and increased by about the same rate per annum. After 53 months, 48% of the radiographs showed some ossifications. There was a significant correlation to the stiffness of the deformity and the number of surgical procedures. Contrary to previous assumptions, it was shown that in children treated with the VEPTR system, 48% of children showed ossifications after 53 months. Ossifications were observed significantly more often in children with stiff deformities and after multiple surgical procedures. It is a much more common problem than previously thought. 3.

  8. Etidronate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... easily broken) and to prevent and treat heterotopic ossification (growth of bone tissue in an area of ... of bone or to prevent or treat heterotopic ossification, it may take some time for your condition ...

  9. Ossification of subperiosteal hematoma: the potential of periosteal osteogenesis in cranioplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Zhang, Jiliang

    2013-09-01

    Subperiosteal hematoma is the accumulation of blood between the periosteum and the skull, which commonly occurs in the neonatal period but rarely in other ages. Subperiosteal hematoma can be self-absorbed in most cases and occasionally may cause ossification. This study reports a case of subperiosteal hematoma formed in a 16-year-old adolescent boy after a minor trauma. Because the hematoma did not disappear for more than a month after the trauma, the patient was treated with multiple hematoma punctures. However, the hematoma recurred and led to ossification. Finally, the patient underwent surgical treatment. Finally, the ossification associated with the hematoma was treated through surgery. The head contour recovered normally. The occurrence of hematoma ossification in the 16-year-old patient suggests that the periosteum has great potential for osteogenesis. This is likely caused by the joint action of some active factors in the blood and a certain tension of the hematoma on the local periosteum. This case provides the following thoughts. (1) A subperiosteal hematoma that has not been absorbed after 1 month should be treated promptly to avoid ossification. Once ossification has occurred, the hematoma should be treated surgically. (2) The potential for periosteal osteogenesis is great, which may provide a new thought for cranioplasty.

  10. Delayed diagnosis of a heterotopic pregnancy as a cause of acute abdomen: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Turkan Ayan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Heterotopic pregnancy is a life threating condition of intrauterine and extrauterine gestations which occur at the same time. We report a delayed diagnosed case of heterotopic pregnancy. Case: A 31 year-old primigravida was referred to our Emergency Gynaecology Service complicated by acute abdomen. She had been treated with clomiphene citrate and on admission intrauterine a missed abortus of about 8 weeks complicated by a large subchorionic hematoma was detected. Emergency laparotomy was performed because of diffuse intra-abdominal haemorrhage. A right-sided ectopic focus was recognized and excised, and dilatation - curettage was performed. Coclusion: Delay in diagnosing the condition can be fatal to both the mother and the intrauterine fetus. [J Contemp Med 2013; 3(3.000: 207-208

  11. Permanent pacing for asystole of the donor heart after heterotopic heart transplantation.

    OpenAIRE

    Kalife, G; Radovancević, B; Fighali, S

    1997-01-01

    A 41-year-old woman presented with shortness of breath and decreased exercise tolerance 1 year after heterotopic heart transplantation. She was found to have an ejection fraction of less than 20% for the native heart and severely depressed left ventricular systolic function of the donor heart. A left ventriculogram of the donor heart showed no systolic contractility. A permanent pacemaker was implanted into the right ventricle of the donor heart. One year after pacemaker insertion, systolic f...

  12. Relationship of calcaneal and iliac apophyseal ossification to peak height velocity timing in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Allen D; Liu, Raymond W; Sanders, James O; Cooperman, Daniel R

    2015-01-21

    Ossification of the calcaneal apophysis has never been fully characterized. We examined the ossification sequence of the calcaneus in relation to ossification of the iliac apophysis and the timing of the peak height velocity (PHV). Ninety-four healthy children (forty-nine girls and forty-five boys), from three to eighteen years old, were followed longitudinally through growth with annual serial radiographs and physical examinations. These were done at least annually from ten to fifteen years of age. The PHV was calculated using the height measurements of each child. We measured and compared calcaneal and iliac crest apophyseal ossification using foot and pelvic radiographs made on the same day. We correlated the PHV with the degree of calcaneal and iliac ossification. Ossification of the calcaneal apophysis occurred in an orderly fashion, with the ossification center first appearing a mean of 4.7 years (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.2 to 4.2 years) before the PHV. The apophysis spread across the plantar surface more quickly than the dorsal surface. The apophysis extended completely over the plantar surface a mean of 0.86 year (95% CI, 1.0 to 0.7 year) before the PHV. Fusion of the apophysis followed complete plantar extension over the next two years and was typically complete a mean of 2.1 years (95% CI, 2.0 to 2.2 years) after the PHV. Fusion began in the middle of the apophysis and proceeded outward. Iliac apophyseal ossification did not appear prior to the PHV in any subject. The calcaneal apophysis ossifies in a consistent fashion characterized by six different stages. The calcaneal stages occur during narrow intervals in relation to the PHV, allowing the calcaneal system to be used for assessment of skeletal maturity. The PHV occurs prior to iliac ossification, whereas the calcaneal apophysis has four stages of ossification before and two stages after the PHV. Copyright © 2015 by The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Incorporated.

  13. MR imaging of capitellar ossification: a study in children of different ages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fader, Lauren M. [University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Laor, Tal [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Eismann, Emily A.; Cornwall, Roger; Little, Kevin J. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Division of Orthopaedic Surgery, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2014-08-15

    The capitellar ossification center is used routinely to evaluate elbow alignment on radiography. However, whether capitellar ossification is central and concentric to support this practice is unknown. To define the pattern of capitellar ossification at different ages of childhood. This HIPAA-compliant study was IRB approved. MR imaging examinations from 81 children (ages 1-13 years, at least 3 boys and 3 girls in each age group) were included. We determined the center points of the ossified capitellum and the cartilaginous capitellum on the sagittal and coronal sequences that best showed differentiation between cartilage and bone. Percentage offset of the center of the ossified capitellum from the center of the cartilaginous capitellum was calculated in anterior-posterior, proximal-distal and medial-lateral dimensions, and compared across age groups and between genders. Linear regressions were used to ascertain the effect of age on percentage offset for all patients and for each gender. Capitellar ossification begins eccentrically with sagittal anterior proximal offset and coronal medial offset. With age, ossification proceeds posteriorly, distally and laterally. Percentage offset gradually diminishes with age. The ossified capitellum centralizes in the sagittal plane by 12-13 years. In the coronal plane, the capitellum ossifies medially beyond the proximal radioulnar joint and remains eccentric at 12-13 years. Centralization in boys lags in the anterior-posterior dimension. Capitellar ossification is an eccentric process, with lag in anterior-posterior centralization in boys. Medial offset persists at 12-13 years. Recognition of this eccentric ossification may allow for more accurate assessment of elbow alignment on radiographs, especially in younger children. (orig.)

  14. MR imaging of capitellar ossification: a study in children of different ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fader, Lauren M; Laor, Tal; Eismann, Emily A; Cornwall, Roger; Little, Kevin J

    2014-08-01

    The capitellar ossification center is used routinely to evaluate elbow alignment on radiography. However, whether capitellar ossification is central and concentric to support this practice is unknown. To define the pattern of capitellar ossification at different ages of childhood. This HIPAA-compliant study was IRB approved. MR imaging examinations from 81 children (ages 1-13 years, at least 3 boys and 3 girls in each age group) were included. We determined the center points of the ossified capitellum and the cartilaginous capitellum on the sagittal and coronal sequences that best showed differentiation between cartilage and bone. Percentage offset of the center of the ossified capitellum from the center of the cartilaginous capitellum was calculated in anterior-posterior, proximal-distal and medial-lateral dimensions, and compared across age groups and between genders. Linear regressions were used to ascertain the effect of age on percentage offset for all patients and for each gender. Capitellar ossification begins eccentrically with sagittal anterior proximal offset and coronal medial offset. With age, ossification proceeds posteriorly, distally and laterally. Percentage offset gradually diminishes with age. The ossified capitellum centralizes in the sagittal plane by 12-13 years. In the coronal plane, the capitellum ossifies medially beyond the proximal radioulnar joint and remains eccentric at 12-13 years. Centralization in boys lags in the anterior-posterior dimension. Capitellar ossification is an eccentric process, with lag in anterior-posterior centralization in boys. Medial offset persists at 12-13 years. Recognition of this eccentric ossification may allow for more accurate assessment of elbow alignment on radiographs, especially in younger children.

  15. Age dependence of epiphyseal ossification of the distal radius in ultrasound diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, S; Schiborr, M; Pfeiffer, H; Schmeling, A; Schulz, R

    2013-07-01

    By determining the ossification stage of the distal radial epiphysis, it is possible to gain important information to help clarify the question of whether various legally relevant age limits have been exceeded. Any examination of the hand by means of projection radiography such as that used in conventional skeletal age diagnostics is strictly regulated for reasons of radiation hygiene. In many areas of the law, there are no basic legal provisions authorising the performance of X-ray examinations. The present study examines the applicability of ultrasound diagnostics in assessing ossification processes in the distal radius. To this end, the ossification stages of the distal radial epiphysis were determined in 306 female and 309 male study participants aged between 10 and 25 years. In the female gender, ossification stage III was determined at an age of 13.4 years at the earliest, and ossification stage IV at 15.0 years at the earliest. In the male gender, ossification stage III was not observed until 14.3 years, and ossification stage IV not until 15.2 years. In the practice of forensic age estimation in living persons, sonographic examination of the distal radius in areas of application with no legal basis for authorising X-ray examinations makes it possible to improve the accuracy of age diagnosis by including criteria of skeletal maturation. In view of the existing legislative basis for the use of X-rays on human subjects, the exposure of individuals to radiation can be minimised.

  16. Evolution and functional significance of derived sternal ossification patterns in ornithothoracine birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, J K; Zheng, X-T; Sullivan, C; Chuong, C-M; Wang, X-L; Li, A; Wang, Y; Zhang, X-M; Zhou, Z-H

    2015-08-01

    The midline pattern of sternal ossification characteristic of the Cretaceous enantiornithine birds is unique among the Ornithodira, the group containing birds, nonavian dinosaurs and pterosaurs. This has been suggested to indicate that Enantiornithes is not the sister group of Ornithuromorpha, the clade that includes living birds and their close relatives, which would imply rampant convergence in many nonsternal features between enantiornithines and ornithuromorphs. However, detailed comparisons reveal greater similarity between neornithine (i.e. crown group bird) and enantiornithine modes of sternal ossification than previously recognized. Furthermore, a new subadult enantiornithine specimen demonstrates that sternal ossification followed a more typically ornithodiran pattern in basal members of the clade. This new specimen, referable to the Pengornithidae, indicates that the unique ossification pattern observed in other juvenile enantiornithines is derived within Enantiornithes. A similar but clearly distinct pattern appears to have evolved in parallel in the ornithuromorph lineage. The atypical mode of sternal ossification in some derived enantiornithines should be regarded as an autapomorphic condition rather than an indication that enantiornithines are not close relatives of ornithuromorphs. Based on what is known about molecular mechanisms for morphogenesis and the possible selective advantages, the parallel shifts to midline ossification that took place in derived enantiornithines and living neognathous birds appear to have been related to the development of a large ventral keel, which is only present in ornithuromorphs and enantiornithines. Midline ossification can serve to medially reinforce the sternum at a relatively early ontogenetic stage, which would have been especially beneficial during the protracted development of the superprecocial Cretaceous enantiornithines. © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology

  17. Asymmetrical ossification in the epiphyseal ring of patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: a retrospective review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makino, T; Kaito, T; Sakai, Y; Kashii, M; Yoshikawa, H

    2016-05-01

    To clarify the asymmetrical ossification of the epiphyseal ring between the convex and concave sides in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). A total of 29 female patients (mean age, 14.4 years; 11 to 18) who underwent corrective surgery for AIS (Lenke type 1 or 2) were included in our study. In all, 349 vertebrae including 68 apical vertebrae and 87 end vertebrae in the main thoracic (MT) curve and thoracolumbar/lumbar (TL/L) curve were analysed. Coronal sections (anterior, middle and posterior) of the vertebral bodies were reconstructed from pre-operative CT scans (320-row detector; slice thickness, 0.5 mm) and the appearances of the ossification centre in the epiphyseal ring at four corners were evaluated in three groups; all vertebrae excluding end vertebrae, apical vertebrae and end vertebrae. The appearance rates of the ossification centre at the concave and convex sides were calculated and compared. The appearance rates of the ossification centres in all vertebrae excluding end vertebrae and apical vertebrae were significantly lower on the concave side than on the convex side in both MT and TL/L curves irrespective of curve flexibility. There was no significant difference in the rate of appearance of the ossification centres on the concave or convex sides in end vertebrae. The asymmetric bony growth of vertebral body came into existence at both structural and non-structural curves, and was more apparent around the apical vertebrae. Evaluation of the ossification centre in the epiphyseal ring could be a measure of the effectiveness of brace treatment. The ossification of the epiphyseal ring in patients with AIS was delayed or absent on the concave side particularly around the apical vertebrae. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2016;98-B:666-71. ©2016 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  18. PIXE study of the kinetics of biomaterials ossification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, G.; Robaye, G.; Braye, F.; Oudadesse, H.; Irigaray, J. L.

    1994-05-01

    Biomaterials are frequently implanted in bones. This implantation is followed by a phenomenon of ossification. The purpose of this work was to study the time evolution of the gradient of characteristic atomic element's concentrations in the bone, the implant and the bone-implant interface. We have studied two types of neutral biomaterials: pure synthetic hydroxyapatite and porite's asteroid coral. The animal implantations have been made on sheep of the same age and sex having received the same basic diet. The implantations have been made in the cortical femur. On both sides of the implant, at the same distance, two screws were placed to allow further determination of the position of the implant. The PIXE method is particularly suitable here because of the possibility to analyze directly the samples without any preparation and to choose easily the dimensions of beam used for the gradient study. The X-rays have been detected with an ultra LEGe instead of the usual Si(Li) device to avoid the Si escape peak associated with the K α X-ray of calcium, the major constituent of bone. This peak is particularly disturbing here because its energy corresponds to the K α line of phosphorus, an important constituent of bone. The results of these determinations are presented and discussed.

  19. Cross-sectional study of the neural ossification centers of vertebrae C1-S5 in the human fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szpinda, Michał; Baumgart, Mariusz; Szpinda, Anna; Woźniak, Alina; Mila-Kierzenkowska, Celestyna

    2013-10-01

    An understanding of the normal evolution of the spine is of great relevance in the prenatal detection of spinal abnormalities. This study was carried out to estimate the length, width, cross-sectional area and volume of the neural ossification centers of vertebrae C1-S5 in the human fetus. Using the methods of CT (Biograph mCT), digital-image analysis (Osirix 3.9) and statistics (the one-way ANOVA test for paired data, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Levene's test, Student's t test, the one-way ANOVA test for unpaired data with post hoc RIR Tukey comparisons) the size for the neural ossification centers throughout the spine in 55 spontaneously aborted human fetuses (27 males, 28 females) at ages of 17-30 weeks was studied. The neural ossification centers were visualized in the whole pre-sacral spine, in 74.5 % for S1, in 61.8 % for S2, in 52.7 % for S3, and in 12.7 % for S4. Neither male-female nor right-left significant differences in the size of neural ossification centers were found. The neural ossification centers were the longest within the cervical spine. The maximum values referred to the axis on the right, and to C5 vertebra on the left. There was a gradual decrease in length for the neural ossification centers of T1-S4 vertebrae. The neural ossification centers were the widest within the proximal thoracic spine and narrowed bi-directionally. The growth dynamics for CSA of neural ossification centers were found to parallel that of volume. The largest CSAs and volumes of neural ossification centers were found in the C3 vertebra, and decreased in the distal direction. The neural ossification centers show neither male-female nor right-left differences. The neural ossification centers are characterized by the maximum length for C2-C6 vertebrae, the maximum width for the proximal thoracic spine, and both the maximum cross-sectional area and volume for C3 vertebra. There is a sharp decrease in size of the neural ossification centers along the sacral spine. A

  20. Cross-sectional study of the ossification center of the C1-S5 vertebral bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szpinda, Michał; Baumgart, Mariusz; Szpinda, Anna; Woźniak, Alina; Małkowski, Bogdan; Wiśniewski, Marcin; Mila-Kierzenkowska, Celestyna; Króliczewski, Dariusz

    2013-07-01

    Knowledge on the normative growth of the spine is relevant in the prenatal detection of its abnormalities. This study describes the size of the ossification center of C1-S5 vertebral bodies. Using CT, digital-image analysis, and statistics, the size of the ossification center of C1-S5 vertebral bodies in 55 spontaneously aborted human fetuses aged 17-30 weeks was examined. No sex significant differences were found. The body ossification centers were found within the entire presacral spine and in 85.5 % of S1, in 76.4 % of S2, in 67.3 % of S3, in 40.0 % of S4, and in 14.5 % of S5. All the values for the atlas were sharply smaller than for the axis. The mean transverse diameter of the body ossification center gradually increased from the axis to T12 vertebra, so as to stabilize through L1-L3 vertebrae, and finally was intensively decreasing to S5 vertebra. There was a gradual increase in sagittal diameter of the body ossification center from the axis to T5 vertebra and its stabilization for T6-T9 vertebrae. Afterward, an alternate progression was observed: a decrease in values for T10-T12 vertebrae, an increase in values for L1-L2 vertebrae, and finally a decrease in values for L3-S5 vertebrae. The values of cross-sectional area of ossification centers were gradually increasing from the axis to L2 vertebra and then started decreasing to S5 vertebra. The following cross-sectional areas were approximately equivalent to each other: for L5 and T3-T5, and for S4 and C1. The volumetric growth of the body ossification center gradually increased from the axis to L3 vertebra and then sharply decreased from L4 to S5. No male-female differences are found in the size of the body ossification centers of the spine. The growth dynamics for morphometric parameters of the body ossification centers of the spine follow similarly with gestational age.

  1. Variation in timing of ossification affects inferred heterochrony of cranial bones in Lissamphibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheil, Christopher A; Jorgensen, Michael; Tulenko, Frank; Harrington, Sean

    2014-09-01

    The evolutionary origin of Lissamphibia likely involved heterochrony, as demonstrated by the biphasic lifestyles of most extant orders, differences between Anura (with tadpole-to-froglet metamorphosis) and Urodela (which lack strongly defined metamorphosis), and the appearance of direct development among separate lineages of frogs. Patterns in the timing of appearance of skeletal elements (i.e., ossification sequence data) represent a possible source of information for understanding the origin of Lissamphibia, and with the advent of analytical methods to directly optimize these data onto known phylogenies, there has been a renewed interest in assessing the role of changes in these developmental events. However, little attention has been given to the potential impact of variation in ossification sequence data--this is particularly surprising given that different criteria for collecting these data have been employed. Herein, new and previously published ossification data are compiled and all pairs of data for same-species comparisons are selected. Analyses are run to assess the impact of using data that were collected by different methodologies: (1) wild- versus lab-raised animals; (2) different criteria for recognizing timing of ossification; and (3) randomly selecting ossification sequences for species from which multiple studies have been published, but for which the data were collected by different criteria. Parsimov-based genetic inference is utilized to map ossification sequence data onto an existing phylogeny to reconstruct ancestral sequences of ossification and infer instances of heterochrony. All analyses succeeded in optimizing sequence data on internal nodes and instances of heterochrony were identified. However, among all analyses little congruence was found in reconstructed ancestral sequences or among inferred instances of heterochrony. These results indicate a high degree of variation in timing of ossification, and suggest a cautionary note about use

  2. Chondrocyte-specific ablation of Osterix leads to impaired endochondral ossification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Jung-Hoon [Department of Molecular Medicine, Cell and Matrix Research Institute, BK21 Medical Education Program for Human Resources, Kyungpook National University School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Park, Seung-Yoon [Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Dongguk University, Gyeongju 780-714 (Korea, Republic of); Crombrugghe, Benoit de [Department of Genetics, University of Texas, M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston (United States); Kim, Jung-Eun, E-mail: kjeun@knu.ac.kr [Department of Molecular Medicine, Cell and Matrix Research Institute, BK21 Medical Education Program for Human Resources, Kyungpook National University School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-02-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conditional ablation of Osterix (Osx) in chondrocytes leads to skeletal defects. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Osx regulates chondrocyte differentiation and bone growth in growth plate chondrocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Osx has an autonomous function in chondrocytes during endochondral ossification. -- Abstract: Osterix (Osx) is an essential transcription factor required for osteoblast differentiation during both intramembranous and endochondral ossification. Endochondral ossification, a process in which bone formation initiates from a cartilage intermediate, is crucial for skeletal development and growth. Osx is expressed in differentiating chondrocytes as well as osteoblasts during mouse development, but its role in chondrocytes has not been well studied. Here, the in vivo function of Osx in chondrocytes was examined in a chondrocyte-specific Osx conditional knockout model using Col2a1-Cre. Chondrocyte-specific Osx deficiency resulted in a weak and bent skeleton which was evident in newborn by radiographic analysis and skeletal preparation. To further understand the skeletal deformity of the chondrocyte-specific Osx conditional knockout, histological analysis was performed on developing long bones during embryogenesis. Hypertrophic chondrocytes were expanded, the formation of bone trabeculae and marrow cavities was remarkably delayed, and subsequent skeletal growth was reduced. The expression of several chondrocyte differentiation markers was reduced, indicating the impairment of chondrocyte differentiation and endochondral ossification in the chondrocyte-specific Osx conditional knockout. Taken together, Osx regulates chondrocyte differentiation and bone growth in growth plate chondrocytes, suggesting an autonomous function of Osx in chondrocytes during endochondral ossification.

  3. Transplantation of fetal instead of adult fibroblasts reduces the probability of ectopic ossification during tendon repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Zhi; Zhu, Ting; Shen, Wei Liang; Tang, Qiao Mei; Chen, Jia Lin; Yin, Zi; Ji, Jun Feng; Heng, Boon Chin; Ouyang, Hong Wei; Chen, Xiao

    2014-07-01

    Although cell transplantation therapy can effectively promote functional tendon repair, occasional ectopic ossification during tendon regeneration undermines its efficacy. The effect of transplanted cell types on ectopic ossification has not yet been systematically evaluated. This study compared the rate of ectopic ossification during tendon repair upon transplantation with mouse fetal fibroblasts (FFs) and their adult counterparts (adult fibroblasts [AFs]). Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining, immunofluorescence, and gene expression analysis were used to compare the spontaneous osteogenic differentiation of FFs and AFs in vitro. X-ray, histology, and gene expression analysis were used to investigate the ectopic ossification in a mouse Achilles tendon repair model in vivo. ALP staining and immunofluorescence data in vitro showed that FFs had less spontaneous osteogenic differentiation capacity, and lower expression of runt-related transcription factor 2 (runx2). For the in vivo study, the FFs transplant group displayed reduced ectopic ossification (2/7 vs. 7/7, Mann-Whitney test ptransplantation and enhanced tendon repair (general histological score at week 6, 7.53 vs. 10.56, ptransplantation in the AFs transplant group. Gene expression analysis of the regenerated tissue showed significantly higher expression levels of transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-β1) and transforming growth factor beta3 (TGF-β3) in the AFs group during the early stages of tendon repair. Our study demonstrates that transplantation of fetal instead of AFs is more promising for tendon repair, underscoring the importance of the origin of seed cells for tendon repair.

  4. The Transcription Factor Hand1 Is Involved In Runx2-Ihh-Regulated Endochondral Ossification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay E Laurie

    Full Text Available The developing long bone is a model of endochondral ossification that displays the morphological layers of chondrocytes toward the ossification center of the diaphysis. Indian hedgehog (Ihh, a member of the hedgehog family of secreted molecules, regulates chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation, as well as osteoblast differentiation, through the process of endochondral ossification. Here, we report that the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor Hand1, which is expressed in the cartilage primordia, is involved in proper osteogenesis of the bone collar via its control of Ihh production. Genetic overexpression of Hand1 in the osteochondral progenitors resulted in prenatal hypoplastic or aplastic ossification in the diaphyses, mimicking an Ihh loss-of-function phenotype. Ihh expression was downregulated in femur epiphyses of Hand1-overexpressing mice. We also confirmed that Hand1 downregulated Ihh gene expression in vitro by inhibiting Runx2 transactivation of the Ihh proximal promoter. These results demonstrate that Hand1 in chondrocytes regulates endochondral ossification, at least in part through the Runx2-Ihh axis.

  5. The Transcription Factor Hand1 Is Involved In Runx2-Ihh-Regulated Endochondral Ossification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurie, Lindsay E; Kokubo, Hiroki; Nakamura, Masataka; Saga, Yumiko; Funato, Noriko

    2016-01-01

    The developing long bone is a model of endochondral ossification that displays the morphological layers of chondrocytes toward the ossification center of the diaphysis. Indian hedgehog (Ihh), a member of the hedgehog family of secreted molecules, regulates chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation, as well as osteoblast differentiation, through the process of endochondral ossification. Here, we report that the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor Hand1, which is expressed in the cartilage primordia, is involved in proper osteogenesis of the bone collar via its control of Ihh production. Genetic overexpression of Hand1 in the osteochondral progenitors resulted in prenatal hypoplastic or aplastic ossification in the diaphyses, mimicking an Ihh loss-of-function phenotype. Ihh expression was downregulated in femur epiphyses of Hand1-overexpressing mice. We also confirmed that Hand1 downregulated Ihh gene expression in vitro by inhibiting Runx2 transactivation of the Ihh proximal promoter. These results demonstrate that Hand1 in chondrocytes regulates endochondral ossification, at least in part through the Runx2-Ihh axis.

  6. Estimation of forensic age using substages of ossification of the medial clavicle in living individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekizoglu, Oguzhan; Hocaoglu, Elif; Inci, Ercan; Can, Ismail Ozgur; Aksoy, Sema; Sayin, Ibrahim

    2015-11-01

    Forensic age estimation based on staging of ossification of the medial clavicular bone is one of the methods recommended by the Study Group on Forensic Age Diagnostics of the German Association of Forensic Medicine. In the present study, we analyzed the stages of ossification of the medial clavicular epiphyses on thin-sliced (1 mm) computed tomography (CT) images using the substages defined within stages 2 and 3. The retrospective CT analysis involved 193 subjects (129 males, 64 females) ranging in age from 13 to 28 years. Spearman's correlation analysis revealed a positive correlation between age and ossification stage in both male and female subjects. Stage 3c was first observed at 19 years of age in both sexes and may thus serve as a valuable forensic marker for determining an age of 18 years. Although further research is needed on the ossification stages of the medial clavicular epiphyses, the present findings could contribute to existing reports on observers' experiences using CT analysis of ossification combined with analysis of substages.

  7. Development of secondary ossification centres of the acromion in Japanese youth: a computed tomographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Koji; Takeda, Yoshitsugu; Miyatake, Katsutoshi

    2015-08-01

    To determine the age range when the secondary ossification centres of the acromion appear and fuse in Japanese youth using computed tomography (CT). CT scans of 85 shoulders in 35 male and 14 female consecutive patients aged 6 to 20 (mean, 16) years were reviewed. No patient had pain or tenderness at the acromion. Appearance and fusion of the secondary ossification centres of the acromion were determined twice by an orthopaedist. A secondary ossification centre was considered to have appeared when a low-density line was noted at the juxta-epiphyseal area and to have fused when the line had disappeared. Intra-observer reliability was determined. The intra-observer reliability was 0.93. The secondary ossification centres of the acromion had appeared at around 10 years of age and had fused at around 15 years of age, with one exception. In these Japanese subjects, the secondary ossification centres of the acromion had appeared at around 10 years of age and had fused at 15 to 16 years.

  8. High oesophageal web formation in association with heterotopic gastric mucosa (the gastric inlet patch): a small case series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainley, Eric J

    2011-01-01

    Background Upper oesophageal webs or rings have rarely been reported in association with heterotopic gastric mucosa (HGM). Objective To describe the finding of oesophageal webs in association with HGM. Design Small case series. Setting Patients presenting with dysphagia to an open access hospital dysphagia clinic. Patients Six cases were found. Interventions Symptomatic improvement is demonstrated with oesophageal dilatation in symptomatic patients. Main outcome measurements Symptomatic improvement. Results The six cases which are described here demonstrate that a web or ring exactly matches the distribution of the heterotopic mucosa, can occur at both proximal and distal squamo-columnar junctions and the inlet patches may be multiple with multiple rings. A radiological double web sign is described. Limitations A rare condition with a small number of patients. Conclusions Effective treatment can be by oesophageal dilatation and acid suppression. The cause of web formation is thought to be due to heterotopic acid production and is analogous to the Schatzki ring. PMID:28839593

  9. Ossification of the ligamentum flavum associated with osteoblastoma: a report of three cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuda, Shin' ya; Myoui, Akira; Nakase, Takanobu; Wada, Eiji; Yonenobu, Kazuo; Yoshikawa, H. [Dept. of Orthopaedic Surgery (E3), Osaka University Medical School (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    We report three cases of spinal osteoblastoma with ossification of the ligamentum flavum (OLF) adjacent to the tumor. The patients in this report, all young adults, had no symptoms except for back pain. Computed tomography (CT) demonstrated a typical radiolucent nidus in the spinal pedicle/lamina with a dense sclerotic rim. In addition, ectopic bone formation at the insertion point of the ligamentum flavum adjacent to the tumor was clearly illustrated. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed the tumor and surrounding inflammatory responses, but OLF was not detected clearly. Histological examination revealed endochondral ossification of the ligamentum flavum that is quite unusual for normal young adults. Immunohistochemical assays in one case demonstrated that bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2/4 was expressed in the osteoblastic tumor cells. This case raises the possibility that BMPs secreted from the tumor cells triggered ectopic ossification in the spinal ligament. (orig.)

  10. Does the epiphyseal cartilage of the long bones have one or two ossification fronts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Martos, María Jesús; Touza Fernández, Alberto; Canillas, Fernando; Quintana-Villamandos, Begoña; Santos del Riego, Sergio; Delgado-Martos, Emilio; Martos-Rodriguez, Antonia; Delgado-Baeza, Emilio

    2013-10-01

    Epiphyseal cartilage is hyaline cartilage tissue with a gelatinous texture, and it is responsible for the longitudinal growth of the long bones in birds and mammals. It is located between the epiphysis and the diaphysis. Epiphyseal cartilage also is called a growth plate or physis. It is protected by three bone components: the epiphysis, the bone bar of the perichondrial ring and the metaphysis. The epiphysis, which lies over the epiphyseal cartilage in the form a cupola, contains a juxtaposed bone plate that is near the epiphyseal cartilage and is in direct contact with the epiphyseal side of the epiphyseal cartilage. The germinal zone corresponds to a group of cells called chondrocytes. These chondrocytes belong to a group of chondral cells, which are distributed in rows and columns; this architecture is commonly known as a growth plate. The growth plate is responsible for endochondral bone growth. The aim of this study was to elucidate the causal relationship between the juxtaposed bone plate and epiphyseal cartilage in mammals. Our hypothesis is that cells from the germinal zone of the epiphyseal side of the epiphyseal cartilage are involved in forming a second ossification front that is responsible for the origin of the juxtaposed bone plate. We report the following: (a) The juxtaposed bone plate has a morphology and function that differs from that of the epiphyseal trabeculae; (b) on the epiphyseal edge of the epiphyseal cartilage, a new ossification front starts on the chondrocytes of the germinal area, which forms the juxtaposed bone plate. This ossification front is formed by chondrocytes from the germinal zone through a process of mineralisation and ossification, and (c) the process of mineralisation and ossification has a certain morphological analogy to the process of ossification in the metaphyseal cartilage of amphibians and differs from the endochondral ossification process in the metaphyseal side of the growth plate. The close relationship between

  11. Welfare Assessment following Heterotopic or Orthotopic Inoculation of Bladder Cancer in C57BL/6 Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Miller

    Full Text Available Few studies have assessed whether mice used as cancer models experience pain. Despite this possibility, the usual practice is to withhold analgesics as these are generally viewed as confounding. However, pain also alters cancer progression, so preventing it might not only be beneficial to welfare but also to study validity. Establishing the extent to which different cancer models result in pain is an important first step towards their refinement. We used conditioned place preference (CPP testing and body-weight and behaviour analyses to evaluate the assumption that heterotopically implanted tumours result in less pain and fewer welfare concerns than those implanted orthotopically. C57Bl/6 mice received MB49Luc luciferase expressing bladder cancer cells or saline implanted subcutaneously or into the bladder. These tumour-bearing or control groups underwent 2 daily 45 minute conditioning trials to saline or morphine (2mg/kg and then a 15 minute drug-free preference test on day 3 of a 3 day cycle, continuing until the study ended. Tumours were imaged and behaviour data obtained following preference tests. Development of preference for the morphine-paired chamber (morphine-seeking was determined over time. Heterotopic tumour development had no effect on morphine-seeking, and although the restraint used for heterotopic inoculation caused greater initial weight losses than anaesthesia, these mice steadily gained weight and behaved comparatively normally throughout the study. Orthotopic tumour inoculation caused no initial weight losses, but over the final 7 days these mice became less active and lost more body weight than cancer-free controls. This indicated orthotopic implantation probably caused a more negative impact on welfare or conceivably pain; but only according to the current test methods. Pain could not be confirmed because morphine-seeking in the tumour-bearing groups was similar to that seen in controls. Imaging was not found to be an

  12. The trochlear pre-ossification center: a normal developmental stage and potential pitfall on MR images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaimes, Camilo [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Jimenez, Mauricio [Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Marin, Diana [Miami Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Miami, FL (United States); Ho-Fung, Victor; Jaramillo, Diego [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); University of Pennsylvania, Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2012-11-15

    The hypertrophic changes that occur in the cartilage of an epiphysis prior to the onset of ossification are known as the pre-ossification center. Awareness of the appearance of the pre-ossification center on MR images is important to avoid confusing normal developmental changes with pathology. The purpose of this study was to determine the characteristics of the trochlear pre-ossification center on MR imaging and examine age and gender differences. We retrospectively analyzed MR images from 61 children. The trochleas were categorized into three types on the basis of signal intensity (SI). Trochlear types were compared to age and gender. There was no significant difference between the ages of boys and girls. Type 1 trochleas showed homogeneous SI on all pulse sequences. Type 2 trochleas demonstrated a focus of high SI in the epiphyseal cartilage on fat-suppressed water-sensitive sequences, with high or intermediate SI on gradient-echo images (pre-ossification center). Type 3 trochleas showed low SI on fat-suppressed water-sensitive sequences and gradient-echo images. Thirty-seven trochleas were described as type 1, sixteen as type 2 and eight as type 3. ANOVAs confirmed a statistically significant difference in the age of children with type 3 trochleas and those with types 1 and 2 (P < 0.001). Spearman rank correlations determined a positive relationship between trochlear type and age of the children (r = 0.53). Development-related changes in the trochlea follow a predictable pattern. The signal characteristics of the pre-ossification center likely reflect normal chondrocyte hypertrophy and an increase in free water in the matrix. (orig.)

  13. Two-stage heterotopic urethroplasty with usage of groin flap. Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. T. Adamyan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the issues of struggle with problems of the urogenital region, arising as a consequence iatrogeny, with the help of plastic surgery. The article provides the case report, which deals with a two-step treatment of the patient with complete loss of the part of the urethra and bladder neck due to iatrogeny. The first stage of surgical treatment is the development of the artificial urethra formation by the rotation groin flap with the axis blood supply. The second stage is connection private urethra with artificial, with a heterotopic location of the lower urinary tract.

  14. Two-stage heterotopic urethroplasty with usage of groin flap. Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. T. Adamyan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the issues of struggle with problems of the urogenital region, arising as a consequence iatrogeny, with the help of plastic surgery. The article provides the case report, which deals with a two-step treatment of the patient with complete loss of the part of the urethra and bladder neck due to iatrogeny. The first stage of surgical treatment is the development of the artificial urethra formation by the rotation groin flap with the axis blood supply. The second stage is connection private urethra with artificial, with a heterotopic location of the lower urinary tract.

  15. Successful selective reduction of a heterotopic cesarean scar pregnancy in the second trimester: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haiyan; Luo, Hong; Zhao, Fumin; Liu, Xinghui; Wang, Xiaodong

    2016-11-29

    Heterotopic cesarean scar pregnancy is a cesarean scar pregnancy combined with an intrauterine pregnancy that predisposes a woman to life-threatening complications such as uterine rupture and massive bleeding. Preservation of the intrauterine pregnancy in heterotopic cesarean scar pregnancy is a great challenge. We report a case of a 33-year-old woman with heterotopic cesarean scar pregnancy after IVF-embryo transfer (ET). Expectant management was carried out with early diagnosis of heterotopic cesarean scar pregnancy (HCSP), and selective fetal reduction of cesarean scar pregnancy (CSP) was performed by ultrasound-guided intrathoracic injection of potassium chloride (KCl) at 16 + 4 weeks of gestation due to aggravation of CSP. Preservation of the intrauterine pregnancy was successful and a healthy baby was delivered by cesarean section at 37 + 6 weeks of gestation. Heterotopic cesarean scar pregnancy is an extremely rare form of heterotopic pregnancy. Patients should be appropriately counseled regarding the different treatment options available. An ultrasound-guided injection of potassium chloride may constitute a safe, minimally invasive and reliable way to terminate the heterotopic gestation and preserve the intrauterine pregnancy. Intensive management should be performed during the ongoing pregnancy and cesarean section.

  16. Heterotopic triplet pregnancy complicated with ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome following in vitro fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomić, Vlatka; Tomić, Jozo; Kuna, Krunoslav; Zigmundovac-Klaić, Durda

    2011-12-01

    Heterotopic pregnancy is a rare event that occurs in less than 1% of pregnancies following in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer, especially when complicated with ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. We report a case of a 31-year-old woman in the 6th gestational week of pregnancy achieved after in vitro fertilization, who was complaining of acute lower abdominal pain and distension, breathing difficulties and vaginal spotting. Transvaginal ultrasound examination and laboratory tests confirmed the ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome in the presence of two viable gestational sacs. The patient's condition worsened five days later with sudden onset of sharp abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting, along with impaired laboratory test values. Laparoscopy was attempted, but enlarged ovaries and adhesions prevented further procedure, which was then converted to mini-laparotomy. Operative removal of the right tubal pregnancy resulted in uncomplicated course of the intrauterine twin pregnancy and delivery of two healthy neonates by cesarean section at 37 weeks of gestation. Clinicians need to be aware of this rare complication where ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome coexists with heterotopic pregnancy after in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer procedure. Enlarged ovaries may mask accurate ultrasound diagnosis, but timely surgical intervention can prevent fatal consequences and result in normal course and outcome of intrauterine pregnancy.

