WorldWideScience

Sample records for heteroplasmic tandem repeat

  1. Y-Chromosome short tandem repeat, typing technology, locus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Y-Chromosome short tandem repeat, typing technology, locus information and allele frequency in different population: A review. ... This review will highlight the importance of the Y- Chromosome as a tool for tracing human evolution and describes some details of Y-chromosomal short tandem repeat (STR) analysis. Among ...

  2. Turkish population data on the short tandem repeat locus TPOX

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vural, B; Poda, M; Atlioglu, E

    1998-01-01

    Allele and genotype frequencies were determined for the STR (short tandem repeat) locus TPOX in a random Turkish population sample of 200 individuals.......Allele and genotype frequencies were determined for the STR (short tandem repeat) locus TPOX in a random Turkish population sample of 200 individuals....

  3. Versatile communication strategies among tandem WW domain repeats

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dodson, Emma Joy; Fishbain-Yoskovitz, Vered; Rotem-Bamberger, Shahar; Schueler-Furman, Ora

    2015-01-01

    .... The fact that many linear-motif-binding domains occur in tandem repeats in proteins indicates that their mutual communication is used extensively to obtain complex integration of information toward regulatory decisions...

  4. ProRepeat: an integrated repository for studying amino acid tandem repeats in proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luo, H.; Lin, K.; David, A.; Nijveen, H.; Leunissen, J.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    ProRepeat (http://prorepeat.bioinformatics.nl/) is an integrated curated repository and analysis platform for in-depth research on the biological characteristics of amino acid tandem repeats. ProRepeat collects repeats from all proteins included in the UniProt knowledgebase, together with 85

  5. Efficient Synthesis of the Lewis A Tandem Repeat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Kobayashi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The convergent synthesis of the Lewis A (Lea tandem repeat is described. The Lea tandem repeat is a carbohydrate ligand for a mannose binding protein that shows potent inhibitory activity against carcinoma growth. The Lea unit, {β-d-Gal-(1→3-[α-l-Fuc-(1→4]-β-d-GlcNAc}, was synthesized by stereoselective nitrile-assisted β-galactosylation with the phenyl 3-O-allyl-2,4,6-tri-O-benzyl-1-thio-β-galactoside, and ether-assisted α-fucosylation with fucosyl (N-phenyltrifluoroacetimidate. This common Lea unit was easily converted to an acceptor and donor in high yields, and the stereoselective assembly of the hexasaccharide and dodecasaccharide as the Lea tandem repeat framework was achieved by 2-trichloroacetamido-assisted β-glycosylation and the (N-phenyltrifluoroacetimidate method.

  6. Dog genetic polymorphism revealed by synthetic tandem repeats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariat, D; Robert, L

    1993-01-01

    We are studying the genetic polymorphism associated with Variable Number of Tandem Repeat (VNTR) loci in 13 breeds of dogs, namely: Alaskan Malamute, Barzoi, Beagle, Belgian Shepherd, Fox Terrier, Griffon, Labrador, Irish Setter, Spaniel, Dachshund, Irish Terrier, Shar Pei and Poodle. Our approach is based upon synthetic tandem repeats (STRs). Using a panel of these arbitrary unit polymers to detect minisatellites, we are attempting to develop paternity testing systems on pure bred dog pedigrees. We are evaluating the potential importance of STRs as a tool for the isolation of minisatellites in dogs, as well as for the characterization of dog genetic markers.

  7. Determination of allele frequencies in nine short tandem repeat loci ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-04-17

    Apr 17, 2008 ... 1Department of Biological Sciences, University of Botswana, P/Bag 00704, Gaborone, Botswana. 2Botswana Police Forensic Science Laboratory P/Bag 0012, Gaborone, Botswana. Accepted 15 February, 2008. Allele frequencies for nine short tandem repeat (STR) loci from the AmpFlSTR® Profiler Plus™ ...

  8. X-Chromosome short tandem repeat, advantages and typing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microsatellites of the X-chromosome have been increasingly studied in recent years as a useful tool in forensic analysis. This review describes some details of X-chromosomal short tandem repeat (STR) analysis. Among them are: microsatellites, amplification using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of STRs, PCR product ...

  9. Genetic Analysis of Eight X-Chromosomal Short Tandem Repeat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    X-Chromosome short tandem repeat (STR) typing can complement existing DNA profiling protocols and can also offer useful information in cases of complex kinship analysis. This is the first population study of 8 X-linked STRs in Iraq. The purpose of this work was to provide a basic data of allele and haplotype frequency for ...

  10. Short tandem repeat (STR) polymorphisms in Turkish population

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. forensic science; population genetics; short tandem repeat; polymorphism; human genetics; Turkey. Author Affiliations. Üner Ülküer1 Melahat Kurtuluş-Ülküer2 Cüneyt Elma1 Tahsin Kesici3 Sevda Menevşe4. General Directory of Security, Criminal Police Laboratories, Biyoloji Bölümü, Aniteppe, Ankara, Turkey ...

  11. Genomic abundance is not predictive of tandem repeat localization in grass genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilinski, Paul; Han, Yonghua; Hufford, Matthew B; Lorant, Anne; Zhang, Pingdong; Estep, Matt C; Jiang, Jiming; Ross-Ibarra, Jeffrey

    2017-01-01

    Highly repetitive regions have historically posed a challenge when investigating sequence variation and content. High-throughput sequencing has enabled researchers to use whole-genome shotgun sequencing to estimate the abundance of repetitive sequence, and these methodologies have been recently applied to centromeres. Previous research has investigated variation in centromere repeats across eukaryotes, positing that the highest abundance tandem repeat in a genome is often the centromeric repeat. To test this assumption, we used shotgun sequencing and a bioinformatic pipeline to identify common tandem repeats across a number of grass species. We find that de novo assembly and subsequent abundance ranking of repeats can successfully identify tandem repeats with homology to known tandem repeats. Fluorescent in-situ hybridization shows that de novo assembly and ranking of repeats from non-model taxa identifies chromosome domains rich in tandem repeats both near pericentromeres and elsewhere in the genome.

  12. Genomic abundance is not predictive of tandem repeat localization in grass genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Bilinski

    Full Text Available Highly repetitive regions have historically posed a challenge when investigating sequence variation and content. High-throughput sequencing has enabled researchers to use whole-genome shotgun sequencing to estimate the abundance of repetitive sequence, and these methodologies have been recently applied to centromeres. Previous research has investigated variation in centromere repeats across eukaryotes, positing that the highest abundance tandem repeat in a genome is often the centromeric repeat. To test this assumption, we used shotgun sequencing and a bioinformatic pipeline to identify common tandem repeats across a number of grass species. We find that de novo assembly and subsequent abundance ranking of repeats can successfully identify tandem repeats with homology to known tandem repeats. Fluorescent in-situ hybridization shows that de novo assembly and ranking of repeats from non-model taxa identifies chromosome domains rich in tandem repeats both near pericentromeres and elsewhere in the genome.

  13. Tandemly repeated tRNA pseudogenes in photobacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giroux, S; Cedergren, R

    1988-01-01

    A region distal to three tRNA genes in Photobacterium phosphoreum, a Gram-negative eubacterium, unexpectedly contains a high number of repeated DNA segments that are closely related to the adjacent tRNAPro gene. The 5' to 3' order of this cluster is tRNAPro-tRNAHis-tRNAPro followed by eight tRNAPro-like structures interspersed by rho-independent terminators. The two tRNAPro genes, which are identical, and the tRNAHis gene have 86% and 87% positional identity, respectively, to their counterparts in the argT operon of Escherichia coli. The facts that these tRNA-like structures are not transcribed, in contrast to the tRNA retropseudogenes of eukaryotes, and that these structures are clustered near their progenitor suggest they are an unusual class of tRNA pseudogenes that arose by tandem duplication. Images PMID:3194413

  14. Tools for the identification of variable and potentially variable tandem repeats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shields Denis C

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tandem repeat arrays showing variation between sequences within a population, between strains or across species may have functional effects. The increasing availability of genomic sequence data makes routine description of observed variation possible, creating a need for tools to describe such variability. Results We present a set of programs that facilitate the identification of tandem repeats showing variation across multiple sequences or genomes, and the prediction of potentially polymorphic tandem repeats. The VNTRfinder (Variable Number of Tandem Repeats finder program enables the detection of sequence length variation between arrays of inter-specific or intra-specific tandem repeats. In the absence of comparable sequences to explore observed variation, predictions are provided describing which tandem repeats are more likely to be variable, to help guide and focus further experimental evaluation. Conclusion These tools represent a resource for researchers interested in tandem repeats in nucleotide sequences that are most likely to be of clinical and evolutionary interest. The tools are available at http://bioinformatics.rcsi.ie/vntrfinder/. Downloadable versions for UNIX/LINUX and WINDOWS which permit the consideration of longer and more numerous sequences are also available.

  15. Assessing the role of tandem repeats in shaping the genomic architecture of great apes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Farré

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ancestral reconstructions of mammalian genomes have revealed that evolutionary breakpoint regions are clustered in regions that are more prone to break and reorganize. What is still unclear to evolutionary biologists is whether these regions are physically unstable due solely to sequence composition and/or genome organization, or do they represent genomic areas where the selection against breakpoints is minimal. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we present a comprehensive study of the distribution of tandem repeats in great apes. We analyzed the distribution of tandem repeats in relation to the localization of evolutionary breakpoint regions in the human, chimpanzee, orangutan and macaque genomes. We observed an accumulation of tandem repeats in the genomic regions implicated in chromosomal reorganizations. In the case of the human genome our analyses revealed that evolutionary breakpoint regions contained more base pairs implicated in tandem repeats compared to synteny blocks, being the AAAT motif the most frequently involved in evolutionary regions. We found that those AAAT repeats located in evolutionary regions were preferentially associated with Alu elements. SIGNIFICANCE: Our observations provide evidence for the role of tandem repeats in shaping mammalian genome architecture. We hypothesize that an accumulation of specific tandem repeats in evolutionary regions can promote genome instability by altering the state of the chromatin conformation or by promoting the insertion of transposable elements.

  16. Specific tandem repeats are sufficient for paramutation-induced trans-generational silencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane L Belele

    Full Text Available Paramutation is a well-studied epigenetic phenomenon in which trans communication between two different alleles leads to meiotically heritable transcriptional silencing of one of the alleles. Paramutation at the b1 locus involves RNA-mediated transcriptional silencing and requires specific tandem repeats that generate siRNAs. This study addressed three important questions: 1 are the tandem repeats sufficient for paramutation, 2 do they need to be in an allelic position to mediate paramutation, and 3 is there an association between the ability to mediate paramutation and repeat DNA methylation levels? Paramutation was achieved using multiple transgenes containing the b1 tandem repeats, including events with tandem repeats of only one half of the repeat unit (413 bp, demonstrating that these sequences are sufficient for paramutation and an allelic position is not required for the repeats to communicate. Furthermore, the transgenic tandem repeats increased the expression of a reporter gene in maize, demonstrating the repeats contain transcriptional regulatory sequences. Transgene-mediated paramutation required the mediator of paramutation1 gene, which is necessary for endogenous paramutation, suggesting endogenous and transgene-mediated paramutation both require an RNA-mediated transcriptional silencing pathway. While all tested repeat transgenes produced small interfering RNAs (siRNAs, not all transgenes induced paramutation suggesting that, as with endogenous alleles, siRNA production is not sufficient for paramutation. The repeat transgene-induced silencing was less efficiently transmitted than silencing induced by the repeats of endogenous b1 alleles, which is always 100% efficient. The variability in the strength of the repeat transgene-induced silencing enabled testing whether the extent of DNA methylation within the repeats correlated with differences in efficiency of paramutation. Transgene-induced paramutation does not require extensive

  17. Short Tandem Repeats in Human Exons: A Target for Disease Mutations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villesen Palle

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years it has been demonstrated that structural variations, such as indels (insertions and deletions, are common throughout the genome, but the implications of structural variations are still not clearly understood. Long tandem repeats (e.g. microsatellites or simple repeats are known to be hypermutable (indel-rich, but are rare in exons and only occasionally associated with diseases. Here we focus on short (imperfect tandem repeats (STRs which fall below the radar of conventional tandem repeat detection, and investigate whether STRs are targets for disease-related mutations in human exons. In particular, we test whether they share the hypermutability of the longer tandem repeats and whether disease-related genes have a higher STR content than non-disease-related genes. Results We show that validated human indels are extremely common in STR regions compared to non-STR regions. In contrast to longer tandem repeats, our definition of STRs found them to be present in exons of most known human genes (92%, 99% of all STR sequences in exons are shorter than 33 base pairs and 62% of all STR sequences are imperfect repeats. We also demonstrate that STRs are significantly overrepresented in disease-related genes in both human and mouse. These results are preserved when we limit the analysis to STRs outside known longer tandem repeats. Conclusion Based on our findings we conclude that STRs represent hypermutable regions in the human genome that are linked to human disease. In addition, STRs constitute an obvious target when screening for rare mutations, because of the relatively low amount of STRs in exons (1,973,844 bp and the limited length of STR regions.

  18. Determination of allele frequencies in nine short tandem repeat loci ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-04-17

    Apr 17, 2008 ... DNA fraction. Analysis of STRs is the most widely used method of genotyping used in forensic identification of individuals and for testing paternity. This is because ... Each STR is distinguished by the number of times a sequence is repeated, ... number of copies of the repeat sequence contained within the ...

  19. Broader pattern of tandem repeats in the mitochondrial control region of Perciformes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Zhaoxia; Liu, Yuan; Chu, Ka Hou

    2010-07-01

    Perciformes, the largest order of vertebrates with 20 suborders, is the most diverse fish order that dominates vertebrate ocean life. The complete mitochondrial control region (CR) of Trichiurus japonicus (Trichiuridae, Scombroidei) and Pampus sp. (Stromateidae, Stromateoidei) were amplified and sequenced. Together with data from GenBank, the tandem repeats in the mitochondrial CR from 48 species, which covered nine suborders of Perciformes, are reported in this study. The tandem repeats tend to be long in the suborder Percoidei and Stromateoidei. The identical repeats in 21 species of Cichlidae suggest a common origin and have existed before species divergence. Larimichthys crocea shows tandem repeats instead of the typical structure of the central conserved sequence blocks, which was first reported in Perciformes and vertebrates. This might have resulted from interruption of the polymerase activity during the H-strand synthesis. The four broader patterns presented here for the tandem repeats, including those in both the 5' and 3' ends, only in the either 5' or 3' end, and in the central conserved domain of the control region, will be useful for understanding the evolution of species.

  20. Complete mitochondrial genome of Skylark, Alauda arvensis (Aves: Passeriformes): the first representative of the family Alaudidae with two extensive heteroplasmic control regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Chaoju; Wang, Yuanxiu; Guo, Zhichun; Yang, Jianke; Kan, Xianzhao

    2013-06-01

    The circular mitochondrial genome of Alauda arvensis is 17,018 bp in length, containing 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, and 2 extensive heteroplasmic control regions. All of the genes encoded on the H-strand, with the exceptions of one PCG (nad6) and eight tRNA genes (tRNA(Gln), tRNA(Ala), tRNA(Asn), tRNA(Cys), tRNA(Tyr), tRNA(Ser(UCN)), tRNA(Pro), and tRNA(Glu)), as found in other birds' mitochondrial genomes. All of these PCGs are initiated with ATG, while stopped by six types of stop codons. All tRNA genes have the potential to fold into typical clover-leaf structure. Two extensive heteroplasmic control regions were found, and more interestingly, a minisatellite of 37 nucleotides (5'-TCAATCCCATTGATTTCATTATATTAGTATAAAGAAA-3') with 6 tandem repeats was detected at the end of CR2.

  1. Digital genotyping of macrosatellites and multicopy genes reveals novel biological functions associated with copy number variation of large tandem repeats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Brahmachary

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Tandem repeats are common in eukaryotic genomes, but due to difficulties in assaying them remain poorly studied. Here, we demonstrate the utility of Nanostring technology as a targeted approach to perform accurate measurement of tandem repeats even at extremely high copy number, and apply this technology to genotype 165 HapMap samples from three different populations and five species of non-human primates. We observed extreme variability in copy number of tandemly repeated genes, with many loci showing 5-10 fold variation in copy number among humans. Many of these loci show hallmarks of genome assembly errors, and the true copy number of many large tandem repeats is significantly under-represented even in the high quality 'finished' human reference assembly. Importantly, we demonstrate that most large tandem repeat variations are not tagged by nearby SNPs, and are therefore essentially invisible to SNP-based GWAS approaches. Using association analysis we identify many cis correlations of large tandem repeat variants with nearby gene expression and DNA methylation levels, indicating that variations of tandem repeat length are associated with functional effects on the local genomic environment. This includes an example where expansion of a macrosatellite repeat is associated with increased DNA methylation and suppression of nearby gene expression, suggesting a mechanism termed "repeat induced gene silencing", which has previously been observed only in transgenic organisms. We also observed multiple signatures consistent with altered selective pressures at tandemly repeated loci, suggesting important biological functions. Our studies show that tandemly repeated loci represent a highly variable fraction of the genome that have been systematically ignored by most previous studies, copy number variation of which can exert functionally significant effects. We suggest that future studies of tandem repeat loci will lead to many novel insights into their

  2. Digital Genotyping of Macrosatellites and Multicopy Genes Reveals Novel Biological Functions Associated with Copy Number Variation of Large Tandem Repeats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilez, Javier; Hasson, Dan; Borel, Christelle; Warburton, Peter; Sharp, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Tandem repeats are common in eukaryotic genomes, but due to difficulties in assaying them remain poorly studied. Here, we demonstrate the utility of Nanostring technology as a targeted approach to perform accurate measurement of tandem repeats even at extremely high copy number, and apply this technology to genotype 165 HapMap samples from three different populations and five species of non-human primates. We observed extreme variability in copy number of tandemly repeated genes, with many loci showing 5–10 fold variation in copy number among humans. Many of these loci show hallmarks of genome assembly errors, and the true copy number of many large tandem repeats is significantly under-represented even in the high quality ‘finished’ human reference assembly. Importantly, we demonstrate that most large tandem repeat variations are not tagged by nearby SNPs, and are therefore essentially invisible to SNP-based GWAS approaches. Using association analysis we identify many cis correlations of large tandem repeat variants with nearby gene expression and DNA methylation levels, indicating that variations of tandem repeat length are associated with functional effects on the local genomic environment. This includes an example where expansion of a macrosatellite repeat is associated with increased DNA methylation and suppression of nearby gene expression, suggesting a mechanism termed “repeat induced gene silencing”, which has previously been observed only in transgenic organisms. We also observed multiple signatures consistent with altered selective pressures at tandemly repeated loci, suggesting important biological functions. Our studies show that tandemly repeated loci represent a highly variable fraction of the genome that have been systematically ignored by most previous studies, copy number variation of which can exert functionally significant effects. We suggest that future studies of tandem repeat loci will lead to many novel insights into their role in

  3. Exact Tandem Repeats Analyzer (E-TRA): A new program for DNA ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    One of the most interesting features of genomes is the pre- sence of relatively short tandem repeats ... have proven to be very beneficial in DNA profiling and genetic linkage analysis studies. To demonstrate the use of. E-TRA, we ... may provide some structural or replication mechanism. (Huang et al. 1998; Richard et al.

  4. Short tandem repeats in CdLS-causing genes: distribution and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2Birthright Genetic Clinic, Karve Road, Pune 411 007, India. [Bajaj S., Gambhir P. and Ranade S. 2014 Short tandem repeats in CdLS-causing genes: distribution ... (nipped B like) or SMC (structural maintenance of chromo- some) genes (Gillis et al. 2004; Krantz et al. 2004). The major genes involved in causing CdLS are ...

  5. Characterization of rDNAs and Tandem Repeats in the Heterochromatin of Brassica rapa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lim, K.B.; Jong, de J.H.S.G.M.; Yang, T.J.; Park, J.Y.; Kwon, S.J.; Kim, J.S.; Lim, M.H.; Kim, J.A.; Jin, M.; Jin, Y.M.; Kim, S.H.; Lim, Y.P.; Bang, J.W.; Kim, H.I.; Park, B.S.

    2005-01-01

    We describe the morphology and molecular organization of heterochromatin domains in the interphase nuclei, and mitotic and meiotic chromosomes, of Brassica rapa, using DAPI staining and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of rDNA and pericentromere tandem repeats. We have developed a simple

  6. Tandemly repeated sequence in 5'end of mtDNA control region of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Extensive length variability was observed in 5' end sequence of the mitochondrial DNA control region of the Japanese Spanish mackerel (Scomberomorus niphonius). This length variability was due to the presence of varying numbers of a 56-bp tandemly repeated sequence and a 46-bp insertion/deletion (indel).

  7. Genome-wide analysis of tandem repeats in plants and green algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhixin Zhao; Cheng Guo; Sreeskandarajan Sutharzan; Pei Li; Craig Echt; Jie Zhang; Chun Liang

    2014-01-01

    Tandem repeats (TRs) extensively exist in the genomes of prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Based on the sequenced genomes and gene annotations of 31 plant and algal species in Phytozome version 8.0 (http://www.phytozome.net/), we examined TRs in a genome-wide scale, characterized their distributions and motif features, and explored their putative biological functions. Among...

  8. Enhanced antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis by chimeric monoclonal antibodies with tandemly repeated Fc domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagashima, Hiroaki; Ootsubo, Michiko; Fukazawa, Mizuki; Motoi, Sotaro; Konakahara, Shu; Masuho, Yasuhiko

    2011-04-01

    We previously reported that chimeric monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) with tandemly repeated Fc domains, which were developed by introducing tandem repeats of Fc domains downstream of 2 Fab domains, augmented binding avidities for all Fcγ receptors, resulting in enhanced antibody (Ab)-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. Here we investigated regarding Ab-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP) mediated by these chimeric mAbs, which is considered one of the most important mechanisms that kills tumor cells, using two-color flow cytometric methods. ADCP mediated by T3-Ab, a chimeric mAb with 3 tandemly repeated Fc domains, was 5 times more potent than that by native anti-CD20 M-Ab (M-Ab hereafter). Furthermore, T3-Ab-mediated ADCP was resistant to competitive inhibition by intravenous Ig (IVIG), although M-Ab-mediated ADCP decreased in the presence of IVIG. An Fcγ receptor-blocking study demonstrated that T3-Ab mediated ADCP via both FcγRIA and FcγRIIA, whereas M-Ab mediated ADCP exclusively via FcγRIA. These results suggest that chimeric mAbs with tandemly repeated Fc domains enhance ADCP as well as ADCC, and that Fc multimerization may significantly enhance the efficacy of therapeutic Abs. Copyright © 2010 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Toward Male Individualization with Rapidly Mutating Y-Chromosomal Short Tandem Repeats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Ballantyne (Kaye); A. Ralf (Arwin); R. Aboukhalid (Rachid); N.M. Achakzai (Niaz); T. Anjos (Tania); Q. Ayub (Qasim); J. Balažic (Jože); J. Ballantyne (Jack); D.J. Ballard (David); B. Berger (Burkhard); C. Bobillo (Cecilia); M. Bouabdellah (Mehdi); H. Burri (Helen); T. Capal (Tomas); S. Caratti (Stefano); J. Cárdenas (Jorge); F. Cartault (François); E.F. Carvalho (Elizeu); M. de Carvalho (Margarete); B. Cheng (Baowen); M.D. Coble (Michael); D. Comas (David); D. Corach (Daniel); M. D'Amato (Mauro); S. Davison (Sean); P. de Knijff (Peter); M.C.A. de Ungria (Maria Corazon); R. Decorte (Ronny); T. Dobosz (Tadeusz); B.M. Dupuy (Berit); S. Elmrghni (Samir); M. Gliwiński (Mateusz); S.C. Gomes (Sara); L. Grol (Laurens); C. Haas (Cordula); E. Hanson (Erin); J. Henke (Jürgen); L. Henke (Lotte); F. Herrera-Rodríguez (Fabiola); C.R. Hill (Carolyn); G. Holmlund (Gunilla); K. Honda (Katsuya); U.-D. Immel (Uta-Dorothee); S. Inokuchi (Shota); R. Jobling; M. Kaddura (Mahmoud); J.S. Kim (Jong); S.H. Kim (Soon); W. Kim (Wook); T.E. King (Turi); E. Klausriegler (Eva); D. Kling (Daniel); L. Kovačević (Lejla); L. Kovatsi (Leda); P. Krajewski (Paweł); S. Kravchenko (Sergey); M.H.D. Larmuseau (Maarten); E.Y. Lee (Eun Young); R. Lessig (Rüdiger); L.A. Livshits (Ludmila); D. Marjanović (Damir); M. Minarik (Marek); N. Mizuno (Natsuko); H. Moreira (Helena); N. Morling (Niels); M. Mukherjee (Meeta); P. Munier (Patrick); J. Nagaraju (Javaregowda); F. Neuhuber (Franz); S. Nie (Shengjie); P. Nilasitsataporn (Premlaphat); T. Nishi (Takeki); H.H. Oh (Hye); S. Olofsson (Sylvia); V. Onofri (Valerio); J. Palo (Jukka); H. Pamjav (Horolma); W. Parson (Walther); M. Petlach (Michal); C. Phillips (Christopher); R. Ploski (Rafal); S.P.R. Prasad (Samayamantri P.); D. Primorac (Dragan); G.A. Purnomo (Gludhug); J. Purps (Josephine); H. Rangel-Villalobos (Hector); K. Reogonekbała (Krzysztof); B. Rerkamnuaychoke (Budsaba); D.R. Gonzalez (Danel Rey); C. Robino (Carlo); L. Roewer (Lutz); A. de Rosa (Anna); A. Sajantila (Antti); A. Sala (Andrea); J.M. Salvador (Jazelyn); P. Sanz (Paula); C. Schmitt (Christian); A.K. Sharma (Anisha K.); D.A. Silva (Dayse); K.-J. Shin (Kyoung-Jin); T. Sijen (Titia); M. Sirker (Miriam); D. Siváková (Daniela); V. Škaro (Vedrana); C. Solano-Matamoros (Carlos); L. Souto (L.); V. Stenzl (Vlastimil); H. Sudoyo (Herawati); D. Syndercombe-Court (Denise); A. Tagliabracci (Adriano); D. Taylor (Duncan); A. Tillmar (Andreas); I.S. Tsybovsky (Iosif); C. Tyler-Smith (Chris); K. van der Gaag (Kristiaan); D. Vanek (Daniel); A. Völgyi (Antónia); D. Ward (Denise); P. Willemse (Patricia); E.P.H. Yap (Eric); Z-Y. Yong (Ze-Yie); I.Z. Pajnič (Irena Zupanič); M.H. Kayser (Manfred)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractRelevant for various areas of human genetics, Y-chromosomal short tandem repeats (Y-STRs) are commonly used for testing close paternal relationships among individuals and populations, and for male lineage identification. However, even the widely used 17-loci Yfiler set cannot resolve

  10. Human tandem-repeat-type galectins bind bacterial non-βGal polysaccharides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knirel, Yu A.; Gabius, H.-J.; Blixt, Klas Ola

    2014-01-01

    Galectins are multifunctional effectors, for example acting as regulators of cell growth via protein-glycan interactions. The observation of capacity to kill bacteria for two tandem-repeat-type galectins, which target histo-blood epitopes toward this end (Stowell et al. Nat. Med. 16:295-301, 2010...

  11. X-Chromosomal short tandem repeat loci in the Turkish population ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, we aimed to demonstrate the importance and utility of polymorphic short tandem repeat (STR) found on the human X chromosome and to provide the first allelic frequency data of X-STR (X chromosomal) loci in the Turkish population. Blood samples were taken from unrelated individuals (135 males and 129 ...

  12. Exact Tandem Repeats Analyzer (E-TRA): A new program for DNA ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... Refresher Courses · Symposia · Live Streaming. Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 84; Issue 1. Exact Tandem Repeats Analyzer (E-TRA): A new program for DNA sequence mining. Mehmet Karaca Mehmet Bilgen A. Naci Onus Ayse Gul Ince Safinaz Y. Elmasulu. Research Article Volume 84 Issue 1 April 2005 ...

  13. Tandem repeat regions within the Burkholderia pseudomallei genome and their application for high resolution genotyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harvey Steven P

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The facultative, intracellular bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei is the causative agent of melioidosis, a serious infectious disease of humans and animals. We identified and categorized tandem repeat arrays and their distribution throughout the genome of B. pseudomallei strain K96243 in order to develop a genetic typing method for B. pseudomallei. We then screened 104 of the potentially polymorphic loci across a diverse panel of 31 isolates including B. pseudomallei, B. mallei and B. thailandensis in order to identify loci with varying degrees of polymorphism. A subset of these tandem repeat arrays were subsequently developed into a multiple-locus VNTR analysis to examine 66 B. pseudomallei and 21 B. mallei isolates from around the world, as well as 95 lineages from a serial transfer experiment encompassing ~18,000 generations. Results B. pseudomallei contains a preponderance of tandem repeat loci throughout its genome, many of which are duplicated elsewhere in the genome. The majority of these loci are composed of repeat motif lengths of 6 to 9 bp with 4 to 10 repeat units and are predominately located in intergenic regions of the genome. Across geographically diverse B. pseudomallei and B.mallei isolates, the 32 VNTR loci displayed between 7 and 28 alleles, with Nei's diversity values ranging from 0.47 and 0.94. Mutation rates for these loci are comparable (>10-5 per locus per generation to that of the most diverse tandemly repeated regions found in other less diverse bacteria. Conclusion The frequency, location and duplicate nature of tandemly repeated regions within the B. pseudomallei genome indicate that these tandem repeat regions may play a role in generating and maintaining adaptive genomic variation. Multiple-locus VNTR analysis revealed extensive diversity within the global isolate set containing B. pseudomallei and B. mallei, and it detected genotypic differences within clonal lineages of both species that were

  14. Changes in Variable Number of Tandem Repeats in 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' through Insect Transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Katoh

    Full Text Available Citrus greening (huanglongbing is the most destructive citrus disease worldwide. The disease is associated with three species of 'Candidatus Liberibacter' among which 'Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus' has the widest distribution. 'Ca. L. asiaticus' is commonly transmitted by a phloem-feeding insect vector, the Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri. A previous study showed that isolates of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' were clearly differentiated by variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR profiles at four loci in the genome. In this study, the VNTR analysis was further validated by assessing the stability of these repeats after multiplication of the pathogen upon host-to-host transmission using a 'Ca. L. asiaticus' strain from Japan. The results showed that some tandem repeats showed detectable changes after insect transmission. To our knowledge, this is the first report to demonstrate that the repeat numbers VNTR 002 and 077 of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' change through psyllid transmission. VNTRs in the recipient plant were apparently unrelated to the growing phase of the vector. In contrast, changes in the number of tandem repeats increased with longer acquisition and inoculation access periods, whereas changes were not observed through psyllid transmission after relatively short acquisition and inoculation access periods, up to 20 and 19 days, respectively.

  15. SMRT Sequencing of Long Tandem Nucleotide Repeats in SCA10 Reveals Unique Insight of Repeat Expansion Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Karen N; Liu, Jilin; Landrian, Ivette; Godiska, Ronald; Shanker, Savita; Yu, Fahong; Farmerie, William G; Ashizawa, Tetsuo

    2015-01-01

    A large, non-coding ATTCT repeat expansion causes the neurodegenerative disorder, spinocerebellar ataxia type 10 (SCA10). In a subset of SCA10 patients, interruption motifs are present at the 5' end of the expansion and strongly correlate with epileptic seizures. Thus, interruption motifs are a predictor of the epileptic phenotype and are hypothesized to act as a phenotypic modifier in SCA10. Yet, the exact internal sequence structure of SCA10 expansions remains unknown due to limitations in current technologies for sequencing across long extended tracts of tandem nucleotide repeats. We used the third generation sequencing technology, Single Molecule Real Time (SMRT) sequencing, to obtain full-length contiguous expansion sequences, ranging from 2.5 to 4.4 kb in length, from three SCA10 patients with different clinical presentations. We obtained sequence spanning the entire length of the expansion and identified the structure of known and novel interruption motifs within the SCA10 expansion. The exact interruption patterns in expanded SCA10 alleles will allow us to further investigate the potential contributions of these interrupting sequences to the pathogenic modification leading to the epilepsy phenotype in SCA10. Our results also demonstrate that SMRT sequencing is useful for deciphering long tandem repeats that pose as "gaps" in the human genome sequence.

  16. SMRT Sequencing of Long Tandem Nucleotide Repeats in SCA10 Reveals Unique Insight of Repeat Expansion Structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen N McFarland

    Full Text Available A large, non-coding ATTCT repeat expansion causes the neurodegenerative disorder, spinocerebellar ataxia type 10 (SCA10. In a subset of SCA10 patients, interruption motifs are present at the 5' end of the expansion and strongly correlate with epileptic seizures. Thus, interruption motifs are a predictor of the epileptic phenotype and are hypothesized to act as a phenotypic modifier in SCA10. Yet, the exact internal sequence structure of SCA10 expansions remains unknown due to limitations in current technologies for sequencing across long extended tracts of tandem nucleotide repeats. We used the third generation sequencing technology, Single Molecule Real Time (SMRT sequencing, to obtain full-length contiguous expansion sequences, ranging from 2.5 to 4.4 kb in length, from three SCA10 patients with different clinical presentations. We obtained sequence spanning the entire length of the expansion and identified the structure of known and novel interruption motifs within the SCA10 expansion. The exact interruption patterns in expanded SCA10 alleles will allow us to further investigate the potential contributions of these interrupting sequences to the pathogenic modification leading to the epilepsy phenotype in SCA10. Our results also demonstrate that SMRT sequencing is useful for deciphering long tandem repeats that pose as "gaps" in the human genome sequence.

  17. Expansions and contractions in a tandem repeat induced by double-strand break repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pâques, F; Leung, W Y; Haber, J E

    1998-04-01

    Repair of a double-strand break (DSB) in yeast can induce very frequent expansions and contractions in a tandem array of 375-bp repeats. These results strongly suggest that DSB repair can be a major source of amplification of tandemly repeated sequences. Most of the DSB repair events are not associated with crossover. Rearrangements appear in 50% of these repaired recipient molecules. In contrast, the donor template nearly always remains unchanged. Among the rare crossover events, similar rearrangements are found. These results cannot readily be explained by the gap repair model of Szostak et al. (J. W. Szostak, T. L. Orr-Weaver, R. J. Rothstein, and F. W. Stahl, Cell 33:25-35, 1983) but can be explained by synthesis-dependent strand annealing (SDSA) models that allow for crossover. Support for SDSA models is provided by a demonstration that a single DSB repair event can use two donor templates located on two different chromosomes.

  18. Sunflower centromeres consist of a centromere-specific LINE and a chromosome-specific tandem repeat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyotaka eNagaki

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The kinetochore is a protein complex including kinetochore-specific proteins that plays a role in chromatid segregation during mitosis and meiosis. The complex associates with centromeric DNA sequences that are usually species-specific. In plant species, tandem repeats including satellite DNA sequences and retrotransposons have been reported as centromeric DNA sequences. In this study on sunflowers, a cDNA-encoding centromere-specific histone H3 (CENH3 was isolated from a cDNA pool from a seedling, and an antibody was raised against a peptide synthesized from the deduced cDNA. The antibody specifically recognized the sunflower CENH3 (HaCENH3 and showed centromeric signals by immunostaining and immunohistochemical staining analysis. The antibody was also applied in chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP-Seq to isolate centromeric DNA sequences and two different types of repetitive DNA sequences were identified. One was a long interspersed nuclear element (LINE-like sequence, which showed centromere-specific signals on almost all chromosomes in sunflowers. This is the first report of a centromeric LINE sequence, suggesting possible centromere targeting ability. Another type of identified repetitive DNA was a tandem repeat sequence with a 187-bp unit that was found only on a pair of chromosomes. The HaCENH3 content of the tandem repeats was estimated to be much higher than that of the LINE, which implies centromere evolution from LINE-based centromeres to more stable tandem-repeat-based centromeres. In addition, the epigenetic status of the sunflower centromeres was investigated by immunohistochemical staining and ChIP, and it was found that centromeres were heterochromatic.

  19. Analysis of genetic polymorphism of nine short tandem repeat loci in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to investigate the genetic polymorphism of nine short tandem repeat (STR) loci including D2S1772, D6S1043, D7S3048, D8S1132, D11S2368, D12S391, D13S325, D18S1364 and D22GATA198B05 in Chinese Han population of Henan province and to assess its value in forensic science.

  20. Evaluation of tandem repeats for MLVA typing of Streptococcus uberis isolated from bovine mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamoureux Jérémy

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Streptococcus uberis is a common cause of bovine mastitis and recommended control measures, based on improved milking practice, teat dipping and antibiotic treatment at drying-off, are poorly efficient against this environmental pathogen. A simple and efficient typing method would be helpful in identifying S.uberis sources, virulent strains and cow to cow transmission. The potential of MLVA (Multiple Loci VNTR Analysis; VNTR, Variable Number of Tandem Repeats for S. uberis mastitis isolates genotyping was investigated. Results The genomic sequence of Streptococcus uberis (strain 0104J was analyzed for potential variable number tandem repeats (VNTRs. Twenty-five tandem repeats were identified and amplified by PCR with DNA samples from 24 S. uberis strains. A set of seven TRs were found to be polymorphic and used for MLVA typing of 88 S. uberis isolates. A total of 82 MLVA types were obtained with 22 types among 26 strains isolated from the milk of mastitic cows belonging to our experimental herd, and 61 types for 62 epidemiologically unrelated strains, i.e. collected in different herds and areas. Conclusion The MLVA method can be applied to S. uberis genotyping and constitutes an interesting complement to existing typing methods. This method, which is easy to perform, low cost and can be used in routine, could facilitate investigations of the epidemiology of S. uberis mastitis in dairy cows.

  1. The correlated evolution of Runx2 tandem repeats, transcriptional activity, and facial length in carnivora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, K E; Goswami, A; Flynn, J J; Niswander, L A

    2007-01-01

    To assess the ability of protein-coding mutations to contribute to subtle, inter-specific morphologic evolution, here, we test the hypothesis that mutations within the protein-coding region of runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) have played a role in facial evolution in 30 species from a naturally evolving group, the mammalian order Carnivora. Consistent with this hypothesis, we find significant correlations between changes in Runx2 glutamine-alanine tandem-repeat ratio, and both Runx2 transcriptional activity and carnivoran facial length. Furthermore, we identify a potential evolutionary mechanism for the correlation between Runx2 tandem repeat ratio and facial length. Specifically, our results are consistent with the Runx2 tandem repeat system providing a flexible genetic mechanism to rapidly change the timing of ossification. These heterochronic changes, in turn, potentially act on existing allometric variation in carnivoran facial length to generate the disparity in adult facial lengths observed among carnivoran species. Our results suggest that despite potentially great pleiotropic effects, changes to the protein-coding regions of genes such as Runx2 do occur and have the potential to affect subtle morphologic evolution across a diverse array of species in naturally evolving lineages.

  2. In silico characterization of tandem repeats in Trichophyton rubrum and related dermatophytes provides new insights into their role in pathogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Matheus Eloy; Bitencourt, Tamires Aparecida; Marins, Mozart

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Trichophyton rubrum is the most common etiological agent of dermatophytoses worldwide, which is able to degrade keratinized tissues. The sequencing of the genome of different dermatophyte species has provided a large amount of data, including tandem repeats that may play a role in genetic variability and in the pathogenesis of these fungi. Tandem repeats are adjacent DNA sequences of 2–200 nucleotides in length, which exert regulatory and adaptive functions. These repetitive DNA sequences are found in different classes of fungal proteins, especially those involved in cell adhesion, a determinant factor for the establishment of fungal infection. The objective of this study was to develop a Dermatophyte Tandem Repeat Database (DTRDB) for the storage and identification of tandem repeats in T. rubrum and six other dermatophyte species. The current version of the database contains 35 577 tandem repeats detected in 16 173 coding sequences. The repeats can be searched using entry parameters such as repeat unit length (nt—nucleotide), repeat number, variability score, and repeat sequence motif. These data were used to study the relative frequency and distribution of repeats in the sequences, as well as their possible functions in dermatophytes. A search of the database revealed that these repeats occur in 22–33% of genes transcribed in dermatophytes where they could be involved in the success of adaptation to the host tissue and establishment of infection. The repeats were detected in transcripts that are mainly related to three biological processes: regulation, adhesion, and metabolism. The database developed enables users to identify and analyse tandem repeat regions in target genes related to pathogenicity and fungal–host interactions in dermatophytes and may contribute to the discovery of new targets for the development of antifungal agents. Database URL: http://comp.mch.ifsuldeminas.edu.br/dtrdb/

  3. A study of allelic polymorphism of four short tandem repeats in the population of northwestern Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aseev, M.V.; Skakun, V.N.; Baranov, V.S. [Ott Institute of Obstetrics and Gynecology, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    1995-06-01

    Characteristics of the allelic polymorphisms of the trimeric AGC repeat of the androgen receptor gene (Xq11-12), exon 1 (AR); the tetrameric ATCT repeat of the von Willebrand factor gene (12p12), intron 40 (vWF); the AGAT repeat of the hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase gene (Xq26) (HPRT); and the AGAT repeat of anonymous DNA sequences of the short arm of chromosome X (STRX1) were studied in 160 DNA samples from unrelated inhabitants of northwestern Russia using the method of polymerase chain reaction. Seventeen, ten, eight, and nine alleles were revealed electrophoretically for short tandem repeats of AR, vWF, HPRT, and STRX1, respectively. The heterozygosity indices for these repeats were 0.80, 0.70, 0.54, and 0.58, respectively. The values for AR and vWF correlated with those expected according to the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, whereas the values for HPRT and STRX1 differed significantly from those theoretically expected. The individualization potentials were 0.045, 0.135, 0.095, and 0.061 for the short tandem repeats of AR, vWF, HPRT, and STRX1, respectively. The distribution of genotypes for the set of these four loci in the population studied was determined. The possibilities of using the studied polymorphic marker systems in molecular diagnosis of the corresponding monogenic diseases - spinal and bulbar muscle atrophy (AR), Lesch-Nyhan disease (HPRT), and von Willebrand disease (vWF) - as well as in population human genetics, testing of personal identity, and molecular approaches to the estimation of mutagenic activity are discussed. 17 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  4. Tandem repeat polymorphisms: Mediators of genetic plasticity, modulators of biological diversity and dynamic sources of disease susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannan, Anthony J

    2012-01-01

    Tandem repetitive DNA elements (tandem repeats), including microsatellites and simple sequence repeats, are extremely common throughout the genomes of a wide range of species. Tandem repeat expansions have been found to cause a range of monogenic diseases, such as Huntington's disease, various ataxias and other neurological diseases. The human genome contains hundreds ofthousands of distinct tandem repeats, many of which appear to have evolved to regulate specific aspects of gene expression, RNA function and protein function. Tandem repeat polymorphisms (TRPs) provide a unique source of genetic variability that has an extended digital distribution, as opposed to the usual binary nature of single nucleotide polymorphisms. In this chapter I will review studies in which tandem repeats have been implicated in a multitude of molecular and cellular processes associated with the development, behavior and evolution of a variety of animal species, including mammals. Recent data suggesting that these repetitive sequences can increase the 'evolvability' of genomes provides further evidence that TRPs not only have functional consequences but also provide a rich source of genetic diversity that can facilitate evolutionary processes. I propose that a readily mutable subclass of tandem repeats may provide an important template for stochastic genetic variation, which could in turn generate diversity in epigenetics, development and organismal function, thus impacting upon evolution. Furthermore, the distinctive characteristics ofTRPs also uniquely position them as contributors to complex polygenic disorders. Ultimately, there is much to be gained from systematic analysis of the 'repeatome', defined as the entire set of tandem repeats and other repetitive DNA in a genome, as well as their transcribed and translated expression products. Applying such approaches not only to the human genome but to other species will yield new insights into the genetic regulation of a wide range of

  5. Identification and characterization of tandem repeats in exon III of dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) genes from different mammalian species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Svend Arild; Mogensen, Line; Dietz, Rune

    2005-01-01

    composed of 15- and 12- bp modules. Tandem repeats composed of 18-bp modules were found in sequences from the horse, zebra, onager, and donkey, Asiatic bear, polar bear, common raccoon, dolphin, harbor porpoise, and domestic cat. Several of these sequences have been analyzed previously without a tandem...... of the architecture and evolution of the DRD4 exon III tandem repeat, and they suggest that differences in the structure of this tandem repeat contribute to specialization and generation of diversity in receptor function....

