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Sample records for heterostructure fets field-effect

  1. Ge/Si core/multi shell heterostructure FETs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picraux, Samuel T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dayeh, Shadi A [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Concentric heterostructured materials provide numerous design opportunities for engineering strain and interfaces, as well as tailoring energy band-edge combinations for optimal device performance. Key to the realization of such novel device concepts is the complete understanding and full control over their growth, crystal structure, and hetero-epitaxy. We report here on a new route for synthesizing Ge/Si core/multi-shell heterostructure nanowires that eliminate Au seed diffusion on the nanowire sidewalls by engineering the interface energy density difference. We show that such control over core/shell synthesis enable experimental realization of heterostructure FET devices beyond those available in the literature with enhanced transport characteristics. We provide a side-by-side comparison on the transport properties of Ge/Si core/multi-shell nanowires grown with and without Au diffusion and demonstrate heterostructure FETs with drive currents that are {approx} 2X higher than record results for p-type FETs.

  2. Axial Ge/Si nanowire heterostructure tunnel FETs.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dayeh, Shadi A. (Los Alamos National Laboratory); Gin, Aaron V.; Huang, Jian Yu; Picraux, Samuel Thomas (Los Alamos National Laboratory)

    2010-03-01

    Axial Ge/Si heterostructure nanowires (NWs) allow energy band-edge engineering along the axis of the NW, which is the charge transport direction, and the realization of asymmetric devices for novel device architectures. This work reports on two significant advances in the area of heterostructure NWs and tunnel FETs: (i) the realization of 100% compositionally modulated Si/Ge axial heterostructure NWs with lengths suitable for device fabrication and (ii) the design and implementation of Schottky barrier tunnel FETs on these NWs for high-on currents and suppressed ambipolar behavior. Initial prototype devices with 10 nm PECVD SiN{sub x} gate dielectric resulted in a very high current drive in excess of 100 {micro}A/{micro}m (I/{pi}D) and 10{sup 5} I{sub on}/I{sub off} ratios. Prior work on the synthesis of Ge/Si axial NW heterostructures through the VLS mechanism have resulted in axial Si/Si{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x} NW heterostructures with x{sub max} {approx} 0.3, and more recently 100% composition modulation was achieved with a solid growth catalyst. In this latter case, the thickness of the heterostructure cannot exceed few atomic layers due to the slow axial growth rate and concurrent radial deposition on the NW sidewalls leading to a mixture of axial and radial deposition, which imposes a big challenge for fabricating useful devices form these NWs in the near future. Here, we report the VLS growth of 100% doping and composition modulated axial Ge/Si heterostructure NWs with lengths appropriate for device fabrication by devising a growth procedure that eliminates Au diffusion on the NW sidewalls and minimizes random kinking in the heterostructure NWs as deduced from detailed microscopy analysis. Fig. 1 a shows a cross-sectional SEM image of epitaxial Ge/Si axial NW heterostructures grown on a Ge(111) surface. The interface abruptness in these Ge/Si heterostructure NWs is of the order of the NW diameter. Some of these NWs develop a crystallographic kink that is {approx

  3. Axial Ge/Si nanowire heterostructure tunnel FETs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picraux, Sanuel T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Daych, Shadi A [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    The vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth of semiconductor nanowires allows doping and composition modulation along their axis and the realization of axial 1 D heterostructures. This provides additional flexibility in energy band-edge engineering along the transport direction which is difficult to attain by planar materials growth and processing techniques. We report here on the design, growth, fabrication, and characterization of asymmetric heterostructure tunnel field-effect transistors (HTFETs) based on 100% compositionally modulated Si/Ge axial NWs for high on-current operation and low ambipolar transport behavior. We discuss the optimization of band-offsets and Schottky barrier heights for high performance HTFETs and issues surrounding their experimental realization. Our HTFET devices with 10 nm PECVD SiN{sub x} gate dielectric resulted in a measured current drive exceeding 100 {mu}A/{mu}m (I/{pi}D) and 10{sup 5} I{sub on}/I{sub off} ratios.

  4. Synthesis, fabrication and characterization of Ge/Si axial nanowire heterostructure tunnel FETs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picraux, Samuel T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dayeh, Shadi A [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Axial Ge/Si heterostructure nanowires allow energy band-edge engineering along the axis of the nanowire, which is the charge transport direction, and the realization of asymmetric devices for novel device architectures. This work reports on two advances in the area of heterostructure nanowires and tunnel FETs: (i) the realization of 100% compositionally modulated Si/Ge axial heterostructure nanowires with lengths suitable for device fabrication and (ii) the design and implementation of Schottky barrier tunnel FETs on these nanowires for high-on currents and suppressed ambipolar behavior. Initial prototype devices resulted in a current drive in excess of 100 {micro}A/{micro}m (I/{pi}D) and 10{sup 5} I{sub on}/I{sub off} ratios. These results demonstrate the potential of such asymmetric heterostructures (both in the semiconductor channel and metal-semiconductor barrier heights) for low-power and high performance electronics.

  5. Quantum and field effects of oxide heterostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trier, Felix

    . In these multi-plexed devices, several inputs aretranslated into several outputs through the multiple physical functionalities.A highly prominent example of such an oxide interface is the one between LaAlO3 and SrTiO3. Although both LaAlO3 and SrTiO3 in the bulk are electrically insulating and non-magnetic......, their interface nonetheless shows attractive properties such as metallic conductivity, superconductivity and ferro magnetism.This thesis will provide an extensive review of the literature concerning the interface metal found in LaAlO3/SrTiO3 as well as in other SrTiO3-based hetero structures. Through this review...... in two different SrTiO3-based heterostructures. Here, it is shown that the interface between amorphous-LaAlO3 and SrTiO3 is superconducting with a larger critical transition temperature than that in LaAlO3/SrTiO3. For γ-Al2O3/SrTiO3 it is shown that non-volatile bipolar resistance switching is possible...

  6. All-Electrical Spin Field Effect Transistor in van der Waals Heterostructures at Room Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dankert, André; Dash, Saroj

    Spintronics aims to exploit the spin degree of freedom in solid state devices for data storage and information processing. Its fundamental concepts (creation, manipulation and detection of spin polarization) have been demonstrated in semiconductors and spin transistor structures using electrical and optical methods. However, an unsolved challenge is the realization of all-electrical methods to control the spin polarization in a transistor manner at ambient temperatures. Here we combine graphene and molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) in a van der Waals heterostructure to realize a spin field-effect transistor (spin-FET) at room temperature. These two-dimensional crystals offer a unique platform due to their contrasting properties, such as weak spin-orbit coupling (SOC) in graphene and strong SOC in MoS2. The gate-tuning of the Schottky barrier at the MoS2/graphene interface and MoS2 channel yields spins to interact with high SOC material and allows us to control the spin polarization and lifetime. This all-electrical spin-FET at room temperature is a substantial step in the field of spintronics and opens a new platform for testing a plethora of exotic physical phenomena, which can be key building blocks in future device architectures.

  7. A simple ionizing radiation spectrometer/dosimeter based on radiation sensing field effect transistors (RadFETs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, D.J.; Hughes, R.C.; Jenkins, M.W.; Drumm, C.R.

    1997-01-01

    This paper reports on the processing steps in a silicon foundry leading to improved performance of the Radiation Sensing Field Effect Transistor (RadFET) and the use of multiple RadFETs in a handheld, battery operated, combination spectrometer/dosimeter

  8. Silicon on ferroelectic insulator field effect transistor (SOF-FET) a new device for the next generation ultra low power circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Es-Sakhi, Azzedin D.

    Field effect transistors (FETs) are the foundation for all electronic circuits and processors. These devices have progressed massively to touch its final steps in sub-nanometer level. Left and right proposals are coming to rescue this progress. Emerging nano-electronic devices (resonant tunneling devices, single-atom transistors, spin devices, Heterojunction Transistors rapid flux quantum devices, carbon nanotubes, and nanowire devices) took a vast share of current scientific research. Non-Si electronic materials like III-V heterostructure, ferroelectric, carbon nanotubes (CNTs), and other nanowire based designs are in developing stage to become the core technology of non-classical CMOS structures. FinFET present the current feasible commercial nanotechnology. The scalability and low power dissipation of this device allowed for an extension of silicon based devices. High short channel effect (SCE) immunity presents its major advantage. Multi-gate structure comes to light to improve the gate electrostatic over the channel. The new structure shows a higher performance that made it the first candidate to substitute the conventional MOSFET. The device also shows a future scalability to continue Moor's Law. Furthermore, the device is compatible with silicon fabrication process. Moreover, the ultra-low-power (ULP) design required a subthreshold slope lower than the thermionic-emission limit of 60mV/ decade (KT/q). This value was unbreakable by the new structure (SOI-FinFET). On the other hand most of the previews proposals show the ability to go beyond this limit. However, those pre-mentioned schemes have publicized a very complicated physics, design difficulties, and process non-compatibility. The objective of this research is to discuss various emerging nano-devices proposed for ultra-low-power designs and their possibilities to replace the silicon devices as the core technology in the future integrated circuit. This thesis proposes a novel design that exploits the

  9. A comprehensive model on field-effect pnpn devices (Z2-FET)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taur, Yuan; Lacord, Joris; Parihar, Mukta Singh; Wan, Jing; Martinie, Sebastien; Lee, Kyunghwa; Bawedin, Maryline; Barbe, Jean-Charles; Cristoloveanu, Sorin

    2017-08-01

    A comprehensive model for field-effect pnpn devices (Z2-FET) is presented. It is based on three current continuity equations coupled to two MOS equations. The model reproduces the characteristic S-shaped I-V curve when the device is driven by a current source. The negative resistance region at intermediate currents occurs as the center junction undergoes a steep transition from reverse to forward bias. Also playing a vital role are the mix and match of the minority carrier diffusion current and the generation recombination current. Physical insights to the key mechanisms at work are gained by regional approximations of the model, from which analytical expressions for the maximum and minimum voltages at the switching points are derived. From 1981 to 2001, he was with the Silicon Technology Department of IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, New York, where he was Manager of Exploratory Devices and Processes. Areas in which he has worked and published include latchup-free 1-um CMOS, self-aligned TiSi2, 0.5-um CMOS and BiCMOS, shallow trench isolation, 0.25-um CMOS with n+/p + poly gates, SOI, low-temperature CMOS, and 0.1-um CMOS. Since October 2001, he has been a professor in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, San Diego. Dr. Yuan Taur was elected a Fellow of the IEEE in 1998. He has served as Editor-in-Chief of the IEEE Electron Device Letters from 1999 to 2011. He authored or co-authored over 200 technical papers and holds 14 U.S. patents. He co-authored a book, ;Fundamentals of Modern VLSI Devices,; published by Cambridge University Press in 1998. The 2nd edition was published in 2009. Dr. Yuan Taur received IEEE Electron Devices Society's J. J. Ebers Award in 2012 ;for contributions to the advancement of several generations of CMOS process technologies.;

  10. Tuning on-off current ratio and field-effect mobility in a MoS(2)-graphene heterostructure via Schottky barrier modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Chih-Jen; Wang, Qing Hua; Son, Youngwoo; Jin, Zhong; Blankschtein, Daniel; Strano, Michael S

    2014-06-24

    Field-effect transistor (FET) devices composed of a MoS2-graphene heterostructure can combine the advantages of high carrier mobility in graphene with the permanent band gap of MoS2 for digital applications. Herein, we investigate the electron transfer, photoluminescence, and gate-controlled carrier transport in such a heterostructure. We show that the junction is a Schottky barrier, whose height can be artificially controlled by gating or doping graphene. When the applied gate voltage (or the doping level) is zero, the photoexcited electron-hole pairs in monolayer MoS2 can be split by the heterojunction, significantly reducing the photoluminescence. By applying negative gate voltage (or p-doping) in graphene, the interlayer impedance formed between MoS2 and graphene exhibits an 100-fold increase. For the first time, we show that the gate-controlled interlayer Schottky impedance can be utilized to modulate carrier transport in graphene, significantly depleting the hole transport, but preserving the electron transport. Accordingly, we demonstrate a new type of FET device, which enables a controllable transition from NMOS digital to bipolar characteristics. In the NMOS digital regime, we report a very high room temperature on/off current ratio (ION/IOFF ∼ 36) in comparison to graphene-based FET devices without sacrificing the field-effect electron mobilities in graphene. By engineering the source/drain contact area, we further estimate that a higher value of ION/IOFF up to 100 can be obtained in the device architecture considered. The device architecture presented here may enable semiconducting behavior in graphene for digital and analogue electronics.

  11. Extended-gate field-effect transistor (EG-FET) with molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) film for selective inosine determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskierko, Zofia; Sosnowska, Marta; Sharma, Piyush Sindhu; Benincori, Tiziana; D'Souza, Francis; Kaminska, Izabela; Fronc, Krzysztof; Noworyta, Krzysztof

    2015-12-15

    A novel recognition unit of chemical sensor for selective determination of the inosine, renal disfunction biomarker, was devised and prepared. For that purpose, inosine-templated molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) film was deposited on an extended-gate field-effect transistor (EG-FET) signal transducing unit. The MIP film was prepared by electrochemical polymerization of bis(bithiophene) derivatives bearing cytosine and boronic acid substituents, in the presence of the inosine template and a thiophene cross-linker. After MIP film deposition, the template was removed, and was confirmed by UV-visible spectroscopy. Subsequently, the film composition was characterized by spectroscopic techniques, and its morphology and thickness were determined by AFM. The finally MIP film-coated extended-gate field-effect transistor (EG-FET) was used for signal transduction. This combination is not widely studied in the literature, despite the fact that it allows for facile integration of electrodeposited MIP film with FET transducer. The linear dynamic concentration range of the chemosensor was 0.5-50 μM with inosine detectability of 0.62 μM. The obtained detectability compares well to the levels of the inosine in body fluids which are in the range 0-2.9 µM for patients with diagnosed diabetic nephropathy, gout or hyperuricemia, and can reach 25 µM in certain cases. The imprinting factor for inosine, determined from piezomicrogravimetric experiments with use of the MIP film-coated quartz crystal resonator, was found to be 5.5. Higher selectivity for inosine with respect to common interferents was also achieved with the present molecularly engineered sensing element. The obtained analytical parameters of the devised chemosensor allow for its use for practical sample measurements. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Quantum mechanical solver for confined heterostructure tunnel field-effect transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verreck, Devin, E-mail: devin.verreck@imec.be; Groeseneken, Guido [imec, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Department of Electrical Engineering, KU Leuven, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Van de Put, Maarten; Sorée, Bart; Magnus, Wim [imec, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Departement of Physics, Universiteit Antwerpen, 2020 Antwerpen (Belgium); Verhulst, Anne S.; Collaert, Nadine; Thean, Aaron [imec, Kapeldreef 75, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Vandenberghe, William G. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Texas 75080 (United States)

    2014-02-07

    Heterostructure tunnel field-effect transistors (HTFET) are promising candidates for low-power applications in future technology nodes, as they are predicted to offer high on-currents, combined with a sub-60 mV/dec subthreshold swing. However, the effects of important quantum mechanical phenomena like size confinement at the heterojunction are not well understood, due to the theoretical and computational difficulties in modeling realistic heterostructures. We therefore present a ballistic quantum transport formalism, combining a novel envelope function approach for semiconductor heterostructures with the multiband quantum transmitting boundary method, which we extend to 2D potentials. We demonstrate an implementation of a 2-band version of the formalism and apply it to study confinement in realistic heterostructure diodes and p-n-i-n HTFETs. For the diodes, both transmission probabilities and current densities are found to decrease with stronger confinement. For the p-n-i-n HTFETs, the improved gate control is found to counteract the deterioration due to confinement.

  13. Tunable SnSe2 /WSe2 Heterostructure Tunneling Field Effect Transistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiao; Liu, Chunsen; Li, Chao; Bao, Wenzhong; Ding, Shijin; Zhang, David Wei; Zhou, Peng

    2017-09-01

    The burgeoning 2D semiconductors can maintain excellent device electrostatics with an ultranarrow channel length and can realize tunneling by electrostatic gating to avoid deprivation of band-edge sharpness resulting from chemical doping, which make them perfect candidates for tunneling field effect transistors. Here this study presents SnSe 2 /WSe 2 van der Waals heterostructures with SnSe 2 as the p-layer and WSe 2 as the n-layer. The energy band alignment changes from a staggered gap band offset (type-II) to a broken gap (type-III) when changing the negative back-gate voltage to positive, resulting in the device operating as a rectifier diode (rectification ratio ~10 4 ) or an n-type tunneling field effect transistor, respectively. A steep average subthreshold swing of 80 mV dec -1 for exceeding two decades of drain current with a minimum of 37 mV dec -1 at room temperature is observed, and an evident trend toward negative differential resistance is also accomplished for the tunneling field effect transistor due to the high gate efficiency of 0.36 for single gate devices. The I ON /I OFF ratio of the transfer characteristics is >10 6 , accompanying a high ON current >10 -5 A. This work presents original phenomena of multilayer 2D van der Waals heterostructures which can be applied to low-power consumption devices. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. pH-sensitive diamond field-effect transistors (FETs) with directly aminated channel surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Kwang-Soup; Nakamura, Yusuke; Sasaki, Yuichi; Degawa, Munenori; Yang, Jung-Hoon; Kawarada, Hiroshi

    2006-01-01

    We have introduced pH sensors fabricated on diamond thin films through modification of the surface-terminated atom. We directly modified the diamond surface from hydrogen to amine or oxygen with ultraviolet (UV) irradiation under ammonia gas. The quantified amine site based on the spectra obtained by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is 26% (2.6 x 10 14 cm -2 ) with UV irradiation for 8 h and its coverage is dependent on the UV irradiation time. This directly aminated diamond surface is stable with long-term exposure in air and electrolyte solution. We fabricated diamond solution-gate field-effect transistors (SGFETs) without insulating layers on the channel surface. These diamond SGFETs with amine modified by direct amination are sensitive to pH (45 mV/pH) over a wide range from pH 2 to 12 and their sensitivity is dependent on the density of binding sites corresponding to UV irradiation time on the channel surface

  15. Si/Ge hetero-structure nanotube tunnel field effect transistor

    KAUST Repository

    Hanna, A. N.

    2015-01-07

    We discuss the physics of conventional channel material (silicon/germanium hetero-structure) based transistor topology mainly core/shell (inner/outer) gated nanotube vs. gate-all-around nanowire architecture for tunnel field effect transistor application. We show that nanotube topology can result in higher performance through higher normalized current when compared to nanowire architecture at Vdd-=-1-V due to the availability of larger tunneling cross section and lower Shockley-Reed-Hall recombination. Both architectures are able to achieve sub 60-mV/dec performance for more than five orders of magnitude of drain current. This enables the nanotube configuration achieving performance same as the nanowire architecture even when Vdd is scaled down to 0.5-V.

  16. Si/Ge hetero-structure nanotube tunnel field effect transistor

    KAUST Repository

    Hanna, A. N.; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the physics of conventional channel material (silicon/germanium hetero-structure) based transistor topology mainly core/shell (inner/outer) gated nanotube vs. gate-all-around nanowire architecture for tunnel field effect transistor application. We show that nanotube topology can result in higher performance through higher normalized current when compared to nanowire architecture at Vdd-=-1-V due to the availability of larger tunneling cross section and lower Shockley-Reed-Hall recombination. Both architectures are able to achieve sub 60-mV/dec performance for more than five orders of magnitude of drain current. This enables the nanotube configuration achieving performance same as the nanowire architecture even when Vdd is scaled down to 0.5-V.

  17. Electric field effects in graphene/LaAlO3/SrTiO3 heterostructures and nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengchen Huang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We report the development and characterization of graphene/LaAlO3/SrTiO3 heterostructures. Complex-oxide heterostructures are created by pulsed laser deposition and are integrated with graphene using both mechanical exfoliation and transfer from chemical-vapor deposition on ultraflat copper substrates. Nanoscale control of the metal-insulator transition at the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface, achieved using conductive atomic force microscope lithography, is demonstrated to be possible through the graphene layer. LaAlO3/SrTiO3-based electric field effects using a graphene top gate are also demonstrated. The ability to create functional field-effect devices provides the potential of graphene-complex-oxide heterostructures for scientific and technological advancement.

  18. Characterization of amorphous multilayered ZnO-SnO2 heterostructure thin films and their field effect electronic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Su-Jae; Hwang, Chi-Sun; Pi, Jae-Eun; Yang, Jong-Heon; Oh, Himchan; Cho, Sung Haeng; Cho, Kyoung-Ik; Chu, Hye Yong

    2014-01-01

    Multilayered ZnO-SnO 2 heterostructure thin films were produced using pulsed laser ablation of pie-shaped ZnO-SnO 2 oxides target, and their structural and field effect electronic transport properties were investigated as a function of the thickness of the ZnO and SnO 2 layers. The films have an amorphous multilayered heterostructure composed of the periodic stacking of the ZnO and SnO 2 layers. The field effect electronic properties of amorphous multilayered ZnO-SnO 2 heterostructure thin film transistors (TFTs) are highly dependent on the thickness of the ZnO and SnO 2 layers. The highest electron mobility of 37 cm 2 /V s, a low subthreshold swing of a 0.19 V/decade, a threshold voltage of 0.13 V, and a high drain current on-to-off ratio of ∼10 10 obtained for the amorphous multilayered ZnO(1.5 nm)-SnO 2 (1.5 nm) heterostructure TFTs. These results are presumed to be due to the unique electronic structure of an amorphous multilayered ZnO-SnO 2 heterostructure film consisting of ZnO, SnO 2 , and ZnO-SnO 2 interface layers

  19. Mobility Engineering in Vertical Field Effect Transistors Based on Van der Waals Heterostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yong Seon; Lee, Kiyoung; Kim, Young Rae; Lee, Hyangsook; Lee, I Min; Kang, Won Tae; Lee, Boo Heung; Kim, Kunnyun; Heo, Jinseong; Park, Seongjun; Lee, Young Hee; Yu, Woo Jong

    2018-03-01

    Vertical integration of 2D layered materials to form van der Waals heterostructures (vdWHs) offers new functional electronic and optoelectronic devices. However, the mobility in vertical carrier transport in vdWHs of vertical field-effect transistor (VFET) is not yet investigated in spite of the importance of mobility for the successful application of VFETs in integrated circuits. Here, the mobility in VFET of vdWHs under different drain biases, gate biases, and metal work functions is first investigated and engineered. The traps in WSe 2 are the main source of scattering, which influences the vertical mobility and three distinct transport mechanisms: Ohmic transport, trap-limited transport, and space-charge-limited transport. The vertical mobility in VFET can be improved by suppressing the trap states by raising the Fermi level of WSe 2 . This is achieved by increasing the injected carrier density by applying a high drain voltage, or decreasing the Schottky barrier at the graphene/WSe 2 and metal/WSe 2 junctions by applying a gate bias and reducing the metal work function, respectively. Consequently, the mobility in Mn vdWH at +50 V gate voltage is about 76 times higher than the initial mobility of Au vdWH. This work enables further improvements in the VFET for successful application in integrated circuits. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. AlGaN channel field effect transistors with graded heterostructure ohmic contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajaj, Sanyam; Akyol, Fatih; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Zhang, Yuewei; Rajan, Siddharth

    2016-09-01

    We report on ultra-wide bandgap (UWBG) Al0.75Ga0.25N channel metal-insulator-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MISFETs) with heterostructure engineered low-resistance ohmic contacts. The low intrinsic electron affinity of AlN (0.6 eV) leads to large Schottky barriers at the metal-AlGaN interface, resulting in highly resistive ohmic contacts. In this work, we use a reverse compositional graded n++ AlGaN contact layer to achieve upward electron affinity grading, leading to a low specific contact resistance (ρsp) of 1.9 × 10-6 Ω cm2 to n-Al0.75Ga0.25N channels (bandgap ˜5.3 eV) with non-alloyed contacts. We also demonstrate UWBG Al0.75Ga0.25N channel MISFET device operation employing the compositional graded n++ ohmic contact layer and 20 nm atomic layer deposited Al2O3 as the gate-dielectric.

  1. A simulation-based proposed high-k heterostructure AlGaAs/Si junctionless n-type tunnel FET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahi Shiromani Balmukund; Asthana Pranav; Ghosh Bahniman

    2014-01-01

    We propose a heterostructure junctionless tunnel field effect transistor (HJL-TFET) using AlGaAs/Si. In the proposed HJL-TFET, low band gap silicon is used in the source side and higher band gap AlGaAs in the drain side. The whole AlGaAs/Si region is heavily doped n-type. The proposed HJL-TFET uses two isolated gates (named gate, gate1) with two different work functions (gate = 4.2 eV, gate1 = 5.2 eV respectively). The 2-D nature of HJL-TFET current flow is studied. The proposed structure is simulated in Silvaco with different gate dielectric materials. This structure exhibits a high on current in the range of 1.4 × 10 −6 A/μm, the off current remains as low as 9.1 × 10 −14 A/μm. So I ON /I OFF ratio of ≃ 10 8 is achieved. Point subthreshold swing has also been reduced to a value of ≃ 41 mV/decade for TiO 2 gate material. (semiconductor devices)

  2. Effective mass approximation versus full atomistic model to calculate the output characteristics of a gate-all-around germanium nanowire field effect transistor (GAA-GeNW-FET)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayani, Amir Hossein; Voves, Jan; Dideban, Daryoosh

    2018-01-01

    Here, we compare the output characteristics of a gate-all-around germanium nanowire field effect transistor (GAA-GeNW-FET) with 2.36 nm2 square cross-section area using tight-binding (TB) sp3d5s∗ model (full atomistic model (FAM)) and effective mass approximation (EMA). Synopsys/QuantumWise Atomistix ToolKit (ATK) and Silvaco Atlas3D are used to consider the TB model and EMA, respectively. Results show that EMA predicted only one quantum state (QS) for quantum transport, whereas FAM predicted three QSs. A cosine function behavior is obtained by both methods for the first quantum state. The calculated bandgap value by EMA is almost twice smaller than that of the FAM. Also, a fluctuating current is predicted by both methods but in different oscillation values.

  3. Beyond the Debye length in high ionic strength solution: direct protein detection with field-effect transistors (FETs) in human serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Chia-Ho; Sarangadharan, Indu; Regmi, Abiral; Chen, Yen-Wen; Hsu, Chen-Pin; Chang, Wen-Hsin; Lee, Geng-Yen; Chyi, Jen-Inn; Chen, Chih-Chen; Shiesh, Shu-Chu; Lee, Gwo-Bin; Wang, Yu-Lin

    2017-07-12

    In this study, a new type of field-effect transistor (FET)-based biosensor is demonstrated to be able to overcome the problem of severe charge-screening effect caused by high ionic strength in solution and detect proteins in physiological environment. Antibody or aptamer-immobilized AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) are used to directly detect proteins, including HIV-1 RT, CEA, NT-proBNP and CRP, in 1X PBS (with 1%BSA) or human sera. The samples do not need any dilution or washing process to reduce the ionic strength. The sensor shows high sensitivity and the detection takes only 5 minutes. The designs of the sensor, the methodology of the measurement, and the working mechanism of the sensor are discussed and investigated. A theoretical model is proposed based on the finding of the experiments. This sensor is promising for point-of-care, home healthcare, and mobile diagnostic device.

  4. Vertical field effect tunneling transistor based on graphene-ultrathin Si nanomembrane heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Tanmoy; Jang, Houk; Bok Lee, Jae; Chu, Hyunwoo; Kim, Seong Dae; Ahn, Jong-Hyun

    2015-12-01

    Graphene-based heterostructured vertical transistors have attracted a great deal of research interest. Herein we propose a Si-based technology platform for creating graphene/ultrathin semiconductor/metal (GSM) junctions, which can be applied to large-scale and low-power electronics compatible with a variety of substrates. We fabricated graphene/Si nanomembrane (NM)/metal vertical heterostructures by using a dry transfer technique to transfer Si NMs onto chemical vapor deposition-grown graphene layers. The resulting van der Waals interfaces between graphene and p-Si NMs exhibited nearly ideal Schottky barrier behavior. Due to the low density of states of graphene, the graphene/Si NM Schottky barrier height can be modulated by modulating the band profile in the channel region, yielding well-defined current modulation. We obtained a maximum current on/off ratio (Ion/Ioff) of up to ˜103, with a current density of 102 A cm-2. We also observed significant dependence of Schottky barrier height Δφb on the thickness of the Si NMs. We confirmed that the transport in these devices is dominated by the effects of the graphene/Si NM Schottky barrier.

  5. Vertical field effect tunneling transistor based on graphene-ultrathin Si nanomembrane heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Tanmoy; Jang, Houk; Bok Lee, Jae; Chu, Hyunwoo; Dae Kim, Seong; Ahn, Jong-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Graphene-based heterostructured vertical transistors have attracted a great deal of research interest. Herein we propose a Si-based technology platform for creating graphene/ultrathin semiconductor/metal (GSM) junctions, which can be applied to large-scale and low-power electronics compatible with a variety of substrates. We fabricated graphene/Si nanomembrane (NM)/metal vertical heterostructures by using a dry transfer technique to transfer Si NMs onto chemical vapor deposition-grown graphene layers. The resulting van der Waals interfaces between graphene and p-Si NMs exhibited nearly ideal Schottky barrier behavior. Due to the low density of states of graphene, the graphene/Si NM Schottky barrier height can be modulated by modulating the band profile in the channel region, yielding well-defined current modulation. We obtained a maximum current on/off ratio (I on /I off ) of up to ∼10 3 , with a current density of 10 2 A cm −2 . We also observed significant dependence of Schottky barrier height Δφ b on the thickness of the Si NMs. We confirmed that the transport in these devices is dominated by the effects of the graphene/Si NM Schottky barrier. (paper)

  6. MoS2 /Rubrene van der Waals Heterostructure: Toward Ambipolar Field-Effect Transistors and Inverter Circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xuexia; Chow, WaiLeong; Liu, Fucai; Tay, BengKang; Liu, Zheng

    2017-01-01

    2D transition metal dichalcogenides are promising channel materials for the next-generation electronic device. Here, vertically 2D heterostructures, so called van der Waals solids, are constructed using inorganic molybdenum sulfide (MoS 2 ) few layers and organic crystal - 5,6,11,12-tetraphenylnaphthacene (rubrene). In this work, ambipolar field-effect transistors are successfully achieved based on MoS 2 and rubrene crystals with the well balanced electron and hole mobilities of 1.27 and 0.36 cm 2 V -1 s -1 , respectively. The ambipolar behavior is explained based on the band alignment of MoS 2 and rubrene. Furthermore, being a building block, the MoS 2 /rubrene ambipolar transistors are used to fabricate CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) inverters that show good performance with a gain of 2.3 at a switching threshold voltage of -26 V. This work paves a way to the novel organic/inorganic ultrathin heterostructure based flexible electronics and optoelectronic devices. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Comparison of different surface passivation dielectrics in AlGaN/GaN heterostructure field-effect transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, W.S.; Parbrook, P.J.; Hill, G.; Airey, R.J.; Houston, P.A.

    2002-01-01

    Different dielectrics were used for post-processing surface passivation of AlGaN/GaN heterostructure field-effect transistors (HFETs) and the resulting electrical characteristics examined. An increase in the maximum drain current of approximately 25% was observed after Si 3 N 4 and SiO 2 deposition and ∼15% for annealed SiO on AlGaN/GaN HFETs. In all cases, the passivation was found to increase the gate leakage current with an observed reduction in the leakage activation energy. However, the rise in gate leakage current was least for SiO. The plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition method was found not to contribute to the passivation mechanism, whilst the presence of Si appears to be an important factor. (author)

  8. BioFET-SIM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hediger, M. R.; Martinez, K. L.; Nygård, J.

    2013-01-01

    Biosensors based on nanowire field effect transistor (FET) have received much attention in recent years as a way to achieve ultra-sensitive and label-free sensing of molecules of biological interest. The BioFET-SIM computer model permits the analysis and interpretation of experimental sensor...... signals through its web-based interface www.biofetsim.org. The model also allows for predictions of the effects of changes in the experimental setup on the sensor signal. After an introduction to nanowire-based FET biosensors, this chapter reviews the theoretical basis of BioFET-SIM models describing both...... single and multiple charges on the analyte. Afterwards the usage of the interface and its relative command line version is briefly shown. Finally, possible applications of the BioFET-SIM model are presented. Among the possible uses of the interface, the effects on the predicted signal of pH, buffer ionic...

  9. High-Performance Nonvolatile Organic Field-Effect Transistor Memory Based on Organic Semiconductor Heterostructures of Pentacene/P13/Pentacene as Both Charge Transport and Trapping Layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen; Guo, Fengning; Ling, Haifeng; Zhang, Peng; Yi, Mingdong; Wang, Laiyuan; Wu, Dequn; Xie, Linghai; Huang, Wei

    2017-08-01

    Nonvolatile organic field-effect transistor (OFET) memory devices based on pentacene/ N , N '-ditridecylperylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic diimide (P13)/pentacene trilayer organic heterostructures have been proposed. The discontinuous n-type P13 embedded in p-type pentacene layers can not only provide electrons in the semiconductor layer that facilitates electron trapping process; it also works as charge trapping sites, which is attributed to the quantum well-like pentacene/P13/pentacene organic heterostructures. The synergistic effects of charge trapping in the discontinuous P13 and the charge-trapping property of the poly(4-vinylphenol) (PVP) layer remarkably improve the memory performance. In addition, the trilayer organic heterostructures have also been successfully applied to multilevel and flexible nonvolatile memory devices. The results provide a novel design strategy to achieve high-performance nonvolatile OFET memory devices and allow potential applications for different combinations of various organic semiconductor materials in OFET memory.

  10. Plasma-assisted ohmic contact for AlGaN/GaN heterostructure field-effect transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jiaqi; Wang, Lei; Wang, Qingpeng; Jiang, Ying; Li, Liuan; Ao, Jin-Ping; Zhu, Huichao

    2016-01-01

    An Al-based ohmic process assisted by an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) recess treatment is proposed for AlGaN/GaN heterostructure field-effect transistors (HFETs) to realize ohmic contact, which is only needed to anneal at 500 °C. The recess treatment was done with SiCl 4 plasma with 100 W ICP power for 20 s and annealing at 575 °C for 1 min. Under these conditions, contact resistance of 0.52 Ωmm was confirmed. To suppress the ball-up phenomenon and improve the surface morphology, an Al/TiN structure was also fabricated with the same conditions. The contact resistance was further improved to 0.30 Ωmm. By using this plasma-assisted ohmic process, a gate-first HFET was fabricated. The device showed high drain current density and high transconductance. The leakage current of the TiN-gate device decreased to 10 −9 A, which was 5 orders of magnitude lower than that of the device annealed at 800 °C. The results showed that the low-temperature ohmic contact process assisted by ICP treatment is promising for the fabrication of gate-first and self-aligned gate HFETs. (paper)

  11. Scaling Laws for NanoFET Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Qi-Huo; Zhou, Fu-Shan

    2008-03-01

    In this paper, we report our numerical studies of the scaling laws for nanoplate field-effect transistor (FET) sensors by simplifying the nanoplates as random resistor networks. Nanowire/tube FETs are included as the limiting cases where the device width goes small. Computer simulations show that the field effect strength exerted by the binding molecules has significant impact on the scaling behaviors. When the field effect strength is small, nanoFETs have little size and shape dependence. In contrast, when the field-effect strength becomes stronger, there exists a lower detection threshold for charge accumulation FETs and an upper detection threshold for charge depletion FET sensors. At these thresholds, the nanoFET devices undergo a transition between low and large sensitivities. These thresholds may set the detection limits of nanoFET sensors. We propose to eliminate these detection thresholds by employing devices with very short source-drain distance and large width.

  12. Charge movement in a GaN-based hetero-structure field effect transistor structure with carbon doped buffer under applied substrate bias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pooth, Alexander; Uren, Michael J.; Cäsar, Markus; Kuball, Martin; Martin, Trevor

    2015-01-01

    Charge trapping and transport in the carbon doped GaN buffer of a GaN-based hetero-structure field effect transistor (HFET) has been investigated under both positive and negative substrate bias. Clear evidence of redistribution of charges in the carbon doped region by thermally generated holes is seen, with electron injection and capture observed during positive bias. Excellent agreement is found with simulations. It is shown that these effects are intrinsic to the carbon doped GaN and need to be controlled to provide reliable and efficient GaN-based power HFETs

  13. A new method to determine the 2DEG density distribution for passivated AlGaN/AlN/GaN heterostructure field-effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Chen; Lin, Zhaojun; Cui, Peng; Lv, Yuanjie; Zhou, Yang; Dai, Gang; Luan, Chongbiao; Liu, Huan; Cheng, Aijie

    2018-01-01

    A new method to determine the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) density distribution of the AlGaN/AlN/GaN heterostructure field-effect transistors (HFETs) after the Si3N4 passivation process has been presented. Detailed device characteristics were investigated and better transport properties have been observed for the passivated devices. The strain variation and the influence of the surface trapping states were analyzed. By using the polarization Coulomb field (PCF) scattering theory, the 2DEG density after passivation was both quantitively and qualitatively determined, which has been increased by 45% under the access regions and decreased by 2% under the gate region.

  14. Effect of thermal oxidation treatment on pH sensitivity of AlGaN/GaN heterostructure ion-sensitive field-effect transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lei; Bu, Yuyu [Institute of Science and Technology, Tokushima University, Tokushima 770-8506 (Japan); Li, Liuan, E-mail: liliuan@mail.sysu.edu.cn [School of Electronics and Information Technology, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Ao, Jin-Ping, E-mail: jpao@ee.tokushima-u.ac.jp [Institute of Science and Technology, Tokushima University, Tokushima 770-8506 (Japan)

    2017-07-31

    Highlights: • AlGaN/GaN ISFETs were fabricated and evaluated with thermal oxidation treatment. • Sensitivity was improved to 57.7 mV/pH after 700 °C treatment. • Sensitivity became poor after 800 °C treatment. • The pure α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} crystal phase generated on the surface of the 700 °C treatment sample. • Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} phase content in the metal oxide layer increased after 800 °C treatment. - Abstract: In this article, AlGaN/GaN heterostructure ion-sensitive field-effect transistors (ISFETs) were prepared and evaluated by thermal oxidation treatment on the AlGaN surface. The ISFETs were fabricated on the AlGaN/GaN heterostructure and then thermally oxidized with dry oxygen in 600, 700, and 800 °C, respectively. It indicates that the performance of the AlGaN/GaN heterostructure ISFETs, such as noise and sensitivity, has been improved owing to the thermal oxidation treatment process at different temperatures. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) results indicate that after thermal oxidation treatment at different temperatures, hydroxide who possesses high surface state density will transfer to oxide owing to the higher chemical stability of the latter. Moreover, a crystalline α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} phase generated at 700 °C can not only provide a relatively smooth surface, but also improve the sensitivity to 57.7 mV/pH for the AlGaN/GaN heterostructure ISFETs, which is very close to the Nernstian limit.

  15. Properties of InGaAs/GaAs metal-oxide-semiconductor heterostructure field-effect transistors modified by surface treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregušová, D., E-mail: Dagmar.Gregusova@savba.sk [Institute of Electrical Engineering, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, Bratislava SK-84104 (Slovakia); Gucmann, F.; Kúdela, R. [Institute of Electrical Engineering, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, Bratislava SK-84104 (Slovakia); Mičušík, M. [Polymer Institute of Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, Bratislava SK-84541 (Slovakia); Stoklas, R.; Válik, L. [Institute of Electrical Engineering, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, Bratislava SK-84104 (Slovakia); Greguš, J. [Faculty of Mathematics, Physics and Informatics, Comenius University, Mlynská dolina, Bratislava SK-84248 (Slovakia); Blaho, M. [Institute of Electrical Engineering, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, Bratislava SK-84104 (Slovakia); Kordoš, P. [Institute of Electronics and Photonics, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology STU, Ilkovičova 3, Bratislava SK-81219 (Slovakia)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • AlGaAs/InGaAs/GaAs-based metal oxide semiconductor transistors-MOSHFET. • Thin Al-layer deposited in-situ and oxidize in air – gate insulator. • MOSHFET vs HFET transistor properties, density of traps evaluated. - Abstract: GaAs-based heterostructures exhibit excellent carrier transport properties, mainly the high carrier velocity. An AlGaAs-GaAs heterostructure field-effect transistor (HFET) with an InGaAs channel was prepared using metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOVPE). An AlOx layer was formed on the AlGaAs barrier layer by the air-assisted oxidation of a thin Al layer deposited in-situ in an MOVPE reactor immediately after AlGaAs/InGaAs growth. The HFETs and MOSHFETs exhibited a very low trap state density in the order of 10{sup 11} cm{sup −2} eV{sup −1}. Capacitance measurement yielded no significant difference between the HFET and MOSHFET structures. The formation of an AlOx layer modified the surface by partially eliminating surface states that arise from Ga-and As-based native oxides. The presence of an AlOx layer reflected in a reduced gate leakage current, which was evidenced by the two-terminal transistor measurement. Presented preparation procedure and device properties show great potential of AlGaAs/InGaAs-based MOSHFETs.

  16. Quasi-Two-Dimensional h-BN/β-Ga2O3 Heterostructure Metal-Insulator-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Janghyuk; Mastro, Michael A; Tadjer, Marko J; Kim, Jihyun

    2017-06-28

    β-gallium oxide (β-Ga 2 O 3 ) and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) heterostructure-based quasi-two-dimensional metal-insulator-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MISFETs) were demonstrated by integrating mechanical exfoliation of (quasi)-two-dimensional materials with a dry transfer process, wherein nanothin flakes of β-Ga 2 O 3 and h-BN were utilized as the channel and gate dielectric, respectively, of the MISFET. The h-BN dielectric, which has an extraordinarily flat and clean surface, provides a minimal density of charged impurities on the interface between β-Ga 2 O 3 and h-BN, resulting in superior device performances (maximum transconductance, on/off ratio, subthreshold swing, and threshold voltage) compared to those of the conventional back-gated configurations. Also, double-gating of the fabricated device was demonstrated by biasing both top and bottom gates, achieving the modulation of the threshold voltage. This heterostructured wide-band-gap nanodevice shows a new route toward stable and high-power nanoelectronic devices.

  17. Influence of the gate position on source-to-drain resistance in AlGaN/AlN/GaN heterostructure field-effect transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Liu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Using a suitable dual-gate structure, the source-to-drain resistance (RSD of AlGaN/AlN/GaN heterostructure field-effect transistor (HFET with varying gate position has been studied at room temperature. The theoretical and experimental results have revealed a dependence of RSD on the gate position. The variation of RSD with the gate position is found to stem from the polarization Coulomb field (PCF scattering. This finding is of great benefit to the optimization of the performance of AlGaN/AlN/GaN HFET. Especially, when the AlGaN/AlN/GaN HFET works as a microwave device, it is beneficial to achieve the impedance matching by designing the appropriate gate position based on PCF scattering.

  18. The influence of the AlN barrier thickness on the polarization Coulomb field scattering in AlN/GaN heterostructure field-effect transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv, Yuanjie; Feng, Zhihong; Gu, Guodong; Han, Tingting; Yin, Jiayun; Liu, Bo; Cai, Shujun; Lin, Zhaojun; Ji, Ziwu; Zhao, Jingtao

    2014-01-01

    The electron mobility scattering mechanisms in AlN/GaN heterostuctures with 3 nm and 6 nm AlN barrier thicknesses were investigated by temperature-dependent Hall measurements. The effect of interface roughness (IFR) scattering on the electron mobility was found to be enhanced by increasing AlN barrier thickness. Moreover, using the measured capacitance-voltage and current-voltage characteristics of the fabricated heterostructure field-effect transistors (HFETs) with different Schottky areas on the two heterostuctures, the variations of electron mobility with different gate biases were investigated. Due to enhanced IFR scattering, the influence of polarization Coulomb field (PCF) scattering on electron mobility was found to decrease with increasing AlN barrier layer thickness. However, the PCF scattering remained an important scattering mechanism in the AlN/GaN HFETs.

  19. High-field modulated ion-selective field-effect-transistor (FET) sensors with sensitivity higher than the ideal Nernst sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Ting; Sarangadharan, Indu; Sukesan, Revathi; Hseih, Ching-Yen; Lee, Geng-Yen; Chyi, Jen-Inn; Wang, Yu-Lin

    2018-05-29

    Lead ion selective membrane (Pb-ISM) coated AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMT) was used to demonstrate a whole new methodology for ion-selective FET sensors, which can create ultra-high sensitivity (-36 mV/log [Pb 2+ ]) surpassing the limit of ideal sensitivity (-29.58 mV/log [Pb 2+ ]) in a typical Nernst equation for lead ion. The largely improved sensitivity has tremendously reduced the detection limit (10 -10  M) for several orders of magnitude of lead ion concentration compared to typical ion-selective electrode (ISE) (10 -7  M). The high sensitivity was obtained by creating a strong filed between the gate electrode and the HEMT channel. Systematical investigation was done by measuring different design of the sensor and gate bias, indicating ultra-high sensitivity and ultra-low detection limit obtained only in sufficiently strong field. Theoretical study in the sensitivity consistently agrees with the experimental finding and predicts the maximum and minimum sensitivity. The detection limit of our sensor is comparable to that of Inductively-Coupled-Plasma Mass Spectrum (ICP-MS), which also has detection limit near 10 -10  M.

  20. Inkjet printed ambipolar transistors and inverters based on carbon nanotube/zinc tin oxide heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Bongjun; Jang, Seonpil; Dodabalapur, Ananth; Geier, Michael L.; Prabhumirashi, Pradyumna L.; Hersam, Mark C.

    2014-01-01

    We report ambipolar field-effect transistors (FETs) consisting of inkjet printed semiconductor bilayer heterostructures utilizing semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and amorphous zinc tin oxide (ZTO). The bilayer structure allows for electron transport to occur principally in the amorphous oxide layer and hole transport to occur exclusively in the SWCNT layer. This results in balanced electron and hole mobilities exceeding 2 cm 2 V −1 s −1 at low operating voltages ( 10). This work provides a pathway for realizing solution processable, inkjet printable, large area electronic devices, and systems based on SWCNT-amorphous oxide heterostructures

  1. Tunable Electrical and Optical Characteristics in Monolayer Graphene and Few-Layer MoS2 Heterostructure Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathi, Servin; Lee, Inyeal; Lim, Dongsuk; Wang, Jianwei; Ochiai, Yuichi; Aoki, Nobuyuki; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Lee, Gwan-Hyoung; Yu, Young-Jun; Kim, Philip; Kim, Gil-Ho

    2015-08-12

    Lateral and vertical two-dimensional heterostructure devices, in particular graphene-MoS2, have attracted profound interest as they offer additional functionalities over normal two-dimensional devices. Here, we have carried out electrical and optical characterization of graphene-MoS2 heterostructure. The few-layer MoS2 devices with metal electrode at one end and monolayer graphene electrode at the other end show nonlinearity in drain current with drain voltage sweep due to asymmetrical Schottky barrier height at the contacts and can be modulated with an external gate field. The doping effect of MoS2 on graphene was observed as double Dirac points in the transfer characteristics of the graphene field-effect transistor (FET) with a few-layer MoS2 overlapping the middle part of the channel, whereas the underlapping of graphene have negligible effect on MoS2 FET characteristics, which showed typical n-type behavior. The heterostructure also exhibits a strongest optical response for 520 nm wavelength, which decreases with higher wavelengths. Another distinct feature observed in the heterostructure is the peak in the photocurrent around zero gate voltage. This peak is distinguished from conventional MoS2 FETs, which show a continuous increase in photocurrent with back-gate voltage. These results offer significant insight and further enhance the understanding of the graphene-MoS2 heterostructure.

  2. Electron density window for best frequency performance, lowest phase noise and slowest degradation of GaN heterostructure field-effect transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matulionis, Arvydas

    2013-01-01

    The problems in the realm of nitride heterostructure field-effect transistors (HFETs) are discussed in terms of a novel fluctuation–dissipation-based approach impelled by a recent demonstration of strong correlation of hot-electron fluctuations with frequency performance and degradation of the devices. The correlation has its genesis in the dissipation of the LO-mode heat accumulated by the non-equilibrium longitudinal optical phonons (hot phonons) confined in the channel that hosts the high-density hot-electron gas subjected to a high electric field. The LO-mode heat causes additional scattering of hot electrons and facilitates defect formation in a different manner than the conventional heat contained mainly in the acoustic phonon mode. We treat the heat dissipation problem in terms of the hot-phonon lifetime responsible for the conversion of the non-migrant hot phonons into migrant acoustic modes and other vibrations. The lifetime is measured over a wide range of electron density and supplied electric power. The optimal conditions for the dissipation of the LO-mode heat are associated with the plasmon-assisted disintegration of hot phonons. Signatures of plasmons are experimentally resolved in fluctuations, dissipation, hot-electron transport, transistor frequency performance, transistor phase noise and transistor reliability. In particular, a slower degradation and a faster operation of GaN-based HFETs take place inside the electron density window where the resonant plasmon-assisted ultrafast dissipation of the LO-mode heat comes into play. A novel heterostructure design for the possible improvement of HFET performance is proposed, implemented and tested. (invited review)

  3. Scaling laws for nanoFET sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Fushan; Wei Qihuo

    2008-01-01

    The sensitive conductance change of semiconductor nanowires and carbon nanotubes in response to the binding of charged molecules provides a novel sensing modality which is generally denoted as nanoFET sensors. In this paper, we study the scaling laws of nanoplate FET sensors by simplifying nanoplates as random resistor networks with molecular receptors sitting on lattice sites. Nanowire/tube FETs are included as the limiting cases where the device width goes small. Computer simulations show that the field effect strength exerted by the binding molecules has significant impact on the scaling behaviors. When the field effect strength is small, nanoFETs have little size and shape dependence. In contrast, when the field effect strength becomes stronger, there exists a lower detection threshold for charge accumulation FETs and an upper detection threshold for charge depletion FET sensors. At these thresholds, the nanoFET devices undergo a transition between low and large sensitivities. These thresholds may set the detection limits of nanoFET sensors, while they could be eliminated by designing devices with very short source-drain distance and large width

  4. Inkjet printed ambipolar transistors and inverters based on carbon nanotube/zinc tin oxide heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bongjun; Jang, Seonpil; Dodabalapur, Ananth, E-mail: ananth.dodabalapur@engr.utexas.edu [Microelectronics Research Center, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78758 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Geier, Michael L.; Prabhumirashi, Pradyumna L. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); Hersam, Mark C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); Department of Medicine, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States)

    2014-02-10

    We report ambipolar field-effect transistors (FETs) consisting of inkjet printed semiconductor bilayer heterostructures utilizing semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and amorphous zinc tin oxide (ZTO). The bilayer structure allows for electron transport to occur principally in the amorphous oxide layer and hole transport to occur exclusively in the SWCNT layer. This results in balanced electron and hole mobilities exceeding 2 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1} at low operating voltages (<5 V) in air. We further show that the SWCNT-ZTO hybrid ambipolar FETs can be integrated into functional inverter circuits that display high peak gain (>10). This work provides a pathway for realizing solution processable, inkjet printable, large area electronic devices, and systems based on SWCNT-amorphous oxide heterostructures.

  5. Influence of the channel electric field distribution on the polarization Coulomb field scattering in AlGaN/AlN/GaN heterostructure field-effect transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingxia Yu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Using the Quasi-Two-Dimensional (quasi-2D model, the current-voltage (I-V characteristics of AlGaN/AlN/GaN heterostructure field-effect transistors (HFETs with different gate length were simulated based on the measured capacitance-voltage (C-V characteristics and I-V characteristics. By analyzing the simulation results, we found that the different polarization charge distribution generated by the different channel electric field distribution can result in different polarization Coulomb field scattering, and the difference of the electron mobility mostly caused by the polarization Coulomb field scattering can reach up to 1829.9 cm2/V·s for the prepared AlGaN/AlN/GaN HFET. In addition, it was also found that when the two-dimension electron gas (2DEG sheet density is modulated by the drain-source bias, the electron mobility appears peak with the variation of the 2DEG sheet density, and the ratio of gate length to drain-source distance is smaller, the 2DEG sheet density corresponding to the peak point is higher.

  6. Influence of Surface Passivation on AlN Barrier Stress and Scattering Mechanism in Ultra-thin AlN/GaN Heterostructure Field-Effect Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Y J; Song, X B; Wang, Y G; Fang, Y L; Feng, Z H

    2016-12-01

    Ultra-thin AlN/GaN heterostructure field-effect transistors (HFETs) with, and without, SiN passivation were fabricated by the same growth and device processes. Based on the measured DC characteristics, including the capacitance-voltage (C-V) and output current-voltage (I-V) curves, the variation of electron mobility with gate bias was found to be quite different for devices with, and without, SiN passivation. Although the AlN barrier layer is ultra thin (c. 3 nm), it was proved that SiN passivation induces no additional tensile stress and has no significant influence on the piezoelectric polarization of the AlN layer using Hall and Raman measurements. The SiN passivation was found to affect the surface properties, thereby increasing the electron density of the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) under the access region. The higher electron density in the access region after SiN passivation enhanced the electrostatic screening for the non-uniform distributed polarization charges, meaning that the polarization Coulomb field scattering has a weaker effect on the electron drift mobility in AlN/GaN-based devices.

  7. Si and Mg pair-doped interlayers for improving performance of AlGaN/GaN heterostructure field effect transistors grown on Si substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Yi-Qiang; He, Zhi-Yuan; Yao, Yao; Yang, Fan; Zhou, De-Qiu; Zhou, Gui-Lin; Shen, Zhen; Zhong, Jian; Zheng, Yue; Zhang, Bai-Jun; Liu, Yang

    2015-05-01

    We report a novel structure of AlGaN/GaN heterostructure field effect transistors (HFETs) with a Si and Mg pair-doped interlayer grown on Si substrate. By optimizing the doping concentrations of the pair-doped interlayers, the mobility of 2DEG increases by twice for the conventional structure under 5 K due to the improved crystalline quality of the conduction channel. The proposed HFET shows a four orders lower off-state leakage current, resulting in a much higher on/off ratio (˜ 109). Further temperature-dependent performance of Schottky diodes revealed that the inhibition of shallow surface traps in proposed HFETs should be the main reason for the suppression of leakage current. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51177175 and 61274039), the National Basic Research Project of China (Grant Nos. 2010CB923200 and 2011CB301903), the Ph.D. Program Foundation of Ministry of Education of China (Grant No. 20110171110021), the International Sci. & Tech. Collaboration Program of China (Grant No. 2012DFG52260), the National High-tech R&D Program of China (Grant No. 2014AA032606), the Science and Technology Plan of Guangdong Province, China (Grant No. 2013B010401013), and the Opened Fund of the State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics (Grant No. IOSKL2014KF17).

  8. Converse piezoelectric strain in undoped and Fe-doped AlGaN/GaN heterostructure field effect transistors studied by Raman scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarua, A; Ji, Hangfeng; Pomeroy, J W; Kuball, M; Uren, M J; Martin, T

    2010-01-01

    Converse piezoelectric strain in undoped and Fe-doped AlGaN/GaN heterostructure field effect transistors (HFETs), i.e. the strain induced by applying bias to a transistor, was studied using micro-Raman scattering spectroscopy as a function of applied source–drain voltage for different GaN buffer doping levels and substrate types. By monitoring the phonon frequency shifts and line width of the E 2 and A 1 (LO) phonon modes of GaN, a considerable piezoelectric strain/stress was found in undoped devices, which exhibited a saturation above 40 V bias. This saturation voltage was used to quantify the deep acceptor concentration in the GaN buffer layer. Using experimental Raman data and numerical modelling of the electric field distribution in the device, it was furthermore established that Fe doping causes confinement of the strain/stress to the vicinity of the AlGaN/GaN interface, i.e. near the electron channel, with potential implications for device reliability. It was concluded that varying the structure and doping in the buffer layer has the potential to modify the converse piezoelectric strain and hence affect reliability issues in AlGaN/GaN HFETs

  9. Harvesting Triplet Excitons with Exciplex Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence Emitters toward High Performance Heterostructured Organic Light-Emitting Field Effect Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Li; Hu, Yongsheng; Liu, Zheqin; Lv, Ying; Guo, Xiaoyang; Liu, Xingyuan

    2017-01-25

    The utilization of triplet excitons plays a key role in obtaining high emission efficiency for organic electroluminescent devices. However, to date, only phosphorescent materials have been implemented to harvest the triplet excitons in the organic light-emitting field effect transistors (OLEFETs). In this work, we report the first incorporation of exciplex thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) emitters in heterostructured OLEFETs to harvest the triplet excitons. By developing a new kind of exciplex TADF emitter constituted by m-MTDATA (4,4',4″-tris(N-3-methylphenyl-N-phenylamino)triphenylamine) as the donor and OXD-7 (1,3-bis[2-(4-tert-butylphenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazo-5-yl]benzene) as the acceptor, an exciton utilization efficiency of 74.3% for the devices was achieved. It is found that the injection barrier between hole transport layer and emission layer as well as the ratio between donor and acceptor would influence the external quantum efficiency (EQE) significantly. Devices with a maximum EQE of 3.76% which is far exceeding the reported results for devices with conventional fluorescent emitters were successfully demonstrated. Moreover, the EQE at high brightness even outperformed the result for organic light-emitting diode based on the same emitter. Our results demonstrate that the exciplex TADF emitters can be promising candidates to develop OLEFETs with high performance.

  10. Performance of AlGaN/GaN Heterostructure Field-Effect Transistors for High-Frequency and High-Power Electronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Kordos

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Preparation and properties of GaN-based heterostructure field-effect transistors (HFETs for high-frequency and high-power applications are studied in this work. Performance of unpassivated and SiO2 passivated AlGaN/GaN HFETs, as well as passivated SiO2/AlGaN/GaN MOSHFETs (metal-oxide-semicondutor HFETs is compared. It is found that MOSHFETs exhibit better DC and RF properties than simple HFET counterparts. Deposited SiO2 yielded an increase of the sheet carrier density from 7.6x10^12 cm^-2 to 9.2x10^12 cm^-2 and subsequent increase of the static drain saturation current from 0.75 A/mm to 1.09 A/mm. Small-signal RF characterisation of MOSHFETs showed an extrinsic current gain cut-off frequency fT of 24 GHz and a maximum frequency of oscillation fmax of 40 GHz. These are fully comparable values with state-of-the-art AlGaN/GaN HFETs. Finnaůůy, microwave power measurements confirmed excellent performance of MOSHFETs:the output power measured at 7 GHz is about two-times larger than that of simple unpassived HFET. Thus, a great potential in application of GaN-based MOSHFETs is documented. 

  11. High-performance silicon nanotube tunneling FET for ultralow-power logic applications

    KAUST Repository

    Fahad, Hossain M.

    2013-03-01

    To increase typically low output drive currents from tunnel field-effect transistors (FETs), we show a silicon vertical nanotube (NT) architecture-based FET\\'s effectiveness. Using core (inner) and shell (outer) gate stacks, the silicon NT tunneling FET shows a sub-60 mV/dec subthreshold slope, ultralow off -state leakage current, higher drive current compared with gate-all-around nanowire silicon tunnel FETs. © 1963-2012 IEEE.

  12. Dopant disorder-free 2DEG GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure FET devices for quantum hall and nanostructure studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facer, G.R.; Kane, B.E.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: Two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) GaAs/AIGaAs heterostructures have been grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) in which gate-induced accumulation of carriers replaces the more usual modulation doping. These novel devices have the advantages of reduced disorder and a high degree of tunability in the carrier density. Because modulation doping is not used, disorder effects in the 2DEG due to nearby dopants are eliminated. Mean free paths for electrons exceed 30 μm at low temperatures. Electron densities are accurately tunable over nearly two orders of magnitude, from 9 x 10 9 cm -2 to 4 x 10 11 cm -2 . Very high electron mobilities, exceeding 3 x10 6 cm 2 /Vs at 4.2 K, are obtained. With such a combination of density tunability and low disorder, these layers provide unique opportunities for studying low dimensional systems following further lithography. Nanolithography with feature sizes under 50 nm will be possible at UNSW in early 1996. In preparation for 1-dimensional and 0-dimensional structure fabrication, the 2DEG samples have been characterised in steady fields at temperatures ∼ 50 mK. Recent theory has explained the fractional quantum Hall effect at electron filling factor ν=1/2 in terms of composite fermions (made up of interacting electrons) behaving as if they are a non-interacting system at B=0. The question of the mobility μ c of composite fermions in the new devices, and how it varies as the electron density varies, has been studied. Preliminary measurements at ν=1/2 yield μ c ∼ 10 4 cm 2 /Vs. The composite fermion mobility is nearly independent of electron density beyond an apparent threshold N = 0.5 x 10 11 cm -2 , and independent of temperature in the range 50 to 200 mK. The electron N threshold coincides with the crossover of the carrier Fermi wavelength and the mean free path

  13. Graphene-Nanodiamond Heterostructures and their application to High Current Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fang; Vrajitoarea, Andrei; Jiang, Qi; Han, Xiaoyu; Chaudhary, Aysha; Welch, Joseph O.; Jackman, Richard B.

    2015-01-01

    Graphene on hydrogen terminated monolayer nanodiamond heterostructures provides a new way to improve carrier transport characteristics of the graphene, offering up to 60% improvement when compared with similar graphene on SiO2/Si substrates. These heterostructures offers excellent current-carrying abilities whilst offering the prospect of a fast, low cost and easy methodology for device applications. The use of ND monolayers is also a compatible technology for the support of large area graphene films. The nature of the C-H bonds between graphene and H-terminated NDs strongly influences the electronic character of the heterostructure, creating effective charge redistribution within the system. Field effect transistors (FETs) have been fabricated based on this novel herterostructure to demonstrate device characteristics and the potential of this approach. PMID:26350107

  14. High breakdown electric field in β-Ga2O3/graphene vertical barristor heterostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiaodong; Esqueda, Ivan S.; Ma, Jiahui; Tice, Jesse; Wang, Han

    2018-01-01

    In this work, we study the high critical breakdown field in β-Ga2O3 perpendicular to its (100) crystal plane using a β-Ga2O3/graphene vertical heterostructure. Measurements indicate a record breakdown field of 5.2 MV/cm perpendicular to the (100) plane that is significantly larger than the previously reported values on lateral β-Ga2O3 field-effect-transistors (FETs). This result is compared with the critical field typically measured within the (100) crystal plane, and the observed anisotropy is explained through a combined theoretical and experimental analysis.

  15. Graphene-based field-effect transistor biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen; , Junhong; Mao, Shun; Lu, Ganhua

    2017-06-14

    The disclosure provides a field-effect transistor (FET)-based biosensor and uses thereof. In particular, to FET-based biosensors using thermally reduced graphene-based sheets as a conducting channel decorated with nanoparticle-biomolecule conjugates. The present disclosure also relates to FET-based biosensors using metal nitride/graphene hybrid sheets. The disclosure provides a method for detecting a target biomolecule in a sample using the FET-based biosensor described herein.

  16. 3D modeling of dual-gate FinFET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mil'shtein, Samson; Devarakonda, Lalitha; Zanchi, Brian; Palma, John

    2012-11-13

    The tendency to have better control of the flow of electrons in a channel of field-effect transistors (FETs) did lead to the design of two gates in junction field-effect transistors, field plates in a variety of metal semiconductor field-effect transistors and high electron mobility transistors, and finally a gate wrapping around three sides of a narrow fin-shaped channel in a FinFET. With the enhanced control, performance trends of all FETs are still challenged by carrier mobility dependence on the strengths of the electrical field along the channel. However, in cases when the ratio of FinFET volume to its surface dramatically decreases, one should carefully consider the surface boundary conditions of the device. Moreover, the inherent non-planar nature of a FinFET demands 3D modeling for accurate analysis of the device performance. Using the Silvaco modeling tool with quantization effects, we modeled a physical FinFET described in the work of Hisamoto et al. (IEEE Tran. Elec. Devices 47:12, 2000) in 3D. We compared it with a 2D model of the same device. We demonstrated that 3D modeling produces more accurate results. As 3D modeling results came close to experimental measurements, we made the next step of the study by designing a dual-gate FinFET biased at Vg1 >Vg2. It is shown that the dual-gate FinFET carries higher transconductance than the single-gate device.

  17. High-performance silicon nanotube tunneling FET for ultralow-power logic applications

    KAUST Repository

    Fahad, Hossain M.; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    To increase typically low output drive currents from tunnel field-effect transistors (FETs), we show a silicon vertical nanotube (NT) architecture-based FET's effectiveness. Using core (inner) and shell (outer) gate stacks, the silicon NT tunneling FET shows a sub-60 mV/dec subthreshold slope, ultralow off -state leakage current, higher drive current compared with gate-all-around nanowire silicon tunnel FETs. © 1963-2012 IEEE.

  18. Transient hardened power FETs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawes, W.R. Jr.; Fischer, T.A.; Huang, C.C.C.; Meyer, W.J.; Smith, C.S.; Blanchard, R.A.; Fortier, T.J.

    1986-01-01

    N-channel power FETs offer significant advantages in power conditioning circuits. Similiarily to all MOS technologies, power FET devices are vulnerable to ionizing radiation, and are particularily susceptible to burn-out in high dose rate irradiations (>1E10 rads(Si)/sec.), which precludes their use in many military environments. This paper will summarize the physical mechanisms responsible for burn-out, and discuss various fabrication techniques designed to improve the transient hardness of power FETs. Power FET devices were fabricated with several of these techniques, and data will be presented which demonstrates that transient hardness levels in excess of 1E12 rads(Si)/sec. are easily achievable

  19. Quantum ballistic analysis of transition metal dichalcogenides based double gate junctionless field effect transistor and its application in nano-biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadman, Abir; Rahman, Ehsanur; Khosru, Quazi D. M.

    2017-11-01

    To reduce the thermal budget and the short channel effects in state of the art CMOS technology, Junctionless field effect transistor (JLFET) has been proposed in the literature. Numerous experimental, modeling, and simulation based works have been done on this new FET with bulk materials for various geometries until now. On the other hand, the two-dimensional layered material is considered as an alternative to current Si technology because of its ultra-thin body and high mobility. Very recently few simulation based works have been done on monolayer molybdenum disulfide based JLFET mainly to show the advantage of JLFET over conventional FET. However, no comprehensive simulation-based work has been done for double gate JLFET keeping in mind the prominent transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDC) to the authors' best knowledge. In this work, we have studied quantum ballistic drain current-gate voltage characteristics of such FETs within non-equilibrium Green's function (NEGF) framework. Our simulation results reveal that all these TMDC materials are viable options for implementing state of the art Junctionless MOSFET with emphasis on their performance at short gate lengths. Besides evaluating the prospect of TMDC materials in the digital logic application, the performance of Junctionless Double Gate trilayer TMDC heterostructure FET for the label-free electrical detection of biomolecules in dry environment has been investigated for the first time to the authors' best knowledge. The impact of charge neutral biomolecules on the electrical characteristics of the biosensor has been analyzed under dry environment situation. Our study shows that these materials could provide high sensitivity in the sub-threshold region as a channel material in nano-biosensor, a trend demonstrated by silicon on insulator FET sensor in the literature. Thus, going by the trend of replacing silicon with these novel materials in device level, TMDC heterostructure could be a viable alternative to

  20. Poole Frenkel current and Schottky emission in SiN gate dielectric in AlGaN/GaN metal insulator semiconductor heterostructure field effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Mina J.; Zhao, Han; Lee, Jack C.

