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Sample records for heteroptera nepomorpha evidence

  1. Phylogenetic analysis of the true water bugs (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Nepomorpha: evidence from mitochondrial genomes

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    Xie Qiang

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The true water bugs are grouped in infraorder Nepomorpha (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera and are of great economic importance. The phylogenetic relationships within Nepomorpha and the taxonomic hierarchies of Pleoidea and Aphelocheiroidea are uncertain. Most of the previous studies were based on morphological characters without algorithmic assessment. In the latest study, the molecular markers employed in phylogenetic analyses were partial sequences of 16S rDNA and 18S rDNA with a total length about 1 kb. Up to now, no mitochondrial genome of the true water bugs has been sequenced, which is one of the largest data sets that could be compared across animal taxa. In this study we analyzed the unresolved problems in Nepomorpha using evidence from mitochondrial genomes. Results Nine mitochondrial genomes of Nepomorpha and five of other hemipterans were sequenced. These mitochondrial genomes contain the commonly found 37 genes without gene rearrangements. Based on the nucleotide sequences of mt-genomes, Pleoidea is not a member of the Nepomorpha and Aphelocheiroidea should be grouped back into Naucoroidea. Phylogenetic relationships among the superfamilies of Nepomorpha were resolved robustly. Conclusion The mt-genome is an effective data source for resolving intraordinal phylogenetic problems at the superfamily level within Heteroptera. The mitochondrial genomes of the true water bugs are typical insect mt-genomes. Based on the nucleotide sequences of the mt-genomes, we propose the Pleoidea to be a separate heteropteran infraorder. The infraorder Nepomorpha consists of five superfamilies with the relationships (Corixoidea + ((Naucoroidea + Notonectoidea + (Ochteroidea + Nepoidea.

  2. Phylogenetic signals from Nepomorpha (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera) mouthparts: stylets bundle, sense organs, and labial segments.

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    Brożek, Jolanta

    2014-01-01

    The present study is a cladistic analysis of morphological characters focusing on the file of the mandible, the apices of the maxillae, the rupturing device on the maxillae, the internal structures of the mouthparts, and the external morphology of the labial segments as well as the distribution of labial sensilla in true water bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera, infraorder Nepomorpha). The study is based on data referring to sixty-two species representing all nepomorphan families (Heteroptera), together with one outgroup species representing the infraorders Gerromorpha (Mesoveliidae). The morphological data matrix consists of forty-eight characters. The present hypothesis supports the monophyly of the Nepomorpha and the monophyly of all families. The new modification in the systematic classification has been proposed: ((Nepidae + Belostomatidae), (Diaprepocoridae + Corixidae + Micronectidae), (Ochteridae + Gelastocoridae), Aphelocheiridae, Potamocoridae, Naucoridae, Notonectidae, and (Pleidae + Helotrephidae)).

  3. Phylogenetic Signals from Nepomorpha (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera Mouthparts: Stylets Bundle, Sense Organs, and Labial Segments

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    Jolanta Brożek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study is a cladistic analysis of morphological characters focusing on the file of the mandible, the apices of the maxillae, the rupturing device on the maxillae, the internal structures of the mouthparts, and the external morphology of the labial segments as well as the distribution of labial sensilla in true water bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera, infraorder Nepomorpha. The study is based on data referring to sixty-two species representing all nepomorphan families (Heteroptera, together with one outgroup species representing the infraorders Gerromorpha (Mesoveliidae. The morphological data matrix consists of forty-eight characters. The present hypothesis supports the monophyly of the Nepomorpha and the monophyly of all families. The new modification in the systematic classification has been proposed: ((Nepidae + Belostomatidae, (Diaprepocoridae + Corixidae + Micronectidae, (Ochteridae + Gelastocoridae, Aphelocheiridae, Potamocoridae, Naucoridae, Notonectidae, and (Pleidae + Helotrephidae.

  4. Phylogeny of the true water bugs (Nepomorpha: Hemiptera–Heteroptera) based on 16S and 28S rDNA and morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hebsgaard, Martin Bay; Andersen, Nils M.; Damgaard, Jakob

    2004-01-01

    Morphological characters and molecular sequence data were for the first time analysed separately and combined for the true water bugs (Hemiptera-Heteroptera, infraorder Nepomorpha). Data from forty species representing all families were included, together with two outgroup species representing...

  5. New records of Gerromorpha and Nepomorpha (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera) from South America

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    Rodrigues, Higor D. D.; Barbosa, Julianna Freires; Reduciendo Klementová, Barbora; Svitok, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Aquatic and semiaquatic Heteroptera occur on all continents except Antarctica and occupy a wide variety of habitats, including lentic and lotic water bodies, perennial or temporary. In the Neotropical Region, there is a lack of knowledge concerning the geographical distribution of most represented species, which can only be solved by the collection of specimens in under-studied areas and publication of new records and lists of species. New information New records are presented for eleven species of Gerromorpha and ten Nepomorpha, including first records from Venezuela (Brachymetra lata, Limnogonus hyalinus, Rhagovelia evidis, Tenagobia peruana, Limnocoris burmeisteri, L. fittkaui fittkaui, Placomerus micans, and Martarega gonostyla), the Venezuelan State of Bolívar (Cylindrostethus palmaris, R. elegans, R. tenuipes, and Ambrysus stali), the Brazilian State of Bahia (Martarega bentoi), Peru (Euvelia lata), and the Peruvian Region of Arequipa (Microvelia pulchella). PMID:27226754

  6. An annotated catalog of the Iranian Dipsocoromorpha, Enicocephalomorpha, Gerromorpha, Leptopodomorpha and Nepomorpha (Hemiptera: Heteroptera).

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    Ghahari, Hassan; Moulet, Pierre; Ostovan, Hadi; Linnavuori, Rauno E

    2013-01-01

    A catalog of aquatic and semiaquatic Heteroptera from Iran is provided based on literature reports and field collections. Representatives of 107 species and morphospecies of the infraorders Dipsocoromorpha, Enicocephalomorpha, Gerromorpha, Leptopodomorpha, and Nepomorpha are listed, and are distributed in 18 families including Aphelocheiridae (1 genus, 1 species), Belostomatidae (1 genus, 1 species), Corixidae (8 genera, 29 species), Dipsocoridae (1 genus, 2 species), Enicocephalidae (2 genera, 2 species), Gerridae (6 genera, 18 species), Hebridae (1 genus, 5 species), Helotrephidae (1 genus, 1 species), Hydrometridae (1 genus, 2 species), Leptopodidae (4 genera, 7 species), Mesoveliidae (1 genus, 2 species), Naucoridae (1 genus, 1 species), Nepidae (3 genera, 5 species), Notonectidae (2 genera, 8 species), Ochteridae (1 genus, 1 species), Pleidae (1 genus, 1 species), Saldidae (5 genera, 14 species), and Veliidae (2 genera, 7 species). Synonyms and geographical distribution of all the species are given, together with an identification key of families. According to the actual catalogs and studies eight species are doubtful for Iranian fauna.

  7. Taxonomic and numerical resolutions of nepomorpha (insecta: heteroptera in cerrado streams.

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    Nubia França da Silva Giehl

    Full Text Available Transformations of natural landscapes and their biodiversity have become increasingly dramatic and intense, creating a demand for rapid and inexpensive methods to assess and monitor ecosystems, especially the most vulnerable ones, such as aquatic systems. The speed with which surveys can collect, identify, and describe ecological patterns is much slower than that of the loss of biodiversity. Thus, there is a tendency for higher-level taxonomic identification to be used, a practice that is justified by factors such as the cost-benefit ratio, and the lack of taxonomists and reliable information on species distributions and diversity. However, most of these studies do not evaluate the degree of representativeness obtained by different taxonomic resolutions. Given this demand, the present study aims to investigate the congruence between species-level and genus-level data for the infraorder Nepomorpha, based on taxonomic and numerical resolutions. We collected specimens of aquatic Nepomorpha from five streams of first to fourth order of magnitude in the Pindaíba River Basin in the Cerrado of the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil, totaling 20 sites. A principal coordinates analysis (PCoA applied to the data indicated that species-level and genus-level abundances were relatively similar (>80% similarity, although this similarity was reduced when compared with the presence/absence of genera (R = 0.77. The presence/absence ordinations of species and genera were similar to those recorded for their abundances (R = 0.95 and R = 0.74, respectively. The results indicate that analyses at the genus level may be used instead of species, given a loss of information of 11 to 19%, although congruence is higher when using abundance data instead of presence/absence. This analysis confirms that the use of the genus level data is a safe shortcut for environmental monitoring studies, although this approach must be treated with caution when the objectives include

  8. Revision of the Mesoamerican genus Cataractocoris Usinger (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Nepomorpha: Naucoridae).

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    Sites, Robert W; Reynoso-Velasco, Daniel; Novelo-Gutiérrez, Rodolfo

    2013-01-01

    The genus Cataractocoris includes large waterfall-inhabiting insects that occur from Mexico to El Salvador and has received very little attention in the literature. Based on extensive field work during the past three years, we have collected saucer bugs (Heteroptera: Naucoridae) from many localities in central and southern Mexico. We here present detailed distributions and diagnostic information of the two described species of Cataractocoris and the description of a third species that occurs from Nayarit state in Mexico south to Guatemala. An illustrated taxonomic key to identify the species also is presented.

  9. Observations on the life history of giant water bugs Lethocerus Mayr, 1853 (Heteroptera: Nepomorpha: Belostomatidae in the Gangetic plains of India and Nepal

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    H. Nesemann

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Two species of giant water bugs Lethocerus were found in the Gangetic plains of northern India and Nepal. Lethocerus indicus is widespread, whereas a single record of Lethocerus patruelis confirms the eastern distribution range in Bihar. Four instars of aquatic nymphs occur exclusively in temporary shallow stagnant water bodies which harbor rich amphibian populations but lack permanent fish fauna. From mid-August to the first week of November adults fly. Later they live submerged in aquatic habitats of large rivers and permanent stagnant water bodies which harbor diverse fish fauna. Repeated findings of adults with ventrally attached egg-shaped pupae of aquatic mites (Hydracarina suggest that these are host-specific ones of Lethocerus. Thus, the occurrence of protelean parasites on giant water bugs in the Gangetic plains is a previously unknown unique finding since apparently mites have been noticed only from other Nepomorpha families.

  10. Distribuição de Heteroptera Aquáticos (Insecta em Diferentes Tipos de Substratos de Córregos do Cerrado Matogrossense

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    Karina Dias-Silva

    2013-07-01

    Abstract. The Heteroptera community of Cerrado streams in east of Mato Grosso was analyzed to determine the types of substrate that contemplate the largest variation in species composition. Samples were performed in the leaf litter substrates from rapids and backwaters, root, gravel, stone (boulder, sand and on the water surface (surface tension layer of springs, mean stretches and mouths of the Santo Antônio and Colher streams on December/2004 and July/2005, with six subsamples each substrate. Were collected 333 specimens distributed in 11 families, 20 genus and 30 morphospecies (17 Nepomorpha and 13 Gerromorpha, being Gerromorpha the most abundant (172 specimens. The estimated richness of Gerromorpha in the substrates was higher in samples from water surface, while Nepomorpha showed higher richness in root, followed by gravel and leaf litter from rapids. The inorganic substrates (stone and sand showed lower richness of Heteroptera. Among Gerromorpha, Limnogonus aduncus aduncus Drake & Harris, Rhagovelia elegans Uhler, Neogerris lubricus White and Brachymetra sp.1 were associated to surface samples and Stridulivelia anta Polhemus & Spangler to root substrate. In Nepomorpha, Martarega chinai Hynes was associated to surface samples, while Ambrysus sp. 1 showed association to leaf litter from rapids, backwaters, root and surface. The results suggest that studies which aim for rapid surveys of Heteroptera community should prioritize surface samples for Gerromorpha and root samples for Nepomorpha, because these substrates shelter the greatest richness of each infra-order, contemplating 83% and 64% of species richness in these groups respectively.

  11. Higher level phylogeny and the first divergence time estimation of Heteroptera (Insecta: Hemiptera based on multiple genes.

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    Min Li

    Full Text Available Heteroptera, or true bugs, are the largest, morphologically diverse and economically important group of insects with incomplete metamorphosis. However, the phylogenetic relationships within Heteroptera are still in dispute and most of the previous studies were based on morphological characters or with single gene (partial or whole 18S rDNA. Besides, so far, divergence time estimates for Heteroptera totally rely on the fossil record, while no studies have been performed on molecular divergence rates. Here, for the first time, we used maximum parsimony (MP, maximum likelihood (ML and Bayesian inference (BI with multiple genes (18S rDNA, 28S rDNA, 16S rDNA and COI to estimate phylogenetic relationships among the infraorders, and meanwhile, the Penalized Likelihood (r8s and Bayesian (BEAST molecular dating methods were employed to estimate divergence time of higher taxa of this suborder. Major results of the present study included: Nepomorpha was placed as the most basal clade in all six trees (MP trees, ML trees and Bayesian trees of nuclear gene data and four-gene combined data, respectively with full support values. The sister-group relationship of Cimicomorpha and Pentatomomorpha was also strongly supported. Nepomorpha originated in early Triassic and the other six infraorders originated in a very short period of time in middle Triassic. Cimicomorpha and Pentatomomorpha underwent a radiation at family level in Cretaceous, paralleling the proliferation of the flowering plants. Our results indicated that the higher-group radiations within hemimetabolous Heteroptera were simultaneously with those of holometabolous Coleoptera and Diptera which took place in the Triassic. While the aquatic habitat was colonized by Nepomorpha already in the Triassic, the Gerromorpha independently adapted to the semi-aquatic habitat in the Early Jurassic.

  12. New contributions to the study of Corixoidea: cytogenetic characterization of three species of Sigara from Argentina and the plausible mechanisms of karyotype evolution within Nepomorpha Nuevas contribuciones al estudio de Corixoidea: caracterización citogenética de tres especies de Sigara de Argentina y los posibles mecanismos de evolución del cariotipo en Nepomorpha

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    María José Bressa

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Cytogenetic studies in Heteroptera contribute to the analysis of evolutionary trends within the group. Heteroptera are characterized by the possession of holokinetic chromosomes, different sex chromosome mechanisms and a pair of m chromosomes in some species. In the present work, the male karyotype and meiosis in Sigara denseconscripta (Breddin, S. chrostowskii Jaczewski, and S. rubyae (Hungerford are described. The three species share a diploid chromosome number of 2n= 24 with a pair of m chromosomes and an XY/XX sex chromosome system. With this study the chromosome number of 30 species of Corixoidea are known and the modal karyotype is 2n= 20+2m+XY in males. The available cytogenetic information in Heteroptera led us to suggest that the presence of a pair of m chromosomes and an XY/XX sex chromosome system could be considered as plesiomorphic for Nepomorpha. The absence of m chromosomes in species of Ochteroidea and Nepoidea, and the sex chromosome systems X0 and Xn0 (male in species of Corixoidea, Naucoroidea, and Nepoidea should be considered as derived characters, which arose later in evolution.Los estudios citogenéticos en Heteroptera contribuyen al análisis de las tendencias evolutivas en el taxón. Los Heteroptera se caracterizan por poseer cromosomas holocinéticos, diferentes sistemas de cromosomas sexuales y un par de cromosomas m en algunas especies. En este trabajo describimos el cariotipo y la meiosis masculina de Sigara denseconscripta (Breddin, S. chrostowskii Jaczewski y S. rubyae (Hungerford. Las tres especies tienen un número diploide de 24, con un par de cromosomas m y un sistema de cromosomas sexuales XY/XX. Con estos resultados son 30 las especies de Corixoidea estudiadas citogenéticamente y el cariotipo modal de la superfamilia es 2n= 20+2m+XY en machos. La información citogenética disponible hasta el presente en Heteroptera nos permite sugerir que la presencia de cromosomas m y cromosomas sexuales XY/XX, ser

  13. Biodiversidad de Heteroptera (Hemiptera acuáticas y semiacuáticas de la Patagonia argentina Biodiversity of aquatic and semiaquatic Heteroptera (Hemiptera from Argentinean Patagonia

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    María Cecilia Melo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Las Heteroptera acuáticas y semiacuáticas (infraórdenes Nepomorpha, Gerromorpha y Leptopodomorpha no presentan una alta diversidad específica en Argentina, hasta el momento se han registrado 208 especies. Carlos Berg en 1881, publica el primer trabajo que hace referencia a heterópteros de la Patagonia, en el que lista los insectos recolectados durante la Campaña del Desierto. Desde principios de la década del '60, las Heteroptera acuáticas han sido estudiadas principalmente por A.O. Bachmann y colaboradores. Hasta el momento, se han registrado 36 especies pertenecientes a las familias Corixidae, Notonectidae, Belostomatidae, Gelastocoridae, Naucoridae y Nepidae (Nepomorpha; Hydrometridae, Veliidae y Mesoveliidae (Gerromorpha, y Saldidae (Leptopodomorpha. La mayoría de estas especies extienden su distribución geográfica hacia el norte de la Argentina, excepto Sigara (Tropocorixa egbertae Hungerford, S. (T. trimaculata (Le Guillou, S. (T. vuriloche Bachmann, S. (T. forciceps (Spinola, Trichocorixa milicorum Bachmann (Corixidae, Notonecta (Paranecta virescens Blanchard, N. (P. fazi Hungerford, N. (P. vereertbruggheni Hungerford (Notonectidae, Pseudosaldula bergi (Haglund y P. paralia (Torres, P. angusta (Drake & Carvalho, P. sola (Drake & Carvalho, P. doeringi (Drake & Carvalho y Saldula differata Drake & Carvalho (Saldidae, que son exclusivas de la Patagonia. El conocimiento de la diversidad de Heteroptera acuáticas y semiacuáticas en la Patagonia es bueno y, por los datos recogidos, su estado de conservación es aceptable ya que aproximadamente el 40% de la especies encontradas en áreas naturales protegidas son exclusivas de la región y representan cerca del 40 % del número de especies exclusivas de la Patagonia.The aquatic and semiaquatic Heteroptera (infraorders Nepomorpha, Gerromorpha and Leptopodomorpha show a low diversity in Argentina; up to now 208 species have been recorded. In 1881 Carlos Berg provided the first reference

  14. New contributions to the study of Corixoidea: cytogenetic characterization of three species of Sigara from Argentina and the plausible mechanisms of karyotype evolution within Nepomorpha

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    María José BRESSA

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Los estudios citogenéticos en Heteroptera contribuyen al análisis de las tendencias evolutivas en el taxón. Los Heteroptera se caracterizan por poseer cromosomas holocinéticos, diferentes sistemas de cromosomas sexuales y un par de cromosomas m en algunas especies. En este trabajo describimos el cariotipo y la meiosis masculina de Sigara denseconscripta (Breddin, S. chrostowskii Jaczewski y S. rubyae (Hungerford. Las tres especies tienen un número diploide de 24, con un par de cromosomas m y un sistema de cromosomas sexuales XY/XX. Con estos resultados son 30 las especies de Corixoidea estudiadas citogenéticamente y el cariotipo modal de la superfamilia es 2n= 20+2m+XY en machos. La información citogenética disponible hasta el presente en Heteroptera nos permite sugerir que la presencia de cromosomas m y cromosomas sexuales XY/XX, serían caracteres plesiomórficos para Nepomorpha. La ausencia de cromosomas m en especies de Nepoidea y Ochteroidea, y los sistemas de cromosomas sexuales X0 y Xn0 (en machos en especies de Corixoidea, Naucoroidea y Nepoidea, serían caracteres derivados que habrían surgido evolutivamente más tarde.

  15. New evidences supporting trophobiosis between populations of Edessa rufomarginata (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae and Camponotus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae ants

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    Daniel Paiva Silva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Despite its important effect on the maintenance of tritrophic interactions among plants, insect herbivores, and ants, there is still a paucity of natural history and basic biology information involving trophobiosis among Heteroptera stink bugs. Here, based on previous observations of a new trophobiotic interaction between Edessa rufomarginata (De Geer, 1773 and Camponotus rufipes (Fabricius, 1775 ants, we describe the chemical profile of the honeydew obtained by Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry. There were mainly three different sugars (trehalose, glucose, and sorbose within our samples. The extrafloral nectaries of Caryocar brasiliense Camb., the host plant of E. rufomarginata, attracts a wide assemblage of Cerrado ants with varying aggressiveness toward herbivores. Therefore, this facultative trophobiotic interaction may allow the survival of the stink bug while feeding on the risky, highly ant-visited plant. Given the rarity of trophobiotic interactions between Pentatomidae species and ants and considering a zoological perspective within this family, here we discuss the ecological and evolutionary routes that may allow the rise of these interactions.

  16. Wantsennieuws uit Zeeland (Heteroptera)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aukema, B.

    2003-01-01

    New records of bugs from the province of Zeeland (Heteroptera) Three excursions were made to the province of Zeeland in  and , and nine interesting species of Heteroptera were found as follows. A record of the cydnid Tritomegas sexmaculatus, in the dunes near Cadzand, is the first for the

  17. Biodiversidad de Heteroptera (Hemiptera acuáticas y semiacuáticas de la Patagonia argentina

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    María Cecilia MELO

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Las Heteroptera acuáticas y semiacuáticas (infraórdenes Nepomorpha, Gerromorpha y Leptopodomorpha no presentan una alta diversidad específica en Argentina, hasta el momento se han registrado 208 especies. Carlos Berg en 1881, publica el primer trabajo que hace referencia a heterópteros de la Patagonia, en el que lista los insectos recolectados durante la Campaña del Desierto. Desde principios de la década del ’60, las Heteroptera acuáticas han sido estudiadas principalmente por A.O. Bachmann y colaboradores. Hasta el momento, se han registrado 36 especies pertenecientes a las familias Corixidae, Notonectidae, Belostomatidae, Gelastocoridae, Naucoridae y Nepidae (Nepomorpha; Hydrometridae, Veliidae y Mesoveliidae (Gerromorpha, y Saldidae (Leptopodomorpha. La mayoría de estas especies extienden su distribución geográfica hacia el norte de la Argentina, excepto Sigara (Tropocorixa egbertae Hungerford, S. (T. trimaculata (Le Guillou, S. (T. vuriloche Bachmann, S. (T. forciceps (Spinola, Trichocorixa milicorum Bachmann (Corixidae, Notonecta (Paranecta virescens Blanchard, N. (P. fazi Hungerford, N. (P. vereertbruggheni Hungerford (Notonectidae, Pseudosaldula bergi (Haglund y P. paralia (Torres, P. angusta (Drake & Carvalho, P. sola (Drake & Carvalho, P. doeringi (Drake & Carvalho y Saldula differata Drake & Carvalho (Saldidae, que son exclusivas de la Patagonia. El conocimiento de la diversidad de Heteroptera acuáticas y semiacuáticas en la Patagonia es bueno y, por los datos recogidos, su estado de conservación es aceptable ya que aproximadamente el 40% de la especies encontradas en áreas naturales protegidas son exclusivas de la región y representan cerca del 40 % del número de especies exclusivas de la Patagonia.

  18. Evolutionary trends in Heteroptera

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    Cobben, R.H.

    1968-01-01

    1. This work, the first volume of a series dealing with evolutionary trends in Heteroptera, is concerned with the egg system of about 400 species. The data are presented systematically in chapters 1 and 2 with a critical review of the literature after each family.

    2. Chapter 3 evaluates facts

  19. Catalog of type specimens of invertebrates in the collection of the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia, Manaus, Brazil. VI. Hexapoda: Hemiptera: Heteroptera.

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    Rodrigues, Higor D D; Ferreira-Keppler, Ruth L

    2013-01-01

    A catalog of type specimens of Heteroptera (Insecta: Hemiptera) deposited in the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA), Manaus, Brazil, is presented and updated to May, 2012. A total of 37 holotypes and 61 lots of paratypes of 78 species are listed in their families: Miridae and Reduviidae (infraorder: Cimicomorpha); Mesoveliidae and Velfidae (Gerromorpha); Belostomatidae, Naucoridae, and Notonectidae (Nepomorpha); and Coreidae, Geocoridae [the older sense of "Lygaeidae"], and Pentatomidae (Pentatomomorpha). The taxa are presented alphabetically by infraorders, families, and genera, followed by epithet, bibliographic citation, type category, collection number, method of preservation, and present data on the labels. When necessary, we added localities data, and changes in taxonomic status of some species

  20. Evidence of population-level lateralized behaviour in giant water bugs, Belostoma flumineum Say (Heteroptera: Belostomatidae): T-maze turning is left biased.

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    Kight, Scott L; Steelman, Laura; Coffey, Gena; Lucente, Julie; Castillo, Marianne

    2008-09-01

    Lateralized behaviour occurs in diverse animals, but relatively few studies examine the phenomenon in invertebrates. Here we report a population-level left turn bias in the giant water bug Belostoma flumineum Say (Heteroptera: Belostomatidae) in an underwater T-maze. Individuals made significantly more left turns than right turns, including when they were naïve and first introduced to the maze. Water bugs also showed significantly longer runs of consecutive left turns than right turns (i.e. LLLLL). The length of these runs, however, did not increase with experience in the maze, suggesting that the effect is not the result of learning. There were also no differences in turning bias between male and female water bugs. The proximate mechanism(s) underlying the left turn bias is unknown, but directional cues in the environment were eliminated by rotating the maze 180 degrees between experiments, suggesting the mechanism(s) is endogenous. To our knowledge this is the first study of lateralized behaviour in the Heteroptera or in a swimming invertebrate animal.

  1. Neotropical genera of Naucoridae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Nepomorpha): new species of Placomerus and Procryphocricos from Guyana and Venezuela.

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    Sites, Robert W; Camacho, Jesús

    2014-01-09

    The Neotropical fauna of saucer bugs (Naucoridae) currently includes four monotypic genera. Recent extensive collecting in Venezuela has produced three new species in two of these genera. In addition, undetermined Guyanan specimens of one of the new species were found in the United States National Museum of Natural History. Thus, described here are Placomerus obscuratus n. sp. from Guyana and Venezuela with brachypterous and macropterous hindwing forms, and two species of Procryphocricos from Venezuela. Procryphocricos quiu n. sp. is described from the brachypterous forewing form and Procryphocricos macoita n. sp. from both brachypterous and macropterous forms. Previously described species also are discussed.

  2. Molecular Species Delimitation and Morphology of Aquatic and Sub-Aquatic Bugs (Heteroptera in Cameroon.

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    Solange Meyin A Ebong

    Full Text Available Aquatic and semi-aquatic bugs (Heteroptera represent a remarkable diversity and a resurging interest has been given to documenting at the species level these insects inhabiting Cameroon in Central Africa due to their potential implication in the transmission of the bacterium Mycobacterium ulcerans, the causal agent of Buruli ulcer, an emerging human disease. A survey was carried out over two years in Cameroon. Morphological analyses were done in two steps. A first step consisted in separating the specimens based on broadly shared characters into morphotypes. The specimens were then separated into two independent batches containing each the same representation of each morphotype. One batch (309 specimens was used by taxonomy experts on aquatic bugs for species level identification and/or to reconcile nymph with their corresponding adult species. The second batch (188 specimens was used to define species based on the COI DNA sequences (standard sequence used for "DNA barcoding" and using the Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery (ABGD method. The first morphological analysis step separated the specimens into 63 different morphotypes (49 adults and 14 nymphs, which were then found to belong to 54 morphological species in the infra-orders Gerromorpha and Nepomorpha based on the species-level morphological identification, and 41-45 putative molecular species according to the gap value retained in the ABGD. Integrating morphology and "DNA barcoding" reconciled all the specimens into 62 aquatic bug species in Cameroon. Generally, we obtained a good congruence between species a priori identified based on morphology from adult morphotypes and molecular putative species. Moreover, molecular identification has allowed the association of 86% of nymphs with adults. This work illustrates the importance of integrative taxonomy.

  3. A chromosomal analysis of Nepa cinerea Linnaeus, 1758 and Ranatra linearis (Linnaeus, 1758 (Heteroptera, Nepidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert B. Angus

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available An account is given of the karyotypes and male meiosis of the Water Scorpion Nepa cinerea Linnaeus, 1758 and the Water Stick Insect Ranatra linearis (Linnaeus, 1758 (Heteroptera, Nepomorpha, Nepidae. A number of different approaches and techniques were tried: the employment of both male and female gonads and mid-guts as the sources of chromosomes, squash and air-drying methods for chromosome preparations, C-banding and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH for chromosome study. We found that N. cinerea had a karyotype comprising 14 pairs of autosomes and a multiple sex chromosome system, which is X1X2X3X4Y (♂ / X1X1X2X2X3X3X4X4 (♀, whereas R. linearis had a karyotype comprising 19 pairs of autosomes and a multiple sex chromosome system X1X2X3X4Y (♂ / X1X1X2X2X3X3X4X4 (♀. In both N. cinerea and R. linearis, the autosomes formed chiasmate bivalents in spermatogenesis, and the sex chromosome univalents divided during the first meiotic division and segregated during the second one suggesting thus a post-reductional type of behaviour. These results confirm and amplify those of Steopoe (1925, 1927, 1931, 1932 but are inconsistent with those of other researchers. C-banding appeared helpful in pairing up the autosomes for karyotype assembly; however in R. linearis the chromosomes were much more uniform in size and general appearance than in N. cinerea. FISH for 18S ribosomal DNA (major rDNA revealed hybridization signals on two of the five sex chromosomes in N. cinerea. In R. linearis, rDNA location was less obvious than in N. cinerea; however it is suggested to be similar. We have detected the presence of the canonical “insect” (TTAGGn telomeric repeat in chromosomes of these species. This is the first application of C-banding and FISH in the family Nepidae.

  4. Review of the Ambrysus stali La Rivers species complex (Heteroptera: Nepomorpha: Naucoridae) with the description of a new species from Mesoamerica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sites, Robert W; Reynoso-Velasco, Daniel

    2015-09-15

    The Neotropical Ambrysus stali La Rivers species complex is reviewed and includes A. bifidus La Rivers & Nieser, A. scolius La Rivers, A. stali La Rivers, and A. tricuspis La Rivers. Ambrysus oblongulus Montandon is removed as a member of this complex. Features uniting these species are related to male genitalia and associated structures. Ambrysus maya n. sp. is the fifth species in the complex and is described from Belize, Guatemala, and Mexico based on specimens from recent collecting and museum collections.

  5. Morphology of olfactory sensilla and its role in host plant recognition by Neomegalotomus parvus (Westwood) (Heteroptera: Alydidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Maurício Ursi Ventura; Antônio Ricardo Panizzi

    2005-01-01

    The external morphology of the sensilla, including pores and permeable points on the cuticle of the antennae of adults of Neomegalotomus parvus (West.) (Heteroptera: Alydidae) was investigated with regard to their olfactory function. Behavioural evidence of olfaction, the importance of the different antennal segments in locating the host under still-air, and the responses of the insects to plants' scents and to pheromones in wind assays were also studied. With the scanning electronic microsco...

  6. De wants Rhaphigaster nebulosa in Nederland (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aukema, B.; Steeghs, J.

    2002-01-01

    The bug Rhaphigaster nebulosa in the Netherlands (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) Five specimens of Rhaphigaster nebulosa (Poda, 1761) were captured overwintering in or near the same house in Herkenbosch, province of Limburg, in different years between 1997 and 2002. These records fit similar observation

  7. Heterochromatin characterization in five species of Heteroptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressa, Maria José; Larramendy, Marcelo Luis; Papeschi, Alba Graciela

    2005-07-01

    The amount, composition and location of heterochromatin in Athaumastus haematicus (Stål, 1859), Leptoglossus impictus (Stål, 1859), Phthia picta (Drury, 1770) (Coreidae), Largus rufipennis Laporte, 1832 (Largidae) and Jadera sanguinolenta (Fabricius, 1775) (Rhopalidae) are analyzed by C-banding and DAPI/ CMA fluorescent banding. As the rule for Heteroptera the possession of holokinetic chromosomes and a pre-reductional type of meiosis cytogenetically characterize these five species. Besides, all of them (except L. rufipennis) present a pair of m chromosomes. C-banding technique reveals the absence of constitutive heterochromatin in A. haematicus, scarce C-positive blocks in L. impictus and J. sanguinolenta, and C-positive heterochromatin terminally located in P. picta and L. rufipennis. All C-bands are DAPI bright, except for a DAPI dull/CMA bright band at one telomeric end of the X chromosome in L. rufipennis, which probably corresponds to a nucleolar organizing region. The results of the banding techniques are analyzed in relation to the chiasma frequency and distribution in the five species, and it is concluded that there should exist some constraints to the acquisition and/ or accumulation of heterochromatin in their karyotypes.

  8. New contributions to the study of Corixoidea: cytogenetic characterization of three species of Sigara from Argentina and the plausible mechanisms of karyotype evolution within Nepomorpha

    OpenAIRE

    Bressa, María José; Papeschi, Alba Graciela

    2007-01-01

    Los estudios citogenéticos en Heteroptera contribuyen al análisis de las tendencias evolutivas en el taxón. Los Heteroptera se caracterizan por poseer cromosomas holocinéticos, diferentes sistemas de cromosomas sexuales y un par de cromosomas m en algunas especies. En este trabajo describimos el cariotipo y la meiosis masculina de Sigara denseconscripta (Breddin), S. chrostowskii Jaczewski y S. rubyae (Hungerford). Las tres especies tienen un número diploide de 24, con un par de cromosomas m ...

  9. Building-up of a DNA barcode library for true bugs (insecta: hemiptera: heteroptera of Germany reveals taxonomic uncertainties and surprises.

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    Michael J Raupach

    Full Text Available During the last few years, DNA barcoding has become an efficient method for the identification of species. In the case of insects, most published DNA barcoding studies focus on species of the Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera, Hymenoptera and especially Lepidoptera. In this study we test the efficiency of DNA barcoding for true bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera, an ecological and economical highly important as well as morphologically diverse insect taxon. As part of our study we analyzed DNA barcodes for 1742 specimens of 457 species, comprising 39 families of the Heteroptera. We found low nucleotide distances with a minimum pairwise K2P distance 2.2% were detected for 16 traditionally recognized and valid species. With a successful identification rate of 91.5% (418 species our study emphasizes the use of DNA barcodes for the identification of true bugs and represents an important step in building-up a comprehensive barcode library for true bugs in Germany and Central Europe as well. Our study also highlights the urgent necessity of taxonomic revisions for various taxa of the Heteroptera, with a special focus on various species of the Miridae. In this context we found evidence for on-going hybridization events within various taxonomically challenging genera (e.g. Nabis Latreille, 1802 (Nabidae, Lygus Hahn, 1833 (Miridae, Phytocoris Fallén, 1814 (Miridae as well as the putative existence of cryptic species (e.g. Aneurus avenius (Duffour, 1833 (Aradidae or Orius niger (Wolff, 1811 (Anthocoridae.

  10. The fatty acid compositions of predator Piocoris luridus (Heteroptera: Lygaeidae) and its host Monosteria unicostata (Heteroptera: Tingidae) reared on almond

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OZLEM CAKMAK; MEHMET BASHAN; HALIL BOLU

    2007-01-01

    The changes in fatty acid compositions during nutritional interaction among almond Amygdalus communis Linnaeus (Rosales: Rosaceae) (host plant), lacebug Monosteria unicostata (Mulsant and Rey) (Heteroptera: Tingidae) and its predator Piocoris luridus Fieber (Heteroptera: Lygaeidae) were determined by gas chromatography and gas chroma-tography-mass spectrometry analyses. The fatty acid profiles of phospholipids and triacylglycerols were substantially different. Unlike the general observations for virtually most terrestrial insects, arachidonic and eicosapentaenoic acids were detected in high proportions of phospholipid fractions in both insects, especially in P.luridus.Also the almond tissues provide very little oleic acid to the herbivore diet, yet both insect species developed high proportions of this component. Our data reveals instances of specific accumulation of fatty acid biosynthesis, elongation/desaturation, and not incorporating selected fatty acids into cellular lipids.

  11. Variation in male and female genitalia among ten species of North American Anthocoris (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Anthocoridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    We compared morphology of internal reproductive anatomy and genitalia among 10 species of North American Anthocoris (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Anthocoridae). Reproductive structures of males, including internal reproductive organs (testes, seminal vesicles, ejaculatory bulb, phallus), the left parame...

  12. Phylogenetic divergences of the true bugs (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera), with emphasis on the aquatic lineages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yan-hui; Cui, Ying; Rédei, Dávid;

    2016-01-01

    Heteroptera are among the most diverse hemimetabolous insects. Seven infraorders have been recognized within this suborder of Hemiptera. Apart from the well-established sister-group relationship between Cimicomorpha and Pentatomomorpha (= Terheteroptera), the two terminal lineages, the relationsh...

  13. Cladistics and biogeography of the assassin bug genus Rasahus Amyot & Serville (Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Peiratinae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morrone, J.J.; Coscarón, M. del C.

    1998-01-01

    The assassin bug genus Rasahus Amyot & Serville (Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Peiratinae) comprises 26 Neotropical species. A cladistic analysis of the genus was carried out using 63 characters from external morphology, body vestiture, and male and female genitalia, with the species considered as termin

  14. Heteroptera attracted to butterfly traps baited with fish or shrimp carrion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Records of Heteroptera collected at butterfly traps baited with fish or shrimp carrion during collecting trips to Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru are presented. Traps consisted of a cylinder of net fabric (about 35 cm diam, 75 cm length) attached on the top and bottom to square pieces ...

  15. Contributions to the knowledge of Banasa Stål (Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Pentatomidae: Banasa chaca Thomas

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    Thereza de Almeida Garbelotto

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Contributions to the knowledge of Banasa Stål (Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Pentatomidae: Banasa chaca Thomas. The male of Banasa chaca Thomas is described with emphasis on external and internal genitalia and the female internal genitalia is described. Banasa chaca is newly recorded from Buenos Aires Province (Argentina.

  16. Een invasie van de Nieuw-Zeelandse tarwewants Nysius huttoni in Nederland (Heteroptera: Lygaeidae).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, J.T.; Reemer, M.; Aukema, B.

    2007-01-01

    Invasion of the New-Zealand wheat bug Nysius huttoni in the Netherlands (Heteroptera: Lygaeidae) In 2006 the European Invertebrate Survey - Netherlands, by order of the National Plant Protection Organisation, conducted a survey of the distribution and population characteristics of the true bug Nysiu

  17. Exocrine secretion of wheel bugs (Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Arilus spp): clarification and chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assassin bugs (Heteroptera: Reduviidae) in the genus Arilus are among the largest of the New World reduviids, and can inflect extremely painful bites. The most common North American species, A. cristatus (the “wheel bug”), possesses eversible osmeterial glands that reportedly produce an obnoxious od...

  18. A redescription of the endemic Madagascan genus Tricompastes (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kment, Petr; Baena, Manuel

    2015-11-17

    The endemic Madagascan genus Tricompastes Cachan, 1952 (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae: Pentatominae: Triplatygini), containing a single species-Tricompastes gigas Cachan, 1952, is redescribed and illustrated, including first descriptions of male and female genitalia. First exact localities of the species are provided. Lectotype of T. gigas is designated.

  19. A taxonomic revision of the family Velocipedidae Bergroth, 1891 (Insecta: Heteroptera)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doesburg, van P.H.

    2004-01-01

    The Indo-Papuan family Velocipedidae Bergroth, 1891 (Heteroptera) is revised; a new genus, 19 new species and four new subspecies are described. Costomedes gen. nov. (type species: C. gressitti spec. nov.) comprises 11 new species: C. cheesmanae from New Guinea, C. fakfakensis from New Guinea, C. ga

  20. Predation of Pseudis minuta Günther 1858, by Lethocerus annulipes (Heteroptera: Belostomatidae

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    Mautone, José María

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work is to communicate a case of predation on an adult specimen of Pseudis minuta (Amphibia, Anura, Hylidae by an aquatic water bug of the genus Lethocerus (Insecta: Heteroptera: Belostomatidae. Observations were made on May 27, 2012, 12: 40 am, at Aceguá, Departamento de Cerro Largo, in NE Uruguay.

  1. Cladistics and biogeography of the assassin bug genus Rasahus Amyot & Serville (Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Peiratinae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morrone, J.J.; Coscarón, M. del C.

    1998-01-01

    The assassin bug genus Rasahus Amyot & Serville (Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Peiratinae) comprises 26 Neotropical species. A cladistic analysis of the genus was carried out using 63 characters from external morphology, body vestiture, and male and female genitalia, with the species considered as

  2. Waveform library for chinch bugs (Heteroptera: Blissidae): Characterization of EPG waveforms at multiple input impedances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinch bugs, Blissus spp. (Heteroptera: Blissidae), are among the most serious pests of grasses in North America. Southern chinch bug, B. insularis Barber, is the most economically important pest on St. Augustinegrass, the primary lawn grass in Florida. Western chinch bug, B. occiduus Barber, is ...

  3. Phylogenetic approach to the study of Triatomines (Triatominae, Heteroptera

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    E. Tartarotti

    Full Text Available Triatomines are insects belonging to the Hemiptera order, Heteroptera suborder, Reduviidae family and Triatominae subfamily. All members of this subfamily are hematophagous. Triatomines evolved from Reduviidae predators and they are probably polyphyletic in origin. The combination of anatomical, physiological and ethological factors observed in this group, as well as the plesiomorphic and apomorphic characters that differentiate the five tribes and fourteen triatomine genera reinforce the polyphiletic hypotesis. However if we consider the five groups of triatomines, the Rhodniini, Cavernicolini, Bolboderini, Linshcosteini and Alberproseniini tribes constitute monophyletic groups, while the Triatomini tribe is considered polyphyletic. The New World is the center of triatomine diversity and seems to be the point of group origin. Of approximately 137 triatomine species, 105 are only found in the Americas. It is now considered that triatomines represent a polyphyletic group defined according to their convergent apomorphic hematophagous characters, which have appeared several times in Reduviidae. This study revises the phylogeny of these vectors of Chagas' disease, covering such topics as the origin of hematophagy in triatomines and ancestral proposal for the group.

  4. A new record for Limnobatodes paradoxus Hussey, 1925 from Guyana (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Hydrometridae: Limnobatodinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianferoni, Fabio

    2014-06-04

    Limnobatodes paradoxus Hussey, 1925 is a primitive hydrometrid, described from a single female specimen collected in 1923 at Tela, Honduras (Hussey 1925). Following the original description, very few records of this species have been reported in literature, and locality indications are not detailed: Brazil (Cobben 1968), Peru (Andersen 1977), and French Guiana (Polhemus & Polhemus 1995). Andersen (1977, 1982) quoted "British Honduras" [= Belize] instead of Honduras, and this mistake was subsequently repeated by Schuh and Slater (1995) (see Moreira, 2014). This taxon was not listed by Heckman (2011) in his monograph on the Heteroptera of South America. Excellent illustrations of this species, in comparison with those of other Heteroptera, have been provided by several authors (cf. Hussey 1925; Cobben 1968, 1978; Andersen 1977, 1982). Nothing is known about the habitat and life history of Limnobatodes paradoxus (Andersen 1977; Polhemus & Polhemus 1995).

  5. Cytogenetics of the true bug infraorder Cimicomorpha (Hemiptera, Heteroptera): a review

    OpenAIRE

    Valentina Kuznetsova; Snejana Grozeva; Seppo Nokkala; Christina Nokkala

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The Cimicomorpha is one of the largest and highly diversified infraorders of the Heteroptera. This group is also highly diversified cytogenetically and demonstrates a number of unusual cytogenetic characters such as holokinetic chromosomes; m-chromosomes; multiple sex chromosome systems; post-reduction of sex chromosomes in meiosis; variation in the presence/absence of chiasmata in spermatogenesis; different types of achiasmate meiosis. We present here a review of essential cytogenet...

  6. Checklist of the subfamilies Mirinae and Orthotylinae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Miridae in western parts of Kerman Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Shamsi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A faunal study was carried out on the subfamilies Mirinae and Orthotylinae (Heteroptera: Miridae from different parts of western Kerman Province on various host plants. In total 16 species belonging to 14 genera were collected and identified from different host plants and localities.

  7. Should the Waterhyacinth Mirid, Eccritotarsus catarinensis (Heteroptera: Miridae), be Considered for Release against Waterhyacinth in the United States of America?

    Science.gov (United States)

    At least one and as many as seven biological control agents have been released against waterhyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms) in no less than 30 countries, with varying degrees of success. A mirid, Eccritotarsus catarinensis (Carvalho) (Heteroptera: Miridae), the most recent agent releas...

  8. Types of true bugs (Insecta, Hemiptera, Heteroptera) deposited in the Museo de La Plata, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coscarón, María Del Carmen; Basset, Carina; Lopez, Nancy

    2015-06-25

    A checklist of Heteroptera type specimens deposited in the collection of División Entomología, Museo de La Plata. It harbours type material of 1153 species belonging to 37 families (Enicocephalidae, Schizopteridae, Gerridae, Veliidae, Hydrometridae, Naucoridae, Belostomatidae, Nepidae, Corixidae, Notonectidae, Pleidae, Saldidae, Cimicidae, Polyctenidae, Nabidae, Miridae, Tingidae, Vianaididae, Thaumastocoridae, Reduviidae, Aradidae, Alydidae, Coreidae, Rhopalidae, Berytidae, Blissidae, Lygaeidae, Oxycarenidae, Rhyparochromidae, Idiostolidae, Largidae, Pyrrhocoridae, Anthocoridae, Cydnidae, Pentatomidae, Scutelleridae, Thyreocoridae), represented by 207 holotypes, 26 allotypes, 578 paratypes, 1 lectotype, 1 paralectotype and 340 syntypes. For each taxon providing update information on valid names, categories of types, and locality.

  9. Cytogenetics of the true bug infraorder Cimicomorpha (Hemiptera, Heteroptera: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Kuznetsova

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Cimicomorpha is one of the largest and highly diversified infraorders of the Heteroptera. This group is also highly diversified cytogenetically and demonstrates a number of unusual cytogenetic characters such as holokinetic chromosomes; m-chromosomes; multiple sex chromosome systems; post-reduction of sex chromosomes in meiosis; variation in the presence/absence of chiasmata in spermatogenesis; different types of achiasmate meiosis. We present here a review of essential cytogenetic characters of the Cimicomorpha and outline the chief objectives and goals of future investigations in the field.

  10. An annotated catalogue of the subfamily Orthotylinae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Miridae from the Korean Peninsula

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    Sunghoon Jung

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an annotated catalogue of the plant bugs, subfamily Orthotylinae (Heteroptera: Miridae from the Korean Peninsula. In this study, a total of 41 species are enumerated, including four new records from the Korean Peninsula: Heterocordylus alutaceus Kulik 1965, Malacocorisella endoi Yasunaga, 1999, Orthotylus interpositus Schmidt, 1938, and Strongylocoris leucocephalus (Linnaeus, 1758. Distribution data and bibliographical references of each taxon are included. Biological notes (e.g. host and/or habitat based on the local specimens of the Korean Peninsula are also presented.

  11. Malformation of true bug (Heteroptera): a phenotype field study on the possible influence of artificial low-level radioactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse-Honegger, Cornelia; Wallimann, Peter

    2008-04-01

    The results of extensive field studies on the malformation of Western European true bugs (Heteroptera) are reviewed. More than 16,000 individuals were collected over two decades, and subjected to detailed visual inspection. Various types of disturbances were found and illustrated in detail. Depending on country, region, as well as local influences, severe disturbances and high degrees of malformation were noticed, especially in the sphere of nuclear-power installations in Switzerland (Aargau), France (La Hague), and Germany (Gundremmingen). Malformation reached values as high as 22 and 30% for morphological (MD) and total disturbance (TD), respectively. This is far above the values expected for natural populations (ca. 1%) or those determined for true bugs living in biotopes considered as relatively 'intact' (1-3%). A detailed chi-square test of the malformation data obtained for 650 true bugs from 13 collection sites near the nuclear-reprocessing plant La Hague showed a highly significant correlation (p=0.003) between malformation and wind exposure/local topography. Similar observations were made for other study sites. Currently, our data are best rationalized by assuming a direct influence between the release of anthropogenic radionuclides such as tritium ((3)H), carbon-14 ((14)C), or iodine-131 ((131)I), constantly emitted by nuclear-power and nuclear-reprocessing plants, as well as by Chernobyl and bomb-testing fallout, which is rich in caesium-137 ((137)Cs) and other long-lived noxious isotopes that have entered the food chain. The present work supports the growing evidence that low-level radiation, especially in the form of randomly scattered 'hot' alpha- and beta-particles, mainly transported via aerosols, puts a heavy burden on the biosphere in general, and on true bugs in particular. These insects could, thus, serve as sensitive 'bio-indicators' for future studies.

  12. Influence of density on intraguild predation of aquatic Hemiptera (Heteroptera: implications in biological control of mosquito

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    S. Brahma

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The water bugs Diplonychus rusticus (Fabricius (Heteroptera: Belostomatidae and Anisops bouvieri (Kirkaldy (Heteroptera: Notonectidae co-occur in wetlands sharing mosquito larvae as prey. As a consequence, an asymmetrical intraguild predation (IGP involving D. rusticus as IG predator and A. bouvieri as IG prey can be possible, the outcome of which may vary with the relative density of interacting species. Based on this proposition density dependent effects on the IG prey and shared prey mortality were assessed in the laboratory using varying numbers of IG predator and shared prey (IV instar Culex quinquefasciatus larva. In contrast to single predator system, mosquito larvae were proportionately less vulnerable to predation in IGP, at low density of shared prey. An increase in density of mosquito decreased the mortality of IG prey (A. bouvieri, but the mean mortality of the IG prey increased with the density of IG predator, in IGP system. Increase in density of mosquito and D. rusticus enhanced risk to predation of mosquito while reducing the mortality of A. bouvieri. Interaction between D. rusticus and A. bouvieri as a part of IGP system provides a possible reason of coexistence of mosquito immature along with predators in wetlands. Biological regulation of mosquitoes may be affected, if appropriate predator numbers are not available in the habitats.

  13. Barcoding bugs: DNA-based identification of the true bugs (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera.

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    Doo-Sang Park

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: DNA barcoding, the analysis of sequence variation in the 5' region of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI gene, has been shown to provide an efficient method for the identification of species in a wide range of animal taxa. In order to assess the effectiveness of barcodes in the discrimination of Heteroptera, we examined 344 species belonging to 178 genera, drawn from specimens in the Canadian National Collection of Insects. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Analysis of the COI gene revealed less than 2% intra-specific divergence in 90% of the taxa examined, while minimum interspecific distances exceeded 3% in 77% of congeneric species pairs. Instances where barcodes fail to distinguish species represented clusters of morphologically similar species, except one case of barcode identity between species in different genera. Several instances of deep intraspecific divergence were detected suggesting possible cryptic species. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Although this analysis encompasses 0.8% of the described global fauna, our results indicate that DNA barcodes will aid the identification of Heteroptera. This advance will be useful in pest management, regulatory and environmental applications and will also reveal species that require further taxonomic research.