  17. Incomplete endochondral ossification of the otic capsule, a variation in children: evaluation of its prevalence and extent in children with and without sensorineural hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanverdi, S E; Ozgen, B; Dolgun, A; Sarac, S

    2015-01-01

    Endochondral ossification of the otic capsule is a process that continues postnatally; hence, incomplete endochondral ossification is seen as pericochlear hypoattenuation on temporal bone CT scans of children. We determined the prevalence and extent of this entity in a large series and assessed its relation to age and underlying sensorineural hearing loss. Initially, temporal bone CTs of 40 children with sensorineural hearing loss were retrospectively assessed and compared with those of a control group scanned for non-sensorineural hearing loss reasons to assess any difference in the prevalence or extent of incomplete endochondral ossification. Then the CT scans of 510 children (age range, 17 days to 17 years) were retrospectively reviewed, and any observed endochondral ossification areas were classified as mild, moderate, or extensive, according to their extent. Neither the presence nor degree of incomplete endochondral ossification had any significant correlation with the presence of sensorineural hearing loss (P = .08 and P = .1, respectively). Incomplete endochondral ossification was more frequently seen (62% of cases) than complete ossification. There was no statistically significant correlation between incomplete endochondral ossification and sex (P = .8), but an inverse correlation was found between the presence of incomplete endochondral ossification and increasing age (P ossification was the most frequent involvement pattern (44.4%). The pericochlear hypoattenuation in the otic capsule representing incomplete endochondral ossification is a normal finding in children and can be seen as a marked curvilinear hypoattenuation at younger ages in the absence of any clinical disorder. © 2015 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  18. Development of the microcirculation of the secondary ossification center in rat humeral head

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morini, S; Continenza, MA; Ricciardi, G; Gaudio, E; Pannarale, L

    This work investigated the origin and development of microcirculation in the rat humeral head and the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) as a factor supporting the vascular growth and the development of the secondary ossification centers. Sixty rats aging 1, 3-4, 6-8, 11, and 21

  19. Dietary 135-fold cholecalciferol supplementation severely disturbs the endochondral ossification in growing dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tryfonidou, M.A.; Holl, M.S.; Stevenhagen, J.J.; Buurman, C.J.; Deluca, H.F.; Oosterlaken-Dijksterhuis, M.A.; Brom, W.E. van den; Leeuwen, J.P.T.M. van; Hazewinkel, H.A.W.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of excessive non-toxic dietary Vitamin D3 supplementation on Ca homeostasis with specific effects on endochondral ossification and skeletal remodeling were investigated in a group of growing Great Dane dogs supplemented with cholecalciferol (Vitamin D3; HVitD) versus a control group

  20. Effects of bisphosphonates on osteogenesis and osteoclastogenesis signaling during the endochondral ossification of growing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezende, Eloiza; Bradaschia-Correa, Vivian; Siviero, Fabio; Ambrosio, Lucas M B; Arana-Chavez, Victor E

    2017-05-01

    Osteoclasts and chondroclasts are necessary, during endochondral ossification, for the resorption of primary bone and calcified cartilage septa, respectively. The bisphosphonates inhibit mineralized tissue resorption by various mechanisms according to the different types of this drug, which can affect bone remodeling during skeletal growth. The objective of the present study is to analyze the way that alendronate (ALN) and etidronate (ETN) can affect osteoclastogenesis and bone formation during endochondral ossification of the long bones of growing rats. Newborn Wistar rats were treated daily with ETN, ALN, or sterile saline solution (control) for 21 days. Their femur and tibiae epiphyses were radiographed and analyzed by light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The expression of genes related to osteogenesis and to osteoclast differentiation and activity were analyzed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The ETN group presented reduced body weight, disorganized growth plate and an extended area of cartilage in the ossification zone with little bone matrix; in the ALN group, this area was not altered. The ALN presented latent TRAP-positive cells, whereas in the ETN group, they were activated. The expression of NFκB1 and 2, OPG, Spp1 and Runx2 in the ossification zone was reduced by both bisphosphonates. RANKL expression was reduced by ETN, whereas ALN decreased the expression of RANK. The results also indicated that, in addition to the anti-resorptive effect of the drugs, disturbances in bone deposition occurred concomitantly with the reduced expression of osteogenesis-related genes.

  1. Bone marrow blood vessel ossification and "microvascular dead space" in rat and human long bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prisby, Rhonda D

    2014-07-01

    Severe calcification of the bone microvascular network was observed in rats, whereby the bone marrow blood vessels appeared ossified. This study sought to characterize the magnitude of ossification in relation to patent blood vessels and adipocyte content in femoral diaphyses. Additionally, this study confirmed the presence of ossified vessels in patients with arteriosclerotic vascular disease and peripheral vascular disease and cellulitis. Young (4-6 month; n=8) and old (22-24 month; n=8) male Fischer-344 rats were perfused with barium sulfate to visualize patent bone marrow blood vessels. Femoral shafts were processed for bone histomorphometry to quantify ossified (Goldner's Trichrome) and calcified (Alizarin Red) vessels. Adipocyte content was also determined. Additional femora (n=5/age group) were scanned via μCT to quantify microvascular ossification. Bone marrow blood vessels from the rats and the human patients were also isolated and examined via microscopy. Ossified vessels (rats and humans) had osteocyte lacunae on the vessel surfaces and "normal" vessels were transitioning into bone. The volume of ossified vessels was 4800% higher (possification of bone marrow blood vessels in rats and humans. Ossification presumably results in "microvascular dead space" in regard to loss of patency and vasomotor function as opposed to necrosis. Progression of bone microvascular ossification may provide the common link associated with age-related changes in bone and bone marrow. The clinical implications may be evident in the difficulties treating bone disease in the elderly. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Assessment of midpalatal suture ossification using cone-beam computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghanifar, Sina; Mahmoudi, Sadaf; Foroughi, Ramin; Mir, Arash Poorsattar Bejeh; Mesgarani, Abas; Bijani, Ali

    2017-03-01

    The degree of ossification of the midpalatal suture is an important factor in the selection of treatment procedure, especially in young individuals. Considering the discrepancies in the results of studies on the exact time of the closure of this suture, the present study was undertaken to evaluate ossification and morphology of the suture with the use of CBCT. In the present cross-sectional study, the CBCT images of the maxilla in 144 Iranian subjects (72 males, 72 females) with an age range of 10 to 70 years, referring to a private radiology center in Sari, Iran, were evaluated. The CBCT images were evaluated in the axial cross-sectional slice at 1 mm intervals to determine morphology and the maturation stage of the suture and its degree of ossification. The six developmental stages that were observed were as follows: stage A, a direct line without disturbances; stage B, a scalloped appearance in the suture; stage C, two parallel lines with a scalloped appearance that were connected at some points; stage CD, the anterior portion was similar to stage C, and the posterior region was similar to stage D; stage D, ossification only in the palatine bone; stage E, complete ossification of the suture. The degree of ossification of the suture was calculated with the use of the ratio of the length of the ossified segment to the entire length of the suture. Data were analyzed with Spearman's correlation test, Chi-squared test, t-test, ANOVA, Mann-Whitney U, and Kruskal-Wallis test. Intra-observer agreement was calculated with the use of weighted kappa coefficient. Data were analyzed with SPSS 17. There was a strong correlation between the age groups and the developmental stages of the midpalatal suture in both genders (r=0.681, ptwo genders (p=0.193). Although the rate of suture closure increased with aging, age was not a reliable factor alone to determine the developmental stage of the suture. Use of CBCT is necessary in all the patients to determine the degree of

  3. Endochondral ossification for enhancing bone regeneration: converging native extracellular matrix biomaterials and developmental engineering in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, S Connor; Berkland, Cory J; Bonewald, Lynda F; Detamore, Michael S

    2015-06-01

    Autologous bone grafting (ABG) remains entrenched as the gold standard of treatment in bone regenerative surgery. Consequently, many marginally successful bone tissue engineering strategies have focused on mimicking portions of ABG's "ideal" osteoconductive, osteoinductive, and osteogenic composition resembling the late reparative stage extracellular matrix (ECM) in bone fracture repair, also known as the "hard" or "bony" callus. An alternative, less common approach that has emerged in the last decade harnesses endochondral (EC) ossification through developmental engineering principles, which acknowledges that the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in developmental skeletogenesis, specifically EC ossification, are closely paralleled during native bone healing. EC ossification naturally occurs during the majority of bone fractures and, thus, can potentially be utilized to enhance bone regeneration for nearly any orthopedic indication, especially in avascular critical-sized defects where hypoxic conditions favor initial chondrogenesis instead of direct intramembranous ossification. The body's native EC ossification response, however, is not capable of regenerating critical-sized defects without intervention. We propose that an underexplored potential exists to regenerate bone through the native EC ossification response by utilizing strategies which mimic the initial inflammatory or fibrocartilaginous ECM (i.e., "pro-" or "soft" callus) observed in the early reparative stage of bone fracture repair. To date, the majority of strategies utilizing this approach rely on clinically burdensome in vitro cell expansion protocols. This review will focus on the confluence of two evolving areas, (1) native ECM biomaterials and (2) developmental engineering, which will attempt to overcome the technical, business, and regulatory challenges that persist in the area of bone regeneration. Significant attention will be given to native "raw" materials and ECM-based designs that

  4. Effect of alendronate on endochondral ossification in mandibular condyles of growing rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Bradaschia-Correa

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The replacement of the calcified cartilage by bone tissue during the endochondral ossification of the mandibular condyle is dependent of the resorbing activity of osteoclats. After partial resorption, calcified cartilage septa are covered by a primary bone matrix secreted by osteoblasts. Osteoadherin (OSAD is a small proteoglycan present in bone matrix but absent in cartilage during the endochondral ossification. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of alendronate, a drug known to inhibit bone resorption by osteoclasts, on the endochondral ossification of the mandibular condyle of young rats, by evaluating the distribution of osteoclasts and the presence of OSAD in the bone matrix deposited. Wistar newborn rats (n=45 received daily injections of alendronate (n=27 or sterile saline solution as control (n=18 from the day of birth until the ages of 4, 14 and 30 days. At the days mentioned, the mandibular condyles were collected and processed for transmission electron microscopy analysis. Specimens were also submitted to tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP histochemistry and ultrastructural immunodetection of OSAD. Alendronate treatment did not impede the recruitment and fusion of osteoclasts at the ossification zone during condyle growth, but they presented inactivated phenotype. The trabeculae at the ossification area consisted of cartilage matrix covered by a layer of primary bone matrix that was immunopositive to OSAD at all time points studied. Apparently, alendronate impeded the removal of calcified cartilage and maturation of bone trabeculae in the mandibular ramus, while in controls they occurred normally. These findings highlight for giving attention to the potential side-effects of bisphosphonates administered to young patients once it may represent a risk of disturbing maxillofacial development.

  5. "Anterior skull base and pericranial flap ossification after frontofacial monobloc advancement".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morice, Anne; Paternoster, Giovanna; Ostertag, Agnès; James, Syril; Cohen-Solal, Martine; Khonsari, Roman H; Arnaud, Eric

    2017-10-12

    Frontofacial monobloc advancement (FFMBA) creates a communication between the anterior cranial fossa and nasal cavities. To tackle this issue, trans-orbital pericranial pedicled flaps (PF) are routinely performed in our center. This study aimed to assess the post-operative ossification of the anterior skull base and PF following FFMBA, and to identify factors influencing this ossification. Measurements of the skull base only (SB) and of the ossified PF together with the SB (SB-OPF) were performed on CT scans at the naso-frontal (NF) and the naso-ethmoïdo-frontal (NEF) junctions. The total thickness of the skull vault was measured and a qualitative defect score for the anterior skull base was computed. Twenty-two patients who underwent FFMBA at a median age of 3.1 years (1.9 - 3.6) were included: 14 with Crouzon (CS), 5 with Pfeiffer (PS) and 3 with Apert syndrome (AS). One year and five years after surgery, the distraction gap was completely ossified in the anterior skull base midline in all patients. SB-OPF was thicker in patients than in controls at these two time points (p OPF thicknesses (p = 0.01 and p = 0.03) and lower defect scores than patients with CS or AS (p = 0.03) one year post-operatively. As ossification of the PF and total re-ossification of the anterior SB midline were observed in all patients, we indicate that performing PF in FFMBA could promote the re-ossification of the anterior skull base.

  6. Cyclin‑dependent kinase inhibitor p21 does not impact embryonic endochondral ossification in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinzei, Nobuaki; Hayashi, Shinya; Hashimoto, Shingo; Kanzaki, Noriyuki; Iwasa, Kenjiro; Sakata, Shuhei; Kihara, Shinsuke; Fujishiro, Takaaki; Kuroda, Ryosuke; Kurosaka, Masahiro

    2015-03-01

    Endochondral ossification at the growth plate is regulated by a number of factors and hormones. The cyclin‑dependent kinase inhibitor p21 has been identified as a cell cycle regulator and its expression has been reported to be essential for endochondral ossification in vitro. However, to the best of our knowledge, the function of p21 in endochondral ossification has not been evaluated in vivo. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the function of p21 in embryonic endochondral ossification in vivo. Wild‑type (WT) and p21 knockout (KO) pregnant heterozygous mice were sacrificed on embryonic days E13.5, E15.5 and E18.5. Sagittal histological sections of the forearms of the embryos were collected and stained with Safranin O and 5‑bromo‑2'‑deoxyuridine (BrdU). Additionally, the expression levels of cyclin D1, type II collagen, type X collagen, Sox9, and p16 were examined using immunohistochemistry, and the expression levels of p27 were examined using immunofluorescence. Safranin O staining revealed no structural change between the cartilage tissues of the WT and p21KO mice at any time point. Type II collagen was expressed ubiquitously, while type X collagen was only expressed in the hypertrophic zone of the cartilage tissues. No differences in the levels of Sox9 expression were observed between the two groups at any time point. The levels of cyclin D1 expression and BrdU uptake were higher in the E13.5 cartilage tissue compared with those observed in the embryonic cartilage tissue at subsequent time points. Expression of p16 and p27 was ubiquitous throughout the tissue sections. These results indicate that p21 may not be essential for embryonic endochondral ossification in articular cartilage of mice and that other signaling networks may compensate for p21 deletion.

  7. Transplantation of Fetal Instead of Adult Fibroblasts Reduces the Probability of Ectopic Ossification During Tendon Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Zhi; Zhu, Ting; Shen, Wei Liang; Tang, Qiao Mei; Chen, Jia Lin; Yin, Zi; Ji, Jun Feng; Heng, Boon Chin; Ouyang, Hong Wei; Chen, Xiao

    2014-01-01

    Although cell transplantation therapy can effectively promote functional tendon repair, occasional ectopic ossification during tendon regeneration undermines its efficacy. The effect of transplanted cell types on ectopic ossification has not yet been systematically evaluated. This study compared the rate of ectopic ossification during tendon repair upon transplantation with mouse fetal fibroblasts (FFs) and their adult counterparts (adult fibroblasts [AFs]). Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining, immunofluorescence, and gene expression analysis were used to compare the spontaneous osteogenic differentiation of FFs and AFs in vitro. X-ray, histology, and gene expression analysis were used to investigate the ectopic ossification in a mouse Achilles tendon repair model in vivo. ALP staining and immunofluorescence data in vitro showed that FFs had less spontaneous osteogenic differentiation capacity, and lower expression of runt-related transcription factor 2 (runx2). For the in vivo study, the FFs transplant group displayed reduced ectopic ossification (2/7 vs. 7/7, Mann–Whitney test p<0.01) at 14 weeks post-transplantation and enhanced tendon repair (general histological score at week 6, 7.53 vs. 10.56, p<0.05). More chondrocytes formed at 6 weeks, and all mice developed bone marrow at 14 weeks post-transplantation in the AFs transplant group. Gene expression analysis of the regenerated tissue showed significantly higher expression levels of transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-β1) and transforming growth factor beta3 (TGF-β3) in the AFs group during the early stages of tendon repair. Our study demonstrates that transplantation of fetal instead of AFs is more promising for tendon repair, underscoring the importance of the origin of seed cells for tendon repair. PMID:24410299

  8. Failure of ossification of the occipital bone in mandibuloacral dysplasia type B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haye, Damien; Dridi, Hend; Levy, Jonathan; Lambert, Véronique; Lambert, Maurice; Agha, Mohamed; Adjimi, Frédéric; Kohlhase, Jürgen; Lipsker, Dan; Verloes, Alain

    2016-10-01

    Mandibuloacral dysplasia with type B lipodystrophy is a rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by atrophic skin, lipodystrophy, and skeletal features. It is caused by mutations in ZMPSTE24, a gene encoding a zinc metalloproteinase involved in the post-translational modification of lamin. Nine distinct pathogenic variants have been identified in 11 patients from nine unrelated families with this disorder. We report a 12-year-old boy with mandibuloacral dysplasia with type B lipodystrophy and a novel homozygous c.1196A>G; p.(Tyr399Cys) mutation in ZMPSTE24. The patient had typical dermatological and skeletal features of mandibuloacral dysplasia with type B lipodystrophy, sparse hair, short stature, mild microcephaly, facial dysmorphism, and a striking failure of ossification of the interparietal region of the occipital bone, up to the position where transverse occipital suture can be observed. Newly recognized signs for mandibuloacral dysplasia with type B lipodystrophy were gaze palsy and ptosis. Delayed closure of cranial sutures and Wormian bones have been described in three patients, but an ossification failure strictly limited to the occipital bone, as seen in the present patient, appears to be unique for mandibuloacral dysplasia with type B lipodystrophy. This observation illustrates that ZMPSTE24 could play a specific role in membranous ossification in the interparietal part of the squama (Inca bone) but not in the intracartilaginous ossification of the supraoccipital. This failure of ossification in the squama appears to be a useful feature for the radiological diagnosis of mandibuloacral dysplasia with type B lipodystrophy. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Ossification of the achilles tendon after surgery of talipes equinus in childhood and condition following Koehler II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinhardt, K.; Wagner, M. (Kreiskrankenhaus Voelklingen (Germany, F.R.). Roentgen- und Nuklearmedizinische Abt.)

    1980-06-01

    In a 48-year old man, ossification was seen in the right achilles tendon which was to be interpreted as due to surgical extension of tendon in childhood following operation of talipes equinus. Only few reports have been published in literature, but in these, the X-ray findings were largely identical, and in all cases except one, injuries of the tendon or operations had preceded the condition. Ossification is associated with mild complaints only. It presents a typical pattern of X-ray findings distinguishing it from tendon ossifications or calcifications of other origin.

  10. Investigation of ossification in the posterior longitudinal ligament using micro-focus X-ray CT scanning and histological examination

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fukutake, Katsunori; Ishiwatari, Takao; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Tsuchiya, Kazuaki; Okubo, Yoichiro; Shinozaki, Minoru; Tochigi, Naobumi; Wakayama, Megumi; Nemoto, Tetsuo; Shibuya, Kazutoshi; Wada, Akihito

    2015-01-01

    ... that did not exhibit symptoms of ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL). The subjects in the present study were derived from serial autopsy cases from January 2009 to December 2013 at Toho University Omori Medical Center, Japan...

  11. Engineering Small-Scale and Scaffold-Based Bone Organs via Endochondral Ossification Using Adult Progenitor Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotti, Celeste; Tonnarelli, Beatrice; Papadimitropoulos, Adam; Piccinini, Elia; Todorov, Atanas; Centola, Matteo; Barbero, Andrea; Martin, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Bone development, growth, and repair predominantly occur through the process of endochondral ossification, characterized by remodelling of cartilaginous templates. The same route efficiently supports engineering of bone marrow as a niche for hematopoietic stem cells (HSC). Here we describe a combined in vitro/in vivo system based on bone marrow-derived Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells (MSC) that duplicates the hallmark cellular and molecular events of endochondral ossification during development. The model requires MSC culture with instructive molecules to generate hypertrophic cartilage tissues. The resulting constructs complete the endochondral route upon in vivo implantation, in the timeframe of up to 12 weeks. The described protocol is clearly distinct from the direct ossification approach typically used to drive MSC towards osteogenesis. Recapitulation of endochondral ossification allows modelling of stromal-HSC interactions in physiology and pathology and allows engineering processes underlying bone regeneration.

  12. Heterotopic bone formation derived from multipotent stromal cells is not inhibited in aged mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonneau, Cynthia L; Despars, Geneviève; Beaudry, Gaël Moquin; Benabdallah, Basma; Bouhanik, Saadallah; Dépôt, Josée; Moreau, Alain; Beauséjour, Christian M

    2014-08-01

    Decreased bone formation with age is believed to arise, at least in part, because of the influence of the senescent microenvironment. In this context, it is unclear whether multipotent stromal cell (MSC)-based therapies would be effective for the treatment of bone diseases. With the use of a heterotopic bone formation model, we investigated whether MSC-derived osteogenesis is impaired in aged mice compared with young mice. We found that bone formation derived from MSCs is not reduced in aged mice. These results are supported by the unexpected finding that conditioned media collected from ionizing radiation-induced senescent MSCs can stimulate mineralization and delay osteoclastogenesis in vitro. Overall, our results suggest that impaired bone formation with age is mainly cell-autonomous and provide a rationale for the use of MSC-based therapies for the treatment of bone diseases in the elderly. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Heterotopic Gastric Mucosa in the Distal Part of Esophagus in a Teenager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupu, Vasile Valeriu; Ignat, Ancuta; Paduraru, Gabriela; Mihaila, Doina; Burlea, Marin; Ciubara, Anamaria

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Heterotopic gastric mucosa (HGM) of the esophagus is a congenital anomaly consisting of ectopic gastric mucosa. It may be connected with disorders of the upper gastrointestinal tract, exacerbated by Helicobacter pylori. The diagnosis of HGM is confirmed via endoscopy with biopsy. Histopathology provides the definitive diagnosis by demonstrating gastric mucosa adjacent to normal esophageal mucosa. HGM located in the distal esophagus needs differentiation from Barrett's esophagus. Barrett's esophagus is a well-known premalignant injury for adenocarcinoma of the esophagus. Malignant progression of HGM occurs in a stepwise pattern, following the metaplasia–dysplasia–adenocarcinoma sequence. We present a rare case of a teenage girl with HGM located in the distal esophagus, associated with chronic gastritis and biliary duodenogastric reflux. Endoscopy combined with biopsies is a mandatory method in clinical evaluation of metaplastic and nonmetaplastic changes within HGM of the esophagus. PMID:26496283

  14. Heterotopic relation between media and materiality in children's online memorials and on children's graves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil; Christensen, Dorthe Refslund

    In this paper we analyze how bereaved parents make use of various media-strategies on online memorial sites and on children’s graves when performing processes of grief and commemoration for their stillborns and infants, and how these processes are not just linked to one particular media but take...... place across media. We show how the death of an infant can lead to mediation, remediation and mediatization strategies which involves both the uses and arrangement of objects on memorial pages and on children’s graves as well as uses of new social technologies, that produce, negotiate and develop social...... relations, belonging and coherence that are both individual and relational and that are made possible by ritually establishing online memorials and graves as heterotopic interfaces that opens certain communicational flows and accesses specific communicative spaces concerning most prominently the ongoing...

  15. Acupuncture at heterotopic acupoints enhances jejunal motility in constipated and diarrheic rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Qing-Guang; Gao, Xin-Yan; Liu, Kun; Yu, Xiao-Chun; Li, Liang; Wang, Hai-Ping; Zhu, Bing

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect and mechanism of acupuncture at heterotopic acupoints on jejunal motility, particularly in pathological conditions. METHODS: Jejunal motility was assessed using a manometric balloon placed in the jejunum approximately 18-20 cm downstream from the pylorus and filled with approximately 0.1 mL warm water in anesthetized normal rats or rats with diarrhea or constipation. The heterotopic acupoints including LI11 (Quchi), ST37 (Shangjuxu), BL25 (Dachangshu), and the homotopic acupoint ST25 (Tianshu), and were stimulated for 60 s by rotating acupuncture needles right and left at a frequency of 2 Hz. To determine the type of afferent fibers mediating the regulation of jejunal motility by manual acupuncture, the ipsilateral sciatic A or C fibers of ST37 were inactivated by local application of the A-fiber selective demyelination agent cobra venom or the C fiber blocker capsaicin. Methoctramine, a selective M2 receptor antagonist, was injected intravenously to identify a specific role for M2 receptors in mediating the effect of acupuncture on jejunal motility. RESULTS: Acupuncture at heterotopic acupoints, such as LI11 and ST37, increased jejunal motility not only in normal rats, but also in rats with constipation or diarrhea. In normal rats, manual acupuncture at LI11 or ST37 enhanced jejunal pressure from 7.34 ± 0.19 cmH2O to 7.93 ± 0.20 cmH2O, an increase of 9.05% ± 0.82% (P acupuncture at LI11 or ST37 increased intrajejunal pressure from 8.17 ± 0.31 cmH2O to 9.86 ± 0.36 cmH2O, an increase of 20.69% ± 2.10% (P 0.05), respectively. In contrast, acupuncture ST25, a homotopic acupoint, decreased not only intrajejunal pressure, but also significantly decreased frequency in normal rats and rats with constipation or diarrhea. Following demyelination of Aδ fibers, acupuncture at ST37 again augmented intrajejunal pressure to 121.48% ± 3.06% of baseline. Following capsaicin application for 24 h, acupuncture at ipsilateral ST37 increased

  16. Heterotopic Gastric Mucosa in the Distal Part of Esophagus in a Teenager: Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupu, Vasile Valeriu; Ignat, Ancuta; Paduraru, Gabriela; Mihaila, Doina; Burlea, Marin; Ciubara, Anamaria

    2015-10-01

    Heterotopic gastric mucosa (HGM) of the esophagus is a congenital anomaly consisting of ectopic gastric mucosa. It may be connected with disorders of the upper gastrointestinal tract, exacerbated by Helicobacter pylori. The diagnosis of HGM is confirmed via endoscopy with biopsy. Histopathology provides the definitive diagnosis by demonstrating gastric mucosa adjacent to normal esophageal mucosa. HGM located in the distal esophagus needs differentiation from Barrett's esophagus. Barrett's esophagus is a well-known premalignant injury for adenocarcinoma of the esophagus. Malignant progression of HGM occurs in a stepwise pattern, following the metaplasia-dysplasia-adenocarcinoma sequence.We present a rare case of a teenage girl with HGM located in the distal esophagus, associated with chronic gastritis and biliary duodenogastric reflux. Endoscopy combined with biopsies is a mandatory method in clinical evaluation of metaplastic and nonmetaplastic changes within HGM of the esophagus.

  17. Respiratory distress associated with heterotopic gastrointestinal cysts of the oral cavity: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Méndez Sáenz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Heterotopic gastrointestinal cysts of the oral cavity are benign lesions usually discovered during infancy. Their pathogenesis is not very clear. They are rare congenital anomalies that result from remnants of foregut-derived epithelium in the head, neck, thorax or abdomen during embryonic development. The majority of these lesions occur in the anterior ventral surface of the tongue and extend to the floor of the mouth. They are confused clinically by surgeons in cases of head and neck masses in children as ranulas, dermoid and thyroglossal cysts, and lymphangioma. We report the case of a 28-day newborn with a 3.6 cm oval mass on the floor of the mouth causing difficulty eating and cyanosis during crying. Complete surgical excision was performed by an oral approach under general anesthesia. Microscopic examination revealed gastric epithelium with tall columnar mucous cells on the surface and numerous short closed crypts, resembling fundal glands and mature gastric epithelium.

  18. Digital image analysis of ossification centers in the axial dens and body in the human fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgart, Mariusz; Wiśniewski, Marcin; Grzonkowska, Magdalena; Małkowski, Bogdan; Badura, Mateusz; Dąbrowska, Maria; Szpinda, Michał

    2016-12-01

    The detailed understanding of the anatomy and timing of ossification centers is indispensable in both determining the fetal stage and maturity and for detecting congenital disorders. This study was performed to quantitatively examine the odontoid and body ossification centers in the axis with respect to their linear, planar and volumetric parameters. Using the methods of CT, digital image analysis and statistics, the size of the odontoid and body ossification centers in the axis in 55 spontaneously aborted human fetuses aged 17-30 weeks was studied. With no sex difference, the best fit growth dynamics for odontoid and body ossification centers of the axis were, respectively, as follows: for transverse diameter y = -10.752 + 4.276 × ln(age) ± 0.335 and y = -10.578 + 4.265 × ln(age) ± 0.338, for sagittal diameter y = -4.329 + 2.010 × ln(age) ± 0.182 and y = -3.934 + 1.930 × ln(age) ± 0.182, for cross-sectional area y = -7.102 + 0.520 × age ± 0.724 and y = -7.002 + 0.521 × age ± 0.726, and for volume y = -37.021 + 14.014 × ln(age) ± 1.091 and y = -37.425 + 14.197 × ln(age) ± 1.109. With no sex differences, the odontoid and body ossification centers of the axis grow logarithmically in transverse and sagittal diameters, and in volume, while proportionately in cross-sectional area. Our specific-age reference data for the odontoid and body ossification centers of the axis may be relevant for determining the fetal stage and maturity and for in utero three-dimensional sonographic detecting segmentation anomalies of the axis.

  19. Morphometric study of the neural ossification centers of the atlas and axis in the human fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgart, Mariusz; Wiśniewski, Marcin; Grzonkowska, Magdalena; Małkowski, Bogdan; Badura, Mateusz; Szpinda, Michał

    2016-12-01

    The knowledge of the developing cervical spine and its individual vertebrae, including their neural processes may be useful in the diagnostics of congenital vertebral malformations. This study was performed to quantitatively examine the neural ossification centers of the atlas and axis with respect to their linear, planar and volumetric parameters. Using the methods of CT, digital-image analysis and statistics, the size of neural ossification centers in the atlas and axis in 55 spontaneously aborted human fetuses aged 17-30 weeks was studied. Without any male-female and right-left significant differences, the best fit growth dynamics for the neural ossification centers of the atlas and axis were, respectively, modelled by the following functions: for length: y = -13.461 + 6.140 × ln(age) ± 0.570 and y = -15.683 + 6.882 × ln(age) ± 0.503, for width: y = -4.006 + 1.930 × ln(age) ± 0.178 and y = -3.054 + 1.648 × ln(age) ± 0.178, for cross-sectional area: y = -7.362 + 0.780 × age ± 1.700 and y = -9.930 + 0.869 × age ± 1.911, and for volume: y = -6.417 + 0.836 × age ± 1.924 and y = -11.592 + 1.087 × age ± 2.509. The size of neural ossification centers of the atlas and axis shows neither sexual nor bilateral differences. The neural ossification centers of the atlas and axis grow logarithmically in both length and width and linearly in both cross-sectional area and volume. The numerical data relating to the size of neural ossification centers of the atlas and axis derived from the CT and digital-image analysis are considered specific-age reference values of potential relevance in both the ultrasound monitoring and the early detection of spinal abnormalities relating to the neural processes of the first two cervical vertebrae in the fetus.

  20. Craniosynostosis of coronal suture in Twist1+/- mice occurs through endochondral ossification recapitulating the physiological closure of posterior frontal suture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjorn eBehr

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Craniosynostosis, the premature closure of cranial suture, is a pathologic condition that affects 1/2000 live births. Saethre-Chotzen syndrome is a genetic condition characterized by craniosynostosis. The Saethre-Chotzen syndrome, which is defined by loss-of-function mutations in the TWIST gene, is the second most prevalent craniosynostosis. Although much of the genetics and phenotypes in craniosynostosis syndromes is understood, less is known about the underlying ossification mechanism during suture closure. We have previously demonstrated that physiological closure of the posterior frontal (PF suture occurs through endochondral ossification. Moreover, we revealed that antagonizing canonical Wnt signaling in the sagittal suture leads to endochondral ossification of the suture mesenchyme and sagittal synostosis, presumably by inhibiting Twist1. Classic Saethre-Chotzen syndrome is characterized by coronal synostosis, and the haploinsufficient Twist1+/- mice represents a suitable model for studying this syndrome. Thus, we seeked to understand the underlying ossification process in coronal craniosynostosis in Twist1+/- mice. Our data indicate that coronal suture closure in Twist1+/- mice occurs between postnatal day 9 to 13 by endochondral ossification, as shown by histology, gene expression analysis and immunohistochemistry. In conclusion, this study reveals that coronal craniosynostosis in Twist1+/- mice occurs through endochondral ossification. Moreover, it suggests that haploinsufficency of Twist1 gene, a target of canonical Wnt-signaling, and inhibitor of chondrogenesis, mimics conditions of inactive canonical Wnt-signaling leading to craniosynostosis.

  1. Stimulation of experimental endochondral ossification by low-energy pulsing electromagnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaron, R.K.; Ciombor, D.M.; Jolly, G.

    1989-04-01

    Pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) of certain configuration have been shown to be effective clinically in promoting the healing of fracture nonunions and are believed to enhance calcification of extracellular matrix. In vitro studies have suggested that PEMFs may also have the effect of modifying the extracellular matrix by promoting the synthesis of matrix molecules. This study examines the effect of one PEMF upon the extracellular matrix and calcification of endochondral ossification in vivo. The synthesis of cartilage molecules is enhanced by PEMF, and subsequent endochondral calcification is stimulated. Histomorphometric studies indicate that the maturation of bone trabeculae is also promoted by PEMF stimulation. These results indicate that a specific PEMF can change the composition of cartilage extracellular matrix in vivo and raises the possibility that the effects on other processes of endochondral ossification (e.g., fracture healing and growth plates) may occur through a similar mechanism.

  2. Physiologic and pathologic calcifications and ossifications in the face and neck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keberle, M. [Medizinische Hochschule Hannover, Diagnostische Radiologie, Hannover (Germany); Robinson, S. [DiagnoseZentrumUrania, Wien (Austria)

    2007-08-15

    The aim was to give a systematic presentation of physiologic and pathologic calcifications and ossifications in the face and neck with a special emphasis on clinical relevance. In a sometimes subacute setting one should recognize specific calcifications which often lead to important diagnoses such as fungal sinusitis or sclerosing labyrinthitis. In a more chronic situation intraocular calcifications in small children are pathognomonic for retinoblastoma. Juxtatumoral sclerosis of the laryngeal cartilage in laryngopharyngeal carcinoma is usually caused by tumor infiltration of the cartilage resulting in a higher tumor stage and, this way, has a major impact on the therapeutical strategy. Calcified lymph nodes are mainly unspecific but can be the result of tuberculosis or metastases of thyroid cancer. Cross-sectional imaging methods, most of all computed tomography, are ideally suited to reveal head and neck calcifications and ossifications, especially those which are clinically relevant. (orig.)

  3. Ellis-van Creveld syndrome: a generalized dysplasia of enchondral ossification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sergi, C.; Otto, H.F. [Inst. of Pathology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Voigtlaender, T.; Hentze, S.; Tariverdian, G. [Inst. of Human Genetics, Univ. Hospital, Heidelberg (Germany); Zoubaa, S. [Dept. of Neuropathology, University Hospital, Heidelberg (Germany); Meyberg-Solomeyer, G.; Schiesser, M. [Ultrasonography Section, Obstetrical Clinics, University Hospital, Heidelberg (Germany); Troeger, J. [Department of Paediatric Radiology, University Hospital, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2001-04-01

    We report a 25-week fetus with lethal Ellis-van Creveld syndrome who was diagnosed prenatally from the US detection of a narrow chest, postaxial polydactyly of the hands, short acro-/mesomelic limbs and a ventricular septal defect. The postnatal radiographic features of the skeleton confirmed the diagnosis. Literature review of the histopathology of the physeal growth plate is contradictory, varying between retardation of the hypertrophic chondrocytes without disorganization and marked disorganization of the proliferating chondrocytes. We investigated numerous sites of the enchondral ossification and observed retardation of the physeal growth plate in all sites and retardation with pronounced disorganization of the physeal growth plate in the upper mesomelic bone segments only. These data support the concept that Ellis-van Creveld syndrome is mainly a generalized disorder of the maturation of enchondral ossification. (orig.)

  4. Ruptured Heterotopic Tubal Pregnancy for a Patient with a History of Segmental Salpingectomy from Ectopic Pregnancy: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Kyung Bum; Namkung, Sook; Hong, Myung Sun; Kim, Heung Cheol; Cho, Young; Choi, Young Hee [Chuncheon Sacred Heart Hospital, Chyncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    Heterotopic pregnancy refers to the simultaneous development of an intrauterine pregnancy and an extrauterine pregnancy. We experienced a case of a ruptured heterotopic pregnancy for a patient with a history of a right segmental salpingectomy from an ectopic pregnancy. The 30-year-old patient with amenorrhea for six weeks complained of lower abdominal pain with hypovolemic shock. Transabdominal ultrasonography showed diffuse hemoperitoneum with a structure similar to an ectatic tube or a deformed cyst with no echogenic double ring or peripheral hypervascularity in the right adnexa and an intrauterine gestational sac. We considered a ruptured corpus luteum cyst as an ultrasonographic finding and found a ruptured tubal mass in the right salpinx and hemoperitoneum through an emergency laparotomy. We performed a right salpingectomy, and the histopathologic report confirmed ectopic pregnancy.

  5. Bone morphogenetic protein-induced heterotopic bone formation: What have we learned from the history of a half century?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takenobu Katagiri, PhD

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP was originally discovered by Marshall Urist a half century ago following the observation of a unique activity that induced heterotopic bone formation in skeletal muscle tissue. The molecular mechanisms underlying the induction of heterotopic bone formation in skeletal muscle by BMPs were elucidated through the purification and molecular cloning of BMPs and identification of their functional receptors and downstream effectors, as well as from genetic disorders related to BMP activity. BMPs are important regulators of not only skeletal development and regeneration but also the homeostasis of normal skeletal muscle mass. There is still much to learn about the physiology and pathology at the interface of BMPs and skeletal muscle.