    2012-10-01

    We analyze the anomalous I-V behavior in SiN prepared by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition for use as a gate insulator in AlGaN/GaN metal insulator semiconductor heterostructure filed effect transistors (HFETs). We observe leakage current across the dielectric with opposite polarity with respect to the applied electric field once the voltage sweep reaches a level below a determined threshold. This is observed as the absolute minimum of the leakage current does not occur at minimum voltage level (0 V) but occurs earlier in the sweep interval. Curve-fitting analysis suggests that the charge-transport mechanism in this region is Poole-Frenkel current, followed by Schottky emission due to band bending. Despite the current anomaly, the sample devices have shown a notable reduction of leakage current of over 2 to 6 order of magnitudes compared to the standard Schottky HFET. We show that higher pressures and higher silane concentrations produce better films manifesting less trapping. This conforms to our results that we reported in earlier publications. We found that higher chamber pressure achieves higher sheet carrier concentration that was found to be strongly dependent on the trapped space charge at the SiN/GaN interface. This would suggest that a lower chamber pressure induces more trap states into the SiN/GaN interface.

  1. The physical analysis on electrical junction of junctionless FET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lun-Chun Chen

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We propose the concept of the electrical junction in a junctionless (JL field-effect-transistor (FET to illustrate the transfer characteristics of the JL FET. In this work, nanowire (NW junctionless poly-Si thin-film transistors are used to demonstrate this conception of the electrical junction. Though the dopant and the dosage of the source, of the drain, and of the channel are exactly the same in the JL FET, the transfer characteristics of the JL FET is similar to these of the conventional inversion-mode FET rather than these of a resistor, which is because of the electrical junction at the boundary of the gate and the drain in the JL FET. The electrical junction helps us to understand the JL FET, and also to explain the superior transfer characteristic of the JL FET with the gated raised S/D (Gout structure which reveals low drain-induced-barrier-lowering (DIBL and low breakdown voltage of ion impact ionization.

  2. Novel 14-nm Scallop-Shaped FinFETs (S-FinFETs) on Bulk-Si Substrate

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Weijia; Yin, Huaxiang; Ma, Xiaolong; Hong, Peizhen; Xu, Miao; Meng, Lingkuan

    2015-01-01

    In this study, novel p-type scallop-shaped fin field-effect transistors (S-FinFETs) are fabricated using an all-last high-k/metal gate (HKMG) process on bulk-silicon (Si) substrates for the first time. In combination with the structure advantage of conventional Si nanowires, the proposed S-FinFETs provide better electrostatic integrity in the channels than normal bulk-Si FinFETs or tri-gate devices with rectangular or trapezoidal fins. It is due to formation of quasi-surrounding gate electrod...

  3. Influence of the channel electric field distribution on the polarization Coulomb field scattering in In0.18Al0.82N/AlN/GaN heterostructure field-effect transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Ying-Xia; Lin Zhao-Jun; Luan Chong-Biao; Yang Ming; Wang Yu-Tang; Lü Yuan-Jie; Feng Zhi-Hong

    2014-01-01

    By making use of the quasi-two-dimensional (quasi-2D) model, the current–voltage (I–V) characteristics of In 0.18 Al 0.82 N/AlN/GaN heterostructure field-effect transistors (HFETs) with different gate lengths are simulated based on the measured capacitance–voltage (C–V) characteristics and I–V characteristics. By analyzing the variation of the electron mobility for the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) with electric field, it is found that the different polarization charge distributions generated by the different channel electric field distributions can result in different polarization Coulomb field scatterings. The difference between the electron mobilities primarily caused by the polarization Coulomb field scatterings can reach up to 1522.9 cm 2 /V·s for the prepared In 0.18 Al 0.82 N/AlN/GaN HFETs. In addition, when the 2DEG sheet density is modulated by the drain–source bias, the electron mobility presents a peak with the variation of the 2DEG sheet density, the gate length is smaller, and the 2DEG sheet density corresponding to the peak point is higher. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  4. Effect of AlN growth temperature on trap densities of in-situ metal-organic chemical vapor deposition grown AlN/AlGaN/GaN metal-insulator-semiconductor heterostructure field-effect transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph J. Freedsman

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The trapping properties of in-situ metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD grown AlN/AlGaN/GaN metal-insulator-semiconductor heterostructure field-effect transistors (MIS-HFETs with AlN layers grown at 600 and 700 °C has been quantitatively analyzed by frequency dependent parallel conductance technique. Both the devices exhibited two kinds of traps densities, due to AlN (DT-AlN and AlGaN layers (DT-AlGaN respectively. The MIS-HFET grown at 600 °C showed a minimum DT-AlN and DT-AlGaN of 1.1 x 1011 and 1.2 x 1010 cm-2eV-1 at energy levels (ET -0.47 and -0.36 eV. Further, the gate-lag measurements on these devices revealed less degradation ∼ ≤ 5% in drain current density (Ids-max. Meanwhile, MIS-HFET grown at 700 °C had more degradation in Ids-max ∼26 %, due to high DT-AlN and DT-AlGaN of 3.4 x 1012 and 5 x 1011 cm-2eV-1 positioned around similar ET. The results shows MIS-HFET grown at 600 °C had better device characteristics with trap densities one order of magnitude lower than MIS-HFET grown at 700 °C.

  5. Nanoscale structural and chemical analysis of F-implanted enhancement-mode InAlN/GaN heterostructure field effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Fengzai; Lee, Kean B.; Guiney, Ivor; Frentrup, Martin; Barnard, Jonathan S.; Divitini, Giorgio; Zaidi, Zaffar H.; Martin, Tomas L.; Bagot, Paul A.; Moody, Michael P.; Humphreys, Colin J.; Houston, Peter A.; Oliver, Rachel A.; Wallis, David J.

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the impact of a fluorine plasma treatment used to obtain enhancement-mode operation on the structure and chemistry at the nanometer and atomic scales of an InAlN/GaN field effect transistor. The fluorine plasma treatment is successful in that enhancement mode operation is achieved with a +2.8 V threshold voltage. However, the InAlN barrier layers are observed to have been damaged by the fluorine treatment with their thickness being reduced by up to 50%. The treatment also led to oxygen incorporation within the InAlN barrier layers. Furthermore, even in the as-grown structure, Ga was unintentionally incorporated during the growth of the InAlN barrier. The impact of both the reduced barrier thickness and the incorporated Ga within the barrier on the transistor properties has been evaluated theoretically and compared to the experimentally determined two-dimensional electron gas density and threshold voltage of the transistor. For devices without fluorine treatment, the two-dimensional electron gas density is better predicted if the quaternary nature of the barrier is taken into account. For the fluorine treated device, not only the changes to the barrier layer thickness and composition, but also the fluorine doping needs to be considered to predict device performance. These studies reveal the factors influencing the performance of these specific transistor structures and highlight the strengths of the applied nanoscale characterisation techniques in revealing information relevant to device performance.

  6. Durable chemical sensors based on field-effect transistors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinhoudt, David

    1995-01-01

    The design of durable chemical sensors based on field-effect transistors (FETs) is described. After modification of an ion-sensitive FET (ISFET) with a polysiloxane membrane matrix, it is possible to attach all electroactive components covalently. Preliminary results of measurements with a

  7. Multilayer Graphene–WSe2 Heterostructures for WSe2 Transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Tang, Hao-Ling

    2017-11-29

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials are drawing growing attention for next-generation electronics and optoelectronics owing to its atomic thickness and unique physical properties. One of the challenges posed by 2D materials is the large source/drain (S/D) series resistance due to their thinness, which may be resolved by thickening the source and drain regions. Recently explored lateral graphene–MoS21−3 and graphene–WS21,4 heterostructures shed light on resolving the mentioned issues owing to their superior ohmic contact behaviors. However, recently reported field-effect transistors (FETs) based on graphene–TMD heterostructures have only shown n-type characteristics. The lack of p-type transistor limits their applications in complementary metal-oxide semiconductor electronics. In this work, we demonstrate p-type FETs based on graphene–WSe2 lateral heterojunctions grown with the scalable CVD technique. Few-layer WSe2 is overlapped with the multilayer graphene (MLG) at MLG–WSe2 junctions such that the contact resistance is reduced. Importantly, the few-layer WSe2 only forms at the junction region while the channel is still maintained as a WSe2 monolayer for transistor operation. Furthermore, by imposing doping to graphene S/D, 2 orders of magnitude enhancement in Ion/Ioff ratio to ∼108 and the unipolar p-type characteristics are obtained regardless of the work function of the metal in ambient air condition. The MLG is proposed to serve as a 2D version of emerging raised source/drain approach in electronics.

  8. Dielectric Modulated FET (DMFET)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Working Principle: Change in Dielectric constant due to immobilization of biomolecules in the nanogap cavity leads to change in effective gate capacitance and thus gate bias for FET. Working Principle: Change in Dielectric constant due to immobilization of biomolecules in the ...

  9. DNA-FET using carbon nanotube electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, T K; Ikegami, A; Aoki, N; Ochiai, Y

    2006-01-01

    We demonstrate DNA field effect transistor (DNA-FET) using multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWNT) as nano-structural source and drain electrodes. The MWNT electrodes have been fabricated by focused ion-beam bombardment (FIBB). A very short channel, approximately 50 nm, was easily formed between the severed MWNT. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of DNA molecules between the MWNT electrodes showed hopping transport property. We have also measured the gate-voltage dependence in the I-V characteristics and found that poly DNA molecules exhibits p-type conduction. The transport of DNA-FET can be explained by two hopping lengths which depend on the range of the source-drain bias voltages

  10. FET-biosensor for cardiac troponin biomarker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Arshad Mohd Khairuddin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute myocardial infarction or myocardial infarction (MI is a major health problem, due to diminished flow of blood to the heart, leads to higher rates of mortality and morbidity. The most specific markers for cardiac injury are cardiac troponin I (cTnI and cardiac troponin T (cTnT which have been considered as ‘gold standard’. Due to higher specificity, determination of the level of cardiac troponins became a predominant indicator for MI. Currently, field-effect transistor (FET-based biosensors have been main interest to be implemented in portable sensors with the ultimate application in point-of-care testing (POCT. In this paper, we review on the FET-based biosensor based on its principle of operation, integration with nanomaterial, surface functionalization as well as immobilization, and the introduction of additional gate (for ambipolar conduction on the device architecture for the detection of cardiac troponin I (cTnI biomarker.

  11. Palladium configuration dependence of hydrogen detection sensitivity based on graphene FET for breath analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Yuri; Uemura, Kohei; Ikuta, Takashi; Maehashi, Kenzo

    2018-04-01

    We have succeeded in fabricating a hydrogen gas sensor based on palladium-modified graphene field-effect transistors (FETs). The negative-voltage shift in the transfer characteristics was observed with exposure to hydrogen gas, which was explained by the change in work function. The hydrogen concentration dependence of the voltage shift was investigated using graphene FETs with palladium deposited by three different evaporation processes. The results indicate that the hydrogen detection sensitivity of the palladium-modified graphene FETs is strongly dependent on the palladium configuration. Therefore, the palladium-modified graphene FET is a candidate for breath analysis.

  12. Taste sensing FET (TSFET)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toko, K.; Yasuda, R.; Ezaki, S. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Fujiyoshi, T. [Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-12-20

    Taste can be quantified using a multichannel taste sensor with lipid/polymer membranes. Its sensitivity and stability are superior to those of humans. A present study is concerned with the first step of miniaturization and integration of the taste sensor with lipid/polymer membranes using FET. As a result, it was found that gate-source voltage of the taste sensing FET showed the same behaviors as the conventional taste sensor utilizing the membrane-potential change due to five kinds of taste substances. Discrimination of foodstuffs was very easy. A thin lipid membrane formed using LB technique was also tried. These results will open doors to fabrication of a miniaturized, integrated taste sensing system. 12 refs., 6 figs.

  13. Ambipolar phosphorene field effect transistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Saptarshi; Demarteau, Marcel; Roelofs, Andreas

    2014-11-25

    In this article, we demonstrate enhanced electron and hole transport in few-layer phosphorene field effect transistors (FETs) using titanium as the source/drain contact electrode and 20 nm SiO2 as the back gate dielectric. The field effect mobility values were extracted to be ∼38 cm(2)/Vs for electrons and ∼172 cm(2)/Vs for the holes. On the basis of our experimental data, we also comprehensively discuss how the contact resistances arising due to the Schottky barriers at the source and the drain end effect the different regime of the device characteristics and ultimately limit the ON state performance. We also propose and implement a novel technique for extracting the transport gap as well as the Schottky barrier height at the metal-phosphorene contact interface from the ambipolar transfer characteristics of the phosphorene FETs. This robust technique is applicable to any ultrathin body semiconductor which demonstrates symmetric ambipolar conduction. Finally, we demonstrate a high gain, high noise margin, chemical doping free, and fully complementary logic inverter based on ambipolar phosphorene FETs.

  14. Design and Simulation of Nano Wire FET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Anil Kumar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available As the era of classical planar metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs comes to an end, the semiconductor industry is beginning to adopt 3D device architectures, such as FinFETs, starting at the 22 nm technology node. Since physical limits such as short channel effect (SCE and self-heating may dominate, it may be difficult to scale Si FinFET below 10 nm. In this regard, transistors with different materials, geometries, or operating principles may help. For example, gate has excellent electrostatic control over 2D thin film channel with planar geometry and 1D nanowire (NW channel with gate-all-around (GAA geometry to reduce SCE. High carrier mobility of single wall carbon nanotube (SWNT or III-V channels may reduce VDD to reduce power consumption. Therefore, as channel of transistor, 2D thin film of array SWNTs and 1D III-V multi NWs are promising for sub 10 nm technology nodes. To simulate these devices, accurate modelling and design based on gate-material are necessary to assess their performance limits, since cross-sections of the multi-gate NWFETs are expected to be a few nano-meters wide in their ultimate scaling. In this paper we have explored the use of SILVACO with different materials for simulating and studying the short channel behaviour of nanowire FETs.

  15. G(sup 4)FET Implementations of Some Logic Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojarradi, Mohammad; Akarvardar, Kerem; Cristoleveanu, Sorin; Gentil, Paul; Blalock, Benjamin; Chen, Suhan

    2009-01-01

    Some logic circuits have been built and demonstrated to work substantially as intended, all as part of a continuing effort to exploit the high degrees of design flexibility and functionality of the electronic devices known as G(sup 4)FETs and described below. These logic circuits are intended to serve as prototypes of more complex advanced programmable-logicdevice-type integrated circuits, including field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). In comparison with prior FPGAs, these advanced FPGAs could be much more efficient because the functionality of G(sup 4)FETs is such that fewer discrete components are needed to perform a given logic function in G(sup 4)FET circuitry than are needed perform the same logic function in conventional transistor-based circuitry. The underlying concept of using G(sup 4)FETs as building blocks of programmable logic circuitry was also described, from a different perspective, in G(sup 4)FETs as Universal and Programmable Logic Gates (NPO-41698), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 31, No. 7 (July 2007), page 44. A G(sup 4)FET can be characterized as an accumulation-mode silicon-on-insulator (SOI) metal oxide/semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) featuring two junction field-effect transistor (JFET) gates. The structure of a G(sup 4)FET (see Figure 1) is the same as that of a p-channel inversion-mode SOI MOSFET with two body contacts on each side of the channel. The top gate (G1), the substrate emulating a back gate (G2), and the junction gates (JG1 and JG2) can be biased independently of each other and, hence, each can be used to independently control some aspects of the conduction characteristics of the transistor. The independence of the actions of the four gates is what affords the enhanced functionality and design flexibility of G(sup 4)FETs. The present G(sup 4)FET logic circuits include an adjustable-threshold inverter, a real-time-reconfigurable logic gate, and a dynamic random-access memory (DRAM) cell (see Figure 2). The configuration

  16. Fringing field effects in negative capacitance field-effect transistors with a ferroelectric gate insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Junichi; Fukuda, Koichi; Ikegami, Tsutomu; Ota, Hiroyuki; Migita, Shinji; Asai, Hidehiro; Toriumi, Akira

    2018-04-01

    We study the effects of fringing electric fields on the behavior of negative-capacitance (NC) field-effect transistors (FETs) with a silicon-on-insulator body and a gate stack consisting of an oxide film, an internal metal film, a ferroelectric film, and a gate electrode using our own device simulator that can properly handle the complicated relationship between the polarization and the electric field in ferroelectric materials. The behaviors of such NC FETs and the corresponding metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) FETs are simulated and compared with each other to evaluate the effects of the NC of the ferroelectric film. Then, the fringing field effects are evaluated by comparing the NC effects in NC FETs with and without gate spacers. The fringing field between the gate stack, especially the internal metal film, and the source/drain region induces more charges at the interface of the film with the ferroelectric film. Accordingly, the function of the NC to modulate the gate voltage and the resulting function to improve the subthreshold swing are enhanced. We also investigate the relationships of these fringing field effects to the drain voltage and four design parameters of NC FETs, i.e., gate length, gate spacer permittivity, internal metal film thickness, and oxide film thickness.

  17. Toward quantum FinFET

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Zhiming

    2013-01-01

    This book reviews a range of quantum phenomena in novel nanoscale transistors called FinFETs, including quantized conductance of 1D transport, single electron effect, tunneling transport, etc. The goal is to create a fundamental bridge between quantum FinFET and nanotechnology to stimulate readers' interest in developing new types of semiconductor technology. Although the rapid development of micro-nano fabrication is driving the MOSFET downscaling trend that is evolving from planar channel to nonplanar FinFET, silicon-based CMOS technology is expected to face fundamental limits in the near future. Therefore, new types of nanoscale devices are being investigated aggressively to take advantage of the quantum effect in carrier transport. The quantum confinement effect of FinFET at room temperatures was reported following the breakthrough to sub-10nm scale technology in silicon nanowires. With chapters written by leading scientists throughout the world, Toward Quantum FinFET provides a comprehensive introductio...

  18. Importance of the Debye screening length on nanowire field effect transistor sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Eric; Wagner, Robin; Sigworth, Fred J; Breaker, Ronald; Fahmy, Tarek M; Reed, Mark A

    2007-11-01

    Nanowire field effect transistors (NW-FETs) can serve as ultrasensitive detectors for label-free reagents. The NW-FET sensing mechanism assumes a controlled modification in the local channel electric field created by the binding of charged molecules to the nanowire surface. Careful control of the solution Debye length is critical for unambiguous selective detection of macromolecules. Here we show the appropriate conditions under which the selective binding of macromolecules is accurately sensed with NW-FET sensors.

  19. Subthreshold characteristics of pentacene field-effect transistors influenced by grain boundaries.

    OpenAIRE

    Park, J.; Jeong, Y-S.; Park, K-S.; Do, L-M.; Bae, J-H.; Choi, J.S.; Pearson, C.; Petty, M.C.

    2012-01-01

    Grain boundaries in polycrystalline pentacene films significantly affect the electrical characteristics of pentacene field-effect transistors (FETs). Upon reversal of the gate voltage sweep direction, pentacene FETs exhibited hysteretic behaviours in the subthreshold region, which was more pronounced for the FET having smaller pentacene grains. No shift in the flat-band voltage of the metal-insulator-semiconductor capacitor elucidates that the observed hysteresis was mainly caused by the infl...

  20. Diode, transistor & fet circuits manual

    CERN Document Server

    Marston, R M

    2013-01-01

    Diode, Transistor and FET Circuits Manual is a handbook of circuits based on discrete semiconductor components such as diodes, transistors, and FETS. The book also includes diagrams and practical circuits. The book describes basic and special diode characteristics, heat wave-rectifier circuits, transformers, filter capacitors, and rectifier ratings. The text also presents practical applications of associated devices, for example, zeners, varicaps, photodiodes, or LEDs, as well as it describes bipolar transistor characteristics. The transistor can be used in three basic amplifier configuration

  1. 2D halide perovskite-based van der Waals heterostructures: contact evaluation and performance modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yaguang; Saidi, Wissam A.; Wang, Qian

    2017-09-01

    Halide perovskites and van der Waals (vdW) heterostructures are both of current interest owing to their novel properties and potential applications in nano-devices. Here, we show the great potential of 2D halide perovskite sheets (C4H9NH3)2PbX4 (X  =  Cl, Br and I) that were synthesized recently (Dou et al 2015 Science 349 1518-21) as the channel materials contacting with graphene and other 2D metallic sheets to form van der Waals heterostructures for field effect transistor (FET). Based on state-of-the-art theoretical simulations, we show that the intrinsic properties of the 2D halide perovskites are preserved in the heterojunction, which is different from the conventional contact with metal surfaces. The 2D halide perovskites form a p-type Schottky barrier (Φh) contact with graphene, where tunneling barrier exists, and a negative band bending occurs at the lateral interface. We demonstrate that the Schottky barrier can be turned from p-type to n-type by doping graphene with nitrogen atoms, and a low-Φh or an Ohmic contact can be realized by doping graphene with boron atoms or replacing graphene with other high-work-function 2D metallic sheets such as ZT-MoS2, ZT-MoSe2 and H-NbS2. This study not only predicts a 2D halide perovskite-based FETs, but also enhances the understanding of tuning Schottky barrier height in device applications.

  2. IC Compatible Wafer Level Fabrication of Silicon Nanowire Field Effect Transistors for Biosensing Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moh, T.S.Y.

    2013-01-01

    In biosensing, nano-devices such as Silicon Nanowire Field Effect Transistors (SiNW FETs) are promising components/sensors for ultra-high sensitive detection, especially when samples are low in concentration or a limited volume is available. Current processing of SiNW FETs often relies on expensive

  3. Multiple Independent Gate FETs: How Many Gates Do We Need?

    OpenAIRE

    Amarù, Luca; Hills, Gage; Gaillardon, Pierre-Emmanuel; Mitra, Subhasish; De Micheli, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Multiple Independent Gate Field Effect Transistors (MIGFETs) are expected to push FET technology further into the semiconductor roadmap. In a MIGFET, supplementary gates either provide (i) enhanced conduction properties or (ii) more intelligent switching functions. In general, each additional gate also introduces a side implementation cost. To enable more efficient digital systems, MIGFETs must leverage their expressive power to realize complex logic circuits with few physical resources. Rese...

  4. The ultimate downscaling limit of FETs.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamaluy, Denis; Gao, Xujiao; Tierney, Brian David

    2014-10-01

    We created a highly efficient, universal 3D quant um transport simulator. We demonstrated that the simulator scales linearly - both with the problem size (N) and number of CPUs, which presents an important break-through in the field of computational nanoelectronics. It allowed us, for the first time, to accurately simulate and optim ize a large number of realistic nanodevices in a much shorter time, when compared to other methods/codes such as RGF[%7EN 2.333 ]/KNIT, KWANT, and QTBM[%7EN 3 ]/NEMO5. In order to determine the best-in-class for different beyond-CMOS paradigms, we performed rigorous device optimization for high-performance logic devices at 6-, 5- and 4-nm gate lengths. We have discovered that there exists a fundamental down-scaling limit for CMOS technology and other Field-Effect Transistors (FETs). We have found that, at room temperatures, all FETs, irre spective of their channel material, will start experiencing unacceptable level of thermally induced errors around 5-nm gate lengths.

  5. Intrinsic noise in aggressively scaled field-effect transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albareda, G; Jiménez, D; Oriols, X

    2009-01-01

    According to roadmap projections, nanoscale field-effect transistors (FETs) with channel lengths below 30 nm and several gates (for improving their gate control over the source–drain conductance) will come to the market in the next few years. However, few studies deal with the noise performance of these aggressively scaled FETs. In this work, a study of the effect of the intrinsic (thermal and shot) noise of such FETs on the performance of an analog amplifier and a digital inverter is carried out by means of numerical simulations with a powerful Monte Carlo (quantum) simulator. The numerical data indicate important drawbacks in the noise performance of aggressively scaled FETs that could invalidate roadmap projections as regards analog and digital applications

  6. Modelling of Impulsional pH Variations Using ChemFET-Based Microdevices: Application to Hydrogen Peroxide Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdou Karim Diallo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the modelling of impulsional pH variations in microvolume related to water-based electrolysis and hydrogen peroxide electrochemical oxidation using an Electrochemical Field Effect Transistor (ElecFET microdevice. This ElecFET device consists of a pH-Chemical FET (pH-ChemFET with an integrated microelectrode around the dielectric gate area in order to trigger electrochemical reactions. Combining oxidation/reduction reactions on the microelectrode, water self-ionization and diffusion properties of associated chemical species, the model shows that the sensor response depends on the main influential parameters such as: (i polarization parameters on the microelectrode, i.e., voltage (Vp and time (tp; (ii distance between the gate sensitive area and the microelectrode (d; and (iii hydrogen peroxide concentration ([H2O2]. The model developed can predict the ElecFET response behaviour and creates new opportunities for H2O2-based enzymatic detection of biomolecules.

  7. Detection principles of biological and chemical FET sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaisti, Matti

    2017-12-15

    The seminal importance of detecting ions and molecules for point-of-care tests has driven the search for more sensitive, specific, and robust sensors. Electronic detection holds promise for future miniaturized in-situ applications and can be integrated into existing electronic manufacturing processes and technology. The resulting small devices will be inherently well suited for multiplexed and parallel detection. In this review, different field-effect transistor (FET) structures and detection principles are discussed, including label-free and indirect detection mechanisms. The fundamental detection principle governing every potentiometric sensor is introduced, and different state-of-the-art FET sensor structures are reviewed. This is followed by an analysis of electrolyte interfaces and their influence on sensor operation. Finally, the fundamentals of different detection mechanisms are reviewed and some detection schemes are discussed. In the conclusion, current commercial efforts are briefly considered. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Relating hysteresis and electrochemistry in graphene field effect transistors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veligura, Alina; Zomer, Paul J.; Vera-Marun, Ivan J.; Jozsa, Csaba; Gordiichuk, Pavlo I.; van Wees, Bart J.

    2011-01-01

    Hysteresis and commonly observed p-doping of graphene based field effect transistors (FETs) have been discussed in reports over the last few years. However, the interpretation of experimental works differs; and the mechanism behind the appearance of the hysteresis and the role of charge transfer

  9. Charge transport in disordered organic field-effect transistors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanase, Cristina; Blom, Paul W.M.; Meijer, Eduard J.; Leeuw, Dago M. de; Jabbour, GE; Carter, SA; Kido, J; Lee, ST; Sariciftci, NS

    2002-01-01

    The transport properties of poly(2,5-thienylene vinylene) (PTV) field-effect transistors (FET) have been investigated as a function of temperature under controlled atmosphere. In a disordered semiconductor as PTV the charge carrier mobility, dominated by hopping between localized states, is

  10. Chemical and physical FET-based sensors or variations on an equation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olthuis, Wouter

    2005-01-01

    This paper exposes the continuous thread of Bergveld’s work: the model equation of the field-effect transistor (FET) derived and repeated in the theoretical section. Zooming in on some of the variables of this equation leads us to several of his important projects. A short description and typical

  11. Future applications of heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Ulf

    1996-01-01

    In this review the status and future of heterostructure devices is discussed. The author concentrates on III/V and Si/SiGe. Performance and applications are folded to the data and expectations of the micro- and opto-electronic market and to the traditional Si-mainstream. New trends, i.e. the SIA-roadmap, are checked how heterodevices can fit in. Only the most attractive candidates for applications are considered, i.e. the heterobipolar-, the hetero field effect-transistors, the resonant tunnel diode and to a less extent, some optoelectronic devices. Considered figures of merit are frequencies, transconductance, noise at high and low frequencies, threshold voltage, power delay, threshold current and quantum efficiencies. It is pointed out how to optimize those by material and design. Extrapolations to the future potential of heterodevices are made, just taking the claimed scaling of lateral dimensions into consideration. Field of applications are presented, where heterodevices offer exclusive qualities, i.e. high frequency transmission and sensors, and new mixed systems. In the case of logic the trend goes to nanoscaled devices and ICs targeting nanoelectronics beyond traditional electronics. Heterostructure layers allow a vertical nanoscaling and thus give an additional degree of freedom for designing and optimation. It is an attractive challenge for scientists and engineers to solve the related technological problems like thin, low thermal budget oxides, like defect free buffer layers etc. Special attention is put on Si/SiGe, which is now on an upswing in electronics and photonics.

  12. Strain and Ferroelectric-Field Effects Co-mediated Magnetism in (011)-CoFe2O4/Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)0.7Ti0.3O3Multiferroic Heterostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Ping

    2016-08-19

    Electric-field mediated magnetism was investigated in CoFe2O4 (CFO, deposited by reactive cosputtering under different Oxygen flow rates) films fabricated on (011)-Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)(0.7)Ti0.3O3 (PMN-PT) substrates. Ascribed to the volatile strain effect of PMN-PT, the magnetization of the CFO films decreases along the [01-1] direction whereas it increases along the [100] direction under the electric field, which is attributed to the octahedron distortion in the spinel ferrite. Moreover, a nonvolatile mediation was obtained in the CFO film with low oxygen flow rate (4 sccm), deriving from the ferroelectric-field effect, in which the magnetization is different after removing the positive and negative fields. The cooperation of the two effects produces four different magnetization states in the CFO film with low oxygen flow rate (4 sccm), compared to the only two different states in the CFO film with high oxygen flow rate (10 sccm). It is suggested that the ferroelectric-field effect is related to the oxygen vacancies in CFO films.

  13. Organic semiconductors for organic field-effect transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Yoshiro

    2009-01-01

    The advantages of organic field-effect transistors (OFETs), such as low cost, flexibility and large-area fabrication, have recently attracted much attention due to their electronic applications. Practical transistors require high mobility, large on/off ratio, low threshold voltage and high stability. Development of new organic semiconductors is key to achieving these parameters. Recently, organic semiconductors have been synthesized showing comparable mobilities to amorphous-silicon-based FETs. These materials make OFETs more attractive and their applications have been attempted. New organic semiconductors resulting in high-performance FET devices are described here and the relationship between transistor characteristics and chemical structure is discussed. (topical review)

  14. Organic semiconductors for organic field-effect transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiro Yamashita

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The advantages of organic field-effect transistors (OFETs, such as low cost, flexibility and large-area fabrication, have recently attracted much attention due to their electronic applications. Practical transistors require high mobility, large on/off ratio, low threshold voltage and high stability. Development of new organic semiconductors is key to achieving these parameters. Recently, organic semiconductors have been synthesized showing comparable mobilities to amorphous-silicon-based FETs. These materials make OFETs more attractive and their applications have been attempted. New organic semiconductors resulting in high-performance FET devices are described here and the relationship between transistor characteristics and chemical structure is discussed.

  15. Variability study of Si nanowire FETs with different junction gradients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Sik Yoon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Random dopant fluctuation effects of gate-all-around Si nanowire field-effect transistors (FETs are investigated in terms of different diameters and junction gradients. The nanowire FETs with smaller diameters or shorter junction gradients increase relative variations of the drain currents and the mismatch of the drain currents between source-drain and drain-source bias change in the saturation regime. Smaller diameters decreased current drivability critically compared to standard deviations of the drain currents, thus inducing greater relative variations of the drain currents. Shorter junction gradients form high potential barriers in the source-side lightly-doped extension regions at on-state, which determines the magnitude of the drain currents and fluctuates the drain currents greatly under thermionic-emission mechanism. On the other hand, longer junction gradients affect lateral field to fluctuate the drain currents greatly. These physical phenomena coincide with correlations of the variations between drain currents and electrical parameters such as threshold voltages and parasitic resistances. The nanowire FETs with relatively-larger diameters and longer junction gradients without degrading short channel characteristics are suggested to minimize the relative variations and the mismatch of the drain currents.

  16. Universal core model for multiple-gate field-effect transistors with short channel and quantum mechanical effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yong Hyeon; Bae, Min Soo; Park, Chuntaek; Park, Joung Won; Park, Hyunwoo; Lee, Yong Ju; Yun, Ilgu

    2018-06-01

    A universal core model for multiple-gate (MG) field-effect transistors (FETs) with short channel effects (SCEs) and quantum mechanical effects (QMEs) is proposed. By using a Young’s approximation based solution for one-dimensional Poisson’s equations the total inversion charge density (Q inv ) in the channel is modeled for double-gate (DG) and surrounding-gate SG (SG) FETs, following which a universal charge model is derived based on the similarity of the solutions, including for quadruple-gate (QG) FETs. For triple-gate (TG) FETs, the average of DG and QG FETs are used. A SCEs model is also proposed considering the potential difference between the channel’s surface and center. Finally, a QMEs model for MG FETs is developed using the quantum correction compact model. The proposed universal core model is validated on commercially available three-dimensional ATLAS numerical simulations.

  17. Field effect transistors based on phosphorene nanoribbon with selective edge-adsorption: A first-principles study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Mengli; Yang, Zhixiong; Zhou, Wenzhe; Li, Aolin; Pan, Jiangling; Ouyang, Fangping

    2018-04-01

    By using density functional theory (DFT) and nonequilibrium Green's function (NEGF), field effect transistor (FET) based on zigzag shaped phosphorene nanoribbons (ZPNR) are investigated. The FETs are constructed with bare-edged ZPNRs as electrodes and H, Cl or OH adsorbed ZPNRs as channel. It is found FETs with the three kinds of channel show similar transport properties. The FET is p-type with a maximum current on/off ratio of 104 and a minimum off-current of 1 nA. The working mode of FETs is dependent on the parity of channel length. It can be either enhancement mode or depletion mode and the off-state current shows an even-odd oscillation. The current oscillations are interpreted with density of states (DOS) analysis and methods of evolution operator and tight-binding Hamiltonian. Operating mechanism of the designed FETs is also presented with projected local density of states and band diagrams.

  18. Study of the background noise in microwave GaAsFET devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serrano S, A.

    1984-01-01

    One of the most important properties of the gallium arsenide field effect transistor is its low noise figure in the microwave frequency range (approx. 1 dB, 4 GHz). The applications of this device in components and systems in the high frequency range require analysis of background noise in terms of basic static and dynamic properties of the device. The purpose of this paper is to review GaAsFET noise properties; from this review, a description of precise noise measurement techniques is made. Some experimental and theoretical results on the minimum noise figure are shown for several GaAsFET devices. (author)

  19. Graphene Field Effect Transistors for Biomedical Applications: Current Status and Future Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, Rhiannan; Devadoss, Anitha; Guy, Owen J

    2017-07-26

    Since the discovery of the two-dimensional (2D) carbon material, graphene, just over a decade ago, the development of graphene-based field effect transistors (G-FETs) has become a widely researched area, particularly for use in point-of-care biomedical applications. G-FETs are particularly attractive as next generation bioelectronics due to their mass-scalability and low cost of the technology's manufacture. Furthermore, G-FETs offer the potential to complete label-free, rapid, and highly sensitive analysis coupled with a high sample throughput. These properties, coupled with the potential for integration into portable instrumentation, contribute to G-FETs' suitability for point-of-care diagnostics. This review focuses on elucidating the recent developments in the field of G-FET sensors that act on a bioaffinity basis, whereby a binding event between a bioreceptor and the target analyte is transduced into an electrical signal at the G-FET surface. Recognizing and quantifying these target analytes accurately and reliably is essential in diagnosing many diseases, therefore it is vital to design the G-FET with care. Taking into account some limitations of the sensor platform, such as Debye-Hükel screening and device surface area, is fundamental in developing improved bioelectronics for applications in the clinical setting. This review highlights some efforts undertaken in facing these limitations in order to bring G-FET development for biomedical applications forward.

  20. Sensing with FETs - once, now and future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olthuis, Wouter; Faber, Erik Jouwert; Krommenhoek, E.E.; van den Berg, Albert; Gerlach, Gerald; Hauptmann, Peter

    2007-01-01

    In this paper a short overview is given of the several FET-based sensor devices and the operational principle of the ISFET is summarized. Some of the shortcomings of the FET sensors were circumvented by an alternative operational mode, resulting in a device capable of acid/base concentration

  1. Electromechanical field effect transistors based on multilayer phosphorene nanoribbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Z.T., E-mail: jiangzhaotan@hotmail.com; Lv, Z.T.; Zhang, X.D.

    2017-06-21

    Based on the tight-binding Hamiltonian approach, we demonstrate that the electromechanical field effect transistors (FETs) can be realized by using the multilayer phosphorene nanoribbons (PNRs). The synergistic combination of the electric field and the external strains can establish the on–off switching since the electric field can shift or split the energy band, and the mechanical strains can widen or narrow the band widths. This kind of multilayer PNR FETs, much solider than the monolayer PNR one and more easily biased by different electric fields, has more transport channels consequently leading to the higher on–off current ratio or the higher sensitivity to the electric fields. Meanwhile, the strain-induced band-flattening will be beneficial for improving the flexibility in designing the electromechanical FETs. In addition, such electromechanical FETs can act as strain-controlled FETs or mechanical detectors for detecting the strains, indicating their potential applications in nano- and micro-electromechanical fields. - Highlights: • Electromechanical transistors are designed with multilayer phosphorene nanoribbons. • Electromechanical synergistic effect can establish the on–off switching more flexibly. • Multilayer transistors, solider and more easily biased, has more transport channels. • Electromechanical transistors can act as strain-controlled transistors or mechanical detectors.

  2. Label-free SnO2 nanowire FET biosensor for protein detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakob, Markus H.; Dong, Bo; Gutsch, Sebastian; Chatelle, Claire; Krishnaraja, Abinaya; Weber, Wilfried; Zacharias, Margit

    2017-06-01

    Novel tin oxide field-effect-transistors (SnO2 NW-FET) for pH and protein detection applicable in the healthcare sector are reported. With a SnO2 NW-FET the proof-of-concept of a bio-sensing device is demonstrated using the carrier transport control of the FET channel by a (bio-) liquid modulated gate. Ultra-thin Al2O3 fabricated by a low temperature atomic layer deposition (ALD) process represents a sensitive layer to H+ ions safeguarding the nanowire at the same time. Successful pH sensitivity is demonstrated for pH ranging from 3 to 10. For protein detection, the SnO2 NW-FET is functionalized with a receptor molecule which specifically interacts with the protein of interest to be detected. The feasibility of this approach is demonstrated via the detection of a biotinylated protein using a NW-FET functionalized with streptavidin. An immediate label-free electronic read-out of the signal is shown. The well-established Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) method is used to determine the optimal experimental procedure which would enable molecular binding events to occur while being compatible with a final label-free electronic read-out on a NW-FET. Integration of the bottom-up fabricated SnO2 NW-FET pH- and biosensor into a microfluidic system (lab-on-a-chip) allows the automated analysis of small volumes in the 400 μl range as would be desired in portable on-site point-of-care (POC) devices for medical diagnosis.

  3. Architecture design of resistor/FET-logic demultiplexer for hybrid CMOS/nanodevice circuit interconnect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Shu; Zhang Tong [Department of Electrical, Computer and Systems Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 12180 (United States)], E-mail: lis4@rpi.edu, E-mail: tzhang@ecse.rpi.edu

    2008-05-07

    Hybrid nanoelectronics consisting of nanodevice crossbars on top of CMOS backplane circuits is emerging as one viable option to sustain Moore's law after the CMOS scaling limit is reached. One main design challenge in such hybrid nanoelectronics is the interface between the highly dense nanowires in nanodevice crossbars and relatively coarse microwires in the CMOS domain. Such an interface can be realized through a logic circuit called a demultiplexer (demux). In this context, all the prior work on demux design uses a single type of device, such as resistor, diode or field effect transistor (FET), to realize the demultiplexing function. However, different types of devices have their own advantages and disadvantages in terms of functionality, manufacturability, speed and power consumption. This makes none of them provide a satisfactory solution. To tackle this challenge, this work proposes to combine resistor with FET to implement the demux, leading to the hybrid resistor/FET-logic demux. Such hybrid demux architecture can make these two types of devices complement each other well to improve the overall demux design effectiveness. Furthermore, due to the inevitable fabrication process variations at the nanoscale, the effects of resistor conductance and FET threshold voltage variability are analyzed and evaluated based on computer simulations. The simulation results provide the requirement on the fabrication process to ensure a high demux reliability, and promise the hybrid resistor/FET-logic demux an improved addressability and process variance tolerance.

  4. Architecture design of resistor/FET-logic demultiplexer for hybrid CMOS/nanodevice circuit interconnect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shu; Zhang, Tong

    2008-05-07

    Hybrid nanoelectronics consisting of nanodevice crossbars on top of CMOS backplane circuits is emerging as one viable option to sustain Moore's law after the CMOS scaling limit is reached. One main design challenge in such hybrid nanoelectronics is the interface between the highly dense nanowires in nanodevice crossbars and relatively coarse microwires in the CMOS domain. Such an interface can be realized through a logic circuit called a demultiplexer (demux). In this context, all the prior work on demux design uses a single type of device, such as resistor, diode or field effect transistor (FET), to realize the demultiplexing function. However, different types of devices have their own advantages and disadvantages in terms of functionality, manufacturability, speed and power consumption. This makes none of them provide a satisfactory solution. To tackle this challenge, this work proposes to combine resistor with FET to implement the demux, leading to the hybrid resistor/FET-logic demux. Such hybrid demux architecture can make these two types of devices complement each other well to improve the overall demux design effectiveness. Furthermore, due to the inevitable fabrication process variations at the nanoscale, the effects of resistor conductance and FET threshold voltage variability are analyzed and evaluated based on computer simulations. The simulation results provide the requirement on the fabrication process to ensure a high demux reliability, and promise the hybrid resistor/FET-logic demux an improved addressability and process variance tolerance.

  5. Architecture design of resistor/FET-logic demultiplexer for hybrid CMOS/nanodevice circuit interconnect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shu; Zhang Tong

    2008-01-01

    Hybrid nanoelectronics consisting of nanodevice crossbars on top of CMOS backplane circuits is emerging as one viable option to sustain Moore's law after the CMOS scaling limit is reached. One main design challenge in such hybrid nanoelectronics is the interface between the highly dense nanowires in nanodevice crossbars and relatively coarse microwires in the CMOS domain. Such an interface can be realized through a logic circuit called a demultiplexer (demux). In this context, all the prior work on demux design uses a single type of device, such as resistor, diode or field effect transistor (FET), to realize the demultiplexing function. However, different types of devices have their own advantages and disadvantages in terms of functionality, manufacturability, speed and power consumption. This makes none of them provide a satisfactory solution. To tackle this challenge, this work proposes to combine resistor with FET to implement the demux, leading to the hybrid resistor/FET-logic demux. Such hybrid demux architecture can make these two types of devices complement each other well to improve the overall demux design effectiveness. Furthermore, due to the inevitable fabrication process variations at the nanoscale, the effects of resistor conductance and FET threshold voltage variability are analyzed and evaluated based on computer simulations. The simulation results provide the requirement on the fabrication process to ensure a high demux reliability, and promise the hybrid resistor/FET-logic demux an improved addressability and process variance tolerance

  6. Ionic screening effect on low-frequency drain current fluctuations in liquid-gated nanowire FETs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Ming-Pei; Vire, Eric; Montès, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    The ionic screening effect plays an important role in determining the fundamental surface properties within liquid–semiconductor interfaces. In this study, we investigated the characteristics of low-frequency drain current noise in liquid-gated nanowire (NW) field effect transistors (FETs) to obtain physical insight into the effect of ionic screening on low-frequency current fluctuation. When the NW FET was operated close to the gate voltage corresponding to the maximum transconductance, the magnitude of the low-frequency noise for the NW exposed to a low-ionic-strength buffer (0.001 M) was approximately 70% greater than that when exposed to a high-ionic-strength buffer (0.1 M). We propose a noise model, considering the charge coupling efficiency associated with the screening competition between the electrolyte buffer and the NW, to describe the ionic screening effect on the low-frequency drain current noise in liquid-gated NW FET systems. This report not only provides a physical understanding of the ionic screening effect behind the low-frequency current noise in liquid-gated FETs but also offers useful information for developing the technology of NW FETs with liquid-gated architectures for application in bioelectronics, nanosensors, and hybrid nanoelectronics. (paper)

  7. Orientation Effects in Ballistic High-Strained P-type Si Nanowire FETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Yu

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to design and optimize high-sensitivity silicon nanowire-field-effect transistor (SiNW FET pressure sensors, this paper investigates the effects of channel orientations and the uniaxial stress on the ballistic hole transport properties of a strongly quantized SiNW FET placed near the high stress regions of the pressure sensors. A discrete stress-dependent six-band k.p method is used for subband structure calculation, coupled to a two-dimensional Poisson solver for electrostatics. A semi-classical ballistic FET model is then used to evaluate the ballistic current-voltage characteristics of SiNW FETs with and without strain. Our results presented here indicate that [110] is the optimum orientation for the p-type SiNW FETs and sensors. For the ultra-scaled 2.2 nm square SiNW, due to the limit of strong quantum confinement, the effect of the uniaxial stress on the magnitude of ballistic drive current is too small to be considered, except for the [100] orientation. However, for larger 5 nm square SiNW transistors with various transport orientations, the uniaxial tensile stress obviously alters the ballistic performance, while the uniaxial compressive stress slightly changes the ballistic hole current. Furthermore, the competition of injection velocity and carrier density related to the effective hole masses is found to play a critical role in determining the performance of the nanotransistors.

  8. Nanowire field effect transistors principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Jeong, Yoon-Ha

    2014-01-01

    “Nanowire Field Effect Transistor: Basic Principles and Applications” places an emphasis on the application aspects of nanowire field effect transistors (NWFET). Device physics and electronics are discussed in a compact manner, together with the p-n junction diode and MOSFET, the former as an essential element in NWFET and the latter as a general background of the FET. During this discussion, the photo-diode, solar cell, LED, LD, DRAM, flash EEPROM and sensors are highlighted to pave the way for similar applications of NWFET. Modeling is discussed in close analogy and comparison with MOSFETs. Contributors focus on processing, electrostatic discharge (ESD) and application of NWFET. This includes coverage of solar and memory cells, biological and chemical sensors, displays and atomic scale light emitting diodes. Appropriate for scientists and engineers interested in acquiring a working knowledge of NWFET as well as graduate students specializing in this subject.

  9. Deformable Organic Nanowire Field-Effect Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yeongjun; Oh, Jin Young; Kim, Taeho Roy; Gu, Xiaodan; Kim, Yeongin; Wang, Ging-Ji Nathan; Wu, Hung-Chin; Pfattner, Raphael; To, John W F; Katsumata, Toru; Son, Donghee; Kang, Jiheong; Matthews, James R; Niu, Weijun; He, Mingqian; Sinclair, Robert; Cui, Yi; Tok, Jeffery B-H; Lee, Tae-Woo; Bao, Zhenan

    2018-02-01

    Deformable electronic devices that are impervious to mechanical influence when mounted on surfaces of dynamically changing soft matters have great potential for next-generation implantable bioelectronic devices. Here, deformable field-effect transistors (FETs) composed of single organic nanowires (NWs) as the semiconductor are presented. The NWs are composed of fused thiophene diketopyrrolopyrrole based polymer semiconductor and high-molecular-weight polyethylene oxide as both the molecular binder and deformability enhancer. The obtained transistors show high field-effect mobility >8 cm 2 V -1 s -1 with poly(vinylidenefluoride-co-trifluoroethylene) polymer dielectric and can easily be deformed by applied strains (both 100% tensile and compressive strains). The electrical reliability and mechanical durability of the NWs can be significantly enhanced by forming serpentine-like structures of the NWs. Remarkably, the fully deformable NW FETs withstand 3D volume changes (>1700% and reverting back to original state) of a rubber balloon with constant current output, on the surface of which it is attached. The deformable transistors can robustly operate without noticeable degradation on a mechanically dynamic soft matter surface, e.g., a pulsating balloon (pulse rate: 40 min -1 (0.67 Hz) and 40% volume expansion) that mimics a beating heart, which underscores its potential for future biomedical applications. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Negative Differential Transconductance in a MoS2 /WSe2 Heterojunction Field Effect Transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubair, Ahmad; Nourbakhsh, Amirhasan; Dresselhaus, Mildred; de Gendt, Stefan; Palacios, Tomas

    2015-03-01

    In this work, we demonstrate the negative transconductance in heterojunction transistors made of two-dimensional materials for the first time. Negative transconductance plays a key role in multi-valued logic/memory and frequency multiplication circuits. The simpler fabrication method of stacked van der Waals heterostructures compared to the conventional bulk semiconductors and large area CVD growth of the layered 2D materials systems makes it a prime candidate for scalable novel applications of their heterostructures. Vertically stacked MoS2/WSe2 heterostructures are fabricated by mechanical exfoliation and an in-house dry transfer process. A two-step process of e-beam lithography and metal deposition (Au on MoS2, and Pd on WSe2) were performed to fabricate n-type MoS2 and ambipolar WSe2 FET. The transfer characteristics on the non-overlapping regions shows the expected characteristics of the n-type, MoS2 FET and ambipolar WSe2 FET. At the same time, the transfer characteristics of the overlapping region between MoS2 and WSe2 show negative differential transconductance. With proper scaling and careful optimization this negative differential transconductance will lead to novel applications.

  11. Graphene Field Effect Transistors for Biomedical Applications: Current Status and Future Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhiannan Forsyth

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Since the discovery of the two-dimensional (2D carbon material, graphene, just over a decade ago, the development of graphene-based field effect transistors (G-FETs has become a widely researched area, particularly for use in point-of-care biomedical applications. G-FETs are particularly attractive as next generation bioelectronics due to their mass-scalability and low cost of the technology’s manufacture. Furthermore, G-FETs offer the potential to complete label-free, rapid, and highly sensitive analysis coupled with a high sample throughput. These properties, coupled with the potential for integration into portable instrumentation, contribute to G-FETs’ suitability for point-of-care diagnostics. This review focuses on elucidating the recent developments in the field of G-FET sensors that act on a bioaffinity basis, whereby a binding event between a bioreceptor and the target analyte is transduced into an electrical signal at the G-FET surface. Recognizing and quantifying these target analytes accurately and reliably is essential in diagnosing many diseases, therefore it is vital to design the G-FET with care. Taking into account some limitations of the sensor platform, such as Debye–Hükel screening and device surface area, is fundamental in developing improved bioelectronics for applications in the clinical setting. This review highlights some efforts undertaken in facing these limitations in order to bring G-FET development for biomedical applications forward.

  12. Pulsed laser deposition of oxide gate dielectrics for pentacene organic field-effect transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaginuma, S.; Yamaguchi, J.; Itaka, K.; Koinuma, H.

    2005-01-01

    We have fabricated Al 2 O 3 , LaAlO 3 (LAO), CaHfO 3 (CHO) and CaZrO 3 (CZO) thin films for the dielectric layers of field-effect transistors (FETs) by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). The films exhibited very smooth surfaces with root-mean-squares (rms) roughnesses of ∼1.3 A as evaluated by using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The breakdown electric fields of Al 2 O 3 , LAO, CHO and CZO films were 7, 6, 10 and 2 MV/cm, respectively. The magnitude of the leak current in each film was low enough to operate FET. We performed a comparative study of pentacene FET fabricated using these oxide dielectrics as gate insulators. High field-effect mobility of 1.4 cm 2 /V s and on/off current ratio of 10 7 were obtained in the pentacene FET using LAO gate insulating film. Use of the LAO films as gate dielectrics has been found to suppress the hysteresis of pentacene FET operations. The LAO films are relevant to the dielectric layer of organic FETs

  13. Influence of surface charge on the transport characteristics of nanowire-field effect transistors in liquid environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nozaki, Daijiro, E-mail: daijiro.nozaki@gmail.com, E-mail: research@nano.tu-dresden.de [Institute for Materials Science and Max Bergmann Center of Biomaterials, TU Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Kunstmann, Jens [Institute for Materials Science and Max Bergmann Center of Biomaterials, TU Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Theoretical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry and Food Chemistry, TU Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Zörgiebel, Felix [Institute for Materials Science and Max Bergmann Center of Biomaterials, TU Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Center for Advancing Electronics Dresden (cfAED), TU Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Cuniberti, Gianaurelio [Institute for Materials Science and Max Bergmann Center of Biomaterials, TU Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Center for Advancing Electronics Dresden (cfAED), TU Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Dresden Center for Computational Materials Science (DCCMS), TU Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany)

    2015-05-18

    One dimensional nanowire field effect transistors (NW-FETs) are a promising platform for sensor applications. The transport characteristics of NW-FETs are strongly modified in liquid environment due to the charging of surface functional groups accompanied with protonation or deprotonation. In order to investigate the influence of surface charges and ionic concentrations on the transport characteristics of Schottky-barrier NW-FETs, we have combined the modified Poisson-Boltzmann theory with the Landauer-Büttiker transport formalism. For a typical device, the model is able to capture the reduction of the sensitivity of NW-FETs in ionic solutions due to the screening from counter ions as well as a local gating from surface functional groups. Our approach allows to model, to investigate, and to optimize realistic Schottky-barrier NW-FET devices in liquid environment.

  14. Vertically integrated logic circuits constructed using ZnO-nanowire-based field-effect transistors on plastic substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jeongmin; Moon, Taeho; Jeon, Youngin; Kim, Hoyoung; Kim, Sangsig

    2013-05-01

    ZnO-nanowire-based logic circuits were constructed by the vertical integration of multilayered field-effect transistors (FETs) on plastic substrates. ZnO nanowires with an average diameter of -100 nm were synthesized by thermal chemical vapor deposition for use as the channel material in FETs. The ZnO-based FETs exhibited a high I(ON)/I(OFF) of > 10(6), with the characteristic of n-type depletion modes. For vertically integrated logic circuits, three multilayer FETs were sequentially prepared. The stacked FETs were connected in series via electrodes, and C-PVPs were used for the layer-isolation material. The NOT and NAND gates exhibited large logic-swing values of -93%. These results demonstrate the feasibility of three dimensional flexible logic circuits.

  15. DotFETs : MOSFETs strained by a Single SiGE dot in a Low-Temperature ELA Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biasotto, C.

    2011-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis was performed in the context of the European Sixth Framework Program FP6 project “Disposable Dot Field Effect Transistor for High Speed Si Integrated Circuits”, referred to as the D-DotFET project. The project had the goal of realizing strain-enhanced mobility in

  16. Field-effect transistors with high mobility and small hysteresis of transfer characteristics based on CH3NH3PbBr3 films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleshin, A. N.; Shcherbakov, I. P.; Trapeznikova, I. N.; Petrov, V. N.

    2017-12-01

    Field-effect transistor (FET) structures based on soluble organometallic perovskites, CH3NH3PbBr3, were obtained and their electrical properties were studied. FETs made of CH3NH3PbBr3 films possess current- voltage characteristics (IVs) typical for ambipolar FETs with saturation regime. The transfer characteristics of FETs based on CH3NH3PbBr3 have an insignificant hysteresis and slightly depend on voltage at the source-drain. Mobilities of charge carriers (holes) calculated from IVs of FETs based on CH3NH3PbBr3 at 300 K in saturation and weak field regimes were 5 and 2 cm2/V s, respectively, whereas electron mobility is 3 cm2/V s, which exceeds the mobility value 1 cm2/V s obtained earlier for FETs based on CH3NH3PbI3.

  17. Modeling nanowire and double-gate junctionless field-effect transistors

    CERN Document Server

    Jazaeri, Farzan

    2018-01-01

    The first book on the topic, this is a comprehensive introduction to the modeling and design of junctionless field effect transistors (FETs). Beginning with a discussion of the advantages and limitations of the technology, the authors also provide a thorough overview of published analytical models for double-gate and nanowire configurations, before offering a general introduction to the EPFL charge-based model of junctionless FETs. Important features are introduced gradually, including nanowire versus double-gate equivalence, technological design space, junctionless FET performances, short channel effects, transcapacitances, asymmetric operation, thermal noise, interface traps, and the junction FET. Additional features compatible with biosensor applications are also discussed. This is a valuable resource for students and researchers looking to understand more about this new and fast developing field.

  18. Silicon-on-insulator field effect transistor with improved body ties for rad-hard applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwank, James R.; Shaneyfelt, Marty R.; Draper, Bruce L.; Dodd, Paul E.

    2001-01-01

    A silicon-on-insulator (SOI) field-effect transistor (FET) and a method for making the same are disclosed. The SOI FET is characterized by a source which extends only partially (e.g. about half-way) through the active layer wherein the transistor is formed. Additionally, a minimal-area body tie contact is provided with a short-circuit electrical connection to the source for reducing floating body effects. The body tie contact improves the electrical characteristics of the transistor and also provides an improved single-event-upset (SEU) radiation hardness of the device for terrestrial and space applications. The SOI FET also provides an improvement in total-dose radiation hardness as compared to conventional SOI transistors fabricated without a specially prepared hardened buried oxide layer. Complementary n-channel and p-channel SOI FETs can be fabricated according to the present invention to form integrated circuits (ICs) for commercial and military applications.

  19. High yield fabrication of chemically reduced graphene oxide field effect transistors by dielectrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joung, Daeha; Chunder, A; Zhai, Lei; Khondaker, Saiful I

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate high yield fabrication of field effect transistors (FET) using chemically reduced graphene oxide (RGO) sheets. The RGO sheets suspended in water were assembled between prefabricated gold source and drain electrodes using ac dielectrophoresis. With the application of a backgate voltage, 60% of the devices showed p-type FET behavior, while the remaining 40% showed ambipolar behavior. After mild thermal annealing at 200 deg. C, all ambipolar RGO FET remained ambipolar with increased hole and electron mobility, while 60% of the p-type RGO devices were transformed to ambipolar. The maximum hole and electron mobilities of the devices were 4.0 and 1.5 cm 2 V -1 s -1 respectively. High yield assembly of chemically derived RGO FET will have significant impact in scaled up fabrication of graphene based nanoelectronic devices.

  20. Continuous adjustment of threshold voltage in carbon nanotube field-effect transistors through gate engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Donglai; Zhao, Chenyi; Liu, Lijun; Zhang, Zhiyong; Peng, Lian-Mao

    2018-04-01

    In this letter, we report a gate engineering method to adjust threshold voltage of carbon nanotube (CNT) based field-effect transistors (FETs) continuously in a wide range, which makes the application of CNT FETs especially in digital integrated circuits (ICs) easier. Top-gated FETs are fabricated using solution-processed CNT network films with stacking Pd and Sc films as gate electrodes. By decreasing the thickness of the lower layer metal (Pd) from 20 nm to zero, the effective work function of the gate decreases, thus tuning the threshold voltage (Vt) of CNT FETs from -1.0 V to 0.2 V. The continuous adjustment of threshold voltage through gate engineering lays a solid foundation for multi-threshold technology in CNT based ICs, which then can simultaneously provide high performance and low power circuit modules on one chip.

  1. Are Nanotube Architectures More Advantageous Than Nanowire Architectures For Field Effect Transistors?

    KAUST Repository

    Fahad, Hossain M.

    2012-06-27

    Decade long research in 1D nanowire field effect transistors (FET) shows although it has ultra-low off-state leakage current and a single device uses a very small area, its drive current generation per device is extremely low. Thus it requires arrays of nanowires to be integrated together to achieve appreciable amount of current necessary for high performance computation causing an area penalty and compromised functionality. Here we show that a FET with a nanotube architecture and core-shell gate stacks is capable of achieving the desirable leakage characteristics of the nanowire FET while generating a much larger drive current with area efficiency. The core-shell gate stacks of silicon nanotube FETs tighten the electrostatic control and enable volume inversion mode operation leading to improved short channel behavior and enhanced performance. Our comparative study is based on semi-classical transport models with quantum confinement effects which offers new opportunity for future generation high performance computation.

  2. Revisit the spin-FET: Multiple reflection, inelastic scattering, and lateral size effects

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Luting; Li, Xin-Qi; Sun, Qing-feng

    2014-01-01

    We revisit the spin-injected field effect transistor (spin-FET) by simulating a lattice model based on recursive lattice Green's function approach. In the one-dimensional case and coherent regime, the simulated results reveal noticeable differences from the celebrated Datta-Das model, which motivate thus an improved treatment and lead to analytic and generalized result. The simulation also allows us to address inelastic scattering (using B\\"uttiker's fictitious reservoir approach) and lateral...

  3. Impact of negative capacitance effect on Germanium Double Gate pFET for enhanced immunity to interface trap charges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Monika; Kaur, Harsupreet

    2018-05-01

    In this work, a comprehensive drain current model has been developed for long channel Negative Capacitance Germanium Double Gate p-type Field Effect Transistor (NCGe-DG-pFET) by using 1-D Poisson's equation and Landau-Khalatnikov equation. The model takes into account interface trap charges and by using the derived model various parameters such as surface potential, gain, gate capacitance, subthreshold swing, drain current, transconductance, output conductance and Ion/Ioff ratio have been obtained and it is demonstrated that by incorporating ferroelectric material as gate insulator with Ge-channel, subthreshold swing values less than 60 mV/dec can be achieved along with improved gate controllability and current drivability. Further, to critically analyze the advantages offered by NCGe-DG-pFET, a detailed comparison has been done with Germanium Double Gate p-type Field Effect Transistor (Ge-DG-pFET) and it is shown that NCGe-DG-pFET exhibits high gain, enhanced transport efficiency in channel, very less or negligible degradation in device characteristics due to interface trap charges as compared to Ge-DG-pFET. The analytical results so obtained show good agreement with simulated results obtained from Silvaco ATLAS TCAD tool.

  4. Analytical modeling of trilayer graphene nanoribbon Schottky-barrier FET for high-speed switching applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Meisam; Ahmadi, Mohammad Taghi; Abadi, Hediyeh Karimi Feiz; Saeidmanesh, Mehdi; Akbari, Elnaz; Ismail, Razali

    2013-01-30

    Recent development of trilayer graphene nanoribbon Schottky-barrier field-effect transistors (FETs) will be governed by transistor electrostatics and quantum effects that impose scaling limits like those of Si metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors. The current-voltage characteristic of a Schottky-barrier FET has been studied as a function of physical parameters such as effective mass, graphene nanoribbon length, gate insulator thickness, and electrical parameters such as Schottky barrier height and applied bias voltage. In this paper, the scaling behaviors of a Schottky-barrier FET using trilayer graphene nanoribbon are studied and analytically modeled. A novel analytical method is also presented for describing a switch in a Schottky-contact double-gate trilayer graphene nanoribbon FET. In the proposed model, different stacking arrangements of trilayer graphene nanoribbon are assumed as metal and semiconductor contacts to form a Schottky transistor. Based on this assumption, an analytical model and numerical solution of the junction current-voltage are presented in which the applied bias voltage and channel length dependence characteristics are highlighted. The model is then compared with other types of transistors. The developed model can assist in comprehending experiments involving graphene nanoribbon Schottky-barrier FETs. It is demonstrated that the proposed structure exhibits negligible short-channel effects, an improved on-current, realistic threshold voltage, and opposite subthreshold slope and meets the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors near-term guidelines. Finally, the results showed that there is a fast transient between on-off states. In other words, the suggested model can be used as a high-speed switch where the value of subthreshold slope is small and thus leads to less power consumption.

  5. RNA Detection Based on Graphene Field-Effect Transistor Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Tian

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Graphene has attracted much attention in biosensing applications due to its unique properties. In this paper, the monolayer graphene was grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD method. Using the graphene as the electric channel, we have fabricated a graphene field-effect transistor (G-FET biosensor that can be used for label-free detection of RNA. Compared with conventional method, the G-FET RNA biosensor can be run in low cost, be time-saving, and be miniaturized for RNA measurement. The sensors show high performance and achieve the RNA detection sensitivity as low as 0.1 fM, which is two orders of magnitude lower than the previously reports. Moreover, the G-FET biosensor can readily distinguish target RNA from noncomplementary RNA, showing high selectivity for RNA detection. The developed G-FET RNA biosensor with high sensitivity, fast analysis speed, and simple operation may provide a new feasible direction for RNA research and biosensing.

  6. Carbon nanotube feedback-gate field-effect transistor: suppressing current leakage and increasing on/off ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Chenguang; Zhang, Zhiyong; Zhong, Donglai; Si, Jia; Yang, Yingjun; Peng, Lian-Mao

    2015-01-27

    Field-effect transistors (FETs) based on moderate or large diameter carbon nanotubes (CNTs) usually suffer from ambipolar behavior, large off-state current and small current on/off ratio, which are highly undesirable for digital electronics. To overcome these problems, a feedback-gate (FBG) FET structure is designed and tested. This FBG FET differs from normal top-gate FET by an extra feedback-gate, which is connected directly to the drain electrode of the FET. It is demonstrated that a FBG FET based on a semiconducting CNT with a diameter of 1.5 nm may exhibit low off-state current of about 1 × 10(-13) A, high current on/off ratio of larger than 1 × 10(8), negligible drain-induced off-state leakage current, and good subthreshold swing of 75 mV/DEC even at large source-drain bias and room temperature. The FBG structure is promising for CNT FETs to meet the standard for low-static-power logic electronics applications, and could also be utilized for building FETs using other small band gap semiconductors to suppress leakage current.

  7. Construction and evaluation of photovoltaic power generation and power storage system using SiC field-effect transistor inverter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oku, Takeo, E-mail: oku@mat.usp.ac.jp; Matsumoto, Taisuke; Ohishi, Yuya [Department of Materials Science, The University of Shiga Prefecture, 2500 Hassaka, Hikone, Shiga 522-8533 (Japan); Hiramatsu, Koichi; Yasuda, Masashi [Collaborative Research Center, The University of Shiga Prefecture, 2500 Hassaka, Hikone, Shiga 522-8533 (Japan); Shimono, Akio; Takeda, Yoshikazu [Kyoshin Electric Co. Ltd., 18, Goshonouchi-Nishimachi, Shichijo, Shimogyou-ku, Kyoto 600-8865 (Japan); Murozono, Mikio [Clean Venture 21 Co., 38 Ishihara Douno-Ushirocho, Kissyouin, Minami-ku, Kyoto 601-8355 (Japan)

    2016-02-01

    A power storage system using spherical silicon (Si) solar cells, maximum power point tracking charge controller, lithium-ion battery and a direct current-alternating current (DC-AC) inverter was constructed. Performance evaluation of the DC-AC inverter was carried out, and the DC-AC conversion efficiencies of the SiC field-effect transistor (FET) inverter was improved compared with those of the ordinary Si-FET based inverter.

  8. Construction and evaluation of photovoltaic power generation and power storage system using SiC field-effect transistor inverter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oku, Takeo; Matsumoto, Taisuke; Ohishi, Yuya; Hiramatsu, Koichi; Yasuda, Masashi; Shimono, Akio; Takeda, Yoshikazu; Murozono, Mikio

    2016-01-01

    A power storage system using spherical silicon (Si) solar cells, maximum power point tracking charge controller, lithium-ion battery and a direct current-alternating current (DC-AC) inverter was constructed. Performance evaluation of the DC-AC inverter was carried out, and the DC-AC conversion efficiencies of the SiC field-effect transistor (FET) inverter was improved compared with those of the ordinary Si-FET based inverter

  9. Germanium field-effect transistor made from a high-purity substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, W.L.; Goulding, F.S.; Haller, E.E.