  14. Survival and fecundity of two strains of Cimex lectularius (Hemiptera: Heteroptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbarin, Alexis M; Barbarin, Alexis M; Barbu, Corentin M; Gebhardtsbauer, Ron; Rajotte, Edwin G

    2014-09-01

    Knowledge of development of the bed bug Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) under specific environmental conditions could lead to improved management techniques. Developmental rates, age-, and stage-specific life tables were compared for a laboratory strain and a field strain of bed bugs reared on human blood. Both strains were then crossed reciprocally to produce four F1 generations and subsequent age- and stage-specific life tables were constructed. No significant differences were found in the overall survival of the parental strains, but significant differences were found in development rate within various instars based on strain. Parallel results were derived from the F1 generation hybrids. Stable age distribution calculations predict that 80% of bedbugs within exponentially growing populations will be immature.

  15. DIVERSITY OF THE SOUTHERN GREEN STINK BUG NEZARA VIRIDULA (L. (HETEROPTERA: PENTATOMIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V MEGLIČ

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available The southern green stink bug Nezara viridula (L. (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae is a global pest of considerable ecological, agricultural and economical interest. The ancestral home of this species is supposed to be Africa and/or Mediterranean and presumably it was spread worldwide during the last two centuries with human trade and agriculture. Bugs found today on different continents do not differ morphologically, however there are substantial differences in their mating behaviour. We used horizontal starch gel electrophoresis to determine the suitability of biochemical markers for assessment of genetic variation between geographically isolated populations of N. viridula. The initial survey of populations from Slovenia, France, French West Indies and Brazil resulted in the resolution of polymorphic banding patterns within the following enzyme systems: GPI, IDH, MDH, ME, MPI and PGM. Results indicate there are consistent differences among tested populations.

  16. Antibiosis of tomato, Solanum lycopersicum (Solanaceae plants to the Asopinae predator Supputius cincticeps (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae

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    AA de Castro

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available , , , Plant feeding can improve development and reproduction of the stink bug Supputius cincticeps (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae, an important biological control agent in South American agro-forestry ecosystems. However, defensive compounds of plants may negatively impact this predator. The development, reproduction and survival of S. cincticeps fed on mealworm, Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae pupae with bean (Fabaceae, cotton (Malvaceae, eucalyptus (Myrtaceae, soybean (Fabaceae, or tomato (Solanaceae leaves were evaluated. Females and males were heavier and the number of nymphs produced per female, the oviposition period and the longevity of females of this predator were higher when fed on eucalyptus, soybean, bean, and cotton than with tomato leaves. Leaves of those plants improved biological parameters of S. cincticeps, while tomato leaves showed antibiosis with lower reproduction and survival of S. cincticeps, probably due to toxic compounds.

  17. Tissue-specific expression of esterases in Triatoma infestans (Triatominae, Heteroptera

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    Tavares Mara Garcia

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined the esterases present in the hemolymph and Malpighian tubules of "Kissing bug", Triatoma infestans (Triatominae, Heteroptera by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Six esterase bands were observed and were designated EST 1 to EST 6. EST 1, 4, 5 and 6 were exclusive to hemolymph, whereas EST 2 and 3 were found only in Malpighian tubules. Each tissue had a characteristic esterase pattern, which may be related to its functional role. The four hemolymph esterases hydrolyzed a-naphthyl acetate. One of these enzymes was classified as a carboxylesterase (EST 4, and another was an acetylesterase (EST 6. The other two enzymes (EST 1 and 5 could be either carboxylesterases or serino-proteases with an esterolytic function, as they were selectively inhibited by phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF. Absence of genetic variability could be due to high inbreeding.

  18. Attack behavior of Podisus rostralis (Heteroptera: Pentatomidade adults on caterpillars of Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae

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    Walkymário Paulo Lemos

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Attack behavior of the predator Podisus rostralis (Stäl (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae adults on fourth instar Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae caterpillars was studied in laboratory conditions. Ten 24 hours old adults of this predator were observed during two hours with the following attack behavior: (1 Predator: prey finding; prey observation; touching prey with antenna; attack behavior; prey paralysis; predator retreat after attack; attack cessation; successive attacks; and (2 Prey: defense. The predator P. rostralis found its prey before attacking and it approached it with slow circular movements. The attack was usually made in the posterior part of the prey to reduce defense reaction. Larger size of prey in relation to the predator resulted difficult prey paralysis but it occurred in less than two hours.Estudou-se, em laboratório, o comportamento de ataque de adultos do predador Podisus rostralis (Stäl (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae tendo como presa lagartas de quarto estádio de Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae. Dez adultos do predador, com 24 horas de idade, foram observados durante duas horas acompanhando-se os seguintes comportamentos de ataque: (1 Predador: localização da presa; observação da presa; toque das presas com as antenas; comportamento de ataque; paralisação da presa; fuga do predador após ataque; finalização do ataque; ataques sucessivos; e (2 Presa: defesa. O predador P. rostralis localizou sua presa antes do ataque, aproximando-se dela através de lentos movimentos circulares. O ataque é, usualmente, realizado na parte posterior da presa para reduzir reação de defesa. O maior tamanho da presa em relação ao predador pode dificultar a paralisação, porém o predador consegue paralisá-la em menos de duas horas.

  19. Biochemical and morphological aspects of salivary glands of the predator Brontocoris tabidus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae

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    Dihego de Oliveira Azevedo

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the feeding habits of the predator Brontocoris tabidus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae analyzing the salivary gland complex (SGC. The SGC was dissected and subjected to histological analyses and biochemical assays. Results showed that a pair of bilobed principal salivary glands and one pair of tubular accessory salivary glands form the SGC and different parts of salivary gland synthesizes similar substances. Lipases, a-amylase and trypsin-like enzymes were detected at both lobes of the principal salivary gland. These data together with observations related to the predator's diet suggested that it could be considered an obligate zoophytophagous.Esta pesquisa contribui para a compreensão dos hábitos alimentares do percevejo predador Brontocoris tabidus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae por meio de análises morfológicas e bioquímicas de suas glândulas salivares. Espécimes tiveram o sistema salivar dissecado, e parte das amostras obtidas foi submetida a análises histológicas. Secções foram coradas com hematoxilina e eosina ou submetidas aos testes histoquímicos azul de bromofenol, PAS e azul do Nilo. A outra parte das amostras dissecadas teve seu conteúdo analisado em SDS-PAGE e em ensaios de atividade enzimática. Os resultados mostram que o sistema salivar de B. tabidus é formado por um par de glândulas bilobadas principais e um par de glândulas tubulares acessórias, e que suas diferentes regiões sintetizam substâncias semelhantes. Os ensaios enzimáticos detectaram atividade para tripsina, amilase e lipase, que juntamente com observações de laboratório relativas à dieta do predador indicam que o mesmo pode ser considerado um zoofitófago obrigatório.

  20. The First Finding of Six Instars of Larvae in Heteroptera and the Negative Correlation between Precipitation and Number of Individuals Collected in Sea Skaters of Halobates (Heteroptera: Gerridae

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    Tetsuo Harada

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study, conducted during a scientific cruise, MR15-04, aims, first, to examine species and larval/adult components of Halobates (Heteroptera: Gerridae inhabiting the tropical Indian Ocean of 4°00′ S–7°00′ S, 101°00′ E–103°00′ E and, second, to examine the correlative relationship between precipitation just before collection and the number of sea skaters collected in November and December 2015. Near Sumatra (50 km south-west, larvae and adults of four species of Halobates (Halobates germanes White, 1883; Halobates micans Eschscholtz, 1822; Halobates princeps White, 1883; undescribed species: Halobates sp. were collected. Adults of an undescribed species had about a 5 mm long body in a gourd-like shape. One male adult specimen of H. princeps was collected. Body length, body width, and head width was measured in all specimens of Halobates. Six larval stages were detected in all three species of sea skaters as the first finding for Heteropteran insects. There was a negative correlation between amount of precipitation for 19 h before collection and the number of Halobates individuals collected by the neuston net. Death or (positive or passive sinking by sea skaters could be due to occasional rain fall on the sea surface.

  1. The First Finding of Six Instars of Larvae in Heteroptera and the Negative Correlation between Precipitation and Number of Individuals Collected in Sea Skaters of Halobates (Heteroptera: Gerridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Tetsuo; Furuki, Takahiro; Ohoka, Wataru; Umamoto, Noritomo; Nakajo, Mitsuru; Katagiri, Chihiro

    2016-12-07

    This study, conducted during a scientific cruise, MR15-04, aims, first, to examine species and larval/adult components of Halobates (Heteroptera: Gerridae) inhabiting the tropical Indian Ocean of 4°00' S-7°00' S, 101°00' E-103°00' E and, second, to examine the correlative relationship between precipitation just before collection and the number of sea skaters collected in November and December 2015. Near Sumatra (50 km south-west), larvae and adults of four species of Halobates (Halobates germanes White, 1883; Halobates micans Eschscholtz, 1822; Halobates princeps White, 1883; undescribed species: Halobates sp.) were collected. Adults of an undescribed species had about a 5 mm long body in a gourd-like shape. One male adult specimen of H. princeps was collected. Body length, body width, and head width was measured in all specimens of Halobates. Six larval stages were detected in all three species of sea skaters as the first finding for Heteropteran insects. There was a negative correlation between amount of precipitation for 19 h before collection and the number of Halobates individuals collected by the neuston net. Death or (positive or passive) sinking by sea skaters could be due to occasional rain fall on the sea surface.

  2. Evident?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plant, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Quality assurance and evidence in career guidance in Europe are often seen as self-evident approaches, but particular interests lie behind......Quality assurance and evidence in career guidance in Europe are often seen as self-evident approaches, but particular interests lie behind...

  3. Effect of female weight on reproductive potential of the predator Brontocoris tabidus (Signoret, 1852 (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae

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    Isaias Oliveira

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to determine the fecundity of the predator Brontocoris tabidus (Signoret (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae females of two weight classes aiming to define, which one presented higher productivity in the laboratory. Males and females of B. tabidus were reared from nymphs fed with Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae pupae in laboratory. Females of B. tabidus weighting 95 to 150 mg and those with 160 to 220 mg constituted two treatments. Oviposition period and numbers of egg masses, eggs and nymphs per female of B. tabidus were higher in the treatment with heavier females, while the periods of preoviposition, between egg mass laying, egg incubation and number of eggs per egg mass, besides the percentage of nymphs hatched and adult longevity were similar between treatments. Heavier females of B. tabidus presented better productivity and for this reason they should be used in programs of mass rearing this predator.Este trabalho apresenta a fecundidade de fêmeas do predador Brontocoris tabidus (Signoret (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae de duas classes de peso, objetivando avaliar qual delas apresenta melhor produtividade em criações mantidas em laboratório. Machos e fêmeas foram alimentadas, desde o estádio ninfal, com pupas do besouro Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae. Fêmeas de B. tabidus pesando entre 95 e 150 mg e entre 160 e 220 mg constituíram as duas classes de peso. O período de oviposição e os números de posturas, de ovos e ninfas por fêmea de B. tabidus foram maiores naquelas fêmeas pertencentes à classe mais pesada, enquanto os períodos de pré-oviposição, entre posturas, incubação dos ovos e número de ovos por postura, bem como a percentagem de eclosão de ninfas e a longevidade dos adultos foram semelhantes entre ambas as classes de peso. Fêmeas mais pesadas de B. tabidus apresentaram maior número de ovos por fêmea e por esta razão devem ser utilizadas em programas de cria

  4. Discovery of a living fossil: a new xylastodorine species from New Caledonia (Heteroptera: Thaumastocoridae) and first record of the subfamily from the eastern Hemisphere

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doesburg, van P.H.; Cassis, G.; Monteith, G.B.

    2010-01-01

    A new species belonging to the genus Proxylastodoris Heiss & Popov, 2002, P. kuscheli spec. nov., of the subfamily Xylastodorinae Barber, 1920 (Heteroptera: Thaumastocoridae) is described from New Caledonia. It is the first recent record outside the western Hemisphere of the Xyalstodorinae and is th

  5. An update of the types of Heteroptera (Hemiptera) housed at the Museo de La Plata Entomological Collection (Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montemayor, Sara Itzel; Dellapé, Pablo Matías

    2013-01-08

    We present a list of the type material of Heteroptera deposited in the entomological collection of the Museo de La Plata (Buenos Aires, Argentina) in the last six years and or, not included in previous catalogs. This catalog includes 244 specimens belonging to 43 holotypes, one neotype, and 200 paratypes. The type material examined belongs to 50 species from 43 genera distributed in 16 families: Schizopteridae, Hydrometridae, Naucoridae, Thaumastocoridae, Miridae, Tingidae, Vianaididae, Reduviidae, Alydidae, Rhopalidae, Largidae , Berytidae, Blissidae, Lygaeidae, Oxycarenidae, and Rhyparochromidae.

  6. Development and survival of nymphs of Podisus nigrispinus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae fed with caterpillars of Chlosyne lacinia saundersii (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae

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    Carlos Alberto Domingues da Silva

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The development and survival of Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae nymphs fed on larvae of Chlosyne lacinia saundersii Doubleday & Hewitson (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae was studied at 25 ± 1ºC, 68 ± 10% relative humidity and 12 h photo phase. P. nigrispinus developed until the adult stage when fed on C. lacinia saundersii caterpillars. However, the survival rate of P. nigrispinus during early instars allowed this predator to complement its diet with other preys and to maintain its populations in areas with the sunflower culture.

  7. Biodiversity of Coreoidea and Pentatomidae (Heteroptera) from Atlantic forest protected areas. Insights into their conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellapé, Gimena; Colpo, Karine D; Melo, María C; Montemayor, Sara I; Dellapé, Pablo M

    2017-07-24

    Although the majority of threatened species are likely to be tropical insects, knowledge of the diversity, ecological role and impact of insect biodiversity loss on ecosystem processes is very limited. Specimens belonging to four families of Heteroptera: Pentatomidae, Coreidae, Alydidae and Rhopalidae, were collected from a protected area in the Paraná Forest, the largest ecoregion of the Atlantic Forest, in Argentina. The assemblages were characterized and the biodiversity estimated, and they were compared with the assemblages found in five other protected areas in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. In our study area, Pentatomidae had the greatest richness and diversity; Coreidae was the second most diverse family, with highest sampling deficit, highest percentage of singletons, and lowest inventory completeness; and Rhopalidae was the best sampled family with asymptotic rarefaction curves. We explored the application of the Species Conservation Importance index, following four criteria, to evaluate the relative importance of the pentatomid species studied and its usefulness for assigning conservation values to areas. We found similar Site Conservation Values among the six areas and noted that the use of criteria was limited by the lack of information, being crucial to increase the knowledge of most of the species.

  8. Feeding preference of Macrolophus caliginosus (Heteroptera: Miridae) on Bemisia tabaci and Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonato, Olivier; Couton, Louise; Fargues, Jacques

    2006-08-01

    A study of predation choices of Macrolophus caliginosus Wagner (Heteroptera: Miridae) late instars and adults, when offered various developmental stages (eggs and nymphs) of the recently established whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae), was made based on two preference indices. In addition, prey choices of late instars when presented with three ratios of Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) and B. tabaci at a similar developmental stage (eggs, young or late instars) were assessed. M. caliginosus preferred older nymphs of B. tabaci than any other stage. It also chose T. vaporariorum over B. tabaci, unless the latter consisted of > 75% of the available prey. These results suggested that M. caliginosus might interfere with parasitoids such as Encarsia, Eretmocerus, or Amitus spp. because all three species emerge from the host pupal case. Furthermore, in mixed infestations, M. caliginosus preference for T. vaporariorum might either negatively affect the control of B. tabaci, or, contrarily, enhance the predator population, before a B. tabaci outbreak occurs in the greenhouse.

  9. Exocrine secretions of wheel bugs (Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Arilus spp.): clarification and chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldrich, Jeffrey R; Chauhan, Kamlesh R; Zhang, Aijun; Zarbin, Paulo H G

    2013-01-01

    Wheel bugs (Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Harpactorinae: Arilus) are general predators, the females of which have reddish-orange subrectal glands (SGs) that are eversible like the osmeteria in some caterpillars. The rancid odor of Arilus and other reduviids actually comes from Brindley's glands, which in the North (A. cristatus) and South (A. carinatus) American wheel bugs studied emit similar blends of 2-methylpropanoic, butanoic, 3-methylbutanoic, and 2-methylbutanoic acids. The Arilus SG secretions studied here are absolutely species-specific. The volatile SG components of A. carinatus include (E)-2-octenal, (E)-2-nonenal, (E)-2-decenal, (E,E)-2,4-nonadienal, (E)-2-undecenal, hexanoic acid, 4-oxo-nonanal, (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, (E,Z)-2,4- or (Z,E)-2,4-decadienal, and 4-oxo-(E)-2-nonenal; whereas in A. cristatus the SG secretion contains beta-pinene, limonene, terpinolene, terpinen-4-ol, thymol methyl ether, alpha-terpineol, bornyl acetate, methyl eugenol, beta-caryophyllene, caryophyllene oxide, and farnesol. Arilus spp. SG secretions may be sex pheromones, but verification of this hypothesis requires further testing.

  10. Chromosomes and their meiotic behaviour in two species of Dieuches Dohrn, 1860 (Heteroptera: Lygaeidae: Rhyparochromini

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    Harbhajan Kaur

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The Lygaeidae (Heteroptera are a large and diverse family in which the male diploid chromosomal complement ranges from 10 to 30. Diploid numbers of 14 and 16 are taken as two modal numbers of the family. The Rhyparochrominae, one of the largest subfamilies of the Lygaeidae, are known to be heterogeneous both cytologically and morphologically. Available data on the tribe Rhyparochromini reveal that all species are characterized by the presence of a pair of microchromosomes (m-chromosomes and have an XY/XX (♂/♀ sex chromosome determining system. Dieuches coloratus (Distant, 1909 and D. insignis (Distant, 1918 belonging to Rhyparochromini, have 2n=14=10A+2m+XY and 2n=12=8A+2m+XY respectively. Both the species are similar inone pair of distinctly large autosomes in their chromosome complements. The metaphase plate arrangement of autosomes, sex chromosomes and m-chromosomes in D. coloratus is similar to the common condition observed in the tribe Rhyparochromini. In D. insignis, however, the arrangement is different. Here, metaphase I is usual in showing peripheral position of autosomes and central position of sex chromosomes and m-chromosomes. At metaphase II, however, autosomes, sex chromosomes and m-chromosomes are peripherally placed, an arrangement, which is not reported earlier in the tribe Rhyparochromini.

  11. Characterization of the symbiont Rickettsia in the mirid bug Nesidiocoris tenuis (Reuter) (Heteroptera: Miridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspi-Fluger, A; Inbar, M; Steinberg, S; Friedmann, Y; Freund, M; Mozes-Daube, N; Zchori-Fein, E

    2014-12-01

    Nesidiocoris tenuis (Reuter) (Heteroptera: Miridae) is an omnivorous insect used for biological control. Augmentative release and conservation of N. tenuis have been used for pest control in tomato crops. Intracellular bacterial symbionts of arthropods are common in nature and have diverse effects on their hosts; in some cases they can dramatically affect biological control. Fingerprinting methods showed that the symbiotic complex associated with N. tenuis includes Wolbachia and Rickettsia. Rickettsia of N. tenuis was further characterized by sequencing the 16S rRNA and gltA bacterial genes, measuring its amount in different developmental stages of the insect by real-time polymerase chain reaction, and localizing the bacteria in the insect's body by fluorescence in situ hybridization. The Rickettsia in N. tenuis exhibited 99 and 96% similarity of both sequenced genes to Rickettsia bellii and Rickettsia reported from Bemisia tabaci, respectively. The highest amount of Rickettsia was measured in the 5th instar and adult, and the symbionts could be detected in the host gut and ovaries. Although the role played by Rickettsia in the biology of N. tenuis is currently unknown, their high amount in the adults and localization in the gut suggest that they may have a nutritional role in this insect.

  12. Taxonomic corrections to species of Rhyparochromidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) described by Carl Peter Thunberg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondorosy, Előd; Rédei, Dávid; Mejlon, Hans

    2014-07-22

    Types of Rhyparochromidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Lygaeoidea) species described by Carl Peter Thunberg, deposited in the Museum of Evolution (formerly Zoologiska Institut), Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden, were reexamined and the taxonomic and nomenclatural problems that existed among those species discussed and resolved as required. Lectotypes are designated for Cimex caffer Thunberg, 1784, Lygaeus ater Thunberg, 1822, Lygaeus biguttatus Thunberg, 1822, and Pendulinus guttatus Thunberg, 1825. The lectotype of Pendulinus (now Metochus) guttatus is designated as neotype of Pendulinus (now Metochus) uniguttatus Thunberg, 1822; as a result the former name becomes junior objective synonym of the latter. The following taxonomic changes are proposed: Lethaeus ater (Thunberg, 1822), new combination (from Lygaeus); Migdilybs biguttatus (Thunberg, 1822), new combination (from Lygaeus) = Migdilybs furcifer Hesse, 1925, new subjective synonym; Metochus uniguttatus (Thunberg, 1822) = Metochus bengalensis (Dallas, 1852), confirmed subjective synonym = Metochus yeh (Dohrn, 1860), confirmed subjective synonym; Raglius alboacuminatus (Goeze, 1778) = Cimex caffer Thunberg, 1874, confirmed subjective synonym. Lethaeus barberi Slater, 1964 does not belong to Lethaeus Dallas, 1852 but currently it cannot be placed with confidence in any existing genus. 

  13. Lightweight males of Podisus nigrispinus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae neglect lightweight females due low reproductive fitness

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    A. I. A. Pereira

    Full Text Available Abstract Sexual choice by male stink bugs is important because females that experience food shortages lay fewer eggs with lower viability compared with well-fed females. In this study, we investigated whether Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae males fed with a low-quality diet during its nymphal stage show selectivity for sexual partners resulting in high-quality progeny. Lightweight males and females were obtained from nymphs fed weekly with Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae pupae. By contrast, heavyweight males and females were fed three times a week and received an extra nutritional source: cotton leaves, Gossypium hirsutum L. (Malvaceae. Lightweight males preferred to mate with heavy females (77.78 ± 14.69%, whereas heavyweight males did not discriminated between light or heavyweight females. Females mated with lightweight males showed similar levels of reproduction to those mated with heavyweight males. The results provide an indication of the importance of male and female body weight for sexual selection in Asopinae stink bugs.

  14. Host egg age of Leptoglossus occidentalis (Heteroptera, Coreidae) and parasitism by Gryon pennsylvanicum (Hymenoptera, Platygastridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peverieri, Giuseppino Sabbatini; Furlan, Paola; Benassai, Daniele; Caradonna, Sarah; Strong, Ward B; Roversi, Pio Federico

    2013-04-01

    Leptoglossus occidentalis Heidemann (Heteroptera, Coreidae) is native to Western North America and is a serious pest for seed production of conifers. The pest was accidentally introduced into Europe in the 1990s. Since then, seed loss has been recorded in Pinus pinea (L.) forests, with a negative impact on the commercial production of pine nuts. Classical biological control of this pest in P. pinea stands is an attractive proposition. Previous work showed that the egg-parasitoid Gryon pennsylvanicum (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera, Platygastridae) had promising life history traits in laboratory studies using L. occidentalis eggs as host. In the present work, the effect of host egg age on parasitization rate was evaluated in the laboratory, using choice and no-choice tests. Host eggs ranged in age from < 24 h to within a day of hatching. Results showed that parasitization rate, juvenile survival rate, sex ratio, and longevity of female G. pennsylvanicum were not significantly affected by the age of the host eggs. However, egg-parasitoid development time was longer in older host eggs, and females were smaller than those that developed in younger host eggs. Parasitization behaviors (drumming, oviposition, and marking) were not affected by the age of the host. G. pennsylvanicum females tended to parasitize all available host eggs within a cluster before moving to a new cluster, without displaying a preferences for host egg age. The ability to exploit host eggs of any age class improves the prospect of successful classical biological control using this egg-parasitoid.

  15. Morphology of olfactory sensilla and its role in host plant recognition by Neomegalotomus parvus (Westwood (Heteroptera: Alydidae

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    Maurício Ursi Ventura

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The external morphology of the sensilla, including pores and permeable points on the cuticle of the antennae of adults of Neomegalotomus parvus (West. (Heteroptera: Alydidae was investigated with regard to their olfactory function. Behavioural evidence of olfaction, the importance of the different antennal segments in locating the host under still-air, and the responses of the insects to plants' scents and to pheromones in wind assays were also studied. With the scanning electronic microscope mechanoreceptor sensilla were found on the four segments of the antennae of N. parvus. The density of the sensilla was greater on the 4th segment. On the apical segment, sensilla with olfactory morphological traits were observed. Bugs with intact antennae located food more frequently and faster than those with blocked or amputated antennae. N. parvus preferred intact seeds to sealed seeds, but there was no preference when the last segment of the antenna was blocked. In wind tunnel, bugs were attracted to mature and green pods, and to hexanic extract of mature pods of pigeon pea, Cajanus cajan (L. Millsp.; there was no response to panicles of rice, Oryza sativa L. or to the male pheromone.A morfologia externa dos sensilos de adultos de Neomegalotomus parvus (Westw. (Het.: Alydidae, incluindo poros e pontos permeáveis na cutícula, foi estudada em microscópio eletrônico de varredura, em relação à função olfativa. A evidência comportamental do olfato e a importância dos diferentes segmentos antenais na localização do hospedeiro, em condições de ausência de movimentação do ar, foram também estudados. Sensilos mecanoreceptores foram observados nos quatro segmentos da antena de N. parvus, sendo no entanto, a densidade maior no quarto segmento. Nos segmentos apicais, foram observados sensilos com características morfológicas olfativas. Percevejos com antenas intactas localizaram o alimento com mais freqü��ncia e rapidez do que aqueles com

  16. Estados de desarrollo y biología de tres especies de Lygaeinae (Hemiptera-Heteroptera: Lygaeoidea: Lygaeidae Life stages and biology of three species of Lygaeinae (Hemiptera-Heteroptera: Lygaeoidea: Lygaeidae

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    Luis Cervantes-Peredo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Se describen los estados de desarrollo (huevo, ninfas y adulto de 3 especies de Lygaeinae (Hemiptera-Heteroptera: Lygaeoidea: Lygaeidae, Anochrostomus formosus (Blanchard principalmente asociada con especies de Asteraceae y Convolvulaceae, y Lygaeus reclivatus reclivatus(Say y Oncopeltus (Oncopeltus sexmaculatus (Stål asociadas con Asclepiadaceae. Las descripciones están basadas en ejemplares colectados en los estados de Oaxaca y Guerrero (México y criados en el laboratorio. Se ilustra cada uno de los estadios y se incluyen notas acerca de su biología y plantas huéspedes.The life stages (egg, nymphs, and adult of 3 species of Lygaeinae (Hemiptera-Heteroptera: Lygaeoidea: Lygaeidae are described. Anochrostomus formosus (Blanchard is mainly associated with species of Asteraceae and Convolvulaceae, whereas Lygaeus reclivatus reclivatus (Say and Oncopeltus (Oncopeltus sexmaculatus (Stål are associated with Asclepiadaceae. Descriptions are based on individuals collected in the states of Oaxaca and Guerrero (Mexico, and reared in laboratory. Illustrations of each instar are also included, as well as notes about their biology and host plants.

  17. Los coleópteros y heterópteros acuáticos del Parque Nacional Calilegua (Provincia de Jujuy, Argentina Aquatic Coleoptera and Heteroptera from Calilegua National Park (Jujuy Province, Argentina

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    Patricia L. M. Torres

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Se expone una lista de las especies de Coleoptera y Heteroptera presentes en los cuerpos de agua del Parque Nacional Calilegua. Se registraron 51 especies de Coleoptera incluidas en 28 géneros y cinco familias, y 37 especies de Heteroptera distribuidas en 22 géneros y 10 familias; sólo cuatro especies de Coleoptera y cinco de Heteroptera fueron citadas previamente del parque. Se mencionan por primera vez para la Argentina dos especies de Veliidae (Heteroptera: Rhagovelia trista Gould y Platyvelia brachialis (Stål, así como una especie y un género de Dytiscidae (Coleoptera: Desmopachria chei K. B. Miller y Bidessonotus Régimbart. Además, es la primera ocasión en que se mencionan para la provincia de Jujuy 24 especies y 11 géneros de Coleoptera (Leuronectes Sharp, Bidessonotus, Hypodessus Guignot, Desmopachria Babington, Celina Aubé, Gyrinus Linné, Haliplus Latreille, Hydrocanthus Say, Suphis Aubé, Anacaena Thomson, Derallus Sharp y 19 especies y 12 géneros de Heteroptera (Mesovelia Mulsant & Rey, Hebrus Curtis, Merragata White, Microvelia Westwood, Rhagovelia Mayr, Platyvelia J. T. Polhemus & D. A. Polhemus, Limnogonus Stål, Curicta Stål, Ranatra Fabricius, Centrocorisa Lundblad, Pelocoris Stål, Neoplea Esaki & China.A list of the species of aquatic Coleoptera and Heteroptera occurring in Calilegua National Park is presented. Fifty-one species of Coleoptera included in 28 genera and five families, and 37 species of Heteroptera belonging to 22 genera and 10 families were recorded. Only four species of Coleoptera and five of Heteroptera had been previously cited from the park. Two species of Veliidae (Heteroptera (Rhagovelia trista Gould, Platyvelia brachialis (Stål, along with one species and one genus of Dytiscidae (Coleoptera (Desmopachria chei K. B. Miller, Bidessonotus Régimbart are new records for Argentina. Twenty-four species and 11 genera of Coleoptera (Leuronectes Sharp, Bidessonotus, Hypodessus Guignot, Desmopachria

  18. Successful hatching from eggs carried by females and naturally removed from incubant males in Belostoma spp. water bugs (Heteroptera: Belostomatidae

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    Ana Lía Estévez

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Within Belostomatinae water bug species (Heteroptera, Belostomatidae it has been hitherto believed that the completion of embryonic development is successful only if eggs are incubated on male hemelytra. Nevertheless, we found egg successful hatching from a back- brooding Belostoma elegans (Mayr and B. micantulum (Stål females, as well as from fertilized eggs kicked off from four back-brooder B. elegans males. One "encumbered" B. elongatum Montandon female was also recorded, but eggs did not hatch after she removed them. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54(2: 515-517. Epub 2006 Jun 01.Se considera que el desarrollo embrionario y la emergencia de las ninfas de las especies de Belostomatinae (Heteroptera, Belostomatidae se cumplen con éxito si los huevos son incubados sobre el espacio dorsal de machos adultos. No obstante, hemos registrado eclosiones exitosas a partir de dos hembras grávidas portando huevos sobre su dorso; una de ellas de la especie Belostoma elegans (Mayr, la otra de B. micantulum (Stål. Se registra la eclosión de huevos, previamente removidos del área de postura por los propios machos incubantes de B. elegans (N=4 y la presencia de una hembra de B. elongatum Montandon, portando huevos sobre sus hemiélitros, los cuales no eclosionaron después de haber sido removidos por la propia hembra.

  19. Effect of sub-lethal concentrations of permethrin on ovary activation in the predator Supputius cincticeps (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae

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    W. P. Lemos

    Full Text Available Insecticides may cause mortality and deleterious effects on predatory stinkbugs. For this reason, the effect of five concentrations of permethrin applied on third instar nymphs of Supputius cincticeps (Stål (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae was investigated on ovary activation in this predator. The nymphs received topical application of permethrin in the following concentrations (mg a.i./ml: 10-7, 10-6, 10-5, 10-4, and 10-3. Ovary lengths and oocyte numbers were quantified following first egg mass. Ovary length of S. cincticeps varied from 5.7 mm with 10-4 mg a.i./ml, to 6.4 mm with 10-7 mg a.i./ml, with similar values for the other permethrin concentrations and for the control. The number of oocytes per female varied from 13.5 with 10-3 mg a.i./ml, to 29.2 for the control, with significant differences.The number of oocytes per female of nymphs exposed to a permethrin concentration of 10-5 mg a.i./ml was similar to that of the control.However, the lower number of oocytes per female from nymphs exposed to other concentrations of permethrin suggests that this insecticide may affect the reproductive capacity of this predator. The results obtained are discussed in relation to tolerance of Heteroptera predators to insecticides and possible hormesis occurrence.

  20. NUEVOS REGISTROS Y AMPLIACIÓN DE LA DISTRIBUCIÓN DE HETERÓPTEROS ACUÁTICOS EN COLOMBIA (HEMIPTERA, HETEROPTERA

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    DORA NANCY PADILLA GIL

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Se registran 33 especies de chinches acuáticas; 21 semiacuáticas y 12 acuáticas (Gerromorpha y Nepomorpha. Se amplia el rango geográfico para 24 especies y nueve especies son registradas por primera vez para Colombia: Cryptocricos rufus DeCarlo, 1940; Gelastocoris bolivianus De Carlo, 1954; Ranatra tuberculifrons Montandon, 1907; Neoplea borelii (Kirkaldy, 1899; Hydrometra exalla Drake y Lauck, 1959; Hebrus plaumanni Porter, 1952; Merragata hebroides White, 1877; Rheumatobates drakei (Hungerford, 1954; Microvelia hinei Drake, 1920; para cada una de estas especies se considera una diagnosis e ilustración de los caracteres taxonómicos. Para todas las especies se proporcionan la distribución por departamento y municipio y un mapa ilustrativo.

  1. Development and reproduction of Podisus distinctus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae fed on larva of Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae

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    M. C. Lacerda

    Full Text Available Biological control has been reducing the use of chemical products against insect pests, specially predatory Pentatomidae. Species of this group can present high variations in their life cycle as a result of their diet. Thus, the objective of this research was to study nymph development and reproduction of Podisus distinctus (Stäl, 1860 (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae fed on Bombyx mori L., 1758 (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae larvae (T1, compared to those fed on Tenebrio molitor L., 1758 (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae (T2 and Musca domestica L., 1758 (Diptera: Muscidae larvae (T3 at a temperature of 25 ± 0.5ºC, relative humidity of 70 ± 2%, and photophase of 12 h. Predators fed on B. mori showed duration of the nymph phase (18.68 ± 1.02 similar to those fed on T. molitor (18.32 ± 1.49. Pre-oviposition and oviposition periods and number of egg masses, besides eggs and nymphs per female, were higher with B. mori (5.83 ± 2.02; 15.00 ± 7.40; 8.42 ± 1.84; 296.69 ± 154.75; and 228.55 ± 141.04, respectively while longevity of males and females of P. distinctus was 25.76 ± 16.15 and 35.00 ± 16.15 days with T. molitor, and 20.57 ± 13.60 and 23.46 ± 12.35 days with B. mori, respectively.

  2. Los heterópteros acuáticos y semiacuáticos del Parque Provincial Ernesto Tornquist (Provincia de Buenos Aires, República Argentina

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    Susana A. KONOPKO

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una lista de las especies de Heteroptera presentes en los cuerpos de agua del Parque Provincial Ernesto Tornquist. Se registraron 18 especies de Gerromorpha y Nepomorpha distribuidas en 10 géneros y 8 familias; sólo 4 especies fueron citadas previamente para el parque. El género Merragata White, con la especie M. hebroides White, son citados aquí por primera vez para la Provincia de Buenos Aires. Se incluye una clave para las especies de Gerromorpha y Nepomorpha presentes o esperables en el Parque Provincial Ernesto Tornquist.

  3. Potencial reprodutivo horário do predador de lagartas desfolhadoras do eucalipto: Podisus nigrispinus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae Hourly reproductive potential of the predator of Lepidoptera eucalypt desfoliators: Podisus nigrispinus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae

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    Evaldo Martins Pires

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Insetos da subordem Heteroptera apresentam ampla diversidade faunística, incluindo predadores de pragas agrícolas e florestais. Espécies do gênero Podisus destacam-se entre os percevejos predadores no controle biológico de lagartas desfolhadoras de eucalipto, soja, algodão e tomate. O objetivo foi estudar o comportamento reprodutivo e a atividade de predação de Podisus nigrispinus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae alimentado com pupas de Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae em laboratório. Casais desse predador foram acondicionados em potes plásticos de 500 mL com pupas de T. molitor e água em tubos tipo anestésico odontológico, inseridos na tampa desses potes. Foram observados: a postura o acasalamento e a alimentação de machos e fêmeas de P. nigrispinus às 0 h, 6 h, 12 h e 18 h. O porcentual de fêmeas de P. nigrispinus predando foi de 26,26; 24,39; 15,91; e 34,21% e o de machos, de 7,41; 6,20; 4,88; e 5,77%, às 0 h, 6 h, 12 h e 18 h, respectivamente. O maior número de fêmeas ovipositando foi observado às 00 h. A maior porcentagem de fêmeas predando foi às 18 h (32,21% e a de atividade de postura, à 0 h (50,56% dos ovos depositados, enquanto foram registrados apenas 1,66% dos ovos às 12 h. O número de acasalamentos de P. nigrispinus foi maior às 12 h (34,58%, seguido das 00 h (29,65%, 18 h (22,36% e 6 h (16,60%.Insects of the sub-order Heteroptera present a wide diversity including predators of agricultural and forest pests. Species of the genus Podisus are important agents of biological control of defoliating caterpillars of eucalyptus, soybem, cotton and tomato. The objective was to study the reproductive behavior and predation rate of Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae fed with Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae pupae in the laboratory. Pairs of this predator were placed in 500 ml plastic pots with T. molitor pupae and water in tubes of anesthetic odontologic type inserted in the

  4. The Beetle (Coleoptera and True bug (Heteroptera species pool of the alpine “Pian di Gembro” wetland (Villa di Tirano, Italy and its conservation

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    Matteo Montagna

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available he C oleoptera and Heteroptera species pool was investigated in the “Pian di Gembro” wetland (Villa di T irano, Sondrio, Italy. T he wetland consists of a bog and its surroundings, referred to as wetland components, that are both subjected to a diversified intermediate management regime (DIMR. T he application of the DIMR for plant species conservation resulted in the establishment of 11 wetland zones with a characteristic vegetation. In a three year sampling program, 997 C oleoptera and Heteroptera representing 141 species from 14 families were collected. Among these species, 64 species share both wetland components, 11 are restricted to the bog and 63 were found in the surroundings only. Among the species pool there were 23 tyrphophile taxa and only one tyrphobiont. With the exception of one zone, all zones are inhabited by zone-specific species. By taking into account both the general species pool and the pool of species of particular interest to conservationists, only one zone can be considered as redundant since it is inhabited by species that occur also in other zones. Hence, all the zones, with one exception, are effective for species pool conservation. The existing DIMR implemented for plant species conservation is also effective for conserving the species pool of C oleoptera and Heteroptera.

  5. Comparison of different cytogenetic methods and tissue suitability for the study of chromosomes in Cimex lectularius (Heteroptera, Cimicidae).

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    Sadílek, David; Angus, Robert B; Šťáhlavský, František; Vilímová, Jitka

    2016-01-01

    In the article we summarize the most common recent cytogenetic methods used in analysis of karyotypes in Heteroptera. We seek to show the pros and cons of the spreading method compared with the traditional squashing method. We discuss the suitability of gonad, midgut and embryo tissue in Cimex lectularius Linnaeus, 1758 chromosome research and production of figures of whole mitosis and meiosis, using the spreading method. The hotplate spreading technique has many advantages in comparison with the squashing technique. Chromosomal slides prepared from the testes tissue gave the best results, tissues of eggs and midgut epithelium are not suitable. Metaphase II is the only division phase in which sex chromosomes can be clearly distinguished. Chromosome number determination is easy during metaphase I and metaphase II. Spreading of gonad tissue is a suitable method for the cytogenetic analysis of holokinetic chromosomes of Cimex lectularius.

  6. Olfactory response of predatory Macrolophus caliginosus Wagner (Heteroptera: Miridae) to the odours host plant infested by Bemisia tabaci

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    Saad, Khalid A.; Roff, M. N. Mohamad; Salam, Mansour; Hanifah Mohd, Y.; Idris, A. B.

    2014-09-01

    Plant infested with herbivores, release volatile that can be used by natural enemies to locate their herbivorous prey. Laboratory studies were carried out to determine the olfactory responses of predator Macrolophus caliginosus Wagner (Heteroptera: Miridae), to chili plant infected with eggs, nymphs of Bemisia tabaci, using Y-tube olfactometer. The results shown that predator, M. caliginosus has ability to discriminate between non-infested and infested plant by B. tabaci. Moreover, the predator preferred plants with nymphs over plants with eggs. This suggested that M. caliginous uses whitefly-induced volatile as reliable indicators to distinguish between infested chili plants by nymphs, eggs and non-infested plants. These results enhance our understanding of the olfactory cues that guide foraging by M. caliginosus to plant with and without Bemisia tabaci.

  7. Development, survival and reproduction of Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas, 1851 (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae with salt and amino acids solutions supplementary diet

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    Simone Patrícia Carneiro Freitas

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the effect of a supplementary diet with amino acids and sodium chloride solutions in addition to prey on the development, survival and reproduction of the predator Podisus nigrispinus (Heteroptera, Pentatomidae. Both solutions showed deleterious effects on nymph survival, adult weight, female longevity, number of egg masses, eggs per female, eggs per egg mass and nymphs per female besides egg viability of P. nigrispinus when compared with diet with water and prey. When compared with plant supplements in the diet the use of amino acids and salt solutions for mass rearing of P. nigrispinus was inferior.O presente estudo mostra o efeito da suplementação alimentar com soluções de aminoácidos e salina (NaCl no desenvolvimento, sobrevivência e reprodução de Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae. Ambas soluções causaram efeito deletério na sobrevivência ninfal, peso dos adultos, longevidade das fêmeas e nos números de posturas, de ovos/fêmea, de ovos/postura e de ninfas, bem como na viabilidade dos ovos de P. nigrispinus quando comparado com estes insetos que além de presa receberam água. Estes resultados são discutidos em comparação com o efeito positivo que a suplementação alimentar com plantas tem sido relatada para esses predadores e sugerem que o uso de plantas é melhor que a substituição por solução de aminoácidos em sistemas de criação em laboratório desses predadores.

  8. Description of the male genitalia of Belminus rugulosus Stål and Belminus corredori Galvão & Angulo, and comments on the holotype of Parabelminus yurupucu Lent & Wygodzinsky (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae: Bolboderini).

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    Gil-Santana, Hélcio R; Galvão, Cleber

    2013-12-13

    The male genitalia of Belminus rugulosus Stål and Belminus corredori Galvão & Angulo are described and illustrated for the first time. Comments on the holotype of Parabelminus yurupucu Lent & Wygodzinsky are presented (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae: Bolboderini). A discussion on previous data in the literature on male genitalia of species of Belminus Stål is provided.

  9. The effect of temperature and exposure to Beauveria bassiana on tarnished plant bugs Lygus lineolaris (Heteroptera: Miridae) population dynamics and the broader implications of treating insects with entomopathogenic fungi

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    Tarnished plant bugs, Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois) (Heteroptera, Miridae) are a major pest of cotton in most of the cotton growing regions of the Southern US. Studies were conducted to investigate how temperature and Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuilllemin infection impacted L. lineolaris...

  10. No direct effects of resistant soybean cultiva IAC-24 on Podisus nigrispinus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae Efectos no directos de resistencia del cultivar de soya IAC-24 sobre Podisus nigrispinus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae

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    José Cola Zanuncio

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The parameters of survival, development and reproduction of Podisus nigrispinus Dallas, 1851 (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae may be affected by feeding on soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.; Fabaceae cultivars. The direct effect was evaluated of the insect-resistant soybean 'IAC-24' (insect-susceptible soybean 'UFVS-2006' + pupae of Tenebrio molitor L., 1758 Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae versus 'IAC-24' plants + pupae of T. molitor in the nymph and adult stages of the predator P. nigrispinus. The duration of the nymph stage was similar between treatments, but 'IAC-24' reduced the duration of the IV instar of this predator. The survival of P. nigrispinus was similar between treatments in the instars I, II, IV and V and in the nymph stage, but the survival of the III instar was longer with 'IAC-24' plants. The body mass of nymphs in the first day of the III, IV, and V instars after ecdysis and newly emerged adults; reproductive characteristics (periods of pre-oviposition, oviposition, post-oviposition and egg incubation; egg laying interval, number of egg masses per female, nymphs per female, nymphs per egg mass and percentage of nymphs hatching and life span of males and females of P. nigrispinus were similar between treatments. The resistant soybean 'IAC-24' showed no direct deleterious effects on P. nigrispinus, which implies its innocuity and compatibility with this predator.Los par ámetros de supervivencia, desarrollo y reproducción de Podìsus nìgrìspìnus Dallas, 1851 (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae pueden verse afectados por la alimentación en cultivos de soya (Glycìne max L. Merr.; Fabaceae. Se evaluó el efecto directo de la soya 'IAC-24' resistente a insectos (soya 'UFVS-2006' susceptible a insectos + pupas de Tenebrìo molìtor L., 1758 Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae vs. plantas 'IAC-24' + pupas de T. molìtor sobre los estados de ninfa y adulto del depredador P. nìgrìspìnus. La duración del estado ninfal fue similar entre tratamientos, no obstante

  11. Susceptibility of Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas (Heteroptera: Pentatomidea to gamma-cyhalothrin under laboratory conditions Suscetibilidade de Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae a gamma-cyhalothrin sob condições de laboratório

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    Alexandre Igor de Azevedo Pereira

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae is an important biological control agent of the cotton leafworm [Alabama argillacea (Hübner] in the cotton crops in Brazil. The use of selective products such as pyrethroids has been emphasized in this agroecosystem. Then, the susceptibility of the predatory stinkbug P. nigrispinus to the pyrethroid insecticide gamma-cyhalothrin was studied in the laboratory. Nymphs and adults of the predator were exposed to seven concentrations of the gamma-cyhalothrin via topical contact and ingestion through treated water. The concentrations studied of this insecticide via topical application were relatively harmless for adults of P. nigrispinus (females: LC50 = 143.5 ppm a.i., and males: LC50 = 145.1 ppm a.i. and 5th-instar nymphs (LC50 = 103.9 ppm as compared to via ingestion (females: LC50 = 1.98 ppm a.i., males: LC50 = 1.91 ppm a.i., and 5th-instar nymphs: LC50 = 2.05 ppm a.i.. The use of pyrethroids and beneficial insects in IPM programs should be better evaluated.Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae é um importante agente de controle biológico do curuquerê [Alabama argillacea (Hübner] na cultura do algodão no Brasil. O uso de produtos seletivos tais como piretróides tem sido enfatizado no agroecosistema do algodoeiro. Portanto, estudou-se em laboratório a suscetibilidade do percevejo predador Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas ao inseticida piretróide gamma-cyhalothrin. As exposições via ingestão e aplicação tópica de ninfas de 5º ínstar, fêmeas e machos de P. nigrispinus a gamma-cyhalothrin foram feitas, usando-se sete concentrações do inseticida. Gamma-cyhalothrin via aplicação tópica foi relativamente menos tóxico às formas adultas de P. nigrispinus (fêmeas: CL50 = 143,5 ppm i.a. e machos: CL50 = 145,1 ppm i.a. e às ninfas de 5º ínstar (CL50 = 103,9 ppm desse predador, quando comparado a sua utilização por ingestão (fêmeas: LC50 = 1,98 ppm i.a., machos

  12. Pheromone attraction and cross-attraction of Nezara, Acrosternum, and Euschistus spp. stink bugs (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) in the field.

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    Tillman, P G; Aldrich, J R; Khrimian, A; Cottrell, T E

    2010-04-01

    Detecting infestations of stink bugs (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) using pheromones remains problematic, particularly so in the United States for the exotic stink bug, Nezara viridula L., and our native stink bug, Acrosternum hilare (Say). Therefore, we conducted a 2-yr on-farm study to examine the attractiveness and possible cross-attraction of the reported pheromones for N. viridula and A. hilare and those previously discovered for Euschistus servus (Say) and Plautia stali Scott to N. viridula, A. hilare, and E. servus. The attractiveness of selected pentatomid pheromones to tachinid parasitoids of stink bugs was also examined. We showed for the first time under field conditions that N. viridula can be trapped with its reported pheromone, a 3:1 trans- to cis-(Z)-alpha-bisabolene epoxide blend. In fact, attraction of N. viridula increased with higher pheromone doses. Traps baited with a 5:95 trans- to cis-(Z)-alpha-bisabolene epoxide blend, the reported male-produced A. hilare attractant pheromone, failed to attract significantly more A. hilare than did unbaited control traps. Instead A. hilare was significantly cross-attracted to the P. stali pheromone [methyl (E,E,Z)-2,4,6-decatrienoate]. The E. servus pheromone [methyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate], either alone or in combination with P. stali pheromone, was more attractive to E. servus than to N. viridula, P. stali, or A. hilare pheromones. In general, tachinid parasitoids were found responsive to the male-specific volatiles of their known hosts, including the attractiveness of Trichopoda pennipes (F.) to sesquiterpenoid blends characteristic of A. hilare and N. viridula. A tachinid parasitoid of E. servus, Cylindromyia sp., seemed to be attracted to E. servus pheromone. In conclusion, our results indicate that stink bug traps baited with lures containing N. viridula pheromone blend, P. stali pheromone, and E. servus pheromone have the greatest potential for detecting populations of N. viridula, A. hilare, and E

  13. Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometric detection applied for analysis of pteridines in two Graphosoma species (Insecta: Heteroptera).

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    Kozlík, Petr; Krajíček, Jan; Kalíková, Květa; Tesařová, Eva; Cabala, Radomír; Exnerová, Alice; Stys, Pavel; Bosáková, Zuzana

    2013-07-01

    A new separation method involving hydrophilic interaction chromatography with tandem mass spectrometric detection has been developed for the analysis of pteridines, namely biopterin, isoxanthopterin, leucopterin, neopterin, xanthopterin and erythropterin in the cuticle of heteropteran insect species. Two columns, Atlantis HILIC Silica and ZIC(®)-HILIC were tested for the separation of these pteridines. The effect of organic modifier content, buffer type, concentration and pH in mobile phase on retention and separation behavior of the selected pteridines was studied and the separation mechanism was also investigated. The optimized conditions for the separation of pteridines consisted of ZIC(®)-HILIC column, mobile phase composed of acetonitrile/5mM ammonium acetate, pH 6.80, 85/15 (v/v), flow rate 0.5mL/min and column temperature 30°C. Detection was performed by tandem mass spectrometry operating in electrospray ionization with Agilent Jet Stream technology using the selected reaction monitoring mode. The optimized method provided a linearity range from 0.3 to 5000ng/mL (r>0.9975) and repeatability with relative standard deviation<8.09% for all the studied pteridines. The method was applied to the analysis of pteridines in the cuticle of larvae and three adult color forms of Graphosoma lineatum and one form of Graphosoma semipunctatum (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae). The analysis shows that different forms of Graphosoma species can be characterized by different distribution of individual pteridines, which affects the coloration of various forms. Only isoxanthopterin was found in all the five forms tested.