  6. Novel Y-chromosome Short Tandem Repeat Variants Detected Through the Use of Massively Parallel Sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David H. Warshauer

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Massively parallel sequencing (MPS technology is capable of determining the sizes of short tandem repeat (STR alleles as well as their individual nucleotide sequences. Thus, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs within the repeat regions of STRs and variations in the pattern of repeat units in a given repeat motif can be used to differentiate alleles of the same length. In this study, MPS was used to sequence 28 forensically-relevant Y-chromosome STRs in a set of 41 DNA samples from the 3 major U.S. population groups (African Americans, Caucasians, and Hispanics. The resulting sequence data, which were analyzed with STRait Razor v2.0, revealed 37 unique allele sequence variants that have not been previously reported. Of these, 19 sequences were variations of documented sequences resulting from the presence of intra-repeat SNPs or alternative repeat unit patterns. Despite a limited sampling, two of the most frequently-observed variants were found only in African American samples. The remaining 18 variants represented allele sequences for which there were no published data with which to compare. These findings illustrate the great potential of MPS with regard to increasing the resolving power of STR typing and emphasize the need for sample population characterization of STR alleles.

  7. Cloning and characterization of a tandemly repeated DNA sequence in the crane family (Gruidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Z Q; Lin, C C; Hodgetts, R B

    1989-08-01

    A tandemly repeated DNA sequence possessing a unique PstI site has been characterized in several species of the crane family. The "Pst family" comprises at least 8800 monomer units 187 base pairs (bp) in length and constitutes 0.14% of the genome of the sarus crane (Grus antigone). The array is located in the centromeric heterochromatin of chromosome 2 in the two species where in situ hybridizations of a cloned monomer to metaphase chromosome spreads were carried out. DNA sequence comparisons between five monomer units from G. antigone revealed a high degree of homology between four of the individual repeats, while the fifth was somewhat divergent. The G + C content deduced from the DNA sequence makes it likely that the Pst family constitutes part of a density satellite seen in profiles of crane DNA centrifuged to equilibrium in CsCl. The common occurrence of tandem arrays such as the Pst family, with repeat lengths close to 200 bp, leads us to an hypothesis implicating nucleosomes in the evolution of such families.

  8. Altered methylation in tandem repeat element and elemental component levels in inhalable air particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Lifang; Zhang, Xiao; Zheng, Yinan; Wang, Sheng; Dou, Chang; Guo, Liqiong; Byun, Hyang-Min; Motta, Valeria; McCracken, John; Díaz, Anaité; Kang, Choong-Min; Koutrakis, Petros; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Li, Jingyun; Schwartz, Joel; Baccarelli, Andrea A

    2014-04-01

    Exposure to particulate matter (PM) has been associated with lung cancer risk in epidemiology investigations. Elemental components of PM have been suggested to have critical roles in PM toxicity, but the molecular mechanisms underlying their association with cancer risks remain poorly understood. DNA methylation has emerged as a promising biomarker for environmental-related diseases, including lung cancer. In this study, we evaluated the effects of PM elemental components on methylation of three tandem repeats in a highly exposed population in Beijing, China. The Beijing Truck Driver Air Pollution Study was conducted shortly before the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games (June 15-July 27, 2008) and included 60 truck drivers and 60 office workers. On two days separated by 1-2 weeks, we measured blood DNA methylation of SATα, NBL2, D4Z4, and personal exposure to eight elemental components in PM2.5 , including aluminum (Al), silicon (Si), sulfur (S), potassium (K), calcium (Ca) titanium (Ti), iron (Fe), and zinc (Zn). We estimated the associations of individual elemental component with each tandem-repeat methylation in generalized estimating equations (GEE) models adjusted for PM2.5 mass and other covariates. Out of the eight examined elements, NBL2 methylation was positively associated with concentrations of Si [0.121, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.030; 0.212, False Discovery Rate (FDR) = 0.047] and Ca (0.065, 95%CI: 0.014; 0.115, FDR = 0.047) in truck drivers. In office workers, SATα methylation was positively associated with concentrations of S (0.115, 95% CI: 0.034; 0.196, FDR = 0.042). PM-associated differences in blood tandem-repeat methylation may help detect biological effects of the exposure and identify individuals who may eventually experience higher lung cancer risk. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Altered Methylation in Tandem Repeat Element and Elemental Component Levels in Inhalable Air Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Lifang; Zhang, Xiao; Zheng, Yinan; Wang, Sheng; Dou, Chang; Guo, Liqiong; Byun, Hyang-Min; Motta, Valeria; McCracken, John; Díaz, Anaité; Kang, Choong-Min; Koutrakis, Petros; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Li, Jingyun; Schwartz, Joel; Baccarelli, Andrea A.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to particulate matter (PM) has been associated with lung cancer risk in epidemiology investigations. Elemental components of PM have been suggested to have critical roles in PM toxicity, but the molecular mechanisms underlying their association with cancer risks remain poorly understood. DNA methylation has emerged as a promising biomarker for environmental-related diseases, including lung cancer. In this study, we evaluated the effects of PM elemental components on methylation of three tandem repeats in a highly-exposed population in Beijing, China. The Beijing Truck Driver Air Pollution Study was conducted shortly before the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games (June 15-July 27, 2008) and included 60 truck drivers and 60 office workers. On two days separated by 1-2 weeks, we measured blood DNA methylation of SATα, NBL2, D4Z4, and personal exposure to eight elemental components in PM2.5, including aluminum (Al), silicon (Si), sulfur (S), potassium (K), calcium (Ca) titanium (Ti), iron (Fe), and zinc (Zn). We estimated the associations of individual elemental component with each tandem repeat methylation in generalized estimating equations (GEE) models adjusted for PM2.5 mass and other covariates. Out of the eight examined elements, NBL2 methylation was positively associated with concentrations of Si (0.121, 95%CI: 0.030; 0.212, FDR=0.047) and Ca (0.065, 95%CI: 0.014; 0.115, FDR=0.047) in truck drivers. In office workers, SATα methylation was positively associated with concentrations of S (0.115, 95%CI: 0.034; 0.196, FDR=0.042). PM-associated differences in blood tandem-repeat methylation may help detect biological effects of the exposure and identify individuals who may eventually experience higher lung cancer risk. PMID:24273195

  10. DNA fingerprinting of Mycobacterium leprae strains using variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) - fragment length analysis (FLA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Ronald W; Rivest, Jason; Li, Wei; Vissa, Varalakshmi

    2011-07-15

    The study of the transmission of leprosy is particularly difficult since the causative agent, Mycobacterium leprae, cannot be cultured in the laboratory. The only sources of the bacteria are leprosy patients, and experimentally infected armadillos and nude mice. Thus, many of the methods used in modern epidemiology are not available for the study of leprosy. Despite an extensive global drug treatment program for leprosy implemented by the WHO, leprosy remains endemic in many countries with approximately 250,000 new cases each year. The entire M. leprae genome has been mapped and many loci have been identified that have repeated segments of 2 or more base pairs (called micro- and minisatellites). Clinical strains of M. leprae may vary in the number of tandem repeated segments (short tandem repeats, STR) at many of these loci. Variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) analysis has been used to distinguish different strains of the leprosy bacilli. Some of the loci appear to be more stable than others, showing less variation in repeat numbers, while others seem to change more rapidly, sometimes in the same patient. While the variability of certain VNTRs has brought up questions regarding their suitability for strain typing, the emerging data suggest that analyzing multiple loci, which are diverse in their stability, can be used as a valuable epidemiological tool. Multiple locus VNTR analysis (MLVA) has been used to study leprosy evolution and transmission in several countries including China, Malawi, the Philippines, and Brazil. MLVA involves multiple steps. First, bacterial DNA is extracted along with host tissue DNA from clinical biopsies or slit skin smears (SSS). The desired loci are then amplified from the extracted DNA via polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Fluorescently-labeled primers for 4-5 different loci are used per reaction, with 18 loci being amplified in a total of four reactions. The PCR products may be subjected to agarose gel electrophoresis to verify the

  11. Identification and characterization of tandem repeats in exon III of dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) genes from different mammalian species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Svend Arild; Mogensen, Line; Dietz, Rune; Baagøe, Hans Jørgen; Andersen, Mogens; Werge, Thomas; Rasmussen, Henrik Berg

    2005-12-01

    In this study we have identified and characterized dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) exon III tandem repeats in 33 public available nucleotide sequences from different mammalian species. We found that the tandem repeat in canids could be described in a novel and simple way, namely, as a structure composed of 15- and 12- bp modules. Tandem repeats composed of 18-bp modules were found in sequences from the horse, zebra, onager, and donkey, Asiatic bear, polar bear, common raccoon, dolphin, harbor porpoise, and domestic cat. Several of these sequences have been analyzed previously without a tandem repeat being found. In the domestic cow and gray seal we identified tandem repeats composed of 36-bp modules, each consisting of two closely related 18-bp basic units. A tandem repeat consisting of 9-bp modules was identified in sequences from mink and ferret. In the European otter we detected an 18-bp tandem repeat, while a tandem repeat consisting of 27-bp modules was identified in a sequence from European badger. Both these tandem repeats were composed of 9-bp basic units, which were closely related with the 9-bp repeat modules identified in the mink and ferret. Tandem repeats could not be identified in sequences from rodents. All tandem repeats possessed a high GC content with a strong bias for C. On phylogenetic analysis of the tandem repeats evolutionary related species were clustered into the same groups. The degree of conservation of the tandem repeats varied significantly between species. The deduced amino acid sequences of most of the tandem repeats exhibited a high propensity for disorder. This was also the case with an amino acid sequence of the human DRD4 exon III tandem repeat, which was included in the study for comparative purposes. We identified proline-containing motifs for SH3 and WW domain binding proteins, potential phosphorylation sites, PDZ domain binding motifs, and FHA domain binding motifs in the amino acid sequences of the tandem repeats. The numbers of

  12. Fuzzy tandem repeats containing p53 response elements may define species-specific p53 target genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iva Simeonova

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary forces that shape regulatory networks remain poorly understood. In mammals, the Rb pathway is a classic example of species-specific gene regulation, as a germline mutation in one Rb allele promotes retinoblastoma in humans, but not in mice. Here we show that p53 transactivates the Retinoblastoma-like 2 (Rbl2 gene to produce p130 in murine, but not human, cells. We found intronic fuzzy tandem repeats containing perfect p53 response elements to be important for this regulation. We next identified two other murine genes regulated by p53 via fuzzy tandem repeats: Ncoa1 and Klhl26. The repeats are poorly conserved in evolution, and the p53-dependent regulation of the murine genes is lost in humans. Our results indicate a role for the rapid evolution of tandem repeats in shaping differences in p53 regulatory networks between mammalian species.

  13. Fuzzy tandem repeats containing p53 response elements may define species-specific p53 target genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeonova, Iva; Lejour, Vincent; Bardot, Boris; Bouarich-Bourimi, Rachida; Morin, Aurélie; Fang, Ming; Charbonnier, Laure; Toledo, Franck

    2012-06-01

    Evolutionary forces that shape regulatory networks remain poorly understood. In mammals, the Rb pathway is a classic example of species-specific gene regulation, as a germline mutation in one Rb allele promotes retinoblastoma in humans, but not in mice. Here we show that p53 transactivates the Retinoblastoma-like 2 (Rbl2) gene to produce p130 in murine, but not human, cells. We found intronic fuzzy tandem repeats containing perfect p53 response elements to be important for this regulation. We next identified two other murine genes regulated by p53 via fuzzy tandem repeats: Ncoa1 and Klhl26. The repeats are poorly conserved in evolution, and the p53-dependent regulation of the murine genes is lost in humans. Our results indicate a role for the rapid evolution of tandem repeats in shaping differences in p53 regulatory networks between mammalian species.

  14. Evaluation and selection of tandem repeat loci for Streptococcus pneumoniae MLVA strain typing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valjevac Samina

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Precise identification of bacterial pathogens at the strain level is essential for epidemiological purposes. In Streptococcus pneumoniae, the existence of 90 different serotypes makes the typing particularly difficult and requires the use of highly informative tools. Available methods are relatively expensive and cannot be used for large-scale or routine typing of any new isolate. We explore here the potential of MLVA (Multiple Loci VNTR Analysis; VNTR, Variable Number of Tandem Repeats, a method of growing importance in the field of molecular epidemiology, for genotyping of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Results Available genome sequences were searched for polymorphic tandem repeats. The loci identified were typed across a collection of 56 diverse isolates and including a group of serotype 1 isolates from Africa. Eventually a set of 16 VNTRs was proposed for MLVA-typing of S. pneumoniae. These robust markers were sufficient to discriminate 49 genotypes and to aggregate strains on the basis of the serotype and geographical origin, although some exceptions were found. Such exceptions may reflect serotype switching or horizontal transfer of genetic material. Conclusion We describe a simple PCR-based MLVA genotyping scheme for S. pneumoniae which may prove to be a powerful complement to existing tools for epidemiological studies. Using this technique we uncovered a clonal population of strains, responsible for infections in Burkina Faso. We believe that the proposed MLVA typing scheme can become a standard for epidemiological studies of S. pneumoniae.

  15. Amyloid formation and disaggregation of {alpha}-synuclein and its tandem repeat ({alpha}-TR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Song Yi; Kim, Seulgi; Hwang, Heejin; Kim, Hyun-Kyung; Yoon, Hyun C.; Kim, Jae Ho [Department of Molecular Science and Technology, Graduate School of Interdisciplinary Programs, Ajou University, Suwon 443-749 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, SangYoon, E-mail: sangyoon@ajou.ac.kr [Chronic Inflammatory Disease Research Center, School of Medicine, Ajou University, Suwon 443-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, T. Doohun, E-mail: doohunkim@ajou.ac.kr [Department of Molecular Science and Technology, Graduate School of Interdisciplinary Programs, Ajou University, Suwon 443-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-01

    Research highlights: {yields} Formation of the {alpha}-synuclein amyloid fibrils by [BIMbF{sub 3}Im]. {yields} Disaggregation of amyloid fibrils by epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and baicalein. {yields} Amyloid formation of {alpha}-synuclein tandem repeat ({alpha}-TR). -- Abstract: The aggregation of {alpha}-synuclein is clearly related to the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease. Therefore, detailed understanding of the mechanism of fibril formation is highly valuable for the development of clinical treatment and also of the diagnostic tools. Here, we have investigated the interaction of {alpha}-synuclein with ionic liquids by using several biochemical techniques including Thioflavin T assays and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Our data shows a rapid formation of {alpha}-synuclein amyloid fibrils was stimulated by 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide [BIMbF{sub 3}Im], and these fibrils could be disaggregated by polyphenols such as epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and baicalein. Furthermore, the effect of [BIMbF{sub 3}Im] on the {alpha}-synuclein tandem repeat ({alpha}-TR) in the aggregation process was studied.

  16. Tandem Repeat Deletion in the Alpha C Protein of Group B Streptococcus Is recA Independent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puopolo, Karen M.; Hollingshead, Susan K.; Carey, Vincent J.; Madoff, Lawrence C.

    2001-01-01

    Group B streptococci (GBS) contain a family of protective surface proteins characterized by variable numbers of repeating units within the proteins. The prototype alpha C protein of GBS from the type Ia/C strain A909 contains a series of nine identical 246-bp tandem repeat units. We have previously shown that deletions in the tandem repeat region of the alpha C protein affect both the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of the protein in animal models, and these deletions may serve as a virulence mechanism in GBS. The molecular mechanism of tandem repeat deletion is unknown. To determine whether RecA-mediated homologous recombination is involved in this process, we identified, cloned, and sequenced the recA gene homologue from GBS. A strain of GBS with recA deleted, A909ΔrecA, was constructed by insertional inactivation in the recA locus. A909ΔrecA demonstrated significant sensitivity to UV light, and the 50% lethal dose of the mutant strain in a mouse intraperitoneal model of sepsis was 20-fold higher than that of the parent strain. The spontaneous rate of tandem repeat deletion in the alpha C protein in vitro, as well as in our mouse model of immune infection, was studied using A909ΔrecA. We report that tandem repeat deletion in the alpha C protein does occur in the absence of a functional recA gene both in vitro and in vivo, indicating that tandem repeat deletion in GBS occurs by a recA-independent recombinatorial pathway. PMID:11447184

  17. Highly repeated DNA sequences in birds: the structure and evolution of an abundant, tandemly repeated 190-bp DNA fragment in parrots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, C S; de Kloet, D H; Brooks, J E; de Kloet, S R

    1992-10-01

    Up to 6.8% of the parrot (Psittaciformes) genome consists of a tandemly repeated, 190-bp sequence (P1) located in the centromere of many if not all chromosomes. Monomer repeats from 10 different psittacine species representing four subfamilies were isolated and cloned. The intraspecific sequence variation ranged from 1.5 to 7%. The interspecific sequence variation ranged from less than 3% between two species of cockatoos to approximately 45% between cockatoos and other parrots. The monomer sequences of all 10 parrot species contained several conserved (> 90%) sequence elements at identical locations within the repeat. A comparison with tandemly repeated DNA sequences in other avian species showed that several of these conserved elements were also present at similar locations within the 184-bp repeat of the Chilean flamingo (Phoenicopterus chilensis), suggesting a great antiquity of the repeat. One of the elements was also found in the tandemly repeated sequences of the crane (Gruidae) and falcon (Falconidae) families. The data were used for the construction of a partial most parsimonious relationship that supports a regional subdivision of the Psittaciformes.

  18. Expansion of tandem repeats in sea anemone Nematostella vectensis proteome: A source for gene novelty?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linial Michal

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The complete proteome of the starlet sea anemone, Nematostella vectensis, provides insights into gene invention dating back to the Cnidarian-Bilaterian ancestor. With the addition of the complete proteomes of Hydra magnipapillata and Monosiga brevicollis, the investigation of proteins having unique features in early metazoan life has become practical. We focused on the properties and the evolutionary trends of tandem repeat (TR sequences in Cnidaria proteomes. Results We found that 11-16% of N. vectensis proteins contain tandem repeats. Most TRs cover 150 amino acid segments that are comprised of basic units of 5-20 amino acids. In total, the N. Vectensis proteome has about 3300 unique TR-units, but only a small fraction of them are shared with H. magnipapillata, M. brevicollis, or mammalian proteomes. The overall abundance of these TRs stands out relative to that of 14 proteomes representing the diversity among eukaryotes and within the metazoan world. TR-units are characterized by a unique composition of amino acids, with cysteine and histidine being over-represented. Structurally, most TR-segments are associated with coiled and disordered regions. Interestingly, 80% of the TR-segments can be read in more than one open reading frame. For over 100 of them, translation of the alternative frames would result in long proteins. Most domain families that are characterized as repeats in eukaryotes are found in the TR-proteomes from Nematostella and Hydra. Conclusions While most TR-proteins have originated from prediction tools and are still awaiting experimental validations, supportive evidence exists for hundreds of TR-units in Nematostella. The existence of TR-proteins in early metazoan life may have served as a robust mode for novel genes with previously overlooked structural and functional characteristics.

  19. Genome-wide identification of human- and primate-specific core promoter short tandem repeats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushehri, A; Barez, M R Mashhoudi; Mansouri, S K; Biglarian, A; Ohadi, M

    2016-08-01

    Recent reports of a link between human- and primate-specific genetic factors and human/primate-specific characteristics and diseases necessitate genome-wide identification of those factors. We have previously reported core promoter short tandem repeats (STRs) of extreme length (≥6-repeats) that have expanded exceptionally in primates vs. non-primates, and may have a function in adaptive evolution. In the study reported here, we extended our study to the human STRs of ≥3-repeats in the category of penta and hexaucleotide STRs, across the entire human protein coding gene core promoters, and analyzed their status in several superorders and orders of vertebrates, using the Ensembl database. The ConSite software was used to identify the transcription factor (TF) sets binding to those STRs. STR specificity was observed at different levels of human and non-human primate (NHP) evolution. 73% of the pentanucleotide STRs and 68% of the hexanucleotide STRs were found to be specific to human and NHPs. AP-2alpha, Sp1, and MZF were the predominantly selected TFs (90%) binding to the human-specific STRs. Furthermore, the number of TF sets binding to a given STR was found to be a selection factor for that STR. Our findings indicate that selected STRs, the cognate binding TFs, and the number of TF set binding to those STRs function as switch codes at different levels of human and NHP evolution and speciation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. TANDEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Tandem Van de Graaff facility provides researchers with beams of more than 40 different types of ions - atoms that have been stripped of their electrons. One of...

  1. Mutations of short tandem repeat loci in cases of paternity testing in Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Mao; Zhang, XiaoNan; Wu, Dan; Shen, Qi; Wu, YuanMing; Fu, ShanMin

    2016-09-01

    In order to find out the characteristics of genetic mutations in 15 short tandem repeat (STR) loci, 3734 parentage cases were analyzed using AmpFlSTR Sinofiler kit. The allele source, mutation rate, and mutation rule of the STR loci were determined. Seventy mutations were observed in all cases for paternity testing. Among 15 STR loci, the highest mutation rate was observed in D12S391 (0.21 %), but the D5S818 gene mutation rate was relatively low (0.02 %). One-step mutation cases accounted for 95.7 % of all of the cases monitored. And the mutations in this study mainly showed paternal mutation (64/70). The research results are of great significance for identification and paternity tests and for the improvement of genetic studies on Chinese population in the future.

  2. A study on ten short tandem repeat systems: African immigrant and Spanish population data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamero, J J; Romero, J L; Gonzalez, J L; Arufe, M I; Cuesta, M I; Corte-Real, F; Carvalho, M; Anjos, M J; Vieira, D N; Vide, M C

    2000-06-05

    This work presents the results obtained from a genetic-population study for the D1S1656 system in the population of Southwest Spain (Huelva, Cádiz and Sevilla), Spaniards of Caucasian origin from North Africa (Ceuta), as well as in the black Central West African and Moroccan immigrant populations in Spain. The results of a study of the autochtonous population of the Canary Islands (n=138), and immigrant Central West African populations in Spain (n=132), obtained for nine short tandem repeat (STR) loci (D3S1358, VWA, FGA, D8S1179, D21S11, D18S51, D5S818, D13S317, D7S820), as well as the amelogenin locus, all contained in Profiler Plus (Perkin-Elmer) PCR amplification kits, are also presented. Except for the FGA and VWA data on immigrant Central West African populations in Spain, no deviations from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were detected.

  3. Allelic polymorphic investigation of 21 autosomal short tandem repeat loci in a Chinese Bai ethnic group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chun-mei; Wang, Hong-dan; Liu, Wen-juan; Fan, Shuan-liang; Yang, Guang; Qin, Hai-Xia; Xie, Tong; Li, Shao-bo; Yan, Jiang-wei; Zhu, Bo-feng

    2013-03-01

    Population genetic data of 21 autosomal short tandem repeats (STRs) were obtained in a sample of 106 unrelated healthy individuals of Bai ethnic minority born in the Dali Bai Autonomous Prefecture in Yunnan Province. We observed 138 alleles with corresponding allelic frequencies ranging from 0.005 to 0.575. The genotypic frequency distributions at those STR loci were consistent with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (Bonferroni's correction was used for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium tests). The combined probability of exclusion, power of discrimination, probability of matching value for all 21 STR loci were 0.9999975729, 0.999999999999999999872 and 1.28×10(-19), respectively. The population data in this study showed significant differences from the previously published population data of Tibetan and Salar groups in some loci. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis of pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Wang

    Full Text Available The predominant bioserotypes of pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica in China are 2/O: 9 and 3/O: 3; no pathogenic O: 8 strains have been found to date. Multiple-Locus Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Analysis (MLVA based on seven loci was able to distinguish 104 genotypes among 218 pathogenic Y. enterocolitica isolates in China and from abroad, showing a high resolution. The major pathogenic serogroups in China, O: 3 and O: 9, were divided into two clusters based on MLVA genotyping. The different distribution of Y. enterocolitica MLVA genotypes maybe due to the recent dissemination of specific clones of 2/O: 9 and 3/O: 3 strains in China. MLVA was a helpful tool for bacterial pathogen surveillance and investigation of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica outbreaks.

  5. Distinct influences of tandem repeats and retrotransposons on CENH3 nucleosome positioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gent Jonathan I

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unique structural characteristics of centromere chromatin enable it to support assembly of the kinetochore and its associated tensions. The histone H3 variant CENH3 (centromeric histone H3 is viewed as the key element of centromere chromatin and its interaction with centromere DNA is epigenetic in that its localization to centromeres is not sequence-dependent. Results In order to investigate what influence the DNA sequence exerts on CENH3 chromatin structure, we examined CENH3 nucleosome footprints on maize centromere DNA. We found a predominant average nucleosome spacing pattern of roughly 190-bp intervals, which was also the dominant arrangement for nucleosomes genome-wide. For CENH3-containing nucleosomes, distinct modes of nucleosome positioning were evident within that general spacing constraint. Over arrays of the major ~156-bp centromeric satellite sequence (tandem repeat CentC, nucleosomes were not positioned in register with CentC monomers but in conformity with a striking ~10-bp periodicity of AA/TT dimers within the sequence. In contrast, nucleosomes on a class of centromeric retrotransposon (CRM2 lacked a detectable AA/TT periodicity but exhibited tightly phased positioning. Conclusions These data support a model in which general chromatin factors independent of both DNA sequence and CENH3 enforce roughly uniform centromeric nucleosome spacing while allowing flexibility in the mode in which nucleosomes are positioned. In the case of tandem repeat DNA, the natural bending effects related to AA/TT periodicity produce an energetically-favourable arrangement consistent with conformationally rigid nucleosomes and stable chromatin at centromeres.

  6. Evaluation and selection of tandem repeat loci for a Brucella MLVA typing assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denoeud France

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The classification of Brucella into species and biovars relies on phenotypic characteristics and sometimes raises difficulties in the interpretation of the results due to an absence of standardization of the typing reagents. In addition, the resolution of this biotyping is moderate and requires the manipulation of the living agent. More efficient DNA-based methods are needed, and this work explores the suitability of multiple locus variable number tandem repeats analysis (MLVA for both typing and species identification. Results Eighty tandem repeat loci predicted to be polymorphic by genome sequence analysis of three available Brucella genome sequences were tested for polymorphism by genotyping 21 Brucella strains (18 reference strains representing the six 'classical' species and all biovars as well as 3 marine mammal strains currently recognized as members of two new species. The MLVA data efficiently cluster the strains as expected according to their species and biovar. For practical use, a subset of 15 loci preserving this clustering was selected and applied to the typing of 236 isolates. Using this MLVA-15 assay, the clusters generated correspond to the classical biotyping scheme of Brucella spp. The 15 markers have been divided into two groups, one comprising 8 user-friendly minisatellite markers with a good species identification capability (panel 1 and another complementary group of 7 microsatellite markers with higher discriminatory power (panel 2. Conclusion The MLVA-15 assay can be applied to large collections of Brucella strains with automated or manual procedures, and can be proposed as a complement, or even a substitute, of classical biotyping methods. This is facilitated by the fact that MLVA is based on non-infectious material (DNA whereas the biotyping procedure itself requires the manipulation of the living agent. The data produced can be queried on a dedicated MLVA web service site.

  7. Exceptionally long 5' UTR short tandem repeats specifically linked to primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namdar-Aligoodarzi, P; Mohammadparast, S; Zaker-Kandjani, B; Talebi Kakroodi, S; Jafari Vesiehsari, M; Ohadi, M

    2015-09-10

    We have previously reported genome-scale short tandem repeats (STRs) in the core promoter interval (i.e. -120 to +1 to the transcription start site) of protein-coding genes that have evolved identically in primates vs. non-primates. Those STRs may function as evolutionary switch codes for primate speciation. In the current study, we used the Ensembl database to analyze the 5' untranslated region (5' UTR) between +1 and +60 of the transcription start site of the entire human protein-coding genes annotated in the GeneCards database, in order to identify "exceptionally long" STRs (≥5-repeats), which may be of selective/adaptive advantage. The importance of this critical interval is its function as core promoter, and its effect on transcription and translation. In order to minimize ascertainment bias, we analyzed the evolutionary status of the human 5' UTR STRs of ≥5-repeats in several species encompassing six major orders and superorders across mammals, including primates, rodents, Scandentia, Laurasiatheria, Afrotheria, and Xenarthra. We introduce primate-specific STRs, and STRs which have expanded from mouse to primates. Identical co-occurrence of the identified STRs of rare average frequency between 0.006 and 0.0001 in primates supports a role for those motifs in processes that diverged primates from other mammals, such as neuronal differentiation (e.g. APOD and FGF4), and craniofacial development (e.g. FILIP1L). A number of the identified STRs of ≥5-repeats may be human-specific (e.g. ZMYM3 and DAZAP1). Future work is warranted to examine the importance of the listed genes in primate/human evolution, development, and disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Next generation sequencing (NGS database for tandem repeats with multiple pattern 2°-shaft multicore string matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinta Someswara Rao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Next generation sequencing (NGS technologies have been rapidly applied in biomedical and biological research in recent years. To provide the comprehensive NGS resource for the research, in this paper , we have considered 10 loci/codi/repeats TAGA, TCAT, GAAT, AGAT, AGAA, GATA, TATC, CTTT, TCTG and TCTA. Then we developed the NGS Tandem Repeat Database (TandemRepeatDB for all the chromosomes of Homo sapiens, Callithrix jacchus, Chlorocebus sabaeus, Gorilla gorilla, Macaca fascicularis, Macaca mulatta, Nomascus leucogenys, Pan troglodytes, Papio anubis and Pongo abelii genome data sets for all those locis. We find the successive occurence frequency for all the above 10 SSR (simple sequence repeats in the above genome data sets on a chromosome-by-chromosome basis with multiple pattern 2° shaft multicore string matching.

  9. Characterization of two families of tandem repeated DNA sequences in Potamogeton pectinatus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccarelli, Marilena; Sarri, Vania; Minelli, Stefania; Gelati, Maria Teresa

    2008-11-01

    DNA sequences belonging to two families of tandem repeats, PpeRsa1 (362-364 bp in length, 62% A+T residues) and PpeRsa2 (355-359 bp in length, 59% A+T residues), have been isolated from the Potamogeton pectinatus L. genome. The two sequence families do not share significant nucleotide sequence similarity, even if an evolutionary relationship between them could be assumed. The comparison of the cleaving activity of isoschizomeres that are either sensitive or insensitive to methylation of cytosine residues in the target sequence revealed high methylation in both sequence families. The copy number per 1C DNA of PpeRsa1- and PpeRsa2-related sequences is estimated to be 4.92 x 10(4) and 7.96 x 10(4), respectively. Taken together, these sequences account for about 7.5% of the entire genome of P. pectinatus. The chromosomal organization of these sequences was investigated by fluorescent in situ hybridization. PpeRsa1 and PpeRsa2 repeats found related sequences in 52 chromosomes of the P. pectinatus complement (2n = 78). The related sequences were localized around the centromeres and at the chromosome ends in three pairs of chromosomes, while they were found only at the chromosome ends in the remaining pairs. Twenty-six chromosomes did not show any hybridization signal. The hypothesis that the species is a hybrid between a diploid parent and an allotetraploid parent is put forward.

  10. Analysis of simple tandem repeat (STR) marker allele distributions in a Balinese population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morell, R.; Ashler, J.H.; Friedman, T.B. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Genotypes for 53 simple tandem repeat (STR) markers distributed at greater than 39 cM intervals throughout the genome were determined for 46 individuals from the village of Bengkala, Bali. This village dates to at least the thirteenth century, has approximately 2,200 individuals and has an oral and written tradition suggesting genetic bottlenecks. The allele frequency distributions in Bengkala were compared with distributions obtained by typing individuals in the CEPH data base using a Kolmogorov-Smirnov two sample test. Twenty-eight of the 53 markers showed differences (p<0.05) in distribution between the two populations. Allele frequencies of tetranucleotide STRs were much more similar between the two populations than were those of dinucleotide STRs (p < 0.0043). This may be due to the higher mutation rate of tetranucleotide STRs, combining with selection on repeat lengths, to produce a {open_quotes}stable{close_quotes} allele distribution. Population heterogeneity in Bengkala was indicated by an excess of observed homozygosity, deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium at seven loci, and significant genotypic disequilibrium between physically unlinked loci. These analyses serve as a resource to map a gene causing non-syndromal autosomal recessive deafness in Bengkala, and to corroborate the anthropological study of the history and social structure of the village.

  11. Population genetic data of eight tetrameric short tandem repeats (STRs) in Casablanca resident population to use in forensic casework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chbel, Faiza; Nadifi, Sellama; Martinez-Bouzas, Cristina; Louahlia, Said; Azeddoug, Houssine; Martinez De Pancorbo, Marian

    2003-03-12

    The allele frequencies for eight short tandem repeat (STR) loci HUMvWA, HUMFES/FPS, HUMF13A, HUMF13B, HUMTHO1, HUMTPOX, HUMCSF1P0, HUMLPL included in Geneprint STR kits were obtained from 234 unrelated individuals in Casablanca.

  12. Imported brucellosis in Denmark: Molecular identification and multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) genotyping of the bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aftab, H.; Dargis, R.; Christensen, J. J.

    2011-01-01

    A polymerase chain reaction was used to identify Brucella species isolated from humans in Denmark. Consecutive analysis of referred bacteria and re-examination of historical isolates identified all as Brucella melitensis. Multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) placed...

  13. The expansion of heterochromatin blocks in rye reflects the co-amplification of tandem repeats and adjacent transposable elements

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Evtushenko, E.V.; Levitsky, V.G.; Elisafenko, E.A.; Gunbin, K.V.; Belousov, A.I.; Šafář, Jan; Doležel, Jaroslav; Vershinin, A.V.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 17, MAY 4 (2016), s. 337 ISSN 1471-2164 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Tandem repeats * Transposable elements * Subtelomeric heterochromatin Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.729, year: 2016

  14. DNA Fingerprint Analysis of Three Short Tandem Repeat (STR) Loci for Biochemistry and Forensic Science Laboratory Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara-Schroeder, Kathleen; Olonan, Cheryl; Chu, Simon; Montoya, Maria C.; Alviri, Mahta; Ginty, Shannon; Love, John J.

    2006-01-01

    We have devised and implemented a DNA fingerprinting module for an upper division undergraduate laboratory based on the amplification and analysis of three of the 13 short tandem repeat loci that are required by the Federal Bureau of Investigation Combined DNA Index System (FBI CODIS) data base. Students first collect human epithelial (cheek)…

  15. First worldwide proficiency study on variable-number tandem-repeat typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex strains.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beer, J.L. de; Kremer, K.; Kodmon, C.; Supply, P.; Soolingen, D. van

    2012-01-01

    Although variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) typing has gained recognition as the new standard for the DNA fingerprinting of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) isolates, external quality control programs have not yet been developed. Therefore, we organized the first multicenter proficiency

  16. Glycoprotein I of herpes simplex virus type 1 contains a unique polymorphic tandem-repeated mucin region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norberg, Peter; Olofsson, Sigvard; Tarp, Mads Agervig

    2007-01-01

    Glycoprotein I (gI) of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) contains a tandem repeat (TR) region including the amino acids serine and threonine, residues that can be utilized for O-glycosylation. The length of this TR region was determined for 82 clinical HSV-1 isolates and the results revealed...

  17. The telocentric tandem repeat at the p-arm is not conserved in Mus musculus subspecies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Nobuya; Yamauchi, Hideto; Tomohiro, Nishino; Agui, Takashi

    2013-01-15

    Mouse chromosomes, with the exception of the Y chromosome, are telocentric. The telomere at the p-arm is separated from the centromere by the tL1 sequence and TLC tandem repeats. A previous report showed that the TLC array was also conserved in other strains of the subgenus Mus. These results suggest that the TLC arrays promote the stable evolutionary maintenance of a telocentric karyotype in the subgenus Mus. In this study, we investigated the degree of conservation of TLC arrays among a variety of wild-derived inbred strains, all of which are descendants of wild mice captured in several areas of the world. Genomic PCR analysis indicates that the sequential order of telomere-tL1 is highly conserved in all strains, whereas tL1-TLC is not. Next, Southern blot analysis of DNAs isolated from a panel of mouse subspecies showed both Mus musculus domesticus and Mus musculus castaneus subspecies possess TLC arrays. Unexpectedly, this repeat appears to be lost in almost all Mus musculus musculus and Mus musculus molossinus subspecies, which show a clear geographic divide. These results indicate that either other unknown sequences were replaced by the TLC repeat or almost all M. m. musculus and M. m. molossinus subspecies do not have any sequence between the telomere and minor satellites. Our observation suggests that the TLC array might be evolutionarily unstable and not essential for murine chromosomal conformation. This is the first example of the subspecies-specific large genome alterations in mice. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Identification and characterization of a tandem repeat in exon III of the dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) gene in cetaceans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Line; Kinze, Carl Christian; Werge, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    A large number of mammalian species harbor a tandem repeat in exon III of the gene encoding dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4), a receptor associated with cognitive functions. In this study, a DRD4 gene exon III tandem repeat from the order Cetacea was identified and characterized. Included in our study...... were samples from 10 white-beaked dolphins (Lagenorhynchus albirostris), 10 harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena), eight sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus), and five minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata). Using enzymatic amplification followed by sequencing of amplified fragments, a tandem repeat...... composed of 18-bp basic units was detected in all of these species. The tandem repeats in white-beaked dolphin and harbor porpoise were both monomorphic and consisted of 11 and 12 basic units, respectively. In contrast, the sperm whale harbored a polymorphic tandem repeat with size variants composed...

  19. Identification and characterization of a tandem repeat in exon III of the dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) gene in cetaceans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Line; Kinze, Carl Christian; Werge, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    were samples from 10 white-beaked dolphins (Lagenorhynchus albirostris), 10 harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena), eight sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus), and five minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata). Using enzymatic amplification followed by sequencing of amplified fragments, a tandem repeat...... composed of 18-bp basic units was detected in all of these species. The tandem repeats in white-beaked dolphin and harbor porpoise were both monomorphic and consisted of 11 and 12 basic units, respectively. In contrast, the sperm whale harbored a polymorphic tandem repeat with size variants composed...... in exon III of their DRD4 gene. Consequently, the 18-bp tandem repeat appears to have originated prior to the differentiation of hoofed mammals into odd-toed and even-toed ungulates. The composition of the tandem repeat in cetaceans differed markedly from that in primates, which is composed of 48-bp...