    1978-11-01

    Field effect transistors have been fabricated on high-purity germanium substrates using low-temperature technology. The aim of this work is to preserve the low density of trapping centers in high-quality starting material by low-temperature ( 0 C) processing. The use of germanium promises to eliminate some of the traps which cause generation-recombination noise in silicon field-effect transistors (FET's) at low temperatures. Typically, the transconductance (g/sub m/) in the germanium FET's is 10 mA/V and the gate leakage can be less than 10 -12 A. Present devices exhibit a large 1/f noise component and most of this noise must be eliminated if they are to be competitive with silicon FET's commonly used in high-resolution nuclear spectrometers

  10. Ferroelectric-gate field effect transistor memories device physics and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ishiwara, Hiroshi; Okuyama, Masanori; Sakai, Shigeki; Yoon, Sung-Min

    2016-01-01

    This book provides comprehensive coverage of the materials characteristics, process technologies, and device operations for memory field-effect transistors employing inorganic or organic ferroelectric thin films. This transistor-type ferroelectric memory has interesting fundamental device physics and potentially large industrial impact. Among the various applications of ferroelectric thin films, the development of nonvolatile ferroelectric random access memory (FeRAM) has progressed most actively since the late 1980s and has achieved modest mass production levels for specific applications since 1995. There are two types of memory cells in ferroelectric nonvolatile memories. One is the capacitor-type FeRAM and the other is the field-effect transistor (FET)-type FeRAM. Although the FET-type FeRAM claims ultimate scalability and nondestructive readout characteristics, the capacitor-type FeRAMs have been the main interest for the major semiconductor memory companies, because the ferroelectric FET has fatal handic...

  11. Creatinine Deiminase Adsorption onto Silicalite-Modified pH-FET for Creation of New Creatinine-Sensitive Biosensor

    OpenAIRE

    Marchenko, Svitlana V.; Soldatkin, Oleksandr O.; Kasap, Berna Ozansoy; Kurc, Burcu Akata; Soldatkin, Alexei P.; Dzyadevych, Sergei V.

    2016-01-01

    In the work, silicalite particles were used for the surface modification of pH-sensitive field-effect transistors (pH-FETs) with the purpose of developing new creatinine-sensitive biosensor. Creatinine deiminase (CD) adsorbed on the surface of silicalite-coated pH-FET served as a bioselective membrane. The biosensor based on CD immobilized in glutaraldehyde vapor (GA) was taken as control. The creatinine-sensitive biosensor obtained by adsorption on silicalite was shown to have better analyti...

  12. Photoconductivity, pH Sensitivity, Noise, and Channel Length Effects in Si Nanowire FET Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparyan, Ferdinand; Zadorozhnyi, Ihor; Khondkaryan, Hrant; Arakelyan, Armen; Vitusevich, Svetlana

    2018-03-01

    Silicon nanowire (NW) field-effect transistor (FET) sensors of various lengths were fabricated. Transport properties of Si NW FET sensors were investigated involving noise spectroscopy and current-voltage (I-V) characterization. The static I-V dependencies demonstrate the high quality of fabricated silicon FETs without leakage current. Transport and noise properties of NW FET structures were investigated under different light illumination conditions, as well as in sensor configuration in an aqueous solution with different pH values. Furthermore, we studied channel length effects on the photoconductivity, noise, and pH sensitivity. The magnitude of the channel current is approximately inversely proportional to the length of the current channel, and the pH sensitivity increases with the increase of channel length approaching the Nernst limit value of 59.5 mV/pH. We demonstrate that dominant 1/f-noise can be screened by the generation-recombination plateau at certain pH of the solution or external optical excitation. The characteristic frequency of the generation-recombination noise component decreases with increasing of illumination power. Moreover, it is shown that the measured value of the slope of 1/f-noise spectral density dependence on the current channel length is 2.7 which is close to the theoretically predicted value of 3.

  13. High-performance solution-processed polymer ferroelectric field-effect transistors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naber, RCG; Tanase, C; Blom, PWM; Gelinck, GH; Marsman, AW; Touwslager, FJ; Setayesh, S; De Leeuw, DM; Naber, Ronald C.G.; Gelinck, Gerwin H.; Marsman, Albert W.; Touwslager, Fred J.

    We demonstrate a rewritable, non-volatile memory device with flexible plastic active layers deposited from solution. The memory device is a ferroelectric field-effect transistor (FeFET) made with a ferroelectric fluoropolymer and a bisalkoxy-substituted poly(p-phenylene vinylene) semiconductor

  14. All-(111) surface silicon nanowire field effect transistor devices: Effects of surface preparations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masood, M.N.; Carlen, Edwin; van den Berg, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Etching/hydrogen termination of All-(111) surface silicon nanowire field effect (SiNW-FET) devices developed by conventional photolithography and plane dependent wet etchings is studied with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and

  15. Ternary logic implemented on a single dopant atom field effect silicon transistor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein, M.; Mol, J.A.; Verduijn, J.; Lansbergen, G.P.; Rogge, S.; Levine, R.D.; Remacle, F.

    2010-01-01

    We provide an experimental proof of principle for a ternary multiplier realized in terms of the charge state of a single dopant atom embedded in a fin field effect transistor (Fin-FET). Robust reading of the logic output is made possible by using two channels to measure the current flowing through

  16. Impact of substrate on performance of band gap engineered graphene field effect transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Durgesh Laxman; Sivasankaran, K.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the graphene field effect transistor (G-FET) to enhance the drain current saturation and to minimize the drain conductance (gd) using numerical simulation. This work focus on suppressing the drain conductance using silicon substrate. We studied the impact of different substrate on the performance of band gap engineered G-FET device. We used a non-equilibrium green function with mode space (NEGF_MS) to model the transport behavior of carriers for 10 nm channel length G-FET device. We compared the drain current saturation of G-FET at higher drain voltage regime on silicon, SiC, and the SiO2 substrate. This paper clearly demonstrates the effect of substrate on an electric field near drain region of G-FET device. It is shown that the substrate of G-FET is not only creating a band gap in graphene, which is important for current saturation and gd minimization, but also selection of suitable substrate can suppress generation of carrier concentration near drain region is also important.

  17. Structure-Property Relationships of Semiconducting Polymers for Flexible and Durable Polymer Field-Effect Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Je; Jung, A-Ra; Lee, Myeongjae; Kim, Dongjin; Ro, Suhee; Jin, Seon-Mi; Nguyen, Hieu Dinh; Yang, Jeehye; Lee, Kyung-Koo; Lee, Eunji; Kang, Moon Sung; Kim, Hyunjung; Choi, Jong-Ho; Kim, BongSoo; Cho, Jeong Ho

    2017-11-22

    We report high-performance top-gate bottom-contact flexible polymer field-effect transistors (FETs) fabricated by flow-coating diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP)-based and naphthalene diimide (NDI)-based polymers (P(DPP2DT-T2), P(DPP2DT-TT), P(DPP2DT-DTT), P(NDI2OD-T2), P(NDI2OD-F2T2), and P(NDI2OD-Se2)) as semiconducting channel materials. All of the polymers displayed good FET characteristics with on/off current ratios exceeding 10 7 . The highest hole mobility of 1.51 cm 2 V -1 s -1 and the highest electron mobility of 0.85 cm 2 V -1 s -1 were obtained from the P(DPP2DT-T2) and P(NDI2OD-Se2) polymer FETs, respectively. The impacts of the polymer structures on the FET performance are well-explained by the interplay between the crystallinity, the tendency of the polymer backbone to adopt an edge-on orientation, and the interconnectivity of polymer fibrils in the film state. Additionally, we demonstrated that all of the flexible polymer-based FETs were highly resistant to tensile stress, with negligible changes in their carrier mobilities and on/off ratios after a bending test. Conclusively, these high-performance, flexible, and durable FETs demonstrate the potential of semiconducting conjugated polymers for use in flexible electronic applications.

  18. Simulating realistic implementations of spin field effect transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yunfei; Lundstrom, Mark S.; Nikonov, Dmitri E.

    2011-04-01

    The spin field effect transistor (spinFET), consisting of two ferromagnetic source/drain contacts and a Si channel, is predicted to have outstanding device and circuit performance. We carry out a rigorous numerical simulation of the spinFET based on the nonequilibrium Green's function formalism self-consistently coupled with a Poisson solver to produce the device I-V characteristics. Good agreement with the recent experiments in terms of spin injection, spin transport, and the magnetoresistance ratio (MR) is obtained. We include factors crucial for realistic devices: tunneling through a dielectric barrier, and spin relaxation at the interface and in the channel. Using these simulations, we suggest ways of optimizing the device. We propose that by choosing the right contact material and inserting tunnel oxide barriers between the source/drain and channel to filter different spins, the MR can be restored to ˜2000%, which would be beneficial to the reconfigurable logic circuit application.

  19. Three-dimensional Finite Elements Method simulation of Total Ionizing Dose in 22 nm bulk nFinFETs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatzikyriakou, Eleni, E-mail: ec3g12@soton.ac.uk; Potter, Kenneth; Redman-White, William; De Groot, C.H.

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Simulation of Total Ionizing Dose using the Finite Elements Method. • Carrier generation, transport and trapping in the oxide. • Application in three-dimensional bulk FinFET model of 22 nm node. • Examination of trapped charge in the Shallow Trench Isolation. • Trapped charge dependency of parasitic transistor current. - Abstract: Finite Elements Method simulation of Total Ionizing Dose effects on 22 nm bulk Fin Field Effect Transistor (FinFET) devices using the commercial software Synopsys Sentaurus TCAD is presented. The simulation parameters are extracted by calibrating the charge trapping model to experimental results on 400 nm SiO{sub 2} capacitors irradiated under zero bias. The FinFET device characteristics are calibrated to the Intel 22 nm bulk technology. Irradiation simulations of the transistor performed with all terminals unbiased reveal increased hardness up to a total dose of 1 MRad(SiO{sub 2}).

  20. Solar cell array for driving MOS type FET gate. MOS gata EFT gate kudoyo taiyo denchi array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murakami, S; Yoshida, K; Yoshiki, T; Yamaguchi, Y; Nakayama, T; Owada, Y

    1990-03-12

    There has been a semiconductor relay utilizing MOS type FET (field effect transistor). Concerning the solar cells used for a semiconductor relay, it is required to separate the cells by forming insulating oxide films first and to form semiconductor layers by using many mask patterns, since a crystal semiconductor is used. Thereby its manufacturing process becomes complicated and laminification as well as thin film formation are difficult, In view of the above, this invention proposes a solar cell array for driving a MOS type FET gate consisting of amorphous silicon semiconductor cells, which are used for a semiconductor relay with solar cells generating electromotive power by the light of a light emitting diode and a MOS type FET that the power output of the above solar cells is supplied to its gate, and which are connected in series with many steps. 9 figs.

  1. Modeling of pH Dependent Electrochemical Noise in Ion Sensitive Field Effect Transistors ISFET

    OpenAIRE

    M. P. Das; M. Bhuyan

    2013-01-01

    pH ISFETs are very important sensor for in vivo continuous monitoring application of physiological and environmental system. The accuracy of Ion Sensitive Field Effect Transistor (ISFET) output measurement is greatly affected by the presences of noise, drift and slow response of the device. Although the noise analysis of ISFET so far performed in different literature relates only to sources originated from Field Effect Transistor (FET) structure which are almost constant for a particular devi...

  2. A sub k{sub B}T/q semimetal nanowire field effect transistor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansari, L.; Fagas, G.; Gity, F.; Greer, J. C., E-mail: Jim.Greer@Tyndall.ie [Tyndall National Institute, Lee Maltings, Dyke Parade, Cork T12 R5CP (Ireland)

    2016-08-08

    The key challenge for nanoelectronics technologies is to identify the designs that work on molecular length scales, provide reduced power consumption relative to classical field effect transistors (FETs), and that can be readily integrated at low cost. To this end, a FET is introduced that relies on the quantum effects arising for semimetals patterned with critical dimensions below 5 nm, that intrinsically has lower power requirements due to its better than a “Boltzmann tyranny” limited subthreshold swing (SS) relative to classical field effect devices, eliminates the need to form heterojunctions, and mitigates against the requirement for abrupt doping profiles in the formation of nanowire tunnel FETs. This is achieved through using a nanowire comprised of a single semimetal material while providing the equivalent of a heterojunction structure based on shape engineering to avail of the quantum confinement induced semimetal-to-semiconductor transition. Ab initio calculations combined with a non-equilibrium Green's function formalism for charge transport reveals tunneling behavior in the OFF state and a resonant conduction mechanism for the ON state. A common limitation to tunnel FET (TFET) designs is related to a low current in the ON state. A discussion relating to the semimetal FET design to overcome this limitation while providing less than 60 meV/dec SS at room temperature is provided.

  3. Silicon nanowires as field-effect transducers for biosensor development: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noor, M. Omair; Krull, Ulrich J., E-mail: ulrich.krull@utoronto.ca

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • Nanoscale field-effect transducers interrogate surface charge by conductivity changes. • The nanometer dimensions of SiNWs facilitate sensitive detection of biomolecules. • SiNWs can be fabricated by bottom–up or top–down approaches. • Device parameters and solution-phase conditions strongly influence analytical performance. - Abstract: The unique electronic properties and miniaturized dimensions of silicon nanowires (SiNWs) are attractive for label-free, real-time and sensitive detection of biomolecules. Sensors based on SiNWs operate as field effect transistors (FETs) and can be fabricated either by top–down or bottom–up approaches. Advances in fabrication methods have allowed for the control of physicochemical and electronic properties of SiNWs, providing opportunity for interfacing of SiNW-FET probes with intracellular environments. The Debye screening length is an important consideration that determines the performance and detection limits of SiNW-FET sensors, especially at physiologically relevant conditions of ionic strength (>100 mM). In this review, we discuss the construction and application of SiNW-FET sensors for detection of ions, nucleic acids and protein markers. Advantages and disadvantages of the top–down and bottom–up approaches for synthesis of SiNWs are discussed. An overview of various methods for surface functionalization of SiNWs for immobilization of selective chemistry is provided in the context of impact on the analytical performance of SiNW-FET sensors. In addition to in vitro examples, an overview of the progress of use of SiNW-FET sensors for ex vivo studies is also presented. This review concludes with a discussion of the future prospects of SiNW-FET sensors.

  4. Silicon nanowires as field-effect transducers for biosensor development: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noor, M. Omair; Krull, Ulrich J.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Nanoscale field-effect transducers interrogate surface charge by conductivity changes. • The nanometer dimensions of SiNWs facilitate sensitive detection of biomolecules. • SiNWs can be fabricated by bottom–up or top–down approaches. • Device parameters and solution-phase conditions strongly influence analytical performance. - Abstract: The unique electronic properties and miniaturized dimensions of silicon nanowires (SiNWs) are attractive for label-free, real-time and sensitive detection of biomolecules. Sensors based on SiNWs operate as field effect transistors (FETs) and can be fabricated either by top–down or bottom–up approaches. Advances in fabrication methods have allowed for the control of physicochemical and electronic properties of SiNWs, providing opportunity for interfacing of SiNW-FET probes with intracellular environments. The Debye screening length is an important consideration that determines the performance and detection limits of SiNW-FET sensors, especially at physiologically relevant conditions of ionic strength (>100 mM). In this review, we discuss the construction and application of SiNW-FET sensors for detection of ions, nucleic acids and protein markers. Advantages and disadvantages of the top–down and bottom–up approaches for synthesis of SiNWs are discussed. An overview of various methods for surface functionalization of SiNWs for immobilization of selective chemistry is provided in the context of impact on the analytical performance of SiNW-FET sensors. In addition to in vitro examples, an overview of the progress of use of SiNW-FET sensors for ex vivo studies is also presented. This review concludes with a discussion of the future prospects of SiNW-FET sensors

  5. Optimization of urea-EnFET based on Ta2O5 layer with post annealing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lue, Cheng-En; Yu, Ting-Chun; Yang, Chia-Ming; Pijanowska, Dorota G; Lai, Chao-Sung

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the urea-enzymatic field effect transistors (EnFETs) were investigated based on pH-ion sensitive field effect transistors (ISFETs) with tantalum pentoxide (Ta(2)O(5)) sensing membranes. In addition, a post N(2) annealing was used to improve the sensing properties. At first, the pH sensitivity, hysteresis, drift, and light induced drift of the ISFETs were evaluated. After the covalent bonding process and urease immobilization, the urea sensitivity of the EnFETs were also investigated and compared with the conventional Si(3)N(4) sensing layer. The ISFETs and EnFETs with annealed Ta(2)O(5) sensing membranes showed the best responses, including the highest pH sensitivity (56.9 mV/pH, from pH 2 to pH 12) and also corresponded to the highest urea sensitivity (61 mV/pC(urea), from 1 mM to 7.5 mM). Besides, the non-ideal factors of pH hysteresis, time drift, and light induced drift of the annealed samples were also lower than the controlled Ta(2)O(5) and Si(3)N(4) sensing membranes.

  6. Optimization of Urea-EnFET Based on Ta2O5 Layer with Post Annealing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Sung Lai

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the urea-enzymatic field effect transistors (EnFETs were investigated based on pH-ion sensitive field effect transistors (ISFETs with tantalum pentoxide (Ta2O5 sensing membranes. In addition, a post N2 annealing was used to improve the sensing properties. At first, the pH sensitivity, hysteresis, drift, and light induced drift of the ISFETs were evaluated. After the covalent bonding process and urease immobilization, the urea sensitivity of the EnFETs were also investigated and compared with the conventional Si3N4 sensing layer. The ISFETs and EnFETs with annealed Ta2O5 sensing membranes showed the best responses, including the highest pH sensitivity (56.9 mV/pH, from pH 2 to pH 12 and also corresponded to the highest urea sensitivity (61 mV/pCurea, from 1 mM to 7.5 mM. Besides, the non-ideal factors of pH hysteresis, time drift, and light induced drift of the annealed samples were also lower than the controlled Ta2O5 and Si3N4 sensing membranes.

  7. Design for a FET based 1 MHz, 10 kV pulse generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, M.J.; Wait, G.D.

    1995-08-01

    A pulse generator consisting of a coaxial cable and a high voltage modulator, incorporating two stacks of Field-Effect Transistor (FET) switches operating in ''push-pull'' mode, has been designed and built. The modulator generates a continuous, unipolar, pulse train at a fundamental frequency of 1 MHz and a magnitude of 10 kV. The rise and fall times of the pulses are less than 39 ns. The two stacks each utilize 14 FETS, which are individually rated at 1 kV. The design incorporates a low-loss coaxial cable on which pulses are stored. Extensive PSpice simulations have been carried out to evaluate various design options. Subsequent measurements on the prototype pulse generator confirm the PSpice predictions. This system is applicable for the kicker system at TRIUMF

  8. Dual-Input AND Gate From Single-Channel Thin-Film FET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, F. A.; Pinto, N. J.; Perez, R.; Mueller, C. H.

    2008-01-01

    A regio-regular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (RRP3HT) thin-film transistor having a split-gate architecture has been fabricated on a doped silicon/silicon nitride substrate and characterized. RRP3HT is a semiconducting polymer that has a carrier mobility and on/off ratio when used in a field effect transistor (FET) configuration. This commercially available polymer is very soluble in common organic solvents and is easily processed to form uniform thin films. The most important polymer-based device fabricated and studied is the FET, since it forms the building block in logic circuits and switches for active matrix (light-emitting-diode) (LED) displays, smart cards, and radio frequency identification (RFID) cards.

  9. Room to high temperature measurements of flexible SOI FinFETs with sub-20-nm fins

    KAUST Repository

    Diab, Amer El Hajj

    2014-12-01

    We report the temperature dependence of the core electrical parameters and transport characteristics of a flexible version of fin field-effect transistor (FinFET) on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) with sub-20-nm wide fins and high-k/metal gate-stacks. For the first time, we characterize them from room to high temperature (150 °C) to show the impact of temperature variation on drain current, gate leakage current, and transconductance. Variation of extracted parameters, such as low-field mobility, subthreshold swing, threshold voltage, and ON-OFF current characteristics, is reported too. Direct comparison is made to a rigid version of the SOI FinFETs. The mobility degradation with temperature is mainly caused by phonon scattering mechanism. The overall excellent devices performance at high temperature after release is outlined proving the suitability of truly high-performance flexible inorganic electronics with such advanced architecture.

  10. 2D modeling based comprehensive analysis of short channel effects in DMG strained VSTB FET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Priyanka; Banerjee, Pritha; Sarkar, Subir Kumar

    2018-06-01

    The paper aims to develop two dimensional analytical model of the proposed dual material (DM) Vertical Super Thin Body (VSTB) strained Field Effect Transistor (FET) with focus on its short channel behaviour in nanometer regime. Electrostatic potential across gate/channel and dielectric wall/channel interface is derived by solving 2D Poisson's equation with parabolic approximation method by applying appropriate boundary conditions. Threshold voltage is then calculated by using the criteria of minimum surface potential considering both gate and dielectric wall side potential. Performance analysis of the present structure is demonstrated in terms of potential, electric field, threshold voltage characteristics and subthreshold behaviour by varying various device parameters and applied biases. Effect of application of strain in channel is further explored to establish the superiority of the proposed device in comparison to conventional VSTB FET counterpart. All analytical results are compared with Silvaco ATLAS device simulated data to substantiate the accuracy of our derived model.

  11. Unlocking the Origin of Superior Performance of a Si-Ge Core-Shell Nanowire Quantum Dot Field Effect Transistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhungana, Kamal B; Jaishi, Meghnath; Pati, Ranjit

    2016-07-13

    The sustained advancement in semiconducting core-shell nanowire technology has unlocked a tantalizing route for making next generation field effect transistor (FET). Understanding how to control carrier mobility of these nanowire channels by applying a gate field is the key to developing a high performance FET. Herein, we have identified the switching mechanism responsible for the superior performance of a Si-Ge core-shell nanowire quantum dot FET over its homogeneous Si counterpart. A quantum transport approach is used to investigate the gate-field modulated switching behavior in electronic current for ultranarrow Si and Si-Ge core-shell nanowire quantum dot FETs. Our calculations reveal that for the ON state, the gate-field induced transverse localization of the wave function restricts the carrier transport to the outer (shell) layer with the pz orbitals providing the pathway for tunneling of electrons in the channels. The higher ON state current in the Si-Ge core-shell nanowire FET is attributed to the pz orbitals that are distributed over the entire channel; in the case of Si nanowire, the participating pz orbital is restricted to a few Si atoms in the channel resulting in a smaller tunneling current. Within the gate bias range considered here, the transconductance is found to be substantially higher in the case of a Si-Ge core-shell nanowire FET than in a Si nanowire FET, which suggests a much higher mobility in the Si-Ge nanowire device.

  12. Signal amplification in electrochemical detection of buckwheat allergenic protein using field effect transistor biosensor by introduction of anionic surfactant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sho Hideshima

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Food allergens, especially buckwheat proteins, sometimes induce anaphylactic shock in patients after ingestion. Development of a simple and rapid screening method based on a field effect transistor (FET biosensor for food allergens in food facilities or products is in demand. In this study, we achieved the FET detection of a buckwheat allergenic protein (BWp16, which is not charged enough to be electrically detected by FET biosensors, by introducing additional negative charges from anionic surfactants to the target proteins. A change in the FET characteristics reflecting surface potential caused by the adsorption of target charged proteins was observed when the target sample was coupled with the anionic surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate; SDS, while no significant response was detected without any surfactant treatment. It was suggested that the surfactant conjugated with the protein could be useful for the charge amplification of the target proteins. The surface plasmon resonance analysis revealed that the SDS-coupled proteins were successfully captured by the receptors immobilized on the sensing surface. Additionally, we obtained the FET responses at various concentrations of BWp16 ranging from 1 ng/mL to 10 μg/mL. These results suggest that a signal amplification method for FET biosensing is useful for allergen detection in the food industry. Keywords: Field effect transistor biosensor, Food allergen, Signal amplification, Ionic surfactant, Intrinsic charge

  13. Quantitative analysis of immobilized penicillinase using enzyme-modified AlGaN/GaN field-effect transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müntze, Gesche Mareike; Baur, Barbara; Schäfer, Wladimir; Sasse, Alexander; Howgate, John; Röth, Kai; Eickhoff, Martin

    2015-02-15

    Penicillinase-modified AlGaN/GaN field-effect transistors (PenFETs) are utilized to systematically investigate the covalently immobilized enzyme penicillinase under different experimental conditions. We demonstrate quantitative evaluation of covalently immobilized penicillinase layers on pH-sensitive field-effect transistors (FETs) using an analytical kinetic PenFET model. This kinetic model is explicitly suited for devices with thin enzyme layers that are not diffusion-limited, as it is the case for the PenFETs discussed here. By means of the kinetic model it was possible to extract the Michaelis constant of covalently immobilized penicillinase as well as relative transport coefficients of the different species associated with the enzymatic reaction which, exempli gratia, give information about the permeability of the enzymatic layer. Based on this analysis we quantify the reproducibility and the stability of the analyzed PenFETs over the course of 33 days as well as the influence of pH and buffer concentration on the properties of the enzymatic layer. Thereby the stability measurements reveal a Michalis constant KM of (67 ± 13)μM while the chronological development of the relative transport coefficients suggests a detachment of physisorbed penicillinase during the first two weeks since production. Our results show that AlGaN/GaN PenFETs prepared by covalent immobilization of a penicillinase enzyme layer present a powerful tool for quantitative analysis of enzyme functionality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Carrier mobility and crystal perfection of tetracene thin film FET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriguchi, N.; Nishikawa, T.; Anezaki, T.; Unno, A.; Tachibana, M.; Kojima, K.

    2006-01-01

    It is well-known that the carrier mobility of an organic field effect semiconductor (FET) depended on the crystal quality and/or the crystal perfection of the organic thin films [T.W. Kelly, D.V. Muyres, P.F. Baude, T.P. Smith, T.D. Jones, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 771 (2003) L6.5.1; D.J. Gundlach, J.A. Nichols, L. Zhou, T.N. Jackson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80 (2002) 2925; H.K. Lauk, M. Halik, U. Zschieschang, G. Schmid, W. Radlik, J. Appl. Phys. 92 (2002) 5259; M. Shtein, J. Mapel, J.B. Benziger, S.R. Forrest, Appl. Phys. Lett. 81 (2002) 268; D. Knipp, R.A. Street, A.R. Volkel, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82 (2003) 3907; R. Ruiz, A.C. Mayer, G.G. Malliaras, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85 (2004) 4926; R.W.I. de Boer, M.E. Gershenson, A.F. Morpurgo, V. Podzorov, Phys. Stat. Sol. A 201 (2004) 1031]. To improve the crystal quality of the thin film many efforts were made. One of the important improvements was the surface treatment of the substrate. The tetracene thin film FET (top contact structure) was fabricated using the substrate, which was coated by a spin-coating method with a 0.1% poly α-methylstyrene (AMS) solution. The crystal quality was improved by this treatment so that the carrier mobility was higher than that of non-treatment. The maximum mobility of the AMS-treated sample was obtained to be 0.12 cm 2 /V s

  15. Datta-Das-type spin-field-effect transistor in the nonballistic regime

    OpenAIRE

    Ohno, Munekazu; Yoh, Kanji

    2008-01-01

    We analyzed the applicability of original Datta-Das proposal for spin-field-effect transistor (spin-FET) to nonballistic regime based on semiempirical Monte Carlo simulation for spin transport. It is demonstrated that the spin helix state in two-dimensional electron gas system is sufficiently robust against D'yakonov-Perel' spin relaxation to allow an operation of Datta-Das-type spin-FET in the nonballistic transport regime. It is also shown that the spin diffusion length of the spin helix st...

  16. Dynamic response of carbon nanotube field-effect transistors analyzed by S-parameters measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bethoux, J.-M. [Institut d' Electronique, de Microelectronique et de Nanotechnologie, C.N.R.S. U.M.R. 8520, BP 60069, F-59652, Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Happy, H. [Institut d' Electronique, de Microelectronique et de Nanotechnologie, C.N.R.S. U.M.R. 8520, BP 60069, F-59652, Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France)]. E-mail: henri.happy@iemn.univ-lille1.fr; Dambrine, G. [Institut d' Electronique, de Microelectronique et de Nanotechnologie, C.N.R.S. U.M.R. 8520, BP 60069, F-59652, Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Derycke, V. [Laboratoire d' Electronique Moleculaire, SPEC, Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay F-91191, Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); Goffman, M. [Laboratoire d' Electronique Moleculaire, SPEC, Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay F-91191, Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); Bourgoin, J.-P. [Laboratoire d' Electronique Moleculaire, SPEC, Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay F-91191, Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France)

    2006-12-15

    Carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (CN-FET) with a metallic back gate have been fabricated. By assembling a number of CNs in parallel, driving currents in the mA range have been obtained. The dynamic response of the CN-FETs has been investigated through S-parameters measurements. A current gain (|H {sub 21}|{sup 2}) cut-off frequency (f {sub t}) of 8 GHz, and a maximum stable gain (MSG) value of 10 dB at 1 GHz have been obtained. The extraction of an equivalent circuit is proposed.

  17. Dynamic response of carbon nanotube field-effect transistors analyzed by S-parameters measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bethoux, J.-M.; Happy, H.; Dambrine, G.; Derycke, V.; Goffman, M.; Bourgoin, J.-P.

    2006-01-01

    Carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (CN-FET) with a metallic back gate have been fabricated. By assembling a number of CNs in parallel, driving currents in the mA range have been obtained. The dynamic response of the CN-FETs has been investigated through S-parameters measurements. A current gain (|H 21 | 2 ) cut-off frequency (f t ) of 8 GHz, and a maximum stable gain (MSG) value of 10 dB at 1 GHz have been obtained. The extraction of an equivalent circuit is proposed

  18. Optical reading of field-effect transistors by phase-space absorption quenching in a single InGaAs quantum well conducting channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemla, D. S.; Bar-Joseph, I.; Klingshirn, C.; Miller, D. A. B.; Kuo, J. M.

    1987-03-01

    Absorption switching in a semiconductor quantum well by electrically varying the charge density in the quantum well conducting channel of a selectively doped heterostructure transistor is reported for the first time. The phase-space absorption quenching (PAQ) is observed at room temperature in an InGaAs/InAlAs grown on InP FET, and it shows large absorption coefficient changes with relatively broad spectral bandwidth. This PAQ is large enough to be used for direct optical determination of the logic state of the FET.

  19. Heterostructures and quantum devices

    CERN Document Server

    Einspruch, Norman G

    1994-01-01

    Heterostructure and quantum-mechanical devices promise significant improvement in the performance of electronic and optoelectronic integrated circuits (ICs). Though these devices are the subject of a vigorous research effort, the current literature is often either highly technical or narrowly focused. This book presents heterostructure and quantum devices to the nonspecialist, especially electrical engineers working with high-performance semiconductor devices. It focuses on a broad base of technical applications using semiconductor physics theory to develop the next generation of electrical en

  20. Fin field effect transistor directionality impacts printing of implantation shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiren; Granik, Yuri

    2018-01-01

    In modern integrated circuit (IC) fabrication processes, the photoresist receives considerable illumination energy that is reflected by underlying topography during optical lithography of implantation layers. Bottom antireflective coating (BARC) is helpful to mitigate the reflection. Often, however, BARC is not used, because its removal is technically challenging, in addition to its relatively high economic cost. Furthermore, the advanced technology nodes, such as 14/10-nm nodes, have introduced fin field effect transistor (FinFET), which makes reflection from nonuniform silicon substrates exceptionally complicated. Therefore, modeling reflection from topography becomes obligatory to accurately predict printing of implantation shapes. Typically, FinFET is always fixed in one direction in realistic designs. However, the same implantation rectangle may be oriented in either horizontal or vertical direction. Then, there are two types of relations between the critical dimension (CD) and FinFET, namely a parallel-to and a perpendicular-to relation. We examine the fin directionality impact on CD. We found that this impact may be considerable in some cases. We use our in-house rigorous optical topography simulator to reveal underlining physical reasons. One of the major causes of the CD differences is that in the parallel orientation, the solid sidewalls of the fins conduct considerable light reflections unlike for the perpendicular orientation. This finding can aid the compact modeling in optical proximity correction of implantation masks.

  1. Soft-type trap-induced degradation of MoS2 field effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Young-Hoon; Ryu, Min-Yeul; Lee, Kook Jin; Park, So Jeong; Choi, Jun Hee; Lee, Byung-Chul; Kim, Wungyeon; Kim, Gyu-Tae

    2018-06-01

    The practical applicability of electronic devices is largely determined by the reliability of field effect transistors (FETs), necessitating constant searches for new and better-performing semiconductors. We investigated the stress-induced degradation of MoS2 multilayer FETs, revealing a steady decrease of drain current by 56% from the initial value after 30 min. The drain current recovers to the initial state when the transistor is completely turned off, indicating the roles of soft-traps in the apparent degradation. The noise current power spectrum follows the model of carrier number fluctuation–correlated mobility fluctuation (CNF–CMF) regardless of stress time. However, the reduction of the drain current was well fitted to the increase of the trap density based on the CNF–CMF model, attributing the presence of the soft-type traps of dielectric oxides to the degradation of the MoS2 FETs.

  2. Applications of interface controlled pulsed-laser deposited polymer films in field-effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adil, Danish; Ukah, Ndubuisi; Guha, Suchi; Gupta, Ram; Ghosh, Kartik

    2010-03-01

    Matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation, a derivative of pulsed laser deposition (PLD), is an alternative method of depositing polymer and biomaterial films that allows homogeneous film coverage of high molecular weight organic materials for layer-by-layer growth without any laser induced damage. Polyfluorene (PF)-based conjugated polymers have attracted considerable attention in organic field-effect transistors (FETs). A co-polymer of PF (PFB) was deposited as a thin film using matrix assisted PLD employing a KrF excimer laser. Electrical characteristics of FETs fabricated using these PLD grown films were compared to those of FETs using spin-coated films. We show that threshold voltages, on/off ratios, and charge carrier motilities are significantly improved in PLD grown films. This is attributed to an improved dielectric-polymer interface.

  3. Recovery Based Nanowire Field-Effect Transistor Detection of Pathogenic Avian Influenza DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chih-Heng; Chu, Chia-Jung; Teng, Kang-Ning; Su, Yi-Jr; Chen, Chii-Dong; Tsai, Li-Chu; Yang, Yuh-Shyong

    2012-02-01

    Fast and accurate diagnosis is critical in infectious disease surveillance and management. We proposed a DNA recovery system that can easily be adapted to DNA chip or DNA biosensor for fast identification and confirmation of target DNA. This method was based on the re-hybridization of DNA target with a recovery DNA to free the DNA probe. Functionalized silicon nanowire field-effect transistor (SiNW FET) was demonstrated to monitor such specific DNA-DNA interaction using high pathogenic strain virus hemagglutinin 1 (H1) DNA of avian influenza (AI) as target. Specific electric changes were observed in real-time for AI virus DNA sensing and device recovery when nanowire surface of SiNW FET was modified with complementary captured DNA probe. The recovery based SiNW FET biosensor can be further developed for fast identification and further confirmation of a variety of influenza virus strains and other infectious diseases.

  4. Attofarad resolution capacitance-voltage measurement of nanometer scale field effect transistors utilizing ambient noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gokirmak, Ali; Inaltekin, Hazer; Tiwari, Sandip

    2009-01-01

    A high resolution capacitance-voltage (C-V) characterization technique, enabling direct measurement of electronic properties at the nanoscale in devices such as nanowire field effect transistors (FETs) through the use of random fluctuations, is described. The minimum noise level required for achieving sub-aF (10 -18 F) resolution, the leveraging of stochastic resonance, and the effect of higher levels of noise are illustrated through simulations. The non-linear ΔC gate-source/drain -V gate response of FETs is utilized to determine the inversion layer capacitance (C inv ) and carrier mobility. The technique is demonstrated by extracting the carrier concentration and effective electron mobility in a nanoscale Si FET with C inv = 60 aF.

  5. Biofunctionalized Zinc Oxide Field Effect Transistors for Selective Sensing of Riboflavin with Current Modulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morley O. Stone

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Zinc oxide field effect transistors (ZnO-FET, covalently functionalized with single stranded DNA aptamers, provide a highly selective platform for label-free small molecule sensing. The nanostructured surface morphology of ZnO provides high sensitivity and room temperature deposition allows for a wide array of substrate types. Herein we demonstrate the selective detection of riboflavin down to the pM level in aqueous solution using the negative electrical current response of the ZnO-FET by covalently attaching a riboflavin binding aptamer to the surface. The response of the biofunctionalized ZnO-FET was tuned by attaching a redox tag (ferrocene to the 3’ terminus of the aptamer, resulting in positive current modulation upon exposure to riboflavin down to pM levels.

  6. Large-current-controllable carbon nanotube field-effect transistor in electrolyte solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myodo, Miho; Inaba, Masafumi; Ohara, Kazuyoshi; Kato, Ryogo; Kobayashi, Mikinori; Hirano, Yu; Suzuki, Kazuma; Kawarada, Hiroshi

    2015-05-01

    Large-current-controllable carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (CNT-FETs) were fabricated with mm-long CNT sheets. The sheets, synthesized by remote-plasma-enhanced CVD, contained both single- and double-walled CNTs. Titanium was deposited on the sheet as source and drain electrodes, and an electrolyte solution was used as a gate electrode (solution gate) to apply a gate voltage to the CNTs through electric double layers formed around the CNTs. The drain current came to be well modulated as electrolyte solution penetrated into the sheets, and one of the solution gate CNT-FETs was able to control a large current of over 2.5 A. In addition, we determined the transconductance parameter per tube and compared it with values for other CNT-FETs. The potential of CNT sheets for applications requiring the control of large current is exhibited in this study.

  7. Submicron FETs Using Molecular Beam Epitaxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    2rin w2Cgs Req + 2(rw 2Cg2 Req + rin 2Reqgs Podell 9 has found empirically for one-micron gate length FETs that R =1.25 (10) eq gm Using Eq. (10) in...Transmission, Modulation, and Noise (McGraw- Hill, NY, 1959), p. 223. 9. A. Podell , to be published. 10. P. Wolf, "Microwave Properties of Schottky-Barrier

  8. Probing surface states in PbS nanocrystal films using pentacene field effect transistors: controlling carrier concentration and charge transport in pentacene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Byoungnam; Whitham, Kevin; Bian, Kaifu; Lim, Yee-Fun; Hanrath, Tobias

    2014-12-21

    We used a bilayer field effect transistor (FET) consisting of a thin PbS nanocrystals (NCs) film interfaced with vacuum-deposited pentacene to probe trap states in NCs. We interpret the observed threshold voltage shift in context of charge carrier trapping by PbS NCs and relate the magnitude of the threshold voltage shift to the number of trapped carriers. We explored a series of NC surface ligands to modify the interface between PbS NCs and pentacene and demonstrate the impact of interface chemistry on charge carrier density and the FET mobility in a pentacene FET.

  9. Design and Performance Analysis of 1-Bit FinFET Full Adder Cells for Subthreshold Region at 16 nm Process Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ‘Aqilah binti Abdul Tahrim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The scaling process of the conventional 2D-planar metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET is now approaching its limit as technology has reached below 20 nm process technology. A new nonplanar device architecture called FinFET was invented to overcome the problem by allowing transistors to be scaled down into sub-20 nm region. In this work, the FinFET structure is implemented in 1-bit full adder transistors to investigate its performance and energy efficiency in the subthreshold region for cell designs of Complementary MOS (CMOS, Complementary Pass-Transistor Logic (CPL, Transmission Gate (TG, and Hybrid CMOS (HCMOS. The performance of 1-bit FinFET-based full adder in 16-nm technology is benchmarked against conventional MOSFET-based full adder. The Predictive Technology Model (PTM and Berkeley Shortchannel IGFET Model-Common Multi-Gate (BSIM-CMG 16 nm low power libraries are used. Propagation delay, average power dissipation, power-delay-product (PDP, and energy-delay-product (EDP are analysed based on all four types of full adder cell designs of both FETs. The 1-bit FinFET-based full adder shows a great reduction in all four metric performances. A reduction in propagation delay, PDP, and EDP is evident in the 1-bit FinFET-based full adder of CPL, giving the best overall performance due to its high-speed performance and good current driving capabilities.

  10. Highly Uniform Carbon Nanotube Field-Effect Transistors and Medium Scale Integrated Circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bingyan; Zhang, Panpan; Ding, Li; Han, Jie; Qiu, Song; Li, Qingwen; Zhang, Zhiyong; Peng, Lian-Mao

    2016-08-10

    Top-gated p-type field-effect transistors (FETs) have been fabricated in batch based on carbon nanotube (CNT) network thin films prepared from CNT solution and present high yield and highly uniform performance with small threshold voltage distribution with standard deviation of 34 mV. According to the property of FETs, various logical and arithmetical gates, shifters, and d-latch circuits were designed and demonstrated with rail-to-rail output. In particular, a 4-bit adder consisting of 140 p-type CNT FETs was demonstrated with higher packing density and lower supply voltage than other published integrated circuits based on CNT films, which indicates that CNT based integrated circuits can reach to medium scale. In addition, a 2-bit multiplier has been realized for the first time. Benefitted from the high uniformity and suitable threshold voltage of CNT FETs, all of the fabricated circuits based on CNT FETs can be driven by a single voltage as small as 2 V.

  11. A comparative study of graphene and graphite-based field effect transistor on flexible substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Kapil; Rani, Cheenu; Vaid, Monika; Kapoor, Ankit; Kumar, Pramod; Kumar, Sandeep; Shriwastawa, Shilpi; Sharma, Sandeep; Singh, Randhir; Tripathi, C. C.

    2018-06-01

    In the present era, there has been a great demand of cost-effective, biodegradable, flexible and wearable electronics which may open the gate to many applications like flexible displays, RFID tags, health monitoring devices, etc. Due to the versatile nature of plastic substrates, they have been extensively used in packaging, printing, etc. However, the fabrication of electronic devices requires specially prepared substrates with high quality surfaces, chemical compositions and solutions to the related fabrication issues along with its non-biodegradable nature. Therefore, in this report, a cost-effective, biodegradable cellulose paper as an alternative dielectric substrate material for the fabrication of flexible field effect transistor (FET) is presented. The graphite and liquid phase exfoliated graphene have been used as the material for the realisation of source, drain and channel on cellulose paper substrate for its comparative analysis. The mobility of fabricated FETs was calculated to be 83 cm2/V s (holes) and 33 cm2/V s (electrons) for graphite FET and 100 cm2/V s (holes) and 52 cm2/V s (electrons) for graphene FET, respectively. The output characteristic of the device demonstrates the linear behaviour and a comprehensive increase in conductance as a function of gate voltages. The fabricated FETs may be used for strain sensing, health care monitoring devices, human motion detection, etc.

  12. High-performance integrated field-effect transistor-based sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adzhri, R., E-mail: adzhri@gmail.com [Institute of Nano Electronic Engineering (INEE), Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), Kangar, Perlis (Malaysia); Md Arshad, M.K., E-mail: mohd.khairuddin@unimap.edu.my [Institute of Nano Electronic Engineering (INEE), Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), Kangar, Perlis (Malaysia); School of Microelectronic Engineering (SoME), Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), Kangar, Perlis (Malaysia); Gopinath, Subash C.B., E-mail: subash@unimap.edu.my [Institute of Nano Electronic Engineering (INEE), Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), Kangar, Perlis (Malaysia); School of Bioprocess Engineering (SBE), Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), Arau, Perlis (Malaysia); Ruslinda, A.R., E-mail: ruslinda@unimap.edu.my [Institute of Nano Electronic Engineering (INEE), Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), Kangar, Perlis (Malaysia); Fathil, M.F.M., E-mail: faris.fathil@gmail.com [Institute of Nano Electronic Engineering (INEE), Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), Kangar, Perlis (Malaysia); Ayub, R.M., E-mail: ramzan@unimap.edu.my [Institute of Nano Electronic Engineering (INEE), Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), Kangar, Perlis (Malaysia); Nor, M. Nuzaihan Mohd, E-mail: m.nuzaihan@unimap.edu.my [Institute of Nano Electronic Engineering (INEE), Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), Kangar, Perlis (Malaysia); Voon, C.H., E-mail: chvoon@unimap.edu.my [Institute of Nano Electronic Engineering (INEE), Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), Kangar, Perlis (Malaysia)

    2016-04-21

    Field-effect transistors (FETs) have succeeded in modern electronics in an era of computers and hand-held applications. Currently, considerable attention has been paid to direct electrical measurements, which work by monitoring changes in intrinsic electrical properties. Further, FET-based sensing systems drastically reduce cost, are compatible with CMOS technology, and ease down-stream applications. Current technologies for sensing applications rely on time-consuming strategies and processes and can only be performed under recommended conditions. To overcome these obstacles, an overview is presented here in which we specifically focus on high-performance FET-based sensor integration with nano-sized materials, which requires understanding the interaction of surface materials with the surrounding environment. Therefore, we present strategies, material depositions, device structures and other characteristics involved in FET-based devices. Special attention was given to silicon and polyaniline nanowires and graphene, which have attracted much interest due to their remarkable properties in sensing applications. - Highlights: • Performance of FET-based biosensors for the detection of biomolecules is presented. • Silicon nanowire, polyaniline and graphene are the highlighted nanoscaled materials as sensing transducers. • The importance of surface material interaction with the surrounding environment is discussed. • Different device structure architectures for ease in fabrication and high sensitivity of sensing are presented.

  13. High-performance integrated field-effect transistor-based sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adzhri, R.; Md Arshad, M.K.; Gopinath, Subash C.B.; Ruslinda, A.R.; Fathil, M.F.M.; Ayub, R.M.; Nor, M. Nuzaihan Mohd; Voon, C.H.

    2016-01-01

    Field-effect transistors (FETs) have succeeded in modern electronics in an era of computers and hand-held applications. Currently, considerable attention has been paid to direct electrical measurements, which work by monitoring changes in intrinsic electrical properties. Further, FET-based sensing systems drastically reduce cost, are compatible with CMOS technology, and ease down-stream applications. Current technologies for sensing applications rely on time-consuming strategies and processes and can only be performed under recommended conditions. To overcome these obstacles, an overview is presented here in which we specifically focus on high-performance FET-based sensor integration with nano-sized materials, which requires understanding the interaction of surface materials with the surrounding environment. Therefore, we present strategies, material depositions, device structures and other characteristics involved in FET-based devices. Special attention was given to silicon and polyaniline nanowires and graphene, which have attracted much interest due to their remarkable properties in sensing applications. - Highlights: • Performance of FET-based biosensors for the detection of biomolecules is presented. • Silicon nanowire, polyaniline and graphene are the highlighted nanoscaled materials as sensing transducers. • The importance of surface material interaction with the surrounding environment is discussed. • Different device structure architectures for ease in fabrication and high sensitivity of sensing are presented.

  14. pH and Protein Sensing with Functionalized Semiconducting Oxide Nanobelt FETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yi; Yun, C. S.; Strouse, G. F.; Xiong, P.; Yang, R. S.; Wang, Z. L.

    2008-03-01

    We report solution pH sensing and selective protein detection with high-performance channel-limited field-effect transistors (FETs) based on single semiconducting oxide (ZnO and SnO2) nanobelts^1. The devices were integrated with PDMS microfluidic channels for analyte delivery and the source/drain contacts were passivated for in-solution sensing. pH sensing experiments were performed on FETs with functionalized and unmodified nanobelts. Functionalization of the nanobelts by APTES was found to greatly improve the pH sensitivity. The change in nanobelt conductance as functions of pH values at different gate voltages and ionic strengths showed high sensitivity and consistency. For the protein detection, we achieved highly selective biotinylation of the nanobelt channel with through APTES linkage. The specific binding of fluorescently-tagged streptavidin to the biotinylated nanobelt was verified by fluorescence microscopy; non-specific binding to the substrate was largely eliminated using PEG-silane passivation. The electrical responses of the biotinylated FETs to the streptavidin binding in PBS buffers of different pH values were systematically measured. The results will be presented and discussed. ^1Y. Cheng et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 093114 (2006). *Supported by NSF NIRT Grant ECS-0210332.

  15. Tuning the hysteresis voltage in 2D multilayer MoS{sub 2} FETs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Jie, E-mail: jiangjie@csu.edu.cn; Zheng, Zhouming; Guo, Junjie

    2016-10-01

    The hysteresis tuning is of great significance before the two-dimensional (2D) molybdenum disulfide (MoS{sub 2}) field-effect transistors (FETs) can be practically used in the next-generation nanoelectronic devices. In this paper, a simple and effective annealing method was developed to tune the hysteresis voltage in 2D MoS{sub 2} transistors. It was found that high temperature (175 °C) annealing in air could increase the hysteresis voltage from 8.0 V (original device) to 28.4 V, while a next vacuum annealing would reduce the hysteresis voltage to be only 2.0 V. An energyband diagram model based on electron trapping/detrapping due to oxygen adsorption is proposed to understand the hysteresis mechanism in multilayer MoS{sub 2} FET. This simple method for tuning the hysteresis voltage of MoS{sub 2} FET can make a significant step toward 2D nanoelectronic device applications.

  16. Improved sensitivity of a graphene FET biosensor using porphyrin linkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawata, Takuya; Ono, Takao; Kanai, Yasushi; Ohno, Yasuhide; Maehashi, Kenzo; Inoue, Koichi; Matsumoto, Kazuhiko

    2018-06-01

    Graphene FET (G-FET) biosensors have considerable potential due to the superior characteristics of graphene. Realizing this potential requires judicious choice of the linker molecule connecting the target-specific receptor molecule to the graphene surface, yet there are few reports comparing linker molecules for G-FET biosensors. In this study, tetrakis(4-carboxyphenyl)porphyrin (TCPP) was used as a linker for surface modification of a G-FET and the properties of the device were compared to those of a G-FET device modified with the conventional linker 1-pyrenebutanoic acid succinimidyl ester (PBASE). TCPP modification resulted in a higher density of receptor immunoglobulin E (IgE) aptamer molecules on the G-FET. The detection limit of the target IgE was enhanced from 13 nM for the PBASE-modified G-FET to 2.2 nM for the TCPP-modified G-FET, suggesting that the TCPP linker is a powerful candidate for G-FET modification.

  17. Correlating charge transport to structure in deconstructed diketopyrrolopyrrole oligomers: A case study of a monomer in field-effect transistors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pickett, Alec; Torkkeli, Mika; Mukhopadhyay, Tushita

    2018-01-01

    Copolymers based on diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP) cores have attracted a lot of attention due to their high p-type as well as n-type carrier mobilities in organic field-effect transistors (FETs) and high power conversion efficiencies in solar cell structures. We report the structural and charge tran...

  18. Selective detection of SO2 at room temperature based on organoplatinum functionalized single-walled carbon nanotube field effect transistors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cid, C.C.; Jimenez-Cadena, G.; Riu, J.; Maroto, A.; Rius, F.X.; Batema, G.D.; van Koten, G.

    2009-01-01

    We report a field effect transistor (FET) based on a network of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) that for the first time can selectively detect a single gaseous molecule in air by chemically functionalizing the SWCNTs with a selective molecular receptor. As a target model we used SO2. The

  19. Strain characterization of FinFETs using Raman spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaleli, B.; Hemert, T. van; Hueting, R.J.E.; Wolters, R.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Metal induced strain in the channel region of silicon (Si) fin-field effect transistor (FinFET) devices has been characterized using Raman spectroscopy. The strain originates from the difference in thermal expansion coefficient of Si and titanium-nitride. The Raman map of the device region is used to determine strain in the channel after preparing the device with the focused ion beam milling. Using the Raman peak shift relative to that of relaxed Si, compressive strain values up to – 0.88% have been obtained for a 5 nm wide silicon fin. The strain is found to increase with reducing fin width though it scales less than previously reported results from holographic interferometry. In addition, finite-element method (FEM) simulations have been utilized to analyze the amount of strain generated after thermal processing. It is shown that obtained FEM simulated strain values are in good agreement with the calculated strain values obtained from Raman spectroscopy. - Highlights: ► Strain is characterized in nanoscale devices with Raman spectroscopy. ► There is a fin width dependence of the originated strain. ► Strain levels obtained from this technique is in correlation with device simulations

  20. Large Current Modulation and Spin-Dependent Tunneling of Vertical Graphene/MoS$_{2}$ Heterostructures

    OpenAIRE

    Myoung, Nojoon; Seo, Kyungchul; Lee, Seung Joo; Ihm, Gukhyung

    2013-01-01

    Vertical graphene heterostructures have been introduced as an alternative architecture for electronic devices by using quantum tunneling. Here, we present that the current on/off ratio of vertical graphene field-effect transistors is enhanced by using an armchair graphene nanoribbon as an electrode. Moreover, we report spin-dependent tunneling current of the graphene/MoS2 heterostructures. When an atomically thin MoS2 layer sandwiched between graphene electrodes becomes magnetic, Dirac fermio...

  1. Field-effect transistor memories based on ferroelectric polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yujia; Wang, Haiyang; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Xiaomeng; Guo, Yu; Sun, Huabin; Li, Yun

    2017-11-01

    Field-effect transistors based on ferroelectrics have attracted intensive interests, because of their non-volatile data retention, rewritability, and non-destructive read-out. In particular, polymeric materials that possess ferroelectric properties are promising for the fabrications of memory devices with high performance, low cost, and large-area manufacturing, by virtue of their good solubility, low-temperature processability, and good chemical stability. In this review, we discuss the material characteristics of ferroelectric polymers, providing an update on the current development of ferroelectric field-effect transistors (Fe-FETs) in non-volatile memory applications. Program supported partially by the NSFC (Nos. 61574074, 61774080), NSFJS (No. BK20170075), and the Open Partnership Joint Projects of NSFC-JSPS Bilateral Joint Research Projects (No. 61511140098).

  2. Potential of carbon nanotube field effect transistors for analogue circuits

    KAUST Repository

    Hayat, Khizar

    2013-05-11

    This Letter presents a detailed comparison of carbon nanotube field effect transistors (CNFETs) and metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) with special focus on carbon nanotube FET\\'s potential for implementing analogue circuits in the mm-wave and sub-terahertz range. The latest CNFET lithographic dimensions place it at-par with complementary metal oxide semiconductor in terms of current handling capability, whereas the forecasted improvement in the lithography enables the CNFETs to handle more than twice the current of MOSFETs. The comparison of RF parameters shows superior performance of CNFETs with a g m , f T and f max of 2.7, 2.6 and 4.5 times higher, respectively. MOSFET- and CNFET-based inverter, three-stage ring oscillator and LC oscillator have been designed and compared as well. The CNFET-based inverters are found to be ten times faster, the ring oscillator demonstrates three times higher oscillation frequency and CNFET-based LC oscillator also shows improved performance than its MOSFET counterpart.

  3. Gas Sensors Based on Semiconducting Nanowire Field-Effect Transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Feng

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available One-dimensional semiconductor nanostructures are unique sensing materials for the fabrication of gas sensors. In this article, gas sensors based on semiconducting nanowire field-effect transistors (FETs are comprehensively reviewed. Individual nanowires or nanowire network films are usually used as the active detecting channels. In these sensors, a third electrode, which serves as the gate, is used to tune the carrier concentration of the nanowires to realize better sensing performance, including sensitivity, selectivity and response time, etc. The FET parameters can be modulated by the presence of the target gases and their change relate closely to the type and concentration of the gas molecules. In addition, extra controls such as metal decoration, local heating and light irradiation can be combined with the gate electrode to tune the nanowire channel and realize more effective gas sensing. With the help of micro-fabrication techniques, these sensors can be integrated into smart systems. Finally, some challenges for the future investigation and application of nanowire field-effect gas sensors are discussed.

  4. Structured-gate organic field-effect transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aljada, Muhsen; Pandey, Ajay K; Velusamy, Marappan; Burn, Paul L; Meredith, Paul; Namdas, Ebinazar B

    2012-01-01

    We report the fabrication and electrical characteristics of structured-gate organic field-effect transistors consisting of a gate electrode patterned with three-dimensional pillars. The pillar gate electrode was over-coated with a gate dielectric (SiO 2 ) and solution processed organic semiconductors producing both unipolar p-type and bipolar behaviour. We show that this new structured-gate architecture delivers higher source-drain currents, higher gate capacitance per unit equivalent linear channel area, and enhanced charge injection (electrons and/or holes) versus the conventional planar structure in all modes of operation. For the bipolar field-effect transistor (FET) the maximum source-drain current enhancements in p- and n-channel mode were >600% and 28%, respectively, leading to p and n charge mobilities with the same order of magnitude. Thus, we have demonstrated that it is possible to use the FET architecture to manipulate and match carrier mobilities of material combinations where one charge carrier is normally dominant. Mobility matching is advantageous for creating organic logic circuit elements such as inverters and amplifiers. Hence, the method represents a facile and generic strategy for improving the performance of standard organic semiconductors as well as new materials and blends. (paper)

  5. Structured-gate organic field-effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljada, Muhsen; Pandey, Ajay K.; Velusamy, Marappan; Burn, Paul L.; Meredith, Paul; Namdas, Ebinazar B.

    2012-06-01

    We report the fabrication and electrical characteristics of structured-gate organic field-effect transistors consisting of a gate electrode patterned with three-dimensional pillars. The pillar gate electrode was over-coated with a gate dielectric (SiO2) and solution processed organic semiconductors producing both unipolar p-type and bipolar behaviour. We show that this new structured-gate architecture delivers higher source-drain currents, higher gate capacitance per unit equivalent linear channel area, and enhanced charge injection (electrons and/or holes) versus the conventional planar structure in all modes of operation. For the bipolar field-effect transistor (FET) the maximum source-drain current enhancements in p- and n-channel mode were >600% and 28%, respectively, leading to p and n charge mobilities with the same order of magnitude. Thus, we have demonstrated that it is possible to use the FET architecture to manipulate and match carrier mobilities of material combinations where one charge carrier is normally dominant. Mobility matching is advantageous for creating organic logic circuit elements such as inverters and amplifiers. Hence, the method represents a facile and generic strategy for improving the performance of standard organic semiconductors as well as new materials and blends.

  6. Novel Quantum Dot Gate FETs and Nonvolatile Memories Using Lattice-Matched II-VI Gate Insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, F. C.; Suarez, E.; Gogna, M.; Alamoody, F.; Butkiewicus, D.; Hohner, R.; Liaskas, T.; Karmakar, S.; Chan, P.-Y.; Miller, B.; Chandy, J.; Heller, E.

    2009-08-01

    This paper presents the successful use of ZnS/ZnMgS and other II-VI layers (lattice-matched or pseudomorphic) as high- k gate dielectrics in the fabrication of quantum dot (QD) gate Si field-effect transistors (FETs) and nonvolatile memory structures. Quantum dot gate FETs and nonvolatile memories have been fabricated in two basic configurations: (1) monodispersed cladded Ge nanocrystals (e.g., GeO x -cladded-Ge quantum dots) site-specifically self-assembled over the lattice-matched ZnMgS gate insulator in the channel region, and (2) ZnTe-ZnMgTe quantum dots formed by self-organization, using metalorganic chemical vapor-phase deposition (MOCVD), on ZnS-ZnMgS gate insulator layers grown epitaxially on Si substrates. Self-assembled GeO x -cladded Ge QD gate FETs, exhibiting three-state behavior, are also described. Preliminary results on InGaAs-on-InP FETs, using ZnMgSeTe/ZnSe gate insulator layers, are presented.

  7. Evaluation of radiation tolerance of FETs used for Astro-E2 hard X-ray detector (HXD-II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Takeshi; Niko, Hisako; Kokubun, Motohide; Makishima, Kazuo; Kawaharada, Madoka; Takahashi, Isao; Miyasaka, Hiromasa

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated the radiation tolerance of three types of metal-can MOS Field Effect Transistors (FETs). They are candidates for flight electronics of the Hard X-ray Detector (HXD-II) experiment which is onboard the cosmic X-ray satellite Astro-E2 scheduled for launch in 2005. We irradiated FETs with a Co60γ-ray source under several different experimental conditions, and measured changes in their I-V characteristic curves. After a 10krad irradiation during which the gate voltage is set at 0V, all types showed a decrease in the switching voltage by ∼0.2-0.4V. In addition, the gate conductance increased under some irradiation conditions. These experimental results may be explained in terms of trapped charges and boundary levels in the oxide layer beneath the gate electrode. We have confirmed that at least two types of FETs can be used in our satellite-borne experiment, one as relay-driving FETs and the other in TTL-ECL conversion circuits

  8. Nanowire field-effect transistors for gas sensor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantinou, Marios

    Sensing BTEX (Benzene, Ethylbenzene, Toluene, Xylene) pollutants is of utmost importance to reduce health risk and ensure public safety. The lack of sensitivity and selectivity of the current gas sensors and the limited number of available technologies in the field of BTEX-sensing raises the demand for the development of high-performance gas sensors for BTEX applications. The scope of this thesis is the fabrication and characterisation of high-quality field-effect transistors (FETs), with functionalised silicon nanowires (SiNWs), for the selective sensing of benzene vs. other BTEX gases. This research addresses three main challenges in SiNW FET-sensor device development: i) controllable and reproducible assembly of high-quality SiNWs for FET sensor devices using the method of dielectrophoresis (DEP), ii) almost complete elimination of harmful hysteresis effect in the SiNW FET current-voltage characteristics induced by surface states using DMF solvent, iii) selective sensing of benzene with up to ppb range of sensitivity using calix[4]arene-derivatives. It is experimentally demonstrated that frequency-controlled DEP is a powerful tool for the selection and collection of semiconducting SiNWs with advanced electrical and morphological properties, from a poly-disperse as-synthesised NWs. The DEP assembly method also leads to a controllable and reproducible fabrication of high-quality NW-based FETs. The results highlight the superiority of DEP, performed at high signal frequencies (5-20 MHz) to selectively assemble only high-quality NWs which can respond to such high DEP frequencies. The SiNW FETs, with NWs collected at high DEP frequencies, have high mobility (≈50 cm2 V-1 s-1), low sub-threshold-swing (≈1.26 V/decade), high on-current (up to 3 mA) and high on/off ratio (106-107). The DEP NW selection is also demonstrated using an industrially scalable method, to allow establishing of NW response characteristics to different DEP frequencies in a very short time

  9. Characteristics and optimisation of vertical and planar tunnelling-FETs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterkel, M; Wang, P-F; Nirschl, T; Fabel, B; Bhuwalka, K K; Schulze, J; Eisele, I; Schmitt-Landsiedel, D; Hansch, W

    2005-01-01

    Scaling MOSFETs becomes more and more difficult. The tunnelling-FET is a possible successor of today's MOSFET with better scaling possibilities. Two different device structures, a vertical and a planar version of a tunnelling-FET are presented and evaluated

  10. High performance flexible CMOS SOI FinFETs

    KAUST Repository

    Fahad, Hossain M.; Sevilla, Galo T.; Ghoneim, Mohamed T.; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate the first ever CMOS compatible soft etch back based high performance flexible CMOS SOI FinFETs. The move from planar to non-planar FinFETs has enabled continued scaling down to the 14 nm technology node. This has been possible due

  11. FinFET modeling for IC simulation and design

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Chenming; Lu, Darsen D

    2015-01-01

    This book is the first to explain FinFET modeling for IC simulation and the industry standard - BSIM-CMG - describing the rush in demand for advancing the technology from planar to 3D architecture, as now enabled by the approved industry standard. The book gives a strong foundation on the physics and operation of FinFET, details aspects of the BSIM-CMG model such as surface potential, charge and current calculations, and includes a dedicated chapter on parameter extraction procedures, providing a step-by-step approach for the efficient extraction of model parameters. With this book you will learn: * Why you should use FinFET* The physics and operation of FinFET* Details of the FinFET standard model (BSIM-CMG)* Parameter extraction in BSIM-CMG* FinFET circuit design and simulation * Authored by the lead inventor and developer of FinFET, and developers of the BSIM-CM standard model, providing an experts' insight into the specifications of the standard* The first book on the industry-standard FinFET model - BSIM...

  12. Dual origin of room temperature sub-terahertz photoresponse in graphene field effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandurin, D. A.; Gayduchenko, I.; Cao, Y.; Moskotin, M.; Principi, A.; Grigorieva, I. V.; Goltsman, G.; Fedorov, G.; Svintsov, D.

    2018-04-01

    Graphene is considered as a promising platform for detectors of high-frequency radiation up to the terahertz (THz) range due to its superior electron mobility. Previously, it has been shown that graphene field effect transistors (FETs) exhibit room temperature broadband photoresponse to incoming THz radiation, thanks to the thermoelectric and/or plasma wave rectification. Both effects exhibit similar functional dependences on the gate voltage, and therefore, it was difficult to disentangle these contributions in previous studies. In this letter, we report on combined experimental and theoretical studies of sub-THz response in graphene field-effect transistors analyzed at different temperatures. This temperature-dependent study allowed us to reveal the role of the photo-thermoelectric effect, p-n junction rectification, and plasmonic rectification in the sub-THz photoresponse of graphene FETs.

  13. Self-Assembled Films of Dendrimers and Metallophthalocyanines as FET-Based Glucose Biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Figueiredo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Separative extended gate field effect transistor (SEGFET type devices have been used as an ion sensor or biosensor as an alternative to traditional ion sensitive field effect transistors (ISFETs due to their robustness, ease of fabrication, low cost and possibility of FET isolation from the chemical environment. The layer-by-layer technique allows the combination of different materials with suitable properties for enzyme immobilization on simple platforms such as the extended gate of SEGFET devices enabling the fabrication of biosensors. Here, glucose biosensors based on dendrimers and metallophthalocyanines (MPcs in the form of layer-by-layer (LbL films, assembled on indium tin oxide (ITO as separative extended gate material, has been produced. NH3+ groups in the dendrimer allow electrostatic interactions or covalent bonds with the enzyme (glucose oxidase. Relevant parameters such as optimum pH, buffer concentration and presence of serum bovine albumin (BSA in the immobilization process were analyzed. The relationship between the output voltage and glucose concentration shows that upon detection of a specific analyte, the sub-products of the enzymatic reaction change the pH locally, affecting the output signal of the FET transducer. In addition, dendritic layers offer a nanoporous environment, which may be permeable to H+ ions, improving the sensibility as modified electrodes for glucose biosensing.

  14. Synthesis and Field-effect Transistor Behavior of New Oligo-selenophene Derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiwon; Hong; In-Hwan; Jung; Hong-ku; Shim

    2007-01-01

    1 Results In recent years,interests in organic semiconductor have increased due to the applications in optoelectronic devices such as organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs)[1],field-effect transistors (FETs)[2],and photovoltaic devices[3]. These organic electronics have several advantages over conventional inorganic electronics including facile processability,chemical tunability,compatibility with plastic substrates,and low cost to fabricate. Selenophene-based molecules show good π-conjugating electron o...