  14. Impact of Eurygaster maura (Heteroptera: Scutelleridae) feeding on quality of bread wheat in relation to attack period.

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    Vaccino, Patrizia; Corbellini, Maria; Reffo, Gioia; Zoccatelli, Gianni; Migliardi, Matteo; Tavella, Luciana

    2006-06-01

    Sunn pest (or cereal bug) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae and Scutelleridae) infestations of wheat, Triticum aestivum L., in the grain filling stage have the potential to adversely affect the quality of harvested grain for bread making. In the absence of resistant wheat cultivars, producers must rely on chemical control to protect their crop from sunn pest infestations. To implement an efficient environment friendly control strategy, there is a need to pinpoint the relationships between the timing of the bug attack and gluten degradation. Recent outbreaks of Eurygaster maura (L.) in northwestern Italy have increased the local concern toward this problem. A 3-yr study was carried out by caging plants of two bread wheat cultivars, characterized by different seed texture and bread-making quality, and introducing adults of E. maura in four periods corresponding to different grain filling stages: heading, early milk-ripe, milk-ripe, and late milk-ripe. The degree of bread-making quality depletion was assessed by analytical and biochemical methods and related to the attack period. Using analysis of variance, significant differences were found in the quality traits of kernels attacked by E. maura in different grain filling stages, the maximum damage occurring with bug feeding at the late milk-ripe stage. Biochemical investigations on gluten confirmed analytical results; in grain samples infested at the late milk-ripe stage, SDS gel electrophoresis revealed the degradation of some components of the high-molecular-weight glutenins, and high-performance liquid chromatography analyses showed a breakdown of the first peak of the insoluble fraction, mainly containing polymeric proteins highly related to dough strength.

  15. Tabelas de fertilidade e de esperança de vida de Tynacantha marginata Dallas (Heteroptera, Pentatomidae, Asopinae alimentado com larvas de Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae e folhas de Eucalyptus urophylla S.T. Blake Life and fecundity tables of the predator Tynacantha marginata Dallas (Heteroptera, Pentatomidae reared with Tenebrio molitor L. larvae (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae and Eucalyptus urophylla S.T. Blake leaves

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    Luciano Andrade Moreira

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to study the effect of feeding on Eucalyptus leaves on the life and fecundity tables of Tynacantha marginata Dallas, 1851 (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae. Higher mortality of this predator occurred during second week of life, when the nymphs were starting second instar. The fecundity table showed that the nymphal period of T. marginata lasted four weeks, with viability of 57,9% and total longevity of 21 weeks. Egg oviposition period took 10 weeks. The population parameters (R0, rm and λ showed a 50.69 times populational increase after one generation.

  16. Primer registro del Calancate Común Aratinga a. acuticaudata (Aves: Psittacidae como huésped nativo primario de Ornithocoris toledoi Pinto (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Cimicidae First record of Blue-Crowned Parrot Aratinga a. acuticaudata (Aves: Psittacidae as primary native host of Ornithocoris toledoi Pinto (Cimicidae: Hemiptera: Heteroptera

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    Diego L Carpintero

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta como huésped primario nativo de la chinche Ornithocoris toledoi Pinto (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Cimicidae al Calancate Común Aratinga a. acuticaudata (Aves: Psittacidae. Su presencia en la provincia del Chaco constituye además un nuevo registro distribucional de esta chinche en la República Argentina. Se agrega una breve discusión acerca de la taxonomía de la misma y se comparan algunos parámetros poblacionales con los de otras especies de cimícidos. Finalmente, se discuten las vías de infestación posibles en el estado actual de conocimiento, incluyendo otras aves (Furnariidae y murciélagos (Chiroptera.The primary natural host of cimicid bug Ornithocoris toledoi Pinto (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Cimicidae is presented as Blue-Crowned Parrot Aratinga a. acuticaudata (Aves: Psittacidae. Its presence in the Chaco province is also a new distributional record of this bug in Argentina. A brief discussion about the taxonomy is also given and some population parameters are compared with those of other bug species. Finally, we discuss possible infestation ways in the current state of knowledge, including other birds (Furnariidae and bats (Chiroptera.

  17. Bed bug cytogenetics: karyotype, sex chromosome system, FISH mapping of 18S rDNA, and male meiosis in Cimex lectularius Linnaeus, 1758 (Heteroptera: Cimicidae

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    Snejana Grozeva

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Bugs (Insecta: Heteroptera are frequently used as examples of unusual cytogenetic characters, and the family Cimicidae is one of most interest in this respect. We have performed a cytogenetic study of the common bed bug Cimex lectularius Linnaeus, 1758 using both classical (Schiff-Giemsa and AgNO3-staining and molecular cytogenetic techniques (base-specific DAPI/CMA3 fluorochromes and FISH with an 18S rDNA probe. Males originated from a wild population of C. lectularius were found to have 2n = 26 + X1X2Y, holokinetic chromosomes, 18S rRNA genes located on the X1 and Y chromosomes; achiasmate male meiosis of a collochore type; MI and MII plates nonradial and radial respectively.

  18. The presence of the ancestral insect telomeric motif in kissing bugs (Triatominae) rules out the hypothesis of its loss in evolutionarily advanced Heteroptera (Cimicomorpha).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pita, Sebastián; Panzera, Francisco; Mora, Pablo; Vela, Jesús; Palomeque, Teresa; Lorite, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing data analysis on Triatoma infestans Klug, 1834 (Heteroptera, Cimicomorpha, Reduviidae) revealed the presence of the ancestral insect (TTAGG)n telomeric motif in its genome. Fluorescence in situ hybridization confirms that chromosomes bear this telomeric sequence in their chromosomal ends. Furthermore, motif amount estimation was about 0.03% of the total genome, so that the average telomere length in each chromosomal end is almost 18 kb long. We also detected the presence of (TTAGG)n telomeric repeat in mitotic and meiotic chromosomes in other three species of Triatominae: Triatoma dimidiata Latreille, 1811, Dipetalogaster maxima Uhler, 1894, and Rhodnius prolixus Ståhl, 1859. This is the first report of the (TTAGG)n telomeric repeat in the infraorder Cimicomorpha, contradicting the currently accepted hypothesis that evolutionarily recent heteropterans lack this ancestral insect telomeric sequence.

  19. The presence of the ancestral insect telomeric motif in kissing bugs (Triatominae rules out the hypothesis of its loss in evolutionarily advanced Heteroptera (Cimicomorpha

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    Sebastián Pita

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Next-generation sequencing data analysis on Triatoma infestans Klug, 1834 (Heteroptera, Cimicomorpha, Reduviidae revealed the presence of the ancestral insect (TTAGGn telomeric motif in its genome. Fluorescence in situ hybridization confirms that chromosomes bear this telomeric sequence in their chromosomal ends. Furthermore, motif amount estimation was about 0.03% of the total genome, so that the average telomere length in each chromosomal end is almost 18 kb long. We also detected the presence of (TTAGGn telomeric repeat in mitotic and meiotic chromosomes in other three species of Triatominae: Triatoma dimidiata Latreille, 1811, Dipetalogaster maxima Uhler, 1894, and Rhodnius prolixus Ståhl, 1859. This is the first report of the (TTAGGn telomeric repeat in the infraorder Cimicomorpha, contradicting the currently accepted hypothesis that evolutionarily recent heteropterans lack this ancestral insect telomeric sequence.

  20. The Reproductive Tract of the Males of the Zoophytophagous Predator Brontocoris tabidus (Signoret (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae with Different Diets and Ages

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    Walkymario P. Lemos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Brontocoris tabidus (Signoret (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae is a common and important species for the biological control of defoliating Lepidoptera caterpillars. Although it has a predatory feeding habit, this species make use of plant resources, which are essential for the maintenance of its population in laboratory colonies as well as in the field during periods of prey shortage. Thus B. tabidus has been considered an obligate zoophytophagous insect. However the impact of the age and herbivory on the morphology of the reproductive organs has been poorly studied in predatory Pentatomidae. The morphology of the reproductive tract of B. tabidus males with different ages and fed on different diets were analyzed. Approach: Nymphs of B. tabidus were maintained in the field with or without plants and fed on T. molitor pupae without plant (T1; T. molitor pupae and Eucalyptus cloeziana plants (T2; T. molitor pupae and Eucalyptus urophylla plants (T3 or T. molitor pupae and guava plants (Psidium guajava L. (T4. Adults of B. tabidus obtained from each treatment were sexed in the first day of their emergence and thirty-six pairs were formed per treatment. Ten males of B. tabidus 15 and 21 days old, obtained in each treatment were dissected and the reproductive tract submitted to histological analyses. The total area of the testes of B. tabidus was measured and the data were submitted to the variance analysis and means between treatments were compared by the test of Newman-Keuls (p = 0.05. Results: The inner genitalia of B. tabidus males had red color and the testes with six follicles. Males 15 days old presented larger testes when fed on E. cloeziana (0.94 mm2, E. urophylla (0.98 mm2 or only T. molitor pupae (0.99 mm2 than with guava plants (0.76 mm2. Twenty-one days old B. tabidus males presented testes with similar size, independent of the diet. The testes follicles of B. tabidus had larger amount of spermatozoa with

  1. Eficiência de Metarhizium anisopliae no controle do Percevejo-do-Colmo Tibraca limbativentris (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae em lavoura de arroz irrigado Efficiency of Metarhizium anisopliae on rice stem bug Tibraca limbativentris (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae control in flooded rice field

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    José Francisco da Silva Martins

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O percevejo-do-colmo, Tibraca limbativentris Stal, 1860 (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae, é altamente prejudicial à cultura do arroz no Brasil, principalmente em sistemas de cultivo irrigados por inundação. O efeito de duas formas de aplicação, conídios em suspensão e veiculados em grãos de arroz autoclavado, da cepa (CP 172 de Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch. Sorok., no controle do percevejo, foi avaliado em três experimentos conduzidos em 1991, 1993 e 1994, em lavoura comercial de arroz irrigado. Em 1991, tanto a pulverização de conídios como a distribuição manual grãos de arroz cobertos com material fúngico em dosagem equivalente a 7,2 x 10(13 conídios.ha-1, sobre o solo e entre os colmos de arroz, onde os percevejos estavam alojados, reduziram significativamente a população natural do inseto com eficiência de controle de 52,6% e 61,8%, respectivamente. Ainda em 1991, estudo sobre o estabelecimento e persistência da cepa no solo do arrozal, com base na contagem de unidades formadoras de colônias (UFC, indicou que o fungo manteve-se viável na entressafra, até 216 dias após a aplicação, época da implantação de novos arrozais. O número de UFC foi maior nas parcelas tratadas com os grãos de arroz cobertos com material fúngico. O crescimento linear do número de UFC, no solo nas parcelas testemunhas, evidenciou disseminação do fungo para partes anteriormente não tratadas do arrozal. Resultados significativos de controle com a aplicação da suspensão de conídios e dos grãos de arroz com o fungo, na dose de 5 x 10(13 conídios.ha-1, também foram obtidos em 1993, com 51,8% e 48,2% de eficiência, respectivamente. Em 1994, a aplicaç��o da suspensão de 5 x 10(13 conídios.ha-1 resultou em 39,5% de controle do inseto. O índice de confirmação de infeção, contudo, foi baixo, nos dois anos, atingindo, no máximo, 20%, em 1993. O baixo número de insetos com micose, em comparação ao índice de mortalidade

  2. Potencial reprodutivo de Supputius cincticeps (Stal (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae influenciado pelo peso do corpo da fêmea - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v25i1.2081 Reproductive potential of the predator Supputius cincticeps (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae affected by female body weight - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v25i1.2081

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    Jose Eduardo Serrão

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available O potencial reprodutivo de fêmeas de Supputius cincticeps (Stal (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae de duas classes de peso foi avaliado. Machos e fêmeas desse predador foram obtidos de ninfas alimentadas com pupas de Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae. Foram analisadas fêmeas com peso inferior a 45 mg (fêmeas leves e superior a 60 mg (fêmeas pesadas. A longevidade e os períodos de pré-oviposição, oviposição e pós-oviposição foram semelhantes entre fêmeas das duas classes de peso, enquanto aquelas mais pesadas apresentaram maior número de posturas, ovos, ovos/postura e ninfas. Períodos entre posturas e de incubação dos ovos foram menores para fêmeas com peso superior a 60mg. Esses resultados são discutidos em relação ao uso de fêmeas mais pesadas de S. cincticeps para aumentar a produção em criação massal desse predadorThe reproductive potential of Supputius cincticeps (Stal (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae females of two weight classes was evaluated with males and females of this predator obtained from nymphs fed on Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae pupae. Females of S. cincticeps weighing less than 45 mg (light females and more than 60 mg (heavy females constituted the treatments. Pre-oviposition, oviposition and post-oviposition periods besides adult longevity were similar between treatments while number of egg masses, eggs, eggs/egg mass and number of nymphs hatched were higher for heavier females. Periods between egg mass laying and egg incubation were shorter for insects of the last treatment. These results are discussed in relation to the use of heavier females of S. cincticeps to improve mass rearing of this predator in laboratory

  3. Nuevas asociaciones entre Phasiinae (Diptera: Tachinidae) y Pentatomidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) fitófagos en la pampa ondulada (Argentina) y descripción del macho de Dallasimyia bosqi Blanchard

    OpenAIRE

    Gerardo G. LILJESTHRÖM; Delia S. AVALOS

    2015-01-01

    Las relaciones entre parasitoides Phasiinae (Diptera: Tachinidae) y sus huéspedes Pentatomidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) son escasamente conocidas en la Argentina. Se presentan nuevas asociaciones hospedador-parasitoide en la pampa ondulada, y se describe por primera vez el macho adulto de Dallasimyia bosqi Blanchard. Se efectuaron muestreos quincenales de hemípteros adultos durante primavera-verano de 2005, 2006 y 2012 en áreas de vegetación espontánea y cultivos de trébol rojo y soja en camp...

  4. Biology, behaviour and functional response of Cydnocoris gilvus Brum. (Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Harpactorinae a predator of Tea Mosquito Bug (Helopeltis antonii Sign. on cashew in India

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    K.K. Srikumar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Helopeltis spp. (Hemiptera: Miridae are major sucking pests of cashew (Anacardium occidentale L. in India. Cydnocoris gilvus Brum. (Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Harpactorinae is recorded as a potential predator of Helopeltis spp. Biology, mating behaviour and functional response of C. gilvus were studied by rearing in the laboratory (temperature 26-28 0C; relative humidity 89-94 % with wax moth, Galleria mellonella, larvae. Based on laboratory rearing, the fecundity was 56.33 eggs in 8.67 batches per female. The average stadial period was 37.3 days, with a maximum of 11 days for V instar and a minimum of 4.5 days for III instars. C. gilvus took 45.5 days to complete a generation. The innate capacity of natural increase was 0.07 with a gross reproduction of 67.8 females per female. The adult exhibited a pin and jab mode of predation in a sequence of actions. The sequential action of mating comprised arousal (1.32 min, approach (12.30 min, riding over (140.48 min and copulation (85.40 min. The predator responded to increasing prey density by killing more prey than at lower prey densities

  5. Composição de Heteroptera aquáticos e semi-aquáticos na área de abrangência da U.H.E. Dona Francisca, RS, Brasil: fase de pré-enchimento Composition of aquatic and semi-aquatic Heteroptera at the Hydroelectric Power Station of Dona Francisca region, RS, Brazil: before dam construction

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    Damaris B. Neri

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo, foi analisada a composição dos Heteroptera do curso médio da bacia do rio Jacuí, RS, Brasil, previamente à construção da U.H.E. Dona Francisca, bem como alguns fatores abióticos que poderiam afetar a distribuição e a abundância destes organismos. Nos ambientes lênticos, amostragens quantitativas foram realizadas utilizando-se peneiras, em seis localidades (janeiro 2000. Nos ambientes lóticos, as coletas foram feitas através de amostrador de Surber (de maio a outubro de 2000, privilegiando-se a captura de espécies tipicamente bentônicas. Em cada estação, pH, oxigênio dissolvido, precipitação mensal, temperatura do ar e da água e profundidade foram medidos. Nos rios e riachos, a velocidade da corrente também foi registrada. Quinze espécies foram registradas nos ambientes lênticos, sendo Belostoma sp. e Notonecta sp. as dominantes (70%. A abundância, a riqueza e os índices de diversidade foram mais altos nos locais com maiores dimensões. Nos ambientes lóticos, foram assinaladas duas espécies de Naucoridae, Ambrysus teutonius La Rivers, 1951 e Cryphocricus vianai De Carlo, 1951, sendo a primeira dominante (65%. A abundância foi maior nos pontos com maior sombreamento, presença de árvores e/ou com detritos vegetais, ou com a macrófita Podostemum sp. (Podostemaceae no fundo, e mais baixa em locais com curso semi-regulado. Possivelmente, fatores como temperatura e precipitação acumulada estejam relacionados com a abundância mensal dos Naucoridae. Os resultados deste estudo servirão de subsídio para futuros estudos de impacto ambiental após o enchimento do reservatório da U.H.E. Dona Francisca.The Heteroptera composition in the middle course of the Jacuí River basin, RS, Brazil, and some abiotic factors that might affect their distribution and abundance were studied previously to the Dona Francisca dam construction. The insects were quantitatively sampled in six sites, in lentic environments, with

  6. Ganancia de peso del depredador Podisus distinctus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae en combinaciones de las presas Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae y Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae

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    Fausto da Costa Matos Neto

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Entre las ninfas de los asopíneos usados para el control de gusanos desfoliadores en plantaciones de eucalipto, Podisus distinctus (Stal (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae representa un potencial agente de control biológico, sin embargo esta especie ha sido poco estudiada. El presente trabajo evaluó el efecto de las diferentes combinaciones de las presas Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae y Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae sobre el peso de ninfas de P. distinctus. El experimento se realizó en laboratorio do "Instituto de Biotecnologia Aplicada à Agropecuaria (BIOAGRO", a 25 ± 0.5ºC, 60 ± 10% de humedad relativa y 14 horas de fotoperiodo. Las ninfas de P. distinctus fueron individualizadas en cajas de Petri y alimentadas de acuerdo con los siguientes tratamientos: T1- larvas de M. domestica durante toda la fase ninfal; T2- larvas de M. domestica en el II estadio y de T. molitor en los III, IV y V estadios; T3- larvas de M. domestica en el II y III estadios y de T. molitor en los IV y V estadios; T4- larvas de M. domestica en el II, III y IV estadios y de T. molitor en el V estadio; T5- larvas de T. molitor en todos los estadios. Los mejores resultados de peso y ganancia de peso fueron encontrados cuando P. distinctus fue alimentado alternadamente con larvas de M. domestica y T. molitor. Cuando esse depredador fue solamente alimentado con larvas de M. domestica, presentó pesos menoresLitlle is known about Podisus distinctus (Stal (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae one of the Asopinae species with good possibilities for mass rearing and releasing against defoliator caterpillars in eucalyptus reforested areas in Brazil. We evaluated the impact of prey combinations on weight of nymphs and adults of P. distinctus. The prey were Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae and Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae. The experiment was developed under 25 ± 0.5ºC, 60 ± 10% R.H. and photophase of 14 hr, with nymphs of P. distinctus

  7. Prey scarcity at the beginning of fifth instar: effect of Eucalyptus urophylla (Myrtaceae plants on reproduction, longevity, and weight of the predator Brontocoris tabidus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae: Asopinae

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    R Pinto

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Intervals without prey during the fifth instar and nutrient quality may affect reproduction, longevity, and weight of the zoophytophagous predator Brontocoris tabidus (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae: Asopinae. This asopine was reared on Eucalyptus urophylla (Myrtaceae trees under field conditions at 23 ± 6 o C, 76 ± 9 % RH and 13:11 (dark:light h photoperiod. The experiment was developed with 60 B. tabidus nymphs individualized in organza bags (31 cm long × 21 cm diameter. One group of nymphs received only Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae pupae and water without E. urophylla trees (T1. Other nymphs were reared on E. urophylla trees and fed with T. molitor pupae and water during the second, third, and fourth instars and twenty of them per group after zero, five, and 10 days from the beginning of the fifth instar making up the treatments T2, T3, and T4, respectively. The period without prey increased duration of the fifth instar for males in the T3 and T4 while female weight was lower in the T4. The oviposition period was shorter and the number of egg masses of B. tabidus was lower in the T1 than in the T2, T3, and T4. The highest egg numbers were found in the T2 and T3 with about 4 times more eggs than in the T1. The number of nymphs was low and the percentage of nymph hatching higher in the T1. The interval of five and 10 days without prey from the beginning of the fifth instar did not affect the duration and survival of this instar and supplementation with E. urophylla increased the reproductive capacity of the predator B. tabidus.

  8. Imidacloprid affects the functional response of predator Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) to strains of Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) on Bt cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaquias, J B; Ramalho, F S; Omoto, C; Godoy, W A C; Silveira, R F

    2014-03-01

    Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) is one of the most common asopine species in the neotropical region and its occurrence was reported in several countries of South and Central America, as an important biological control agent for many crops. This study was carried out to identify the imidacloprid impacts on the functional response of predator P. nigrispinus fed on Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) strain resistant to lambda-cyhalothrin, on Bt cotton expressing Cry1Ac (Bollgard(®)). Spodoptera frugiperda larvae were used in the following conditions: resistant (1) and susceptible (2) strains to lambda-cyhalothrin fed on Bollgard(®) cotton leaves (DP 404 BG); and resistant (3) and susceptible (4) strains to lambda-cyhalothrin fed on non-genetically modified cotton leaves (cultivar DP4049). The predatory behavior of P. nigrispinus was affected by imidacloprid and the type II asymptotic curve was the one that best described the functional response data. Handling time (T h ) of predator females did not differ among treatments in the presence of imidacloprid. The attack rate did decrease, however, due to an increase in the density of larvae offered. Regardless of the treatment (S. frugiperda strain or cotton cultivar), the predation of P. nigrispinus females on S. frugiperda larvae was significantly lower when exposed to imidacloprid, especially at a density of 16 larvae/predator. The predation behavior of P. nigrispinus on S. frugiperda larvae is affected by the insecticide imidacloprid showing that its applications should be used in cotton crop with caution.

  9. Karyotypes, male meiosis and comparative FISH mapping of 18S ribosomal DNA and telomeric (TTAGGn repeat in eight species of true bugs (Hemiptera, Heteroptera

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    Snejana Grozeva

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Eight species belonging to five true bug families were analyzed using DAPI/CMA3-staining and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH with telomeric (TTAGGn and 18S rDNA probes. Standard chromosomal complements are reported for the first time for Deraeocoris rutilus (Herrich-Schäffer, 1838 (2n=30+2m+XY and D. ruber (Linnaeus, 1758 (2n=30+2m+XY from the family Miridae. Using FISH, the location of a 18S rDNA cluster was detected in these species and in five more species: Megaloceroea recticornis (Geoffroy, 1785 (2n=30+XY from the Miridae; Oxycarenus lavaterae (Fabricius, 1787 (2n=14+2m+XY from the Lygaeidae s.l.; Pyrrhocoris apterus (Linnaeus, 1758 (2n=22+X from the Pyrrhocoridae; Eurydema oleracea (Linnaeus, 1758 (2n=12+XY and Graphosoma lineatum (Linnaeus, 1758 (2n=12+XY from the Pentatomidae. The species were found to differ with respect to location of a 18S rRNA gene cluster which resides on autosomes in O. lavaterae and P. apterus, whereas it locates on sex chromosomes in other five species. The 18S rDNA location provides the first physical landmark of the genomes of the species studied. The insect consensus telomeric pentanucleotide (TTAGGn was demonstrated to be absent in all the species studied in this respect, D. rutilus, M. recticornis, Cimex lectularius Linnaeus, 1758 (Cimicidae, E. oleracea, and G. lineatum, supporting the hypothesis that this motif was lost in early evolution of the Heteroptera and secondarily replaced with another motif (yet unknown or the alternative telomerase-independent mechanisms of telomere maintenance. Dot-blot hybridization analysis of the genomic DNA from C. lectularius, Nabis sp. and O. lavaterae with (TTAGGn and six other telomeric probes likewise provided a negative result.

  10. A review of the Geocoridae of Mexico (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Lygaeoidea), with descriptions of four new species, new distributional records, and a key to the known subfamilies, tribes, genera and species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brailovsky, Harry

    2016-10-06

    The family Geocoridae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Lygaeoidea) from Mexico is revised. Two subfamilies, one tribe, four genera, and fifteen species are treated in detail and descriptions or redescriptions are provided for all. Four new species of Geocoris are described: G. cervantesi (from Baja California), G. coahuilensis (from Coahuila), G. nuevoleonensis (from Nuevo Leon), and G. signoretae (from Aguascalientes, Hidalgo, and Puebla). The subspecies Geocoris thoracicus wickhami (Montandon) is considered a junior synonym of the nominal species G. thoracicus (Fieber). Key to subfamilies, tribes, genera and species recorded from Mexico are included. New distributional records for all of the previously known species are added. Isthmocoris slevini (Van Duzee) and I. tristis (Stål) are recorded for the first time from Mexico. Notes on the biology of most of the species are included. Color dorsal habitus photos, as well as drawings of the paramere, are included to aid in the identification of the species.

  11. Efecto de la alternación de fuentes sanguíneas sobre la fecundidad y la fertilidad de Rhodnius prolixus Stal (Heteroptera: Reduviidae

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    Elis José Aldana

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se evidencia que si el éxito reproductivo de Rhodnius prolixus Stal está relacionado a la fuente alimentaria, entonces las necesidades biológicas del insecto son satisfechas en modos diferentes según el tipo de alternancia entre dichas fuentes de alimentación; tales diferencias son reveladas mediante los cambios en fertilidad y fecundidad del insecto. Se realizaron nueve alternancias, en cada una se suministraron dos alimentaciones, en unas se alternó la fuente de alimentación y en los controles se suministraron dos alimentaciones con la misma fuente. Las fuentes alimentarias fueron paloma, gallina y humano, esta última mediante un aparato de alimentación artificial; estas fuentes se escogieron en el supuesto que son fuentes alimentarias encontradas en los ecotopos silvestre, peri-domicilio y domicilio respectivamente. En todos los tipos de alternancia se encontró una relación lineal entre la fecundidad y el tiempo de oviposición, que la relación entre cantidad de sangre ingerida y la fecundidad varían, que la tasa de fecundidad aumenta en la segunda alimentación respecto a la primera y que la fertilidad fue superior al 95 %. Effects of alternating blood sources on fecundity and fertility of Rhodnius prolixus Stal (Heteroptera: ReduviidaeIn this work it is argued that if the reproductive parameters of Rhodnius prolixus Stal are related to the blood source upon which it feeds, then the insects biological needs must be satisfied in different ways by the alternation between blood sources, reveled through changes in the fecundity and fertility of individuals of this insect species. Nine experiments were conducted, each one consisting of two feedings, in which the blood source were either alternated or remained the same. The meal sources used were pigeon, hen and human blood, selected according to the resources found in the sylvatic, peri-domestic and domestic ecotopes respectively. It was found that the quantity of

  12. Variacion estacional de una población silvestre de Rhodnius Pallescens Barber 1932 (Heteroptera: triatominae en la costa caribe colombiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available VARIATION SAISONNIERE D’UNE POPULATION SAUVAGE DE RHODNIUS PALLESCENS BARBER, 1932 (HETEROPTERA:TRIATOMINAE SUR LA COTE CARAÏBE COLOMBIENNE. Dans le cadre du programme franco-colombien “Écologie des triatomes sauvages (Triatominae du département de Sucre (Colombie et évaluation de l’efficacité d’une biopréparation insecticide à partir du champignon entomopathogène Beauveria bassiana (Hyphomycetes” (1994-1996, les auteurs ont étudié la dynamique de population de l’insecte hématophage Rhodnius pallescens dans une palmeraie de l’espèce Attalea butyracea (Arecaceae dans le municipio (cf. nota 1 de San Onofre (côte caraïbe colombienne. Au cours de la saison sèche et de la saison des pluies, un total de 71 palmiers ont été disséqués et 1 356 insectes capturés (163 adultes et 1 196 individus de tous les stades larvaires. 86% des palmiers étaient infestés (83% pendant la saison sèche et 91% pendant la saison des pluies la moyenne d’insectes retrouvés par palmier était de 19,5 (23,6 lors de la saison sèche et 17,6 pendant la saison des pluies. L’analyse des données permet de conclure que l'élément saison n’influe pas sur les variations des densités des insectes mais agit sur les compositions d’âge des populations de R. pallescens et que, même si l’évaluation du bioinsecticide peut se faire pendant toute l’année, il est recommandé de l’effectuer en novembre, au début de la saison des pluies. En el marco del programa colombo-francés “Ecología de triatominos silvestres (Triatominae del Departamento de Sucre (Colombia y evaluación de la eficacia de una biopreparación insecticida en base al hongo entomopatógeno Beauveria bassiana (Hyphomycetes” (1994-1996, los autores estudiaron la dinámica poblacional del insecto hematófago Rhodnius pallescens en un palmeral de la especie Attalea butyracea (Arecaceae en el municipio (1 de San Onofre (costa caribe colombiana. Se realizaron un total de 71 disecciones

  13. Nuevas asociaciones entre Phasiinae (Diptera: Tachinidae y Pentatomidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera fitófagos en la pampa ondulada (Argentina y descripción del macho de Dallasimyia bosqi Blanchard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo G. LILJESTHRÖM

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Las relaciones entre parasitoides Phasiinae (Diptera: Tachinidae y sus huéspedes Pentatomidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera son escasamente conocidas en la Argentina. Se presentan nuevas asociaciones hospedador-parasitoide en la pampa ondulada, y se describe por primera vez el macho adulto de Dallasimyia bosqi Blanchard. Se efectuaron muestreos quincenales de hemípteros adultos durante primavera-verano de 2005, 2006 y 2012 en áreas de vegetación espontánea y cultivos de trébol rojo y soja en campos de los partidos de La Plata, Magdalena y Chivilcoy (Buenos Aires. Los hemípteros capturados se criaron bajo condiciones controladas, los que tenían huevos de parasitoides pegados en el corion se mantuvieron hasta su muerte, y aquellos sin evidencia de parasitismo se mantuvieron hasta 25-30 días. Cada huésped muerto fue depositado en un recipiente con tierra húmeda y cubierto con una malla de nylon. Los parasitoides adultos emergidos fueron acondicionados para su identificación. Se registraron cinco nuevas asociaciones: E. meditabunda - Cilindromyia brasiliana y Homogenia sp., D. furcatus -Trichopoda argentinensis y Dallasimyia bosqi, y C. armigera - Trichopoda giacomellii, y la ya conocida N. viridula - Trichopoda giacomellii. Colecciones de referencia se encuentran depositadas en el Museo de La Plata, Argentina (MLP y en el Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo, Brasil (MZSP.

  14. Morfometría geométrica del borde corial y del collar de huevos de cinco especies del género Rhodnius Stal (Heteroptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ximena Páez-Colasante

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. La taxonomía y sistemática de la subfamilia Triatominae (Heteroptera, Reduviidae se basan principalmente en caracteres biométricos y morfológicos de las formas adultas y, en algunos casos, de las ninfas. La Morfometría Geométrica es capaz de descomponer la forma en sus componentes tamaño isométrico y conformación. En el presente trabajo se utilizó laMorfometría Geométrica como herramienta de análisis de la configuración geométrica que resulta de la unión de los extremos del borde corial y del collar (configuración borde corial-collar de los huevos eclosionados de cinco especies del género Rhodnius Stal. Los huevos se observaron por Microscopía Electrónica de Barrido y las imágenes digitalizadas fueron analizadas morfogeométricamente. Estudiando el tamaño geométrico de la configuración borde corial-collar, se halló que no existen diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre las cinco especies deTriatominos. En cuanto a la conformación, se determinaron diferencias entre las especies al ser sometidas a un análisis discriminante. Se encontró además que la variación del tamaño contribuye a la variación en la conformación, es decir, efecto alométrico. Los resultados obtenidos indican que la conformación de la configuración geométrica “borde corial-collar” de los huevos de Rhodnius podría ser utilizada como herramienta taxonómica para este grupo. Morfometria geométrica da borda corial e colarinho de ovos de cinco espécies do Gênero Rhodnius (Heteroptera Reduviidae, Triatominae.Resumo. A taxonomia e sistemática da subfamília Triatominae (Heteroptera Reduviidae esta baseada principalmente em caracteres biométricos e morfológicos das formas adultas, e em alguns casos, das ninfas. A morfometria geométrica é capaz de descompor a forma em seus componentes, tamanho isométrico e conformação. No presente trabalho utilizou-se a morfometria geométrica como ferramenta de análise da configura

  15. The complete mitochondrial genome and novel gene arrangement of the unique-headed bug Stenopirates sp. (Hemiptera: Enicocephalidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Li

    Full Text Available Many of true bugs are important insect pests to cultivated crops and some are important vectors of human diseases, but few cladistic analyses have addressed relationships among the seven infraorders of Heteroptera. The Enicocephalomorpha and Nepomorpha are consider the basal groups of Heteroptera, but the basal-most lineage remains unresolved. Here we report the mitochondrial genome of the unique-headed bug Stenopirates sp., the first mitochondrial genome sequenced from Enicocephalomorpha. The Stenopirates sp. mitochondrial genome is a typical circular DNA molecule of 15, 384 bp in length, and contains 37 genes and a large non-coding fragment. The gene order differs substantially from other known insect mitochondrial genomes, with rearrangements of both tRNA genes and protein-coding genes. The overall AT content (82.5% of Stenopirates sp. is the highest among all the known heteropteran mitochondrial genomes. The strand bias is consistent with other true bugs with negative GC-skew and positive AT-skew for the J-strand. The heteropteran mitochondrial atp8 exhibits the highest evolutionary rate, whereas cox1 appears to have the lowest rate. Furthermore, a negative correlation was observed between the variation of nucleotide substitutions and the GC content of each protein-coding gene. A microsatellite was identified in the putative control region. Finally, phylogenetic reconstruction suggests that Enicocephalomorpha is the sister group to all the remaining Heteroptera.

  16. Interpreting Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munsart, Craig A.

    1993-01-01

    Presents an activity that allows students to experience the type of discovery process that paleontologists necessarily followed during the early dinosaur explorations. Students are read parts of a story taken from the "American Journal of Science" and interpret the evidence leading to the discovery of Triceratops and Stegosaurus. (PR)

  17. The sea-skater Halobates (Heteroptera Gerridae) - probable cause for extinction in the Mediterranean and potential for re-colonisation following climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Lanna; Damgaard, Jakob; Garrouste, Romain

    2012-01-01

    Sea-skaters in the genus Halobates Eschscholtz 1822 include some of the most specialised water striders and are found in tropical and subtropical seas around the world. Even though species of Halobates occur in both the Atlantic Ocean and the Red Sea, no extant sea-skater has been reported from...... the Mediterranean Sea. A fossil, Halobates ruffoi Andersen et al., 1994, described from Middle-Upper Eocene (45 Ma) Italy indicates that sea skaters were present in this part of the world in the past. Other geological evidence points to dramatic changes in the Mediterranean Sea during the Tertiary and Quaternary...

  18. Arreglo de los polígonos del exocorion de huevos eclosionados de algunas especies de los géneros Triatoma Laporte, Meccus Stal y Nesotriatoma Usinger (Heteroptera: Reduviidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glauco López

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. En este trabajo se estudiaron estructural y cuantitativamente las celdas exocoriales de huevos eclosionados de Triatoma infestans (Klug, Triatoma lenti Sherlock & Serafim, Triatoma maculata (Erichson, Triatoma sordida (Stal, Meccus picturatus (Usinger, Meccus longipennis (Usinger, Meccus pallidipennis (Stal and Nesotriatoma flavida (Neiva. Los huevos se analizaron por regiones: caudal, media y cefálica. Se encontró que el hexágono fue el polígono más abundante en todas las regiones del huevo y en todas las especies, seguido del pentágono y del heptágono; se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas en el número tanto de hexágonos y pentágonos entre regiones de una misma especie y entre la misma región de las diferentes especies, sin embargo, el número promedio de heptágonos no varió al comparar la región media entre las diferentes especies y al comparar las diferentes regiones en una misma especie. No se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas en el promedio de polígonos, segmentos totales, heptágonos, hexágonos y pentágonos, al comparar las especies examinadas del género Meccus. Se propone un protocolo de identificación y análisis de teselaciones, con el cual se encontró que en 108 campos examinados de 385.000 µm2 cada uno, se identificaron teselaciones compartidas en los 108 campos observados con determinadas combinaciones de heptágonos, hexágonos y pentágonos, y se observaron teselaciones no compartidas en la totalidad de los campos, con combinaciones de polígonos de cuatro a nueve lados, y cada teselación se representó por un grafo. Se discuten las implicaciones taxonómicas, funcionales, filogenéticas y construccionales de los arreglos poligonales descritos.Arragement of exochorial polygons of hatched eggs in several species of the genera Triatoma Laporte, Meccus Stal y Nesotriatoma Usinger (Heteroptera: Reduviidae. Abstract. In this study a structural and quantitative

  19. Identification of Endophytic Bacteria and Preliminary Research on Their Growth-promoting Effect under Salt Stress in Suaeda heteroptera Kitag%翅碱蓬内生细菌鉴定及耐盐促生作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钮旭光; 韩梅; 宋立超; 肖亦农

    2011-01-01

    对盐生植物翅碱蓬的根、茎、叶组织进行分离,纯化,得到内生细菌79株,经形态学和理化特征鉴定并结合16S rDNA片段测序分析,表明这些内生细菌分别属于芽孢杆菌属(Bacillus)、不动杆菌属(Acinetobacter)、假单胞菌属(Pseudomonas)、黄单胞菌属(Xanthomonas)、盐单胞菌属(Halomonas)和泛菌属(Pantoea).通过考察所分离到细菌对异缘植物小麦盐分胁迫下种子萌发率和幼苗生长的促进作用,筛选出2株能够显著提高小麦耐盐性的内生芽孢细菌SE48和SE4.150mM NaCl胁迫条件下,SE48和SE4处理小麦的干重分别增加43.6%和36.8%;甚至在300mM NaCl胁迫条件下,SE48仍能使小麦幼苗于重增加18.5%.这表明翅碱蓬的内生细菌可望用于宿主耐盐性的提高及盐碱地土壤的开发利用.%79 endophytic bacteria strains were isolated and purified from the roots,stems and leaves of a halophyte, Suaeda heteroptera. According to physiological and biochemical characteristics and 16S rDNA sequence analysis,these strains were classified into 6 different genera:Bacillus, Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, Xanthonumas, Halomonas and Pantoea. According to the stimulation of endophytic bacteria to the seed germination and seedling growth of heterologous wheat under salt stress,two strains (SE48 and SE4)could significantly improve the salt tolerance of host plants. SE48 and SE4 could significantly promote the growth of wheat seedlings in the presence of 150mM NaCl by increasing 31.37% and 40.21% of the dry weight,respectively. SE48 could even raise the dry weight by 18.5% under 300mM NaCl. The results showed that inoculation with endophytic bacteria could serve as an environmentally-friendly and economical alternative to the amelioration of increasingly saline soils.

  20. Leptocorisa Latreille in Indonesia (Heteroptera, Coreidae, Alydinae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siwi, Sri S.; Doesburg, van P.H.

    1984-01-01

    A review is given of the taxonomy and distribution of the Leptocorisa species in the Indonesian archipelago, primarily based on the material present in the Dutch museums, and on data from the literature. Thirteen species are found to be present in Indonesia: L. acuta (Thunberg), L. ayamaruensis Does

  1. Leptocorisa Latreille in Indonesia (Heteroptera, Coreidae, Alydinae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siwi, Sri S.; Doesburg, van P.H.

    1984-01-01

    A review is given of the taxonomy and distribution of the Leptocorisa species in the Indonesian archipelago, primarily based on the material present in the Dutch museums, and on data from the literature. Thirteen species are found to be present in Indonesia: L. acuta (Thunberg), L. ayamaruensis

  2. Notes on Macrocephalinae (Heteroptera: Phymatidae). AU:

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kormilev, N.A.; Doesburg, van P.H.

    1992-01-01

    A new species, Lophoscutus pugil, from Mexico is described. Additional (new) records are presented for L. attenuatus (Champion, 1898), L. chemsaki Kormilev, 1984, L. granulatus (Champion, 1898), L. inaequalis (Champion, 1898), L. lepidus (Stål, 1862), L. prehensilis (Fabricius, 1803), L. uhleri

  3. Leptocorisa Latreille in Indonesia (Heteroptera, Coreidae, Alydinae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siwi, Sri S.; Doesburg, van P.H.

    1984-01-01

    A review is given of the taxonomy and distribution of the Leptocorisa species in the Indonesian archipelago, primarily based on the material present in the Dutch museums, and on data from the literature. Thirteen species are found to be present in Indonesia: L. acuta (Thunberg), L. ayamaruensis Does

  4. The Stenopodainae (Hemiptera, Heteroptera) of Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diez, Fernando; Coscarón, María del Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In Argentina, 10 genera and 33 species of Stenopodainae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) have been recorded. Diagnoses of the genera, subgenera and species are given, and an illustrated key to genera is provided. Six species are new records for Argentina and an additional seven species represent new records for provinces. PMID:25493054

  5. Endemism analysis of Neotropical Pentatomidae (Hemiptera, Heteroptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Ferrari

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The definition of areas of endemism is central to studies of historical biogeography, and their interrelationships are fundamental questions. Consistent hypotheses for the evolution of Pentatomidae in the Neotropical region depend on the accuracy of the units employed in the analyses, which in the case of studies of historical biogeography, may be areas of endemism. In this study, the distribution patterns of 222 species, belonging to 14 Pentatomidae (Hemiptera genera, predominantly neotropical, were studied with the Analysis of Endemicity (NDM to identify possible areas of endemism and to correlate them to previously delimited areas. The search by areas of endemism was carried out using grid-cell units of 2.5° and 5° latitude-longitude. The analysis based on groupings of grid-cells of 2.5° of latitude-longitude allowed the identification of 51 areas of endemism, the consensus of these areas resulted in four clusters of grid-cells. The second analysis, with grid-cells units of 5° latitude-longitude, resulted in 109 areas of endemism. The flexible consensus employed resulted in 17 areas of endemism. The analyses were sensitive to the identification of areas of endemism in different scales in the Atlantic Forest. The Amazonian region was identified as a single area in the area of consensus, and its southeastern portion shares elements with the Chacoan and Paraná subregions. The distribution data of the taxa studied, with different units of analysis, did not allow the identification of individual areas of endemism for the Cerrado and Caatinga. The areas of endemism identified here should be seen as primary biogeographic hypotheses.

  6. Systemic Nicotinoid Toxicity against the Predatory Mirid Pilophorus typicus : Residual Side Effect and Evidence for Plant Sucking

    OpenAIRE

    Nakahira, Kengo; Kashitani, Ryoya; Tomoda, Masafumi; Kodama, Rika; Ito, Katsura; Yamanaka, Satoshi; Momoshita, Mitsutoshi; Arakawa, Ryo; Takagi, Masami

    2011-01-01

    The predatory mirid Pilophorus typicus (Heteroptera: Miridae) is a potential biological control agent against Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), but the sucking for host plant is unknown. To investigate collaboration use of P. typicus and nicotinoid granules and to confirm the sucking for pepper plant, residual harmful toxicity of 4 nicotinoids: acetamiprid; imidacloprid; nitempyram; and thiamethoxam on P. typicus adult were investigated at 7, 14 21, 28 and 35 d after treatment of the n...

  7. Balancing innovation and evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilcher, Jobeth W

    2015-01-01

    Nurse educators are encouraged to use evidence to guide their teaching strategies. However, evidence is not always available. How can educators make decisions regarding strategies when data are limited or absent? Where do innovation and creativity fit? How can innovation be balanced with evidence? This article provides a discussion regarding other sources of evidence, such as extrapolations, theories and principles, and collective expertise. Readers are encouraged to review the options and then analyze how they might be applied to innovation in education.

  8. Evidence Standards and Litigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerra, Alice; Luppi, Barbara; Parisi, Francesco

    aspect of the legal system: the evidence standard. We recast the conventional rent-seeking model to consider how alternative evidence standards affect litigation choices. We analyze the interrelation between different evidence standards, the effectiveness of the parties’ efforts, and the merits...

  9. Evidence and evidence gaps – an introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreier, Gabriele; Löhler, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Medical treatment requires the implementation of existing evidence in the decision making process in order to be able to find the best possible diagnostic, therapeutic or prognostic measure for the individual patient based on the physician’s own expertise. Clinical trials form the evidence base and ideally, their results are assembled, analyzed, summarized, and made available in systematic review articles. Beside planning, conducting, and evaluating clinical trials in conformity with GCP (good clinical practice), it is essential that all results of conducted studies are publicly available in order to avoid publication bias. This includes also the public registration of planned and cancelled trials. History: During the last 25 years, evidence-based medicine became increasingly important in medical care and research. It is closely associated with the names of Archibald Cochrane and David Sackett. About 15 years ago, the Deutsche Cochrane Zentrum (Cochrane Germany) and the Deutsche Netzwerk Evidenzbasierte Medizin e.V. (German Network for Evidence-based Medicine, DNEbM) were founded in Germany. In the International Cochrane Collaboration, clinicians and methodologists come together on an interdisciplinary level to further develop methods of evidence-based medicine and to discuss the topics of evidence generation and processing as well as knowledge transfer. Problem: Evidence is particularly important for physicians in the process of decision making, however, at the same time it is the base of a scientific proof of benefit for the patient and finally for the payers in health care. The closure of evidence gaps requires enormously high staff and financial resources, significant organizational efforts, and it is only successful when clinical and methodical expertise as well as specific knowledge in the field of clinical research are included. On the other hand, the knowledge has to be transferred into practice. For this purpose, practice guidelines, meetings

  10. Evidence-informed evidence-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalkidou, Kalipso; Walley, Tom; Culyer, Anthony; Littlejohns, Peter; Hoy, Andrew

    2008-07-01

    The extent to which clinical and public health guidance developed by the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) can effectively serve the public by improving quality and efficiency across the National Health Service (NHS) and the broader public sector depends largely on the quality and relevance of the available evidence which informs its decisions. There are well-established organizational and procedural links between NICE and academic and professional organizations that undertake evidence synthesis. However, there are fewer means for evidence gaps identified during the development of NICE guidance to lead to the commissioning of new prospective studies. In this paper, we discuss the importance of a publicly funded clinical and public health research agenda that includes new prospective studies aimed at addressing knowledge gaps identified by NICE. We describe the early experience of NICE and the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) working together to articulate and commission research to inform best practice recommendations. We propose ways in which NICE can collaborate more effectively with research funders to improve the evidence base upon which it bases its recommendations.

  11. Synthesizing Evidence: Synthesis Methods for Evidence Clearinghouses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Jeff; Lau, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    Following the theme of the first two presentations, this presentation will focus on the choices available for research synthesis when summarizing research evidence. The presenters will describe the current research synthesis practice of the What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) as well as several alternative models, including inverse-variance weighted…

  12. What is Evidence? (editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Koufogiannakis

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Lately, I have been pondering what we really mean when we say “evidence based practice”? In LIS, we all know the definitions that have been proposed (Booth 2000, Eldredge 2000, Crumley and Koufogiannakis 2002, and which have not ever really been challenged. But have we ever said explicitly what qualifies as evidence in this model? The underlying assumption seems to be that evidence is research, hence, we are really talking about research-based practice, but we don’t actually use that term.Higgs and Jones (2000 note that evidence is “knowledge derived from a variety of sources that has been subjected to testing and has found to be credible.” The Oxford English Dictionary states that evidence is “something serving as a proof” (OED, 2011. Neither of these definitions of evidence notes that evidence equals research; research is only one form of evidence. It certainly isn’t the only form of evidence – so what, then, constitutes evidence?Rycroff-Malone et al. (2004 state that that in order for evidence based practice to create a broader evidence base in nursing, “the external, scientific and the internal, intuitive” need to be brought together. The external, scientific is what evidence based practice has been focused on, in the form of scientific research, but Rycroff-Malone et al. note that other elements such as clinical experience, patient experience, and information from the local context also need to be considered.In library and information practice, what are the other forms of evidence we need to consider? I propose that while research evidence is of high importance to our profession and knowledge, LIS practitioners need to first of all consider local evidence. Local evidence is found in our working environment and specific to the context in which we carry out our work. It includes such things as our experiences with patrons in particular contexts, and what we observe to work in such situations, assessment of programs

  13. Teaching with Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocco, Margaret; Halvorsen, Anne-Lise; Jacobsen, Rebecca; Segall, Avner

    2017-01-01

    In this age of real and fake news, students need to be able to assess the trustworthiness of evidence. The authors' current research examines students' use of evidence in secondary social studies classrooms as students deliberate contemporary public policy issues. The authors found that students shifted their evaluations of the trustworthiness of…

  14. Evidence and clinical judgement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macnaughton, R J

    1998-05-01

    Widespread acceptance of the neologism 'evidence-based medicine' (EBM) has had the consequences of obscuring what evidence really is, and of eroding the importance of judgement in clinical situations. In this essay I seek to correct this lack of balance in the view of clinical encounters as portrayed by EBM. A better understanding of what evidence is can be obtained by looking beyond medicine to the way in which scientists and detectives view evidence. In both spheres, the importance of judgement is emphasized, even if it is a technical type of judgement. Clinicians also employ a technical kind of judgement, similar to that in science and detective work, when assessing the evidence relating to the truth of a diagnosis for an individual patient; but judgements relating to the ongoing care and treatment of that patient are based on what Aristotle calls phronesis or 'practical wisdom'.

  15. 20 CFR 219.8 - Preferred evidence and other evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Preferred evidence and other evidence. 219.8 Section 219.8 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT EVIDENCE REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT General Evidence Requirements § 219.8 Preferred evidence and other evidence...