  6. Twenty-Year Outcome After Right Ventricular Outflow Tract Repair Using Heterotopic Pulmonary Conduits in Infants and Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoxha, Stiljan; Torre, Salvatore; Rungatscher, Alessio; Sandrini, Camilla; Rossetti, Lucia; Barozzi, Luca; Faggian, Giuseppe; Luciani, Giovanni Battista

    2016-01-01

    Durability of pulmonary conduits (PCs) used for reconstruction of the right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) may be affected by a variety of factors. Among these, the technique used for PC implantation, whether in orthotopic or heterotopic position, strictly dependent upon the underlying anatomy, has been suggested to influence long-term outcome after RVOT repair. To determine the outcome of heterotopic implantation in infants and children treated at our institution, late results of heterotopic PC in non-Ross patients were analyzed and compared with data of orthotopic PC in age-matched pediatric Ross patients operated during the same time period. Between November 1991 and January 2015, 58 infants and children, 32 male and 26 female, with a median age of 9.4 years (range 1 day-18 years) underwent implantation of heterotopic PC (31 homografts [HG] and 27 xenografts [XG]) for reconstruction of RVOT. Median age in the XG group was significantly lower than in the HG group (0.9 vs. 13.4 years, P = 0.01), while male/female ratio was similar. Fifty (86%) patients had undergone one or more prior cardiac operations, while 32 (55%) required associated procedures during PC implantation. Comparison with data in 305 children and with a median age of 9.4 years, receiving orthotopic PC between 1990 and 2012 (Italian Pediatric Ross Registry), was undertaken. Descriptive, univariate, and Kaplan-Meier analysis defined outcome. There were three (5.2%) early and five (9.0%) late deaths, during a median follow-up of 7.6 years (range 2 months-23 years). Patients having XG had trend toward higher hospital mortality (2/27 vs. 1/31, P = 0.2), but similar late mortality (2/24 vs. 3/30, P = 0.3). Overall survival was 88 and 62%, while freedom from PC replacement was 49 and 21%, at 10 and 20 years, respectively. The latter proved significantly worse than freedom from orthotopic PC replacement, which was 94 ± 2 and 70 ± 9% at 10 and 20 years (P = 0.02). When stratified

  7. Absence of endochondral ossification and craniosynostosis in posterior frontal cranial sutures of Axin2(-/- mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn Behr

    Full Text Available During the first month of life, the murine posterior-frontal suture (PF of the cranial vault closes through endochondral ossification, while other sutures remain patent. These processes are tightly regulated by canonical Wnt signaling. Low levels of active canonical Wnt signaling enable endochondral ossification and therefore PF-suture closure, whereas constitutive activation of canonical Wnt causes PF-suture patency. We therefore sought to test this concept with a knockout mouse model. PF-sutures of Axin2(-/- mice, which resemble a state of constantly activated canonical Wnt signaling, were investigated during the physiological time course of PF-suture closure and compared in detail with wild type littermates. Histological analysis revealed that the architecture in Axin2(-/- PF-sutures was significantly altered in comparison to wild type. The distance between the endocranial layers was dramatically increased and suture closure was significantly delayed. Moreover, physiological endochondral ossification did not occur, rather an ectopic cartilage appeared between the endocranial and ectocranial bone layers at P7 which eventually involutes at P13. Quantitative PCR analysis showed the lack of Col10α1 upregulation in Axin2(-/- PF-suture. Immunohistochemistry and gene expression analysis also revealed high levels of type II collagen as compared to type I collagen and absence of Mmp-9 in the cartilage of Axin2(-/- PF-suture. Moreover, TUNEL staining showed a high percentage of apoptotic chondrocytes in Axin2(-/- PF-sutures at P9 and P11 as compared to wild type. These data indicated that Axin2(-/- PF-sutures lack physiological endochondral ossification, contain ectopic cartilage and display delayed suture closure.

  8. Creating rigidly stabilized fractures for assessing intramembranous ossification, distraction osteogenesis, or healing of critical sized defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yan-yiu; Bahney, Chelsea; Hu, Diane; Marcucio, Ralph S; Miclau, Theodore

    2012-04-11

    Assessing modes of skeletal repair is essential for developing therapies to be used clinically to treat fractures. Mechanical stability plays a large role in healing of bone injuries. In the worst-case scenario mechanical instability can lead to delayed or non-union in humans. However, motion can also stimulate the healing process. In fractures that have motion cartilage forms to stabilize the fracture bone ends, and this cartilage is gradually replaced by bone through recapitulation of the developmental process of endochondral ossification. In contrast, if a bone fracture is rigidly stabilized bone forms directly via intramembranous ossification. Clinically, both endochondral and intramembranous ossification occur simultaneously. To effectively replicate this process investigators insert a pin into the medullary canal of the fractured bone as described by Bonnarens. This experimental method provides excellent lateral stability while allowing rotational instability to persist. However, our understanding of the mechanisms that regulate these two distinct processes can also be enhanced by experimentally isolating each of these processes. We have developed a stabilization protocol that provides rotational and lateral stabilization. In this model, intramembranous ossification is the only mode of healing that is observed, and healing parameters can be compared among different strains of genetically modified mice, after application of bioactive molecules, after altering physiological parameters of healing, after modifying the amount or time of stabilization, after distraction osteogenesis, after creation of a non-union, or after creation of a critical sized defect. Here, we illustrate how to apply the modified Ilizarov fixators for studying tibial fracture healing and distraction osteogenesis in mice.

  9. The ossification diathesis in the Medici family: DISH and other features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisz, George M; Matucci-Cerinic, Marco; Lippi, Donatella; Albury, William R

    2011-12-01

    The Medici family ruled Florence for most of the period from the 1430s to the 1730s, with the senior (primogenito) branch predominating until the line ended in the 1530s and the cadet (secondogenito) branch predominating thereafter. Recent studies have identified a familial syndrome consisting of cutaneous symptoms, peripheral arthropathy and spinal ankylosis in the primogenito branch of the family, and the presence of diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) in two members of the secondogenito branch. These findings raise the question of whether DISH was also a component of the primogenito familial syndrome. The present study provides a further specification of the ossification diathesis in the familial syndrome of the primogenito branch of the Medici family. Recently discovered photographs of exhumed Medici skeletons from the primogenito line are examined, with a focus on spinal, sacro-iliac and peripheral ossifications. These observations are supplemented with published reports of radiological, histological and macroscopic studies of the skeletons. Our interpretations of the ossification data relating to the primogenito branch of the Medici family are supportive of a diagnosis of DISH. DISH was one component of the triple pathology identified as a syndrome in the fifteenth century primogenito Medici line. As a diagnosis of DISH has recently been proposed for two sixteenth century members of the secondogenito branch of the family, it appears that the same condition affected both branches of the Medici lineage, without excluding other forms of undifferentiated joint and spondylarthropathies.

  10. Genome-wide analyses of gene expression during mouse endochondral ossification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudine G James

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Endochondral ossification is a complex process involving a series of events that are initiated by the establishment of a chondrogenic template and culminate in its replacement through the coordinated activity of osteoblasts, osteoclasts and endothelial cells. Comprehensive analyses of in vivo gene expression profiles during these processes are essential to obtain a complete understanding of the regulatory mechanisms involved.To address these issues, we completed a microarray screen of three zones derived from manually segmented embryonic mouse tibiae. Classification of genes differentially expressed between each respective zone, functional categorization as well as characterization of gene expression patterns, cytogenetic loci, signaling pathways and functional motifs both confirmed reported data and provided novel insights into endochondral ossification. Parallel comparisons of the microdissected tibiae data set with our previously completed micromass culture screen further corroborated the suitability of micromass cultures for modeling gene expression in chondrocyte development. The micromass culture system demonstrated striking similarities to the in vivo microdissected tibiae screen; however, the micromass system was unable to accurately distinguish gene expression differences in the hypertrophic and mineralized zones of the tibia.These studies allow us to better understand gene expression patterns in the growth plate and endochondral bones and provide an important technical resource for comparison of gene expression in diseased or experimentally-manipulated cartilages. Ultimately, this work will help to define the genomic context in which genes are expressed in long bones and to understand physiological and pathological ossification.

  11. Effect of metformin on ossification and inflammation of fibroblasts in ankylosing spondylitis: An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xiong; Jiang, Tongmeng; Liu, Sijia; Tan, Jiachang; Wu, Huayu; Zheng, Li; Zhao, Jinmin

    2018-01-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is an autoimmune disease characterized by fibroblasts ossification. However, effective drug therapy for AS is lacking. As an antidiabetic drug, metformin has demonstrated an antiosteogenic effect on osteoblasts in vitro. And it is also a kind of specific agonists for adenosine 5'-monophosphate activated protein kinase (AMPK), which is blocked in the process of AS. Given the role in antiosteogenesis and AMPK activating, metformin was investigated of its effect on fibroblasts harvested from capsular ligament of patients with femoral neck fracture and AS. Osteogenic specific makers (Alp, Bglap, Runx2, Bmp2, and Col1) in fibroblasts administered with metformin (20 μg/mL) were detected by ALP staining, alizarin red staining, qPCR, and Western blotting after 7 and 14 days of culture. Inflammation genes (il1-β and il6) and pathway (Pi3k, Akt, and Ampk) associated markers were also evaluated. Our results showed that osteogenic specific markers were greatly downregulated and ossification was effectively inhibited in AS fibroblasts after addition of metformin. Levels of inflammation markers were also decreased by metformin. Thus, metformin exerts potent effect on suppression of ossification and inflammation in AS fibroblasts via the activation of Pi3k/Akt and AMPK pathways, which may be developed as a potential agent for treatment of AS. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. The role of Matrix Gla Protein in ossification and recovery of the avian growth plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harel eDan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available ECM mineralization is an essential physiologic process in bone, teeth, and hypertrophic cartilage. Matrix Gla Protein (MGP, an inhibitor of mineralization, is expressed by chondrocytes and vascular smooth muscle cells to inhibit calcification of those soft tissues.Tibial Dyschondroplasia (TD, a skeletal abnormality apparent as a plug of non-vascularized, non-mineralized, white opaque cartilage in the tibial growth plate of avian species can serve as a good model for studying process and genes involved in matrix mineralization and calcification. In this work, we studied the involvement of MGP in the development of TD, as well as in the processes of spontaneous and induced recovery from this syndrome. First, we found that during normal bone development, MGP is expressed in specific time and locations, starting from wide spread expression in the yet un-ossified diaphysis during embryonic development, to specific expression in hypertrophic chondrocytes adjacent to the chondro-osseous junction and the secondary ossification center just prior to calcification. In addition, we show that MGP is not expressed in the impaired TD lesion, however when the lesion begins to heal, it strongly express MGP prior to its calcification. Moreover, we show that when calcification is inhibited, a gap is formed between the expression zones of MGP and BMP2 and that this gap is closed during the healing process. To conclude, we suggest that MGP, directly or through interaction with BMP2, plays a role as ossification regulator, rather then simple inhibitor that acts prior to ossification.

  13. Tranilast stimulates endochondral ossification by upregulating SOX9 and RUNX2 promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Sachi; Kitoh, Hiroshi; Ohkawara, Bisei; Mishima, Kenichi; Matsushita, Masaki; Masuda, Akio; Ishiguro, Naoki; Ohno, Kinji

    2016-02-05

    Endochondral ossification is an essential process for reparative phase of fracture healing, which starts with the differentiation of mesenchymal cells into chondrocytes followed by substitution of bone tissue. It is strictly controlled by the expression of crucial transcriptional factors: SOX9 in the early phase and RUNX2 in the late phase. Screening of FDA-approved compounds revealed that an anti-allergic drug, tranilast, that has been used for more than 30 years in clinical practice, enhanced the SOX9 promoter in chondrogenic cells and the RUNX2 promoter in osteoblastic cells. We observed that tranilast increased mRNA expression of both Sox9 and Runx2 in differentiating ATDC5 chondrogenic progenitor cells. Tranilast upregulated mRNA expression of chondrogenic marker genes (Col2a1, Acan, Col10a1, and Mmp13) in differentiating ATDC5 cells. Moreover, tranilast upregulated mRNA expression of essential signaling molecules involved in endochondral ossification (Pthrp, Ihh, and Axin2). In the later phase of differentiation of ATDC5 cells, tranilast increased synthesis of matrix proteoglycans, induced the alkaline phosphatase activity, and tended to accelerate mineralization. Tranilast is a potential agent that accelerates fracture repair by promoting the regulatory steps of endochondral ossification. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Immune and inflammatory pathways are involved in inherent bone marrow ossification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurkan, Umut Atakan; Golden, Ryan; Kishore, Vipuil; Riley, Catherine P; Adamec, Jiri; Akkus, Ozan

    2012-09-01

    Bone marrow plays a key role in bone formation and healing. Although a subset of marrow explants ossifies in vitro without excipient osteoinductive factors, some explants do not undergo ossification. The disparity of outcome suggests a significant heterogeneity in marrow tissue in terms of its capacity to undergo osteogenesis. We sought to identify: (1) proteins and signaling pathways associated with osteogenesis by contrasting the proteomes of ossified and poorly ossified marrow explants; and (2) temporal changes in proteome and signaling pathways of marrow ossification in the early and late phases of bone formation. Explants of marrow were cultured. Media conditioned by ossified (n = 4) and poorly ossified (n = 4) subsets were collected and proteins unique to each group were identified by proteomic analysis. Proteomic data were processed to assess proteins specific to the early phase (Days 1-14) and late phase (Days 15-28) of the culture period. Pathways involved in bone marrow ossification were identified through bioinformatics. Twenty-eight proteins were unique to ossified samples and eight were unique to poorly ossified ones. Twelve proteins were expressed during the early phase and 15 proteins were specific to the late phase. Several identified pathways corroborated those reported for bone formation in the literature. Immune and inflammatory pathways were specific to ossified samples. The marrow explant model indicates the inflammatory and immune pathways to be an integral part of the osteogenesis process.

  15. ESTIMATION OF AGE FROM OSSIFICATION CHANGES IN THYROID CARTILAGE OF NORTH KERALA POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratheesh Punnath Thadathil

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Estimation of age at death is one of the demographic characteristics that has extensively been studied by anthropologists, which has immense forensic importance. Age is a primary identification characteristic of an individual. The various methods employed in age estimation includes odontology, ossification centers, radiological examination, age related changes in bones and various regression formulas, etc. MATERIALS AND METHODS The present study is undertaken for the estimation of age from morphological examination of thyroid cartilage for a period of one year at Department of Forensic Medicine, Kozhikode. The study samples included thyroid cartilages from the dead bodies of 200 males and 200 females subjected to post mortem examination. The age of the study sample was taken from the data provided by the police in the requisition for post mortem examination. The observations were statistically evaluated. RESULTS The estimation of age from thyroid cartilage from morphological features includes gross examination by serial sectioning for ossification centers, length and breadth of alae, angle between alae and weight of the cartilage and mathematical calculation of these values. CONCLUSION However, none of the method stands as a gold standard as a single index as there exists considerable variations between individuals and populations. Hence, combination of different methods are often preferred for more accurate estimation of age. Thyroid cartilage has been used since ages for estimation of age using the parameters like ossification center, calcification, etc.

  16. Subcortical connections of normotopic and heterotopic neurons in sensory and motor cortices of the tish mutant rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schottler, F; Couture, D; Rao, A; Kahn, H; Lee, K S

    1998-05-25

    Orthograde and retrograde tracers were used to examine subcortical connections of neurons in the neurological mutant tish rat. This animal exhibits bilateral heterotopia similar to those observed in epileptic humans with subcortical band heterotopia. Terminal varicosities were labeled in the striatum, thalamus, brainstem, and spinal cord following injections of the anterograde tracer biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) into the heterotopic cortex. The general topography of corticothalamic projections was evaluated by injecting the retrograde tracer Fluoro-Gold (FG) into ventral thalamic nuclei. Retrograde labeling of small-to-medium sized neurons was observed in layer VI of topographically restricted portions of the normotopic cortex. Similar appearing cells were labeled in the neighboring portions of the underlying heterotopia; however, these neurons did not display characteristic lamination or radial orientation. Thalamocortical terminals labeled by injecting BDA into the ventroposterolateral nucleus (VPL) were observed primarily in layer IV of the medial aspect of the normotopic somatosensory cortex. In contrast, a radial column of terminals was present in the underlying heterotopia. Typical barrel labeling was found in the lateral aspect of the normotopic somatosensory cortex after injecting the ventroposteromedial nucleus (VPM), whereas more diffuse patches of labeling were observed in the underlying heterotopia. Heterotopic neurons in the tish cortex, thus, exhibit characteristic features of subcortical connectivity. Both normotopic and heterotopic neurons in the tish brain project to appropriate subcortical sites and establish bidirectional topographic connections with the thalamus. These results suggest that primary sensory-motor information is represented in a parallel manner in the normotopic and heterotopic cortices of the tish rat.

  17. A comparison of cyclosporine A and cyclosporine G in a rabbit heterotopic cardiac transplant model: graft outcome and histological findings

    OpenAIRE

    Fryer, J.P.; Pascoe, E.A.; Yatscoff, R W; Thliveris, J A

    1996-01-01

    Cervical heterotopic heart transplants were performed on 20 male New Zealand white rabbits comprising 4 treatment groups. Animals in each group were injected daily via the marginal ear vein and received one of the following regimes: Cyclosporine A, 10 mglkglday; Cyclosporine G, 15 mglkglday; cremophor-El, 3mllday; or normal saline. Measurement of 24 hour trough blood concentrations revealed no significant differences between the average concentrations of Cy...

  18. [Establishment and comparison of stoma and stoma-free heterotopic small intestine transplantation models in mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Ning; Pan, Zhijian; Liu, Yadong; Xu, Xin; Shen, Jiliang; Shen, Bo

    2016-03-01

    To establish stoma and stoma-free murine models of heterotopic small intestine transplantation in order to choose a more effective and reliable model. A total of 140 male 8-10 weeks age C57BL/6(B6) mice weighted 25-30 g were enrolled in the experiment. Syngeneic heterotopic small intestine transplantation was performed between C57BL/6 mice, and recipient mice were divided into either stoma or stoma-free group. Heterotopic small intestine transplantation was performed in 70 mice, with 35 mice in each group. After closing the proximal end of the graft by ligation, the distal end of graft was exteriorized as a stoma then secured to the skin of the abdominal wall in stoma group. In stoma-free group, the distal end of graft was anastomosed end-to-side to the recipient ileum. Successful rate of operation, two-week survival rate, operation time, associated complications, postoperative care time and body weight change were recorded and compared between two groups. The successful rate of stoma group was 65.7%, while it was 80.0% of stoma-free group (χ(2)=1.806, P=0.179). The operation time of donor in stoma group was (48.1±6.6) minutes, while it was (47.2±5.9) minutes in stoma-free group (t=0.598, P=0.552). The operation time of recipient in stoma group was (77.9±9.1) minutes, while it was (76.4±8.3) minutes in stoma-free group (t=0.683, P=0.497). The cold ischemic time of graft in stoma group was (34.7±4.0) minutes, while it was (33.9±4.6) minutes in stoma-free group(t=0.667, P=0.507). The two-week survival rate of stoma group was 45.7%, and it was 77.1% of stoma-free group(χ(2)=7.295, P=0.007). The stoma group had more complications[54.3%(19/35) vs. 22.9%(8/35), χ(2)=7.295, P=0.007], which needed more postoperative care time(191 min vs. 35 min). The weight loss in stoma group in the third day after operation was more significant [(81.52±5.20)% vs. (85.46±4.65)%, t=2.856, P=0.006]. By 2 weeks after operation, the weight of mice in both groups retruned to 95% of

  19. Effectiveness of rivaroxaban for thromboprophylaxis of prosthetic heart valves in a porcine heterotopic valve model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiten, Lawrence E; McKellar, Stephen H; Rysavy, Joseph; Schaff, Hartzell V

    2014-05-01

    Warfarin is used to reduce the risk of stroke and thromboembolic complications in patients with mechanical heart valves. Yet, despite frequent blood testing, its poor pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles often result in variable therapeutic levels. Rivaroxaban is a direct competitive factor Xa inhibitor that is taken orally. It inhibits the active site of factor Xa without the need for the cofactor antithrombin, and thus, its mechanism of action is differentiated from that of the fractionated heparins and indirect factor Xa inhibitors. No in vivo data exist regarding the effectiveness of rivaroxaban in preventing thromboembolic complications of mechanical heart valves. We tested the hypothesis that rivaroxaban is as effective as enoxaparin for thromboprophylaxis of mechanical valves that use a previously described heterotopic aortic valve porcine model. A modified bileaflet mechanical valved conduit that bypassed the native, ligated descending thoracic aorta was implanted into 30 swine. Postoperatively, the animals were randomly assigned to groups receiving no anticoagulation (n = 10), enoxaparin at 2 mg/kg subcutaneously twice daily (n = 10) or rivaroxaban at 2 mg/kg orally twice daily (n = 10). The amount of valve thrombus was measured on post-implantation day 30 as the primary end point. Quantitative evaluation of radiolabelled platelet deposition on the valve prostheses was done and embolic and haemorrhagic events were measured as secondary end points. Animals with no anticoagulation had a thrombus mean of 759.9 mg compared with 716.8 mg with enoxaparin treatment and 209.6 mg with rivaroxaban treatment (P = 0.05 for enoxaparin vs rivaroxaban). Similarly, the mean number of platelets deposited on the valve prosthesis was lower in the rivaroxaban group (6.13 × 10(9)) than in the enoxaparin group (3.03 × 10(10)) (P = 0.03). In this study, rivaroxaban was more effective than enoxaparin for short-term thromboprophylaxis of mechanical valve prosthetics in

  20. Special pattern of endochondral ossification in human laryngeal cartilages: X-ray and light-microscopic studies on thyroid cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claassen, Horst; Schicht, Martin; Sel, Saadettin; Paulsen, Friedrich

    2014-04-01

    Endochondral ossification is a process that also occurs in the skeleton of the larynx. Differences in the ossification mechanism in comparison to growth plates are not understood until now. To get deeper insights into this process, human thyroid cartilage was investigated by the use of X-rays and a series of light-microscopic stainings. A statistical analysis of mineralization was done by scanning areas of mineralized cartilage and of ossification. We detected a special mode of endochondral ossification which differs from the processes in growth plates. Thyroid cartilage ossifies very slowly and in a gender-specific manner. Compared with age-matched women, bone formation in thyroid cartilage of men is significantly higher in the age group 41-60 years. Endochondral ossification is prepared by internal changes of extracellular matrix leading to areas of asbestoid fibers with ingrowing cartilage canals. In contrast to growth plates, bone is deposited on large areas of mineralized cartilage, which appear at the rims of cartilage canals. Furthermore, primary parallel fibered bone was observed which was deposited on woven bone. The predominant bone type is cancellous bone with trabeculae, whereas compact bone with Haversian systems was seldom found. Trabeculae contain a great number of reversal and arresting lines meaning that the former were often reconstructed and that bone formation was arrested and resumed again with advancing age. It is hypothesized that throughout life trabeculae of ossified thyroid cartilage undergo adaptation to different loads due to the use of voice. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Endocultivation: metabolism during heterotopic osteoinduction in vivo--monitoring with fiber optic detection devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck-Broichsitter, Benedicta Elisabeth; Christofzik, David W; Daschner, Frank; Knöchel, Reinhard; Smeets, Ralf; Warnke, Patrick; Wiltfang, Jörg; Becker, Stephan T

    2012-10-01

    Reconstructions of facial bone defects are one of the most challenging aspects in surgical treatment of malignant diseases, large facial traumata, or congenital anomalies. High-level reconstruction techniques are often associated with an elevated morbidity by the harvest of autologous bone grafts from the patient. Tissue engineering techniques may help to solve this problem. The aim of this study was to monitor metabolic processes during cellular colonization of matrices in vivo in an established rat model for endocultivation. After implantation of computer-designed hydroxyapatite scaffolds into the latissimus dorsi muscle of six rats, 100 μg bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) was injected twice, in week 1 and 2, directly into the center of the matrices. The development of pH value and oxygen (O₂) saturation inside the matrix was followed by fiber optic detection technique over 8 weeks and analyzed by variance analyses. Bone density measurements were performed by computed tomography as well as histological evaluations. Two weeks after implantation, oxygen supply and pH value measurements had decreased significantly. In the following weeks both parameters increased and stabilized on higher levels. This is the first study reporting a reproducible method to follow metabolic processes during heterotopic osteoinduction in vivo. It was shown that in the beginning of the study pH value and O₂ saturation decreased and it took several weeks to regain physiological levels. This is an important step to further understand the physiological process of bone induction.

  2. Masticatory muscle tendon-aponeurosis hyperplasia exhibits heterotopic calcification in tendons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, T; Hori, N; Nakamoto, N; Akita, M; Yoda, T

    2014-05-01

    Masticatory muscle tendon-aponeurosis hyperplasia is a new disease entity associated with limited mouth opening. In this study, we analyzed the microstructural characteristics of muscles and tendons in masticatory muscle tendon-aponeurosis hyperplasia by electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis to determine the elemental composition. Histological analysis was performed to detect the calcification. Transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were conducted to clarify the microstructural characteristics of muscles and tendons. Energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis was performed to identify the distribution of elements. Mineralized nodules were observed in tendon tissues of masticatory muscle tendon-aponeurosis hyperplasia as compared with facial deformity. Electron microscopy revealed that the muscle and tendon tissues in masticatory muscle tendon-aponeurosis hyperplasia showed degenerative changes and distinctive histological findings as compared with tissues in facial deformity. We found that Ca, P, and Si were detected only in masticatory muscle tendon-aponeurosis hyperplasia. We demonstrated that masticatory muscle tendon-aponeurosis hyperplasia exhibits heterotopic calcification in tendon tissues. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Comparison of histomorphometry and [sup 85]Sr uptake in induced heterotopic bone in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solheim, E.; Pinholt, E.M. (Institute for Surgical Research, Rikshospitalet, University of Oslo (Norway)); Bang, G. (Department of Oral Pathology and Forensic Odontology, University of Bergen (Norway)); Sudmann, E. (Hagavik Orthopedic Hospital, University of Bergen (Norway))

    1992-01-01

    Heterotopic bone formation in the abdominal muscle of 45 male 8-week-old Wistar rats induced by implantation of 5, 10, or 15 mg demineralized bone (DBM) powder was evaluated at 4 weeks by [sup 85]Sr uptake of the implants and area histomorphometry of the induced bone. Two indices of [sup 85]Sr uptake were calculated: the osteogenic index [(counts/min/mg implant)/(counts/min/mg os ilium)] and an index that we have called the osteoquantum index in which the weight of the implant is disregarded [(counts/min implant)/(counts/min/mg os ilium)]. The osteoquantum index showed a linear relationship to the area of the induced bone with a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.90. Only weak linear relationships were found between the osteogenic index and the area of the bone (r = 0.32) and between the osteogenic index and the osteoquantum index (r = 0.33). The osteoquantum index and the area of the induced bone both increased with increasing mass of implanted DBM, whereas the osteogenic index did not change. (au).

  4. Heterotopic renal transplantation in the rat: an advanced microsurgical training exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korber, K E; Kraemer, B A

    1988-01-01

    Microsurgical training programs have instructed trainees from many surgical specialties with the expansion of these techniques into all areas of clinical surgery and experimental research. Most programs employ the rat femoral vessel model in microsurgical training. A more complex and less frequently used model, the rat renal transplantation procedure, can be used for advanced training in microsurgical and microurological techniques and offers several advantages over other microsurgical models. In the heterotopic renal transplant model, the left kidney from a donor rat is transferred to the inguinofemoral region of a syngeneic recipient. The method of revascularization can be varied from end-to-end repairs of vessels of equal diameter to those of unequal diameter. In addition to the variety of possible vascular repairs, an advantage of this model over others is that the kidney graft can be harvested by a technician, thus reducing the time commitments of the trainee. This model is ideal for microsurgeons, immunologists, and urologists, since it affords the opportunity for developing technical skills while preparing an experimental model that can be used for further research. We describe the model, the operative techniques, and the variations one can employ in performing the vascular repairs.

  5. Effects of immunosuppression induced by thalidomide and cyclosporine in heterotopic heart transplantation in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, J B V; Petroianu, A; Travolo, E; de Oliveira, B H; Duarte, A B B; Alberti, L R

    2007-06-01

    Because of its anti-inflammatory and immunodepressive effects, thalidomide has been used for the treatment of dermatologic diseases and of host-versus-graft reactions in patients undergoing bone marrow transplantation. We evaluated the immunosuppressive action of thalidomide alone or in combination with cyclosporine on the prevention of rejection of heterotopic cardiac allografts in rabbits. Fifty rabbits were used including 25 donors and 25 recipients. Recipient animals were divided into five groups (n = 5 each): group 1 (control), non-immunosuppressed animals; group II, animals immunosuppressed with cyclosporine (10 mg/kg per day); group III, immunosuppressed with thalidomide (100 mg/kg per day); group IV, immunosuppressed with cyclosporine (5.0 mg/kg per day); and group V, immunosuppressed with cyclosporine (5.0 mg/kg per day) in combination with thalidomide (50 mg/kg per day). The medications were administered through an orogastric catheter starting on the day before the transplant. The heart of the donor was implanted into the recipient's abdomen. The combination of thalidomide and cyclosporine showed the lowest histopathological rejection score (P cyclosporine was effective against rejection, significantly increasing survival (P < .01). Thalidomide may be considered to be an adjuvant immunosuppressant.

  6. Skeletal dysplasia in perinatal lethal osteogenesis imperfecta. A complex disorder of endochondral and intramembranous ossification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion, M J; Gannon, F H; Fallon, M D; Mennuti, M T; Lodato, R F; Kaplan, F S

    1993-08-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) Type II is a rare heritable disorder of bone matrix that results in catastrophic congenital skeletal dysplasia. Two cases of OI Type II had symmetric rhizomelic skeletal dysplasia apparent on ultrasound at 16 and 20 weeks' gestation. Histologic and histochemical studies performed on skeletal tissue from fetal autopsies showed the following: (1) abnormal growth plate tissue characterized by failure of formation of primary bony spongiosa; (2) persistence of calcified cartilage bars in the diaphysis; (3) metaphyseal microfractures; (4) abundant cartilaginous fracture callus; (5) absence of bony callus; (6) failure of formation of intramembranous cortical diaphyseal bone; (7) angulation of long bones in portions of the metadiaphyses bordered by fracture callus; and (8) mechanical failure of the perichondral ring of LaCroix with a normal fibrous ossification groove of Ranvier. These findings suggest that skeletal dysplasia in OI Type II results from the action of muscular forces on a skeleton weakened by a complex disorder of endochondral and intramembranous ossification. The paucity of primary metaphyseal trabeculae and subperiosteal cortical bone leads to pathologic fractures of the immature fiber bone and an imperfect attempt at fracture repair. Angulation and shortening of long bones occurs between numerous sites of focal endochondral fracture callus. Mechanical failure of the fibrous perichondral ring leads to further collapse and shortening without obvious functional impairment of the fibrous ossification groove. Perinatal lethal OI provides insight into how a molecular disorder predominantly of Type I collagen metabolism results in pathology of numerous tissues, leading to severe skeletal dysplasia without primarily affecting chondrogenesis.

  7. BMP2 induces chondrogenic differentiation, osteogenic differentiation and endochondral ossification in stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Nian; Li, Qi; Lin, Xin; Hu, Ning; Liao, Jun-Yi; Lin, Liang-Bo; Zhao, Chen; Hu, Zhen-Ming; Liang, Xi; Xu, Wei; Chen, Hong; Huang, Wei

    2016-10-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2), a member of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) super-family, is one of the main chondrogenic growth factors involved in cartilage regeneration. BMP2 is known to induce chondrogenic differentiation in various types of stem cells in vitro. However, BMP2 also induces osteogenic differentiation and endochondral ossification in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Although information regarding BMP2-induced chondrogenic and osteogenic differentiation within the same system might be essential for cartilage tissue engineering, few studies concerning these issues have been conducted. In this study, BMP2 was identified as a regulator of chondrogenic differentiation, osteogenic differentiation and endochondral bone formation within the same system. BMP2 was used to regulate chondrogenic and osteogenic differentiation in stem cells within the same culture system in vitro and in vivo. Any changes in the differentiation markers were assessed. BMP2 was found to induce chondrogenesis and osteogenesis in vitro via the expression of Sox9, Runx2 and its downstream markers. According to the results of the subcutaneous stem cell implantation studies, BMP2 not only induced cartilage formation but also promoted endochondral ossification during ectopic bone/cartilage formation. In fetal limb cultures, BMP2 promoted chondrocyte hypertrophy and endochondral ossification. Our data reveal that BMP2 can spontaneously induce chondrogenic differentiation, osteogenic differentiation and endochondral bone formation within the same system. Thus, BMP2 can be used in cartilage tissue engineering to regulate cartilage formation but has to be properly regulated for cartilage tissue engineering in order to retain the cartilage phenotype.

  8. Epiphyseal chondrocyte secondary ossification centers require thyroid hormone activation of Indian hedgehog and osterix signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Weirong; Cheng, Shaohong; Wergedal, Jon; Mohan, Subburaman

    2014-10-01

    Thyroid hormones (THs) are known to regulate endochondral ossification during skeletal development via acting directly in chondrocytes and osteoblasts. In this study, we focused on TH effects on the secondary ossification center (SOC) because the time of appearance of SOCs in several species coincides with the time when peak levels of TH are attained. Accordingly, micro-computed tomography (µCT) evaluation of femurs and tibias at day 21 in TH-deficient and control mice revealed that endochondral ossification of SOCs is severely compromised owing to TH deficiency and that TH treatment for 10 days completely rescued this phenotype. Staining of cartilage and bone in the epiphysis revealed that whereas all of the cartilage is converted into bone in the prepubertal control mice, this conversion failed to occur in the TH-deficient mice. Immunohistochemistry studies revealed that TH treatment of thyroid stimulating hormone receptor mutant (Tshr(-/-) ) mice induced expression of Indian hedgehog (Ihh) and Osx in type 2 collagen (Col2)-expressing chondrocytes in the SOC at day 7, which subsequently differentiate into type 10 collagen (Col10)/osteocalcin-expressing chondro/osteoblasts at day 10. Consistent with these data, treatment of tibia cultures from 3-day-old mice with 10 ng/mL TH increased expression of Osx, Col10, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and osteocalcin in the epiphysis by sixfold to 60-fold. Furthermore, knockdown of the TH-induced increase in Osx expression using lentiviral small hairpin RNA (shRNA) significantly blocked TH-induced ALP and osteocalcin expression in chondrocytes. Treatment of chondrogenic cells with an Ihh inhibitor abolished chondro/osteoblast differentiation and SOC formation. Our findings indicate that TH regulates the SOC initiation and progression via differentiating chondrocytes into bone matrix-producing osteoblasts by stimulating Ihh and Osx expression in chondrocytes. © 2014 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  9. Chondrocytic ephrin B2 promotes cartilage destruction by osteoclasts in endochondral ossification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonna, Stephen; Poulton, Ingrid J; Taykar, Farzin; Ho, Patricia W M; Tonkin, Brett; Crimeen-Irwin, Blessing; Tatarczuch, Liliana; McGregor, Narelle E; Mackie, Eleanor J; Martin, T John; Sims, Natalie A

    2016-02-15

    The majority of the skeleton arises by endochondral ossification, whereby cartilaginous templates expand and are resorbed by osteoclasts then replaced by osteoblastic bone formation. Ephrin B2 is a receptor tyrosine kinase expressed by osteoblasts and growth plate chondrocytes that promotes osteoblast differentiation and inhibits osteoclast formation. We investigated the role of ephrin B2 in endochondral ossification using Osx1Cre-targeted gene deletion. Neonatal Osx1Cre.Efnb2(Δ/Δ) mice exhibited a transient osteopetrosis demonstrated by increased trabecular bone volume with a high content of growth plate cartilage remnants and increased cortical thickness, but normal osteoclast numbers within the primary spongiosa. Osteoclasts at the growth plate had an abnormal morphology and expressed low levels of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase; this was not observed in more mature bone. Electron microscopy revealed a lack of sealing zones and poor attachment of Osx1Cre.Efnb2(Δ/Δ) osteoclasts to growth plate cartilage. Osteoblasts at the growth plate were also poorly attached and impaired in their ability to deposit osteoid. By 6 months of age, trabecular bone mass, osteoclast morphology and osteoid deposition by Osx1Cre.Efnb2(Δ/Δ) osteoblasts were normal. Cultured chondrocytes from Osx1Cre.Efnb2(Δ/Δ) neonates showed impaired support of osteoclastogenesis but no significant change in Rankl (Tnfsf11) levels, whereas Adamts4 levels were significantly reduced. A population of ADAMTS4(+) early hypertrophic chondrocytes seen in controls was absent from Osx1Cre.Efnb2(Δ/Δ) neonates. This suggests that Osx1Cre-expressing cells, including hypertrophic chondrocytes, are dependent on ephrin B2 for their production of cartilage-degrading enzymes, including ADAMTS4, and this might be required for attachment of osteoclasts and osteoblasts to the cartilage surface during endochondral ossification. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. Osteogenic lineage commitment of mesenchymal stem cells from patients with ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Yoshifumi; Furukawa, Ken-Ichi; Asari, Toru; Chin, Shunfu; Ono, Atsushi; Tanaka, Toshihiro; Mizukami, Hiroki; Murakami, Manabu; Yagihashi, Soroku; Motomura, Shigeru; Ishibashi, Yasuyuki

    2014-01-17

    Ectopic bone formation is thought to be responsible for ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament of the spine (OPLL). Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were isolated from spinal ligaments and shown to play a key role in the process of ectopic ossification. The purpose of this study was to explore the capacity of these MSCs to undergo lineage commitment and to assess the gene expression changes between these committed and uncommitted MSCs between OPLL and non-OPLL patients. Spinal ligament-derived cells were obtained from OPLL patients or patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (non-ossified) for comparison (n=8 in each group). MSCs from the two patient cohorts were evaluated for changes in colony forming ability; osteogenic, adipogenic and chondrogenic differentiation potential; and changes in gene expression following induction with lineage-specific conditions. We show that the osteogenic differentiation potential was significantly higher in MSCs from OPLL patients than in those from non-OPLL patients. In addition, alkaline phosphatase activity and several osteogenic-related genes expressions (bone morphogenetic protein 2, runt-related transcription factor 2 and alkaline phosphatase) were significantly higher in the OPLL group than in the non-OPLL group. However, single cell cloning efficiency, adipogenic and chondrogenic differentiation, and the expression of adipogenic and chondrogenic-related genes were equivalent between MSCs harvested from OPLL and non-OPLL patient samples. These findings suggest an increase in the osteogenic differentiation potential of MSCs from OPLL patients and that this propensity toward the osteogenic lineage may be a causal factor in the ossification in these ligaments. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Primitive Spindle Cell Neoplasm of Ileum with Extensive Heterotopic Cartilage, Presenting as Acute Abdomen in a 6-Day-Old Neonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nael, Ali; Wu, William W; Shane, Lisa; Rao, Nagesh; Zwerdling, Theodore

    2016-01-01

    Neonatal intestinal masses with spindle cell morphology have broad differential diagnoses and require a multidisciplinary approach to make the final diagnosis. Spindle cell masses with heterotopic cartilage in the gastrointestinal tract are very rare, and, to our knowledge, have not previously been reported in the neonate. Here we present a case of intestinal primitive spindle cell neoplasm with extensive heterotopic cartilage that manifested initially as acute abdomen in a 6-day-old term infant. Plain radiography demonstrated pneumoperitoneum, prompting diagnostic laparotomy that identified a perforated mass involving the midileum. Histologic and immunohistochemical examination demonstrated an infiltrative spindle cell tumor most compatible with infantile fibrosarcoma (IFS) by a process of exclusion, with nodules of mature heterotopic cartilage. Additional staging studies did not reveal any evidence of residual or metastatic disease. Recognition of this rare variant of IFS will aid in differentiation from other neonatal intestinal mesenchymal tumors.

  12. Extensive heterotopic gastric mucosa of the small intestine: imaging with {sup 99m}Tc-sodium pertechnetate SPECT/CT enterography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schapiro, Andrew H.; Trout, Andrew T. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Lin, Tom K. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Division of Gastroenterology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Frischer, Jason S. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Surgery, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Silverman, Ayaka [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Pathology, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2016-12-15

    Extensive heterotopic gastric mucosa of the small intestine is a rare, but potentially life-threatening condition characterized by multifocal or long-segment heterotopic gastric mucosa within the bowel lumen that is often associated with other anomalies including malrotation and annular pancreas. Although the imaging findings are characteristic, this entity may be unrecognized due to its unusual imaging appearance and rarity. CT or MR enterography and {sup 99m}Tc-sodium pertechnetate scintigraphy can provide complementary information that enables specific diagnosis and accurate assessment of disease extent. We present a case of extensive heterotopic gastric mucosa of the small intestine imaged by simultaneous, combined {sup 99m}Tc-sodium pertechnetate single photon-emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT enterography to both familiarize the reader with the condition and describe an imaging strategy that enables specific diagnosis and assists with treatment planning. (orig.)