  15. Plasma wave instability and amplification of terahertz radiation in field-effect-transistor arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popov, V V; Tsymbalov, G M; Shur, M S

    2008-01-01

    We show that the strong amplification of terahertz radiation takes place in an array of field-effect transistors at small DC drain currents due to hydrodynamic plasmon instability of the collective plasmon mode. Planar designs compatible with standard integrated circuit fabrication processes and strong coupling of terahertz radiation to plasmon modes in FET arrays make such arrays very attractive for potential applications in solid-state terahertz amplifiers and emitters

  16. Low temperature carrier transport study of monolayer MoS{sub 2} field effect transistors prepared by chemical vapor deposition under an atmospheric pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xinke, E-mail: xkliu@szu.edu.cn, E-mail: wujing026@gmail.com; He, Jiazhu; Tang, Dan; Lu, Youming; Zhu, Deliang; Liu, Wenjun; Cao, Peijiang; Han, Sun [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Shenzhen Engineering Laboratory for Advanced Technology of Ceramics, Nanshan District Key Lab for Biopolymer and Safety Evaluation, Shenzhen University, 3688 Nanhai Ave, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Liu, Qiang; Wen, Jiao; Yu, Wenjie [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, CAS, 865 Chang Ning Road, Shanghai 200050 (China); Liu, Wenjun [State Key Laboratory of ASIC and System, Department of Microelectronics, Fudan University, 220 Handan Road, Shanghai 200433 (China); Wu, Jing, E-mail: xkliu@szu.edu.cn, E-mail: wujing026@gmail.com [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 21 Lower Kent Ridge Road, 117576 Singapore (Singapore); He, Zhubing [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, South University of Science and Technology of China, 1088 Xueyuan Road, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Ang, Kah-Wee [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 3, 117583 Singapore (Singapore)

    2015-09-28

    Large size monolayer Molybdenum disulphide (MoS{sub 2}) was successfully grown by chemical vapor deposition method under an atmospheric pressure. The electrical transport properties of the fabricated back-gate monolayer MoS{sub 2} field effect transistors (FETs) were investigated under low temperatures; a peak field effect mobility of 59 cm{sup 2}V{sup −1}s{sup −1} was achieved. With the assist of Raman measurement under low temperature, this work identified the mobility limiting factor for the monolayer MoS{sub 2} FETs: homopolar phonon scattering under low temperature and electron-polar optical phonon scattering at room temperature.

  17. Chemo-Electrical Signal Transduction by Using Stimuli-Responsive Polymer Gate-Modified Field Effect Transistor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Matsumoto

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A glucose-responsive polymer brush was designed on a gold electrode and exploited as an extended gate for a field effect transistor (FET based biosensor. A permittivity change at the gate interface due to the change in hydration upon specific binding with glucose was detectable. The rate of response was markedly enhanced compared to the previously studied cross-linked or gel-coupled electrode, owing to its kinetics involving no process of the polymer network diffusion. This finding may offer a new strategy of the FET-based biosensors effective not only for large molecules but also for electrically neutral molecules such as glucose with improved kinetics.

  18. Field Effect Sensors for Nucleic Acid Detection: Recent Advances and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Veigas

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade the use of field-effect-based devices has become a basic structural element in a new generation of biosensors that allow label-free DNA analysis. In particular, ion sensitive field effect transistors (FET are the basis for the development of radical new approaches for the specific detection and characterization of DNA due to FETs’ greater signal-to-noise ratio, fast measurement capabilities, and possibility to be included in portable instrumentation. Reliable molecular characterization of DNA and/or RNA is vital for disease diagnostics and to follow up alterations in gene expression profiles. FET biosensors may become a relevant tool for molecular diagnostics and at point-of-care. The development of these devices and strategies should be carefully designed, as biomolecular recognition and detection events must occur within the Debye length. This limitation is sometimes considered to be fundamental for FET devices and considerable efforts have been made to develop better architectures. Herein we review the use of field effect sensors for nucleic acid detection strategies—from production and functionalization to integration in molecular diagnostics platforms, with special focus on those that have made their way into the diagnostics lab.

  19. Effect of supply voltage and body-biasing on single-event transient pulse quenching in bulk fin field-effect-transistor process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Jun-Ting; Chen Shu-Ming; Chen Jian-Jun; Huang Peng-Cheng; Song Rui-Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Charge sharing is becoming an important topic as the feature size scales down in fin field-effect-transistor (FinFET) technology. However, the studies of charge sharing induced single-event transient (SET) pulse quenching with bulk FinFET are reported seldomly. Using three-dimensional technology computer aided design (3DTCAD) mixed-mode simulations, the effects of supply voltage and body-biasing on SET pulse quenching are investigated for the first time in bulk FinFET process. Research results indicate that due to an enhanced charge sharing effect, the propagating SET pulse width decreases with reducing supply voltage. Moreover, compared with reverse body-biasing (RBB), the circuit with forward body-biasing (FBB) is vulnerable to charge sharing and can effectively mitigate the propagating SET pulse width up to 53% at least. This can provide guidance for radiation-hardened bulk FinFET technology especially in low power and high performance applications. (paper)

  20. Electronic properties of semiconductor heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einevoll, G.T.

    1991-02-01

    Ten papers on the electronic properties of semiconductors and semiconductor heterostructures constitute the backbone of this thesis. Four papers address the form and validity of the single-band effective mass approximation for semiconductor heterostructures. In four other papers properties of acceptor states in bulk semiconductors and semiconductor heterostructures are studied using the novel effective bond-orbital model. The last two papers deal with localized excitions. 122 refs

  1. A Label-Free and Ultrasensitive Immunosensor for Detection of Human Chorionic Gonadotrophin Based on Graphene FETs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Kamrul; Suhail, Ahmed; Pan, Genhua

    2017-07-12

    We report on a label-free immunosensor based on graphene field effect transistors (G-FETs) for the ultrasensitive detection of Human Chorionic Gonadotrophin (hCG), as an indicator of pregnancy and related disorders, such as actopic pregnancy, choriocarcinoma and orchic teratoma. Pyrene based bioactive ester was non-covalently anchored onto the graphene channel in order to retain the sp² lattice. The G-FET transfer characteristics showed repeatable and reliable responses in all surface modifying steps using a direct current (DC) readout system. The hCG concentration gradient showed a detection limit of ~1 pg·mL -1 . The proposed method facilitates the cost-effective and viable production of graphene point-of-care devices for clinical diagnosis.

  2. A Label-Free and Ultrasensitive Immunosensor for Detection of Human Chorionic Gonadotrophin Based on Graphene FETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamrul Islam

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We report on a label-free immunosensor based on graphene field effect transistors (G-FETs for the ultrasensitive detection of Human Chorionic Gonadotrophin (hCG, as an indicator of pregnancy and related disorders, such as actopic pregnancy, choriocarcinoma and orchic teratoma. Pyrene based bioactive ester was non-covalently anchored onto the graphene channel in order to retain the sp2 lattice. The G-FET transfer characteristics showed repeatable and reliable responses in all surface modifying steps using a direct current (DC readout system. The hCG concentration gradient showed a detection limit of ~1 pg·mL−1. The proposed method facilitates the cost-effective and viable production of graphene point-of-care devices for clinical diagnosis.

  3. Impact of Channel, Stress-Relaxed Buffer, and S/D Si1- x Ge x Stressor on the Performance of 7-nm FinFET CMOS Design with the Implementation of Stress Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Nurul Aida Farhana; Hatta, Sharifah Fatmadiana Wan Muhamad; Soin, Norhayati

    2018-04-01

    Stress-engineered fin-shaped field effect transistors (FinFET) using germanium (Ge) is a promising performance booster to replace silicon (Si) due to its high holes mobility. This paper presents a three-dimensional simulation by the Sentaurus technology computer-aided design to study the effects of stressors—channel stress, stress-relaxed buffer (SRB), and source/drain (S/D) epitaxial stress—on different bases of FinFET, specifically silicon germanium (SiGe) and Ge-based, whereby the latter is achieved by manipulating the Ge mole fraction inside the three layers; their effects on the devices' figures-of-merits were recorded. The simulation generates an advanced calibration process, by which the drift diffusion simulation was adopted for ballistic transport effects. The results show that current enhancement in p-type FinFET (p-FinFET) with 110% is almost twice that in n-type FinFET (n-FinFET) with 57%, with increasing strain inside the channel suggesting that the use of strain is more effective for holes. In SiGe-based n-FinFET, the use of a high-strained SRB layer can improve the drive current up to 112%, while the high-strain S/D epitaxial for Ge-based p-FinFET can enhance the on-state current to 262%. Further investigations show that the channel and S/D doping are affecting the performances of SiGe-based FinFET with similar importance. It is observed that doping concentrations play an important role in threshold voltage adjustment as well as in drive current and subthreshold leakage improvements.

  4. Low-temperature magnetotransport in Si/SiGe heterostructures on 300 mm Si wafers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scappucci, Giordano; Yeoh, L.; Sabbagh, D.; Sammak, A.; Boter, J.; Droulers, G.; Kalhor, N.; Brousse, D.; Veldhorst, M.; Vandersypen, L. M. K.; Thomas, N.; Roberts, J.; Pillarisetty, R.; Amin, P.; George, H. C.; Singh, K. J.; Clarke, J. S.

    Undoped Si/SiGe heterostructures are a promising material stack for the development of spin qubits in silicon. To deploy a qubit into high volume manufacturing in a quantum computer requires stringent control over substrate uniformity and quality. Electron mobility and valley splitting are two key electrical metrics of substrate quality relevant for qubits. Here we present low-temperature magnetotransport measurements of strained Si quantum wells with mobilities in excess of 100000 cm2/Vs fabricated on 300 mm wafers within the framework of advanced semiconductor manufacturing. These results are benchmarked against the results obtained in Si quantum wells deposited on 100 mm Si wafers in an academic research environment. To ensure rapid progress in quantum wells quality we have implemented fast feedback loops from materials growth, to heterostructure FET fabrication, and low temperature characterisation. On this topic we will present recent progress in developing a cryogenic platform for high-throughput magnetotransport measurements.

  5. Interface-Dependent Effective Mobility in Graphene Field-Effect Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlberg, Patrik; Hinnemo, Malkolm; Zhang, Shi-Li; Olsson, Jörgen

    2018-03-01

    By pretreating the substrate of a graphene field-effect transistor (G-FET), a stable unipolar transfer characteristic, instead of the typical V-shape ambipolar behavior, has been demonstrated. This behavior is achieved through functionalization of the SiO2/Si substrate that changes the SiO2 surface from hydrophilic to hydrophobic, in combination with postdeposition of an Al2O3 film by atomic layer deposition (ALD). Consequently, the back-gated G-FET is found to have increased apparent hole mobility and suppressed apparent electron mobility. Furthermore, with addition of a top-gate electrode, the G-FET is in a double-gate configuration with independent top- or back-gate control. The observed difference in mobility is shown to also be dependent on the top-gate bias, with more pronounced effect at higher electric field. Thus, the combination of top and bottom gates allows control of the G-FET's electron and hole mobilities, i.e., of the transfer behavior. Based on these observations, it is proposed that polar ligands are introduced during the ALD step and, depending on their polarization, result in an apparent increase of the effective hole mobility and an apparent suppressed effective electron mobility.

  6. High performance ring oscillators from 10-nm wide silicon nanowire field-effect transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Ruo-Gu; Tham, Douglas; Wang, Dunwei; Heath, James R.

    2011-01-01

    We explore 10-nm wide Si nanowire (SiNW) field-effect transistors (FETs) for logic applications, via the fabrication and testing of SiNW-based ring oscillators. We report on SiNW surface treatments and dielectric annealing, for producing SiNW FETs that exhibit high performance in terms of large on/off-state current ratio (~108), low drain-induced barrier lowering (~30 mV) and low subthreshold swing (~80 mV/decade). The performance of inverter and ring-oscillator circuits fabricated from these nanowire FETs are also explored. The inverter demonstrates the highest voltage gain (~148) reported for a SiNW-based NOT gate, and the ring oscillator exhibits near rail-to-rail oscillation centered at 13.4 MHz. The static and dynamic characteristics of these NW devices indicate that these SiNW-based FET circuits are excellent candidates for various high-performance nanoelectronic applications. © 2011 Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  7. Atomistic modeling trap-assisted tunneling in hole tunnel field effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Pengyu; Huang, Jun Z.; Povolotskyi, Michael; Sarangapani, Prasad; Valencia-Zapata, Gustavo A.; Kubis, Tillmann; Rodwell, Mark J. W.; Klimeck, Gerhard

    2018-05-01

    Tunnel Field Effect Transistors (FETs) have the potential to achieve steep Subthreshold Swing (S.S.) below 60 mV/dec, but their S.S. could be limited by trap-assisted tunneling (TAT) due to interface traps. In this paper, the effect of trap energy and location on OFF-current (IOFF) of tunnel FETs is evaluated systematically using an atomistic trap level representation in a full quantum transport simulation. Trap energy levels close to band edges cause the highest leakage. Wave function penetration into the surrounding oxide increases the TAT current. To estimate the effects of multiple traps, we assume that the traps themselves do not interact with each other and as a whole do not modify the electrostatic potential dramatically. Within that model limitation, this numerical metrology study points to the critical importance of TAT in the IOFF in tunnel FETs. The model shows that for Dit higher than 1012/(cm2 eV) IO F F is critically increased with a degraded IO N/IO F F ratio of the tunnel FET. In order to have an IO N/IO F F ratio higher than 104, the acceptable Dit near Ev should be controlled to no larger than 1012/(cm2 eV) .

  8. High performance ring oscillators from 10-nm wide silicon nanowire field-effect transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Ruo-Gu

    2011-06-24

    We explore 10-nm wide Si nanowire (SiNW) field-effect transistors (FETs) for logic applications, via the fabrication and testing of SiNW-based ring oscillators. We report on SiNW surface treatments and dielectric annealing, for producing SiNW FETs that exhibit high performance in terms of large on/off-state current ratio (~108), low drain-induced barrier lowering (~30 mV) and low subthreshold swing (~80 mV/decade). The performance of inverter and ring-oscillator circuits fabricated from these nanowire FETs are also explored. The inverter demonstrates the highest voltage gain (~148) reported for a SiNW-based NOT gate, and the ring oscillator exhibits near rail-to-rail oscillation centered at 13.4 MHz. The static and dynamic characteristics of these NW devices indicate that these SiNW-based FET circuits are excellent candidates for various high-performance nanoelectronic applications. © 2011 Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  9. Polarization-induced transport in organic field-effect transistors: the role of ferroelectric dielectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, Suchismita; Laudari, Amrit

    2017-08-01

    The ferroelectric nature of polymer ferroelectrics such as poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) has been known for over 45 years. However, its role in interfacial transport in organic/polymeric field-effect transistors (FETs) is not that well understood. Dielectrics based on PVDF and its copolymers are a perfect test-bed for conducting transport studies where a systematic tuning of the dielectric constant with temperature may be achieved. The charge transport mechanism in an organic semiconductor often occurs at the intersection of band-like coherent motion and incoherent hopping through localized states. By choosing two small molecule organic semiconductors - pentacene and 6,13 bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl)pentacene (TIPS-pentacene) - along with a copolymer of PVDF (PVDF-TrFe) as the dielectric layer, the transistor characteristics are monitored as a function of temperature. A negative coefficient of carrier mobility is observed in TIPS-pentacene upwards of 200 K with the ferroelectric dielectric. In contrast, TIPS-pentacene FETs show an activated transport with non-ferroelectric dielectrics. Pentacene FETs, on the other hand, show a weak temperature dependence of the charge carrier mobility in the ferroelectric phase of PVDF-TrFE, which is attributed to polarization fluctuation driven transport resulting from a coupling of the charge carriers to the surface phonons of the dielectric layer. Further, we show that there is a strong correlation between the nature of traps in the organic semiconductor and interfacial transport in organic FETs, especially in the presence of a ferroelectric dielectric.

  10. Fabrication of Ultrasensitive Field-Effect Transistor DNA Biosensors by a Directional Transfer Technique Based on CVD-Grown Graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chao; Huang, Le; Zhang, Hong; Sun, Zhongyue; Zhang, Zhiyong; Zhang, Guo-Jun

    2015-08-12

    Most graphene field-effect transistor (G-FET) biosensors are fabricated through a routine process, in which graphene is transferred onto a Si/SiO2 substrate and then devices are subsequently produced by micromanufacture processes. However, such a fabrication approach can introduce contamination onto the graphene surface during the lithographic process, resulting in interference for the subsequent biosensing. In this work, we have developed a novel directional transfer technique to fabricate G-FET biosensors based on chemical-vapor-deposition- (CVD-) grown single-layer graphene (SLG) and applied this biosensor for the sensitive detection of DNA. A FET device with six individual array sensors was first fabricated, and SLG obtained by the CVD-growth method was transferred onto the sensor surface in a directional manner. Afterward, peptide nucleic acid (PNA) was covalently immobilized on the graphene surface, and DNA detection was realized by applying specific target DNA to the PNA-functionalized G-FET biosensor. The developed G-FET biosensor was able to detect target DNA at concentrations as low as 10 fM, which is 1 order of magnitude lower than those reported in a previous work. In addition, the biosensor was capable of distinguishing the complementary DNA from one-base-mismatched DNA and noncomplementary DNA. The directional transfer technique for the fabrication of G-FET biosensors is simple, and the as-constructed G-FET DNA biosensor shows ultrasensitivity and high specificity, indicating its potential application in disease diagnostics as a point-of-care tool.

  11. Cylindrical Field Effect Transistor: A Full Volume Inversion Device

    KAUST Repository

    Fahad, Hossain M.

    2010-12-01

    The increasing demand for high performance as well as low standby power devices has been the main reason for the aggressive scaling of conventional CMOS transistors. Current devices are at the 32nm technology node. However, due to physical limitations as well as increase in short-channel effects, leakage, power dissipation, this scaling trend cannot continue and will eventually hit a barrier. In order to overcome this, alternate device topologies have to be considered altogether. Extensive research on ultra thin body double gate FETs and gate all around nanowire FETs has shown a lot of promise. Under strong inversion, these devices have demonstrated increased performance over their bulk counterparts. This is mainly attributed to full carrier inversion in the body. However, these devices are still limited by lithographic and processing challenges making them unsuitable for commercial production. This thesis explores a unique device structure called the CFET (Cylindrical Field Effect Transistors) which also like the above, relies on complete inversion of carriers in the body/bulk. Using dual gates; an outer and an inner gate, full-volume inversion is possible with benefits such as enhanced drive currents, high Ion/Ioff ratios and reduced short channel effects.

  12. Flexible nanoscale high-performance FinFETs

    KAUST Repository

    Sevilla, Galo T.

    2014-10-28

    With the emergence of the Internet of Things (IoT), flexible high-performance nanoscale electronics are more desired. At the moment, FinFET is the most advanced transistor architecture used in the state-of-the-art microprocessors. Therefore, we show a soft-etch based substrate thinning process to transform silicon-on-insulator (SOI) based nanoscale FinFET into flexible FinFET and then conduct comprehensive electrical characterization under various bending conditions to understand its electrical performance. Our study shows that back-etch based substrate thinning process is gentler than traditional abrasive back-grinding process; it can attain ultraflexibility and the electrical characteristics of the flexible nanoscale FinFET show no performance degradation compared to its rigid bulk counterpart indicating its readiness to be used for flexible high-performance electronics.

  13. pH sensing characteristics and biosensing application of solution-gated reduced graphene oxide field-effect transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Il-Yung; Kim, Duck-Jin; Jung, Jin-Heak; Yoon, Ok Ja; Thanh, Tien Nguyen; Quang, Trung Tran; Lee, Nae-Eung

    2013-07-15

    Solution-gated reduced graphene oxide field-effect transistors (R-GO FETs) were investigated for pH sensing and biochemical sensing applications. A channel of a networked R-GO film formed by self-assembly was incorporated as a sensing layer into a solution-gated FET structure for pH sensing and the detection of acetylcholine (Ach), which is a neurotransmitter in the nerve system, through enzymatic reactions. The fabricated R-GO FET was sensitive to protons (H(+)) with a pH sensitivity of 29 mV/pH in terms of the shift of the charge neutrality point (CNP), which is attributed to changes in the surface potential caused by the interaction of protons with OH surface functional groups present on the R-GO surface. The R-GO FET immobilized with acetylcholinesterase (AchE) was used to detect Ach in the concentration range of 0.1-10mM by sensing protons generated during the enzymatic reactions. The results indicate that R-GO FETs provide the capability to detect protons, demonstrating their applicability as a biosensing device for enzymatic reactions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Congruency of tumour volume delineated by FET PET and MRSI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauler, Jörg; Langen, Karl-Josef [Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine, Forschungszentrum Jülich (Germany); Maudsley, Andrew A [Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami (United States); Nikoubashman, Omid [Department of Neuroradiology, Faculty of Medicine, RWTH Aachen University (Germany); Filss, Christian; Stoffels, Gabriele; Shah, N Jon [Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine, Forschungszentrum Jülich (Germany)

    2015-05-18

    In addition to MR imaging, PET imaging of O-(2-[18F]Fluorethyl)-L-Tyrosine (FET) uptake provides information on brain tumour extent and metabolic activity. Similarly, MRS has been shown to be of value for distinguishing high- from low-grade gliomas. Based on 2D spatially resolved MRSI, an overlap between 18FET uptake and the choline/N-acetyl-aspartate (Cho/NAA) ratio of more than 75 % has been reported.

  15. Bias temperature instability in tunnel field-effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizubayashi, Wataru; Mori, Takahiro; Fukuda, Koichi; Ishikawa, Yuki; Morita, Yukinori; Migita, Shinji; Ota, Hiroyuki; Liu, Yongxun; O'uchi, Shinichi; Tsukada, Junichi; Yamauchi, Hiromi; Matsukawa, Takashi; Masahara, Meishoku; Endo, Kazuhiko

    2017-04-01

    We systematically investigated the bias temperature instability (BTI) of tunnel field-effect transistors (TFETs). The positive BTI and negative BTI mechanisms in TFETs are the same as those in metal-oxide-semiconductor FETs (MOSFETs). In TFETs, although traps are generated in high-k gate dielectrics by the bias stress and/or the interface state is degraded at the interfacial layer/channel interface, the threshold voltage (V th) shift due to BTI degradation is caused by the traps and/or the degradation of the interface state locating the band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) region near the source/gate edge. The BTI lifetime in n- and p-type TFETs is improved by applying a drain bias corresponding to the operation conditions.

  16. The fabrication of ZnO nanowire field-effect transistors by roll-transfer printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yi-Kuei; Hong, Franklin Chau-Nan

    2009-05-01

    A method with the potential to fabricate large-area nanowire field-effect transistors (NW-FETs) was demonstrated in this study. Using a high-speed roller (20-80 cm min-1), transfer printing was successfully employed to transfer vertically aligned zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires grown on a donor substrate to a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stamp and then print the ordered ZnO nanowire arrays on the received substrate for the fabrication of NW-FETs. ZnO NW-FETs fabricated by this method exhibit high performances with a threshold voltage of around 0.25 V, a current on/off ratio as high as 105, a subthreshold slope of 360 mV/dec, and a field-effect mobility of around 90 cm2 V-1 s-1. The excellent device characteristics suggest that the roll-transfer printing technique, which is compatible with the roll-to-roll (R2R) process and operated in atmosphere, has a good potential for the high-speed fabrication of large-area nanowire transistors for flexible devices and flat panel displays.

  17. The fabrication of ZnO nanowire field-effect transistors by roll-transfer printing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Y-K; Hong, Franklin Chau-Nan

    2009-01-01

    A method with the potential to fabricate large-area nanowire field-effect transistors (NW-FETs) was demonstrated in this study. Using a high-speed roller (20-80 cm min -1 ), transfer printing was successfully employed to transfer vertically aligned zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires grown on a donor substrate to a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stamp and then print the ordered ZnO nanowire arrays on the received substrate for the fabrication of NW-FETs. ZnO NW-FETs fabricated by this method exhibit high performances with a threshold voltage of around 0.25 V, a current on/off ratio as high as 10 5 , a subthreshold slope of 360 mV/dec, and a field-effect mobility of around 90 cm 2 V -1 s -1 . The excellent device characteristics suggest that the roll-transfer printing technique, which is compatible with the roll-to-roll (R2R) process and operated in atmosphere, has a good potential for the high-speed fabrication of large-area nanowire transistors for flexible devices and flat panel displays.

  18. The fabrication of ZnO nanowire field-effect transistors by roll-transfer printing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Y-K; Hong, Franklin Chau-Nan [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, 1 University Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: hong@mail.ncku.edu.tw

    2009-05-13

    A method with the potential to fabricate large-area nanowire field-effect transistors (NW-FETs) was demonstrated in this study. Using a high-speed roller (20-80 cm min{sup -1}), transfer printing was successfully employed to transfer vertically aligned zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires grown on a donor substrate to a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stamp and then print the ordered ZnO nanowire arrays on the received substrate for the fabrication of NW-FETs. ZnO NW-FETs fabricated by this method exhibit high performances with a threshold voltage of around 0.25 V, a current on/off ratio as high as 10{sup 5}, a subthreshold slope of 360 mV/dec, and a field-effect mobility of around 90 cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1}. The excellent device characteristics suggest that the roll-transfer printing technique, which is compatible with the roll-to-roll (R2R) process and operated in atmosphere, has a good potential for the high-speed fabrication of large-area nanowire transistors for flexible devices and flat panel displays.

  19. Instability in an amorphous In–Ga–Zn–O field effect transistor upon water exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Bhupendra K; Ahn, Jong-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    The instability of an amorphous indium–gallium–zinc oxide (IGZO) field effect transistor is investigated upon water treatment. Electrical characteristics are measured before, immediately after and a few days after water treatment in ambient as well as in vacuum conditions. It is observed that after a few days of water exposure an IGZO field effect transistor (FET) shows relatively more stable behaviour as compared to before exposure. Transfer characteristics are found to shift negatively after immediate water exposure and in vacuum. More interestingly, after water exposure the off current is found to decrease by 1–2 orders of magnitude and remains stable even after 15 d of water exposure in ambient as well as in vacuum, whereas the on current more or less remains the same. An x-ray photoelectron spectroscopic study is carried out to investigate the qualitative and quantitative analysis of IGZO upon water exposure. The changes in the FET parameters are evaluated and attributed to the formation of excess oxygen vacancies and changes in the electronic structure of the IGZO bulk channel and at the IGZO/SiO 2 interface, which can further lead to the formation of subgap states. An attempt is made to distinguish which parameters of the FET are affected by the changes in the electronic structure of the IGZO bulk channel and at the IGZO/SiO 2 interface separately. (paper)

  20. Bias-stress characterization of solution-processed organic field-effect transistor based on highly ordered liquid crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunii, M.; Iino, H.; Hanna, J.

    2017-06-01

    Bias-stress effects in solution-processed, 2-decyl-7-phenyl-[1]benzothieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene (Ph-BTBT-10) field effect transistors (FETs) are studied under negative and positive direct current bias. The bottom gate, bottom contact polycrystalline Ph-BTBT-10 FET with a hybrid gate dielectric of polystyrene and SiO2 shows high field effect mobility as well as a steep subthreshold slope when fabricated with a highly ordered smectic E liquid crystalline (SmE) film as a precursor. Negative gate bias-stress causes negative threshold voltage shift (ΔVth) for Ph-BTBT-10 FET in ambient air, but ΔVth rapidly decreases as the gate bias decreases and approaches to near zero when the gate bias goes down to 9 V in amplitude. In contrast, positive gate bias-stress causes negligible ΔVth even with a relatively high bias voltage. These results conclude that Ph-BTBT-10 FET has excellent bias-stress stability in ambient air in the range of low to moderate operating voltages.

  1. Influence of High-Energy Proton Irradiation on β-Ga2O3 Nanobelt Field-Effect Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Gwangseok; Jang, Soohwan; Ren, Fan; Pearton, Stephen J; Kim, Jihyun

    2017-11-22

    The robust radiation resistance of wide-band gap materials is advantageous for space applications, where the high-energy particle irradiation deteriorates the performance of electronic devices. We report on the effects of proton irradiation of β-Ga 2 O 3 nanobelts, whose energy band gap is ∼4.85 eV at room temperature. Back-gated field-effect transistor (FET) based on exfoliated quasi-two-dimensional β-Ga 2 O 3 nanobelts were exposed to a 10 MeV proton beam. The proton-dose- and time-dependent characteristics of the radiation-damaged FETs were systematically analyzed. A 73% decrease in the field-effect mobility and a positive shift of the threshold voltage were observed after proton irradiation at a fluence of 2 × 10 15 cm -2 . Greater radiation-induced degradation occurs in the conductive channel of the β-Ga 2 O 3 nanobelt than at the contact between the metal and β-Ga 2 O 3 . The on/off ratio of the exfoliated β-Ga 2 O 3 FETs was maintained even after proton doses up to 2 × 10 15 cm -2 . The radiation-induced damage in the β-Ga 2 O 3 -based FETs was significantly recovered after rapid thermal annealing at 500 °C. The outstanding radiation durability of β-Ga 2 O 3 renders it a promising building block for space applications.

  2. The modulation of Schottky barriers of metal-MoS2 contacts via BN-MoS2 heterostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jie; Feng, Liping; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Zhengtang

    2016-06-22

    Using first-principles calculations within density functional theory, we systematically studied the effect of BN-MoS2 heterostructure on the Schottky barriers of metal-MoS2 contacts. Two types of FETs are designed according to the area of the BN-MoS2 heterostructure. Results show that the vertical and lateral Schottky barriers in all the studied contacts, irrespective of the work function of the metal, are significantly reduced or even vanish when the BN-MoS2 heterostructure substitutes the monolayer MoS2. Only the n-type lateral Schottky barrier of Au/BN-MoS2 contact relates to the area of the BN-MoS2 heterostructure. Notably, the Pt-MoS2 contact with n-type character is transformed into a p-type contact upon substituting the monolayer MoS2 by a BN-MoS2 heterostructure. These changes of the contact natures are ascribed to the variation of Fermi level pinning, work function and charge distribution. Analysis demonstrates that the Fermi level pinning effects are significantly weakened for metal/BN-MoS2 contacts because no gap states dominated by MoS2 are formed, in contrast to those of metal-MoS2 contacts. Although additional BN layers reduce the interlayer interaction and the work function of the metal, the Schottky barriers of metal/BN-MoS2 contacts still do not obey the Schottky-Mott rule. Moreover, different from metal-MoS2 contacts, the charges transfer from electrodes to the monolayer MoS2, resulting in an increment of the work function of these metals in metal/BN-MoS2 contacts. These findings may prove to be instrumental in the future design of new MoS2-based FETs with ohmic contact or p-type character.

  3. Measurements on a FET based 1 MHz, 10 kV pulse generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wait, G.D.; Barnes, M.J.

    1995-08-01

    A prototype pulser, which incorporates thirty-two 1 kV Field-Effect Transistor (FET) modules, has been built and tested at TRIUMF. The pulser has been developed for application in a scheme for pulsed extraction from the TRIUMF 500 MeV cyclotron. Deflection of the beam will be provided by an electric field between a set of 1 in long deflector plates. The pulser generates a continuous, unipolar, pulse train at a fundamental frequency of approximately 1 MHz and a magnitude of 10 kV. The pulses have 38 ns rise and fall times and are stored on a low-loss coaxial cable which interconnects the pulse generator and the deflector plates. The circuit performance was evaluated with the aid of PSpice in the design stage and confirmed by measurements on the prototype. Temperature measurements have been performed on 1 kV FET modules under DC conditions and compared with temperatures under operating conditions to ensure that switching losses are acceptable. Results of various measurements are presented and compared with simulations

  4. Measurements on a FET based 1 MHz, 10 kV pulse generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wait, G.D.; Barnes, M.J.

    1995-08-01

    A prototype pulser, which incorporates thirty-two 1 kV Field-Effect Transistor (FET) modules, has been built and tested at TRIUMF. The pulser has been developed for application in a scheme for pulsed extraction from the TRIUMF 500 MeV cyclotron. Deflection of the beam will be provided by an electric field between a set of 1 m long deflector plates. The pulser generates a continuous unipolar, pulse train at a fundamental frequency of approximately 1 MHz and a magnitude of 10 kV. The pulses have 38 ns rise and fall times and are stored on a low-loss coaxial cable which interconnects the pulse generator and the deflector plates. The circuit performance was evaluated with the aid of PSpice in the design stage and confirmed by measurements on the prototype. Temperature measurements have been performed on 1 kV FET modules under DC conditions and compared with temperatures under operating conditions to ensure that switching losses are acceptable. Results of various measurements are presented and compared with simulations. (author)

  5. Flexible FETs using ultrathin Si microwires embedded in solution processed dielectric and metal layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, S.; Yogeswaran, N.; Taube, W.; Lorenzelli, L.; Dahiya, R.

    2015-12-01

    This work presents a novel manufacturing route for obtaining high performance bendable field effect transistors (FET) by embedding silicon (Si) microwires (2.5 μm thick) in layers of solution-processed dielectric and metallic layers. The objective of this study is to explore heterogeneous integration of Si with polymers and to exploit the benefits of both microelectronics and printing technologies. Arrays of Si microwires are developed on silicon on insulator (SOI) wafers and transfer printed to polyimide (PI) substrate through a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) carrier stamp. Following the transfer printing of Si microwires, two different processing steps were developed to obtain top gate top contact and back gate top contact FETs. Electrical characterizations indicate devices having mobility as high as 117.5 cm2 V-1 s-1. The fabricated devices were also modeled using SILVACO Atlas. Simulation results show a trend in the electrical response similar to that of experimental results. In addition, a cyclic test was performed to demonstrate the reliability and mechanical robustness of the Si μ-wires on flexible substrates.

  6. Flexible FETs using ultrathin Si microwires embedded in solution processed dielectric and metal layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, S; Yogeswaran, N; Lorenzelli, L; Taube, W; Dahiya, R

    2015-01-01

    This work presents a novel manufacturing route for obtaining high performance bendable field effect transistors (FET) by embedding silicon (Si) microwires (2.5 μm thick) in layers of solution-processed dielectric and metallic layers. The objective of this study is to explore heterogeneous integration of Si with polymers and to exploit the benefits of both microelectronics and printing technologies. Arrays of Si microwires are developed on silicon on insulator (SOI) wafers and transfer printed to polyimide (PI) substrate through a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) carrier stamp. Following the transfer printing of Si microwires, two different processing steps were developed to obtain top gate top contact and back gate top contact FETs. Electrical characterizations indicate devices having mobility as high as 117.5 cm 2 V −1 s −1 . The fabricated devices were also modeled using SILVACO Atlas. Simulation results show a trend in the electrical response similar to that of experimental results. In addition, a cyclic test was performed to demonstrate the reliability and mechanical robustness of the Si μ-wires on flexible substrates. (paper)

  7. Effect of hysteretic and non-hysteretic negative capacitance on tunnel FETs DC performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeidi, Ali; Jazaeri, Farzan; Stolichnov, Igor; Luong, Gia V.; Zhao, Qing-Tai; Mantl, Siegfried; Ionescu, Adrian M.

    2018-03-01

    This work experimentally demonstrates that the negative capacitance effect can be used to significantly improve the key figures of merit of tunnel field effect transistor (FET) switches. In the proposed approach, a matching condition is fulfilled between a trained-polycrystalline PZT capacitor and the tunnel FET (TFET) gate capacitance fabricated on a strained silicon-nanowire technology. We report a non-hysteretic switch configuration by combining a homojunction TFET and a negative capacitance effect booster, suitable for logic applications, for which the on-current is increased by a factor of 100, the transconductance by 2 orders of magnitude, and the low swing region is extended. The operation of a hysteretic negative capacitance TFET, when the matching condition for the negative capacitance is fulfilled only in a limited region of operation, is also reported and discussed. In this late case, a limited improvement in the device performance is observed. Overall, the paper demonstrates the main beneficial effects of negative capacitance on TFETs are the overdrive and transconductance amplification, which exactly address the most limiting performances of current TFETs.

  8. Cylindrical-shaped nanotube field effect transistor

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2015-12-29

    A cylindrical-shaped nanotube FET may be manufactured on silicon (Si) substrates as a ring etched into a gate stack and filled with semiconductor material. An inner gate electrode couples to a region of the gate stack inside the inner circumference of the ring. An outer gate electrode couples to a region of the gate stack outside the outer circumference of the ring. The multi-gate cylindrical-shaped nanotube FET operates in volume inversion for ring widths below 15 nanometers. The cylindrical-shaped nanotube FET demonstrates better short channel effect (SCE) mitigation and higher performance (I.sub.on/I.sub.off) than conventional transistor devices. The cylindrical-shaped nanotube FET may also be manufactured with higher yields and cheaper costs than conventional transistors.

  9. Cylindrical-shaped nanotube field effect transistor

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa; Fahad, Hossain M.; Smith, Casey E.; Rojas, Jhonathan Prieto

    2015-01-01

    A cylindrical-shaped nanotube FET may be manufactured on silicon (Si) substrates as a ring etched into a gate stack and filled with semiconductor material. An inner gate electrode couples to a region of the gate stack inside the inner circumference of the ring. An outer gate electrode couples to a region of the gate stack outside the outer circumference of the ring. The multi-gate cylindrical-shaped nanotube FET operates in volume inversion for ring widths below 15 nanometers. The cylindrical-shaped nanotube FET demonstrates better short channel effect (SCE) mitigation and higher performance (I.sub.on/I.sub.off) than conventional transistor devices. The cylindrical-shaped nanotube FET may also be manufactured with higher yields and cheaper costs than conventional transistors.

  10. Ultrathin regioregular poly(3-hexyl thiophene) field-effect transistors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandberg, H.G.O.; Frey, G.L.; Shkunov, M.N.

    2002-01-01

    Ultrathin films of regioregular poly(3-hexyl thiophene) (RR-P3HT) were deposited through a dip-coating technique and utilized as the semiconducting film in field-effect transistors (FETs). Proper selection of the substrate and solution concentration enabled the growth of a monolayer-thick RR-P3HT...... film. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), U-V-vis absorption spectroscopy, X-ray reflectivity, and grazing incidence diffraction were used to study the growth mechanism, thickness and orientation of self-organized monolayer thick RR-P3HT films on SiO2 surfaces. Films were found to adopt a Stranski......-Krastanov-type growth mode with formation of a very stable first monolayer. X-ray measurements show that the direction of pi-stacking in the films (the (010) direction) is parallel to the substrate, which is the preferred orientation for high field-effect carrier mobilities. The field-effect mobilities in all ultrathin...

  11. Graphene nanoribbon field-effect transistors fabricated by etchant-free transfer from Au(788)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtomo, Manabu; Sekine, Yoshiaki; Hibino, Hiroki; Yamamoto, Hideki

    2018-01-01

    We report etching-free and iodine-free transfer of highly aligned array of armchair-edge graphene nanoribbons (ACGNRs) and their field-effect transistor (FET) characteristics. They were prepared by on-surface polymerization on Au(788) templates. The ACGNRs were mechanically delaminated and transferred onto insulating substrates with the aid of a nano-porous support layer composed of hydrogen silsesquioxane (HSQ). The key process in the mechanical delamination is the intercalation of octanethiol self-assembled monolayers (SAMs), which penetrate the HSQ layer and intercalate between the ACGNRs and Au(788). After the transfer, the octanethiol SAMs were removed with Piranha solution, enabling the reuse of the Au single crystals. The FETs fabricated with the transferred ACGNR array showed ambipolar behavior when the channel length was as long as 60 nm. Quasi-one-dimensional conductivity was observed, which implies a good alignment of GNRs after the transfer. In contrast, short-channel ACGNR FETs (channel length ˜20 nm) suffer from a geometry-dependent short-channel effect. This effect is more severe in the FETs with ACGNRs parallel to the channel, which is an ideal geometry, than in ones perpendicular to the channel. Since the ID-VD curve is well fitted by the power-law model, the short-channel effect likely stems from the space-charge limited current effect, while the wide charge-transfer region in the GNR channel can be another possible cause for the short-channel effect. These results provide us with important insights into the designing short-channel GNR-FETs with improved performance.

  12. Glucose Sensing Using Functionalized Amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O Field-Effect Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xiaosong; Li, Yajuan; Motley, Joshua R; Stickle, William F; Herman, Gregory S

    2016-03-01

    Recent advances in glucose sensing have focused on the integration of sensors into contact lenses to allow noninvasive continuous glucose monitoring. Current technologies focus primarily on enzyme-based electrochemical sensing which requires multiple nontransparent electrodes to be integrated. Herein, we leverage amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) field-effect transistors (FETs), which have found use in a wide range of display applications and can be made fully transparent. Bottom-gated IGZO-FETs can have significant changes in electrical characteristics when the back-channel is exposed to different environments. We have functionalized the back-channel of IGZO-FETs with aminosilane groups that are cross-linked to glucose oxidase and have demonstrated that these devices have high sensitivity to changes in glucose concentrations. Glucose sensing occurs through the decrease in pH during glucose oxidation, which modulates the positive charge of the aminosilane groups attached to the IGZO surface. The change in charge affects the number of acceptor-like surface states which can deplete electron density in the n-type IGZO semiconductor. Increasing glucose concentrations leads to an increase in acceptor states and a decrease in drain-source conductance due to a positive shift in the turn-on voltage. The functionalized IGZO-FET devices are effective in minimizing detection of interfering compounds including acetaminophen and ascorbic acid. These studies suggest that IGZO FETs can be effective for monitoring glucose concentrations in a variety of environments, including those where fully transparent sensing elements may be of interest.

  13. Improving the Stability of High-Performance Multilayer MoS2 Field-Effect Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Na; Baek, Jongyeol; Kim, Seung Min; Hong, Seongin; Hong, Young Ki; Kim, Yang Soo; Kim, Hyun-Suk; Kim, Sunkook; Park, Jozeph

    2017-12-13

    In this study, we propose a method for improving the stability of multilayer MoS 2 field-effect transistors (FETs) by O 2 plasma treatment and Al 2 O 3 passivation while sustaining the high performance of bulk MoS 2 FET. The MoS 2 FETs were exposed to O 2 plasma for 30 s before Al 2 O 3 encapsulation to achieve a relatively small hysteresis and high electrical performance. A MoO x layer formed during the plasma treatment was found between MoS 2 and the top passivation layer. The MoO x interlayer prevents the generation of excess electron carriers in the channel, owing to Al 2 O 3 passivation, thereby minimizing the shift in the threshold voltage (V th ) and increase of the off-current leakage. However, prolonged exposure of the MoS 2 surface to O 2 plasma (90 and 120 s) was found to introduce excess oxygen into the MoO x interlayer, leading to more pronounced hysteresis and a high off-current. The stable MoS 2 FETs were also subjected to gate-bias stress tests under different conditions. The MoS 2 transistors exhibited negligible decline in performance under positive bias stress, positive bias illumination stress, and negative bias stress, but large negative shifts in V th were observed under negative bias illumination stress, which is attributed to the presence of sulfur vacancies. This simple approach can be applied to other transition metal dichalcogenide materials to understand their FET properties and reliability, and the resulting high-performance hysteresis-free MoS 2 transistors are expected to open up new opportunities for the development of sophisticated electronic applications.

  14. Digital-circuit analysis of short-gate tunnel FETs for low-voltage applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuge, Jing; Huang, Ru; Wang, Yangyuan; Verhulst, Anne S; Vandenberghe, William G; Dehaene, Wim; Groeseneken, Guido

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the potential of tunnel field-effect transistors (TFETs), with emphasis on short-gate TFETs, by simulation for low-power digital applications having a supply voltage lower than 0.5 V. A transient study shows that the tunneling current has a negligible contribution in charging and discharging the gate capacitance of TFETs. In spite of a higher resistance region in the short-gate TFET, the gate (dis)charging speed still meets low-voltage application requirements. A circuit analysis is performed on short-gate TFETs with different materials, such as Si, Ge and heterostructures in terms of voltage overshoot, delay, static power, energy consumption and energy delay product (EDP). These results are compared to MOSFET and full-gate TFET performance. It is concluded that short-gate heterostructure TFETs (Ge–source for nTFET, In 0.6 Ga 0.4 As–source for pTFET) are promising candidates to extend the supply voltage to lower than 0.5 V because they combine the advantage of a low Miller capacitance, due to the short-gate structures, and strong drive current in TFETs, due to the narrow bandgap material in the source. At a supply voltage of 0.4 V and for an EOT and channel length of 0.6 nm and 40 nm, respectively, a three-stage inverter chain based on short-gate heterostructure TFETs saves 40% energy consumption per cycle at the same delay and shows 60%–75% improvement of EDP at the same static power, compared to its full-gate counterpart. When compared to the MOSFET, better EDP can be achieved in the heterostructure TFET especially at low static power consumption

  15. Assessment of Phospohrene Field Effect Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-28

    majoring in electrical engineering were trained through the project. During the project period, one graduated with an MS degree, while another one...34Phosphorene FETs-Promising Transistors Based on a few Layers of Phosphorus Atoms," Chinese Academy of Engineering , Chengdu, China, Jul. 2015. J.C. M. Hwang... Nanotechnology , Arlington, VA, Oct.2015. J. C. M. Hwang, "Surface Passivation and RF Characterization of Phosphorene FETs," Air Force Research Lab, Dayton

  16. Lowered operation voltage in Pt/SBi2Ta2O9/HfO2/Si ferroelectric-gate field-effect transistors by oxynitriding Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horiuchi, Takeshi; Takahashi, Mitsue; Li, Qiu-Hong; Wang, Shouyu; Sakai, Shigeki

    2010-01-01

    Oxynitrided Si (SiON) surfaces show smaller subthreshold swings than do directly nitrided Si (SiN) surfaces when used in ferroelectric-gate field-effect transistors (FeFETs) having the following stacked-gate structure: Pt/SrBi 2 Ta 2 O 9 (SBT)/HfO 2 /Si. SiON/Si substrates for FeFETs were prepared by rapid thermal oxidation (RTO) in O 2 at 1000 °C and subsequent rapid thermal nitridation (RTN) in NH 3 at various temperatures in the range 950–1150 °C. The electrical properties of the Pt/SBT/HfO 2 /SiON/Si FeFET were compared with those of reference FETs, i.e. Pt/SBT/HfO 2 gate stacks formed on Si substrates subjected to various treatments: SiN x /Si formed by RTN, SiO 2 /Si formed by RTO and untreated Si. The Pt/SBT/HfO 2 /SiON/Si FeFET had a larger memory window than all the other reference FeFETs, particularly at low operation voltages when the RTN temperature was 1050 °C

  17. Low-Frequency Noise in Layered ReS2 Field Effect Transistors on HfO2 and Its Application for pH Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Wugang; Wei, Wei; Tong, Yu; Chim, Wai Kin; Zhu, Chunxiang

    2018-02-28

    Layered rhenium disulfide (ReS 2 ) field effect transistors (FETs), with thickness ranging from few to dozens of layers, are demonstrated on 20 nm thick HfO 2 /Si substrates. A small threshold voltage of -0.25 V, high on/off current ratio of up to ∼10 7 , small subthreshold swing of 116 mV/dec, and electron carrier mobility of 6.02 cm 2 /V·s are obtained for the two-layer ReS 2 FETs. Low-frequency noise characteristics in ReS 2 FETs are analyzed for the first time, and it is found that the carrier number fluctuation mechanism well describes the flicker (1/f) noise of ReS 2 FETs with different thicknesses. pH sensing using a two-layer ReS 2 FET with HfO 2 as a sensing oxide is then demonstrated with a voltage sensitivity of 54.8 mV/pH and a current sensitivity of 126. The noise characteristics of the ReS 2 FET-based pH sensors are also examined, and a corresponding detection limit of 0.0132 pH is obtained. Our studies suggest the high potential of ReS 2 for future low-power nanoelectronics and biosensor applications.

  18. Isolation and Identification of Post-Transcriptional Gene Silencing-Related Micro-RNAs by Functionalized Silicon Nanowire Field-effect Transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuan-I.; Pan, Chien-Yuan; Li, Keng-Hui; Huang, Ying-Chih; Lu, Chia-Wei; Tang, Chuan-Yi; Su, Ya-Wen; Tseng, Ling-Wei; Tseng, Kun-Chang; Lin, Chi-Yun; Chen, Chii-Dong; Lin, Shih-Shun; Chen, Yit-Tsong

    2015-11-01

    Many transcribed RNAs are non-coding RNAs, including microRNAs (miRNAs), which bind to complementary sequences on messenger RNAs to regulate the translation efficacy. Therefore, identifying the miRNAs expressed in cells/organisms aids in understanding genetic control in cells/organisms. In this report, we determined the binding of oligonucleotides to a receptor-modified silicon nanowire field-effect transistor (SiNW-FET) by monitoring the changes in conductance of the SiNW-FET. We first modified a SiNW-FET with a DNA probe to directly and selectively detect the complementary miRNA in cell lysates. This SiNW-FET device has 7-fold higher sensitivity than reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction in detecting the corresponding miRNA. Next, we anchored viral p19 proteins, which bind the double-strand small RNAs (ds-sRNAs), on the SiNW-FET. By perfusing the device with synthesized ds-sRNAs of different pairing statuses, the dissociation constants revealed that the nucleotides at the 3‧-overhangs and pairings at the terminus are important for the interactions. After perfusing the total RNA mixture extracted from Nicotiana benthamiana across the device, this device could enrich the ds-sRNAs for sequence analysis. Finally, this bionanoelectronic SiNW-FET, which is able to isolate and identify the interacting protein-RNA, adds an additional tool in genomic technology for the future study of direct biomolecular interactions.

  19. A 2D analytical cylindrical gate tunnel FET (CG-TFET) model: impact of shortest tunneling distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, S.; Mishra, G. P.

    2015-09-01

    A 2D analytical tunnel field-effect transistor (FET) potential model with cylindrical gate (CG-TFET) based on the solution of Laplace’s equation is proposed. The band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) current is derived by the help of lateral electric field and the shortest tunneling distance. However, the analysis is extended to obtain the subthreshold swing (SS) and transfer characteristics of the device. The dependency of drain current, SS and transconductance on gate voltage and shortest tunneling distance is discussed. Also, the effect of scaling the gate oxide thickness and the cylindrical body diameter on the electrical parameters of the device is analyzed.

  20. A 2D analytical cylindrical gate tunnel FET (CG-TFET) model: impact of shortest tunneling distance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dash, S; Mishra, G P

    2015-01-01

    A 2D analytical tunnel field-effect transistor (FET) potential model with cylindrical gate (CG-TFET) based on the solution of Laplace’s equation is proposed. The band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) current is derived by the help of lateral electric field and the shortest tunneling distance. However, the analysis is extended to obtain the subthreshold swing (SS) and transfer characteristics of the device. The dependency of drain current, SS and transconductance on gate voltage and shortest tunneling distance is discussed. Also, the effect of scaling the gate oxide thickness and the cylindrical body diameter on the electrical parameters of the device is analyzed. (paper)

  1. DotFETs: MOSFETs strained by a Single SiGE dot in a Low-Temperature ELA Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Biasotto, C.

    2011-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis was performed in the context of the European Sixth Framework Program FP6 project “Disposable Dot Field Effect Transistor for High Speed Si Integrated Circuits”, referred to as the D-DotFET project. The project had the goal of realizing strain-enhanced mobility in CMOS transistors by transferring strain from a self-assembled germanium dot to the channel of a transistor fabricated above the dot. The initial idea was to dispose of the Ge dot underneath the chann...

  2. The antibody-based magnetic microparticle immunoassay using p-FET sensing platform for Alzheimer's disease pathogenic factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chang-Beom; Kim, Kwan-Soo; Song, Ki-Bong

    2013-05-01

    The importance of early Alzheimer's disease (AD) detection has been recognized to diagnose people at high risk of AD. The existence of intra/extracellular beta-amyloid (Aβ) of brain neurons has been regarded as the most archetypal hallmark of AD. The existing computed-image-based neuroimaging tools have limitations on accurate quantification of nanoscale Aβ peptides due to optical diffraction during imaging processes. Therefore, we propose a new method that is capable of evaluating a small amount of Aβ peptides by using photo-sensitive field-effect transistor (p-FET) integrated with magnetic force-based microbead collecting platform and selenium(Se) layer (thickness ~700 nm) as an optical filter. This method demonstrates a facile approach for the analysis of Aβ quantification using magnetic force and magnetic silica microparticles (diameter 0.2~0.3 μm). The microbead collecting platform mainly consists of the p-FET sensing array and the magnet (diameter ~1 mm) which are placed beneath each sensing region of the p-FET, which enables the assembly of the Aβ antibody conjugated microbeads, captures the Aβ peptides from samples, measures the photocurrents generated by the Q-dot tagged with Aβ peptides, and consequently results in the effective Aβ quantification.

  3. Cascading reaction of arginase and urease on a graphene-based FET for ultrasensitive, real-time detection of arginine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berninger, Teresa; Bliem, Christina; Piccinini, Esteban; Azzaroni, Omar; Knoll, Wolfgang

    2018-09-15

    Herein, a biosensor based on a reduced graphene oxide field effect transistor (rGO-FET) functionalized with the cascading enzymes arginase and urease was developed for the detection of L-arginine. Arginase and urease were immobilized on the rGO-FET sensing surface via electrostatic layer-by-layer assembly using polyethylenimine (PEI) as cationic building block. The signal transduction mechanism is based on the ability of the cascading enzymes to selectively perform chemical transformations and prompt local pH changes, that are sensitively detected by the rGO-FET. In the presence of L-arginine, the transistors modified with (PEI/urease(arginase)) multilayers showed a shift in the Dirac point due to the change in the local pH close to the graphene surface, produced by the catalyzed urea hydrolysis. The transistors were able to monitor L-arginine in the 10-1000 μM linear range with a LOD of 10 μM, displaying a fast response and a good long-term stability. The sensor showed stereospecificity and high selectivity in the presence of non-target amino acids. Taking into account the label-free, real-time measurement capabilities and the easily quantifiable, electronic output signal, this biosensor offers advantages over state-of-the-art L-arginine detection methods. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. High-performance all-printed amorphous oxide FETs and logics with electronically compatible electrode/ channel interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Bhupendra Kumar; Stoesser, Anna; Mondal, Sandeep Kumar; Garlapati, Suresh K; Fawey, Mohammed H; Chakravadhanula, Venkata Sai Kiran; Kruk, Robert; Hahn, Horst; Dasgupta, Subho

    2018-06-12

    Oxide semiconductors typically show superior device performance compared to amorphous silicon or organic counterparts, especially, when they are physical vapor deposited. However, it is not easy to reproduce identical device characteristics when the oxide field-effect transistors (FETs) are solution-processed/ printed; the level of complexity further intensifies with the need to print the passive elements as well. Here, we developed a protocol for designing the most electronically compatible electrode/ channel interface based on the judicious material selection. Exploiting this newly developed fabrication schemes, we are now able to demonstrate high-performance all-printed FETs and logic circuits using amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide (a-IGZO) semiconductor, indium tin oxide (ITO) as electrodes and composite solid polymer electrolyte as the gate insulator. Interestingly, all-printed FETs demonstrate an optimal electrical performance in terms of threshold voltages and device mobility and may very well be compared with devices fabricated using sputtered ITO electrodes. This observation originates from the selection of electrode/ channel materials from the same transparent semiconductor oxide family, resulting in the formation of In-Sn-Zn-O (ITZO) based diffused a-IGZO/ ITO interface that controls doping density while ensuring high electrical performance. Compressive spectroscopic studies reveal that Sn doping mediated excellent band alignment of IGZO with ITO electrodes is responsible for the excellent device performance observed. All-printed n-MOS based logic circuits have also been demonstrated towards new-generation portable electronics.

  5. In situ measurements and transmission electron microscopy of carbon nanotube field-effect transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Taekyung; Kim, Seongwon; Olson, Eric; Zuo Jianmin

    2008-01-01

    We present the design and operation of a transmission electron microscopy (TEM)-compatible carbon nanotube (CNT) field-effect transistor (FET). The device is configured with microfabricated slits, which allows direct observation of CNTs in a FET using TEM and measurement of electrical transport while inside the TEM. As demonstrations of the device architecture, two examples are presented. The first example is an in situ electrical transport measurement of a bundle of carbon nanotubes. The second example is a study of electron beam radiation effect on CNT bundles using a 200 keV electron beam. In situ electrical transport measurement during the beam irradiation shows a signature of wall- or tube-breakdown. Stepwise current drops were observed when a high intensity electron beam was used to cut individual CNT bundles in a device with multiple bundles

  6. Effects of buffer composition and dilution on nanowire field-effect biosensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloret, Noémie; Frederiksen, Rune S; Møller, Thor C; Rieben, Nathalie I; Martinez, Karen L; Upadhyay, Shivendra; Nygård, Jesper; De Vico, Luca; Jensen, Jan H

    2013-01-01

    Nanowire-based field-effect transistors (FETs) can be used as ultra-sensitive and label-free biosensors for detecting protein–protein interactions. A way to increase the performance of such sensors is to dilute the sensing buffer drastically. However, we show here that this can have an important effect on the function of the proteins. Moreover, it is demonstrated that this dilution significantly affects the pH stability of the sensing buffer, which consequently impacts the charge of the protein and thus the response and signal-to-noise ratio in the sensing experiments. Three model systems are investigated experimentally to illustrate the impact on ligand–protein and protein–protein interactions. Simulations are performed to illustrate the effect on the performance of the sensors. Combining various parameters, the current study provides a means for evaluating and selecting the most appropriate buffer composition for bioFET measurements. (paper)

  7. Enhanced intrinsic voltage gain in artificially stacked bilayer CVD graphene field effect transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandey, Himadri; Kataria, Satender [RWTH Aachen University, Chair for Electronic Devices, Aachen (Germany); University of Siegen, School of Science and Technology, Siegen (Germany); Aguirre-Morales, Jorge-Daniel; Fregonese, Sebastien; Zimmer, Thomas [IMS Laboratory, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, University of Bordeaux, Talence (France); Passi, Vikram [University of Siegen, School of Science and Technology, Siegen (Germany); AMO GmbH, Advanced Microelectronics Center Aachen (Germany); Iannazzo, Mario; Alarcon, Eduard [Technical University of Catalonia, Department of Electronics Engineering, UPC, Barcelona (Spain); Lemme, Max C. [RWTH Aachen University, Chair for Electronic Devices, Aachen (Germany); University of Siegen, School of Science and Technology, Siegen (Germany); AMO GmbH, Advanced Microelectronics Center Aachen (Germany)

    2017-11-15

    We report on electronic transport in dual-gate, artificially stacked bilayer graphene field effect transistors (BiGFETs) fabricated from large-area chemical vapor deposited (CVD) graphene. The devices show enhanced tendency to current saturation, which leads to reduced minimum output conductance values. This results in improved intrinsic voltage gain of the devices when compared to monolayer graphene FETs. We employ a physics based compact model originally developed for Bernal stacked bilayer graphene FETs (BSBGFETs) to explore the observed phenomenon. The improvement in current saturation may be attributed to increased charge carrier density in the channel and thus reduced saturation velocity due to carrier-carrier scattering. (copyright 2017 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. Improved performance of InSe field-effect transistors by channel encapsulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Guangda; Wang, Yiming; Han, Lin; Yang, Zai-Xing; Xin, Qian; Kudrynskyi, Zakhar R.; Kovalyuk, Zakhar D.; Patanè, Amalia; Song, Aimin

    2018-06-01

    Due to the high electron mobility and photo-responsivity, InSe is considered as an excellent candidate for next generation electronics and optoelectronics. In particular, in contrast to many high-mobility two-dimensional (2D) materials, such as phosphorene, InSe is more resilient to oxidation in air. Nevertheless, its implementation in future applications requires encapsulation techniques to prevent the adsorption of gas molecules on its surface. In this work, we use a common lithography resist, poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) to encapsulate InSe-based field-effect transistors (FETs). The encapsulation of InSe by PMMA improves the electrical stability of the FETs under a gate bias stress, and increases both the drain current and electron mobility. These findings indicate the effectiveness of the PMMA encapsulation method, which could be applied to other 2D materials.

  9. Reduction of ambipolar characteristics of vertical channel tunneling field-effect transistor by using dielectric sidewall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chun Woong; Cho, Il Hwan; Choi, Woo Young; Lee, Jong-Ho

    2013-01-01

    Ambipolar characteristics of tunneling FETs have been improved by introducing a novel structure which contains dielectric sidewall in the gate region. In the ambipolar operation mode, gate field effect on intrinsic-drain junction region can be reduced with dielectric sidewall. As a result, ambipolar state tunneling probability is decreased at the intrinsic-drain junction. Since the sidewall region is located near the drain region, tunneling probability of source-intrinsic region is not affected by dielectric sidewall. This asymmetric characteristics means only ambipolar current of tunneling FETs can be prohibited by dielectric sidewall. Reduction of ambipolar characteristic of proposed structure has been evaluated with dimension and location of dielectric sidewall. Quantitative analysis of ambipolar characteristics is also investigated with tunneling. (paper)

  10. Logic Locking Using Hybrid CMOS and Emerging SiNW FETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qutaiba Alasad

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The outsourcing of integrated circuit (IC fabrication services to overseas manufacturing foundry has raised security and privacy concerns with regard to intellectual property (IP protection as well as the integrity maintenance of the fabricated chips. One way to protect ICs from malicious attacks is to encrypt and obfuscate the IP design by incorporating additional key gates, namely logic encryption or logic locking. The state-of-the-art logic encryption techniques certainly incur considerable performance overhead upon the genuine IP design. The focus of this paper is to leverage the unique property of emerging transistor technology on reducing the performance overhead as well as preserving the robustness of logic locking technique. We design the polymorphic logic gate using silicon nanowire field effect transistors (SiNW FETs to replace the conventional Exclusive-OR (XOR-based logic cone. We then evaluate the proposed technique based on security metric and performance overhead.

  11. Analysis of Self-Heating Effects on vertical FET according to Shallow Trench Isolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myeong, Ilho; Son, Dokyun; Kim, Hyunsuk; Kang, Myounggon; Shin, Hyungcheol

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, Self-Heating Effect (SHE) according to depth of STI was analyzed and STI thickness optimization was performed in the plate-shaped vertical field effect transistor (VFET). In case of a VFET, the path of leakage current (Ioff) is different from that of a lateral FET (LFET). As a result, Ioff of VFET is not influenced by STI depth. For this reason, the STI depth of the VFET is not needed as much as the depth needed to reduce Ioff in the LFET. As a result, if the STI depth of the VFET is reduced from 100 nm to 20 nm, which is the drain region depth doped with Arsenic, thermal resistance (Rth) is expected to be reduced by 32.19% and on current (Ion) is expected to be increased by 1.54% without affecting the Ioff as compared with STI depth of 100 nm in VFET.

  12. Nitrogen-doped graphene films from simple photochemical doping for n-type field-effect transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xinyu [College of Science, Guilin University of Technology, Guilin 541004 (China); Department of Physics and Nanjing National Laboratory of Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Tang, Tao; Li, Ming, E-mail: liming928@163.com, E-mail: lixinyu5260@163.com [College of Science, Guilin University of Technology, Guilin 541004 (China); He, Xiancong, E-mail: liming928@163.com, E-mail: lixinyu5260@163.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing Institute of Technology, Nanjing 211167 (China)

    2015-01-05

    Highly nitrogen-doped GO (NGO) and n-type graphene field effect transistor (FET) have been achieved by simple irradiation of graphene oxide (GO) thin films in NH{sub 3} atmosphere. The electrical properties of the NGO film were performed on electric field effect measurements, and it displays an n-type FET behavior with a charge neutral point (Dirac point) located at around −8 V. It is suggested that the amino-like nitrogen (N-A) mainly contributes to the n-type behavior. Furthermore, compared to the GO film irradiated in Ar atmosphere, the NGO film is much more capable to improve the electrical conductivity. It may attribute to nitrogen doping and oxygen reduction, both of which can effectively enhance the electrical conductivity.

  13. [Fetal and early trauma syndrome-FETS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoroastro, Gastón A

    2006-01-01

    This is a new clinical description for cases of children whose parents are among those who have disappeared and were given birth by women held prisoners and subjected to torture, humiliation and abuses. This description is considered a special case of early, and in many cases fetal distress. These children felt horror when they were violently separated from their parents immediately after being born in captivity or in early infancy during the last military dictatorship (1976-1983). Afterwards they were sold by their captors and raised as adoptive or as their own children by the purchasers. The fact that these cases be included in the existing WHO categories contained in CIE-10: Posttraumatic stress disorder, F43.1, is discussed as they show late responses on the part of the victims to situations of torture, terrorism and rape. However, it is clarified that cases in which the aftereffects of severe stress become evident after decades will have to be classified as Persistent personality disorders, after catastrophic experience, F62.0. It is concluded that it is necessary to consider FETS as a new combination of manifestations of the Persistent Personality Disorders due to its specific idiosyncratic characteristics that go beyond the available clinical descriptions, to its own etiophatic equation and to its recognizable pathognomonic identification. Its pathognomonic identification in some cases was useful to detect children with these alienated identity problems (understood as legally neglected and clinically alienated). Propedeutic and treatment aspects are mentioned in conjunction with the peculiarities of a therapy that restores the illegally deprived personality of these children, who nowadays are adults of approximately 25 to 29 years of age. Finally, a metapsychologic discussion is presented, which is about the resilience of the truth and the fact that when it is rejected it returns, thus constituting ethics of the truth.

  14. Lateral topological crystalline insulator heterostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qilong; Dai, Ying; Niu, Chengwang; Ma, Yandong; Wei, Wei; Yu, Lin; Huang, Baibiao

    2017-06-01

    The emergence of lateral heterostructures fabricated by two-dimensional building blocks brings many exciting realms in material science and device physics. Enriching available nanomaterials for creating such heterostructures and enabling the underlying new physics is highly coveted for the integration of next-generation devices. Here, we report a breakthrough in lateral heterostructure based on the monolayer square transition-metal dichalcogenides MX2 (M  =  W, X  =  S/Se) modules. Our results reveal that the MX2 lateral heterostructure (1S-MX2 LHS) can possess excellent thermal and dynamical stability. Remarkably, the highly desired two-dimensional topological crystalline insulator phase is confirmed by the calculated mirror Chern number {{n}\\text{M}}=-1 . A nontrivial band gap of 65 meV is obtained with SOC, indicating the potential for room-temperature observation and applications. The topologically protected edge states emerge at the edges of two different nanoribbons between the bulk band gap, which is consistent with the mirror Chern number. In addition, a strain-induced topological phase transition in 1S-MX2 LHS is also revealed, endowing the potential utilities in electronics and spintronics. Our predictions not only introduce new member and vitality into the studies of lateral heterostructures, but also highlight the promise of lateral heterostructure as appealing topological crystalline insulator platforms with excellent stability for future devices.

  15. Enhanced photoresponse characteristics of transistors using CVD-grown MoS2/WS2 heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Junjie; Li, Jinhua; Chu, Xueying; Xu, Mingze; Jin, Fangjun; Fang, Xuan; Wei, Zhipeng; Wang, Xiaohua

    2018-06-01

    Semiconductor heterostructures based on transition metal dichalcogenides provide a broad platform to research two-dimensional nanomaterials and design atomically thin devices for fundamental and applied interests. The MoS2/WS2 heterostructure was prepared on SiO2/Si substrate by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) in our research. And the optical properties of the heterostructure was characterized by Raman and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The similar 2 orders of magnitude decrease of PL intensity in MoS2/WS2 heterostructures was tested, which is attribute to the electrical and optical modulation effects are connected with the interfacial charge transfer between MoS2 and WS2 films. Using MoS2/WS2 heterostructure as channel material of the phototransistor, we demonstrated over 50 folds enhanced photoresponsivity of multilayer MoS2 field-effect transistor. The results indicate that the MoS2/WS2 films can be a promising heterostructure material to enhance the photoresponse characteristics of MoS2-based phototransistors.