  16. Gait as evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynnerup, Niels; Larsen, Peter Kastmand

    2014-01-01

    This study examines what in Denmark may constitute evidence based on forensic anthropological gait analyses, in the sense of pointing to a match (or not) between a perpetrator and a suspect, based on video and photographic imagery. Gait and anthropometric measures can be used when direct facial...... comparison is not possible because of perpetrators masking their faces. The nature of judicial and natural scientific forms of evidence is discussed, and rulings dealing with the admissibility of video footage and forensic evidence in general are given. Technical issues of video materials are discussed...

  17. [Evidence-based physiotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Tamás

    2013-12-01

    This article on physiotherapy presents some current evidence stating the strengths and weaknesses of the physiotherapeutic procedures. In the area of physiotherapy empirical data obtained during decades were overtaken by evidence from current studies. The author points out the great problem of physiotherapy, namely the heterogeneity of the applied parameters. Knowledge of current evidence may be very important and helpful for the physicians, but the author proposes, from the practical point of view, that physiotherapeutical procedures based on exprience and used for many years should not be entirely neglected. Nowadays physiotherapy plays an important role in the treament of locomotor diseases but its use is increasing in other fields of medicine, as well.

  18. Gait as evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynnerup, Niels; Larsen, Peter Kastmand

    2014-01-01

    This study examines what in Denmark may constitute evidence based on forensic anthropological gait analyses, in the sense of pointing to a match (or not) between a perpetrator and a suspect, based on video and photographic imagery. Gait and anthropometric measures can be used when direct facial...... comparison is not possible because of perpetrators masking their faces. The nature of judicial and natural scientific forms of evidence is discussed, and rulings dealing with the admissibility of video footage and forensic evidence in general are given. Technical issues of video materials are discussed......, and the study also discusses how such evidence may be presented, both in written statements and in court. © The Institution of Engineering and Technology 2014....

  19. 20 CFR 404.709 - Preferred evidence and other evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Preferred evidence and other evidence. 404.709 Section 404.709 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Evidence General § 404.709 Preferred evidence and other evidence. If you give...

  20. LTDNA Evidence on Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Adopting the interpretative/hermeneutical method typical of much legal scholarship, this article considers two sets of issues pertaining to LTDNA profiles as evidence in criminal proceedings. The section titled Expert Evidence as Forensic Epistemic Warrant addresses some rather large questions about the epistemic status and probative value of expert testimony in general. It sketches a theoretical model of expert evidence, highlighting five essential criteria: (1) expert competence; (2) disciplinary domain; (3) methodological validity; (4) materiality; and (5) legal admissibility. This generic model of expert authority, highlighting law's fundamentally normative character, applies to all modern forms of criminal adjudication, across Europe and farther afield. The section titled LTDNA Evidence in UK Criminal Trials then examines English and Northern Irish courts' attempts to get to grips with LTDNA evidence in recent cases. Better appreciating the ways in which UK courts have addressed the challenges of LTDNA evidence may offer some insights into parallel developments in other legal systems. Appellate court rulings follow a predictable judicial logic, which might usefully be studied and reflected upon by any forensic scientist or statistician seeking to operate effectively in criminal proceedings. Whilst each legal jurisdiction has its own unique blend of jurisprudence, institutions, cultures and historical traditions, there is considerable scope for comparative analysis and cross-jurisdictional borrowing and instruction. In the spirit of promoting more nuanced and sophisticated international interdisciplinary dialogue, this article examines UK judicial approaches to LTDNA evidence and begins to elucidate their underlying institutional logic. Legal argument and broader policy debates are not confined to considerations of scientific validity, contamination risks and evidential integrity, or associated judgments of legal admissibility or exclusion. They also crucially

  1. Evidence-based dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2010-01-01

    Both panegyric and criticism of evidence-based dentistry tend to be clumsy because the concept is poorly defined. This analysis identifies several contributions to the profession that have been made under the EBD banner. Although the concept of clinicians integrating clinical epidemiology, the wisdom of their practices, and patients' values is powerful, its implementation has been distorted by a too heavy emphasis of computerized searches for research findings that meet the standards of academics. Although EBD advocates enjoy sharing anecdotal accounts of mistakes others have made, faulting others is not proof that one's own position is correct. There is no systematic, high-quality evidence that EBD is effective. The metaphor of a three-legged stool (evidence, experience, values, and integration) is used as an organizing principle. "Best evidence" has become a preoccupation among EBD enthusiasts. That overlong but thinly developed leg of the stool is critiqued from the perspectives of the criteria for evidence, the difference between internal and external validity, the relationship between evidence and decision making, the ambiguous meaning of "best," and the role of reasonable doubt. The strongest leg of the stool is clinical experience. Although bias exists in all observations (including searches for evidence), there are simple procedures that can be employed in practice to increase useful and objective evidence there, and there are dangers in delegating policy regarding allowable treatments to external groups. Patient and practitioner values are the shortest leg of the stool. As they are so little recognized, their integration in EBD is problematic and ethical tensions exist where paternalism privileges science over patient's self-determined best interests. Four potential approaches to integration are suggested, recognizing that there is virtually no literature on how the "seat" of the three-legged stool works or should work. It is likely that most dentists

  2. Evidence-Based Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten; Simonsen, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    Systems development is replete with projects that represent substantial resource investments but result in systems that fail to meet users’ needs. Evidence-based development is an emerging idea intended to provide means for managing customer-vendor relationships and working systematically toward...... meeting customer needs. We are suggesting that the effects of the use of a system should play a prominent role in the contractual definition of IT projects and that contract fulfilment should be determined on the basis of evidence of these effects. Based on two ongoing studies of home-care management...

  3. What Counts as Evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty Stahl, Katherine A.

    2014-01-01

    Each disciplinary community has its own criteria for determining what counts as evidence of knowledge in their academic field. The criteria influence the ways that a community's knowledge is created, communicated, and evaluated. Situating reading, writing, and language instruction within the content areas enables teachers to explicitly…

  4. A generalized evidence distance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongming Mo; Xi Lu; Yong Deng

    2016-01-01

    How to efficiently measure the distance between two basic probability assignments (BPAs) is an open issue. In this paper, a new method to measure the distance between two BPAs is proposed, based on two existing measures of evidence distance. The new proposed method is comprehen-sive and generalized. Numerical examples are used to ilus-trate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  5. LTDNA Evidence on Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Roberts

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Adopting the interpretative/hermeneutical method typical of much legal scholarship, this article considers two sets of issues pertaining to LTDNA profiles as evidence in criminal proceedings. Section 1 addresses some rather large questions about the epistemic status and probative value of expert testimony in general. It sketches a theoretical model of expert evidence, highlighting five essential criteria: (1 expert competence; (2 disciplinary domain; (3 methodological validity; (4 materiality; and (5 legal admissibility. This generic model of expert authority, highlighting law’s fundamentally normative character, applies to all modern forms of criminal adjudication, across Europe and farther afield. Section 2 then examines English and Northern Irish courts’ attempts to get to grips with LTDNA evidence in recent cases. Better appreciating the ways in which UK courts have addressed the challenges of LTDNA evidence may offer some insights into parallel developments in other legal systems. Appellate court rulings follow a predictable judicial logic, which might usefully be studied and reflected upon by any forensic scientist or statistician seeking to operate effectively in criminal proceedings. Whilst each legal jurisdiction has its own unique blend of jurisprudence, institutions, cultures and historical traditions, there is considerable scope for comparative analysis and cross-jurisdictional borrowing and instruction. In the spirit of promoting more nuanced and sophisticated international interdisciplinary dialogue, this article examines UK judicial approaches to LTDNA evidence and begins to elucidate their underlying institutional logic. Legal argument and broader policy debates are not confined to considerations of scientific validity, contamination risks and evidential integrity, or associated judgments of legal admissibility or exclusion. They also crucially concern the manner in which LTDNA profiling results are presented and explained to

  6. Multiple Lines of Evidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amidan, Brett G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Venzin, Alexander M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bramer, Lisa M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-06-03

    This paper discusses the process of identifying factors that influence the contamination level of a given decision area and then determining the likelihood that the area remains unacceptable. This process is referred to as lines of evidence. These lines of evidence then serve as inputs for the stratified compliance sampling (SCS) method, which requires a decision area to be divided into strata based upon contamination expectations. This is done in order to focus sampling efforts more within stratum where contamination is more likely and to use the domain knowledge about these likelihoods of the stratum remaining unacceptable to buy down the number of samples necessary, if possible. Two different building scenarios were considered as an example (see Table 3.1). SME expertise was elicited concerning four lines of evidence factors (see Table 3.2): 1) amount of contamination that was seen before decontamination, 2) post-decontamination air sampling information, 3) the applied decontaminant information, and 4) the surface material. Statistical experimental design and logistic regression modelling were used to help determine the likelihood that example stratum remained unacceptable for a given example scenario. The number of samples necessary for clearance was calculated by applying the SCS method to the example scenario, using the estimated likelihood of each stratum remaining unacceptable as was determined using the lines of evidence approach. The commonly used simple random sampling (SRS) method was also used to calculate the number of samples necessary for clearance for comparison purposes. The lines of evidence with SCS approach resulted in a 19% to 43% reduction in total number of samples necessary for clearance (see Table 3.6). The reduction depended upon the building scenario, as well as the level of percent clean criteria. A sensitivity analysis was also performed showing how changing the estimated likelihoods of stratum remaining unacceptable affect the number

  7. Evidence or Advocacy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Mie

    2015-01-01

    in the reform (Ministry of Education, 2013, 2014). My aim is to discuss the impact of the educational discourse of evidence in which all school subjects are defined in the new reform. The discourse of evidence focuses on competences aimed at utility and future employment prospects. The new learning objectives......Introduction This paper presents and discusses the current role of Danish visual arts education in the compulsory school system. Denmark recently implemented a major school reform “How to make a good school better” (Ministry of Education, 2014), that focuses on core competences in the subjects...... Reading and Math. The reform emphasizes an open approach to various constellations of teaching and learning and includes a national tool for increasing the assessment of core competences. I examined visual arts education in the new educational landscape based on the agreement between the government...

  8. Evidence of clinical competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejonqvist, Gun-Britt; Eriksson, Katie; Meretoja, Riitta

    2012-06-01

    This cross-sectional research used a qualitative questionnaire to explore clinical competence in nursing. The aim was to look for evidence of how clinical competence showed itself in practice. In the research, the views from both education and working life are combined to broadly explore and describe clinical competence from the perspective of students, clinical preceptors and teachers. The questions were formulated on how clinical competence is characterised and experienced, what contributes to it and how it is maintained, and on the relation between clinical competence and evidence-based care. The answers were analysed by inductive content analysis. The results showed that clinical competence in practice is encountering, knowing, performing, maturing and improving. Clinical competence is an ongoing process, rather than a state and manifests itself in an ontological and a contextual dimension.

  9. Inflation, evidence and falsifiability

    CERN Document Server

    Gubitosi, Giulia; Magueijo, Joao; Allison, Rupert

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we consider the issue of paradigm evaluation by applying Bayes' theorem along the following nested chain of progressively more complex structures: i) parameter estimation (within a model), ii) model selection and comparison (within a paradigm), iii) paradigm evaluation. In such a chain the Bayesian evidence works both as the posterior's normalization at a given level and as the likelihood function at the next level up. Whilst raising no objections to the standard application of the procedure at the two lowest levels, we argue that it should receive an essential modification when evaluating paradigms, in view of the issue of falsifiability. By considering toy models we illustrate how unfalsifiable models and paradigms are always favoured by the Bayes factor. We argue that the evidence for a paradigm should not only be high for a given dataset, but exceptional with respect to what it would have been, had the data been different. We propose a measure of falsifiability (which we term predictivity), ...

  10. Evidence on acne therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Sousa Costa

    Full Text Available Among the current treatments available for acne vulgaris, many widely practiced options lack support from studies at the best level of scientific evidence. The aim of this narrative review was to present the very latest information on topical and systemic treatments for acne vulgaris. Information from systematic reviews and well-designed clinical trials, obtained through a systematic search of the major medical databases, is emphasized. There are important issues regarding the clinical management of acne that still lack consistent grounding in scientific evidence. Among these are the optimum dose and duration of treatment with oral antibiotics that can be given without inducing bacterial resistance, and the safety of oral isotretinoin.

  11. [Evidence for exercise prescription].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritani, Toshio

    2009-02-01

    This brief review includes recent evidences regarding the etiology of obesity and metabolic syndrome with a special reference to autonomic nervous system activity. The role of exercise in prevention and treatment of obesity in adults and children is described in conjunction with MONA LISA Hypothesis put forth by Bray (1991). Finally, recent topics of myokines, i.e., muscle activity-derived cytokines are briefly discussed.

  12. Evidence informed decision making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Tarang; Choudhury, Moni; Kaur, Bindweep

    2015-01-01

    from the literature and a combined best practice checklist has been proposed. CONCLUSIONS: As decisions often need to be made in areas where there is a lack of published scientific evidence, CE is employed. Therefore to ensure its appropriateness the development of a validated CE data quality check......-list to assist decision makers is essential and further research in this area is a priority....

  13. Evidence-based management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeffer, Jeffrey; Sutton, Robert I

    2006-01-01

    For the most part, managers looking to cure their organizational ills rely on obsolete knowledge they picked up in school, long-standing but never proven traditions, patterns gleaned from experience, methods they happen to be skilled in applying, and information from vendors. They could learn a thing or two from practitioners of evidence-based medicine, a movement that has taken the medical establishment by storm over the past decade. A growing number of physicians are eschewing the usual, flawed resources and are instead identifying, disseminating, and applying research that is soundly conducted and clinically relevant. It's time for managers to do the same. The challenge is, quite simply, to ground decisions in the latest and best knowledge of what actually works. In some ways, that's more difficult to do in business than in medicine. The evidence is weaker in business; almost anyone can (and many people do) claim to be a management expert; and a motley crew of sources--Shakespeare, Billy Graham,Jack Welch, Attila the Hunare used to generate management advice. Still, it makes sense that when managers act on better logic and strong evidence, their companies will beat the competition. Like medicine, management is learned through practice and experience. Yet managers (like doctors) can practice their craft more effectively if they relentlessly seek new knowledge and insight, from both inside and outside their companies, so they can keep updating their assumptions, skills, and knowledge.

  14. Evidence-based librarianship: searching for the needed EBL evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldredge, J D

    2000-01-01

    This paper discusses the challenges of finding evidence needed to implement Evidence-Based Librarianship (EBL). Focusing first on database coverage for three health sciences librarianship journals, the article examines the information contents of different databases. Strategies are needed to search for relevant evidence in the library literature via these databases, and the problems associated with searching the grey literature of librarianship. Database coverage, plausible search strategies, and the grey literature of library science all pose challenges to finding the needed research evidence for practicing EBL. Health sciences librarians need to ensure that systems are designed that can track and provide access to needed research evidence to support Evidence-Based Librarianship (EBL).

  15. Evidence in mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Susan Mace

    2014-12-01

    Health practitioners wishing to positively improve health outcomes for their clients have access to a unique set of collated tools to guide their practice. Systematic reviews provide guidance in the form of synthesized evidence that can form the basis of decision making as they provide care for their clients. This article describes systematic reviews as a basis for informed decision making by mental health practitioners. The process of systematic review is discussed, examples of existing systematic review topics relevant to mental health are presented, a sample systematic review is described, and gaps and emerging topics for mental health systematic reviews are addressed.

  16. Emdogain: evidence of efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenstein, G

    2000-04-01

    This article addresses the use of enamel matrix proteins (Emdogain) to enhance regeneration of the periodontium. Information regarding the role of Emdogain to induce cementogenesis and histologic evidence in animals and humans that it can initiate regeneration of diseased sites are discussed. Several clinical trials have indicated that Emdogain plus modified Widman flap surgery provide a better result than the surgery alone. Several other investigations have indicated that flap surgery plus Emdogain or a bioabsorbable membrane achieve similar results. However, this latter finding needs further validation. Clinical examples of successful therapy with Emdogain are presented.

  17. Realism And Empirical Evidence

    CERN Document Server

    Schmelzer, I

    1997-01-01

    We define realism using a slightly modified version of the EPR criterion of reality. This version is strong enough to show that relativity is incomplete. We show that this definition of realism is nonetheless compatible with the general principles of causality and canonical quantum theory as well as with experimental evidence in the (special and general) relativistic domain. We show that the realistic theories we present here, compared with the standard relativistic theories, have higher empirical content in the strong sense defined by Popper's methodology.

  18. Evidence for homosexuality gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pool, R.

    1993-07-16

    A genetic analysis of 40 pairs of homosexual brothers has uncovered a region on the X chromosome that appears to contain a gene or genes for homosexuality. When analyzing the pedigrees of homosexual males, the researcheres found evidence that the trait has a higher likelihood of being passed through maternal genes. This led them to search the X chromosome for genes predisposing to homosexuality. The researchers examined the X chromosomes of pairs of homosexual brothers for regions of DNA that most or all had in common. Of the 40 sets of brothers, 33 shared a set of five markers in the q28 region of the long arm of the X chromosome. The linkage has a LOD score of 4.0, which translates into a 99.5% certainty that there is a gene or genes in this area that predispose males to homosexuality. The chief researcher warns, however, that this one site cannot explain all instances of homosexuality, since there were some cases where the trait seemed to be passed paternally. And even among those brothers where there was no evidence that the trait was passed paternally, seven sets of brothers did not share the Xq28 markers. It seems likely that homosexuality arises from a variety of causes.

  19. Expert opinion vs. empirical evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Rod A; Raybould, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Expert opinion is often sought by government regulatory agencies when there is insufficient empirical evidence to judge the safety implications of a course of action. However, it can be reckless to continue following expert opinion when a preponderance of evidence is amassed that conflicts with this opinion. Factual evidence should always trump opinion in prioritizing the information that is used to guide regulatory policy. Evidence-based medicine has seen a dramatic upturn in recent years spurred by examples where evidence indicated that certain treatments recommended by expert opinions increased death rates. We suggest that scientific evidence should also take priority over expert opinion in the regulation of genetically modified crops (GM). Examples of regulatory data requirements that are not justified based on the mass of evidence are described, and it is suggested that expertise in risk assessment should guide evidence-based regulation of GM crops. PMID:24637724

  20. Evidence on Inclusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyssegaard, Camilla Brørup; Larsen, Michael Søgaard

    The purpose of this publication is to examine existing research on inclusion to identify strategies of inclusion that have generated positive effects. To do so it is necessary to understand the effect of the applied strategies. One approach, which is being discussed, is to use evidence to determine...... which methods have proven more effective than others. The desire to gain insight into research on inclusion forms the basis of the current systematic review. The task was to determine which strategies primary research has found to be most effective for inclusion purposes. We have solved this task...... by addressing the existing research with the following question: What is the effect of including children with special needs in mainstream teaching in basic school, and which of the applied educational methods have proved to have a positive effect?...

  1. Evidence Study Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    34idt l o aggravation. ,t MY ew it pt (A , ,,,, 0 *" ,f ’-’, . ’ p, ug. 1 *Wi toflly viI , )r Ibth; 4) irV ~llmYM ’a ,’ 2 ., 1i ,,ft’.1-, *q 4.,*. ~f...8217 ’,’.’ ’. . . .. ,. - . . . . . . . . "- Irv 77 i 1W W WW 1 WRr %’ J1 -- M, W - a. Search of the person. Mil.R.Evid. 314(g)(1). A.% 11 % % (1) A full search of the person...persorunel accused of offenses cognizable by court- martial may be granted immunity by the appropriate GCM convening authority. United States v. Kirsch , 15

  2. Screening of Bt isolates with insecticidal activity against Apolygus lucorum (Heteroptera:Miridae)and bioassay of Cry15Aa polypeptides%对绿盲蝽具有杀虫活性Bt菌株的筛选及Cry15Aa蛋白活性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张学雯; 束长龙; 陆宴辉; 刘春颖; 张杰; 高继国

    2016-01-01

    Transgenic cotton with cry genes has controlled the main cotton pests (Helicoverpa armigera )effective-ly,however another non target mirid bugs (Heteroptera:Miridae)with sucking mouthparts have increased popu-lation sizes year by year.It has not been reported to the effective insecticidal genes of Bacillus thuringiensis a-gainst Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dür),in this study,Bt insecticidal genes and isolates stored in our laboratory were prepared to assay the insecticidal activity against A.lucorum .The cry 15Aa gene which belongs to Mtx in our lab was used to perform the bioassay to A.lucorum ,the result showed that Cry15Aa polypeptides was certain insecticidal activity against A.lucorum .After bioassay against A.lucorum ,twenty A.lucorum toxic Bt isolates were obtained.The LC-MS/MS identification showed these isolates might contains Cry1Aa,Cry1Ab,Cry1Ac, Cry1Ae,Cry1Af,Cry1Ag,Cry1Ah,Cry1Ba,Cry1Be,Cry8Ha and other proteins which are insecticidal to lepi-doptera and coleopteran pests,and four of them contains peptide fragment similar to Cry15Aa which belong to Mtx protein.But subsequence gene identification results indicated that these isolates not contains full length cry 15Aa gene,it suggested that these isolates contains new cry 15 type genes.The results indicated that these Bt i-solates may contain new insecticidal proteins toxic to mirid bugs.The obtaining of novel Bt isolates and the discovery of Cry15Aa with insecticidal activity against A.lucorum are significant to the biological control for A.lucorum .%Bt 棉有效控制了棉田主要害虫棉铃虫(Helicoverpa armigera ),然而原来处于次要地位的刺吸式口器害虫盲蝽(Heteroptera:Miridae)为害逐年加重,目前对绿盲蝽(Apolygus lucorum Meyer-Dür)有效的抗虫基因未见报道。本研究以本实验室保存的 Bt 杀虫基因和菌株为材料,对绿盲蝽进行杀虫活性筛选。利用本实验室先前克隆的Mtx 类杀虫基因 cry15Aa 表达产物进行绿

  3. Evidence Locator: sources of evidence-based dentistry information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantsve-Hawley, Julie

    2008-09-01

    Multiple resources are available to help practitioners access the latest scientific evidence. Evidence-based dentistry (EBD) is an approach to clinical decision making that incorporates the most current and comprehensive scientific evidence with the practitioner's judgment and the patient's needs and preferences. One challenge in implementing this approach is access to evidence, and there are multiple online resources that can be used in this endeavor. This article presents the Evidence Locator, a list of Web sites that provide access to "secondary sources" of evidence. Such "secondary sources" are typically summaries of systematic reviews and evidence-based clinical recommendations or guidelines. Also presented is a list of other Web sites that may be useful to the practitioner in implementing EBD.

  4. Evidence-Based Laboratory Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christopher P Price

    2004-01-01

    @@ Whilst there have been several definitions of Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM), the one given by David Sackett is probably the most accurate and well accepted; he stated that "evidence-based medicine is the conscientious, explicit and judicious use of current best evidence in making decisions about the care of individual patients"[1].

  5. Nieuwe en interessante Nederlandse wantsen III (Hemiptera: Heteroptera)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aukema, B.; Hermes, D.

    2009-01-01

    In dit artikel wordt een overzicht gegeven van 38 soorten nieuwe of anderszins interessante Nederlandse wantsen. Corythucha ciliata (Tingidae), Macrolophus rubi, Orthotylus ochrotrichus (Miridae), Amphiareus constrictus, Buchananiella continua, Cardiasthetus fasciiventris, Lyctocoris dimidiatus (Ant

  6. Distributional patterns of the American Peiratinae (Heteroptera: Reduviidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morrone, J.J.; Coscarón, del C M.

    1996-01-01

    Based on distributional data of 40 species of Peiratinae, historical relationships of five Amazonian areas (Paranaense, Atlantic, Pacific, Amazonian, and Cerrado) and two Chacoan areas (Chaco and Caatinga), were investigated through a parsimony analysis of endemicity (PAE). The resulting area cladog

  7. Lygus hesperus (Heteroptera: Miridae) tolerates high concentrations of dietary nickel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ROBERT S. BOYD

    2007-01-01

    Nickel hyperaccumulator plants contain unusually elevated levels of Ni (> 1 000 μg Ni/g). Some insect herbivores, including Lygus hesperus (Western tarnished plant bug), have been observed feeding on the California Ni hyperaccumulator Streptanthus polygaloides. This bug may be able to utilize S. polygaloides as a host either through its feeding behavior or by physiological tolerance of Ni. This experiment determined the Ni tolerance of L. hesperus by offering insects artificial diet amended with 0,0.4, 1, 2, 4.5,10, 20 and 40 mmol Ni/L and recording survival. Survival varied due to Ni concentration, with diets containing 10 mmol Ni/L and greater resulting in significantly lower survival compared to the control (0 mmol Ni/L) treatment. Insects tolerated diet containing as much as 4.5 mmol Ni/L, a relatively elevated Ni concentration. I conclude that L. hesperus can feed on S. polygaloides because it is Ni-tolerant, probably due to physiological mechanisms that provide it with resistance to plant chemical defenses including elemental defenses such as hyperaccumulated Ni.

  8. Effectiveness of Thiamethoxam in Tibraca limbativentris (Heteroptera; Pentatomidae) control.

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael Meneses; Jorge García de la Osa; Manuel Delgado

    2009-01-01

    Tibraca limbativentris was first reported in Cuba in 2007 by Dr. Horacio Grillo, among some insects collected from experimental plats at the Rice Research Institute in Bauta, Havana and also from “Sur del Jíbaro” Rice Experimental Station in Sancti Spíritus. This experiment was carried out at “Sur del Jíbaro” Station in order to determine the control done by Thiamethoxam over T. limbativentris adults. Three formulations of Thiamethoxam + Difenoconazol + Fludioxonil (312.5 g ai./l FS) for see...

  9. Effectiveness of Thiamethoxam in Tibraca limbativentris (Heteroptera; Pentatomidae control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Meneses

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Tibraca limbativentris was first reported in Cuba in 2007 by Dr. Horacio Grillo, among some insects collected from experimental plats at the Rice Research Institute in Bauta, Havana and also from “Sur del Jíbaro” Rice Experimental Station in Sancti Spíritus. This experiment was carried out at “Sur del Jíbaro” Station in order to determine the control done by Thiamethoxam over T. limbativentris adults. Three formulations of Thiamethoxam + Difenoconazol + Fludioxonil (312.5 g ai./l FS for seed treatment were evaluated; and Thiamethoxam + Lambda+cyhalotrina (247 g ai/l and Thiamethoxam (250 g ai/l, both for foliar treatment. All the Thiamethoxam foliar treatments obtained a control of more than 70% six days after their application.Best result was obtained by Thiamethoxam + Lambda-cyhalotrina (247 g ai/l per hectare. By the other hand, seed control resulted low, among other problems, because of arrangement moment of T. limbativentris adults. Feeding and egg deposition of T. limbativentris in treatment without insecticide application resulted the highest of all, obtaining 41.6% of dead hearts, six days after insects arrangement.

  10. On the systematic position of Scotomedes (Heteroptera, Nabidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blöte, H.C.

    1945-01-01

    In the collection of the Leiden Museum there is preserved the holotype of Scotomedes ater Stål. I was much surprised to discover that Velocipeda biguttula Reut. is a synonym of it. Distant described another Scotomedes-species in his "Fauna of British India" under the name: Godefridus alienus, bringi

  11. A new genus and species in Velocipedidae (Heteroptera)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doesburg Jr., van P.H.

    1970-01-01

    Dedicated to Dr. H. C. Blöte on the occasion of his 70th birthday. In the collection of the Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie at Leiden, the author found a peculiar and most interesting specimen belonging to the Heteropterous family Velocipedidae. It appears to be quite different from the represe

  12. The rediscovery of Stenogeocoris horvathi Montandon (Heteroptera, Geocoridae in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo M. Dellapé

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Stenogeocoris Montandon, 1913 was described to include S. horvathi based in one specimen from Córdoba Province, Argentina. The type specimen is lost and there are no records or additional material since the Montandon's description; thus, the identity of this taxon has remained uncertain until now. In this contribution, we redescribe the genus Stenogeocoris and the species S. horvathi, based on male and female specimens, including characters from the male genitalia, and compare Stenogeocoris with the other Neotropical genera

  13. A new species of Thaumamannia from Surinam (Heteroptera, Tingidae, Vianaidinae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doesburg, van P.H.

    1977-01-01

    During soil fauna investigations performed in 1959 by Dr. J. van der Drift (see his study, 1963), three specimens were collected of a small coleopteroid heteropteron, representing a new species belonging to the genus Thaumamannia Drake & Davis, 1960. Up till now, only one other species in this genus

  14. Distributional patterns of the American Peiratinae (Heteroptera: Reduviidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morrone, J.J.; Coscarón, del C M.

    1996-01-01

    Based on distributional data of 40 species of Peiratinae, historical relationships of five Amazonian areas (Paranaense, Atlantic, Pacific, Amazonian, and Cerrado) and two Chacoan areas (Chaco and Caatinga), were investigated through a parsimony analysis of endemicity (PAE). The resulting area

  15. The Nabidae (Insecta, Hemiptera, Heteroptera) of Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelis, Marcela; Coscarón, María C.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract In Argentina, five genera and 14 species are recorded in the subfamilies Prostemmatinae and Nabinae: Hoplistoscelis sordidus Reuter, Lasiomerus constrictus Champion, Metatropiphorus alvarengai Reuter, Nabis argentinus Meyer-Dür, Nabis (Tropiconabis) capsiformis Germar, Nabis faminei Stål, Nabis paranensis Harris, Nabis punctipennis Blanchard, Nabis roripes Stål, Nabis setricus Harris, Nabis tandilensis Berg, Pagasa (Pagasa) costalis Reuter, Pagasa (Lampropagasa) fuscipennis Reuter and Pagasa (Pagasa) signatipennis Reuter. PMID:24146557

  16. A new Stenolemus from the Philippines (Heteroptera, Reduviidae, Emesinae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doesburg, van P.H.

    1975-01-01

    During investigations of fig-wasps in the Philippines in 1964, Dr. J. T. Wiebes collected a new species of bug, a small reduviid belonging to the genus Stenolemus Signoret: its description is presented here. For comparison, the type specimen of Stenolemus crassirostris Stâl, 1870 (similarly from the

  17. True bug (Heteroptera) impact on cocoa fruit mortality and productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yede; Babin, R; Djieto-Lordon, C; Cilas, C; Dibog, L; Mahob, R; Bilong, C F Bilong

    2012-08-01

    The real impact of true bug damage on cocoa pods has never been assessed precisely. We conducted a 2-yr study on 1,080 cocoa trees on 36 farms in Cameroon to assess the contribution of true bugs to fruit mortality and production loss. The cocoa fruiting cycle, fruit mortality, and damage caused by true bugs as well as other pests and diseases were monitored on a weekly basis. True bug damage also was described on 2,500 ripe pods per year. Pod weight, bean number, and bean weight were measured and compared for different degrees and types of damage on the ripe pods. Our results showed that true bugs were the main external cause of young fruit abortion. They reduced the abundance of young fruit by up to 10%. In contrast, although one-third of the ripe pods sampled had true bug lesions, only 4% were moderately to heavily damaged. The mean weight of ripe pods was reduced by 12% when there was medium to heavy damage. While the mean weight of wet beans was reduced significantly (by 3-10%), the number of beans per pod was not changed by damage. Despite the reduction in mean weight, the overall weight of beans for the pods sampled was reduced by fruit mortality.

  18. The genus Paracholula (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Lygaeoidea: Rhyparochromidae: Rhyparochrominae: Myodochini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peredo, Luis Cervantes; Santacruz, Jezabel Baez

    2014-01-07

    The genus Paracholula Harrington has been represented by two species, P. picta (Fab) and P. thoracica (Distant), both recorded from Mexico. Individuals of one population from Guerrero were studied and compared with individuals of both species from different collections, including the types. Using scanning electron micrographs of different structures, and observation of the male genitalia of some individuals, together with a close examination of all the individuals from the population from Guerrero, we discovered, that there is great variation in all the structures and that some characters that were used to separate the two species are present within the population from Guerrero. Therefore we synonymize both species, stating that the valid name for this species is Paracholula picta (Fab). Descriptions and illustrations of all the immature stages from the Guerrero population are included. Notes about host plants, biology and distributional records are also included.

  19. Color preference of harlequin bug, Murgantia histrionica (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlequin bug, Murgantia histrionica (Hahn), is an important pest of Brassica crops in the southern United States. Regional populations are highly variable and unpredictable from farm to farm, and therefore accurate monitoring of activity would greatly improve IPM decision-making and the timing of c...

  20. An annotated catalog of the Iranian Miridae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Cimicomorpha).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghahari, Hassan; Chérot, Frédéric

    2014-07-30

    An updated list of Iranian Miridae Hahn, 1833 is provided and discussed. Seven subfamilies (Bryocorinae, Cylapinae, Deraeocorinae, Isometopinae, Mirinae, Orthotylinae, and Phylinae), 140 genera, and 498 species are confirmed from Iran. Phytocoris (Stictophytocoris) meridionalis (Herrich-Schaeffer, 1835), is newly recorded from Iran. The possible presence in the country of 28 additional species is briefly analyzed. 

  1. Synthesizing Quantitative Evidence for Evidence-based Nursing: Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eui Geum Oh, PhD, RN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available As evidence-based practice has become an important issue in healthcare settings, the educational needs for knowledge and skills for the generation and utilization of healthcare evidence are increasing. Systematic review (SR, a way of evidence generation, is a synthesis of primary scientific evidence, which summarizes the best evidence on a specific clinical question using a transparent, a priori protocol driven approach. SR methodology requires a critical appraisal of primary studies, data extraction in a reliable and repeatable way, and examination for validity of the results. SRs are considered hierarchically as the highest form of evidence as they are a systematic search, identification, and summarization of the available evidence to answer a focused clinical question with particular attention to the methodological quality of studies or the credibility of opinion and text. The purpose of this paper is to introduce an overview of the fundamental knowledge, principals and processes in SR. The focus of this paper is on SR especially for the synthesis of quantitative data from primary research studies that examines the effectiveness of healthcare interventions. To activate evidence-based nursing care in various healthcare settings, the best and available scientific evidence are essential components. This paper will include some examples to promote understandings.

  2. Ciclo de vida de Anasa litigiosa (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Coreidae Life cycle of Anasa litigiosa (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Coreidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Chacón-López

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es el estudio del ciclo de vida de Anasa litigiosa Stål. Se recolectaron ejemplares adultos de esta especie que se encontraban sobre plantas de chayote y fueron cultivados en el laboratorio utilizando hojas, tallos y frutos de la misma planta. Se describen e ilustran en detalle todos los estadios de vida, incluyendo notas sobre su biología. Anasa litigiosa se ha recolectado sobre bromeliáceas y cucurbitáceas y es una plaga importante de estas últimas.The aim of this work was the study of the life cycle of Anasa litigiosa Stål. Adults were collected on chayote and they were reared in laboratory using leaves, stems and fruits of chayote. Descriptions and illustrations of all instars of, and notes on its biology are included. This species has been collected in bromeliads and on cucurbits, it is an important pest of cucurbits in Mexico.

  3. Cuatro especies nuevas de Lattinestus (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Cydnidae: Amnestinae Four new species of Lattinestus (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Cydnidae: Amnestinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Cristina Mayorga-Martínez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Se describen 4 especies nuevas de Lattinestus de Guatemala (2 y de México (2; se incluyen ilustraciones de algunas estructuras importantes para su identificación y una clave para separar las 7 especies conocidas. La mayoría de los ejemplares fueron recolectados en hojarasca de bosques mesófilos por arriba de los 2 500 metros.Four new species from Guatemala (2 and Mexico (2 are described; illustrations of important structures for identification, and a key to separate the 7 known species are included. Most of the specimens were collected in forest litter above 2 500 m.

  4. Limits of Evidence within EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Pocora

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The issue of admissibility of evidence has been regulated only very scarcely in the EU. Judicial cooperation in criminal matters has been embracing the increasing number of instruments, covering plethora of aspects, however, the field of admissibility of evidence remains almost untouched. Can the Area of Freedom, Security and Justice be called the Common Evidence Area? From the national perspective, the issue of admissibility of evidence is still subject to divergent solutions in the Member States, concerning the common law and continental law systems, i.e. the right of access to a lawyer. Thus, the paper aims to take into account the tendencies of legal rule in matter of admissibility of evidence, the dynamic of evidence movement within EU area.

  5. Evidence and Ethics (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Brettle

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Welcome to the December issue of EBLIP, the final issue of my first year as Editor-in-Chief. A year which I have thoroughly enjoyed and one where the fears over what to write in my editorials haven’t materialised. This quarter, ethics has featured quite heavily in my working life so I decided to make this the topic of the editorial, sharing some of my thoughts regarding evidence, ethics and how ethical principles are implemented within the EBLIP journal.Ethics are “principles of conduct or standards of behaviour governing an individual or profession” (Library and Information Science Editorial Committee, 2010, and as individuals or professionals we may be governed by various ethical codes. As I'm sure you know, EBLIP originated in the health domain, where ethical values and ethical research feature strongly. Indeed, by its formal definition, research cannot take place unless “ethical approval” from an appropriate committee has been granted. The practicalities of taking research through the ethical approval process can often be time consuming, and those involved in research need to bear this in mind when planning a project. Each committee will have a slightly different form and process (which can add to the frustration of the researcher, but basically will make their decision to approve on the basis that the research includes obtaining informed consent from participants (i.e., participants know what the research is about and what their involvement will mean; that the research will not cause harm to participants; that confidentiality will be maintained; and that the research undertaken is methodologically rigorous and worthwhile. Preparing a proposal for ethical approval, whilst time consuming, makes the researcher think about all aspects of the research and how it is going to be operationalized, which can save lots of time and effort in the long run and may well also improve the research design. These principles are the same whatever

  6. Psiquiatria baseada em evidências Evidence-based psychiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício S de Lima

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Em psiquiatria, observa-se grande variabilidade de práticas clínicas, muitas vezes desnecessária. Essas variações podem estar relacionadas à ausência de evidência científica confiável ou ao desconhecimento das evidências de boa qualidade disponíveis. A medicina baseada em evidências (MBE é uma combinação de estratégias que busca assegurar que o cuidado individual do paciente seja baseado na melhor informação disponível, a qual deve ser incorporada à prática clínica. Neste artigo, conceitos de MBE são discutidos com relação a aspectos e desafios no tratamento de pacientes com distimia, bulimia nervosa e esquizofrenia. A partir de resultados de três revisões sistemáticas recentemente publicadas, conclui-se que a prática de psiquiatria baseada em evidências acrescenta qualidade à prática psiquiátrica tradicional.The unnecessary variability often seen in the clinical practice can be related to both the absence of reliable evidence and unawareness of the existence of good quality evidence. Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM is a set of linked strategies designed to assist clinicians in keeping themselves up-to-date with the best available evidence. Such evidence must be incorporated into the clinical practice. EBM concepts are discussed here through common aspects and challenges doctors face when treating patients with dysthymia, bulimia nervosa, and schizophrenia. In the light of some results from three systematic reviews it is concluded that Evidence-Based Psychiatry strategies, rather than replacing the traditional ones, may be a valuable tool to improving quality in a good clinical practice.

  7. Evidence-based clinical practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, Christian

    2002-01-01

    Evidence-based medicine combines the patient's preferences with clinical experience and the best research evidence. Randomized clinical trials are considered the most valid research design for evaluating health-care interventions. However, empirical research shows that intervention effects may be...

  8. From Evidence Based Medicine to Medicine Based Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, Ralph I; Hayes-Conroy, Allison; Caricchio, Roberto; Singer, Burton H

    2017-07-12

    Evidence based medicine, using randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses as the major tools and sources of evidence about average results for heterogeneous groups of patients, developed as a reaction against poorly designed observational treatment research and physician reliance on personal experience with other patients as a guide to decision-making about a patient at hand. However, these tools do not answer the clinician's question: "Will a given therapeutic regimen help my patient at a given point in her/his clinical course?" We introduce fine-grained profiling of the patient at hand, accompanied by comparative evidence of responses from approximate matches to this patient on whom a contemplated treatment has/has not been administered. This represents medicine based evidence that is tuned to decision-making for the particular patient. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Standardized description of scientific evidence using the Evidence Ontology (ECO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chibucos, Marcus C; Mungall, Christopher J; Balakrishnan, Rama; Christie, Karen R; Huntley, Rachael P; White, Owen; Blake, Judith A; Lewis, Suzanna E; Giglio, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    The Evidence Ontology (ECO) is a structured, controlled vocabulary for capturing evidence in biological research. ECO includes diverse terms for categorizing evidence that supports annotation assertions including experimental types, computational methods, author statements and curator inferences. Using ECO, annotation assertions can be distinguished according to the evidence they are based on such as those made by curators versus those automatically computed or those made via high-throughput data review versus single test experiments. Originally created for capturing evidence associated with Gene Ontology annotations, ECO is now used in other capacities by many additional annotation resources including UniProt, Mouse Genome Informatics, Saccharomyces Genome Database, PomBase, the Protein Information Resource and others. Information on the development and use of ECO can be found at http://evidenceontology.org. The ontology is freely available under Creative Commons license (CC BY-SA 3.0), and can be downloaded in both Open Biological Ontologies and Web Ontology Language formats at http://code.google.com/p/evidenceontology. Also at this site is a tracker for user submission of term requests and questions. ECO remains under active development in response to user-requested terms and in collaborations with other ontologies and database resources. Database URL: Evidence Ontology Web site: http://evidenceontology.org.

  10. NASA 2010 Pharmacology Evidence Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Susan

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, the Institute of Medicine reviewed NASA's Human Research Program Evidence in assessing the Pharmacology risk identified in NASA's Human Research Program Requirements Document (PRD). Since this review there was a major reorganization of the Pharmacology discipline within the HRP, as well as a re-evaluation of the Pharmacology evidence. This panel is being asked to review the latest version of the Pharmacology Evidence Report. Specifically, this panel will: (1) Appraise the descriptions of the human health-related risk in the HRP PRD. (2) Assess the relevance and comprehensiveness of the evidence in identifying potential threats to long-term space missions. (3) Assess the associated gaps in knowledge and identify additional areas for research as necessary.

  11. Forensic Botany: Evidence and Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, H M

    2009-01-01

    Forensic botany is the use of plant evidence in matters of law. While plant fragments are often collected as trace evidence, they are only occasionally identified using microscopy and are still more rarely assessed using molecular biology techniques for individualization and sourcing of a sample. There are many different methods useful for DNA typing of plants; this review focuses on those techniques (DNA sequencing, STR, AFLP, RAPD) most relevant to the forensic science community and on those methods currently in practice. Plant evidence is commonly associated with homicides, with clandestine graves, as trace pollen on clothing, vehicles, or packaging, or in the transport of illicit drugs. DNA can be especially useful for the identification of minute quantity of samples, for differentiation of plants that lack distinguishing morphological features, and for generating a unique identifier for associative forensic evidence.

  12. Gravitational Waves: The Evidence Mounts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wick, Gerald L.

    1970-01-01

    Reviews the work of Weber and his colleagues in their attempts at detecting extraterrestial gravitational waves. Coincidence events recorded by special detectors provide the evidence for the existence of gravitational waves. Bibliography. (LC)

  13. Evidence-Based Cancer Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorasani, Ramin

    2017-01-01

    With the advances in the field of oncology, imaging is increasingly used in the follow-up of cancer patients, leading to concerns about over-utilization. Therefore, it has become imperative to make imaging more evidence-based, efficient, cost-effective and equitable. This review explores the strategies and tools to make diagnostic imaging more evidence-based, mainly in the context of follow-up of cancer patients.

  14. Evidence in the learning organization

    OpenAIRE

    Umscheid Craig A; Richardson W Scott; Akl Elie A; McNamara Megan C; Crites Gerald E; Nishikawa James

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Organizational leaders in business and medicine have been experiencing a similar dilemma: how to ensure that their organizational members are adopting work innovations in a timely fashion. Organizational leaders in healthcare have attempted to resolve this dilemma by offering specific solutions, such as evidence-based medicine (EBM), but organizations are still not systematically adopting evidence-based practice innovations as rapidly as expected by policy-makers (the know...

  15. Persuasive Evidence: Improving Customer Service through Evidence Based Librarianship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy A. Abbott

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective - To demonstrate how evidence based practice has contributed to informaing decisions and resolving issues if concern in service delivery at Bond University Librray. Methods - This paper critically analyses three evidence based research projects conducted at Bond University Library. Each project combined a range of research methods including surveys, literature reviews and the analysis of internal performance data to find solutions to problems in library service delivery. The first research project investigated library opening hours and the feasability of twenty-four hour opening. Another project reseached questions about the management of a collection of feature films on DVD and video. The thrd project investigated issues surrounding the teaching of EndNote to undergarduate students. Results - Despite some deficiencies in the methodologies used, each evidence based research project had positive outcomes. One of the highlights asn an essential feature of the process at Bond University Library was the involvement of stakeholders. The ability to build consensus and agree action plans with stakeholders was an important outcome of that process. Conclusion - Drawing on the experience of these research projects, the paper illustrates the benefits of evidence based information practice to stimulate innovation and improve library services. Librarians, like most professionals, need to continue to develop the skills and a culture to effectively carry out evidence based practice.

  16. Evidence Corner: Evidence-based Care for Malignant Wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Laura

    2016-06-01

    Malignant fungating wounds occur in 5% to 10% of individuals with cancer.1 They arise "when malignant tumour cells infiltrate and erode through the skin."2 Guidelines for treating these malignant wounds (MW) often lack randomized, clinical trial (RCT) evidence supporting local wound care interventions that meet patients' physical or psychosocial needs or facilitate healing.3 The rarity of RCTs exploring healing of MWs likely results from their very low expectation of complete closure.1 Affected patients and their professional and family caregivers rate pain, infection, and odor management among the most important challenges in minimizing distress.4-6 Though a recently updated Cochrane review3 reminds us that evidence remains insufficient for firm conclusions supporting management of MW, it does cite 2 recent RCTs described herein7,8 that can serve as "current best evidence"9 to inform clinical decisions for alleviating some aspects of these patients' distress.

  17. From evidence-based to evidence-reflected practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lystbæk, Christian Tang

    “Knowledge” is of the utmost significance for professional practice and learning. Today, though, the established knowledge base is changing in all areas of the labour market (Alvesson, 2004). Work and society are dominated by commitment to demands for high levels of demonstrable accountability......, cost-efficiency and measurable quality. Thus, today, evidence-based practice has become an expectation and fashion, often used to emphasize the grounding of practice in research based knowledge that provides measurable evidence for best practice. But at the same time, there is a growing distrust...

  18. Coarticulatory evidence in stuttered disfluencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbisi-Kelm, Timothy

    2005-09-01

    While the disfluencies produced in stuttered speech surface at a significantly higher rate than those found in normal speech, it is less clear from the previous stuttering literature how exactly these disfluency patterns might differ in kind [Wingate (1988)]. One tendency found in normal speech is for disfluencies to remove acoustic evidence of coarticulation patterns [Shriberg (1999)]. This appears attributable to lexical search errors which prevent a speaker from accessing a word's phonological form; that is, coarticulation between words will fail to occur when segmental material from the following word is not retrieved. Since stuttering is a disorder which displays evidence of phonological but not lexical impairment, it was predicted that stuttered disfluencies would differ from normal errors in that the former would reveal acoustic evidence of word transitions. Eight speakers four stutterers and four control subjects participated in a narrative-production task, spontaneously describing a picture book. Preliminary results suggest that while both stutterers and controls did produce similar rates of disfluencies occurring without coarticulatory evidence, only the stutterers regularly produced disfluencies reflecting this transitional evidence. These results support the argument that disfluencies proper to stuttering result from a phonological deficit, while normal disfluencies are generally lexically based.

  19. The two faces of medical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Rolf H; von Uexküll, Thure; Herrmann, Jörg M

    2002-07-27

    The dictionary definition of "evidence" is given. The meaning of evidence in the history of science is described. Clinical examples are presented to illustrate different aspects of evidence, i.e. the mechanistic versus the semiotic points of view. Evidence is explained in the light of constructivism, and suggestions are presented as to how evidence can be applied in a biopsychosocial model of medicine.

  20. [Expert Evidence in Whiplash Injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucur, Florin M; Schwarze, Martin; Schiltenwolf, Marcus

    2017-01-12

    The assessment of cervical spine injuries is not a problem - provided full evidence of primary physical damage can be ensured. MRI examinations of the cervical spine carried out soon after the accident provide the best evidence. The assessment is more difficult if only clinical abnormalities are documented by the doctors after the accident in the diagnosis of cervical spine distortion, as functional results of this type are not specific and are also common in the general population. The legal rules of evidence must be taken into account in the summary assessment of the consequences of cervical spine injuries. Testing schemes are available which allow structured assessment of cervical spine injuries and help to avoid incorrect assessments.

  1. Epidemiological evidence in forensic pharmacovigilance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persaud, Nav; Healy, David

    2012-01-01

    Until recently epidemiological evidence was not regarded as helpful in determining cause and effect. It generated associations that then had to be explained in terms of bio-mechanisms and applied to individual patients. A series of legal cases surrounding possible birth defects triggered by doxylamine (Bendectin) and connective tissue disorders linked to breast implants made it clear that in some instances epidemiological evidence might have a more important role, but the pendulum swung too far so that epidemiological evidence has in recent decades been given an unwarranted primacy, partly perhaps because it suits the interests of certain stakeholders. Older and more recent epidemiological studies on doxylamine and other antihistamines are reviewed to bring out the ambiguities and pitfalls of an undue reliance on epidemiological studies.

  2. Evidence in the learning organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umscheid Craig A

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Organizational leaders in business and medicine have been experiencing a similar dilemma: how to ensure that their organizational members are adopting work innovations in a timely fashion. Organizational leaders in healthcare have attempted to resolve this dilemma by offering specific solutions, such as evidence-based medicine (EBM, but organizations are still not systematically adopting evidence-based practice innovations as rapidly as expected by policy-makers (the knowing-doing gap problem. Some business leaders have adopted a systems-based perspective, called the learning organization (LO, to address a similar dilemma. Three years ago, the Society of General Internal Medicine's Evidence-based Medicine Task Force began an inquiry to integrate the EBM and LO concepts into one model to address the knowing-doing gap problem. Methods During the model development process, the authors searched several databases for relevant LO frameworks and their related concepts by using a broad search strategy. To identify the key LO frameworks and consolidate them into one model, the authors used consensus-based decision-making and a narrative thematic synthesis guided by several qualitative criteria. The authors subjected the model to external, independent review and improved upon its design with this feedback. Results The authors found seven LO frameworks particularly relevant to evidence-based practice innovations in organizations. The authors describe their interpretations of these frameworks for healthcare organizations, the process they used to integrate the LO frameworks with EBM principles, and the resulting Evidence in the Learning Organization (ELO model. They also provide a health organization scenario to illustrate ELO concepts in application. Conclusion The authors intend, by sharing the LO frameworks and the ELO model, to help organizations identify their capacities to learn and share knowledge about evidence-based practice

  3. Evidence for homeopathy in childbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Valerie

    2013-09-01

    Homeopathy has been described as 'a fascinating field of study and a natural complement to the science and art of midwifery' (Brennan 1999: 298). Supported by the Royal College of Midwives' (RCM) campaign for normal birth and resulting from a growing desire by women to avoid conventional medicine, the use of homeopathic remedies in childbirth is gaining momentum. Midwives are ideally positioned to discuss homeopathy with women. To enable informed discussions, however, midwives must have evidence on homeopathy use. This article explores the evidence on homeopathy use in childbirth.