  13. Thoracic myelopathy caused by ossification of ligamentum flavum of which fluorosis as an etiology factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Jing

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose To evaluate the clinical feature, operative method and prognosis of thoracic ossification of ligamentum flavum caused by skeletal fluorosis. Methods All the patients with thoracic OLF, who underwent surgical management in the authors' hospital from 1993–2003, were retrospectively studied. The diagnosis of skeletal fluorosis was made by the epidemic history, clinical symptoms, radiographic findings, and urinalysis. En bloc laminectomy decompression of the involved thoracic levels was performed in all cases. Cervical open door decompression or lumbar laminectomy decompression was performed if relevant stenosis existed. The neurological statuses were evaluated with the Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA scoring system preoperatively and at the end point of follow up. Also, the recovery rate was calculated. Results 23 cases have been enrolled in this study. Imaging study findings showed all the cases have ossification of ligamentum flavum together with ossification of many other ligaments and interosseous membranes, i.e. interosseous membranes of the forearm in 18 of 23 (78.3%, of the leg in 14 of 23 (60.1% and of the ribs in 11 of 23 (47.8%. Urinalysis showed markedly increased urinary fluoride in 14 of 23 patients (60.9%. All the patients were followed up from 12 months to 9 years and 3 months, with an average of 4 years and 5 months. The JOA score increased significantly at the end of follow up (P = 0.0001. The recovery rate was 51.83 ± 32.36%. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the preoperative JOA score was an important predictor of surgical outcome (p = 0.0022, r = 0.60628. ANOVA analysis showed that patients with acute onset or too long duration had worse surgical result (P = 0.0003. Conclusion Fluorosis can cause ossification of thoracic ligamentum flavum, as well as other ligaments. En bloc laminectomy decompression was an effective method. Preoperative JOA score was the most important predictor of surgical

  14. Propagation of a partial incomplete ossification of the humeral condyle in an American cocker spaniel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, P G; Bush, M A; Scott, H W

    2010-11-01

    A hypoattenuating lesion in the left humeral condyle of an American cocker spaniel consistent with partial incomplete ossification of the humeral condyle was observed on computed tomography. Left forelimb lameness developed over the following three weeks at which time repeat computed tomography examination confirmed propagation of the lesion. Lameness resolved following placement of a transcondylar positional screw, suggesting that lameness was secondary to condylar instability. To the authors' knowledge this is the first report of propagation of an intracondylar lesion in a dog. © 2010 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  15. Morphometric study of the two fused primary ossification centers of the clavicle in the human fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgart, Mariusz; Wiśniewski, Marcin; Grzonkowska, Magdalena; Badura, Mateusz; Dombek, Małgorzata; Małkowski, Bogdan; Szpinda, Michał

    2016-10-01

    A satisfactory understanding of the clavicle development may be contributing to both the diagnosis of its congenital defects and prevention of perinatal damage to the shoulder girdle. This study was carried out to examine the transverse and sagittal diameters, cross-sectional area and volume of the two fused primary ossification centers of the clavicle. Using the methods of CT, digital-image analysis and statistics, the size for two fused primary ossification centers of the clavicle in 42 spontaneously aborted human fetuses at ages of 18-30 weeks was studied. Without any male-female and right-left significant differences, the best fit growth models for two fused primary ossification centers of the clavicle were as follows: y = -31.373 + 15.243 × ln(age) ± 1.424 (R (2) = 0.74) for transverse diameter, y = -7.945 + 3.225 × ln(age) ± 0.262 (R (2) = 0.78), y = -4.503 + 2.007 × ln(age) ± 0.218 (R (2) = 0.68), and y = -4.860 + 2.117 × ln(age) ± 0.200 (R (2) = 0.73) for sagittal diameters of the lateral, middle and medial ends respectively, y = -31.390 + 2.432 × age ± 4.599 (R (2) = 0.78) for cross-sectional area, and y = 28.161 + 0.00017 × (age)(4) ± 15.357 (R (2) = 0.83) for volume. With no sex and laterality differences, the fused primary ossification centers of the clavicle grow logarithmically in both transverse and sagittal diameters, linearly in cross-sectional area, and fourth-degree polynomially in volume. Our normative quantitative findings may be conducive in monitoring normal fetal growth and screening for inherited faults and anomalies of the clavicle in European human fetuses.

  16. Optimising magnetic resonance imaging-based evaluation of the ossification of the medial clavicular epiphysis: a multi-centre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, S; Henke, C A; Wittschieber, D; Vieth, V; Bajanowski, T; Ramsthaler, F; Püschel, K; Pfeiffer, H; Schmeling, A; Schulz, R

    2016-11-01

    Evaluation of the ossification of the medial clavicular epiphysis plays a key role in forensic age estimation, particularly in determining whether the age of 18 has been attained. A key research objective in the forensic age estimation field at present is to establish non-X-ray methods for investigating the clavicle. This paper looks at the use of magnetic resonance imaging for evaluating the developmental state of the medial clavicular epiphysis. Clavicle specimens obtained from autopsies of 125 female and 270 male subjects aged from 10 to 30 were examined using a 3-T magnetic resonance scanner. One FFE-3D-T1 gradient echo sequence and one 2D-T2 turbo spin echo sequence were acquired. In each case, two investigators undertook a consensual determination of the ossification stage of the medial clavicular epiphysis using recognised classification systems. To determine intra-observer and inter-observer agreement, 80 clavicle specimens were subjected to repeat evaluation. We present statistics relating to the ossification stages. The inclusion of established sub-stages of clavicular ossification offers an additional option for determining whether a subject has attained the age of 18 which is applicable in both sexes. For both sexes, the minimum ages for ossification stages 4 and 5 allow conclusions to be drawn about a subject's age at a point in time lying several years in the past. Magnetic resonance imaging is a valid investigatory procedure for determining the ossification stage of the medial clavicular epiphysis. This paper makes a contribution to expanding the range of methods available for forensic age estimation.

  17. Ossification of the Medial Clavicular Epiphysis on Chest Radiographs: Utility and Diagnostic Accuracy in Identifying Korean Adolescents and Young Adults under the Age of Majority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Soon Ho; Yoo, Hye Jin; Yoo, Roh Eul; Lim, Hyun Ju; Yoon, Jeong Hwa; Park, Chang Min; Lee, Sang Seob; Yoo, Seong Ho

    2016-10-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the utility and diagnostic accuracy of the ossification grade of medial clavicular epiphysis on chest radiographs for identifying Korean adolescents and young adults under the age of majority. Overall, 1,151 patients (age, 16-30) without any systemic disease and who underwent chest radiography were included for ossification grading. Two radiologists independently classified the ossification of the medial clavicular epiphysis from chest radiographs into five grades. The age distribution and inter-observer agreement on the ossification grade were assessed. The diagnostic accuracy of the averaged ossification grades for determining whether the patient is under the age of majority was analyzed by using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Two separate inexperienced radiologists assessed the ossification grade in a subgroup of the patients after reviewing the detailed descriptions and image atlases developed for ossification grading. The median value of the ossification grades increased with increasing age (from 16 to 30 years), and the trend was best fitted by a quadratic function (R-square, 0.978). The inter-observer agreements on the ossification grade were 0.420 (right) and 0.404 (left). The area under the ROC curve (AUC) was 0.922 (95% CI, 0.902-0.942). The averaged ossification scores of 2.62 and 4.37 provided 95% specificity for a person < 19 years of age and a person ≥ 19 years of age, respectively. A preliminary assessment by inexperienced radiologists resulted in an AUC of 0.860 (95% CI, 0.740-0.981). The age of majority in Korean adolescents and young adults can be estimated using chest radiographs.

  18. Complex Evolutionary and Genetic Patterns Characterize the Loss of Scleral Ossification in the Blind Cavefish Astyanax mexicanus

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Quin, Kelly E.; Doshi, Pooja; Lyon, Anastasia; Hoenemeyer, Emma; Yoshizawa, Masato; Jeffery, William R.

    2015-01-01

    The sclera is the tough outer covering of the eye that provides structural support and helps maintain intraocular pressure. In some fishes, reptiles, and birds, the sclera is reinforced with an additional ring of hyaline cartilage or bone that forms from scleral ossicles. Currently, the evolutionary and genetic basis of scleral ossification is poorly understood, especially in teleost fishes. We assessed scleral ossification among several groups of the Mexican tetra (Astyanax mexicanus), which exhibit both an eyed and eyeless morph. Although eyed Astyanax surface fish have bony sclera similar to other teleosts, the ossicles of blind Astyanax cavefish generally do not form. We first sampled cavefish from multiple independent populations and used ancestral character state reconstructions to determine how many times scleral ossification has been lost. We then confirmed these results by assessing complementation of scleral ossification among the F1 hybrid progeny of two cavefish populations. Finally, we quantified the number of scleral ossicles present among the F2 hybrid progeny of a cross between surface fish and cavefish, and used this information to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) responsible for this trait. Our results indicate that the loss of scleral ossification is common–but not ubiquitous–among Astyanax cavefish, and that this trait has been convergently lost at least three times. The presence of wild-type, ossified sclera among the F1 hybrid progeny of a cross between different cavefish populations confirms the convergent evolution of this trait. However, a strongly skewed distribution of scleral ossicles found among surface fish x cavefish F2 hybrids suggests that scleral ossification is a threshold trait with a complex genetic basis. Quantitative genetic mapping identified a single QTL for scleral ossification on Astyanax linkage group 1. We estimate that the threshold for this trait is likely determined by at least three genetic factors which

  19. Pancreatic intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm with concomitant heterotopic pancreatic cystic neoplasia of the stomach: a case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schizas Dimitrios

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A 60-year-old Caucasian male underwent a total pancreatectomy for a mixed type pancreatic intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN arising in the main and secondary pancreatic ducts. During surgery, a subserosal polypoid mass was noted at the greater curvature of the gastric antrum and was enucleated. This mass was proven to be heterotopic pancreatic tissue with cystic neoplasia of the IPMN histologic subtype. Through an extensive search of the literature, we found that this is the first case ever reported with simultaneous existence of IPMN changes, in the main and secondary ducts of the orthotopic pancreas and in the heterotopic pancreatic tissue of the gastric wall.

  20. Heterotop graviditet efter IVF-behandling med excision af rumperet interstitiel graviditet og senere kejsersnit nær termin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elers, Jimmi; Zingenberg, Helle; Bing, Mette H

    2016-01-01

    We describe a rare case of heterotopic pregnancy following in vitro fertilization with transferring of two embryos in a 39-year-old woman with previous bilateral salpingectomy. An ultrasound examination was performed on the day before admission showing a vital intrauterine pregnancy and no ectopic...... pregnancy. The woman was admitted with a ruptured cornual pregnancy at ten weeks of gestation. Laparotomy was performed on vital indication with excision of the ruptured haemorrhagic cornual pregnancy. The intrauterine pregnancy continued uneventfully with obstetric and fetal medicine specialist monitoring...

  1. Heterotop graviditet efter IVF-behandling med excision af rumperet interstitiel graviditet og senere kejsersnit nær termin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elers, Jimmi; Zingenberg, Helle; Bing, Mette Hornum

    2017-01-01

    We describe a rare case of heterotopic pregnancy following in vitro fertilization with transferring of two embryos in a 39-year-old woman with previous bilateral salpingectomy. An ultrasound examination was performed on the day before admission showing a vital intrauterine pregnancy and no ectopic...... pregnancy. The woman was admitted with a ruptured cornual pregnancy at ten weeks of gestation. Laparotomy was performed on vital indication with excision of the ruptured haemorrhagic cornual pregnancy. The intrauterine pregnancy continued uneventfully with obstetric and fetal medicine specialist monitoring...

  2. Utopía y heterotopía en Jauja, de Lisandro Alonso

    OpenAIRE

    Telchmann, Rosa Matilde

    2015-01-01

    En este trabajo se formula una propuesta interpretativa de la película Jauja (2014), de Lisandro Alonso, sustentada en los conceptos de utopía y de heterotopía propuestos por Michel Foucault, a fin de presentar una mirada crítica sobre la base conceptual teórica que observamos en el film, así como sobre su construcción narrativa. Intentamos demostrar que tanto la película en cuestión como el cine de Lisandro Alonso recorren un camino, un pasaje, una transformación que va de la utopía a la het...

  3. Endoscopic excavation for gastric heterotopic pancreas: an analysis of 42 cases from a tertiary center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Huang, Qin; Zhu, Lin-hong; Zhou, Xian-bin; Ye, Li-ping; Mao, Xin-li

    2014-09-01

    Because of the difficulty associated with making an accurate diagnosis of gastric heterotopic pancreas (HP) before surgery, surgical resection is usually performed in suspected cases. However, this is an invasive procedure and prone to certain surgical complications. This study was designed to evaluate the feasibility of endoscopic excavation for gastric HP, as well as the value of endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) in diagnosing gastric HP. Between January 2007 and January 2013, 42 consecutive patients with gastric HP were enrolled in this retrospective study. Key steps: (1) Injection of a solution (100 ml saline + 2 ml indigo carmine + 1 ml epinephrine) into the submucosal layer after making several dots around the lesion; (2) Incision of the mucosa outside the marker dots with a needle-knife, and then circumferential excavation until complete resection of the lesion; (3) Closure of the artificial ulcer with several clips after tumor removal. In this study, 18 cases (42.9%) were suspected as gastric HP (assessed by two experienced endoscopists before endoscopic excavation), 8 (19.0%) were suspected as gastrointestinal stromal tumors, 7 (16.7%) as gastric polyp, and the remaining 9 cases (21.4%) were still unknown. The mean procedure duration was 28.6 min. En bloc resection by endoscopic excavation was achieved in 40 cases (95.2%), and no massive bleeding, delayed bleeding, perforation, or other severe complication occurred in these patients. Among the 42 lesions, a tube echo could be detected in 11 cases by EUS. Those 11 cases were diagnosed as gastric HP by histopathology. Endoscopic excavation appears to be a safe and feasible procedure for accurate histopathologic evaluation and curative treatment in gastric HP. Use of EUS has some value in the diagnosis of gastric HP before the procedure

  4. Misdiagnosis and delayed diagnosis for ectopic and heterotopic pregnancies after in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin-lin; Chen, Xin; Ye, De-sheng; Liu, Yu-dong; He, Yu-xia; Guo, Wei; Chen, Shi-ling

    2014-02-01

    This study examined the misdiagnosis and delayed diagnosis factors for ectopic pregnancy (EP) and heterotopic pregnancy (HP) after in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET) in an attempt to reduce the diagnostic error. Clinical data of patients who underwent IVF-ET treatment and had clinical pregnancy from 12463 cycles were retrospectively analyzed. Their findings of serum β-hCG test and transvaginal ultrasonography were also obtained during follow-up. These patients were divided into two groups according to the diagnosis accuracy of EP/HP: early diagnosis and misdiagnosis/delayed diagnosis. The results showed that the incidence of EP and HP was 3.8% (125/3286) and 0.8% (27/3286) respectively for IVF/ICSI-ET cycle, and 3.8% (55/1431) and 0.7% (10/1431) respectively for frozen- thawed embryo transfer (FET) cycle. Ruptured EP occurred in 28 patients due to initial misdiagnosis or delayed diagnosis. Related factors fell in 3 categories: (1) clinician factors: misunderstanding of patients' medical history, insufficient training in ultrasonography and unawareness of EP and HP; (2) patient factors: noncompliance with medical orders and lack of communication with clinicians; (3) complicated conditions of EP: atypical symptoms, delayed elevation of serum β-hCG level, early rupture of cornual EP, asymptomatic in early gestation and pregnancy of unknown location. All the factors were interwoven, contributing to the occurrence of EP and HP. It was concluded that complicated conditions are more likely to affect the diagnosis accuracy of EP/HP after IVF-ET. Transvaginal ultrasonography should be performed at 5 weeks of gestation. Intensive follow-up including repeated ultrasonography and serial serum β-hCG tests should be performed in patients with a suspicious diagnosis at admission.

  5. Apixaban Versus Warfarin for Mechanical Heart Valve Thromboprophylaxis in a Swine Aortic Heterotopic Valve Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Patrick A; Coleman, Dawn M; Diaz, Jose A; Jackson, Tatum O; Hawley, Angela E; Mathues, Angela R; Grant, Brandon T; Knabb, Robert M; Ramacciotti, Eduardo; Frost, Charles E; Song, Yan; Wakefield, Thomas W; Myers, Daniel D

    2017-05-01

    Warfarin is the current standard for oral anticoagulation therapy in patients with mechanical heart valves, yet optimal therapy to maximize anticoagulation and minimize bleeding complications requires routine coagulation monitoring, possible dietary restrictions, and drug interaction monitoring. As alternatives to warfarin, oral direct acting factor Xa inhibitors are currently approved for the prophylaxis and treatment of venous thromboembolism and reduction of stroke and systemic embolization. However, no in vivo preclinical or clinical studies have been performed directly comparing oral factor Xa inhibitors such as apixaban to warfarin, the current standard of therapy. A well-documented heterotopic aortic valve porcine model was used to test the hypothesis that apixaban has comparable efficacy to warfarin for thromboprophylaxis of mechanical heart valves. Sixteen swine were implanted with a bileaflet mechanical aortic valve that bypassed the ligated descending thoracic aorta. Animals were randomized to 4 groups: control (no anticoagulation; n=4), apixaban oral 1 mg/kg twice a day (n=5), warfarin oral 0.04 to 0.08 mg/kg daily (international normalized ratio 2-3; n=3), and apixaban infusion (n=4). Postmortem valve thrombus was measured 30 days post-surgery for control-oral groups and 14 days post-surgery for the apixaban infusion group. Control thrombus weight (mean) was significantly different (1422.9 mg) compared with apixaban oral (357.5 mg), warfarin (247.1 mg), and apixiban 14-day infusion (61.1 mg; Pheart valves. Unlike warfarin, no adverse bleeding events were observed in any apixaban groups. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. Role of matrix metalloproteinase 13 in both endochondral and intramembranous ossification during skeletal regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle J Behonick

    Full Text Available Extracellular matrix (ECM remodeling is important during bone development and repair. Because matrix metalloproteinase 13 (MMP13, collagenase-3 plays a role in long bone development, we have examined its role during adult skeletal repair. In this study we find that MMP13 is expressed by hypertrophic chondrocytes and osteoblasts in the fracture callus. We demonstrate that MMP13 is required for proper resorption of hypertrophic cartilage and for normal bone remodeling during non-stabilized fracture healing, which occurs via endochondral ossification. However, no difference in callus strength was detected in the absence of MMP13. Transplant of wild-type bone marrow, which reconstitutes cells only of the hematopoietic lineage, did not rescue the endochondral repair defect, indicating that impaired healing in Mmp13-/- mice is intrinsic to cartilage and bone. Mmp13-/- mice also exhibited altered bone remodeling during healing of stabilized fractures and cortical defects via intramembranous ossification. This indicates that the bone phenotype occurs independently from the cartilage phenotype. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that MMP13 is involved in normal remodeling of bone and cartilage during adult skeletal repair, and that MMP13 may act directly in the initial stages of ECM degradation in these tissues prior to invasion of blood vessels and osteoclasts.

  7. A dynamic pattern of mechanical stimulation promotes ossification in avian embryonic long bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowlan, Niamh C; Murphy, Paula; Prendergast, Patrick J

    2008-01-01

    We have performed a set of finite element analyses of embryonic chick hindlimb skeletal rudiments at several time points during development, around the time of initial bone formation. Using optical projection tomography, we created anatomically accurate rudiment and muscle morphologies for each stage. The changes in pattern and magnitude of biophysical stimuli (such as stress, strain, hydrostatic pressure and fluid flow) were computed, and were found to transform as bone formation proceeded in the rudiment. For each biophysical stimulus, a single concentration of the stimulus was predicted at the mid-diaphysis some time before initial bone formation begins. Then, several hours before ossification, two concentrations of the stimuli were predicted distal and proximal to the prospective bone collar. Once bone formation had begun, high concentrations of the stimuli were maintained proximal and distal to the bone collar. We propose the hypothesis that patterns of biophysical stimuli resulting from mechanical loading due to muscle contractions initiate and propagate ossification in avian embryonic long bones, whereby a region of the perichondrium experiences a period of time under high cyclic stimulus levels, promoting chondrocyte hypertrophy at the core and prompting bone collar formation some hours later.

  8. Recapitulating endochondral ossification: a promising route to in vivo bone regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Emmet M; Matsiko, Amos; Farrell, Eric; Kelly, Daniel J; O'Brien, Fergal J

    2015-08-01

    Despite its natural healing potential, bone is unable to regenerate sufficient tissue within critical-sized defects, resulting in a non-union of bone ends. As a consequence, interventions are required to replace missing, damaged or diseased bone. Bone grafts have been widely employed for the repair of such critical-sized defects. However, the well-documented drawbacks associated with autografts, allografts and xenografts have motivated the development of alternative treatment options. Traditional tissue engineering strategies have typically attempted to direct in vitro bone-like matrix formation within scaffolds prior to implantation into bone defects, mimicking the embryological process of intramembranous ossification (IMO). Tissue-engineered constructs developed using this approach often fail once implanted, due to poor perfusion, leading to avascular necrosis and core degradation. As a result of such drawbacks, an alternative tissue engineering strategy, based on endochondral ossification (ECO), has begun to emerge, involving the use of in vitro tissue-engineered cartilage as a transient biomimetic template to facilitate bone formation within large defects. This is driven by the hypothesis that hypertrophic chondrocytes can secrete angiogenic and osteogenic factors, which play pivotal roles in both the vascularization of constructs in vivo and the deposition of a mineralized extracellular matrix, with resulting bone deposition. In this context, this review focuses on current strategies taken to recapitulate ECO, using a range of distinct cells, biomaterials and biochemical stimuli, in order to facilitate in vivo bone formation. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Foxp1/2/4 regulate endochondral ossification as a suppresser complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Haixia; Zhou, Wenrong; Yao, Zhengju; Wan, Yong; Cao, Jingjing; Zhang, Lingling; Zhao, Jianzhi; Li, Hanjun; Zhou, Rujiang; Li, Baojie; Wei, Gang; Zhang, Zhenlin; French, Catherine A; Dekker, Joseph D; Yang, Yingzi; Fisher, Simon E; Tucker, Haley O; Guo, Xizhi

    2015-02-15

    Osteoblast induction and differentiation in developing long bones is dynamically controlled by the opposing action of transcriptional activators and repressors. In contrast to the long list of activators that have been discovered over past decades, the network of repressors is not well-defined. Here we identify the expression of Foxp1/2/4 proteins, comprised of Forkhead-box (Fox) transcription factors of the Foxp subfamily, in both perichondrial skeletal progenitors and proliferating chondrocytes during endochondral ossification. Mice carrying loss-of-function and gain-of-function Foxp mutations had gross defects in appendicular skeleton formation. At the cellular level, over-expression of Foxp1/2/4 in chondroctyes abrogated osteoblast formation and chondrocyte hypertrophy. Conversely, single or compound deficiency of Foxp1/2/4 in skeletal progenitors or chondrocytes resulted in premature osteoblast differentiation in the perichondrium, coupled with impaired proliferation, survival, and hypertrophy of chondrocytes in the growth plate. Foxp1/2/4 and Runx2 proteins interacted in vitro and in vivo, and Foxp1/2/4 repressed Runx2 transactivation function in heterologous cells. This study establishes Foxp1/2/4 proteins as coordinators of osteogenesis and chondrocyte hypertrophy in developing long bones and suggests that a novel transcriptional repressor network involving Foxp1/2/4 may regulate Runx2 during endochondral ossification. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. FGFR3 promotes synchondrosis closure and fusion of ossification centers through the MAPK pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, Takehiko; Wilcox, William R.; Chan, Yuk Yu; Kawanami, Aya; Bükülmez, Hülya; Balmes, Gener; Krejci, Pavel; Mekikian, Pertchoui B.; Otani, Kazuyuki; Yamaura, Isakichi; Warman, Matthew L.; Givol, David; Murakami, Shunichi

    2009-01-01

    Activating mutations in FGFR3 cause achondroplasia and thanatophoric dysplasia, the most common human skeletal dysplasias. In these disorders, spinal canal and foramen magnum stenosis can cause serious neurologic complications. Here, we provide evidence that FGFR3 and MAPK signaling in chondrocytes promote synchondrosis closure and fusion of ossification centers. We observed premature synchondrosis closure in the spine and cranial base in human cases of homozygous achondroplasia and thanatophoric dysplasia as well as in mouse models of achondroplasia. In both species, premature synchondrosis closure was associated with increased bone formation. Chondrocyte-specific activation of Fgfr3 in mice induced premature synchondrosis closure and enhanced osteoblast differentiation around synchondroses. FGF signaling in chondrocytes increases Bmp ligand mRNA expression and decreases Bmp antagonist mRNA expression in a MAPK-dependent manner, suggesting a role for Bmp signaling in the increased bone formation. The enhanced bone formation would accelerate the fusion of ossification centers and limit the endochondral bone growth. Spinal canal and foramen magnum stenosis in heterozygous achondroplasia patients, therefore, may occur through premature synchondrosis closure. If this is the case, then any growth-promoting treatment for these complications of achondroplasia must precede the timing of the synchondrosis closure. PMID:18923003

  11. Cochlear implantation in children with bacterial meningitic deafness: The influence of the degree of ossification and obliteration on impedance and charge of the implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durisin, Martin; Büchner, Andreas; Lesinski-Schiedat, Anke; Bartling, Sönke; Warnecke, Athanasia; Lenarz, Thomas

    2015-05-01

    To determine impedance values and charge consumption following cochlear implantation post-meningitic deaf children depending on the grade of cochlear ossification and obliteration. Post-meningitic deaf (n=49) and control (n=43) children treated with cochlear implants were included in the study. Impedance and charge values were calculated for each group. The degree of ossification of the cochlea was evaluated from a high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scan whereas the degree of obliteration was determined intraoperatively by the surgeon. Pneumococci were the principal pathogen responsible for bacterial meningitis, followed by meningococci. In HRCT scans, the degree of ossification was 1 and 2 in 29% of patients. The results of the intraoperative assessment of the cochlea showed obliteration grade 1 in 38% and grade 2 in 23% of cases. Children in the meningitis group showed significant higher impedances comparing to the control group. A significantly increased charge consumption was observed in patients with a grade 2 ossification when compared to those without ossification (P=0.02). Discussion Cochlea implanted children with meningitis-related deafness exhibit higher impedances, especially in the region of the basal and middle turn, however, not depending on the degree of cochlear ossification. High impedances and charge in the meningitis group may be explained by alterations in the central auditory pathway or on the electrode surface. To optimize the outcome in post-meningitic deaf children, surgery is advisable at an early stage prior to the onset of cochlear ossification.

  12. Complete absence of rib ossification, micrognathia and ear anomalies: extreme expression of cerebro-costo-mandibular syndrome?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hennekam, R. C.; Goldschmeding, R.

    1998-01-01

    We describe a newborn with complete absence of ossification of the ribs, extreme micrognathia, absence of external ear canals and the inner ears, and diminished mobility in the upper extremities. It is suggested that this represents an unusually severe expression of the cerebro-costo-mandibular

  13. NGF-TrkA Signaling by Sensory Nerves Coordinates the Vascularization and Ossification of Developing Endochondral Bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan E. Tomlinson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Developing tissues dictate the amount and type of innervation they require by secreting neurotrophins, which promote neuronal survival by activating distinct tyrosine kinase receptors. Here, we show that nerve growth factor (NGF signaling through neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor type 1 (TrkA directs innervation of the developing mouse femur to promote vascularization and osteoprogenitor lineage progression. At the start of primary ossification, TrkA-positive axons were observed at perichondrial bone surfaces, coincident with NGF expression in cells adjacent to centers of incipient ossification. Inactivation of TrkA signaling during embryogenesis in TrkAF592A mice impaired innervation, delayed vascular invasion of the primary and secondary ossification centers, decreased numbers of Osx-expressing osteoprogenitors, and decreased femoral length and volume. These same phenotypic abnormalities were observed in mice following tamoxifen-induced disruption of NGF in Col2-expressing perichondrial osteochondral progenitors. We conclude that NGF serves as a skeletal neurotrophin to promote sensory innervation of developing long bones, a process critical for normal primary and secondary ossification.

  14. NGF-TrkA Signaling by Sensory Nerves Coordinates the Vascularization and Ossification of Developing Endochondral Bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Ryan E; Li, Zhi; Zhang, Qian; Goh, Brian C; Li, Zhu; Thorek, Daniel L J; Rajbhandari, Labchan; Brushart, Thomas M; Minichiello, Liliana; Zhou, Fengquan; Venkatesan, Arun; Clemens, Thomas L

    2016-09-06

    Developing tissues dictate the amount and type of innervation they require by secreting neurotrophins, which promote neuronal survival by activating distinct tyrosine kinase receptors. Here, we show that nerve growth factor (NGF) signaling through neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor type 1 (TrkA) directs innervation of the developing mouse femur to promote vascularization and osteoprogenitor lineage progression. At the start of primary ossification, TrkA-positive axons were observed at perichondrial bone surfaces, coincident with NGF expression in cells adjacent to centers of incipient ossification. Inactivation of TrkA signaling during embryogenesis in TrkA(F592A) mice impaired innervation, delayed vascular invasion of the primary and secondary ossification centers, decreased numbers of Osx-expressing osteoprogenitors, and decreased femoral length and volume. These same phenotypic abnormalities were observed in mice following tamoxifen-induced disruption of NGF in Col2-expressing perichondrial osteochondral progenitors. We conclude that NGF serves as a skeletal neurotrophin to promote sensory innervation of developing long bones, a process critical for normal primary and secondary ossification. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Effect of Different rhBMP-2 and TG-VEGF Ratios on the Formation of Heterotopic Bone and Neovessels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Xin Cai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioengineered bone substitutes might represent alternatives to autologous bone grafts in medically compromised patients due to reduced operation time and comorbidity. Due to the lack of an inherent vascular system their dimension is limited to the size of critical bone size defect. To overcome this shortcoming, the experiment tried to create heterotopic bone around vessels. In vivo, a two-component fibrin and thrombin gel containing recombinant bone morphogenic protein (rhBMP-2 and transglutamate vascular endothelial growth factor (TG-VEGF in different ratios, respectively, was injected into a dimensionally stable membrane tube, wrapped around the femoral vessel bundle in twelve New Zealand white rabbits. Sacrifice occurred eight weeks postoperatively. Microcomputed tomography of the specimens showed significantly increased bone volume in the rhBMP-2 to TG-VEGF ratio of 10 to 1 group. Histology showed new bone formation in close proximity to the vessel bundle. Immunohistochemistry detected increased angiogenesis within the newly formed bone in the rhBMP-2 to TG-VEGF ratios of 3 to 1 and 5 to 1. Heterotopic bone was engineered in vivo around vessels using different rhBMP-2 and TG-VEGF ratios in a fibrin matrix injected into a dimensionally stable membrane tube which prevented direct contact with skeletal muscles.

  16. Delayed hypertrophic differentiation of epiphyseal chondrocytes contributes to failed secondary ossification in mucopolysaccharidosis VII dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Sun H; O'Donnell, Philip J M; Kang, Jennifer L; Malhotra, Neil R; Dodge, George R; Pacifici, Maurizio; Shore, Eileen M; Haskins, Mark E; Smith, Lachlan J

    2015-11-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) VII is a lysosomal storage disorder characterized by deficient β-glucuronidase activity, which leads to the accumulation of incompletely degraded glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). MPS VII patients present with severe skeletal abnormalities, which are particularly prevalent in the spine. Incomplete cartilage-to-bone conversion in MPS VII vertebrae during postnatal development is associated with progressive spinal deformity and spinal cord compression. The objectives of this study were to determine the earliest postnatal developmental stage at which vertebral bone disease manifests in MPS VII and to identify the underlying cellular basis of impaired cartilage-to-bone conversion, using the naturally-occurring canine model. Control and MPS VII dogs were euthanized at 9 and 14 days-of-age, and vertebral secondary ossification centers analyzed using micro-computed tomography, histology, qPCR, and protein immunoblotting. Imaging studies and mRNA analysis of bone formation markers established that secondary ossification commences between 9 and 14 days in control animals, but not in MPS VII animals. mRNA analysis of differentiation markers revealed that MPS VII epiphyseal chondrocytes are unable to successfully transition from proliferation to hypertrophy during this critical developmental window. Immunoblotting demonstrated abnormal persistence of Sox9 protein in MPS VII cells between 9 and 14 days-of-age, and biochemical assays revealed abnormally high intra and extracellular GAG content in MPS VII epiphyseal cartilage at as early as 9 days-of-age. In contrast, assessment of vertebral growth plates and primary ossification centers revealed no significant abnormalities at either age. The results of this study establish that failed vertebral bone formation in MPS VII can be traced to the failure of epiphyseal chondrocytes to undergo hypertrophic differentiation at the appropriate developmental stage, and suggest that aberrant processing of Sox9 protein

  17. Morphology and function of cryopreserved whole ovine ovaries after heterotopic autotransplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Rakesh K

    2008-04-01

    VIII, VEGF and SMCA. Proliferating cells were detected in follicles, and the rate of apoptosis was minimal in ovaries of control and autotransplanted ovaries. Conclusion These data demonstrate successful autotransplantation of a portion of frozen/thawed ovaries manifested by restoration of selected ovarian function including in vitro maturation of collected oocytes, presence of follicles from several stages of folliculogenesis and blood vessels expressing specific markers of vascularization, and proliferation and apoptosis of ovarian cells. Thus, heterotopic autotransplantation of a whole frozen/thawed ovary allows for development of preovulatory follicles, oocyte growth, and for restoration of vascularization and cellular function. However, additional improvements are required to enhance the efficiency of autotransplantation of frozen/thawed ovaries to produce more oocytes.

  18. Gelatin device for the delivery of growth factors involved in endochondral ossification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas A J Ahrens

    Full Text Available Controlled release drug delivery systems are well established as oral and implantable dosage forms. However, the controlled release paradigm can also be used to present complex soluble signals responsible for cellular organization during development. Endochondral ossification (EO, the developmental process of bone formation from a cartilage matrix is controlled by several soluble signals with distinct functions that vary in structure, molecular weight and stability. This makes delivering them from a single vehicle rather challenging. Herein, a gelatin-based delivery system suitable for the delivery of small molecules as well as recombinant human (rh proteins (rhWNT3A, rhFGF2, rhVEGF, rhBMP4 is reported. The release behavior and biological activity of the released molecules was validated using analytical and biological assays, including cell reporter systems. The simplicity of fabrication of the gelatin device should foster its adaptation by the diverse scientific community interested in interrogating developmental processes, in vivo.

  19. Differentiating os acromiale from normally developing acromial ossification centers using magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winfeld, Matthew [Children' s National Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Washington, DC (United States); Rosenberg, Zehava Sadka; Wang, Annie; Bencardino, Jenny [New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Acromial fusion may not be complete until age 18-25, making it questionable to diagnose os acromiale in adolescents. Os acromiale may exist in adolescents and can be differentiated from a developing acromial ossification center based on MRI findings. A total of 128 MRIs of the shoulder were randomly and blindly reviewed retrospectively by two musculoskeletal radiologists. The MRIs consisted of two groups: (1) 56 of os acromiale in adults (25-74 years old, mean, 50) and (2) 72 consecutive of adolescents (12-17 years old, mean, 14.5). The following were assessed at the interface between the distal acromion and os acromiale/developing ossification center(s): presence of os acromiale vs. developing acromion, orientation, margins, and edema within and adjacent to it. Fifty-one adults and 49 adolescents were included. Exclusions were due to poor image quality or confounding findings (n = 7) or complete acromial fusion (n = 21 adolescents). Utilizing accepted definitions of os acromiale, all adult cases (100 %) were accurately diagnosed as os acromiale, with transverse interface orientation and irregular margins (94 %, R = 0.86, p < 0.00001). Forty-five (92 %) adolescent cases were accurately diagnosed as normally developing acromion with arched interface and lobulated margins (92 %, R = 0.92, p < 0.000001). Four (8 %) adolescent cases were diagnosed as having os acromiale, with transverse orientation and irregular margins. Thirty-five (69 %) and 46 (90 %) adults had marrow and interface edema, respectively. Six (12 %) and eight (16 %) adolescents had marrow and interface edema, respectively, including the four concluded to be os acromiale. Adolescents may have imaging findings consistent with os acromiale. The diagnosis of os acromiale should be based on imaging features and not limited by age. (orig.)