  16. Organic tunnel field effect transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Tietze, Max Lutz; Lussem, Bjorn; Liu, Shiyi

    2017-01-01

    Various examples are provided for organic tunnel field effect transistors (OTFET), and methods thereof. In one example, an OTFET includes a first intrinsic layer (i-layer) of organic semiconductor material disposed over a gate insulating layer

  17. Nano field effect transistors as basic building blocks for sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Keller, Dino

    2008-01-01

    SiNW FETs and CNT FETs have been studied as candidates for integrable biosensors. Both types show sensing capability, CNT FETs even for uncharged molecules. The “top–down” process developed for SiNW FET fabrication gives much freedom in device designing and is fully compatible with CMOS production schemes. Due to the fact that the SiNW fabrication reported here uses the same structuring techniques as in CMOS processing, it is very reliable. The fabrication of CNT FETs is bas...

  18. Radiosynthesis of [18F]FEt-Tyr-urea-Glu ([18F]FEtTUG) as a new PSMA ligand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Momani, E.; Malik, N.; Machulla, H.J.; Reske, S.N.; Solbach, C.

    2013-01-01

    An efficient radiosynthesis of [ 18 F]FEt-Tyr-urea-Glu ([ 18 F]FEtTUG) as a new ligand for prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) was developed by use of [ 18 F]fluoroethyltosylate as labeling precursor. The corresponding fluoroethyl-tyrosine-urea-glutamate peptide was prepared as reference standard for HPLC control and identified and characterized by standard procedures (MS, NMR). The labeling conditions were optimized with respect to reaction time, reaction temperature, base and solvent. The maximal radiochemical yield of [ 18 F]FEtTUG (77 ± 0.8 %) was obtained within a reaction time of 15 min at a reaction temperature of 80 deg C using 10 M NaOH (18 equiv. related to precursor) in 80 % aqueous acetonitrile. The total preparation time including radiosynthesis, hydrolysis, HPLC purification and formulation was 70 min (EOB). The radiochemical purity was ≥98 %. (author)

  19. Novel field-effect schottky barrier transistors based on graphene-MoS 2 heterojunctions

    KAUST Repository

    Tian, He

    2014-08-11

    Recently, two-dimensional materials such as molybdenum disulphide (MoS 2) have been demonstrated to realize field effect transistors (FET) with a large current on-off ratio. However, the carrier mobility in backgate MoS2 FET is rather low (typically 0.5-20 cm2/V.s). Here, we report a novel field-effect Schottky barrier transistors (FESBT) based on graphene-MoS2 heterojunction (GMH), where the characteristics of high mobility from graphene and high on-off ratio from MoS2 are properly balanced in the novel transistors. Large modulation on the device current (on/off ratio of 105) is achieved by adjusting the backgate (through 300 nm SiO2) voltage to modulate the graphene-MoS2 Schottky barrier. Moreover, the field effective mobility of the FESBT is up to 58.7 cm2/V.s. Our theoretical analysis shows that if the thickness of oxide is further reduced, a subthreshold swing (SS) of 40 mV/decade can be maintained within three orders of drain current at room temperature. This provides an opportunity to overcome the limitation of 60 mV/decade for conventional CMOS devices. The FESBT implemented with a high on-off ratio, a relatively high mobility and a low subthreshold promises low-voltage and low-power applications for future electronics.

  20. Novel Field-Effect Schottky Barrier Transistors Based on Graphene-MoS2 Heterojunctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, He; Tan, Zhen; Wu, Can; Wang, Xiaomu; Mohammad, Mohammad Ali; Xie, Dan; Yang, Yi; Wang, Jing; Li, Lain-Jong; Xu, Jun; Ren, Tian-Ling

    2014-01-01

    Recently, two-dimensional materials such as molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) have been demonstrated to realize field effect transistors (FET) with a large current on-off ratio. However, the carrier mobility in backgate MoS2 FET is rather low (typically 0.5–20 cm2/V·s). Here, we report a novel field-effect Schottky barrier transistors (FESBT) based on graphene-MoS2 heterojunction (GMH), where the characteristics of high mobility from graphene and high on-off ratio from MoS2 are properly balanced in the novel transistors. Large modulation on the device current (on/off ratio of 105) is achieved by adjusting the backgate (through 300 nm SiO2) voltage to modulate the graphene-MoS2 Schottky barrier. Moreover, the field effective mobility of the FESBT is up to 58.7 cm2/V·s. Our theoretical analysis shows that if the thickness of oxide is further reduced, a subthreshold swing (SS) of 40 mV/decade can be maintained within three orders of drain current at room temperature. This provides an opportunity to overcome the limitation of 60 mV/decade for conventional CMOS devices. The FESBT implemented with a high on-off ratio, a relatively high mobility and a low subthreshold promises low-voltage and low-power applications for future electronics. PMID:25109609

  1. Direct coupled amplifiers using field effect transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, E P [Control and Instrumentation Division, Atomic Energy Establishment, Winfrith, Dorchester, Dorset (United Kingdom)

    1964-03-15

    The concept of the uni-polar field effect transistor (P.E.T.) was known before the invention of the bi-polar transistor but it is only recently that they have been made commercially. Being produced as yet only in small quantities, their price imposes a restriction on use to circuits where their peculiar properties can be exploited to the full. One such application is described here where the combination of low voltage drift and relatively low input leakage current are necessarily used together. One of the instruments used to control nuclear reactors has a logarithmic response to the mean output current from a polarised ionisation chamber. The logarithmic signal is then differentiated electrically, the result being displayed on a meter calibrated to show the reactor divergence or doubling time. If displayed in doubling time the scale is calibrated reciprocally. Because of the wide range obtained in the logarithmic section and the limited supply voltage, an output of 1 volt per decade change in ionisation current is used. Differentiating this gives a current of 1.5 x 10{sup -8} A for p.s.D. (20 sec. doubling time) in the differentiating amplifier. To overcome some of the problems of noise due to statistical variations in input current, the circuit design necessitates a resistive path to ground at the amplifier input of 20 M.ohms. A schematic diagram is shown. 1. It is evident that a zero drift of 1% can be caused by a leakage current of 1.5 x 10{sup -10} A or an offset voltage of 3 mV at the amplifier input. Although the presently used electrometer valve is satisfactory from the point of view of grid current, there have been sudden changes in grid to grid voltage (the valve is a double triode) of up to 10 m.V. It has been found that a pair of F.E.T's. can be used to replace the electrometer valve so long as care is taken in correct balance of the two devices. An investigation has been made into the characteristics of some fourteen devices to see whether those with

  2. Potential of carbon nanotube field effect transistors for analogue circuits

    KAUST Repository

    Hayat, Khizar; Cheema, Hammad; Shamim, Atif

    2013-01-01

    This Letter presents a detailed comparison of carbon nanotube field effect transistors (CNFETs) and metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) with special focus on carbon nanotube FET's potential for implementing analogue circuits in the mm-wave and sub-terahertz range. The latest CNFET lithographic dimensions place it at-par with complementary metal oxide semiconductor in terms of current handling capability, whereas the forecasted improvement in the lithography enables the CNFETs to handle more than twice the current of MOSFETs. The comparison of RF parameters shows superior performance of CNFETs with a g m , f T and f max of 2.7, 2.6 and 4.5 times higher, respectively. MOSFET- and CNFET-based inverter, three-stage ring oscillator and LC oscillator have been designed and compared as well. The CNFET-based inverters are found to be ten times faster, the ring oscillator demonstrates three times higher oscillation frequency and CNFET-based LC oscillator also shows improved performance than its MOSFET counterpart.

  3. Transport properties of field-effect transistor with Langmuir-Blodgett films of C60 dendrimer and estimation of impurity levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Naoko; Nagano, Takayuki; Kubozono, Yoshihiro; Sako, Yuuki; Morimoto, Yu; Takaguchi, Yutaka; Fujiwara, Akihiko; Chu, Chih-Chien; Imae, Toyoko

    2007-12-01

    Field-effect transistor (FET) device has been fabricated with Langmuir-Blodgett films of C60 dendrimer. The device showed n-channel normally off characteristics with the field-effect mobility of 2.7×10-3cm2V-1s-1 at 300K, whose value is twice as high as that (1.4×10-3cm2V-1s-1) for the FET with spin-coated films of C60 dendrimer. This originates from the formation of ordered π-conduction network of C60 moieties. From the temperature dependence of field-effect mobility, a structural phase transition has been observed at around 300K. Furthermore, the density of states for impurity levels was estimated in the Langmuir-Blodgett films.

  4. Improved integration of ultra-thin high-k dielectrics in few-layer MoS2 FET by remote forming gas plasma pretreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao; Zhang, Tian-Bao; Yang, Wen; Zhu, Hao; Chen, Lin; Sun, Qing-Qing; Zhang, David Wei

    2017-01-01

    The effective and high-quality integration of high-k dielectrics on two-dimensional (2D) crystals is essential to the device structure engineering and performance improvement of field-effect transistor (FET) based on the 2D semiconductors. We report a 2D MoS2 transistor with ultra-thin Al2O3 top-gate dielectric (6.1 nm) and extremely low leakage current. Remote forming gas plasma pretreatment was carried out prior to the atomic layer deposition, providing nucleation sites with the physically adsorbed ions on the MoS2 surface. The top gate MoS2 FET exhibited excellent electrical performance, including high on/off current ratio over 109, subthreshold swing of 85 mV/decade and field-effect mobility of 45.03 cm2/V s. Top gate leakage current less than 0.08 pA/μm2 at 4 MV/cm has been obtained, which is the smallest compared with the reported top-gated MoS2 transistors. Such an optimized integration of high-k dielectric in 2D semiconductor FET with enhanced performance is very attractive, and it paves the way towards the realization of more advanced 2D nanoelectronic devices and integrated circuits.

  5. A disorder induced field effect transistor in bilayer and trilayer graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Dongwei; Liu Haiwen; Sacksteder IV, Vincent; Sun Qingfeng; Song Juntao; Jiang Hua; Xie, X C

    2013-01-01

    We propose using disorder to produce a field effect transistor (FET) in biased bilayer and trilayer graphene. Modulation of the bias voltage can produce large variations in the conductance when the effects of disorder are confined to only one of the graphene layers. This effect is based on the ability of the bias voltage to select which of the graphene layers carries current, and is not tied to the presence of a gap in the density of states. In particular, we demonstrate this effect in models of gapless ABA-stacked trilayer graphene, gapped ABC-stacked trilayer graphene and gapped bilayer graphene. (paper)

  6. Maximizing the value of gate capacitance in field-effect devices using an organic interface layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, H. L.

    2015-12-01

    Past research has confirmed the existence of negative capacitance in organics such as tris (8-Hydroxyquinoline) Aluminum (Alq3). This work explored using such an organic interface layer to enhance the channel voltage in the field-effect transistor (FET) thereby lowering the sub-threshold swing. In particular, if the values of the positive and negative gate capacitances are approximately equal, the composite negative capacitance will increase by orders of magnitude. One concern is the upper frequency limit (∼100 Hz) over which negative capacitance has been observed. Nonetheless, this frequency limit can be raised to kHz when the organic layer is subjected to a DC bias.

  7. Targeting Antibodies to Carbon Nanotube Field Effect Transistors by Pyrene Hydrazide Modification of Heavy Chain Carbohydrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steingrimur Stefansson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many carbon nanotube field-effect transistor (CNT-FET studies have used immobilized antibodies as the ligand binding moiety. However, antibodies are not optimal for CNT-FET detection due to their large size and charge. Their size can prevent ligands from reaching within the Debye length of the CNTs and a layer of charged antibodies on the circuits can drown out any ligand signal. In an attempt to minimize the antibody footprint on CNT-FETs, we examined whether pyrene hydrazide modification of antibody carbohydrates could reduce the concentration required to functionalize CNT circuits. The carbohydrates are almost exclusively on the antibody Fc region and this site-specific modification could mediate uniform antibody orientation on the CNTs. We compared the hydrazide modification of anti-E. coli O157:H7 polyclonal antibodies to pyrenebutanoic acid succinimidyl ester-coated CNTs and carbodiimide-mediated antibody CNT attachment. Our results show that the pyrene hydrazide modification was superior to those methods with respect to bacteria detection and less than 1 nM labeled antibody was required to functionalize the circuits.

  8. High performance dendrimer functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes field effect transistor biosensor for protein detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajesh, Sharma, Vikash; Puri, Nitin K.; Mulchandani, Ashok; Kotnala, Ravinder K.

    2016-12-01

    We report a single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) field-effect transistor (FET) functionalized with Polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer with 128 carboxyl groups as anchors for site specific biomolecular immobilization of protein antibody for C-reactive protein (CRP) detection. The FET device was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and current-gate voltage (I-Vg) characteristic studies. A concentration-dependent decrease in the source-drain current was observed in the regime of clinical significance, with a detection limit of ˜85 pM and a high sensitivity of 20% change in current (ΔI/I) per decade CRP concentration, showing SWNT being locally gated by the binding of CRP to antibody (anti-CRP) on the FET device. The low value of the dissociation constant (Kd = 0.31 ± 0.13 μg ml-1) indicated a high affinity of the device towards CRP analyte arising due to high anti-CRP loading with a better probe orientation on the 3-dimensional PAMAM structure.

  9. Direct-written polymer field-effect transistors operating at 20 MHz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perinot, Andrea; Kshirsagar, Prakash; Malvindi, Maria Ada; Pompa, Pier Paolo; Fiammengo, Roberto; Caironi, Mario

    2016-12-12

    Printed polymer electronics has held for long the promise of revolutionizing technology by delivering distributed, flexible, lightweight and cost-effective applications for wearables, healthcare, diagnostic, automation and portable devices. While impressive progresses have been registered in terms of organic semiconductors mobility, field-effect transistors (FETs), the basic building block of any circuit, are still showing limited speed of operation, thus limiting their real applicability. So far, attempts with organic FETs to achieve the tens of MHz regime, a threshold for many applications comprising the driving of high resolution displays, have relied on the adoption of sophisticated lithographic techniques and/or complex architectures, undermining the whole concept. In this work we demonstrate polymer FETs which can operate up to 20 MHz and are fabricated by means only of scalable printing techniques and direct-writing methods with a completely mask-less procedure. This is achieved by combining a fs-laser process for the sintering of high resolution metal electrodes, thus easily achieving micron-scale channels with reduced parasitism down to 0.19 pF mm -1 , and a large area coating technique of a high mobility polymer semiconductor, according to a simple and scalable process flow.

  10. Fabrication and independent control of patterned polymer gate for a few-layer WSe{sub 2} field-effect transistor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Sung Ju; Park, Min; Kang, Hojin; Park, Yung Woo, E-mail: ywpark@snu.ac.kr [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Minwoo; Jeong, Dae Hong [Department of Chemistry Education, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    We report the fabrication of a patterned polymer electrolyte for a two-dimensional (2D) semiconductor, few-layer tungsten diselenide (WSe{sub 2}) field-effect transistor (FET). We expose an electron-beam in a desirable region to form the patterned structure. The WSe{sub 2} FET acts as a p-type semiconductor in both bare and polymer-covered devices. We observe a highly efficient gating effect in the polymer-patterned device with independent gate control. The patterned polymer gate operates successfully in a molybdenum disulfide (MoS{sub 2}) FET, indicating the potential for general applications to 2D semiconductors. The results of this study can contribute to large-scale integration and better flexibility in transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD)-based electronics.

  11. Long-term stability assessment of AlGaN/GaN field effect transistors modified with peptides: Device characteristics vs. surface properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohrbaugh, Nathaniel; Bryan, Isaac; Bryan, Zachary; Collazo, Ramon; Ivanisevic, Albena, E-mail: ivanisevic@ncsu.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    AlGaN/GaN Field Effect Transistors (FETs) are promising biosensing devices. Functionalization of these devices is explored in this study using an in situ approach with phosphoric acid etchant and a phosphonic acid derivative. Devices are terminated on peptides and soaked in water for up to 168 hrs to examine FETs for both device responses and surface chemistry changes. Measurements demonstrated threshold voltage shifting after the functionalization and soaking processes, but demonstrated stable FET behavior throughout. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy confirmed peptides attachment to device surfaces before and after water soaking. Results of this work point to the stability of peptide coated functionalized AlGaN/GaN devices in solution and support further research of these devices as disposable, long term, in situ biosensors.

  12. CMOS-compatible fabrication of top-gated field-effect transistor silicon nanowire-based biosensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginet, Patrick; Akiyama, Sho; Takama, Nobuyuki; Fujita, Hiroyuki; Kim, Beomjoon

    2011-01-01

    Field-effect transistor (FET) nanowire-based biosensors are very promising tools for medical diagnosis. In this paper, we introduce a simple method to fabricate FET silicon nanowires using only standard microelectromechanical system (MEMS) processes. The key steps of our fabrication process were a local oxidation of silicon (LOCOS) and anisotropic KOH etchings that enabled us to reduce the width of the initial silicon structures from 10 µm to 170 nm. To turn the nanowires into a FET, a top-gate electrode was patterned in gold next to them in order to apply the gate voltage directly through the investigated liquid environment. An electrical characterization demonstrated the p-type behaviour of the nanowires. Preliminary chemical sensing tested the sensitivity to pH of our device. The effect of the binding of streptavidin on biotinylated nanowires was monitored in order to evaluate their biosensing ability. In this way, streptavidin was detected down to a 100 ng mL −1 concentration in phosphate buffered saline by applying a gate voltage less than 1.2 V. The use of a top-gate electrode enabled the detection of biological species with only very low voltages that were compatible with future handheld-requiring applications. We thus demonstrated the potential of our devices and their fabrication as a solution for the mass production of efficient and reliable FET nanowire-based biological sensors

  13. Field emission current from a junction field-effect transistor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monshipouri, Mahta; Abdi, Yaser

    2015-01-01

    Fabrication of a titanium dioxide/carbon nanotube (TiO 2 /CNT)-based transistor is reported. The transistor can be considered as a combination of a field emission transistor and a junction field-effect transistor. Using direct current plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (DC-PECVD) technique, CNTs were grown on a p-typed (100)-oriented silicon substrate. The CNTs were then covered by TiO 2 nanoparticles 2–5 nm in size, using an atmospheric pressure CVD technique. In this device, TiO 2 /CNT junction is responsible for controlling the emission current. High on/off-current ratio and proper gate control are the most important advantages of device. A model based on Fowler–Nordheim equation is utilized for calculation of the emission current and the results are compared with experimental data. The effect of TiO 2 /CNT hetero-structure is also investigated, and well modeled

  14. Capacitor charging FET switcher with controller to adjust pulse width

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalka, Alex M.

    1986-01-01

    A switching power supply includes an FET full bridge, a controller to drive the FETs, a programmable controller to dynamically control final output current by adjusting pulse width, and a variety of protective systems, including an overcurrent latch for current control. Power MOSFETS are switched at a variable frequency from 20-50 kHz to charge a capacitor load from 0 to 6 kV. A ferrite transformer steps up the DC input. The transformer primary is a full bridge configuration with the FET switches and the secondary is fed into a high voltage full wave rectifier whose output is connected directly to the energy storage capacitor. The peak current is held constant by varying the pulse width using predetermined timing resistors and counting pulses. The pulse width is increased as the capacitor charges to maintain peak current. A digital ripple counter counts pulses, and after the desired number is reached, an up-counter is clocked. The up-counter output is decoded to choose among different resistors used to discharge a timing capacitor, thereby determining the pulse width. A current latch shuts down the supply on overcurrent due to either excessive pulse width causing transformer saturation or a major bridge fault, i.e., FET or transformer failure, or failure of the drive circuitry.

  15. Flexible nanoscale high-performance FinFETs

    KAUST Repository

    Sevilla, Galo T.; Ghoneim, Mohamed T.; Fahad, Hossain M.; Rojas, Jhonathan Prieto; Hussain, Aftab M.; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    With the emergence of the Internet of Things (IoT), flexible high-performance nanoscale electronics are more desired. At the moment, FinFET is the most advanced transistor architecture used in the state-of-the-art microprocessors. Therefore, we show

  16. Tunneling field effect transistor technology

    CERN Document Server

    Chan, Mansun

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a single-source reference to the state-of-the art in tunneling field effect transistors (TFETs). Readers will learn the TFETs physics from advanced atomistic simulations, the TFETs fabrication process and the important roles that TFETs will play in enabling integrated circuit designs for power efficiency. · Provides comprehensive reference to tunneling field effect transistors (TFETs); · Covers all aspects of TFETs, from device process to modeling and applications; · Enables design of power-efficient integrated circuits, with low power consumption TFETs.

  17. Graphene field-effect devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echtermeyer, T. J.; Lemme, M. C.; Bolten, J.; Baus, M.; Ramsteiner, M.; Kurz, H.

    2007-09-01

    In this article, graphene is investigated with respect to its electronic properties when introduced into field effect devices (FED). With the exception of manual graphene deposition, conventional top-down CMOS-compatible processes are applied. Few and monolayer graphene sheets are characterized by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The electrical properties of monolayer graphene sandwiched between two silicon dioxide films are studied. Carrier mobilities in graphene pseudo-MOS structures are compared to those obtained from double-gated Graphene-FEDs and silicon metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistors (MOSFETs).

  18. M = Mo, W; X = S, Se, Te) heterostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Qingyun

    2018-04-16

    Using first-principles calculations, we investigate the electronic properties of the two-dimensional GaX/MX2 (M = Mo, W; X = S, Se, Te) heterostructures. Orbital hybridization between GaX and MX2 is found to result in Rashba splitting at the valence-band edge around the Γ point, which grows for increasing strength of the spin-orbit coupling in the p orbitals of the chalcogenide atoms. The location of the valence-band maximum in the Brillouin zone can be tuned by strain and application of an out-of-plane electric field. The coexistence of Rashba splitting (in-plane spin direction) and band splitting at the K and K′ valleys (out-of-plane spin direction) makes GaX/MX2 heterostructures interesting for spintronics and valleytronics. They are promising candidates for two-dimensional spin-field-effect transistors and spin-valley Hall effect devices. Our findings shed light on the spin-valley coupling in van der Waals heterostructures.

  19. Effect of the Curved Fin Top Edge on the Electrical Characteristics of FinFETs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Joonsung; Kim, Tae Whan

    2018-03-01

    The effect of the curved fin top edge on the electrical characteristics of FinFETs was investigated. The curvature radius of the fin top edge for the FinFETs was changed from 0 to 5 nm in order to determine the optimum condition of the electrical characteristics for the devices. The on-current level of the FinFETs with a curvature radius of 5 nm of fin top edge was 24.45% larger than that of the FinFETs with a cuboid fin. The electron current density and the electron mobility of the fin top edge for the FinFETs were larger than those for the FinFETs with a cuboid fin. The electrical characteristics of the FinFETs with a curvature radius of 5 nm for the fin top edge showed the best performance due to the largest expansion of the effective channel region.

  20. Large current modulation and spin-dependent tunneling of vertical graphene/MoS2 heterostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myoung, Nojoon; Seo, Kyungchul; Lee, Seung Joo; Ihm, G

    2013-08-27

    Vertical graphene heterostructures have been introduced as an alternative architecture for electronic devices by using quantum tunneling. Here, we present that the current on/off ratio of vertical graphene field-effect transistors is enhanced by using an armchair graphene nanoribbon as an electrode. Moreover, we report spin-dependent tunneling current of the graphene/MoS2 heterostructures. When an atomically thin MoS2 layer sandwiched between graphene electrodes becomes magnetic, Dirac fermions with different spins feel different heights of the tunnel barrier, leading to spin-dependent tunneling. Our finding will develop the present graphene heterostructures for electronic devices by improving the device performance and by adding the possibility of spintronics based on graphene.

  1. Enhancement of carrier mobility in MoS{sub 2} field effect transistors by a SiO{sub 2} protective layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shao, Peng-Zhi; Zhao, Hai-Ming; Cao, Hui-Wen; Wang, Xue-Feng; Pang, Yu; Li, Yu-Xing; Deng, Ning-Qin; Yang, Yi; Ren, Tian-Ling, E-mail: RenTL@tsinghua.edu.cn, E-mail: zhangsh@sz.tsinghua.edu.cn [Institute of Microelectronics and Tsinghua National Laboratory for Information Science and Technology (TNList), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhang, Jing [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics and Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Zhang, Guang-Yu [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics and Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); CollaborativeInnovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing 100190 (China); Zhang, Sheng, E-mail: RenTL@tsinghua.edu.cn, E-mail: zhangsh@sz.tsinghua.edu.cn [Institute of Microelectronics and Tsinghua National Laboratory for Information Science and Technology (TNList), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); The State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Shanghai 200050 (China); Advanced Sensor and Integrated System Lab, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055 (China)

    2016-05-16

    Molybdenum disulfide is a promising channel material for field effect transistors (FETs). In this paper, monolayer MoS{sub 2} grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) was used to fabricate top-gate FETs through standard optical lithography. During the fabrication process, charged impurities and interface states are introduced, and the photoresist is not removed cleanly, which both limit the carrier mobility and the source-drain current. We apply a SiO{sub 2} protective layer, which is deposited on the surface of MoS{sub 2}, in order to avoid the MoS{sub 2} directly contacting with the photoresist and the ambient environment. Therefore, the contact property between the MoS{sub 2} and the electrodes is improved, and the Coulomb scattering caused by the charged impurities and the interface states is reduced. Comparing MoS{sub 2} FETs with and without a SiO{sub 2} protective layer, the SiO{sub 2} protective layer is found to enhance the characteristics of the MoS{sub 2} FETs, including transfer and output characteristics. A high mobility of ∼42.3 cm{sup 2}/V s is achieved, which is very large among the top-gate CVD-grown monolayer MoS{sub 2} FETs.

  2. Monolayer field effect transistor as a probe of electronic defects in organic semiconducting layers at organic/inorganic hetero-junction interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Byoungnam

    2016-01-01

    The origin of a large negative threshold voltage observed in monolayer (ML) field effect transistors (FETs) is explored using in-situ electrical measurements through confining the thickness of an active layer to the accumulation layer thickness. Using ML pentacene FETs combined with gated multiple-terminal devices and atomic force microscopy, the effect of electronic and structural evolution of a ML pentacene film on the threshold voltage in an FET, proportional to the density of deep traps, was probed, revealing that a large negative threshold voltage found in ML FETs results from the pentacene/SiO_2 and pentacene/metal interfaces. More importantly, the origin of the threshold voltage difference between ML and thick FETs is addressed through a model in which the effective charge transport layer is transitioned from the pentacene layer interfacing with the SiO_2 gate dielectric to the upper layers with pentacene thickness increasing evidenced by pentacene coverage dependent threshold voltage measurements. - Highlights: • The origin of a large negative threshold voltage in accumulation layer is revealed. • Electronic localized states at the nanometer scale are separately probed from the bulk. • The second monolayer becomes the effective charge transport layer governing threshold voltage.

  3. Low-voltage organic field-effect transistors based on novel high-κ organometallic lanthanide complex for gate insulating materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Qi; Li, Yi; Zhang, Yang; Song, You, E-mail: wangxzh@nju.edu.cn, E-mail: yli@nju.edu.cn, E-mail: yousong@nju.edu.cn; Wang, Xizhang, E-mail: wangxzh@nju.edu.cn, E-mail: yli@nju.edu.cn, E-mail: yousong@nju.edu.cn; Hu, Zheng [Key Laboratory of Mesoscopic Chemistry of MOE, Jiangsu Provincial Lab for Nanotechnology, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, China. High-Tech Research Institute of Nanjing University (Suzhou), Suzhou 215123 (China); Sun, Huabin; Li, Yun, E-mail: wangxzh@nju.edu.cn, E-mail: yli@nju.edu.cn, E-mail: yousong@nju.edu.cn; Shi, Yi [School of Electronic Science and Engineering and Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Photonic and Electronic Materials, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2014-08-15

    A novel high-κ organometallic lanthanide complex, Eu(tta){sub 3}L (tta=2-thenoyltrifluoroacetonate, L = 4,5-pinene bipyridine), is used as gate insulating material to fabricate low-voltage pentacene field-effect transistors (FETs). The optimized gate insulator exhibits the excellent properties such as low leakage current density, low surface roughness, and high dielectric constant. When operated under a low voltage of −5 V, the pentacene FET devices show the attractive electrical performance, e.g. carrier mobility (μ{sub FET}) of 0.17 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1}, threshold voltage (V{sub th}) of −0.9 V, on/off current ratio of 5 × 10{sup 3}, and subthreshold slope (SS) of 1.0 V dec{sup −1}, which is much better than that of devices obtained on conventional 300 nm SiO{sub 2} substrate (0.13 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1}, −7.3 V and 3.1 V dec{sup −1} for μ{sub FET}, V{sub th} and SS value when operated at −30 V). These results indicate that this kind of high-κ organometallic lanthanide complex becomes a promising candidate as gate insulator for low-voltage organic FETs.

  4. Low-voltage organic field-effect transistors based on novel high-κ organometallic lanthanide complex for gate insulating materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Liu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A novel high-κ organometallic lanthanide complex, Eu(tta3L (tta=2-thenoyltrifluoroacetonate, L = 4,5-pinene bipyridine, is used as gate insulating material to fabricate low-voltage pentacene field-effect transistors (FETs. The optimized gate insulator exhibits the excellent properties such as low leakage current density, low surface roughness, and high dielectric constant. When operated under a low voltage of −5 V, the pentacene FET devices show the attractive electrical performance, e.g. carrier mobility (μFET of 0.17 cm2 V−1 s−1, threshold voltage (Vth of −0.9 V, on/off current ratio of 5 × 103, and subthreshold slope (SS of 1.0 V dec−1, which is much better than that of devices obtained on conventional 300 nm SiO2 substrate (0.13 cm2 V−1 s−1, −7.3 V and 3.1 V dec−1 for μFET, Vth and SS value when operated at −30 V. These results indicate that this kind of high-κ organometallic lanthanide complex becomes a promising candidate as gate insulator for low-voltage organic FETs.

  5. Monolayer field effect transistor as a probe of electronic defects in organic semiconducting layers at organic/inorganic hetero-junction interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Byoungnam, E-mail: metalpbn@hongik.ac.kr

    2016-01-01

    The origin of a large negative threshold voltage observed in monolayer (ML) field effect transistors (FETs) is explored using in-situ electrical measurements through confining the thickness of an active layer to the accumulation layer thickness. Using ML pentacene FETs combined with gated multiple-terminal devices and atomic force microscopy, the effect of electronic and structural evolution of a ML pentacene film on the threshold voltage in an FET, proportional to the density of deep traps, was probed, revealing that a large negative threshold voltage found in ML FETs results from the pentacene/SiO{sub 2} and pentacene/metal interfaces. More importantly, the origin of the threshold voltage difference between ML and thick FETs is addressed through a model in which the effective charge transport layer is transitioned from the pentacene layer interfacing with the SiO{sub 2} gate dielectric to the upper layers with pentacene thickness increasing evidenced by pentacene coverage dependent threshold voltage measurements. - Highlights: • The origin of a large negative threshold voltage in accumulation layer is revealed. • Electronic localized states at the nanometer scale are separately probed from the bulk. • The second monolayer becomes the effective charge transport layer governing threshold voltage.

  6. Double-gated Si NW FET sensors: Low-frequency noise and photoelectric properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasparyan, F.; Khondkaryan, H.; Arakelyan, A.; Zadorozhnyi, I.; Pud, S.; Vitusevich, S.

    2016-01-01

    The transport, noise, and photosensitivity properties of an array of silicon nanowire (NW) p"+-p-p"+ field-effect transistors (FETs) are investigated. The peculiarities of photosensitivity and detectivity are analyzed over a wide spectrum range. The absorbance of p-Si NW shifts to the short wavelength region compared with bulk Si. The photocurrent and photosensitivity reach increased values in the UV range of the spectrum at 300 K. It is shown that sensitivity values can be tuned by the drain-source voltage and may reach record values of up to 2–4 A/W at a wavelength of 300 nm at room temperature. Low-frequency noise studies allow calculating the photodetectivity values, which increase with decreasing wavelength down to 300 nm. We show that the drain current of Si NW biochemical sensors substantially depends on pH value and the signal-to-noise ratio reaches the high value of 10"5. Increasing pH sensitivity with gate voltage is revealed for certain source-drain currents of pH-sensors based on Si NW FETs. The noise characteristic index decreases from 1.1 to 0.7 with the growth of the liquid gate voltage. Noise behavior is successfully explained in the framework of the correlated number-mobility unified fluctuation model. pH sensitivity increases as a result of the increase in liquid gate voltage, thus giving the opportunity to measure very low proton concentrations in the electrolyte medium at certain values of the liquid gate voltage.

  7. Heterostructures of transition metal dichalcogenides

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Bin

    2015-08-24

    The structural, electronic, optical, and photocatalytic properties of out-of-plane and in-plane heterostructures of transition metal dichalcogenides are investigated by (hybrid) first principles calculations. The out-of-plane heterostructures are found to be indirect band gap semiconductors with type-II band alignment. Direct band gaps can be achieved by moderate tensile strain in specific cases. The excitonic peaks show blueshifts as compared to the parent monolayer systems, whereas redshifts occur when the chalcogen atoms are exchanged along the series S-Se-Te. Strong absorption from infrared to visible light as well as excellent photocatalytic properties can be achieved.

  8. The Development and Study of Molecular Electronic Switches and their Field-Effect Transistor (FET) Device Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-27

    Grand Rapids, MI) meetings and conferences. References 1. L.N Lucas, J.J.D. de Jong, J.H. van Esch, R.M. Kellogg , B.L. Berringa. Eur. J. Org...R.M. Kellogg , H.L. Feringa, H.L. Eur. J. Org. Chem., 2003, 155-166. 6. B. Qin, R. Yao, X. Zhao, H. Tian. Org. Biomol. Chem., 1, 2003, 2187-2191...7. L.N. Lucas, J.H. van Euch, R.M. Kellogg , B. Feringa. Chem. Comm., 1998, 2313-2314.

  9. Bio Organic-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor (BioFET) Based on Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) Gate Dielectric

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-31

    floating gate devices and metal-insulator-oxide-semiconductor (MIOS) devices. First attempts to use polarizable gate insulators in combination with...bulk of the semiconductor (ii) Due to the polarizable gate dielectric (iii) dipole polarization and (iv)electret effect due to mobile ions in the...characterization was carried out under an argon environment inside the glove box. An Agilent model E5273A with a two source-measurement unit instrument was

  10. Capacitance-voltage analysis of electrical properties for WSe2 field effect transistors with high-k encapsulation layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Seung-Pil; Shin, Jong Mok; Jang, Ho Kyun; You, Min Youl; Jin, Jun-Eon; Choi, Miri; Cho, Jiung; Kim, Gyu-Tae

    2018-02-01

    Doping effects in devices based on two-dimensional (2D) materials have been widely studied. However, detailed analysis and the mechanism of the doping effect caused by encapsulation layers has not been sufficiently explored. In this work, we present experimental studies on the n-doping effect in WSe2 field effect transistors (FETs) with a high-k encapsulation layer (Al2O3) grown by atomic layer deposition. In addition, we demonstrate the mechanism and origin of the doping effect. After encapsulation of the Al2O3 layer, the threshold voltage of the WSe2 FET negatively shifted with the increase of the on-current. The capacitance-voltage measurements of the metal insulator semiconductor (MIS) structure proved the presence of the positive fixed charges within the Al2O3 layer. The flat-band voltage of the MIS structure of Au/Al2O3/SiO2/Si was shifted toward the negative direction on account of the positive fixed charges in the Al2O3 layer. Our results clearly revealed that the fixed charges in the Al2O3 encapsulation layer modulated the Fermi energy level via the field effect. Moreover, these results possibly provide fundamental ideas and guidelines to design 2D materials FETs with high-performance and reliability.

  11. Atom-probe for FinFET dopant characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kambham, A.K., E-mail: kambham@imec.be [K.U.Leuven, Instituut voor Kern-en Stralings fysika, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001, Leuven (Belgium); IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Mody, J.; Gilbert, M.; Koelling, S.; Vandervorst, W. [K.U.Leuven, Instituut voor Kern-en Stralings fysika, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001, Leuven (Belgium); IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2011-05-15

    With the continuous shrinking of transistors and advent of new transistor architectures to keep in pace with Moore's law and ITRS goals, there is a rising interest in multigate 3D-devices like FinFETs where the channel is surrounded by gates on multiple surfaces. The performance of these devices depends on the dimensions and the spatial distribution of dopants in source/drain regions of the device. As a result there is a need for new metrology approach/technique to characterize quantitatively the dopant distribution in these devices with nanometer precision in 3D. In recent years, atom probe tomography (APT) has shown its ability to analyze semiconductor and thin insulator materials effectively with sub-nm resolution in 3D. In this paper we will discuss the methodology used to study FinFET-based structures using APT. Whereas challenges and solutions for sample preparation linked to the limited fin dimensions already have been reported before, we report here an approach to prepare fin structures for APT, which based on their processing history (trenches filled with Si) are in principle invisible in FIB and SEM. Hence alternative solutions in locating and positioning them on the APT-tip are presented. We also report on the use of the atom probe results on FinFETs to understand the role of different dopant implantation angles (10{sup o} and 45{sup o}) when attempting conformal doping of FinFETs and provide a quantitative comparison with alternative approaches such as 1D secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and theoretical model values. -- Research highlights: {yields} This paper provides the information on how to characterize the FinFET devices using atom probe tomography (APT). {yields} Importance of this work is to assess the performance of these devices at different processing conditions by extracting the compositional profiles. {yields} The performance of these devices depends on the dimensions and the spatial distribution of dopants in source/drain regions

  12. Atom-probe for FinFET dopant characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kambham, A.K.; Mody, J.; Gilbert, M.; Koelling, S.; Vandervorst, W.

    2011-01-01

    With the continuous shrinking of transistors and advent of new transistor architectures to keep in pace with Moore's law and ITRS goals, there is a rising interest in multigate 3D-devices like FinFETs where the channel is surrounded by gates on multiple surfaces. The performance of these devices depends on the dimensions and the spatial distribution of dopants in source/drain regions of the device. As a result there is a need for new metrology approach/technique to characterize quantitatively the dopant distribution in these devices with nanometer precision in 3D. In recent years, atom probe tomography (APT) has shown its ability to analyze semiconductor and thin insulator materials effectively with sub-nm resolution in 3D. In this paper we will discuss the methodology used to study FinFET-based structures using APT. Whereas challenges and solutions for sample preparation linked to the limited fin dimensions already have been reported before, we report here an approach to prepare fin structures for APT, which based on their processing history (trenches filled with Si) are in principle invisible in FIB and SEM. Hence alternative solutions in locating and positioning them on the APT-tip are presented. We also report on the use of the atom probe results on FinFETs to understand the role of different dopant implantation angles (10 o and 45 o ) when attempting conformal doping of FinFETs and provide a quantitative comparison with alternative approaches such as 1D secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and theoretical model values. -- Research highlights: → This paper provides the information on how to characterize the FinFET devices using atom probe tomography (APT). → Importance of this work is to assess the performance of these devices at different processing conditions by extracting the compositional profiles. → The performance of these devices depends on the dimensions and the spatial distribution of dopants in source/drain regions. → In this publication we

  13. FET commutated current-FED inverter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippel, Wally E. (Inventor); Edwards, Dean B. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A shunt switch comprised of a field-effect transistor (Q.sub.1) is employed to commutate a current-fed inverter (10) using thyristors (SCR1, SCR2) or bijunction transistors (Q.sub.2, Q.sub.3) in a full bridge (1, 2, 3, 4) or half bridge (5, 6) and transformer (T.sub.1) configuration. In the case of thyristors, a tapped inverter (12) is employed to couple the inverter to a dc source to back bias the thyristors during commutation. Alternatively, a commutation power supply (20) may be employed for that purpse. Diodes (D.sub.1, D.sub.2) in series with some voltage dropping element (resistor R.sub.12 or resistors R.sub.1, R.sub.2 or Zener diodes D.sub.4, D.sub.5) are connected in parallel with the thyristors in the half bridge and transformer configuration to assure sharing the back bias voltage. A clamp circuit comprised of a winding (18) negatively coupled to the inductor and a diode (D.sub.3) return stored energy from the inductor to the power supply for efficient operation with buck or boost mode.

  14. Modeling quantization effects in field effect transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troger, C.

    2001-06-01

    Numerical simulation in the field of semiconductor device development advanced to a valuable, cost-effective and flexible facility. The most widely used simulators are based on classical models, as they need to satisfy time and memory constraints. To improve the performance of field effect transistors such as MOSFETs and HEMTs these devices are continuously scaled down in their dimensions. Consequently the characteristics of such devices are getting more and more determined by quantum mechanical effects arising from strong transversal fields in the channel. In this work an approach based on a two-dimensional electron gas is used to describe the confinement of the carriers. Quantization is considered in one direction only. For the derivation of a one-dimensional Schroedinger equation in the effective mass framework a non-parabolic correction for the energy dispersion due to Kane is included. For each subband a non-parabolic dispersion relation characterized by subband masses and subband non-parabolicity coefficients is introduced and the parameters are calculated via perturbation theory. The method described in this work has been implemented in a software tool that performs a self-consistent solution of Schroedinger- and Poisson-equation for a one-dimensional cut through a MOS structure or heterostructure. The calculation of the carrier densities is performed assuming Fermi-Dirac statistics. In the case of a MOS structure a metal or a polysilicon gate is considered and an arbitrary gate bulk voltage can be applied. This allows investigating quantum mechanical effects in capacity calculations, to compare the simulated data with measured CV curves and to evaluate the results obtained with a quantum mechanical correction for the classical electron density. The behavior of the defined subband parameters is compared to the value of the mass and the non-parabolicity coefficient from the model due to Kane. Finally the presented characterization of the subbands is applied

  15. Escher-like quasiperiodic heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barriuso, A G; Monzon, J J; Sanchez-Soto, L L; Costa, A F

    2009-01-01

    Quasiperiodic heterostructures present unique structural, electronic and vibrational properties, connected to the existence of incommensurate periods. We go beyond previous schemes, such as Fibonacci or Thue-Morse, based on substitutional sequences, by introducing construction rules generated by tessellations of the unit disc by regular polygons. We explore some of the properties exhibited by these systems. (fast track communication)

  16. Escher-like quasiperiodic heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barriuso, A G; Monzon, J J; Sanchez-Soto, L L [Departamento de Optica, Facultad de Fisica, Universidad Complutense, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Costa, A F [Departamento de Matematicas Fundamentales, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, Senda del Rey 9, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2009-05-15

    Quasiperiodic heterostructures present unique structural, electronic and vibrational properties, connected to the existence of incommensurate periods. We go beyond previous schemes, such as Fibonacci or Thue-Morse, based on substitutional sequences, by introducing construction rules generated by tessellations of the unit disc by regular polygons. We explore some of the properties exhibited by these systems. (fast track communication)

  17. X = S, Se, Te) heterostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Qingyun; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2018-01-01

    Using first-principles calculations, we investigate the electronic properties of the two-dimensional GaX/MX2 (M = Mo, W; X = S, Se, Te) heterostructures. Orbital hybridization between GaX and MX2 is found to result in Rashba splitting at the valence

  18. Correlating Charge Transport with Structure in Deconstructed Diketopyrrolopyrrole Oligomers: A Case Study of a Monomer in Field-Effect Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickett, Alec; Torkkeli, Mika; Mukhopadhyay, Tushita; Puttaraju, Boregowda; Laudari, Amrit; Lauritzen, Andreas E; Bikondoa, Oier; Kjelstrup-Hansen, Jakob; Knaapila, Matti; Patil, Satish; Guha, Suchismita

    2018-06-13

    Copolymers based on diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP) cores have attracted a lot of attention because of their high p-type as well as n-type carrier mobilities in organic field-effect transistors (FETs) and high power conversion efficiencies in solar cell structures. We report the structural and charge transport properties of n-dialkyl side-chain-substituted thiophene DPP end-capped with a phenyl group (Ph-TDPP-Ph) monomer in FETs which were fabricated by vacuum deposition and solvent coating. Grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) from bottom-gate, bottom-contact FET architectures was measured with and without biasing. Ph-TDPP-Ph reveals a polymorphic structure with π-conjugated stacking direction oriented in-plane. The unit cell comprises either one monomer with a = 20.89 Å, b = 13.02 Å, c = 5.85 Å, α = 101.4°, β = 90.6°, and γ = 94.7° for one phase (TR1) or two monomers with a = 24.92 Å, b = 25.59 Å, c = 5.42 Å, α = 80.3°, β = 83.5°, and γ = 111.8° for the second phase (TR2). The TR2 phase thus signals a shift from a coplanar to herringbone orientation of the molecules. The device performance is sensitive to the ratio of the two triclinic phases found in the film. Some of the best FET performances with p-type carrier mobilities of 0.1 cm 2 /V s and an on/off ratio of 10 6 are for films that comprise mainly the TR1 phase. GIXRD from in operando FETs demonstrates the crystalline stability of Ph-TDPP-Ph.

  19. Benzocyclobutene (BCB) Polymer as Amphibious Buffer Layer for Graphene Field-Effect Transistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yun; Zou, Jianjun; Huo, Shuai; Lu, Haiyan; Kong, Yuecan; Chen, Tangshen; Wu, Wei; Xu, Jingxia

    2015-08-01

    Owing to the scattering and trapping effects, the interfaces of dielectric/graphene or substrate/graphene can tailor the performance of field-effect transistor (FET). In this letter, the polymer of benzocyclobutene (BCB) was used as an amphibious buffer layer and located at between the layers of substrate and graphene and between the layers of dielectric and graphene. Interestingly, with the help of nonpolar and hydrophobic BCB buffer layer, the large-scale top-gated, chemical vapor deposited (CVD) graphene transistors was prepared on Si/SiO2 substrate, its cutoff frequency (fT) and the maximum cutoff frequency (fmax) of the graphene field-effect transistor (GFET) can be reached at 12 GHz and 11 GHz, respectively.

  20. An innovative large scale integration of silicon nanowire-based field effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legallais, M.; Nguyen, T. T. T.; Mouis, M.; Salem, B.; Robin, E.; Chenevier, P.; Ternon, C.

    2018-05-01

    Since the early 2000s, silicon nanowire field effect transistors are emerging as ultrasensitive biosensors while offering label-free, portable and rapid detection. Nevertheless, their large scale production remains an ongoing challenge due to time consuming, complex and costly technology. In order to bypass these issues, we report here on the first integration of silicon nanowire networks, called nanonet, into long channel field effect transistors using standard microelectronic process. A special attention is paid to the silicidation of the contacts which involved a large number of SiNWs. The electrical characteristics of these FETs constituted by randomly oriented silicon nanowires are also studied. Compatible integration on the back-end of CMOS readout and promising electrical performances open new opportunities for sensing applications.

  1. Improvement of graphene field-effect transistors by hexamethyldisilazane surface treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chowdhury, Sk. Fahad; Sonde, Sushant; Rahimi, Somayyeh; Tao, Li; Banerjee, Sanjay; Akinwande, Deji

    2014-01-01

    We report the improvement of the electrical characteristics of graphene field-effect transistors (FETs) by hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) treatment. Both electron and hole field-effect mobilities are increased by 1.5 × –2×, accompanied by effective residual carrier concentration reduction. Dirac point also moves closer to zero Volt. Time evolution of mobility data shows that mobility improvement saturates after a few hours of HMDS treatment. Temperature-dependent transport measurements show small mobility variation between 77 K and room temperature (295 K) before HMDS application. But mobility at 77 K is almost 2 times higher than mobility at 295 K after HMDS application, indicating reduced carrier scattering. Performance improvement is also observed for FETs made on hydrophobic substrate–an HMDS-graphene-HMDS sandwich structure. Raman spectroscopic analysis shows that G peak width is increased, G peak position is down shifted, and intensity ratio between 2D and G peaks is increased after HMDS application. We attribute the improvements in electronic transport mainly to enhanced screening and mitigation of adsorbed impurities from graphene surface upon HMDS treatment.

  2. Field-effect transistors as electrically controllable nonlinear rectifiers for the characterization of terahertz pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisauskas, Alvydas; Ikamas, Kestutis; Massabeau, Sylvain; Bauer, Maris; ČibiraitÄ--, DovilÄ--; Matukas, Jonas; Mangeney, Juliette; Mittendorff, Martin; Winnerl, Stephan; Krozer, Viktor; Roskos, Hartmut G.

    2018-05-01

    We propose to exploit rectification in field-effect transistors as an electrically controllable higher-order nonlinear phenomenon for the convenient monitoring of the temporal characteristics of THz pulses, for example, by autocorrelation measurements. This option arises because of the existence of a gate-bias-controlled super-linear response at sub-threshold operation conditions when the devices are subjected to THz radiation. We present measurements for different antenna-coupled transistor-based THz detectors (TeraFETs) employing (i) AlGaN/GaN high-electron-mobility and (ii) silicon CMOS field-effect transistors and show that the super-linear behavior in the sub-threshold bias regime is a universal phenomenon to be expected if the amplitude of the high-frequency voltage oscillations exceeds the thermal voltage. The effect is also employed as a tool for the direct determination of the speed of the intrinsic TeraFET response which allows us to avoid limitations set by the read-out circuitry. In particular, we show that the build-up time of the intrinsic rectification signal of a patch-antenna-coupled CMOS detector changes from 20 ps in the deep sub-threshold voltage regime to below 12 ps in the vicinity of the threshold voltage.

  3. Fabrication and characterization on reduced graphene oxide field effect transistor (RGOFET) based biosensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashid, A. Diyana [School of Microelectronic Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), Pauh, Perlis (Malaysia); Ruslinda, A. Rahim, E-mail: ruslinda@unimap.edu.my; Fatin, M. F. [Institute of Nano Electronic Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), 01000 Kangar, Perlis (Malaysia); Hashim, U.; Arshad, M. K. [School of Microelectronic Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), Pauh, Perlis (Malaysia); Institute of Nano Electronic Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), 01000 Kangar, Perlis (Malaysia)

    2016-07-06

    The fabrication and characterization on reduced graphene oxide field effect transistor (RGO-FET) were demonstrated using a spray deposition method for biological sensing device purpose. A spray method is a fast, low-cost and simple technique to deposit graphene and the most promising technology due to ideal coating on variety of substrates and high production speed. The fabrication method was demonstrated for developing a label free aptamer reduced graphene oxide field effect transistor biosensor. Reduced graphene oxide (RGO) was obtained by heating on hot plate fixed at various temperatures of 100, 200 and 300°C, respectively. The surface morphology of RGO were examined via atomic force microscopy to observed the temperature effect of produced RGO. The electrical measurement verify the performance of electrical conducting RGO-FET at temperature 300°C is better as compared to other temperature due to the removal of oxygen groups in GO. Thus, reduced graphene oxide was a promising material for biosensor application.

  4. Full-Wave Analysis of Traveling-Wave Field-Effect Transistors Using Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichi Narahara

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear transmission lines, which define transmission lines periodically loaded with nonlinear devices such as varactors, diodes, and transistors, are modeled in the framework of finite-difference time-domain (FDTD method. Originally, some root-finding routine is needed to evaluate the contributions of nonlinear device currents appropriately to the temporally advanced electrical fields. Arbitrary nonlinear transmission lines contain large amount of nonlinear devices; therefore, it costs too much time to complete calculations. To reduce the calculation time, we recently developed a simple model of diodes to eliminate root-finding routines in an FDTD solver. Approximating the diode current-voltage relation by a piecewise-linear function, an extended Ampere's law is solved in a closed form for the time-advanced electrical fields. In this paper, we newly develop an FDTD model of field-effect transistors (FETs, together with several numerical examples that demonstrate pulse-shortening phenomena in a traveling-wave FET.

  5. An efficient atomistic quantum mechanical simulation on InAs band-to-band tunneling field-effect transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhi [State Key Laboratory for Superlattices and Microstructures, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 912, Beijing 100083 (China); Jiang, Xiang-Wei; Li, Shu-Shen [State Key Laboratory for Superlattices and Microstructures, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 912, Beijing 100083 (China); Synergetic Innovation Center of Quantum Information and Quantum Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Wang, Lin-Wang, E-mail: lwwang@lbl.gov [Material Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2014-03-24

    We have presented a fully atomistic quantum mechanical simulation method on band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) field-effect transistors (FETs). Our simulation approach is based on the linear combination of bulk band method with empirical pseudopotentials, which is an atomist method beyond the effective-mass approximation or k.p perturbation method, and can be used to simulate real-size devices (∼10{sup 5} atoms) efficiently (∼5 h on a few computational cores). Using this approach, we studied the InAs dual-gate BTBT FETs. The I-V characteristics from our approach agree very well with the tight-binding non-equilibrium Green's function results, yet our method costs much less computationally. In addition, we have studied ways to increase the tunneling current and analyzed the effects of different mechanisms for that purpose.

  6. An efficient atomistic quantum mechanical simulation on InAs band-to-band tunneling field-effect transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhi; Jiang, Xiang-Wei; Li, Shu-Shen; Wang, Lin-Wang

    2014-01-01

    We have presented a fully atomistic quantum mechanical simulation method on band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) field-effect transistors (FETs). Our simulation approach is based on the linear combination of bulk band method with empirical pseudopotentials, which is an atomist method beyond the effective-mass approximation or k.p perturbation method, and can be used to simulate real-size devices (∼10 5 atoms) efficiently (∼5 h on a few computational cores). Using this approach, we studied the InAs dual-gate BTBT FETs. The I-V characteristics from our approach agree very well with the tight-binding non-equilibrium Green's function results, yet our method costs much less computationally. In addition, we have studied ways to increase the tunneling current and analyzed the effects of different mechanisms for that purpose

  7. High-performance carbon-nanotube-based complementary field-effect-transistors and integrated circuits with yttrium oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Shibo; Zhang, Zhiyong, E-mail: zyzhang@pku.edu.cn; Si, Jia; Zhong, Donglai; Peng, Lian-Mao, E-mail: lmpeng@pku.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for the Physics and Chemistry of Nanodevices, Department of Electronics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2014-08-11

    High-performance p-type carbon nanotube (CNT) transistors utilizing yttrium oxide as gate dielectric are presented by optimizing oxidization and annealing processes. Complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) field-effect-transistors (FETs) are then fabricated on CNTs, and the p- and n-type devices exhibit symmetrical high performances, especially with low threshold voltage near to zero. The corresponding CMOS CNT inverter is demonstrated to operate at an ultra-low supply voltage down to 0.2 V, while displaying sufficient voltage gain, high noise margin, and low power consumption. Yttrium oxide is proven to be a competitive gate dielectric for constructing high-performance CNT CMOS FETs and integrated circuits.

  8. 18F-FET-PET in Primary Hyperparathyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krakauer, Martin; Kjær, Andreas; Bennedbæk, Finn Noe

    2016-01-01

    -isotope parathyroid subtraction single photon emission computed tomography had determined the exact location of the parathyroid adenoma. A dynamic FET PET/CT scan was performed with subsequent visual evaluation and calculation of target-to-background (TBR; parathyroid vs. thyroid). The maximum TBR in the two patients......Preoperative localisation of the diseased parathyroid gland(s) in primary hyperparathyroidism (PHP) is a prerequisite for subsequent minimally invasive surgery. Recently, as alternatives to conventional sestamibi parathyroid scintigraphy, the (11)C-based positron emission tomography (PET) tracers...... methionine and choline have shown promise for this purpose. We evaluated the feasibility of using the (18)F-based PET tracer fluoroethyl-l-tyrosine (FET), as the longer half-life of (18)F makes it logistically more favourable. As a proof-of-concept study, we included two patients with PHP in which dual...

  9. Integrated Balanced FETs for Broadband Millimeter Wave Amplifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-01

    F. Podell , "A Functional GaAs FET Noise Model," IEEE Trans. ED- 28, 511 (1981). 4. H. Fukui, "Optimal Noise Figure of Microwave GaAs MESFETs," IEEE...Nm = rl Cs2 Req Cgs2 eq rll gs eq) where gmLs rl=r + ms - real part ofZlCgs m d r r req =4kTBgm2 Podell has found empirically for one-micron gate

  10. Large-signal modeling method for power FETs and diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun Lu; Wang Jiali; Wang Shan; Li Xuezheng; Shi Hui; Wang Na; Guo Shengping, E-mail: sunlu_1019@126.co [School of Electromechanical Engineering, Xidian University, Xi' an 710071 (China)

    2009-06-01

    Under a large signal drive level, a frequency domain black box model of the nonlinear scattering function is introduced into power FETs and diodes. A time domain measurement system and a calibration method based on a digital oscilloscope are designed to extract the nonlinear scattering function of semiconductor devices. The extracted models can reflect the real electrical performance of semiconductor devices and propose a new large-signal model to the design of microwave semiconductor circuits.

  11. Large-signal modeling method for power FETs and diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Lu; Wang Jiali; Wang Shan; Li Xuezheng; Shi Hui; Wang Na; Guo Shengping

    2009-01-01

    Under a large signal drive level, a frequency domain black box model of the nonlinear scattering function is introduced into power FETs and diodes. A time domain measurement system and a calibration method based on a digital oscilloscope are designed to extract the nonlinear scattering function of semiconductor devices. The extracted models can reflect the real electrical performance of semiconductor devices and propose a new large-signal model to the design of microwave semiconductor circuits.

  12. High performance flexible CMOS SOI FinFETs

    KAUST Repository

    Fahad, Hossain M.

    2014-06-01

    We demonstrate the first ever CMOS compatible soft etch back based high performance flexible CMOS SOI FinFETs. The move from planar to non-planar FinFETs has enabled continued scaling down to the 14 nm technology node. This has been possible due to the reduction in off-state leakage and reduced short channel effects on account of the superior electrostatic charge control of multiple gates. At the same time, flexible electronics is an exciting expansion opportunity for next generation electronics. However, a fully integrated low-cost system will need to maintain ultra-large-scale-integration density, high performance and reliability - same as today\\'s traditional electronics. Up until recently, this field has been mainly dominated by very weak performance organic electronics enabled by low temperature processes, conducive to low melting point plastics. Now however, we show the world\\'s highest performing flexible version of 3D FinFET CMOS using a state-of-the-art CMOS compatible fabrication technique for high performance ultra-mobile consumer applications with stylish design. © 2014 IEEE.

  13. Graphene-Based FET Detector for E. coli K12 Real-Time Monitoring and Its Theoretical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieyi Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a theoretical analysis for a graphene-based FET real-time detector of the target bacteria E. coli K12. The motivation for this study is to design a sensor device for detection of bacteria in food and water in order to guarantee food safety. Graphene is chosen as our material for sensor design, which has outstanding electrical, physical, and optical performance. In our sensor structure, graphene-based solution gate field effect transistor (FET is the device model; fabrication and functionalization protocol are presented together in this paper. What is more, a real-time signal display system is the accompanied equipment for our designed biosensor device. In this system, the sensor bias current signal Ids would change obviously when the target bacteria are attached to the sensor surface. And the bias current Ids increases when the E. coli concentration increases. In the latter part, a theoretical interpretation of the sensor signal is to explain the bias current Ids increasing after the E. coli K12 attachment.

  14. 3D site specific sample preparation and analysis of 3D devices (FinFETs) by atom probe tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambham, Ajay Kumar; Kumar, Arul; Gilbert, Matthieu; Vandervorst, Wilfried

    2013-09-01

    With the transition from planar to three-dimensional device architectures such as Fin field-effect-transistors (FinFETs), new metrology approaches are required to meet the needs of semiconductor technology. It is important to characterize the 3D-dopant distributions precisely as their extent, positioning relative to gate edges and absolute concentration determine the device performance in great detail. At present the atom probe has shown its ability to analyze dopant distributions in semiconductor and thin insulating materials with sub-nm 3D-resolution and good dopant sensitivity. However, so far most reports have dealt with planar devices or restricted the measurements to 2D test structures which represent only limited challenges in terms of localization and site specific sample preparation. In this paper we will discuss the methodology to extract the dopant distribution from real 3D-devices such as a 3D-FinFET device, requiring the sample preparation to be carried out at a site specific location with a positioning accuracy ∼50 nm. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Simulation of nucleation and growth of atomic layer deposition phosphorus for doping of advanced FinFETs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidel, Thomas E.; Goldberg, Alexander; Halls, Mat D.; Current, Michael I.

    2016-01-01

    Simulations for the nucleation and growth of phosphorus films were carried out using density functional theory. The surface was represented by a Si 9 H 12 truncated cluster surface model with 2 × 1-reconstructured (100) Si-OH terminations for the initial reaction sites. Chemistries included phosphorous halides (PF 3 , PCl 3 , and PBr 3 ) and disilane (Si 2 H 6 ). Atomic layer deposition (ALD) reaction sequences were illustrated with three-dimensional molecular models using sequential PF 3 and Si 2 H 6 reactions and featuring SiFH 3 as a byproduct. Exothermic reaction pathways were developed for both nucleation and growth for a Si-OH surface. Energetically favorable reactions for the deposition of four phosphorus atoms including lateral P–P bonding were simulated. This paper suggests energetically favorable thermodynamic reactions for the growth of elemental phosphorus on (100) silicon. Phosphorus layers made by ALD are an option for doping advanced fin field-effect transistors (FinFETs). Phosphorus may be thermally diffused into the silicon or recoil knocked in; simulations of the recoil profile of phosphorus into a FinFET surface are illustrated

  16. All-dry transferred single- and few-layer MoS2 field effect transistor with enhanced performance by thermal annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Arnob; Lee, Jaesung; Feng, Philip X.-L.

    2018-01-01

    We report on the experimental demonstration of all-dry stamp transferred single- and few-layer (1L to 3L) molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) field effect transistors (FETs), with a significant enhancement of device performance by employing thermal annealing in moderate vacuum. Three orders of magnitude reduction in both contact and channel resistances have been attained via thermal annealing. We obtain a low contact resistance of 22 kΩ μm after thermal annealing of 1L MoS2 FETs stamp-transferred onto gold (Au) contact electrodes. Furthermore, nearly two orders of magnitude enhancement of field effect mobility are also observed after thermal annealing. Finally, we employ Raman and photoluminescence measurements to reveal the phenomena of alloying or hybridization between 1L MoS2 and its contacting electrodes during annealing, which is responsible for attaining the low contact resistance.

  17. Effect of multi-dimensional ultraviolet light exposure on the growth of pentacene film and application to organic field-effect transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Jin-Hyuk; Lee, Sin-Doo; Choi, Jong Sun; Park, Jaehoon

    2012-05-01

    We report on the multi-dimensional alignment of pentacene molecules on a poly(methyl methacrylate)-based photosensitive polymer (PMMA-polymer) and its effect on the electrical performance of the pentacene-based field-effect transistor (FET). Pentacene molecules are shown to be preferentially aligned on the linearly polarized ultraviolet (LPUV)-exposed PMMA-polymer layer, which is contrast to an isotropic alignment on the bare PMMA-polymer layer. Multi-dimensional alignment of pentacene molecules in the film could be achieved by adjusting the direction of LPUV exposed to the PMMA-polymer. The control of pentacene molecular alignment is found to be promising for the field-effect mobility enhancement in the pentacene FET.

  18. Graphene Channel Liquid Container Field Effect Transistor as ph Sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, X.; Shi, J.; Pang, J.; Liu, W.; Wang, X.; Liu, H.

    2014-01-01

    Graphene channel liquid container field effect transistor ph sensor with interdigital micro trench for liquid ion testing is presented. Growth morphology and ph sensing property of continuous few-layer graphene (FLG) and quasi-continuous monolayer graphene (MG) channels are compared. The experiment results show that the source-to-drain current of the graphene channel FET has a significant and fast response after adsorption of the measured molecule and ion at the room temperature; at the same time, the FLG response time is less than 4 s. The resolution of MG (0.01) on ph value is one order of magnitude higher than that of FLG (0.1). The reason is that with fewer defects, the MG is more likely to adsorb measured molecule and ion, and the molecules and ions can make the transport property change. The output sensitivities of MG are from 34.5% to 57.4% when the ph value is between 7 and 8, while sensitivity of FLG is 4.75% when the Ph=6. The sensor fabrication combines traditional silicon technique and flexible electronic technology and provides an easy way to develop graphene-based electrolyte gas sensor or even biological sensors.

  19. Intrinsic Charge Transport in Organic Field-Effect Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podzorov, Vitaly

    2005-03-01

    Organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) are essential components of modern electronics. Despite the rapid progress of organic electronics, understanding of fundamental aspects of the charge transport in organic devices is still lacking. Recently, the OFETs based on highly ordered organic crystals have been fabricated with innovative techniques that preserve the high quality of single-crystal organic surfaces. This technological progress facilitated the study of transport mechanisms in organic semiconductors [1-4]. It has been demonstrated that the intrinsic polaronic transport, not dominated by disorder, with a remarkably high mobility of ``holes'' μ = 20 cm^2/Vs can be achieved in these devices at room temperature [4]. The signatures of the intrinsic polaronic transport are the anisotropy of the carrier mobility and an increase of μ with cooling. These and other aspects of the charge transport in organic single-crystal FETs will be discussed. Co-authors are Etienne Menard, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign; Valery Kiryukhin, Rutgers University; John Rogers, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign; Michael Gershenson, Rutgers University. [1] V. Podzorov et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1739 (2003); ibid. 83, 3504 (2003). [2] V. C. Sundar et al., Science 303, 1644 (2004). [3] R. W. I. de Boer et al., Phys. Stat. Sol. (a) 201, 1302 (2004). [4] V. Podzorov et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 086602 (2004).

  20. Silicon junctionless field effect transistors as room temperature terahertz detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marczewski, J., E-mail: jmarcz@ite.waw.pl; Tomaszewski, D.; Zaborowski, M. [Institute of Electron Technology, al. Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Knap, W. [Institute of High Pressure Physics of the Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Sokolowska 29/37, 01-142 Warsaw (Poland); Laboratory Charles Coulomb, Montpellier University & CNRS, Place E. Bataillon, Montpellier 34095 (France); Zagrajek, P. [Institute of Optoelectronics, Military University of Technology, ul. gen. S. Kaliskiego 2, 00-908 Warsaw (Poland)

    2015-09-14

    Terahertz (THz) radiation detection by junctionless metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (JL MOSFETs) was studied and compared with THz detection using conventional MOSFETs. It has been shown that in contrast to the behavior of standard transistors, the junctionless devices have a significant responsivity also in the open channel (low resistance) state. The responsivity for a photolithographically defined JL FET was 70 V/W and the noise equivalent power 460 pW/√Hz. Working in the open channel state may be advantageous for THz wireless and imaging applications because of its low thermal noise and possible high operating speed or large bandwidth. It has been proven that the junctionless MOSFETs can also operate in a zero gate bias mode, which enables simplification of the THz array circuitry. Existing models of THz detection by MOSFETs were considered and it has been demonstrated that the process of detection by these junctionless devices cannot be explained within the framework of the commonly accepted models and therefore requires a new theoretical approach.