  20. RUNX2 tandem repeats and the evolution of facial length in placental mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pointer Marie A

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When simple sequence repeats are integrated into functional genes, they can potentially act as evolutionary ‘tuning knobs’, supplying abundant genetic variation with minimal risk of pleiotropic deleterious effects. The genetic basis of variation in facial shape and length represents a possible example of this phenomenon. Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2, which is involved in osteoblast differentiation, contains a functionally-important tandem repeat of glutamine and alanine amino acids. The ratio of glutamines to alanines (the QA ratio in this protein seemingly influences the regulation of bone development. Notably, in domestic breeds of dog, and in carnivorans in general, the ratio of glutamines to alanines is strongly correlated with facial length. Results In this study we examine whether this correlation holds true across placental mammals, particularly those mammals for which facial length is highly variable and related to adaptive behavior and lifestyle (e.g., primates, afrotherians, xenarthrans. We obtained relative facial length measurements and RUNX2 sequences for 41 mammalian species representing 12 orders. Using both a phylogenetic generalized least squares model and a recently-developed Bayesian comparative method, we tested for a correlation between genetic and morphometric data while controlling for phylogeny, evolutionary rates, and divergence times. Non-carnivoran taxa generally had substantially lower glutamine-alanine ratios than carnivorans (primates and xenarthrans with means of 1.34 and 1.25, respectively, compared to a mean of 3.1 for carnivorans, and we found no correlation between RUNX2 sequence and face length across placental mammals. Conclusions Results of our diverse comparative phylogenetic analyses indicate that QA ratio does not consistently correlate with face length across the 41 mammalian taxa considered. Thus, although RUNX2 might function as a ‘tuning knob’ modifying face

  1. Retrotransposons and tandem repeat sequences in the nuclear genomes of cryptomonad algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Hameed; Kozera, Catherine; Curtis, Bruce A; Bussey, Jillian Tarrant; Theophilou, Stan; Bowman, Sharen; Archibald, John M

    2007-02-01

    The cryptomonads are an enigmatic group of unicellular eukaryotic algae that possess two nuclear genomes, having acquired photosynthesis by the uptake and retention of a eukaryotic algal endosymbiont. The endosymbiont nuclear genome, or nucleomorph, of the cryptomonad Guillardia theta has been completely sequenced: at only 551 kilobases (kb) and with a gene density of approximately 1 gene/kb, it is a model of compaction. In contrast, very little is known about the structure and composition of the cryptomonad host nuclear genome. Here we present the results of two small-scale sequencing surveys of fosmid clone libraries from two distantly related cryptomonads, Rhodomonas salina CCMP1319 and Cryptomonas paramecium CCAP977/2A, corresponding to approximately 150 and approximately 235 kb of sequence, respectively. Very few of the random end sequences determined in this study show similarity to known genes in other eukaryotes, underscoring the considerable evolutionary distance between the cryptomonads and other eukaryotes whose nuclear genomes have been completely sequenced. Using a combination of fosmid clone end-sequencing, Southern hybridizations, and PCR, we demonstrate that Ty3-gypsy long-terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons and tandem repeat sequences are a prominent feature of the nuclear genomes of both organisms. The complete sequence of a 30.9-kb genomic fragment from R. salina was found to contain a full-length Ty3-gypsy element with near-identical LTRs and a chromodomain, a protein module suggested to mediate the site-specific integration of the retrotransposon. The discovery of chromodomain-containing retroelements in cryptomonads further expands the known distribution of the so-called chromoviruses across the tree of eukaryotes.

  2. Core promoter short tandem repeats as evolutionary switch codes for primate speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohadi, Mina; Valipour, Elaheh; Ghadimi-Haddadan, Saeed; Namdar-Aligoodarzi, Pegah; Bagheri, Abouzar; Kowsari, Ali; Rezazadeh, Maryam; Darvish, Hossein; Kazeminasab, Somayeh

    2015-01-01

    Alteration in gene expression levels underlies many of the phenotypic differences across species. Because of their highly mutable nature, proximity to the +1 transcription start site (TSS), and the emerging evidence of functional impact on gene expression, core promoter short tandem repeats (STRs) may be considered an ideal source of variation across species. In a genome-scale analysis of the entire Homo sapiens protein-coding genes, we have previously identified core promoters with at least one STR of ≥ 6-repeats, with possible selective advantage in this species. In the current study, we performed reverse analysis of the entire Homo sapiens orthologous genes in mouse in the Ensembl database, in order to identify conserved STRs that have shrunk as an evolutionary advantage to humans. Two protocols were used to minimize ascertainment bias. Firstly, two species sharing a more recent ancestor with Homo sapiens (i.e. Pan troglodytes and Gorilla gorilla gorilla) were also included in the study. Secondly, four non-primate species encompassing the major orders across Mammals, including Scandentia, Laurasiatheria, Afrotheria, and Xenarthra were analyzed as out-groups. We introduce STR evolutionary events specifically identical in primates (i.e. Homo sapiens, Pan troglodytes, and Gorilla gorilla gorilla) vs. non-primate out-groups. The average frequency of the identically shared STR motifs across those primates ranged between 0.00005 and 0.06. The identified genes are involved in important evolutionary and developmental processes, such as normal craniofacial development (TFAP2B), regulation of cell shape (PALMD), learning and long-term memory (RGS14), nervous system development (GFRA2), embryonic limb morphogenesis (PBX2), and forebrain development (APAF1). We provide evidence of core promoter STRs as evolutionary switch codes for primate speciation, and the first instance of identity-by-descent for those motifs at the interspecies level. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. An efficient clustering algorithm for partitioning Y-short tandem repeats data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seman Ali

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Y-Short Tandem Repeats (Y-STR data consist of many similar and almost similar objects. This characteristic of Y-STR data causes two problems with partitioning: non-unique centroids and local minima problems. As a result, the existing partitioning algorithms produce poor clustering results. Results Our new algorithm, called k-Approximate Modal Haplotypes (k-AMH, obtains the highest clustering accuracy scores for five out of six datasets, and produces an equal performance for the remaining dataset. Furthermore, clustering accuracy scores of 100% are achieved for two of the datasets. The k-AMH algorithm records the highest mean accuracy score of 0.93 overall, compared to that of other algorithms: k-Population (0.91, k-Modes-RVF (0.81, New Fuzzy k-Modes (0.80, k-Modes (0.76, k-Modes-Hybrid 1 (0.76, k-Modes-Hybrid 2 (0.75, Fuzzy k-Modes (0.74, and k-Modes-UAVM (0.70. Conclusions The partitioning performance of the k-AMH algorithm for Y-STR data is superior to that of other algorithms, owing to its ability to solve the non-unique centroids and local minima problems. Our algorithm is also efficient in terms of time complexity, which is recorded as O(km(n-k and considered to be linear.

  4. Deep phylogenomics of a tandem-repeat galectin regulating appendicular skeletal pattern formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Ramray; Chakraborty, Mahul; Glimm, Tilmann; Stewart, Thomas A; Newman, Stuart A

    2016-08-18

    A multiscale network of two galectins Galectin-1 (Gal-1) and Galectin-8 (Gal-8) patterns the avian limb skeleton. Among vertebrates with paired appendages, chondrichthyan fins typically have one or more cartilage plates and many repeating parallel endoskeletal elements, actinopterygian fins have more varied patterns of nodules, bars and plates, while tetrapod limbs exhibit tandem arrays of few, proximodistally increasing numbers of elements. We applied a comparative genomic and protein evolution approach to understand the origin of the galectin patterning network. Having previously observed a phylogenetic constraint on Gal-1 structure across vertebrates, we asked whether evolutionary changes of Gal-8 could have critically contributed to the origin of the tetrapod pattern. Translocations, duplications, and losses of Gal-8 genes in Actinopterygii established them in different genomic locations from those that the Sarcopterygii (including the tetrapods) share with chondrichthyans. The sarcopterygian Gal-8 genes acquired a potentially regulatory non-coding motif and underwent purifying selection. The actinopterygian Gal-8 genes, in contrast, did not acquire the non-coding motif and underwent positive selection. These observations interpreted through the lens of a reaction-diffusion-adhesion model based on avian experimental findings can account for the distinct endoskeletal patterns of cartilaginous, ray-finned, and lobe-finned fishes, and the stereotypical limb skeletons of tetrapods.

  5. Comprehensive analysis of tandem amino acid repeats from ten angiosperm genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuan; Liu, Jing; Han, Lei; Li, Zhi-Gang; Zhang, Ziding

    2011-12-23

    The presence of tandem amino acid repeats (AARs) is one of the signatures of eukaryotic proteins. AARs were thought to be frequently involved in bio-molecular interactions. Comprehensive studies that primarily focused on metazoan AARs have suggested that AARs are evolving rapidly and are highly variable among species. However, there is still controversy over causal factors of this inter-species variation. In this work, we attempted to investigate this topic mainly by comparing AARs in orthologous proteins from ten angiosperm genomes. Angiosperm AAR content is positively correlated with the GC content of the protein coding sequence. However, based on observations from fungal AARs and insect AARs, we argue that the applicability of this kind of correlation is limited by AAR residue composition and species' life history traits. Angiosperm AARs also tend to be fast evolving and structurally disordered, supporting the results of comprehensive analyses of metazoans. The functions of conserved long AARs are summarized. Finally, we propose that the rapid mRNA decay rate, alternative splicing and tissue specificity are regulatory processes that are associated with angiosperm proteins harboring AARs. Our investigation suggests that GC content is a predictor of AAR content in the protein coding sequence under certain conditions. Although angiosperm AARs lack conservation and 3D structure, a fraction of the proteins that contain AARs may be functionally important and are under extensive regulation in plant cells.

  6. Genotypic characterization by multi locus variable number of tandem repeats analysis international Bordetella pertussis vaccine strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fatah Moghadam

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: In 1930's first whole cell pertussis vaccines became available to the public heralding a dramatic success in overcoming the global burden of the disease. To date only a handful of B. pertussis strains have been used by international/local pertussis vaccine manufacturers. Inevitable well-documented genetic changes in the world population of this pathogen have prompted serious questions on suitability of traditional vaccine strains protect human against currently circulating wild isolates of Bordetella pertussis. Objective: Analyzing the genetic diversity within the most frequently-used vaccine strains of B. pertussis in the world Methods: A recently developed multi locus variable number of tandem repeats analysis (MLVA genotyping system along with a bioinforamtic piece of analysis was conducted on 11 strain / substrains of B137, B203 (10536, C393, Cs, E476, Tohama I, J445 (134, B202 and J446 (509 plus 2 sub-strains of 134 and 509 that are used at Razi institute for preparation of pertussis vaccine. In this study have used 6 individual loci of VNTR1, VNTR3a, VNTR3b, VNTR4, VNTR5 and VNTR6. Findings: Six distinct genotypes were recognized among the examined strains by comparing our data with the Dutch MLVA databank. These were all new and not reported before in the database. Conclusion: This observation reiterates on necessity for detection of predominant native strains to include in vaccine preparations suitable for different countries.

  7. Characterization of two New York City Jewish populations at six short tandem repeat loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medintz, I; Kingston, C; Duran, H; Barry, L; Levine, L; Kobilinsky, L

    2002-02-01

    The Hasidic and non-Hasidic Jewish communities of New York City represent two subpopulations with long-documented histories of restrictive marriage patterns and a high degree of endogamy. As part of a continuing study into their genetic structure, allele frequencies were determined for the six tetrameric short tandem repeat (STR) loci: FESFPS, F13AO1, vWA, CSF1PO, TPOX, and THO1. All loci were tested for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) by three tests: chi-square analysis, Monte Carlo chi-square analysis. and the exact test. The non-Hasidic population failed to meet HWE at the F13A01, FESFPS, and CSF1PO loci by all three tests. The Hasidic population also failed to meet HWE at the same loci by some of the tests. Comparison of the Hasidic to the non-Hasidic population using an R x C contingency table demonstrated a similarity at only the vWA locus. Significant differences exist when comparing the two Jewish populations to a reference Caucasian population.

  8. Developmental Validation of Short Tandem Repeat Reagent Kit for Forensic DNA Profiling of Canine Biological Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayton, Melody; Koskinen, Mikko T; Tom, Bradley K; Mattila, Anna-Maria; Johnston, Eric; Halverson, Joy; Fantin, Dennis; DeNise, Sue; Budowle, Bruce; Smith, David Glenn; Kanthaswamy, Sree

    2009-01-01

    Aim To develop a reagent kit that enables multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of 18 short tandem repeats (STR) and the canine sex-determining Zinc Finger marker. Methods Validation studies to determine the robustness and reliability in forensic DNA typing of this multiplex assay included sensitivity testing, reproducibility studies, intra- and inter-locus color balance studies, annealing temperature and cycle number studies, peak height ratio determination, characterization of artifacts such as stutter percentages and dye blobs, mixture analyses, species-specificity, case type samples analyses and population studies. Results The kit robustly amplified domesticated dog samples and consistently generated full 19-locus profiles from as little as 125 pg of dog DNA. In addition, wolf DNA samples could be analyzed with the kit. Conclusion The kit, which produces robust, reliable, and reproducible results, will be made available for the forensic research community after modifications based on this study’s evaluation to comply with the quality standards expected for forensic casework. PMID:19480022

  9. Multi-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis of 7th pandemic Vibrio cholerae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lam Connie

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Seven pandemics of cholera have been recorded since 1817, with the current and ongoing pandemic affecting almost every continent. Cholera remains endemic in developing countries and is still a significant public health issue. In this study we use multilocus variable number of tandem repeats (VNTRs analysis (MLVA to discriminate between isolates of the 7th pandemic clone of Vibrio cholerae. Results MLVA of six VNTRs selected from previously published data distinguished 66 V. cholerae isolates collected between 1961–1999 into 60 unique MLVA profiles. Only 4 MLVA profiles consisted of more than 2 isolates. The discriminatory power was 0.995. Phylogenetic analysis showed that, except for the closely related profiles, the relationships derived from MLVA profiles were in conflict with that inferred from Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP typing. The six SNP groups share consensus VNTR patterns and two SNP groups contained isolates which differed by only one VNTR locus. Conclusions MLVA is highly discriminatory in differentiating 7th pandemic V. cholerae isolates and MLVA data was most useful in resolving the genetic relationships among isolates within groups previously defined by SNPs. Thus MLVA is best used in conjunction with SNP typing in order to best determine the evolutionary relationships among the 7th pandemic V. cholerae isolates and for longer term epidemiological typing.

  10. Multicolor-based discrimination of 21 short tandem repeats and amelogenin using four fluorescent universal primers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asari, Masaru; Okuda, Katsuhiro; Hoshina, Chisato; Omura, Tomohiro; Tasaki, Yoshikazu; Shiono, Hiroshi; Matsubara, Kazuo; Shimizu, Keiko

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a cost-effective genotyping method using high-quality DNA for human identification. A total of 21 short tandem repeats (STRs) and amelogenin were selected, and fluorescent fragments at 22 loci were simultaneously amplified in a single-tube reaction using locus-specific primers with 24-base universal tails and four fluorescent universal primers. Several nucleotide substitutions in universal tails and fluorescent universal primers enabled the detection of specific fluorescent fragments from the 22 loci. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) produced intense FAM-, VIC-, NED-, and PET-labeled fragments ranging from 90 to 400 bp, and these fragments were discriminated using standard capillary electrophoretic analysis. The selected 22 loci were also analyzed using two commercial kits (the AmpFLSTR Identifiler Kit and the PowerPlex ESX 17 System), and results for two loci (D19S433 and D16S539) were discordant between these kits due to mutations at the primer binding sites. All genotypes from the 100 samples were determined using 2.5 ng of DNA by our method, and the expected alleles were completely recovered. Multiplex 22-locus genotyping using four fluorescent universal primers effectively reduces the costs to less than 20% of genotyping using commercial kits, and our method would be useful to detect silent alleles from commercial kit analysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A fully integrated microchip system for automated forensic short tandem repeat analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Junping; Gan, Wupeng; Zhuang, Bin; Sun, Jing; Zhao, Lei; Ye, Jian; Liu, Yao; Li, Cai-Xia; Liu, Peng

    2017-05-30

    We have successfully developed an integrated microsystem that combines two plastic microchips for DNA extraction and PCR amplification with a glass capillary array electrophoresis chip together in a compact control and detection instrument for automated forensic short tandem repeat (STR) analysis. DNA extraction followed by an "in situ PCR" was conducted in a single reaction chamber of the microchip based on a filter paper-based extraction methodology. PCR products were then mixed with sizing standards by an injection electrode and injected into the electrophoresis chip for four-color confocal fluorescence detection. The entire STR analysis can be completed in about two hours without any human intervention. Since the 15-plex STR system has a more stringent requirement for PCR efficiency, we optimized the structure of the plastic DNA extraction and amplification chip, in which the reaction chamber was formed by sandwiching a hollow structure layer with two blank cover layers, to reduce the adsorption of PCR reagents to the surfaces. In addition, PCR additives, bovine serum albumin, poly(ethylene glycol), and more magnesium chloride were included into the on-chip multiplex STR system. The limit-of-detection study demonstrated that our microsystem was able to produce full 15-plex STR profiles from 3.75 ng standard K562 DNA. Buccal swab and whole blood samples were also successfully typed by our system, validating the feasibility of performing rapid DNA typing in a "sample-in-answer-out" manner for on-site forensic human identification.

  12. Development of multilocus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) for Xanthomonas arboricola pathovars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesbron, Sophie; Pothier, Joel; Gironde, Sophie; Jacques, Marie-Agnès; Manceau, Charles

    2014-05-01

    Xanthomonas arboricola is an important bacterial species, the pathovars of which are responsible for bacterial blight diseases on stone fruit, hazelnut, Persian walnut, poplar, strawberry, poinsettia and banana. In this study, we evaluated variable number tandem repeats (VNTR) as a molecular typing tool for assessing the genetic diversity within pathovars of X. arboricola. Screening of the X. arboricola pv. pruni genome sequence (CFBP5530 strain) predicted 51 candidate VNTR loci. Primer pairs for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of all 51 loci were designed, and their discriminatory power was initially evaluated with a core collection of 8 X. arboricola strains representative of the different pathovars. Next, the 26 polymorphic VNTR loci present in all strains were used for genotyping a collection of 61 strains. MLVA is a typing method that clearly differentiates X. arboricola strains. The MLVA scheme described in this study is a rapid and reliable molecular typing tool that can be used for further epidemiological studies of bacterial diseases caused by X. arboricola pathovars. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A modular microfluidic system for deoxyribonucleic acid identification by short tandem repeat analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reedy, Carmen R; Hagan, Kristin A; Marchiarullo, Daniel J; Dewald, Alison H; Barron, Annalise; Bienvenue, Joan M; Landers, James P

    2011-02-21

    Microfluidic technology has been utilized in the development of a modular system for DNA identification through STR (short tandem repeat) analysis, reducing the total analysis time from the ∼6 h required with conventional approaches to less than 3h. Results demonstrate the utilization of microfluidic devices for the purification, amplification, separation and detection of 9 loci associated with a commercially-available miniSTR amplification kit commonly used in the forensic community. First, DNA from buccal swabs purified in a microdevice was proven amplifiable for the 9 miniSTR loci via infrared (IR)-mediated PCR (polymerase chain reaction) on a microdevice. Microchip electrophoresis (ME) was then demonstrated as an effective method for the separation and detection of the chip-purified and chip-amplified DNA with results equivalent to those obtained using conventional separation methods on an ABI 310 Genetic Analyzer. The 3-chip system presented here demonstrates development of a modular, microfluidic system for STR analysis, allowing for user-discretion as to how to proceed after each process during the analysis of forensic casework samples. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Rapid generation of long tandem DNA repeat arrays by homologous recombination in yeast to study their function in mammalian genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouprina Natalay

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We describe here a method to rapidly convert any desirable DNA fragment, as small as 100 bp, into long tandem DNA arrays up to 140 kb in size that are inserted into a microbe vector. This method includes rolling-circle phi29 amplification (RCA of the sequence in vitro and assembly of the RCA products in vivo by homologous recombination in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The method was successfully used for a functional analysis of centromeric and pericentromeric repeats and construction of new vehicles for gene delivery to mammalian cells. The method may have general application in elucidating the role of tandem repeats in chromosome organization and dynamics. Each cycle of the protocol takes ~ two weeks to complete.

  15. Comparative Analysis of the Proteins with Tandem Repeats from 8 Microsporidia and Characterization of a Novel Endospore Wall Protein Colocalizing with Polar Tube from Nosema bombycis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Geng, Huixia; Dang, Xiaoqun; Xiang, Heng; Li, Tian; Pan, Guoqing; Zhou, Zeyang

    2017-09-01

    As a common feature of eukaryotic proteins, tandem amino acid repeat has been studied extensively in both animal and plant proteins. Here, a comparative analysis focusing on the proteins having tandem repeats was conducted in eight microsporidia, including four mammal-infecting microsporidia (Encephalitozoon cuniculi, Encephalitozoon intestinalis, Encephalitozoon hellem and Encephalitozoon bieneusi) and four insect-infecting microsporidia (Nosema apis, Nosema ceranae, Vavraia culicis and Nosema bombycis). We found that the proteins with tandem repeats were abundant in these species. The quantity of these proteins in insect-infecting microsporidia was larger than that of mammal-infecting microsporidia. Additionally, the hydrophilic residues were overrepresented in the tandem repeats of these eight microsporidian proteins and the amino acids residues in these tandem repeat sequences tend to be encoded by GC-rich codons. The tandem repeat position within proteins of insect-infecting microsporidia was randomly distributed, whereas the tandem repeats within proteins of mammal-infecting microsporidia rarely tend to be present in the N terminal regions, when compared with those present in the C terminal and middle regions. Finally, a hypothetical protein EOB14572 possessing four tandem repeats was successfully characterized as a novel endospore wall protein, which colocalized with polar tube of N. bombycis. Our study provided useful insight for the study of the proteins with tandem repeats in N. bombycis, but also further enriched the spore wall components of this obligate unicellular eukaryotic parasite. © 2017 The Author(s) Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology © 2017 International Society of Protistologists.

  16. Towards Development of Clustering Applications for Large-Scale Comparative Genotyping and Kinship Analysis Using Y-Short Tandem Repeats

    OpenAIRE

    Seman, Ali; Sapawi, Azizian Mohd; Salleh, Mohd. Zaki

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Y-chromosome short tandem repeats (Y-STRs) are genetic markers with practical applications in human identification. However, where mass identification is required (e.g., in the aftermath of disasters with significant fatalities), the efficiency of the process could be improved with new statistical approaches. Clustering applications are relatively new tools for large-scale comparative genotyping, and the k-Approximate Modal Haplotype (k-AMH), an efficient algorithm for clustering lar...

  17. [Effect of tandem repeats adjacent to 3'-terminal of FLO1 on the flocculation function of Saccharomyces cerevisiae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Feng; Du, Zhaoli; Guo, Xuena; He, Xiuping; Zhang, Borun

    2013-12-04

    Many tandem repeats exist in FLO1 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which might have great regulatory effect on the conformation and function of flocculation protein (flocculin). In this study, we analyzed the effect of 3'-terminal tandem repeats B, C and D complete deletion on the function of flocculin. We constructed the derived gene FLO1 bcd with complete deletion of tandem repeats B, C and D of FLO1 by fusion PCR. We then constructed plasmid pYCF1 bcd by insertion of FLO1 bcd into YCp50, and transformed such plasmid, pYCF1 and YCp50 into S. cerevisiae YS58 separately to generate recombinant strains YSF1 bcd, YSF1 and YSP50. We compared the flocculation ability and characteristics of these strains. Compared to YSF1, YSF1 bcd displayed only a slight reduction (4%) in flocculation ability in optimal flocculation buffer (50 mmol/L NaAC, pH 4.5). Moreover, the dependence of flocculation on Ca2+, sensitivity to metal ions and ethanol, and the specificity to different sugars showed no obvious difference between strains YSF1 and YSF1 bcd. However, strain YSF1 bcd displayed much higher flocculation levels than strain YSF1 under conditions with extreme pH, high temperature, or high concentration of mannose. Combined deletion of tandem repeats B, C and D adjacent to the 3'-terminal of FLO1 increases the conformation stability of flocculin in response to changes of pH, temperature or concentration of mannose in environment, but does not influence the other characteristics of flocculation.

  18. Short tandem repeat (STR based genetic diversity and relationship of indigenous Niger cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Grema

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of cattle in Niger is predominantly represented by three indigenous breeds: Zebu Arabe, Zebu Bororo and Kuri. This study aimed at characterizing the genetic diversity and relationship of Niger cattle breeds using short tandem repeat (STR marker variations. A total of 105 cattle from all three breeds were genotyped at 27 STR loci. High levels of allelic and gene diversity were observed with an overall mean of 8.7 and 0.724 respectively. The mean inbreeding estimate within breeds was found to be moderate with 0.024, 0.043 and 0.044 in Zebu Arabe, Zebu Bororo and Kuri cattle respectively. The global F statistics showed low genetic differentiation among Niger cattle with about 2.6 % of total variation being attributed to between-breed differences. Neighbor-joining tree derived from pairwise allele sharing distance revealed Zebu Arabe and Kuri clustering together while Zebu Bororo appeared to be relatively distinct from the other two breeds. High levels of admixture were evident from the distribution of pairwise inter-individual allele sharing distances that showed individuals across populations being more related than individuals within populations. Individuals were assigned to their respective source populations based on STR genotypes, and the percent correct assignment of Zebu Bororo (87.5 to 93.8 % was consistently higher than Zebu Arabe (59.3 to 70.4 % and Kuri (80.0 to 83.3 % cattle. The qualitative and quantitative tests for mutation drift equilibrium revealed absence of genetic bottleneck events in Niger cattle in the recent past. High genetic diversity and poor genetic structure among indigenous cattle breeds of Niger might be due to historic zebu–taurine admixture and ongoing breeding practices in the region. The results of the present study are expected to help in formulating effective strategies for conservation and genetic improvement of indigenous Niger cattle breeds.

  19. An ultra-high discrimination Y chromosome short tandem repeat multiplex DNA typing system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin K Hanson

    Full Text Available In forensic casework, Y chromosome short tandem repeat markers (Y-STRs are often used to identify a male donor DNA profile in the presence of excess quantities of female DNA, such as is found in many sexual assault investigations. Commercially available Y-STR multiplexes incorporating 12-17 loci are currently used in forensic casework (Promega's PowerPlex Y and Applied Biosystems' AmpFlSTR Yfiler. Despite the robustness of these commercial multiplex Y-STR systems and the ability to discriminate two male individuals in most cases, the coincidence match probabilities between unrelated males are modest compared with the standard set of autosomal STR markers. Hence there is still a need to develop new multiplex systems to supplement these for those cases where additional discriminatory power is desired or where there is a coincidental Y-STR match between potential male participants. Over 400 Y-STR loci have been identified on the Y chromosome. While these have the potential to increase the discrimination potential afforded by the commercially available kits, many have not been well characterized. In the present work, 91 loci were tested for their relative ability to increase the discrimination potential of the commonly used 'core' Y-STR loci. The result of this extensive evaluation was the development of an ultra high discrimination (UHD multiplex DNA typing system that allows for the robust co-amplification of 14 non-core Y-STR loci. Population studies with a mixed African American and American Caucasian sample set (n = 572 indicated that the overall discriminatory potential of the UHD multiplex was superior to all commercial kits tested. The combined use of the UHD multiplex and the Applied Biosystems' AmpFlSTR Yfiler kit resulted in 100% discrimination of all individuals within the sample set, which presages its potential to maximally augment currently available forensic casework markers. It could also find applications in human evolutionary

  20. Tandem repeat recombinant proteins as potential antigens for the sero-diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalenda, Yombo Dan Justin; Kato, Kentaro; Goto, Yasuyuki; Fujii, Yoshito; Hamano, Shinjiro

    2015-12-01

    The diagnosis of schistosome infection, followed by effective treatment and/or mass drug administration, is crucial to reduce the disease burden. Suitable diagnostic tests and field-applicable tools are required to sustain schistosomiasis control programs. We therefore assessed the potential of tandem repeat (TR) proteins for sero-diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni infection using an experimental mouse model. TR genes in the genome of S. mansoni were searched in silico and 7 candidates, named SmTR1, 3, 8, 9, 10, 11 and 15, were selected. Total RNA was extracted from S. mansoni adult worms and eggs. Target TR genes were amplified, cloned, and the proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli competent cells. Female BALB/c mice were infected with 100 S. mansoni cercariae and sera were collected each week post-infection for 18 weeks. The levels of IgG antibodies to SmTR antigens were compared to those to soluble egg antigen (SEA) and to soluble worm antigen preparation (SWAP). Sera of infected mice reacted to all the antigens whereas those of naïve mice did not. IgG responses to SmTR1, 3, 9 and 10 were detected at the early stage of infection. Interestingly, antibodies reacting to SmTR3, 9, 10 and 15 dramatically decreased 4 weeks after treatment with praziquantel, while those against SEA and SWAP remained elevated. Our study suggests that TR proteins, especially SmTR10, may be suitable antigens for sero-diagnosis of infection by S. mansoni and are potential markers for monitoring and surveillance of schistosomiasis, including re-infection after treatment with praziquantel. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The conserved PFT1 tandem repeat is crucial for proper flowering in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rival, Pauline; Press, Maximilian O; Bale, Jacob; Grancharova, Tanya; Undurraga, Soledad F; Queitsch, Christine

    2014-10-01

    It is widely appreciated that short tandem repeat (STR) variation underlies substantial phenotypic variation in organisms. Some propose that the high mutation rates of STRs in functional genomic regions facilitate evolutionary adaptation. Despite their high mutation rate, some STRs show little to no variation in populations. One such STR occurs in the Arabidopsis thaliana gene PFT1 (MED25), where it encodes an interrupted polyglutamine tract. Although the PFT1 STR is large (∼270 bp), and thus expected to be extremely variable, it shows only minuscule variation across A. thaliana strains. We hypothesized that the PFT1 STR is under selective constraint, due to previously undescribed roles in PFT1 function. We investigated this hypothesis using plants expressing transgenic PFT1 constructs with either an endogenous STR or synthetic STRs of varying length. Transgenic plants carrying the endogenous PFT1 STR generally performed best in complementing a pft1 null mutant across adult PFT1-dependent traits. In stark contrast, transgenic plants carrying a PFT1 transgene lacking the STR phenocopied a pft1 loss-of-function mutant for flowering time phenotypes and were generally hypomorphic for other traits, establishing the functional importance of this domain. Transgenic plants carrying various synthetic constructs occupied the phenotypic space between wild-type and pft1 loss-of-function mutants. By varying PFT1 STR length, we discovered that PFT1 can act as either an activator or repressor of flowering in a photoperiod-dependent manner. We conclude that the PFT1 STR is constrained to its approximate wild-type length by its various functional requirements. Our study implies that there is strong selection on STRs not only to generate allelic diversity, but also to maintain certain lengths pursuant to optimal molecular function. Copyright © 2014 by the Genetics Society of America.

  2. [Discriminatory power of variable number on tandem repeats loci for genotyping Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H X; Cai, C; Liu, J Y; Zhang, Z G; Yuan, M; Jia, J N; Sun, Z G; Huang, H R; Gao, J M; Li, W M

    2017-06-10

    Objective: Using the standard genotype method, variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR), we constructed a VNTR database to cover all provinces and proposed a set of optimized VNTR loci combinations for each province, in order to improve the preventive and control programs on tuberculosis, in China. Methods: A total of 15 loci VNTR was used to analyze 4 116 Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains, isolated from national survey of Drug Resistant Tuberculosis, in 2007. Hunter-Gaston Index (HGI) was also used to analyze the discriminatory power of each VNTR site. A set combination of 12-VNTR, 10-VNTR, 8-VNTR and 5-VNTR was respectively constructed for each province, based on 1) epidemic characteristics of M. tuberculosis lineages in China, with high discriminatory power and genetic stability. Results: Through the completed 15 loci VNTR patterns of 3 966 strains under 96.36% (3 966/4 116) coverage, we found seven high HGI loci (including QUB11b and MIRU26) as well as low stable loci (including QUB26, MIRU16, Mtub21 and QUB11b) in several areas. In all the 31 provinces, we found an optimization VNTR combination as 10-VNTR loci in Inner Mongolia, Chongqing and Heilongjiang, but with 8-VNTR combination shared in other provinces. Conclusions: It is necessary to not only use the VNTR database for tracing the source of infection and cluster of M. tuberculosis in the nation but also using the set of optimized VNTR combinations in monitoring those local epidemics and M. tuberculosis (genetics in local) population.

  3. Reverse Transcription Errors and RNA-DNA Differences at Short Tandem Repeats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fungtammasan, Arkarachai; Tomaszkiewicz, Marta; Campos-Sánchez, Rebeca; Eckert, Kristin A; DeGiorgio, Michael; Makova, Kateryna D

    2016-10-01

    Transcript variation has important implications for organismal function in health and disease. Most transcriptome studies focus on assessing variation in gene expression levels and isoform representation. Variation at the level of transcript sequence is caused by RNA editing and transcription errors, and leads to nongenetically encoded transcript variants, or RNA-DNA differences (RDDs). Such variation has been understudied, in part because its detection is obscured by reverse transcription (RT) and sequencing errors. It has only been evaluated for intertranscript base substitution differences. Here, we investigated transcript sequence variation for short tandem repeats (STRs). We developed the first maximum-likelihood estimator (MLE) to infer RT error and RDD rates, taking next generation sequencing error rates into account. Using the MLE, we empirically evaluated RT error and RDD rates for STRs in a large-scale DNA and RNA replicated sequencing experiment conducted in a primate species. The RT error rates increased exponentially with STR length and were biased toward expansions. The RDD rates were approximately 1 order of magnitude lower than the RT error rates. The RT error rates estimated with the MLE from a primate data set were concordant with those estimated with an independent method, barcoded RNA sequencing, from a Caenorhabditis elegans data set. Our results have important implications for medical genomics, as STR allelic variation is associated with >40 diseases. STR nonallelic transcript variation can also contribute to disease phenotype. The MLE and empirical rates presented here can be used to evaluate the probability of disease-associated transcripts arising due to RDD. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  4. Population genetic study of 10 short tandem repeat loci from 600 domestic dogs in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Seo Hyun; Jang, Yoon-Jeong; Han, Myun Soo; Cho, Myung-Haing

    2016-09-30

    Dogs have long shared close relationships with many humans. Due to the large number of dogs in human populations, they are often involved in crimes. Occasionally, canine biological evidence such as saliva, bloodstains and hairs can be found at crime scenes. Accordingly, canine DNA can be used as forensic evidence. The use of short tandem repeat (STR) loci from biological evidence is valuable for forensic investigations. In Korea, canine STR profiling-related crimes are being successfully analyzed, leading to diverse crimes such as animal cruelty, dog-attacks, murder, robbery, and missing and abandoned dogs being solved. However, the probability of random DNA profile matches cannot be analyzed because of a lack of canine STR data. Therefore, in this study, 10 STR loci were analyzed in 600 dogs in Korea (344 dogs belonging to 30 different purebreds and 256 crossbred dogs) to estimate canine forensic genetic parameters. Among purebred dogs, a separate statistical analysis was conducted for five major subgroups, 97 Maltese, 47 Poodles, 31 Shih Tzus, 32 Yorkshire Terriers, and 25 Pomeranians. Allele frequencies, expected (Hexp) and observed heterozygosity (Hobs), fixation index (F), probability of identity (P(ID)), probability of sibling identity (P(ID)sib) and probability of exclusion (PE) were then calculated. The Hexp values ranged from 0.901 (PEZ12) to 0.634 (FHC2079), while the P(ID)sib values were between 0.481 (FHC2079) and 0.304 (PEZ12) and the P(ID)sib was about 3.35 × 10(-)⁵ for the combination of all 10 loci. The results presented herein will strengthen the value of canine DNA to solving dog-related crimes.

  5. An improved genome assembly uncovers prolific tandem repeats in Atlantic cod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tørresen, Ole K; Star, Bastiaan; Jentoft, Sissel; Reinar, William B; Grove, Harald; Miller, Jason R; Walenz, Brian P; Knight, James; Ekholm, Jenny M; Peluso, Paul; Edvardsen, Rolf B; Tooming-Klunderud, Ave; Skage, Morten; Lien, Sigbjørn; Jakobsen, Kjetill S; Nederbragt, Alexander J

    2017-01-18

    The first Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) genome assembly published in 2011 was one of the early genome assemblies exclusively based on high-throughput 454 pyrosequencing. Since then, rapid advances in sequencing technologies have led to a multitude of assemblies generated for complex genomes, although many of these are of a fragmented nature with a significant fraction of bases in gaps. The development of long-read sequencing and improved software now enable the generation of more contiguous genome assemblies. By combining data from Illumina, 454 and the longer PacBio sequencing technologies, as well as integrating the results of multiple assembly programs, we have created a substantially improved version of the Atlantic cod genome assembly. The sequence contiguity of this assembly is increased fifty-fold and the proportion of gap-bases has been reduced fifteen-fold. Compared to other vertebrates, the assembly contains an unusual high density of tandem repeats (TRs). Indeed, retrospective analyses reveal that gaps in the first genome assembly were largely associated with these TRs. We show that 21% of the TRs across the assembly, 19% in the promoter regions and 12% in the coding sequences are heterozygous in the sequenced individual. The inclusion of PacBio reads combined with the use of multiple assembly programs drastically improved the Atlantic cod genome assembly by successfully resolving long TRs. The high frequency of heterozygous TRs within or in the vicinity of genes in the genome indicate a considerable standing genomic variation in Atlantic cod populations, which is likely of evolutionary importance.

  6. Aggrecan variable number of tandem repeat polymorphism and lumbar disc degeneration: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jiaao; Guan, Fulin; Guan, Guofa; Xu, Gongping; Wang, Xintao; Zhao, Wei; Ji, Ye; Yan, Jinglong

    2013-12-01

    Data on the association between the ACAN (encoded for aggrecan core protein) variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphism and lumbar disc degeneration are conflicting, so we performed a meta-analysis. Aggrecan is involved in the shock absorbing function of the lumbar disc; we performed a meta-analysis to assess the association between ACAN VNTR and lumbar degeneration. To perform a meta-analysis, we searched for studies published until September 2012, using electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure). Eight studies involving 965 cases of lumbar disc degeneration and 982 control subjects were identified. Assessment for eligibility and extraction of data were performed by 2 independent investigators. We extracted allele frequency for each study. We calculated the pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) to assess the strength of the association between the ACAN VNTR polymorphism and lumbar disc degeneration risk. Results from the allele model suggested an increased risk of lumbar disc degeneration for the shorter alleles carriers compared with the normal alleles and longer alleles (OR = 1.54, 95% CI: 1.04-2.30, P = 0.03). In subgroup analysis by ethnicity, significant increased risks were found among Asians with shorter alleles (OR=1.65, 95% CI: 1.17-2.33, P = 0.004). Our results suggest an increased risk of shorter alleles compared with normal alleles and longer alleles against lumbar disc degeneration among populations especially among Asian descent. Such association may not be statistically significant in European populations.

  7. Genetic structure of the Azores Islands: a study using 15 autosomal short tandem repeat loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Cristina; Alvarez, Luis; Aluja, Maria Pilar; Bruges-Armas, Jacome; Lima, Manuela

    2009-12-01

    The Azores archipelago (Portugal), located in the Atlantic Ocean, 1,500 km from the European mainland, is formed by nine islands of volcanic origin. The relative position of these islands allows the definition of three geographical groups: Eastern, Central and Western. Previous studies of the Azores using Short Tandem Repeats (STRs) have highlighted differences in the frequencies of several loci, when compared to Mainland Portugal or Madleira Island. Furthermore, linkage disequilibrium (LD), described for Azorean samples has been tentatively explained as reflecting the presence of genetic sub-structuring in the archipelago. To provide information concerning the genetic profile of the Azores Islands and to evaluate the presence of substructuring we have determined the allelic frequencies of 15 autosomal STR loci, using the AmpFlSTR Identifiler Kit, in representative samples from the Azorean Islands. Either considering the Azores as a whole, or analysing by island all the loci were in conformity with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Average gene diversity ranged from 0.7669 in Corvo to 0.7972 in Terceira Island. Allelic independence between loci, tested for the global sample, detected significant LD (after correction for multiple tests) for pairs D21S11/D7S820 and D3S1358/D5S818. The exact test of population differentiation, combining the information of the 15 markers analysed, revealed significant differences between the three groups of islands, and between islands. Inter-island analysis reinforces the previous data that suggested the existence of sub-structuring in the Azores archipelago. Moreover, the data generated by this study can be used in a future forensic genetic database of the Azores after the appropriate enlacement of sample size by island, preventing, in that way, misinterpretations caused by population substructuring and small sample sizes.

  8. Multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis for molecular typing of Aspergillus fumigatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chermette René

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat (VNTR analysis (MLVA is a prominent subtyping method to resolve closely related microbial isolates to provide information for establishing genetic patterns among isolates and to investigate disease outbreaks. The usefulness of MLVA was recently demonstrated for the avian major pathogen Chlamydophila psittaci. In the present study, we developed a similar method for another pathogen of birds: the filamentous fungus Aspergillus fumigatus. Results We selected 10 VNTR markers located on 4 different chromosomes (1, 5, 6 and 8 of A. fumigatus. These markers were tested with 57 unrelated isolates from different hosts or their environment (53 isolates from avian species in France, China or Morocco, 3 isolates from humans collected at CHU Henri Mondor hospital in France and the reference strain CBS 144.89. The Simpson index for individual markers ranged from 0.5771 to 0.8530. A combined loci index calculated with all the markers yielded an index of 0.9994. In a second step, the panel of 10 markers was used in different epidemiological situations and tested on 277 isolates, including 62 isolates from birds in Guangxi province in China, 95 isolates collected in two duck farms in France and 120 environmental isolates from a turkey hatchery in France. A database was created with the results of the present study http://minisatellites.u-psud.fr/MLVAnet/. Three major clusters of isolates were defined by using the graphing algorithm termed Minimum Spanning Tree (MST. The first cluster comprised most of the avian isolates collected in the two duck farms in France, the second cluster comprised most of the avian isolates collected in poultry farms in China and the third one comprised most of the isolates collected in the turkey hatchery in France. Conclusions MLVA displayed excellent discriminatory power. The method showed a good reproducibility. MST analysis revealed an interesting clustering with a

  9. Protection induced by virus-like particle vaccine containing tandem repeat gene of respiratory syncytial virus G protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ah-Ra; Lee, Dong-Hun; Lee, Su-Hwa; Rubino, Ilaria; Choi, Hyo-Jick; Quan, Fu-Shi

    2018-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of lower respiratory tract illness in infants, young children and the elderly. However, there is no licensed vaccine available against RSV infection. In this study, we generated virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine and investigated the vaccine efficacy in a mouse model. For VLP vaccines, tandem gene (1-780 bp) for V1 VLPs and tandem repeat gene (repeated 450-780 bp) for V5 VLPs were constructed in pFastBacTM vectors, respectively. Influenza matrix protein 1 (M1) was used as a core protein in the VLPs. Notably, upon challenge infection, significantly lower virus loads were measured in the lung of mice immunized with V1 or V5 VLPs compared to those of naïve mice and formalin-inactivated RSV immunized control mice. In particular, V5 VLPs immunization showed significantly lower virus titers than V1 VLPs immunization. Furthermore, V5 VLPs immunization elicited increased memory B cells responses in the spleen. These results indicated that V5 VLP vaccine containing tandem repeat gene protein provided better protection than V1 VLPs with significantly decreased inflammation in the lungs. Thus, V5 VLPs could be a potential vaccine candidate against RSV.