  20. Delayed ossification in Wistar rats induced by Morinda citrifolia L. exposure during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Nelson Fernando Quallio; Marques, Ana Paula Bombonatto Mariano; Iwano, Ana Lívia; Golin, Munisa; De-Carvalho, Rosangela Ribeiro; Paumgartten, Francisco José Roma; Dalsenter, Paulo Roberto

    2010-03-02

    Different products of plant Morinda citrifolia L. (noni) have been marketed and used around the world based on properties described by Polynesian people that use them for more than 2000 years. Marketing of these products is based on their presumptive phytotherapic properties. However there is little scientific evidence about their safety, especially when used during pregnancy. Evaluate the possible developmental toxicity of the noni fruit aqueous extract and commercial product of TAHITIAN NONI juice in rats exposed during pregnancy. Pregnant Wistar rats were exposed by gavage to 7, 30 and 300 mg/kg bw (body weight) of noni aqueous extract or to 0.4, 2 and 20 mL/kg bw (body weight) of noni juice between day 7 and day 15 of pregnancy. Caesarean sections were performed on day 20 of pregnancy and reproductive parameters were evaluated. Implantations sites and postimplantation losses were recorded. Fetuses were weighted and examined for externally visible anomalies. After, the fetuses were cleared with KOH and the bones stained with alizarin red. Skeletal alterations of the skull, vertebral column, ribs, forelimbs, hindlimbs, sternum, sings of delayed ossification and variations were examined in accordance with pre-defined criteria and identified using harmonized and internationally accepted nomenclature recommended by the International Federation of Teratology Societies. Exposure with extract and juice of Morinda citrifolia did not induce maternal toxicity at the tested doses, but induced delayed ossification in fetuses. The exposure of pregnant rats to aqueous extract or juice Morinda citrifolia during organogenesis period may induce adverse effects on the normal development of fetuses. These findings indicate the need for further studies with noni derivates preceding their use in pregnant women. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Notch signaling pathways in human thoracic ossification of the ligamentum flavum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Xiaochen; Chen, Zhongqiang; Fan, Dongwei; Sun, Chuiguo; Zeng, Yan; Hou, Xiaofei; Ning, Shanglong

    2016-08-01

    This study investigated the pathological process of Notch signaling in the osteogenesis of ligamentum flavum tissues and cells, and the associated regulatory mechanisms. Notch receptors, ligands, and target genes were identified by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in ligamentum flavum cells and immunohistochemistry in ligamentum flavum sections from ossification of the ligamentum flavum (OLF) patients and controls. The temporospatial expression patterns of JAG1/Notch2/HES1 in human ligamentum flavum cells during osteogenic differentiation were determined by qPCR. Lentiviral vectors for Notch2 overexpression and knockdown were constructed and transfected into ligamentum flavum cells before osteogenic differentiation to examine the function of Notch signaling pathways in the osteogenic differentiation of ligamentum flavum cells. Alkaline phosphatase, Runx2, Osterix, osteocalcin, and osteopontin mRNA levels, alkaline phosphatase activity, and Alizarin Red staining were used as indicators of osteogenic differentiation. JAG1/Notch2/HES1 mRNA levels were up-regulated in ligamentum flavum cells from OLF patients, which increased during osteogenic differentiation. Immunohistochemical analysis suggested positive Notch2 expression at the ossification front. Down-regulation of Notch2 expression decelerated osteogenic differentiation of ligamentum flavum cells, and Notch2 overexpression promoted osteogenic differentiation of ligamentum flavum cells. Expression of Runx2 and Osterix increased in a manner similar to that of Notch2 during osteogenic differentiation of ligamentum flavum cells, and Notch2 knockdown and overexpression influenced their expression levels. Notch signaling plays an important role in OLF, and Notch may affect the osteogenic differentiation of ligamentum flavum cells via interactions with Runx2 and Osterix.© 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 34:1481-1491, 2016. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research

  2. A computational model to explore the role of angiogenic impairment on endochondral ossification during fracture healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    OReilly, Adam; Hankenson, Kurt D; Kelly, Daniel J

    2016-10-01

    While it is well established that an adequate blood supply is critical to successful bone regeneration, it remains poorly understood how progenitor cell fate is affected by the altered conditions present in fractures with disrupted vasculature. In this study, computational models were used to explore how angiogenic impairment impacts oxygen availability within a fracture callus and hence regulates mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) differentiation and bone regeneration. Tissue differentiation was predicted using a previously developed algorithm which assumed that MSC fate is governed by oxygen tension and substrate stiffness. This model was updated based on the hypothesis that cell death, chondrocyte hypertrophy and endochondral ossification are regulated by oxygen availability. To test this, the updated model was used to simulate the time course of normal fracture healing, where it successfully predicted the observed quantity and spatial distribution of bone and cartilage at 10 and 20 days post-fracture (dpf). It also predicted the ratio of cartilage which had become hypertrophic at 10 dpf. Following this, three models of fracture healing with increasing levels of angiogenic impairment were developed. Under mild impairment, the model predicted experimentally observed reductions in hypertrophic cartilage at 10 dpf as well as the persistence of cartilage at 20 dpf. Models of more severe impairment predicted apoptosis and the development of fibrous tissue. These results provide insight into how factors specific to an ischemic callus regulate tissue regeneration and provide support for the hypothesis that chondrocyte hypertrophy and endochondral ossification during tissue regeneration are inhibited by low oxygen.

  3. Morphometric study of the T6 vertebra and its three ossification centers in the human fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szpinda, Michał; Baumgart, Mariusz; Szpinda, Anna; Woźniak, Alina; Mila-Kierzenkowska, Celestyna; Dombek, Małgorzata; Kosiński, Adam; Grzybiak, Marek

    2013-12-01

    Knowledge on the normative growth of the spine is critical in the prenatal detection of its abnormalities. We aimed to study the size of T6 vertebra in human fetuses with the crown-rump length of 115-265 mm. Using the methods of computed tomography (Biograph mCT), digital image analysis (Osirix 3.9) and statistics, the normative growth of the T6 vertebral body and the three ossification centers of T6 vertebra in 55 spontaneously aborted human fetuses (27 males, 28 females) aged 17-30 weeks were studied. Neither male-female nor right-left significant differences were found. The height, transverse, and sagittal diameters of the T6 vertebral body followed natural logarithmic functions as y = -4.972 + 2.732 × ln(age) ± 0.253 (R (2) = 0.72), y = -14.862 + 6.426 × ln(age) ± 0.456 (R (2) = 0.82), and y = -10.990 + 4.982 × ln(age) ± 0.278 (R (2) = 0.89), respectively. Its cross-sectional area (CSA) rose proportionately as y = -19.909 + 1.664 × age ± 2.033 (R (2) = 0.89), whereas its volumetric growth followed the four-degree polynomial function y = 19.158 + 0.0002 × age(4) ± 7.942 (R (2) = 0.93). The T6 body ossification center grew logarithmically in both transverse and sagittal diameters as y = -14.784 + 6.115 × ln(age) ± 0.458 (R (2) = 0.81) and y = -12.065 + 5.019 × ln(age) ± 0.315 (R (2) = 0.87), and proportionately in both CSA and volume like y = -15.591 + 1.200 × age ± 1.470 (R (2) = 0.90) and y = -22.120 + 1.663 × age ± 1.869 (R (2) = 0.91), respectively. The ossification center-to-vertebral body volume ratio was gradually decreasing with age. On the right and left, the neural ossification centers revealed the following models: y = -15.188 + 6.332 × ln(age) ± 0.629 (R (2) = 0.72) and y = -15.991 + 6.600 × ln(age) ± 0.629 (R (2) = 0.74) for length, y = -6.716 + 2.814 × ln(age) ± 0.362 (R (2) = 0.61) and y = -7.058 + 2

  4. An unusual form of spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia, with advanced carpal and spinal end-plate ossification mimicking COMP-mutation-like multiple epiphyseal dysplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pazzaglia, Ugo E.; Zarattini, Guido [University of Brescia Medical School, Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Brescia (Italy); Beluffi, Giampiero [Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico S. Matteo, Section of Paediatric Radiology, Department of Radiodiagnosis, Pavia (Italy)

    2008-07-15

    We present a child with irregular ossification of tubular bone epiphyses, short bones, and spine. The radiographic evolution of bones undergoing endochondral ossification was followed from the age of 1 year 9 months to 6 years. The unusual features demonstrated in this child made classification difficult: pseudoachondroplasia was excluded because no mutations of the COMP gene were found. Considering the evolution of the radiographic appearances, the most likely diagnosis would seem to be an unusual form of spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia, mimicking some aspects of multiple epiphyseal dysplasia. Endochondral ossification was diffusely altered with a mixture of epiphyseal ossification delay associated with acceleration and early fusion. This case was a unique presentation within the family, suggesting a mutation in the affected child. (orig.)

  5. Characterization of ossification of the posterior rim of acetabulum in the developing hip and its impact on the assessment of femoroacetabular impingement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, William Z; Chen, Jason Y; Cooperman, Daniel R; Liu, Raymond W

    2015-02-04

    Many radiographic indices that are used to assess adolescents for femoroacetabular impingement rely on an ossified posterior acetabular wall. A recent study identified a secondary ossification center in the posterior rim of the acetabulum, the ossification of which may affect perceived acetabular coverage. The purpose of this study was to characterize ossification of the posterior rim of the acetabulum with use of a longitudinal radiographic study and quantify its impact on the radiographic assessment of femoroacetabular impingement. In this study, we utilized a historical collection of annual radiographs made in a population of healthy adolescents. Six hundred and twelve anteroposterior radiographs of the left hip of ninety-eight patients were reviewed to identify the appearance, duration, and fusion of the secondary ossification center in the posterior rim of the acetabulum. The center-edge angle was then measured before appearance and after fusion of the secondary ossification center in a subset of ten patients who had ossification center in the posterior rim was identified in seventy-three of the ninety-eight subjects, with no significant difference between the sexes. The mean patient age at the time of radiographic appearance of this secondary ossification center was fourteen years for males and twelve years for females. The mean duration of radiographic appearance was ten months for both sexes. Serial center-edge angles were measured in a subset of ten patients, and they increased during posterior rim ossification by a mean of 4.1°. The secondary ossification center in the posterior rim of the acetabulum (the posterior rim sign) is a common radiographic finding that reliably appears for ten months around the time of triradiate closure. Posterior rim ossification led to a mean increase of 4° of perceived acetabular coverage through the center-edge angle. Given the narrow margin between normal coverage (33° to 36°) and acetabular overcoverage (>40°), the

  6. PG490-88, a derivative of triptolide, attenuates obliterative airway disease in a mouse heterotopic tracheal allograft model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Colm T; Soccal, Paola M; Berry, Gerald J; Doyle, Ramona L; Theodore, James; Duncan, Steven R; Rosen, Glenn D

    2002-12-01

    The current treatment of obliterative bronchiolitis in lung transplant recipients is sub-optimal. Triptolide is a novel immunosuppressant that has a mechanism of action distinct from currently available immunosuppressants, including induction of T-cell apoptosis, blockade of fibroblast proliferation/maturation and inhibition of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) mRNA production. We hypothesized that triptolide may be helpful in blocking obliterative airway disease in lung transplant recipients. We investigated the effect of PG490-88, a water-soluble derivative of triptolide, in a mouse heterotopic tracheal allograft model of obliterative airway disease. We show that PG490-88 attenuates airway obliteration in this model and inhibits accumulation of inflammatory cells, and therefore may have preventive or therapeutic benefits for patients with obliterative airway disease (OAD) following lung transplantation.

  7. Prevalence and distribution of ossification of the supra/interspinous ligaments in symptomatic patients with cervical ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament of the spine: a CT-based multicenter cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Kanji; Yoshii, Toshitaka; Hirai, Takashi; Iwanami, Akio; Takeuchi, Kazuhiro; Yamada, Tsuyoshi; Seki, Shoji; Tsuji, Takashi; Fujiyoshi, Kanehiro; Furukawa, Mitsuru; Nishimura, Soraya; Wada, Kanichiro; Koda, Masao; Furuya, Takeo; Matsuyama, Yukihiro; Hasegawa, Tomohiko; Takeshita, Katsushi; Kimura, Atsushi; Abematsu, Masahiko; Haro, Hirotaka; Ohba, Tetsuro; Watanabe, Masahiko; Katoh, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Kei; Ozawa, Hiroshi; Kanno, Haruo; Imagama, Shiro; Ito, Zenya; Fujibayashi, Shunsuke; Yamazaki, Masashi; Matsumoto, Morio; Nakamura, Masaya; Okawa, Atsushi; Kawaguchi, Yoshiharu

    2016-12-01

    Supra/interspinous ligaments connect adjacent spinous processes and act as a stabilizer of the spine. As with other spinal ligaments, it can become ossified. However, few report have discussed ossification supra/interspinous ligaments (OSIL), so its epidemiology remains unknown. We therefore aimed to investigate the prevalence and distribution of OSIL in symptomatic patients with cervical ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL). The participants of our study were symptomatic patients with cervical OPLL who were diagnosed by standard radiographs of the cervical spine. The whole spine CT data as well as clinical parameters such as age and sex were obtained from 20 institutions belong to the Japanese Multicenter Research Organization for Ossification of the Spinal Ligament (JOSL). The prevalence and distribution of OSIL and the association between OSIL and clinical parameters were reviewed. The sum of the levels involved by OPLL (OP-index) and OSIL (OSI-index) as well as the prevalence of ossification of the nuchal ligament (ONL) were also investigated. A total of 234 patients with a mean age of 65 years was recruited. The CT-based evidence of OSIL was noted in 68 (54 males and 14 females) patients (29%). The distribution of OSIL showed a significant thoracic preponderance. In OSIL-positive patients, single-level involvement was noted in 19 cases (28%), whereas 49 cases (72%) presented multi-level involvement. We found a significant positive correlation between the OP-index grade and OSI-index. ONL was noted at a significantly higher rate in OSIL-positive patients compared to negative patients. The prevalence of OSIL in symptomatic patients with cervical OPLL was 29%. The distribution of OSIL showed a significant thoracic preponderance.

  8. [Multiple stones in atypical heterotopic reservoir in a patient with renal transplant: endourologic resolution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietro, Granelli; Antonio, Frattini; Stefania, Ferretti; Paolo, Salsi; Davide, Campobasso; Matteo, Moretti; Enzo, Capocasale; Patrizia, Mazzoni; Pietro, Cortellini; Granelli, Pietro; Frattini, Antonio; Ferretti, Stefania; Salsi, Paolo; Campobasso, Davide; Moretti, Matteo; Capocasale, Enzo; Mazzoni, Patrizia; Cortellini, Pietro

    2011-10-01

    Urolithiasis is a frequent complication in a heterotopic reservoir and the surgical management could be a difficult problem. Open surgery is not recommended in patients with multiple previous surgeries. A less invasive technique, such as the endourologic procedures, would allow high stone-free rate and low surgical morbidity. Stone formation in the reservoir is a well-known complication of urinary diversion. The incidence of lithiasis in patients with continent urinary diversion is reported as 12-52.5%. Most patients will have multiple physical factors, such as immobility, need for self-catheterization and poor urine drainage, so that it is not certain that an intestinal reservoir is the cause of stones on its own. The management of urolithiasis in continent urinary diversion can be challenging and could be a difficult problem to solve. A less invasive technique, such as the endourologic procedures, is desiderable, especially in patients with kidney transplant and low immune defence. We present the case of a 59-year-old woman with previous history of spina bifida and with neurogenic bladder. At a pediatric age, she underwent incontinent urinary diversion using a sigmo-colic conduit. For several years she had been suffering from kidney stones and recurrent urinary infections, which led to a left nephrectomy for pyonephrosis, subsequent deterioration of renal function and dialysis. In 2004, we performed an atypical continent and self-catheterizable reservoir using the previous colic conduit detubularized and ileum-cecal tract with Mitrofanoff system conduit of 14 Fr size. Finally, kidney transplant was carried out as last surgical procedure. Recently she has come to our attention for multiple and large reservoir stones. preliminary exploration of the continent pouch with flexible cystoscope. Percutaneous access with Endovision° direct control through the afferent conduit with 8 Fr flexible ureteroscope. Dilation of percutaneous tract with pneumatic balloon and

  9. Roentgenographic appearance of ossification centers in the Japanese fetus, stillborn and neonatal death infants, Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamoto, Sadahisa

    1964-01-01

    A roentgenographic study of the presence of the ossification centers has been made on a total of 235 cases of miscarriage, therapeutic abortion, stillbirth and neonatal death according to criteria of sex, length of gestational age, and weight at birth. The cases were aged from 16 to 42 gestational weeks. The weight of the cases ranged from 110 g to 3780 g at birth. The order of appearance of the eight centers in fetal life was as follows: Ischium, pubis, calcaneus, talus, distal epiphysis of femur, hyoid, proximal epiphysis of tibia, and cuboid bone. Some of the eight ossification centers appeared earlier in girls than in boys of the same gestational age and birth weight. The osseous development of Japanese fetuses and infants weighing over 2000 g was judged less mature than in similar Caucasian and Negro subjects. 10 references, 1 figure, 6 tables.

  10. The Cross-talk Between TGF-β1 and Dlk1 Mediates Early Chondrogenesis During Embryonic Endochondral Ossification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taipaleenmaki, Hanna; M, Linda; Chen, Li

    2012-01-01

    Dlkl/Pref-1/FA1 (delta like-1/preadipocyte factor-1/Fetal Antigen-1) is a novel surface marker for embryonic chondroprogenitor cells undergoing lineage progression from proliferation to prehypertrophic stages. However, mechanisms mediating control of its expression during chondrogenesis are not k...... its function in embryonic chondrogenesis. The cross-talk between TGF-β1 and Dlk1/FA1 was shown to promote early chondrogenesis during the embryonic endochondral ossification process....

  11. Static osteogenesis does not precede dynamic osteogenesis in periosteal ossification of Pleurodeles (Caudata, Amphibia) and Pogona (Squamata, Lepidosauria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubo, Jorge; Hui, Mylaine; Clarac, François; Quilhac, Alexandra

    2017-05-01

    Two successive mechanisms have been described in perichondral ossification: (1) in static osteogenesis, mesenchymal cells differentiate into stationary osteoblasts oriented randomly, which differentiate into osteocytes in the same site; (2) in dynamic osteogenesis, mesenchymal cells differentiate into osteoblasts that are all oriented in the same direction and move back as they secrete collagen fibers. This study is aimed at testing the hypothesis that the ontogenetic sequence static then dynamic osteogenesis observed in the chicken and in the rabbit is homologous and was acquired by the last common ancestor of amniotes or at a more inclusive node. For this we analyze the developmental patterns of Pleurodeles (Caudata, Amphibia) and those of the lizard Pogona (Squamata, Lepidosauria). We processed Pleurodeles larvae and Pogona embryos, prepared thin and ultrathin sections of appendicular bones, and analyzed them using light and transmission electron microscopy. We show that static osteogenesis does not precede dynamic osteogenesis in periosteal ossification of Pleurodeles and Pogona. Therefore, the null hypothesis is rejected and according to the parsimony method the ontogenetic sequence observed in the chicken and in the rabbit are convergent. In Pleurodeles and Pogona dynamic osteogenesis occur without a previous rigid mineralized framework, whereas in the chicken and in the rabbit dynamic osteogenesis seems to take place over a mineralized support whether bone (in perichondral ossification) or calcified cartilage (in endochondral ossification). Interestingly, in typical dynamic osteogenesis, osteoblasts show an axis (basal nucleus-distal endoplasmic reticulum) perpendicular to the front of secreted unmineralized bone matrix, whereas in Pleurodeles and Pogona this axis is parallel to the bone matrix. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Estimating age by assessing the ossification degree of cranial sutures with the aid of Flat-Panel-CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harth, Sebastian; Obert, Martin; Ramsthaler, Frank; Reuss, Christina; Traupe, Horst; Verhoff, Marcel A

    2009-04-01

    Estimating age from the skeletons of adults is difficult. The accuracy decreases for old age. Ossification of the neurocranial sutures has been used as an age characteristic since Broca's time (1824-1880). Although the sutures traverse the bone, current approaches only encompass the ecto- and endocranial sutures. Evaluating the cross-section of sutures necessitates the destruction of the neurocranium. In the context of the "Digital Forensic Osteology" project that ran in cooperation with the Virtopsy-Project it emerged that the resolution of conventional MSCT-data sets was not high enough to image sutures. The eXplore Locus Ultra (eLU) Flat-Panel-CT-Scanner from GE was used for these experiments. During autopsy, the skullcap was scanned and then immediately returned to the corpse. To date, the skullcaps of 221 individuals have been scanned. The data sets were reconstructed in 3D. The cross sections of the sutures of 14 segments could be evaluated in the cross-sectional view. Seven stages of ossification were defined and each segment was assessed for these. Several regression formulae for age estimation were developed from the results. This examination method is a suitable means for non-invasively evaluating the ossification degree of cranial sutures in the entire cross-section and for the entire calvarium. An increase in the number of examined individuals in this ongoing project and a look at extreme values will further heighten the conclusiveness of the results.

  13. Disseminated dendriform pulmonary ossification associated with usual interstitial pneumonia: incidence and thin-section CT-pathologic correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tae Sung; Chung, Myung Jin [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Seoul (Korea); Han, Joungho [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Seoul (Korea); Chung, Man Pyo [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, Seoul (Korea); Choi, Yong Soo [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Division of Thoracic Surgery, Seoul (Korea)

    2005-08-01

    The aim of this work was to assess the incidence of disseminated pulmonary dendriform ossification in usual interstitial pneumonia and nonspecific interstitial pneumonia, and to correlate thin-section computed tomography (CT) and histopathologic findings. We retrospectively reviewed thin-section CT and pathologic specimens of biopsy-proven usual interstitial pneumonia (75 patients, 57 men and 18 women, mean age 60 years, range 29-83 years) and nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (44 patients, 9 men and 35 women, mean age 55 years, range 20-73 years). On review of CT and histopathologic specimens, diffuse dendriform ossification was identified in five (four men and one woman, age range 41-68 years, mean 58 years) of 75 patients (6.7%) with usual interstitial pneumonia. It was not seen in any of 44 patients with nonspecific interstitial pneumonia. With thin-section CT (osteoporosis window; window width 818, level 273), disseminated dendriform pulmonary ossification was detected as multiple tiny calcifications in bibasilar subpleural lungs (100% sensitive and 100% specific when compared with histopathologic findings as the gold standard). The thin-section CT finding of multiple tiny calcifications in bibasilar subpleural lungs might be of some help in the differential diagnosis between usual interstitial pneumonia and nonspecific interstitial pneumonia, considering they were not seen in any patients with nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (0%, 0/44) in our series. (orig.)

  14. A new computed tomography method to identify meningitis-related cochlear ossification and fibrosis before cochlear implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Kazunori; Kashio, Akinori; Mori, Harushi; Ochi, Atushi; Karino, Shotaro; Sakamoto, Takashi; Kakigi, Akinobu; Yamasoba, Tatsuya

    2014-04-01

    To develop a new method to determine the presence of intracochlear ossification and/or fibrosis in cochlear implantation candidates with bilateral profound deafness following meningitis. Diagnostic test assessment. A university hospital. This study involved 15 ears from 13 patients with profound deafness following meningitis who underwent cochlear implantation. These ears showed normal structures, soft tissue, partial bony occlusion, and complete bony occlusion in 4, 3, 2, and 6 ears, respectively. We measured radiodensity in Hounsfield units (HU) using 0.5-mm-thick axial high-resolution computed tomography image slices at 3 different levels in the basal turn, the fenestration, and inferior and ascending segment sites, located along the electrode-insertion path. Pixel-level analysis on the DICOM viewer yielded actual computed tomography values of intracochlear soft tissues by eliminating the partial volume effect. The values were compared with the intraoperative findings. Values for ossification (n = 12) ranged from +547 HU to +1137 HU; for fibrosis (n = 11), from +154 HU to +574 HU; and for fluid (n = 22), from -49 HU to +255 HU. From these values, we developed 2 presets of window width (WW) and window level (WL): (1) WW: 1800, WL: 1100 (200 HU to 2000 HU) and (2) WW: 1500, WL: 1250 (500 HU to 2000 HU). The results using these 2 presets corresponded well to the intraoperative findings. Our new method is easy and feasible for preoperative determination of the presence of cochlear ossification and/or fibrosis that develops following meningitis.

  15. Lateral Lumbar Interbody Fusion for Ossification of the Yellow Ligament in the Lumbar Spine: First Reported Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kengo Fujii

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available When ossification of the yellow ligament (OYL occurs in the lumbar spine and extends to the lateral wall of the spinal canal, facetectomy is required to remove all of the ossified lesion and achieve decompression. Subsequent posterior fixation with interbody fusion will then be necessary to prevent postoperative progression of the ossification and intervertebral instability. The technique of lateral lumbar interbody fusion (LLIF has recently been introduced. Using this procedure, surgeons can avoid excess blood loss from the extradural venous plexus and detachment of the ossified lesion and the ventral dura mater is avoidable. We present a 55-year-old male patient with OYL at L3/4 and anterior spondylolisthesis of L4 vertebra, with concomitant ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament, who presented with a severe gait disturbance. He underwent a 2-stage operation without complications: LLIF for L3/4 and L4/5 was performed at the initial surgery, and posterior decompression fixation using pedicle screws from L3 to L5 was performed at the second surgery. His postoperative progress was favorable, and his interbody fusion was deemed successful. Here, we present the first reported case of LLIF for OYL of the lumbar spine. This procedure can be a good option for OYL of the lumbar spine.

  16. Quantification of the ossification of the lateral cuneiform in the feet of young children with unilateral congenital talipes equinovarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, P J; Avoian, T; Sangiorgio, S N; Nazif, M A; Ebramzadeh, E; Zionts, L E

    2017-08-01

    After the initial correction of congenital talipes equinovarus (CTEV) using the Ponseti method, a subsequent dynamic deformity is often managed by transfer of the tendon of tibialis anterior (TATT) to the lateral cuneiform. Many surgeons believe the lateral cuneiform should be ossified before surgery is undertaken. This study quantifies the ossification process of the lateral cuneiform in children with CTEV between one and three years of age. The length, width and height of the lateral cuneiform were measured in 43 consecutive patients with unilateral CTEV who had been treated using the Ponseti method. Measurements were taken by two independent observers on standardised anteroposterior and lateral radiographs of both feet taken at one, two and three years of age. All dimensions of the lateral cuneiform on the affected side increased annually but remained smaller than the corresponding dimensions of the unaffected foot (p ossification centre of the lateral cuneiform may not be large enough to accommodate a drill hole for tendon transfer. However, by three years, it has undergone sufficient ossification to do so. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2017;99-B:1109-14. ©2017 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  17. The use of postoperative irradiation for the prevention of heterotopic bone after total hip replacement with biologic fixation (porous coated) prosthesis: An animal model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konski, A.; Weiss, C.; Rosier, R.; Poulter, C.; Pelligrini, V.; Anthony, P.; Evarts, C.M.; Richardson, M.; Henzler, M.; Rubin, P. (Strong Memorial Hospital, Rochester, NY (USA))

    1990-04-01

    Radiation has been shown to be effective in the prevention of heterotopic bone. The exact etiology of heterotopic bone is unknown. Total hip prosthetic devices that do not depend upon bone cement for fixation have become increasingly popular. The mechanism by which the bone forms around the prosthesis is similar to the process by which fractures heal which has been shown to be sensitive to irradiation. Using a rabbit model we have undertaken a study to investigate the effect of irradiation on the bony ingrowth on porous coated implants. Forty-five rabbits had porous coated implants surgically placed in the tibiae bilaterally. Each rabbit had one tibia randomly irradiated with 1,000 cGy in 5 fractions starting on the first post-operative day. Animals were sacrificed weekly starting 2 weeks post-operatively and the tibae were sent for pullout studies. The amount of force necessary to pullout the treated tibae was statistically less than the amount of force necessary to remove the untreated tibae at 2 weeks. From 3 weeks on there was no difference in the force necessary to remove the prosthesis from the untreated or treated tibae. Histologically, the untreated tibae showed bone formation while the treated tibae did not. Because of these results, it is suggested that the treatment of patients at risk for development of heterotopic bone be modified to only include the area between the femur and pelvis avoiding treatment of the prosthetic device.

  18. New anatomical data on the growing C4 vertebra and its three ossification centers in human fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgart, Mariusz; Szpinda, Michał; Szpinda, Anna

    2013-04-01

    Detailed knowledge on the normative growth of the spine is of great relevance in the prenatal diagnosis of its abnormalities. The present study was conducted to compile age-specific reference data for vertebra C4 and its three ossification centers in human fetuses. With the use of CT (Biograph mCT), digital image analysis (Osirix 3.9) and statistical analysis (Wilcoxon signed-rank test, Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Levene's test, Student's t test, one-way ANOVA, post hoc RIR Tukey test, linear and nonlinear regression analysis), the normative growth of vertebra C4 and its three ossification centers in 55 spontaneously aborted human fetuses (27 males, 28 females) aged 17-30 weeks was examined. Significant differences in neither sex nor laterality were found. The height and transverse and sagittal diameters of the C4 vertebral body increased logarithmically as: y = -3.866 + 2.225 × ln(Age) ± 0.238 (R(2) = 0.69), y = -7.077 + 3.547 × ln(Age) ± 0.356 (R(2) = 0.72) and y = -3.886 + 2.272 × ln(Age) ± 0.222 (R(2) = 0.73), respectively. The C4 vertebral body grew linearly in cross-sectional area as y = -7.205 + 0.812 × Age ± 1.668 (R(2) = 0.76) and four-degree polynomially in volume as y = 14.108 + 0.00007 × Age(4) ± 6.289 (R(2) = 0.83). The transverse and sagittal diameters, cross-sectional area and volume of the ossification center of the C4 vertebral body generated the following functions: y = -8.836 + 3.708 × ln(Age) ± 0.334 (R(2) = 0.76), y = -7.748 + 3.240 × ln(Age) ± 0.237 (R(2) = 0.83), y = -4.690 + 0.437 × Age ± 1.172 (R(2) = 0.63) and y = -5.917 + 0.582 × Age ± 1.157 (R(2) = 0.77), respectively. The ossification center-to-vertebral body volume ratio gradually declined with age. On the right and left, the neural ossification centers showed the following growth: y = -19.601 + 8.018 × ln(Age) ± 0.369 (R(2) = 0.92) and y = -15.804 + 6.912 × ln(Age) ± 0.471 (R (2) = 0.85) for length, y = -5.806 + 2.587 × ln(Age) ± 0.146 (R(2) = 0.88) and y = -5

  19. Perspectives: applications of a biomechanical model of the endochondral ossification mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, H M; Jee, W S

    1994-12-01

    A biomechanical model of endochondral ossification (Frost and Jee, 1994. Anat. Rec., 240:435-446) can help to explain: (1) some differences in fracture patterns in children and adults, (2) increased fractures during the human adolescent growth spurt, (3) localization of stress fractures and pseudofractures to cortical instead of trabecular bone, (4) increased bone mass in adult-acquired and childhood obesity, (5) subchondral bone densification and osteopenia in some arthroses, (6) why and where mammals lose spongiosa with aging, (7) why, as percents of the original bone stock, metaphyseal trabecular bone losses with aging usually exceed cortical bone losses, (8) why osteochondritis dissecans and aseptic necroses of bone localize in epiphyses instead of metaphyses, (9) some features of growth plate histology in rickets and the chondrodystrophies, (10) why spontaneous fractures in osteoporotic patients affect vertebral more than metaphyseal spongiosa, (11) why osteopenias develop in most chronic, debilitating diseases, and (12) why histomorphometric values can differ in iliac bone biopsies obtained by the "vertical" Jamshidi and "horizontal" Bordier-Meunier techniques.

  20. Ossification of caroticoclinoid ligament and its clinical importance in skull-based surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srijit Das

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: The medial end of the posterior border of the sphenoid bone presents the anterior clinoid process (ACP, which is usually accessed for operations involving the clinoid space and the cavernous sinus. The ACP is often connected to the middle clinoid process (MCP by a ligament known as the caroticoclinoid ligament (CCL, which may be ossified, forming the caroticoclinoid foramen (CCF. Variations in the ACP other than ossification are rare. The ossified CCL may have compressive effects on the internal carotid artery. Thus, anatomical and radiological knowledge of the ACP and the clinoid space is also important when operating on the internal carotid artery. Excision of the ACP may be required for many skull-based surgical procedures, and the presence of any anomalies such as ossified CCL may pose a problem for neurosurgeons. CASE REPORT: We observed the presence of ossified CCL in a skull bone. A detailed radiological study of the CCL and the CCF was conducted. Morphometric measurements were recorded and photographs were taken. The ACP was connected to the MCP and was converted into a CCF. Considering the fact that standard anatomy textbooks do not provide morphological descriptions and radiological evaluations of the CCL, the present study may be important for neurosurgeons operating in the region of the ACP.

  1. Spontaneous Cervical Intradural Disc Herniation Associated with Ossification of Posterior Longitudinal Ligament

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dachuan Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Intradural herniation of a cervical disc is rare; less than 35 cases have been reported to date. A 52-year-old man with preexisting ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament developed severe neck pain with Lt hemiparesis while asleep. Neurological exam was consistent with Brown-Séquard syndrome. Magnetic resonance images showed a C5-6 herniated disc that was adjacent to the ossified ligament and indenting the cord. The mass was surrounded by cerebrospinal fluid signal intensity margin, and caudally the ventral dura line appears divided into two, consistent with the “Y-sign” described by Sasaji et al. Cord edema were noted. Because of preexisting canal stenosis and spinal cord at risk, a laminoplasty was performed, followed by an anterior C6 corpectomy. Spot-weld type adhesions of the posterior longitudinal ligament to the dura was noted, along with a longitudinal tear in the dura. An intradural extra-arachnoid fragment of herniated disc was removed. Clinical exam at 6 months after surgery revealed normal muscle strength but persistent mild paresthesias. It is difficult to make a definite diagnosis of intradural herniation preoperatively; however, the clinical findings and radiographic signs mentioned above are suggestive and should alert the surgeon to look for an intradural fragment.

  2. Ossification defects detected in CT scans represent early osteochondrosis in the distal femur of piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olstad, Kristin; Kongsro, Jørgen; Grindflek, Eli; Dolvik, Nils Ivar

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of the current study was to validate the use of CT for selection against osteochondrosis in pigs by calculating positive predictive value and comparing it to the positive predictive value of macroscopic evaluation, using histological examination as the reference standard. Eighteen male, hereditarily osteochondrosis-predisposed piglets underwent terminal examination at biweekly intervals from the ages of 82-180 days old, including CT scanning, macroscopic, and histological evaluation of the left distal femur. Areas of ischemic chondronecrosis (osteochondrosis) were confirmed in histological sections from 44/56 macroscopically suspected lesions, resulting in a positive predictive value of 79% (95% CI: 67-84%). Suspected lesions, that is; focal, radiolucent defects in the ossification front in CT scans corresponded to areas of ischemic chondronecrosis in 36/36 histologically examined lesions, resulting in a positive predictive value of 100% (95% CI: 90-100%). CT was superior to macroscopic evaluation for diagnosis of early stages of osteochondrosis in the distal femur of piglets. The current histologically validated observations can potentially be extrapolated to diagnostic monitoring of juvenile osteochondritis dissecans in children, or to animal models of human juvenile articular cartilage injury and repair. © 2014 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Runx2 haploinsufficiency ameliorates the development of ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makiko Iwasaki

    Full Text Available Ossification of the Posterior Longitudinal Ligament (OPLL is a disease that is characterized by the ectopic calcification of the ligament; however, the pathogenesis of OPLL remains to be investigated. We attempted to identify the in vivo role of Runx2, a master regulator of osteoblast differentiation and skeletal mineralization, in the pathogenesis of OPLL. The expression of Runx2 in the ligament was examined using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry and by monitoring the activity of a LacZ gene that was inserted into the Runx2 gene locus. To investigate the functional role of Runx2, we studied ENPP1(ttw/ttw mice, a mouse model of OPLL, that were crossed with heterozygous Runx2 mice to decrease the expression of Runx2, and we performed histological and quantitative radiological analyses using 3D-micro CT. Runx2 was expressed in the ligament of wild-type mice. The induction of Runx2 expression preceded the development of ectopic calcification in the OPLL-like region of the ENPP1(ttw/ttw mice. Runx2 haploinsufficiency ameliorated the development of ectopic calcification in the ENPP1(ttw/ttw mice. Collectively, this study demonstrated that Runx2 is expressed in an OPLL-like region, and its elevation is a prerequisite for developing the complete OPLL-like phenotype in a mouse model of OPLL.

  4. Localization of Thy-1-positive cells in the perichondrium during endochondral ossification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Hiroaki; Yukita, Akira; Ninomiya, Tadashi; Hosoya, Akihiro; Hiraga, Toru; Ozawa, Hidehiro

    2010-05-01

    We elucidated the localization of Thy-1-positive cells in the perichondrium of fetal rat limb bones to clarify the distribution of osteogenic cells in the process of endochondral ossification. We also examined the formation of calcified bone-like matrices by isolated perichondrial cells in vitro. At embryonic day (E) 15.5, when the cartilage primodia were formed, immunoreactivity for Thy-1 was detected in cells of the perichondrium adjacent to the zone of hypertrophic chondrocytes. At E17.5, when the bone collar formation and the vascular invasion were initiated, fibroblast-like cells at the sites of vascular invasion, as well as in the perichondrium, showed Thy-1 labeling. Double immunostaining for Thy-1 and osterix revealed that Thy-1 was not expressed in the osterix-positive osteoblasts. Electron microscopic analysis revealed that Thy-1-positive cells in the zone of hypertrophic chondrocytes came in contact with blood vessels. Perichondrial cells isolated from limb bones showed alkaline phosphatase activity and formed calcified bone-like matrices after 4 weeks in osteogenic medium. RT-PCR demonstrated that Thy-1 expression decreased as calcified nodules formed. Conversely, the expression of osteogenic marker genes Runx2, osterix, and osteocalcin increased. These results indicate that Thy-1 is a good marker for characterizing osteoprogenitor cells.

  5. Uremia Induces Dental Pulp Ossification but Reciprocally Inhibits Adjacent Alveolar Bone Osteogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chih-Yu; Chang, Zee-Fen; Chau, Yat-Pang; Chen, Ann; Lee, Oscar Kuang-Sheng; Yang, An-Hang

    2015-11-01

    Uremic patients are predisposed to atrophy of the alveolar bone and narrowing of the dental pulp chamber. Such pulp chamber changes have only been diagnosed radiologically; however, this has not been supported by any pathological evidence. We used a uremic rat model with secondary hyperparathyroidism induced by 5/6 nephrectomy surgery and high-phosphate diet to examine the dental pulp and adjacent alveolar bone pathology. In addition, we collected pulp tissues for real-time PCR. We found an opposite histopathological presentation of the ossified dental pulp and the osteomalacic adjacent alveolar bone. Furthermore, pulp cells with positive staining for Thy-1, a surrogate stem cell marker, were significantly reduced in the pulp of uremic rats compared to the controls, indicating a paucity of stem cells. This was further evidenced by the reduced pulp expression of dickkopf-1 (Dkk-1), a Wnt/β-catenin signaling inhibitor produced by mesenchymal stem cells. In contrast, expressions of receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL) and RANK in uremic pulp were up-regulated, probably to counteract the ossifying process of uremic pulp. In conclusion, uremic pulp ossifications were associated with a paucity of stem cells and dysregulated Dkk-1 and RANKL signaling systems, further shifting the imbalance toward osteogenesis. Strategies to counteract such an imbalance may offer a potential therapeutic target to improve dental health in uremic patients, which warrants further interventional studies.

  6. Phenolics Isolated from Aframomum meleguta Enhance Proliferation and Ossification Markers in Bone Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf B. Abdel-Naim

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is a serious health problem characterized by decreased bone mineral density and deterioration of bone microarchitecture. Current antiosteoporotic agents exhibit a wide range of adverse effects; meanwhile, phytochemicals are effective and safer alternatives. In the current work, nine compounds belonging to hydroxyphenylalkane and diarylheptanoid groups were isolated from Aframomum meleguea seeds and identified as 6-gingerol (1, 6-paradol (2, 8-dehydrogingerdione (3, 8-gingerol (4, dihydro-6-paradol (5, dihydrogingerenone A (6, dihydrogingerenone C (7, 1,7-bis(3,4-dihydroxy-5-methoxyphenylheptane-3,5-diyl diacetate (8, and 1-(3,4-dihydroxy-5-methoxyphenyl-7-(3,4-dihydroxyphenylheptane-3,5-diyl diacetate (9. The structures of isolated compounds were established by NMR and mass spectral data, in addition to referring to literature data. Exposure of MCF-7, MG-63, and SAOS-2 cells to subcytotoxic concentrations of the compounds under investigation resulted in accelerated proliferation. Among them, paradol was selected for further detailed biochemical analysis in SAOS-2 cells. DNA flowcytometric analysis of cell cycle distribution revealed that paradol did not induce any significant change in the proliferation index of SAOS-2 cells. Assessment of osteogenic gene expression revealed that paradol enhanced the expression of osteocyte and osteoblast-related genes and inhibited osteoclast and RUNX suppressor genes. Biochemically, paradol enhanced alkaline phosphatase activity and vitamin D content and decreased the osteoporotic marker acid phosphatase. In conclusion, paradol, which is a major constituents of A. melegueta seeds, exhibited potent proliferative and ossification characteristics in bone cells.