  1. Ferroelectric polymer gates for non-volatile field effect control of ferromagnetism in (Ga, Mn)As layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stolichnov, I; Riester, S W E; Mikheev, E; Setter, N; Rushforth, A W; Edmonds, K W; Campion, R P; Foxon, C T; Gallagher, B L; Jungwirth, T; Trodahl, H J

    2011-01-01

    (Ga, Mn)As and other diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMS) attract a great deal of attention for potential spintronic applications because of the possibility of controlling the magnetic properties via electrical gating. Integration of a ferroelectric gate on the DMS channel adds to the system a non-volatile memory functionality and permits nanopatterning via the polarization domain engineering. This topical review is focused on the multiferroic system, where the ferromagnetism in the (Ga, Mn)As DMS channel is controlled by the non-volatile field effect of the spontaneous polarization. Use of ferroelectric polymer gates in such heterostructures offers a viable alternative to the traditional oxide ferroelectrics generally incompatible with DMS. Here we review the proof-of-concept experiments demonstrating the ferroelectric control of ferromagnetism, analyze the performance issues of the ferroelectric gates and discuss prospects for further development of the ferroelectric/DMS heterostructures toward the multiferroic field effect transistor. (topical review)

  2. Biomolecular detection using a metal semiconductor field effect transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estephan, Elias; Saab, Marie-Belle; Buzatu, Petre; Aulombard, Roger; Cuisinier, Frédéric J. G.; Gergely, Csilla; Cloitre, Thierry

    2010-04-01

    In this work, our attention was drawn towards developing affinity-based electrical biosensors, using a MESFET (Metal Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor). Semiconductor (SC) surfaces must be prepared before the incubations with biomolecules. The peptides route was adapted to exceed and bypass the limits revealed by other types of surface modification due to the unwanted unspecific interactions. As these peptides reveal specific recognition of materials, then controlled functionalization can be achieved. Peptides were produced by phage display technology using a library of M13 bacteriophage. After several rounds of bio-panning, the phages presenting affinities for GaAs SC were isolated; the DNA of these specific phages were sequenced, and the peptide with the highest affinity was synthesized and biotinylated. To explore the possibility of electrical detection, the MESFET fabricated with the GaAs SC were used to detect the streptavidin via the biotinylated peptide in the presence of the bovine Serum Albumin. After each surface modification step, the IDS (current between the drain and the source) of the transistor was measured and a decrease in the intensity was detected. Furthermore, fluorescent microscopy was used in order to prove the specificity of this peptide and the specific localisation of biomolecules. In conclusion, the feasibility of producing an electrical biosensor using a MESFET has been demonstrated. Controlled placement, specific localization and detection of biomolecules on a MESFET transistor were achieved without covering the drain and the source. This method of functionalization and detection can be of great utility for biosensing application opening a new way for developing bioFETs (Biomolecular Field-Effect Transistor).

  3. Au nanoparticles attached carbon nanotubes as a high performance active element in field effect transistor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Myeongsoon; Kim, Don

    2016-01-01

    The Au nanoparticles attached carbon nanotubes (Au-CNTs), diameter ranged from 40 to 250 nm, were prepared and discussed their chemical and electrical properties. The shape and crystallinity of the carbon nanotubes (CNTs) phase depended main2ly on the diameter of CNTs (r_A_u_-_C_N_T). Highly crystalline, straight CNTs were observed when the r_A_u_-_C_N_T exceeded 80 nm, and less crystalline noodle-shaped CNTs were observed when the r_A_u_-_C_N_T was smaller than 80 nm. The crystallinity of the CNT phase was confirmed by analyzing the G and D bands in their Raman spectra and the electrical conductivities of the Au-CNTs. The electrical conductivity of the highly crystalline carbon phase of Au-CNTs (r_A_u_-_C_N_T = 250 nm) was ∼10"4 S/cm. The back-gated field effect transistors (FETs) based on the Au-CNTs, which were assembled on a SiO_2/Si wafer using the dielectrophoresis technique, showed that the Au-CNTs would be a good functional electronic material for future electronic and sensing applications. The transconductance and hole mobility of the FETs, which were assembled with the highly crystalline Au-CNTs (r_A_u_-_C_N_T = 250 nm), reached to 3.6 × 10"−"4 A/V and 3.1 × 10"4 cm"2/V s, respectively. These values are in the middle of those of reported for single walled carbon nanotubes and graphene. However, we could not find any field effect in a CNTFET, which assembled without Au nanoparticles, through the same process. - Highlights: • The shape and crystallinity of the CNTs depended mainly on the diameter of CNTs. • The electrical conductivity of the highly crystalline Au-CNTs was ∼10"4 S/cm. • The Au-CNT FET shows typical p-channel gate effect with the on/off ratio of ∼10"4. • The Au-CNT FET shows very high transconductance (g_m) and carrier mobility (μ_h).

  4. Au nanoparticles attached carbon nanotubes as a high performance active element in field effect transistor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Myeongsoon; Kim, Don, E-mail: donkim@pknu.ac.kr

    2016-08-15

    The Au nanoparticles attached carbon nanotubes (Au-CNTs), diameter ranged from 40 to 250 nm, were prepared and discussed their chemical and electrical properties. The shape and crystallinity of the carbon nanotubes (CNTs) phase depended main2ly on the diameter of CNTs (r{sub Au-CNT}). Highly crystalline, straight CNTs were observed when the r{sub Au-CNT} exceeded 80 nm, and less crystalline noodle-shaped CNTs were observed when the r{sub Au-CNT} was smaller than 80 nm. The crystallinity of the CNT phase was confirmed by analyzing the G and D bands in their Raman spectra and the electrical conductivities of the Au-CNTs. The electrical conductivity of the highly crystalline carbon phase of Au-CNTs (r{sub Au-CNT} = 250 nm) was ∼10{sup 4} S/cm. The back-gated field effect transistors (FETs) based on the Au-CNTs, which were assembled on a SiO{sub 2}/Si wafer using the dielectrophoresis technique, showed that the Au-CNTs would be a good functional electronic material for future electronic and sensing applications. The transconductance and hole mobility of the FETs, which were assembled with the highly crystalline Au-CNTs (r{sub Au-CNT} = 250 nm), reached to 3.6 × 10{sup −4} A/V and 3.1 × 10{sup 4} cm{sup 2}/V s, respectively. These values are in the middle of those of reported for single walled carbon nanotubes and graphene. However, we could not find any field effect in a CNTFET, which assembled without Au nanoparticles, through the same process. - Highlights: • The shape and crystallinity of the CNTs depended mainly on the diameter of CNTs. • The electrical conductivity of the highly crystalline Au-CNTs was ∼10{sup 4} S/cm. • The Au-CNT FET shows typical p-channel gate effect with the on/off ratio of ∼10{sup 4}. • The Au-CNT FET shows very high transconductance (g{sub m}) and carrier mobility (μ{sub h}).

  5. Control of tunneling in heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volokhov, V M; Tovstun, C A; Ivlev, B

    2007-01-01

    A tunneling current between two rectangular potential wells can be effectively controlled by applying an external ac field. A variation of the ac frequency by 10% may lead to the suppression of the tunneling current by two orders of magnitude, which is a result of quantum interference under the action of the ac field. This effect of destruction of tunneling can be used as a sensitive control of tunneling current across nanosize heterostructures

  6. UV/O 3 Generated Graphene Nanomesh: Formation Mechanism, Properties, and FET Studies

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Da-Peng; Wang, Xiansong; Guo, Xiaojun; Zhi, Xiao; Wang, Kan; Li, Chao; Huang, Gaoshan; Shen, Guangxia; Mei, Yongfeng; Cui, Daxiang

    2014-01-01

    The bandgap engineering of graphene is a challenging task for its potential application. Forming unique structures such as nanoribbons or nanomeshes is an effective way to open up a bandgap in graphene. In this work, a graphene nanomesh (GNM) was prepared through UV-mediated oxidation of a graphene oxide (GO) film at atmosphere. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to track the evolution of the surface morphology of GO during the irradiation. It was observed that a nanoporous network structure was progressively produced in the basal plane, which can be attributed to the fact that highly reactive oxygen species preferentially attack sp3 carbon-rich regions of the GO. In particular, the as-prepared GNM shows interesting semiconducting characteristics and photoluminescence (PL) phenomenon, which make it become a promising candidate for the use of electronics, optoelectronics, and biomedical engineering. Finally, the field-effect transistors (FETs) were fabricated using the as-prepared GNM as the active channel. The measured electrical characteristics indicate that the use of UV/O3 is an available choice to open the bandgap of graphene and tune its properties for optoelectronics or biomedical applications. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  7. Integrated MSM-FET photoreceiver fabricated on MOCVD grown Hg2-xCdxTe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leech, P.W.; Gwynn, P.J.; Pain, G.N.; Petkovic, N.R.; Thompson, J.; Jamieson, D.N.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on progress in the monolithic integration of a metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) detector and transimpedance amplifier and of a photoconductive detector (PCD) with a metal-semiconductor field effect transistor (MESFET) in Hg 1-x Cd x Te. The layers of CdTe/n-type Hg 1-x Cd x Te were grown by MOCVD on semi-insulating GaAs substrates (2 0 misoriented 100). Fabrication of the devices was by an FET planar process; with a standard lift-off used to form Schottky metallization on both the interdigitated electrodes of the MSM detector (2 μm width, 2 μm spacing) and the gate of the MESFETs (5μm length, 100μm width). The MSM photodetectors exhibited breakdown voltages in the range 60 to 80V, a dark current of 10na at 5V bias, and responsivities of >1.0 A/W measured at 40V using CW 1.3 μm illumination

  8. UV/O 3 Generated Graphene Nanomesh: Formation Mechanism, Properties, and FET Studies

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Da-Peng

    2014-01-09

    The bandgap engineering of graphene is a challenging task for its potential application. Forming unique structures such as nanoribbons or nanomeshes is an effective way to open up a bandgap in graphene. In this work, a graphene nanomesh (GNM) was prepared through UV-mediated oxidation of a graphene oxide (GO) film at atmosphere. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to track the evolution of the surface morphology of GO during the irradiation. It was observed that a nanoporous network structure was progressively produced in the basal plane, which can be attributed to the fact that highly reactive oxygen species preferentially attack sp3 carbon-rich regions of the GO. In particular, the as-prepared GNM shows interesting semiconducting characteristics and photoluminescence (PL) phenomenon, which make it become a promising candidate for the use of electronics, optoelectronics, and biomedical engineering. Finally, the field-effect transistors (FETs) were fabricated using the as-prepared GNM as the active channel. The measured electrical characteristics indicate that the use of UV/O3 is an available choice to open the bandgap of graphene and tune its properties for optoelectronics or biomedical applications. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  9. DX centers in indium aluminum arsenide heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Huseyin

    DX centers are point defects observed in many n-type doped III-V compound semi conductors. They have unique properties, which include large differences between their optical and thermal ionization energies, and a temperature dependence of the capture cross-sections. As a result of these properties DX centers exhibit a reduction in free carrier concentration and a large persistent photoconductivity (PPC) effect. DX centers also lead to a shift in the threshold voltage of modulation doped field effect transistors (MODFET) structures, at low temperatures. Most of the studies on this defect have been carried out on the Ga xAl1-xAs material system. However, to date there is significantly less work on DX centers in InxAl1-xAs compounds. This is partly due to difficulties associated with the growth of defect free materials other than lattice matched In0.52Al 0.48As on InP and partly because the energy level of the DX center is in resonance with the conduction band in In0.52Al0.48As. The purpose of this dissertation is to extend the DX center investigation to InAlAs compounds, primarily in the indirect portion of the InAlAs bandgap. In this work the indium composition dependence of the DX centers in In xAl1-xAs/InyGa1-yAs-based heterostructure is studied experimentally. Different InxAl 1-xAs epitaxial layers with x = 0.10, x = 0.15, x = 0.20, and x = 0.34 in a MODFET-like heterostructure were grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) on (001) GaAs substrates. In order to compensate the lattice mismatch between epitaxial layers and their substrates, step-graded buffer layers with indium composition increments of x = 0.10, every 2000 A, were used. For the samples grown with different indium contents Hall measurements as a function of both temperature and different cooling biases were performed in order to determine their carrier concentrations. A self consistent Poisson-Schrodinger numerical software is used to model the heterostructures. With the help of this numerical model

  10. Enzyme-polyelectrolyte multilayer assemblies on reduced graphene oxide field-effect transistors for biosensing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccinini, Esteban; Bliem, Christina; Reiner-Rozman, Ciril; Battaglini, Fernando; Azzaroni, Omar; Knoll, Wolfgang

    2017-06-15

    We present the construction of layer-by-layer (LbL) assemblies of polyethylenimine and urease onto reduced-graphene-oxide based field-effect transistors (rGO FETs) for the detection of urea. This versatile biosensor platform simultaneously exploits the pH dependency of liquid-gated graphene-based transistors and the change in the local pH produced by the catalyzed hydrolysis of urea. The use of an interdigitated microchannel resulted in transistors displaying low noise, high pH sensitivity (20.3µA/pH) and transconductance values up to 800 µS. The modification of rGO FETs with a weak polyelectrolyte improved the pH response because of its transducing properties by electrostatic gating effects. In the presence of urea, the urease-modified rGO FETs showed a shift in the Dirac point due to the change in the local pH close to the graphene surface. Markedly, these devices operated at very low voltages (less than 500mV) and were able to monitor urea in the range of 1-1000µm, with a limit of detection (LOD) down to 1µm, fast response and good long-term stability. The urea-response of the transistors was enhanced by increasing the number of bilayers due to the increment of the enzyme surface coverage onto the channel. Moreover, quantification of the heavy metal Cu 2+ (with a LOD down to 10nM) was performed in aqueous solution by taking advantage of the urease specific inhibition. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Long wave polar modes in semiconductor heterostructures

    CERN Document Server

    Trallero-Giner, C; García-Moliner, F; Garc A-Moliner, F; Perez-Alvarez, R; Garcia-Moliner, F

    1998-01-01

    Long Wave Polar Modes in Semiconductor Heterostructures is concerned with the study of polar optical modes in semiconductor heterostructures from a phenomenological approach and aims to simplify the model of lattice dynamics calculations. The book provides useful tools for performing calculations relevant to anyone who might be interested in practical applications. The main focus of Long Wave Polar Modes in Semiconductor Heterostructures is planar heterostructures (quantum wells or barriers, superlattices, double barrier structures etc) but there is also discussion on the growing field of quantum wires and dots. Also to allow anyone reading the book to apply the techniques discussed for planar heterostructures, the scope has been widened to include cylindrical and spherical geometries. The book is intended as an introductory text which guides the reader through basic questions and expands to cover state-of-the-art professional topics. The book is relevant to experimentalists wanting an instructive presentatio...

  12. The fabrication of ZnO nanowire field-effect transistors combining dielectrophoresis and hot-pressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Y-K; Chau-N H, Franklin

    2009-01-01

    Zinc oxide nanowire field-effect transistors (NW-FETs) were fabricated combining the dielectrophoresis (DEP) and the hot-pressing methods. DEP was used to position both ends of the nanowires on top of the source and the drain electrodes, respectively. Hot-pressing of nanowires on the electrodes was then employed to ensure good contacts between the nanowires and the electrodes. The good device performance achieved with our method of fabrication indicates that DEP combined with hot-pressing has the potential to be applied to the fabrication of flexible electronics on a roll-to-roll basis.

  13. Field effect transistors and phototransistors based upon p-type solution-processed PbS nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraud, Paul; Hou, Bo; Pak, Sangyeon; Inn Sohn, Jung; Morris, Stephen; Cha, SeungNam; Kim, Jong Min

    2018-02-01

    We demonstrate the fabrication of solution processed highly crystalline p-type PbS nanowires via the oriented attachment of nanoparticles. The analysis of single nanowire field effect transistor (FET) devices revealed a hole conduction behaviour with average mobilities greater than 30 cm2 V-1 s-1, which is an order of magnitude higher than that reported to date for p-type PbS colloidal nanowires. We have investigated the response of the FETs to near-infrared light excitation and show herein that the nanowires exhibited gate-dependent photo-conductivities, enabling us to tune the device performances. The responsivity was found to be greater than 104 A W-1 together with a detectivity of 1013 Jones, which benefits from a photogating effect occurring at negative gate voltages. These encouraging detection parameters are accompanied by relatively short switching times of 15 ms at positive gate voltages, resulting from a combination of the standard photoconduction and the high crystallinity of the nanowires. Collectively, these results indicate that solution-processed PbS nanowires are promising nanomaterials for infrared photodetectors as well as p-type nanowire FETs.

  14. Ultralow power complementary inverter circuits using axially doped p- and n-channel Si nanowire field effect transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van, Ngoc Huynh; Lee, Jae-Hyun; Whang, Dongmok; Kang, Dae Joon

    2016-06-09

    We have successfully synthesized axially doped p- and n-type regions on a single Si nanowire (NW). Diodes and complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) inverter devices using single axial p- and n-channel Si NW field-effect transistors (FETs) were fabricated. We show that the threshold voltages of both p- and n-channel Si NW FETs can be lowered to nearly zero by effectively controlling the doping concentration. Because of the high performance of the p- and n-type Si NW channel FETs, especially with regard to the low threshold voltage, the fabricated NW CMOS inverters have a low operating voltage (<3 V) while maintaining a high voltage gain (∼6) and ultralow static power dissipation (≤0.3 pW) at an input voltage of ±3 V. This result offers a viable way for the fabrication of a high-performance high-density logic circuit using a low-temperature fabrication process, which makes it suitable for flexible electronics.

  15. Magnetic field effects in proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alex R.

    2016-06-01

    Many animals can sense the geomagnetic field, which appears to aid in behaviours such as migration. The influence of man-made magnetic fields on biology, however, is potentially more sinister, with adverse health effects being claimed from exposure to fields from mobile phones or high voltage power lines. Do these phenomena have a common, biophysical origin, and is it even plausible that such weak fields can profoundly impact noisy biological systems? Radical pair intermediates are widespread in protein reaction mechanisms, and the radical pair mechanism has risen to prominence as perhaps the most plausible means by which even very weak fields might impact biology. In this New Views article, I will discuss the literature over the past 40 years that has investigated the topic of magnetic field effects in proteins. The lack of reproducible results has cast a shadow over the area. However, magnetic field and spin effects have proven to be useful mechanistic tools for radical mechanism in biology. Moreover, if a magnetic effect on a radical pair mechanism in a protein were to influence a biological system, the conditions necessary for it to do so appear increasing unlikely to have come about by chance.

  16. Organic tunnel field effect transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Tietze, Max Lutz

    2017-06-29

    Various examples are provided for organic tunnel field effect transistors (OTFET), and methods thereof. In one example, an OTFET includes a first intrinsic layer (i-layer) of organic semiconductor material disposed over a gate insulating layer; source (or drain) contact stacks disposed on portions of the first i-layer; a second i-layer of organic semiconductor material disposed on the first i-layer surrounding the source (or drain) contact stacks; an n-doped organic semiconductor layer disposed on the second i-layer; and a drain (or source) contact layer disposed on the n-doped organic semiconductor layer. The source (or drain) contact stacks can include a p-doped injection layer, a source (or drain) contact layer, and a contact insulating layer. In another example, a method includes disposing a first i-layer over a gate insulating layer; forming source or drain contact stacks; and disposing a second i-layer, an n-doped organic semiconductor layer, and a drain or source contact.

  17. Investigation of thermal effects on FinFETs in the quasi-ballistic regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Longxiang; Shen, Lei; Di, Shaoyan; Du, Gang; Liu, Xiaoyan

    2018-04-01

    In this work, the thermal effects of FinFETs in the quasi-ballistic regime are investigated using the Monte Carlo method. Bulk Si nFinFETs with the same fin structure and two different gate lengths L g = 20 and 80 nm are investigated and compared to evaluate the thermal effects on the performance of FinFETs in the quasi-ballistic regime. The on current of the 20 nm FinFET with V gs = 0.7 V does not decrease with increasing lattice temperature (T L) at a high V ds. The electrostatic properties in the 20 nm FinFET are more affected by T L than those in the 80 nm FinFET. However, the electron transport in the 20 nm FinFET is less affected by T L than that in the 80 nm FinFET. The electrostatic properties being more sensitive and the electron transport being less sensitive to thermal effects in the quasi-ballistic regime than in the diffusive regime should be considered for effective device modeling and design.

  18. Highly flexible SRAM cells based on novel tri-independent-gate FinFET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chengsheng; Zheng, Fanglin; Sun, Yabin; Li, Xiaojin; Shi, Yanling

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, a novel tri-independent-gate (TIG) FinFET is proposed for highly flexible SRAM cells design. To mitigate the read-write conflict, two kinds of SRAM cells based on TIG FinFETs are designed, and high tradeoff are obtained between read stability and speed. Both cells can offer multi read operations for frequency requirement with single voltage supply. In the first TIG FinFET SRAM cell, the strength of single-fin access transistor (TIG FinFET) can be flexibly adjusted by selecting five different modes to meet the needs of dynamic frequency design. Compared to the previous double-independent-gate (DIG) FinFET SRAM cell, 12.16% shorter read delay can be achieved with only 1.62% read stability decrement. As for the second TIG FinFET SRAM cell, pass-gate feedback technology is applied and double-fin TIG FinFETs are used as access transistors to solve the severe write-ability degradation. Three modes exist to flexibly adjust read speed and stability, and 68.2% larger write margin and 51.7% shorter write delay are achieved at only the expense of 26.2% increase in leakage power, with the same layout area as conventional FinFET SRAM cell.

  19. Monolithic integration of a silicon nanowire field-effect transistors array on a complementary metal-oxide semiconductor chip for biochemical sensor applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livi, Paolo; Kwiat, Moria; Shadmani, Amir; Pevzner, Alexander; Navarra, Giulio; Rothe, Jörg; Stettler, Alexander; Chen, Yihui; Patolsky, Fernando; Hierlemann, Andreas

    2015-10-06

    We present a monolithic complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS)-based sensor system comprising an array of silicon nanowire field-effect transistors (FETs) and the signal-conditioning circuitry on the same chip. The silicon nanowires were fabricated by chemical vapor deposition methods and then transferred to the CMOS chip, where Ti/Pd/Ti contacts had been patterned via e-beam lithography. The on-chip circuitry measures the current flowing through each nanowire FET upon applying a constant source-drain voltage. The analog signal is digitized on chip and then transmitted to a receiving unit. The system has been successfully fabricated and tested by acquiring I-V curves of the bare nanowire-based FETs. Furthermore, the sensing capabilities of the complete system have been demonstrated by recording current changes upon nanowire exposure to solutions of different pHs, as well as by detecting different concentrations of Troponin T biomarkers (cTnT) through antibody-functionalized nanowire FETs.

  20. Enhanced sheet carrier densities in polarization controlled AlInN/AlN/GaN/InGaN field-effect transistor on Si (111

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hennig

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We report on GaN based field-effect transistor (FET structures exhibiting sheet carrier densities of n = 2.9 1013 cm−2 for high-power transistor applications. By grading the indium-content of InGaN layers grown prior to a conventional GaN/AlN/AlInN FET structure control of the channel width at the GaN/AlN interface is obtained. The composition of the InGaN layer was graded from nominally xIn = 30 % to pure GaN just below the AlN/AlInN interface. Simulations reveal the impact of the additional InGaN layer on the potential well width which controls the sheet carrier density within the channel region of the devices. Benchmarking the InxGa1−xN/GaN/AlN/Al0.87In0.13N based FETs against GaN/AlN/AlInN FET reference structures we found increased maximum current densities of ISD = 1300 mA/mm (560 mA/mm. In addition, the InGaN layer helps to achieve broader transconductance profiles as well as reduced leakage currents.

  1. In situ monitoring of myenteric neuron activity using acetylcholinesterase-modified AlGaN/GaN solution-gate field-effect transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müntze, Gesche Mareike; Pouokam, Ervice; Steidle, Julia; Schäfer, Wladimir; Sasse, Alexander; Röth, Kai; Diener, Martin; Eickhoff, Martin

    2016-03-15

    The response characteristics of acetylcholinesterase-modified AlGaN/GaN solution-gate field-effect transistors (AcFETs) are quantitatively analyzed by means of a kinetic model. The characterization shows that the covalent enzyme immobilization process yields reproducible AcFET characteristics with a Michaelis constant KM of (122 ± 4) μM for the immobilized enzyme layer. The increase of KM by a factor of 2.4 during the first four measurement cycles is attributed to partial denaturation of the enzyme. The AcFETs were used to record the release of acetylcholine (ACh) by neuronal tissue cultivated on the gate area upon stimulation by rising the extracellular K(+) concentration. The neuronal tissue constituted of isolated myenteric neurons from four to 12 days old Wistar rats, or sections from the muscularis propria containing the myenteric plexus from adult rats. For both cases the AcFET response was demonstrated to be related to the activity of the immobilized acetylcholinesterase using the reversible acetylcholinesterase blocker donepezil. A concentration response curve of this blocking agent revealed a half maximal inhibitory concentration of 40 nM which is comparable to values measured by complementary in vitro methods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. FET PET for the evaluation of untreated gliomas: correlation of FET uptake and uptake kinetics with tumour grading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poepperl, Gabriele; Koch, Walter; Gildehaus, Franz J.; Tatsch, Klaus; Kreth, Friedrich W.; Mehrkens, Jan H.; Tonn, Joerg C.; Herms, Jochen; Kretzschmar, Hans A.; Seelos, Klaus

    2007-01-01

    Treatment and prognosis of gliomas depend on their histological tumour grade. The aim of the study was to evaluate the potential of [ 18 F]fluoroethyltyrosine (FET) PET for non-invasive tumour grading in untreated patients. Dynamic FET PET studies were performed in 54 patients who, based on MRI, were estimated to have low grade (LG; n = 20), intermediate (WHO II-III; n = 4) or high grade (HG; n = 30) tumours. For standard evaluation, tumour SUV max and the ratio to background (SUV max /BG) were calculated (sum image: 20-40 min). For dynamic evaluation, mean SUV values within a 90% isocontour ROI (SUV90) and the SUV90/BG ratios were determined for each time frame to evaluate the course of FET uptake. Results were correlated with histopathological findings from PET-guided stereotactic biopsies. Histology revealed gliomas in all patients. Using the standard method a statistically significant difference (p = 0.001) was found between LG (n = 20; SUV max /BG: 2.16 ± 0.98) and HG (n = 34; SUV max /BG: 3.29 ± 1.06) gliomas (opt. threshold 2.58: SN71%/SP85%/area under ROC curve [AUC]:0.798), however, with a marked overlap between WHO II to IV tumours. Time activity curves showed slight increase in LG, whereas HG tumours presented with an early peak (10-20 min) followed by a decrease. Dynamic evaluation successfully separated LG from HG gliomas with higher diagnostic accuracy (SN94%/SP100%/AUC:0.967). Based on the ratio-based method, a statistically significant difference was found between LG and HG gliomas. Due to the interindividual variability, however, no reliable individual grading was possible. In contrast, dynamic evaluation allowed LG and HG gliomas to be differentiated with high diagnostic power and, thus, should supplement the conventional method. (orig.)

  3. Tuning the Schottky contacts in the phosphorene and graphene heterostructure by applying strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Biao; Wu, Li-Juan; Zhao, Yu-Qing; Wang, Lin-Zhi; Caii, Meng-Qiu

    2016-07-20

    The structures and electronic properties of the phosphorene and graphene heterostructure are investigated by density functional calculations using the hybrid Heyd-Scuseria-Ernzerhof (HSE) functional. The results show that the intrinsic properties of phosphorene and graphene are preserved due to the weak van der Waals contact. But the electronic properties of the Schottky contacts in the phosphorene and graphene heterostructure can be tuned from p-type to n-type by the in-plane compressive strains from -2% to -4%. After analyzing the total band structure and density of states of P atom orbitals, we find that the Schottky barrier height (SBH) is determined by the P-pz orbitals. What is more, the variation of the work function of the phosphorene monolayer and the graphene electrode and the Fermi level shift are the nature of the transition of Schottky barrier from n-type Schottky contact to p-type Schottky contact in the phosphorene and graphene heterostructure under different in-plane strains. We speculate that these are general results of tuning of the electronic properties of the Schottky contacts in the phosphorene and graphene heterostructure by controlling the in-plane compressive strains to obtain a promising method to design and fabricate a phosphorene-graphene based field effect transistor.

  4. FinFET and UTBB for RF SOI communication systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raskin, Jean-Pierre

    2016-11-01

    Performance of RF integrated circuit (IC) is directly linked to the analog and high frequency characteristics of the transistors, the quality of the back-end of line process as well as the electromagnetic properties of the substrate. Thanks to the introduction of the trap-rich high-resistivity Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) substrate on the market, the ICs requirements in term of linearity are fulfilled. Today partially depleted SOI MOSFET is the mainstream technology for RF SOI systems. Future generations of mobile communication systems will require transistors with better high frequency performance at lower power consumption. The advanced MOS transistors in competition are FinFET and Ultra Thin Body and Buried oxide (UTBB) SOI MOSFETs. Both devices have been intensively studied these last years. Most of the reported data concern their digital performance. In this paper, their analog/RF behavior is described and compared. Both show similar characteristics in terms of transconductance, Early voltage, voltage gain, self-heating issue but UTBB outperforms FinFET in terms of cutoff frequencies thanks to their relatively lower fringing parasitic capacitances.

  5. The ZnO-FET Biosensor for Cardiac Troponin I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathil, M. F. M.; Arshad, M. K. Md; Nuzaihan, M. N. M.; Gopinath, Subash C. B.; Ruslinda, A. R.; Hashim, U.

    2018-03-01

    This paper investigates the influence of substrate-gate coupling on the ZnO-FET biosensor’s sensitivity for detection of cardiac troponin I (cTnI), a ‘gold standard’ biomarker for acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The FET-based device with introduction of substrate-gate coupling on p-type silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrate is fabricated using conventional lithography processes. An n-type zinc oxide (ZnO) thin film deposited via electron-beam evaporator is used as transducer for bridging the source and drain regions. Surface modifications via functionalization with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) and glutaraldehyde (GA) as chemical linkers, followed by immobilization of cTnI monoclonal antibody (MAb-cTnI) as bio-receptor on the ZnO thin film allow different concentration of cTnI detection with high selectivity. The device’s sensitivity increases up to 9 %·(g/ml)-1 with the increase of the substrate-gate voltage (VSG) up to -10 V at very low limit of detection (LOD) down to 1.6 fg/ml.

  6. Evaluation of factors influencing 18F-FET uptake in the brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Verger

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available PET using the amino-acid O-(2-18F-fluoroethyl-l-tyrosine (18F-FET is gaining increasing interest for brain tumour management. Semi-quantitative analysis of tracer uptake in brain tumours is based on the standardized uptake value (SUV and the tumour-to-brain ratio (TBR. The aim of this study was to explore physiological factors that might influence the relationship of SUV of 18F-FET uptake in various brain areas, and thus affect quantification of 18F-FET uptake in brain tumours. Negative 18F-FET PET scans of 107 subjects, showing an inconspicuous brain distribution of 18F-FET, were evaluated retrospectively. Whole-brain quantitative analysis with Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM using parametric SUV PET images, and volumes of interest (VOIs analysis with fronto-parietal, temporal, occipital, and cerebellar SUV background areas were performed to study the effect of age, gender, height, weight, injected activity, body mass index (BMI, and body surface area (BSA. After multivariate analysis, female gender and high BMI were found to be two independent factors associated with increased SUV of 18F-FET uptake in the brain. In women, SUVmean of 18F-FET uptake in the brain was 23% higher than in men (p < 0.01. SUVmean of 18F-FET uptake in the brain was positively correlated with BMI (r = 0.29; p < 0.01. The influence of these factors on SUV of 18F-FET was similar in all brain areas. In conclusion, SUV of 18F-FET in the normal brain is influenced by gender and weakly by BMI, but changes are similar in all brain areas.

  7. Field Effect Transistors Using Atomically Thin Layers of Copper Indium Selenide (CuInSe)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Prasanna; Ghosh, Sujoy; Wasala, Milinda; Lei, Sidong; Vajtai, Robert; Ajayan, Pulickel; Talapatra, Saikat

    We will report fabrication of field-effect transistors (FETs) using few-layers of Copper Indium Selenide (CuInSe) flakes exfoliated from crystals grown using chemical vapor transport technique. Our transport measurements indicate n-type FET with electron mobility µ ~ 3 cm2 V-1 s-1 at room temperature when Silicon dioxide (SiO2) is used as a back gate. Mobility can be further increased significantly when ionic liquid 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (BMIM-PF6) is used as top gate. Similarly subthreshold swing can be further improved from 103 V/dec to 0.55 V/dec by using ionic liquid as a top gate. We also found ON/OFF ratio of ~ 102 for both top and back gate. Comparison between ionic liquid top gate and SiO2 back gate will be presented and discussed. This work is supported by the U.S. Army Research Office through a MURI Grant # W911NF-11-1-0362.

  8. Current fluctuation of electron and hole carriers in multilayer WSe{sub 2} field effect transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Seung-Pil; Shin, Jong Mok; Jang, Ho-Kyun; Jin, Jun Eon; Kim, Gyu-Tae, E-mail: gtkim@korea.ac.kr [School of Electrical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 02481 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yong Jin; Kim, Young Keun [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 02481 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Minju [School of Electrical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 02481 (Korea, Republic of); IMEP-LAHC, Grenoble INP-MINATEC, 3 Parvis Louis Neel, 38016 Grenoble (France)

    2015-12-14

    Two-dimensional materials have outstanding scalability due to their structural and electrical properties for the logic devices. Here, we report the current fluctuation in multilayer WSe{sub 2} field effect transistors (FETs). In order to demonstrate the impact on carrier types, n-type and p-type WSe{sub 2} FETs are fabricated with different work function metals. Each device has similar electrical characteristics except for the threshold voltage. In the low frequency noise analysis, drain current power spectral density (S{sub I}) is inversely proportional to frequency, indicating typical 1/f noise behaviors. The curves of the normalized drain current power spectral density (NS{sub I}) as a function of drain current at the 10 Hz of frequency indicate that our devices follow the carrier number fluctuation with correlated mobility fluctuation model. This means that current fluctuation depends on the trapping-detrapping motion of the charge carriers near the channel interface. No significant difference is observed in the current fluctuation according to the charge carrier type, electrons and holes that occurred in the junction and channel region.

  9. First-principles simulations of Graphene/Transition-metal-Dichalcogenides/Graphene Field-Effect Transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiangguo; Wang, Yun-Peng; Zhang, X.-G.; Cheng, Hai-Ping

    A prototype field-effect transistor (FET) with fascinating properties can be made by assembling graphene and two-dimensional insulating crystals into three-dimensional stacks with atomic layer precision. Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) such as WS2, MoS2 are good candidates for the atomically thin barrier between two layers of graphene in the vertical FET due to their sizable bandgaps. We investigate the electronic properties of the Graphene/TMDCs/Graphene sandwich structure using first-principles method. We find that the effective tunnel barrier height of the TMDC layers in contact with the graphene electrodes has a layer dependence and can be modulated by a gate voltage. Consequently a very high ON/OFF ratio can be achieved with appropriate number of TMDC layers and a suitable range of the gate voltage. The spin-orbit coupling in TMDC layers is also layer dependent but unaffected by the gate voltage. These properties can be important in future nanoelectronic device designs. DOE/BES-DE-FG02-02ER45995; NERSC.

  10. Characterization of a vertically movable gate field effect transistor using a silicon-on-insulator wafer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, In-Hyouk; Forfang, William B. D.; Cole, Bryan; You, Byoung Hee

    2014-10-01

    The vertically movable gate field effect transistor (VMGFET) is a FET-based sensing element, whose gate moves in a vertical direction over the channel. A VMGFET gate covers the region between source and drain. A 1 μm thick air layer separates the gate and the substrate of the VMGFET. A novel fabrication process to form a VMGFET using a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer provides minimal internal stress of the gate structure. The enhancement-type n-channel VMGFET is fabricated with the threshold voltage of 2.32 V in steady state. A non-inverting amplifier is designed and integrated on a printable circuit board (PCB) to characterize device sensitivity and mechanical properties. The VMGFET is mechanically coupled to a speaker membrane to apply mechanical vibration. The oscillated drain current of FET are monitored and sampled with NI LabVIEW. The frequency of the output signal correlates with that of the input stimulus. The resonance frequency of the fabricated VMGFET is measured to be 1.11 kHz. The device sensitivity linearly increases by 0.106 mV/g Hz in the range of 150 Hz and 1 kHz.

  11. Characterization of a vertically movable gate field effect transistor using a silicon-on-insulator wafer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, In-Hyouk; Forfang, William B D; Cole, Bryan; Hee You, Byoung

    2014-01-01

    The vertically movable gate field effect transistor (VMGFET) is a FET-based sensing element, whose gate moves in a vertical direction over the channel. A VMGFET gate covers the region between source and drain. A 1 μm thick air layer separates the gate and the substrate of the VMGFET. A novel fabrication process to form a VMGFET using a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafer provides minimal internal stress of the gate structure. The enhancement-type n-channel VMGFET is fabricated with the threshold voltage of 2.32 V in steady state. A non-inverting amplifier is designed and integrated on a printable circuit board (PCB) to characterize device sensitivity and mechanical properties. The VMGFET is mechanically coupled to a speaker membrane to apply mechanical vibration. The oscillated drain current of FET are monitored and sampled with NI LabVIEW. The frequency of the output signal correlates with that of the input stimulus. The resonance frequency of the fabricated VMGFET is measured to be 1.11 kHz. The device sensitivity linearly increases by 0.106 mV/g Hz in the range of 150 Hz and 1 kHz. (paper)

  12. Electrical characterisation of ferroelectric field effect transistors based on ferroelectric HfO2 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yurchuk, Ekaterina

    2015-01-01

    Ferroelectric field effect transistor (FeFET) memories based on a new type of ferroelectric material (silicon doped hafnium oxide) were studied within the scope of the present work. Utilisation of silicon doped hafnium oxide (Si:HfO 2 ) thin films instead of conventional perovskite ferroelectrics as a functional layer in FeFETs provides compatibility to the CMOS process as well as improved device scalability. The influence of different process parameters on the properties of Si:HfO 2 thin films was analysed in order to gain better insight into the occurrence of ferroelectricity in this system. A subsequent examination of the potential of this material as well as its possible limitations with the respect to the application in non-volatile memories followed. The Si:HfO 2 -based ferroelectric transistors that were fully integrated into the state-of-the-art high-k metal gate CMOS technology were studied in this work for the first time. The memory performance of these devices scaled down to 28 nm gate length was investigated. Special attention was paid to the charge trapping phenomenon shown to significantly affect the device behaviour.

  13. Sensing Responses Based on Transfer Characteristics of InAs Nanowire Field-Effect Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savelyev, Igor; Blumin, Marina; Wang, Shiliang; Ruda, Harry E.

    2017-01-01

    Nanowire-based field-effect transistors (FETs) have demonstrated considerable promise for a new generation of chemical and biological sensors. Indium arsenide (InAs), by virtue of its high electron mobility and intrinsic surface accumulation layer of electrons, holds properties beneficial for creating high performance sensors that can be used in applications such as point-of-care testing for patients diagnosed with chronic diseases. Here, we propose devices based on a parallel configuration of InAs nanowires and investigate sensor responses from measurements of conductance over time and FET characteristics. The devices were tested in controlled concentrations of vapour containing acetic acid, 2-butanone and methanol. After adsorption of analyte molecules, trends in the transient current and transfer curves are correlated with the nature of the surface interaction. Specifically, we observed proportionality between acetic acid concentration and relative conductance change, off current and surface charge density extracted from subthreshold behaviour. We suggest the origin of the sensing response to acetic acid as a two-part, reversible acid-base and redox reaction between acetic acid, InAs and its native oxide that forms slow, donor-like states at the nanowire surface. We further describe a simple model that is able to distinguish the occurrence of physical versus chemical adsorption by comparing the values of the extracted surface charge density. These studies demonstrate that InAs nanowires can produce a multitude of sensor responses for the purpose of developing next generation, multi-dimensional sensor applications. PMID:28714903

  14. High performance printed oxide field-effect transistors processed using photonic curing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garlapati, Suresh Kumar; Cadilha Marques, Gabriel; Gebauer, Julia Susanne; Dehm, Simone; Bruns, Michael; Winterer, Markus; Baradaran Tahoori, Mehdi; Aghassi-Hagmann, Jasmin; Hahn, Horst; Dasgupta, Subho

    2018-06-01

    Oxide semiconductors are highly promising candidates for the most awaited, next-generation electronics, namely, printed electronics. As a fabrication route for the solution-processed/printed oxide semiconductors, photonic curing is becoming increasingly popular, as compared to the conventional thermal curing method; the former offers numerous advantages over the latter, such as low process temperatures and short exposure time and thereby, high throughput compatibility. Here, using dissimilar photonic curing concepts (UV–visible light and UV-laser), we demonstrate facile fabrication of high performance In2O3 field-effect transistors (FETs). Beside the processing related issues (temperature, time etc.), the other known limitation of oxide electronics is the lack of high performance p-type semiconductors, which can be bypassed using unipolar logics from high mobility n-type semiconductors alone. Interestingly, here we have found that our chosen distinct photonic curing methods can offer a large variation in threshold voltage, when they are fabricated from the same precursor ink. Consequently, both depletion and enhancement-mode devices have been achieved which can be used as the pull-up and pull-down transistors in unipolar inverters. The present device fabrication recipe demonstrates fast processing of low operation voltage, high performance FETs with large threshold voltage tunability.

  15. Impact of device engineering on analog/RF performances of tunnel field effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayvargiya, V.; Reniwal, B. S.; Singh, P.; Vishvakarma, S. K.

    2017-06-01

    The tunnel field effect transistor (TFET) and its analog/RF performance is being aggressively studied at device architecture level for low power SoC design. Therefore, in this paper we have investigated the influence of the gate-drain underlap (UL) and different dielectric materials for the spacer and gate oxide on DG-TFET (double gate TFET) and its analog/RF performance for low power applications. Here, it is found that the drive current behavior in DG-TFET with a UL feature while implementing dielectric material for the spacer is different in comparison to that of DG-FET. Further, hetero gate dielectric-based DG-TFET (HGDG-TFET) is more resistive against drain-induced barrier lowering (DIBL) as compared to DG-TFET with high-k (HK) gate dielectric. Along with that, as compared to DG-FET, this paper also analyses the attributes of UL and dielectric material on analog/RF performance of DG-TFET in terms of transconductance (gm ), transconductance generation factor (TGF), capacitance, intrinsic resistance (Rdcr), cut-off frequency (F T), and maximum oscillation frequency (F max). The LK spacer-based HGDG-TFET with a gate-drain UL has the potential to improve the RF performance of device.

  16. Accurate Extraction of Charge Carrier Mobility in 4-Probe Field-Effect Transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Hyun Ho; Rodionov, Yaroslav I.; Paterson, Alexandra F.; Panidi, Julianna; Saranin, Danila; Kharlamov, Nikolai; Didenko, Sergei I.; Anthopoulos, Thomas D.; Cho, Kilwon; Podzorov, Vitaly

    2018-01-01

    Charge carrier mobility is an important characteristic of organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) and other semiconductor devices. However, accurate mobility determination in FETs is frequently compromised by issues related to Schottky-barrier contact resistance, that can be efficiently addressed by measurements in 4-probe/Hall-bar contact geometry. Here, it is shown that this technique, widely used in materials science, can still lead to significant mobility overestimation due to longitudinal channel shunting caused by voltage probes in 4-probe structures. This effect is investigated numerically and experimentally in specially designed multiterminal OFETs based on optimized novel organic-semiconductor blends and bulk single crystals. Numerical simulations reveal that 4-probe FETs with long but narrow channels and wide voltage probes are especially prone to channel shunting, that can lead to mobilities overestimated by as much as 350%. In addition, the first Hall effect measurements in blended OFETs are reported and how Hall mobility can be affected by channel shunting is shown. As a solution to this problem, a numerical correction factor is introduced that can be used to obtain much more accurate experimental mobilities. This methodology is relevant to characterization of a variety of materials, including organic semiconductors, inorganic oxides, monolayer materials, as well as carbon nanotube and semiconductor nanocrystal arrays.

  17. Polymer-Sorted Semiconducting Carbon Nanotube Networks for High-Performance Ambipolar Field-Effect Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Efficient selection of semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) from as-grown nanotube samples is crucial for their application as printable and flexible semiconductors in field-effect transistors (FETs). In this study, we use atactic poly(9-dodecyl-9-methyl-fluorene) (a-PF-1-12), a polyfluorene derivative with asymmetric side-chains, for the selective dispersion of semiconducting SWNTs with large diameters (>1 nm) from plasma torch-grown SWNTs. Lowering the molecular weight of the dispersing polymer leads to a significant improvement of selectivity. Combining dense semiconducting SWNT networks deposited from an enriched SWNT dispersion with a polymer/metal-oxide hybrid dielectric enables transistors with balanced ambipolar, contact resistance-corrected mobilities of up to 50 cm2·V–1·s–1, low ohmic contact resistance, steep subthreshold swings (0.12–0.14 V/dec) and high on/off ratios (106) even for short channel lengths (<10 μm). These FETs operate at low voltages (<3 V) and show almost no current hysteresis. The resulting ambipolar complementary-like inverters exhibit gains up to 61. PMID:25493421

  18. Local sensor based on nanowire field effect transistor from inhomogeneously doped silicon on insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presnov, Denis E.; Bozhev, Ivan V.; Miakonkikh, Andrew V.; Simakin, Sergey G.; Trifonov, Artem S.; Krupenin, Vladimir A.

    2018-02-01

    We present the original method for fabricating a sensitive field/charge sensor based on field effect transistor (FET) with a nanowire channel that uses CMOS-compatible processes only. A FET with a kink-like silicon nanowire channel was fabricated from the inhomogeneously doped silicon on insulator wafer very close (˜100 nm) to the extremely sharp corner of a silicon chip forming local probe. The single e-beam lithographic process with a shadow deposition technique, followed by separate two reactive ion etching processes, was used to define the narrow semiconductor nanowire channel. The sensors charge sensitivity was evaluated to be in the range of 0.1-0.2 e /√{Hz } from the analysis of their transport and noise characteristics. The proposed method provides a good opportunity for the relatively simple manufacture of a local field sensor for measuring the electrical field distribution, potential profiles, and charge dynamics for a wide range of mesoscopic objects. Diagnostic systems and devices based on such sensors can be used in various fields of physics, chemistry, material science, biology, electronics, medicine, etc.

  19. pn-Heterojunction effects of perylene tetracarboxylic diimide derivatives on pentacene field-effect transistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Seong Hun; Kang, Boseok; An, Gukil; Kim, BongSoo; Lee, Moo Hyung; Kang, Moon Sung; Kim, Hyunjung; Lee, Jung Heon; Lee, Shichoon; Cho, Kilwon; Lee, Jun Young; Cho, Jeong Ho

    2015-01-28

    We investigated the heterojunction effects of perylene tetracarboxylic diimide (PTCDI) derivatives on the pentacene-based field-effect transistors (FETs). Three PTCDI derivatives with different substituents were deposited onto pentacene layers and served as charge transfer dopants. The deposited PTCDI layer, which had a nominal thickness of a few layers, formed discontinuous patches on the pentacene layers and dramatically enhanced the hole mobility in the pentacene FET. Among the three PTCDI molecules tested, the octyl-substituted PTCDI, PTCDI-C8, provided the most efficient hole-doping characteristics (p-type) relative to the fluorophenyl-substituted PTCDIs, 4-FPEPTC and 2,4-FPEPTC. The organic heterojunction and doping characteristics were systematically investigated using atomic force microscopy, 2D grazing incidence X-ray diffraction studies, and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy. PTCDI-C8, bearing octyl substituents, grew laterally on the pentacene layer (2D growth), whereas 2,4-FPEPTC, with fluorophenyl substituents, underwent 3D growth. The different growth modes resulted in different contact areas and relative orientations between the pentacene and PTCDI molecules, which significantly affected the doping efficiency of the deposited adlayer. The differences between the growth modes and the thin-film microstructures in the different PTCDI patches were attributed to a mismatch between the surface energies of the patches and the underlying pentacene layer. The film-morphology-dependent doping effects observed here offer practical guidelines for achieving more effective charge transfer doping in thin-film transistors.

  20. Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Detection Using Au-Decorated Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Field Effect Transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keum-Ju Lee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate that Au-cluster-decorated single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs may be used to discriminate single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP. Nanoscale Au clusters were formed on the side walls of carbon nanotubes in a transistor geometry using electrochemical deposition. The effect of Au cluster decoration appeared as hole doping when electrical transport characteristics were examined. Thiolated single-stranded probe peptide nucleic acid (PNA was successfully immobilized on Au clusters decorating single-walled carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (SWNT-FETs, resulting in a conductance decrease that could be explained by a decrease in Au work function upon adsorption of thiolated PNA. Although a target single-stranded DNA (ssDNA with a single mismatch did not cause any change in electrical conductance, a clear decrease in conductance was observed with matched ssDNA, thereby showing the possibility of SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism detection using Au-cluster-decorated SWNT-FETs. However, a power to discriminate SNP target is lost in high ionic environment. We can conclude that observed SNP discrimination in low ionic environment is due to the hampered binding of SNP target on nanoscale surfaces in low ionic conditions.

  1. Accurate Extraction of Charge Carrier Mobility in 4-Probe Field-Effect Transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Hyun Ho

    2018-04-30

    Charge carrier mobility is an important characteristic of organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) and other semiconductor devices. However, accurate mobility determination in FETs is frequently compromised by issues related to Schottky-barrier contact resistance, that can be efficiently addressed by measurements in 4-probe/Hall-bar contact geometry. Here, it is shown that this technique, widely used in materials science, can still lead to significant mobility overestimation due to longitudinal channel shunting caused by voltage probes in 4-probe structures. This effect is investigated numerically and experimentally in specially designed multiterminal OFETs based on optimized novel organic-semiconductor blends and bulk single crystals. Numerical simulations reveal that 4-probe FETs with long but narrow channels and wide voltage probes are especially prone to channel shunting, that can lead to mobilities overestimated by as much as 350%. In addition, the first Hall effect measurements in blended OFETs are reported and how Hall mobility can be affected by channel shunting is shown. As a solution to this problem, a numerical correction factor is introduced that can be used to obtain much more accurate experimental mobilities. This methodology is relevant to characterization of a variety of materials, including organic semiconductors, inorganic oxides, monolayer materials, as well as carbon nanotube and semiconductor nanocrystal arrays.

  2. OPENING ADDRESS: Heterostructures in Semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimmeiss, Hermann G.

    1996-01-01

    Good morning, Gentlemen! On behalf of the Nobel Foundation, I should like to welcome you to the Nobel Symposium on "Heterostructures in Semiconductors". It gives me great pleasure to see so many colleagues and old friends from all over the world in the audience and, in particular, to bid welcome to our Nobel laureates, Prof. Esaki and Prof. von Klitzing. In front of a different audience I would now commend the scientific and technological importance of heterostructures in semiconductors and emphatically emphasise that heterostructures, as an important contribution to microelectronics and, hence, information technology, have changed societies all over the world. I would also mention that information technology is one of the most important global key industries which covers a wide field of important areas each of which bears its own character. Ever since the invention of the transistor, we have witnessed a fantastic growth in semiconductor technology, leading to more complex functions and higher densities of devices. This development would hardly be possible without an increasing understanding of semiconductor materials and new concepts in material growth techniques which allow the fabrication of previously unknown semiconductor structures. But here and today I will not do it because it would mean to carry coals to Newcastle. I will therefore not remind you that heterostructures were already suggested and discussed in detail a long time before proper technologies were available for the fabrication of such structures. Now, heterostructures are a foundation in science and part of our everyday life. Though this is certainly true, it is nevertheless fair to say that not all properties of heterostructures are yet understood and that further technologies have to be developed before a still better understanding is obtained. The organisers therefore hope that this symposium will contribute not only to improving our understanding of heterostructures but also to opening new

  3. Field emission current from a junction field-effect transistor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monshipouri, Mahta; Abdi, Yaser, E-mail: y.abdi@ut.ac.ir [University of Tehran, Nano-Physics Research Laboratory, Department of Physics (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    Fabrication of a titanium dioxide/carbon nanotube (TiO{sub 2}/CNT)-based transistor is reported. The transistor can be considered as a combination of a field emission transistor and a junction field-effect transistor. Using direct current plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (DC-PECVD) technique, CNTs were grown on a p-typed (100)-oriented silicon substrate. The CNTs were then covered by TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles 2–5 nm in size, using an atmospheric pressure CVD technique. In this device, TiO{sub 2}/CNT junction is responsible for controlling the emission current. High on/off-current ratio and proper gate control are the most important advantages of device. A model based on Fowler–Nordheim equation is utilized for calculation of the emission current and the results are compared with experimental data. The effect of TiO{sub 2}/CNT hetero-structure is also investigated, and well modeled.

  4. Graphyne–graphene (nitride) heterostructure as nanocapacitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, Barnali; Sarkar, Utpal

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Binding energy of heterostructures indicates the exothermic nature. • Increasing electric field enhances charge and energy stored in the system. • The external electric fields amplify the charge transfer between two flakes. • The capacitance value gets saturated above a certain electric field. - Abstract: A nanoscale capacitor composed of heterostructure derived from finite size graphyne flake and graphene (nitride) flake has been proposed and investigated using density functional theory (DFT). The exothermic nature of formation process of these heterostructures implies their stability. Significant charge transfer between two flakes generates permanent dipole in this heterostructures. The amount of charge transfer is tunable under the application of external electric field which enhances their applicability in electronics. We have specifically focused on the capacitive properties of different heterostructure composed of graphyne flake and graphene (nitride) flake, i.e., graphyne/graphene, graphyne/h-BN, graphyne/AlN, graphyne/GaN. The charge stored by each flake, energy storage, and capacitance are switchable under external electric field. Thus, our modeled heterostructures are a good candidate as nanoscale capacitor and can be used in nanocircuit. We found that the charge stored by each flake, energy storage, and capacitance value are highest for graphyne/GaN heterostructures.

  5. Graphyne–graphene (nitride) heterostructure as nanocapacitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, Barnali; Sarkar, Utpal, E-mail: utpalchemiitkgp@yahoo.com

    2016-10-20

    Highlights: • Binding energy of heterostructures indicates the exothermic nature. • Increasing electric field enhances charge and energy stored in the system. • The external electric fields amplify the charge transfer between two flakes. • The capacitance value gets saturated above a certain electric field. - Abstract: A nanoscale capacitor composed of heterostructure derived from finite size graphyne flake and graphene (nitride) flake has been proposed and investigated using density functional theory (DFT). The exothermic nature of formation process of these heterostructures implies their stability. Significant charge transfer between two flakes generates permanent dipole in this heterostructures. The amount of charge transfer is tunable under the application of external electric field which enhances their applicability in electronics. We have specifically focused on the capacitive properties of different heterostructure composed of graphyne flake and graphene (nitride) flake, i.e., graphyne/graphene, graphyne/h-BN, graphyne/AlN, graphyne/GaN. The charge stored by each flake, energy storage, and capacitance are switchable under external electric field. Thus, our modeled heterostructures are a good candidate as nanoscale capacitor and can be used in nanocircuit. We found that the charge stored by each flake, energy storage, and capacitance value are highest for graphyne/GaN heterostructures.

  6. Field effect transistors and photodetectors based on nanocrystalline graphene derived from electron beam induced carbonaceous patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurra, Narendra; Bhadram, Venkata Srinu; Narayana, Chandrabhas; Kulkarni, G U

    2012-01-01

    We describe a transfer-free method for the fabrication of nanocrystalline graphene (nc-graphene) on SiO 2 substrates directly from patterned carbonaceous deposits. The deposits were produced from the residual hydrocarbons present in the vacuum chamber without any external source by using an electron beam induced carbonaceous deposition (EBICD) process. Thermal treatment under vacuum conditions in the presence of Ni catalyst transformed the EBIC deposit into nc-graphene patterns, confirmed using Raman and TEM analysis. The nc-graphene patterns have been employed as an active p-type channel material in a field effect transistor (FET) which showed a hole mobility of ∼90 cm 2 V −1 s −1 . The nc-graphene also proved to be suitable material for IR detection. (paper)

  7. Enhanced stability of black phosphorus field-effect transistors with SiO₂ passivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Bensong; Yang, Bingchao; Wang, Yue; Zhang, Junying; Zeng, Zhongming; Liu, Zhongyuan; Wang, Wenhong

    2015-10-30

    Few-layer black phosphorus (BP) has attracted much attention due to its high mobility and suitable band gap for potential applic5ations in optoelectronics and flexible devices. However, its instability under ambient conditions limits its practical applications. Our investigations indicate that by passivation of the mechanically exfoliated BP flakes with a SiO2 layer, the fabricated BP field-effect transistors (FETs) exhibit greatly enhanced environmental stability. Compared to the unpassivated BP devices, which show a fast drop of on/off current ratio by a factor of 10 after one week of ambient exposure, the SiO2-passivated BP devices display a high retained on/off current ratio of over 600 after one week of exposure, just a little lower than the initial value of 810. Our investigations provide an effective route to passivate the few-layer BPs for enhancement of their environmental stability.

  8. Detection of DNA of genetically modified maize by a silicon nanowire field-effect transistor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pham, Van Binh; Tung Pham, Xuan Thanh; Duong Dang, Ngoc Thuy; Tuyen Le, Thi Thanh; Tran, Phu Duy; Nguyen, Thanh Chien; Nguyen, Van Quoc; Dang, Mau Chien; Tong, Duy Hien; Van Rijn, Cees J M

    2011-01-01

    A silicon nanowire field-effect transistor based sensor (SiNW-FET) has been proved to be the most sensitive and powerful device for bio-detection applications. In this paper, SiNWs were first fabricated by using our recently developed deposition and etching under angle technique (DEA), then used to build up the complete SiNW device based biosensor. The fabricated SiNW biosensor was used to detect DNA of genetically modified maize. As the DNA of the genetically modified maize has particular DNA sequences of 35S promoter, we therefore designed 21 mer DNA oligonucleotides, which are used as a receptor to capture the transferred DNA of maize. In our work, the SiNW biosensor could detect DNA of genetically modified maize with concentrations down to about 200 pM

  9. Strain-Modulated Bandgap and Piezo-Resistive Effect in Black Phosphorus Field-Effect Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zuocheng; Li, Likai; Horng, Jason; Wang, Nai Zhou; Yang, Fangyuan; Yu, Yijun; Zhang, Yu; Chen, Guorui; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Chen, Xian Hui; Wang, Feng; Zhang, Yuanbo

    2017-10-11

    Energy bandgap largely determines the optical and electronic properties of a semiconductor. Variable bandgap therefore makes versatile functionality possible in a single material. In layered material black phosphorus, the bandgap can be modulated by the number of layers; as a result, few-layer black phosphorus has discrete bandgap values that are relevant for optoelectronic applications in the spectral range from red, in monolayer, to mid-infrared in the bulk limit. Here, we further demonstrate continuous bandgap modulation by mechanical strain applied through flexible substrates. The strain-modulated bandgap significantly alters the density of thermally activated carriers; we for the first time observe a large piezo-resistive effect in black phosphorus field-effect transistors (FETs) at room temperature. The effect opens up opportunities for future development of electromechanical transducers based on black phosphorus, and we demonstrate an ultrasensitive strain gauge constructed from black phosphorus thin crystals.

  10. A new structure for a superconducting field effect transistor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyc, S.; Schuhl, A.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper a new structure is proposed and described which can solve the most severe drawbacks of current architectures for Josephson FETs. Its advantages are discussed, and several realizations are suggested

  11. Comparison of 18F-FET PET and 5-ALA fluorescence in cerebral gliomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floeth, Frank Willi; Sabel, Michael; Steiger, Hans Jakob; Ewelt, Christian; Stummer, Walter; Felsberg, Joerg; Reifenberger, Guido; Stoffels, Gabriele; Langen, Karl-Josef; Coenen, Heinz Hubert

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare presurgical 18 F-fluoroethyl-L-tyrosine ( 18 F-FET) uptake and Gd-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) enhancement on MRI (Gd) with intraoperative 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) fluorescence in cerebral gliomas. 18 F-FET positron emission tomography (PET) was performed in 30 patients with brain lesions suggestive of diffuse WHO grade II or III gliomas on MRI. PET and MRI data were coregistered to guide neuronavigated biopsies before resection. After oral application of 5-ALA, 38 neuronavigated biopsies were taken from predefined tumour areas that were positive or negative for 18 F-FET or Gd and checked for 5-ALA fluorescence. 18 F-FET uptake with a mean tumour to brain ratio ≥1.6 was rated as positive. Of 38 biopsies, 21 corresponded to high-grade glioma tissue (HGG) of WHO grade III (n = 19) or IV (n = 2) and 17 biopsies to low-grade glioma tissue (LGG) of WHO grade II. In biopsies corresponding to HGG, 18 F-FET PET was positive in 86% (18/21), but 5-ALA and Gd in only 57% (12/21). A mismatch between Gd and 5-ALA was observed in 6 of 21 cases of HGG biopsy samples (3 Gd-positive/5-ALA-negative and 3 Gd-negative/5-ALA-positive). In biopsies corresponding to LGG, 18 F-FET was positive in 41% (7/17), while 5-ALA and Gd were negative in all but one instance. All tumour areas with 5-ALA fluorescence were positive on 18 F-FET PET. There are differences between 18 F-FET and 5-ALA uptake in cerebral gliomas owing to a limited sensitivity of 5-ALA to detect tumour tissue especially in LGG. 18 F-FET PET is more sensitive to detect glioma tissue than 5-ALA fluorescence and should be considered as an additional tool in resection planning. (orig.)

  12. High mobility and high concentration Type-III heterojunction FET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsu, R.; Fiddy, M. A.; Her, T.

    2018-02-01

    The PN junction was introduced in transistors by doping, resulting in high losses due to Coulomb scattering from the dopants. The MOSFET introduced carriers in the form of electrons and holes with an applied bias to the oxide barrier, resulting in carrier transfer without doping. This avoids high scattering losses and dominates the IC industries. With heterojunctions having valence-band maxima near and even above the conduction-band minimum in the formation of Type-III superlattices, very useful devices, introduced by Tsu, Sai-Halacz, and Esaki, soon followed. If the layer thicknesses are more than the carrier mean-free-path, incoherent scattering results in the formation of carrier transfer via diffusion instead of opening up new energy gaps. The exploitation of carriers without scattering represents a new and significant opportunity in what we call a Broken Gap Heterojunction FET.

  13. Side-gated ultrathin-channel nanopore FET sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagi, Itaru; Haga, Takanobu; Ando, Masahiko; Yamamoto, Jiro; Mine, Toshiyuki; Ishida, Takeshi; Hatano, Toshiyuki; Akahori, Rena; Yokoi, Takahide; Anazawa, Takashi; Oura, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    A side-gated, ultrathin-channel nanopore FET (SGNAFET) is proposed for fast and label-free DNA sequencing. The concept of the SGNAFET comprises the detection of changes in the channel current during DNA translocation through a nanopore and identifying the four types of nucleotides as a result of these changes. To achieve this goal, both p- and n-type SGNAFETs with a channel thicknesses of 2 or 4 nm were fabricated, and the stable transistor operation of both SGNAFETs in air, water, and a KCl buffer solution were confirmed. In addition, synchronized current changes were observed between the ionic current through the nanopore and the SGNAFET’s drain current during DNA translocation through the nanopore. (paper)

  14. Modeling of pH Dependent Electrochemical Noise in Ion Sensitive Field Effect Transistors ISFET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Das

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available pH ISFETs are very important sensor for in vivo continuous monitoring application of physiological and environmental system. The accuracy of Ion Sensitive Field Effect Transistor (ISFET output measurement is greatly affected by the presences of noise, drift and slow response of the device. Although the noise analysis of ISFET so far performed in different literature relates only to sources originated from Field Effect Transistor (FET structure which are almost constant for a particular device, the pH dependent electrochemical noise has not been substantially explored and analyzed. In this paper we have investigated the low frequency pH dependent electrochemical noise that originates from the ionic conductance of the electrode-electrolyte-Field Effect Transistor structure of the device and that the noise depends on the concentration of the electrolyte and 1/f in nature. The statistical and frequency analysis of this electrochemical noise of a commercial ISFET sensor, under room temperature has been performed for six different pH values ranging from pH2 to pH9.2. We have also proposed a concentration dependent a/f & b/f2 model of the noise with different values of the coefficients a, b.

  15. Field-effect sensors - from pH sensing to biosensing: sensitivity enhancement using streptavidin-biotin as a model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Benjamin M; Sun, Kai; Zeimpekis, Ioannis; Skylaris, Chris-Kriton; Green, Nicolas G

    2017-11-06

    Field-Effect Transistor sensors (FET-sensors) have been receiving increasing attention for biomolecular sensing over the last two decades due to their potential for ultra-high sensitivity sensing, label-free operation, cost reduction and miniaturisation. Whilst the commercial application of FET-sensors in pH sensing has been realised, their commercial application in biomolecular sensing (termed BioFETs) is hindered by poor understanding of how to optimise device design for highly reproducible operation and high sensitivity. In part, these problems stem from the highly interdisciplinary nature of the problems encountered in this field, in which knowledge of biomolecular-binding kinetics, surface chemistry, electrical double layer physics and electrical engineering is required. In this work, a quantitative analysis and critical review has been performed comparing literature FET-sensor data for pH-sensing with data for sensing of biomolecular streptavidin binding to surface-bound biotin systems. The aim is to provide the first systematic, quantitative comparison of BioFET results for a single biomolecular analyte, specifically streptavidin, which is the most commonly used model protein in biosensing experiments, and often used as an initial proof-of-concept for new biosensor designs. This novel quantitative and comparative analysis of the surface potential behaviour of a range of devices demonstrated a strong contrast between the trends observed in pH-sensing and those in biomolecule-sensing. Potential explanations are discussed in detail and surface-chemistry optimisation is shown to be a vital component in sensitivity-enhancement. Factors which can influence the response, yet which have not always been fully appreciated, are explored and practical suggestions are provided on how to improve experimental design.