  10. Use of short tandem repeat sequences to study Mycobacterium leprae in leprosy patients in Malawi and India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saroj K Young

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Inadequate understanding of the transmission of Mycobacterium leprae makes it difficult to predict the impact of leprosy control interventions. Genotypic tests that allow tracking of individual bacterial strains would strengthen epidemiological studies and contribute to our understanding of the disease.Genotyping assays based on variation in the copy number of short tandem repeat sequences were applied to biopsies collected in population-based epidemiological studies of leprosy in northern Malawi, and from members of multi-case households in Hyderabad, India. In the Malawi series, considerable genotypic variability was observed between patients, and also within patients, when isolates were collected at different times or from different tissues. Less within-patient variability was observed when isolates were collected from similar tissues at the same time. Less genotypic variability was noted amongst the closely related Indian patients than in the Malawi series.Lineages of M. leprae undergo changes in their pattern of short tandem repeat sequences over time. Genetic divergence is particularly likely between bacilli inhabiting different (e.g., skin and nerve tissues. Such variability makes short tandem repeat sequences unsuitable as a general tool for population-based strain typing of M. leprae, or for distinguishing relapse from reinfection. Careful use of these markers may provide insights into the development of disease within individuals and for tracking of short transmission chains.

  11. Identification and characterization of tandem repeats in exon III of dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) genes from different mammalian species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Svend Arild; Mogensen, Line; Dietz, Rune

    2005-01-01

    composed of 15- and 12- bp modules. Tandem repeats composed of 18-bp modules were found in sequences from the horse, zebra, onager, and donkey, Asiatic bear, polar bear, common raccoon, dolphin, harbor porpoise, and domestic cat. Several of these sequences have been analyzed previously without a tandem...

  12. Rapid functional and sequence differentiation of a tandemly repeated species-specific multigene family in Drosophila

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clifton, Bryan D.; Sanz, Pablo Librado; Yeh, Shu-Dan

    2017-01-01

    results in their inaccurate representation in genome assemblies. The presumed testis-specific, chimeric gene Sdic originated, and tandemly expanded in Drosophila melanogaster, contributing to increased male-male competition. Using various types of massively parallel sequencing data, we studied...

  13. The proliferation marker pKi-67 becomes masked to MIB-1 staining after expression of its tandem repeats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Mirko H H; Broll, Rainer; Bruch, Hans-Peter; Duchrow, Michael

    2002-11-01

    The Ki-67 antigen, pKi-67, is one of the most commonly used markers of proliferating cells. The protein can only be detected in dividing cells (G(1)-, S-, G(2)-, and M-phase) but not in quiescent cells (G(0)). The standard antibody to detect pKi-67 is MIB-1, which detects the so-called 'Ki-67 motif' FKELF in 9 of the protein's 16 tandem repeats. To investigate the function of these repeats we expressed three of them in an inducible gene expression system in HeLa cells. Surprisingly, addition of a nuclear localization sequence led to a complete absence of signal in the nuclei of MIB-1-stained cells. At the same time antibodies directed against different epitopes of pKi-67 did not fail to detect the protein. We conclude that the overexpression of the 'Ki-67 motif', which is present in the repeats, can lead to inability of MIB-1 to detect its antigen as demonstrated in adenocarcinoma tissue samples. Thereafter, in order to prevent the underestimation of Ki-67 proliferation indices in MIB-1-labeled preparations, additional antibodies (for example, MIB-21) should be used. Additionally, we could show in a mammalian two-hybrid assay that recombinant pKi-67 repeats are capable of self-associating with endogenous pKi-67. Speculating that the tandem repeats are intimately involved in its protein-protein interactions, this offers new insights in how access to these repeats is regulated by pKi-67 itself.

  14. Molecular characterization of Leptospira sp by multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA from clinical samples: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Pailhoriès

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is a zoonotic infection for which diagnosis is difficult. It has appeared as a global emerging infectious disease over recent years. Genotype determination often requires a Leptospira strain obtained by culture, which is a long and fastidious technique. A method based on multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA to determine the genotype of Leptospira interrogans, performed directly on blood or urine samples, is proposed. This method was applied to a fatal case of leptospirosis for which the geographical origin of infection was unknown. This technique will allow a genotype to be obtained for L. interrogans, even when cultures remain negative.

  15. Genotyping of Bacillus anthracis strains based on automated capillary 25-loci Multiple Locus Variable-Number Tandem Repeats Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciervo Alessandra

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genome of Bacillus anthracis, the etiological agent of anthrax, is highly monomorphic which makes differentiation between strains difficult. A Multiple Locus Variable-number tandem repeats (VNTR Analysis (MLVA assay based on 20 markers was previously described. It has considerable discrimination power, reproducibility, and low cost, especially since the markers proposed can be typed by agarose-gel electrophoresis. However in an emergency situation, faster genotyping and access to representative databases is necessary. Results Genotyping of B. anthracis reference strains and isolates from France and Italy was done using a 25 loci MLVA assay combining 21 previously described loci and 4 new ones. DNA was amplified in 4 multiplex PCR reactions and the length of the resulting 25 amplicons was estimated by automated capillary electrophoresis. The results were reproducible and the data were consistent with other gel based methods once differences in mobility patterns were taken into account. Some alleles previously unresolved by agarose gel electrophoresis could be resolved by capillary electrophoresis, thus further increasing the assay resolution. One particular locus, Bams30, is the result of a recombination between a 27 bp tandem repeat and a 9 bp tandem repeat. The analysis of the array illustrates the evolution process of tandem repeats. Conclusion In a crisis situation of suspected bioterrorism, standardization, speed and accuracy, together with the availability of reference typing data are important issues, as illustrated by the 2001 anthrax letters event. In this report we describe an upgrade of the previously published MLVA method for genotyping of B. anthracis and apply the method to the typing of French and Italian B. anthracis strain collections. The increased number of markers studied compared to reports using only 8 loci greatly improves the discrimination power of the technique. An Italian strain belonging to the

  16. Expression of an engineered tandem-repeat starch-binding domain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The SBD2 expression affect granule morphology without altering the primary structure of the constituent starch molecules, suggesting that SBD2 could be used as an anchor for effector proteins to sweet potato starch granules during biosynthesis. Keywords: Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas), tandem starch-binding domain, ...

  17. [Regulatory effect of FLO1 tandem repeats on the flocculation characteristics and genetic stability in Saccharomyces cerevisiae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Qi; Yue, Feng; Guo, Xuena; Hie, Xiuping; Zhang, Borun

    2012-11-04

    There are a large number of tandem repeats in FLO1, which are highly dynamic components in genome leading to the unstable flocculation profiles in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The effects of complete or partial deletion of repeated DNA sequence A in FLO1 on the flocculation characteristics and genetic stability in yeast were studied to provide theoretical guide for construction genetically stable flocculation gene with minimal size. We constructed the derived gene FLO1a with complete deletion of repeated DNA sequence A in the central domain by fusion PCR, and isolated the derived genes FLO1a1 - FLO1a5 with partial deletion of repeated DNA sequence A at different sites using E. coli DH5alpha carrying the FLO1 gene as selective model. We analyzed the physiological characteristics and genetic stability of flocculation in yeast strains YSF1, YSF1a, and YSF1a1 - YSF1a5 containing FLO1, FLO1a and FLO1a1 - FLO1a5 respectively. No obvious flocculation was observed for yeast strain YSF1a, but various levels of flocculation were observed for strains YSF1a1 - YSF1a5. Flocculation of YSF1a3, YSF1a4 and YSF1a5 were more tolerant to environmental changes than that of strain YSF1, and displayed more genetic stability. Repeated DNA sequence A is important for the function of flocculation protein.

  18. Fetal gender specific expression of tandem-repeat galectins in placental tissue from normally progressed human pregnancies and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutter, Stefan; Knabl, Julia; Andergassen, Ulrich; Mayr, Doris; Hofmann, Simone; Kuhn, Christina; Mahner, Sven; Arck, Petra; Jeschke, Udo

    2015-12-01

    The tandem-repeat type galectins, which comprise of gal-4, -6, -8, -9, and -12, form a sub-family of galectins. Gal-6 is expressed only in rodents, whereas the other four galectins, tandem-repeat galectins, are also detectable in human tissue. The placental expression of individual members of the tandem-repeat gal family is increasingly known, however, systematic, comparative analysis especially in the human placenta from normal or pathological pregnancies is still lacking. Within this study, third trimester placentas obtained at delivery (n = 14 IUGR, n = 15 controls, equally divided in placentas from male and female fetuses) were analyzed for the expression of gal-4, -8, -9 and -12 by immunohistology and immunofluorescence, data were obtained by using a semiquantitative scoring system. Double immune-fluorescence with trophoblast specific markers was used to identify co-expression in the decidua. We identified dysregulation of tandem repeat galectins in IUGR placentas with a strong connection to the fetal gender. We identified a significantly lower expression of gal-4 and gal-9 in villous trophoblast tissue of IUGR placentas with male fetuses and a downregulation of gal-4 and gal-8 in extravillous trophoblast (EVT) from IUGR and male fetuses. Conversely, expression of gal-9 and gal-12 was higher in EVT of IUGR cases in placentas with female fetuses. Double immunofluorescence using cytokeratin-7 confirmed the expression of tandem-repeat galectins in EVT. The human placenta expresses tandem-repeat type galectins in villous trophoblasts, EVT, endothelial cells and decidual stromal cells. Summarizing all effects, there is significant down-regulation of gal-4, -8 and gal-9 in the IUGR trophoblast of male fetuses. In contrast, in IUGR pregnancies with female fetus gal-9 and gal-12 are upregulated in the EVT and in endothelial cells in the cases of gal-12. Therefore we propose a fetal-gender specific action of tandem repeat galectins in IUGR placentas. Copyright © 2015

  19. Porcine (GT)n sequences: structure and association with dispersed and tandem repeats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, K; Jung, M; Chen, Y; Geldermann, H

    1994-05-01

    Loci containing (GT)n repeats were isolated from three different plasmid libraries with inserts of porcine genomic DNA between 140 and 200, 200 and 300, and 350 and 400 bp. Sequencing showed that the average repeat length and the fraction of perfect repeats were increased in the libraries containing longer inserts (> or = 200 bp). The polymorphism of (GT)n loci containing at least 10 repeat units was analyzed using the polymerase chain reaction and an automated DNA sequencer. Nearly all tested loci are polymorphic and can therefore be used as marker loci for gene mapping and for other applications. The (GT)n loci were categorized into three classes: (1) loci containing the (GT)n repeats associated with a SINE element, (2) loci containing the (GT)n repeats associated with one or more other simple repeats, and (3) loci containing (GT)n as the only detected repetitive element. At most loci of the first class, the (GT)n repeat was in a fixed configuration adjacent to the 3' end of the SINE. The findings support the notion of clustering of different repeat types in the mammalian genome.

  20. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Euphausia pacifica (Malacostraca: Euphausiacea) reveals a novel gene order and unusual tandem repeats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xin; Wang, Haiqing; Wang, Minxiao; Liu, Bin

    2011-11-01

    Euphausiid krill are dominant organisms in the zooplankton population and play a central role in marine ecosystems. Euphausia pacifica (Malacostraca: Euphausiacea) is one of the most important and dominant crustaceans in the North Pacific Ocean. In this paper, we described the gene content, organization, and codon usage of the E. pacifica mitochondrial genome. The mitochondrial genome of E. pacifica is 16 898 bp in length and contains a standard set of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, and 22 transfer RNA genes. Translocation of three transfer RNAs (trnL(1), trnL(2), and trnW) was found in the E. pacifica mitochondrial genome when comparing with the pancrustacean ground pattern. The rate of K(a)/K(s) in 13 protein-coding genes among three krill is much less than 1, which indicates a strong purifying selection within this group. The largest noncoding region in the E. pacifica mitochondrial genome contains one section with tandem repeats (4.7 x 154 bp), which are the largest tandem repeats found in malacostracan mitochondrial genomes so far. All analyses based on nucleotide and amino acid data strongly support the monophyly of Stomatopoda, Penaeidae, Caridea, Brachyura, and Euphausiacea. The Bayesian analysis of nucleotide and amino acid datasets strongly supports the close relationship between Euphausiacea and Decapoda, which confirms traditional findings. The maximum likelihood analysis based on amino acid data strongly supports the close relationship between Euphausiacea and Penaeidae, which destroys the monophyly of Decapoda.

  1. Tandem repeat-tRNA (TRtRNA) PCR method for the molecular typing of non-Saccharomyces subspecies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barquet, Marianne; Martín, Valentina; Medina, Karina; Pérez, Gabriel; Carrau, Francisco; Gaggero, Carina

    2012-01-01

    There is a worldwide trend to understand the impact of non-Saccharomyces yeast species on the process of winemaking. Although the predominant species at the end of the fermentation is Saccharomyces cerevisiae, several non-Saccharomyces species present during the first days of the process can produce and/or release aromas that improve the bouquet and complexity of the final wine. Since no genomic sequences are available for the predominant non-Saccharomyces species selected from grapes or musts (Hanseniaspora uvarum, Hanseniaspora vineae, Hanseniaspora opuntiae, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Candida zemplinina), a reproducible PCR method was devised to discriminate strains at the subspecies level. The method combines different oligonucleotides based on tandem repeats with a second oligonucleotide based on a conserved tRNA region, specific for ascomycetes. Tandem repeats are randomly dispersed in all eukaryotic genomes and tRNA genes are conserved and present in several copies in different chromosomes. As an example, the method was applied to discriminate native M. pulcherrima strains but it could be extended to differentiate strains from other non-Saccharomyces species. The biodiversity of species and strains found in the grape ecosystem is a potential source of new enzymes, fungicides and/or novel sustainable methods for biological control of phytopathogens.

  2. The Asian Rice Gall Midge (Orseolia oryzae Mitogenome Has Evolved Novel Gene Boundaries and Tandem Repeats That Distinguish Its Biotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isha Atray

    Full Text Available The complete mitochondrial genome of the Asian rice gall midge, Orseolia oryzae (Diptera; Cecidomyiidae was sequenced, annotated and analysed in the present study. The circular genome is 15,286 bp with 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNAs and 2 ribosomal RNA genes, and a 578 bp non-coding control region. All protein coding genes used conventional start codons and terminated with a complete stop codon. The genome presented many unusual features: (1 rearrangement in the order of tRNAs as well as protein coding genes; (2 truncation and unusual secondary structures of tRNAs; (3 presence of two different repeat elements in separate non-coding regions; (4 presence of one pseudo-tRNA gene; (5 inversion of the rRNA genes; (6 higher percentage of non-coding regions when compared with other insect mitogenomes. Rearrangements of the tRNAs and protein coding genes are explained on the basis of tandem duplication and random loss model and why intramitochondrial recombination is a better model for explaining rearrangements in the O. oryzae mitochondrial genome is discussed. Furthermore, we evaluated the number of iterations of the tandem repeat elements found in the mitogenome. This led to the identification of genetic markers capable of differentiating rice gall midge biotypes and the two Orseolia species investigated.

  3. Development and validation of a single-tube multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis for Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoinette A T P Brink

    Full Text Available Genotyping of Klebsiella pneumoniae is indispensable for management of nosocomial infections, monitoring of emerging strains--including extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL producers-, and general epidemiology. Such objectives require a high-resolution genotyping method with a fixed scheme that allows (1 long-term retrospective and prospective assessment, (2 objective result readout and (3 library storage for database development and exchangeable results. We have developed a multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA using a single-tube fluorescently primed multiplex PCR for 8 Variable Number Tandem Repeats (VNTRs and automated fragment size analysis. The type allocation scheme was optimized using 224 K. pneumoniae clinical isolates, which yielded 101 MLVA types. The method was compared to the gold standard multilocus sequence typing (MLST using a subset of these clinical isolates (n = 95 and found to be highly concordant, with at least as high a resolution but with considerably less hands-on time. Our results position this MLVA scheme as an appropriate, high-throughput and relatively low-cost tool for K. pneumoniae epidemiology.

  4. Rapamycin drives selection against a pathogenic heteroplasmic mitochondrial DNA mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Ying; Zheng, Kangni; Clark, Joanne; Swerdlow, Russell H; Pulst, Stefan M; Sutton, James P; Shinobu, Leslie A; Simon, David K

    2014-02-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations cause a variety of mitochondrial disorders for which effective treatments are lacking. Emerging data indicate that selective mitochondrial degradation through autophagy (mitophagy) plays a critical role in mitochondrial quality control. Inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase activity can activate mitophagy. To test the hypothesis that enhancing mitophagy would drive selection against dysfunctional mitochondria harboring higher levels of mutations, thereby decreasing mutation levels over time, we examined the impact of rapamycin on mutation levels in a human cytoplasmic hybrid (cybrid) cell line expressing a heteroplasmic mtDNA G11778A mutation, the most common cause of Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy. Inhibition of mTORC1/S6 kinase signaling by rapamycin induced colocalization of mitochondria with autophagosomes, and resulted in a striking progressive decrease in levels of the G11778A mutation and partial restoration of ATP levels. Rapamycin-induced upregulation of mitophagy was confirmed by electron microscopic evidence of increased autophagic vacuoles containing mitochondria-like organelles. The decreased mutational burden was not due to rapamycin-induced cell death or mtDNA depletion, as there was no significant difference in cytotoxicity/apoptosis or mtDNA copy number between rapamycin and vehicle-treated cells. These data demonstrate the potential for pharmacological inhibition of mTOR kinase activity to activate mitophagy as a strategy to drive selection against a heteroplasmic mtDNA G11778A mutation and raise the exciting possibility that rapamycin may have therapeutic potential for the treatment of mitochondrial disorders associated with heteroplasmic mtDNA mutations, although further studies are needed to determine if a similar strategy will be effective for other mutations and other cell types.

  5. Insulin-like growth factor 1 gene (CA)n repeats and a variable number of tandem repeats of the insulin gene in Brazilian children born small for gestational age

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Coletta, Rocio R D; Jorge, Alexander A L; D'Alva, Catarina Brasil; Pinto, Emília M; Billerbeck, Ana Elisa C; Pachi, Paulo R; Longui, Carlos A; Garcia, Ricardo M; Boguszewski, Margaret; Arnhold, Ivo J P; Mendonca, Berenice B; Costa, Elaine M F

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the influence of (CA)n repeats in the insulin-like growth factor 1 gene and a variable number of tandem repeats of the insulin gene on birth size in children who are small or adequate-sized for gestational age...

  6. Tandem repeat sequences evolutionarily related to SVA-type retrotransposons are expanded in the centromere region of the western hoolock gibbon, a small ape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Toru; Hirai, Yuriko; Jahan, Israt; Hirai, Hirohisa; Koga, Akihiko

    2012-12-01

    Hoolock hoolock (the western hoolock gibbon) is a species of the family Hylobatidae (small apes), which constitutes the superfamily Hominoidea (hominoids) together with Hominidae (great apes and human). Here, we report that centromeres or their vicinities in this gibbon species contain tandem repeat sequences that consist of 35-50-bp repeat units, and exhibit a sequence similarity with the variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) region of the SVA, LAVA and PVA transposons. SVA is a composite retrotransposon thought to have been formed by fusion of three solo elements in the common ancestor of hominoids. LAVA and PVA are recently identified retrotransposons that have the same basic structure as SVA. Thus, the large-scale tandem repeats in the centromere region may have been derived from one or more of SVA-type transposons, including the three mentioned above and other yet unknown elements, or the repeat sequences could have served as a source for such elements. Amplification of VNTR-related sequences in another gibbon species, Hoolock leuconedys (eastern hoolock gibbon), has recently been reported, but it is yet to be examined whether the large-scale tandem repeats observed in the two species originated from a single event that occurred in their common ancestor. The repeat sequences in the western hoolock gibbon are mostly 40 kb or more in length, are present in 28 of the 38 chromosomes of the somatic cells, and are homozygous for chromosomal presence/absence.

  7. Brucella 'HOOF-Prints': strain typing by multi-locus analysis of variable number tandem repeats (VNTRs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halling Shirley M

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently, there are very few tools available for subtyping Brucella isolates for epidemiological trace-back. Subtyping is difficult because of the genetic homogeneity within the genus. Sequencing of the genomes from three Brucella species has facilitated the search for DNA sequence variability. Recently, hypervariability among short tandem repeat sequences has been exploited for strain-typing of several bacterial pathogens. Results An eight-base pair tandem repeat sequence was discovered in nine genomic loci of the B. abortus genome. Eight loci were hypervariable among the three Brucella species. A PCR-based method was developed to identify the number of repeat units (alleles at each locus, generating strain-specific fingerprints. None of the loci exhibited species- or biovar-specific alleles. Sometimes, a species or biovar contained a specific allele at one or more loci, but the allele also occurred in other species or biovars. The technique successfully differentiated the type strains for all Brucella species and biovars, among unrelated B. abortus biovar 1 field isolates in cattle, and among B. abortus strains isolated from bison and elk. Isolates from the same herd or from short-term in vitro passage exhibited little or no variability in fingerprint pattern. Sometimes, isolates from an animal would have multiple alleles at a locus, possibly from mixed infections in enzootic areas, residual disease from incomplete depopulation of an infected herd or molecular evolution within the strain. Therefore, a mixed population or a pool of colonies from each animal and/or tissue was tested. Conclusion This paper describes a new method for fingerprinting Brucella isolates based on multi-locus characterization of a variable number, eight-base pair, tandem repeat. We have named this technique "HOOF-Prints" for Hypervariable Octameric Oligonucleotide Finger-Prints. The technique is highly discriminatory among Brucella species, among

  8. Short tandem repeats in the inhibitory domain of the mineralocorticoid receptor: prediction of a β-solenoid structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlassi, Metaxia; Brauns, Katharina; Andrade-Navarro, Miguel A

    2013-10-02

    The human mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) is one of the main components of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), the system that regulates the body exchange of water and sodium. The evolutionary origins of this protein predate those of renin and the RAAS; accordingly it has other roles, which are being characterized. The MR has two trans-activating ligand independent domains and one inhibitory domain (ID), which modulates the activity of the former. The structure of the ID is currently unknown. Here we report that the ID contains at least 15 tandem repeats of around 10 amino acids, which we computationally characterize in the human MR and in selected orthologs. This ensemble of repeats seems to have emerged around 450 million years ago, after the divergence of the MR from its close homolog, the glucocorticoid receptor, which does not possess the repeats. The region would have quickly expanded by successive duplication of the repeats stabilizing at its length in human MR shortly after divergence of tetrapoda from bony fishes 400 million years ago. Structural predictions, in combination with molecular dynamics simulations suggest that the repeat ensemble forms a β-solenoid, namely a β-helical fold with a polar core, stabilized by hydrogen-bonded ladders of polar residues. Our 3D-model, in conjunction with previous experimental data, implies a role of the β-helical fold as a scaffold for multiple intra-and inter-molecular interactions and that these interactions are modulated via phosphorylation-dependent conformational changes. We, thus, propose that the structure of the repeat ensemble plays an important role in the coordination and sequential interactions of various MR partners and therefore in the functionality and specificity of MR.

  9. Association of number of tandem repeats in two important adhesins in Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. F. dos Santos

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available RESUMODiversidade genética de Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae tem sido relatada em análise múltipla de repetições em tandem em número variável (MLVA. O objetivo deste estudo foi descrever a distribuição espacial e a heterogeneidade genética de tipos de M. hyopneumoniae no Brasil, bem como investigar a correlação entre regiões de repetição 1 (RR1 e 3 (RR3 de duas adesinas importantes (P97 e P146. Foram identificados 39 tipos de MLVA baseados no número de repetições em tandem em P97 RR1 e RR3 P146. A correlação negativa significativa (Spearman's rho = -0,26; P = 0,022 entre P97 RR1 e RR3 P146 foi observada, o que sugere um possível mecanismo compensatório que permitiria a bactéria manter a sua capacidade de adesão. Os resultados contribuem para compreender a epidemiologia das M. hyopneumoniae no quarto maior país produtor de suínos do mundo.

  10. Tandem repeats upstream of the Arabidopsis endogene SDC recruit non-CG DNA methylation and initiate siRNA spreading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Ian R; Jacobsen, Steven E

    2008-06-15

    Plants use siRNAs to target cytosine DNA methylation to both symmetrical CG and nonsymmetrical (CHG and CHH) sequence contexts. DNA methylation and siRNA clusters most frequently overlap with transposons in the Arabidopsis thaliana genome. However, a significant number of protein-coding genes also show promoter DNA methylation, and this can be used to silence their expression. Loss of the majority of non-CG DNA methylation in drm1 drm2 cmt3 triple mutants leads to developmental phenotypes. We identified the gene responsible for these phenotypes as SUPPRESSOR OF drm1 drm2 cmt3 (SDC), which encodes an F-box protein and possesses seven promoter tandem repeats. The SDC repeats show a unique silencing requirement for non-CG DNA methylation directed redundantly by histone methylation and siRNAs, and display spreading of siRNAs and methylation beyond the repeated region. In addition to revealing the complexity of DNA methylation control in A. thaliana, SDC has important implications for how plant genomes utilize gene silencing to repress endogenous genes.

  11. In Euglena, spliced-leader RNA (SL-RNA) and 5S rRNA genes are tandemly repeated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, M; Tessier, L H; Chan, R L; Weil, J H; Imbault, P

    1992-01-01

    In Euglena gracilis, a 26 nucleotide leader sequence (spliced leader sequence = SL) is transferred by trans-splicing to the 5' end of a vast majority of cytoplasmic mRNAs (8). The SL originates from the 5' extremity of a family of closely related snRNAs (SL-RNAs) which are about 100 nucleotide long. In this paper we present the nucleotide sequences of two SL-RNA genes, confirming the sequences previously established by sequencing purified SL-RNAs. Although some SL-RNA genes are dispersed throughout the genome, we show that the majority of SL-RNA genes are located on 0.6 kb repeated units which also encode the cytoplasmic 5S rRNA. We estimate that the copy number of these repeated units is about 300 per haploid genome. The association of SL-RNA and 5S rRNA genes in tandemly repeated units is also found in nematodes but paradoxically does not exist in trypanosomes which are phylogenically much closer to Euglena. We also show that a high number of sequences analogous to the 26 nucleotide SL are dispersed throughout the genome and are not associated with SL-RNAs. Images PMID:1579464

  12. Peroxisome-targeted and tandem repeat multimer expressions of human antimicrobial peptide LL37 in Pichia pastoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Siwei; Gao, Yanyun; Wang, Xiaolong; Shen, Wei; Wang, Jinjia; Zhou, Xiangshan; Cai, Menghao; Zhang, Yuanxing

    2017-03-16

    Although the human antimicrobial peptide LL37 has a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activities, it easily damages host cells following heterologous expressions. This study attempted two strategies to alleviate its damage to host cells when expressed in Pichia pastoris using the AOX1 promoter. Tandem repeat multimers of LL37 were first designed, and secretion expression strains GS115-9K-(DPLL37DP)n (n = 2, 4, 6 and 8) containing different copies of the LL37 gene were constructed. However, LL37 tandems still killed the cells after 96 hr of induction. Subsequently, peroxisome-targeted expression was performed by adding a peroxisomal targeting signal 1 (SKL) at the C-terminus of LL37. The LL37 expression strain GS115-3.5K-LL37-SKL showed no significant inhibition in the cells after induction. Antibacterial activity assays showed that the recombinant LL37 expressed in peroxisomes had good antimicrobial activities. Then, a strain GS115-3.5K-LL37-GFP-SKL producing LL37, green fluorescent protein, and SKL fusion proteins was constructed, and the fusion protein was confirmed to be targeting the peroxisomes. However, protein extraction analysis indicated that most of the fusion proteins were still located in the cell debris after cell disruption, and further studies are required to extract more proteins from the peroxisome membrane.

  13. Tracking of intercalary DNA sequences integrated into tandem repeat arrays in rye Secale vavilovii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Achrem

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The structure of repetitive sequences of the JNK block present in the pericentromeric region of the 2RL chromosome was studied in Secale vavilovii. Amplification of sequences present between the JNK sequences led to the identification of seven abnormal DNA fragments. Two of these fragments showed high similarity to the glutamate 5-kinase gene and putative alcohol dehydrogenase gene of trypanosomatid from the genus Leishmania, whose presence can be explained by horizontal gene transfer (HGT. Other fragments were similar to mitochondrial gene for ribosomal protein S4 in plants and to the glycoprotein (G gene of the IHNV virus. Presumably, they are pseudogenes inserted into the JNK heterochromatin region. Within this region, also fragments similar to the rye repetitive sequence and chromosome 3B in wheat were found. There is no known mechanism that would explain how foreign sequences were inserted into the block region of tandem repetitive sequences of the JNK family.

  14. Large-scale studies of the HphI insulin gene variable-number-of-tandem-repeats polymorphism in relation to Type 2 diabetes mellitus and insulin release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, S K; Gjesing, A P; Rasmussen, S K

    2004-01-01

    The class III allele of the variable-number-of-tandem-repeats polymorphism located 5' of the insulin gene (INS-VNTR) has been associated with Type 2 diabetes and altered birthweight. It has also been suggested, although inconsistently, that the class III allele plays a role in glucose-induced ins......The class III allele of the variable-number-of-tandem-repeats polymorphism located 5' of the insulin gene (INS-VNTR) has been associated with Type 2 diabetes and altered birthweight. It has also been suggested, although inconsistently, that the class III allele plays a role in glucose...

  15. ST proteins, a new family of plant tandem repeat proteins with a DUF2775 domain mainly found in Fabaceae and Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albornos Lucía

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many proteins with tandem repeats in their sequence have been described and classified according to the length of the repeats: I Repeats of short oligopeptides (from 2 to 20 amino acids, including structural cell wall proteins and arabinogalactan proteins. II Repeats that range in length from 20 to 40 residues, including proteins with a well-established three-dimensional structure often involved in mediating protein-protein interactions. (III Longer repeats in the order of 100 amino acids that constitute structurally and functionally independent units. Here we analyse ShooT specific (ST proteins, a family of proteins with tandem repeats of unknown function that were first found in Leguminosae, and their possible similarities to other proteins with tandem repeats. Results ST protein sequences were only found in dicotyledonous plants, limited to several plant families, mainly the Fabaceae and the Asteraceae. ST mRNAs accumulate mainly in the roots and under biotic interactions. Most ST proteins have one or several Domain(s of Unknown Function 2775 (DUF2775. All deduced ST proteins have a signal peptide, indicating that these proteins enter the secretory pathway, and the mature proteins have tandem repeat oligopeptides that share a hexapeptide (E/DFEPRP followed by 4 partially conserved amino acids, which could determine a putative N-glycosylation signal, and a fully conserved tyrosine. In a phylogenetic tree, the sequences clade according to taxonomic group. A possible involvement in symbiosis and abiotic stress as well as in plant cell elongation is suggested, although different STs could play different roles in plant development. Conclusions We describe a new family of proteins called ST whose presence is limited to the plant kingdom, specifically to a few families of dicotyledonous plants. They present 20 to 40 amino acid tandem repeat sequences with different characteristics (signal peptide, DUF2775 domain, conservative

  16. Genome Wide Characterization of Short Tandem Repeat Markers in Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis)

    OpenAIRE

    BISWAS, Manosh Kumar; Xu, Qiang; Mayer, Christoph; Deng, Xiuxin

    2014-01-01

    Sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) is one of the major cultivated and most-consumed citrus species. With the goal of enhancing the genomic resources in citrus, we surveyed, developed and characterized microsatellite markers in the ≈347 Mb sequence assembly of the sweet orange genome. A total of 50,846 SSRs were identified with a frequency of 146.4 SSRs/Mbp. Dinucleotide repeats are the most frequent repeat class and the highest density of SSRs was found in chromosome 4. SSRs are non-randomly dist...

  17. A Large Population Genetic Study of 15 Autosomal Short Tandem Repeat Loci for Establishment of Korean DNA Profile Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Seong Yeon; Cho, Nam Soo; Park, Myung Jin; Seong, Ki Min; Hwang, Jung Ho; Song, Seok Bean; Han, Myun Soo; Lee, Won Tae; Chung, Ki Wha

    2011-01-01

    Genotyping of highly polymorphic short tandem repeat (STR) markers is widely used for the genetic identification of individuals in forensic DNA analyses and in paternity disputes. The National DNA Profile Databank recently established by the DNA Identification Act in Korea contains the computerized STR DNA profiles of individuals convicted of crimes. For the establishment of a large autosomal STR loci population database, 1805 samples were obtained at random from Korean individuals and 15 autosomal STR markers were analyzed using the AmpFlSTR Identifiler PCR Amplification kit. For the 15 autosomal STR markers, no deviations from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were observed. The most informative locus in our data set was the D2S1338 with a discrimination power of 0.9699. The combined matching probability was 1.521 × 10-17. This large STR profile dataset including atypical alleles will be important for the establishment of the Korean DNA database and for forensic applications. PMID:21597912

  18. ATR-X syndrome protein targets tandem repeats and influences allele-specific expression in a size-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Martin J; Lower, Karen M; Voon, Hsiao P J; Hughes, Jim R; Garrick, David; Viprakasit, Vip; Mitson, Matthew; De Gobbi, Marco; Marra, Marco; Morris, Andrew; Abbott, Aaron; Wilder, Steven P; Taylor, Stephen; Santos, Guilherme M; Cross, Joe; Ayyub, Helena; Jones, Steven; Ragoussis, Jiannis; Rhodes, Daniela; Dunham, Ian; Higgs, Douglas R; Gibbons, Richard J

    2010-10-29

    ATRX is an X-linked gene of the SWI/SNF family, mutations in which cause syndromal mental retardation and downregulation of α-globin expression. Here we show that ATRX binds to tandem repeat (TR) sequences in both telomeres and euchromatin. Genes associated with these TRs can be dysregulated when ATRX is mutated, and the change in expression is determined by the size of the TR, producing skewed allelic expression. This reveals the characteristics of the affected genes, explains the variable phenotypes seen with identical ATRX mutations, and illustrates a new mechanism underlying variable penetrance. Many of the TRs are G rich and predicted to form non-B DNA structures (including G-quadruplex) in vivo. We show that ATRX binds G-quadruplex structures in vitro, suggesting a mechanism by which ATRX may play a role in various nuclear processes and how this is perturbed when ATRX is mutated. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Simple tandem repeat (TTTAn polymorphism in CYP19 (aromatase gene and breast cancer risk in Nigerian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrell Robert

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is the most common cancer and the leading cause of cancer related deaths in women worldwide. The incidence of the disease is increasing globally and this increase is occurring at a faster rate in population groups that hirtherto enjoyed low incidence. This study was designed to evaluate the role of a simple tandem repeat polymorphism (STRP in the aromatase (CYP19 gene in breast cancer susceptibility in Nigerian women, a population of indigenous sub-Saharan African ancestry. Methods A case-control study recruiting 250 women with breast cancer and 250 women without the disease from four University Teaching Hospitals in Southern Nigeria was carried out between September 2002 and April 2004. Participants were recruited from the surgical outpatient clinics and surgical wards of the Nigerian institutions. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR-based assay was employed for genotyping and product sizes were detected with an ABI 3730 DNA Analyzer. Results Conditional logistic regression analysis revealed that harboring the putative high risk genotypes conferred a 29% increased risk of breast cancer when all women in the study were considered (Odds ratio [OR] = 1.29, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.83–2.00, although this association was not statistically significant. Subgroup analysis based on menopausal status showed similar results among premenopausal women (OR = 1.35, 95% CI 0.76–2.41 and postmenopausal women (OR = 1.27, 95% CI 0.64–2.49. The data also demonstrated marked differences in the distribution of (TTTAn repeats in Nigerian women compared with other populations. Conclusion This study has shown that harboring 10 or more repeats of the microsatellite (TTTAn repeats of the CYY19 gene is associated with a modest increased risk of breast cancer in Nigerian women.

  20. 5meCpG epigenetic marks neighboring a primate-conserved core promoter short tandem repeat indicate X-chromosome inactivation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Brum Machado

    Full Text Available X-chromosome inactivation (XCI is the epigenetic transcriptional silencing of an X-chromosome during the early stages of embryonic development in female eutherian mammals. XCI assures monoallelic expression in each cell and compensation for dosage-sensitive X-linked genes between females (XX and males (XY. DNA methylation at the carbon-5 position of the cytosine pyrimidine ring in the context of a CpG dinucleotide sequence (5meCpG in promoter regions is a key epigenetic marker for transcriptional gene silencing. Using computational analysis, we revealed an extragenic tandem GAAA repeat 230-bp from the landmark CpG island of the human X-linked retinitis pigmentosa 2 RP2 promoter whose 5meCpG status correlates with XCI. We used this RP2 onshore tandem GAAA repeat to develop an allele-specific 5meCpG-based PCR assay that is highly concordant with the human androgen receptor (AR exonic tandem CAG repeat-based standard HUMARA assay in discriminating active (Xa from inactive (Xi X-chromosomes. The RP2 onshore tandem GAAA repeat contains neutral features that are lacking in the AR disease-linked tandem CAG repeat, is highly polymorphic (heterozygosity rates approximately 0.8 and shows minimal variation in the Xa/Xi ratio. The combined informativeness of RP2/AR is approximately 0.97, and this assay excels at determining the 5meCpG status of alleles at the Xp (RP2 and Xq (AR chromosome arms in a single reaction. These findings are relevant and directly translatable to nonhuman primate models of XCI in which the AR CAG-repeat is monomorphic. We conducted the RP2 onshore tandem GAAA repeat assay in the naturally occurring chimeric New World monkey marmoset (Callitrichidae and found it to be informative. The RP2 onshore tandem GAAA repeat will facilitate studies on the variable phenotypic expression of dominant and recessive X-linked diseases, epigenetic changes in twins, the physiology of aging hematopoiesis, the pathogenesis of age-related hematopoietic

  1. Tandem repeat of a seven-bladed beta-propeller domain in oligoxyloglucan reducing-end-specific cellobiohydrolase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaoi, Katsuro; Kondo, Hidemasa; Noro, Natsuko; Suzuki, Mamoru; Tsuda, Sakae; Mitsuishi, Yasushi

    2004-07-01

    Oligoxyloglucan reducing-end-specific cellobiohydrolase (OXG-RCBH; EC 3.2.1.150) is an exoglucanase that recognizes the reducing end of oligoxyloglucan and releases two glucosyl residue segments from the main chain. The X-ray crystal structure of OXG-RCBH determined at 2.2 A resolution reveals a unique feature of this enzyme; OXG-RCBH consists of a tandem repeat of two similar domains, which are both folded into seven-bladed beta-propeller structures. The sequence alignment of the propeller blades, based on the structure, indicates that a weak repeat of the amino acid sequence occurred seven times to construct each domain. There is a cleft that can accommodate the substrate oligosaccharide between the two domains, which is a putative substrate binding subsite. Mutation of either Asp35 or Asp465, located in the putative catalytic center, to Asn resulted in a protein with no detectable catalytic activity, indicating the critical role of these amino acids in catalysis.

  2. A Tandem Repeat in Decay Accelerating Factor 1 Is Associated with Severity of Murine Mercury-Induced Autoimmunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Cauvi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Decay accelerating factor (DAF, a complement-regulatory protein, protects cells from bystander complement-mediated lysis and negatively regulates T cells. Reduced expression of DAF occurs in several systemic autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, and DAF deficiency exacerbates disease in several autoimmune models, including murine mercury-induced autoimmunity (mHgIA. Daf1, located within Hmr1, a chromosome 1 locus associated in DBA/2 mice with resistance to mHgIA, could be a candidate. Here we show that reduced Daf1 transcription in lupus-prone mice was not associated with a reduction in the Daf1 transcription factor SP1. Studies of NZB mice congenic for the mHgIA-resistant DBA/2 Hmr1 locus suggested that Daf1 expression was controlled by the host genome and not the Hmr1 locus. A unique pentanucleotide repeat variant in the second intron of Daf1 in DBA/2 mice was identified and shown in F2 intercrosses to be associated with less severe disease; however, analysis of Hmr1 congenics indicated that this most likely reflected the presence of autoimmunity-predisposing genetic variants within the Hmr1 locus or that Daf1 expression is mediated by the tandem repeat in epistasis with other genetic variants present in autoimmune-prone mice. These studies argue that the effect of DAF on autoimmunity is complex and may require multiple genetic elements.

  3. Multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis as a tool for subtyping Listeria monocytogenes strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperry, Katharine E Volpe; Kathariou, Sophia; Edwards, Justin S; Wolf, Leslie A

    2008-04-01

    Listeria monocytogenes, like many other food-borne bacteria, has certain strains that are commonly linked to outbreaks. Due to the relatively low numbers of affected individuals, outbreaks of L. monocytogenes can be difficult to detect. The current technique of molecular subtyping in PulseNet laboratories to identify genetically similar strains is pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). While PFGE is state-of-the-art, interlaboratory comparisons are difficult because the results are highly susceptible to discrepancies due to even minor variations in experimental conditions and the subjectivity of band marking. This research was aimed at the development of a multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) that can be implemented in PulseNet laboratories to replace or complement existing protocols. MLVA has proven to be a rapid and highly discriminatory tool for subtyping many bacteria. In this study, a novel MLVA method for L. monocytogenes strains was developed utilizing eight loci multiplexed into two PCRs. The PCR products were separated by capillary gel electrophoresis for high throughput and accurate sizing, and the fragment sizes were analyzed and clustered based on the number of repeats. When tested against a panel of 193 epidemiologically linked and nonlinked isolates, this MLVA for L. monocytogenes strains demonstrates strong epidemiological concordance. Since MLVA is a high-throughput screening method that is fairly inexpensive, easy to perform, rapid, and reliable, it is well suited to interlaboratory comparisons during epidemiological investigations of food-borne illness.