  7. The iliac crest in forensic age diagnostics: evaluation of the apophyseal ossification in conventional radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittschieber, Daniel; Vieth, Volker; Domnick, Christoph; Pfeiffer, Heidi; Schmeling, Andreas

    2013-03-01

    Due to the increasing significance of forensic age estimations in the age of globalisation, novel radiographic criteria besides clavicles and hand bones may provide additional certainty for forensic age expertises. The present study analyses the suitability of the iliac crest apophysis by means of 643 pelvic radiographs of patients between 10 and 30 years of age. Retrospective assessments were carried out according to the forensically established classification and sub-classification systems modified after Kreitner et al. (Rofo 166(6):481-486, 1997) and Kellinghaus et al. (Int J Legal Med 124(4):321-325, 2010). The basic ossification stages range from 1 to 4, and the sub-stages of stage 2 and 3 range from a to c. While stage 3c was first achieved at the age of 15 by both sexes, stage 4 was first observed in females at the age of 16 and in males at the age of 17. This indicates the possibility of a valid diagnosis of both the age of 14 and the age of 16 years which represent legally relevant age thresholds in numerous countries. Applied as targeted radiography on the iliac crest, the exposure to radiation would range between other radiographic techniques recently applied. Therefore, the iliac crest apophysis appears principally suitable as novel possible criterion for forensic age estimation in the living. However, for the establishment of the iliac crest apophysis in routine diagnostics, further studies are needed focussing on the comparison of different grading systems and different radiological techniques.

  8. HIF-1α as a Regulator of BMP2-Induced Chondrogenic Differentiation, Osteogenic Differentiation, and Endochondral Ossification in Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nian Zhou

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Joint cartilage defects are difficult to treat due to the limited self-repair capacities of cartilage. Cartilage tissue engineering based on stem cells and gene enhancement is a potential alternative for cartilage repair. Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2 has been shown to induce chondrogenic differentiation in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs; however, maintaining the phenotypes of MSCs during cartilage repair since differentiation occurs along the endochondral ossification pathway. In this study, hypoxia inducible factor, or (HIF-1α, was determined to be a regulator of BMP2-induced chondrogenic differentiation, osteogenic differentiation, and endochondral bone formation. Methods: BMP2 was used to induce chondrogenic and osteogenic differentiation in stem cells and fetal limb development. After HIF-1α was added to the inducing system, any changes in the differentiation markers were assessed. Results: HIF-1α was found to potentiate BMP2-induced Sox9 and the expression of chondrogenesis by downstream markers, and inhibit Runx2 and the expression of osteogenesis by downstream markers in vitro. In subcutaneous stem cell implantation studies, HIF-1α was shown to potentiate BMP2-induced cartilage formation and inhibit endochondral ossification during ectopic bone/cartilage formation. In the fetal limb culture, HIF-1α and BMP2 synergistically promoted the expansion of the proliferating chondrocyte zone and inhibited chondrocyte hypertrophy and endochondral ossification. Conclusion: The results of this study indicated that, when combined with BMP2, HIF-1α induced MSC differentiation could become a new method of maintaining cartilage phenotypes during cartilage tissue engineering.

  9. Evaluation of age estimation in forensic medicine by examination of medial clavicular ossification from thin-slice computed tomography images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurses, Murat Serdar; Inanir, Nursel Turkmen; Gokalp, Gokhan; Fedakar, Recep; Tobcu, Eren; Ocakoglu, Gokhan

    2016-09-01

    Forensic age estimation, a recent topic of research in forensic medicine, is of primary importance to criminal and civil law. Previous studies indicate that the observation of medial clavicular ossification allows for age discrimination along the completed 18th and 21st years of life. Experts recommend that the Schmeling and Kellinghaus methods be used together. In this study, we used these staging methods to retrospectively analyze 725 case studies (385 males, 340 females) of thin-slice computed tomography (CT) images, ranging from 0.6 to 1 mm in thickness, from individuals aged 10 to 35 years. Stage 1 was found at 18 years of age maximum for males, whereas it was found at 17 years of age for females. Stage 2a was found at 18 years of age maximum for both genders. Stage 3c was initially observed at 18 years for both genders. Stage 4 was initially found at 21 years for males and 20 years for females. Stage 5 was initially observed at 25 years for both genders. Of note, stage 3c was found close to 19 years of age for both genders (18.92 years for male, 18.99 years for female), and it may be employed to differentiate along the age majority cutoff. The data obtained from our study were consistent with previous studies. We believe that such a comprehensive database will greatly contribute to future studies focusing on medial clavicular ossification based on thin-slice CT. Moreover, we also recommend that if medial clavicular ossification based on CT is to be examined for forensic age estimation, both methods should be employed together.

  10. Heterotopically transplanted CVO neural stem cells generate neurons and migrate with SVZ cells in the adult mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Lori B; Cai, Jingli; Enikolopov, Grigori; Iacovitti, Lorraine

    2010-05-07

    Production of new neurons throughout adulthood has been well characterized in two brain regions, the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the anterolateral ventricle and the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampus. The neurons produced from these regions arise from neural stem cells (NSCs) found in highly regulated stem cell niches. We recently showed that midline structures called circumventricular organs (CVOs) also contain NSCs capable of neurogenesis and/or astrogliogenesis in vitro and in situ (Bennett et al.). The present study demonstrates that NSCs derived from two astrogliogenic CVOs, the median eminence and organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis of the nestin-GFP mouse, possess the potential to integrate into the SVZ and differentiate into cells with a neuronal phenotype. These NSCs, following expansion and BrdU-labeling in culture and heterotopic transplantation into a region proximal to the SVZ in adult mice, migrate caudally to the SVZ and express early neuronal markers (TUC-4, PSA-NCAM) as they migrate along the rostral migratory stream. CVO-derived BrdU(+) cells ultimately reach the olfactory bulb where they express early (PSA-NCAM) and mature (NeuN) neuronal markers. Collectively, these data suggest that although NSCs derived from the ME and OVLT CVOs are astrogliogenic in situ, they produce cells phenotypic of neurons in vivo when placed in a neurogenic environment. These findings may have implications for neural repair in the adult brain. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. High Osteogenic Potential of Adipose- and Muscle-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Spinal-Ossification Model Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xizhe; Kumagai, Gentaro; Wada, Kanichiro; Tanaka, Toshihiro; Asari, Toru; Oishi, Kazuki; Fujita, Taku; Mizukami, Hiroki; Furukawa, Ken-Ichi; Ishibashi, Yasuyuki

    2017-01-01

    Study Design. Basic experiments in a mouse model of ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL). Objective. To assess the osteogenic potential of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) obtained from muscle and adipose tissue in Tiptoe-walking (ttw) mice, in which cervical OPLL compresses the spinal cord and causes motor and sensory dysfunction. Summary of Background Data. In humans, MSCs have been implicated in the pathogenesis of cervical OPLL. Cervical OPLL in ttw mice causes chronic compression of the spinal cord. Few studies have compared the MSC osteogenic potential with behavioral changes in an OPLL animal model. Methods. We compared the osteogenic potential and behavioral characteristics of MSCs from ttw mice (4 to 20 weeks old) with those from control wild-type mice (without hyperostosis). Ligament ossification was monitored by micro-computed tomography and pathology; tissues were double stained with fluorescent antibodies against markers for MSCs (CD45 and CD105), at 8 weeks. The Basso Mouse Scale was used to assess motor function, and heat and mechanical tests to assess sensory function. The osteogenic potential of adipose and muscle MSCs was assessed by Alizarin Red S absorbance, staining for osteogenic mineralization, and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction for osteogenesis-related genes. Results. Spinal-ligament ossification began in ttw mice at 8 weeks of age, and the ossified area increased with age. Immunofluorescence staining identified MSCs in the ossification area. The ttw mice became hyposensitive at 8 weeks of age, and Basso Mouse Scale scores showed motor-function deficits starting at 12 weeks of age. Alizarin Red S staining for mineralization showed a higher osteogenic potential in the adipose- and muscle-derived MSCs from ttw mice than from wild-type mice at 4, 8, and 20 weeks of age. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction showed that ttw MSCs strongly expressed osteogenesis-related genes. Conclusion. MSCs

  12. The use of magnetic resonance imaging to examine ossification of the proximal tibial epiphysis for forensic age estimation in living individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krämer, Jan Alexander; Schmidt, Sven; Jürgens, Kai-Uwe; Lentschig, Markus; Schmeling, Andreas; Vieth, Volker

    2014-09-01

    The establishment of radiation-free examination procedures in the field of forensic age diagnostics in living persons is to be considered of special scientific interest so as to minimize necessary exposure to X-rays while facilitating additional assessment of skeletal development in all cases. To this end, the advantages offered by magnetic resonance imaging in securing a practical application which is as unrestricted and complication-free as possible should be among the methods exploited in investigating such indicators of skeletal maturity. Within the framework of a retrospective study, we investigated the ossification status of the proximal tibial epiphysis on the MRI scans of 124 females and 166 males aged between 10 and 30 years. All the images had been generated on a 3.0 T scanner using a T1-weighted turbo spin-echo sequence. When evaluating the ossification stage, a combination of modified classifications proposed by Schmeling et al. and by Kellinghaus et al. was used. The statistical evaluation included calculation of a variety of measures to describe specific ossification stages as well as kappa coefficients to assess intra- and inter-observer agreement on diagnoses of individual stages. In forensic contexts, completion of the 14th year of life can be adequately evidenced in females with an ossification stage IV according to Schmeling et al. and in males with an ossification stage III c according to Kellinghaus et al. or an ossification stage IV according to Schmeling et al. In forensic contexts, the presence of an ossification stage IV according to Schmeling et al. can prove that the age of 16 years has been exceeded only in the male sex, whereby for age estimation purposes the diagnosis should be in line with other skeletal maturity indicators. The results available displayed a high degree of intra- and inter-observer agreement. Examination of the ossification status of the proximal tibial epiphysis using magnetic resonance imaging represents an

  13. Iatrogenic Spinal Cord Injury during Removal of the Inferior Articular Process in the Presence of Ossification of the Ligamentum Flavum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shane M. Burke

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ossified ligamentum flavum (OLF is a condition of heterotopic lamellar bone formation within the yellow ligament. Some patients with OLF can be asymptomatic. However, asymptomatic OLF may not be obvious on preoperative MRI and could increase the risk of iatrogenic injury during treatments for unrelated spinal conditions. This report describes a case of spinal cord injury caused by the indirect transmission of force from an osteotome to an asymptomatic OLF during the resection of a thoracic inferior articular process (IAP. To prevent this outcome, we urge careful review of CT imaging in the preoperative setting and advocate the use of a high-speed drill instead of an osteotome during bone removal in the setting of an adjacent area of OLF.

  14. Delayed endochondral ossification in early medial coronoid disease (MCD): a morphological and immunohistochemical evaluation in growing Labrador retrievers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, S F; Hazewinkel, H A W; Grinwis, G C M; Wolschrijn, C F; Siebelt, M; Vernooij, J C M; Voorhout, G; Tryfonidou, M A

    2013-09-01

    Medial coronoid disease (MCD) is a common joint disease of dogs. It has a multifactorial aetiology, but the relationship between known causal factors and the disease has yet to be elucidated. As most of the published literature is clinical and it reports changes associated with advanced disease, it is not known whether the changes reflect the cause or consequences of the condition. The aim of this study was to investigate early micromorphological changes occurring in articular cartilage and to describe the postnatal development of the medial coronoid process (MCP) before MCD develops. Three litters of MCD-prone young Labrador retrievers were purpose-bred from a dam and two sires with MCD. Comparisons of the micromorphological appearance of the MCP in MCD-negative and MCD-positive joints demonstrated that MCD was initially associated with a disturbance of endochondral ossification, namely a delay in the calcification of the calcifying zone, without concurrent abnormalities in the superficial layers of the joint cartilage. Cartilage canals containing patent blood vessels were only detected in dogs <12 weeks old, but the role of these channels in impaired ossification requires further investigation. Retained hyaline cartilage might ossify as the disease progresses, but weak areas can develop into cracks between the retained cartilage and the subchondral bone, leading to cleft formation and fragmentation of the MCP. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. [CHARACTERISTICS OF OSTEOCYTE CELL LINES FROM BONES FORMED AS A RESULT OF MEMBRANOUS (SKULL BONES) AND CHONDRAL (LONG BONES) OSSIFICATION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avrunin, A S; Doktorov, A A

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to analyze the literature data and the results of authors' own research, to answer the question--if the osteocytes of bone tissues resulting from membranous and chondral ossification, belong to one or to different cell lines. The differences between the cells of osteocyte lines derived from bones resulting from membranous and chondral ossification were established in: 1) the magnitude of the mechanical signal, initiating the development of the process of mechanotransduction; 2) the nature of the relationship between the magnitude of the mechanical signal that initiates the reorganization of the architecture of bone structures and the resource of their strength; in membranous bones significantly lower mechanical signal caused a substantially greater increment of bone strength resource; 3) the biological activity of bone structures, bone fragments formed from membranous tissue were more optimal for transplantation; 4) the characteristics of expression of functional markers of bone cells at different stages of their differentiation; 5) the nature of the reaction of bone cells to mechanical stress; 6) the sensitivity of bone cells to one of the factors controlling the process of mechanotransduction (PGI2); 7) the functioning of osteocytes during lactation. These differences reflect the functional requirements to the bones of the skeleton--the supporting function in the bones of the limbs and the shaping and protection in the bones of the cranial vault. These data suggest that the results of research conducted on the bones of the skull, should not be transferred to the entire skeleton as a whole.

  16. Annexin A2, up-regulated by IL-6, promotes the ossification of ligament fibroblasts from ankylosing spondylitis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Da-He; He, Chong-Ru; Liu, Fu-Ping; Li, Jia; Gao, Jin-Wei; Li, Yang; Xu, Wei-Dong

    2016-12-01

    Annexin A2, a calcium-dependent phospholipid binding protein, is involved in osteogenesis. The objective of the present study was to explore the expression of Annexin A2 in spinal ligament tissues (LT) of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patients and determine its pathological functions. mRNA and protein expression of Annexin A2 was detected by real-time PCR and Western blotting, respectively. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) concentration in serum was assessed by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity was measured with ALP activity kit on a microplate reader. mRNA and protein expression of Annexin A2 in LT, and IL-6 concentration in serum were significantly increased in AS patients. Moreover, exogenous IL-6 treatment significantly up-regulated Annexin A2 expression and ALP activity. Silencing of Annexin A2 expression significantly ameliorated IL-6-induced ossification of fibroblasts from AS patients, as indicated by ALP activity, expression of proteins associated with osteogenic differentiation, including bone morphogenetic protein-2, osteocalcin and osterix, and the ratio of osteoprotegerin to receptor activator of NF-κB ligand. Further MEK inhibitor experiments suggested that Annexin A2 may exert its function through extracellular signal-related kinase pathway. Annexin A2, up-regulated by IL-6, may promote ligament ossification of AS patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Correlation between the ossification of nuchal ligament and clinical cervical disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Lin Tsai

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This is a correlation analysis between severity of the ossification of the nuchal ligament (ONL and clinical cervical disorders including neck dysfunction, cervical malalignment, and morphologic changes of the cervical neural foramen (CNF. The clinical effects of ONL on active range of motion (AROM of neck, cervical radiculopathy, abnormal cervical curvature, and the degree of CNF stenosis in patients with painful neck stiffness are investigated. Studies have investigated the predisposing factors to cervical dysfunction and degenerative disorders; however, few studies have examined the influence of the ONL on neck function and cervical spine. A total of 31 participants with painful neck stiffness were recruited. They accepted measurement of cervical AROM and serial cervical radiographs at anterior–posterior view, lateral view, and bilateral oblique views. Parameters of radiographs measurement included cervical lordotic curve, and cross-sectional areas (CSA of the ONL and CNF (C2–C3, C4–C5, C5–C6, and C6–C7 levels. The ratio of CSA of the lower CNF (C4–C5, C5–C6, C6–C7 to CSA of the upper CNF (C2–C3 was used as a CNF stenosis ratio. The correlations of ONL size, neck symptoms, cervical AROM, lordotic curve, and CNF stenosis ratio were analyzed. More than half of all patients were positive in cervical root signs and prone to have larger ONL. Neck AROM of all participants was significantly below normal average in all directions, and a moderate negative association was found between the ONL CSA and AROM in flexion–extension. Most patients had moderate loss of cervical lordotic curve despite there being no significant correlation between ONL CSA and cervical curvature. Moreover, CNF stenosis ratio significantly negatively correlated with ONL CSA. Patients with larger ONL had more severe cervical radiculopathy, more stiffness in flexion–extension direction, more complex degenerative change of spine, and worse CNF stenosis.

  18. Activated FGFR3 promotes bone formation via accelerating endochondral ossification in mouse model of distraction osteogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osawa, Yusuke; Matsushita, Masaki; Hasegawa, Sachi; Esaki, Ryusaku; Fujio, Masahito; Ohkawara, Bisei; Ishiguro, Naoki; Ohno, Kinji; Kitoh, Hiroshi

    2017-12-01

    Achondroplasia (ACH) is one of the most common short-limbed skeletal dysplasias caused by gain-of-function mutations in the fibroblast growth factor receptors 3 (FGFR3) gene. Distraction osteogenesis (DO) is a treatment option for short stature in ACH in some countries. Although the patients with ACH usually show faster healing in DO, details of the newly formed bone have not been examined. We have developed a mouse model of DO and analyzed new bone regenerates of the transgenic mice with ACH (Fgfr3 ach mice) histologically and morphologically. We established two kinds of DO protocols, the short-DO consisted of 5days of latency period followed by 5days of distraction with a rate of 0.4mm per 24h, and the long-DO consisted of the same latency period followed by 7days of distraction with a rate of 0.3mm per 12h. The callus formation was evaluated radiologically by bone fill score and quantified by micro-CT scan in both protocols. The histomorphometric analysis was performed in the short-DO protocol by various stainings, including Villanueva Goldner, Safranin-O/Fast green, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, and type X collagen. Bone fill scores were significantly higher in Fgfr3 ach mice than in wild-type mice in both protocols. The individual bone parameters, including bone volume and bone volume/tissue volume, were also significantly higher in Fgfr3 ach mice than in wild-type mice in both protocols. The numbers of osteoblasts, as well as osteoclasts, around the trabecular bone were increased in Fgfr3 ach mice. Cartilaginous tissues of the distraction region rapidly disappeared in Fgfr3 ach mice compared to wild-type mice during the consolidation phase. Similarly, type X collagen-positive cells were markedly decreased in Fgfr3 ach mice during the same period. Fgfr3 ach mice exhibited accelerated bone regeneration after DO. Accelerated endochondral ossification could contribute to faster healing in Fgfr3 ach mice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Cervical ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament: Anterior versus posterior approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dasheng Lin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The optimal approach to provide satisfactory decompression and minimize complications for ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL involving multiple levels (3 levels or more remains controversial. The purpose of this study was to compare the results of two surgical approaches for cervical OPLL involving multiple levels; anterior direct decompression and fixation, and posterior indirect decompression and fixation. We present a retrospective review of 56 cases followed at a single Institution. Materials and Methods: We compared patients of multiple levels cervical OPLL that were treated at a single institution either with anterior direct decompression and fixation or with posterior indirect decompression and fixation. The clinical records of the patients with a minimum duration of follow-up of 2 years were reviewed. The associated complications were recorded. Results: Fifty-six patients constitute the clinical material. 26 cases were treated by anterior corpectomy and fixation and 30 cases received posterior laminectomy and fixation. The two populations were similar. It was found that both anterior and posterior decompression and fixation can achieve satisfactory outcomes, and posterior surgery was accomplished in a shorter period of time with lesser blood loss. Although patients had comparable preoperative Japanese Orthopaedics Association (JOA scores, those with a canal occupancy by OPLL more than 50% and managed anteriorly had better outcomes. However, for those with more severe stenosis, anterior approach was more difficult and associated with higher risks and complications. Despite its limitations in patients with high occupancy OPLLs, through the multiple level laminectomy, posterior fixation can achieve effective decompression, maintaining or restoring stability of the cervical spine, and thereby improving neural outcome and preventing the progression of OPLL. Conclusions: The posterior indirect decompression

  20. A new simplified volume-loaded heterotopic rabbit heart transplant model with improved techniques and a standard operating procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wei; Zheng, Jun; Pan, Xu-Dong; Li, Bing; Zhang, Jin-Wei; Wang, Long-Fei; Sun, Li-Zhong

    2015-04-01

    The classic non-working (NW) heterotopic heart transplant (HTX) model in rodents had been widely used for researches related to immunology, graft rejection, evaluation of immunosuppressive therapies and organ preservation. But unloaded models are considered not suitable for some researches. Accordingly, We have constructed a volume-loaded (VL) model by a new and simple technique. Thirty male New Zealand White rabbits were randomly divided into two groups, group NW with 14 rabbits and group VL with 16 rabbits, which served as donors and recipients. We created a large and nonrestrictive shunt to provide left heart a sufficient preload. The donor superior vena cave and ascending aorta (AO) were anastomosed to the recipient abdominal aorta (AAO) and inferior vena cava (IVC), respectively. No animals suffered from paralysis, pneumonia and lethal bleeding. Recipients' mortality and morbidity were 6.7% (1/15) and 13.3% (2/15), respectively. The cold ischemia time in group VL is slight longer than that in group NW. The maximal aortic velocity (MAV) of donor heart was approximately equivalent to half that of native heart in group VL. Moreover, the similar result was achieved in the parameter of late diastolic mitral inflow velocity between donor heart and native heart in group VL. The echocardiography (ECHO) showed a bidirectional flow in donor SVC of VL model, inflow during diastole and outflow during systole. PET-CT imaging showed the standard uptake value (SUV) of allograft was equal to that of native heart in both groups on the postoperative day 3. We have developed a new VL model in rabbits, which imitates a native heart hemodynamically while only requiring a minor additional procedure. Surgical technique is simple compared with currently used HTX models. We also developed a standard operating procedure that significantly improved graft and recipient survival rate. This study may be useful for investigations in transplantation in which a working model is required.

  1. Potential roles for the small leucine-rich proteoglycans biglycan and fibromodulin in ectopic ossification of tendon induced by exercise and in modulating rotarod performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilts, T; Ameye, L; Syed-Picard, F

    2009-01-01

    We present a detailed comparison of ectopic ossification (EO) found in tendons of biglycan (Bgn), fibromodulin (Fmod) single and double Bgn/Fmod-deficient (DKO) mice with aging. At 3 months, Fmod KO, Bgn KO and DKO displayed torn cruciate ligaments and EO in their quadriceps tendon, menisci...

  2. Periosteal ossification of the vascular pedicle after reconstruction of continuity defects of the mandible and the maxilla with fibular free flaps: a retrospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karagozoglu, K.H.; Winters, H.A.H.; Forouzanfar, T.; Schulten, E.A.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Periosteal ossification of the vascular pedicle of a fibular free flap after reconstruction of mandibular and maxillary continuity defects has been thought to be rare. The purpose of this study was to evaluate its incidence and contributory factors to its development.

  3. Forensic age estimation on digital X-ray images: Medial epiphyses of the clavicle and first rib ossification in relation to chronological age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garamendi, Pedro M; Landa, Maria I; Botella, Miguel C; Alemán, Inmaculada

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a renewed interest in forensic sciences about forensic age estimation in living subjects by means of radiological methods. This research was conducted on digital thorax X-rays to test the usefulness of some radiological changes in the clavicle and first rib. The sample consisted in a total of 123 subjects of Spanish origin (61 men and 62 women; age range: 5-75 years). From all subjects, a thorax posterior-anterior radiograph was obtained in digital format. Scoring for fusion of medial epiphyses of the clavicle was carried out by Schmeling's system and ossification of the costal cartilage of the first rib by Michelson's system. Degree of ossification and epiphyseal fusion were analyzed in relation with known age and sex of these subjects. The results give a minimum age of >20 years for full fusion of the medial epiphysis of the clavicle (Stages 4 and 5). Concerning the first rib, all subjects with the final Stage 3 of ossification were above 25 years of age. These results suggest that the first rib ossification might become an additional method to the ones so far recommended for forensic age estimation in subjects around 21. New research would be desirable to confirm this suggestion. © 2010 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  4. Case report: Heterotopic intrarenally located adrenocortical oncocytoma [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/3g3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Godin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The clinical case of a 65-year-old woman with an incidentally detected left-sided mass in the upper renal pole is presented. A functional adrenal tumor was excluded. The mass was removed retroperitoneoscopically. The perioperative period was uneventful. The histopathological examination revealed a heterotopic intrarenal adrenocortical oncocytoma. Adrenal oncocytic neoplasms are very rare, with, to the authors’ knowledge, only 159 described cases so far. Most cases are non-functioning adenomas that can reach a considerable size. Only 10 heterotopic adrenal oncocytomas have been described (three retroperitoneal and seven intraspinal cases. Although the intrarenal adrenal rest is the most frequently appearing variant of adrenal heterotopia, to the best of our knowledge, this report is the first description of an intrarenally growing adrenocortical oncocytic adenoma. In addition to retroperitoneally located oncocytomas, this case could be interesting for urological practice because there are no diagnostic features which could provide a secure preoperative diagnosis of an adrenal oncocytic neoplasm and its malignant variant. Generally accepted indications for surgery of adrenal masses have to be respected. The definitive pathologic diagnosis is in most cases surprising because of its rarity. Benign adrenal oncocytic neoplasms do not require any adjuvant treatment. The oncocytic variant of adrenocortical carcinoma generally has a poor prognosis.

  5. Ossification degrees of cranial sutures determined with flat-panel computed tomography: narrowing the age estimate with extrema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harth, Sebastian; Obert, Martin; Ramsthaler, Frank; Reuss, Christina; Traupe, Horst; Verhoff, Marcel A

    2010-05-01

    Since Broca's time (1824-1880), ossification of the neurocranial sutures has been used as a characteristic of age. Current approaches include the visual macroscopic examination of ecto and endocranial sutures. The evaluation of the cross-section of sutures usually necessitates the destruction of the neurocranium. In a nondestructive alternative approach that was tested within the context of the "Digital Forensic Osteology" project that ran in cooperation with the Virtopsy-Project, it emerged that the resolution of conventional multi-slice computed tomography data sets was not high enough to image sutures. Thus for the experiments presented here, the eXplore Locus Ultra flat-panel computed tomography scanner from GE Healthcare was used. Calottes were scanned during autopsy and then immediately returned to the corpse. So far, the skullcaps of 221 individuals have been scanned. The cross-sections of 14 suture segments could be assessed for seven previously defined stages of ossification. In a converse step, the 14 highest and lowest age estimate values corresponding to the individual stages of suture closure found were estimated for each calotte. The obtained ranges narrowing down the age estimate were evaluated with statistics. A mean value of 43.31 years for the range of narrowed age estimates shows that this method can be a useful aid in estimating age. The results of intra- and inter-observer tests showed good overall agreement between the findings of three observers. This method is suitable for a nondestructive age estimation and can be used for the entire calotte.

  6. Obstrução do íleo terminal por mucosa gástrica heterotópica Terminal ileum obstruction owing to heterotopic gastric mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A. Atik

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available A mucosa gástrica ectópica localizada no intestino delgado, distal ao ligamento de Treitz é muito rara, excetuando-se a encontrada habitualmente no divertículo de Meckel e na duplicação intestinal. Existem formas congênita e adquirida, sendo esta última secundária à processos inflamatórios intestinais. As diferenças entre estas formas são basicamente histológicas, determinando no entanto aspectos fisiopatológicos distintos. Apresentamos caso de mucosa gástrica ectópica em paciente de 34 anos de idade, manifestada por obstrução do íleo terminal. Submetido a duas enterectomias e anastomoses primárias, apresentou boa evolução pós-operatória. O aspecto histopatológico, típico da forma adquirida com mucosa antral e intensa fibrose, foi provavelmente relacionado à quadro recente de tuberculose intestinal, porém não confirmada histologicamente. O antecedente de tuberculose pulmonar recente na família, aliado à linfoadenomegalia mesentérica encontrada a operação, sustentam tal suspeita. Este é fato inédito na literatura dentre as outras 28 publicações de heterotopia gástrica no jejuno e íleo.Heterotopic gastric mucosa situated in the small bowel distal to the Treitz suspensory ligament is very rare, except in Meckel's diverticulum and in intestinal duplications. There are two forms of this disease, congenital and acquired. The former is secondary to inflammatory bowel disease. The main difference between these forms is histological, although determining diverse physiopathological aspects. A case of a 34 year old man with heterotopic gastric mucosa in the terminal ileum manifested by intestinal obstruction is reported. He was treated surgically by enterectomy of two small bowel segments, both reconstructed by primary suture. His postoperative course was remarkable. The histopathologic study showed a typical pattern of the acquired type because of the presence of antral the antral mucosa and intense fibrosis. That

  7. Las ciudades invisibles: heterotopías nómadas y postpatriarcado The invisible cities: nomadic heterotopies and post patriarchy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Silva Echeto

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Muchas ciudades se pueden encontrar en una ciudad: algunas visibles y otras invisibles, pero todas ellas se producen en lo heterotópico del espacio otro (heterogéneo y nómada. Diversas formas de imaginar las ciudades (desde la literatura, el cine, la música permiten transgredir las ciudades postpatriarcales, desde una concepción del feminismo nómada, rizomática y transversal, y responderles creativa y estéticamente a las ciudades que se han ido diseñando bajo el alero del capitalismo tardío: homogéneas, (indiferentes, no lugarizadas, machistas (sin identidad, ni relaciones, ni historias. Frente a ellas, sin duda, surge y brota la figura de las ciudades otras, de la multiplicidad de las diferencias y las singularidades, de lo dejado de lado: los estudios de género y la reivindicación que ellos hacen (ciudades sexuales y nómadas, ciudades diferentes, ambiguas, ambivalentes, excéntricas, deseantes y heterotópicas (de espacios heterogéneos, cambiantes y fracturados.Many cities may be found in one city: some of them are visible and some others are invisible, but all of them are produced in the heterotopic space of the (heterogenic and nomadic other. The diverse ways of imagining the cities (from literature, cinema, music allow to transgress the postpatriarchal cities, from a nomadic rhizomatic and transversal conception of feminism, and answer creatively and aesthetically to the cities which have been designed under the auspices of late capitalism: homogeneous, (indifferent, non localized, male chauvinist (without identity, neither relationships, nor histories places. When facing them, the figure of the other cities, of the multiplicity of the differences and singularities, of what has been cast aside, certainly sprouts: gender studies and their demands (sexual and nomadic cities, different, ambiguous, ambivalent, eccentric, wanting and heterotopic cities (with heterogeneous, changing and fractured spaces.

  8. Systematic procedure for identifying the five main ossification stages of the medial clavicular epiphysis using computed tomography: a practical proposal for forensic age diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittschieber, Daniel; Schulz, Ronald; Pfeiffer, Heidi; Schmeling, Andreas; Schmidt, Sven

    2017-01-01

    In forensic age estimations of living individuals, computed tomography of the clavicle is widely used for determining the age of majority. To this end, the degree of ossification of the medial clavicular epiphysis can be determined by means of two classification systems complementing each other: a 5-stage system and an additional 6-stage system that further sub-classifies the stages 2 and 3. In recent years, practical experience and new data revealed that difficulties and even wrong stage determinations may occur especially when following the short descriptions of the fundamental 5-stage system only. Based on current literature, this article provides a systematic procedure for identifying the five main ossification stages by listing important preconditions and presenting an algorithm that is comprised of four specific questions. Each question is accompanied by comprehensive and detailed descriptions which specify the criteria used for differentiation. The information is subdivided into "single-slice view" and "multi-slice view." In addition, illustrative case examples and schematic drawings facilitate application of the procedure in forensic practice. The pitfalls associated with the criteria of stage determination will be discussed in detail. Eventually, two general rules will be inferred to assign correct ossification stages of the medial clavicular epiphysis by means of computed tomography.

  9. Distinct requirements of wls, wnt9a, wnt5b and gpc4 in regulating chondrocyte maturation and timing of endochondral ossification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Irving Tc; Rochard, Lucie; Liao, Eric C

    2017-01-15

    Formation of the mandible requires progressive morphologic change, proliferation, differentiation and organization of chondrocytes preceding osteogenesis. The Wnt signaling pathway is involved in regulating bone development and maintenance. Chondrocytes that are fated to become bone require Wnt to polarize and orientate appropriately to initiate the endochondral ossification program. Although the canonical Wnt signaling has been well studied in the context of bone development, the effects of non-canonical Wnt signaling in regulating the timing of cartilage maturation and subsequent bone formation in shaping ventral craniofacial structure is not fully understood.. Here we examined the role of the non-canonical Wnt signaling pathway (wls, gpc4, wnt5b and wnt9a) in regulating zebrafish Meckel's cartilage maturation to the onset of osteogenic differentiation. We found that disruption of wls resulted in a significant loss of craniofacial bone, whereas lack of gpc4, wnt5b and wnt9a resulted in severely delayed endochondral ossification. This study demonstrates the importance of the non-canonical Wnt pathway in regulating coordinated ventral cartilage morphogenesis and ossification. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Controlled Dual Growth Factor Delivery From Microparticles Incorporated Within Human Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cell Aggregates for Enhanced Bone Tissue Engineering via Endochondral Ossification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Phuong N; Dwivedi, Neha; Phillips, Lauren M; Yu, Xiaohua; Herberg, Samuel; Bowerman, Caitlin; Solorio, Loran D; Murphy, William L; Alsberg, Eben

    2016-02-01

    Bone tissue engineering via endochondral ossification has been explored by chondrogenically priming cells using soluble mediators for at least 3 weeks to produce a hypertrophic cartilage template. Although recapitulation of endochondral ossification has been achieved, long-term in vitro culture is required for priming cells through repeated supplementation of inductive factors in the media. To address this challenge, a microparticle-based growth factor delivery system was engineered to drive endochondral ossification within human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC) aggregates. Sequential exogenous presentation of soluble transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) at various defined time courses resulted in varying degrees of chondrogenesis and osteogenesis as demonstrated by glycosaminoglycan and calcium content. The time course that best induced endochondral ossification was used to guide the development of the microparticle-based controlled delivery system for TGF-β1 and BMP-2. Gelatin microparticles capable of relatively rapid release of TGF-β1 and mineral-coated hydroxyapatite microparticles permitting more sustained release of BMP-2 were then incorporated within hMSC aggregates and cultured for 5 weeks following the predetermined time course for sequential presentation of bioactive signals. Compared with cell-only aggregates treated with exogenous growth factors, aggregates with incorporated TGF-β1- and BMP-2-loaded microparticles exhibited enhanced chondrogenesis and alkaline phosphatase activity at week 2 and a greater degree of mineralization by week 5. Staining for types I and II collagen, osteopontin, and osteocalcin revealed the presence of cartilage and bone. This microparticle-incorporated system has potential as a readily implantable therapy for healing bone defects without the need for long-term in vitro chondrogenic priming. Significance: This study demonstrates the regulation of chondrogenesis

  11. LAMINOPLASTY FUSION FOR CERVICAL SPINAL CORD INJURY WITH OSSIFICATION OF POSTERIOR LONGITUDINAL LIGAMENT: Combination technique for better result (Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. G. B. Mahadewa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: This was a retrospective study of 10 cervical spinal cord injury (CSCI, concomitant with ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL, that were treated by the author at Sanglah General Hospital-Bali during 2013-2014. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of combination technique of laminoplasty with lateral mass screw fusion for canal compression due to OPLL in CSCI. There were 9 male patients of 10, average age was 58,3 years old. American Spinal Cord Injury Association (ASIA scale preoperative was average in C scale and ASIA scale postoperative was in D. Mean JOA score preoperative was 9,5 and mean Japan orthopedic association (JOA score postoperative was 13,3. Improvement after surgery using improvement formula of JOA was achieved by mean of 19,16%. All patients survived and improved neurologically, there was no surgical complication and implant failure in this series. No kyphotic deformity was observed in follow up cervical spine x-ray after 6 months. The author present a combination technique of 10 consecutive patients who underwent laminoplasty fusion for OPLL in CSCI with better result.

  12. Symptomatic spinal cord kinking due to focal adhesive arachnoiditis, with ossification of the ligamentum flavum: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Masashi; Yoshiiwa, Toyomi; Ishihara, Toshinobu; Kaku, Nobuhiro; Kawano, Masanori; Tsumura, Hiroshi

    2014-04-15

    A case report. To describe a rare case of symptomatic spinal cord kinking due to focal adhesive arachnoiditis, with ossification of the ligamentum flavum (OLF). Spinal cord kinking without spinal surgery is rare, and symptomatic spinal cord kinking due to focal adhesive arachnoiditis, with OLF is even rarer. A 66-year-old female presented with numbness of the lower extremities and subsequently experienced gait disturbance due to motor weakness. Magnetic resonance imaging of the thoracic spine showed anterior displacement and kinking of the spinal cord from T11 to T12. Laminectomy and OLF resection were performed. The arachnoid membrane at the affected part was markedly thick and seemed cloudy. Adhesiolysis for arachnoid adhesion and release of spinal kinking were performed. She could walk with a cane 6 months postoperatively. One year postoperatively, thoracic computed tomography-myelography showed that the cord was repositioned in the dural sac, and that release of the spinal cord kink was maintained. Symptomatic spinal cord kinking due to focal adhesive arachnoiditis, with OLF is a rare clinical condition. It was difficult to diagnose the precise pathology of the spinal cord before surgery. Microsurgical arachnoidolysis resolved the spinal cord kinking, and no recurrence was noted within the follow-up period. N/A.

  13. Choice of surgical approach for ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament in combination with cervical disc hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hai-song; Chen, De-yu; Lu, Xu-hua; Yang, Li-li; Yan, Wang-jun; Yuan, Wen; Chen, Yu

    2010-03-01

    Ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) is a common spinal disorder that presents with or without cervical myelopathy. Furthermore, there is evidence suggesting that OPLL often coexists with cervical disc hernia (CDH), and that the latter is the more important compression factor. To raise the awareness of CDH in OPLL for spinal surgeons, we performed a retrospective study on 142 patients with radiologically proven OPLL who had received surgery between January 2004 and January 2008 in our hospital. Plain radiograph, three-dimensional computed tomography construction (3D CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the cervical spine were all performed. Twenty-six patients with obvious CDH (15 of segmental-type, nine of mixed-type, two of continuous-type) were selected via clinical and radiographic features, and intraoperative findings. By MRI, the most commonly involved level was C5/6, followed by C3/4, C4/5, and C6/7. The areas of greatest spinal cord compression were at the disc levels because of herniated cervical discs. Eight patients were decompressed via anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF), 13 patients via anterior cervical corpectomy and fusion (ACCF), and five patients via ACDF combined with posterior laminectomy and fusion. The outcomes were all favorable. In conclusion, surgeons should consider the potential for CDH when performing spinal cord decompression and deciding the surgical approach in patients presenting with OPLL.