  4. Current evidence for osteoarthritis treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anandacoomarasamy, Ananthila; March, Lyn

    2010-02-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of arthritis and the leading cause of chronic disability among older people. The burden of the disease is expected to rise with an aging population and the increasing prevalence of obesity. Despite this, there is as yet no cure for OA. However, in recent years, a number of potential therapeutic advances have been made, in part due to improved understanding of the underlying pathophysiology. This review provides the current evidence for symptomatic management of OA including nonpharmacological, pharmacological and surgical approaches. The current state of evidence for disease-modifying therapy in OA is also reviewed.

  5. Scientific Evidence for Hydrostatic Shock

    CERN Document Server

    Courtney, Michael

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews the scientific support for a ballistic pressure wave radiating outward from a penetrating projectile and causing injury and incapacitation. This phenomenon is known colloquially as "hydrostatic shock." The idea apparently originates with Col. Frank Chamberlin, a World War II trauma surgeon and wound ballistics researcher. The paper reviews claims that hydrostatic shock is a myth and considers supporting evidence through parallels with blast, describing the physics of the pressure wave, evidence for remote cerebral effects, and remote effects in the spine and other internal organs. Finally, the review considers the levels of energy transfer required for the phenomenon to be readily observed.

  6. Evidence-based playground design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refshauge, Anne Dahl; Stigsdotter, Ulrika K.; Lamm, Bettina

    2015-01-01

    , best practice, and the theories of Affordances and Behaviour Settings. A post-occupancy evaluation was carried out through a questionnaire survey and observation studies, which revealed that a majority of the potential evidence-based affordances were actualised, and that the application of the theories...

  7. Bayesian Evidence and Model Selection

    CERN Document Server

    Knuth, Kevin H; Malakar, Nabin K; Mubeen, Asim M; Placek, Ben

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we review the concept of the Bayesian evidence and its application to model selection. The theory is presented along with a discussion of analytic, approximate and numerical techniques. Application to several practical examples within the context of signal processing are discussed.

  8. Evidence-based disability evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, R.

    2014-01-01

    Rob Kok laat in zijn promotieonderzoek zien dat een intensieve 5-daagse Evidence Based Medicine training niet alleen leidt tot een verbetering van kennis en vaardigheden, maar ook tot een betere onderbouwing van arbeidsongeschiktheidsbeoordelingen in de praktijk door verzekeringsartsen. Daarnaast le

  9. Evidence-Based Psychological Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Robert F

    2016-11-03

    In recent years there has been increasing emphasis on evidence-based practice in psychology (EBPP), and as is true in most health care professions, the primary focus of EBPP has been on treatment. Comparatively little attention has been devoted to applying the principles of EBPP to psychological assessment, despite the fact that assessment plays a central role in myriad domains of empirical and applied psychology (e.g., research, forensics, behavioral health, risk management, diagnosis and classification in mental health settings, documentation of neuropsychological impairment and recovery, personnel selection and placement in organizational contexts). This article outlines the central elements of evidence-based psychological assessment (EBPA), using the American Psychological Association's tripartite definition of EBPP as integration of the best available research with clinical expertise in the context of patient characteristics, culture, and preferences. After discussing strategies for conceptualizing and operationalizing evidence-based testing and evidence-based assessment, 6 core skills and 3 meta-skills that underlie proficiency in psychological assessment are described. The integration of patient characteristics, culture, and preferences is discussed in terms of the complex interaction of patient and assessor identities and values throughout the assessment process. A preliminary framework for implementing EBPA is offered, and avenues for continued refinement and growth are described.

  10. Evidence-Based IT Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jesper; Hertzum, Morten

    2005-01-01

    Evidence-based IT development aims at developing a new commercial contract model for IT projects where the cus-tomers payment is dependent on measurable effects of using the vendors system. The idea is to establish a strategic part-nership in which customer and IT vendor share the responsi-bility...

  11. Experimental Evidence for the Pentaquark

    CERN Document Server

    Carman, D S

    2004-01-01

    The present experimental evidence for the existence of light pentaquarks is reviewed, including both positive and null results. I also discuss the CLAS experiments at Jefferson Laboratory that are forthcoming in the near future to address questions regarding existence, mass, width, and other quantum numbers of these five-quark baryon states.

  12. Voluntary disclosure: Evidence from UK

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.S. Zourarakis (Nicolaos)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis paper investigates the voluntary disclosure of Intellectual Capital (IC) of British firms and provides some evidence on an unexplored area of the literature; that of the association of Corporate Governance (CG) with IC disclosure. Inconsistent with expectations, the results show tha

  13. Evidence-Based IT Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jesper; Hertzum, Morten

    2005-01-01

    Evidence-based IT development aims at developing a new commercial contract model for IT projects where the cus-tomers payment is dependent on measurable effects of using the vendors system. The idea is to establish a strategic part-nership in which customer and IT vendor share the responsi-bility...

  14. Evidence-Based Radiology (EBR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoor Fatehi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available   "nRecent increase in scientific advancements has led to inability to cover many scientific data and remain “up-to-date”. Nowadays doubling time of scientific data production is remarkably reduced, so that there is no adequate time to find this information and it seems inevitable to use resources which periodically assess most published papers or web-based data in that particular field to finally provide evidence-based knowledge, namely “Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM” in medical sciences. EBM is the systematic, scientific and explicit use of current best evidence in making decisions about the care of individual patients. Medical practice is largely based on clinical anecdotes, uncontrolled investigations and expert opinion. In radiology, the situation is especially problematic. "nRadiologists require to be able to evaluate studies in the literature, i.e., how reliable is this information and does it apply to patients in the radiologist’s practice? "nWe may find that our textbooks are out of date, guidelines are non-specific and there are conflicting "nor unreliable reports in the literature. Expert opinions vary from centre to centre. "nWhen we go to the literature ourselves, the first problem we encounter is the volume of literature being published and the next (at least for most of us is lack of training in how to separate good studies from weak ones. Evidence-based radiology (EBR can be a solution. "nThere are 5 steps in applying an approach as a solution: "n1. Ask - Information needs relevant to individual patients are converted into ‘answerable’ or ‘focused’ questions. "n2. Search - A comprehensive literature search is performed to find the best evidence to help answer these questions. "n3. Appraise - The evidence must then be critically appraised, in an explicit and structured manner, in order to establish its validity, reliability and usefulness in practice. "n4. Apply - The results of this critical appraisal are then

  15. Evidence, Ethics & Social Policy Dilemmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven I. Miller

    1993-07-01

    Full Text Available Within the philosophy of the social sciences, the relationship between evidence, ethics, and social policy is in need of further analysis. The present paper is an attempt to argue that while important social policies can, and perhaps ought to be, grounded in ethical theory, they are seldom articulated in this fashion due to the ambiguity surrounding the "evidence condition." Using a consequentialist-utilitarian framework, and a case study of a policy dilemma, the authors analyze the difficulties associated with resolving policy-based dilemmas which must appeal to evidential support as a justification for an ethical stand. Implication for the relevance of ethics to social policy formulation are discussed in detail.

  16. Physical evidence for dark energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scranton, Ryan; Connolly, Andrew J.; Nichol, Robert C.; Stebbins, Albert; Szapudi, Istvan; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Afshordi, Niayesh; Budavari, Tamas; Csabai, Istvan; Frieman, Joshua A.; Gunn, James E.; Johnston, David; Loh, Yeong-Shang; Lupton, Robert H.; Miller, Christopher J.; Sheldon, Erin Scott; Sheth, Ravi K.; Szalay, Alexander S.; Tegmark, Max; Xu, Yongzhong; Anderson, Scott F.; /Pittsburgh U. /Carnegie Mellon U. /Fermilab /Inst. Astron., Honolulu /Arizona U., Astron. Dept. - Steward Observ. /Princeton U.

    2003-07-01

    The authors present measurements of the angular cross-correlation between luminous red galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the cosmic microwave background temperature maps from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe. They find a statistically significant achromatic positive correlation between these two data sets, which is consistent with the expected signal from the late Integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) effect. they do not detect any anti-correlation on small angular scales as would be produced from a large Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect, although they do see evidence for some SZ effect for their highest redshift samples. Assuming a flat universe, their preliminary detection of the ISW effect provides independent physical evidence for the existence of dark energy.

  17. Multiple sclerosis: evidence and controversies

    OpenAIRE

    Gutiérrez-Álvarez, Ángela-María

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Multiple sclerosis is a chronic recurrent inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system. The pharmacological treatment of multiple sclerosis has been evaluated with multiple controlled clinical trials that allow the clinician to count with evidence based information to decide the more indicated treatment for each patient. Methodology: A review of the scientific literature was conducted to clarify controversial issues in a clinical relevant topic. Development: The diagnosti...

  18. The evidence base for diabetes care

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Williams, D. R. R. (David Robert Rhys)

    2002-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .ix 1. The Evidence Base for Diabetes Care . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rhys Williams, William Herman, Ann-Louise Kinmonth...

  19. Best Available Evidence: Three Complementary Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slocum, Timothy A.; Spencer, Trina D.; Detrich, Ronnie

    2012-01-01

    The best available evidence is one of the three critical features of evidence-based practice. Best available evidence is often considered to be synonymous with extremely high standards for research methodology. However, this notion may limit the scope and impact of evidence based practice to those educational decisions on which high quality…

  20. Learning Styles: Concepts and Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashler, Harold; McDaniel, Mark; Rohrer, Doug; Bjork, Robert

    2008-12-01

    The term "learning styles" refers to the concept that individuals differ in regard to what mode of instruction or study is most effective for them. Proponents of learning-style assessment contend that optimal instruction requires diagnosing individuals' learning style and tailoring instruction accordingly. Assessments of learning style typically ask people to evaluate what sort of information presentation they prefer (e.g., words versus pictures versus speech) and/or what kind of mental activity they find most engaging or congenial (e.g., analysis versus listening), although assessment instruments are extremely diverse. The most common-but not the only-hypothesis about the instructional relevance of learning styles is the meshing hypothesis, according to which instruction is best provided in a format that matches the preferences of the learner (e.g., for a "visual learner," emphasizing visual presentation of information). The learning-styles view has acquired great influence within the education field, and is frequently encountered at levels ranging from kindergarten to graduate school. There is a thriving industry devoted to publishing learning-styles tests and guidebooks for teachers, and many organizations offer professional development workshops for teachers and educators built around the concept of learning styles. The authors of the present review were charged with determining whether these practices are supported by scientific evidence. We concluded that any credible validation of learning-styles-based instruction requires robust documentation of a very particular type of experimental finding with several necessary criteria. First, students must be divided into groups on the basis of their learning styles, and then students from each group must be randomly assigned to receive one of multiple instructional methods. Next, students must then sit for a final test that is the same for all students. Finally, in order to demonstrate that optimal learning requires

  1. Evidence for a Nonplanar Amplituhedron

    CERN Document Server

    Bern, Zvi; Litsey, Sean; Stankowicz, James; Trnka, Jaroslav

    2015-01-01

    The scattering amplitudes of planar N = 4 super-Yang-Mills exhibit a number of remarkable analytic structures, including dual conformal symmetry and logarithmic singularities of integrands. The amplituhedron is a geometric construction of the integrand that incorporates these structures. This geometric construction further implies the amplitude is fully specified by constraining it to vanish on spurious residues. By writing the amplitude in a dlog basis, we provide nontrivial evidence that these analytic properties and "zero conditions" carry over into the nonplanar sector. This suggests that the concept of the amplituhedron can be extended to the the nonplanar sector of N = 4 super-Yang-Mills theory.

  2. Evidence for a nonplanar amplituhedron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bern, Zvi; Herrmann, Enrico; Litsey, Sean; Stankowicz, James; Trnka, Jaroslav

    2016-06-01

    The scattering amplitudes of planar mathcal{N} = 4 super-Yang-Mills exhibit a number of remarkable analytic structures, including dual conformal symmetry and logarithmic singularities of integrands. The amplituhedron is a geometric construction of the integrand that incorporates these structures. This geometric construction further implies the amplitude is fully specified by constraining it to vanish on spurious residues. By writing the amplitude in a dlog basis, we provide nontrivial evidence that these analytic properties and "zero conditions" carry over into the nonplanar sector. This suggests that the concept of the amplituhedron can be extended to the nonplanar sector of mathcal{N} = 4 super-Yang-Mills theory.

  3. Conditionally Optimal Weights of Evidence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stephan Morgenthaler; Robert G. Staudte

    2005-01-01

    A weight of evidence is a calibrated statistic whose wlues in [0, 1] indicate the degree of agreement between the data and either of two hypothesis, one being treated as the null (H0) and the other as the alternative (H1). A wlue of zero means perfect agreement with the null, whereas a value of one means perfect agreement with the alternative. The optimality we consider is minimal mean squared error (MSE) under the alternative while keeping the MSE under the null below a fixed bound. This paper studies such statistics from a conditional point of view, in particular for location and scale models.

  4. Leading teaming: Evidence from Jazz

    OpenAIRE

    Araújo, Francisco Maria Trigo da Roza Carvalho

    2013-01-01

    A Work Project, presented as part of the requirements for the Award of a Masters Degree in Management from the NOVA – School of Business and Economics In this research we conducted qualitative analysis to study the team dynamics of jazz combos in order to explore deeper the leadership behaviors in a creative environment where teaming occurs. We found evidence of a dual leader, one that shifts his/her role between ‘leader as leader’ and ‘leader as member’, embracing both leaderfulness an...

  5. Pragmatics in aphasia: crosslinguistic evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulfeck, B; Bates, E; Juarez, L; Opie, M; Friederici, A; MacWhinney, B; Zurif, E

    1989-01-01

    Previous research suggests that English Broca's and Wernicke's aphasics retain sensitivity to pragmatic factors governing forms of reference, in particular the ability to choose lexical expressions that convey givenness and newness of information. The present study investigates the generality of this phenomenon across patients and language types. Normal and aphasic speakers of English, German, and Italian described nine picture triplets in which one element varied while the others remained constant. Dependent variables included lexicalization versus ellipsis, pronominalization, and definite and indefinite article use. For a subset of German and Italian patients, data were compared to performance in a biographical interview. Results indicate that (a) the pragmatics of reference are preserved in both Broca's and Wernicke's aphasics, despite syndrome-specific problems in retrieving content words and/or closed-class grammatical elements, and (b) certain language-specific patterns of reference are also preserved, including crosslinguistic differences in subject omission. Differences between picture description and the biographical interview reinforce this conclusion. Evidence for the preservation of pragmatics in aphasis is not surprising in its own right, but evidence for the sparing of language-specific relations among pragmatic, lexical, and morphosyntactic patterns can be used to argue against any strong view of grammatical impairment as a disconnection syndrome and/or a loss of grammatical competence. Instead, these data support theories in which grammatical impairment is viewed as a performance deficit.

  6. Authentication of digital video evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beser, Nicholas D.; Duerr, Thomas E.; Staisiunas, Gregory P.

    2003-11-01

    In response to a requirement from the United States Postal Inspection Service, the Technical Support Working Group tasked The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) to develop a technique tha will ensure the authenticity, or integrity, of digital video (DV). Verifiable integrity is needed if DV evidence is to withstand a challenge to its admissibility in court on the grounds that it can be easily edited. Specifically, the verification technique must detect additions, deletions, or modifications to DV and satisfy the two-part criteria pertaining to scientific evidence as articulated in Daubert et al. v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals Inc., 43 F3d (9th Circuit, 1995). JHU/APL has developed a prototype digital video authenticator (DVA) that generates digital signatures based on public key cryptography at the frame level of the DV. Signature generation and recording is accomplished at the same time as DV is recorded by the camcorder. Throughput supports the consumer-grade camcorder data rate of 25 Mbps. The DVA software is implemented on a commercial laptop computer, which is connected to a commercial digital camcorder via the IEEE-1394 serial interface. A security token provides agent identification and the interface to the public key infrastructure (PKI) that is needed for management of the public keys central to DV integrity verification.

  7. Exogenous glutamine: the clinical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongers, Thomas; Griffiths, Richard D; McArdle, Anne

    2007-09-01

    We know that critically ill patients suffering from undernutrition with a limited nutritional reserve have a poorer outcome. Furthermore, having a low body mass index has been shown to be an independent predictor of excess mortality in multiple organ failure. Therefore, nutritional support has gained increasing interest in critical illness with the hope of preventing or attenuating the effects of malnutrition. A negative nitrogen balance is the characteristic metabolic feature in critical illness, with the major protein loss derived from skeletal muscle. In particular, glutamine concentrations are rapidly reduced in plasma and muscle. Over the last 20 yrs or so, increasing evidence is emerging to support the use of glutamine supplementation in critical illness. Clinical trials have found a mortality and morbidity advantage with glutamine supplementation. The advantage appears to be greater the more glutamine is given and greater again when given parenterally. Various modes of action have been postulated. Glutamine seems to have an effect on the immune system, antioxidant status, glucose metabolism, and heat shock protein response. However, the benefit of exogenous glutamine on morbidity and mortality is not universally accepted. This review critically appraises the current clinical evidence regarding glutamine supplementation in critical illness.

  8. Sequential biases in accumulating evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins, Richard; Dogo, Samson Henry

    2015-01-01

    Whilst it is common in clinical trials to use the results of tests at one phase to decide whether to continue to the next phase and to subsequently design the next phase, we show that this can lead to biased results in evidence synthesis. Two new kinds of bias associated with accumulating evidence, termed ‘sequential decision bias’ and ‘sequential design bias’, are identified. Both kinds of bias are the result of making decisions on the usefulness of a new study, or its design, based on the previous studies. Sequential decision bias is determined by the correlation between the value of the current estimated effect and the probability of conducting an additional study. Sequential design bias arises from using the estimated value instead of the clinically relevant value of an effect in sample size calculations. We considered both the fixed‐effect and the random‐effects models of meta‐analysis and demonstrated analytically and by simulations that in both settings the problems due to sequential biases are apparent. According to our simulations, the sequential biases increase with increased heterogeneity. Minimisation of sequential biases arises as a new and important research area necessary for successful evidence‐based approaches to the development of science. © 2015 The Authors. Research Synthesis Methods Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:26626562

  9. Organizing the Evidence for Healthcare Design Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Judy E

    2017-01-01

    This methodology column provides project leaders with helpful tools to organize the evidence analysis for healthcare design projects. Searching the evidence to support a design change is encouraged both to guide the development of a project and to determine whether the project is performance improvement, evidence-based design change, or novel research. A project charter, evidence summary grid, stem and leaf plot, and decision algorithm are presented as tools to guide evidence analysis at the start of a healthcare design project. Properly searching the evidence and analyzing results sets the stage for project development and may lead to the dissemination or generation of knowledge from which to set design standards.

  10. Digital forensics digital evidence in criminal investigations

    CERN Document Server

    Marshall, Angus McKenzie

    2009-01-01

    The vast majority of modern criminal investigations involve some element of digital evidence, from mobile phones, computers, CCTV and other devices. Digital Forensics: Digital Evidence in Criminal Investigations provides the reader with a better understanding of how digital evidence complements "traditional" scientific evidence and examines how it can be used more effectively and efficiently in a range of investigations. Taking a new approach to the topic, this book presents digital evidence as an adjunct to other types of evidence and discusses how it can be deployed effectively in s

  11. Evidence for Ancient Mesoamerican Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovach, R. L.; Garcia, B.

    2001-12-01

    Evidence for past earthquake damage at Mesoamerican ruins is often overlooked because of the invasive effects of tropical vegetation and is usually not considered as a casual factor when restoration and reconstruction of many archaeological sites are undertaken. Yet the proximity of many ruins to zones of seismic activity would argue otherwise. Clues as to the types of damage which should be soughtwere offered in September 1999 when the M = 7.5 Oaxaca earthquake struck the ruins of Monte Alban, Mexico, where archaeological renovations were underway. More than 20 structures were damaged, 5 of them seriously. Damage features noted were walls out of plumb, fractures in walls, floors, basal platforms and tableros, toppling of columns, and deformation, settling and tumbling of walls. A Modified Mercalli Intensity of VII (ground accelerations 18-34 %b) occurred at the site. Within the diffuse landward extension of the Caribbean plate boundary zone M = 7+ earthquakes occur with repeat times of hundreds of years arguing that many Maya sites were subjected to earthquakes. Damage to re-erected and reinforced stelae, walls, and buildings were witnessed at Quirigua, Guatemala, during an expedition underway when then 1976 M = 7.5 Guatemala earthquake on the Motagua fault struck. Excavations also revealed evidence (domestic pttery vessels and skeleton of a child crushed under fallen walls) of an ancient earthquake occurring about the teim of the demise and abandonment of Quirigua in the late 9th century. Striking evidence for sudden earthquake building collapse at the end of the Mayan Classic Period ~A.D. 889 was found at Benque Viejo (Xunantunich), Belize, located 210 north of Quirigua. It is argued that a M = 7.5 to 7.9 earthquake at the end of the Maya Classic period centered in the vicinity of the Chixoy-Polochic and Motagua fault zones cound have produced the contemporaneous earthquake damage to the above sites. As a consequences this earthquake may have accelerated the

  12. ON EVIDENCE: APPROACH FROM THE PHILOSOPHICAL HERMENEUTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo García Rillo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to make the term analytical evidence to reveal the original meaning of its application to account for hermeneutical situations in the world of life, the study was conducted from philosophical hermeneutics stating the following: viewpoint, understanding horizon and fusion of horizons. In the viewpoint uses of evidence are described. The horizon of understanding traces the history of the concept of evidence highlighting the perspective of Husserl. In the fusion of horizons evidence described in three levels of reality: perceived (evidence from beliefs, known (evidence from knowledge and constructed (deliberative evidence. We conclude that the historicity of the world allows rehabilitate the tradition and gives meaning to the evidence as the fact that it gets in the eyes through the original experience of hermeneutics situation that exists in practice.

  13. 24 CFR 26.47 - Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... PROCEDURES Hearings Pursuant to the Administrative Procedure Act Hearings § 26.47 Evidence. The ALJ shall... evidence if its probative value is substantially outweighed by confusion of the issues, or...

  14. Science and evidence: separating fact from fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Dean R

    2013-10-01

    Evidence-based medicine (EBM) is the integration of individual clinical expertise with the best available research evidence from systematic research and the patient's values and expectations. A hierarchy of evidence can be used to assess the strength upon which clinical decisions are made. The efficient approach to finding the best evidence is to identify systematic reviews or evidence-based clinical practice guidelines. Respiratory therapies that evidence supports include noninvasive ventilation for appropriately selected patients, lung-protective ventilation, and ventilator discontinuation protocols. Evidence does not support use of weaning parameters, albuterol for ARDS, and high frequency oscillatory ventilation for adults. Therapy with equivocal evidence includes airway clearance, selection of an aerosol delivery device, and PEEP for ARDS. Although all tenets of EBM are not universally accepted, the principles of EBM nonetheless provide a valuable approach to respiratory care practice.

  15. Design of smartphone evidence awareness (SEAWARE) training

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dlamini, Zama I

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the Smartphone Evidence Awareness skills of smartphone users with regard to collecting, preserving and handling such data. This paper presents the smartphone evidence awareness training program. This training program...

  16. Evaluating the authenticity of smartphone evidence

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pieterse, Heloise

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The widespread use and rich functionality of smartphones have made them valuable sources of digital evidence. Malicious individuals are becoming aware of the importance of digital evidence found on smartphones and may be interested in deploying anti...

  17. Evidence and Evolution: A Review

    CERN Document Server

    Robert, Christian P

    2010-01-01

    "Evidence and Evolution: the Logic behind the Science" was published in 2008 by Elliott Sober. It examines the philosophical foundations of the statistical arguments used to evaluate hypotheses in evolutionary biology, based on simple examples and likelihood ratios. The difficulty with reading the book from a statistician's perspective is the reluctance of the author to engage into model building and even less into parameter estimation. The first chapter nonetheless constitutes a splendid coverage of the most common statistical approaches to testing and model comparison, even though the advocation of the Akaike information criterion against Bayesian alternatives is rather forceful. The book also covers an examination of the "intelligent design" arguments against the Darwinian evolution theory, predictably if unnecessarily resorting to Popperian arguments to correctly argue that the creationist perspective fails to predict anything. The following chapters cover the more relevant issues of assessing selection v...

  18. Innovation Promises and Evidence Realities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maschke, Karen J

    2016-09-01

    Over the past year media outlets and scientific and bioethics journals have reported about several medical and scientific innovations touted as having the potential to fundamentally change not only how diseases and disorders are diagnosed and treated but even how to alter the genomes of future generations. The purported "miracle" blood-testing technology of Theranos and the potential use of the genome editing technology CRISPR-Cas9 to modify human and nonhuman organisms reflect dramatic advances in scientific understanding about the biological mechanisms of humans and other living organisms. Yet evidence about whether these and other innovative biomedical technologies are safe and effective and lead to improved health outcomes for patients young and old is often in dispute. How to assess the safety and effectiveness of innovative biomedical technologies, who should be involved in that effort, and how to define risks and benefits of those technologies are questions at the intersection of values, interests, and politics.

  19. Reconsidering Subextraction: Evidence from Spanish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Bosque

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that so-called subextraction (e.g., Whoi has John seen a picture of ti ?; cf. Corver 2006 for recent discussion does not involve movement of a wh-phrase to a DP internal escape hatch position before reaching the CP layer. Instead, we claim that apparently subextracted wh-phrases are actually direct dependents of the verb after a process of reanalysis (or readjustment; cf. Chomsky 1977, Kayne 2002 applies. Our proposal rethinks an old (Bach & Horn 1976 idea, reframes it in modern terms and argues against the cyclic status of DPs (cf. Bruening 2009, Leu 2008, Ott 2008, and references therein, by leaning on new evidence from Spanish. The non-cyclic status of DPs is a fairly standard idea ever since clausal properties were assumed to hold for nominal domains (cf. Chomsky 1970, Brame 1982, Abney 1987, and much subsequent literature.

  20. Evidence of the Big Fix

    CERN Document Server

    Hamada, Yuta; Kawana, Kiyoharu

    2014-01-01

    We give an evidence of the Big Fix. The theory of wormholes and multiverse suggests that the parameters of the Standard Model are fixed in such a way that the total entropy at the late stage of the universe is maximized, which we call the maximum entropy principle. In this paper, we discuss how it can be confirmed by the experimental data, and we show that it is indeed true for the Higgs vacuum expectation value $v_{h}$. We assume that the baryon number is produced by the sphaleron process, and that the current quark masses, the gauge couplings and the Higgs self coupling are fixed when we vary $v_{h}$. It turns out that the existence of the atomic nuclei plays a crucial role to maximize the entropy. This is reminiscent of the anthropic principle, however it is required by the fundamental low in our case.

  1. Evidence of the big fix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Yuta; Kawai, Hikaru; Kawana, Kiyoharu

    2014-06-01

    We give an evidence of the Big Fix. The theory of wormholes and multiverse suggests that the parameters of the Standard Model are fixed in such a way that the total entropy at the late stage of the universe is maximized, which we call the maximum entropy principle. In this paper, we discuss how it can be confirmed by the experimental data, and we show that it is indeed true for the Higgs vacuum expectation value vh. We assume that the baryon number is produced by the sphaleron process, and that the current quark masses, the gauge couplings and the Higgs self-coupling are fixed when we vary vh. It turns out that the existence of the atomic nuclei plays a crucial role to maximize the entropy. This is reminiscent of the anthropic principle, however it is required by the fundamental law in our case.

  2. Evidence for Mycobacteria in Sarcoidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownell, Isaac; Ramírez-Valle, Francisco; Sanchez, Miguel

    2011-01-01

    Despite its recognition as a distinct granulomatous disease for over a century, the etiology of sarcoidosis remains to be defined. Since the early 1900s, infectious agents have been suspected in causing sarcoidosis. For much of this time, mycobacteria were considered a likely culprit, yet until recently, the supporting evidence has been tenuous at best. In this review, we evaluate the reported association between mycobacteria and sarcoidosis. Historically, mycobacterial infection has been investigated using histologic stains, cultures of lesional tissue or blood, and identification of bacterial nucleic acids or bacterial antigens. More recently, advances in biochemical, molecular, and immunological methods have produced a more rigorous analysis of the antigenic drivers of sarcoidosis. The result of these efforts indicates that mycobacterial products likely play a role in at least a subset of sarcoidosis cases. This information, coupled with a better understanding of genetic susceptibility to this complex disease, has therapeutic implications. PMID:21659662

  3. Toxicological evidence in forensic pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferner, R E

    2012-01-01

    Laboratory evidence of the presence and concentration of a drug in a person who has come to harm is often helpful in forensic pharmacology, and may be crucial. However, its value depends on two critical interpretations by the expert. First, the expert must make a careful analysis of the relationship between the results as measured in the sample and the drug in the patient at the time that harm occurred. That is especially difficult with post-mortem samples. Secondly, the expert must syntheses the laboratory information with the available clinical history and clinical or pathological findings. Even in the most favourable circumstances, when the sample is correctly obtained, identified, and analyzed, it can be hard to say that beyond reasonable doubt a given concentration had a given effect.

  4. Evidence-based Science Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahan, D.

    2012-12-01

    This presentation will describe a concrete strategy for bridging the gap between the *science* of science communication and the practice of it. In recent years, social scientists have made substantial progress in identifying the psychological influences that shape public receptivity to scientific information relating to climate change and other public policy issues. That work, however, has consisted nearly entirely of laboratory experiments and public opinion surveys; these methods identify general mechanisms of information processing but do not yield concrete prescriptions for communication in field settings. In order to integrate the findings of the science of science communication with the practice of it, field communication must now be made into a meaningful site of science communication research. "Evidence-based science communication" will involve collaborative work between social scientists and practitioners aimed at formulating and testing scientifically informed communication strategies in real-world contexts.

  5. Evidence-based practice of periodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Charles M; MacNeill, Simon R; Satheesh, Keerthana

    2010-01-01

    Evidence-based practice involves complex and conscientious decision making based not only on the available evidence but also on patient characteristics, situations, and preferences. It recognizes that care is individualized and ever-changing and involves uncertainties and probabilities. The specialty of periodontics has abundant high-level evidence upon which treatment decisions can be determined. This paper offers a brief commentary and overview of the available evidence commonly used in the private practice of periodontics.

  6. 21 CFR 1404.900 - Adequate evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adequate evidence. 1404.900 Section 1404.900 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1404.900 Adequate evidence. Adequate evidence means information sufficient...

  7. Evidence-Based Practice: Management of Vertigo

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen-Huynh, Anh T.

    2012-01-01

    The article focuses on the evidence basis for the management of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV), the most common diagnosis of vertigo in both primary care and subspecialty settings. Like all articles in this compilation of evidence-based practice, an overview is presented along with evidence based clinical assessment, diagnosis, and management. Summaries of differential diagnosis of vertigo and outcomes are presented.

  8. Using Science as Evidence in Public Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prewitt, Kenneth, Ed.; Schwandt, Thomas A., Ed.; Straf, Miron L., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    "Using Science as Evidence in Public Policy" encourages scientists to think differently about the use of scientific evidence in policy making. This report investigates why scientific evidence is important to policy making and argues that an extensive body of research on knowledge utilization has not led to any widely accepted explanation…

  9. Using Science as Evidence in Public Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prewitt, Kenneth, Ed.; Schwandt, Thomas A., Ed.; Straf, Miron L., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    "Using Science as Evidence in Public Policy" encourages scientists to think differently about the use of scientific evidence in policy making. This report investigates why scientific evidence is important to policy making and argues that an extensive body of research on knowledge utilization has not led to any widely accepted explanation…

  10. Justified Belief and the Topology of Evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baltag, A.; Bezhanishvili, N.; Özgün, A.; Smets, S.J.L.; Väänänen, J.; Hirvonen, Å.; de Queiroz, R.

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a new topological semantics for evidence, evidence-based justifications, belief and knowledge. This setting builds on the evidence model framework of van Benthem and Pacuit, as well as our own previous work on (a topological semantics for) Stalnaker’s doxastic-epistemic axioms. We prove

  11. Evidence-based practice voor verpleegkundigen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cox, C.M.M.; Louw, D.C.P. de; Verhoef, J.; Kuiper, C.

    2004-01-01

    Om goede en verantwoorde zorg te kunnen bieden, streeft de verpleegkundige naar evidence-based practice. Evidence-based practice is het gewetensvol, expliciet en oordeelkundig gebruik van het huidige beste bewijsmateriaal om beslissingen te nemen voor individuele patiënten. De praktijk van evidence-

  12. Justified Belief and the Topology of Evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baltag, A.; Bezhanishvili, N.; Özgün, A.; Smets, S.J.L.; Väänänen, J.; Hirvonen, Å.; de Queiroz, R.

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a new topological semantics for evidence, evidence-based justifications, belief and knowledge. This setting builds on the evidence model framework of van Benthem and Pacuit, as well as our own previous work on (a topological semantics for) Stalnaker’s doxastic-epistemic axioms. We prove

  13. The Electronic Evidence in Trial Proceedings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Pocora

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper will consider theoretical and practical issues which arise in trial proceedings, throughout the virtual presence of persons involved. The EU Convention of 2000 provide the legal base for the use of video conference. In most jurisdictions, all forms of evidence is admissible, subject to rules relating to the exclusion of evidence because of improper actions or because the inclusion of the evidence would be unfair to the defendant. There is a difference between the admissibility of the evidence and laying the correct foundations before the evidence can be admitted.

  14. Museums? Evidence from two Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azilah Kasim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides evidence on Young Adults’ motivations for visiting and not visiting museums. Using purposive sampling, self-administered questionnaires were distributed to respondents in Kedah, Malaysia and Eskisehir, Turkey. Both Kedah and Eskisehir share one similarity – they both have many museums. The findings revealed that in both study contexts, young people tended to visit museums for practical reasons such as to help them prepare homework or a project. They also visit for intrinsic reasons such as to satisfy their curiosity. Both samples also illustrate Davies (2001 contention that awareness is an important precursor to potential visits. On the other hand, both samples are different in reasons for not visiting. While young people in Eskisehir cite emotional reasons for deciding not to visit, young people in Kedah offered more practical ones such as lack of time and interest, or more interested in other activities. The study findings are useful for understanding reasons behind the generally low museum visits among youth. Several managerial implications of the study were also proposed.

  15. Mercury and autism: accelerating evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutter, Joachim; Naumann, Johannes; Schneider, Rainer; Walach, Harald; Haley, Boyd

    2005-10-01

    The causes of autism and neurodevelopmental disorders are unknown. Genetic and environmental risk factors seem to be involved. Because of an observed increase in autism in the last decades, which parallels cumulative mercury exposure, it was proposed that autism may be in part caused by mercury. We review the evidence for this proposal. Several epidemiological studies failed to find a correlation between mercury exposure through thimerosal, a preservative used in vaccines, and the risk of autism. Recently, it was found that autistic children had a higher mercury exposure during pregnancy due to maternal dental amalgam and thimerosal-containing immunoglobulin shots. It was hypothesized that children with autism have a decreased detoxification capacity due to genetic polymorphism. In vitro, mercury and thimerosal in levels found several days after vaccination inhibit methionine synthetase (MS) by 50%. Normal function of MS is crucial in biochemical steps necessary for brain development, attention and production of glutathione, an important antioxidative and detoxifying agent. Repetitive doses of thimerosal leads to neurobehavioral deteriorations in autoimmune susceptible mice, increased oxidative stress and decreased intracellular levels of glutathione in vitro. Subsequently, autistic children have significantly decreased level of reduced glutathione. Promising treatments of autism involve detoxification of mercury, and supplementation of deficient metabolites.

  16. Ultrasound enhanced thrombolysis: Clinical evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrov, Andrei V.

    2005-04-01

    Phase II CLOTBUST randomized clinical trial (Houston, Barcelona, Edmonton, Calgary) evaluated patients with acute ischemic stroke due to intracranial occlusion and treated with intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (TPA) within 3 h of symptom onset. Randomization: monitoring with pulsed wave 2 MHz transcranial Doppler (TCD) (Target) or placebo monitoring (Control). Safety: symptomatic bleeding to the brain (sICH). Primary end-point: complete recanalization on TCD or dramatic clinical recovery by the total NIHSS score 10 NIHSS points within 2 hours after TPA bolus. All projected 126 patients were randomized 1:1 to target (median NIHSS 16) or control (NIHSS 17). sICH: 4.8% Target, 4.8% Controls. Primary end-point was achieved by 31 (49%, Target) versus 19 (30%, Control), p<0.03. At 3 months, 22 (42% Target) and 14 (29% Control) patients achieved favorable outcomes. Continuous TCD monitoring of intracranial occlusion safely augments TPA-induced arterial recanalization, and 2 MHz diagnostic ultrasound has a positive biological activity that aids systemic thrombolytic therapy. For the first time in clinical medicine, the CLOTBUST trial provides the evidence that ultrasound enhances thrombolytic activity of a drug in humans thereby confirming intense multi-disciplinary experimental research conducted worldwide for the past 30 years.

  17. Active oxygen doctors the evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelló, Ana; Francès, Francesc; Corella, Dolores; Verdú, Fernando

    2009-02-01

    Investigation at the scene of a crime begins with the search for clues. In the case of bloodstains, the most frequently used reagents are luminol and reduced phenolphthalein (or phenolphthalin that is also known as the Kastle-Meyer colour test). The limitations of these reagents have been studied and are well known. Household cleaning products have evolved with the times, and new products with active oxygen are currently widely used, as they are considered to be highly efficient at removing all kinds of stains on a wide range of surfaces. In this study, we investigated the possible effects of these new cleaning products on latent bloodstains that may be left at a scene of a crime. To do so, various fabrics were stained with blood and then washed using cleaning agents containing active oxygen. The results of reduced phenolphthalein, luminol and human haemoglobin tests on the washed fabrics were negative. The conclusion is that these new products alter blood to such an extent that it can no longer be detected by currently accepted methods employed in criminal investigations. This inability to locate bloodstains means that highly important evidence (e.g. a DNA profile) may be lost. Consequently, it is important that investigators are aware of this problem so as to compensate for it.

  18. Evidence and guidelines in otorhinolaryngology: the merits of evidence-based case reports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, M.C.J.

    2012-01-01

    Evidence-based medicine refers to the conscientious, explicit and judicious use of the current best evidence to support decision making at point of care. To facilitate the transition of evidence into daily practice several evidence-based otorhinolaryngology guidelines have been developed. In this th

  19. Level of evidence gap in orthopedic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Keith D; Bernstein, Joseph; Ahn, Jaimo; McKay, Scott D; Sankar, Wudbhav N

    2012-09-01

    Level of evidence is the most widely used metric for the quality of a publication, but instances exist in which a Level I study is neither feasible nor desirable. The goal of this study was to evaluate the level of evidence gap in current orthopedic research, which the authors defined as the disparity between the level of evidence that would be required to optimally answer the primary research question and the level of evidence that was actually used. Five orthopedic surgeons (K.D.B., J.B., J.A., S.D.M., W.N.S.) evaluated blinded articles from the first 6 months of 2010 in the Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery (American Volume) (JBJS-Am), classifying the study type and design and extracting a primary research question from each article. Each evaluator then defined the study type and method, along with the level of evidence that would ideally be used to address the primary research question. The level of evidence gap was then calculated by subtracting the actual level of evidence of the manuscript from the level of evidence of the idealized study. Of the 64 JBJS-Am manuscripts eligible for analysis, the average level of evidence was between Level II and III (mean, 2.73). The average level of evidence gap was 1.06 compared with the JBJS-Am-designated level of evidence and 1.28 compared with the evaluators' assessment. Because not all questions require Level I studies, level of evidence alone may not be the best metric for the quality of orthopedic surgery literature. Instead, the authors' concept of a level of evidence gap may be a better tool for assessing the state of orthopedic research publications.

  20. Evidence-Based ACL Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Carlos RODRIGUEZ-MERCHAN

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is controversy in the literature regarding a number of topics related to anterior cruciate ligament (ACLreconstruction. The purpose of this article is to answer the following questions: 1 Bone patellar tendon bone (BPTB reconstruction or hamstring reconstruction (HR; 2 Double bundle or single bundle; 3 Allograft or authograft; 4 Early or late reconstruction; 5 Rate of return to sports after ACL reconstruction; 6 Rate of osteoarthritis after ACL reconstruction. A Cochrane Library and PubMed (MEDLINE search of systematic reviews and meta-analysis related to ACL reconstruction was performed. The key words were: ACL reconstruction, systematic reviews and meta-analysis. The main criteria for selection were that the articles were systematic reviews and meta-analysesfocused on the aforementioned questions. Sixty-nine articles were found, but only 26 were selected and reviewed because they had a high grade (I-II of evidence. BPTB-R was associated with better postoperative knee stability but with a higher rate of morbidity. However, the results of both procedures in terms of functional outcome in the long-term were similar. The double-bundle ACL reconstruction technique showed better outcomes in rotational laxity, although functional recovery was similar between single-bundle and double-bundle. Autograft yielded better results than allograft. There was no difference between early and delayed reconstruction. 82% of patients were able to return to some kind of sport participation. 28% of patients presented radiological signs of osteoarthritis with a follow-up of minimum 10 years.

  1. INFLATION AND FINANCIAL DEVELOPMENT: EVIDENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Nii Abbey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the impact of inflation on financial development in Ghana using quarterly time series data (1990-2008. It was in line with the empirical works that provided support for the proposition that inflation affects financial development negatively. While price stability has been emphasized in the literature to be the best antidote in addressing the problem, recent evidence of disagreements on its definition and the ways to achieving it, coupled with, threshold effects between the two variables have questioned the precise link between the two variables and their acclaimed antidote. The study therefore made use of the Cointegration Approach the Granger Causality testing procedure suggested and the Conditional Least Squares technique to address these issues for the case of Ghana. The study established several statistically significant and economically meaningful relationships between the two variables. Pair-wise correlation analysis established a negative association between the two variables. In contrast, conflicting results were produced with regression analysis: the relationship between the two variables in the short run was established to be positive, while no relationship at all was established in the long run. Furthermore, a unidirectional causal link was established to be running from inflation to financial development; when the ratio of private sector credit to GDP and the market capitalization ratio were used as indicators for financial development. Lastly, threshold effects were observed in the inflation-financial development relation for inflation rates between 11-16% per annum. The study thus recommended the definition of price stability for inflation rates between 11-16% in support of financial development in Ghana. Additionally, it was recommended that the country should promote financial sector policies in a more holistic approach, as financial development does not granger cause inflation or inflationary pressures.

  2. The expression and interpretation of uncertain forensic science evidence: verbal equivalence, evidence strength, and the weak evidence effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martire, Kristy A; Kemp, Richard I; Watkins, Ian; Sayle, Malindi A; Newell, Ben R

    2013-06-01

    Standards published by the Association of Forensic Science Providers (2009, Standards for the formulation of evaluative forensic science expert opinion, Science & Justice, Vol. 49, pp. 161-164) encourage forensic scientists to express their conclusions in the form of a likelihood ratio (LR), in which the value of the evidence is conveyed verbally or numerically. In this article, we report two experiments (using undergraduates and Mechanical Turk recruits) designed to investigate how much decision makers change their beliefs when presented with evidence in the form of verbal or numeric LRs. In Experiment 1 (N = 494), participants read a summary of a larceny trial containing inculpatory expert testimony in which evidence strength (low, moderate, high) and presentation method (verbal, numerical) varied. In Experiment 2 (N = 411), participants read the same larceny trial, this time including either exculpatory or inculpatory expert evidence that varied in strength (low, high) and presentation method (verbal, numerical). Both studies found a reasonable degree of correspondence in observed belief change resulting from verbal and numeric formats. However, belief change was considerably smaller than Bayesian calculations would predict. In addition, participants presented with evidence weakly supporting guilt tended to "invert" the evidence, thereby counterintuitively reducing their belief in the guilt of the accused. This "weak evidence effect" was most apparent in the verbal presentation conditions of both experiments, but only when the evidence was inculpatory. These findings raise questions about the interpretability of LRs by jurors and appear to support an expectancy-based account of the weak evidence effect.

  3. Expert Evidence and International Criminal Justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appazov, Artur

    The book is a comprehensive narration of the use of expertise in international criminal trials offering reflection on standards concerning the quality and presentation of expert evidence. It analyzes and critiques the rules governing expert evidence in international criminal trials...... and the strategies employed by counsel and courts relying upon expert evidence and challenges that courts face determining its reliability. In particular, the author considers how the procedural and evidentiary architecture of international criminal courts and tribunals influences the courts' ability to meaningfully...... incorporate expert evidence into the rational fact-finding process. The book provides analysis of the unique properties of expert evidence as compared with other forms of evidence and the challenges that these properties present for fact-finding in international criminal trials. It draws conclusions about...

  4. The ethical use of evidence in biomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrino, E D

    1999-03-01

    Valerie Miké's proposal of an "ethics of evidence" is an interesting, important venture into a little explored field. Miké's two rules (use the best possible knowledge and acknowledge uncertainty) have been implicit but need to become explicit in a world where information and knowledge have enormous power--especially in medical practice and research, where evidence is essential to clinical decisions, policy formulation, and dissemination of results. A fully developed ethics of evidence would depend on a still underdeveloped theory of evidence, that is, on some conception of the nature of evidence, the logic of its use, and the epistemology of discovery and explanation. Until such a groundwork is developed, practical guidelines are deducible in the ethics of data collection and dissemination. This article examines those ethics, suggesting criteria for the morally responsible treatment of evidence collection, dissemination, and use.

  5. Evidence-based dentistry: a clinician's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Janet; Spackman, Sue; Chiappelli, Francesco; Prolo, Paolo; Stevenson, Richard

    2006-07-01

    Evidence-based dentistry is a discipline that provides best, explicit-based evidence to dentists and their patients in shared decision-making. Currently, dentists are being trained and directed to adopt the role of translational researchers in developing evidence-based dental practices. Practically, evidence-based dentistry is not usable in its current mode for the provision of labor-intensive services that characterize current dental practice. The purpose of this article is to introduce a model of evidence-based dental practice. This model conceptualizes a team approach in explaining problems and solutions to change current dental practice. These changes constitute an evidence-based dental practice that involves the electronic chart, centralized database, knowledge management software, and personnel in optimizing effective oral health care to dental patients.

  6. Measuring statistical evidence using relative belief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Evans

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A fundamental concern of a theory of statistical inference is how one should measure statistical evidence. Certainly the words “statistical evidence,” or perhaps just “evidence,” are much used in statistical contexts. It is fair to say, however, that the precise characterization of this concept is somewhat elusive. Our goal here is to provide a definition of how to measure statistical evidence for any particular statistical problem. Since evidence is what causes beliefs to change, it is proposed to measure evidence by the amount beliefs change from a priori to a posteriori. As such, our definition involves prior beliefs and this raises issues of subjectivity versus objectivity in statistical analyses. This is dealt with through a principle requiring the falsifiability of any ingredients to a statistical analysis. These concerns lead to checking for prior-data conflict and measuring the a priori bias in a prior.

  7. Evidence-Based Practice: Management of Vertigo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen-Huynh, Anh T.

    2012-01-01

    Synopsis The article focuses on the evidence basis for the management of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV), the most common diagnosis of vertigo in both primary care and subspecialty settings. Like all articles in this compilation of evidence-based practice, an overview is presented along with evidence based clinical assessment, diagnosis, and management. Summaries of differential diagnosis of vertigo and outcomes are presented. PMID:22980676

  8. Modeling Forensic Evidence Systems Using Design Science

    OpenAIRE

    Armstrong, Colin; Armstrong, Helen

    2010-01-01

    International audience; This paper presents an overview of the application of design science research to the tactical management of forensic evidence processing. The opening discussion addresses the application of design science techniques to specific socio-technical information systems research in regard to processing forensic evidence. The discussion then presents the current problems faced by those dealing with evidence and a conceptual meta-model for a unified approach to forensic evidenc...

  9. The Economics of Discrimination: Evidence from Basketball

    OpenAIRE

    Kahn, Lawrence M.

    2009-01-01

    This Chapter reviews evidence on discrimination in basketball, primarily examining studies on race but with some discussion of gender as well. I focus on discrimination in pay, hiring, and retention against black NBA players and coaches and pay disparities by gender among college coaches. There was much evidence for each of these forms of discrimination against black NBA players in the 1980s. However, there appears to be less evidence of racial compensation, hiring and retention discriminatio...

  10. Improving GRADE evidence tables part 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langendam, Miranda; Carrasco-Labra, Alonso; Santesso, Nancy;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) working group has developed GRADE evidence profiles (EP) and summary of findings (SoF) tables to present evidence summaries in systematic reviews, clinical guidelines, and health technology assessments...... or control group risk) was often missing. For judgments about downgrading the quality of evidence, the percentage of informative explanations ranged between 41% (imprecision) and 79% (indirectness). CONCLUSION: We found that by and large explanations were informative but detected several areas...

  11. Evidence based management ve zdravotnictví

    OpenAIRE

    Vydrová, Rosa

    2011-01-01

    Evidence-based management involves decision making based on the best available scientific knowledge about effective organization practice. This evidence can be obtained from internal or systematic external research. Analysis of measures to prevent infections in hemato-oncologic patients a Prague teaching hospital revealed, that current organization practices do not allow a high quality internal research assessing provided health care quality. Causes of barriers to practice evidence-based appr...

  12. What is the Best Evidence Medical Education?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasoul Masoomi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Best Evidence Medical Education (BEME is defined as: “The implementation by teachers and educational bodies in their practice, of methods and approaches to education based on the best evidence available.” Five steps have been recognized in the practice of BEME. These are: framing the question, developing a search strategy, evaluating the evidence, implementing change and evaluating that change. In this paper, I described the concept of BEME, its steps, and challenges.