  4. Multi-laboratory validation study of multilocus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) for Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Tansy; Bertrand, Sophie; Björkman, Jonas T; Brandal, Lin T; Brown, Derek J; Erdõsi, Tímea; Heck, Max; Ibrahem, Salha; Johansson, Karin; Kornschober, Christian; Kotila, Saara M; Le Hello, Simon; Lienemann, Taru; Mattheus, Wesley; Nielsen, Eva Møller; Ragimbeau, Catherine; Rumore, Jillian; Sabol, Ashley; Torpdahl, Mia; Trees, Eija; Tuohy, Alma; de Pinna, Elizabeth

    2017-03-02

    Multilocus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) is a rapid and reproducible typing method that is an important tool for investigation, as well as detection, of national and multinational outbreaks of a range of food-borne pathogens. Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis is the most common Salmonella serovar associated with human salmonellosis in the European Union/European Economic Area and North America. Fourteen laboratories from 13 countries in Europe and North America participated in a validation study for MLVA of S. Enteritidis targeting five loci. Following normalisation of fragment sizes using a set of reference strains, a blinded set of 24 strains with known allele sizes was analysed by each participant. The S. Enteritidis 5-loci MLVA protocol was shown to produce internationally comparable results as more than 90% of the participants reported less than 5% discrepant MLVA profiles. All 14 participating laboratories performed well, even those where experience with this typing method was limited. The raw fragment length data were consistent throughout, and the inter-laboratory validation helped to standardise the conversion of raw data to repeat numbers with at least two countries updating their internal procedures. However, differences in assigned MLVA profiles remain between well-established protocols and should be taken into account when exchanging data. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2017.

  5. Multi-laboratory validation study of multilocus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) for Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Tansy; Bertrand, Sophie; Björkman, Jonas T; Brandal, Lin T; Brown, Derek J; Erdõsi, Tímea; Heck, Max; Ibrahem, Salha; Johansson, Karin; Kornschober, Christian; Kotila, Saara M; Le Hello, Simon; Lienemann, Taru; Mattheus, Wesley; Nielsen, Eva Møller; Ragimbeau, Catherine; Rumore, Jillian; Sabol, Ashley; Torpdahl, Mia; Trees, Eija; Tuohy, Alma; de Pinna, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    Multilocus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) is a rapid and reproducible typing method that is an important tool for investigation, as well as detection, of national and multinational outbreaks of a range of food-borne pathogens. Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis is the most common Salmonella serovar associated with human salmonellosis in the European Union/European Economic Area and North America. Fourteen laboratories from 13 countries in Europe and North America participated in a validation study for MLVA of S. Enteritidis targeting five loci. Following normalisation of fragment sizes using a set of reference strains, a blinded set of 24 strains with known allele sizes was analysed by each participant. The S. Enteritidis 5-loci MLVA protocol was shown to produce internationally comparable results as more than 90% of the participants reported less than 5% discrepant MLVA profiles. All 14 participating laboratories performed well, even those where experience with this typing method was limited. The raw fragment length data were consistent throughout, and the inter-laboratory validation helped to standardise the conversion of raw data to repeat numbers with at least two countries updating their internal procedures. However, differences in assigned MLVA profiles remain between well-established protocols and should be taken into account when exchanging data. PMID:28277220

  6. Tandem repeat modification during double-strand break repair induced by an engineered TAL effector nuclease in zebrafish genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanxu Huang

    Full Text Available Tandem repeats (TRs are abundant and widely distributed in eukaryotic genomes. TRs are thought to have various functions in gene transcription, DNA methylation, nucleosome position and chromatin organization. Variation of repeat units in the genome is observed in association with a number of diseases, such as Fragile X Syndrome, Huntington's disease and Friedreich's ataxia. However, the underlying mechanisms involved are poorly understood, largely owing to the technical limitations in modification of TRs at definite sites in the genome in vivo. Transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs are widely used in recent years in gene targeting for their specific binding to target sequences when engineered in vitro. Here, we show that the repair of a double-strand break (DSB induced by TALENs adjacent to a TR can produce serial types of mutations in the TR region. Sequencing analysis revealed that there are three types of mutations induced by the DSB repair, including indels only within the TR region or within the flanking TALEN target region or simutaneously within both regions. Therefore, desired TR mutant types can be conveniently obtained by using engineered TALENs. These results demonstrate that TALENs can serve as a convenient tool for modifying TRs in the genome in studying the functions of TRs.

  7. Rapid Functional and Sequence Differentiation of a Tandemly Repeated Species-Specific Multigene Family in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifton, Bryan D; Librado, Pablo; Yeh, Shu-Dan; Solares, Edwin S; Real, Daphne A; Jayasekera, Suvini U; Zhang, Wanting; Shi, Mijuan; Park, Ronni V; Magie, Robert D; Ma, Hsiu-Ching; Xia, Xiao-Qin; Marco, Antonio; Rozas, Julio; Ranz, José M

    2017-01-01

    Gene clusters of recently duplicated genes are hotbeds for evolutionary change. However, our understanding of how mutational mechanisms and evolutionary forces shape the structural and functional evolution of these clusters is hindered by the high sequence identity among the copies, which typically results in their inaccurate representation in genome assemblies. The presumed testis-specific, chimeric gene Sdic originated, and tandemly expanded in Drosophila melanogaster, contributing to increased male-male competition. Using various types of massively parallel sequencing data, we studied the organization, sequence evolution, and functional attributes of the different Sdic copies. By leveraging long-read sequencing data, we uncovered both copy number and order differences from the currently accepted annotation for the Sdic region. Despite evidence for pervasive gene conversion affecting the Sdic copies, we also detected signatures of two episodes of diversifying selection, which have contributed to the evolution of a variety of C-termini and miRNA binding site compositions. Expression analyses involving RNA-seq datasets from 59 different biological conditions revealed distinctive expression breadths among the copies, with three copies being transcribed in females, opening the possibility to a sexually antagonistic effect. Phenotypic assays using Sdic knock-out strains indicated that should this antagonistic effect exist, it does not compromise female fertility. Our results strongly suggest that the genome consolidation of the Sdic gene cluster is more the result of a quick exploration of different paths of molecular tinkering by different copies than a mere dosage increase, which could be a recurrent evolutionary outcome in the presence of persistent sexual selection. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Comprehensive mutation analysis of 17 Y-chromosomal short tandem repeat polymorphisms included in the AmpF lSTR® Yfiler® PCR amplification kit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Goedbloed (Miriam); M. Vermeulen (Mark); R.N. Fang (Rixun); M. Lembring (Maria); A. Wollstein (Andreas); K. Ballantyne (Kaye); O. Lao Grueso (Oscar); S. Brauer (Silke); C. Krüger (Carmen); L. Roewer (Lutz); R. Lessig (Rüdiger); R. Ploski (Rafal); T. Dobosz (Tadeusz); J. Henke (Jürgen); M.R. Furtado (Manohar); M.H. Kayser (Manfred)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThe Y-chromosomal short tandem repeat (Y-STR) polymorphisms included in the AmpF lSTR® Yfiler® polymerase chain reaction amplification kit have become widely used for forensic and evolutionary applications where a reliable knowledge on mutation properties is necessary for correct data

  9. Improving global and regional resolution of male lineage differentiation by simple single-copy Y-chromosomal short tandem repeat polymorphisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Vermeulen (Mark); A. Wollstein (Andreas); K. van der Gaag (Kristiaan); O. Lao Grueso (Oscar); Y. Xue (Yali); Q. Wang (Qiuju); L. Roewer (Lutz); H. Knoblauch (Hans); C. Tyler-Smith (Chris); P. de Knijff (Peter); M.H. Kayser (Manfred)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractWe analyzed 67 short tandem repeat polymorphisms from the non-recombining part of the Y-chromosome (Y-STRs), including 49 rarely studied simple single-copy (ss)Y-STRs and 18 widely used Y-STRs, in 590 males from 51 populations belonging to 8 worldwide regions (HGDP-CEPH panel). Although

  10. The population structure of Staphylococcus aureus in China and Europe assessed by multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis; clues to geographical origins of emergence and dissemination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, X.; Schouls, L. M.; Pluister, G. N.; Tao, X.; Yu, X.; Yin, J.; Song, Y.; Hu, S.; Luo, F.; Hu, W.; He, L.; Meng, F.; Donker, T.; Tsompanidou, E.; van Dijl, J. M.; Zhang, J.; Grundmann, H.

    To compare the genetic population structure of Staphylococcus aureus from China and Europe, 1294 human isolates were characterized by multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA). In total, MLVA identified 17 MLVA complexes (MCs), comprising 260 MLVA types (MTs) among the Chinese

  11. Clustering of tuberculosis cases based on variable-number tandem-repeat typing in relation to the population structure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloot, Rosa; Borgdorff, Martien W.; de Beer, Jessica L.; van Ingen, Jakko; Supply, Philip; van Soolingen, Dick

    2013-01-01

    The population structure of 3,776 Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates was determined using variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) typing. The degree of clonality was so high that a more relaxed definition of clustering cannot be applied. Among recent immigrants with non-Euro-American isolates,

  12. Improved multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat assay for Staphylococcus aureus genotyping, providing a highly informative technique together with strong phylogenetic value

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pourcel, Christine; Hormigos, Katia; Onteniente, Lucie; Sakwinska, Olga; Deurenberg, Ruud H; Vergnaud, Gilles

    2009-01-01

    We describe an improved multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) analysis (MLVA) scheme for genotyping Staphylococcus aureus. We compare its performance to those of multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and spa typing in a survey of 309 strains. This collection includes 87 epidemic

  13. Development and comparison of a generic multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis with PFGE for typing of Salmonella entericasubsp. enterica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Marianne Kirstine; Torpdahl, Mia; Pedersen, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Aims Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica causes salmonellosis in humans and animals. Serovar specific multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) is widely used for Salmonella surveillance; however, isolates have to be serotyped prior to MLVA typing and only the most common...

  14. Clustering of Beijing genotype Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from the Mekong delta in Vietnam on the basis of variable number of tandem repeat versus restriction fragment length polymorphism typing.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huyen, M.N.; Kremer, K.; Lan, N.T.; Buu, T.N.; Cobelens, F.G.; Tiemersma, E.W.; Haas, P. de; Soolingen, D. van

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In comparison to restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) typing, variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) typing is easier to perform, faster and yields results in a simple, numerical format. Therefore, this technique has gained recognition as the new international gold standard

  15. Clustering of Beijing genotype Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from the Mekong delta in Vietnam on the basis of variable number of tandem repeat versus restriction fragment length polymorphism typing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huyen, Mai N. T.; Kremer, Kristin; Lan, Nguyen T. N.; Buu, Tran N.; Cobelens, Frank G. J.; Tiemersma, Edine W.; de Haas, Petra; van Soolingen, Dick

    2013-01-01

    In comparison to restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) typing, variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) typing is easier to perform, faster and yields results in a simple, numerical format. Therefore, this technique has gained recognition as the new international gold standard in typing of

  16. Interleukin-1 Receptor Antagonist and Interleukin-4 Genes Variable Number Tandem Repeats Are Associated with Adiposity in Malaysian Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Yean Kok

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL1RA intron 2 86 bp repeat and interleukin-4 (IL4 intron 3 70 bp repeat are variable number tandem repeats (VNTRs that have been associated with various diseases, but their role in obesity is elusive. The objective of this study was to investigate the association of IL1RA and IL4 VNTRs with obesity and adiposity in 315 Malaysian subjects (128 M/187 F; 23 Malays/251 ethnic Chinese/41 ethnic Indians. The allelic distributions of IL1RA and IL4 were significantly different among ethnicities, and the alleles were associated with total body fat (TBF classes. Individuals with IL1RA I/II genotype or allele II had greater risk of having higher overall adiposity, relative to those having the I/I genotype or I allele, respectively, even after controlling for ethnicity [Odds Ratio (OR of I/II genotype = 12.21 (CI = 2.54, 58.79; p=0.002; II allele = 5.78 (CI = 1.73, 19.29; p=0.004]. However, IL4 VNTR B2 allele was only significantly associated with overall adiposity status before adjusting for ethnicity [OR = 1.53 (CI = 1.04, 2.23; p=0.03]. Individuals with IL1RA II allele had significantly higher TBF than those with I allele (31.79±2.52 versus 23.51±0.40; p=0.005. Taken together, IL1RA intron 2 VNTR seems to be a genetic marker for overall adiposity status in Malaysian subjects.

  17. Genome Wide Characterization of Short Tandem Repeat Markers in Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Manosh Kumar; Xu, Qiang; Mayer, Christoph; Deng, Xiuxin

    2014-01-01

    Sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) is one of the major cultivated and most-consumed citrus species. With the goal of enhancing the genomic resources in citrus, we surveyed, developed and characterized microsatellite markers in the ≈347 Mb sequence assembly of the sweet orange genome. A total of 50,846 SSRs were identified with a frequency of 146.4 SSRs/Mbp. Dinucleotide repeats are the most frequent repeat class and the highest density of SSRs was found in chromosome 4. SSRs are non-randomly distributed in the genome and most of the SSRs (62.02%) are located in the intergenic regions. We found that AT-rich SSRs are more frequent than GC-rich SSRs. A total number of 21,248 SSR primers were successfully developed, which represents 89 SSR markers per Mb of the genome. A subset of 950 developed SSR primer pairs were synthesized and tested by wet lab experiments on a set of 16 citrus accessions. In total we identified 534 (56.21%) polymorphic SSR markers that will be useful in citrus improvement. The number of amplified alleles ranges from 2 to 12 with an average of 4 alleles per marker and an average PIC value of 0.75. The newly developed sweet orange primer sequences, their in silico PCR products, exact position in the genome assembly and putative function are made publicly available. We present the largest number of SSR markers ever developed for a citrus species. Almost two thirds of the markers are transferable to 16 citrus relatives and may be used for constructing a high density linkage map. In addition, they are valuable for marker-assisted selection studies, population structure analyses and comparative genomic studies of C. sinensis with other citrus related species. Altogether, these markers provide a significant contribution to the citrus research community. PMID:25148383

  18. Genome wide characterization of short tandem repeat markers in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manosh Kumar Biswas

    Full Text Available Sweet orange (Citrus sinensis is one of the major cultivated and most-consumed citrus species. With the goal of enhancing the genomic resources in citrus, we surveyed, developed and characterized microsatellite markers in the ≈347 Mb sequence assembly of the sweet orange genome. A total of 50,846 SSRs were identified with a frequency of 146.4 SSRs/Mbp. Dinucleotide repeats are the most frequent repeat class and the highest density of SSRs was found in chromosome 4. SSRs are non-randomly distributed in the genome and most of the SSRs (62.02% are located in the intergenic regions. We found that AT-rich SSRs are more frequent than GC-rich SSRs. A total number of 21,248 SSR primers were successfully developed, which represents 89 SSR markers per Mb of the genome. A subset of 950 developed SSR primer pairs were synthesized and tested by wet lab experiments on a set of 16 citrus accessions. In total we identified 534 (56.21% polymorphic SSR markers that will be useful in citrus improvement. The number of amplified alleles ranges from 2 to 12 with an average of 4 alleles per marker and an average PIC value of 0.75. The newly developed sweet orange primer sequences, their in silico PCR products, exact position in the genome assembly and putative function are made publicly available. We present the largest number of SSR markers ever developed for a citrus species. Almost two thirds of the markers are transferable to 16 citrus relatives and may be used for constructing a high density linkage map. In addition, they are valuable for marker-assisted selection studies, population structure analyses and comparative genomic studies of C. sinensis with other citrus related species. Altogether, these markers provide a significant contribution to the citrus research community.

  19. Genome wide characterization of short tandem repeat markers in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Manosh Kumar; Xu, Qiang; Mayer, Christoph; Deng, Xiuxin

    2014-01-01

    Sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) is one of the major cultivated and most-consumed citrus species. With the goal of enhancing the genomic resources in citrus, we surveyed, developed and characterized microsatellite markers in the ≈347 Mb sequence assembly of the sweet orange genome. A total of 50,846 SSRs were identified with a frequency of 146.4 SSRs/Mbp. Dinucleotide repeats are the most frequent repeat class and the highest density of SSRs was found in chromosome 4. SSRs are non-randomly distributed in the genome and most of the SSRs (62.02%) are located in the intergenic regions. We found that AT-rich SSRs are more frequent than GC-rich SSRs. A total number of 21,248 SSR primers were successfully developed, which represents 89 SSR markers per Mb of the genome. A subset of 950 developed SSR primer pairs were synthesized and tested by wet lab experiments on a set of 16 citrus accessions. In total we identified 534 (56.21%) polymorphic SSR markers that will be useful in citrus improvement. The number of amplified alleles ranges from 2 to 12 with an average of 4 alleles per marker and an average PIC value of 0.75. The newly developed sweet orange primer sequences, their in silico PCR products, exact position in the genome assembly and putative function are made publicly available. We present the largest number of SSR markers ever developed for a citrus species. Almost two thirds of the markers are transferable to 16 citrus relatives and may be used for constructing a high density linkage map. In addition, they are valuable for marker-assisted selection studies, population structure analyses and comparative genomic studies of C. sinensis with other citrus related species. Altogether, these markers provide a significant contribution to the citrus research community.

  20. Identification of an Escherichia coli O 157:H7 Heme Oxygenase with Tandem Functional Repeats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suits,M.; Pal, G.; Nakatsu, A.; Matte, A.; Cygler, M.; Jia, Z.

    2005-01-01

    Heme oxygenases (HOs) catalyze the oxidation of heme to biliverdin, carbon monoxide (CO), and free iron. Iron acquisition is critical for invading microorganisms to enable survival and growth. Here we report the crystal structure of ChuS, which displays a previously uncharacterized fold and is unique compared with other characterized HOs. Despite only 19% sequence identity between the N- and C-terminal halves, these segments of ChuS represent a structural duplication, with a root-mean-square deviation of 2.1 {angstrom} between the two repeats. ChuS is capable of using ascorbic acid or cytochrome P450 reductase-NADPH as electron sources for heme oxygenation. CO detection confirmed that ChuS is a HO, and we have identified it in pathogenic Escherichia coli O157:H7. Based on sequence analysis, this HO is present in many bacteria, although not in the E. coli K-12 strain. The N- and C-terminal halves of ChuS are each a functional HO.

  1. Screening of repetitive motifs inside the genome of the flat oyster (Ostrea edulis): Transposable elements and short tandem repeats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Manuel; Bello, Xabier; Álvarez-Dios, Jose-Antonio; Pardo, Belen G; Sánchez, Laura; Carlsson, Jens; Carlsson, Jeanette E L; Bartolomé, Carolina; Maside, Xulio; Martinez, Paulino

    2015-12-01

    The flat oyster (Ostrea edulis) is one of the most appreciated molluscs in Europe, but its production has been greatly reduced by the parasite Bonamia ostreae. Here, new generation genomic resources were used to analyse the repetitive fraction of the oyster genome, with the aim of developing molecular markers to face this main oyster production challenge. The resulting oyster database, consists of two sets of 10,318 and 7159 unique contigs (4.8 Mbp and 6.8 Mbp in total length) representing the oyster's genome (WG) and haemocyte transcriptome (HT), respectively. A total of 1083 sequences were identified as TE-derived, which corresponded to 4.0% of WG and 1.1% of HT. They were clustered into 142 homology groups, most of which were assigned to the Penelope order of retrotransposons, and to the Helitron and TIR DNA-transposons. Simple repeats and rRNA pseudogenes, also made a significant contribution to the oyster's genome (0.5% and 0.3% of WG and HT, respectively).The most frequent short tandem repeats identified in WG were tetranucleotide motifs while trinucleotide motifs were in HT. Forty identified microsatellite loci, 20 from each database, were selected for technical validation. Success was much lower among WG than HT microsatellites (15% vs 55%), which could reflect higher variation in anonymous regions interfering with primer annealing. All microsatellites developed adjusted to Hardy-Weinberg proportions and represent a useful tool to support future breeding programmes and to manage genetic resources of natural flat oyster beds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A novel typing method for Listeria monocytogenes using high-resolution melting analysis (HRMA) of tandem repeat regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohshima, Chihiro; Takahashi, Hajime; Iwakawa, Ai; Kuda, Takashi; Kimura, Bon

    2017-07-17

    Listeria monocytogenes, which is responsible for causing food poisoning known as listeriosis, infects humans and animals. Widely distributed in the environment, this bacterium is known to contaminate food products after being transmitted to factories via raw materials. To minimize the contamination of products by food pathogens, it is critical to identify and eliminate factory entry routes and pathways for the causative bacteria. High resolution melting analysis (HRMA) is a method that takes advantage of differences in DNA sequences and PCR product lengths that are reflected by the disassociation temperature. Through our research, we have developed a multiple locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) using HRMA as a simple and rapid method to differentiate L. monocytogenes isolates. While evaluating our developed method, the ability of MLVA-HRMA, MLVA using capillary electrophoresis, and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was compared for their ability to discriminate between strains. The MLVA-HRMA method displayed greater discriminatory ability than MLST and MLVA using capillary electrophoresis, suggesting that the variation in the number of repeat units, along with mutations within the DNA sequence, was accurately reflected by the melting curve of HRMA. Rather than relying on DNA sequence analysis or high-resolution electrophoresis, the MLVA-HRMA method employs the same process as PCR until the analysis step, suggesting a combination of speed and simplicity. The result of MLVA-HRMA method is able to be shared between different laboratories. There are high expectations that this method will be adopted for regular inspections at food processing facilities in the near future. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Multi-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis for outbreak studies of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmuth Reiner

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype Enteritidis is known as an important and pathogenic clonal group which continues to cause worldwide sporadic cases and outbreaks in humans. Here a new multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA method is reported for highly-discriminative subtyping of Salmonella Enteritidis. Emphasis was given on the most predominant phage types PT4 and PT8. The method comprises multiplex PCR specifically amplifying repeated sequences from nine different loci followed by an automatic fragment size analysis using a multicolor capillary electrophoresis instrument. A total of 240 human, animal, food and environmental isolates of S. Enteritidis including 23 definite phage types were used for development and validation. Furthermore, the MLVA types were compared to the phage types of several isolates from two recent outbreaks to determine the concordance between both methods and to estimate their in vivo stability. The in vitro stability of the two MLVA types specifically for PT4 and PT8 strains were determined by multiple freeze-thaw cycles. Results Seventy-nine different MLVA types were identified in 240 S. Enteritidis strains. The Simpson's diversity index for the MLVA method was 0.919 and Nei diversity values for the nine VNTR loci ranged from 0.07 to 0.65. Twenty-four MLVA types could be assigned to 62 PT4 strains and 21 types to 81 PT8 strains. All outbreak isolates had an indistinguishable outbreak specific MLVA type. The in vitro stability experiments showed no changes of the MLVA type compared to the original isolate. Conclusion This MLVA method is useful to discriminate S. Enteritidis strains even within a single phage type. It is easy in use, fast, and cheap compared to other high-resolution molecular methods and therefore an important tool for surveillance and outbreak studies for S. Enteritidis.

  4. Multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis genotyping of human Brucella isolates from Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiliç, Selçuk; Ivanov, Ivan N; Durmaz, Riza; Bayraktar, Mehmet Refik; Ayaslioglu, Ergin; Uyanik, M Hamidullah; Aliskan, Hikmet; Yasar, Ekrem; Bayramoglu, Gülçin; Arslantürk, Ahmet; Vergnaud, Gilles; Kantardjiev, Todor V

    2011-09-01

    A multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) was applied to investigate the epidemiological relationship and genetic diversity among 162 human Brucella isolates collected from all geographic regions of Turkey in an 8-year period (2001 to 2008). The isolates were genotyped by using an MLVA assay developed in Orsay, France (MLVA-16(Orsay)) including eight minisatellite (panel 1) and eight microsatellite (panel 2, subdivided into 2A and 2B) markers. Panels 1 and 2A distinguish 14 genotypes; two of these represented 85% of the strains. Panel 2B displayed a very high discriminatory power. Three loci from panel 2B had diversity index values higher than 0.74. MLVA-16(Orsay) yielded 105 genotypes; 73 were represented by a unique isolate, and 32 included two to eight isolates. The isolates from different patients within the same outbreak or from the same patient before first-line therapy and after relapse showed identical genotypes. A number of MLVA genotypes appeared to be partially restricted to some geographic areas and displayed no annual variation, possibly reflecting persistence of genotypes in certain areas for a time span of at least a decade. This study, representing the first molecular typing results of human Brucella isolates from Turkey, indicated that Turkish human Brucella melitensis isolates were most closely related to the neighboring countries' isolates included in the East Mediterranean group.

  5. Multiple-Locus Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Analysis Genotyping of Human Brucella Isolates from Turkey▿†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kılıç, Selçuk; Ivanov, Ivan N.; Durmaz, Rıza; Bayraktar, Mehmet Refik; Ayaşlıoğlu, Ergin; Uyanık, M. Hamidullah; Alışkan, Hikmet; Yaşar, Ekrem; Bayramoğlu, Gülçin; Arslantürk, Ahmet; Vergnaud, Gilles; Kantardjiev, Todor V.

    2011-01-01

    A multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) was applied to investigate the epidemiological relationship and genetic diversity among 162 human Brucella isolates collected from all geographic regions of Turkey in an 8-year period (2001 to 2008). The isolates were genotyped by using an MLVA assay developed in Orsay, France (MLVA-16Orsay) including eight minisatellite (panel 1) and eight microsatellite (panel 2, subdivided into 2A and 2B) markers. Panels 1 and 2A distinguish 14 genotypes; two of these represented 85% of the strains. Panel 2B displayed a very high discriminatory power. Three loci from panel 2B had diversity index values higher than 0.74. MLVA-16Orsay yielded 105 genotypes; 73 were represented by a unique isolate, and 32 included two to eight isolates. The isolates from different patients within the same outbreak or from the same patient before first-line therapy and after relapse showed identical genotypes. A number of MLVA genotypes appeared to be partially restricted to some geographic areas and displayed no annual variation, possibly reflecting persistence of genotypes in certain areas for a time span of at least a decade. This study, representing the first molecular typing results of human Brucella isolates from Turkey, indicated that Turkish human Brucella melitensis isolates were most closely related to the neighboring countries' isolates included in the East Mediterranean group. PMID:21795514

  6. [Association of serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region 44 bp variable number of tandem repeat polymorphism with Tourette syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Su, Nailun; Wang, Guiju; Cui, Jiajia; Yi, Mingji; Liu, Shiguo

    2014-10-01

    To assess the association between the serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) 44 bp variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphism and Tourette syndrome (TS) in ethnic Han Chinese trios. A total of 252 TS trios (patients and their parents) were recruited. Genetic contribution of the 5-HTTLPR 44 bp VNTR polymorphism was evaluated by genotyping, haplotype relative risk (HRR) analysis and transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) statistics. To enhance the efficiency of the test, haplotype-based HRR (HHRR) was also performed. The TDT, HRR and HHRR analyses have revealed a significant association of the 5-HTTLPR 44 bp VNTR polymorphism with TS, and provided a strong evidence for an over-transmission of L allele from parents to the affected children (TDT: χ² = 6.680, df= 1, P= 0.012; HRR: χ² = 9.345, P= 0.002, OR= 1.739, 95% CI for 1.218-2.483). For 204 male and 48 female TS trios, TDT and HRR were analyzed separately. The results showed a significant association between 5-HTTLPR and male TS (for males. TDT: χ² = 4.643, df= 1, P= 0.038; for females, TDT: χ² = 2.189, df= 1, P= 0.188). 5-HTTLPR may be the susceptibility gene for male TS patients among the Chinese Han population. However, the results need to be replicated in datasets collected from different populations.

  7. Association of ECRG2 TCA short tandem repeat polymorphism with the risk of oesophageal cancer in a North Indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Meenu; Kumar, Shaleen; Ghoshal, Uday C; Mittal, Balraj

    2008-06-01

    Oesophageal cancer-related gene (ECRG2) is a tumour suppressor gene and it has been suggested that a triplet TCA short tandem repeat (STR) in the noncoding region of exon 4 plays a role in genetic susceptibility to oesophageal cancer. In the present study, ECRG2 STR polymorphism was studied in 134 patients with oesophageal cancer and 194 controls, using PCR and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The results showed a higher frequency of the ECRG2 TCA (3)/TCA (4) genotype in cancer patients than in controls (odds ratio 2.6, 95% CI 1.0-6.4, p = 0.03). The association of the ECRG2 TCA (3)/TCA (4) genotype with clinical characteristics showed an increased risk for squamous cell histology (2.8, 95% CI 1.1-7.1, p = 0.03), while no association with tumor location or lymph node involvement was observed. Interaction of tobacco, alcohol and occupational exposure with the ECRG2 genotypes did not show modulation of risk. In conclusion, the ECRG2 TCA (3)/TCA (4) genotype is associated with the risk of oesophageal carcinoma in a North Indian population.

  8. Towards Development of Clustering Applications for Large-Scale Comparative Genotyping and Kinship Analysis Using Y-Short Tandem Repeats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seman, Ali; Sapawi, Azizian Mohd; Salleh, Mohd Zaki

    2015-06-01

    Y-chromosome short tandem repeats (Y-STRs) are genetic markers with practical applications in human identification. However, where mass identification is required (e.g., in the aftermath of disasters with significant fatalities), the efficiency of the process could be improved with new statistical approaches. Clustering applications are relatively new tools for large-scale comparative genotyping, and the k-Approximate Modal Haplotype (k-AMH), an efficient algorithm for clustering large-scale Y-STR data, represents a promising method for developing these tools. In this study we improved the k-AMH and produced three new algorithms: the Nk-AMH I (including a new initial cluster center selection), the Nk-AMH II (including a new dominant weighting value), and the Nk-AMH III (combining I and II). The Nk-AMH III was the superior algorithm, with mean clustering accuracy that increased in four out of six datasets and remained at 100% in the other two. Additionally, the Nk-AMH III achieved a 2% higher overall mean clustering accuracy score than the k-AMH, as well as optimal accuracy for all datasets (0.84-1.00). With inclusion of the two new methods, the Nk-AMH III produced an optimal solution for clustering Y-STR data; thus, the algorithm has potential for further development towards fully automatic clustering of any large-scale genotypic data.

  9. Characterization of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae isolates from Italy by multilocus sequence typing and multiple locus variable number tandem repeat analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparrini, S; Alborali, G L; Pitozzi, A; Guarneri, F; Giacomini, E; Baldo, V; Scali, F; Lazzaro, M; Boniotti, M B

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate and compare the capabilities of multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and multiple locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) techniques to characterize Brachyspira hyodysenteriae isolates and to investigate the relationship between pleuromutilin resistance and genetic variability. MLST genotyping was performed on 180 B. hyodysenteriae isolates, and the results were evaluated considering profiles from 108 other strains previously reported in the database. In total, 37 sequence types were obtained. The MLVA approach completely characterized 172 strains and grouped the isolates into 22 different profiles. The combination of MLST and MLVA showed a slight increase in the discriminatory power, identifying 33 joint profiles. An antibiotic resistance analysis showed a reduction in the susceptibility to pleuromutilins over time, and a weak association between susceptibility to valnemulin and inclusion in clonal complex 4. MLST and MLVA are reliable methods for characterizing B. hyodysenteriae strains and they have comparable discriminatory power. The genotyping of B. hyodysenteriae isolates and a database of all the genetic profiles collected during the diagnostic activities could support traditional epidemiological investigations in identifying infection sources and routes of transmission among herds, and in developing more effective control measures. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  10. Diversity of Acinetobacter baumannii in four French military hospitals, as assessed by multiple locus variable number of tandem repeats analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolande Hauck

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Infections by A. calcoaceticus-A. baumannii (ACB complex isolates represent a serious threat for wounded and burn patients. Three international multidrug-resistant (MDR clones (EU clone I-III are responsible for a large proportion of nosocomial infections with A. baumannii but other emerging strains with high epidemic potential also occur. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We automatized a Multiple locus variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR analysis (MLVA protocol and used it to investigate the genetic diversity of 136 ACB isolates from four military hospitals and one childrens hospital. Acinetobacter sp other than baumannii isolates represented 22.6% (31/137 with a majority being A. pittii. The genotyping protocol designed for A.baumannii was also efficient to cluster A. pittii isolates. Fifty-five percent of A. baumannii isolates belonged to the two international clones I and II, and we identified new clones which members were found in the different hospitals. Analysis of two CRISPR-cas systems helped define two clonal complexes and provided phylogenetic information to help trace back their emergence. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The increasing occurrence of A. baumannii infections in the hospital calls for measures to rapidly characterize the isolates and identify emerging clones. The automatized MLVA protocol can be the instrument for such surveys. In addition, the investigation of CRISPR/cas systems may give important keys to understand the evolution of some highly successful clonal complexes.

  11. The development and application of a multiplex short tandem repeat (STR) system for identifying subspecies, individuals and sex in tigers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Zheng-Ting; Uphyrkina, Olga V; Fomenko, Pavel; Luo, Shu-Jin

    2015-07-01

    Poaching and trans-boundary trafficking of tigers and body parts are threatening the world's last remaining wild tigers. Development of an efficient molecular genetic assay for tracing the origins of confiscated specimens will assist in law enforcement and wildlife forensics for this iconic flagship species. We developed a multiplex genotyping system "tigrisPlex" to simultaneously assess 22 short tandem repeat (STR, or microsatellite) loci and a gender-identifying SRY gene, all amplified in 4 reactions using as little as 1 ng of template DNA. With DNA samples used for between-run calibration, the system generates STR genotypes that are directly compatible with voucher tiger subspecies genetic profiles, hence making it possible to identify subspecies via bi-parentally inherited markers. We applied "tigrisPlex" to 12 confiscated specimens from Russia and identified 6 individuals (3 females and 3 males), each represented by duplicated samples and all designated as Amur tigers (Panthera tigris altaica) with high confidence. This STR multiplex system can serve as an effective and versatile approach for genetic profiling of both wild and captive tigers as well as confiscated tiger products, fulfilling various conservation needs for identifying the origins of tiger samples. © 2015 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  12. Evolutionary History of the PER3 Variable Number of Tandem Repeats (VNTR): Idiosyncratic Aspect of Primate Molecular Circadian Clock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabino, Flávia Cal; Ribeiro, Amanda Oliveira; Tufik, Sérgio; Torres, Laila Brito; Oliveira, José Américo; Mello, Luiz Eugênio Araújo Moraes; Cavalcante, Jeferson Souza; Pedrazzoli, Mario

    2014-01-01

    The PER3 gene is one of the clock genes, which function in the core mammalian molecular circadian system. A variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) locus in the 18th exon of this gene has been strongly associated to circadian rhythm phenotypes and sleep organization in humans, but it has not been identified in other mammals except primates. To better understand the evolution and the placement of the PER3 VNTR in a phylogenetical context, the present study enlarges the investigation about the presence and the structure of this variable region in a large sample of primate species and other mammals. The analysis of the results has revealed that the PER3 VNTR occurs exclusively in simiiforme primates and that the number of copies of the primitive unit ranges from 2 to 11 across different primate species. Two transposable elements surrounding the 18th exon of PER3 were found in primates with published genome sequences, including the tarsiiforme Tarsius syrichta, which lacks the VNTR. These results suggest that this VNTR may have evolved in a common ancestor of the simiiforme branch and that the evolutionary copy number differentiation of this VNTR may be associated with primate simiiformes sleep and circadian phenotype patterns. PMID:25222750

  13. Molecular typing of Argentinian Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolates by multiple-locus variable number-tandem repeat analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Gioffré

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Multiple-locus variable number-tandem repeat analysis (MLVA of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP isolates may contribute to the knowledge of strain diversity in Argentina. Although the diversity of MAP has been previously investigated in Argentina using IS900-RFLP, a small number of isolates were employed, and a low discriminative power was reached. The aim of the present study was to test the genetic diversity among MAP isolates using an MLVA approach based on 8 repetitive loci. We studied 97 isolates from cattle, goat and sheep and could describe 7 different patterns: INMV1, INMV2, INMV11, INMV13, INMV16, INMV33 and one incomplete pattern. INMV1 and INMV2 were the most frequent patterns, grouping 76.3% of the isolates. We were also able to demonstrate the coexistence of genotypes in herds and co-infection at the organism level. This study shows that all the patterns described are common to those described in Europe, suggesting an epidemiological link between the continents.

  14. Molecular typing of Argentinian Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolates by multiple-locus variable number-tandem repeat analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioffré, Andrea; Correa Muñoz, Magnolia; Alvarado Pinedo, María F; Vaca, Roberto; Morsella, Claudia; Fiorentino, María Andrea; Paolicchi, Fernando; Ruybal, Paula; Zumárraga, Martín; Travería, Gabriel E; Romano, María Isabel

    2015-06-01

    Multiple-locus variable number-tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) isolates may contribute to the knowledge of strain diversity in Argentina. Although the diversity of MAP has been previously investigated in Argentina using IS900-RFLP, a small number of isolates were employed, and a low discriminative power was reached. The aim of the present study was to test the genetic diversity among MAP isolates using an MLVA approach based on 8 repetitive loci. We studied 97 isolates from cattle, goat and sheep and could describe 7 different patterns: INMV1, INMV2, INMV11, INMV13, INMV16, INMV33 and one incomplete pattern. INMV1 and INMV2 were the most frequent patterns, grouping 76.3% of the isolates. We were also able to demonstrate the coexistence of genotypes in herds and co-infection at the organism level. This study shows that all the patterns described are common to those described in Europe, suggesting an epidemiological link between the continents.

  15. Mutational analysis of 33 autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) loci in southwest Chinese Han population based on trio parentage testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Bo; Su, Qin; Luo, Haibo; Li, Yingbi; Wu, Jin; Yan, Jing; Hou, Yiping; Liang, Weibo; Zhang, Lin

    2016-07-01

    Mutation rates and 95% CI of 33 short tandem repeat (STR) loci (D1S2142, D2S1338, D2S441, D3S1358, D3S1754, D5S818, D6S1043, D7S3048, D7S820, D8S1132, D8S1179, D10S1248, D11S2368, D12S391, D13S1492, D13S317, D13S325, D14S306, D15S659, D16S539, D18S1364, D18S51, D19S433, D20S161, D21S11, D22GATA198B05, CSF1PO, FGA, Penta D, Penta E, TH01, TPOX, and vWA) were investigated through more than 424,000 parent-child meiotic transfers obtained from 10636 trios parentage testing cases in southwest Chinese Han population. Overall, 297, including 292 single-step, 4 double-step and 1 triple-step mutation events were observed. The average mutation rate was 0.70×10(-3). Most of the locus-specific mutation rates (varied from 0.20×10(-3) to 1.96×10(-3)) were lower than the other datasets (pstrict inclusion criteria of large-sized parents/child-trio cases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Detection of heteroplasmic mitochondrial DNA in single mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiner, Joseph E; Kishore, Rani B; Levin, Barbara C; Albanetti, Thomas; Boire, Nicholas; Knipe, Ashley; Helmerson, Kristian; Deckman, Koren Holland

    2010-12-16

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genome mutations can lead to energy and respiratory-related disorders like myoclonic epilepsy with ragged red fiber disease (MERRF), mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke (MELAS) syndrome, and Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON). It is not well understood what effect the distribution of mutated mtDNA throughout the mitochondrial matrix has on the development of mitochondrial-based disorders. Insight into this complex sub-cellular heterogeneity may further our understanding of the development of mitochondria-related diseases. This work describes a method for isolating individual mitochondria from single cells and performing molecular analysis on that single mitochondrion's DNA. An optical tweezer extracts a single mitochondrion from a lysed human HL-60 cell. Then a micron-sized femtopipette tip captures the mitochondrion for subsequent analysis. Multiple rounds of conventional DNA amplification and standard sequencing methods enable the detection of a heteroplasmic mixture in the mtDNA from a single mitochondrion. Molecular analysis of mtDNA from the individually extracted mitochondrion demonstrates that a heteroplasmy is present in single mitochondria at various ratios consistent with the 50/50 heteroplasmy ratio found in single cells that contain multiple mitochondria.

  17. Detection of heteroplasmic mitochondrial DNA in single mitochondria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph E Reiner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA genome mutations can lead to energy and respiratory-related disorders like myoclonic epilepsy with ragged red fiber disease (MERRF, mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke (MELAS syndrome, and Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON. It is not well understood what effect the distribution of mutated mtDNA throughout the mitochondrial matrix has on the development of mitochondrial-based disorders. Insight into this complex sub-cellular heterogeneity may further our understanding of the development of mitochondria-related diseases. METHODOLOGY: This work describes a method for isolating individual mitochondria from single cells and performing molecular analysis on that single mitochondrion's DNA. An optical tweezer extracts a single mitochondrion from a lysed human HL-60 cell. Then a micron-sized femtopipette tip captures the mitochondrion for subsequent analysis. Multiple rounds of conventional DNA amplification and standard sequencing methods enable the detection of a heteroplasmic mixture in the mtDNA from a single mitochondrion. SIGNIFICANCE: Molecular analysis of mtDNA from the individually extracted mitochondrion demonstrates that a heteroplasmy is present in single mitochondria at various ratios consistent with the 50/50 heteroplasmy ratio found in single cells that contain multiple mitochondria.

  18. Oligonucleotides and ND-FISH Displaying Different Arrangements of Tandem Repeats and Identification of Dasypyrum villosum Chromosomes in Wheat Backgrounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqiang Xiao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Oligonucleotide probes and the non-denaturing fluorescence in situ hybridization (ND-FISH technique are widely used to analyze plant chromosomes because they are convenient tools. New oligonucleotide probes, Oligo-Ku, Oligo-3B117.1, Oligo-3B117.2, Oligo-3B117.2.1, Oligo-3B117.3, Oligo-3B117.4, Oligo-3B117.5, Oligo-3B117.6, Oligo-pTa71A-1, Oligo-pTa71A-2, Oligo-pTa71B-1, Oligo-pTa71B-2, Oligo-pTa71C-1, Oligo-pTa71C-2, Oligo-pTa71C-3 and Oligo-pTa71D were designed based on the repetitive sequences KU.D15.15, pSc119.2-like sequence 3B117 and pTa71. Oligonucleotide probe (GT7 was also used. Oligo-Ku and (GT7 can be together used to identify Dasypyrum villosum from wheat chromosomes and to distinguish individual D. villosum chromosomes. The oligonucleotide probes that were derived from the same repeat sequence displayed different signal intensity and hybridization sites on the same chromosomes. Both the length and the nucleotide composition of oligonucleotide probes determined their signal intensity. For example, Oligo-3B117.2 (25 bp and Oligo-pTa71A-2 (46 bp produced the strongest signals on chromosomes of wheat (Triticum aestivum L., rye (Secale cereale L., barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. vulgare or D. villosum, the signal of Oligo-3B117.4 (18 bp on the short arm of 7B chromosome was weaker than that of Oligo-3B117.2.1 (15 bp and Oligo-3B117.3 (16 bp, and Oligo-pTa71A-1 (38 bp produced the same strong signals as Oligo-pTa71A-2 did on 1B and 6B chromosomes, but its signals on 1R and 1V chromosomes were weaker than the ones of Oligo-pTa71A-2. Oligonucleotide probes and ND-FISH analysis can reflect the distribution and structural statues of different segments of tandem repeats on chromosomes. The possible reasons why different segments derived from the same repeat sequence produced different signal patterns are discussed.