  16. SiC Optically Modulated Field-Effect Transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabib-Azar, Massood

    2009-01-01

    An optically modulated field-effect transistor (OFET) based on a silicon carbide junction field-effect transistor (JFET) is under study as, potentially, a prototype of devices that could be useful for detecting ultraviolet light. The SiC OFET is an experimental device that is one of several devices, including commercial and experimental photodiodes, that were initially evaluated as detectors of ultraviolet light from combustion and that could be incorporated into SiC integrated circuits to be designed to function as combustion sensors. The ultraviolet-detection sensitivity of the photodiodes was found to be less than desired, such that it would be necessary to process their outputs using high-gain amplification circuitry. On the other hand, in principle, the function of the OFET could be characterized as a combination of detection and amplification. In effect, its sensitivity could be considerably greater than that of a photodiode, such that the need for amplification external to the photodetector could be reduced or eliminated. The experimental SiC OFET was made by processes similar to JFET-fabrication processes developed at Glenn Research Center. The gate of the OFET is very long, wide, and thin, relative to the gates of typical prior SiC JFETs. Unlike in prior SiC FETs, the gate is almost completely transparent to near-ultraviolet and visible light. More specifically: The OFET includes a p+ gate layer less than 1/4 m thick, through which photons can be transported efficiently to the p+/p body interface. The gate is relatively long and wide (about 0.5 by 0.5 mm), such that holes generated at the body interface form a depletion layer that modulates the conductivity of the channel between the drain and the source. The exact physical mechanism of modulation of conductivity is a subject of continuing research. It is known that injection of minority charge carriers (in this case, holes) at the interface exerts a strong effect on the channel, resulting in amplification

  17. Thermal response in van der Waals heterostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Gandi, Appala; Alshareef, Husam N.; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2016-01-01

    We solve numerically the Boltzmann transport equations of the phonons and electrons to understand the thermoelectric response in heterostructures of M2CO2 (M: Ti, Zr, Hf) MXenes with transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers. Low frequency optical

  18. Impurity-induced states in superconducting heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dong E.; Rossi, Enrico; Lutchyn, Roman M.

    2018-04-01

    Heterostructures allow the realization of electronic states that are difficult to obtain in isolated uniform systems. Exemplary is the case of quasi-one-dimensional heterostructures formed by a superconductor and a semiconductor with spin-orbit coupling in which Majorana zero-energy modes can be realized. We study the effect of a single impurity on the energy spectrum of superconducting heterostructures. We find that the coupling between the superconductor and the semiconductor can strongly affect the impurity-induced states and may induce additional subgap bound states that are not present in isolated uniform superconductors. For the case of quasi-one-dimensional superconductor/semiconductor heterostructures we obtain the conditions for which the low-energy impurity-induced bound states appear.

  19. High-performance ambipolar self-assembled Au/Ag nanowire based vertical quantum dot field effect transistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaoxian; Zhang, Yating; Zhang, Haiting; Yu, Yu; Cao, Mingxuan; Che, Yongli; Wang, Jianlong; Dai, Haitao; Yang, Junbo; Ding, Xin; Yao, Jianquan

    2016-10-07

    Most lateral PbSe quantum dot field effect transistors (QD FETs) show a low on current/off current (I on/I off) ratio in charge transport measurements. A new strategy to provide generally better performance is to design PbSe QD FETs with vertical architecture, in which the structure parameters can be tuned flexibly. Here, we fabricated a novel room-temperature operated vertical quantum dot field effect transistor with a channel of 580 nm, where self-assembled Au/Ag nanowires served as source transparent electrodes and PbSe quantum dots as active channels. Through investigating the electrical characterization, the ambipolar device exhibited excellent characteristics with a high I on/I off current ratio of about 1 × 10(5) and a low sub-threshold slope (0.26 V/decade) in the p-type regime. The all-solution processing vertical architecture provides a convenient way for low cost, large-area integration of the device.

  20. High performance top-gated ferroelectric field effect transistors based on two-dimensional ZnO nanosheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hongzheng; Wang, Xudong; Zhu, Yuankun; Liao, Lei; Wang, Xianying; Wang, Jianlu; Hu, Weida

    2017-01-01

    High quality ultrathin two-dimensional zinc oxide (ZnO) nanosheets (NSs) are synthesized, and the ZnO NS ferroelectric field effect transistors (FeFETs) are demonstrated based on the P(VDF-TrFE) polymer film used as the top gate insulating layer. The ZnO NSs exhibit a maximum field effect mobility of 588.9 cm2/Vs and a large transconductance of 2.5 μS due to their high crystalline quality and ultrathin two-dimensional structure. The polarization property of the P(VDF-TrFE) film is studied, and a remnant polarization of >100 μC/cm2 is achieved with a P(VDF-TrFE) thickness of 300 nm. Because of the ultrahigh remnant polarization field generated in the P(VDF-TrFE) film, the FeFETs show a large memory window of 16.9 V and a high source-drain on/off current ratio of more than 107 at zero gate voltage and a source-drain bias of 0.1 V. Furthermore, a retention time of >3000 s of the polarization state is obtained, inspiring a promising candidate for applications in data storage with non-volatile features.

  1. Fabrication and electrical properties of MoS2 nanodisc-based back-gated field effect transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Weixia; Shen, Jiaoyan; Ma, Xiying

    2014-02-28

    Two-dimensional (2D) molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) is an attractive alternative semiconductor material for next-generation low-power nanoelectronic applications, due to its special structure and large bandgap. Here, we report the fabrication of large-area MoS2 nanodiscs and their incorporation into back-gated field effect transistors (FETs) whose electrical properties we characterize. The MoS2 nanodiscs, fabricated via chemical vapor deposition (CVD), are homogeneous and continuous, and their thickness of around 5 nm is equal to a few layers of MoS2. In addition, we find that the MoS2 nanodisc-based back-gated field effect transistors with nickel electrodes achieve very high performance. The transistors exhibit an on/off current ratio of up to 1.9 × 105, and a maximum transconductance of up to 27 μS (5.4 μS/μm). Moreover, their mobility is as high as 368 cm2/Vs. Furthermore, the transistors have good output characteristics and can be easily modulated by the back gate. The electrical properties of the MoS2 nanodisc transistors are better than or comparable to those values extracted from single and multilayer MoS2 FETs.

  2. High operational and environmental stability of high-mobility conjugated polymer field-effect transistors through the use of molecular additives

    KAUST Repository

    Nikolka, Mark; Nasrallah, Iyad; Rose, Bradley Daniel; Ravva, Mahesh Kumar; Broch, Katharina; Sadhanala, Aditya; Harkin, David; Charmet, Jerome; Hurhangee, Michael; Brown, Adam; Illig, Steffen; Too, Patrick; Jongman, Jan; McCulloch, Iain; Bredas, Jean-Luc; Sirringhaus, Henning

    2016-01-01

    Due to their low-temperature processing properties and inherent mechanical flexibility, conjugated polymer field-effect transistors (FETs) are promising candidates for enabling flexible electronic circuits and displays. Much progress has been made on materials performance; however, there remain significant concerns about operational and environmental stability, particularly in the context of applications that require a very high level of threshold voltage stability, such as active-matrix addressing of organic light-emitting diode displays. Here, we investigate the physical mechanisms behind operational and environmental degradation of high-mobility, p-type polymer FETs and demonstrate an effective route to improve device stability. We show that water incorporated in nanometre-sized voids within the polymer microstructure is the key factor in charge trapping and device degradation. By inserting molecular additives that displace water from these voids, it is possible to increase the stability as well as uniformity to a high level sufficient for demanding industrial applications.

  3. Growth of a single-wall carbon nanotube film and its patterning as an n-type field effect transistor device using an integrated circuit compatible process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiau, S H; Gau, C [Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, and Center for Micro/Nano Science and Technology, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Liu, C W; Dai, B T [National Nano Device Laboratories, No. 27, Nanke 3rd Road, Science-based Industrial Park, Hsin-shi, Tainan, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: gauc@mail.ncku.edu.tw

    2008-03-12

    This study presents the synthesis of a dense single-wall carbon nanotube (SWNT) network on a silicon substrate using alcohol as the source gas. The nanosize catalysts required are made by the reduction of metal compounds in ethanol. The key point in spreading the nanoparticles on the substrate, so that the SWNT network can be grown over the entire wafer, is making the substrate surface hydrophilic. This SWNT network is so dense that it can be treated like a thin film. Methods of patterning this SWNT film with integrated circuit compatible processes are presented and discussed for the first time in the literature. Finally, fabrication and characteristic measurements of a field effect transistor (FET) using this SWNT film are also demonstrated. This FET is shown to have better electronic properties than any other kind of thin film transistor. This thin film with good electronic properties can be readily applied in the processing of many other SWNT electronic devices.

  4. High operational and environmental stability of high-mobility conjugated polymer field-effect transistors through the use of molecular additives

    KAUST Repository

    Nikolka, Mark

    2016-12-12

    Due to their low-temperature processing properties and inherent mechanical flexibility, conjugated polymer field-effect transistors (FETs) are promising candidates for enabling flexible electronic circuits and displays. Much progress has been made on materials performance; however, there remain significant concerns about operational and environmental stability, particularly in the context of applications that require a very high level of threshold voltage stability, such as active-matrix addressing of organic light-emitting diode displays. Here, we investigate the physical mechanisms behind operational and environmental degradation of high-mobility, p-type polymer FETs and demonstrate an effective route to improve device stability. We show that water incorporated in nanometre-sized voids within the polymer microstructure is the key factor in charge trapping and device degradation. By inserting molecular additives that displace water from these voids, it is possible to increase the stability as well as uniformity to a high level sufficient for demanding industrial applications.

  5. Graphene quantum dot (GQD)-induced photovoltaic and photoelectric memory elements in a pentacene/GQD field effect transistor as a probe of functional interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngjun; Cho, Seongeun; Kim, Hyeran; Seo, Soonjoo; Lee, Hyun Uk; Lee, Jouhahn; Ko, Hyungduk; Chang, Mincheol; Park, Byoungnam

    2017-09-01

    Electric field-induced charge trapping and exciton dissociation were demonstrated at a penatcene/grapheme quantum dot (GQD) interface using a bottom contact bi-layer field effect transistor (FET) as an electrical nano-probe. Large threshold voltage shift in a pentacene/GQD FET in the dark arises from field-induced carrier trapping in the GQD layer or GQD-induced trap states at the pentacene/GQD interface. As the gate electric field increases, hysteresis characterized by the threshold voltage shift depending on the direction of the gate voltage scan becomes stronger due to carrier trapping associated with the presence of a GQD layer. Upon illumination, exciton dissociation and gate electric field-induced charge trapping simultaneously contribute to increase the threshold voltage window, which can potentially be exploited for photoelectric memory and/or photovoltaic devices through interface engineering.

  6. The Bipolar Field-Effect Transistor: XIII. Physical Realizations of the Transistor and Circuits (One-Two-MOS-Gates on Thin-Thick Pure-Impure Base)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sah, C.-T.; Jie Binbin

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports the physical realization of the Bipolar Field-Effect Transistor (BiFET) and its one-transistor basic building block circuits. Examples are given for the one and two MOS gates on thin and thick, pure and impure base, with electron and hole contacts, and the corresponding theoretical current-voltage characteristics previously computed by us, without generation-recombination-trapping-tunneling of electrons and holes. These examples include the one-MOS-gate on semi-infinite thick impure base transistor (the bulk transistor) and the impurethin-base Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) transistor and the two-MOS-gates on thin base transistors (the FinFET and the Thin Film Transistor TFT). Figures are given with the cross-section views containing the electron and hole concentration and current density distributions and trajectories and the corresponding DC current-voltage characteristics.

  7. Wave mechanics applied to semiconductor heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastard, G.

    1990-01-01

    This book examines the basic electronic and optical properties of two dimensional semiconductor heterostructures based on III-V and II-VI compounds. The book explores various consequences of one-dimensional size-quantization on the most basic physical properties of heterolayers. Beginning with basic quantum mechanical properties of idealized quantum wells and superlattices, the book discusses the occurrence of bound states when the heterostructure is imperfect or when it is shone with near bandgap light

  8. GaN-based FETs using Cat-CVD SiN passivation for millimeter-wave applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashiwaki, Masataka; Mimura, Takashi; Matsui, Toshiaki

    2008-01-01

    We have found that SiN passivation by catalytic chemical vapor deposition (Cat-CVD) can significantly increase an electron density of an AlGaN/GaN heterostructure field-effect transistor (HFET). This effect enables thin-barrier HFET structures to have a high-density two-dimensional electron gas and leads to suppression of short-channel effects. We fabricated 30-nm-gate Al 0.4 Ga 0.6 N(8 nm)/GaN HFETs using Cat-CVD SiN. The maximum drain current density and extrinsic transconductance were 1.49 A/mm and 402 mS/mm, respectively. Current-gain cutoff frequency and maximum oscillation frequency of the HFETs were 181 and 186 GHz, respectively. These high-frequency device characteristics are sufficiently high enough for millimeter-wave applications

  9. Simulation study of a 3-D device integrating FinFET and UTBFET

    KAUST Repository

    Fahad, Hossain M.; Hu, Chenming; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    By integrating 3-D nonplanar fins and 2-D ultrathin bodies, wavy FinFETs merge two formerly competing technologies on a silicon-on-insulator platform to deliver enhanced transistor performance compared with conventional trigate Fin

  10. Exploring the Feasibility cold-FET Calibration Standards to Improve Radiometric Measurements

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This work seeks to further the development of the cold-FET calibration technology designed f next generation multi-band microwave instruments for space-based remote...

  11. Trapping Effects in GaN and SiC Microwave FETs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Binari, Steven C; Klein, P. B; Kazior, Thomas E

    2002-01-01

    ...). This is particularly true for the wide bandgap devices. In this paper, we review the various trapping phenomena observed in SiC- and GaN-based FETs that contribute to compromised power performance...

  12. Packaging Effects on RadFET Sensors for High Energy Physics Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Mekki, J; Glaser, M; Guatelli, S; Moll, M; Pia, M G; Ravotti, F

    2009-01-01

    RadFETs in customized chip carrier packages are installed in the LHC Experiments as radiation monitors. The package influence on the dose measurement in the complex LHC radiation environment is evaluated using Geant4 simulations and experimental data.

  13. Intraindividual comparison of F-18-FLT PET and F-18 FET PET in brain tumor patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sung Eun; Cheon, G. J.; Cho, Y. S.; Kwak, H. S.; Lee, C. H.; Choi, C. W.; Lim, S. M.

    2003-01-01

    To compare findings on FLT PET with FET PET, we prospectively undertaken FLT, FET and FDG PET in same patient with suspected primary/metastatic and recurrent brain tumors. Seventeen studies in 16 patients (47 8.3 years, M: F 10: 6) with brain tumor (3 for initial diagnosis, 6 for therapeutic response, 6 for detecting recurrence, 1 for diagnosis and recurrence both) were included. Brain tumors were 14 gliomas (6 high- grade 9 low-grade by the WHO classification), 2 metastatic brain tumors and 1 CNS lymphoma. 18F-FDG, FLT and FET PET were performed within two weeks. Attenuation-corrected brain images were acquired 30 minutes after injection of 370-555 MBq FDG, FLT and FET with a dedicated PET scanner (ECAT HR scanner, Siemens-CTI). Maximum SUV (max SUV) and relative uptake defined by FLT and FET accumulation within the tumor in relation to a contralateral control region (max SUV for tumor/ mean SUV for contralateral normal gray matter) were calculated. 26 tumor foci were analyzed. Relative FLT uptake (4.17 2.4, 0.58 to 7.45) was grater than than FET uptake (2.03 1.17, 0.92 to 4.53 (p<0.0006)) and FDG uptake (1.16 0.34, 0.76 to 2.08). Among FLT, FET and FDG uptakes in 20 tumor foci, correlation were poor. the relative FLT uptake of high-grade glioma was higher than low-glioma (6.070.76 vs 3.11 2.15, p=0.002), however, relative FET uptake was not different significantly (2.68 1.51, high-grade vs 1.970.78, low-grade). The correlation between tumor grade (high vs low grade) and relative uptake (FLT and FET) was shown only with relative FLT uptake (r=0.62, p=0.002). The best cut off value of relative FLT uptake between high-grade and low-grade glioma was 4.54 (AUC: 0.89 sensitivity: 100 specificity: 86.7%). Compared with FET uptake, FLT uptake showed much higher contrast and associated with tumor grade. Further study, evaluation of proliferative index of Ki-67 and its relationship with FLT and FET uptake, are ongoing

  14. Large baby syndrome in singletons born after frozen embryo transfer (FET)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinborg, Anja; Henningsen, AA; Loft, A

    2013-01-01

    Are singletons born after frozen embryo transfer (FET) at increased risk of being born large for gestational age (LGA) and if so, is this caused by intrinsic maternal factors or related to the freezing/thawing procedures?......Are singletons born after frozen embryo transfer (FET) at increased risk of being born large for gestational age (LGA) and if so, is this caused by intrinsic maternal factors or related to the freezing/thawing procedures?...

  15. Development of MOS-FET based Marx generator with self-proved gate power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokuchi, A.; Jiang, W.; Takayama, K.; Arai, T.; Kawakubo, T.; Adachi, T.

    2012-01-01

    New MOS-FET based Marx generator is described. An electric gate power for the MOS-FET is provided from the Marx main circuit itself. Four-stage Marx generator generates -12kV of the output voltage. The Marx Generator is successfully used to drive an Einzel lens chopper to generate a short pulsed ion beam for a KEK digital accelerator. (author)

  16. FinFET centric variability-aware compact model extraction and generation technology supporting DTCO

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xingsheng; Cheng, Binjie; Reid, David; Pender, Andrew; Asenov, Plamen; Millar, Campbell; Asenov, Asen

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present a FinFET-focused variability-aware compact model (CM) extraction and generation technology supporting design-technology co-optimization. The 14-nm CMOS technology generation silicon on insulator FinFETs are used as testbed transistors to illustrate our approach. The TCAD simulations include a long-range process-induced variability using a design of experiment approach and short-range purely statistical variability (mismatch). The CM extraction supports a hierarchical...

  17. Simulation study of a 3-D device integrating FinFET and UTBFET

    KAUST Repository

    Fahad, Hossain M.

    2015-01-01

    By integrating 3-D nonplanar fins and 2-D ultrathin bodies, wavy FinFETs merge two formerly competing technologies on a silicon-on-insulator platform to deliver enhanced transistor performance compared with conventional trigate FinFETs with unprecedented levels of chip-area efficiency. This makes it suitable for ultralarge-scale integration high-performance logic at and beyond the 10-nm technology node.

  18. Optimization of the parameters of HEMT GaN/AlN/AlGaN heterostructures for microwave transistors using numerical simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tikhomirov, V. G., E-mail: VV11111@yandex.ru [Saint Petersburg Electrotechnical University “LETI” (Russian Federation); Zemlyakov, V. E.; Volkov, V. V.; Parnes, Ya. M.; Vyuginov, V. N. [Joint Stock Company “Svetlana-Electronpribor” (Russian Federation); Lundin, W. V.; Sakharov, A. V.; Zavarin, E. E.; Tsatsulnikov, A. F. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Submicron Heterostructures for Microelectronics Research and Engineering Center (Russian Federation); Cherkashin, N. A. [CEMES-CNRS-Université de Toulouse (France); Mizerov, M. N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Submicron Heterostructures for Microelectronics Research and Engineering Center (Russian Federation); Ustinov, V. M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical–Technical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2016-02-15

    The numerical simulation, and theoretical and experimental optimization of field-effect microwave high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs) based on GaN/AlN/AlGaN heterostructures are performed. The results of the study showed that the optimal thicknesses and compositions of the heterostructure layers, allowing high microwave power implementation, are in relatively narrow ranges. It is shown that numerical simulation can be efficiently applied to the development of microwave HEMTs, taking into account basic physical phenomena and features of actual device structures.

  19. 2D Vertical Heterostructures for Novel Tunneling Device Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    2D Vertical Heterostructures for Novel Tunneling Device Applications Philip M. Campbell, Christopher J. Perini, W. Jud Ready, and Eric M. Vogel...School of Materials Science and Engineering Georgia Institute of Technology Atlanta, GA, USA 30332 Abstract: Vertical heterostructures...digital logic, signal processing, analog-to-digital conversion, and high-frequency communications, vertical heterostructure tunneling devices have

  20. Analysis and optimization of RC delay in vertical nanoplate FET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Changbeom; Ko, Kyul; Kim, Jongsu; Kim, Minsoo; Kang, Myounggon; Shin, Hyungcheol

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, we have analyzed short channel effects (SCEs) and RC delay with Vertical nanoplate FET (VNFET) using 3-D Technology computer-aided design (TCAD) simulation. The device is based on International Technology Road-map for Semiconductor (ITRS) 2013 recommendations, and it has initially gate length (LG) of 12.2 nm, channel thickness (Tch) of 4 nm, and spacer length (LSD) of 6 nm. To obtain improved performance by reducing RC delay, each dimension is adjusted (LG = 12.2 nm, Tch = 6 nm, LSD = 11.9 nm). It has each characteristic in this dimension (Ion/Ioff = 1.64 × 105, Subthreshold swing (S.S.) = 73 mV/dec, Drain-induced barrier lowering (DIBL) = 60 mV/V, and RC delay = 0.214 ps). Furthermore, with long shallow trench isolation (STI) length and thick insulator thickness (Ti), we can reduce RC delay from 0.214 ps to 0.163 ps. It is about a 23.8% reduction. Without decreasing drain current, there is a reduction of RC delay as reducing outer fringing capacitance (Cof). Finally, when source/drain spacer length is set to be different, we have verified RC delay to be optimum.

  1. Electronic Biosensing with Functionalized rGO FETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciril Reiner-Rozman

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In the following we give a short summary of examples for biosensor concepts in areas in which reduced graphene oxide-based electronic devices can be developed into new classes of biosensors, which are highly sensitive, label-free, disposable and cheap, with electronic signals that are easy to analyze and interpret, suitable for multiplexed operation and for remote control, compatible with NFC technology, etc., and in many cases a clear and promising alternative to optical sensors. The presented areas concern sensing challenges in medical diagnostics with an example for detecting general antibody-antigen interactions, for the monitoring of toxins and pathogens in food and feed stuff, exemplified by the detection of aflatoxins, and the area of smell sensors, which are certainly the most exciting development as there are very few existing examples in which the typically small and hydrophobic odorant molecules can be detected by other means. The example given here concerns the recording of a honey flavor (and a cancer marker for neuroblastoma, homovanillic acid, by the odorant binding protein OBP 14 from the honey bee, immobilized on the reduced graphene oxide gate of an FET sensor.

  2. Spin Transport in Semiconductor heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinescu, Domnita Catalina

    2011-01-01

    The focus of the research performed under this grant has been the investigation of spin transport in magnetic semiconductor heterostructures. The interest in these systems is motivated both by their intriguing physical properties, as the physical embodiment of a spin-polarized Fermi liquid, as well as by their potential applications as spintronics devices. In our work we have analyzed several different problems that affect the spin dynamics in single and bi-layer spin-polarized two-dimensional (2D) systems. The topics of interests ranged from the fundamental aspects of the electron-electron interactions, to collective spin and charge density excitations and spin transport in the presence of the spin-orbit coupling. The common denominator of these subjects is the impact at the macroscopic scale of the spin-dependent electron-electron interaction, which plays a much more subtle role than in unpolarized electron systems. Our calculations of several measurable parameters, such as the excitation frequencies of magneto-plasma modes, the spin mass, and the spin transresistivity, propose realistic theoretical estimates of the opposite-spin many-body effects, in particular opposite-spin correlations, that can be directly connected with experimental measurements.

  3. Multilayer heterostructures and their manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Scott R; Reese, Matthew; Rupert, Benjamin; Miedaner, Alexander; Curtis, Clavin; Olson, Dana; Ginley, David S

    2015-11-04

    A method of synthesizing multilayer heterostructures including an inorganic oxide layer residing on a solid substrate is described. Exemplary embodiments include producing an inorganic oxide layer on a solid substrate by a liquid coating process under relatively mild conditions. The relatively mild conditions include temperatures below 225.degree. C. and pressures above 9.4 mb. In an exemplary embodiment, a solution of diethyl aluminum ethoxide in anhydrous diglyme is applied to a flexible solid substrate by slot-die coating at ambient atmospheric pressure, and the diglyme removed by evaporation. An AlO.sub.x layer is formed by subjecting material remaining on the solid substrate to a relatively mild oven temperature of approximately 150.degree. C. The resulting AlO.sub.x layer exhibits relatively high light transmittance and relatively low vapor transmission rates for water. An exemplary embodiment of a flexible solid substrate is polyethylene napthalate (PEN). The PEN is not substantially adversely affected by exposure to 150.degree. C

  4. β-Ga2O3 on insulator field-effect transistors with drain currents exceeding 1.5 A/mm and their self-heating effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hong; Maize, Kerry; Qiu, Gang; Shakouri, Ali; Ye, Peide D.

    2017-08-01

    We have demonstrated that depletion/enhancement-mode β-Ga2O3 on insulator field-effect transistors can achieve a record high drain current density of 1.5/1.0 A/mm by utilizing a highly doped β-Ga2O3 nano-membrane as the channel. β-Ga2O3 on insulator field-effect transistor (GOOI FET) shows a high on/off ratio of 1010 and low subthreshold slope of 150 mV/dec even with 300 nm thick SiO2. The enhancement-mode GOOI FET is achieved through surface depletion. An ultra-fast, high resolution thermo-reflectance imaging technique is applied to study the self-heating effect by directly measuring the local surface temperature. High drain current, low Rc, and wide bandgap make the β-Ga2O3 on insulator field-effect transistor a promising candidate for future power electronics applications.

  5. Photo-excited charge collection spectroscopy probing the traps in field-effect transistors

    CERN Document Server

    Im, Seongil; Kim, Jae Hoon

    2013-01-01

    Solid state field-effect devices such as organic and inorganic-channel thin-film transistors (TFTs) have been expected to promote advances in display and sensor electronics. The operational stabilities of such TFTs are thus important, strongly depending on the nature and density of charge traps present at the channel/dielectric interface or in the thin-film channel itself. This book contains how to characterize these traps, starting from the device physics of field-effect transistor (FET). Unlike conventional analysis techniques which are away from well-resolving spectral results, newly-introduced photo-excited charge-collection spectroscopy (PECCS) utilizes the photo-induced threshold voltage response from any type of working transistor devices with organic-, inorganic-, and even nano-channels, directly probing on the traps. So, our technique PECCS has been discussed through more than ten refereed-journal papers in the fields of device electronics, applied physics, applied chemistry, nano-devices and materia...

  6. Ambipolar transport of silver nanoparticles decorated graphene oxide field effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Kalyan Jyoti; Sarkar, K.; Pal, B.; Kumar, Aparabal; Das, Anish; Banerji, P.

    2018-05-01

    In this article, we report ambipolar field effect transistor (FET) by using graphene oxide (GO) as a gate dielectric material for silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) decorated GO channel layer. GO was synthesized by Hummers' method. The AgNPs were prepared via photochemical reduction of silver nitrate solution by using monoethanolamine as a reducing agent. Morphological properties of channel layer were characterized by Field Effect Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM). Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) was carried out to characterize GO thin film. For device fabrication gold (Au) was deposited as source-drain contact and aluminum (Al) was taken as bottom contact. Electrical measurements were performed by back gate configuration. Ambipolar transport behavior was explained from transfer characteristics. A maximum electron mobiliy of 6.65 cm2/Vs and a hole mobility of 2.46 cm2/Vs were extracted from the transfer characteristics. These results suggest that GO is a potential candidate as a gate dielectric material for thin film transistor applications and also provides new insights in GO based research.

  7. Two-dimensional heterostructures for energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gogotsi, Yury G. [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Pomerantseva, Ekaterina [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2017-06-12

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials provide slit-shaped ion diffusion channels that enable fast movement of lithium and other ions. However, electronic conductivity, the number of intercalation sites, and stability during extended cycling are also crucial for building high-performance energy storage devices. While individual 2D materials, such as graphene, show some of the required properties, none of them can offer all properties needed to maximize energy density, power density, and cycle life. Here we argue that stacking different 2D materials into heterostructured architectures opens an opportunity to construct electrodes that would combine the advantages of the individual building blocks while eliminating the associated shortcomings. We discuss characteristics of common 2D materials and provide examples of 2D heterostructured electrodes that showed new phenomena leading to superior electrochemical performance. As a result, we also consider electrode fabrication approaches and finally outline future steps to create 2D heterostructured electrodes that could greatly expand current energy storage technologies.

  8. Tunable magnetization of infrared epsilon-near-zero media via field-effect modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salary, Mohammad Mahdi; Mosallaei, Hossein

    2018-04-01

    In this letter, we demonstrate that field effect modulation enables electrical tuning of the effective permeability of epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) media at infrared frequencies. In particular, hexagonal silicon carbide (6H-SiC) is incorporated as an epsilon-near-zero host in a gated 6H-SiC/SiO2/Si heterostructure. The change in the applied voltage leads to a change in the carrier concentration of the accumulation layer formed at the interface of 6H-SiC and SiO2 which can alter the effective permeability of the heterostructure by virtue of the photonic doping effect. We will rigorously model and analyze the structure by linking charge transport and electromagnetic models. The presented mechanism allows for tuning the impedance and magnetization of ENZ materials in real-time while capturing extreme cases of epsilon-and-mu-near-zero and magnetic conductor. As such, it can be used for various applications such as real-time engineering of thermal emission, dynamic switching, reconfigurable tunneling, and holography.

  9. Performance Evaluation of an Automotive-Grade, High Speed Gate Driver for SiC FETs, Type UCC27531, Over a Wide Temperature Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boomer, Kristen; Hammoud, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) devices are becoming widely used in electronic power circuits as replacement for conventional silicon parts due to their attractive properties that include low on-state resistance, high temperature tolerance, and high frequency operation. These attributes have a significant impact by reducing system weight, saving board space, and conserving power. In this work, the performance of an automotive-grade high speed gate driver with potential use in controlling SiC FETs (field-Effect Transistors) in converters or motor control applications was evaluated under extreme temperatures and thermal cycling. The investigations were carried out to assess performance and to determine suitability of this device for use in space exploration missions under extreme temperature conditions.

  10. Ultra-high density out-of-plane strain sensor 3D architecture based on sub-20 nm PMOS FinFET

    KAUST Repository

    Ghoneim, Mohamed T.; Alfaraj, Nasir; Sevilla, Galo T.; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Future wearable electronics require not only flexibility but also preservation of the perks associated with today's high-performance, traditional silicon electronics. In this work we demonstrate a state-of-the-art fin-shaped field-effect transistor (FinFET)-based, out-of-plane strain sensor on flexible silicon through transforming the bulk device in a transfer-less process. The device preserves the functionality and high performance associated with its bulk, inflexible state. Furthermore, gate leakage current shows sufficient dependence on the value of the applied out-of-plane strain that enables permits use of the flexible device as a switching device as well as a strain sensor.

  11. Charge Splitting In Situ Recorder (CSIR) for Real-Time Examination of Plasma Charging Effect in FinFET BEOL Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yi-Pei; Hsieh, Ting-Huan; Lin, Chrong Jung; King, Ya-Chin

    2017-09-01

    A novel device for monitoring plasma-induced damage in the back-end-of-line (BEOL) process with charge splitting capability is first-time proposed and demonstrated. This novel charge splitting in situ recorder (CSIR) can independently trace the amount and polarity of plasma charging effects during the manufacturing process of advanced fin field-effect transistor (FinFET) circuits. Not only does it reveal the real-time and in situ plasma charging levels on the antennas, but it also separates positive and negative charging effect and provides two independent readings. As CMOS technologies push for finer metal lines in the future, the new charge separation scheme provides a powerful tool for BEOL process optimization and further device reliability improvements.

  12. Ultra-high density out-of-plane strain sensor 3D architecture based on sub-20 nm PMOS FinFET

    KAUST Repository

    Ghoneim, Mohamed T.

    2016-02-03

    Future wearable electronics require not only flexibility but also preservation of the perks associated with today\\'s high-performance, traditional silicon electronics. In this work we demonstrate a state-of-the-art fin-shaped field-effect transistor (FinFET)-based, out-of-plane strain sensor on flexible silicon through transforming the bulk device in a transfer-less process. The device preserves the functionality and high performance associated with its bulk, inflexible state. Furthermore, gate leakage current shows sufficient dependence on the value of the applied out-of-plane strain that enables permits use of the flexible device as a switching device as well as a strain sensor.

  13. Rapid detection of single E. coli bacteria using a graphene-based field-effect transistor device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Bhawana; Zhou, Guihua; Chang, Jingbo; Pu, Haihui; Jin, Bing; Sui, Xiaoyu; Yuan, Xiaochen; Yang, Ching-Hong; Magruder, Matthew; Chen, Junhong

    2018-07-01

    Contamination of surface and drinking water due to the presence of Escherichia coli bacteria is a major cause of water-borne disease outbreak. To address unmet challenges for practical pathogen detection in contaminated samples, we report fabrication of thermally reduced graphene oxide-based field-effect transistor (rGO FET) passivated with an ultrathin layer of Al 2 O 3 for real-time detection of E. coli bacteria. The sensor could detect a single E. coli cell within 50 s in a 1 µL sample volume. The ultrathin layer of Al 2 O 3 acted as a barrier between rGO and potential interferents present in the sample. E. coli specific antibodies anchored on gold nanoparticles acted as probes for selective capture of E. coli. The high density of negative charge on the surface of E. coli cells strongly modulates the concentration of majority charge carriers in the rGO monolayer, thereby allowing real-time monitoring of E. coli concentration in a given sample. With a low detection limit of single cell, the FET sensor had a linear range of 1-100 CFU in 1 µL volume of sample (i.e., 10 3 to 10 5 CFU/ mL). The biosensor with good selectivity and rapid detection was further successfully demonstrated for E. coli sensing in river water. The rGO-based FET sensor provides a low cost and label-free approach, and can be mass produced for detection of a broad spectrum of pathogens in water or other liquid media. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. MoS2 Negative-Capacitance Field-Effect Transistors with Subthreshold Swing below the Physics Limit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xingqiang; Liang, Renrong; Gao, Guoyun; Pan, Caofeng; Jiang, Chunsheng; Xu, Qian; Luo, Jun; Zou, Xuming; Yang, Zhenyu; Liao, Lei; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2018-05-21

    The Boltzmann distribution of electrons induced fundamental barrier prevents subthreshold swing (SS) from less than 60 mV dec -1 at room temperature, leading to high energy consumption of MOSFETs. Herein, it is demonstrated that an aggressive introduction of the negative capacitance (NC) effect of ferroelectrics can decisively break the fundamental limit governed by the "Boltzmann tyranny". Such MoS 2 negative-capacitance field-effect transistors (NC-FETs) with self-aligned top-gated geometry demonstrated here pull down the SS value to 42.5 mV dec -1 , and simultaneously achieve superior performance of a transconductance of 45.5 μS μm and an on/off ratio of 4 × 10 6 with channel length less than 100 nm. Furthermore, the inserted HfO 2 layer not only realizes a stable NC gate stack structure, but also prevents the ferroelectric P(VDF-TrFE) from fatigue with robust stability. Notably, the fabricated MoS 2 NC-FETs are distinctly different from traditional MOSFETs. The on-state current increases as the temperature decreases even down to 20 K, and the SS values exhibit nonlinear dependence with temperature due to the implementation of the ferroelectric gate stack. The NC-FETs enable fundamental applications through overcoming the Boltzmann limit in nanoelectronics and open up an avenue to low-power transistors needed for many exciting long-endurance portable consumer products. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Short-channel field-effect transistors with 9-atom and 13-atom wide graphene nanoribbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llinas, Juan Pablo; Fairbrother, Andrew; Borin Barin, Gabriela; Shi, Wu; Lee, Kyunghoon; Wu, Shuang; Yong Choi, Byung; Braganza, Rohit; Lear, Jordan; Kau, Nicholas; Choi, Wonwoo; Chen, Chen; Pedramrazi, Zahra; Dumslaff, Tim; Narita, Akimitsu; Feng, Xinliang; Müllen, Klaus; Fischer, Felix; Zettl, Alex; Ruffieux, Pascal; Yablonovitch, Eli; Crommie, Michael; Fasel, Roman; Bokor, Jeffrey

    2017-09-21

    Bottom-up synthesized graphene nanoribbons and graphene nanoribbon heterostructures have promising electronic properties for high-performance field-effect transistors and ultra-low power devices such as tunneling field-effect transistors. However, the short length and wide band gap of these graphene nanoribbons have prevented the fabrication of devices with the desired performance and switching behavior. Here, by fabricating short channel (L ch  ~ 20 nm) devices with a thin, high-κ gate dielectric and a 9-atom wide (0.95 nm) armchair graphene nanoribbon as the channel material, we demonstrate field-effect transistors with high on-current (I on  > 1 μA at V d  = -1 V) and high I on /I off  ~ 10 5 at room temperature. We find that the performance of these devices is limited by tunneling through the Schottky barrier at the contacts and we observe an increase in the transparency of the barrier by increasing the gate field near the contacts. Our results thus demonstrate successful fabrication of high-performance short-channel field-effect transistors with bottom-up synthesized armchair graphene nanoribbons.Graphene nanoribbons show promise for high-performance field-effect transistors, however they often suffer from short lengths and wide band gaps. Here, the authors use a bottom-up synthesis approach to fabricate 9- and 13-atom wide ribbons, enabling short-channel transistors with 10 5 on-off current ratio.

  16. Highly soluble [1]benzothieno[3,2-b]benzothiophene (BTBT) derivatives for high-performance, solution-processed organic field-effect transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebata, Hideaki; Izawa, Takafumi; Miyazaki, Eigo; Takimiya, Kazuo; Ikeda, Masaaki; Kuwabara, Hirokazu; Yui, Tatsuto

    2007-12-26

    2,7-Dialkyl[1]benzothieno[3,2-b]benzothiophenes were tested as solution-processible molecular semiconductors. Thin films of the organic semiconductors deposited on Si/SiO2 substrates by spin coating have well-ordered structures as confirmed by XRD analysis. Evaluations of the devices under ambient conditions showed typical p-channel FET responses with the field-effect mobility higher than 1.0 cm2 V-1 s-1 and Ion/Ioff of approximately 10(7).

  17. Nonenzymatic flexible field-effect transistor based glucose sensor fabricated using NiO quantum dots modified ZnO nanorods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Da-Un-Jin; Ahmad, Rafiq; Hahn, Yoon-Bong

    2018-02-15

    Herein, we fabricated nonenzymatic flexible field-effect transistor (f-FET) based glucose sensor using nickel oxide quantum dots (NiO QDs) modified zinc oxide nanorods (ZnO NRs). The ZnO NRs surfaces were coated with NiO QDs using radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering to enhance the electrocatalytic feature and the surface area of ZnO NRs. Under physiological conditions (pH 7.4), the nonenzymatic f-FET glucose sensor shows two linear ranges of 0.001-10mM and 10-50mM with the high sensitivity of 13.14μAcm -2 mM -1 and 7.31μAcm -2 mM -1 , respectively, along with good selectivity, stability and repeatability during glucose detection. The examination of human whole blood and serum samples reveal that the nonenzymatic f-FET based glucose sensor is capable of measuring glucose concentration efficiently in the presence of interfering species and thus can be offered as a promising device for further applications in clinical and non-clinical fields. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Microwave assisted synthesis and characterisation of a zinc oxide/tobacco mosaic virus hybrid material. An active hybrid semiconductor in a field-effect transistor device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn Sanctis

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV has been employed as a robust functional template for the fabrication of a TMV/zinc oxide field effect transistor (FET. A microwave based approach, under mild conditions was employed to synthesize stable zinc oxide (ZnO nanoparticles, employing a molecular precursor. Insightful studies of the decomposition of the precursor were done using NMR spectroscopy and material characterization of the hybrid material derived from the decomposition was achieved using dynamic light scattering (DLS, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, grazing incidence X-ray diffractometry (GI-XRD and atomic force microscopy (AFM. TEM and DLS data confirm the formation of crystalline ZnO nanoparticles tethered on top of the virus template. GI-XRD investigations exhibit an orientated nature of the deposited ZnO film along the c-axis. FET devices fabricated using the zinc oxide mineralized virus template material demonstrates an operational transistor performance which was achieved without any high-temperature post-processing steps. Moreover, a further improvement in FET performance was observed by adjusting an optimal layer thickness of the deposited ZnO on top of the TMV. Such a bio-inorganic nanocomposite semiconductor material accessible using a mild and straightforward microwave processing technique could open up new future avenues within the field of bio-electronics.

  19. Nonvolatile ferroelectric memory based on PbTiO3 gated single-layer MoS2 field-effect transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyun Wook; Son, Jong Yeog

    2018-01-01

    We fabricated ferroelectric non-volatile random access memory (FeRAM) based on a field effect transistor (FET) consisting of a monolayer MoS2 channel and a ferroelectric PbTiO3 (PTO) thin film of gate insulator. An epitaxial PTO thin film was deposited on a Nb-doped SrTiO3 (Nb:STO) substrate via pulsed laser deposition. A monolayer MoS2 sheet was exfoliated from a bulk crystal and transferred to the surface of the PTO/Nb:STO. Structural and surface properties of the PTO thin film were characterized by X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy, respectively. Raman spectroscopy analysis was performed to identify the single-layer MoS2 sheet on the PTO/Nb:STO. We obtained mobility value (327 cm2/V·s) of the MoS2 channel at room temperature. The MoS2-PTO FeRAM FET showed a wide memory window with 17 kΩ of resistance variation which was attributed to high remnant polarization of the epitaxially grown PTO thin film. According to the fatigue resistance test for the FeRAM FET, however, the resistance states gradually varied during the switching cycles of 109. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  20. Enhancing Photoresponsivity of Self-Aligned MoS2 Field-Effect Transistors by Piezo-Phototronic Effect from GaN Nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xingqiang; Yang, Xiaonian; Gao, Guoyun; Yang, Zhenyu; Liu, Haitao; Li, Qiang; Lou, Zheng; Shen, Guozhen; Liao, Lei; Pan, Caofeng; Lin Wang, Zhong

    2016-08-23

    We report high-performance self-aligned MoS2 field-effect transistors (FETs) with enhanced photoresponsivity by the piezo-phototronic effect. The FETs are fabricated based on monolayer MoS2 with a piezoelectric GaN nanowire (NW) as the local gate, and a self-aligned process is employed to define the source/drain electrodes. The fabrication method allows the preservation of the intrinsic property of MoS2 and suppresses the scattering center density in the MoS2/GaN interface, which results in high electrical and photoelectric performances. MoS2 FETs with channel lengths of ∼200 nm have been fabricated with a small subthreshold slope of 64 mV/dec. The photoresponsivity is 443.3 A·W(-1), with a fast response and recovery time of ∼5 ms under 550 nm light illumination. When strain is introduced into the GaN NW, the photoresponsivity is further enhanced to 734.5 A·W(-1) and maintains consistent response and recovery time, which is comparable with that of the mechanical exfoliation of MoS2 transistors. The approach presented here opens an avenue to high-performance top-gated piezo-enhanced MoS2 photodetectors.

  1. Dual-Mode Gas Sensor Composed of a Silicon Nanoribbon Field Effect Transistor and a Bulk Acoustic Wave Resonator: A Case Study in Freons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Chang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we develop a novel dual-mode gas sensor system which comprises a silicon nanoribbon field effect transistor (Si-NR FET and a film bulk acoustic resonator (FBAR. We investigate their sensing characteristics using polar and nonpolar organic compounds, and demonstrate that polarity has a significant effect on the response of the Si-NR FET sensor, and only a minor effect on the FBAR sensor. In this dual-mode system, qualitative discrimination can be achieved by analyzing polarity with the Si-NR FET and quantitative concentration information can be obtained using a polymer-coated FBAR with a detection limit at the ppm level. The complementary performance of the sensing elements provides higher analytical efficiency. Additionally, a dual mixture of two types of freons (CFC-113 and HCFC-141b is further analyzed with the dual-mode gas sensor. Owing to the small size and complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS-compatibility of the system, the dual-mode gas sensor shows potential as a portable integrated sensing system for the analysis of gas mixtures in the future.

  2. Dielectric relaxation dependent memory elements in pentacene/[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester bi-layer field effect transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Byoungnam

    2015-03-02

    We fabricate a pentacene/[6,6]-phenyl-C{sub 61}-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) bi-layer field effect transistor (FET) featuring large hysteresis that can be used as memory elements. Intentional introduction of excess electron traps in a PCBM layer by exposure to air caused large hysteresis in the FET. The memory window, characterized by the threshold voltage difference, increased upon exposure to air and this is attributed to an increase in the number of electron trapping centers and (or) an increase in the dielectric relaxation time in the underlying PCBM layer. Decrease in the electron conduction in the PCBM close to the SiO{sub 2} gate dielectric upon exposure to air is consistent with the increase in the dielectric relaxation time, ensuring that the presence of large hysteresis in the FET originates from electron trapping at the PCBM not at the pentacene. - Highlights: • Charge trapping-induced memory effect was clarified using transistors. • The memory window can be enhanced by controlling charge trapping mechanism. • Memory transistors can be optimized by controlling dielectric relaxation time.

  3. InAs/InAsP composite channels for antimonide-based field-effect transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, H.-K.; Kadow, C.; Dahlstroem, M.; Bae, J.-U.; Rodwell, M.J.W.; Gossard, A.C.; Brar, B.; Sullivan, G.; Nagy, G.; Bergman, J.

    2004-01-01

    We report the growth and transport characteristics of stepped InAs/InAs 1-x P x quantum wells with AlSb barriers. Electron mobilities and carrier concentrations in these composite stepped quantum wells were studied as a function of growth temperature and phosphorus content. For InAs 1-x P x grown at 430 deg. C substrate temperature (nominal x=0.2), a high 22 500 cm 2 /V s electron mobility was observed, while 7100 cm 2 /V s mobility was observed in a single strained InAs 1-x P x quantum well layer. Heterostructure field-effect transistors fabricated using the composite quantum wells exhibited increased breakdown voltage and a 14:1 reduction in source-drain dc conduction when compared to a similar InAs-channel device

  4. A novel graphene nanoribbon FET with an extra peak electric field (EFP-GNRFET) for enhancing the electrical performances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akbari Eshkalak, Maedeh [Young Researchers and Elite Club, Lahijan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Lahijan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Anvarifard, Mohammad K., E-mail: m.anvarifard@guilan.ac.ir [Department of Engineering Sciences, Faculty of Technology and Engineering, East of Guilan, University of Guilan, Rudsar-Vajargah (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-04-25

    This work has provided an efficient technique to improve the electrical performance for the Graphene Nanoribbon Field Effect Transistors (GNRFETs) successfully. The physical gate length is divided into two gates named as the original gate and the other one as the virtual gate. We have applied a voltage source between these gates to control the channel of the GNRFETs. This technique has created an extra peak electric field in the middle of the channel resulting in the redistribution of surface potential profile. The proposed structure named as EFP-GNRFET has been compared with a simple GNRFET and has shown many improvements in terms of the critical parameters such as short channel effects, leakage current, subthreshold swing, ON-state to OFF-state current ratio, transconductance, output conductance and voltage gain. The structures under the study in this paper benefits from the Non-Equilibrium Green Function (NEGF) approach for solving Schrödinger equation coupled with the two-dimensional (2D) Poisson equation in a self-consistent manner. - Highlights: • Proposal of a novel graphene nanoribbon FET. • Creation of an extra peak in electric field. • Modification of the channel potential with the help of virtual gate. • Considerable improvement on electrical performances.

  5. All Polymer FET Fabricated from Polypyrrole-Polyvinyl Alcohol (PPY—PVA) Nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadra, J.; Baruah, K.; Sarkar, D.

    2010-10-01

    We report here fabrication of the all polymer FET prepared from PPY—PVA nanocomposite. Synthesis of PPY is carried out by interface polymerization technique and then blended in PVA matrix in 1:100 wt/wt ratios. The spin cast film obtained from the above shows nanorod structure of 1-2 μm length and 50 nm diameter. FET is fabricated using overhead projector transparent sheet as substrate by spin cast method. Source, drain and gate electrodes are made by silver deposition. The I-V characteristics of the all polymer FET shows the clear behaviour of FET characteristics for a p-channel semiconductor. The threshold voltage and mobility of the device are found to be 96.4 volt and 21.3×10-4 cm2/Vs respectively. The device transconductance is obtained as 45.31 nS. The study possesses the potential for fabrication of low cost FET based on organic conducting polymers.

  6. One-dimensional array of gold nanoparticles fabricated using biotemplate and its application to fine FET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Takahiko; Uenuma, Mutsunori; Migita, Shinji; Okamoto, Naofumi; Ishikawa, Yasuaki; Uraoka, Yukiharu; Yamashita, Ichiro; Yamamoto, Shin-ichi

    2018-06-01

    By synthesizing AuS nanoparticles (NPs) with spherical shell protein (ferritin) and using a V-groove, a one-dimensional array of NPs was formed at the bottom of the V-groove. It has been reported that AuS NPs are converted to Au NPs by UV/ozone treatment. Floating gate memory (FGM) was fabricated by applying this one-dimensional array to V-grooved junctionless (JL) FETs, V-grooved nin-like-type FETs, and pip-like-type FETs, which are fine FETs. In JL-FETs, it is considered that conversion occurred because of good charge storage efficiency, and operation in the opposite direction to normal FGM operation was seen. In the nin-like and pip-like types devices, the same operation as in conventional FGM was shown, and the width of the memory window was about the same size as when one electron entered one NP. The one-dimensional arrangement of the metal NPs used in this study is considered to be applicable to various fields of nanotechnology.

  7. The prognostic value of FET PET at radiotherapy planning in newly diagnosed glioblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoejklint Poulsen, Sidsel [The Finsen Center, Rigshospitalet, Department of Radiation Biology, Copenhagen (Denmark); Center of Diagnostic Investigation, Rigshospitalet, Department of Clinical Physiology, Nuclear Medicine and PET, Copenhagen (Denmark); Urup, Thomas; Grunnet, Kirsten; Skovgaard Poulsen, Hans [The Finsen Center, Rigshospitalet, Department of Radiation Biology, Copenhagen (Denmark); The Finsen Center, Rigshospitalet, Department of Oncology, Copenhagen (Denmark); Jarle Christensen, Ib [University of Copenhagen, Hvidovre Hospital, Laboratory of Gastroenterology, Copenhagen (Denmark); Larsen, Vibeke Andree [Center of Diagnostic Investigation, Rigshospitalet, Department of Radiology, Copenhagen (Denmark); Lundemann Jensen, Michael; Munck af Rosenschoeld, Per [The Finsen Center, Rigshospitalet, Department of Oncology, Copenhagen (Denmark); The Finsen Center, Rigshospitalet, Section of Radiotherapy, Copenhagen (Denmark); Law, Ian [Center of Diagnostic Investigation, Rigshospitalet, Department of Clinical Physiology, Nuclear Medicine and PET, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2017-03-15

    Glioblastoma patients show a great variability in progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). To gain additional pretherapeutic information, we explored the potential of O-(2-{sup 18}F-fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine (FET) PET as an independent prognostic biomarker. We retrospectively analyzed 146 consecutively treated, newly diagnosed glioblastoma patients. All patients were treated with temozolomide and radiation therapy (RT). CT/MR and FET PET scans were obtained postoperatively for RT planning. We used Cox proportional hazards models with OS and PFS as endpoints, to test the prognostic value of FET PET biological tumor volume (BTV). Median follow-up time was 14 months, and median OS and PFS were 16.5 and 6.5 months, respectively. In the multivariate analysis, increasing BTV (HR = 1.17, P < 0.001), poor performance status (HR = 2.35, P < 0.001), O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase protein status (HR = 1.61, P = 0.024) and higher age (HR = 1.32, P = 0.013) were independent prognostic factors of poor OS. For poor PFS, only increasing BTV (HR = 1.18; P = 0.002) was prognostic. A prognostic index for OS was created based on the identified prognostic factors. Large BTV on FET PET is an independent prognostic factor of poor OS and PFS in glioblastoma patients. With the introduction of FET PET, we obtain a prognostic index that can help in glioblastoma treatment planning. (orig.)

  8. Graphene Field Effect Transistor for Radiation Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mary J. (Inventor); Chen, Zhihong (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention relates to a graphene field effect transistor-based radiation sensor for use in a variety of radiation detection applications, including manned spaceflight missions. The sensing mechanism of the radiation sensor is based on the high sensitivity of graphene in the local change of electric field that can result from the interaction of ionizing radiation with a gated undoped silicon absorber serving as the supporting substrate in the graphene field effect transistor. The radiation sensor has low power and high sensitivity, a flexible structure, and a wide temperature range, and can be used in a variety of applications, particularly in space missions for human exploration.

  9. Investigation of Electronic and Opto-Electronic Properties of Two-Dimensional (2D) Layers of Copper Indium Selenide Field Effect Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Prasanna Dnyaneshwar

    Investigations performed in order to understand the electronic and optoelectronic properties of field effect transistors based on few layers of 2D Copper Indium Selenide (CuIn7Se11) are reported. In general, field effect transistors (FETs), electric double layer field effect transistors (EDL-FETs), and photodetectors are crucial part of several electronics based applications such as tele-communication, bio-sensing, and opto-electronic industry. After the discovery of graphene, several 2D semiconductor materials like TMDs (MoS2, WS2, and MoSe2 etc.), group III-VI materials (InSe, GaSe, and SnS2 etc.) are being studied rigorously in order to develop them as components in next generation FETs. Traditionally, thin films of ternary system of Copper Indium Selenide have been extensively studied and used in optoelectronics industry as photoactive component in solar cells. Thus, it is expected that atomically thin 2D layered structure of Copper Indium Selenide can have optical properties that could potentially be more advantageous than its thin film counterpart and could find use for developing next generation nano devices with utility in opto/nano electronics. Field effect transistors were fabricated using few-layers of CuIn7Se11 flakes, which were mechanically exfoliated from bulk crystals grown using chemical vapor transport technique. Our FET transport characterization measurements indicate n-type behavior with electron field effect mobility microFE ≈ 36 cm2 V-1 s-1 at room temperature when Silicon dioxide (SiO2) is used as a back gate. We found that in such back gated field effect transistor an on/off ratio of 104 and a subthreshold swing ≈ 1 V/dec can be obtained. Our investigations further indicate that Electronic performance of these materials can be increased significantly when gated from top using an ionic liquid electrolyte [1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (BMIM-PF6)]. We found that electron field effect mobility microFE can be increased from

  10. A review of selected topics in physics based modeling for tunnel field-effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esseni, David; Pala, Marco; Palestri, Pierpaolo; Alper, Cem; Rollo, Tommaso

    2017-08-01

    The research field on tunnel-FETs (TFETs) has been rapidly developing in the last ten years, driven by the quest for a new electronic switch operating at a supply voltage well below 1 V and thus delivering substantial improvements in the energy efficiency of integrated circuits. This paper reviews several aspects related to physics based modeling in TFETs, and shows how the description of these transistors implies a remarkable innovation and poses new challenges compared to conventional MOSFETs. A hierarchy of numerical models exist for TFETs covering a wide range of predictive capabilities and computational complexities. We start by reviewing seminal contributions on direct and indirect band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) modeling in semiconductors, from which most TCAD models have been actually derived. Then we move to the features and limitations of TCAD models themselves and to the discussion of what we define non-self-consistent quantum models, where BTBT is computed with rigorous quantum-mechanical models starting from frozen potential profiles and closed-boundary Schrödinger equation problems. We will then address models that solve the open-boundary Schrödinger equation problem, based either on the non-equilibrium Green’s function NEGF or on the quantum-transmitting-boundary formalism, and show how the computational burden of these models may vary in a wide range depending on the Hamiltonian employed in the calculations. A specific section is devoted to TFETs based on 2D crystals and van der Waals hetero-structures. The main goal of this paper is to provide the reader with an introduction to the most important physics based models for TFETs, and with a possible guidance to the wide and rapidly developing literature in this exciting research field.

  11. Ultrasensitive label-free detection of DNA hybridization by sapphire-based graphene field-effect transistor biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shicai; Jiang, Shouzhen; Zhang, Chao; Yue, Weiwei; Zou, Yan; Wang, Guiying; Liu, Huilan; Zhang, Xiumei; Li, Mingzhen; Zhu, Zhanshou; Wang, Jihua

    2018-01-01

    Graphene has attracted much attention in biosensing applications for its unique properties. Because of one-atom layer structure, every atom of graphene is exposed to the environment, making the electronic properties of graphene are very sensitive to charged analytes. Therefore, graphene is an ideal material for transistors in high-performance sensors. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method has been demonstrated the most successful method for fabricating large area graphene. However, the conventional CVD methods can only grow graphene on metallic substrate and the graphene has to be transferred to the insulating substrate for further device fabrication. The transfer process creates wrinkles, cracks, or tears on the graphene, which severely degrade electrical properties of graphene. These factors severely degrade the sensing performance of graphene. Here, we directly fabricated graphene on sapphire substrate by high temperature CVD without the use of metal catalysts. The sapphire-based graphene was patterned and make into a DNA biosensor in the configuration of field-effect transistor. The sensors show high performance and achieve the DNA detection sensitivity as low as 100 fM (10-13 M), which is at least 10 times lower than prior transferred CVD G-FET DNA sensors. The use of the sapphire-based G-FETs suggests a promising future for biosensing applications.

  12. Charge-Transfer-Induced p-Type Channel in MoS2 Flake Field Effect Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Sung-Wook; Yoon, Minho; Yang, Sung Jin; Ko, Kyeong Rok; Im, Seongil

    2018-01-31

    The two-dimensional transition-metal dichalcogenide semiconductor MoS 2 has received extensive attention for decades because of its outstanding electrical and mechanical properties for next-generation devices. One weakness of MoS 2 , however, is that it shows only n-type conduction, revealing its limitations for homogeneous PN diodes and complementary inverters. Here, we introduce a charge-transfer method to modify the conduction property of MoS 2 from n- to p-type. We initially deposited an n-type InGaZnO (IGZO) film on top of the MoS 2 flake so that electron charges might be transferred from MoS 2 to IGZO during air ambient annealing. As a result, electron charges were depleted in MoS 2 . Such charge depletion lowered the MoS 2 Fermi level, which makes hole conduction favorable in MoS 2 when optimum source/drain electrodes with a high work function are selected. Our IGZO-supported MoS 2 flake field effect transistors (FETs) clearly display channel-type conversion from n- to p-channel in this way. Under short- and long-annealing conditions, n- and p-channel MoS 2 FETs are achieved, respectively, and a low-voltage complementary inverter is demonstrated using both channels in a single MoS 2 flake.

  13. Electrical characterisation of ferroelectric field effect transistors based on ferroelectric HfO{sub 2} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yurchuk, Ekaterina

    2015-02-06

    Ferroelectric field effect transistor (FeFET) memories based on a new type of ferroelectric material (silicon doped hafnium oxide) were studied within the scope of the present work. Utilisation of silicon doped hafnium oxide (Si:HfO{sub 2}) thin films instead of conventional perovskite ferroelectrics as a functional layer in FeFETs provides compatibility to the CMOS process as well as improved device scalability. The influence of different process parameters on the properties of Si:HfO{sub 2} thin films was analysed in order to gain better insight into the occurrence of ferroelectricity in this system. A subsequent examination of the potential of this material as well as its possible limitations with the respect to the application in non-volatile memories followed. The Si:HfO{sub 2}-based ferroelectric transistors that were fully integrated into the state-of-the-art high-k metal gate CMOS technology were studied in this work for the first time. The memory performance of these devices scaled down to 28 nm gate length was investigated. Special attention was paid to the charge trapping phenomenon shown to significantly affect the device behaviour.

  14. Simultaneous Detection of α-Fetoprotein and Carcinoembryonic Antigen Based on Si Nanowire Field-Effect Transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuiyu Zhu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Primary hepatic carcinoma (PHC is one of the most common malignancies worldwide, resulting in death within six to 20 months. The survival rate can be improved by effective treatments when diagnosed at an early stage. The α-fetoprotein (AFP and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA have been identified as markers that are expressed at higher levels in PHC patients. In this study, we employed silicon nanowire field-effect transistors (SiNW-FETs with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS microfluidic channels to simultaneously detect AFP and CEA in desalted human serum. Dual-channel PDMS was first utilized for the selective modification of AFP and CEA antibodies on SiNWs, while single-channel PDMS offers faster and more sensitive detection of AFP and CEA in serum. During the SiNW modification process, 0.1% BSA was utilized to minimize nonspecific protein binding from serum. The linear dynamic ranges for the AFP and CEA detection were measured to be 500 fg/mL to 50 ng/mL and 50 fg/mL to 10 ng/mL, respectively. Our work demonstrates the promising potential of fabricated SiNW-FETs as a direct detection kit for multiple tumor markers in serum; therefore, it provides a chance for early stage diagnose and, hence, more effective treatments for PHC patients.

  15. High gain, low noise, fully complementary logic inverter based on bi-layer WSe{sub 2} field effect transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Saptarshi; Roelofs, Andreas [Center for Nanoscale Material, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Dubey, Madan [U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Adelphi, Maryland 20783 (United States)

    2014-08-25

    In this article, first, we show that by contact work function engineering, electrostatic doping and proper scaling of both the oxide thickness and the flake thickness, high performance p- and n-type WSe{sub 2} field effect transistors (FETs) can be realized. We report record high drive current of 98 μA/μm for the electron conduction and 110 μA/μm for the hole conduction in Schottky barrier WSe{sub 2} FETs. Then, we combine high performance WSe{sub 2} PFET with WSe{sub 2} NFET in double gated transistor geometry to demonstrate a fully complementary logic inverter. We also show that by adjusting the threshold voltages for the NFET and the PFET, the gain and the noise margin of the inverter can be significantly enhanced. The maximum gain of our chemical doping free WSe{sub 2} inverter was found to be ∼25 and the noise margin was close to its ideal value of ∼2.5 V for a supply voltage of V{sub DD} = 5.0 V.

  16. Effect of substrate and temperature on the electronic properties of monolayer molybdenum disulfide field-effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qizhi; Fang, Jiajia; Zhang, Guangru; Wang, Quan

    2018-03-01

    The use of two-dimensional nanostructured molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) films in field-effect transistors (FETs) in place of graphene was investigated. Monolayer MoS2 films were fabricated by chemical vapor deposition. The output and transfer curves of supported and suspended MoS2 FETs were measured. The mobility of the suspended device reached 364.2 cm2 V-1 s-1 at 150 °C. The hysteresis of the supported device in transfer curves was much larger than that of the suspended device, and it increased at higher temperatures. These results indicate that the device mobility was limited by Coulomb scattering at ambient temperature, and surface/interface phonon scattering at 150 °C, and the injection of electrons, via quantum tunneling through the Schottky barrier at the contact, was enhanced at higher temperatures and led to the increase of the hysteresis. The suspended MoS2 films show potential for application as a channel material in electronic devices, and further understanding the causes of hysteresis in a material is important for its use in technologies, such as memory devices and sensing cells.

  17. Temperature dependence of the transport properties of spin field-effect transistors built with InAs and Si channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osintsev, D.; Sverdlov, V.; Stanojević, Z.; Makarov, A.; Selberherr, S.

    2012-05-01

    We study the transport properties of the Datta-Das spin field-effect transistor built on InAs and Si. First, we demonstrate that the amplitude of the magnetoresistance oscillations as a function of the band mismatch between the ferromagnetic contacts and the semiconductor channel made of InAs decreases dramatically with increasing temperature. A shorter InAs channel is needed to create an InAs-based SpinFET which will operate at higher temperatures. Second, we show that the [1 0 0] orientation of the fin is preferable for silicon SpinFETs due to stronger modulation of the conductance as a function of spin-orbit interaction and magnetic field. Short silicon fins can be used for current modulation as a function of the conduction band mismatch between the channel and the ferromagnetic contacts only at relatively low temperatures. In contrast, longer silicon channels allow a TMR modulation at room temperature by changing the strength of the spin-orbit interaction through the gate bias.

  18. Effect of channel-width and chirality on graphene field-effect transistor based real-time biomolecule sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letian Lyu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Graphene field-effect transistors (GFET hold promise in biomolecule sensing due to the outstanding properties of graphene materials. Charges in biomolecules are transduced into a change in the GFET current, which allows real-time monitoring of the biomolecule concentrations. Here we theoretically evaluate the performance of GFET based real-time biomolecule sensing, aiming to better understand the width-scaling limit in GFET based biosensors. In particular, we study the effect of the channel-width and the chirality on FET sensitivity by taking the percentage change of the FET current per unit charge density as the sensing signal. Firstly, GFETs made of graphene nanoribbons (GNR and graphene sheets (GS show comparable sensing signals to each other when gated at 1011 – 1012 cm-2 carrier densities. Sensing signals in GNRs are enhanced when gated near the sub-band thresholds, and increase their values in wider GNRs due to the change in device conductance and quantum capacitance. Secondly, the GNR chirality is found to fine tune the sensing signals. Armchair GNRs with smaller energy bandgaps appear to have an enhanced sensing signal close to 1011 cm-2 carrier densities. These results may help understand the scaling limit in GFET based biosensors along the width direction, and shed light on forming all-electrical bio-arrays.

  19. Effect of channel-width and chirality on graphene field-effect transistor based real-time biomolecule sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Letian; Jaswal, Perveshwer; Xu, Guangyu

    2018-03-01

    Graphene field-effect transistors (GFET) hold promise in biomolecule sensing due to the outstanding properties of graphene materials. Charges in biomolecules are transduced into a change in the GFET current, which allows real-time monitoring of the biomolecule concentrations. Here we theoretically evaluate the performance of GFET based real-time biomolecule sensing, aiming to better understand the width-scaling limit in GFET based biosensors. In particular, we study the effect of the channel-width and the chirality on FET sensitivity by taking the percentage change of the FET current per unit charge density as the sensing signal. Firstly, GFETs made of graphene nanoribbons (GNR) and graphene sheets (GS) show comparable sensing signals to each other when gated at 1011 - 1012 cm-2 carrier densities. Sensing signals in GNRs are enhanced when gated near the sub-band thresholds, and increase their values in wider GNRs due to the change in device conductance and quantum capacitance. Secondly, the GNR chirality is found to fine tune the sensing signals. Armchair GNRs with smaller energy bandgaps appear to have an enhanced sensing signal close to 1011 cm-2 carrier densities. These results may help understand the scaling limit in GFET based biosensors along the width direction, and shed light on forming all-electrical bio-arrays.

  20. The Effect of Aptamer Concetration towards Reduced Graphene Oxide-Field Effect Transistor Surface Channel for Biosensor Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syafiq Zainol Abidin, Azrul; Rahim, Ruslinda Abdul; Huan, Chow Yong; Maidin, Nur Nasyifa Mohd; Atiqah Ahmad, Nurul; Hashwan, Saeed S. Ba; Faudzi, Fatin Nabilah Mohd; Hong, Voon Chun

    2018-03-01

    Aptamer are artificially produce bioreceptor that has been developed to bind with various target biomolecules such as ion, cells, protein and small molecules. In this research, an aptamer concentration of 0.5 nM, 1 nM, 5 nM, 10 nM, and 50 nM were immobilized on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) integrated with field effect transistor (FET) respectively to study the effect of aptamer concentration toward rGO surface for stable biosensing platform. The 0.5 nM concentration of aptamer shows the highest current result of 84.3 µA at 1 V applied through the source and drain. After immobilized with aminated aptamer, the conductivity shows significant reduction due to the formation of amide bond on rGO surface between aminated aptamer and carboxyl group on rGO. The electrical performance of FET integrated with rGO shows stable electrical performance suitable to be used in the biosensing application.