  13. Evidence: To see or not to see.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Katie

    2010-10-01

    "To see or not to see" is an allusion to the classical Shakespearean quotation "to be or not to be, that is the question." Evidence as a concept pertains to truth, reality, and being in the world; it involves seeing, realizing, making visible, and clothing thoughts into words. A new interpretation of the concept of evidence in caring science is presented in this column, based on the etymology of the concept and Gadamer's hermeneutical philosophy. Ontological or absolute evidence is based on being and the true reality that extends beyond the immediate reality. The truth, or the substance, lies concealed within the true reality. Evidence includes envisioning, seeing, knowing, attesting, and revising.

  14. New evidence: Why flowers self-fertilize?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Studies on some Himalayan Sginger flowers have contributed novel empirical evidence to Charles Darwin's self-pollination theory, according to CAS researchers from the Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden.

  15. Generating evidence for genomic diagnostic test development: workshop summary

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wizemann, Theresa M; Berger, Adam C

    2011-01-01

    .... Generating Evidence for Genomic Diagnostic Test Development compares the evidence that is required for decisions regarding clearance, use, and reimbursement, to the evidence that is currently generated...

  16. Sicily statement on evidence-based practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hopayian Kevork

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A variety of definitions of evidence-based practice (EBP exist. However, definitions are in themselves insufficient to explain the underlying processes of EBP and to differentiate between an evidence-based process and evidence-based outcome. There is a need for a clear statement of what Evidence-Based Practice (EBP means, a description of the skills required to practise in an evidence-based manner and a curriculum that outlines the minimum requirements for training health professionals in EBP. This consensus statement is based on current literature and incorporating the experience of delegates attending the 2003 Conference of Evidence-Based Health Care Teachers and Developers ("Signposting the future of EBHC". Discussion Evidence-Based Practice has evolved in both scope and definition. Evidence-Based Practice (EBP requires that decisions about health care are based on the best available, current, valid and relevant evidence. These decisions should be made by those receiving care, informed by the tacit and explicit knowledge of those providing care, within the context of available resources. Health care professionals must be able to gain, assess, apply and integrate new knowledge and have the ability to adapt to changing circumstances throughout their professional life. Curricula to deliver these aptitudes need to be grounded in the five-step model of EBP, and informed by ongoing research. Core assessment tools for each of the steps should continue to be developed, validated, and made freely available. Summary All health care professionals need to understand the principles of EBP, recognise EBP in action, implement evidence-based policies, and have a critical attitude to their own practice and to evidence. Without these skills, professionals and organisations will find it difficult to provide 'best practice'.

  17. 20 CFR 404.1512 - Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... claim. If we ask you, you must provide evidence about: (1) Your age; (2) Your education and training; (3... must provide evidence about the existence of work in the national economy that you can do (see §§ 404... described in § 404.1520(e)), age, education, and work experience. ...

  18. Total Evidence, Uncertainty and A Priori Beliefs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bewersdorf, Benjamin; Felline, Laura; Ledda, Antonio; Paoli, Francesco; Rossanese, Emanuele

    2016-01-01

    Defining the rational belief state of an agent in terms of her initial or a priori belief state as well as her total evidence can help to address a number of important philosophical problems. In this paper, I discuss how this strategy can be applied to cases in which evidence is uncertain. I argue

  19. 5 CFR 919.900 - Adequate evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adequate evidence. 919.900 Section 919.900 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 919.900 Adequate evidence...

  20. Improving evidence-based general practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kortekaas, MF

    2016-01-01

    This thesis provides knowledge on how to improve the practice of evidence-based medicine (EBM) by general practitioners (GPs) and GP trainees. EBM is defined as the integration of clinical expertise, patient values and the best available clinical evidence in daily clinical practice. We describe the

  1. Nonlocality as Evidence for a Multiverse Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipler, Frank J.

    We show that observations of quantum nonlocaltiy can be interpreted as purely local phenomena, provided one assumes that the cosmos is a multiverse. Conversely, the observation of quantum nonlocality can be interpreted as observation evidence for a multiverse cosmology, just as observation of the setting of the Sun can be interpreted as evidence for the Earth's rotation.

  2. Nonlocality as Evidence for a Multiverse Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Tipler, Frank J

    2010-01-01

    I show that observations of quantum nonlocality can be interpreted as purely local phenomena, provided one assumes that the cosmos is a multiverse. Conversely, the observation of quantum nonlocality can be interpreted as observation evidence for a multiverse cosmology, just as observation of the setting of the Sun can be interpreted as evidence for the Earth's rotation.

  3. Evidence-based diagnosis in patch testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Valk, PGM; Devos, SA; Coenraads, PJ

    2003-01-01

    Evidence-based medicine (EBM) is defined as the integration of the best research evidence with clinical expertise and patient values. Based on the principles of EBM, we can conclude that patch testing is cost-effective only if patients are selected on the basis of a clear-cut clinical suspicion of c

  4. 20 CFR 410.240 - Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... evidence may be submitted as part of a prescribed application form if the form provides for its inclusion... disability or death due to pneumoconiosis. For evidence requirements to support allegations of total disability or death due to pneumoconiosis; for the effect of the failure or refusal of an individual...

  5. 12 CFR 308.533 - Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence. 308.533 Section 308.533 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION PROCEDURE AND RULES OF PRACTICE RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Program Fraud Civil Remedies and Procedures § 308.533 Evidence. (a) The ALJ will determine the...

  6. School Resegregation: A Synthesis of the Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, William J.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the evidence that supports and rebuts the claims of school resegregation. By examining both types of evidence and considering them complementary (James 1986; Kelly and Miller 1989), the author gives the reader a deeper understanding of the current trends in school segregation. First, the literature on the topic of school…

  7. Careers in Forensics: Analysis, Evidence, and Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torpey, Elka Maria

    2009-01-01

    In legal proceedings, a case is only as strong as its evidence. And whether that evidence is strong depends, in large part, on the work of forensic specialists. The field of forensics is broad and involves many kinds of workers. Some of them are involved in crimesolving. Others, such as forensic social workers or forensic economists, help to…

  8. Evidence-based practice in fluency disorders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kully, Deborah; Langevin, Marilyn

    2005-01-01

    ... individual who seeks our help. A widely used definition of EBP is offered by David Sackett and colleagues: "Evidence-based medicine is the integration of best research evidence with clinical expertise and patient values" (Sackett et al, 2000, p.1). The three elements of this definition are reflected in Christine Dollaghan's assertion that ...

  9. 42 CFR 3.540 - Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... unfair prejudice, confusion of the issues, or by considerations of undue delay or needless presentation... provided in Rule 408 of the Federal Rules of Evidence. (g) Evidence of crimes, wrongs, or acts other than... whether the crimes, wrongs, or acts occurred during the statute of limitations period applicable to...

  10. 34 CFR 33.34 - Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evidence. 33.34 Section 33.34 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT § 33.34 Evidence. (a) The ALJ shall... danger of unfair prejudice, confusion of the issues, or by considerations of undue delay or...

  11. 45 CFR 150.445 - Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... outweighed by the danger of unfair prejudice, confusion of the issues, or by considerations of undue delay or... will be inadmissible to the extent provided in the Federal Rules of Evidence. (g) Evidence of acts... penalty if those acts are used under §§ 150.317 and 150.323 of this part to consider the entity's...

  12. 29 CFR 22.34 - Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Evidence. 22.34 Section 22.34 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT OF 1986 § 22.34 Evidence. (a) The ALJ shall determine the... unfair prejudice, confusion of the issues, or by considerations of undue delay or needless...

  13. 45 CFR 160.540 - Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... unfair prejudice, confusion of the issues, or by considerations of undue delay or needless presentation... provided in Rule 408 of the Federal Rules of Evidence. (g) Evidence of crimes, wrongs, or acts other than... whether the crimes, wrongs, or acts occurred during the statute of limitations period applicable to...

  14. Advancing Evidence in Preterm Neonatal Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Pamela K.; Robinson, Karen A.

    2010-01-01

    Few interventions and treatments for premature infants have undergone the rigors of a randomized controlled trial (RCT), the cornerstone of evidence-based healthcare. Multiple barriers in establishing a quality evidence base for the care of preterm infants are examined including the systematic exclusion of children from drug trials, vulnerability…

  15. Shaping accountabilities for erroneously enacted environmental evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippert, Ingmar

    Drawing on fieldwork in and around a transnational Fortune 50 company's "corporate social responsibility" unit, this paper opens up a range of situations that took part in enacting the company's evidence of its impact on global warming. This evidence was implicated in at least two significant modes...... of accountability: first, the company was performing itself as a socially and environmentally accountable and responsible "corporate citizen"; second, the company was inhabiting a discourse of evidence-based decision-making, requiring the evidence to be produced accountably. I analyse a limited set of ethnographic......, in the enactment of such erroneous environmental evidence by and in heterogeneous collectives. To explore these enactments I experiment with contrasting analyses of these practices as ontological (Mol) or ontic (Verran) politics whilst focusing on how these politics shape and distribute the (im...

  16. Evidence development and publication planning: strategic process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittek, Michael R; Jo Williams, Mary; Carlson, Angeline M

    2009-11-01

    A number of decisions in the health care field rely heavily on published clinical evidence. A systematic approach to evidence development and publication planning is required to develop a portfolio of evidence that includes at minimum information on efficacy, safety, durability of effect, quality of life, and economic outcomes. The approach requires a critical assessment of available literature, identification of gaps in the literature, and a strategic plan to fill the gaps to ensure the availability of evidence demanded for clinical decisions, coverage/payment decisions and health technology assessments. The purpose of this manuscript is to offer a six-step strategic process leading to a portfolio of evidence that meets the informational needs of providers, payers, and governmental agencies concerning patient access to a therapy.

  17. Semantic Modelling of Digital Forensic Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahvedžić, Damir; Kechadi, Tahar

    The reporting of digital investigation results are traditionally carried out in prose and in a large investigation may require successive communication of findings between different parties. Popular forensic suites aid in the reporting process by storing provenance and positional data but do not automatically encode why the evidence is considered important. In this paper we introduce an evidence management methodology to encode the semantic information of evidence. A structured vocabulary of terms, ontology, is used to model the results in a logical and predefined manner. The descriptions are application independent and automatically organised. The encoded descriptions aim to help the investigation in the task of report writing and evidence communication and can be used in addition to existing evidence management techniques.

  18. Evidence for Mental Health Occupational Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Hitch

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on the evidence for mental health occupational therapy in peer-reviewed journals from 2000 to 2013. Descriptive and inductive methods were used to address this question, with evidence from CINAHL, OTDBase, PSYCInfo, SCOPUS, and Google Scholar® included. Many articles (n = 1,747 were found that met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. A total of 47 different methods were used to develop evidence for mental health occupational therapy, and evidence appeared in 300 separate peer-reviewed journals. It takes on average 7 months for an article to progress from submission to acceptance, and a further 7 months to progress from acceptance to publication. More than 95% of articles published between 2000 and 2002 were cited at least once in the following decade, and around 70% of these citations were recorded in non-occupational therapy journals. The current evidence base for mental health occupational therapy is both substantial and diverse.

  19. Association Between Cannabis and Psychosis: Epidemiologic Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, Suzanne H; Hickman, Matthew; Zammit, Stanley

    2016-04-01

    Associations between cannabis use and psychotic outcomes are consistently reported, but establishing causality from observational designs can be problematic. We review the evidence from longitudinal studies that have examined this relationship and discuss the epidemiologic evidence for and against interpreting the findings as causal. We also review the evidence identifying groups at particularly high risk of developing psychosis from using cannabis. Overall, evidence from epidemiologic studies provides strong enough evidence to warrant a public health message that cannabis use can increase the risk of psychotic disorders. However, further studies are required to determine the magnitude of this effect, to determine the effect of different strains of cannabis on risk, and to identify high-risk groups particularly susceptible to the effects of cannabis on psychosis. We also discuss complementary epidemiologic methods that can help address these questions. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Where's the evidence? An innovative approach to teaching staff about evidence-based practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Janice M; Heitschmidt, Mary; Joyce, Mary Beth; Staneva, Ilianna; Zemansky, Peggy; Francisco, Mary Ann; Powell, Barbara; Kennedy, Terri; Kranzer, Susan French

    2006-01-01

    Preparing nurses to incorporate research and evidence-based findings into nursing practice is important to meet the needs of patients and their families in today's healthcare arena. This article highlights the use of a mock trial as an innovative approach to educating staff nurses on evidence-based practice and identifies future implications for educating staff nurses on incorporating evidence into nursing practice.

  1. No evidence-based restoration without a sound evidence base: a reply to Guldemond et al.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ntshotsho, P

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available -based. While we fully agree with them that there is a need to assess whether practitioners use evidence in their decision-making, we assert that use of evidence is the last step in the evidence-based approach. It is preceded by the generation (and documentation...

  2. Measuring Use of Research Evidence: The Structured Interview for Evidence Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palinkas, Lawrence A.; Garcia, Antonio R.; Aarons, Gregory A.; Finno-Velasquez, Megan; Holloway, Ian W.; Mackie, Thomas I.; Leslie, Laurel K.; Chamberlain, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This article describes the Standard Interview for Evidence Use (SIEU), a measure to assess the level of engagement in acquiring, evaluating, and applying research evidence in health and social service settings. Method: Three scales measuring input, process, and output of research evidence and eight subscales were identified using…

  3. Cinco especies nuevas de Pselliopus (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Harpactorinae: Harpactorini para México Five new species of Pselliopus (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Harpactorinae from Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry Brailovsky

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Se describen 5 especies nuevas de Pselliopus Bergroth (Reduviidae: Harpactorinae recolectadas en México (Guerrero, Hidalgo, Jalisco, Michoacán, Nayarit, Nuevo León, Oaxaca, Puebla, Querétaro, San Luis Potosí, Sinaloa, Sonora y Tamaulipas y en los Estados Unidos de América (Arizona. Pselliopus karlenae Hussey se registra por primera vez para la República Mexicana. Se ilustran caracteres diagnósticos del pronoto, del borde posterior del segmento abdominal VII, de la cápsula genital del macho (pigóforo y parámeros. Se incluye una clave para la identificación de las especies basada principalmente en los genitales masculinos.Five new species of Pselliopus Bergroth (Reduviidae: Harpactorinae from Mexico (Guerrero, Hidalgo, Jalisco,Michoacán, Nayarit, Nuevo León, Oaxaca, Puebla, Querétaro, San Luis Potosí, Sinaloa, Sonora and Tamaulipas and from the United States of America (Arizona are described. Pselliopus karlenae Hussey is a new record for Mexico. Diagnostic taxonomic characters of pronotum, posterior border of abdominal segment VII, male genital capsule (pygophore and parameres are illustrated. An identification key based mainly on the male genitalia is included.

  4. Description of a new species of Pleseobyrsa (Heteroptera: Tingidae from Costa Rica Descripción de una nueva especie de Pleseobyrsa (Heteroptera: Tingidae de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara I. Montemayor

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A new Pleseobyrsa, P. persea n. sp. is described for Costa Rica. The host plant of this new species is Persea americana P. Mill. This corresponds to the second species of the genus known for the country and the third whose host plant is P. americana (avocado. A description of the adult as well as of instar V are provided, together with a key to species, photographs taken in the field, and illustrations of the fifth nymph stage, adult, and the main characters.Se describe una especie nueva de Pleseobyrsa, P. persea n. sp. de Costa Rica, cuya planta huésped es Persea americana P. Mill., siendo ésta la segunda especie del género conocida del país y la tercera cuya planta huésped es P. americana (aguacate. Se describen tanto el adulto como el estadio ninfal V; se agrega una clave modificada de Froeschner para las especies, y se ilustran ejemplares en el campo, el quinto estadio ninfal, adulto y los principales caracteres.

  5. Plantas cultivadas e invasoras como habitat para predadores do gênero Orius(Wolff (Heteroptera: anthocoridae Crops and weeds as host plants Orius species (Heteroptera: anthocoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Cláudio Paterno Silveira

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi registrar as espécies de Orius associadas a plantas cultivadas e invasoras presentes em uma localidade de Minas Gerais e três de São Paulo, nos anos de 1999 e 2000. As coletas foram realizadas através de batidas das plantas no interior de sacos plásticos para desalojar os insetos. Posteriormente, as espécies foram separadas em laboratório. O predador Orius insidiosus (Say foi coletado nas culturas de milho (Zea mays L., milheto (Pennisetum glaucum (L. R.Br., sorgo (Sorghum spp., feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L., girassol (Helianthus annuus L., alfafa (Medicago sativa L., soja [Glycine max (L. Merr.], crisântemo (Chrysanthemum spp., tango (Solidago canadensis L. e cartamus (Carthamus tinctorius L. e nas plantas invasoras picão-preto (Bidens pilosa L., caruru (Amaranthus sp., losna-branca (Parthenium hysterophorus L. e apaga-fogo (Alternanthera ficoidea L.. Orius thyestes Herring foi encontrado nas plantas invasoras picão-preto, caruru e apaga-fogo. Orius perpunctatus (Reuter e Orius sp. foram coletados principalmente nas plantas invasoras picão-preto, caruru e apaga-fogo e no milho. Constatou-se que muitas dessas plantas são reservatórios naturais para esses predadores, em termos de habitat, abrigo, presas e pólen.The aim of this research was to record the Orius species present on some crops and weeds in areas located in the southeast region in Brazil, during 1999 and 2000. The insect collections were made through the tapping method to dislodge the insects from the plant into a plastic bag. The identifications of the specimens was done in the laboratory. Orius insidiosus (Say was collected on the following crops: corn (Zea mays L., pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L. R.Br., sorghum (Sorghum spp., bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., alfalfa (Medicago sativa L., soybean (Glycine max (L. Merr., chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum spp., tango (Solidago canadensis L. and carthamus (Carthamus tinctorius L.. On weeds, O. insidiosus was found on farmer's friend (Bidens pilosa L., amaranth (Amaranthus sp., parthenium weed (Parthenium hysterophorus L. and Joseph's coat (Alternanthera ficoidea L.. Orius thyestes Herring was found on weed plants farmer's friend, amaranth and Joseph's coat. Orius perpunctatus (Reuter and Orius sp. were collected mainly on weed plants (farmer's friend, amaranth and Joseph's coat and corn. Many of these plants are natural hosts for these predators, providing refuge, prey and pollen.

  6. Natural lectin activity in the haemolymph of Panstrogylus megistus (Heteroptera: Reduvidae Atividade lectínica na hemolinfa de Panstrongylus megistus (Heteroptera: Reduviidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. M. Gomes

    1988-12-01

    Full Text Available The haemolymph of Panstrongylus megistus showed a natural lectin activity for a wide range of vertebrate erythocytes. Agglutination was observed against all vertebrate erythrocytes tested (human ABO, duck, rabbit, mouse, sheep, chicken and cow. Cow erythrocytes showed the lowest titre. Concerning human erythrocytes, the lectin activity was similar in the types A+,B+ and AB+ while the highest activity was observed in the type O+. Determination of minimal inhibitory concentrations was carried out with human erythrocytes type O+. Agglutination was inhibited by several carbohydrates (rhamnose. D-galatose, raffinose, D-lactose and D-fucose. Rhamnose wasreported as the strongest inhibitor (0.78mM. The results suggest the presence of more than one lection in the haemolymph of P. megistus.A hemolinfa de Panstrongylus megistus mostrou uma atividade lectínica natural para eritrócitos de vários vertebrados e não mostrou especificidade para os diversos tipos de eritrócitos testados (humano ABO, pato, coelho,c amundongo,carneiro, galinha e boi. Com relação aos eritrócitos humanos a atividade lectínica foi similar nos tipos A+, B+ e AB+ enquanto a atividade mais alta foi observada no tipo O+. O título de aglutinação entre eritrócitos animais não mostrou diferença apreciável, excluindo eritrócitos de boi, que apresentaram o título mmais baixo. A determinação da concentração mínima de inibição foi realizada com eritrócitos humanos O+. A aglutinação foi inibida por vários carboidratos (ramnose, D-dalactose, rafinose, D-lactose e D-fucose. A ramnose foi o inibidor mais potente (0,78 mM. Os resultados sugerem a presença de mais de uma lectina na hemolinfa de P. megistus.

  7. CLASIFICACIÓN Y HÁBITATS DE GERRIDAE (HETEROPTERA - GERROMORPHA EN COLOMBIA Classification And Habitats Of Gerridae (Heteroptera - Gerromorpha In Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FREDY MOLANO-RENDÓN

    Full Text Available Como una contribución al conocimiento taxonómico y ecológico de la familia Gerridae en Colombia, se presenta un listado de las especies conocidas discriminadas para cada región biogeográfica. Se reportan 16 géneros y 51 especies, distribuidas entre 0 y 2,890 m de altura. Se encontró que los gerridos tienen como hábitos y hábitat preferentes los de agua dulce (81%, se amplió el conocimiento de los hábitats ocupados por estos insectos en el país y se incluye una clave dicotómica basada en estas categorías de hábitats.As a contribution to the taxonomic and ecologic acknowledge of the Gerridae family in Colombia, a checklist of the known species discriminated for each biogeographic region is presented. There were16 genre and 51 species registered, distributed between 0 and 2.890 m. It was found that the gerrids have preferential habits and habitats related to sweet water (81% and occupied other habitats in the country. A dichotomic key based in this categories is included.

  8. Evidence for practice, epistemology, and critical reflection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avis, Mark; Freshwater, Dawn

    2006-10-01

    Evidence-based practice (EBP) has become a critical concept for ethical, accountable professional nursing practice. However, critical analysis of the concept suggests that EBP overemphasizes the value of scientific evidence while underplaying the role of clinical judgement and individual nursing expertise. This paper explores the empiricist position that valid evidence is the basis for all knowledge claims. We argue against the positivist idea that science should be regarded as the only credible means for generating evidence on which to base knowledge claims. We propose that the process of critically reflecting on evidence is a fundamental feature of empirical epistemology. We suggest that critical reflection on evidence derived from science, arts and humanities and, in particular, nursing practice experience can provide a sound basis for knowledge claims. While we do not attempt to define what counts as evidence, it is argued that there is much to be gained by making the processes of critical reflection explicit, and that it can make a valid contribution to expert nursing practice, without recourse to irreducible concepts such as intuition.

  9. Weight of Evidence Allocates Mineral Depositional Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah A. Bokhari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Yunnan province in general and Pulang area in particular is geological rich area which prevents field study in multi locations due to high risk outcrop. Approach: New technology such as Geographic Information System (GIS and an ArcView extension module Arcweight of evidence (WofE became very handy to provide safety for researchers and allow organization to control their budget. Results: In order to guide mineral exploration, to achieve the purpose of rapid evaluation of mineral resources a serial of modeled prediction methods were established. Weight of evidence model is to predict the existent thing by combining the known evidence of the study area, the importance of evidence is determined based on statistical method. Contrary to the fuzzy logic method, it avoids the subjective selection of evidence and the subjective evaluation of evidence. The weight of evidence can determine the weight in the same standard conditions (using known mine sites as guidance data, so that the variables can be compared in the united scale, a higher reliability. Conclusion/Recommendations: Comparing predicted and known distribution patterns of porphyry, most mine sites are located in the areas with high posterior probability, forecast area accounts for 11.5% of the entire study area. Predicted results show clearly that the boundary of potential areas and the non-potential areas is clear. Therefore, fuzzy logic and other methods should be applied to predict the results for further comparison. More accurate prediction would draw a big smile on faces of share holders.

  10. Evidence-based policymaking: a critique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhalgh, Trisha; Russell, Jill

    2009-01-01

    The idea that policy should be based on best research evidence might appear to be self-evident. But a closer analysis reveals a number of problems and paradoxes inherent in the concept of "evidence-based policymaking." The current conflict over evidence-based policymaking parallels a long-standing "paradigm war" in social research between positivist, interpretivist, and critical approaches. This article draws from this debate in order to inform the discussions over the appropriateness of evidence- based policymaking and the related question of what is the nature of policymaking. The positivist, empiricist worldview that underpins the theory and practice of evidence-based medicine (EBM) fails to address key elements of the policymaking process. In particular, a narrowly "evidence-based" framing of policymaking is inherently unable to explore the complex, context-dependent, and value-laden way in which competing options are negotiated by individuals and interest groups. Sociolinguistic tools such as argumentation theory offer opportunities for developing richer theories about how policymaking happens. Such tools also have potential practical application in the policymaking process: by enhancing participants' awareness of their own values and those of others, the quality of the collective deliberation that lies at the heart of policymaking may itself improve.

  11. Evidence-Based Dentistry: What's New?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ballini, S. Capodiferro, M. Toia, S. Cantore, G. Favia, G. De Frenza, F.R. Grassi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of evidence for every branch of medicine in teaching in order to orient the practitioners among the great amount of most actual scientific information's, and to support clinical decisions, is well established in health care, including dentistry. The practice of evidence-based medicine is a process of lifelong, self-directed, problem-based learning which leads to the need for clinically important information about diagnosis, prognosis, therapy and other clinical and health care issues. Nowadays the practice of dentistry is becoming more complex and challenging because of the continually changing in dental materials and equipments, an increasingly litigious society, an increase in the emphasis of continuing professional development, the information explosion and the consumer movement associated with advances on the Internet. The need for reliable information and the electronic revolution have come together to allow the “paradigm shift” towards evidence-based health care. Recent years have seen an increase in the importance of evidence-based dentistry, aiming to reduce to the maximum the gap between clinical research and real world dental practice. Aim of evidence-based practice is the systematic literature review, which synthesizes the best evidences and provides the basis for clinical practice guidelines. These practice guidelines give a brief review of what evidence-based dentistry is and how to use it.

  12. Evidence-based dentistry: what's new?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballini, A; Capodiferro, S; Toia, M; Cantore, S; Favia, G; De Frenza, G; Grassi, F R

    2007-06-06

    The importance of evidence for every branch of medicine in teaching in order to orient the practitioners among the great amount of most actual scientific information's, and to support clinical decisions, is well established in health care, including dentistry. The practice of evidence-based medicine is a process of lifelong, self-directed, problem-based learning which leads to the need for clinically important information about diagnosis, prognosis, therapy and other clinical and health care issues. Nowadays the practice of dentistry is becoming more complex and challenging because of the continually changing in dental materials and equipments, an increasingly litigious society, an increase in the emphasis of continuing professional development, the information explosion and the consumer movement associated with advances on the Internet. The need for reliable information and the electronic revolution have come together to allow the "paradigm shift" towards evidence-based health care. Recent years have seen an increase in the importance of evidence-based dentistry, aiming to reduce to the maximum the gap between clinical research and real world dental practice. Aim of evidence-based practice is the systematic literature review, which synthesizes the best evidences and provides the basis for clinical practice guidelines. These practice guidelines give a brief review of what evidence-based dentistry is and how to use it.

  13. The Evidence-Based Manifesto for School Librarians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Ross

    2008-01-01

    School Library Journal's 2007 Leadership Summit, "Where's the Evidence? Understanding the Impact of School Libraries," focused on the topic of evidence-based practice. Evidence-based school librarianship is a systematic approach that engages research-derived evidence, school librarian-observed evidence, and user-reported evidence in the processes…

  14. 20 CFR 219.23 - Evidence to prove death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence to prove death. 219.23 Section 219... EVIDENCE REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT Evidence of Age and Death § 219.23 Evidence to prove death. (a) Preferred evidence of death. The best evidence of a person's death is— (1) A certified copy of or extract from...

  15. The Evidence-Based Manifesto for School Librarians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Ross

    2008-01-01

    School Library Journal's 2007 Leadership Summit, "Where's the Evidence? Understanding the Impact of School Libraries," focused on the topic of evidence-based practice. Evidence-based school librarianship is a systematic approach that engages research-derived evidence, school librarian-observed evidence, and user-reported evidence in the processes…

  16. Evidence based policy-making: A review

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Strydom, FW

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available and policy makers work together? J Epidemiol Community Health. 2005;59:632–637. 6. Lomas J. Using ‘linkage and exchange’ to move research into policy at a Canadian foundation. Health Aff. 2000;19:236– 240. 7. Solesbury W. Evidence based policy: Whence... it came and where it’s going? ESRC UK Centre for Evidence Based Policy and Practice: Working paper 1. London: University of London; 2001. 8. Zussman D. Evidence-based policy making: Some observations of recent Canadian experience. Soc Pol J New Zeal...

  17. Panspermia: Evidence from Astronomy to Meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramasinghe, N. C.; Wallis, J.; Wallis, D. H.

    The theory of cometary panspermia is reviewed in relation to evidence from astronomy, biology, and recent studies of meteorites. The spectroscopic signatures in interstellar material within our galaxy and in external galaxies that have been known for many years most plausibly represent evidence for the detritus of life existing on a cosmic scale. Such spectral features discovered in galaxies of high redshift points to life arising at a very early stage in the history of the Universe. Evidence of fossils of microscopic life forms in meteorites that have been discussed over several decades, and augmented recently with new data, reaffirms the case for cometary panspermia.

  18. History of evidence-based medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger L Sur

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This essay reviews the historical circumstances surrounding the introduction and evolution of evidence-based medicine. Criticisms of the approach are also considered. Weaknesses of existing standards of clinical practice and efforts to bring more certainty to clinical decision making were the foundation for evidence-based medicine, which integrates epidemiology and medical research. Because of its utility in designing randomized clinical trials, assessing the quality of the literature, and applying medical research at the bedside, evidence-based medicine will continue to have a strong influence on everyday clinical practice.

  19. Engineering evidence for carbon monoxide toxicity cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galatsis, Kosmas

    2016-07-01

    Unintentional carbon monoxide poisonings and fatalities lead to many toxicity cases. Given the unusual physical properties of carbon monoxide-in that the gas is odorless and invisible-unorganized and erroneous methods in obtaining engineering evidence as required during the discovery process often occurs. Such evidence gathering spans domains that include building construction, appliance installation, industrial hygiene, mechanical engineering, combustion and physics. In this paper, we attempt to place a systematic framework that is relevant to key aspects in engineering evidence gathering for unintentional carbon monoxide poisoning cases. Such a framework aims to increase awareness of this process and relevant issues to help guide legal counsel and expert witnesses.

  20. Consequences of Assessment: What is the Evidence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William A. Mehrens

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Attention is here directed toward the prevalence of large scale assessments (focusing primarily on state assessments. I examine the purposes of these assessment programs; enumerate both potential dangers and benefits of such assessments; investigate what the research evidence says about assessment consequences (including a discussion of the quality of the evidence; discuss how to evaluate whether the consequences are good or bad; present some ideas about what variables may influence the probabilities for good or bad consequences; and present some tentative conclusions about the whole issue of the consequences of assessment and the amount of evidence available and needed.

  1. New weighting factors assignment of evidence theory based on evidence distance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Liangzhou; Shi Wenkang; Du Feng

    2005-01-01

    Evidence theory has been widely used in the information fusion for its effectiveness of the uncertainty reasoning. However, the classical DS evidence theory involves counter-intuitive behaviors when the high conflict information exists. Based on the analysis of some modified methods, Assigning the weighting factors according to the intrinsic characteristics of the existing evidence sources is proposed, which is determined on the evidence distance theory. From the numerical examples, the proposed method provides a reasonable result with good convergence efficiency. In addition, the new rule retrieves to the Yager's formula when all the evidence sources contradict to each other completely.

  2. New solar flare evidence may solve mystery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    An international group of scientists led by the Mullard Space Science Laboratory (MSSL), University College London, has discovered important new evidence that points to the cataclysmic events that trigger a solar flare and the mechanisms that drive its subsequent evolution.

  3. 40 CFR 27.34 - Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., evidence may be excluded if its probative value is substantially outweighed by the danger of unfair prejudice, confusion of the issues, or by considerations of undue delay or needless presentation...

  4. 49 CFR 511.43 - Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... evidence is admissible, but may be excluded if its probative value is substantially outweighed by unfair prejudice or by considerations of undue delay, waste of time, immateriality, or needless presentation of... available for consideration by any reviewing authority....

  5. 20 CFR 498.217 - Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... value is substantially outweighed by the danger of unfair prejudice, confusion of the issues, or by considerations of undue delay or needless presentation of cumulative evidence. (d) Although relevant,...

  6. 20 CFR 355.34 - Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., evidence may be excluded if its probative value is substantially outweighed by the danger of unfair prejudice, confusion of the issues, or by considerations of undue delay or needless presentation...

  7. 31 CFR 16.34 - Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., evidence may be excluded if its probative value is substantially outweighed by the danger of unfair prejudice, confusion of the issues, or by considerations of undue delay or needless presentation...

  8. 20 CFR 422.107 - Evidence requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... Examples of the types of evidence which may be submitted are a birth certificate, a religious record... applicant's name and (1) the applicant's age, date of birth, or parents' names; and/or (2) a photograph...

  9. IPJP 12(2) - Evidence.indb

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    interpersonal, and social agency can be framed as one movement, a single ongoing process of human life. However .... context and attitudes that give rise to violence, such as unequal ..... near fundamentalist attraction to 'evidence' as based.

  10. IPJP 12(2) - Evidence.indb

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    On Evidence and Argument in Phenomenological Research by Russell .... researcher explicating the implicit features of participants' ... thus included features of both Husserlian and .... acknowledge that not all qualitative research – even.

  11. More Evidence Linking Obesity to Liver Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_161494.html More Evidence Linking Obesity to Liver Cancer And type 2 diabetes more than doubles the ... type 2 diabetes, may raise your risk for liver cancer, a new study suggests. "We found that each ...

  12. Ethics, equality and evidence in health promotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallgårda, Signild

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Aim: The Danish National Board of Health has expressed its commitment to social equality in health, evidence-informed health promotion and public health ethics, and has issued guidelines for municipalities on health promotion, in Danish named prevention packages.The aim of this article...... is to analyse whether the Board of Health adheres to ideals of equality, evidence and ethics in these guidelines. Methods: An analysis to detect statements about equity, evidence and ethics in 10 health promotion packages directed at municipalities with the aim of guiding the municipalities towards evidence......-informed disease prevention and health promotion. Results: Despite declared intentions of prioritizing social equality in health, these intentions are largely absent from most of the packages.When health inequalities are mentioned, focus is on the disadvantaged or the marginalized. Several interventions...

  13. Parkinson's disease: evidence for environmental risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieburtz, Karl; Wunderle, Kathryn B

    2013-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) has no known cause. Although recent research has focused particularly on genetic causes of PD, environmental causes also play a role in developing the disease. This article reviews environmental factors that may increase the risk of PD, as well as the evidence behind those factors. Enough evidence exists to suggest that age has a causal relationship to PD. Significant evidence exists that gender, tobacco use, and caffeine consumption are also associated with the development of PD. Other environmental factors (pesticide exposure, occupation, blood urate levels, NSAID use, brain injury, and exercise) have limited or conflicting evidence of a relationship to PD. Future research must not neglect the impact of these environmental factors on the development of PD, especially with respect to potential gene-environment interactions.

  14. Venus lives!. [evidence for active volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Charles A.; Francis, Peter W.

    1988-01-01

    Observational evidence which supports the contention that Venus is a volcanically and tectonically active planet is discussed. It is argued that, although there are no observations to date that would prove that Venus has been volcanically active during the last decade, planetological studies presented evidence for youthful volcanic mountains on Venus: the surface of the northern quarter of Venus is considered to be younger than 1 Gy, and some units are likely to be much younger. Because of the small sizes of likely volcanic manifestations and the long intervals expected between eruptions, it is unlikely that any direct evidence of eruptions will be detected with existing and planned spacecraft. It is suggested that future studies of the dynamics and the chemical mixing of the Venusian atmosphere might supply an unequivocal evidence for active volcanism on this planet.

  15. Double swab technique for collecting touched evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, B C M; Cheung, B K K

    2007-07-01

    Touched evidence is often submitted to forensic laboratories for DNA analysis. Classical stain recovery technique, involving one wet cotton swab, is commonly used for recovering the touched evidence. Double swab technique, using a wet cotton swab followed by a dry cotton swab, was compared with the classical technique for recovering the touched evidence. The wet cotton swabs and the dry cotton swabs were individually extracted. DNA extracts were quantified and amplified at 15 polymorphic loci. DNA recovered in some of the second dry swabs contained sufficient amount of DNA to yield a DNA profile. This study shows that the double swab technique improves the quality of the resulting DNA profiles. The double swab technique for recovering touched evidence at crime scenes is recommended.

  16. Babies' Marijuana Exposure Evident in Their Pee

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162472.html Babies' Marijuana Exposure Evident in Their Pee Parents should reduce ... 9, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Babies exposed to secondhand marijuana smoke take in THC, the primary psychoactive chemical ...

  17. Evidence-based equine dentistry: preventive medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmalt, James L

    2007-08-01

    Dental problems are some of the most common reasons for a horse to be presented to an equine veterinarian. Despite the importance of anecdotal evidence as a starting point, the science of equine dentistry (especially prophylactic dentistry) has remained poorly supported by evidence-based approaches to diagnosis and treatment. In the 21st century, veterinarians have an ethical responsibility to promote and use the results of evidence-based research and not propagate statements attesting to the purported benefits of intervention without supporting research. Consider also that society is becoming more litigious and therefore is basing treatment plans and advice on published research, which protects the profession from legal challenges concerning our professional conduct. This article reviews the current published evidence concerning the role of equine dentistry in feed digestibility and performance.

  18. 16 CFR 3.43 - Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... danger of unfair prejudice, confusion of the issues, or if the evidence would be misleading, or based on... person, in a manner complying with any Act of Congress or rule prescribed by the Supreme Court...

  19. 7 CFR 1.332 - Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Under the Program Fraud Civil Remedies Act of 1986 § 1.332 Evidence. (a) The ALJ shall determine the... danger of unfair prejudice, confusion of the issues, or by considerations of undue delay or...

  20. 38 CFR 42.34 - Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... IMPLEMENTING THE PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT § 42.34 Evidence. (a) The ALJ shall determine the... unfair prejudice, confusion of the issues, or by considerations of undue delay or needless...

  1. 14 CFR 1264.133 - Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... PENALTIES ACT OF 1986 § 1264.133 Evidence. (a) The presiding officer shall determine the admissibility of... outweighed by the danger of unfair prejudice, confusion of the issues, or by considerations of undue delay...

  2. 28 CFR 71.34 - Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... REMEDIES ACT OF 1986 Implementation for Actions Initiated by the Department of Justice § 71.34 Evidence. (a... outweighed by the danger of unfair prejudice, confusion of the issues, or by considerations of undue delay...

  3. IPJP 12(2) - Evidence.indb

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    nutrients that make transformation, emotional, .... Moments of real meeting are neither self-evident nor forced. Instead, they ... always big events, on a grand, dramatic scale, and thus rare. ... and our normal awareness of time, surroundings and.

  4. 29 CFR 1603.214 - Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEE COMPLAINTS OF EMPLOYMENT DISCRIMINATION UNDER SECTION 304 OF THE GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEE RIGHTS ACT OF 1991 Hearings § 1603.214 Evidence. The administrative law judge...

  5. Practice-Based Evidence: Delivering What Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brendtro, Larry K.; Mitchell, Martin L.

    2012-01-01

    Many methods claim to be Evidence-Based Practices. Yet success comes not from a particular practice, but principles that underlie all effective helping. This article uses the principle of consilience to tap knowledge from science, values, and practical experience.

  6. Evidence in Favour of IMF Variations

    OpenAIRE

    Eisenhauer, Frank

    2001-01-01

    The stellar initial mass function (IMF) determines the relative number of stars born at a given mass. Despite the tremendous effort to establish a universal IMF, the astronomical literature offers a wealth of diverse evidence for IMF variations. This review was prepared for a controversial debate at the conference ``Starbursts -- Near and Far'' at Ringberg Castle, 2000, and gives a one-sided portrayal in favour of IMF variations. I will summarise the empirical evidence that the IMF varies wit...

  7. Wage Dynamics: Reconciling Theory and Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Olivier Jean Blanchard; Lawrence Katz

    1999-01-01

    U.S. macroeconomic evidence shows a negative relation between the rate of change of wages and unemployment. In contrast, most theories of wage determination imply a negative relation between the level of wages and unemployment. In this paper, we ask whether one can reconcile the empirical evidence with theoretical wage relations. We reach three main conclusions. First, we derive the condition under which the two can indeed be reconciled. We show the constraints that such a condition imposes o...

  8. Evidence-Based Dentistry: What's New?

    OpenAIRE

    A. Ballini, S. Capodiferro, M. Toia, S. Cantore, G. Favia, G. De Frenza, F.R. Grassi

    2007-01-01

    The importance of evidence for every branch of medicine in teaching in order to orient the practitioners among the great amount of most actual scientific information's, and to support clinical decisions, is well established in health care, including dentistry. The practice of evidence-based medicine is a process of lifelong, self-directed, problem-based learning which leads to the need for clinically important information about diagnosis, prognosis, therapy and other clinical and health care ...

  9. First evidence of enterobiasis in ancient Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, P D

    2002-10-01

    The oldest and most common parasite for which we have direct evidence, in the New World, is Enterobius vernicularis. Numerous archaeological sites, especially in the arid American southwest, have yielded fecal samples positive for pinworm ova, some of these dating back 10,000 yr. Reports of pinworm from the Old World are scarce. This article reports the first evidence of pinworm infection from Roman-occupied (30 BC-AD 395) Egypt.

  10. Consequences of Assessment: What is the Evidence?

    OpenAIRE

    William A. Mehrens

    1998-01-01

    Attention is here directed toward the prevalence of large scale assessments (focusing primarily on state assessments). I examine the purposes of these assessment programs; enumerate both potential dangers and benefits of such assessments; investigate what the research evidence says about assessment consequences (including a discussion of the quality of the evidence); discuss how to evaluate whether the consequences are good or bad; present some ideas about what variables may influence the pro...

  11. Introducing AORN's new model for evidence rating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruce, Lisa; Van Wicklin, Sharon A; Hicks, Rodney W; Conner, Ramona; Dunn, Debra

    2014-02-01

    Nurses today are expected to implement evidence-based practices in the perioperative setting to assess and implement practice changes. All evidence-based practice begins with a question, a practice problem to address, or a needed change that is identified. To assess the question, a literature search is performed and relevant literature is identified and appraised. The types of evidence used to inform practice can be scientific research (eg, randomized controlled trials, systematic reviews) or nonresearch evidence (eg, regulatory and accrediting agency requirements, professional association practice standards and guidelines, quality improvement project reports). The AORN recommended practices are a synthesis of related knowledge on a given topic, and the authorship process begins with a systematic review of the literature conducted in collaboration with a medical librarian. At least two appraisers independently evaluate the applicable literature for quality and strength by using the AORN Research Appraisal Tool and AORN Non-Research Appraisal Tool. To collectively appraise the evidence supporting particular practice recommendations, the AORN recommended practices authors have implemented a new evidence rating model that is appropriate for research and nonresearch literature and that is relevant to the perioperative setting.

  12. Plausibility and evidence: the case of homeopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutten, Lex; Mathie, Robert T; Fisher, Peter; Goossens, Maria; van Wassenhoven, Michel

    2013-08-01

    Homeopathy is controversial and hotly debated. The conclusions of systematic reviews of randomised controlled trials of homeopathy vary from 'comparable to conventional medicine' to 'no evidence of effects beyond placebo'. It is claimed that homeopathy conflicts with scientific laws and that homoeopaths reject the naturalistic outlook, but no evidence has been cited. We are homeopathic physicians and researchers who do not reject the scientific outlook; we believe that examination of the prior beliefs underlying this enduring stand-off can advance the debate. We show that interpretations of the same set of evidence--for homeopathy and for conventional medicine--can diverge. Prior disbelief in homeopathy is rooted in the perceived implausibility of any conceivable mechanism of action. Using the 'crossword analogy', we demonstrate that plausibility bias impedes assessment of the clinical evidence. Sweeping statements about the scientific impossibility of homeopathy are themselves unscientific: scientific statements must be precise and testable. There is growing evidence that homeopathic preparations can exert biological effects; due consideration of such research would reduce the influence of prior beliefs on the assessment of systematic review evidence.

  13. Teaching evidence based medicine in family medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davorka Vrdoljak

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The concept of evidence based medicine (EBM as the integrationof clinical expertise, patient values and the best evidence was introduced by David Sackett in the 1980’s. Scientific literature in medicine is often marked by expansion, acummulation and quick expiration. Reading all important articles to keep in touch with relevant information is impossible. Finding the best evidence that answers a clinical question in general practice (GP in a short time is not easy. Five useful steps are described –represented by the acronym “5A+E”: assess, ask, acquire, appraise, apply and evaluate.The habit of conducting an evidence search “on the spot’’ is proposed. Although students of medicine at University of Split School of Medicine are taught EBM from the first day of their study and in all courses, their experience of evidence-searching and critical appraisal of the evidence, in real time with real patient is inadequate. Teaching the final-year students the practical use of EBM in a GP’s office is different and can have an important role in their professional development. It can positively impact on quality of their future work in family practice (or some other medical specialty by acquiring this habit of constant evidence-checking to ensure that best practice becomes a mechanism for life-long learning. Conclusion. EBM is a foundation stone of every branch of medicine and important part of Family Medicine as scientific and professional discipline. To have an EB answer resulting from GP’s everyday work is becoming a part of everyday practice.

  14. Medicina embasada em evidências

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan B.B.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available O aumento crescente das opções diagnósticas e terapêuticas cria a necessidade de avaliar sua efetividade, o que pode ser feito, por exemplo, com o ensaio clínico randomizado. A difusão deste e de outros métodos da epidemiologia clínica na prática médica propicia o paradigma da "medicina embasada em evidências". Ao enfatizar a necessidade de evidências clínico-epidemiológicas sólidas para as decisões clínicas, a medicina embasada em evidências forma a estrutura para a integração dos resultados de pesquisas na prática clínica. A evidência é graduada pelo delineamento de pesquisa, fornecendo normas que estabelecem qual o grau adequado para a tomada de decisão médica. A combinação desse novo paradigma com o poder das telecomunicações modernas está causando uma revolução no modo em que a medicina é praticada. O processo é facilitado pelo acesso dos clínicos às revisões quantitativas e aos guidelines (posicionamentos clínicos delas derivados. As limitações das fontes tradicionais de evidências médicas e as vantagens das novas fontes de evidências, como o ACP Journal Club e a Cochrane Collaboration, são descritas. É importante que o médico se familiarize com os conceitos e técnicas do paradigma de medicina embasada em evidências.

  15. THE EXCLUSION OF ILEGALLY ADMINISTERED EVIDENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliza Emanuela IONIŢĂ

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Both judicial practice and specialized texts have brought up the problem of what the punishment for breaking the legal provisions in the activity of evidence administration is, if a matter of fact had been presented by means that are not legally specified or if a piece of evidence was administered by means that are legally specified, but with the violation of legal provisions. Romania has adhered to the most important international juridical instruments adopted in the sphere of human rights by the adoption, modification or completion of internal legislation. As such, for the first time in Romanian criminal procedural legislation, a sanction for the exclusion of evidence has been introduced, as a corollary for the principle of legality and of loyalty in administering evidence. The New Criminal Procedure Code provides the sanction of exclusion as well, but this time the legislator didn’t resume his or herself to a mere conceptual regulation of the sanction, providing both a specific invalidation procedure as well as procedural solutions. In the New Criminal Procedure Code it is shown that in the sphere of evidence-showing a set of rules has been introduced that establishes the principle of loyalty in the obtainment of evidence. These rules, that provide the sanction of excluding evidence obtained through illegal or unloyal means, will determined the growth of professionalism in the ranks of the judiciary bodies on the subject of obtaining evidence and, on the other hand, will guarantee the firm upholding of the parties rights to a fair trial. “Truth, like all other good things, may be loved unwisely – may be pursued too keenly – may cost too much…” Lord Justice Sir James Lewis Knight-Bruce ”It is a deeply ingrained value in our democratic system that the ends do not justify the means. In particular, evidence or convictions may, at times, be obtained at too high a price”. – Antonio Lamer Former Chief Justice of the Supreme Court

  16. Evidence, temperature, and the laws of thermodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieland, Veronica J

    2014-01-01

    A primary purpose of statistical analysis in genetics is the measurement of the strength of evidence for or against hypotheses. As with any type of measurement, a properly calibrated measurement scale is necessary if we want to be able to meaningfully compare degrees of evidence across genetic data sets, across different types of genetic studies and/or across distinct experimental modalities. In previous papers in this journal and elsewhere, my colleagues and I have argued that geneticists ought to care about the scale on which statistical evidence is measured, and we have proposed the Kelvin temperature scale as a template for a context-independent measurement scale for statistical evidence. Moreover, we have claimed that, mathematically speaking, evidence and temperature may be one and the same thing. On first blush, this might seem absurd. Temperature is a property of systems following certain laws of nature (in particular, the 1st and 2nd Law of Thermodynamics) involving very physical quantities (e.g., energy) and processes (e.g., mechanical work). But what do the laws of thermodynamics have to do with statistical systems? Here I address that question.

  17. 20 CFR 404.728 - Evidence a marriage has ended.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence a marriage has ended. 404.728... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Evidence Evidence of Age, Marriage, and Death § 404.728 Evidence a marriage has ended. (a) When evidence is needed that a marriage has ended. If you apply for benefits as the...

  18. 20 CFR 219.24 - Evidence of presumed death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence of presumed death. 219.24 Section... EVIDENCE REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT Evidence of Age and Death § 219.24 Evidence of presumed death. When a person cannot be proven dead but evidence of death is needed, the Board may presume he or she died at a...

  19. 20 CFR 404.720 - Evidence of a person's death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence of a person's death. 404.720 Section... INSURANCE (1950- ) Evidence Evidence of Age, Marriage, and Death § 404.720 Evidence of a person's death. (a) When evidence of death is required. If you apply for benefits on the record of a deceased person,...

  20. The religion of evidence-based practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wigram, Tony; Gold, Christian

    2012-01-01

    , and discusses autism spectrum disorders and EBP. The chapter concludes that, based on last sixty years of the development of music therapy as a recognized and relevant intervention, there is no doubt that the honeymoon period is over, and EBP is here to stay. Despite examples of attrition in music therapy......This chapter begins by outlining the challenges of preparing a chapter on evidence-based practice (EBP) to underpin the use of music as a therapeutic tool in treatment, in the overall frame of music, health, and wellbeing. It then reviews the terminology of EBP and evidence-based medicine...... practice as health, education, and social services tighten their belts and the demand on their resources grows, there is increasing interest in the value of music for health and wellbeing, despite even less ‘hard’ evidence that it is effective against illness and disability....