  19. Comparison of Multilocus Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Analysis and Multilocus Sequence Typing for Differentiation of Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome-Associated Escherichia coli (HUSEC) Collection Strains▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenke, Christian; Lindstedt, Björn Arne; Harmsen, Dag; Karch, Helge; Brandal, Lin Thorstensen; Mellmann, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) was compared to multilocus sequence typing (MLST) to differentiate hemolytic uremic syndrome-associated enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli strains. Although MLVA—like MLST—was highly discriminatory (index of diversity, 0.988 versus 0.984), a low level of concordance demonstrated the limited ability of MLVA to reflect long-term evolutionary events. PMID:21832012

  20. Clostridium botulinum group I strain genotyping by 15-locus multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillo, Silvia; Giordani, Francesco; Anniballi, Fabrizio; Gorgé, Olivier; Ramisse, Vincent; Vergnaud, Gilles; Riehm, Julia M; Scholz, Holger C; Splettstoesser, Wolf D; Kieboom, Jasper; Olsen, Jaran-Strand; Fenicia, Lucia; Lista, Florigio

    2011-12-01

    Clostridium botulinum is a taxonomic designation that encompasses a broad variety of spore-forming, Gram-positive bacteria producing the botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT). C. botulinum is the etiologic agent of botulism, a rare but severe neuroparalytic disease. Fine-resolution genetic characterization of C. botulinum isolates of any BoNT type is relevant for both epidemiological studies and forensic microbiology. A 10-locus multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) was previously applied to isolates of C. botulinum type A. The present study includes five additional loci designed to better address proteolytic B and F serotypes. We investigated 79 C. botulinum group I strains isolated from human and food samples in several European countries, including types A (28), B (36), AB (4), and F (11) strains, and 5 nontoxic Clostridium sporogenes. Additional data were deduced from in silico analysis of 10 available fully sequenced genomes. This 15-locus MLVA (MLVA-15) scheme identified 86 distinct genotypes that clustered consistently with the results of amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and MLVA genotyping in previous reports. An MLVA-7 scheme, a subset of the MLVA-15, performed on a lab-on-a-chip device using a nonfluorescent subset of primers, is also proposed as a first-line assay. The phylogenetic grouping obtained with the MLVA-7 does not differ significantly from that generated by the MLVA-15. To our knowledge, this report is the first to analyze genetic variability among all of the C. botulinum group I serotypes by MLVA. Our data provide new insights into the genetic variability of group I C. botulinum isolates worldwide and demonstrate that this group is genetically highly diverse.

  1. Clostridium botulinum Group I Strain Genotyping by 15-Locus Multilocus Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Analysis ▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillo, Silvia; Giordani, Francesco; Anniballi, Fabrizio; Gorgé, Olivier; Ramisse, Vincent; Vergnaud, Gilles; Riehm, Julia M.; Scholz, Holger C.; Splettstoesser, Wolf D.; Kieboom, Jasper; Olsen, Jaran-Strand; Fenicia, Lucia; Lista, Florigio

    2011-01-01

    Clostridium botulinum is a taxonomic designation that encompasses a broad variety of spore-forming, Gram-positive bacteria producing the botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT). C. botulinum is the etiologic agent of botulism, a rare but severe neuroparalytic disease. Fine-resolution genetic characterization of C. botulinum isolates of any BoNT type is relevant for both epidemiological studies and forensic microbiology. A 10-locus multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) was previously applied to isolates of C. botulinum type A. The present study includes five additional loci designed to better address proteolytic B and F serotypes. We investigated 79 C. botulinum group I strains isolated from human and food samples in several European countries, including types A (28), B (36), AB (4), and F (11) strains, and 5 nontoxic Clostridium sporogenes. Additional data were deduced from in silico analysis of 10 available fully sequenced genomes. This 15-locus MLVA (MLVA-15) scheme identified 86 distinct genotypes that clustered consistently with the results of amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and MLVA genotyping in previous reports. An MLVA-7 scheme, a subset of the MLVA-15, performed on a lab-on-a-chip device using a nonfluorescent subset of primers, is also proposed as a first-line assay. The phylogenetic grouping obtained with the MLVA-7 does not differ significantly from that generated by the MLVA-15. To our knowledge, this report is the first to analyze genetic variability among all of the C. botulinum group I serotypes by MLVA. Our data provide new insights into the genetic variability of group I C. botulinum isolates worldwide and demonstrate that this group is genetically highly diverse. PMID:22012011

  2. Multi-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis of Chinese Brucella strains isolated from 1953 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Guo-Zhong; Cui, Bu-Yun; Piao, Dong-Ri; Zhao, Hong-Yan; Li, Lan-Yu; Liu, Xi; Xiao, Pei; Zhao, Zhong-Zhi; Xu, Li-Qing; Jiang, Hai; Li, Zhen-Jun

    2017-05-02

    Brucellosis was a common human and livestock disease caused by Brucella strains, the category B priority pathogens by the US Center for Disease Control (CDC). Identified as a priority disease in human and livestock populations, the increasing incidence in recent years in China needs urgent control measures for this disease but the molecular background important for monitoring the epidemiology of Brucella strains at the national level is still lacking. A total of 600 Brucella isolates collected during 60 years (from 1953 to 2013) in China were genotyped by multiple locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) and the variation degree of MLVA11 loci was calculated by the Hunter Gaston Diversity Index (HGDI) values. The charts and map were processed by Excel 2013, and cluster analysis and epidemiological distribution was performed using BioNumerics (version 5.1). The 600 representative Brucella isolates fell into 104 genotypes with 58 singleton genotypes by the MLVA11 assay, including B. melitensis biovars 2 and 3 (five main genotypes), B. abortus biovars 1 and 3 (two main genotypes), B. suis biovars 1 and 3 (three main genotypes), and B. canis (two main genotypes) respectively. While most B. suis biovar 1 and biovar 3 were respectively found in northern provinces and southern provinces, B. melitensis and B. abortus strains were dominant in China. Canine Brucellosis was only found in animals without any human cases reported. Eight Brucellosis epidemic peaks emerged during the 60 years between 1953 and 2013: 1955 - 1959, 1962 - 1969, 1971 - 1975, 1977 - 1983, 1985 - 1989, 1992 - 1997, 2000 - 2008 and 2010 - 2013 in China. Brucellosis has its unique molecular epidemiological patterns with specific spatial and temporal distribution according to MLVA. IDOP-D-16-00101.

  3. Utilization of ELISA using thioredoxin peroxidase-1 and tandem repeat proteins for diagnosis of Schistosoma japonicum infection among water buffaloes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Ma M Angeles

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The presence of animal reservoirs in Schistosoma japonicum infection has been a major obstacle in the control of schistosomiasis. Previous studies have proven that the inclusion of control measures on animal reservoir hosts for schistosomiasis contributed to the decrease of human cases. Animal surveillance should therefore be included to strengthen and improve the capabilities of current serological tests. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Thioredoxin peroxidase-1 (SjTPx-1 and four tandem repeat proteins (Sj1TR, Sj2TR, Sj4TR, Sj7TR were initially evaluated against human sera. The previous test showed high sensitivity and specificity for antibody detection against SjTPx-1 and Sj7TR. In this study, the immunodiagnostic potential of these recombinant proteins was evaluated using enzyme-linked immunoassay on 50 water buffalo serum samples collected in Cagayan, the Philippines as compared with the soluble egg antigen (SEA. For specificity, 3 goat serum samples positive with Fasciola hepatica were used and among the antigens used, only SEA showed cross-reaction. Stool PCR targeting the S. japonicum 82 bp mitochondrial NAD 1 gene was done to confirm the true positives and served as the standard test. Twenty three samples were positive for stool PCR. SjTPx-1 and Sj1TR gave the highest sensitivity among the recombinant proteins tested for water buffalo samples with 82.61% and 78.26% respectively which were higher than that of SEA (69.57%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results prove that SjTPx-1 works both for humans and water buffaloes making it a good candidate antigen for zoonotic diagnosis. Sj1TR showed good results for water buffaloes and therefore can also be used as a possible candidate for detecting animal schistosome infection.

  4. Multiple-locus, variable number of tandem repeat analysis (MLVA of the fish-pathogen Francisella noatunensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ottem Karl F

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since Francisella noatunensis was first isolated from cultured Atlantic cod in 2004, it has emerged as a global fish pathogen causing disease in both warm and cold water species. Outbreaks of francisellosis occur in several important cultured fish species making a correct management of this disease a matter of major importance. Currently there are no vaccines or treatments available. A strain typing system for use in studies of F. noatunensis epizootics would be an important tool for disease management. However, the high genetic similarity within the Francisella spp. makes strain typing difficult, but such typing of the related human pathogen Francisella tullarensis has been performed successfully by targeting loci with higher genetic variation than the traditional signature sequences. These loci are known as Variable Numbers of Tandem Repeat (VNTR. The aim of this study is to identify possible useful VNTRs in the genome of F. noatunensis. Results Seven polymorphic VNTR loci were identified in the preliminary genome sequence of F. noatunensis ssp. noatunensis GM2212 isolate. These VNTR-loci were sequenced in F. noatunensis isolates collected from Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua from Norway (n = 21, Three-line grunt (Parapristipoma trilineatum from Japan (n = 1, Tilapia (Oreochromis spp. from Indonesia (n = 3 and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar from Chile (n = 1. The Norwegian isolates presented in this study show both nine allelic profiles and clades, and that the majority of the farmed isolates belong in two clades only, while the allelic profiles from wild cod are unique. Conclusions VNTRs can be used to separate isolates belonging to both subspecies of F. noatunensis. Low allelic diversity in F. noatunensis isolates from outbreaks in cod culture compared to isolates wild cod, indicate that transmission of these isolates may be a result of human activity. The sequence based MLVA system presented in this study should provide a good

  5. Diversity of nuclear short tandem repeat loci in representative sample of North-eastern Bosnian and Herzegovina population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadžiavdić Vesna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diversity of nuclear microsatellite markers were analyzed in a reference sample of the population of northeast Bosnia and Herzegovina. 437 samples taken from unrelated individuals were processed and three samples of paternity proof were shown. Detection effectiveness profile of the research, points to a valid choice of method of extraction, amplification and genotyping short tandem repeat (STR loci with PowerPlextm16 kit. Genetic analysis of allelic variants of the 15 STR loci PowerPlextm16 kit detected 17 samples determined as rare allelic variants or microvariants. Samples were divided into 15 different allelic variants at 7 different loci, and are: in locus D7S820, D16S539, D3S1358, D18S51, PENTA D, PENTA E and in locus vWA. Genetic analysis of mutations in cases of paternity determined three examples of single-step mutations in the loci FGA, Penta D and D3S1358. Genetic analysis of observed STR loci detected three allelic variant of genotype combination 7/10/11.3 in locus D7S820 Type II. Population genetic analysis of STR loci in a representative sample of the population of northeast Bosnia and Herzegovina included the application of the assessment tests of within-population genetic diversity and interpopulation diversity, as well as genetic differentiation between populations: North-eastern Bosnia and Herzegovina (BH and BH general reference, then the Croatian population, Macedonian, Serbian and Slovenian. Based on the result analysis of specific forensic parameters, it can be assumed that the most informative marker is PENTA E for population genetic analysis and forensic testing in the population of northeast Bosnia and Herzegovina. Research results fit regional STR database of this part of Europe.

  6. Multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) genotyping of human Brucella isolates in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Bee Yong; Ahmad, Norazah; Hashim, Rohaidah; Mohamed Zahidi, Jama'ayah; Thong, Kwai Lin; Koh, Xiu Pei; Mohd Noor, Azura

    2015-06-02

    Brucellosis is one of the most common zoonotic diseases worldwide. It can cause acute febrile illness in human and is a major health problem. Studies in human brucellosis in Malaysia is limited and so far no genotyping studies has been done on Brucella isolates. The aim of the study was to determine the genetic diversity among Brucella species isolated from human brucellosis, obtained over a 6-year period (2009-2014). In this study, the genotypic characteristics of 43 human Brucella melitensis isolates were analysed using multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) which consisted of eight minisatellite loci (panel 1) and eight microsatellite loci; panels 2A (3 microsatellite loci) and panel 2B (5 microsatellite loci). Two human Brucella suis isolates were also investigated using the MLVA assay. Using panel 1 (MLVA8), two genotypes namely genotype 43 and 44 were obtained from the 43 B. melitensis isolates. Using the combination of panels 1 and 2A loci (MLVA11), two genotypes were obtained while using the complete panels 1, 2A and 2B, nine genotypes were obtained. The polymorphisms in using the complete panels (MLVA16) were observed in three loci from panel 2B, which showed a diversity index higher than 0.17. All B. melitensis isolates were closely related to the East Mediterranean group. For B. suis isolates, only genotype 6 and genotype 33 were obtained using panel 1 and MLVA11 respectively. In conclusion, the results of the present study showed a low genetic diversity among B. melitensis and B. suis isolates from human patients. Based on the MLVA16 assay, B. melitensis belonging to the East Mediterranean group is responsible for the vast majority of Brucella infections in our Malaysian patients. To our knowledge, this is the first genotyping study of human Brucella isolates in Malaysia.

  7. Tissue identity testing of cancer by short tandem repeat polymorphism: pitfalls of interpretation in the presence of microsatellite instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Much, Melissa; Buza, Natalia; Hui, Pei

    2014-03-01

    Tissue identity testing by short tandem repeat (STR) polymorphism offers discriminating power in resolving tissue mix-up or contamination. However, one caveat is the presence of microsatellite unstable tumors, in which genetic alterations may drastically change the STR wild-type polymorphism leading to unexpected allelic discordance. We examined how tissue identity testing results can be altered by the presence of microsatellite instability (MSI). Eleven cases of MSI-unstable (9 intestinal and 2 endometrial adenocarcinomas) and 10 cases of MSI-stable tumors (all colorectal adenocarcinomas) were included. All had been previously tested by polymerase chain reaction testing at 5 National Cancer Institute (NCI) recommended MSI loci and/or immunohistochemistry for DNA mismatch repair proteins (MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2). Tissue identity testing targeting 15 STR loci was performed using AmpF/STR Identifiler Amplification. Ten of 11 MSI-unstable tumors demonstrated novel alleles at 5 to 12 STR loci per case and frequently with 3 or more allelic peaks. However, all affected loci showed identifiable germline allele(s) in MSI-high tumors. A wild-type allelic profile was seen in 7 of 10 MSI-stable tumors. In the remaining 3 cases, isolated novel alleles were present at a unique single locus in addition to germline alleles. Loss of heterozygosity was observed frequently in both MSI-stable (6/11 cases) and MSI-unstable tumors (8/10 cases). In conclusion, MSI may significantly alter the wild-type allelic polymorphism, leading to potential interpretation errors of STR genotyping. Careful examination of the STR allelic pattern, high index of suspicion, and follow-up MSI testing are crucial to avoid erroneous conclusions and subsequent clinical and legal consequences. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A new typing technique for the Rickettsiales Ehrlichia ruminantium: multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilet, Héloïse; Vachiéry, Nathalie; Berrich, Moez; Bouchouicha, Rim; Durand, Benoît; Pruneau, Ludovic; Pinarello, Valérie; Saldana, Angélique; Carasco-Lacombe, Catherine; Lefrançois, Thierry; Meyer, Damien F; Martinez, Dominique; Boulouis, Henri-Jean; Haddad, Nadia

    2012-02-01

    Ehrlichia ruminantium (ER) is a member of the order Rickettsiales transmitted by Amblyomma ticks. This obligatory intracellular bacterium is the causative agent of a fatal disease in ruminants, named heartwater. It represents a constraint on breeding development in sub-Saharan Africa and in the Caribbean. The genetic diversity of the strains of ER, which could be a limiting factor to obtain effective vaccines, needs to be better characterized. For this purpose, we developed a molecular typing technique based on the polymorphism of variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) sequences, MLVA (multiple locus VNTR analysis). Eight (out of 21) VNTR candidates were validated using 17 samples representing a panel of ER strains from different geographical origins from West, South Africa, and Caribbean areas and in ER infected ticks and goat tissues. This result demonstrated the ability of these VNTRs to type a wide range of strains. The stability of the selected VNTR markers was very good, at the time scale needed for epidemiological purposes: in particular, no difference in the VNTR profiles was observed between virulent and attenuated strains (for Gardel and Senegal strains) and between strains (Gardel and Blonde strains) isolated in the same area 19years apart. We validated the strong discriminatory power of MLVA for ER and found a high level of polymorphism between the available strains, with 10 different profiles out of 13 ER strains. The MLVA scheme described in this study is a rapid and efficient molecular typing tool for ER, which allows rapid and direct typing of this intracellular pathogen without preliminary culture and gives reliable results that can be used for further epidemiological studies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Intergenic Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Polymorphism Upstream of rocA Alters Toxin Production and Enhances Virulence in Streptococcus pyogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Luchang; Olsen, Randall J; Horstmann, Nicola; Shelburne, Samuel A; Fan, Jia; Hu, Ye; Musser, James M

    2016-07-01

    Variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) polymorphisms are ubiquitous in bacteria. However, only a small fraction of them has been functionally studied. Here, we report an intergenic VNTR polymorphism that confers an altered level of toxin production and increased virulence in Streptococcus pyogenes The nature of the polymorphism is a one-unit deletion in a three-tandem-repeat locus upstream of the rocA gene encoding a sensor kinase. S. pyogenes strains with this type of polymorphism cause human infection and produce significantly larger amounts of the secreted cytotoxins S. pyogenes NADase (SPN) and streptolysin O (SLO). Using isogenic mutant strains, we demonstrate that deleting one or more units of the tandem repeats abolished RocA production, reduced CovR phosphorylation, derepressed multiple CovR-regulated virulence factors (such as SPN and SLO), and increased virulence in a mouse model of necrotizing fasciitis. The phenotypic effect of the VNTR polymorphism was nearly the same as that of inactivating the rocA gene. In summary, we identified and characterized an intergenic VNTR polymorphism in S. pyogenes that affects toxin production and virulence. These new findings enhance understanding of rocA biology and the function of VNTR polymorphisms in S. pyogenes. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  10. Allele frequencies and haplotypes of eight Y-short tandem repeats in Bantu population living in Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecerf, Maxime; Filali, Mounir; Grésenguet, Gérard; Ndjoyi-Mbiguino, Angélique; Le Goff, Jérôme; de Mazancourt, Philippe; Bélec, Laurent

    2007-09-13

    Eight Y chromosome short tandem repeats (STR) loci (DYS19, DYS389I, DYS389II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS385I/II) were used to assess haplotype distribution in non-selected, unrelated Bantu males living in Central Africa [N. Mathias, M. Bayes, C. Tyler-Smith, Highly informative compound haplotypes for the human Y chromosome, Hum. Mol. Genet. 3 (1994) 115-123; L. Roewer, J. Arnemann, N.K. Spurr, K.H. Grzeschik, J.T. Epplen, Simple repeat sequences on the human Y chromosome are equally polymorphic as their autosomal counterparts, Hum. Genet. 89 (1992) 389-394; P. De Knijff, M. Kayser, A. Caglia, D. Corach, N. Fretwel, C. Gehrig, G. Graziosi, F. Heidorn, S. Herrmann, B. Herzog, M. Hidding, K. Honda, M. Jobling, M. Krawczak, K. Leim, S. Meuser, E. Meyer, W. Oesterreich, A. Pandya, W. Parson, G. Penacino, A. Perez-Lezaun, A. Piccini, M. Prinz, C. Schmitt, P. M. Schneider, R. Szibor, J. Teifel-Greding, G. Weishold, L. Rower, Chromosome Y microsatellites: population genetic and evolutionary aspects, Int. J. Legal Med. 110 (1997) 134-149; M. Kayser, A. Caglia, D. Corach, N. Fretwel, C. Gehrig, G. Graziosi, F. Heidorn, S. Herrmann, B. Herzog, M. Hidding, K. Honda, M. Jobling, M. Krawczak, K. Leim, S. Meuser, E. Meyer, W. Oesterreich, A. Pandya, W. Parson, G. Penacino, A. Perez-Lezaun, A. Piccini, M. Prinz, C. Schmitt, P. M. Schneider, R. Szibor, J. Teifel-Greding, G. Weishold, P. de Knijff, L. Rower, Evaluation of Y chromosome STRs: a multicenter study, Int. J. Legal Med. 110 (1997) 125-133, 141-149]. One hundred and sixty-five full haplotypes were obtained from Bantu males. The most common haplotype (DYS19-15, DYS389I-13, DYS389II-30, DYS390-21, DYS391-10, DYS392-11, DYS393-13, DYS385I/II-15,17) was shared by 5.5% of individuals. In the Bantu population in Central Africa, the haplotype diversity and the discrimination capacity of Y-STR may be estimated at 99.14% and 0.5333, respectively.

  11. Allelic ladder characterization of the short tandem repeat polymorphism located in the 5{prime} flanking region to the human coagulation factor XIII A subunit gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puers, C. [Promega Corp., Madison, WI (United States)]|[Institute for Forensic Medicine, Muenster (Germany); Lins, A.M.; Sprecher, C.J. [Promega Corp., Madison, WI (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    The short tandem repeat (STR) polymorphism present within the 5{prime} untranslated region of the human coagulation factor XIII A subunit gene, HUM-F13A01 [AAAG]{sub n}, was evaluated using an allelic ladder, i.e., a standard size marker consisting of amplified alleles from the locus. The allelic ladder was constructed by pooling 12 polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-amplified alleles identified by their differential migration in denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. This standard marker was used to distinguish 14 different alleles observed at this locus. Sequence analyses indicate that 13 of the alleles contain 4 through 16 iterations of the tandemly repeated AAAG sequence, respectively. The remaining allele carries four repeats and displays a deletion of two consecutive nucleotides (GT), one base distal to the repeat region. The allelic ladder was employed to type 326 F13A01 chromosomes rapidly and reliably in representatives of a German Caucasian population. Population data were analyzed with respect to Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium (HWE) and compared with those of a previously studied Houston, Texas, Caucasian population. 27 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis of Streptococcus pneumoniae and comparison with multiple loci sequence typing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Cuyck Hélène

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Streptococcus pneumoniae infections remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The diversity of pneumococci was first evidenced by serotyping of their capsular polysaccharides, responsible of virulence, resolving into more than 93 serotypes. Molecular tools have been developed to track the emergence and the spread of resistant, hyper virulent or non-vaccine type clones, particularly DNA-based methods using genetic polymorphism. Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis analysis (PFGE and Multiple Loci Sequence Typing (MLST are the most frequently used genotyping techniques for S. pneumoniae. MLST is based on sequence comparison of housekeeping genes clustering isolates within sequence types. The availability of genome sequence data from different S. pneumoniae strains facilitated the search for other class of genetic markers as polymorphic DNA sequences for a Multiple-Locus Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Analysis (MLVA. This study aims at confirming the relevance of MLVA of S. pneumoniae, comparing MLST and MLVA performances when discriminating subgroups of strains belonging to the same Sequence Type (ST, and defining a restricted but universal set of MLVA markers that has at least the same discriminatory power as MLST for S. pneumoniae by applying marker sets used by different authors on 331 isolates selected in UK. Results A minimum spanning tree was built including the serotypes distribution and comparing MLVA and MLST results. 220 MLVA types were determined grouped in 10 Sequence Types (ST. MLVA differentiated ST162 in two clonal complexes. A minimal set was defined: ms 25 and ms37, ms17, ms19, ms33, ms39, and ms40 including two universal markers. The selection was based on MLVA markers with a Diversity Index >0.8 and a selection of others depending of the population tested and the aim of the study. This set of 7 MLVA markers yields strain clusters similar to those obtained by MLST. Conclusions MLVA can discriminate

  13. [Analysis on allele frequencies of 7 short tandem repeat loci of Kashing-Beck disease patients on].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Long-li; Guo, Xiong; Zuo, Hong; Ping, Zhi-guang; Zhang, Bao-di; Lai, Jianghua; Geng, Dong

    2005-10-01

    To analyze the allele frequencies of 7 short tandem repeat (STR) loci (D12S1718, D12S1675, D12S358, D12S367, D12S1638, D12S1646 and D12S1682) on chromosome 12 among Kashing-Beck disease (KBD) patients and the control population living in the KBD areas and non-KBD area. EDTA-blood specimens were collected from 102 unrelated individuals of Chinese Han population in Shaanxi province including 29 KBD patients,30 controls living in the KBD area and 43 living in the non-KBD area. DNA samples were extracted using the Wizard Genomic DNA purification kit (http://www. Promega. com) and were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. The PCR products were analyzed by ABI 3100 Genetic Analyzer. (1) In KBD patients group, the allele number for 7 STR loci were 4,7,7,8,5,5 and 7, the genotype number were 5,12,13,11,10,9 and 13; (2) In the control population living in KBD area, the allele number for 7 STR loci were 4,9,7,6,6,6 and 8,t he genotype number were 5,10,12,14,12,9 and 13;(3) In the control population living in the non-KBD area, the allele number for 7 STR loci were 7,9,7,7,5,8 and 11, the genotype number were 9,16, 17,16,12,15 and 20;(4) Compared with the allele frequencies among three groups, there were significant differences between KBD patients and the controls living in the KBD area (D12S367: P = 0.034; D12S1638: P = 0.041) and the controls living in the non-KBD area (D12S367: P = 0. 029; D12S1638: P= 0 .028) in the D12S367 and D12S1638 loci; (5) There were significant differences among KBD patients (P = 0.036), controls living in the KBD area (P = 0.039) and controls living in the non-KBD area in the D12S1646. There was significant difference between KBD patients and the controls in the D12S367 and D12S1638 loci.

  14. Diagnostic value of the recombinant tandem repeat antigen TeGM6-4r for surra in water buffaloes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thu-Thuy; Zhou, Mo; Ruttayaporn, Ngasaman; Nguyen, Quoc Doanh; Nguyen, Viet Khong; Goto, Yasuyuki; Suzuki, Yasuhiko; Kawazu, Shin-ichiro; Inoue, Noboru

    2014-03-17

    Trypanosoma evansi infection, or surra, is currently affecting various species of animals, especially water buffaloes. Since diagnosis is an important aspect of surra control, development of novel diagnostic antigens is of interest to implement and improve the currently utilized methods. Our study evaluated the tandem repeat antigen TeGM6-4r in T. evansi antibody detection in water buffaloes. TeGM6-4r-based ELISA was performed with 20 positive and 8 negative controls and 484 field samples from water buffaloes in Northern Vietnam. To examine cross-reactivity, sera from Japanese cattle that had been experimentally infected with Theileria orientalis (n=10), Babesia bovis (n=3), Babesia bigemina (n=7) and Trypanosoma theileri (n=59) were included in the study. The sensitivity of the test was 80%. TeGM6-4r did not react with Theileria or Babesia infected sera, however it showed cross reactivity with 11/59 T. theileri infected samples. The reference test, CATT/T. evansi also reacted with 3/59 T. theileri infected sera. The lysate antigen-based ELISA reacted with 4/59 T. theileri, 9/10 Theileria and 3/10 Babesia infected sera. In contrast, TeGM6-4r-based ELISA was 86.3% sensitive and 58.3% specific in the screening of field samples. The average seroprevalence of T. evansi infection among water buffaloes in Northern Vietnam was 27.1% by CATT/T. evansi and 53.7% by TeGM6-4r. Seroprevalence in the five surveyed provinces ranged from 17.4% to 39.8% in the reference test, and 47.3% to 67.3% in the recombinant antigen based test. The finding indicated that the disease is still widely endemic in the area and that surveillance programs need to be carried out regularly to better control surra. We proposed TeGM6-4r as a useful serodiagnostic antigen for the detection and epidemiological surveillance of T. evansi infection among water buffaloes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Novel Y-chromosome short tandem repeats in Sus scrofa and their variation in European wild boar and domestic pig populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iacolina, Laura; Brajkovic, Vladimir; Canu, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Y-chromosome markers are important tools for studying male-specific gene flow within and between populations, hybridization patterns and kinship. However, their use in non-human mammals is often hampered by the lack of Y-specific polymorphic markers. We identified new male-specific short tandem...... repeats (STRs) in Sus scrofa using the available genome sequence. We selected four polymorphic loci (5–10 alleles per locus), falling in one duplicated and two single-copy regions. A total of 32 haplotypes were found by screening 211 individuals from eight wild boar populations across Europe and five...

  16. Tandem 41-bp repeats in chicken and Japanese quail genomes: FISH mapping and transcription analysis on lampbrush chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deryusheva, Svetlana; Krasikova, Alla; Kulikova, Tatiana; Gaginskaya, Elena

    2007-12-01

    The chromosomal distribution of 41-bp repeats, known as CNM and PO41 repeats in the chicken genome and BglII repeats in the Japanese quail, was analyzed precisely using giant lampbrush chromosomes (LBC) from chicken, Japanese quail, and turkey growing oocytes. The PO41 repeat is conserved in all galliform species, whereas the other repeats are species specific. In chicken and quail, the centromere and subtelomere regions share homologous satellite sequences. RNA polymerase II transcribes the 41-bp repeats in both centromere and subtelomere regions. Ongoing transcription of these repeats was demonstrated by incorporation of BrUTP injected into oocytes at the lampbrush stage. RNA complementary to both strands of CNM and PO41 repeats is present on chicken LBC loops, whereas strand-specific G-rich transcripts are characteristic of BglII repeats in the Japanese quail. The RNA from 41-bp repeats does not undergo cotranscriptional U snRNP-dependent splicing. At the same time, the ribonucleoprotein matrix of transcription units with C-rich RNA of CNM and PO41 repeats was enriched with hnRNP protein K. Potential promoters for satellite transcription are discussed.

  17. Identification of a novel tandemly repeated sequence present in an intron of the glucose phosphate isomerase (GPI) gene in mouse and man

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faik, P.; Walker, J.I.H.; Morgan, M.J. (Guy' s Hospital, London (United Kingdom))

    1994-05-01

    Glucose phosphate isomerase (GPI, glucose 6-phosphate ketol-isomerase, EC 5.3.1.9) is a housekeeping gene expressed in all tissues and organisms that utilize glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. Deficiency in humans leads to a rare form of nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia. The authors have isolated a 3.2-kb mouse cDNA containing glucose phosphate isomerase coding sequence and a 2.1-kb intronic sequence and a large proportion of the human gene (approaching 55 kb) in four phage [lambda] recombinants. A 4-kb intronic fragment from the human gene showing homology to the mouse intronic sequence has been isolated and sequenced. The fragment contains approximately 1.5 kb of sequence that is composited of 30 repeat units of a novel 50-kb tandemly repeated unit. The mouse intronic sequence contains 18 similar units. The human consensus sequence differs from the mouse consensus sequence at only 7 positions out of 50 (positions 16, 26, 27, 42, 43, 47, and 48). A probe containing the repeat element detects polymorphisms, specific to glucose phosphate isomerase, in human DNA. The repeat element does not appear to be present at any other loci in human DNA. The conservation of this intronic repeat element extends to pig and Chinese hamster. 26 refs., 4 figs.

  18. Enhanced binding of antibodies to the DTR motif of MUC1 tandem repeat peptide is mediated by site-specific glycosylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsten, U; Diotel, C; Klich, G; Paulsen, H; Goletz, S; Müller, S; Hanisch, F G

    1998-06-15

    The epithelial mucin MUC1 is an important tumor marker of breast cancer and other carcinomas. Its immunodominant DTR motif, which is the principal target for immunotherapeutic approaches, has been assumed until recently not to be glycosylated in both normal and tumor MUC1 and to acquire its immunogenic conformation by virtue of a certain number of tandem repeats. We present evidence that the antigenicity of the single repeat toward a considerable number of antibodies to the DTR motif is greatly enhanced if it is glycosylated within this motif, and only in this position. Twenty-eight monoclonal anti-MUC1 antibodies with DTR specificity were tested for binding to synthetic 21-mer (AHG21) or 20-mer (HGV20) tandem repeat peptides O-glycosylated with galactose beta1-3N-acetylgalactosamine alpha or N-acetylgalactosamine alpha at defined Thr or Ser positions. Binding was measured in ELISA experiments using the glycopeptides as plate-immobilized antigens or as inhibitors in solution. At least 12 antibodies revealed significantly enhanced binding to the peptides glycosylated at the DTR motif (Thr-10) as compared to positional isomers glycosylated at Thr-5, Ser-6, Ser-16, or Thr-17 and to the nonglycosylated peptides. Six antibodies (VU-3-C6, A76-A/C7, Ma552, VU-11-D1, VU-12-E1, and VU-11-E2) that were unreactive with the monomeric repeat peptide did bind to the DTR-glycosylated peptide. Several lines of evidence suggest that glycosylation with N-acetylgalactosamine is sufficient for the observed enhancement effect. Our results are of special interest in conjunction with the recent observation that the DTR motif of lactation-associated MUC1 is O-glycosylated in vivo (Müller et al., J. Biol. Chem., 272: 24780-24793, 1997). They may have consequences for the design of efficient tumor vaccines.

  19. Neutral polymorphisms in putative housekeeping genes and tandem repeats unravels the population genetics and evolutionary history of Plasmodium vivax in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajapati, Surendra K; Joshi, Hema; Carlton, Jane M; Rizvi, M Alam

    2013-01-01

    The evolutionary history and age of Plasmodium vivax has been inferred as both recent and ancient by several studies, mainly using mitochondrial genome diversity. Here we address the age of P. vivax on the Indian subcontinent using selectively neutral housekeeping genes and tandem repeat loci. Analysis of ten housekeeping genes revealed a substantial number of SNPs (n = 75) from 100 P. vivax isolates collected from five geographical regions of India. Neutrality tests showed a majority of the housekeeping genes were selectively neutral, confirming the suitability of housekeeping genes for inferring the evolutionary history of P. vivax. In addition, a genetic differentiation test using housekeeping gene polymorphism data showed a lack of geographical structuring between the five regions of India. The coalescence analysis of the time to the most recent common ancestor estimate yielded an ancient TMRCA (232,228 to 303,030 years) and long-term population history (79,235 to 104,008) of extant P. vivax on the Indian subcontinent. Analysis of 18 tandem repeat loci polymorphisms showed substantial allelic diversity and heterozygosity per locus, and analysis of potential bottlenecks revealed the signature of a stable P. vivax population, further corroborating our ancient age estimates. For the first time we report a comparable evolutionary history of P. vivax inferred by nuclear genetic markers (putative housekeeping genes) to that inferred from mitochondrial genome diversity.

  20. Variable-number tandem repeats genotyping used to aid and inform management strategies for a bovine Johne's disease incursion in tropical and subtropical Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakey, Jane; Gavey, Lawrence; Singh, Shoor Vir; Platell, Joanne; Waltisbuhl, David

    2014-09-01

    The application of variable-number tandem repeats (VNTR) genotyping of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis isolates to assist in investigating incidents of bovine Johne's disease in a low-prevalence region of Australia is described in the current study. Isolates from a response to detection of bovine Johne's disease in Queensland were compared with strains from national and international sources. The tandem application of mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit (MIRU) and multilocus short sequence repeats (MLSSR) genotyping identified 2 strains, 1 that infected cattle on multiple properties with trace-forward histories from a common infected property, and 1 genotypically different strain recovered from a single property. The former strain showed an identical genotype to an isolate from India. Neither strain showed a genotypic link to regions of Australia with a higher prevalence of the disease. Genotyping has indicated incursions from 2 independent sources. This intelligence has informed investigations into potential routes of entry and the soundness of ongoing control measures, and supported strategy and policy decisions regarding management of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis incursions for Queensland. © 2014 The Author(s).

  1. Neutral polymorphisms in putative housekeeping genes and tandem repeats unravels the population genetics and evolutionary history of Plasmodium vivax in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surendra K Prajapati

    Full Text Available The evolutionary history and age of Plasmodium vivax has been inferred as both recent and ancient by several studies, mainly using mitochondrial genome diversity. Here we address the age of P. vivax on the Indian subcontinent using selectively neutral housekeeping genes and tandem repeat loci. Analysis of ten housekeeping genes revealed a substantial number of SNPs (n = 75 from 100 P. vivax isolates collected from five geographical regions of India. Neutrality tests showed a majority of the housekeeping genes were selectively neutral, confirming the suitability of housekeeping genes for inferring the evolutionary history of P. vivax. In addition, a genetic differentiation test using housekeeping gene polymorphism data showed a lack of geographical structuring between the five regions of India. The coalescence analysis of the time to the most recent common ancestor estimate yielded an ancient TMRCA (232,228 to 303,030 years and long-term population history (79,235 to 104,008 of extant P. vivax on the Indian subcontinent. Analysis of 18 tandem repeat loci polymorphisms showed substantial allelic diversity and heterozygosity per locus, and analysis of potential bottlenecks revealed the signature of a stable P. vivax population, further corroborating our ancient age estimates. For the first time we report a comparable evolutionary history of P. vivax inferred by nuclear genetic markers (putative housekeeping genes to that inferred from mitochondrial genome diversity.

  2. Association between allelic variation due to short tandem repeats in tRNA gene of Entamoeba histolytica and clinical phenotypes of amoebiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Virendra; Ghoshal, Ujjala; Mittal, Balraj; Dhole, Tapan N; Ghoshal, Uday C

    2014-05-01

    Genotypes of Entamoeba histolytica (E. histolytica) may contribute clinical phenotypes of amoebiasis such as amoebic liver abscess (ALA), dysentery and asymptomatic cyst passers state. Hence, we evaluated allelic variation due to short tandem repeats (STRs) in tRNA gene of E. histolytica and clinical phenotypes of amoebiasis. Asymptomatic cyst passers (n=24), patients with dysentery (n=56) and ALA (n=107) were included. Extracted DNA from stool (dysentery, asymptomatic cyst passers) and liver aspirate was amplified using 6 E. histolytica specific tRNA-linked STRs (D-A, A-L, N-K2, R-R, S-Q, and S(TGA)-D) primers. PCR products were subjected to sequencing. Association between allelic variation and clinical phenotypes was analyzed. A total of 9 allelic variations were found in D-A, 8 in A-L, 4 in N-K2, 5 in R-R, 10 in S(TAG)-D and 7 in S-Q loci. A significant association was found between allelic variants and clinical phenotypes of amoebiasis. This study reveals that allelic variation due to short tandem repeats (STRs) in tRNA gene of E. histolytica is associated different clinical outcome of amoebiasis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Diversity and Plasticity of the Intracellular Plant Pathogen and Insect Symbiont “Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus” as Revealed by Hypervariable Prophage Genes with Intragenic Tandem Repeats ▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lijuan; Powell, Charles A.; Hoffman, Michele T.; Li, Wenbin; Fan, Guocheng; Liu, Bo; Lin, Hong; Duan, Yongping

    2011-01-01

    “Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus” is a psyllid-transmitted, phloem-limited alphaproteobacterium and the most prevalent species of “Ca. Liberibacter” associated with a devastating worldwide citrus disease known as huanglongbing (HLB). Two related and hypervariable genes (hyvI and hyvII) were identified in the prophage regions of the Psy62 “Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus” genome. Sequence analyses of the hyvI and hyvII genes in 35 “Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus” DNA isolates collected globally revealed that the hyvI gene contains up to 12 nearly identical tandem repeats (NITRs, 132 bp) and 4 partial repeats, while hyvII contains up to 2 NITRs and 4 partial repeats and shares homology with hyvI. Frequent deletions or insertions of these repeats within the hyvI and hyvII genes were observed, none of which disrupted the open reading frames. Sequence conservation within the individual repeats but an extensive variation in repeat numbers, rearrangement, and the sequences flanking the repeat region indicate the diversity and plasticity of “Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus” bacterial populations in the world. These differences were found not only in samples of distinct geographical origins but also in samples from a single origin and even from a single “Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus”-infected sample. This is the first evidence of different “Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus” populations coexisting in a single HLB-affected sample. The Florida “Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus” isolates contain both hyvI and hyvII, while all other global “Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus” isolates contain either one or the other. Interclade assignments of the putative HyvI and HyvII proteins from Florida isolates with other global isolates in phylogenetic trees imply multiple “Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus” populations in the world and a multisource introduction of the “Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus” bacterium into Florida. PMID:21784907

  4. Characterisation of heteroplasmic status at codon 143 of the Botrytis cinerea cytochrome b gene in a semi-quantitative AS-PCR assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Maki; Aoki, Yoshinao; Saito, Seiya; Suzuki, Shunji

    2015-03-01

    An in-depth understanding of quinone outside inhibitor (QoI)-fungicide-resistant Botrytis cinerea isolates in a vineyard is expected to contribute to the development of an optimum disease management programme for the control of grape grey mould. The resistance and structure of the cytochrome b gene in B. cinerea collected from a Japanese vineyard were characterised. The semi-quantitative allele-specific primer-polymerase chain reaction (AS-PCR) assay developed in the present study was able to distinguish heteroplasmic status from homoplasmic status at codon 143 of the cytochrome b gene in QoI-fungicide-resistant B. cinerea from vineyards in Japan. With this assay it was demonstrated that the repeated introduction of QoI fungicide selection pressure increased the ratio of G143A-mutated cytochrome b genes in B. cinerea isolates. It is proposed that the semi-quantitative AS-PCR assay is a reliable tool for the detection of QoI fungicide resistance and the evaluation of homoplasmic/heteroplasmic status at codon 143 of the cytochrome b gene in B. cinerea isolates. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis of Staphylococcus aureus: comparison with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and spa-typing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo M Schouls

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Molecular typing of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA is required to study the routes and rates of transmission of this pathogen. Currently available typing techniques are either resource-intensive or have limited discriminatory ability. Multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA may provide an alternative high throughput molecular typing tool with high epidemiological resolution. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A new MLVA scheme for S. aureus was validated using 1681 S. aureus isolates collected from Dutch patients and 100 isolates from pigs. MLVA using 8 tandem repeat loci was performed in 2 multiplex PCRs and the fluorescently labeled PCR products were accurately sized on an automated DNA sequencer. The assessed number of repeats was used to create MLVA profiles consisting of strings of 8 integers that were used for categorical clustering. MLVA yielded 511 types that clustered into 11 distinct MLVA complexes which appeared to coincide with MLST clonal complexes. MLVA was at least as discriminatory as PFGE and twice as discriminatory as spa-sequence typing. There was considerable congruence between MLVA, spa-sequence typing and PFGE, at the MLVA complex level with group separation values of 95.1% and 89.2%. MLVA could not discriminate between pig-related MRSA strains isolated from humans and pigs, corroborating the high degree of relationship. MLVA was also superior in the grouping of MRSA isolates previously assigned to temporal-spatial clusters with indistinguishable SpaTypes, demonstrating its enhanced epidemiological usefulness. CONCLUSIONS: The MLVA described in this study is a high throughput, relatively low cost genotyping method for S. aureus that yields discrete and unambiguous data that can be used to assign biological meaningful genotypes and complexes and can be used for interlaboratory comparisons in network accessible databases. Results suggest that MLVA offsets the disadvantages of

  6. mtDNA HVI length heteroplasmic profile in different tissues of maternally related members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bini, C; Pappalardo, G

    2005-08-11

    Sequencing of the homopolymeric tract of cytosines (C-stretch) in human mitochondrial HVI region usually results in a blurred pattern beyond it when a T/C transition at nt 16189 occurs: it depends on a length heteroplasmy probably arising through a replication slippage. This study aims to investigate the distribution of heteroplasmic length variants within three related individuals along maternal lineage by cloning approach. Sequencing of multiple independent clones (12--14) is sufficient to yield heteroplasmic profiles. In addition, we illustrate a direct correlation between expansion of heteroplasmy modal length and reduction of the number of adenines preceding the homopolymeric tract; this association may be useful in pedigree analysis and in forensic field for tissues comparison, single hair sample included.