  14. Ossification of the stylohyoid chain on computed tomograms - Eagle syndrome; Die Ossifikation der stylohyoidalen Kette im Computertomogramm - Eagle-Syndrom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lugmayr, H.; Krennmair, G. [Krankenhaus St. Franziskus, Grieskirchen (Austria). Inst. fuer Radiologie; Lenglinger, F. [Allgemeines Krankenhaus, Wels (Austria). Inst. fuer Radiologie

    1997-11-01

    The computed tomographic morphology of a typical Eagle syndrome is presented on the basis of a case history. In a 40-year-old female patient presenting with bilateral tinnitus, globus hystericus, and increasing hoarseness computed tomography revealed bilateral ossification of the stylohyoid ligament. The incidence of stylalgia is very low in comparison to the occurrence of a elongated styloid process or an ossified stylohyoid ligament. However, in cases of unexplained complaints in the head and neck region it should be considered in the differential diagnosis as it has therapeutic consequences. (orig.) [Deutsch] Anhand einer Kasuistik wird die computertomographische Morphologie eines typischen Eagle-Syndroms vorgestellt: Bei einem 40jaehrigen Patienten, der an beidseitigem Tinnitus, Globusgefuehl und zunehmender Heiserkeit litt, wurde computertomographisch eine beidseitige Ossifikation des Ligamentum stylohoideum nachgewiesen. Die Inzidenz einer Stylalgie ist verglichen mit der Praevalenz eines elongierten Processus styloideus oder einem verknoecherten Ligamentum stylochyoideum sehr selten. Sie sollte jedoch bei ungeklaerten Beschwerden im Kopf-Halsbereich differentialdiagnostisch in Erwaegung gezogen werden, da sie therapeutische Konsequenzen nach sich zieht. (orig.)

  15. Hatching, growth, ion accumulation, and skeletal ossification of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) alevins in acidic soft waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steingraeber, M.T.; Gingerich, W.H.

    1991-01-01

    Brook trout eyed eggs and subsequent alevins were exposed to pH 5.0, 6.5, and 7.0 in soft reconstituted water and to pH 8.2 in hard well water for up to 72 d. Hatching was delayed and hatching success reduced (p K+ > Cl- during yolk absorption and early exogenous feeding. Whole-body monovalent ion concentrations were reduced for short periods during yolk absorption in alevins exposed to pH 6.5 and throughout most of the experiment for those exposed to pH 5.0. Whole-body Mg2+ concentrations were not affected by treatment pH and remained near their median hatch level throughout the exposure. The whole-body concentration of Ca2+ was reduced in fish exposed to pH 5.0, particularly near the end of the experiment. Calcium accumulation in fish was influenced by the interaction of pH and time at pH 5.0 but not at the other pH levels. Alevins exposed to pH 5.0 experienced delayed ossification of skeletal structures associated with feeding, respiration, and locomotion that usually persisted for up to 10 d. The detection of skeletal abnormalities early in life might aid in identifying fish populations at risk in acidified waters.

  16. Cyclosporine dosage can be reduced when used in combination with an anti-intercellular adhesion molecule-1 monoclonal antibody in rats undergoing heterotopic heart transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, P C; Mainolfi, E; Madwed, J B

    1998-02-01

    Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) is believed to play a role in acute rejection of allografted tissues. This molecule is involved in the interaction of T cells with antigen-presenting cells expressed on the vascular endothelium of transplanted organs and is involved in the adhesion of inflammatory cells to this endothelium and their subsequent migration into the underlying tissues. Rat abdominal heterotopic heart transplantation was used to study the role of ICAM-1 in the rejection process. American Cancer Institute rats were used as donors; Lewis rats were used as recipients. Graft survival was monitored daily via donor heart palpation. Nine groups (n = 6/group) were studied: untreated controls; olive oil; cyclosporine at 1.5, 2.75, and 5.0 mg/kg, respectively; R3.1, a control monoclonal antibody; 1A29, a rat anti-ICAM-1 monoclonal antibody, 3 mg/kg administered intraperitoneally; a combination of 1A29 (3 mg/kg) and cyclosporine (1.5 mg/kg); and a combination of 1A29 (3 mg/kg) and cyclosporine (2.75 mg/kg). Mean rejection time was 8.8 +/- 0.6 days for the untreated allografted controls and 9.7 +/- 1.1 days for the olive oil controls. Cyclosporine (1.5, 2.75, and 5.0 mg/kg) showed mean rejection times of 8.5 +/- 0.3, 20.5 +/- 1.9, and 28.8 +/- 3.6 days, respectively. The 1A29 treatment showed a mean rejection time of 9.3 +/- 0.7 days. Combination therapy of 1A29 and cyclosporine at 1.5 or 2.75 mg/kg demonstrated mean rejection times of 17.7 +/- 3.3 and 29.2 +/- 6.7 days, respectively. Thus 1A29 alone does not prolong cardiac allograft survival; however, combination therapy with either a subthreshold or a moderate dose of cyclosporine significantly extends the time to rejection of heterotopically transplanted rat hearts. Although monotherapy with an ICAM-1 antagonist alone may not be beneficial in preventing acute rejection episodes after organ transplantation, combination therapy of an anti-ICAM-1 monoclonal antibody may allow for a reduction in the dose

  17. Palmitoyl acyltransferase, Zdhhc13, facilitates bone mass acquisition by regulating postnatal epiphyseal development and endochondral ossification: a mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Wen Song

    Full Text Available ZDHHC13 is a member of DHHC-containing palmitoyl acyltransferases (PATs family of enzymes. It functions by post-translationally adding 16-carbon palmitate to proteins through a thioester linkage. We have previously shown that mice carrying a recessive Zdhhc13 nonsense mutation causing a Zdhcc13 deficiency develop alopecia, amyloidosis and osteoporosis. Our goal was to investigate the pathogenic mechanism of osteoporosis in the context of this mutation in mice. Body size, skeletal structure and trabecular bone were similar in Zdhhc13 WT and mutant mice at birth. Growth retardation and delayed secondary ossification center formation were first observed at day 10 and at 4 weeks of age, disorganization in growth plate structure and osteoporosis became evident in mutant mice. Serial microCT from 4-20 week-olds revealed that Zdhhc13 mutant mice had reduced bone mineral density. Through co-immunoprecipitation and acyl-biotin exchange, MT1-MMP was identified as a direct substrate of ZDHHC13. In cells, reduction of MT1-MMP palmitoylation affected its subcellular distribution and was associated with decreased VEGF and osteocalcin expression in chondrocytes and osteoblasts. In Zdhhc13 mutant mice epiphysis where MT1-MMP was under palmitoylated, VEGF in hypertrophic chondrocytes and osteocalcin at the cartilage-bone interface were reduced based on immunohistochemical analyses. Our results suggest that Zdhhc13 is a novel regulator of postnatal skeletal development and bone mass acquisition. To our knowledge, these are the first data to suggest that ZDHHC13-mediated MT1-MMP palmitoylation is a key modulator of bone homeostasis. These data may provide novel insights into the role of palmitoylation in the pathogenesis of human osteoporosis.

  18. Mechanism of triptolide in treating ankylosing spondylitis through the anti‑ossification effect of the BMP/Smad signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guilong; Cai, Jing; Zhang, Jinshan; Li, Cuiyun

    2018-02-01

    The present study aimed to examine the mechanism of triptolide in the treatment of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) through the anti‑ossification effect of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)/small mothers against decapentaplegic (Smad) pathway. Male rats were randomly divided into five groups: Normal rat group; model group; triptolide low dose group (10 mg/kg); triptolide middle dose group (20 mg/kg); triptolide high dose group (40 mg/kg). The spinal joint capsules of each group of rats were collected to perform primary cell culture to determine the levels of cell proliferation. Western blot and reverse transcription‑polymerase chain reaction analyses, and ELISA were used to detect the mRNA and protein expression levels of core‑binding factor α1 (Cbfal), BMP receptor type II (BMPRII), Smad1, Smad4, Smad5 and Smad6, the protein expression of phosphorylation indicators, including phosphorylated (p)Smad1 and pSmad5, the mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor‑α (TNF‑α), interleukin (IL)‑1β and IL‑6 in rat plasma, and the mRNA expression of BMP/Smads in fibroblasts induced by recombinant human (rh)BMP‑2. The effects on AS in the rats were also examined. The results revealed that, following intervention with triptolide, inflammation was suppressed, and the mRNA expression levels of TNF‑α, IL‑1β and IL‑6 were reduced. The expression levels of Cbfal, BMPRII, Smad1, Smad4 and Smad5 were also reduced, whereas the expression of Smad6 was increased. Following induction by rhBMP‑2, the effects of triptolide weakened, with the most marked effects observed at the highest concentration, suggesting that triptolide functions through the BMP/Smad signaling pathway. Taken together, the results suggested that triptolide may be used to treat AS, the mechanism of which may be through the BMP/Smad pathway.

  19. Cervical ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament: Biomechanical analysis of the influence of static and dynamic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Norihiro; Kanchiku, Tsukasa; Kato, Yoshihiko; Imajo, Yasuaki; Yoshida, Yuichiro; Kawano, Syunichi; Taguchi, Toshihiko

    2015-09-01

    Cervical myelopathy due to ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) is induced by static factors, dynamic factors, or a combination of both. We used a three-dimensional finite element method (3D-FEM) to analyze the stress distributions in the cervical spinal cord under static compression, dynamic compression, or a combination of both in the context of OPLL. Experimental conditions were established for the 3D-FEM spinal cord, lamina, and hill-shaped OPLL. To simulate static compression of the spinal cord, anterior compression at 10, 20, and 30% of the anterior-posterior diameter of the spinal cord was applied by the OPLL. To simulate dynamic compression, the OPLL was rotated 5°, 10°, and 15° in the flexion direction. To simulate combined static and dynamic compression under 10 and 20% anterior static compression, the OPLL was rotated 5°, 10°, and 15° in the flexion direction. The stress distribution in the spinal cord increased following static and dynamic compression by cervical OPLL. However, the stress distribution did not increase throughout the entire spinal cord. For combined static and dynamic compression, the stress distribution increased as the static compression increased, even for a mild range of motion (ROM). Symptoms may appear under static or dynamic compression only. However, under static compression, the stress distribution increases with the ROM of the responsible level and this makes it very likely that symptoms will worsen. We conclude that cervical OPLL myelopathy is induced by static factors, dynamic factors, and a combination of both.

  20. Genetic differences in osteogenic differentiation potency in the thoracic ossification of the ligamentum flavum under cyclic mechanical stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Shanglong; Chen, Zhongqiang; Fan, Dongwei; Sun, Chuiguo; Zhang, Chi; Zeng, Yan; Li, Weishi; Hou, Xiaofei; Qu, Xiaochen; Ma, Yunlong; Yu, Huilei

    2017-01-01

    Mechanical stress and genetic factors play important roles in the occurrence of thoracic ossification of ligament flavum (TOLF), which can occur at one, two, or multiple levels of the spine. It is unclear whether single- and multiple-level TOLF differ in terms of osteogenic differentiation potency and osteogenesis-related gene expression under cyclic mechanical stress. This was addressed in the present study using patients with non‑TOLF and single‑ and multiple‑level TOLF (n=8 per group). Primary ligament cells were cultured and osteogenesis was induced by application of cyclic mechanical stress. Osteogenic differentiation was assessed by evaluating alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and the mRNA and protein expression of osteogenesis‑related genes, including ALP, bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2), Runt‑related transcription factor‑2 (Runx‑2), osterix, osteopontin (OPN) and osteocalcin. The application of cyclic mechanical stress resulted in higher ALP activity in the multiple‑level than in the single‑level TOLF group, whereas no changes were observed in the non‑TOLF group. The ALP, BMP2, OPN and osterix mRNA levels were higher in the multiple‑level as compared to the single‑level TOLF group, and the levels of all osteogenesis-related genes, apart from Runx2, were higher in the multiple‑level as compared to the non‑TOLF group. The osterix and ALP protein levels were higher in the multiple‑level TOLF group than in the other 2 groups, and were increased with the longer duration of stress. These results highlight the differences in osteogenic differentiation potency between single‑ and multiple‑level TOLF that may be related to the different pathogenesis and genetic background.

  1. Inhibition of CaMKK2 Enhances Fracture Healing by Stimulating Indian Hedgehog Signaling and Accelerating Endochondral Ossification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Justin N; Kambrath, Anuradha Valiya; Patel, Roshni B; Kang, Kyung Shin; Mével, Elsa; Li, Yong; Cheng, Ying-Hua; Pucylowski, Austin J; Hassert, Mariah A; Voor, Michael J; Kacena, Melissa A; Thompson, William R; Warden, Stuart J; Burr, David B; Allen, Matthew R; Robling, Alexander G; Sankar, Uma

    2018-01-03

    Approximately ten percent of all bone fractures do not heal, resulting in patient morbidity and healthcare costs. However, no pharmacological treatments are currently available to promote efficient bone healing. Inhibition of Ca2+ /calmodulin (CaM)-dependent protein kinase kinase 2 (CaMKK2) reverses age-associated loss of trabecular and cortical bone volume and strength in mice. In the current study, we investigated the role of CaMKK2 in bone fracture healing and show that its pharmacological inhibition using STO-609 accelerates early cellular and molecular events associated with endochondral ossification, resulting in a more rapid and efficient healing of the fracture. Within 7 days post-fracture, treatment with STO-609 resulted in enhanced Indian hedgehog signaling, paired-related homeobox (PRX1)-positive mesenchymal stem cell recruitment, chondrocyte differentiation and hypertrophy, along with elevated expression of osterix, vascular endothelial growth factor and type 1 collagen at the fracture callus. Early deposition of primary bone by osteoblasts resulted in STO-609 treated mice possessing significantly higher callus bone volume by 14 days following fracture. Subsequent rapid maturation of the bone matrix bestowed fractured bones in STO-609 treated animals with significantly higher torsional strength and stiffness by 28 days post-injury, indicating accelerated healing of the fracture. Previous studies indicate that fixed and closed femoral fractures in the mice take 35 days to fully heal without treatment. Therefore, our data suggest that STO-609 potentiates a 20% acceleration of the bone healing process. Moreover, inhibiting CaMKK2 also imparted higher mechanical strength and stiffness at the contralateral cortical bone within 4 weeks of treatment. Taken together, the data presented here underscore the therapeutic potential of targeting CaMKK2 to promote efficacious and rapid healing of bone fractures and as a mechanism to strengthen normal bones. This

  2. Disease: H00441 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available J, Zasloff MA Progressive osseous heteroplasia: a distinct developmental disorder of heterotopic ossification. Two new case report...s and follow-up of three previously reported cases. J Bone

  3. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-07-02

    Jul 2, 2007 ... cyst, cellulitis, lymphoedema, chronic venous insufficiency, superficial thrombophlebitis, popliteal venous aneurysm, popliteal artery aneurysm, enlarged lymph nodes extrinsically compressing the veins, heterotopic ossification, haematomas and muscular tears. Through the appropriate use of imaging ...

  4. Peroxisomes in Different Skeletal Cell Types during Intramembranous and Endochondral Ossification and Their Regulation during Osteoblast Differentiation by Distinct Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Guofeng; Fan, Wei; Ahlemeyer, Barbara; Karnati, Srikanth; Baumgart-Vogt, Eveline

    2015-01-01

    Ossification defects leading to craniofacial dysmorphism or rhizomelia are typical phenotypes in patients and corresponding knockout mouse models with distinct peroxisomal disorders. Despite these obvious skeletal pathologies, to date no careful analysis exists on the distribution and function of peroxisomes in skeletal tissues and their alterations during ossification. Therefore, we analyzed the peroxisomal compartment in different cell types of mouse cartilage and bone as well as in primary cultures of calvarial osteoblasts. The peroxisome number and metabolism strongly increased in chondrocytes during endochondral ossification from the reserve to the hypertrophic zone, whereas in bone, metabolically active osteoblasts contained a higher numerical abundance of this organelle than osteocytes. The high abundance of peroxisomes in these skeletal cell types is reflected by high levels of Pex11β gene expression. During culture, calvarial pre-osteoblasts differentiated into secretory osteoblasts accompanied by peroxisome proliferation and increased levels of peroxisomal genes and proteins. Since many peroxisomal genes contain a PPAR-responsive element, we analyzed the gene expression of PPARɑ/ß/ɣ in calvarial osteoblasts and MC3T3-E1 cells, revealing higher levels for PPARß than for PPARɑ and PPARɣ. Treatment with different PPAR agonists and antagonists not only changed the peroxisomal compartment and associated gene expression, but also induced complex alterations of the gene expression patterns of the other PPAR family members. Studies in M3CT3-E1 cells showed that the PPARß agonist GW0742 activated the PPRE-mediated luciferase expression and up-regulated peroxisomal gene transcription (Pex11, Pex13, Pex14, Acox1 and Cat), whereas the PPARß antagonist GSK0660 led to repression of the PPRE and a decrease of the corresponding mRNA levels. In the same way, treatment of calvarial osteoblasts with GW0742 increased in peroxisome number and related gene expression

  5. Cystic form of paraduodenal pancreatitis (cystic dystrophy in heterotopic pancreas (CDHP)): a potential link with minor papilla abnormalities? A study in a large series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, M.; Ronot, M.; Vilgrain, V. [University Hospitals Paris Nord Val de Seine, Radiology Department, Beaujon Hospital, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, APHP, Clichy (France); Paris Diderot University, INSERM, UMR 1149, Paris (France); Vullierme, M.P. [University Hospitals Paris Nord Val de Seine, Radiology Department, Beaujon Hospital, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, APHP, Clichy (France); Rebours, V.; Ruszniewski, P. [Paris Diderot University, INSERM, UMR 1149, Paris (France); University Hospitals Paris Nord Val de Seine, Gastroenterology Department, Beaujon Hospital, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, APHP, Clichy (France)

    2016-01-15

    To analyze the association between cystic dystrophy in the heterotopic pancreas (CDHP) and minor papilla abnormalities. Seventy-six patients with CDHP were retrospectively included over 14 years. Two radiologists searched for MDCT signs of CDHP (cysts and thickened intestinal wall, inflammatory changes), and minor papilla abnormalities (Santorini duct dilatation, luminal calcifications of the minor papilla). Other pancreatic abnormalities (parenchymal calcifications, main pancreatic duct dilatation) or bile duct dilatation were also analysed. CDHP was mostly located in the second part of the duodenum (71/76, 93.5 %). Median duodenal wall thickness was 20 mm (range 10-46). There were multiple cysts in 86 % (65/76, median = 3), measuring 2-60 mm. No cysts were identified in four patients (5 %). Inflammatory changes were found in 87 % (66/76). Minor papilla abnormalities were found in 37 % (28/76) and calcifications in the minor papilla without calcifications in the major papilla were only observed in three patients (4 %). Abnormalities of the pancreas and main bile duct dilatation were identified in 78 % (59/76) and 38 % (29/76). Previously described CT features were seen in most patients with CDHP. However, minor papilla abnormalities were seen in a minority of patients and, therefore, do not seem to be a predisposing factor for CDHP. (orig.)

  6. Development of a new auxiliary heterotopic partial liver transplantation technique using a liver cirrhosis model in minipigs: Preliminary report of eight transplants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZHANG, JUN-JING; NIU, JIAN-XIANG; YUE, GEN-QUAN; ZHONG, HAI-YAN; MENG, XING-KAI

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a new auxiliary heterotopic partial liver transplantation (AHPLT) technique in minipigs using a model of liver cirrhosis. Based on our previous study, 14 minipigs were induced to cirrhosis by administration of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) through intraperitoneal injection. All of the cirrhotic animals were utilized as recipients. The donor’s liver was placed on the recipient’s splenic bed, and the anastomosis was performed as follows: end-to-end anastomosis between the donor’s portal vein and the recipient’s splenic vein, end-to-side anastomosis between the donor’s suprahepatic vena cava and the recipient’s suprahepatic vena cava, and end-to-end anastomosis between the donor’s hepatic artery and the recipient’s splenic artery. The common bile duct of the donor was intubated and bile was collected with an extracorporeal bag. Vital signs, portal vein pressure (PVP), hepatic venous pressure (HVP) and portal vein pressure gradient (PVPG) were monitored throughout the transplantation. All 8 minipigs that developed liver cirrhosis were utilized to establish the new AHPLT; 7 cases survived. Following the surgical intervention, the PVP and PVPG of the recipients were lower than those prior to the operation (P<0.05), whereas the PVP and PVPG of the donors increased significantly compared to those of the normal animals (P<0.05). A new operative technique for AHPLT has been successfully described herein using a model of liver cirrhosis. PMID:22969983

  7. Indium-111 myosin-specific antibodies and technetium-99m pyrophosphate in the detection of acute cardiac rejection of transplanted hearts. Studies in a heterotopic rat heart model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Kan (Mie Univ., Tsu (Japan). School of Medicine); Ueda, Keisuke (Saitama Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Surgery); Scheffel, U.; Ravert, H.; Wagner, H.N. Jr. (Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD (USA). Dept. of Radiology); LaFrance, N.D. (Du Pont (E.I.) Co., Inc., North Billerica, MA (USA)); Baumgartner, W.A.; Reitz, B.A.; Herskowitz, A. (Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD (USA). Dept. of Surgery)

    1991-07-01

    {sup 111}In-labelled myosin-specific antibodies were evaluated as an indicator of early changes in acute rejection in a rat heart heterotopic transplant model. Uptake of antibodies was measured in allograft and isograft hearts of animals undergoing different regimens of cyclosporine treatment and compared with the uptake of technetium 99m pyrophosphate. The data were correlated with histological estimation of the severity of myocyte necrosis and sign of early rejection (venous cuffing and endocardial inflammation, indicators of perivascular infiltrate and intermyocyte extension, respectively). Myocyte necrosis in transplanted hearts was reflected by increases in technetium 99m pyrophosphate accumulation (r=0.88) but was poorly correlated with labelled antibody uptake (r=0.58). There was no positive correlation between the degree of early cardiac rejection and uptake of either of the radiopharmaceuticals: accumulation of the labeled antibodies paradoxically declined with increased histological severity scores, whereas that of technetium 99m pyrophosphate remained unchanged. Cyclosporine treatment augmented the uptake of labelled antibodies in transplanted hearts. This may be due to alterations in plasma membrane permeability brought about by the drug, resulting in a rise in antibody binding to intracellular myosin. (orig.).

  8. Ossification Pattern of Estuarine Dolphin (Sotalia guianensis Forelimbs, from the Coast of the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Paula Martins de Carvalho

    Full Text Available The estuarine dolphin, Sotalia guianensis, is one of the most abundant cetacean species in Brazil. Determination of age and of aspects associated with the development of this species is significant new studies. Counts of growth layer groups in dentin are used to estimate age of these animals, though other ways to evaluate development are also adopted, like the measurement of total length (TL. This study presents a procedure to evaluate the development of the estuarine dolphin based on the ossification pattern of forelimbs. Thirty-seven estuarine dolphins found in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil, were examined. Age was estimated, TL was measured and ossification of epiphyses was examined by radiography. We analyzed results using the Spearman correlation. Inspection of radiographs allowed evaluation of the significance of the correlation between age and development of the proximal (r = 0.9109 and distal (r = 0.9092 radial epiphyses, and of the distal ulnar epiphyses (r = 0.9055. Radiographic analysis of forelimbs proved to be an appropriate method to evaluate physical maturity, and may be a helpful tool to estimate age of these animals in ecological and population studies.

  9. Factors for a Good Surgical Outcome in Posterior Decompression and Dekyphotic Corrective Fusion with Instrumentation for Thoracic Ossification of the Posterior Longitudinal Ligament: Prospective Single-Center Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imagama, Shiro; Ando, Kei; Kobayashi, Kazuyoshi; Hida, Tetsuro; Ito, Kenyu; Tsushima, Mikito; Ishikawa, Yoshimoto; Matsumoto, Akiyuki; Morozumi, Masayoshi; Tanaka, Satoshi; Machino, Masaaki; Ota, Kyotaro; Nakashima, Hiroaki; Nishida, Yoshihiro; Matsuyama, Yukihiro; Ishiguro, Naoki

    2017-12-01

    Surgery for thoracic ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (T-OPLL) is still challenging, and factors for good surgical outcomes are unknown. To identify factors for good surgical outcomes with prospective and comparative study. Seventy-one consecutive patients who underwent posterior decompression and instrumented fusion were divided into good or poor outcome groups based on ≥50% and good outcome were analyzed. Patients with a good outcome (76%) had significantly lower nonambulatory rate and positive prone and supine position tests preoperatively; lower rates of T-OPLL, ossification of the ligamentum flavum, high-intensity area at the same level, thoracic spinal cord alignment difference, and spinal canal stenosis on preoperative magnetic resonance imaging; lower estimated blood loss; higher rates of intraoperative spinal cord floating and absence of deterioration of intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring; and lower rates of postoperative complications (P good surgical outcome. This study demonstrated that early surgery is recommended during these positive factors. Appropriate surgical planning based on preoperative thoracic spinal cord alignment difference, as well as sufficient spinal cord decompression and reduction of complications using intraoperative ultrasonography and intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring, may improve surgical outcomes.

  10. Successful treatment of a fracture of a huge Achilles tendon ossification with autologous hamstring tendon graft and gastrocnemius fascia flap: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikura, Hisatoshi; Fukui, Naoshi; Takamure, Hiroshi; Ohashi, Satoru; Iwasawa, Mitsuyasu; Takagi, Kentaro; Horita, Ayako; Saito, Ikuo; Mori, Toshihito

    2015-11-24

    Fracture of an ossified Achilles tendon is a rare entity, and no standard treatment has been established. This is the first report to describe the use of a hamstring tendon graft and gastrocnemius fascia flap for Achilles tendon reconstruction. We present the case of a 50-year-old woman with fracture of an ossified Achilles tendon. She presented to our clinic with acute right hindfoot pain, which started suddenly while going up the stairs. Plain radiography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a massive ossification on the right Achilles tendon extending over 14 cm in length; the ossification was fractured at 5 cm proximal to the calcaneus insertion. Surgical treatment included removal of the ossified tendon and reconstruction with an autologous hamstring tendon graft and gastrocnemius fascia flap. One year after surgery, she was able to walk with little pain or discomfort and to stand on her right tiptoe. Our novel surgical procedure may be useful in the treatment of fractured ossified Achilles tendons and large Achilles tendon defects.

  11. Periventricular nodular and subcortical neuronal heterotopia in adult epileptic patients Heterotopía neuronal nodular y subcortical en pacientes adultos con epilepsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damián E. Consalvo

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Developmental malformations are brain abnormalities that occur during embryogenesis. Neuronal migration disorders, including heterotopic lesions, constitute one type of such abnormalities. The aim of the study was to compare the epileptic clinical patterns of patients with periventricular nodular heterotopia (PNH (G1 with those affected by subcortical heterotopia (SCH (G2 looking for differences between both groups which, eventually, might suggest the type of the underlying malformation. The variables studied in both groups were: type of the heterotopia depicted on MRI studies, sex, age, age at seizure onset, annual seizure frequency, localization of the ictal symptomatogenic zone, characteristics of the EEG, other associated anomalies on the magnetic resonance images (MRI besides the heterotopia, and response to treatment. The only difference found between both groups was the type of heterotopia as shown by MRI studies. The other assessed variables did not significantly (p>0.05 differ between groups. No differences in the clinical features characterizing epilepsy could be found in patients with PNH or SCH, being the images the only tool able to differentiate them.Las malformaciones de la corteza cerebral son un grupo de entidades que se producen durante las etapas del desarrollo embrionario y cuya manifestación clínica puede ser la epilepsia. Estas malformaciones pueden ser diagnosticadas in vivo a través de las imágenes por resonancia magnética (IRM. Un subtipo particular de éstas lo constituyen los trastornos en la migración neuronal, dentro de los cuales se ubican las heterotopías (HT. El objetivo del estudio fue comparar enfermos portadores de HT periventriculares (G1 con aquellos portadores de HT subcorticales (G2. Se analizaron las variables sexo, edad y edad de inicio de la epilepsia (EI en años, antecedentes familiares (AF o prenatales (AP, frecuencia anual de crisis (FAC y características semiológicas de las crisis

  12. Estudo da regeneração esplênica autóloga e heterotópica em ratos Antologus and heterotopic splenic regeneration in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Lacerda de Souza

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: estudar a regeneração esplênica dos fragmentos de baço autólogos e heterotópicos implantados na cavidade peritoneal e na tela subcutânea em ratos e comparar os seus aspectos histológicos e citológicos com baço normal. MÉTODOS: 44 ratos Wistar foram submetidos a esplenectomia e receberam fragmentos de auto-implante: GA = na tela subcutânea (n=22 e GB na cavidade peritoneal (n=22. GAI (n=11 e GAII (n=11 receberam implante de fragmento único. GBIII (n=11 e GBIV (n=11 receberam implantes de quatro fragmentos. O baço remanescente foi usado como controle. Após 5 semanas de foram submetidos à eutanásia e foram investigados os aspectos macroscópicos e microscópicos (histológicos e citológicos dos fragmentos nos seus locais de implante. Os resultados foram submetidos a testes estatísticos não paramétricos(p>0,05. RESULTADOS: Não houve diferença estatística significante entre o grupo que recebeu implante na tela subcutânea (n=22 e o grupo da cavidade peritoneal (n=22. Quanto à presença ou ausência de tecidos esplênicos regenerados (p=0,182, também não apresentou diferença com significância estatística. Os estudos histológicos e citológicos do tecido regenerado não evidenciaram diferenças em relação ao grupo controle. CONCLUSÃO: A regeneração do tecido esplênico autólogo e heterotópico em ratos ocorre nas mesmas proporções tanto na tela subcutânea como na cavidade peritoneal. Os aspectos histológicos e citológicos são semelhantes aos do baço normal.PURPOSE: verify the cytological and histological aspects of the regeneration of fragments of autologous and heterotopic spleen implanted in peritoneal cavity and subcutaneous screen in Wistar albino rats. METHODS: forty four Wistar rats were assigned to one of two groups A(n=22 and B(n=22, which received their implants in subcutaneous screen and peritoneal cavity, respectively, under anesthesia. Those groups were redistributed in two other

  13. New insights in the homotopic and heterotopic connectivity of the frontal portion of the human corpus callosum revealed by microdissection and diffusion tractography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Benedictis, Alessandro; Petit, Laurent; Descoteaux, Maxime; Marras, Carlo Efisio; Barbareschi, Mattia; Corsini, Francesco; Dallabona, Monica; Chioffi, Franco; Sarubbo, Silvio

    2016-12-01

    Extensive studies revealed that the human corpus callosum (CC) plays a crucial role in providing large-scale bi-hemispheric integration of sensory, motor and cognitive processing, especially within the frontal lobe. However, the literature lacks of conclusive data regarding the structural macroscopic connectivity of the frontal CC. In this study, a novel microdissection approach was adopted, to expose the frontal fibers of CC from the dorsum to the lateral cortex in eight hemispheres and in one entire brain. Post-mortem results were then combined with data from advanced constrained spherical deconvolution in 130 healthy subjects. We demonstrated as the frontal CC provides dense inter-hemispheric connections. In particular, we found three types of fronto-callosal fibers, having a dorso-ventral organization. First, the dorso-medial CC fibers subserve homotopic connections between the homologous medial cortices of the superior frontal gyrus. Second, the ventro-lateral CC fibers subserve homotopic connections between lateral frontal cortices, including both the middle frontal gyrus and the inferior frontal gyrus, as well as heterotopic connections between the medial and lateral frontal cortices. Third, the ventro-striatal CC fibers connect the medial and lateral frontal cortices with the contralateral putamen and caudate nucleus. We also highlighted an intricate crossing of CC fibers with the main association pathways terminating in the lateral regions of the frontal lobes. This combined approach of ex vivo microdissection and in vivo diffusion tractography allowed demonstrating a previously unappreciated three-dimensional architecture of the anterior frontal CC, thus clarifying the functional role of the CC in mediating the inter-hemispheric connectivity. Hum Brain Mapp 37:4718-4735, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. A New Animal Model for Investigation of Mechanical Unloading in Hypertrophic and Failing Hearts: Combination of Transverse Aortic Constriction and Heterotopic Heart Transplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Schaefer

    Full Text Available Previous small animal models for simulation of mechanical unloading are solely performed in healthy or infarcted hearts, not representing the pathophysiology of hypertrophic and dilated hearts emerging in heart failure patients. In this article, we present a new and economic small animal model to investigate mechanical unloading in hypertrophic and failing hearts: the combination of transverse aortic constriction (TAC and heterotopic heart transplantation (hHTx in rats.To induce cardiac hypertrophy and failure in rat hearts, three-week old rats underwent TAC procedure. Three and six weeks after TAC, hHTx with hypertrophic and failing hearts in Lewis rats was performed to induce mechanical unloading. After 14 days of mechanical unloading animals were euthanatized and grafts were explanted for further investigations.50 TAC procedures were performed with a survival of 92% (46/50. When compared to healthy rats left ventricular surface decreased to 5.8±1.0 mm² (vs. 9.6± 2.4 mm² (p = 0.001 after three weeks with a fractional shortening (FS of 23.7± 4.3% vs. 28.2± 1.5% (p = 0.01. Six weeks later, systolic function decreased to 17.1± 3.2% vs. 28.2± 1.5% (p = 0.0001 and left ventricular inner surface increased to 19.9±1.1 mm² (p = 0.0001. Intraoperative graft survival during hHTx was 80% with 46 performed procedures (37/46. All transplanted organs survived two weeks of mechanical unloading.Combination of TAC and hHTx in rats offers an economic and reproducible small animal model enabling serial examination of mechanical unloading in a truly hypertrophic and failing heart, representing the typical pressure overloaded and dilated LV, occurring in patients with moderate to severe heart failure.

  15. R-spondin 2 facilitates differentiation of proliferating chondrocytes into hypertrophic chondrocytes by enhancing Wnt/β-catenin signaling in endochondral ossification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takegami, Yasuhiko [Division of Neurogenetics, Center of Neurological Disease and Cancer, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya (Japan); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Nagoya University School of Medicine, Nagoya (Japan); Ohkawara, Bisei; Ito, Mikako; Masuda, Akio [Division of Neurogenetics, Center of Neurological Disease and Cancer, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya (Japan); Nakashima, Hiroaki; Ishiguro, Naoki [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Nagoya University School of Medicine, Nagoya (Japan); Ohno, Kinji, E-mail: ohnok@med.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Division of Neurogenetics, Center of Neurological Disease and Cancer, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya (Japan)

    2016-04-22

    Endochondral ossification is a crucial process for longitudinal growth of bones. Differentiating chondrocytes in growth cartilage form four sequential zones of proliferation, alignment into column, hypertrophy, and substitution of chondrocytes with osteoblasts. Wnt/β-catenin signaling is essential for differentiation of proliferating chondrocytes into hypertrophic chondrocytes in growth cartilage. R-spondin 2 (Rspo2), a member of R-spondin family, is an agonist for Wnt signaling, but its role in chondrocyte differentiation remains unknown. Here we report that growth cartilage of Rspo2-knockout mice shows a decreased amount of β-catenin and increased amounts collagen type II (CII) and Sox9 in the abnormally extended proliferating zone. In contrast, expression of collagen type X (CX) in the hypertrophic zone remains unchanged. Differentiating chondrogenic ATDC5 cells, mimicking proliferating chondrocytes, upregulate Rspo2 and its putative receptor, Lgr5, in parallel. Addition of recombinant human Rspo2 to differentiating ATDC5 cells decreases expressions of Col2a1, Sox9, and Acan, as well as production of proteoglycans. In contrast, lentivirus-mediated knockdown of Rspo2 has the opposite effect. The effect of Rspo2 on chondrogenic differentiation is mediated by Wnt/β-catenin signaling, and not by Wnt/PCP or Wnt/Ca{sup 2+} signaling. We propose that Rspo2 activates Wnt/β-catenin signaling to reduce Col2a1 and Sox9 and to facilitate differentiation of proliferating chondrocytes into hypertrophic chondrocytes in growth cartilage. - Highlights: • Rspo2 is a secreted activator of Wnt, and its knockout shows extended proliferating chondrocytes in endochondral ossification. • In proliferating chondrocytes of Rspo2-knockout mice, Sox9 and collagen type 2 are increased and β-catenin is decreased. • Rspo2 and its receptor Lgr5, as well as Sox9 and collagen type 2, are expressed in differentiating ATDC5 chondrogenic cells. • In ATDC5 cells, Rspo2 decreases

  16. Peroxisomes in Different Skeletal Cell Types during Intramembranous and Endochondral Ossification and Their Regulation during Osteoblast Differentiation by Distinct Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guofeng Qian

    Full Text Available Ossification defects leading to craniofacial dysmorphism or rhizomelia are typical phenotypes in patients and corresponding knockout mouse models with distinct peroxisomal disorders. Despite these obvious skeletal pathologies, to date no careful analysis exists on the distribution and function of peroxisomes in skeletal tissues and their alterations during ossification. Therefore, we analyzed the peroxisomal compartment in different cell types of mouse cartilage and bone as well as in primary cultures of calvarial osteoblasts. The peroxisome number and metabolism strongly increased in chondrocytes during endochondral ossification from the reserve to the hypertrophic zone, whereas in bone, metabolically active osteoblasts contained a higher numerical abundance of this organelle than osteocytes. The high abundance of peroxisomes in these skeletal cell types is reflected by high levels of Pex11β gene expression. During culture, calvarial pre-osteoblasts differentiated into secretory osteoblasts accompanied by peroxisome proliferation and increased levels of peroxisomal genes and proteins. Since many peroxisomal genes contain a PPAR-responsive element, we analyzed the gene expression of PPARɑ/ß/ɣ in calvarial osteoblasts and MC3T3-E1 cells, revealing higher levels for PPARß than for PPARɑ and PPARɣ. Treatment with different PPAR agonists and antagonists not only changed the peroxisomal compartment and associated gene expression, but also induced complex alterations of the gene expression patterns of the other PPAR family members. Studies in M3CT3-E1 cells showed that the PPARß agonist GW0742 activated the PPRE-mediated luciferase expression and up-regulated peroxisomal gene transcription (Pex11, Pex13, Pex14, Acox1 and Cat, whereas the PPARß antagonist GSK0660 led to repression of the PPRE and a decrease of the corresponding mRNA levels. In the same way, treatment of calvarial osteoblasts with GW0742 increased in peroxisome number and

  17. Mesenteric ossification in CT indicates sclerosing peritonitis in chronic bacterial infection and pancreatitis; Mesenteriale Verknoecherungen als computertomographische Zeichen einer sklerosierenden Peritonitis bei chronischer Bauchfellentzuendung und Pankreatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirchner, J.; Kirchner, E.M. [Abt. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Klinikum Niederberg Velbert (Germany); Kickuth, R. [Klinik fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Katholisches Marienhospital Herne, Universitaetsklinik der Ruhr Univ. Bochum (Germany); Stein, A. [Klinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Onkologie, Universitaetsklinikum Frankfurt/Main (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Sclerosing peritonitis already has been described as a serious complication of the continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. But different other affections of the pertioneum such as chronic bacterial peritonitis and pancreatitis may result in sclerosing peritonitis, too. The symptom is characterised by thickened small bowel walls and periotoneal membranes as well as peritoneal calcifications which can be shown in computed tomography. We demonstrate two cases of peritoneal ossifications due to peritonitis and pancreatitis. (orig.) [German] Die sklerosierende Peritonitis wurde wiederholt als ernste Komplikation der Bauchfelldialyse beschrieben. Aber auch verschiedene andere Reizzustaende wie chronische bakterielle Peritonitis und Pankreatitis koennen eine sklerosierende Peritonitis nach sich ziehen. Hierbei zeigen sich neben einer Verdickung des Peritoneums und der Waende des Duenndarms auch computertomographisch nachweisbare Kalkeinlagerungen. Wir stellen zwei Patienten mit chronischer Peritonitis nach Sigmaperforation und Pankreatitis mit Verknoecherungen des Peritoneums vor. (orig.)