  1. Professionalism and evidence-based practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Palle

    2015-01-01

    of evidence- based methods in Danish pre-school education and care. The management sees the use of these methods as strengthening pre- school teacher professionalism, but the actual practices in the day-careinstitutions are ambiguous. In some cases, using the methods becomes an end in itself and tends...... to displace important educational objectives. In other cases, the methods are reflectively adjusted to a given context. Used in this way only, evid ence-based practice and methodology is a valuable resource for professional practice in education. From such a perspective, at least some types of research based......The idea of evidence- based practice is influential in public welfare services, including education. The idea is controversial, however, not least because it involves a poten tial redefinition of the relation ship between knowledge, authority and professionalism. This is discussed based on a study...

  2. Evidence-based policymaking: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Nortje

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The process of facilitating the uptake of evidence, for example, scientific research findings, into the policymaking process is multifaceted and thus complex. It is therefore important for scientists to understand this process in order to influence it more effectively. Similarly, policymakers need to understand the complexities of the scientific process to improve their interaction with the scientific sphere. This literature review addresses those factors that influence the uptake of scientific evidence into policymaking, the barriers to using science in policymaking, as well as recommendations for improved science–policymaking interaction. A visual diagram of the gears of a car is used to convey the message of the complexities around the engagement between science and policymaking. It is concluded that the issue of evidence-based policymaking remains unresolved and questions for future research on the science–policy interface are raised.

  3. A Corpus for Evidence Based Medicine Summarisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Mollá Aliod

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Automated text summarisers that find the best clinical evidence reported in collections of medical literature are of potential benefit for the practice of Evidence Based Medicine (EBM. Research and development of text summarisers for EBM, however, is impeded by the lack of corpora to train and test such systems. Aims To produce a corpus for research in EBM summarisation. Method We sourced the “Clinical Inquiries” section of the Journal of Family Practice (JFP and obtained a sizeable sample of questions and evidence based summaries. We further processed the summaries by combining automated techniques, human annotations, and crowdsourcing techniques to identify the PubMed IDs of the references. Results The corpus has 456 questions, 1,396 answer components, 3,036 answer justifications, and 2,908 references. Conclusion The corpus is now available for the research community at http://sourceforge.net/projects/ebmsumcorpus.

  4. Legislating for health: locating the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawson, Ray; Owen, Lesley; Wong, Geoff

    2010-07-01

    This article examines the timorous courtship between public health law and evidence-based policy. Legislation, in the form of direct prescriptions or proscriptions on behaviour, is perhaps the most powerful tool available to the public health policymaker. Increasingly, the same policymakers have striven to ensure that interventions are based soundly on a secure evidence base. The modern mantra is that the policies to follow are the ones that have been demonstrated to work. Legislative interventions, involving trade-offs between public benefit and private interests, present formidable challenges for the evaluator. Systematic reviews of their overall efficacy, the main tool of evidence-based policy, are in their infancy. The article presents a design for such reviews using the example of a forthcoming synthesis on the effectiveness of banning smoking in cars carrying children.

  5. Evidence based practice of chronic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Garg

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The patients with chronic pain are increasingly reporting to the physicians for its management. Chronic pain are associated with head, neck and shoulder pain, spinal pain, pain in the joints and extremities, complex regional pain syndrome and phantom pain. The chronic pain is being managed worldwide. The different specialty of medicine is producing a lot of evidence through the published literature but the same is not being published in the field of chronic pain management. Though some evidence is being reported as to different aspects of pain management from different parts of the world but same is lacking from Indian subcontinent. This is in contrast to much done clinical work in this field as well. We present here the available evidence in relation to chronic pain management.

  6. Fever management: Evidence vs current practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Radhi, A Sahib Mehdi

    2012-12-08

    Fever is a very common complaint in children and is the single most common non-trauma-related reason for a visit to the emergency department. Parents are concerned about fever and it's potential complications. The biological value of fever (i.e., whether it is beneficial or harmful) is disputed and it is being vigorously treated with the belief of preventing complications such as brain injury and febrile seizures. The practice of alternating antipyretics has become widespread at home and on paediatric wards without supporting scientific evidence. There is still a significant contrast between the current concept and practice, and the scientific evidence. Why is that the case in such a common complaint like fever The article will discuss the significant contrast between the current concepts and practice of fever management on one hand, and the scientific evidence against such concepts and practice.

  7. Forensic Evidence in Homicide Investigations and Prosecutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, Tom; Regoeczi, Wendy

    2015-09-01

    Even though forensic evidence is collected at virtually every homicide scene, only a few studies have examined its role in investigation and prosecution. This article adds to the literature by providing the results of a study of 294 homicide cases (315 victims) occurring in Cleveland, Ohio, between 2008 and 2011. Through a logistic regression on open versus closed cases, the collection of knives, administration of gunshot residue (GSR) kits, and clothing at the scene were positively and significantly related to case closures, while collection of ballistics evidence and DNA evidence were statistically significant in the opposite direction. With regard to analysis, the clearance rate for cases with probative results (i.e., matches or exclusions) was 63.1% compared to a closure rate of 56.3% for cases without probative results. However, only 23 cases had probative results prior to arrest compared to 128 cases with probative results after arrest.

  8. Book Review: Challenges to Digital Forensic Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Kessler

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Cohen, F. (2008. Challenges to Digital Forensic Evidence. Livermore, CA: Fred Cohen & Associates. 129 pages, ISBN: 1-878109-41-3, US$39.Reviewed by Gary C. Kessler (gary.kessler@champlain.eduThis book is about evidence gleaned as the result of the digital forensics process and providing expert testimony about that evidence. I am always suspicious when someone self-proclaims themselves as an "expert" although all authors are doing just that, at least by inference. Readers who are familiar with the author, Fred Cohen, or his large body of published works will know that he neither proclaims his expertise quietly nor inaccurately. Indeed, Cohen is an ideal person to weigh in on the topic of suitability and malleability of information acquired from computers and about providing testimony about that information and the process with which it was found.(see PDF for full review

  9. The fallacy of evidence based policy

    CERN Document Server

    Saltelli, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    The use of science for policy is at the core of a perfect storm generated by the insurgence of several concurrent crises: of science, of trust, of sustainability. The modern positivistic model of science for policy, known as evidence based policy, is based on dramatic simplifications and compressions of available perceptions of the state of affairs and possible explanations (hypocognition). This model can result in flawed prescriptions. The flaws become more evident when dealing with complex issues characterized by concomitant uncertainties in the normative, descriptive and ethical domains. In this situation evidence-based policy may concur to the fragility of the social system. Science plays an important role in reducing the feeling of vulnerability of humans by projecting a promise of protection against uncertainties. In many applications quantitative science is used to remove uncertainty by transforming it into probability, so that mathematical modelling can play the ritual role of haruspices. This epistem...

  10. Evidence-based Management of Glaucoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yangfan Yang; Minbin Yu

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The evidence-based medicine (EBM) is a new medical mode that is completely different from traditional experience-based medicine. The core of EBM is that decision-making during clinical practices must be based on objective research results.With the rapid development of modern ophthalmology, some former viewpoints according to experience-based medicine face challenges. Evidence-based ophthalmology (EBO) is imperative under the situation. Glaucoma, as a disease resulting in blindness, which can not be cured by operation, is thought more and more of by medical management officials and doctors. One challenge for ophthalmologists entering the 21st century will be to make clinical decisions based on valid information or evidence rather than intuition, hearsay, or peer practice. How can we do? Here reviews the application of EBM in medical management of glaucoma since EBM' s naissance and give a reference.

  11. Evidence-based paediatric surgical oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losty, Paul D

    2016-10-01

    Surgeons play a pivotal role in the decision-making and multidisciplinary management of childhood solid tumours.(1) Evidence-based medicine-"aims to optimise decision making by emphasising on the use of best evidence from well-designed conducted research." This article offers a brief overview in an effort to demonstrate how a selection of well-conducted, recently published studies can help address some topical and controversial themes in paediatric surgical oncology practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Crime prevention: more evidence-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido Genovés, Vicente; Farrington, David P; Welsh, Brandon C

    2008-02-01

    This paper introduces a new section of Psicothema dedicated to the evidence-based approach to crime prevention. Along with an original sexual-offender-treatment programme implemented in Spain, this section presents four systematic reviews of important subjects in the criminological arena, such as sexual offender treatment, the well-known programme, the effectiveness of custodial versus non-custodial sanctions in reoffending and the fight against terrorism. We also highlight some of the focal points that scientists, practitioners and governments should take into account in order to support this evidence-based viewpoint of crime prevention.

  13. Best evidence: nasogastric tube placement verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, M Anne

    2011-08-01

    Further research on cost-effective techniques to verify enteral tube placement is warranted using a variety of pediatric populations with differing conditions that may impact gastric pH. It is imperative that clinical facilities review current policies and procedures to ensure that evidence-based findings are guiding nursing practice. Many nurses continue to rely on auscultation to verify NGT placement. Education and competency validation can assist with current practices for NGT placement being consistently incorporated by all personnel in the health care setting. Continuing to search for evidence related to nursing care will guide the direct care RN in providing best practice.

  14. Professionalism and evidence-based practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Palle

    2015-01-01

    The idea of evidence- based practice is influential in public welfare services, including education. The idea is controversial, however, not least because it involves a poten tial redefinition of the relation ship between knowledge, authority and professionalism. This is discussed based on a study...... of evidence- based methods in Danish pre-school education and care. The management sees the use of these methods as strengthening pre- school teacher professionalism, but the actual practices in the day-careinstitutions are ambiguous. In some cases, using the methods becomes an end in itself and tends...

  15. Numerical Evidence for a Conjecture of Poonen

    CERN Document Server

    Hutz, Benjamin

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this note is give some evidence in support of conjectures of Poonen, and Morton and Silverman, on the periods of rational numbers under the iteration of quadratic polynomials. In particular, Poonen conjectured that there are at most 9 periodic points defined over the rational numbers for any map in the family x^2 + c for c rational. We verify this conjecture for c values up to height 10^8. For quadratic number fields, we provide evidence that the upper bound on the exact period of Q-rational periodic point is 6.

  16. Study Questions Reliability of Fingerprint Evidence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    James; Randerson; 陈易

    2007-01-01

    The reliability of fingerprint has been called into question by a study that tested whether forensic experts make consistent judgments on print matches.Despite the perceived infallibility of fingerprint evidence, the study found that experts do not always make the same judgment on whether a print matches a mark at a crime scene when presented with the same evidence twice.The findings come in the wake of two high profile cases in which fingerprint matches were subsequently shown to be wrong. The Scottish ...

  17. Evidence Based Practice: Science? Or Art? (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Koufogiannakis

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Evidence based library and information practice (EBLIP is a strategy to bridge research and practice. Generally EBLIP is seen as a movement to encourage and give practitioners the means to incorporate research into their practice, where it previously may have been lacking. The widely accepted definition of EBLIP (Booth, 2000 stresses three aspects that contribute to a practice that is evidence based: 1 "the best available evidence;" 2 "moderated by user needs and preferences;" 3 "applied to improve the quality of professional judgements." The area that the EBLIP movement has focused on is how to create and understand the best available research evidence. CE courses, critical appraisal checklists, and many articles have been written to address a need for librarian education in this area, and it seems that strides have been made.But very little in the EBLIP literature talks about how we make professional judgements, or moderate evidence based on our user needs and preferences. Likewise, how do we make good evidence based decisions when our evidence base is weak. These things seem to be elements we just take for granted or can’t translate into words. It is in keeping with tacit knowledge that librarians just seem to have or acquire skills with education and on the job experience. Tacit knowledge is "knowledge that is not easily articulated, and frequently involves knowledge of how to do things. We can infer its existence only by observing behaviour and determining that this sort of knowledge is a precondition for effective performance" (Patel, Arocha, & Kaufman, 1999, p.78. It is something that is difficult to translate into an article or guideline for how we work. I think of this area as the "art" of evidence based practice. And the art is crucial to being an evidence based practitioner.Science = systematized knowledge, explicit research, methodological examination, investigation, dataArt = professional knowledge of your craft, intuition

  18. Evidence for collisionless magnetic reconnection at Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwood, J. P.; Brain, D. A.; Halekas, J. S.; Drake, J. F.; Phan, T. D.; Øieroset, M.; Mitchell, D. L.; Lin, R. P.; Acuña, M.

    2008-01-01

    Using data from Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) in combination with Particle-In-Cell (PIC) simulations of reconnection, we present the first direct evidence of collisionless magnetic reconnection at Mars. The evidence indicates that the spacecraft passed through the diffusion region where reconnection is initiated and observed the magnetic field signatures of differential electron and ion motion - the Hall magnetic field - that uniquely indicate the reconnection process. These are the first such in-situ reconnection observations at an astronomical body other than the Earth. Reconnection may be the source of Mars' recently discovered auroral activity and the changing boundaries of the closed regions of crustal magnetic field.

  19. Observation, Sherlock Holmes, and Evidence Based Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, John

    2002-01-01

    Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, the creator of the fictional detective Sherlock Holmes, studied medicine at the University of Edinburgh between 1876 and 1881 under Doctor Joseph Bell who emphasised in his teaching the importance of observation, deduction and evidence. Sherlock Holmes was modelled on Joseph Bell. The modern notions of Evidence Based Medicine (EBM) are not new. A very brief indication of some of the history of EBM is presented including a discussion of the important and usually overlooked contribution of statisticians to the Popperian philosophy of EBM.

  20. When Good Evidence Goes Bad: The Weak Evidence Effect in Judgment and Decision-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernbach, Philip M.; Darlow, Adam; Sloman, Steven A.

    2011-01-01

    An indispensable principle of rational thought is that positive evidence should increase belief. In this paper, we demonstrate that people routinely violate this principle when predicting an outcome from a weak cause. In Experiment 1 participants given weak positive evidence judged outcomes of public policy initiatives to be less likely than…

  1. How evidence-based are the recommendations in evidence-based guidelines?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finlay A McAlister

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Treatment recommendations for the same condition from different guideline bodies often disagree, even when the same randomized controlled trial (RCT evidence is cited. Guideline appraisal tools focus on methodology and quality of reporting, but not on the nature of the supporting evidence. This study was done to evaluate the quality of the evidence (based on consideration of its internal validity, clinical relevance, and applicability underlying therapy recommendations in evidence-based clinical practice guidelines. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A cross-sectional analysis of cardiovascular risk management recommendations was performed for three different conditions (diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and hypertension from three pan-national guideline panels (from the United States, Canada, and Europe. Of the 338 treatment recommendations in these nine guidelines, 231 (68% cited RCT evidence but only 105 (45% of these RCT-based recommendations were based on high-quality evidence. RCT-based evidence was downgraded most often because of reservations about the applicability of the RCT to the populations specified in the guideline recommendation (64/126 cases, 51% or because the RCT reported surrogate outcomes (59/126 cases, 47%. CONCLUSIONS: The results of internally valid RCTs may not be applicable to the populations, interventions, or outcomes specified in a guideline recommendation and therefore should not always be assumed to provide high-quality evidence for therapy recommendations.

  2. Variation, Certainty, Evidence, and Change in Dental Education: Employing Evidence-based Dentistry in Dental Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinho, Valeria Coelho Catao; Richards, Derek; Niederman, Richard

    2001-01-01

    Using a case-based dental scenario, presents systematic evidence-based methods for accessing dental health care information, evaluating this information for validity and importance, and using this information to make informed curricular and clinical decisions. Also discusses barriers inhibiting these systematic approaches to evidence-based…

  3. Evidence and evidence gaps in the treatment of Eustachian tube dysfunction and otitis media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teschner, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    Evidence-based medicine is an approach to medical treatment intended to optimize patient-oriented decision-making on the basis of empirically proven effectiveness. For this purpose, a classification system has been established to categorize studies – and hence therapy options – in respect of associated evidence according to defined criteria. The Eustachian tube connects the nasopharynx with the middle ear cavity. Its key function is to ensure middle ear ventilation. Compromised ventilation results in inflammatory middle ear disorders. Numerous evidence-based therapy options are available for the treatment of impaired middle ear ventilation and otitis media, the main therapeutic approach being antibiotic treatment. More recent procedures such as balloon dilation of the Eustachian tube have also shown initial success but must undergo further evaluation with regard to evidence. There is, as yet, no evidence for some of the other long-established procedures. Owing to the multitude of variables, the classification of evidence levels for various treatment approaches calls for highly diversified assessment. Numerous evidence-based studies are therefore necessary in order to evaluate the evidence pertaining to existing and future therapy solutions for impaired middle ear ventilation and otitis media. If this need is addressed, a wealth of implications can be expected for therapeutic approaches in the years to come. PMID:28025605

  4. Towards Trustable Digital Evidence with PKIDEV: PKI Based Digital Evidence Verification Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzunay, Yusuf; Incebacak, Davut; Bicakci, Kemal

    How to Capture and Preserve Digital Evidence Securely? For the investigation and prosecution of criminal activities that involve computers, digital evidence collected in the crime scene has a vital importance. On one side, it is a very challenging task for forensics professionals to collect them without any loss or damage. On the other, there is the second problem of providing the integrity and authenticity in order to achieve legal acceptance in a court of law. By conceiving digital evidence simply as one instance of digital data, it is evident that modern cryptography offers elegant solutions for this second problem. However, to our knowledge, there is not any previous work proposing a systematic model having a holistic view to address all the related security problems in this particular case of digital evidence verification. In this paper, we present PKIDEV (Public Key Infrastructure based Digital Evidence Verification model) as an integrated solution to provide security for the process of capturing and preserving digital evidence. PKIDEV employs, inter alia, cryptographic techniques like digital signatures and secure time-stamping as well as latest technologies such as GPS and EDGE. In our study, we also identify the problems public-key cryptography brings when it is applied to the verification of digital evidence.

  5. 20 CFR 416.912 - Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... education and training; (3) Your work experience; (4) Your daily activities both before and after the date... must provide evidence about the existence of work in the national economy that you can do (see §§ 416... described in § 416.920(e)), age, education, and work experience. ...

  6. GARCH Option Valuation: Theory and Evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Jacobs, Kris; Ornthanalai, Chayawat

    We survey the theory and empirical evidence on GARCH option valuation models. Our treatment includes the range of functional forms available for the volatility dynamic, multifactor models, nonnormal shock distributions as well as style of pricing kernels typically used. Various strategies...

  7. Evidence-based practice within nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laville, Martine; Segrestin, Berenice; Alligier, Maud

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Evidence-based clinical research poses special barriers in the field of nutrition. The present review summarises the main barriers to research in the field of nutrition that are not common to all randomised clinical trials or trials on rare diseases and highlights opportunities for im...

  8. Income Aspirations and Cooperation : Experimental Evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalton, P.S.

    2010-01-01

    This article is the first attempt to study the empirical link between income aspirations and cooperation in a one shot public good game. By combining experimental with survey data, we find evidence that the more frustrated people are with their income, the lower is their propensity to cooperate with

  9. Evidence-Based Treatment of Maisonneuve Fractures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.A. Stufkens; M.P.J. van den Bekerom; J.N. Doornberg; C.N. van Dijk; P. Kloen

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to review the published clinical evidence available for the treatment of Maisonneuve fractures. Medline via PubMed, Orthopaedic Trauma Association (OTA) annual meetings' abstracts archives Web site, Embase, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and the C

  10. 19 CFR 210.37 - Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence. 210.37 Section 210.37 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION INVESTIGATIONS OF UNFAIR PRACTICES IN IMPORT TRADE... retained with the record so as to be available for consideration by any reviewing authority....

  11. Evidence Based Education Request Desk. EBE #359

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regional Educational Laboratory Southeast, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This Evidence Based Education (EBE) response describes characteristics of graduation coach initiatives in three states (Georgia, Alabama, and California). Regional Educational Laboratory (REL) Southeast has received over 19 requests for information on various initiatives, programs or research related to improving graduation rates. For example, the…

  12. Evidence Based Education Request Desk. EBE #555

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regional Educational Laboratory Southeast, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This Evidence Based Education (EBE) Request seeks to provide an overview of recent research regarding school improvement and reform with special concentration on turning around chronically low-performing schools. The response is divided into four main sections: Research on Effective Methods for Turning Around Low-Performing Schools, Frameworks for…

  13. Evidence Based Education Request Desk. EBE #510

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regional Educational Laboratory Southeast, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This Evidence Based Education (EBE) request focused on research-supported vocabulary interventions for middle elementary students. Limited vocabulary is an important factor in underachievement of children in disadvantaged homes. Children with larger vocabularies find reading easier, read more widely, and do better in school (Lubliner & Smetana,…

  14. Evidence Based Education Request Desk. EBE #741

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regional Educational Laboratory Southeast, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This Evidence Based Education (EBE) request asks for information relating to funding for virtual schools. The EBE Request Desk was asked to provide a scan of states for information on how they fund virtual schools and what the current funding levels are (most current year for which such data is available). This paper provides answers to this…

  15. Evidence Based Education Request Desk. EBE #798

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regional Educational Laboratory Southeast, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Evidence Based Education (EBE) #555 was in response to the request "Is there any new compelling research for turning around low-performing schools?" The articles included in that document are on target, but include articles through 2009. This EBE Request seeks to provide an updated review of recent research (2009-present) regarding school…

  16. Distributed Leadership: According to the Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Alma

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to provide an overview of the literature concerning distributed leadership and organisational change. The main purpose of the paper is to consider the empirical evidence that highlights a relationship between distributed leadership and organisational outcomes. Design/methodological approach: The paper draws on several…

  17. Linking anthropological analysis and epidemiological evidence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the formation of internally displaced people's camps, rape, transactional sex and ... HIV transmission remains unclear, as the epidemiological evidence presents an ... the intersection of war and infectious disease transmission and treatment. .... Source: United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, 2006 ...

  18. African American Homeschooling Practices: Empirical Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazama, Ama

    2016-01-01

    Despite a significant increase in scholarly interest for homeschooling, some of its most critical aspects, such as instructional daily practices, remain grossly understudied. This essay thus seeks to fill that void by presenting empirical evidence regarding the homeschooling practices of a specific group, African Americans. Most specifically, the…

  19. Computational Evidence for the Smallest Boron Nanotube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xian Jie LIN; Dong Ju ZHANG; Cheng Bu LIU

    2006-01-01

    The structure of boron nanotubes (BNTs) was found not to be limited to hexagonal pyramidal structures. Based on density functional theory calculations we provided evidence for the smallest boron nanotube, a geometrical analog of the corresponding carbon nanotube. As shown by our calculations, the smallest BNT possesses highly structural, dynamical, and thermal stability, which should be interest for attempts at its synthesis.

  20. Environment and Happiness: New Evidence for Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunado, Juncal; Perez de Gracia, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between air pollution, climate and reported subjective well-being (or happiness) in Spanish regions. The results show that, after controlling for most of the socio-economic variables affecting happiness, there are still significant regional differences in subjective well-being. Evidence also suggests that…

  1. 40 CFR 164.81 - Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evidence. 164.81 Section 164.81 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS RULES OF PRACTICE GOVERNING HEARINGS, UNDER THE FEDERAL INSECTICIDE, FUNGICIDE, AND RODENTICIDE ACT, ARISING FROM REFUSALS...

  2. Evidence-based recommendation on toothpaste use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Aparecido Cury

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Toothpaste can be used as a vehicle for substances to improve the oral health of individuals and populations. Therefore, it should be recommended based on the best scientific evidence available, and not on the opinion of authorities or specialists. Fluoride is the most important therapeutic substance used in toothpastes, adding to the effect of mechanical toothbrushing on dental caries control. The use of fluoride toothpaste to reduce caries in children and adults is strongly based on evidence, and is dependent on the concentration (minimum of 1000 ppm F and frequency of fluoride toothpaste use (2'/day or higher. The risk of dental fluorosis due to toothpaste ingestion by children has been overestimated, since there is no evidence that: 1 fluoride toothpaste use should be postponed until the age of 3-4 or older, 2 low-fluoride toothpaste avoids fluorosis and 3 fluorosis has a detrimental effect on the quality of life of individuals exposed to fluoridated water and toothpaste. Among other therapeutic substances used in toothpastes, there is evidence that triclosan/copolymer reduce dental biofilm, gingivitis, periodontitis, calculus and halitosis, and that toothpastes containing stannous fluoride reduce biofilm and gingivitis.

  3. Managing Records as Evidence and Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Richard J.

    For the past three decades, policies regarding a variety of information issues have emanated from federal agencies, legislative chambers, and corporate boardrooms. Records policies are critically important for records professionals to develop and use as a means of strategically managing the information and evidence found in the millions of records…

  4. 12 CFR 1780.51 - Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence. 1780.51 Section 1780.51 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF FEDERAL HOUSING ENTERPRISE OVERSIGHT, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT RULES... the official public records of any Federal or State government agency. (2) All matters officially...

  5. Evidence-based recommendation on toothpaste use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cury, Jaime Aparecido; Tenuta, Livia Maria Andalo

    2014-01-01

    Toothpaste can be used as a vehicle for substances to improve the oral health of individuals and populations. Therefore, it should be recommended based on the best scientific evidence available, and not on the opinion of authorities or specialists. Fluoride is the most important therapeutic substance used in toothpastes, adding to the effect of mechanical toothbrushing on dental caries control. The use of fluoride toothpaste to reduce caries in children and adults is strongly based on evidence, and is dependent on the concentration (minimum of 1000 ppm F) and frequency of fluoride toothpaste use (2'/day or higher). The risk of dental fluorosis due to toothpaste ingestion by children has been overestimated, since there is no evidence that: 1) fluoride toothpaste use should be postponed until the age of 3-4 or older, 2) low-fluoride toothpaste avoids fluorosis and 3) fluorosis has a detrimental effect on the quality of life of individuals exposed to fluoridated water and toothpaste. Among other therapeutic substances used in toothpastes, there is evidence that triclosan/copolymer reduce dental biofilm, gingivitis, periodontitis, calculus and halitosis, and that toothpastes containing stannous fluoride reduce biofilm and gingivitis.

  6. Evidence for production of single top quarks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abazov, V.M.; et al., [Unknown; de Jong, S.J.; Demarteau, M.; Houben, P.; van den Berg, P.J.

    2008-01-01

    We present first evidence for the production of single top quarks in the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron p (p) over bar collider. The standard model predicts that the electroweak interaction can produce a top quark together with an antibottom quark or light quark, without the antiparticle top-q

  7. Learning From Others About Research Evidence (editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Brettle

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Welcome to the June issue of EBLIP, our firstto be published with an HTML version as wellas PDFs for each article. I hope you enjoy andfind the alternative formats useful. As usualthe issue comprises an interesting range ofevidence summaries and articles that I hopeyou will find useful in applying evidence toyour practice.When considering evidence, two recent trips toEdinburgh got me thinking about the widerange of study designs or methods that areuseful for generating evidence, and also howwe can learn about their use from otherprofessions.The first trip was as part of the cadre of the LISDREaM project (http://lisresearch.org/dreamproject/.DREaM has been set up by the LISResearch Coalition to develop a sustainableLIS research network in the UK. As part ofthis, a series of workshops aims to introduceLIS practitioners to a wider range of researchmethods, thus expanding the methods used inLIS research. Indeed, a quick scan of thecontents of this issue show a preponderance ofsurveys, interviews, and citation analysis,suggesting that broadening our knowledge ofmethods may well be a useful idea. Theworkshops are highly interactive and, at eachsession experts from outside the LIS disciplineintroduce particular research methods andoutline how they could be used in LISapplications. As a result, I can see the valueand understand when to use research methodssuch as social network analysis, horizonscanning, ethnography, discourse analysis, andrepertory grids – as well as knowing that datamining is something I’m likely to avoid! So farI’ve shared my new knowledge with a PhDstudent who was considering her methodologyand incorporated my new knowledge ofhorizon scanning into a bid for researchfunding. The next (and more exciting step isto think of a situation where I can apply one ofthese methods to examining an aspect of LIS practice.The second trip was the British Association ofCounselling and Psychotherapy ResearchConference, an event which I

  8. 12 CFR 308.36 - Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION PROCEDURE AND RULES OF PRACTICE RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Uniform Rules of Practice and Procedure § 308.36 Evidence. (a) Admissibility. (1) Except as is..., outlines or other graphic material to summarize, illustrate, or simplify the presentation of...

  9. Evidence and Inference in Educational Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-02-01

    Educational assessment concerns inference about students’ knowledge, skills, and accomplishments. Because data are never so comprehensive and...techniques can be viewed as applications of more general principles for inference in the presence of uncertainty. Issues of evidence and inference in educational assessment are discussed from this perspective. (AN)

  10. Evidence-Based Classroom Behaviour Management Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsonson, Barry S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews a range of evidence-based strategies for application by teachers to reduce disruptive and challenging behaviours in their classrooms. These include a number of antecedent strategies intended to help minimise the emergence of problematic behaviours and a range of those which provide positive consequences for appropriate student…

  11. Quantitative Evidence Synthesis with Power Priors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietbergen, C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/322847796

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to provide the applied researcher with a practical approach for quantitative evidence synthesis using the conditional power prior that allows for subjective input and thereby provides an alternative tgbgo deal with the difficulties as- sociated with the joint power prior

  12. 20 CFR 901.45 - Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...' Benefits JOINT BOARD FOR THE ENROLLMENT OF ACTUARIES REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE PERFORMANCE OF ACTUARIAL... actuaries. However, the Administrative Law Judge shall exclude evidence which is irrelevant, immaterial, or... of Actuaries or the Office of the Executive Director of the Joint Board for the Enrollment...

  13. 8 CFR 1244.9 - Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... that he or she feels would be helpful in showing nationality. Acceptable evidence in descending order... identification; and/or (iii) Any national identity document from the alien's country of origin bearing photo and... knows the applicant; and (G) Establishes the origin of the information being attested to....

  14. 8 CFR 244.9 - Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... nationality. During this interview, the applicant may present any secondary evidence that he or she feels... national identity document from the alien's country of origin bearing photo and/or fingerprint. (2) Proof...; and (G) Establishes the origin of the information being attested to. (vi) Additional documents...

  15. DISCOVERY OF EVIDENCE IN INTERNATIONAL COMMERCIAL ARBITRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakumenko, V.V.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the different concepts of discovery of evidence, which exist under different legal jurisdictions, with their theoretical analysis to determine the feasibility and rationality of the application of the discovery mechanisms in the frameworks of international commercial arbitration and its fundamental principles.

  16. Justifying Physical Education Based on Neuroscience Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Kris

    2010-01-01

    Research has shown that exercise improves cognitive function and psychological traits that influence behavior (e.g., mood, level of motivation). The evidence in the literature also shows that physical education may enhance learning or that academic performance is at least maintained despite a reduction in classroom time in order to increase time…

  17. Evidence-Based Chinese Medicine for Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is an important worldwide public -health challenge with high mortality and disability. Due to the limitations and concerns with current available hypertension treatments, many hypertensive patients, especially in Asia, have turned to Chinese medicine (CM. Although hypertension is not a CM term, physicians who practice CM in China attempt to treat the disease using CM principles. A variety of approaches for treating hypertension have been taken in CM. For seeking the best evidence of CM in making decisions for hypertensive patients, a number of clinical studies have been conducted in China, which has paved the evidence-based way. After literature searching and analyzing, it appeared that CM was effective for hypertension in clinical use, such as Chinese herbal medicine, acupuncture, moxibustion, cupping, qigong, and Tai Chi. However, due to the poor quality of primary studies, clinical evidence is still weak. The potential benefits and safety of CM for hypertension still need to be confirmed in the future with well-designed RCTs of more persuasive primary endpoints and high-quality SRs. Evidence-based Chinese medicine for hypertension still has a long way to go.

  18. Evidence and research in rectal cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valentini, V.; Beets-Tan, R.; Borras, J.M.; Krivokapic, Z.; Leer, J.W.H.; Pahlman, L.; Rodel, C.; Schmoll, H.J.; Scott, N.; Velde, C.V.; Verfaillie, C.

    2008-01-01

    The main evidences of epidemiology, diagnostic imaging, pathology, surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and follow-up are reviewed to optimize the routine treatment of rectal cancer according to a multidisciplinary approach. This paper reports on the knowledge shared between different specialists inv

  19. Multinational Subsidiary Performance: Evidence from the Ghanaian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-05-01

    May 1, 2016 ... the availability of intangible assets (such as knowledge/skills base of employees) ... strings; and more evidently, their strong financial muscle due to the high initial capital ... in the model (see table 1) were drawn from the multinational ..... charges on loans and advances) through high credit pricing practices.

  20. Digital Natives: Where Is the Evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helsper, Ellen Johanna; Eynon, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    Generational differences are seen as the cause of wide shifts in our ability to engage with technologies and the concept of the digital native has gained popularity in certain areas of policy and practice. This paper provides evidence, through the analysis of a nationally representative survey in the UK, that generation is only one of the…

  1. Quantitative Evidence Synthesis with Power Priors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietbergen, C.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to provide the applied researcher with a practical approach for quantitative evidence synthesis using the conditional power prior that allows for subjective input and thereby provides an alternative tgbgo deal with the difficulties as- sociated with the joint power prior di

  2. Environment and Happiness: New Evidence for Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunado, Juncal; Perez de Gracia, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between air pollution, climate and reported subjective well-being (or happiness) in Spanish regions. The results show that, after controlling for most of the socio-economic variables affecting happiness, there are still significant regional differences in subjective well-being. Evidence also suggests that…

  3. Patient autonomy in evidence-based dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritwik, Priyanshi

    2014-01-01

    Evidence-based dentistry is the judicious integration of scientific information relating to the patient's oral health and medical condition with the dentist's clinical expertise and the patient's own treatment needs and preferences. In this triad of factors, we (the dentists) are least likely to be formally trained in recognizing our patient's preferences. Do we understand what shapes these preferences?

  4. Unpacking the Evidence of Gender Bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulmer, Connie L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate gender bias in pre-service principals using the Gender-Leader Implicit Association Test. Analyses of student-learning narratives revealed how students made sense of gender bias (biased or not-biased) and how each reacted to evidence (surprised or not-surprised). Two implications were: (1) the need for…

  5. 41 CFR 105-70.034 - Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evidence. 105-70.034 Section 105-70.034 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION Regional Offices-General Services Administration...

  6. 42 CFR 93.208 - Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Evidence. 93.208 Section 93.208 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON...

  7. Intuition and evidence--uneasy bedfellows?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhalgh, Trisha

    2002-05-01

    Intuition is a decision-making method that is used unconsciously by experienced practitioners but is inaccessible to the novice. It is rapid, subtle, contextual, and does not follow simple, cause-and-effect logic. Evidence-based medicine offers exciting opportunities_for improving patient outcomes, but the 'evidence-burdened' approach of the inexperienced, protocol-driven clinician is well documented Intuition is not unscientific. It is a highly creative process, fundamental to hypothesis generation in science. The experienced practitioner should generate and follow clinical hunches as well as (not instead of applying the deductive principles of evidence-based medicine. The educational research literature suggests that we can improve our intuitive powers through systematic critical reflection about intuitive judgements--for example, through creative writing and dialogue with professional colleagues. It is time to revive and celebrate clinical storytelling as a method for professional education and development. The stage is surely set for a new, improved--and, indeed, evidence-based--'Balint'group.

  8. 22 CFR 224.34 - Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence. 224.34 Section 224.34 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT § 224... probative value is substantially outweighed by the danger of unfair prejudice, confusion of the issues,...

  9. 42 CFR 1005.17 - Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... danger of unfair prejudice, confusion of the issues, or by considerations of undue delay or needless..., wrongs or acts other than those at issue in the instant case is admissible in order to show motive... evidence is admissible regardless of whether the crimes, wrongs or acts occurred during the statute...

  10. 22 CFR 521.34 - Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Evidence. 521.34 Section 521.34 Foreign Relations BROADCASTING BOARD OF GOVERNORS IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT § 521.34... substantially outweighed by the danger of unfair prejudice, confusion of the issues, or by consideration...

  11. Cycads: Fossil evidence of late paleozoic origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamay, S.H.

    1969-01-01

    Plant fossils from Lower Permian strata of the southwestern United States have been interpreted as cycadalean megasporophylls. They are evidently descended from spermopterid elements of the Pennsylvanian Taeniopteris complex; thus the known fossil history of the cycads is extended from the Late Triassic into the late Paleozoic. Possible implications of the Permian fossils toward evolution of the angiosperm carpel are considered.

  12. Justifying Physical Education Based on Neuroscience Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Kris

    2010-01-01

    Research has shown that exercise improves cognitive function and psychological traits that influence behavior (e.g., mood, level of motivation). The evidence in the literature also shows that physical education may enhance learning or that academic performance is at least maintained despite a reduction in classroom time in order to increase time…

  13. Behavioural activation: history, evidence and promise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanter, Jonathan W; Puspitasari, Ajeng J; Santos, Maria M; Nagy, Gabriela A

    2012-05-01

    Behavioural activation holds promise to reduce the global burden of depression as a treatment approach that is effective, easy to teach, scalable and acceptable to providers and patients across settings and cultures. This editorial reviews the history of behavioural activation, what it is, current evidence for its use and future directions.

  14. Time for evidence-based cytology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dey Pranab

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Evidence-based medicine (EBM is a fashionable and an extremely hot topic for clinicians, patients and the health service planners. Evidence-based cytology (EBC is an offshoot of EBM. The EBC is concerned with generating a reproducible, high quality and clinically relevant test result in the field of cytology. This is a rapidly evolving area with high practical importance. EBC is based entirely on research data. The various professional bodies on cytology design and recommend guidelines on the basis of evidences. Once the guideline is implemented and practiced then the experiences of the practicing cytopathologists may be used as a feed back to alter the existing guideline. The various facets of EBC are sampling and specimen adequacy, morphological identification and computer based expert system, integrated reporting, identification of the controversial areas and high quality researches for evidences. It is the duty of the individuals and institutions to practice EBC for better diagnosis and management of the patients. In this present paper, the various aspects of EBC have been discussed.

  15. New Evidence on Teacher Labor Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Mimi; Jacob, Brian A.; Curran, F. Chris

    2014-01-01

    Recent evidence on the large variance in teacher effectiveness has spurred interest in teacher labor markets. Research documents that better qualified teachers typically work in more advantaged schools but cannot determine the relative importance of supply versus demand. To isolate teacher preferences, we document which schools prospective…

  16. Consequences of Assessment: What Is the Evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrens, William A.

    1998-01-01

    Examines the purposes of large-scale assessment programs, outlines the dangers and benefits of these assessments, considers the research evidence about the consequences of assessment, discusses how to evaluate assessment quality, and presents some ideas about the variables that influence the probabilities for good and bad assessment. (SLD)

  17. Comment on "Evidence for mesothermy in dinosaurs".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myhrvold, Nathan P

    2015-05-29

    Grady et al. (Reports, 13 June 2014, p. 1268) studied dinosaur metabolism by comparison of maximum somatic growth rate allometry with groups of known metabolism. They concluded that dinosaurs exhibited mesothermy, a metabolic rate intermediate between endothermy and ectothermy. Multiple statistical and methodological issues call into question the evidence for dinosaur mesothermy.

  18. Nutraceuticals as natural healers: Emerging evidences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-03-20

    Mar 20, 2009 ... The epidemiological evidences and modern research in nutrition during the ... ceutical foods in modern global treatment has triggered rapid research ... The present paper reviews the .... information based on epidemiological surveys including ... The oxidized LDLs are recognized by macro-phages through ...

  19. 31 CFR 306.101 - Evidence required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Evidence required. 306.101 Section 306.101 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT GENERAL REGULATIONS GOVERNING...

  20. Fossil evidence of the zygomycetous fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krings, M.; Taylor, T.N.; Dotzler, N.

    2013-01-01

    Molecular clock data indicate that the first zygomycetous fungi occurred on Earth during the Precambrian, however, fossil evidence of these organisms has been slow to accumulate. In this paper, the fossil record of the zygomycetous fungi is compiled, with a focus on structurally preserved Carbonifer

  1. Evidence-based Medicine in Animal Reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlt, S P; Heuwieser, W

    2014-09-01

    With new knowledge being generated and published daily, the importance of evidence-based approaches in veterinary medicine is obvious. Clinicians must stay current or risk making poor decisions that clients may challenge. Especially in animal reproduction, several new substances and procedures to diagnose or treat reproductive disorders have been introduced in the last years. On the other hand, a closer look at the quality of published literature on animal reproduction reveals major deficits in methodology and reporting of many clinical trials. We strongly recommend systematically assessing the quality of scientific information when reading journal papers before using the given information in practice. The aim of evidence-based medicine (EBM) is to base the decisions in the practice of medicine on valid, clinically relevant research data. Therefore, we suggest that students should become familiar with the concepts of evidence-based veterinary medicine (EBVM) at the beginning of their veterinary education. Concepts and supporting tools such as checklists for literature assessment have been developed and validated. The purpose of this article is to review and discuss the importance of incorporating EBVM in animal reproduction. The need for further research that produces strong evidence in different fields of animal reproduction and better reporting of relevant study information is obvious.

  2. Employing Evidence Evidence: Does it Have a Job in Vocational Libraries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad Jones

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective - Evidence-based librarianship (EBL springs ffrom medical and academic origins. As librarians are tertiary educated (only occasionally with supplementary qualifications covering research and statistics EBL has an academic focus. The EBL literature has significant content from school and university perspectives, but has had little, if any, vocational content. This paper suggests a possible Evidence Based Librarianship context for vocational libraries. Methods - A multidisciplinary scan of evidence based literature was undertaken, covering medicine and allied health, librarianship, law, science and education. National and international vocational education developments were examined. The concept and use of evidence in vocational libraries was considered. Results - Library practice can generally benefit from generic empirical science methodologies used elsewhere. Different areas, however, may have different concepts of what constitutes evidence and appropriate methodologies. Libraries also need to reflect the evidence used in their host organisations. The Australian vocational librarian has been functioning in an evidence based educational sector: national, transportable, prescriptive, competancy based and outcomes drived Training Packages. These require a qualitatively different concept of evidence compared to the other educational sectors as they reflect pragmatic, economic, employability outcomes. Conclusions - Vocational and other librarians have been doing research but need to be more systematic about design and analysis. Librarians need to develop 'evidence literacy' as one of their professional evaluation skills. Libraries will need to utilise evidence relevant to their host organisations to esablish and maintain credibility, and in the vocational sector this is set in a competency based framework. Competancy based measures are becoming increasingly relevant in school and university(including medical education.

  3. Level of evidence in hand surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosales Roberto S

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few investigations have been done to analyze the level of evidence in journals related to hand surgery, compared to other related research fields. The objective of this study was to assess the level of evidence of the clinical research papers published in the Ibero-american (RICMA, the European (JHSE and American (JHSA Journals of Hand Surgery. Methods A total of 932 clinical research papers published between 2005 and 2009 (RICMA 60, JHSE 461, and JHSA 411 were reviewed. Two independent observers classified the level of evidence based on the Oxford International Classification, 5 being the lowest level and 1 the highest level. The observed frequencies of the level of evidence for each journal were compared with the expected frequencies by a chi-square (χ 2 test for categorical variables with a significance level of 0.05. Results Inter-observer agreement analysis showed a Kappa of 0.617. Intra-observer agreement analysis presented a Kappa of 0.66 for the observer 1, and a Kappa of 0.751 for the observer 2. More than 80% of the papers in RICMA and JHSE and a 67.6% in the JHSA presented a level of 4. No level 1 or 2 studies were published in RICMA, compared to JHSE (0.9% level 1 and 5.0% level 2 and JHSA (8.3% level 1 and 10% level 2. The percentage of papers with level 3 published in RICMA (16.7% was higher compared to the JHSE (11.1% and the JHSA (14.1%. All the results were statistically significant (χ2=63.945; p Conclusions The level of evidence in hand surgery is dependent on the type of journal; being the highest level evidence papers those published in the JHSA, followed by the JHSE and finally the RICMA. Knowing the status of the level of evidence published in hand surgery is the starting point to face the challenges of improving the quality of our clinical research

  4. Micronutrients and cancer aetiology: the epidemiological evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key, T

    1994-11-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies occur most commonly in poor countries and, therefore, are most likely to be associated with cancers common in these countries. Epidemiological studies are hampered by inaccurate measurement of micronutrient intake and by the correlations between intakes of many nutrients. The strongest evidence for a protective effect of micronutrients is for oesophageal cancer. The identity of the micronutrients is not certain, but may include retinol, riboflavin, ascorbic acid and Zn; alcohol, smoking and dietary nitrosamines increase the risk for oesophageal cancer. For stomach cancer there is good evidence that fruit and vegetables are protective. The protective effect of these foods might be largely due to ascorbic acid, but other nutrients and non-nutrients may also be important; the risk for stomach cancer is increased by salt, some types of preserved foods, and by infection of the stomach with the bacterium Helicobacter pylori. The risk for lung cancer appears to be reduced by a high intake of fruit and vegetables, but it is not clear which agents are responsible and the major cause of lung cancer is cigarette smoking. Diet is probably the major determinant of the risk for colo-rectal cancer; there is evidence that fruit and vegetables and fibre reduce risk and that meat and animal fat increase risk, but there is no convincing evidence that these relationships are mediated by micronutrients. The risk for cervical cancer is inversely related to fruit and vegetable consumption and, therefore, to consumption of carotenoids and ascorbic acid, but the major cause of this cancer is human papillomavirus and it is not yet clear whether the dietary associations indicate a true protective effect or whether they are due to confounding by other variables. The evidence that micronutrients are important in the aetiology of either breast cancer or prostate cancer is weak, but the possible roles of 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol and alpha-tocopherol in prostate

  5. Cellulite: an evidence-based review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luebberding, Stefanie; Krueger, Nils; Sadick, Neil S

    2015-08-01

    Cellulite is a multifactorial condition that is present in 80-90 % of post-pubertal women. Despite its high prevalence, it remains a major cosmetic concern for women. A wide range of products and treatments for cellulite reduction is available; however, no systematic review has been performed so far to evaluate the efficacy of the available treatment options for cellulite. The objective of this review is to provide a systematic evaluation of the scientific evidence of the efficacy of treatments for cellulite reduction. This systematic review followed the PRISMA guidelines for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Only original articles in English or German reporting data on the efficacy of cellulite treatments from in vivo human studies were considered. In total, 67 articles were analyzed for the following information: therapy, presence of a control group, randomization, blinding, sample size, description of statistical methods, results, and level of evidence. Most of the evaluated studies, including laser- and light-based modalities, radiofrequency, and others had important methodological flaws; some did not use cellulite severity as an endpoint or did not provide sufficient statistical analyses. Of the 67 studies analyzed in this review, only 19 were placebo-controlled studies with randomization. Some evidence for potential benefit was only seen for acoustic wave therapy (AWT) and the 1440 nm Nd:YAG minimally invasive laser. This article provides a systematic evaluation of the scientific evidence of the efficacy of treatment for cellulite reduction. No clear evidence of good efficacy could be identified in any of the evaluated cellulite treatments.

  6. Nutrition and sarcopenia: evidence for an interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millward, D Joe

    2012-11-01

    Nutritional interventions that might influence sarcopenia, as indicated by literature reporting on sarcopenia per se as well as dynapenia and frailty, are reviewed in relation to potential physiological aetiological factors, i.e. inactivity, anabolic resistance, inflammation, acidosis and vitamin D deficiency. As sarcopenia occurs in physically active and presumably well-nourished populations, it is argued that a simple nutritional aetiology is unlikely and unequivocal evidence for any nutritional influence is extremely limited. Dietary protein is probably the most widely researched nutrient but only for frailty is there one study showing evidence of an aetiological influence and most intervention studies with protein or amino acids have proved ineffective with only a very few exceptions. Fish oil has been shown to attenuate anabolic resistance of muscle protein synthesis in one study. There is limited evidence for a protective influence of antioxidants and inducers of phase 2 proteins on sarcopenia, dynapenia and anabolic resistance in human and animal studies. Also fruit and vegetables may protect against acidosis-induced sarcopenia through their provision of dietary potassium. While severe vitamin D deficiency is associated with dynapenia and sarcopenia, the evidence for a beneficial influence of increasing vitamin D status above the severe deficiency level is limited and controversial, especially in men. On this basis there is insufficient evidence for any more specific nutritional advice than that contained in the general healthy lifestyle-healthy diet message: i.e. avoiding inactivity and low intakes of food energy and nutrients and maintain an active lifestyle with a diet providing a rich supply of fruit and vegetables and frequent oily fish.

  7. Can Scholarly Communication be Evidence Based? (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Koufogiannakis

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This issue of Evidence Based Library and Information Practice includes three papers from the Evidence Based Scholarly Communication Conference (EBSCC that took place in March 2010i. Kroth, Philips and Eldredge have written a commentary that gives an overview of the conference, and introduces us to the research papers that were presented. As well, two research presentations from the conference appear in this issue, an article by Donahue about a potential new method of communicating between scholars, and a paper by Gilliland in our Using Evidence in Practice section, detailing a library’s Open Access Day preparations.Kroth, Philips and Eldredge note that “The EBSCC brought together librarians and information specialists to share evidence-based strategies for developing effective local scholarly communication support and training and, hopefully, form new coalitions to address this topic at a local and national level.” (p 108. This conference focused on translational medicine, and looked at how to promote new methods of scholarly communication, partially through the inclusion of research papers at the conference.The inclusion of these articles and the evidence based focus of the EBSCC conference, made me ask myself, can scholarly communication be evidence based? At its core, scholarly communication is anything but a scientific issue. It is charged with emotion; from authors, publishers, librarians and others involved in the business of publishing. The recent shift to look at new models of scholarly communication has been a threat to many of the established models and sparked much debate in the academic world, especially in relation to open access. In her 2006 EBLIP commentary on evidence based practice and open access, Morrison notes, “Open Access and evidence based librarianship are a natural combination” (p. 49, and outlines her perspective on many of the reasons why. Debate continues to rage, however, regarding how authors should

  8. Evidence and evidence gaps in therapies of nasal obstruction and rhinosinusitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotter, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Therapeutic decisions in otorhinolaryngology are based on clinical experience, surgical skills, and scientific evidence. Recently, evidence-based therapies have gained increased attention and importance due to their potential to improve the individual patient’s treatment and their potential at the same time to reduce treatment costs. In clinical practice, it is almost impossible to stay ahead of the increasing mass of literature and on the other hand critically assess the presented data. A solid scientific and statistical knowledge as well as a significant amount of spare time are required to detect systematic bias and other errors in study designs, also with respect to assessing whether or not a study should be part of an individual therapeutic decision. Meta-analyses, reviews, and clinical guidelines are, therefore, of increasing importance for evidence-based therapy in clinical practice. This review is an update of the availability of external evidence for the treatment of nasal obstruction and rhinosinusitis. It becomes evident that both groups of diseases differ significantly in the availability of external evidence. Furthermore, it becomes obvious that surgical treatment options are normally based on evidence of significantly lower quality than medical treatment options. PMID:28025606

  9. On evidence and evidence-based medicine: lessons from the philosophy of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Maya J

    2006-06-01

    The evidence-based medicine (EBM) movement is touted as a new paradigm in medical education and practice, a description that carries with it an enthusiasm for science that has not been seen since logical positivism flourished (circa 1920-1950). At the same time, the term "evidence-based medicine" has a ring of obviousness to it, as few physicians, one suspects, would claim that they do not attempt to base their clinical decision-making on available evidence. However, the apparent obviousness of EBM can and should be challenged on the grounds of how 'evidence' has been problematised in the philosophy of science. EBM enthusiasm, it follows, ought to be tempered. The post-positivist, feminist, and phenomenological philosophies of science that are examined in this paper contest the seemingly unproblematic nature of evidence that underlies EBM by emphasizing different features of the social nature of science. The appeal to the authority of evidence that characterizes evidence-based practices does not increase objectivity but rather obscures the subjective elements that inescapably enter all forms of human inquiry. The seeming common sense of EBM only occurs because of its assumed removal from the social context of medical practice. In the current age where the institutional power of medicine is suspect, a model that represents biomedicine as politically disinterested or merely scientific should give pause.