  7. Genetic stability of Brucella abortus S19 and RB51 vaccine strains by multiple locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA16).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorneles, Elaine Maria Seles; de Faria, Ana Paula Paiva; Pauletti, Rebeca Barbosa; Santana, Jordana Almeida; Caldeira, George Afonso Vítor; Heinemann, Marcos Bryan; Titze-de-Almeida, Ricardo; Lage, Andrey Pereira

    2013-10-01

    The aims of the present study were (i) to assess the in vitro genetic stability of S19 and RB51 Brucella abortus vaccines strains and (ii) to evaluate the ability of multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat (VNTR) analysis (MLVA) as a tool to be used in the quality control of live vaccines against brucellosis. Sixty-three batches of commercial S19 (n=53) and RB51 (n=10) vaccines, produced between 2006 and 2009, were used in this study. S19 and RB51 vaccines were obtained from, respectively, seven and two different manufacturers. Ten in vitro serial passages were performed on reference strains and on selected batches of commercial vaccines. All batches, reference strains and strains of serial passages were typed by the MLVA16. The results demonstrated that B. abortus S19 and RB51 vaccine strains are genetically stable and very homogeneous in their respective groups. Anyway, batches of S19 from one manufacturer and batches of RB51 from another presented genotypes distincts from the reference vaccine strains. In both cases, differences were found on locus Bruce07, which had addition of one repeat unit in the case of S19 batches and the deletion of one repeat unit in the case of RB51 batches. In summary, MLVA16 proved to be a molecular tool capable of discriminating small genomic variations and should be included in in vitro official tests. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. DNA extraction for short tandem repeat typing from mixed samples using anti-human leukocyte CD45 and ABO blood group antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Shizue; Honda, Katsuya; Kaminiwa, Junko; Nishi, Takeki; Iwabuchi, Yayoi; Sugano, Yukiko; Kurosu, Akira; Suzuki, Yasuhito

    2014-05-01

    DNA testing from mixed cell samples can be difficult to use successfully in criminal investigations. Here, we present a method for the extraction of DNA from mixed bloodstains involving plural contributors, after antibody-microbead captured cell separation. This method, together with the multiplex short tandem repeat typing presented, has proven highly successful in the recovery of DNA profiles corresponding to the ABO blood type. Methodological steps include magnetic separation using leukocyte specific CD45 antibody-coated microbeads and centrifugal separation of leukocyte agglutination by ABO antibody. The detection results of variable mixed ratio showed that the target DNA was detected accurately as low as 1:512 mixed ratio, regardless of the large amount of the background DNA present. The method presented here is applicable to PCR-based identification for various kinds of mixed samples. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  9. Multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis is superior to spa typing and sufficient to characterize MRSA for surveillance purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Thijs; Pluister, Gerlinde N; van Luit, Martijn; Landman, Fabian; van Santen-Verheuvel, Marga; Schot, Corrie; Witteveen, Sandra; van der Zwaluw, Kim; Heck, Max E O C; Schouls, Leo M

    2015-01-01

    Assess the best approach to type methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Staphylococcal protein A (spa) typing, multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) or both. Discriminatory power of spa typing and MLVA was determined using 20,771 MRSA isolates. There were twice as many MLVA types (MTs) as spa types present in the collection. Among the top 70% of the isolates, 37 spa types and 139 MTs were found. MLVA diversity among the top-10 spa types was high (diversity index 0.96), while spa diversity among the top-10 MTs was much lower (diversity index 0.83). The probability that two MRSA isolates with the same spa type also had the same MT was low (Wallace's coefficient 0.27). By contrast, most MRSA isolates yielding the same MT also had the same spa type (Wallace's coefficient 0.90). MLVA is superior to spa typing and will suffice to characterize MRSA isolates for surveillance.

  10. Evaluation of multiple-locus variable number of tandem repeats analysis for typing livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin M Brandt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The increasing occurrence of livestock-associated (LA methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA associated with the clonal complex (CC 398 within the past years shows the importance of standardized and comparable typing methods for the purposes of molecular surveillance and outbreak detection. Multiple-locus variable number of tandem repeats analysis (MLVA has recently been described as an alternative and highly discriminative tool for S. aureus. However, until now the applicability of MLVA for the typing of LA-MRSA isolates from different geographic origin has not been investigated in detail. We therefore compared MLVA and S. aureus protein A (spa typing for characterizing porcine MRSA from distinct Dutch and German farms. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Overall, 134 MRSA isolates originating from 21 different pig-farms in the Netherlands and 36 farms in Germany comprising 21 different spa types were subjected to MLVA-typing. Amplification and subsequent automated fragment sizing of the tandem repeat loci on a capillary sequencer differentiated these 134 isolates into 20 distinct MLVA types. Whereas overall MLVA and spa typing showed the same discriminatory power to type LA-MRSA (p = 0.102, MLVA was more discriminatory than spa typing for isolates associated with the prevalent spa types t011 and t034 (Simpson's Index of Diversity 0.564 vs. 0.429, respectively; p<0.001. CONCLUSION: Although the applied MLVA scheme was not more discriminatory than spa typing in general, it added valuable information to spa typing results for specific spa types (t011, t034 which are highly prevalent in the study area, i.e. Dutch-German border area. Thus, both methods may complement each other to increase the discriminatory power to resolute highly conserved clones such as CC398 (spa types t011, t034 for the detection of outbreaks and molecular surveillance of zoonotic MRSA.

  11. A new variant of endemic pemphigus foliaceus in El-Bagre, Colombia: the Hardy-Weinberg-Castle law and linked short tandem repeats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu-Velez, Ana María; Robles, Edinson Villa; Howard, Michael S

    2009-09-01

    We reported a new variant of endemic pemphigus foliaceus in El Bagre, Colombia. Our study performed Complex Segregation Analysis (CSA) and short tandem repeats to discriminate between environmental and/or genetic factors in this disorder. The CSA analysis was carried out according to the unified model, implemented using the transmission probabilities implemented in the computer program POINTER, and evaluated by using a software package for population genetic data analysis (GDA), Arlequin. We performed pedigree analyses by using Cyrillic 2.1 software, with a total of 30 families with 50 probands (47 males and 3 females) tested. In parallel to the CSA, we tested for the presence of short tandem repeats from HLA class II, DQ alpha 1, involving the gene locus D6S291 by using the Hardy-Weinberg- Castle law. Our results indicate that the best model of inheritance in this disease is a mixed model, with multifactorial effects within a recessive genotype. Two types of possible segregation patterns were found; one with strong recessive penetrance in families whose phenotype is more Amerindian-like, and another of possible somatic mutations. The penetrance of 10% or less in female patients 60 years of age or older indicates that hormones could protect younger females. The greatest risk factor for men being affected by the disorder was the NN genotype. These findings are only possible due to somatic mutations, and/or strong environmental effects. We also found a protective role for two genetic loci (D6S1019 AND D6S439) in the control group.

  12. A novel approach to propagate flavivirus infectious cDNA clones in bacteria by introducing tandem repeat sequences upstream of virus genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Szu-Yuan; Wu, Ren-Huang; Tsai, Ming-Han; Yang, Chi-Chen; Chang, Chung-Ming; Yueh, Andrew

    2014-07-01

    Despite tremendous efforts to improve the methodology for constructing flavivirus infectious cDNAs, the manipulation of flavivirus cDNAs remains a difficult task in bacteria. Here, we successfully propagated DNA-launched type 2 dengue virus (DENV2) and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) infectious cDNAs by introducing seven repeats of the tetracycline-response element (7×TRE) and a minimal cytomegalovirus (CMVmin) promoter upstream of the viral genome. Insertion of the 7×TRE-CMVmin sequence upstream of the DENV2 or JEV genome decreased the cryptic E. coli promoter (ECP) activity of the viral genome in bacteria, as measured using fusion constructs containing DENV2 or JEV segments and the reporter gene Renilla luciferase in an empty vector. The growth kinetics of recombinant viruses derived from DNA-launched DENV2 and JEV infectious cDNAs were similar to those of parental viruses. Similarly, RNA-launched DENV2 infectious cDNAs were generated by inserting 7×TRE-CMVmin, five repeats of the GAL4 upstream activating sequence, or five repeats of BamHI linkers upstream of the DENV2 genome. All three tandem repeat sequences decreased the ECP activity of the DENV2 genome in bacteria. Notably, 7×TRE-CMVmin stabilized RNA-launched JEV infectious cDNAs and reduced the ECP activity of the JEV genome in bacteria. The growth kinetics of recombinant viruses derived from RNA-launched DENV2 and JEV infectious cDNAs displayed patterns similar to those of the parental viruses. These results support a novel methodology for constructing flavivirus infectious cDNAs, which will facilitate research in virology, viral pathogenesis and vaccine development of flaviviruses and other RNA viruses. © 2014 The Authors.

  13. Association of STin2 Variable Number of Tandem Repeat (VNTR) Polymorphism of Serotonin Transporter Gene with Lifelong Premature Ejaculation: A Case-Control Study in Han Chinese Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Xiansheng; Gao, Jingjing; Tang, Dongdong; Gao, Pan; Peng, Dangwei; Liang, Chaozhao

    2016-01-01

    Background The STin2 VNTR polymorphism has a variable number of tandem repeats in intron 2 of the serotonin transporter gene. We aimed to explore the relationship between STin2 VNTR polymorphism and lifelong premature ejaculation (LPE). Material/Methods We recruited a total of 115 outpatients who complained of ejaculating prematurely and who were diagnosed as LPE, and 101 controls without PE complaint. Allelic variations of STin2 VNTR were genotyped using PCR-based technology. We evaluated the associations between STin2 VNTR allelic and genotypic frequencies and LPE, as well as the intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) of different STin2 VNTR genotypes among LPE patients. Results The patients and controls did not differ significantly in terms of any characteristic except age. A significantly higher frequency of STin2.12/12 genotype was found among LPE patients versus controls (P=0.026). Frequency of patients carrying at least 1 copy of the 10-repeat allele was significantly lower compared to the control group (28.3% vs. 41.8%, OR=0.55; 95%CI=0.31–0.97, P=0.040). In the LPE group, the mean IELT showed significant difference in STin2.12/12 genotype when compared to those with STin2.12/10 and STin2.10/10 genotypes. The mean IELT in10-repeat allele carriers was 50% longer compared to homozygous carriers of the STin2.12 allele. Conclusions Our results indicate the presence of STin2.10 allele is a protective factor for LPE. Men carrying the higher expression genotype STin2. 12/12 have shorter IELT than 10-repeat allele carriers. PMID:27713390

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF A MULTIPLE-LOCUS VARIABLE NUMBER OF TANDEM REPEAT ANALYSIS (MLVA FOR HELICOBACTER PYLORI AND ITS APPLICATION TO HELICOBACTER PYLORI ISOLATES FROM ROSTOV REGION,RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorokin VM

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Stomach infection with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori is the second most common infectious disease of humans. The severe pathological consequences of this infection include gastric and duodenal ulcer disease, the development of gastric mucosal atrophy, gastric carcinoma, and, more rarely, malignant tumors of the lymphoma. H. pylori infections cause very high morbidity and mortality and are of particular concern in developing countries, where H. pylori prevalences as high as 90% have been reported. The population of H. pylori shows a high genomic variability among isolates. And the polymorphism of repeat-units of genomics had participated the important process of evolution. A variety of molecular typing tools have been developed to access genetic relatedness in H. pylori isolates. However, there is still no standard genotyping system of this bacterium. The MLVA (Multi-Locus of Variable number of tandem repeat Analysis method is useful for performing phylogenetic analysis and is widely used in bacteria genotyping; however, there's little application in H. pylori analysis. This article is the first application of the MLVA method to investigate H. pylori isolates in Russia. MLVA of 4 VNTR loci with high discrimination power based on 10 candidates were performed on a collection of 22 strains of H. pylori which originated from Rostov region of Russia. This method provides a starting point on which improvements to the method and comparisons to other techniques can be made.

  15. Genotyping analysis of Helicobacter pylori using multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeats analysis in five regions of China and Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chunliang; Liao, Yaling; Li, Yan; Duan, Jun; Guo, Ying; Wu, Yuqian; Cui, Yujun; Sun, Hongwu; Zhang, Jinyong; Chen, Bing; Zou, Quanming; Guo, Gang

    2011-09-03

    H. pylori (Helicobacter pylori) is the major causative agent of chronic active gastritis. The population of H. pylori shows a high genomic variability among isolates. And the polymorphism of repeat-units of genomics had participated the important process of evolution. Its long term colonization of the stomach caused different clinical outcomes, which may relate to the high degree of genetic variation of H. pylori. A variety of molecular typing tools have been developed to access genetic relatedness in H. pylori isolates. However, there is still no standard genotyping system of this bacterium. The MLVA (Multi-locus of variable number of tandem repeat analysis) method is useful for performing phylogenetic analysis and is widely used in bacteria genotyping; however, there's little application in H. pylori analysis. This article is the first application of the MLVA method to investigate H. pylori from different districts and ethnic groups of China. MLVA of 12 VNTR loci with high discrimination power based on 30 candidates were performed on a collection of 202 strains of H. pylori which originated from five regions of China and Japan. Phylogenetic tree was constructed using MLVA profiles. 12 VNTR loci presented with high various polymorphisms, and the results demonstrated very close relationships between genotypes and ethnic groups. This study used MLVA methodology providing a new perspective on the ethnic groups and distribution characteristics of H. pylori.

  16. Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive-Unit–Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat (MIRU-VNTR) Genotyping of Mycobacterium intracellulare for Strain Comparison with Establishment of a PCR-Based Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iakhiaeva, Elena; McNulty, Steven; Brown Elliott, Barbara A.; Falkinham, Joseph O.; Williams, Myra D.; Vasireddy, Ravikiran; Wilson, Rebecca W.; Turenne, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Strain comparison is important to population genetics and to evaluate relapses in patients with Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) lung disease, but the “gold standard” of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) is time-consuming and complex. We used variable-number tandem repeats (VNTR) for fingerprinting of respiratory isolates of M. intracellulare from patients with underlying bronchiectasis, to establish a nonsequence-based database for population analysis. Different genotypes identified by PFGE underwent species identification using a 16S rRNA gene multiplex PCR. Genotypes of M. intracellulare were confirmed by internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) sequencing and characterized using seven VNTR primers. The pattern of VNTR amplicon sizes and repeat number defined each specific VNTR type. Forty-two VNTR types were identified among 84 genotypes. PFGE revealed most isolates with the same VNTR type to be clonal or exhibit similar grouping of bands. Repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) showed minimal pattern diversity between VNTR types compared to PFGE. Fingerprinting of relapse isolates from 31 treated patients using VNTR combined with 16S multiplex PCR unambiguously and reliably distinguished different genotypes from the same patient, with results comparable to those of PFGE. VNTR for strain comparison is easier and faster than PFGE, is as accurate as PFGE, and does not require sequencing. Starting with a collection of 167 M. intracellulare isolates, VNTR distinguished M. intracellulare into 42 clonal groups. Comparison of isolates from different geographic areas, habitats, and clinical settings is now possible. PMID:23175249

  17. The tandem repeated organization of NB-LRR genes in the clubroot-resistant CRb locus in Brassica rapa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatakeyama, Katsunori; Niwa, Tomohisa; Kato, Takeyuki; Ohara, Takayoshi; Kakizaki, Tomohiro; Matsumoto, Satoru

    2017-04-01

    To facilitate prevention of clubroot disease, a major threat to the successful cultivation of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L.), we bred clubroot-resistant (CR) cultivars by introducing resistance genes from CR turnips via conventional breeding. Among 11 CR loci found in B. rapa, we identified CRb in Chinese cabbage cultivar 'CR Shinki' as a single dominant gene for resistance against Plasmodiophora brassicae pathotype group 3, against which the stacking of Crr1 and Crr2 loci was not effective. However, the precise location and pathotype specificity of CRb have been controversial, because CRa and Rcr1 also map near this locus. Previously, our fine-mapping study revealed that CRb is located in a 140-kb genomic region on chromosome A03. Here, we determined the nucleotide sequence of an approximately 64-kb candidate region in the resistant line; this region contains six open reading frames (ORFs) similar to NB-LRR encoding genes that are predicted to occur in tandem with the same orientation. Among the six ORFs present, only four on the genome of the resistant line showed a strong DNA sequence identity with each other, and only one of those four could confer resistance to P. brassicae isolate No. 14 of the pathotype group 3. These results suggest that these genes evolved through recent gene duplication and uneven crossover events that could lead to the acquisition of clubroot resistance. The DNA sequence of the functional ORF was identical to that of the previously cloned CRa gene; thus, we showed that the independently identified CRb and CRa are one and the same clubroot-resistance gene.

  18. Comparative Study of IS6110 Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism and Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates in the Netherlands, Based on a 5-Year Nationwide Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beer, J.L. de; Ingen, J. van; Vries, G. de; Erkens, C.; Sebek, M.; Mulder, A.; Sloot, R.; Brandt, A.M. van den; Enaimi, M.; Kremer, K.; Supply, P.; Soolingen, D. van

    2013-01-01

    In order to switch from IS6110 and polymorphic GC-rich repetitive sequence (PGRS) restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) to 24-locus variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates in the national tuberculosis control program in The Netherlands, a

  19. The DUB/USP17 deubiquitinating enzymes: A gene family within a tandemly repeated sequence, is also embedded within the copy number variable Beta-defensin cluster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Christopher J

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The DUB/USP17 subfamily of deubiquitinating enzymes were originally identified as immediate early genes induced in response to cytokine stimulation in mice (DUB-1, DUB-1A, DUB-2, DUB-2A. Subsequently we have identified a number of human family members and shown that one of these (DUB-3 is also cytokine inducible. We originally showed that constitutive expression of DUB-3 can block cell proliferation and more recently we have demonstrated that this is due to its regulation of the ubiquitination and activity of the 'CAAX' box protease RCE1. Results Here we demonstrate that the human DUB/USP17 family members are found on both chromosome 4p16.1, within a block of tandem repeats, and on chromosome 8p23.1, embedded within the copy number variable beta-defensin cluster. In addition, we show that the multiple genes observed in humans and other distantly related mammals have arisen due to the independent expansion of an ancestral sequence within each species. However, it is also apparent when sequences from humans and the more closely related chimpanzee are compared, that duplication events have taken place prior to these species separating. Conclusions The observation that the DUB/USP17 genes, which can influence cell growth and survival, have evolved from an unstable ancestral sequence which has undergone multiple and varied duplications in the species examined marks this as a unique family. In addition, their presence within the beta-defensin repeat raises the question whether they may contribute to the influence of this repeat on immune related conditions.

  20. Development of new multilocus variable number of tandem repeat analysis (MLVA for Listeria innocua and its application in a food processing plant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajime Takahashi

    Full Text Available Listeria innocua is an important hygiene indicator bacterium in food industries because it behaves similar to Listeria monocytogenes, which is pathogenic to humans. PFGE is often used to characterize bacterial strains and to track contamination source. However, because PFGE is an expensive, complicated, time-consuming protocol, and poses difficulty in data sharing, development of a new typing method is necessary. MLVA is a technique that identifies bacterial strains on the basis of the number of tandem repeats present in the genome varies depending on the strains. MLVA has gained attention due to its high reproducibility and ease of data sharing. In this study, we developed a MLVA protocol to assess L. innocua and evaluated it by tracking the contamination source of L. innocua in an actual food manufacturing factory by typing the bacterial strains isolated from the factory. Three VNTR regions of the L. innocua genome were chosen for use in the MLVA. The number of repeat units in each VNTR region was calculated based on the results of PCR product analysis using capillary electrophoresis (CE. The calculated number of repetitions was compared with the results of the gene sequence analysis to demonstrate the accuracy of the CE repeat number analysis. The developed technique was evaluated using 60 L. innocua strains isolated from a food factory. These 60 strains were classified into 11 patterns using MLVA. Many of the strains were classified into ST-6, revealing that this MLVA strain type can contaminate each manufacturing process in the factory. The MLVA protocol developed in this study for L. innocua allowed rapid and easy analysis through the use of CE. This technique was found to be very useful in hygiene control in factories because it allowed us to track contamination sources and provided information regarding whether the bacteria were present in the factories.

  1. Development of new multilocus variable number of tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) for Listeria innocua and its application in a food processing plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Hajime; Ohshima, Chihiro; Nakagawa, Miku; Thanatsang, Krittaporn; Phraephaisarn, Chirapiphat; Chaturongkasumrit, Yuphakhun; Keeratipibul, Suwimon; Kuda, Takashi; Kimura, Bon

    2014-01-01

    Listeria innocua is an important hygiene indicator bacterium in food industries because it behaves similar to Listeria monocytogenes, which is pathogenic to humans. PFGE is often used to characterize bacterial strains and to track contamination source. However, because PFGE is an expensive, complicated, time-consuming protocol, and poses difficulty in data sharing, development of a new typing method is necessary. MLVA is a technique that identifies bacterial strains on the basis of the number of tandem repeats present in the genome varies depending on the strains. MLVA has gained attention due to its high reproducibility and ease of data sharing. In this study, we developed a MLVA protocol to assess L. innocua and evaluated it by tracking the contamination source of L. innocua in an actual food manufacturing factory by typing the bacterial strains isolated from the factory. Three VNTR regions of the L. innocua genome were chosen for use in the MLVA. The number of repeat units in each VNTR region was calculated based on the results of PCR product analysis using capillary electrophoresis (CE). The calculated number of repetitions was compared with the results of the gene sequence analysis to demonstrate the accuracy of the CE repeat number analysis. The developed technique was evaluated using 60 L. innocua strains isolated from a food factory. These 60 strains were classified into 11 patterns using MLVA. Many of the strains were classified into ST-6, revealing that this MLVA strain type can contaminate each manufacturing process in the factory. The MLVA protocol developed in this study for L. innocua allowed rapid and easy analysis through the use of CE. This technique was found to be very useful in hygiene control in factories because it allowed us to track contamination sources and provided information regarding whether the bacteria were present in the factories.

  2. Tandem repeats, high copy number and remarkable diel expression rhythm of form II RuBisCO in Prorocentrum donghaiense (Dinophyceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinguo Shi

    Full Text Available Gene structure and expression regulation of form II RuBisCO (rbcII in dinoflagellates are still poorly understood. Here we isolated this gene (Pdrbc and investigated its diel expression pattern in a harmful algal bloom forming dinoflagellate Prorocentrum donghaiense. We obtained cDNA sequences with triple tandem repeats of the coding unit (CU; the 5' region has the sequence of a typical dinoflagellate plastid gene, encoding an N-terminus with two transmembrane regions separated by a plastid transit peptide. The CUs (1,455 bp except 1464 bp in last CU are connected through a 63 bp spacer. Phylogenetic analysis showed that rbcII CUs within species formed monophyletic clusters, indicative of intraspecific gene duplication or purifying evolution. Using quantitative PCR (qPCR we estimated 117±40 CUs of Pdrbc in the P. donghaiense genome. Although it is commonly believed that most dinoflagellate genes lack transcriptional regulation, our RT-qPCR analysis on synchronized cultures revealed remarkable diel rhythm of Pdrbc expression, showing significant correlations of transcript abundance with the timing of the dark-to-light transition and cell cycle G2M-phase. When the cultures were shifted to continuous light, Pdrbc expression remained significantly correlated with the G2M-phase. Under continuous darkness the cell cycle was arrested at the G1 phase, and the rhythm of Pdrbc transcription disappeared. Our results suggest that dinoflagellate rbcII 1 undergoes duplication or sequence purification within species, 2 is organized in tandem arrays in most species probably to facilitate efficient translation and import of the encoded enzyme, and 3 is regulated transcriptionally in a cell cycle-dependent fashion at least in some dinoflagellates.

  3. TOMOGRAPHIC SAR INVERSION FROM MIXED REPEAT- AND SINGLE-PASS DATA STACKS – THE TERRASAR-X/TANDEM-X CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. X. Zhu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the first demonstration of high precision very high resolution tomographic SAR inversion with the assistance of TanDEM-X data. The data quality of TerraSAR-X and TanDEM-X is investigated. TomoSAR algorithms such as SVD-Wiener, Nonlinear Least Squares and SL1MMER are extended for mixed repeat- and single-pass data stacks. A systematic approach is proposed for the fusion of TerraSAR-X and TanDEM-X data in which the different data quality provided by the TerraSAR-X and TanDEM-X data are taken into account by introducing a weighting according to the noise covariance matrix. The proposed approach is evaluated with simulated data. The simulation result shows that the reconstruction accuracy of tomographic SAR inversion can be improved significantly by using jointly fused TerraSAR-X and TanDEM-X data.

  4. Role of homozygous DC-SIGNR 5/5 tandem repeat polymorphism in HIV-1 exposed seronegative North Indian individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathore, Anurag; Chatterjee, Animesh; Sivarama, P; Yamamoto, Naohiko; Dhole, Tapan N

    2008-01-01

    Despite multiple sexual exposures to HIV-1 virus, some individuals remain HIV-1 seronegative. Although several genetic factors have been related to HIV-1 resistance, the homozygosity for a mutation in CCR5 gene (the 32-bp deletion, i.e., CCR5-Delta32 allele) is presently considered the most relevant one. The C-type lectins, DC-SIGN (present on dendritic cells and macrophages) and DC-SIGNR (present on endothelial cells in liver and lymph nodes) efficiently bind and transmit HIV-1 to susceptible cell in trans, thereby augmenting the infection. A potential association of the DC-SIGN and DC-SIGNR neck domain repeat polymorphism and risk of HIV-1 infection is currently under debate. To determine the influence of host genetic factors on HIV-1 resistance, we conducted genetic risk association study in HIV-1-exposed seronegative (n = 47) individuals, HIV-1 seronegative (n = 262) healthy control, and HIV-1-infected seropositive patients (n = 168) for polymorphism in neck domain of DC-SIGN and DC-SIGNR genes. The DC-SIGN and DC-SIGNR genotypes were identified by polymerase chain reaction method in DNA extracted from peripheral blood and confirmed by sequencing. Fisher exact or chi (2) test was used for static analysis. DC-SIGN genotype and allele distribution was fairly similar in HIV-1-exposed seronegative, HIV-1 seropositive, and HIV-1 seronegative control. There was no statistical significance in the differences in the distribution of DC-SIGN genotypes. A total of 13 genotypes were found in DC-SIGNR neck repeat region polymorphism. Among all the genotypes, only 5/5 homozygous showed significant reduced risk of HIV-1 infection in HIV-1-exposed seronegative individuals (p = 0.009). A unique genotype 8/5 heterozygous was also found in HIV-1 seropositive individual, which is not reported elsewhere.

  5. Tandem repeat variation near the HIC1 (hypermethylated in cancer 1) promoter predicts outcome of oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Satoshi; Schirripa, Marta; Loupakis, Fotios; Cao, Shu; Zhang, Wu; Yang, Dongyun; Ning, Yan; Berger, Martin D; Miyamoto, Yuji; Suenaga, Mitsukuni; Iqubal, Syma; Barzi, Afsaneh; Cremolini, Chiara; Falcone, Alfredo; Battaglin, Francesca; Salvatore, Lisa; Borelli, Beatrice; Helentjaris, Timothy G; Lenz, Heinz-Josef

    2017-11-15

    The hypermethylated in cancer 1/sirtuin 1 (HIC1/SIRT1) axis plays an important role in regulating the nucleotide excision repair pathway, which is the main oxaliplatin-induced damage-repair system. On the basis of prior evidence that the variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) sequence located near the promoter lesion of HIC1 is associated with HIC1 gene expression, the authors tested the hypothesis that this VNTR is associated with clinical outcome in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer who receive oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy. Four independent cohorts were tested. Patients who received oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy served as the training cohort (n = 218), and those who received treatment without oxaliplatin served as the control cohort (n = 215). Two cohorts of patients who received oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy were used for validation studies (n = 176 and n = 73). The VNTR sequence near HIC1 was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction analysis and gel electrophoresis and was tested for associations with the response rate, progression-free survival, and overall survival. In the training cohort, patients who harbored at least 5 tandem repeats (TRs) in both alleles had a significantly shorter PFS compared with those who had fewer than 4 TRs in at least 1 allele (9.5 vs 11.6 months; hazard ratio, 1.93; P = .012), and these findings remained statistically significant after multivariate analysis (hazard ratio, 2.00; 95% confidence interval, 1.13-3.54; P = .018). This preliminary association was confirmed in the validation cohort, and patients who had at least 5 TRs in both alleles had a worse PFS compared with the other cohort (7.9 vs 9.8 months; hazard ratio, 1.85; P = .044). The current findings suggest that the VNTR sequence near HIC1 could be a predictive marker for oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. Cancer 2017;123:4506-14. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  6. Large Diversity of Porcine Yersinia enterocolitica 4/O:3 in Eight European Countries Assessed by Multiple-Locus Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alakurtti, Sini; Keto-Timonen, Riikka; Virtanen, Sonja; Martínez, Pilar Ortiz; Laukkanen-Ninios, Riikka; Korkeala, Hannu

    2016-06-01

    A total of 253 multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) types among 634 isolates were discovered while studying the genetic diversity of porcine Yersinia enterocolitica 4/O:3 isolates from eight different European countries. Six variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) loci V2A, V4, V5, V6, V7, and V9 were used to study the isolates from 82 farms in Belgium (n = 93, 7 farms), England (n = 41, 8 farms), Estonia (n = 106, 12 farms), Finland (n = 70, 13 farms), Italy (n = 111, 20 farms), Latvia (n = 66, 3 farms), Russia (n = 60, 10 farms), and Spain (n = 87, 9 farms). Cluster analysis revealed mainly country-specific clusters, and only one MLVA type consisting of two isolates was found from two countries: Russia and Italy. Also, farm-specific clusters were discovered, but same MLVA types could also be found from different farms. Analysis of multiple isolates originating either from the same tonsils (n = 4) or from the same farm, but 6 months apart, revealed both identical and different MLVA types. MLVA showed a very good discriminatory ability with a Simpson's discriminatory index (DI) of 0.989. DIs for VNTR loci V2A, V4, V5, V6, V7, and V9 were 0.916, 0.791, 0.901, 0.877, 0.912, and 0.785, respectively, when studying all isolates together, but variation was evident between isolates originating from different countries. Locus V4 in the Spanish isolates and locus V9 in the Latvian isolates did not differentiate (DI 0.000), and locus V9 in the English isolates showed very low discriminatory power (DI 0.049). The porcine Y. enterocolitica 4/O:3 isolates were diverse, but the variation in DI demonstrates that the well discriminating loci V2A, V5, V6, and V7 should be included in MLVA protocol when maximal discriminatory power is needed.

  7. The role of the ND5 gene in LHON: characterization of a new, heteroplasmic LHON mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayorov, Vladimir; Biousse, Valerie; Newman, Nancy J; Brown, Michael D

    2005-11-01

    Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) causes central vision loss from bilateral optic neuropathy. Although 13 mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations are strongly associated with LHON, only three account for roughly 90% of cases and thus are found in multiple independent LHON families. The remaining LHON mutations are rare. Here, we describe the clinical and genetic characterization of a new LHON mtDNA mutation. The 12848T mutation alters a highly conserved amino acid in the ND5 complex I gene, is not found in controls, and is heteroplasmic. Despite ND5 being the largest of the mtDNA complex I genes, ND5 mutations are quite rare in LHON.

  8. High Mitochondrial DNA Copy Number Is a Protective Factor From Vision Loss in Heteroplasmic Leber's Hereditary Optic Neuropathy (LHON).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Angelica; Bisceglia, Luigi; Russo, Luciana; Palese, Luigi L; D'Agruma, Leonardo; Emperador, Sonia; Montoya, Julio; Guerriero, Silvana; Petruzzella, Vittoria

    2017-04-01

    Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a mitochondrial disease that typically causes bilateral blindness in young men. It is characterized by as yet undisclosed genetic and environmental factors affecting the incomplete penetrance. We identified 27 LHON subjects who possess heteroplasmic primary LHON mutations. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number was evaluated. The presence of centrocecal scotoma, an edematous, hyperemic optic nerve head, and vascular tortuosity, as well as telangiectasia was recognized in affected subjects. We found higher cellular mtDNA content in peripheral blood cells of unaffected heteroplasmic mutation carriers with respect to the affected. The increase of cellular mtDNA content prevents complete loss of vision despite the presence of a heteroplasmic state of LHON primary mutation, suggesting that it is a key factor responsible for penetrance of LHON.

  9. Genetic considerations in human sex-mate selection: partners share human leukocyte antigen but not short-tandem-repeat identity markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israeli, Moshe; Kristt, Don; Nardi, Yuval; Klein, Tirza

    2014-05-01

    Previous studies support a role for MHC on mating preference, yet it remains unsettled as to whether mating occurs preferentially between individuals sharing human leukocyte antigen (HLA) determinants or not. Investigating sex-mate preferences in the contemporary Israeli population is of further curiosity being a population with distinct genetic characteristics, where multifaceted cultural considerations influence mate selection. Pairs of male-female sex partners were evaluated in three groups. Two groups represented unmarried (n = 1002) or married (n = 308) couples and a control group of fictitious male-female couples. HLA and short-tandem-repeat (STR) genetic identification markers were assessed for the frequency of shared antigens and alleles. Human leukocyte antigen results showed that Class I and/ or Class II single antigen as well as double antigen sharing was more common in sex partners than in control group couples (P sex-mates and controls (P = 0.78). Sex partnerships shared HLA determinants more frequently than randomly constituted male-female pairs. The observed phenomenon does not reflect a syngenetic background between sex-mates as STR markers were not selectively shared. Thus, sex-mate selection in man may contravene the evolutionary pressure for genetic diversity in regard to HLA. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Towards improvements in the estimation of the coalescent: implications for the most effective use of Y chromosome short tandem repeat mutation rates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven C Bird

    Full Text Available Over the past two decades, many short tandem repeat (STR microsatellite loci on the human Y chromosome have been identified together with mutation rate estimates for the individual loci. These have been used to estimate the coalescent age, or the time to the most recent common ancestor (TMRCA expressed in generations, in conjunction with the average square difference measure (ASD, an unbiased point estimator of TMRCA based upon the average within-locus allele variance between haplotypes. The ASD estimator, in turn, depends on accurate mutation rate estimates to be able to produce good approximations of the coalescent age of a sample. Here, a comparison is made between three published sets of per locus mutation rate estimates as they are applied to the calculation of the coalescent age for real and simulated population samples. A novel evaluation method is developed for estimating the degree of conformity of any Y chromosome STR locus of interest to the strict stepwise mutation model and specific recommendations are made regarding the suitability of thirty-two commonly used Y-STR loci for the purpose of estimating the coalescent. The use of the geometric mean for averaging ASD and û across loci is shown to improve the consistency of the resulting estimates, with decreased sensitivity to outliers and to the number of STR loci compared or the particular set of mutation rates selected.

  11. Typing and Evaluation of the Genetic Relatedness of Listeria monocytogenes Strains Isolated from Food Samples by the Multiple-Locus Variable number Tandem Repeat Analysis (MLVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrooz Sadeghi kalani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim:Listeria monocytogenes cause listeriosis and fatal infections in humans. The aim of this study was typing and evaluation of the genetic relatedness of L. monocytogenes strains from food samples using MLVA technique. Materials and Methods: 317 food samples were collected from 2009 to 2013 in Tehran,Iran. After final diagnosis of L. monocytogenes DNA was extracted to perform of MLVA technique, and also PCR products were analyzed by Gene Tools software. The number of tandem repeats was determined by using special equation for each selected locus. Also typing of strains was done. Results: 24 samples of 317 food samples were positive for L. monocytogenes using standard laboratory techniques. A total 13 different types were determined by MLVA technique that type 2 and type 3 were the most abundant types by 6 and 4 strains, respectively. Conclusions: The results of this study showed the presence of L. monocytogenes in dairy products and meat samples, therefore all people, especially pregnant women should observe health tips when using these products. The results of typing showed that L. monocytogenes strains from different sources can have the same origin. MLVA technique is easy with high accuracy and this method can be used in typing and evaluation of the genetic relatedness of L. monocytogenes for determination the source of contamination.

  12. A large-scale dataset of single and mixed-source short tandem repeat profiles to inform human identification strategies: PROVEDIt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonse, Lauren E; Garrett, Amanda D; Lun, Desmond S; Duffy, Ken R; Grgicak, Catherine M

    2018-01-01

    DNA-based human identity testing is conducted by comparison of PCR-amplified polymorphic Short Tandem Repeat (STR) motifs from a known source with the STR profiles obtained from uncertain sources. Samples such as those found at crime scenes often result in signal that is a composite of incomplete STR profiles from an unknown number of unknown contributors, making interpretation an arduous task. To facilitate advancement in STR interpretation challenges we provide over 25,000 multiplex STR profiles produced from one to five known individuals at target levels ranging from one to 160 copies of DNA. The data, generated under 144 laboratory conditions, are classified by total copy number and contributor proportions. For the 70% of samples that were synthetically compromised, we report the level of DNA damage using quantitative and end-point PCR. In addition, we characterize the complexity of the signal by exploring the number of detected alleles in each profile. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Studying the Structural Significance of Galectin Design by Playing a Modular Puzzle: Homodimer Generation from Human Tandem-Repeat-Type (Heterodimeric Galectin-8 by Domain Shuffling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Kristin Ludwig

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Tissue lectins are emerging (pathophysiological effectors with broad significance. The capacity of adhesion/growth-regulatory galectins to form functional complexes with distinct cellular glycoconjugates is based on molecular selection of matching partners. Engineering of variants by changing the topological display of carbohydrate recognition domains (CRDs provides tools to understand the inherent specificity of the functional pairing. We here illustrate its practical implementation in the case of human tandem-repeat-type galectin-8 (Gal-8. It is termed Gal-8 (NC due to presence of two different CRDs at the N- and C-terminal positions. Gal-8N exhibits exceptionally high affinity for 3′-sialylated/sulfated β-galactosides. This protein is turned into a new homodimer, i.e., Gal-8 (NN, by engineering. The product maintained activity for lactose-inhibitable binding of glycans and glycoproteins. Preferential association with 3′-sialylated/sulfated (and 6-sulfated β-galactosides was seen by glycan-array analysis when compared to the wild-type protein, which also strongly bound to ABH-type epitopes. Agglutination of erythrocytes documented functional bivalency. This result substantiates the potential for comparative functional studies between the variant and natural Gal-8 (NC/Gal-8N.