  1. In-situ SiN{sub x}/InN structures for InN field-effect transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zervos, Ch., E-mail: hzervos@physics.uoc.gr; Georgakilas, A. [Microelectronics Research Group (MRG), Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser (IESL), Foundation for Research and Technology-Hellas - FORTH, P.O. Box 1385, GR-70013 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Department of Physics, University of Crete, P.O. Box 2208, GR-71003 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Adikimenakis, A.; Kostopoulos, A.; Kayambaki, M.; Tsagaraki, K.; Konstantinidis, G. [Microelectronics Research Group (MRG), Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser (IESL), Foundation for Research and Technology-Hellas - FORTH, P.O. Box 1385, GR-70013 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Beleniotis, P. [Department of Physics, University of Crete, P.O. Box 2208, GR-71003 Heraklion, Crete (Greece)

    2016-04-04

    Critical aspects of InN channel field-effect transistors (FETs) have been investigated. SiN{sub x} dielectric layers were deposited in-situ, in the molecular beam epitaxy system, on the surface of 2 nm InN layers grown on GaN (0001) buffer layers. Metal-insulator-semiconductor Ni/SiN{sub x}/InN capacitors were analyzed by capacitance-voltage (C-V) and current-voltage measurements and were used as gates in InN FET transistors (MISFETs). Comparison of the experimental C-V results with self-consistent Schrödinger-Poisson calculations indicates the presence of a positive charge at the SiN{sub x}/InN interface of Q{sub if} ≈ 4.4 – 4.8 × 10{sup 13 }cm{sup −2}, assuming complete InN strain relaxation. Operation of InN MISFETs was demonstrated, but their performance was limited by a catastrophic breakdown at drain-source voltages above 2.5–3.0 V, the low electron mobility, and high series resistances of the structures.

  2. On/off ratio enhancement in single-walled carbon nanotube field-effect transistor by controlling network density via sonication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Ho-Kyun; Choi, Jun Hee; Kim, Do-Hyun; Kim, Gyu Tae

    2018-06-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) is generally used as a networked structure in the fabrication of a field-effect transistor (FET) since it is known that one-third of SWCNT is electrically metallic and the remains are semiconducting. In this case, the presence of metallic paths by metallic SWCNT (m-SWCNT) becomes a significant technical barrier which hinders the networks from achieving a semiconducting behavior, resulting in a low on/off ratio. Here, we report on an easy method of controlling the on/off ratio of a FET where semiconducting SWCNT (s-SWCNT) and m-SWCNT constitute networks between source and drain electrodes. A FET with SWCNT networks was simply sonicated under water to control the on/off ratio and network density. As a result, the FET having an almost metallic behavior due to the metallic paths by m-SWCNT exhibited a p-type semiconducting behavior. The on/off ratio ranged from 1 to 9.0 × 104 along sonication time. In addition, theoretical calculations based on Monte-Carlo method and circuit simulation were performed to understand and explain the phenomenon of a change in the on/off ratio and network density by sonication. On the basis of experimental and theoretical results, we found that metallic paths contributed to a high off-state current which leads to a low on/off ratio and that sonication formed sparse SWCNT networks where metallic paths of m-SWCNT were removed, resulting in a high on/off ratio. This method can open a chance to save the device which has been considered as a failed one due to a metallic behavior by a high network density leading to a low on/off ratio.

  3. Pulse-Driven Capacitive Lead Ion Detection with Reduced Graphene Oxide Field-Effect Transistor Integrated with an Analyzing Device for Rapid Water Quality Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maity, Arnab; Sui, Xiaoyu; Tarman, Chad R; Pu, Haihui; Chang, Jingbo; Zhou, Guihua; Ren, Ren; Mao, Shun; Chen, Junhong

    2017-11-22

    Rapid and real-time detection of heavy metals in water with a portable microsystem is a growing demand in the field of environmental monitoring, food safety, and future cyber-physical infrastructure. Here, we report a novel ultrasensitive pulse-driven capacitance-based lead ion sensor using self-assembled graphene oxide (GO) monolayer deposition strategy to recognize the heavy metal ions in water. The overall field-effect transistor (FET) structure consists of a thermally reduced graphene oxide (rGO) channel with a thin layer of Al 2 O 3 passivation as a top gate combined with sputtered gold nanoparticles that link with the glutathione (GSH) probe to attract Pb 2+ ions in water. Using a preprogrammed microcontroller, chemo-capacitance based detection of lead ions has been demonstrated with this FET sensor. With a rapid response (∼1-2 s) and negligible signal drift, a limit of detection (LOD) water stabilization followed by lead ion testing and calculation is much shorter than common FET resistance/current measurements (∼minutes) and other conventional methods, such as optical and inductively coupled plasma methods (∼hours). An approximate linear operational range (5-20 ppb) around 15 ppb (the maximum contaminant limit by US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for lead in drinking water) makes it especially suitable for drinking water quality monitoring. The validity of the pulse method is confirmed by quantifying Pb 2+ in various real water samples such as tap, lake, and river water with an accuracy ∼75%. This capacitance measurement strategy is promising and can be readily extended to various FET-based sensor devices for other targets.

  4. Stabilized thin film heterostructure for electrochemical applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The invention provides a method for the formation of a thin film multi-layered heterostructure upon a substrate, said method comprising the steps of: a. providing a substrate; b. depositing a buffer layer upon said substrate, said buffer layer being a layer of stable ionic conductor (B); c. depos...

  5. Fringing-field effects in acceleration columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yavor, M.I.; Weick, H.; Wollnik, H.

    1999-01-01

    Fringing-field effects in acceleration columns are investigated, based on the fringing-field integral method. Transfer matrices at the effective boundaries of the acceleration column are obtained, as well as the general transfer matrix of the region separating two homogeneous electrostatic fields with different field strengths. The accuracy of the fringing-field integral method is investigated

  6. pH measurements of FET-based (bio)chemical sensors using portable measurement system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voitsekhivska, T; Zorgiebel, F; Suthau, E; Wolter, K-J; Bock, K; Cuniberti, G

    2015-01-01

    In this study we demonstrate the sensing capabilities of a portable multiplex measurement system for FET-based (bio)chemical sensors with an integrated microfluidic interface. We therefore conducted pH measurements with Silicon Nanoribbon FET-based Sensors using different measurement procedures that are suitable for various applications. We have shown multiplexed measurements in aqueous medium for three different modes that are mutually specialized in fast data acquisition (constant drain current), calibration-less sensing (constant gate voltage) and in providing full information content (sweeping mode). Our system therefore allows surface charge sensing for a wide range of applications and is easily adaptable for multiplexed sensing with novel FET-based (bio)chemical sensors.

  7. Advancing Life Projects: South African Students Explain Why They Come to FET Colleges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley Powell

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Vocational Education and Training (VET policy in South Africa is based on a narrow set of assumptions regarding the identity of learners and the reasons that they are in public further education and training (FET colleges. These assumptions reflect an international orthodoxy about the centrality of employability that is located within what Giddens (1994 has described as 'productivism', a view that reduces life to the economic sphere. Through exploring the stories of a group of South African public FET college learners' regarding their reasons for choosing FET colleges, this paper shows that VET is valued by these students for a range of reasons. These include preparation for the world of work, but also a desire to improve their ability to contribute to their communities and families; raise their self-esteem; and expand their future life possibilities. Thus, the paper advances the largely hitherto theoretical critique of productivist VET accounts by offering empirical evidence of counter-narratives.

  8. Charge based DC compact modeling of bulk FinFET transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdeira, A.; Garduño, I.; Tinoco, J.; Ritzenthaler, R.; Franco, J.; Togo, M.; Chiarella, T.; Claeys, C.

    2013-09-01

    Multiple-gate MOSFETs became an industrial reality in the last years. Due to a pragmatic trade-off between CMOS process baselines compatibility, improved performance compared to planar bulk architecture, and cost, bulk FinFETs emerged as the technological solution to provide downscaling for the 14/22 nm technological nodes. In this work, a charge based DC compact model based on the SDDG Model is demonstrated for this new generation of FinFET transistors and describes continuously the transistor characteristics in all operating regions. Validating the model against two bulk FinFET baselines (NMOS, PMOS, various gate lengths and EOT), an excellent agreement is found for transfer and output characteristics (linear and saturation regimes), transconductance/output conductance, and gm/IDS characteristics. Temperature dependence is also taken into account and validated (T range from 25 °C up to 175 °C).

  9. Non-Planar Nanotube and Wavy Architecture Based Ultra-High Performance Field Effect Transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Hanna, Amir

    2016-11-01

    This dissertation presents a unique concept for a device architecture named the nanotube (NT) architecture, which is capable of higher drive current compared to the Gate-All-Around Nanowire architecture when applied to heterostructure Tunnel Field Effect Transistors. Through the use of inner/outer core-shell gates, heterostructure NT TFET leverages physically larger tunneling area thus achieving higher driver current (ION) and saving real estates by eliminating arraying requirement. We discuss the physics of p-type (Silicon/Indium Arsenide) and n-type (Silicon/Germanium hetero-structure) based TFETs. Numerical TCAD simulations have shown that NT TFETs have 5x and 1.6 x higher normalized ION when compared to GAA NW TFET for p and n-type TFETs, respectively. This is due to the availability of larger tunneling junction cross sectional area, and lower Shockley-Reed-Hall recombination, while achieving sub 60 mV/dec performance for more than 5 orders of magnitude of drain current, thus enabling scaling down of Vdd to 0.5 V. This dissertation also introduces a novel thin-film-transistors architecture that is named the Wavy Channel (WC) architecture, which allows for extending device width by integrating vertical fin-like substrate corrugations giving rise to up to 50% larger device width, without occupying extra chip area. The novel architecture shows 2x higher output drive current per unit chip area when compared to conventional planar architecture. The current increase is attributed to both the extra device width and 50% enhancement in field effect mobility due to electrostatic gating effects. Digital circuits are fabricated to demonstrate the potential of integrating WC TFT based circuits. WC inverters have shown 2× the peak-to-peak output voltage for the same input, and ~2× the operation frequency of the planar inverters for the same peak-to-peak output voltage. WC NAND circuits have shown 2× higher peak-to-peak output voltage, and 3× lower high-to-low propagation

  10. Adapting MR-BrainPET scans for comparison with conventional PET: experiences with dynamic FET-PET in brain tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohmann, Philipp; Herzog, Hans; Kops, Elena Rota; Stoffels, Gabriele; Filss, Christian [Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine (INM-3,-4,-5), Forschungszentrum Juelich, Juelich (Germany); Galldiks, Norbert [Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine (INM-3,-4,-5), Forschungszentrum Juelich, Juelich (Germany); Department of Neurology, University of Cologne, Cologne (Germany); Coenen, Heinrich H; Shah, N Jon; Langen, Karl-Josef [Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine (INM-3,-4,-5), Forschungszentrum Juelich, Juelich (Germany)

    2014-07-29

    Imaging results from subsequent measurements (preclinical 3T MR-BrainPET, HR+) are compared. O-(2-[{sup 18}F]fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine (FET) may exhibit non-uniform tracer uptake in gliomas. The aim was to analyse and adapt the physical properties of the scanners and study variations of biological tumour volume (BTV) in early and late FET-PET.

  11. Monsieur Philippe Galli Préfet de l’Ain France

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2011-01-01

    Photo 35: Le chef du département Physique P. Bloch, le porte-parole de la Collaboration CMS G. Tonelli,le Sous-Préfet de Gex O. Laurens-Bernard, le chef du département Technologie F. Bordry, le Péfet de l'Ain P. Galli et le Directeur-général R. Heuer. Photo 62: signature du livre d'or avec le Directeur de la recherche et de l'informatique S. Bertolucci.

  12. Inverse scaling trends for charge-trapping-induced degradation of FinFETs performance

    OpenAIRE

    Amoroso, Salvatore Maria; Georgiev, Vihar P.; Gerrer, Louis; Towie, Ewan; Wang, Xingsheng; Riddet, Craig; Brown, Andrew Robert; Asenov, Asen

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the impact of a single discrete charge trapped at the top oxide interface on the performance of scaled nMOS FinFET transistors. The charge-trapping-induced gate voltage shift is simulated as a function of the device scaling and for several regimes of conduction-from subthreshold to ON-state. Contrary to what is expected for planar MOSFETs, we show that the trap impact decreases with scaling down the FinFET size and the applied gate voltage. By comparing drift-dif...

  13. Modeling Nanoscale FinFET Performance by a Neural Network Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin He

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a neural network method to model nanometer FinFET performance. The principle of this method is firstly introduced and its application in modeling DC and conductance characteristics of nanoscale FinFET transistor is demonstrated in detail. It is shown that this method does not need parameter extraction routine while its prediction of the transistor performance has a small relative error within 1 % compared with measured data, thus this new method is as accurate as the physics based surface potential model.

  14. Integrated analysis of dynamic FET PET/CT parameters, histology, and methylation profiling of 44 gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röhrich, Manuel; Huang, Kristin; Schrimpf, Daniel; Albert, Nathalie L; Hielscher, Thomas; von Deimling, Andreas; Schüller, Ulrich; Dimitrakopoulou-Strauss, Antonia; Haberkorn, Uwe

    2018-05-07

    Dynamic 18 F-FET PET/CT is a powerful tool for the diagnosis of gliomas. 18 F-FET PET time-activity curves (TAC) allow differentiation between histological low-grade gliomas (LGG) and high-grade gliomas (HGG). Molecular methods such as epigenetic profiling are of rising importance for glioma grading and subclassification. Here, we analysed dynamic 18 F-FET PET data, and the histological and epigenetic features of 44 gliomas. Dynamic 18 F-FET PET was performed in 44 patients with newly diagnosed, untreated glioma: 10 WHO grade II glioma, 13 WHO grade III glioma and 21 glioblastoma (GBM). All patients underwent stereotactic biopsy or tumour resection after 18 F-FET PET imaging. As well as histological analysis of tissue samples, DNA was subjected to epigenetic analysis using the Illumina 850 K methylation array. TACs, standardized uptake values corrected for background uptake in healthy tissue (SUVmax/BG), time to peak (TTP) and kinetic modelling parameters were correlated with histological diagnoses and with epigenetic signatures. Multivariate analyses were performed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of 18 F-FET PET in relation to the tumour groups identified by histological and methylation-based analysis. Epigenetic profiling led to substantial tumour reclassification, with six grade II/III gliomas reclassified as GBM. Overlap of HGG-typical TACs and LGG-typical TACs was dramatically reduced when tumours were clustered on the basis of their methylation profile. SUVmax/BG values of GBM were higher than those of LGGs following both histological diagnosis and methylation-based diagnosis. The differences in TTP between GBMs and grade II/III gliomas were greater following methylation-based diagnosis than following histological diagnosis. Kinetic modeling showed that relative K1 and fractal dimension (FD) values significantly differed in histology- and methylation-based GBM and grade II/III glioma between those diagnosed histologically and those diagnosed by

  15. Relapse patterns after radiochemotherapy of glioblastoma with FET PET-guided boost irradiation and simulation to optimize radiation target volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piroth, Marc D.; Galldiks, Norbert; Pinkawa, Michael; Holy, Richard; Stoffels, Gabriele; Ermert, Johannes; Mottaghy, Felix M.; Shah, N. Jon; Langen, Karl-Josef; Eble, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    O-(2-18 F-fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine-(FET)-PET may be helpful to improve the definition of radiation target volumes in glioblastomas compared with MRI. We analyzed the relapse patterns in FET-PET after a FET- and MRI-based integrated-boost intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) of glioblastomas to perform an optimized target volume definition. A relapse pattern analysis was performed in 13 glioblastoma patients treated with radiochemotherapy within a prospective phase-II-study between 2008 and 2009. Radiotherapy was performed as an integrated-boost intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IB-IMRT). The prescribed dose was 72 Gy for the boost target volume, based on baseline FET-PET (FET-1) and 60 Gy for the MRI-based (MRI-1) standard target volume. The single doses were 2.4 and 2.0 Gy, respectively. Location and volume of recurrent tumors in FET-2 and MRI-2 were analyzed related to initial tumor, detected in baseline FET-1. Variable target volumes were created theoretically based on FET-1 to optimally cover recurrent tumor. The tumor volume overlap in FET and MRI was poor both at baseline (median 12 %; range 0–32) and at time of recurrence (13 %; 0–100). Recurrent tumor volume in FET-2 was localized to 39 % (12–91) in the initial tumor volume (FET-1). Over the time a shrinking (mean 12 (5–26) ml) and shifting (mean 6 (1–10 mm) of the resection cavity was seen. A simulated target volume based on active tumor in FET-1 with an additional safety margin of 7 mm around the FET-1 volume covered recurrent FET tumor volume (FET-2) significantly better than a corresponding target volume based on contrast enhancement in MRI-1 with a same safety margin of 7 mm (100 % (54–100) versus 85 % (0–100); p < 0.01). A simulated planning target volume (PTV), based on FET-1 and additional 7 mm margin plus 5 mm margin for setup-uncertainties was significantly smaller than the conventional, MR-based PTV applied in this study (median 160 (112–297) ml versus 231 (117–386) ml, p < 0

  16. Simultaneous evaluation of brain tumour metabolism, structure and blood volume using [18F]-fluoroethyltyrosine (FET) PET/MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Otto M.; Larsen, Vibeke A; Muhic, Aida

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Both [(18)F]-fluoroethyltyrosine (FET) PET and blood volume (BV) MRI supplement routine T1-weighted contrast-enhanced MRI in gliomas, but whether the two modalities provide identical or complementary information is unresolved. The aims of the study were to investigate the feasibility...... of simultaneous structural MRI, BV MRI and FET PET of gliomas using an integrated PET/MRI scanner and to assess the spatial and quantitative agreement in tumour imaging between BV MRI and FET PET. METHODS: A total of 32 glioma patients underwent a 20-min static simultaneous PET/MRI acquisition on a Siemens m......MR system 20 min after injection of 200 MBq FET. The MRI protocol included standard structural MRI and dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) imaging for BV measurements. Maximal relative tumour FET uptake (TBRmax) and BV (rBVmax), and Dice coefficients were calculated to assess the quantitative and spatial...

  17. Tunnel field-effect transistor charge-trapping memory with steep subthreshold slope and large memory window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kino, Hisashi; Fukushima, Takafumi; Tanaka, Tetsu

    2018-04-01

    Charge-trapping memory requires the increase of bit density per cell and a larger memory window for lower-power operation. A tunnel field-effect transistor (TFET) can achieve to increase the bit density per cell owing to its steep subthreshold slope. In addition, a TFET structure has an asymmetric structure, which is promising for achieving a larger memory window. A TFET with the N-type gate shows a higher electric field between the P-type source and the N-type gate edge than the conventional FET structure. This high electric field enables large amounts of charges to be injected into the charge storage layer. In this study, we fabricated silicon-oxide-nitride-oxide-semiconductor (SONOS) memory devices with the TFET structure and observed a steep subthreshold slope and a larger memory window.

  18. Field-Effect Transistors Based on Networks of Highly Aligned, Chemically Synthesized N = 7 Armchair Graphene Nanoribbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passi, Vikram; Gahoi, Amit; Senkovskiy, Boris V; Haberer, Danny; Fischer, Felix R; Grüneis, Alexander; Lemme, Max C

    2018-03-28

    We report on the experimental demonstration and electrical characterization of N = 7 armchair graphene nanoribbon (7-AGNR) field effect transistors. The back-gated transistors are fabricated from atomically precise and highly aligned 7-AGNRs, synthesized with a bottom-up approach. The large area transfer process holds the promise of scalable device fabrication with atomically precise nanoribbons. The channels of the FETs are approximately 30 times longer than the average nanoribbon length of 30 nm to 40 nm. The density of the GNRs is high, so that transport can be assumed well-above the percolation threshold. The long channel transistors exhibit a maximum I ON / I OFF current ratio of 87.5.

  19. Enhancement of hole mobility in InSe monolayer via an InSe and black phosphorus heterostructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yi-Min; Shi, Jun-Jie; Xia, Congxin; Zhang, Min; Du, Juan; Huang, Pu; Wu, Meng; Wang, Hui; Cen, Yu-Lang; Pan, Shu-Hang

    2017-10-05

    To enhance the low hole mobility (∼40 cm 2 V -1 s -1 ) of InSe monolayer, a novel two-dimensional (2D) van der Waals heterostructure made of InSe and black phosphorus (BP) monolayers with high hole mobility (∼10 3 cm 2 V -1 s -1 ) has been constructed and its structural and electronic properties are investigated using first-principles calculations. We find that the InSe/BP heterostructure exhibits a direct band gap of 1.39 eV and type-II band alignment with electrons (holes) located in the InSe (BP) layer. The band offsets of InSe and BP are 0.78 eV for the conduction band minimum and 0.86 eV for the valence band maximum, respectively. Surprisingly, the hole mobility in the InSe/BP heterostructure exceeds 10 4 cm 2 V -1 s -1 , which is one order of magnitude larger than the hole mobility of BP and three orders larger than that of the InSe monolayer. The electron mobility is also increased to 3 × 10 3 cm 2 V -1 s -1 . The physical reason has been analyzed deeply, and a universal method is proposed to improve the carrier mobility of 2D materials by forming heterostructures with them and other 2D materials with complementary properties. The InSe/BP heterostructure can thus be widely used in nanoscale InSe-based field-effect transistors, photodetectors and photovoltaic devices due to its type-II band alignment and high carrier mobility.

  20. Large for gestational age and macrosomia in singletons born after frozen/thawed embryo transfer (FET) in assisted reproductive technology (ART)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berntsen, Sine; Pinborg, Anja

    2018-01-01

    Increase in success rates with frozen embryo transfer (FET) and reduced risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) and multiple pregnancies has lead to a steady rise in FET. Further, FET is associated with lower risk of prematurity and low birth weight in singletons, when compared with fres...

  1. Heterostructures based on inorganic and organic van der Waals systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Gwan-Hyoung; Lee, Chul-Ho; Zande, Arend M. van der; Han, Minyong; Cui, Xu; Arefe, Ghidewon; Hone, James; Nuckolls, Colin; Heinz, Tony F.; Kim, Philip

    2014-01-01

    The two-dimensional limit of layered materials has recently been realized through the use of van der Waals (vdW) heterostructures composed of weakly interacting layers. In this paper, we describe two different classes of vdW heterostructures: inorganic vdW heterostructures prepared by co-lamination and restacking; and organic-inorganic hetero-epitaxy created by physical vapor deposition of organic molecule crystals on an inorganic vdW substrate. Both types of heterostructures exhibit atomically clean vdW interfaces. Employing such vdW heterostructures, we have demonstrated various novel devices, including graphene/hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) and MoS 2 heterostructures for memory devices; graphene/MoS 2 /WSe 2 /graphene vertical p-n junctions for photovoltaic devices, and organic crystals on hBN with graphene electrodes for high-performance transistors

  2. Strain-Gated Field Effect Transistor of a MoS2-ZnO 2D-1D Hybrid Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Libo; Xue, Fei; Li, Xiaohui; Huang, Xin; Wang, Longfei; Kou, Jinzong; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2016-01-26

    Two-dimensional (2D) molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) is an exciting material due to its unique electrical, optical, and piezoelectric properties. Owing to an intrinsic band gap of 1.2-1.9 eV, monolayer or a-few-layer MoS2 is used for fabricating field effect transistors (FETs) with high electron mobility and on/off ratio. However, the traditional FETs are controlled by an externally supplied gate voltage, which may not be sensitive enough to directly interface with a mechanical stimulus for applications in electronic skin. Here we report a type of top-pressure/force-gated field effect transistors (PGFETs) based on a hybrid structure of a 2D MoS2 flake and 1D ZnO nanowire (NW) array. Once an external pressure is applied, the piezoelectric polarization charges created at the tips of ZnO NWs grown on MoS2 act as a gate voltage to tune/control the source-drain transport property in MoS2. At a 6.25 MPa applied stimulus on a packaged device, the source-drain current can be tuned for ∼25%, equivalent to the results of applying an extra -5 V back gate voltage. Another type of PGFET with a dielectric layer (Al2O3) sandwiched between MoS2 and ZnO also shows consistent results. A theoretical model is proposed to interpret the received data. This study sets the foundation for applying the 2D material-based FETs in the field of artificial intelligence.

  3. Growth-substrate induced performance degradation in chemically synthesized monolayer MoS{sub 2} field effect transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amani, Matin; Chin, Matthew L.; Mazzoni, Alexander L.; Burke, Robert A.; Dubey, Madan, E-mail: madan.dubey.civ@mail.mil [Sensors and Electron Devices Directorate, US Army Research Laboratory, Adelphi, Maryland 20723 (United States); Najmaei, Sina; Ajayan, Pulickel M.; Lou, Jun [Department of Materials Science and Nanoengineering, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States)

    2014-05-19

    We report on the electronic transport properties of single-layer thick chemical vapor deposition (CVD) grown molybdenum disulfide (MoS{sub 2}) field-effect transistors (FETs) on Si/SiO{sub 2} substrates. MoS{sub 2} has been extensively investigated for the past two years as a potential semiconductor analogue to graphene. To date, MoS{sub 2} samples prepared via mechanical exfoliation have demonstrated field-effect mobility values which are significantly higher than that of CVD-grown MoS{sub 2}. In this study, we will show that the intrinsic electronic performance of CVD-grown MoS{sub 2} is equal or superior to that of exfoliated material and has been possibly masked by a combination of interfacial contamination on the growth substrate and residual tensile strain resulting from the high-temperature growth process. We are able to quantify this strain in the as-grown material using pre- and post-transfer metrology and microscopy of the same crystals. Moreover, temperature-dependent electrical measurements made on as-grown and transferred MoS{sub 2} devices following an identical fabrication process demonstrate the improvement in field-effect mobility.

  4. Imaging using long range dipolar field effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutteridge, Sarah

    2002-01-01

    The work in this thesis has been undertaken by the author, except where indicated in reference, within the Magnetic Resonance Centre, at the University of Nottingham during the period from October 1998 to March 2001. This thesis details the different characteristics of the long range dipolar field and its application to magnetic resonance imaging. The long range dipolar field is usually neglected in nuclear magnetic resonance experiments, as molecular tumbling decouples its effect at short distances. However, in highly polarised samples residual long range components have a significant effect on the evolution of the magnetisation, giving rise to multiple spin echoes and unexpected quantum coherences. Three applications utilising these dipolar field effects are documented in this thesis. The first demonstrates the spatial sensitivity of the signal generated via dipolar field effects in structured liquid state samples. The second utilises the signal produced by the dipolar field to create proton spin density maps. These maps directly yield an absolute value for the water content of the sample that is unaffected by relaxation and any RF inhomogeneity or calibration errors in the radio frequency pulses applied. It has also been suggested that the signal generated by dipolar field effects may provide novel contrast in functional magnetic resonance imaging. In the third application, the effects of microscopic susceptibility variation on the signal are studied and the relaxation rate of the signal is compared to that of a conventional spin echo. (author)

  5. A review of nano-optics in metamaterial hybrid heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Mahi R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Western University, London N6G 3K7 (Canada)

    2014-03-31

    We present a review for the nonlinear nano-optics in quantum dots doped in a metamaterial heterostructure. The heterostructure is formed by depositing a metamaterial on a dielectric substrate and ensemble of noninteracting quantum dots are doped near the heterostructure interface. It is shown that there is enhancement of the second harmonic generation due to the surface plasmon polaritons field present at the interface.

  6. Silicon nanotube field effect transistor with core-shell gate stacks for enhanced high-performance operation and area scaling benefits

    KAUST Repository

    Fahad, Hossain M.

    2011-10-12

    We introduce the concept of a silicon nanotube field effect transistor whose unique core-shell gate stacks help achieve full volume inversion by giving a surge in minority carrier concentration in the near vicinity of the ultrathin channel and at the same time rapid roll-off at the source and drain junctions constituting velocity saturation-induced higher drive current-enhanced high performance per device with efficient real estate consumption. The core-shell gate stacks also provide superior short channel effects control than classical planar metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) and gate-all-around nanowire FET. The proposed device offers the true potential to be an ideal blend for quantum ballistic transport study of device property control by bottom-up approach and high-density integration compatibility using top-down state-of-the-art complementary metal oxide semiconductor flow. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  7. Silicon nanotube field effect transistor with core-shell gate stacks for enhanced high-performance operation and area scaling benefits

    KAUST Repository

    Fahad, Hossain M.; Smith, Casey; Rojas, Jhonathan Prieto; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2011-01-01

    We introduce the concept of a silicon nanotube field effect transistor whose unique core-shell gate stacks help achieve full volume inversion by giving a surge in minority carrier concentration in the near vicinity of the ultrathin channel and at the same time rapid roll-off at the source and drain junctions constituting velocity saturation-induced higher drive current-enhanced high performance per device with efficient real estate consumption. The core-shell gate stacks also provide superior short channel effects control than classical planar metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) and gate-all-around nanowire FET. The proposed device offers the true potential to be an ideal blend for quantum ballistic transport study of device property control by bottom-up approach and high-density integration compatibility using top-down state-of-the-art complementary metal oxide semiconductor flow. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  8. Non-Planar Nano-Scale Fin Field Effect Transistors on Textile, Paper, Wood, Stone, and Vinyl via Soft Material-Enabled Double-Transfer Printing

    KAUST Repository

    Rojas, Jhonathan Prieto; Sevilla, Galo T.; Alfaraj, Nasir; Ghoneim, Mohamed T.; Kutbee, Arwa T.; Sridharan, Ashvitha; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    The ability to incorporate rigid but high-performance nano-scale non-planar complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) electronics with curvilinear, irregular, or asymmetric shapes and surfaces is an arduous but timely challenge in enabling the production of wearable electronics with an in-situ information-processing ability in the digital world. Therefore, we are demonstrating a soft-material enabled double-transfer-based process to integrate flexible, silicon-based, nano-scale, non-planar, fin-shaped field effect transistors (FinFETs) and planar metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) on various asymmetric surfaces to study their compatibility and enhanced applicability in various emerging fields. FinFET devices feature sub-20 nm dimensions and state-of-the-art, high-κ/metal gate stack, showing no performance alteration after the transfer process. A further analysis of the transferred MOSFET devices, featuring 1 μm gate length exhibits ION ~70 μA/μm (VDS = 2 V, VGS = 2 V) and a low sub-threshold swing of around 90 mV/dec, proving that a soft interfacial material can act both as a strong adhesion/interposing layer between devices and final substrate as well as a means to reduce strain, which ultimately helps maintain the device’s performance with insignificant deterioration even at a high bending state.

  9. Nonplanar Nanoscale Fin Field Effect Transistors on Textile, Paper, Wood, Stone, and Vinyl via Soft Material-Enabled Double-Transfer Printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Jhonathan P; Torres Sevilla, Galo A; Alfaraj, Nasir; Ghoneim, Mohamed T; Kutbee, Arwa T; Sridharan, Ashvitha; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2015-05-26

    The ability to incorporate rigid but high-performance nanoscale nonplanar complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) electronics with curvilinear, irregular, or asymmetric shapes and surfaces is an arduous but timely challenge in enabling the production of wearable electronics with an in situ information-processing ability in the digital world. Therefore, we are demonstrating a soft-material enabled double-transfer-based process to integrate flexible, silicon-based, nanoscale, nonplanar, fin-shaped field effect transistors (FinFETs) and planar metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) on various asymmetric surfaces to study their compatibility and enhanced applicability in various emerging fields. FinFET devices feature sub-20 nm dimensions and state-of-the-art, high-κ/metal gate stacks, showing no performance alteration after the transfer process. A further analysis of the transferred MOSFET devices, featuring 1 μm gate length, exhibits an ION value of nearly 70 μA/μm (VDS = 2 V, VGS = 2 V) and a low subthreshold swing of around 90 mV/dec, proving that a soft interfacial material can act both as a strong adhesion/interposing layer between devices and final substrate as well as a means to reduce strain, which ultimately helps maintain the device's performance with insignificant deterioration even at a high bending state.

  10. Non-Planar Nano-Scale Fin Field Effect Transistors on Textile, Paper, Wood, Stone, and Vinyl via Soft Material-Enabled Double-Transfer Printing

    KAUST Repository

    Rojas, Jhonathan Prieto

    2015-05-01

    The ability to incorporate rigid but high-performance nano-scale non-planar complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) electronics with curvilinear, irregular, or asymmetric shapes and surfaces is an arduous but timely challenge in enabling the production of wearable electronics with an in-situ information-processing ability in the digital world. Therefore, we are demonstrating a soft-material enabled double-transfer-based process to integrate flexible, silicon-based, nano-scale, non-planar, fin-shaped field effect transistors (FinFETs) and planar metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) on various asymmetric surfaces to study their compatibility and enhanced applicability in various emerging fields. FinFET devices feature sub-20 nm dimensions and state-of-the-art, high-κ/metal gate stack, showing no performance alteration after the transfer process. A further analysis of the transferred MOSFET devices, featuring 1 μm gate length exhibits ION ~70 μA/μm (VDS = 2 V, VGS = 2 V) and a low sub-threshold swing of around 90 mV/dec, proving that a soft interfacial material can act both as a strong adhesion/interposing layer between devices and final substrate as well as a means to reduce strain, which ultimately helps maintain the device’s performance with insignificant deterioration even at a high bending state.

  11. Vertical-Cavity In-plane Heterostructures: Physics and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taghizadeh, Alireza; Mørk, Jesper; Chung, Il-Sug

    2015-01-01

    We show that the in-plane heterostructures realized in vertical cavities with high contrast grating(HCG) reflector enables exotic configurations of heterostructure and photonic wells. In photonic crystal heterostructures forming a photonic well, the property of a confined mode is determined...... by the well width and barrier height. We show that in vertical-cavity in-plane heterostructures, anisotropic dispersion curvatures plays a key role as well, leading to exotic effects such as a photonic well with conduction band like well and a valence band like barrier. We investigate three examples...

  12. System-Level Sensitivity Analysis of SiNW-bioFET-Based Biosensing Using Lockin Amplification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patou, François; Dimaki, Maria; Kjærgaard, Claus

    2017-01-01

    carry out for the first time the system-level sensitivity analysis of a generic SiNW-bioFET model coupled to a custom-design instrument based on the lock-in amplifier. By investigating a large parametric space spanning over both sensor and instrumentation specifications, we demonstrate that systemwide...

  13. Effects of ultra-thin Si-fin body widths upon SOI PMOS FinFETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaw, Yue-Gie; Chen, Chii-Wen; Liao, Wen-Shiang; Wang, Mu-Chun; Zou, Xuecheng

    2018-05-01

    Nano-node tri-gate FinFET devices have been developed after integrating a 14 Å nitrided gate oxide upon the silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafers established on an advanced CMOS logic platform. These vertical double gate (FinFET) devices with ultra-thin silicon fin (Si-fin) widths ranging from 27 nm to 17 nm and gate length down to 30 nm have been successfully developed with a 193 nm scanner lithography tool. Combining the cobalt fully silicidation and the CESL strain technology beneficial for PMOS FinFETs was incorporated into this work. Detailed analyses of Id-Vg characteristics, threshold voltage (Vt), and drain-induced barrier lowering (DIBL) illustrate that the thinnest 17 nm Si-fin width FinFET exhibits the best gate controllability due to its better suppression of short channel effect (SCE). However, higher source/drain resistance (RSD), channel mobility degradation due to dry etch steps, or “current crowding effect” will slightly limit its transconductance (Gm) and drive current.

  14. Precursor effect on the property and catalytic behavior of Fe-TS-1 in butadiene epoxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Mei; Zhao, Huahua; Yang, Jian; Zhao, Jun; Song, Huanling; Chou, Lingjun

    2017-11-01

    The effect of iron precursor on the property and catalytic behavior of iron modified titanium silicalite molecular sieve (Fe-TS-1) catalysts in butadiene selective epoxidation has been studied. Three Fe-TS-1 catalysts were prepared, using iron nitrate, iron chloride and iron sulfate as precursors, which played an important role in adjusting the textural properties and chemical states of TS-1. Of the prepared Fe-TS-1 catalysts, those modified by iron nitrate (FN-TS-1) exhibited a significant enhanced performance in butadiene selective epoxidation compared to those derived from iron sulfate (FS-TS-1) or iron chloride (FC-TS-1) precursors. To obtain a deep understanding of their structure-performance relationship, X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Temperature programmed desorption of NH3 (NH3-TPD), Diffuse reflectance UV-Vis spectra (DR UV-Vis), Fourier transformed infrared spectra (FT-IR) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) were conducted to characterize Fe-TS-1 catalysts. Experimental results indicated that textural structures and acid sites of modified catalysts as well as the type of Fe species influenced by the precursors were all responsible for the activity and product distribution.

  15. Intrapartální fetální monitoring, senzitivita a specificita metod

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hájek, Z.; Srp, B.; Pavlíková, Markéta; Zvárová, Jana; Liška, K.; Haddad El, R.; Pašková, A.; Pařízek, A.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 71, č. 4 (2006), s. 263-267 ISSN 1210-7832 Grant - others:GA MZd(CZ) NH7664 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : senzitivita * specificita * diagnostika hypoxie * kardiotokografie * fetální pulzní oxymetrie * ST analýza EKG plodu Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research

  16. Use of FET in automatic scanning of measurements using thermocouples and self-powered neutron detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plaige, Yves.

    1977-01-01

    Advantages lying in using FET switches in the relays of multiplexing systems are shown with two examples of application. Their performance as regard fast reliable operation are used in temperature measurement scanning inside nuclear reactors. As for current measurements using self-powered neutron detectors, the weak leakage currents of said switches ( [fr

  17. Thermal response in van der Waals heterostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Gandi, Appala

    2016-11-21

    We solve numerically the Boltzmann transport equations of the phonons and electrons to understand the thermoelectric response in heterostructures of M2CO2 (M: Ti, Zr, Hf) MXenes with transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers. Low frequency optical phonons are found to occur as a consequence of the van der Waals bonding, contribute significantly to the thermal transport, and compensate for the reduced contributions of the acoustic phonons (increased scattering cross-sections in heterostructures), such that the thermal conductivities turn out to be similar to those of the bare MXenes. Our results indicate that the important superlattice design approach of thermoelectrics (to reduce the thermal conductivity) may be effective for two-dimensional van der Waals materials when used in conjunction with intercalation. © 2016 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  18. Superconducting cuprate heterostructures for hot electron bolometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, B.; Yakobov, R.; Vitkalov, S. A.; Sergeev, A.

    2013-11-01

    Transport properties of the resistive state of quasi-two dimensional superconducting heterostructures containing ultrathin La2-xSrxCuO4 layers synthesized using molecular beam epitaxy are studied. The electron transport exhibits strong deviation from Ohm's law, δV ˜γI3, with a coefficient γ(T) that correlates with the temperature variation of the resistivity dρ /dT. Close to the normal state, analysis of the nonlinear behavior in terms of electron heating yields an electron-phonon thermal conductance per unit area ge -ph≈1 W/K cm2 at T = 20 K, one-two orders of magnitude smaller than in typical superconductors. This makes superconducting LaSrCuO heterostructures to be attractive candidate for the next generation of hot electron bolometers with greatly improved sensitivity.

  19. Superconducting cuprate heterostructures for hot electron bolometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, B.; Yakobov, R.; Vitkalov, S. A.; Sergeev, A.

    2013-01-01

    Transport properties of the resistive state of quasi-two dimensional superconducting heterostructures containing ultrathin La 2−x Sr x CuO 4 layers synthesized using molecular beam epitaxy are studied. The electron transport exhibits strong deviation from Ohm's law, δV∼γI 3 , with a coefficient γ(T) that correlates with the temperature variation of the resistivity dρ/dT. Close to the normal state, analysis of the nonlinear behavior in terms of electron heating yields an electron-phonon thermal conductance per unit area g e−ph ≈1 W/K cm 2 at T = 20 K, one-two orders of magnitude smaller than in typical superconductors. This makes superconducting LaSrCuO heterostructures to be attractive candidate for the next generation of hot electron bolometers with greatly improved sensitivity

  20. Ultrafast strain engineering in complex oxide heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popovich, Paul; Caviglia, Andrea; Hu, Wanzheng; Bromberger, Hubertus; Singla, Rashmi; Mitrano, Matteo; Hoffmann, Matthias C.; Kaiser, Stefan; Foerst, Michael [Max-Planck Research Group for Structural Dynamics - Center for Free Electron Laser Science, University of Hamburg (Germany); Scherwitzl, Raoul; Zubko, Pavlo; Gariglio, Sergio; Triscone, Jean-Marc [Departement de Physique de la Matiere Condensee, University of Geneva, 24 Quai Ernest-Ansermet, 1211 Geneve 4, Geneva (Switzerland); Cavalleri, Andrea [Max-Planck Research Group for Structural Dynamics - Center for Free Electron Laser Science, University of Hamburg (Germany); Department of Physics, Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-01

    The mechanical coupling between the substrate and the thin film is expected to be effective on the ultrafast timescale, and could be exploited for the dynamic control of materials properties. Here, we demonstrate that a large-amplitude mid-infrared field, made resonant with a stretching mode of the substrate, can switch the electronic properties of a thin film across an interface. Exploiting dynamic strain propagation between different components of a heterostructure, insulating antiferromagnetic NdNiO{sub 3} is driven through a prompt, five-order-of-magnitude increase of the electrical conductivity, with resonant frequency and susceptibility that is controlled by choice of the substrate material. Vibrational phase control, extended here to a wide class of heterostructures and interfaces, may be conductive to new strategies for electronic phase control at THz repetition rates.

  1. Multiple scattering theory for superconducting heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ujfalussy, Balazs [Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Budapest (Hungary)

    2016-07-01

    We generalize the screened Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker method for solving the corresponding Kohn-Sham-Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations for surfaces and interfaces. As an application of the theory, we study the quasiparticle spectrum of Au overlayers on a Nb(100) host. We find that within the superconducting gap region, the quasiparticle spectrum consists of Andreev bound states with a dispersion which is closely connected to the underlying electronic structure of the overlayer. We also find that the spectrum has a strongly k-dependent induced gap. The properties of the gap are discussed in relation to the thickness of the overlayer, and it is shown that certain states do not participate in the Andreev scattering process. From the thickness dependence of the gap size we calculate the superconducting critical temperature of Au/Nb(100) heterostructures what we compare with with experiments. Moreover, predictions are made for similar heterostructures of other compounds.

  2. Local switching of two-dimensional superconductivity using the ferroelectric field effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, K. S.; Gabay, M.; Jaccard, D.; Shibuya, K.; Ohnishi, T.; Lippmaa, M.; Triscone, J.-M.

    2006-05-01

    Correlated oxides display a variety of extraordinary physical properties including high-temperature superconductivity and colossal magnetoresistance. In these materials, strong electronic correlations often lead to competing ground states that are sensitive to many parameters-in particular the doping level-so that complex phase diagrams are observed. A flexible way to explore the role of doping is to tune the electron or hole concentration with electric fields, as is done in standard semiconductor field effect transistors. Here we demonstrate a model oxide system based on high-quality heterostructures in which the ferroelectric field effect approach can be studied. We use a single-crystal film of the perovskite superconductor Nb-doped SrTiO3 as the superconducting channel and ferroelectric Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 as the gate oxide. Atomic force microscopy is used to locally reverse the ferroelectric polarization, thus inducing large resistivity and carrier modulations, resulting in a clear shift in the superconducting critical temperature. Field-induced switching from the normal state to the (zero resistance) superconducting state was achieved at a well-defined temperature. This unique system could lead to a field of research in which devices are realized by locally defining in the same material superconducting and normal regions with `perfect' interfaces, the interface being purely electronic. Using this approach, one could potentially design one-dimensional superconducting wires, superconducting rings and junctions, superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) or arrays of pinning centres.

  3. Mesoscopic Field-Effect-Induced Devices in Depleted Two-Dimensional Electron Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachsoliani, N.; Platonov, S.; Wieck, A. D.; Ludwig, S.

    2017-12-01

    Nanoelectronic devices embedded in the two-dimensional electron system (2DES) of a GaAs /(Al ,Ga )As heterostructure enable a large variety of applications ranging from fundamental research to high-speed transistors. Electrical circuits are thereby commonly defined by creating barriers for carriers by the selective depletion of a preexisting 2DES. We explore an alternative approach: we deplete the 2DES globally by applying a negative voltage to a global top gate and screen the electric field of the top gate only locally using nanoscale gates placed on the wafer surface between the plane of the 2DES and the top gate. Free carriers are located beneath the screen gates, and their properties can be controlled by means of geometry and applied voltages. This method promises considerable advantages for the definition of complex circuits by the electric-field effect, as it allows us to reduce the number of gates and simplify gate geometries. Examples are carrier systems with ring topology or large arrays of quantum dots. We present a first exploration of this method pursuing field effect, Hall effect, and Aharonov-Bohm measurements to study electrostatic, dynamic, and coherent properties.

  4. FinFET memory cell improvements for higher immunity against single event upsets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajit, Ahmed Sattar

    The 21st century is witnessing a tremendous demand for transistors. Life amenities have incorporated the transistor in every aspect of daily life, ranging from toys to rocket science. Day by day, scaling down the transistor is becoming an imperious necessity. However, it is not a straightforward process; instead, it faces overwhelming challenges. Due to these scaling changes, new technologies, such as FinFETs for example, have emerged as alternatives to the conventional bulk-CMOS technology. FinFET has more control over the channel, therefore, leakage current is reduced. FinFET could bridge the gap between silicon devices and non-silicon devices. The semiconductor industry is now incorporating FinFETs in systems and subsystems. For example, Intel has been using them in their newest processors, delivering potential saving powers and increased speeds to memory circuits. Memory sub-systems are considered a vital component in the digital era. In memory, few rows are read or written at a time, while the most rows are static; hence, reducing leakage current increases the performance. However, as a transistor shrinks, it becomes more vulnerable to the effects from radioactive particle strikes. If a particle hits a node in a memory cell, the content might flip; consequently, leading to corrupting stored data. Critical fields, such as medical and aerospace, where there are no second chances and cannot even afford to operate at 99.99% accuracy, has induced me to find a rigid circuit in a radiated working environment. This research focuses on a wide spectrum of memories such as 6T SRAM, 8T SRAM, and DICE memory cells using FinFET technology and finding the best platform in terms of Read and Write delay, susceptibility level of SNM, RSNM, leakage current, energy consumption, and Single Event Upsets (SEUs). This research has shown that the SEU tolerance that 6T and 8T FinFET SRAMs provide may not be acceptable in medical and aerospace applications where there is a very high

  5. High field-effect mobility at the (Sr,Ba)SnO{sub 3}/BaSnO{sub 3} interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiwara, Kohei, E-mail: kfujiwara@imr.tohoku.ac.jp; Nishihara, Kazuki; Shiogai, Junichi; Tsukazaki, Atsushi [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2016-08-15

    A perovskite oxide, BaSnO{sub 3}, has been classified as one of transparent conducting materials with high electron mobility, and its application for field-effect transistors has been the focus of recent research. Here we report transistor operation in BaSnO{sub 3}-based heterostructures with atomically smooth surfaces, fabricated on SrTiO{sub 3} substrates by the (Sr,Ba)SnO{sub 3} buffer technique. Indeed, modulation of band profiles at the channel interfaces with the insertion of wide bandgap (Sr,Ba)SnO{sub 3} as a barrier layer results in a significant improvement of field-effect mobility, implying effective carrier doping at the regulated heterointerface. These results provide an important step towards realization of high-performance BaSnO{sub 3}-based field-effect transistors.

  6. Proximity effects in topological insulator heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiao-Guang; Wu Guang-Fen; Zhang Gu-Feng; Culcer Dimitrie; Zhang Zhen-Yu; Chen Hua

    2013-01-01

    Topological insulators (TIs) are bulk insulators that possess robust helical conducting states along their interfaces with conventional insulators. A tremendous research effort has recently been devoted to Tl-based heterostructures, in which conventional proximity effects give rise to a series of exotic physical phenomena. This paper reviews our recent studies on the potential existence of topological proximity effects at the interface between a topological insulator and a normal insulator or other topologically trivial systems. Using first-principles approaches, we have realized the tunability of the vertical location of the topological helical state via intriguing dual-proximity effects. To further elucidate the control parameters of this effect, we have used the graphene-based heterostructures as prototypical systems to reveal a more complete phase diagram. On the application side of the topological helical states, we have presented a catalysis example, where the topological helical state plays an essential role in facilitating surface reactions by serving as an effective electron bath. These discoveries lay the foundation for accurate manipulation of the real space properties of the topological helical state in TI-based heterostructures and pave the way for realization of the salient functionality of topological insulators in future device applications. (topical review - low-dimensional nanostructures and devices)

  7. Graphene diamond-like carbon films heterostructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Fang; Afandi, Abdulkareem; Jackman, Richard B.

    2015-01-01

    A limitation to the potential use of graphene as an electronic material is the lack of control over the 2D materials properties once it is deposited on a supporting substrate. Here, the use of Diamond-like Carbon (DLC) interlayers between the substrate and the graphene is shown to offer the prospect of overcoming this problem. The DLC films used here, more properly known as a-C:H with ∼25% hydrogen content, have been terminated with N or F moieties prior to graphene deposition. It is found that nitrogen terminations lead to an optical band gap shrinkage in the DLC, whilst fluorine groups reduce the DLC's surface energy. CVD monolayer graphene subsequently transferred to DLC, N terminated DLC, and F terminated DLC has then been studied with AFM, Raman and XPS analysis, and correlated with Hall effect measurements that give an insight into the heterostructures electrical properties. The results show that different terminations strongly affect the electronic properties of the graphene heterostructures. G-F-DLC samples were p-type and displayed considerably higher mobility than the other heterostructures, whilst G-N-DLC samples supported higher carrier densities, being almost metallic in character. Since it would be possible to locally pattern the distribution of these differing surface terminations, this work offers the prospect for 2D lateral control of the electronic properties of graphene layers for device applications

  8. Voltage control of magnetism in multiferroic heterostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming; Sun, Nian X

    2014-02-28

    Electrical tuning of magnetism is of great fundamental and technical importance for fast, compact and ultra-low power electronic devices. Multiferroics, simultaneously exhibiting ferroelectricity and ferromagnetism, have attracted much interest owing to the capability of controlling magnetism by an electric field through magnetoelectric (ME) coupling. In particular, strong strain-mediated ME interaction observed in layered multiferroic heterostructures makes it practically possible for realizing electrically reconfigurable microwave devices, ultra-low power electronics and magnetoelectric random access memories (MERAMs). In this review, we demonstrate this remarkable E-field manipulation of magnetism in various multiferroic composite systems, aiming at the creation of novel compact, lightweight, energy-efficient and tunable electronic and microwave devices. First of all, tunable microwave devices are demonstrated based on ferrite/ferroelectric and magnetic-metal/ferroelectric composites, showing giant ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) tunability with narrow FMR linewidth. Then, E-field manipulation of magnetoresistance in multiferroic anisotropic magnetoresistance and giant magnetoresistance devices for achieving low-power electronic devices is discussed. Finally, E-field control of exchange-bias and deterministic magnetization switching is demonstrated in exchange-coupled antiferromagnetic/ferromagnetic/ferroelectric multiferroic hetero-structures at room temperature, indicating an important step towards MERAMs. In addition, recent progress in electrically non-volatile tuning of magnetic states is also presented. These tunable multiferroic heterostructures and devices provide great opportunities for next-generation reconfigurable radio frequency/microwave communication systems and radars, spintronics, sensors and memories.

  9. Towards accurate simulation of fringe field effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berz, M.; Erdelyi, B.; Makino, K.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we study various fringe field effects. Previously, we showed the large impact that fringe fields can have on certain lattice scenarios of the proposed Neutrino Factory. Besides the linear design of the lattice, the effects depend strongly on the details of the field fall off. Various scenarios are compared. Furthermore, in the absence of detailed information, we study the effects for the LHC, a case where the fringe fields are known, and try to draw some conclusions for Neutrino Factory lattices

  10. Oxidation and crystal field effects in uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobin, J. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Booth, C. H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Shuh, D. K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); van der Laan, G. [Diamond Light Source, Didcot (United Kingdom); Sokaras, D. [Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, Stanford, CA (United States); Weng, T. -C. [Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, Stanford, CA (United States); Yu, S. W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bagus, P. S. [Univ. of North Texas, Denton, TX (United States); Tyliszczak, T. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Nordlund, D. [Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2015-07-06

    An extensive investigation of oxidation in uranium has been pursued. This includes the utilization of soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy, hard x-ray absorption near-edge structure, resonant (hard) x-ray emission spectroscopy, cluster calculations, and a branching ratio analysis founded on atomic theory. The samples utilized were uranium dioxide (UO2), uranium trioxide (UO3), and uranium tetrafluoride (UF4). As a result, a discussion of the role of non-spherical perturbations, i.e., crystal or ligand field effects, will be presented.

  11. Investigation of the epitaxial growth of Pb(Zr{sub 0,52}Ti{sub 0,48})O{sub 3} thin films and their application in ferroelectric superconducting field effect transistors; Untersuchung des epitaktischen Wachstums duenner Pb(Zr{sub 0,52}Ti{sub 0,48})O{sub 3}-Schichten und ihre Anwendung in ferroelektrischen supraleitenden Feldeffektransistoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aidam, R

    1999-02-01

    The influences of the polarization of ferroelectric Pb(Zr{sub 0.52}Ti{sub 0.48})O{sub 3} (PZT) films on the properties of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} (YBCO) films were investigated in ferroelectric superconducting field effect transistors (FSuFETs). First the epitaxial growth of PZT films deposited by reactive sputtering in an argon/oxygen atmosphere was investigated. SrTiO{sub 3} single crystals and YBCO thin films proved as suitable substrates. The lead content of the PZT films depended sensitively on the deposition temperature T{sub s} and the gas pressure. By using a high pressure of 0.26 mbar the correct stoichiometry could be achieved up to an maximum T{sub s} of 580 C. Above a minimum T{sub s} of 540 C the ferroelectric perovskite structure grew. In the optimum temperature range between 560 C and 580 C the films grew with a minimum mosaic spread of {delta}{omega} < 0.3 and a small amount of less than 1% of paraelectric phase. The best ferroelectric properties could be obtained for films with the highest degree of epitaxy and the correct stoichiometry. The maximum remanent polarization amounted P{sub r} = 61 {mu}C/cm{sup 2} and the coercive field E{sub C} was 150 kV/cm at 77 K. The breakdown field was four to five times larger than E{sub C}. Fatigue studies revealed a loss of switchable polarization of 30% after 10{sup 8} cycles at 77 K, whereas loss of retention and the effect of ageing were negligible. During the process of oxidation of the heterostructure at 400 C and an oxygen pressure of 800 mbar a reaction at the PZT/YBCO interface was observed, which lead to a degradation of the transport properties of the superconductor. This reaction could be avoided by a thin SrTiO{sub 3} buffer layer without disturbing the ferroelectric hysteresis essentially.

  12. Low specific on-resistance GaN-based vertical heterostructure field effect transistors with nonuniform doping superjunctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Wei; Wang, Hai-Yong; Shi, Peng-Hao; Wang, Xiao-Fei; Du, Ming; Zheng, Xue-Feng; Wang, Chong; Ma, Xiao-Hua; Zhang, Jin-Cheng; Hao, Yue

    2018-04-01

    Not Available Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61574112, 61334002, 61474091, and 61574110) and the Natural Science Basic Research Plan in Shaanxi Province, China (Grant No. 605119425012).

  13. Negative differential resistance in BN co-doped coaxial carbon nanotube field effect transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Khurshed A.; Parvaiz, M. Shunaid

    2016-12-01

    The CNTFETs are the most promising advanced alternatives to the conventional FETs due to their outstanding structure and electrical properties. In this paper, we report the I-V characteristics of zig-zag (4, 0) semiconducting coaxial carbon nanotube field effect transistor (CNTFET) using the non-equilibrium Green's function formalism. The CNTFET is co-doped with two, four and six boron-nitrogen (BN) atoms separately near the electrodes using the substitutional doping method and the I-V characteristics were calculated for each model using Atomistic Tool Kit software (version 13.8.1) and its virtual interface. The results reveal that all models show negative differential resistance (NDR) behavior with the maximum peak to valley current ratio (PVCR) of 3.2 at 300 K for the four atom doped model. The NDR behavior is due to the band to band tunneling (BTBT) in semiconducting CNTFET and decreases as the doping in the channel increases. The results are beneficial for next generation designing of nano devices and their potential applications in electronic industry.

  14. Dual metal gate tunneling field effect transistors based on MOSFETs: A 2-D analytical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramezani, Zeinab; Orouji, Ali A.

    2018-01-01

    A novel 2-D analytical drain current model of novel Dual Metal Gate Tunnel Field Effect Transistors Based on MOSFETs (DMG-TFET) is presented in this paper. The proposed Tunneling FET is extracted from a MOSFET structure by employing an additional electrode in the source region with an appropriate work function to induce holes in the N+ source region and hence makes it as a P+ source region. The electric field is derived which is utilized to extract the expression of the drain current by analytically integrating the band to band tunneling generation rate in the tunneling region based on the potential profile by solving the Poisson's equation. Through this model, the effects of the thin film thickness and gate voltage on the potential, the electric field, and the effects of the thin film thickness on the tunneling current can be studied. To validate our present model we use SILVACO ATLAS device simulator and the analytical results have been compared with it and found a good agreement.

  15. Ion/Ioff ratio enhancement and scalability of gate-all-around nanowire negative-capacitance FET with ferroelectric HfO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Kyungmin; Saraya, Takuya; Kobayashi, Masaharu; Hiramoto, Toshiro

    2017-10-01

    We have investigated the energy efficiency and scalability of ferroelectric HfO2 (FE:HfO2)-based negative-capacitance field-effect-transistor (NCFET) with gate-all-around (GAA) nanowire (NW) channel structure. Analytic simulation is conducted to characterize NW-NCFET by varying NW diameter and/or thickness of gate insulator as device structural parameters. Due to the negative-capacitance effect and GAA NW channel structure, NW-NCFET is found to have 5× higher Ion/Ioff ratio than classical NW-MOSFET and 2× higher than double-gate (DG) NCFET, which results in wider design window for high Ion/Ioff ratio. To analyze these obtained results from the viewpoint of the device scalability, we have considered constraints regarding very limited device structural spaces to fit by the gate insulator and NW channel for aggresively scaled gate length (Lg) and/or very tight NW pitch. NW-NCFET still has design point with very thinned gate insulator and/or narrowed NW. Therefore, FE:HfO2-based NW-NCFET is applicable to the aggressively scaled technology node of sub-10 nm Lg and to the very tight NW integration of sub-30 nm NW pitch for beyond 7 nm technology. From 2011 to 2014, he engaged in developing high-speed optical transceiver module as an alternative military service in Republic of Korea. His research interest includes the development of steep slope MOSFETs for high energy-efficient operation and ferroelectric HfO2-based semiconductor devices, and fabrication of nanostructured devices. He joined the IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, NY, in 2010, where he worked on advanced CMOS technologies such as FinFET, nanowire FET, SiGe channel and III-V channel. He was also engaged in launching 14 nm SOI FinFET and RMG technology development. Since 2014, he has been an Associate Professor in Institute of Industrial Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan, where he has been working on ultralow power transistor and memory technology. Dr. Kobayashi is a member of IEEE

  16. Reliability evaluation of high-performance, low-power FinFET standard cells based on mixed RBB/FBB technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tian; Cui, Xiaoxin; Ni, Yewen; Liao, Kai; Liao, Nan; Yu, Dunshan; Cui, Xiaole

    2017-04-01

    With shrinking transistor feature size, the fin-type field-effect transistor (FinFET) has become the most promising option in low-power circuit design due to its superior capability to suppress leakage. To support the VLSI digital system flow based on logic synthesis, we have designed an optimized high-performance low-power FinFET standard cell library based on employing the mixed FBB/RBB technique in the existing stacked structure of each cell. This paper presents the reliability evaluation of the optimized cells under process and operating environment variations based on Monte Carlo analysis. The variations are modelled with Gaussian distribution of the device parameters and 10000 sweeps are conducted in the simulation to obtain the statistical properties of the worst-case delay and input-dependent leakage for each cell. For comparison, a set of non-optimal cells that adopt the same topology without employing the mixed biasing technique is also generated. Experimental results show that the optimized cells achieve standard deviation reduction of 39.1% and 30.7% at most in worst-case delay and input-dependent leakage respectively while the normalized deviation shrinking in worst-case delay and input-dependent leakage can be up to 98.37% and 24.13%, respectively, which demonstrates that our optimized cells are less sensitive to variability and exhibit more reliability. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61306040), the State Key Development Program for Basic Research of China (No. 2015CB057201), the Beijing Natural Science Foundation (No. 4152020), and Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong Province, China (No. 2015A030313147).

  17. Magnetic field effects in hybrid perovskite devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C.; Sun, D.; Sheng, C.-X.; Zhai, Y. X.; Mielczarek, K.; Zakhidov, A.; Vardeny, Z. V.

    2015-05-01

    Magnetic field effects have been a successful tool for studying carrier dynamics in organic semiconductors as the weak spin-orbit coupling in these materials gives rise to long spin relaxation times. As the spin-orbit coupling is strong in organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites, which are promising materials for photovoltaic and light-emitting applications, magnetic field effects are expected to be negligible in these optoelectronic devices. We measured significant magneto-photocurrent, magneto-electroluminescence and magneto-photoluminescence responses in hybrid perovskite devices and thin films, where the amplitude and shape are correlated to each other through the electron-hole lifetime, which depends on the perovskite film morphology. We attribute these responses to magnetic-field-induced spin-mixing of the photogenerated electron-hole pairs with different g-factors--the Δg model. We validate this model by measuring large Δg (~ 0.65) using field-induced circularly polarized photoluminescence, and electron-hole pair lifetime using picosecond pump-probe spectroscopy.

  18. Temperature effect on the growth of Au-free InAs and InAs/GaSb heterostructure nanowires on Si substrate by MOCVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakkerla, Ramesh Kumar; Anandan, Deepak; Hsiao, Chih-Jen; Yu, Hung Wei; Singh, Sankalp Kumar; Chang, Edward Yi

    2018-05-01

    We demonstrate the growth of vertically aligned Au-free InAs and InAs/GaSb heterostructure nanowires on Si (1 1 1) substrate by Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD). The effect of growth temperature on the morphology and growth rate of the InAs and InAs/GaSb heterostructure nanowires (NWs) is investigated. Control over diameter and length of the InAs NWs and the GaSb shell thickness was achieved by using growth temperature. As the GaSb growth temperature increase, GaSb radial growth rate increases due to the increase in alkyl decomposition at the substrate surface. Diffusivity of the adatoms increases as the GaSb growth temperature increase which results in tapered GaSb shell growth. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) measurements revealed that the morphology and shell thickness can be tuned by the growth temperature. Electron microscopy also shows the formation of GaSb both in radial and axial directions outside the InAs NW core can be controlled by the growth temperature. This study demonstrates the control over InAs NWs growth and the GaSb shell thickness can be achieved through proper growth temperature control, such technique is essential for the growth of nanowire for future nano electronic devices, such as Tunnel FET.

  19. Improved thermal stability and hole mobilities in a strained-Si/strained-Si1-yGe y/strained-Si heterostructure grown on a relaxed Si1-xGe x buffer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Saurabh; Lee, Minjoo L.; Isaacson, David M.; Fitzgerald, Eugene A.

    2005-01-01

    A dual channel heterostructure consisting of strained-Si/strained-Si 1-y Ge y on relaxed Si 1-x Ge x (y > x), provides a platform for fabricating metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) with high hole mobilities (μ eff ) which depend directly on Ge concentration and strain in the strained-Si 1-y Ge y layer. Ge out-diffuses from the strained-Si 1-y Ge y layer into relaxed Si 1-x Ge x during high temperature processing, reducing peak Ge concentration and strain in the strained-Si 1-y Ge y layer and degrades hole μ eff in these dual channel heterostructures. A heterostructure consisting of strained-Si/strained-Si 1-y Ge y /strained-Si, referred to as a trilayer heterostructure, grown on relaxed Si 1-x Ge x has much reduced Ge out-flux from the strained-Si 1-y Ge y layer and retains higher μ eff after thermal processing. Improved hole μ eff over similar dual channel heterostructures is also observed in this heterostructure. This could be a result of preventing the hole wavefunction tunneling into the low μ eff relaxed Si 1-x Ge x layer due to the additional valence band offset provided by the underlying strained-Si layer. A diffusion coefficient has been formulated and implemented in a finite difference scheme for predicting the thermal budget of the strained SiGe heterostructures. It shows that the trilayer heterostructures have superior thermal budgets at higher Ge concentrations. Ring-shaped MOSFETs were fabricated on both platforms and subjected to various processing temperatures in order to compare the extent of μ eff reduction with thermal budget. Hole μ eff enhancements are retained to a much higher extent in a trilayer heterostructure after high temperature processing as compared to a dual channel heterostructure. The improved thermal stability and hole μ eff of a trilayer heterostructure makes it an ideal platform for fabricating high μ eff MOSFETs that can be processed over higher temperatures without significant losses in hole

  20. Intra-individual comparison of F-18-FLT PET and F-18 FET PET in brain tumor patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.; Cheon, G.J.; Cho, Y.S.; Kwak, H.S.; Lee, C.H.; Choi, C.W.; Lim, S.M.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The nucleoside analogue 18F-3'-deoxy-3'-fluorothymidine (FLT) for cellular proliferation and the amino acid analogue O- (2'18F-fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine (FET) are recently developed PET-tracer for tumor imaging. Previous studies have demonstrated that the diagnostic ability of FET PET better than FDG PET in patient with newly diagnosed or recurrent brain tumors after radiation therapy. To compare findings on FLT PET with FET PET, we prospectively undertook FLT, FET and FDG PET in same patient with suspected primary/metastatic and recurrent brain tumors. Seventeen studies (FLT +FET + FDG: 13, FLT+FDG: 3, FLT +FET: 1) in 16 consecutive patients (47 ± 8.3 years, M: F 10: 6) with brain tumor (3 for initial diagnosis, 6 for therapeutic response, 6 for detecting recurrence, 1 for diagnosis and recurrence both) were included. Brain tumors were 14 gliomas (6 high-grade, 9 low-grade by the WHO classification), 2 metastatic brain tumors and 1 CNS lymphoma. 18F-FDG, FLT and FET PET were performed within two weeks. Attenuation-corrected brain images were acquired 30 minutes after injection of 370-555 MBq FDG, FLT and FET with a dedicated PET scanner (ECAT HR+ scanner, Siemens-CTI, Knoxville, Tenn., USA). Maximum SUV (max SUV) and relative uptake defined by FLT and FET accumulation within the tumor in relation to a contra lateral control region (max SUV for tumor/mean SUV for contra lateral normal gray matter) were calculated. A total of 26 tumor foci (26 on FLT and FDG, 22 on FET) in 17 studies were analysed. In most of tumor foci (20 of 22) FLT and FET PET images showed a similar extent of tumor activity. In 2 tumor foci discrepant findings were noticed; intense FLT uptake with negative FLT uptake in primary CNS lymphoma and negative FLT uptake with mild FET uptake in low-grade astrocytoma. Overall positive FLT, FET and FDG uptakes were 85 % (22/26), 90 % (18/ 20) and 58 % (15/26) respectively. Max SUV and relative FLT/FET uptake: The mean max SUV of FLT (0.97 ± 0