  10. Evidence for D0-D0 mixing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubert, B; Bona, M; Boutigny, D; Karyotakis, Y; Lees, J P; Poireau, V; Prudent, X; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Garra Tico, J; Grauges, E; Lopez, L; Palano, A; Eigen, G; Stugu, B; Sun, L; Abrams, G S; Battaglia, M; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadyk, J A; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kukartsev, G; Lopes Pegna, D; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Orimoto, T J; Ronan, M T; Tackmann, K; Wenzel, W A; Del Amo Sanchez, P; Hawkes, C M; Watson, A T; Held, T; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Schroeder, T; Steinke, M; Walker, D; Asgeirsson, D J; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T; Fulsom, B G; Hearty, C; Knecht, N S; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Khan, A; Saleem, M; Teodorescu, L; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Todyshev, K Yu; Bondioli, M; Curry, S; Eschrich, I; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Lund, P; Mandelkern, M; Martin, E C; Stoker, D P; Abachi, S; Buchanan, C; Foulkes, S D; Gary, J W; Liu, F; Long, O; Shen, B C; Zhang, L; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, S; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Cunha, A; Dahmes, B; Hong, T M; Kovalskyi, D; Richman, J D; Beck, T W; Eisner, A M; Flacco, C J; Heusch, C A; Kroseberg, J; Lockman, W S; Schalk, T; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Winstrom, L O; Chen, E; Cheng, C H; Fang, F; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Mishra, K; Sokoloff, M D; Blanc, F; Bloom, P C; Chen, S; Ford, W T; Hirschauer, J F; Kreisel, A; Nagel, M; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Smith, J G; Ulmer, K A; Wagner, S R; Zhang, J; Gabareen, A M; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Winklmeier, F; Zeng, Q; Altenburg, D D; Feltresi, E; Hauke, A; Jasper, H; Merkel, J; Petzold, A; Spaan, B; Wacker, K; Brandt, T; Klose, V; Kobel, M J; Lacker, H M; Mader, W F; Nogowski, R; Schubert, J; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Sundermann, J E; Volk, A; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Latour, E; Lombardo, V; Thiebaux, Ch; Verderi, M; Clark, P J; Gradl, W; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Robertson, A I; Xie, Y; Andreotti, M; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cecchi, A; Cibinetto, G; Franchini, P; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Petrella, A; Piemontese, L; Prencipe, E; Santoro, V; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; de Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Pacetti, S; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Rama, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Contri, R; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Chaisanguanthum, K S; Morii, M; Wu, J; Dubitzky, R S; Marks, J; Schenk, S; Uwer, U; Bard, D J; Dauncey, P D; Flack, R L; Nash, J A; Nikolich, M B; Panduro Vazquez, W; Behera, P K; Chai, X; Charles, M J; Mallik, U; Meyer, N T; Ziegler, V; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Dong, L; Eyges, V; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Rubin, A E; Gritsan, A V; Guo, Z J; Lae, C K; Denig, A G; Fritsch, M; Schott, G; Arnaud, N; Béquilleux, J; Davier, M; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Lepeltier, V; Le Diberder, F; Lutz, A M; Pruvot, S; Rodier, S; Roudeau, P; Schune, M H; Serrano, J; Sordini, V; Stocchi, A; Wang, W F; Wormser, G; Lange, D J; Wright, D M; Chavez, C A; Forster, I J; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; Hutchcroft, D E; Payne, D J; Schofield, K C; Touramanis, C; Bevan, A J; George, K A; Di Lodovico, F; Menges, W; Sacco, R; Cowan, G; Flaecher, H U; Hopkins, D A; Jackson, P S; McMahon, T R; Salvatore, F; Wren, A C; Brown, D N; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Chia, Y M; Edgar, C L; Lafferty, G D; West, T J; Yi, J I; Anderson, J; Chen, C; Jawahery, A; Roberts, D A; Simi, G; Tuggle, J M; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Hertzbach, S S; Li, X; Moore, T B; Salvati, E; Saremi, S; Cowan, R; Fisher, P H; Sciolla, G; Sekula, S J; Spitznagel, M; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; McLachlin, S E; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Lazzaro, A; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Brunet, S; Côté, D; Simard, M; Taras, P; Viaud, F B; Nicholson, H; De Nardo, G; Fabozzi, F; Lista, L; Monorchio, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M A; Raven, G; Snoek, H L; Jessop, C P; LoSecco, J M; Benelli, G; Corwin, L A; Gan, K K; Honscheid, K; Hufnagel, D; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Morris, J P; Rahimi, A M; Regensburger, J J; Ter-Antonyan, R; Wong, Q K; Blount, N L; Brau, J; Frey, R; Igonkina, O; Kolb, J A; Lu, M; Rahmat, R; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Strube, J; Torrence, E; Gagliardi, N; Gaz, A; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Pompili, A; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Voci, C; Ben-Haim, E; Briand, H; Calderini, G; Chauveau, J; David, P; Del Buono, L; de la Vaissière, Ch; Hamon, O; Leruste, Ph; Malclès, J; Ocariz, J; Perez, A; Gladney, L; Biasini, M; Covarelli, R; Manoni, E; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Carpinelli, M; Cenci, R; Cervelli, A; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Mazur, M A; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rizzo, G; Walsh, J J; Haire, M; Biesiada, J; Elmer, P; Lau, Y P; Lu, C; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Telnov, A V; Baracchini, E; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; D'Orazio, A; del Re, D; Di Marco, E; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Jackson, P D; Li Gioi, L; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Piredda, G; Polci, F; Renga, F; Voena, C; Ebert, M; Schröder, H; Waldi, R; Adye, T; Castelli, G; Franek, B; Olaiya, E O; Ricciardi, S; Roethel, W; Wilson, F F; Aleksan, R; Emery, S; Escalier, M; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Kozanecki, W; Legendre, M; Vasseur, G; Yèche, Ch; Zito, M; Chen, X R; Liu, H; Park, W; Purohit, M V; Wilson, J R; Allen, M T; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Bechtle, P; Berger, N; Claus, R; Coleman, J P; Convery, M R; Dingfelder, J C; Dorfan, J; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Graham, M T; Grenier, P; Hast, C; Hryn'ova, T; Innes, W R; Kaminski, J; Kelsey, M H; Kim, H; Kim, P; Kocian, M L; Leith, D W G S; Li, S; Luitz, S; Luth, V; Lynch, H L; MacFarlane, D B; Marsiske, H; Messner, R; Muller, D R; O'Grady, C P; Ofte, I; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Pulliam, T; Ratcliff, B N; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Snyder, A; Stelzer, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Suzuki, K; Swain, S K; Thompson, J M; Va'vra, J; van Bakel, N; Wagner, A P; Weaver, M; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wright, D H; Yarritu, A K; Yi, K; Young, C C; Burchat, P R; Edwards, A J; Majewski, S A; Petersen, B A; Wilden, L; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Bula, R; Ernst, J A; Jain, V; Pan, B; Saeed, M A; Wappler, F R; Zain, S B; Bugg, W; Krishnamurthy, M; Spanier, S M; Eckmann, R; Ritchie, J L; Ruland, A M; Schilling, C J; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Lou, X C; Ye, S; Bianchi, F; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Pelliccioni, M; Bomben, M; Bosisio, L; Cartaro, C; Cossutti, F; Della Ricca, G; Lanceri, L; Vitale, L; Azzolini, V; Lopez-March, N; Martinez-Vidal, F; Milanes, D A; Oyanguren, A; Albert, J; Banerjee, Sw; Bhuyan, B; Hamano, K; Kowalewski, R; Nugent, I M; Roney, J M; Sobie, R J; Back, J J; Harrison, P F; Latham, T E; Mohanty, G B; Pappagallo, M; Band, H R; Chen, X; Dasu, S; Flood, K T; Hollar, J J; Kutter, P E; Pan, Y; Pierini, M; Prepost, R; Wu, S L; Yu, Z; Neal, H

    2007-05-25

    We present evidence for D0-D(0) mixing in D(0)-->K(+)pi(-) decays from 384 fb(-1) of e(+)e(-) colliding-beam data recorded near square root s=10.6 GeV with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II storage rings at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. We find the mixing parameters x('2)=[-0.22+/-0.30(stat)+/-0.21(syst)] x 10(-3) and y(')=[9.7+/-4.4(stat)+/-3.1(syst)] x 10(-3) and a correlation between them of -0.95. This result is inconsistent with the no-mixing hypothesis with a significance of 3.9 standard deviations. We measure R(D), the ratio of doubly Cabibbo-suppressed to Cabibbo-favored decay rates, to be [0.303+/-0.016(stat)+/-0.010(syst)]%. We find no evidence for CP violation.

  11. Evidence-based management of ANCA vasculitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruthers, David; Sherlock, Jonathan

    2009-06-01

    The vasculitides associated with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs) present to and are managed by a wide spectrum of physicians, reflecting the multi-organ nature of the conditions. Treatment strategies for these primary inflammatory vascular diseases have varied based on the outcomes of different clinical trials and practice reviews. The individual drugs used and their route of administration, dose, and duration of therapy have varied and have been the source of much debate. Advances in our understanding of disease immunopathogenesis, clinical assessment and outcome have formed the basis for several recent good-quality clinical trials. Now, with the results of these large-scale multicentre collaborative studies, there is a firmer evidence base to guide management decisions for individual patients. This evidence base, reviewed here, has led to the publication of treatment guidelines which importantly encompass many of the broader aspects of disease management.

  12. Auditory morphological processing: Evidence from phonological priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacovcin, Hezekiah Akiva; Goodwin Davies, Amy; Wilder, Robert J; Embick, David

    2017-07-01

    Using an auditory lexical decision task, we find evidence of a facilitatory priming effect for morphologically complex targets (e.g., snow-ed) preceded by primes which rhyme with the target's stem (e.g., dough). By using rhyme priming, we are able to probe for morphological processing in a way that avoids confounds arising from semantic relatedness that are inherent to morphological priming (snow/snow-ed). Phonological control conditions (e.g., targets code and grove for prime dough) are used to rule out alternative interpretations of the effect that are based on partial rhyme or phonological embedding of the stem. The findings provide novel evidence for an independent morphological component in lexical processing and demonstrate the utility of rhyme priming in probing morphological representation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Evidence for trends in UK flooding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Alice J

    2002-07-15

    Recent major flooding in the UK has raised concern that climate change is causing increases in flood frequency and flood magnitude. This paper considers whether UK flood data provide evidence of increasing trends in fluvial floods. The analysis examines both local and national flood series and investigates the effect of climate variability on trend detection. The results suggest that there have been trends towards more protracted high flows over the last 30-50 years, but that this could be accounted for as part of climatic variation rather than climate change. There is no statistical evidence of a long-term trend in flooding over the last 80-120 years. Thus, although climate change could be influencing floods, direct analysis of flood records does not yet provide proof.

  14. Creative teaching an evidence-based approach

    CERN Document Server

    Sale, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    This book contains an evidence-based pedagogic guide to enable any motivated teaching/training professional to be able to teach effectively and creatively. It firstly summarises the extensive research field on human psychological functioning relating to learning and how this can be fully utilised in the design and facilitation of quality learning experiences. It then demonstrates what creativity actually 'looks like' in terms of teaching practices, modelling the underpinning processes of creative learning design and how to apply these in lesson planning. The book, having established an evidence-based and pedagogically driven approach to creative learning design, extensively focuses on key challenges facing teaching professionals today. These include utilising information technologies in blended learning formats, differentiating instruction, and developing self-directed learners who can think well. The main purpose of the book is to demystify what it means to teach creatively, explicitly demonstrating the pr...

  15. Evidence Based Education: un quadro storico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliano Vivanet

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Nel corso dell’ultimo decennio, nel pensiero pedagogico anglosassone, si è affermata una cultura dell’evidenza cui ci si riferisce con l’espressione “evidence based education” (EBE. Secondo tale prospettiva, le decisioni in ambito educativo dovrebbero essere assunte sulla base delle conoscenze che la ricerca empirica offre in merito alla minore o maggiore efficacia delle differenti opzioni didattiche. Si tratta di un approccio (denominato “evidence based practice” che ha origine in ambito medico e che in seguito ha trovato applicazione in differenti domini delle scienze sociali. L’autore presenta un quadro introduttivo all’EBE, dando conto delle sue origini e dei differenti significati di cui è portatrice.

  16. Explicit Evidence Systems with Common Knowledge

    CERN Document Server

    Bucheli, Samuel; Studer, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Justification logics are epistemic logics that explicitly include justifications for the agents' knowledge. We develop a multi-agent justification logic with evidence terms for individual agents as well as for common knowledge. We define a Kripke-style semantics that is similar to Fitting's semantics for the Logic of Proofs LP. We show the soundness, completeness, and finite model property of our multi-agent justification logic with respect to this Kripke-style semantics. We demonstrate that our logic is a conservative extension of Yavorskaya's minimal bimodal explicit evidence logic, which is a two-agent version of LP. We discuss the relationship of our logic to the multi-agent modal logic S4 with common knowledge. Finally, we give a brief analysis of the coordinated attack problem in the newly developed language of our logic.

  17. Suicide among animals: a review of evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preti, Antonio

    2007-12-01

    Naturalists have not identified suicide in nonhuman species in field situations, despite intensive study of thousands of animal species. In this review, evidence on suicidal behavior among animals is analyzed to discover analogies with human suicidal behavior. Literature was retrieved by exploring Medline/PubMed and PsychINFO databases (1967-2007) and through manual literature searches. Keyword terms were "suicide or suicidal behavior" and "animal or animal behavior." Few empirical investigations have been carried out on this topic. Nevertheless, sparse evidence supports some resemblance between the self-endangering behavior observed in the animal kingdom, particularly in animals held in captivity or put under pressure by environmental challenges, and suicidal behavior among humans. Animal models have contributed to the study of both normal and pathological human behaviors: discovering some correlates of suicide among animals could be a valid contribution to the field.

  18. Digital Evidence Education in Schools of Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Alva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available An examination of State of Connecticut v. Julie Amero provides insight into how a general lack of understanding of digital evidence can cause an innocent defendant to be wrongfully convicted. By contrast, the 101-page opinion in Lorraine v. Markel American Insurance Co. provides legal precedence and a detailed consideration for the admission of digital evidence. An analysis of both cases leads the authors to recommend additions to Law School curricula designed to raise the awareness of the legal community to ensure such travesties of justice, as in the Amero case, don’t occur in the future. Work underway at the University of Washington designed to address this deficiency is discussed.

  19. Evidence-Based Education in Plastic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Shepard P; Chung, Kevin C; Waljee, Jennifer F

    2015-08-01

    Educational reforms in resident training have historically been driven by reports from medical societies and organizations. Although educational initiatives are well intended, they are rarely supported by robust evidence. The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education recently introduced competency-based training, a form of outcomes-based education that has been used successfully in nonmedical professional vocations. This initiative has promise to advance the quality of resident education, but questions remain regarding implementation within plastic surgery. In particular, how will competency-based training impact patient outcomes, and will the methodologies used to assess competencies (i.e., milestones) be accurate and validated by literature? This report investigates resident educational reform and the need for more evidence-based educational initiatives in plastic surgery training.

  20. History and evidence regarding hydrostatic shock

    CERN Document Server

    Courtney, Michael; 10.1227/NEU.0b013e3182041992

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews the history and evidence related to remote wounding effects of ballistic pressure waves imparted to tissue by the impact of a bullet. Such remote effects are often referred to as hydraulic or hydrostatic shock. In spite of considerable published evidence and a long history, some medical professionals continue to regard the ability of a bullet to injure tissue that is not directly crushed or stretched as mythical (Jandial R, Reichwage B, Levy M, Duenas V, Sturdivan L. Ballistics for the neurosurgeon. Neurosurgery. 2008:62:472-480.) Early references to these effects date to the 19th century; however, compelling experimental support and medical findings in human case studies did not become available until the late 20th and early 21st century.

  1. Limited Evidence for Robot-assisted Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broholm, Malene; Onsberg Hansen, Iben; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate available evidence on robot-assisted surgery compared with open and laparoscopic surgery. METHOD: The databases Medline, Embase, and Cochrane Library were systematically searched for randomized controlled trials comparing robot-assisted surgery with open and laparoscopic...... surgery regardless of surgical procedure. Meta-analyses were performed on each outcome with appropriate data material available. Cochrane Collaboration's tool for assessing risk of bias was used to evaluate risk of bias on a study level. The GRADE approach was used to evaluate the quality of evidence...... of the meta-analyses. RESULTS: This review included 20 studies comprising 981 patients. The meta-analyses found no significant differences between robot-assisted and laparoscopic surgery regarding blood loss, complication rates, and hospital stay. A significantly longer operative time was found for robot...

  2. Ancient bacteria show evidence of DNA repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Sarah Stewart; Hebsgaard, Martin B; Christensen, Torben R

    2007-01-01

    Recent claims of cultivable ancient bacteria within sealed environments highlight our limited understanding of the mechanisms behind long-term cell survival. It remains unclear how dormancy, a favored explanation for extended cellular persistence, can cope with spontaneous genomic decay over......-term survival of bacteria sealed in frozen conditions for up to one million years. Our results show evidence of bacterial survival in samples up to half a million years in age, making this the oldest independently authenticated DNA to date obtained from viable cells. Additionally, we find strong evidence...... that this long-term survival is closely tied to cellular metabolic activity and DNA repair that over time proves to be superior to dormancy as a mechanism in sustaining bacteria viability....

  3. How to teach evidence-based surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fingerhut, Abe; Borie, Frédéric; Dziri, Chadli

    2005-05-01

    The objectives of teaching evidence-based surgery (EBS) are to inform and convince that EBS is a method of interrogation, reasoning, appraisal, and application of information to guide physicians in their decisions to best treat their patients. Asking the right, answerable questions, translating them into effective searches for the best evidence, critically appraising evidence for its validity and importance, and then integrating EBS with their patients' values and preferences are daily chores for all surgeons. Teaching and learning EBS should be patient-centered, learner-centered, and active and interactive. The teacher should be a model for students to become an expert clinician who is able to match and take advantage of the clinical setting and circumstances to ask and to answer appropriate questions. The process is multistaged. Teaching EBS in small groups is ideal. However, it is time-consuming for the faculty and must be clearly and formally structured. As well, evidence-based medicine (EBM) courses must cater to local institutional needs, must receive broad support from the instructors and the providers of information (librarians and computer science faculty), use proven methodologies, and avoid scheduling conflicts. In agreement with others, we believe that the ideal moment to introduce the concepts of EBM into the curriculum of the medical student is early, during the first years of medical school. Afterward, it should be continued every year. When this is not the case, as in many countries, it becomes the province of the surgeon in teaching hospitals, whether they are at the university, are university-affiliated, or not, to fulfill this role.

  4. Productivity effects of organizational change: microeconometric evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Bertschek, Irene; Ulrich KAISER

    2001-01-01

    This paper analyzes the relationship between investment in information and communication technologies (ICT), non-ICT-investment, labor productivity and workplace reorganization. Firms are assumed to reorganize workplaces if the productivity gains arising from workplace reorganization exceed the associated reorganization costs. Two different types of organizational change are considered : introduction of group-work and flattening of hierarchies. Empirical evidence is provided for a sample of 4...

  5. Evidence Regarding the Treatment of Denture Stomatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarborough, Alexandra; Cooper, Lyndon; Duqum, Ibrahim; Mendonça, Gustavo; McGraw, Kathleen; Stoner, Lisa

    2016-06-01

    Denture stomatitis is a common inflammatory condition affecting the mucosa underlying complete dentures. It is associated with denture microbial biofilm, poor denture hygiene, poor denture quality, and nocturnal denture use. Numerous treatment methodologies have been used to treat stomatitis; however, a gold standard treatment has not been identified. The aim of this systematic review is to report on the current knowledge available in studies representing a range of evidence on the treatment of denture stomatitis.

  6. Computational mate choice: theory and empirical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano, Sergio; Cadeddu, Giorgia; Cermelli, Paolo

    2012-06-01

    The present review is based on the thesis that mate choice results from information-processing mechanisms governed by computational rules and that, to understand how females choose their mates, we should identify which are the sources of information and how they are used to make decisions. We describe mate choice as a three-step computational process and for each step we present theories and review empirical evidence. The first step is a perceptual process. It describes the acquisition of evidence, that is, how females use multiple cues and signals to assign an attractiveness value to prospective mates (the preference function hypothesis). The second step is a decisional process. It describes the construction of the decision variable (DV), which integrates evidence (private information by direct assessment), priors (public information), and value (perceived utility) of prospective mates into a quantity that is used by a decision rule (DR) to produce a choice. We make the assumption that females are optimal Bayesian decision makers and we derive a formal model of DV that can explain the effects of preference functions, mate copying, social context, and females' state and condition on the patterns of mate choice. The third step of mating decision is a deliberative process that depends on the DRs. We identify two main categories of DRs (absolute and comparative rules), and review the normative models of mate sampling tactics associated to them. We highlight the limits of the normative approach and present a class of computational models (sequential-sampling models) that are based on the assumption that DVs accumulate noisy evidence over time until a decision threshold is reached. These models force us to rethink the dichotomy between comparative and absolute decision rules, between discrimination and recognition, and even between rational and irrational choice. Since they have a robust biological basis, we think they may represent a useful theoretical tool for

  7. Analysis of evidence of Mars life

    CERN Document Server

    Levin, Gilbert V

    2007-01-01

    Gillevinia straata, the scientific name [1, 2] recognizing the first extraterrestrial living form ever nomenclated, as well as the existence of a new biological kingdom, Jakobia, in a new biosphere -Marciana- of what now has become the living system Solaria, is grounded on old evidence reinterpreted in the light of newly acquired facts. The present exposition provides a summary overview of all these grounds, outlined here as follows. A more detailed paper is being prepared for publication.

  8. Economic Convergence : the East Asia evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Joian, Aref

    2002-01-01

    Summary "Economic Convergence, The East Asia evidence" generally includes a theoretical and an empirical part.. Part one present the neoclassical growth model, i.e., the so-called Solow-Swan model. We start from simple form, growth model with exogenous saving rate, no technical progress. As we know, Solow model is based on some assumptions, such as one-sector production, closed economy where output equals income, investment equals saving and constant rate of population growth and...

  9. Education and agricultural productivity: evidence from Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    1996-01-01

    Existing evidence on the impact of education on agricultural productivity in Africa is mixed, with estimates usually insignificant although sometimes large. Analysis of the first nationally representative household survey of Uganda gives an estimate of the impact of household primary schooling on crop production comparable to the developing country average. In addition, the primary schooling of neighbouring farm workers appears to raise crop production and these external returns exceed the in...

  10. Segmentation of respiratory signals by evidence theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belghith, Akram; Collet, Christophe

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an evidential segmentation scheme of respiratory signals for the detection of the wheezing sounds. The segmentation is based on the modeling of the data by evidence theory which is well suited to represent such uncertain and imprecise data. In this paper, we particularly focus on the modelization of the data imprecision using the fuzzy theory. The modelization result is then used to define the mass function. The effectiveness of the method is demonstrated on synthetic and real signals.

  11. Distinction between forensic evidence and dermatological findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, U; Boy, D; Rothaupt, D; Büttner, A

    2015-07-01

    The external examination after death requires knowledge in forensics/pathology, dermatology, as well as associated diseases and age-related alterations of the skin. This article highlights some findings with forensic evidence versus dermatological findings. The lectures in forensic medicine should be structured interdisciplinarily, especially to dermatology, internal medicine, surgery, pathology, and toxicology in order to train the overlapping skills required for external and internal postmortem examinations.

  12. MIRROR THERAPY: A REVIEW OF EVIDENCES

    OpenAIRE

    Aishath Najiha; Jagatheesan Alagesan; Vandana J Rathod; Poongundran Paranthaman

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this review was to identify and summarize the existing evidences on mirror box therapy for the management of various musculoskeletal conditions. A systemic literature search was performed to identify studies concerning mirror therapy. The included journal articles were reviewed and assessed for its significance. Fifty one studies were identified and reviewed. Five different patient categories were studied: 24 studies focussed on mirror therapy after stroke, thirteen studies focusse...

  13. Marital assortment and phenotypic convergence: longitudinal evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspi, A; Herbener, E S

    1993-01-01

    This study provides a direct test of whether the observed similarity of spouses is due to initial assortment rather than to convergence of phenotypes. With data from three well-known longitudinal studies, phenotypic convergence is examined using both variable- and person-centered analyses. The longitudinal evidence does not support the hypothesis that couples increasingly resemble each other with time. Spouse correlations most likely reflect initial assortment at marriage and not the convergence of phenotypes.

  14. Rational Addiction Evidence From Carbonated Soft Drinks

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoou, Liu

    2009-01-01

    This paper applies the Becker-Murphy (1988) theory of rational addiction to the case of carbonated soft drinks, using a time-varying parameter model and scanner data from 46 U.S. cities. Empirical results provide strong evidence that carbonated soft drinks are rationally addictive, thus opening the door to taxation and regulation. Taking rational addition into account, estimated demand elasticities are much lower than previous estimates using scanner data.

  15. Afterword: Strands of Evidence in Later Prehistory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Giles

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available What is it about hair that helps humanise the dead, particularly these well-preserved bog bodies who are so often the victims of violence? As the articles in this special volume of Internet Archaeology make clear, hair is an exquisitely rich source of evidence on origin, diet and health as well as social traditions. Yet the meaning of hair can vary greatly between times and cultures.

  16. Empirical methods for systematic reviews and evidence-based medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Enst, W.A.

    2014-01-01

    Evidence-Based Medicine is the integration of best research evidence with clinical expertise and patient values. Systematic reviews have become the cornerstone of evidence-based medicine, which is reflected in the position systematic reviews have in the pyramid of evidence-based medicine. Systematic

  17. 20 CFR 220.45 - Providing evidence of disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Providing evidence of disability. 220.45... DETERMINING DISABILITY Evidence of Disability § 220.45 Providing evidence of disability. (a) General. The claimant for a disability annuity is responsible for providing evidence of the claimed disability and the...

  18. 42 CFR 405.1118 - Obtaining evidence from the MAC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Obtaining evidence from the MAC. 405.1118 Section... Council Review § 405.1118 Obtaining evidence from the MAC. A party may request and receive a copy of all... these items. If a party requests evidence from the MAC and an opportunity to comment on that evidence...

  19. Evidence based psychosocial interventions in substance use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonali Jhanjee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been significant progress and expansion in the development of evidence-based psychosocial treatments for substance abuse and dependence. A literature review was undertaken using the several electronic databases (PubMed, Cochrane Database of systemic reviews and specific journals, which pertain to psychosocial issues in addictive disorders and guidelines on this topic. Overall psychosocial interventions have been found to be effective. Some interventions, such as cognitive behavior therapy, motivational interviewing and relapse prevention, appear to be effective across many drugs of abuse. Psychological treatment is more effective when prescribed with substitute prescribing than when medication or psychological treatment is used alone, particularly for opiate users. The evidence base for psychological treatment needs to be expanded and should also include research on optimal combinations of psychological therapies and any particular matching effects, if any. Psychological interventions are an essential part of the treatment regimen and efforts should be made to integrate evidence-based interventions in all substance use disorder treatment programs.

  20. [Acupressure and Evidence-Based Nursing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-Li; Lin, Jun-Dai

    2015-12-01

    Acupressure is a traditional Chinese medicine approach to disease prevention and treatment that may be operated by nurses independently. Therefore, acupressure is being increasingly applied in clinical nursing practice and research. Recently, the implementation of evidence-based nursing (EBN) in clinical practice has been encouraged to promote nursing quality. Evidence-based nursing is a method-ology and process of implementation that applies the best-available evidence to clinical practice, which is acquired through the use of empirical nursing research. Therefore, in this paper, we address the topic of acupressure within the context of empirical nursing practice. We first introduce the current status of acupressure research and provide the locations of common acupoints in order to guide future empirical nursing research and to help nurses use these acupoints in clinical practice. Finally, we describe the steps that are necessary to apply the current empirical information on acupressure as well as provide suggestions to promote safety and efficacy in order to guide nurses in the accurate application of acupressure in nursing practice.

  1. [Prevention of atopic eczema. Evidence based guidelines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, T

    2005-03-01

    With an estimated prevalence of 12% for preschool children and 3% for adults, atopic eczema is a serious public health problem. This disease severely jeopardizes quality of life and is associated with considerable costs. Since there is still no causal therapy, primary and secondary prevention are especially important. Here the evidence basis for recommendations on prevention of atopic eczema is discussed on the basis of the first evidence-based consensus guideline (S3) on allergy prevention. This recommends that babies should be breastfed exclusively for at least 4 months and exposure to passive smoking be avoided even during pregnancy; restriction of the maternal diet during pregnancy has no influence, though during breastfeeding it can lower the incidence of eczema among babies at risk. Thereby this measure should be balanced with potential consequences of malnutrition. There seems to be a positive correlation between keeping small rodents (rabbits, guinea pigs), and possibly cats, and the occurrence of atopic eczema, while keeping dogs has no effect or even a protective effect. Avoidance of an unfavorable indoor climate is probably also helpful in preventing eczema. There is no evidence to support deviating from the current recommendations of the standing committee for vaccination.

  2. Ramadan fasting: Do we need more evidence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Nematy

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Over a billion of Muslims fast worldwide during Ramadan each year. Through this religious custom, fasting contributes to their health as well as their spiritual growth. However, available evidence regarding the health-benefits of Ramadan fasting is scarce and highly contentious. Although Islam exempts patients from fasting, many fast conceivably, and their clinical condition is prone to deteriorate due to persistent gap between current expert knowledge and conclusive strong evidence regarding the pathophysiologic and metabolic alterations of fasting and the consensus that should be taken into account to implements guided managing of various patient groups during Ramadan fasting among health care professionals. In this article, we summarized the results of initial studies regarding the effects of Ramadan fasting on some clinical conditions including alterations of body composition and clinically important outcomes of patients with a previous history of cardiovascular disease, asthma and renal colic disease. Our studies have shed light on several outcomes in favor of Ramadan fasting, and encourage those with mentioned diseases to consult their physicians and follow medical and scientific recommendations. In this review we aimed to present a piece of relevant evidence, clarify future scope and provide suggestions for future investigations.

  3. Sequential evidence accumulation in decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Hausmann

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Judgments and decisions under uncertainty are frequently linked to a prior sequential search for relevant information. In such cases, the subject has to decide when to stop the search for information. Evidence accumulation models from social and cognitive psychology assume an active and sequential information search until enough evidence has been accumulated to pass a decision threshold. In line with such theories, we conceptualize the evidence threshold as the ``desired level of confidence'' (DLC of a person. This model is tested against a fixed stopping rule (one-reason decision making and against the class of multi-attribute information integrating models. A series of experiments using an information board for horse race betting demonstrates an advantage of the proposed model by measuring the individual DLC of each subject and confirming its correctness in two separate stages. In addition to a better understanding of the stopping rule (within the narrow framework of simple heuristics, the results indicate that individual aspiration levels might be a relevant factor when modelling decision making by task analysis of statistical environments.

  4. Evidence-based pathology: umbilical cord coiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khong, T Y

    2010-12-01

    The generation of a pathology test result must be based on criteria that are proven to be acceptably reproducible and clinically relevant to be evidence-based. This review de-constructs the umbilical cord coiling index to illustrate how it can stray from being evidence-based. Publications related to umbilical cord coiling were retrieved and analysed with regard to how the umbilical coiling index was calculated, abnormal coiling was defined and reference ranges were constructed. Errors and other influences that can occur with the measurement of the length of the umbilical cord or of the number of coils can compromise the generation of the coiling index. Definitions of abnormal coiling are not consistent in the literature. Reference ranges defining hypocoiling or hypercoiling have not taken those potential errors or the possible effect of gestational age into account. Even the way numerical test results in anatomical pathology are generated, as illustrated by the umbilical coiling index, warrants a critical analysis into its evidence base to ensure that they are reproducible or free from errors.

  5. Purported Evidence and Feasible Interpretations of Retrocausation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallikari, Fotini

    2006-10-01

    Evidence for retrocausation in the field of psychophysical phenomena is to date questionable. Associated successful theoretical formulations would have to make accurate predictions and the purported evidence would have to be independently replicated. It is shown here that purported evidence for retrocausation within the field of psychophysical phenomena, such as the hypothesis of micro-PK —that the statistical distributions of random processes are mean shifted by thought alone— can find more satisfactory descriptions. Those do not necessarily invoke transfer of information backward in time, while they provide mathematically structured formulations and allow for clear predictions. They refer to a two-state Markovian process characterized by equal self-transition probabilities, p=q>50%. This Markovian behavior introduces persistence and clustering of like binary states leading to a broadened scatter of statistical averages of individual micro-PK tests about their theoretically expected mean, namely 50%, corresponding to that of an unbiased process. The origin of this broadening mechanism is currently unclear. It is, therefore, argued here that an established theory of mind-matter interaction should precede the investigation of the validity of retrocausation within psychophysical phenomena. Thus the correct theory can be decided among alternatives.

  6. Practice management: observations, issues, and empirical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, H M; Braithwaite, J

    2001-02-01

    The primary objective of this study is to provide objective, empirical, evidence-based practice management information. This is a hitherto under-researched area of considerable interest for both the practitioner and educator. A questionnaire eliciting a mix of structured and free text responses was administered to a random sample of 480 practitioners who are members of the American Academy of Periodontology. Potential respondents not in private practice were excluded and the next listed person substituted. The results provide demographic and descriptive information about some of the main issues and problems facing practice managers, central to which are information technology (IT), financial, people management, and marketing. Human resource and marketing management appear to represent the biggest challenges. Periodontists running practices would prefer more information, development, and support in dealing with IT, finance, marketing, and people management. The empirical evidence reported here suggests that although tailored educational programs on key management issues at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels have become ubiquitous, nevertheless some respondents seek further training opportunities. Evidence-based practice management information will be invaluable to the clinician considering strategic and marketing planning, and also for those responsible for the design and conduct of predoctoral and postdoctoral programs.

  7. Evidence-Based Medicine: Wound Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Christine M; Rothermel, Alexis T; Mackay, Donald R

    2017-07-01

    After reading this article, the participant should be able to: 1. Describe the basic science of chronic wounds. 2. Discuss the general and local factors that should be considered in any patient with a chronic wound. 3. Discuss the rationale of converting a chronic wound into an acute wound. 4. Describe techniques used to prepare chronic wounds. 5. Discuss the appropriate use of different dressings presented in this article. 6. Discuss the pros and cons of the adjuncts to wound healing discussed in this article. This is the second Maintenance of Certification article on wound healing. In the first, Buchanan, Kung, and Cederna dealt with the mechanism and reconstructive techniques for closing wounds. In this article, the authors have concentrated on the chronic wound. The authors present a summary of the basic science of chronic wounds and the general and local clinical factors important in assessing any chronic wound. The evidence for interventions of these conditions is presented. The surgical and nonsurgical methods of wound preparation and the evidence supporting the use of the popular wound dressings are presented. The authors then present the evidence for some of the popular adjuncts for wound healing, including hyperbaric oxygen, electrotherapy, and ultrasound. A number of excellent articles on negative-pressure wound therapy have been written, and are not covered in this article.

  8. Evidence of sound symbolism in simple vocalizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parise, Cesare V; Pavani, Francesco

    2011-10-01

    The question of the arbitrariness of language is among the oldest in cognitive sciences, and it relates to the nature of the associations between vocal sounds and their meaning. Growing evidence seems to support sound symbolism, claiming for a naturally constrained mapping of meaning into sounds. Most of such evidence, however, comes from studies based on the interpretation of pseudowords, and to date, there is little empirical evidence that sound symbolism can affect phonatory behavior. In the present study, we asked participants to utter the letter /a/ in response to visual stimuli varying in shape, luminance, and size, and we observed consistent sound symbolic effects on vocalizations. Utterances' loudness was modulated by stimulus shape and luminance. Moreover, stimulus shape consistently modulated the frequency of the third formant (F3). This finding reveals an automatic mapping of specific visual attributes into phonological features of vocalizations. Furthermore, it suggests that sound-meaning associations are reciprocal, affecting active (production) as well as passive (comprehension) linguistic behavior.

  9. Physiotherapy for ankylosing spondylitis: evidence and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passalent, Laura A

    2011-03-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a disease that tends to affect younger individuals, many of whom are in the prime of their lives; therefore, incorporating the most up-to-date evidence into physiotherapy practice is critical. The purpose of this review is to update the most recent evidence related to physiotherapy intervention for AS and highlight the application of the findings to current physiotherapy research and clinical practice. The results of this review add to the evidence supporting physiotherapy as an intervention for AS. The emphasis continues to be on exercise as the most studied physiotherapy modality, with very few studies examining other physiotherapy modalities. Results of the studies reviewed support the use of exercise, spa therapy, manual therapy and electrotherapeutic modalities. In addition, the results of this review help to understand who might benefit from certain interventions, as well as barriers to management. A review of recently published articles has resulted in a number of studies that support the body of literature describing physiotherapy as an effective form of intervention for AS. In order to continue to build on the existing research, further examination into physiotherapy modalities, beyond exercise-based intervention, needs to be explored.

  10. Strong evidence for an accelerating Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haridasu, Balakrishna S.; Luković, Vladimir V.; D'Agostino, Rocco; Vittorio, Nicola

    2017-04-01

    A recent analysis of supernova Ia (SN Ia) data claims a "marginal" ( 3σ) evidence for a cosmic acceleration. This result has been complemented with a non-accelerating Rh = ct cosmology, which was presented as a valid alternative to the ΛCDM model. In this paper we use the same analysis to show that non-marginal evidence for acceleration is truly found. We compare the standard Friedmann models to the Rh = ct cosmology by complementing SN Ia data with baryon acoustic oscillations, gamma ray bursts, and observational Hubble datasets. We also study the power-law model, which is a functional generalisation of Rh = ct. We find that the evidence for late-time acceleration cannot be refuted at a 4.56σ confidence level from SN Ia data alone, and at an even stronger confidence level (5.38σ) from our joint analysis. In addition, the non-accelerating Rh = ct model fails to statistically compare with the ΛCDM, having a Δ(AIC) 30.

  11. Ice therapy: how good is the evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac Auley, D C

    2001-07-01

    Ice, compression and elevation are the basic principles of acute soft tissue injury. Few clinicians, however, can give specific evidence based guidance on the appropriate duration of each individual treatment session, the frequency of application, or the length of the treatment program. The purpose of this systematic review is to identify the original literature on cryotherapy in acute soft tissue injury and produce evidence based guidance on treatment. A systematic literature search was performed using Medline, Embase, SportDiscus and the database of the National Sports Medicine Institute (UK) using the key words ice, injury, sport, exercise. Temperature change within the muscle depends on the method of application, duration of application, initial temperature, and depth of subcutaneous fat. The evidence from this systematic review suggests that melting iced water applied through a wet towel for repeated periods of 10 minutes is most effective. The target temperature is reduction of 10-15 degrees C. Using repeated, rather than continuous, ice applications helps sustain reduced muscle temperature without compromising the skin and allows the superficial skin temperature to return to normal while deeper muscle temperature remains low. Reflex activity and motor function are impaired following ice treatment so patients may be more susceptible to injury for up to 30 minutes following treatment. It is concluded that ice is effective, but should be applied in repeated application of 10 minutes to be most effective, avoid side effects, and prevent possible further injury.

  12. Triatominae species of Suriname (Heteroptera: Reduviidae) and their role as vectors of Chagas disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiwat, Hélène

    2014-07-01

    Nine species of Triatominae, representing three tribes and five genera, are currently known in Suriname. An annotated list of the species based on the collections of the Bureau of Public Health (Suriname), the National Zoological Collection Suriname and the National History Museum Leiden (the Netherlands) is provided. Additionally, the results of several years of opportunistic collection in two domestic environments are presented. The most common species are Rhodnius pictipes Stål, 1972, Rhodnius robustus Larrouse, 1972 and Panstrongylus geniculatus (Latreille, 1811). The significance of the species as vectors of Chagas disease in Suriname is discussed.

  13. Revision of the Plant Bug Genus Tytthus (Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Miridae, Phylinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Henry

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The phyline plant bug genus Tytthus Fieber, previously containing 19 species, is revised. Isoproba Osborn and Drake, 1915, incorrectly placed in the subfamily Bryocorinae, tribe Dicyphini, is synonymized as a junior synonym of Tytthus Fieber, syn. n.; the only included species, Isoproba picea Osborn and Drake is transferred to Tytthus, comb. n., as the senior synonym of T. hondurensis Carvalho, syn. n.; and T. koreanus Josifov and Kerzhner, 1972 is synonymized with T. chinensis (Stål 1860, syn. n.; and a lectotype for T. parviceps is designated. The six new species T. femoralis from Cuba, Ecuador, Guatemala, Jamaica, Mexico, and Peru, T. fuscicornis from New Mexico (USA, T. mexicanus from Mexico, T. pallidus from Brazil and Panama, T. uniformis from Arizona and New Mexico (USA, and T. wheeleri from the eastern United States are described, bringing the total number of species for the genus to 24. A color adult habitus illustration of T. wheeleri, color photographs for each species (except T. juturnaiba Carvalho and Wallerstein, illustrations of male genitalia, scanning electron photomicrographs of selected structures of certain species, and an identification key are provided to facilitate species recognition. A phylogenetic analysis is offered to help infer relationships.

  14. Comparison of alpha-amylase and protease activities of a zoophytophagous and two phytozoophagous Heteroptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, F; Cohen, A C

    2000-05-01

    To better understand the nature of facultative phytophagy in the zoophytophagous Geocoris punctipes (Say), and facultative zoophagy in phytozoophagous Lygus hesperus (Knight) and Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois), we compared the activities of both the starch digesting enzyme alpha-amylase and of general proteases in these species. The alpha-amylases and proteases were demonstrated in L. hesperus, L. lineolaris and G. punctipes. The presence of alpha-amylase in the salivary gland complexes of G. punctipes indicates a disposition of this species toward utilization of nutrients that can be derived only from plants, either directly from ingestion of plant macromolecules or from second-hand ingestion of plant material from the digestive system of their prey. The alpha-amylase activity in G. punctipes was much less than those of phytozoophagous L. hesperus and L. lineolaris. The relative importance of amylolytic activity and proteolytic activity is also discussed.

  15. Abundance and species richness of Coreoidea (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) from Parque Estadual do Turvo, Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcellos, Aline; Schmidt, Letícia S; Brailovsky, Harry

    2008-01-01

    The coreoid fauna from Neotropics is poorly known, especially in terms of community studies. Aiming at contributing to this knowledge, a two-year study was carried out at Parque Estadual do Turvo, Municipality of Derrubadas, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, to evaluate the composition, abundance and species richness of Coreoidea. Samplings were conducted in the springs of 2003 and 2004 (October), and autumns of 2004 and 2005 (May), using beating tray method, along two trails of the park. Sampling effort (hours X collectors) totaled 153h. A total of 282 individuals of Coreoidea were collected, distributed in 28 species of Alydidae, Coreidae and Rhopalidae. The most abundant species was the coreid Cebrenis supina Brailovsky, representing 16% of the collected individuals, followed by the rhopalids Jadera aeola (Dallas), and Harmostes sp., with 12.1% and 11.7%, respectively. The estimated richnesses by Chao 1, Chao 2, Jackknife 1 and Jackknife 2 indicated that the observed richness corresponds to 70% to 80% of the expected for the area. The estimated richness through rarefaction was significantly higher in spring 2003 and autumn 2004 than in the other periods. There was no significant difference, however, between spring of 2003 and autumn of 2004, and between spring of 2004 and autumn of 2005, for the same parameter. Yucumã and Garcia trails did not differ significantly for the estimated richness. Singletons and doubletons represented 32.1% of the recorded species. Additionally, eight other species were obtained qualitatively by using, besides beating tray without protocol, manual collection.

  16. Morphology and histology of the alimentary canal of Lygus hesperus (Heteroptera: Cimicomoropha: Miridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, J.; Coudron, T.A.; Backus, E.A.; Brandt, S.L.; Wagner, R.M.; Wright, M.K.; Huesing, J.E.

    2008-01-01

    Microdissection and transverse semithin sections were used to perform a light microscopy survey of the gross morphology and cellular anatomy of the alimentary canal, respectively, of Lygus hesperus Knight, a key pest of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), and other crops. The gross morphology of the alimentary canal showed a relatively unadorned tube compared with other hemipterans, with variably shaped compartments and one small diverticulum. However, the epithelial cell anatomy of the gut was relatively complex, with the midgut having the most diverse structure and cell types. The midgut was typical of the "Lygus-type gut" seen in the older literature, i.e., it consisted of three major regions, the first (descending), second (ascending), and third (descending) ventriculi, with different variants of three major epithelial cell types in each region. Our light microscopy (LM) study suggests that the three cell types are nondifferentiated regenerative cells (which sparsely occurred throughout the midgut but were abundant in the anterior region of the first ventriculus), endocrine cells, and columnar cells. Although the Lygus gut cells strongly resemble those cell types seen in other insects, their identification should be confirmed via transmission electron microscopy to be considered definitive. These cell types differed in the size and opacity of vesicles, geometry of cell surface in the gut lumen, and size, shape, and concentration of brush-border microvilli and location within the gut. Comparison of gut structure in L. hesperus with that of other hemipterans, especially in relation to hemipteran phylogeny and feeding strategies, is discussed.

  17. Host plants of the tarnished plant bug (Heteroptera: Miridae) in Central Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquivel, J F; Mowery, S V

    2007-08-01

    The tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois), has taken on added importance as a pest of cotton in the Cotton Belt after successful eradication efforts for the boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman). Because the Southern Blacklands region of Central Texas is in advanced stages of boll weevil eradication, blooming weeds and selected row crops were sampled during a 3-yr study to determine lygus species composition and associated temporal host plants. L. lineolaris was the sole lygus species in the region. Thirteen previously unreported host plants were identified for L. lineolaris, of which 69% supported reproduction. Rapistrum rugosum L. Allioni and Ratibida columnifera (Nuttall) Wooton and Standley were primary weed hosts during the early season (17 March to 31 May). Conyza canadensis L. Cronquist variety canadensis and Ambrosia trifida L. were primary weed hosts during the midseason (1 June to 14 August) and late-season (15 August to 30 November), respectively. Sisymbrium irio L. and Lamium amplexicaule L. sustained L. lineolaris populations during the overwintering period (1 December to 16 March). The proportion of females and numbers of nymphs found in R. rugosum, C. canadensis, A. trifida, and S. irio suggests these weeds supported reproductive adults during the early, mid-, and late season and overwintering period, respectively. Medicago sativa L. was the leading crop host for L. lineolaris; Glycine max L. Merrill did not yield L. lineolaris. Few L. lineolaris were collected in Gossypium hirsutum L. These results provide a more comprehensive assessment of host plants contributing to L. lineolaris populations in central Texas.

  18. What do we know about the phylogeny of the Semi-Aquatic Bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Gerromorpha)?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    The present study summarizes knowledge about phylogenetic relationships of the heteropteran infraorder Gerromorpha. A phylogeny for all families and subfamilies, and for all genera but those assigned to the two most diverse families, Veliidae and Gerridae, is compiled from the many studies by the...... by the late Dr. Nils Moller Andersen. Comparisons with recently published studies, including DNA sequence data show that the superfamilies Hydrometroidea and Gerroidea, the family Veliidae, the subfamily Mesoveliinae, and the genera Mesovelia and Microvelia are probably not monophyletic...

  19. Hydrometridae of Suriname and the Amazon, with additional records of other neotropical species (Hemiptera – Heteroptera)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieser, N.

    1970-01-01

    This study is based on material collected by Dr. P. H. van Doesburg Jr. in Suriname and by other workers during investigations sponsored by the “Max-Planck-Institut fur Limnologie, Abt. Tropenokologie” at Plön, director Prof. Dr. H. Sioli; the “Institute Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia” at Manaus

  20. Corixidae (Hemiptera, Heteroptera en el lago urbano del parque Tezozomoc, Azcapotzalco, México, D. F.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Contreras-Rivero

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Los estudios ecológicos sobre la familia Corixidae (Hemiptera en México son escasos y fragmentados, por lo que se analiza su variación espacial y temporal en un lago urbano con algunas variables ambientales. Los muestreos se realizaron mensualmente, de julio de 2000 a junio de 2001, ubicando tres estaciones litorales de muestreo; en cada una se determinó: profundidad, transparencia, temperatura, oxígeno, pH, conductividad, dureza y alcalinidad. Los coríxidos se capturaron con red de cuchara de forma rectangular. Se efectuó un análisis de correlación simple entre la abundancia total de los coríxidos y las variables físicas y químicas registradas. Se registraron tres especies: Graptocorixa abdominalis (Say, 1832, con 53% de abundancia; Corisella edulis (Champion, 1901 con 43% y Krizousacorixa femorata (Guérin, 1857 con 1%. De un total de 2423 organismos capturados, la mayor abundancia se registró en marzo, junto con los valores más altos de profundidad y oxígeno. La menor abundancia se presentó en junio, con los valores más bajos de alcalinidad. La correlación de variables y abundancia total fue positiva y significativa con profundidad, oxígeno y conductividad. La Estación I presentó la mayor abundancia de coríxidos y la estación III la menor abundancia. Las variaciones registradas en la abundancia se deben al aporte de agua y a la ubicación de las estaciones de muestreo.