  18. Prevalence, distribution, and morphology of thoracic ossification of the yellow ligament in Japanese: results of CT-based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Kanji; Kasahara, Toshiyuki; Mimura, Tomohiro; Nishizawa, Kazuya; Murakami, Yoshitaka; Matsusue, Yoshitaka; Imai, Shinji

    2013-09-01

    A cross-sectional study. To gain an insight for the prevalence, morphology, and distribution of thoracic ossification of the yellow ligament (OYL) by computed tomography (CT) and review of the literature. The epidemiology and etiology of OYL remains obscure. To date, to the best of our knowledge, there is no study that comprehensively evaluated thoracic spine by CT to assess the prevalence, distribution, and morphology of OYL in a large enough sample size with wide age distribution. The participants of this study were the patients who have undergone chest CT for the examination of pulmonary diseases in our institute. The patients with previous thoracic spine surgery and younger than 15 years were excluded. Prevalence, distribution, and morphology of thoracic OYL were reviewed. A total of 3013 patients (1261 females and 1752 males) with the mean age of 65 years were recruited. The CT-based evidence of OYL was noted in 1094 (428 females and 666 males) individuals (36%). Single-level involvement was noted in 532 cases, whereas 562 individuals presented multilevel involvement.Statistical analyses revealed that OYL was noted at a significantly higher rate among the males (P = 0.022). Of a total of 2051 OYLs, 779 central type OYLs, a mushroom-shaped ossification localized at the center of laminae, and 1272 noncentral type OYLs were noted. Distribution of the thoracic OYL formed 2 peaks with the highest and second highest peak found at T10-T11 and T4-T5, respectively. Interestingly, OYL is noted at consistent rates after the age of 30; however, its size increased in age-dependent manners. The prevalence of thoracic OYL in Japanese was 36%. A further study disclosing the association between clinical manifestations and size and/or morphology of OYL is warranted.

  19. Loss of ephrinB1 in osteogenic progenitor cells impedes endochondral ossification and compromises bone strength integrity during skeletal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thao M; Arthur, Agnieszka; Paton, Sharon; Hemming, Sarah; Panagopoulos, Romana; Codrington, John; Walkley, Carl R; Zannettino, Andrew C W; Gronthos, Stan

    2016-12-01

    The EphB receptor tyrosine kinase family and their ephrinB ligands have been implicated as mediators of skeletal development and bone homeostasis in humans, where mutations in ephrinB1 contribute to frontonasal dysplasia and coronal craniosynostosis. In mouse models, ephrinB1 has been shown to be a critical factor mediating osteoblast function. The present study examined the functional importance of ephrinB1 during endochondral ossification using the Cre recombination system with targeted deletion of ephrinB1 (EfnB1 fl/fl ) in osteogenic progenitor cells, under the control of the osterix (Osx:Cre) promoter. The Osx:EfnB1 -/- mice displayed aberrant bone growth during embryonic and postnatal skeletal development up to 4weeks of age, when compared to the Osx:Cre controls. Furthermore, compared to the Osx:Cre control mice, the Osx:EfnB1 -/- mice exhibited significantly weaker and less rigid bones, with a reduction in trabecular/ cortical bone formation, reduced trabecular architecture and a reduction in the size of the growth plates at the distal end of the femora from newborn through to 4weeks of age. The aberrant bone formation correlated with increased numbers of tartrate resistant acid phosphatase positive osteoclasts and decreased numbers of bone lining osteoblasts in 4week old Osx:EfnB1 -/- mice, compared to Osx:Cre control mice. Taken together, these observations demonstrate the importance of ephrinB1 signalling between cells of the skeleton required for endochondral ossification. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparative Study of Surgical Treatment and Nonsurgical Follow Up for Thoracic Ossification of the Posterior Longitudinal Ligament: Radiological and Clinical Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Kei; Imagama, Shiro; Kobayashi, Kazuyoshi; Hida, Tetsuro; Ito, Kenyu; Tsushima, Mikito; Ishikawa, Yoshimoto; Matsumoto, Akiyuki; Nishida, Yoshihiro; Ishiguro, Naoki

    2017-03-15

    A prospective clinical study of factors related to myelopathy deterioration caused by thoracic myelopathy because of ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (T-OPLL). The objective of the study was to investigate factors related to myelopathy deterioration caused by T-OPLL. Detailed analyses of factors related to myelopathy deterioration caused by T-OPLL have not been reported. Twenty-two patients (group O) received observation therapy because of the absence of or mild myelopathy, which was defined as walking unaided or with support, and a Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) score above 7 points; and 24 patients (group S) were treated with posterior decompression and fusion with instrumentation. Age, sex, body mass index (BMI), presence of diabetes mellitus (DM), and JOA score were obtained for all patients. Radiologically, the T-OPLL level, number of T-OPLLs, canal diameter ratio (CDR), morphology, ossification of the ligamentum flavum (OLF), and cervical OPLL were examined on reconstructed CT, and the presence of hyperintense areas (HIAs) on T2-weighted sagittal MR images. In total, the patients included 22 males and 24 females and had an age range from 18 to 80 years. Sex, DM, JOA score in each domain, OPLL location, OPLL number, CDR of OPLL, morphology, OLF, and cervical OPLL did not differ significantly between groups N and S. However, cases in group N had a significantly higher age, lower weight, lower BMI, lower discontinuous rate on sagittal CT, and a lower HIA rate on MRI. Postoperatively, discontinuous segments connected and became continuous across the disc space in all patients in group S without progression of OPLL thickness. Age, weight, BMI, discontinuity between rostral and caudal OPLL lesions, and occurrence of a high intensity area on MRI are likely to be associated with development of myelopathy. 3.

  1. Transplante experimental cardíaco heterotópico e cutâneo em camundongos Experimental heterotopic cardiac and cutaneous transplantation in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Sestrheim

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudo experimental com o objetivo de desenvolver e avaliar a viabilidade das técnicas de transplante experimental cardíaco heterotópico abdominal vascularizado e cutâneo em camundongos, criando um instrumento para investigação da eficácia de soluções de preservação, novas drogas imunossupressoras, agentes biológicos, terapia gênica e indução de tolerância imunológica. MÉTODO: Para este estudo, as técnicas utilizadas foram descritas previamente por Corry et al. e Billingham et al. RESULTADOS: O tempo cirúrgico total para a realização dos transplantes cardíacos (n=20 foi, em média, 60,3±6,3 minutos e para os transplantes cutâneos (n=20, 17,75±0,71 minutos. A média de sobrevida dos aloenxertos cutâneos (n=34 e cardíacos (n=24 foi, respectivamente, 7 e 11 dias, enquanto que os isoenxertos sobreviveram por mais de 100 dias. CONCLUSÕES: Ambas as técnicas se caracterizaram pela fácil reprodutibilidade dos modelos experimentais. As diferenças entre as técnicas não se limitaram às peculiaridades metodológicas ou ao tempo de sobrevida e vascularização, mas principalmente à sua imunogenicidade e suscetibilidade à rejeição.OBJECTIVE: This is an experimental study which aims at developing and evaluating the feasibility of experimental techniques of vascularized and cutaneous abdominal heterotopic heart transplant in mice, creating an instrument of investigation for the effectiveness of prservation solutions, new immunosuppressive drugs, biological agents, genetic therapy and induction of immunological tolerance. METHOD: The techniques used in this work were previously described by Corry et al. and Billingham et al. RESULTS: The total surgical time to perform the cardiac transplants (n=20 was on average 60.3+6.3 minutes and the time of cutaneous transplants (n= 20 17.75+0.71 minutes. The average survival of the cutaneous allografts (n=34 and cardiac (n=24 allografts was 7 and 11 days, respectively, while

  2. Expression of lymphocyte coding genes in peripheral blood and lymphocyte infiltration in cardiac tissues influenced by cyclosporin A in heterotopic heart transplantation model in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiu-fang; Xin, Yi; Zhang, Ying; Huang, Yi-min; Li, Wen-bin; Li, Na; Lin, Zheng; Zhou, Yu-jie; Zhang, Zhao-guang

    2013-12-01

    To systematically compare the expression of coding genes with pathological changes of transplanted cardiac tissue and peripheral blood lymphocytes in an allo-heterotopic rat cardiac transplant model. Using SD rats as donors and Wistar rats as recipients, animals were divided into two groups, control and cyclosporine A intervention plus heart transplant groups. After transplant at 1, 3, 7, 10 and 12d, we assessed the ability of lymphocytes to infiltrate into cardiac tissues and levels of leukocyte coding genes in peripheral blood. Histopathological changes were monitored in cardiac tissue to determine the level of transplant rejection. (1) 24h after transplant peripheral blood lymphocytes' transcription and expression were temporarily reduced. (2) CD4(+) and CD8(+) lymphocytes infiltrate into cardiac tissue and Grade 1R pathological changes were observed 3d-7d after heart transplant. (3)Cyclosporine A was not able to completely block heart transplant rejection.(4) Although cyclosporine A was not able to effectively suppress CD4(+) T cell gene expression, it did suppress CD8(+) T cell gene transcription. (5) Cyclosporine A did not effectively reduce the rapid infiltration of CD4(+) or CD8(+) infiltration in 3d, but significantly reduced the degree of CD4(+) T cell infiltration in cardiac tissues between 3 and 7d. (6) Differential display (DD-PCR): Graft control group: there were differences in 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate, ribosomal protein S25, 12S ribosomal, gig18, MHC-III and ATPase H(+), which occurred 24h before CD4/CD8 surface protein expression. Cyclosporine A group: there were differences in thrombospondin-1, TCR, 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate, sodium channel beta-1, gig18 and TCR. In the cyclosporine A group 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate positive expression was observed 24h after the control group, which indicates that cyclosporine A slowed down the 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate transcription rate in peripheral lymphocytes and delayed its expression time. Cyclosporine A also

  3. Effect of ethane-1-hydroxy-1,1-bisphosphonate (EHBP) on endochondral ossification lesions induced by a lethal oral dose of uranyl nitrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bozal, C.B.; Ubios, A.M. [University of Buenos Aires, Department of Histology and Embryology, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Martinez, A.B. [National University of Rosario, Department of Pharmacology (Argentina); Cabrini, R.L. [National Atomic Energy Commission, Department of Radiobiology (Argentina)

    2005-08-01

    A 350 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) oral dose of uranyl nitrate (UN) caused 100% mortality in mice three days after administration, due to resulting kidney lesions. Mortality decreased 50% after an oral (o) or subcutaneous (sc) dose of bisodic etidronate (EHBP). Given that bone is also a target organ for uranium (U) in acute intoxication, the aim of this work was to study the effect of exposure to a lethal oral dose of UN on endochondral ossification, and the latter's response to EHBP treatment. One hundred male Balb/c mice weighing 25 g were assigned to one of ten groups. Group I served as control. Group II received a lethal 350 mg/kg b.w. oral dose of UN by gavage. Groups III, IV, VII, and VIII received an equal dose of UN immediately followed by a single 500 mg/kg oral dose of EHBP in groups III and VII and a single 50 mg/kg subcutaneous dose of EHBP in groups IV and VIII. Groups V and IX only received a single 500 mg/kg oral dose of EHBP, and groups VI and X received a single 50 mg/kg subcutaneous dose of EHBP. The animals in groups II, III, IV, V, and VI were sacrificed 48 h after the onset of the experiment, whereas those in groups VII, VIII, IX, and X were killed at 14 days. Histologic and histomorphometric studies were performed on the femurs to determine growth cartilage width, bone volume, and metaphyseal bone activity. Our results showed that all growth cartilage and metaphyseal bone histomorphometric parameters were significantly lower in animals exposed to UN at 48 h than in controls. EHPB administration was found to prevent this condition at 48 h reaching similar values to those of controls. Although histomorphometric values did not reach control values at 14 days, they were higher than those of animals exposed to UN at 48 h not treated with EHBP. It is noteworthy that these values also decreased in animals only receiving EHBP at 14 days. Our results show that EHBP effectively ameliorates the adverse effects of a lethal dose of UN on endochondral

  4. Midline dural filum of the sellar floor: Its relationship to the septum attachment to the sellar floor and the ossification in the sphenoid sinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Yasuhiko; Kita, Daisuke; Iwato, Masayuki; Fukui, Issei; Sasagawa, Yasuo; Oishi, Masahiro; Tachibana, Osamu; Nakada, Mitsutoshi

    2016-08-01

    It is important to identify and maintain a midline orientation during endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery (ETSS) for sellar lesions to prevent critical injury to the internal carotid artery. Therefore, the preoperative neuroradiological assessment of the bony structures in the sphenoid sinus, including the septum attachment to the sellar floor and its surrounding structures, is essential. It has been reported that the midline filum of the sellar dura can function as a useful intraoperative orientation guide during ETSS. However, the relationship between the midline dural filum and the intrasinus bony structures, such as the sellar floor, the intrasinus septation and the ossification, remains unclear and the mechanisms underlying development of the midline dural filum have also not yet been explored. This retrospective study included 160 patients undergoing ETSS to assess both the midline dural filum and the intrasinus bony structures, using video recording reviews. The intrasinus septum and the ossification in the sphenoid sinus were evaluated on the computed tomography images of the bone window. A midline dural filum was identified in 66 (41.3%) of 160 patients. Attachment of the septum to the sellar midline was found in 61 (39.4%) of 155 patients, after excluding 5 patients with the conchal type of sphenoid sinus, 55 (90.2%) of 61 patients with a septum on the midline and only 6 (6.4%) of the remaining 94 patients without a septum on the midline had a midline dural filum. The relationship between a midline dural filum and a septum on midline was statistically significant (possification extended over the midline filum. In patients with the sellar type of sphenoid sinus, 49 (36.0%) of 136 had a midline dural filum, meanwhile, 16 (84.2%) of 19 patients with the pre-sellar type (p=0.039) and all 5 patients (100%) with the choncal type harbored a midline dural filum (possification in both the pre-sellar and the conchal type of sphenoid sinus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier

  5. Sutura palatina mediana: avaliação do grau de ossificação em crânios humanos Mid-palatal suture: evaluation of the ossification degree in human skulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jussara Ennes

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Avaliar o grau de ossificação da sutura palatina mediana em crânios humanos de diferentes grupos etários. AMOSTRA: Crânios humanos (28 divididos em quatro grupos de acordo com a fase do desenvolvimento cronológico: crianças, adultos jovens, adultos e idosos. MATERIAL: Radiografias Oclusais Totais da Maxila dos crânios dos diferentes grupos (28. Imagens digitalizadas das Radiografias Oclusais Totais da Maxila (28. MÉTODOS: A presença de pontes de ossificação na sutura palatina mediana foi identificada macroscópica e estereomicroscopicamente, registrada e quantificada. Os crânios foram radiografados pela Técnica Oclusal total da Maxila, com modificação na posição do filme, no eixo horizontal. As imagens radiográficas obtidas foram digitalizadas e submetidas à variação de tons claros e escuros e ao ajuste de contraste e brilho para a investigação do grau de ossificação da sutura palatina mediana. CONCLUSÃO: Concluiu-se que a ossificação da sutura palatina mediana inicia-se principalmente na fase adulta e no segmento posterior. A técnica Radiográfica Oclusal Total da Maxila não proporciona imagem adequada à identificação do grau de ossificação na sutura palatina mediana.OBJECTIVES: To analyze the mid-palatal suture ossification rate on human skulls. SAMPLE: Human skulls (28 divided among four groups according to chronological developmental phases: child, teen-ager, adult and elderly. MATERIAL: Maxillary Total Occlusal radiographs from different groups of skulls (28. Digitalized images from Maxillary Total Occlusal radiographs (28. METHODS: The presence of ossification bridges on the mid-palatal suture were identified, registered and qualified. The radiographs of the skulls were taken using the Maxillary Total Occlusal technique, modifying the horizontal position of the film. These radiograph images were digitalized and submitted to brightness and contrast adjustments to investigate mid-palatal suture

  6. Heterotopic pregnancy following intrauterine insemination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-04-27

    Apr 27, 2011 ... A heterotrophic pregnancy is defined as the presence of a combined intrauterine and ectopic pregnancy.[1,2] The estimated incidence is between 1/7000 and 1/30 000 pregnancies.[1] It is also reported to be as high as 1% after the use of assisted reproductive technology, but. Clomiphene citrate which ...

  7. Dlx5 Is a cell autonomous regulator of chondrocyte hypertrophy in mice and functionally substitutes for Dlx6 during endochondral ossification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Zhu

    Full Text Available The axial and appendicular skeleton of vertebrates develops by endochondral ossification, in which skeletogenic tissue is initially cartilaginous and the differentiation of chondrocytes via the hypertrophic pathway precedes the differentiation of osteoblasts and the deposition of a definitive bone matrix. Results from both loss-of-function and misexpression studies have implicated the related homeobox genes Dlx5 and Dlx6 as partially redundant positive regulators of chondrocyte hypertrophy. However, experimental perturbations of Dlx expression have either not been cell type specific or have been done in the context of endogenous Dlx5 expression. Thus, it has not been possible to conclude whether the effects on chondrocyte differentiation are cell autonomous or whether they are mediated by Dlx expression in adjacent tissues, notably the perichondrium. To address this question we first engineered transgenic mice in which Dlx5 expression was specifically restricted to immature and differentiating chondrocytes and not the perichondrium. Col2a1-Dlx5 transgenic embryos and neonates displayed accelerated chondrocyte hypertrophy and mineralization throughout the endochondral skeleton. Furthermore, this transgene specifically rescued defects of chondrocyte differentiation characteristic of the Dlx5/6 null phenotype. Based on these results, we conclude that the role of Dlx5 in the hypertrophic pathway is cell autonomous. We further conclude that Dlx5 and Dlx6 are functionally equivalent in the endochondral skeleton, in that the requirement for Dlx5 and Dlx6 function during chondrocyte hypertrophy can be satisfied with Dlx5 alone.

  8. A Case of Successful Foraminotomy for Severe Bilateral C5 Palsy following Posterior Decompression and Fusion Surgery for Cervical Ossification of Posterior Longitudinal Ligament

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshifumi Kudo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a very rare (5~7% case of bilateral C5 palsy after cervical surgery. A 71-year-old male patient with cervical ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL with foraminal stenosis at bilateral C4/5 underwent posterior decompression and fusion surgery. After surgery, muscle weakness in his both deltoid and biceps was detected and gradually deteriorated to complete paralysis. Postoperative MRI showed sufficient decompression of the spinal cord and posterior shifting. Subsequently, an additional bilateral foraminotomy at C4/5 was performed, with a suspicion that bilateral foraminal stenosis at C4/5 may have been the cause of the paresis. After foraminotomy, muscular contraction was seen in both deltoid and biceps. Finally, complete motor recovery was achieved in a year. Although the gold standard procedure for the prevention and treatment of postoperative C5 palsy has not yet been established, an additional foraminotomy may be recommended for severe C5 palsy in cases of foraminal stenosis even after the occurrence of palsy.

  9. Involvement of MET/TWIST/APC Combination or the Potential Role of Ossification Factors in Pediatric High-Grade Osteosarcoma Oncogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natacha Entz-Werle

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Dysregulated cell growth or differentiation due to misexpression of developmental critical factors seems to be a decisive event in oncogenesis. As osteosarcomas are histologically defined by malignant osteoblasts producing an osteoid component, we prospected in pediatric osteosarcomas treated with OS94 protocol the genomic status of several genes implied in ossification processes. In 91 osteosarcoma cases, we focused on the analysis of the fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs TWIST, APC, MET by allelotyping, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, gene sequencing, protein polymorphism study. Our study supports the frequent role of TWIST, APC, MET as osteosarcoma markers (50%, 62%, 50%, respectively. TWIST, MET were mainly found to be deleted, no additional APC mutation was identified. Surprisingly, FGFRs are abnormal in only < 30%. Most of these factors, their abnormalities seem to be linked more or less to one clinical subgroup, but the most significant correlation is the link of MET, TWIST, APC abnormalities to a worse outcome, their combination within abnormal tumors. A wider cohort is mandatory to define more robust molecular conclusions, but these results are to be considered as the beginning of a more accurate basis for diagnosis, in search of targeted therapies, to further characterize prognostic markers.

  10. Dynamic' MR imaging of the cervical cord in patients with cervical spondylosis and ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament; Significance of dynamic cord compression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ando, Tetsuo; Itoh, Takayuki; Takahashi, Akira (Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine); Yanagi, Tsutomu; Yamamura, Akiko

    1992-01-01

    This investigation was designed to assess the influence of dynamic cord compression on severity and course of myelopathy. Sixty-seven patients consisted of 54 cases of cervical spondylosis and 13 cases of ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament. These patients underwent 'dynamic' MRI imaging of the cervical spine. MR images in the sagittal view were obtained in three different neck positions: flexion, neutral, and extension. MR imaging was performed with a 0.15 T resistive unit. For technical reasons, the body coil was used. The pulse sequence was 500/30 (Tr msec/echo time msec) for T1 images. The spinal cord compression was accelerated in 32 cases when extended, in 2 cases when flexsed, and in 4 cases when both extended and flexed. In 21 cases, we compared myelograms with MR images in the same neck position. Findings of myelograms well corresponded with those of MR images on 83 percent of intervertebral levels. The patients with dynamic cord compression were proved to have severer long tract signs, and their disability was regressive or progressive case by case for an average of 21-month follow-up. The 'dynamic' MR imaging can provide dynamic nature of spinal cord compression, and prognostic clues. (author).

  11. Functional bone histology of zebrafish reveals two types of endochondral ossification, different types of osteoblast clusters and a new bone type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigele, Jochen; Franz-Odendaal, Tamara A

    2016-07-01

    The zebrafish is as an important vertebrate animal model system for studying developmental processes, gene functions and signalling pathways. It is also used as a model system for the understanding of human developmental diseases including those related to the skeleton. However, surprisingly little is known about normal zebrafish skeletogenesis and osteogenesis. As in most vertebrates, it is commonly known that the bones of adult zebrafish are cellular unlike that of some other teleosts. After careful histological analyses of each zebrafish adult bone, we identified several acellular bones, with no entrapped osteocytes in addition to several cellular bones. We show that both cellular and acellular bones can even occur within the same skeletal element and transitions between these two cell types can be found. Furthermore, we describe two types of osteoblast clusters during skeletogenesis and two different types of endochondral ossification. The epiphyseal plate, for example, lacks a zone of calcification and a degradation zone with osteoblasts. A new bone type that we term tubular bone was also identified. This bone is completely filled with adipose tissue, unlike spongy bones. This study provides important insight on how osteogenesis takes place in zebrafish, and especially on the transition from cellular to acellular bones. Overall, this study leads to a deeper understanding of the functional histological composition of adult zebrafish bones. © 2016 Anatomical Society.

  12. Connexin 43 promotes ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament through activation of the ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dechun; Liu, Yang; Yang, Haisong; Chen, Deyu; Zhang, Xiaoling; Fermandes, Julio C; Chen, Yu

    2016-03-01

    Although cervical ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) is one of the most common spinal diseases, the pathogenic mechanism is still not fully understood. Abnormal mechanical stress distribution is believed to be one of the main causes of OPLL. We have previously found that mechanical stress can up-regulate connexin 43 (Cx43) expression in ligament fibroblasts; this transduces mechanical signals to promote osteoblastic differentiation. In the present study, in order to explore further the intracellular mechanisms of Cx43-induced osteoblast differentiation of ligament fibroblasts, we investigate the potential roles of the osteogenic signaling pathway components ERK1/2, p38 MAPK and JNK in Cx43-mediated mechanical signal transduction. We first confirm higher Cx43 levels in both in vivo ligament tissue from OPLL patients and in vitro cultured OPLL cells. We find that ERK1/2, p38 MAPK and the JNK pathway are all activated both in vivo and in vitro. The activation of these signals was dependent upon Cx43, as its knock-down resulted in diminished mechanical effects and reduced signaling. Moreover, its knock-down almost reversed the osteogenic effect of mechanical stress on ligament fibroblasts and the blocking of the ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK pathways but not the JNK pathway, partly diminished this effect. Therefore, Cx43, which is up-regulated by mechanical stress, seems to function partly via the activation of ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK signals to promote the osteoblastic differentiation of ligament fibroblasts.

  13. Examination of ossification of the distal radial epiphysis using magnetic resonance imaging. New insights for age estimation in young footballers in FIFA tournaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, S; Vieth, V; Timme, M; Dvorak, J; Schmeling, A

    2015-03-01

    Alongside a variety of clinical and forensic issues, age determination in living persons also plays a decisive role in the field of professional sport. Only methods of determining skeletal age which do not expose individuals to ionizing radiation are suitable for this purpose. The present study examines whether MRI diagnosis of the distal radial epiphysis can be utilised to monitor internationally relevant age limits in professional football. The wrist area of 152 male footballers aged 18 to 22 years belonging to regional clubs was prospectively examined using MRI. The ossification stage of the distal radial epiphysis was subsequently determined on the basis of established criteria used in determining the maturity of the medial clavicular epiphysis. For the first time, we ascertained evidence of an increase in the prevalence of the phenomenon of threefold linear stratification (hypointense line, hyperintense line, and hypointense line) in the representation of the fused epiphyseal plate of the radius using magnetic resonance imaging with increasing chronological age. Within our study population, test persons with an ossified epiphyseal plate without any verifiable epiphyseal scar were not represented. The presumably high minimum age of entry into this final stage of development (>22 years) must be verified in the course of further studies. According to the results of the present study, the fused epiphyseal plate of the distal radius provides potential maturation criteria which appear suitable for reliable monitoring of all relevant age limits in international football with the aid of magnetic resonance imaging. Copyright © 2014 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Presentación de un caso de tejido salival heterotópico cervical asociado con un quiste branquial A case of salivary heterotopic tissue associated with branchial cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mileydis Viñas García

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Las masas cervicales en los adultos jóvenes responden a adenopatías inflamatorias, malformaciones congénitas o menos frecuentemente a neoplasias. El tejido salival heterotópico es la presencia de tejido salival en un lugar anormal. Cuando tiene ubicación cervical puede encontrarse asociado con anomalías branquiales, al parecer por la relación que tienen ambos durante su embriogénesis. Por lo poco frecuente de esta asociación y no encontrarse publicado ningún caso en la literatura nacional, se decide la presentación del caso de una paciente joven con una masa cervical, con diagnóstico presuntivo de quiste branquial, que al intervenirla quirúrgicamente, se constata formación de aspecto glandular asociado con la lesión quística, con confirmación histopatológica de tejido salival heterotópico cervical asociado con quiste branquial. Se exponen además las posibles teorías de esta asociación según autores revisados en la literatura mundial y se confirma la importancia de tener en cuenta este diagnóstico ante una tumoración cervical para poder planear el tratamiento quirúrgico adecuado.In adult people cervical masses account for inflammatory adenopathies, congenital malformations or in a lesser degree to neoplasms. Heterotopic salivary tissue is the presence of salivary tissue in an abnormal place. When it has a cervical location may to be associated with branchial anomalies apparently by its relation (both during the embryogeny. Due to the non-frequent of this association and the no publication of any case in national literature, we decide a case presentation of the case of a young patient with a cervical mass presumptively diagnosed with branchial cyst and in surgical intervention we noted a glandular development associated with the cystic lesion with histopathology confirmation of cervical heterotopic salivary tissue linked to branchial cyst. We showed also the potential theories of this association according the authors

  15. Lumbar puncture and surgical intervention in a child with undiagnosed fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaghloul, Kareem A; Heuer, Gregory G; Guttenberg, Marta D; Shore, Eileen M; Kaplan, Frederick S; Storm, Phillip B

    2008-01-01

    Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) is a rare, autosomal dominant disorder characterized by congenital malformation of the great toes and episodes of soft tissue swelling that lead to progressive heterotopic ossification. The genetic cause of FOP was recently discovered to be a recurrent missense activating mutation in the activin A type I receptor, a bone morphogenetic protein type I receptor in all classically affected individuals worldwide. The authors present a child with the classic features of previously undiagnosed FOP who developed a paraspinal soft-tissue mass after a lumbar puncture for a fever workup. Excision of the mass resulted in a massive inflammatory response leading to progression of heterotopic ossification. Awareness of the classic clinical features of FOP prior to the appearance of heterotopic ossification can prompt early clinical diagnosis and confirmation through genetic testing, thus avoiding interventions that lead to irreversible iatrogenic harm.

  16. Ossificação do ligamento longitudinal posterior na coluna cervical: relato de caso Ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament in the cervical spine: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROSANA HERMINIA SCOLA

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available A ossificação do ligamento longitudinal posterior (OLLP é causa incomum de mielopatia compressiva na população caucasiana. É relatado o caso de um paciente do sexo masculino com um quadro de paraparesia espástica, cuja investigação radiológica mostrou OLLP. O raio-X de coluna cervical mostrou imagem laminar, vertical, com densidade óssea, posterior aos corpos vertebrais, que se estendia de C2 a T1. A tomografia computadorizada (TC e a mielotomografia mostravam OLLP causando compressão medular ântero-posterior no segmento descrito. Na ressonância magnética, observou-se área de hiperintensidade em T2 no segmento C7-T1, compatível com mielomalácia. O paciente foi submetido a laminoplastia tipo "open-door", com melhora do quadro parético dos membros inferiores. A OLLP deve entrar no diagnóstico diferencial das mielopatias cervicais, sendo facilmente diagnosticada através de radiografias e TC da coluna cervical. São revisados os aspectos clínicos e radiológicos e o tratamento da OLLP.Ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL is an uncommon cause of compressive myelopathy in the Caucasian population. A case of spastic paraparesis in a Caucasian man whose radiological investigation showed OPLL is presented. The radiographs of the cervical spine showed a strip of bony density posterior to the vertebral bodies, extending from C2 to T1. Computerized tomography (CT and CT myelography showed OPLL at the same level. Magnetic resonance showed an area of increased signal on T2-weighted sequences at C7-T1 level suggestive of myelomalacia. The patient underwent an open-door laminoplasty (C2 to C7 with improvement of the paraparesis. OPLL should be included in the differential diagnosis of cervical myelopathy. It can be easily detected by plain radiographs and CT of the cervical spine. A review of the clinical and radiological features and the treatment of OPLL is presented.

  17. Minimally Invasive Anterior Decompression Technique without Instrumented Fusion for Huge Ossification of the Posterior Longitudinal Ligament in the Thoracic Spine: Technical Note And Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jae Won; Yun, Sang-O; Hsieh, Chang-Sheng; Lee, Sang-Ho

    2017-09-01

    Several surgical methods have been reported for treatment of ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) in the thoracic spine. Despite rapid innovation of instruments and techniques for spinal surgery, the postoperative outcomes are not always favorable. This article reports a minimally invasive anterior decompression technique without instrumented fusion, which was modified from the conventional procedure. The authors present 2 cases of huge beak-type OPLL. Patients underwent minimally invasive anterior decompression without fusion. This method created a space on the ventral side of the OPLL without violating global thoracic spinal stability. Via this space, the OPLL and anterior lateral side of the dural sac can be seen and manipulated directly. Then, total removal of the OPLL was accomplished. No orthosis was needed. In this article, we share our key technique and concepts for treatment of huge thoracic OPLL. Case 1. 51-year-old female was referred to our hospital with right lower limb radiating pain and paresis. Thoracic OPLL at T6-7 had been identified at our hospital, and conservative treatment had been tried without success. Case 2. This 54-year-old female with a 6-month history of progressive gait disturbance and bilateral lower extremity radiating pain (right>left) was admitted to our institute. She also had hypoesthesia in both lower legs. Her symptoms had been gradually progressing. Computed tomography scans showed massive OPLL at the T9-10 level. Magnetic resonance imaging of the thoracolumbar spine demonstrated ventral bony masses with severe anterior compression of the spinal cord at the same level. We used this surgical method in 2 patients with a huge beaked-type OPLL in the thoracic level. Complete removal of the OPLL via anterior decompression without instrumented fusion was accomplished. The 1st case had no intraoperative or postoperative complications, and the 2nd case had 1 intraoperative complication (dural tear) and no

  18. The Future: Optimism or Ossification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottrell, Christine; Ling, Lorraine

    This paper addresses the issues raised in a recent review of postcompulsory education and training in Victoria. In the interim report (April 2000) it is stated that employers found that the skills of new graduates appear to be most deficient in the areas of creativity, flair, problem solving, oral business communication, and interpersonal skills.…

  19. Thumb Ossification Composite Index (TOCI) for Predicting Peripubertal Skeletal Maturity and Peak Height Velocity in Idiopathic Scoliosis: A Validation Study of Premenarchal Girls with Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis Followed Longitudinally Until Skeletal Maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Alec L H; Chau, W W; Shi, B; Chow, Simon K; Yu, Fiona Y P; Lam, T P; Ng, Bobby K W; Qiu, Y; Cheng, Jack C Y

    2017-09-06

    Accurate skeletal maturity assessment is important to guide clinical evaluation of idiopathic scoliosis, but commonly used methods are inadequate or too complex for rapid clinical use. The objective of the study was to propose a new simplified staging method, called the thumb ossification composite index (TOCI), based on the ossification pattern of the 2 thumb epiphyses and the adductor sesamoid bone; to determine its accuracy in predicting skeletal maturation when compared with the Sanders simplified skeletal maturity system (SSMS); and to validate its interrater and intrarater reliability. Hand radiographs of 125 girls, acquired when they were newly diagnosed with idiopathic scoliosis prior to menarche and during longitudinal follow-up until skeletal maturity (a minimum of 4 years), were scored with the TOCI and SSMS. These scores were compared with digital skeletal age (DSA) and radius, ulna, and small hand bones (RUS) scores; anthropometric data; peak height velocity; and growth-remaining profiles. Correlations were analyzed with the chi-square test, Spearman and Cramer V correlation methods, and receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Reliability analysis using the intraclass correlation (ICC) was conducted. Six hundred and forty-five hand radiographs (average, 5 of each girl) were scored. The TOCI staging system was highly correlated with the DSA and RUS scores (r = 0.93 and 0.92, p 0.97. The new proposed TOCI could provide a simplified staging system for the assessment of skeletal maturity of subjects with idiopathic scoliosis. The index needs to be subjected to further multicenter validation in different ethnic groups.

  20. No effect of ketoprofen and meloxicam on bone graft ingrowth: a bone chamber study in goats.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heide, H.J. van der; Hannink, G.; Buma, P.; Schreurs, B.W.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: There is increasing awareness that non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and especially the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) selective ones, may retard bone healing. We have used NSAIDs (indomethacin for at least 7 days) to prevent heterotopic ossification after acetabular

  1. Use of Bioresorbable Hydrogels and Genetic Engineering to Accomplish Rapid Stabilization and Healing in Segmental Long Bone Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-29

    Pediatrics, Pediatrics- Nutrition , Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA 5Department of Pediatrics, Hematology-Oncology, Baylor College of...undergoing differentiation (Fig. 7A–F). DISCUSSION Heterotopic ossification is a disorder involving rapid bone formation within muscle, tendon , and

  2. Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kriegbaum, Kasper Rasmus Kuniss; Hillerup, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) is a rare hereditary disorder of skeletal malformations and progressive heterotopic ossification. The worldwide prevalence is estimated to be one in 2 million. This report outlines the management of a patient with FOP limited to the maxillofacial region...

  3. Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva: A Rare Crippling And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva, (FOP), the most disabling condition of extra skeletal ossification is a rare genetic disorder which causes immobility through progressive metamorphosis of skeletal muscles and soft connective tissue into a second skeleton of heterotopic bone. It presents classically at birth with clinical ...

  4. Acetabular Fractures: Review of 50 Consecutive Cases | Olabumuyi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    complications were uncommon: infected haematoma, common iliac vein laceration, heterotopic ossification, 1 each. It was observed that automobile accident (RTA) was the main aetiologic factor (86%), and males outnumber females in a ratio of 8.5:1. Conservative management proved effective for undisplaced AF, and a ...

  5. Wounded Warrior Care and Reintegration Requires a Public-Private Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Inc. New York 1990, 183. Brachial plexus is the nerve network that runs from the spinal cord in the neck and shoulder all the way to the hands...particles, but the wound closed up. They gave Jay H.O. [Heterotopic Ossification] and they said to heal it, they had to lock it. Bethesda said it was

  6. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ong'ang'o, H.O.. Vol 11, No 1 (2017) - Articles Bridging glenohumeral heterotopic ossification at the Kenyatta national hospital : a case report. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1994-1072. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners ...

  7. Case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    19 juil. 2016 ... haemarthrosis of the knee induced by injury to the anterior cruciate ligament. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2006; 88(1): 129-. 33. PubMed | Google Scholar. 14. Howell RD, Park JH, Egol KA. Late symptomatic heterotopic ossification of the patellar tendon after medial parapatellar intramedullary nailing of the tibia.

  8. Disease: H00441 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ication. Two new case reports and follow-up of three previously reported cases. ... JOURNAL ... J Bone Joint Surg Am 76:425-36 (1994) ... ... Tabas J, Gardner RJ, Zasloff MA ... TITLE ... Progressive osseous heteroplasia: a distinct developmental disorder of heterotopic ossif

  9. Association of miR-146a, miR-149, miR-196a2, and miR-499 Polymorphisms with Ossification of the Posterior Longitudinal Ligament of the Cervical Spine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Joon Lim

    Full Text Available Ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL of the spine is considered a multifactorial and polygenic disease. We aimed to investigate the association between four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs of pre-miRNAs [miR-146aC>G (rs2910164, miR-149T>C (rs2292832, miR-196a2T>C (rs11614913, and miR-499A>G (rs3746444] and the risk of cervical OPLL in the Korean population.The genotypic frequencies of these four SNPs were analyzed in 207 OPLL patients and 200 controls by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP assay.For four SNPs in pre-miRNAs, no significant differences were found between OPLL patients and controls. However, subgroup analysis based on OPLL subgroup (continuous: continuous type plus mixed type, segmental: segmental and localized type showed that miR-499GG genotype was associated with an increased risk of segmental type OPLL (adjusted odds ratio = 4.314 with 95% confidence interval: 1.109-16.78. In addition, some allele combinations (C-T-T-G, G-T-T-A, and G-T-C-G of miR-146a/-149/-196a2/-499 and combined genotypes (miR-149TC/miR-196a2TT were associated with increased OPLL risk, whereas the G-T-T-G and G-C-C-G allele combinations were associated with decreased OPLL risk.The results indicate that GG genotype of miR-499 is associated with significantly higher risks of OPLL in the segmental OPLL group. The miR-146a/-149/-196a2/-499 allele combinations may be a genetic risk factor for cervical OPLL in the Korean population.