  14. The population structure of Staphylococcus aureus in China and Europe assessed by multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis; clues to geographical origins of emergence and dissemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, X; Schouls, L M; Pluister, G N; Tao, X; Yu, X; Yin, J; Song, Y; Hu, S; Luo, F; Hu, W; He, L; Meng, F; Donker, T; Tsompanidou, E; van Dijl, J M; Zhang, J; Grundmann, H

    2016-01-01

    To compare the genetic population structure of Staphylococcus aureus from China and Europe, 1294 human isolates were characterized by multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA). In total, MLVA identified 17 MLVA complexes (MCs), comprising 260 MLVA types (MTs) among the Chinese isolates and 372 MTs among the European isolates. The five most frequent MCs among the Chinese isolates belonged to MC398, MC5 subclade a, MC8, MC437 and MC7 and made up 55% of the sample. For the European isolates, the five most frequent MCs consisted of MC5 subclade a, MC45, MC8, MC30 and MC22, which accounted for 64% of the sample. Phylogeographic analysis of the major MCs shared between China and Europe points to a European origin of MC8 but cannot provide a consistent signal for MC5 subclade a, probably indicating a different origin. Diversity and frequency distributions of other lineages were also compared. Altogether, this study provides the first snapshot of two extant populations of S. aureus from Europe and China, and important clues on the emergence and dissemination of different lineages of S. aureus. Copyright © 2015 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Phylogenetic analysis of encapsulated and non-encapsulated Trichinella species by studying the 5S rDNA tandemly repeated intergenic region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Giessen, J W B; Fonville, M; Briels, I; Pozio, E

    2005-09-05

    The identification of sequence regions in the genomes of pathogens which can be useful to distinguish among species and genotypes, is of great importance for epidemiological, molecular, and phylogenetic studies. The 5S ribosomal DNA intergenic spacer region has been identified as a good target to distinguish among eight Trichinella species and genotypes. The recent discovery of two non-encapsulated species in this genus, Trichinella papuae and Trichinella zimbabwensis, which can infect both mammals and reptiles, has suggested analyzing their 5S rDNA. Amplification of the tandem repeats of the 5S rDNA intergenic region of encapsulated species of Trichinella shows a 751bp fragment, whereas the three non-encapsulated species show a fragment of 800bp with T. pseudospiralis showing an additional fragment of 522bp. Although the size of the 800bp PCR fragments of T. papuae and T. zimbabwensis are similar to that of T. pseudospiralis, there are differences in the 5S rDNA intergenic regions among the three non-encapsulated species. Phylogenetic analysis of the 5S rDNA intergenic regions shows a clustering together of the three non-encapsulated Trichinella species that is well separated from the encapsulated ones. In addition, a single PCR-based method allows distinguishing non-encapsulated and encapsulated species.

  16. Population genetic studies on nine tetrameric short tandem repeat loci using fluorescence dye-labeled primers and capillary electrophoresis in the Austrian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klintschar, M; Ebner, A; Reichenpfader, B

    1999-06-01

    The short tandem repeats (STR) D3S1358, VWA, FGA, D8S1179, D21S11, D18S51, D5S818, D13S317, D7S820 and a locus allowing sex discrimination (amelogenin) can be coamplified by the polymerase chain reaction using a commercially available kit, and subsequently typed using capillary electrophoresis. To establish databases for these loci for Austrian Caucasians, 115 unrelated persons were typed. All loci were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The combined mean paternity exclusion chance (MEC) was 0.999891 and the combined discriminating power (DP) was 3.08 x 10(-11). The allelic distributions showed no differences to those found for other Caucasian populations. Our data differed significantly from an Afro-American population at 5 loci and from a Chinese population at 4 loci. Linkage disequilibrium between any of the coamplified loci was not evident. Thus the combination of multiplex PCR and capillary electrophoresis can save time and yield excellent results for paternity testing and stain analysis.

  17. Short tandem repeat analysis of host's hepatocellular carcinoma by laser microdissection confirms the validity of safety procedures in liver transplantation: a forensic case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Francesco; Bonsignore, Alessandro; Tettamanti, Camilla; Verdiani, Simonetta; Gianelli Castiglione, Andrea; De Stefano, Francesco

    2013-08-09

    To limit the chimerism typical of transplanted organs, which constantly reveals mixed profiles, laser microdissection (LCM) has been hypothesized as a valid tool in comparison with manual dissection. A 42-year-old man with end-stage HBV/HDV liver cirrhosis and single hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) underwent liver transplantation. Four months later hepatic nodules were diagnosed. The histological investigation showed an HCC. Despite therapy, the man died as a result of metastatic carcinoma 9 months later. On behalf of the public prosecutor, we performed short tandem repeat analysis on the hepatic nodules to determine whether the carcinoma had originated from the transplanted liver. The manually dissected samples revealed a high degree of chimerism that did not allow a clear diagnosis. Instead, the detected chimerism was very low in the microdissected samples, where the tumor origin was clearly diagnosable as a recurrence of the recipient's primitive HCC. Accordingly, the application of LCM improved the quality of the results leading to an exclusion of medical liability profiles, confirming the high quality safety procedure of the Italian system in solid organ transplantation, and showing at the same time how useful this technique may be in selected forensic cases.

  18. Evaluation and Selection of Multilocus Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Analysis Primers for Genotyping Brucella abortus Biovar 1 Isolated from Human Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Subok; Hwang, Kyu-Jam; Park, Mi-Yeoun; Hwang, Seon-Do; Chai, Hee-Youl; Chu, Hyuk; Park, Sang-Hee

    2013-10-01

    Brucellosis is the most common bacterial zoonosis in the world. Multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) analysis (MLVA) is a molecular method for genotyping bacterial species. Brucella abortus biovar I was isolated from most of the brucellosis-suspected patients in Korea. This study was conducted to investigate the ability of various MLVA primers that are used for molecular typing B. abortus isolates and for analyzing their epidemiological data. A total of 80 human isolates of B. abortus biovar I isolated from human patients and the reference strain were used for MLVA. Genetic diversity was determined by calculating the Simpson's diversity index (DI) of each VNTR locus. The Brucella strains were subcultured 30 times to determine the stability of each locus. The DNA of the strains cultivated in each passage was extracted and subjected to MLVA for further investigation. The 15 VNTR loci were selected based on high DI values. The DIs of the 15 VNTR loci showed considerable discrimination power ranging from 59% for Bruce 43 to 87% for Bruce 22. Bruce 09, Bruce 11, Bruce 16, Bruce 42, and Bruce 43 were confirmed to remain stable in vitro among the 15 VNTR loci selected. The results of this study suggest that the five loci subsets may be a useful epidemiological tool for investigating B. abortus biovar 1 outbreak.

  19. Genetic diversity of 15 autosomal short tandem repeats loci using the AmpFLSTR® Identifiler™ kit in a Bhil Tribe Population from Gujarat state, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhari, Ramesh R.; Dahiya, M. S.

    2014-01-01

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: The genetic diversity and forensic parameters based on 15 autosomal short tandem repeats (STR) loci; D8S1179,D21S11, D7S820, CSF1PO, D3S1358, TH01, D13S317,D16S539, D2S1338, D19S433, vWA, TPOX, D18S51,D5S818, and FGA in AmpFLSTR® Identifiler™ kit from Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA, USA were evaluated in saliva samples of 297 unrelated individuals from the Bhil Tribe population of Gujarat state, India to study genetic diversities and relatedness of this population with other national and international populations. RESULTS: Statistical analysis of the data revealed all loci were within Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium expectations with the exception of the locus vWA (0.019) and locus D18S51 (0.016). The neighbour joining phylogeny tree and Principal Co-ordinate Analysis plot constructed based on Fst distances from autosomal STRs allele frequencies of the present study and other national as well as international populations show clustering of all the South Asian populations in one branch of the tree, while Middle Eastern and African populations cluster in a separate branch. CONCLUSION: Our findings reveal strong genetic affinities seen between the Indo-European (IE) speaking Bhil Tribe of Gujarat and Dravidian groups of South India. PMID:25400342

  20. Genetic diversity of 15 autosomal short tandem repeats loci using the AmpFLSTR(®) Identifiler™ kit in a Bhil Tribe Population from Gujarat state, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhari, Ramesh R; Dahiya, M S

    2014-04-01

    The genetic diversity and forensic parameters based on 15 autosomal short tandem repeats (STR) loci; D8S1179,D21S11, D7S820, CSF1PO, D3S1358, TH01, D13S317,D16S539, D2S1338, D19S433, vWA, TPOX, D18S51,D5S818, and FGA in AmpFLSTR® Identifiler™ kit from Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA, USA were evaluated in saliva samples of 297 unrelated individuals from the Bhil Tribe population of Gujarat state, India to study genetic diversities and relatedness of this population with other national and international populations. Statistical analysis of the data revealed all loci were within Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium expectations with the exception of the locus vWA (0.019) and locus D18S51 (0.016). The neighbour joining phylogeny tree and Principal Co-ordinate Analysis plot constructed based on Fst distances from autosomal STRs allele frequencies of the present study and other national as well as international populations show clustering of all the South Asian populations in one branch of the tree, while Middle Eastern and African populations cluster in a separate branch. Our findings reveal strong genetic affinities seen between the Indo-European (IE) speaking Bhil Tribe of Gujarat and Dravidian groups of South India.

  1. Genetic polymorphisms of short tandem repeat loci D13S305, D13S631 and D13S634 in the Han population of Tianjin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yunfang; Li, Xiaozhou; Ju, Duan; Li, Yan; Zhang, Xiuling; Zhang, Ying

    2015-08-01

    Short tandem repeat (STR) markers, also known as microsatellites, are extensively used in mapping studies, forensics and disease diagnosis due to their small dimension and low mutation and high polymorphism rates. In recent years quantitative fluorescence polymerase chain reaction (QF-PCR) has been successfully used to amplify STR markers in the prenatal diagnosis of common chromosomal abnormalities. This method provides a diagnosis of common aneuploidies 24-48 h after sampling with low error rates and cost; however, the size of different alleles, frequency, heterozygosity and distribution of STR markers vary among different populations. In the present study three STR markers, D13S305, D13S631 and D13S634, on chromosome 13 were analyzed in 350 unrelated individuals (200 males and 150 females) from the Han population of Tianjin, China using QF-PCR. Eleven, seven and 11 alleles of each marker were observed, respectively. The frequencies of the genotypes were in good agreement with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P>0.05). The results showed that these three STR markers were highly polymorphic in the Han population of Tianjin, China. The study has provided basic data for use in the prenatal diagnosis of Patau syndrome.

  2. Correlation between genotypes of tRNA-linked short tandem repeats in Entamoeba nuttalli isolates and the geographical distribution of host rhesus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Meng; Komiyama, Tomoyoshi; Yanagi, Tetsuo; Cheng, Xunjia; Sherchand, Jeevan B; Tachibana, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Several polymorphic markers, including serine-rich protein genes, have been used for the genotyping of isolates from the morphologically indistinguishable protozoan parasites Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar, and Entamoeba nuttalli. Genotypes of tRNA-linked short tandem repeats (STRs) are highly polymorphic, but the correlation with geographical distribution is unknown. We have recently isolated 15 E. nuttalli strains from wild rhesus macaques in four locations in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. The sequences of the serine-rich protein genes of the E. nuttalli strains differed among the four locations. In this study, we analyzed tRNA-linked STRs in six loci of the 15 strains. Two genotypes were found in loci N-K2, R-R, and S(TGA)-D, three in locus S-Q, and five in locus D-A. In locus A-L, one major genotype and ten minor genotypes were found, resulting in mixtures of two to six genotypes in eight strains. By combination of the main genotypes in the six loci, the 15 strains were divided into nine genotypes. The genotypes observed in E. nuttalli strains were quite different from those in E. histolytica and E. dispar. A phylogenetic tree constructed from tRNA-linked STRs in the six loci reflected the different places of isolation. These results suggest that sequence diversity of tRNA-linked STRs in E. nuttalli occurs with relatively high frequency and might be a marker of geographical distribution of host rhesus macaques, even in limited areas.

  3. PopAffiliator: online calculator for individual affiliation to a major population group based on 17 autosomal short tandem repeat genotype profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Luísa; Alshamali, Farida; Andreassen, Rune; Ballard, Ruth; Chantratita, Wasun; Cho, Nam Soo; Coudray, Clotilde; Dugoujon, Jean-Michel; Espinoza, Marta; González-Andrade, Fabricio; Hadi, Sibte; Immel, Uta-Dorothee; Marian, Catalin; Gonzalez-Martin, Antonio; Mertens, Gerhard; Parson, Walther; Perone, Carlos; Prieto, Lourdes; Takeshita, Haruo; Rangel Villalobos, Héctor; Zeng, Zhaoshu; Zhivotovsky, Lev; Camacho, Rui; Fonseca, Nuno A

    2011-09-01

    Because of their sensitivity and high level of discrimination, short tandem repeat (STR) maker systems are currently the method of choice in routine forensic casework and data banking, usually in multiplexes up to 15-17 loci. Constraints related to sample amount and quality, frequently encountered in forensic casework, will not allow to change this picture in the near future, notwithstanding the technological developments. In this study, we present a free online calculator named PopAffiliator ( http://cracs.fc.up.pt/popaffiliator ) for individual population affiliation in the three main population groups, Eurasian, East Asian and sub-Saharan African, based on genotype profiles for the common set of STRs used in forensics. This calculator performs affiliation based on a model constructed using machine learning techniques. The model was constructed using a data set of approximately fifteen thousand individuals collected for this work. The accuracy of individual population affiliation is approximately 86%, showing that the common set of STRs routinely used in forensics provide a considerable amount of information for population assignment, in addition to being excellent for individual identification.

  4. Phylogenetic and Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Analyses Identify Nonpathogenic Xanthomonas arboricola Lineages Lacking the Canonical Type III Secretion System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essakhi, Salwa; Cesbron, Sophie; Fischer-Le Saux, Marion; Bonneau, Sophie; Jacques, Marie-Agnès; Manceau, Charles

    2015-08-15

    Xanthomonas arboricola is conventionally known as a taxon of plant-pathogenic bacteria that includes seven pathovars. This study showed that X. arboricola also encompasses nonpathogenic bacteria that cause no apparent disease symptoms on their hosts. The aim of this study was to assess the X. arboricola population structure associated with walnut, including nonpathogenic strains, in order to gain a better understanding of the role of nonpathogenic xanthomonads in walnut microbiota. A multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) was performed on a collection of 100 X. arboricola strains, including 27 nonpathogenic strains isolated from walnut. Nonpathogenic strains grouped outside clusters defined by pathovars and formed separate genetic lineages. A multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) conducted on a collection of X. arboricola strains isolated from walnut showed that nonpathogenic strains clustered separately from clonal complexes containing Xanthomonas arboricola pv. juglandis strains. Some nonpathogenic strains of X. arboricola did not contain the canonical type III secretion system (T3SS) and harbored only one to three type III effector (T3E) genes. In the nonpathogenic strains CFBP 7640 and CFBP 7653, neither T3SS genes nor any of the analyzed T3E genes were detected. This finding raises a question about the origin of nonpathogenic strains and the evolution of plant pathogenicity in X. arboricola. T3E genes that were not detected in any nonpathogenic isolates studied represent excellent candidates to be those responsible for pathogenicity in X. arboricola. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  5. Y-chromosome Short Tandem Repeat Intermediate Variant Alleles DYS392.2, DYS449.2, and DYS385.2 Delineate New Phylogenetic Substructure in Human Y-chromosome Haplogroup Tree

    OpenAIRE

    Myres, Natalie M.; Ritchie, Kathleen H.; Lin, Alice A.; Hughes, Robert H.; Woodward, Scott R.; Underhill, Peter A.

    2009-01-01

    Aim To determine the human Y-chromosome haplogroup backgrounds of intermediate-sized variant alleles displayed by short tandem repeat (STR) loci DYS392, DYS449, and DYS385, and to valuate the potential of each intermediate variant to elucidate new phylogenetic substructure within the human Y-chromosome haplogroup tree. Methods Molecular characterization of lineages was achieved using a combination of Y-chromosome haplogroup defining binary polymorphisms and up to 37 ...

  6. Genotyping of Brucella melitensis strains from dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius) from the United Arab Emirates with multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyuranecz, Miklós; Wernery, Ulli; Kreizinger, Zsuzsa; Juhász, Judit; Felde, Orsolya; Nagy, Péter

    2016-04-15

    Camel brucellosis is a widespread zoonotic disease in camel-rearing countries caused by Brucella melitensis and Brucella abortus. The aim of this study was the first genetic analysis of B. melitensis strains isolated from dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius) using multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA). MLVA 16 and its MLVA 8 and MLVA11 subsets were used to determine the genotypes of 15 B. melitensis isolates from dromedary camels (11 strains) and other host species (4 strains) from the United Arab Emirates and the results were then compared to B. melitensis MLVA genotypes from other parts of the world. Five, including two novel genotypes were identified with MLVA 8. MLVA 16 further discriminated these five genotypes to ten variants. The eleven camel isolates clustered into four main genetic groups within the East-Mediterranean and African clades and this clustering correlated with the geographic origin of the hosts (United Arab Emirates, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and Sudan) and the date of their isolation. The camel strains were also genetically related to strains isolated from wild and domestic ruminants from their close habitat or from other parts of the world. Although limited number of strains were analysed, based on our data imported animals from foreign countries, local small ruminants and wildlife species are hypothesized to be the main sources of camel brucellosis in the United Arab Emirates. MLVA was successfully applied to determine the epidemiological links between the different camel B. melitensis infections in the United Arab Emirates and it can be a beneficial tool in future disease control programs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis of Leptospira interrogans and Leptospira borgpetersenii isolated from small feral and wild mammals in East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, Nobuo; Izumiya, Hidemasa; Mu, Jung-Jung; Arent, Zbigniew; Okano, Shou; Nakajima, Chie; Suzuki, Yasuhiko; Mizutani Muto, Maki; Tanikawa, Tsutomu; Taylor, Kyle R; Komatsu, Noriyuki; Yoshimatsu, Kumiko; Thi Thu Ha, Hoang; Ohnishi, Makoto

    2015-12-01

    Leptospira spp. are the causative agents of a worldwide zoonosis, leptospirosis, maintained by various mammals. Each Leptospira serovar is frequently associated with a particular maintenance host, and recently, Leptospira genotype-host association has also been suggested to limit serovars to restricted areas. We investigated the molecular characteristics of L. interrogans and L. borgpetersenii which were isolated from small feral and wild animals in four East Asian states using multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA). MLVA using 11 loci was performed on 110 L. interrogans serogroups from Japan (79 strains of 5 serogroups from 3 animal species), Philippines (21; 3; 2), Taiwan (7; 2; 3), and Vietnam (3; 1; 1). A MLVA method using 4 loci for L. borgpetersenii was established and performed on 52 isolates from Japan (26; 3; 7), Philippines (13; 1; 2), and Taiwan (13; 1; 3). In L. interrogans, serogroups Autumnalis and Hebdomadis appeared more genetically diverse than serogroups Bataviae, Grippotyphosa, Icterohaemorrhagiae, Pomona, or Pyrogenes. The former serogroup strains with the exception of one Hebdomadis strain were isolated from Apodemus speciosus while all the latter serogroup strains with the exception of Grippotyphosa were isolated from Rattus norvegicus. L. borgpetersenii was isolated from at least 11 animal species while L. interrogans was isolated from five species, which might suggest a wider host range for L. borgpetersenii. Broad host preference in a single genotype was also observed, which colonized not only different species of the same genera but also multiple animal genera. This study demonstrates that there may be variability in the range of genetic diversity among different Leptospira serogroups, which may be attributed to maintenance host animals and environmental factors. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Immunological Assessment of Three Tandem Repeat of Influenza Virus M2 Extracellular Domain with Adjuvant in Balb/c Mice Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadiseh Shokouhi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Influenza A viruses are globally important respiratory pathogens which cause a high degree of morbidity and mortality during annual epidemics. M2 protein which expressed on the viral surface facilitates virus entry to the host cells. The extracellular domain of M2 protein (M2e consists of N-terminal 24 residue which shows remarkable conservation among all subtypes of influenza A viruses. In this study, we evaluated the immunogenicity of three tandem repeats of M2e along with different adjuvants in BALB/C mice model. Materials and Methods: Recombinant protein (3M2e was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. Six weeks old BALB/c mice were immunized interdermally with three doses of 3M2e alone or supplemented with Alum/CpG motif as adjuvant. Control group was injected with PBS. Two weeks after the last immunization, specific anti-M2 was measured using ELISA method and finally mice were challenged with one lethal dose (LD90 of PR8 virus. Results: The results showed that 3M2e can induce specific antibody alone. However, 3M2e protein supplemented with Alum-CpG induced higher level of specific antibodies, so that, there was a significant difference with 3M2e group (p<0.05. Anti-M2 antibodies mostly consisted of IgG2a subclass which considered as activity index of TH1 Cells. Moreover, this group showed enhanced protection against wild-type virus (survival rate=60%. Conclusion: Applying Alum-CpG as a complex adjuvant may play a crucial role in integrating innate and acquisitive immunity. We increased density of M2e in combination with complex adjuvant and showed that this vaccine induced power immune responses and semi-protected mice against lethal challenge.

  9. Fluorescent-based typing of the two short tandem repeat loci HUMTH01 and HUMACTBP2: reproducibility of size measurements and genetic variation in the Swedish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holgersson, S; Karlsson, J A; Kihlgren, A; Rosén, B; Savolainen, P; Gyllensten, U

    1994-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the reproducibility of genetic typing of two tetrameric short tandem repeat (STR) loci and the extent of genetic variation in the Swedish population. An automated, fluorescent-based Applied Biosystems 373A sequencer was used for typing of the HUMTH01 and HUMACTBP2 loci (also named SE33). The former locus has seven alleles in the size range of 154-174 bp, while the latter is a complex locus with more than 32 alleles in the range of 227-316 bp. Using different fluorescent dyes, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products from the two STR loci were sized in one lane using an internal size standard. In order to compare within- and between-gel reproducibility of fragment size estimates, a control sample was typed three times on each of 20 gels. Within the gel, the standard deviation (SD) of fragment size variability was less than 0.1 bp for four fragment sizes between 158-291 bp. Standard deviations between gels were slightly higher for the two shorter fragment sizes (HUMTH01), while the larger fragments varied between 0.3 and 0.4 bp (HUMACTBP2). The amount of genetic variation was investigated in samples from three Swedish cities (n = 301). Seven alleles were found at HUMTH01 and the observed heterozygosity was 0.77. At the HUMACTBP2 locus more than thirty alleles were found and the observed heterozygosity was 0.96. The observed genotype frequencies at HUMTH01 and HUMACTBP2 did not deviate significantly from Hardy-Weinberg expectations. No indication of a significant excess of homozygotes was found at any of the loci. We conclude that both HUMTH01 and HUMACTBP2 can be reliably typed using the method described. However, the latter locus requires an allelic ladder to be run on each gel.

  10. Multi-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis of Bordetella pertussis isolates circulating in Poland in the period 1959-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosiej, Ewa; Krysztopa-Grzybowska, Katarzyna; Polak, Maciej; Prygiel, Marta; Lutyńska, Anna

    2017-06-01

    Despite the long history of pertussis vaccination and high vaccination coverage in Poland and many other developed countries, pertussis incidence rates have increased substantially, making whooping cough one of the most prevalent vaccine-preventable diseases. Among the factors potentially involved in pertussis resurgence, the adaptation of the Bordetella pertussis population to country-specific vaccine-induced immunity through selection of non-vaccine-type strains still needs detailed studies. Multi-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA), also linked to MLST and PFGE profiling, was applied to trace the genetic changes in the B. pertussis population circulating in Poland in the period 1959-2013 versus country-specific vaccine strains. Generally, among 174 B. pertussis isolates, 31 MLVA types were detected, of which 11 were not described previously. The predominant MLVA types of recent isolates in Poland were different from those of the typical isolates circulating in other European countries. The MT27 type, currently predominant in Europe, was rarely seen and detected in only five isolates among all studied. The features of the vaccine strains used for production of the pertussis component of a national whole-cell diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccine, as studied by MLVA and MLST tools, were found to not match those observed in the currently circulating B. pertussis isolates in Poland. Differences traced by MLVA in relation to the MLST and PFGE profiling confirmed that the B. pertussis strain types currently observed elsewhere in Europe, even if appearing in Poland, were not able to successfully disseminate within a human population in Poland that has been vaccinated with a whole-cell pertussis vaccine not used in other countries.

  11. Diversity among strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from manure and soil, evaluated by multiple locus variable number tandem repeat analysis and antibiotic resistance profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youenou, Benjamin; Brothier, Elisabeth; Nazaret, Sylvie

    2014-01-01

    The results of a multiple locus variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) analysis (MLVA)-based study designed to understand the genetic diversity of soil and manure-borne Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates, and the relationship between these isolates and a set of clinical and environmental isolates, are hereby reported. Fifteen described VNTR markers were first selected, and 62 isolates recovered from agricultural and industrial soils in France and Burkina Faso, and from cattle and horse manure, along with 26 snake-related isolates and 17 environmental and clinical isolates from international collections, were genotyped. Following a comparison with previously published 9-marker MLVA schemes, an optimal 13-marker MLVA scheme (MLVA13-Lyon) was identified that was found to be the most efficient, as it showed high typability (90%) and high discriminatory power (0.987). A comparison of MLVA with PFGE for typing of the snake-related isolates confirmed the MLVA13-Lyon scheme to be a robust method for quickly discriminating and inferring genetic relatedness among environmental isolates. The 62 isolates displayed wide diversity, since 41 MLVA types (i.e. MTs) were observed, with 26 MTs clustered in 10 MLVA clonal complexes (MCs). Three and eight MCs were found among soil and manure isolates, respectively. Only one MC contained both soil and manure-borne isolates. No common MC was observed between soil and manure-borne isolates and the snake-related or environmental and clinical isolates. Antibiotic resistance profiles were performed to determine a potential link between resistance properties and the selective pressure that might be present in the various habitats. Except for four soil and manure isolates resistant to ticarcillin and ticarcillin/clavulanic acid and one isolate from a hydrocarbon-contaminated soil resistant to imipenem, all environmental isolates showed wild-type antibiotic profiles. Copyright © 2013 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights

  12. Preliminary investigation on multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis profiles of Listeria monocytogenes isolates from pork meat tested from packaging to fork

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra De Cesare

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Listeria monocytogenes is recognised as a public health issue and a serious challenge for the food industry. L. monocytogenes strain characterisation on the basis of serotyping and molecular typing methods is used for surveillance, epidemiological tracking and outbreak investigation purposes. Genetic variants of L. monocytogenes have diversified into four major phylogenetic lineages, with lineages 1 and 2 each containing multiple clonal groups of public health importance. Standardised tools for easy identification of clonal groups are needed to trace such groups and determine their presence in a large variety of sources. Given the current limitations of available methods for L. monocytogenes strain typing, a potentially useful approach is multiple locus variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR analysis (MLVA. In this study, MLVA has been applied to a random group of 82 L. monocytogenes strains isolated from 8 different batches of loin chops obtained from the same facility and tested between packaging and consumption time. The strains typed were classified into 10 MLVA profiles containing a number of isolates ranging between 1 to 20. According to the identified MLVA profiles, 75.6% of the pork isolates belonged to the phylogenetic lineage 2 and serotype 1/2c, frequently associated to food isolates. However, 3 pork strains belonged to the phylogenetic lineage 1 and serotype 4b. Moreover, 17 isolates were classified in the phylogenetic lineages 2 and serotype 1/2a. Both serotypes 4b and 1/2a are frequently associated to human isolates of L. monocytogenes. These preliminary results show how the MLVA profiles can support the assessment of the risk profile of food products based on the contaminating L. monocytogenes strain types.

  13. Detection of induced male germline mutation: Correlations and comparisons between traditional germline mutation assays, transgenic rodent assays and expanded simple tandem repeat instability assays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, Timothy M. [Mutagenesis Section, Environmental and Occupational Toxicology Division, Safe Environments Programme, 0803A, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ont., K1A 0K9 (Canada); Department of Biology, Carleton University, 1125 Colonel By Drive, Ottawa, Ont., K1S 5B6 (Canada); Lambert, Iain B. [Department of Biology, Carleton University, 1125 Colonel By Drive, Ottawa, Ont., K1S 5B6 (Canada); Williams, Andrew [Biostatistics and Epidemiology Division, Safe Environments Programme, 6604B, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ont., K1A 0K9 (Canada); Douglas, George R. [Mutagenesis Section, Environmental and Occupational Toxicology Division, Safe Environments Programme, 0803A, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ont., K1A 0K9 (Canada); Yauk, Carole L. [Mutagenesis Section, Environmental and Occupational Toxicology Division, Safe Environments Programme, 0803A, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ont., K1A 0K9 (Canada)]. E-mail: carole_yauk@hc-sc.gc.ca

    2006-06-25

    Several rodent assays are capable of monitoring germline mutation. These include traditional assays, such as the dominant lethal (DL) assay, the morphological specific locus (SL) test and the heritable translocation (HT) assay, and two assays that have been developed more recently-the expanded simple tandem repeat (ESTR) and transgenic rodent (TGR) mutation assays. In this paper, we have compiled the limited amount of experimental data that are currently available to make conclusions regarding the comparative ability of the more recently developed assays to detect germline mutations induced by chemical and radiological agents. The data suggest that ESTR and TGR assays are generally comparable with SL in detecting germline mutagenicity induced by alkylating agents and radiation, though TGR offered less sensitivity than ESTR in some cases. The DL and HT assays detect clastogenic events and are most susceptible to mutations arising in post-spermatogonial cells, and they may not provide the best comparisons with TGR and ESTR instability. The measurement of induced ESTR instability represents a relatively sensitive method of identifying agents causing germline mutation in rodents, and may also be useful for bio-monitoring exposed individuals in the human population. Any future use of the TGR and ESTR germline mutation assays in a regulatory testing context will entail more robust and extensive characterization of assay performance. This will require substantially more data, including experiments measuring multiple endpoints, a greatly expanded database of chemical agents and a focus on characterizing stage-specific activity of mutagens in these assays, preferably by sampling epididymal sperm exposed at defined pre-meiotic, meiotic and post-meiotic stages of development.

  14. Surface display of monkey metallothionein {alpha} tandem repeats and EGFP fusion protein on Pseudomonas putida X4 for biosorption and detection of cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Xiaochuan; Chen, Wenli; Huang, Qiaoyun [Huazhong Agricultural Univ., Wuhan (China). State Key Lab. of Agricultural Microbiology

    2012-09-15

    Monkey metallothionein {alpha} domain tandem repeats (4mMT{alpha}), which exhibit high cadmium affinity, have been displayed for the first time on the surface of a bacterium using ice nucleation protein N-domain (inaXN) protein from the Xanthomonas campestris pv (ACCC - 10049) as an anchoring motif. The shuttle vector pIME, which codes for INAXN-4mMT{alpha}-EGFP fusion, was constructed and used to target 4mMT{alpha} and EGFP on the surface of Pseudomonas putida X4 (CCTCC - 209319). The surface location of the INAXN-4mMT{alpha}-EGFP fusion was further verified by western blot analysis and immunofluorescence microscopy. The growth of X4 showed resistance to cadmium presence. The presence of surface-exposed 4mMT{alpha} on the engineered strains was four times higher than that of the wild-type X4. The Cd{sup 2+} accumulation by X4/pIME was not only four times greater than that of the original host bacterial cells but was also remarkably unaffected by the presence of Cu{sup 2+} and Zn{sup 2+}. Moreover, the surface-engineered strains could effectively bind Cd{sup 2+} under a wide range of pH levels, from 4 to 7. P. putida X4/pIME with surface-expressed 4mMT{alpha}-EGFP had twice the cadmium binding capacity as well as 1.4 times the fluorescence as the cytoplasmic 4mMTa-EGFP. These results suggest that P. putida X4 expressing 4mMT{alpha}-EGFP with the INAXN anchor motif on the surface would be a useful tool for the remediation and biodetection of environmental cadmium contaminants. (orig.)

  15. Detection of induced male germline mutation: correlations and comparisons between traditional germline mutation assays, transgenic rodent assays and expanded simple tandem repeat instability assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Timothy M; Lambert, Iain B; Williams, Andrew; Douglas, George R; Yauk, Carole L

    2006-06-25

    Several rodent assays are capable of monitoring germline mutation. These include traditional assays, such as the dominant lethal (DL) assay, the morphological specific locus (SL) test and the heritable translocation (HT) assay, and two assays that have been developed more recently--the expanded simple tandem repeat (ESTR) and transgenic rodent (TGR) mutation assays. In this paper, we have compiled the limited amount of experimental data that are currently available to make conclusions regarding the comparative ability of the more recently developed assays to detect germline mutations induced by chemical and radiological agents. The data suggest that ESTR and TGR assays are generally comparable with SL in detecting germline mutagenicity induced by alkylating agents and radiation, though TGR offered less sensitivity than ESTR in some cases. The DL and HT assays detect clastogenic events and are most susceptible to mutations arising in post-spermatogonial cells, and they may not provide the best comparisons with TGR and ESTR instability. The measurement of induced ESTR instability represents a relatively sensitive method of identifying agents causing germline mutation in rodents, and may also be useful for bio-monitoring exposed individuals in the human population. Any future use of the TGR and ESTR germline mutation assays in a regulatory testing context will entail more robust and extensive characterization of assay performance. This will require substantially more data, including experiments measuring multiple endpoints, a greatly expanded database of chemical agents and a focus on characterizing stage-specific activity of mutagens in these assays, preferably by sampling epididymal sperm exposed at defined pre-meiotic, meiotic and post-meiotic stages of development.

  16. Global analysis of genetic variations in a 56-bp variable number of tandem repeat polymorphisms within the human deoxyribonuclease I gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujihara, Junko; Yasuda, Toshihiro; Iida, Reiko; Ueki, Misuzu; Sano, Rie; Kominato, Yoshihiko; Inoue, Ken; Kimura-Kataoka, Kaori; Takeshita, Haruo

    2015-07-01

    A 56-bp variable number of tandem repeat polymorphism is confirmed in intron 4 of the human deoxyribonuclease I (DNase I) gene (HumDN1). The purpose of the present study was to document global ethnic variations of allelic frequencies in HumDN1 VNTR polymorphisms. In this study, HumDN1 VNTR polymorphisms in 11 worldwide populations were examined by polymerase chain reaction and compared with those reported previously. Fifteen genotypes were identified in these 11 populations. Novel genotypes were found: 1/2 was observed in Ghanaians and mestizos, 3/6 was in Tamangs, 4/6 was in Tibetans and Nahuas, 6/6 was in Sinhalese. The African population showed the highest frequency for the HumDN1(∗)3 allele. Among Asian populations, the different genotype distribution was observed. The predominant allele in Mongolian, Korean, Japanese, and Chinese populations was HumDN1(∗)3, followed by HumDN1(∗)4, and then HumDN1(∗)5. In Chinese from South China, Tamangs, and Sinhalese, HumDN1(∗)4 and HumDN1(∗)5 were predominant. The allele frequency for HumDN1(∗)4 was high in three Mexican populations, but a significant difference was observed between Nahuas and Huicoles. Germans and Turks showed a similar distribution. This study is the first to show the existence of a certain genetic heterogeneity in the worldwide distribution of HumDN1 VNTR polymorphism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparison by multilocus variable-number tandem repeat analysis and antimicrobial resistance among atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli strains isolated from food samples and human and animal faecal specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L; Nakamura, H; Kage-Nakadai, E; Hara-Kudo, Y; Nishikawa, Y

    2017-01-01

    This study assessed whether multilocus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) and antimicrobial susceptibility testing discriminated diarrhoeagenic atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (aEPEC) from aEPEC indigenous to domestic animals or healthy people. MLVA genotyping of 142 aEPEC strains isolated from foods and faecal samples of domestic animals and humans revealed 126 distinct MLVA profiles that distributed to four clusters, yielding a Simpson's index of diversity (D) of 99·8%. Cluster 2 included 87% of cattle isolates and 67% of patient isolates. The plurality (15/34, 44%) of strains from healthy humans mapped to Cluster 1, while half (18/41, 44%) of the swine strains belonged to Cluster 4. Testing for antimicrobial susceptibility revealed that 52 strains (37%) of aEPEC were resistant to one or more agents; only 10 strains (7%) exhibited resistance to more than three agents. Strains isolated from swine or food exhibited a wider variety of resistance phenotypes than bovine or human strains. MLVA assigned the aEPEC isolates from cattle and patients to Cluster 2, distinct from aEPEC from other sources. Hog yards may be a larger source of drug-resistant strains than are cattle ranches. MLVA suggests that human diarrhoeagenic aEPEC are derived from cattle and are distinct from strains carried by healthy people and other animals. Cattle appear to be reservoirs of human diarrhoeagenic aEPEC. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for Applied Microbiology.

  18. Multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis of reference strains used for the diagnosis of leptospirosis in Argentina Multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis de cepas de referencia usadas para el diagnóstico de leptospirosis en Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María E Pavan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is a worldwide zoonosis caused by a spirochete that belongs to the genus Leptospira. In the last years, new methods, such as the PCR-based multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA, have been developed for the genotyping of leptospires. In the present work, the MLVA patterns for all reference strains used in Argentina for bovine, ovine, porcine, equine, caprine and canine leptospirosis diagnosis, as well as in human and wild animal diagnosis, were obtained. MLVA results are presented in such a way that they can be readily used for the identifcation of these strains by the simple and direct comparison of agarose gels. Making the use and interpretation of the MLVA for leptospires typing easier will help increase the use of this method as a routine procedure for human and animal diagnosis, for epidemiological studies, vaccine control and other applications.La leptospirosis es una zoonosis de distribución global causada por una espiroqueta perteneciente al género Leptospira. En los últimos años se han desarrollado nuevos métodos para la genotipifcación de las leptospiras, entre ellos el denominado multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA. En este trabajo se obtuvieron los patrones de MLVA de todas las cepas de referencia utilizadas en la Argentina para el diagnóstico de leptospirosis en bovinos, ovinos, porcinos, equinos, caprinos y perros, y que también son utilizadas en el diagnóstico de leptospirosis en humanos y en animales salvajes. Los resultados del MLVA se muestran de manera tal que pueden ser fácilmente utilizados para la identifcación de estas cepas por simple comparación visual de geles de agarosa. Al facilitar el uso y la interpretación del MLVA para la tipifcación de leptospiras, se ayudará a difundir la utilización rutinaria de este método en el diagnóstico humano y animal, en estudios epidemiológicos y para el control de vacunas, entre otras aplicaciones.

  19. Longitudinal survey of Staphylococcus aureus in cystic fibrosis patients using a multiple-locus variable-number of tandem-repeats analysis method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vergnaud Gilles

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Staphylococcus aureus infection in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF is frequent and may be due to colonization by a few pathogenic lineages. Systematic genotyping of all isolates, methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA as well as methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA is necessary to identify such lineages and follow their evolution in patients. Multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA/VNTR was used to survey S. aureus clinical isolates in a French paediatric CF centre. Results During a 30 months period, 108 patients, aged 2 to 21 years, regularly followed up at the centre, provided sputum for culture. From 79 patients, a total of 278 isolates were genotyped by MLVA, resolving into 110 genotypes and 19 clonal complexes (CC composed of similar or closely related isolates. 71% of the strains were distributed into four main CCs, in term of number of isolates and number of genotypes. Spa (Staphylococcus protein A typing was performed on representative samples, showing an excellent concordance with MLVA. In 17 patients, strains from two to four different CCs were recovered over time. On six occasions, S. aureus isolates with the same genotype were shared by 2 different patients and they belonged to one of the four main clusters. Methicillin-resistance was observed in 60% of the isolates, 90% of which belonged to the main clonal complexes CC8, CC45 and CC5. In 5 patients, methicillin-resistance of S. aureus isolates was not associated with the mecA gene: for four patients, it was due to overproduction of β-lactamase, leading to BOR-SA (borderline S. aureus isolates, while a strain showing probably a new modified penicillin-binding capacity (MOD-SA was observed from one patient. Conclusion Systematic genotyping of S. aureus isolates recovered from sputum of CF children allows a thorough analysis of the strains responsible for sporadic as well as chronic colonization and the follow up of their evolution over time

  20. Transcription profile of Trichophyton rubrum conidia grown on keratin reveals the induction of an adhesin-like protein gene with a tandem repeat pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitencourt, Tamires Aparecida; Macedo, Claudia; Franco, Matheus Eloy; Assis, Amanda Freire; Komoto, Tatiana Takahasi; Stehling, Eliana Guedes; Beleboni, Rene Oliveira; Malavazi, Iran; Marins, Mozart; Fachin, Ana Lúcia

    2016-03-18

    Trichophyton rubrum is a cosmopolitan filamentous fungus that can infect human keratinized tissue (skin, nails and, rarely, hair) and is the major agent of all chronic and recurrent dermatophytoses. The dermatophyte infection process is initiated through the release of arthroconidial adhesin, which binds to the host stratum corneum. The conidia then germinate, and fungal hyphae invade keratinized skin structures through the secretion of proteases. Although arthroconidia play a central role in pathogenesis, little is known about the dormancy and germination of T. rubrum conidia and the initiation of infection. The objective of this study was to evaluate the transcriptional gene expression profile of T. rubrum conidia during growth on keratin- or elastin-containing medium, mimicking superficial and deep dermatophytosis, respectively. A transcriptional profiling analysis was conducted using a custom oligonucleotide-based microarray by comparing T. rubrum conidia grown on elastin and keratin substrates. This comparison shows differences according to protein source used, but consisted of a very small set of genes, which could be attributed to the quiescent status of conidia. The modulated genes were related to the dormancy, survival and germination of conidia, including genes involved in the respiratory chain, signal transduction and lipid metabolism. However, an induction of a great number of proteases occurred when T. rubrum was grown in the presence of keratin such as the subtilisin family of proteases (Sub 1 and Sub 3) and leucine aminopeptidase (Lap 1 and Lap 2). Interestingly, keratin also promoted the up-regulation of a gene encoding an adhesin-like protein with a tandem repeat sequence. In silico analysis showed that the protein contains a domain related to adhesin that may play a role in host-pathogen interactions. The expression of this adhesin-like gene was also induced during the co-culture of T. rubrum with a human keratinocyte cell line, confirming its

  1. Variable number of tandem repeat polymorphisms of the interleukin-1 receptor antagonist gene IL-1RN: a novel association with the athlete status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryckman Kelli K

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The interleukin-1 (IL-1 family of cytokines is involved in the inflammatory and repair reactions of skeletal muscle during and after exercise. Specifically, plasma levels of the IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra increase dramatically after intense exercise, and accumulating evidence points to an effect of genetic polymorphisms on athletic phenotypes. Therefore, the IL-1 family cytokine genes are plausible candidate genes for athleticism. We explored whether IL-1 polymorphisms are associated with athlete status in European subjects. Methods Genomic DNA was obtained from 205 (53 professional and 152 competitive non-professional Italian athletes and 458 non-athlete controls. Two diallelic polymorphisms in the IL-1β gene (IL-1B at -511 and +3954 positions, and a variable number tandem repeats (VNTR in intron 2 of the IL-1ra gene (IL-1RN were assessed. Results We found a 2-fold higher frequency of the IL-1RN 1/2 genotype in athletes compared to non-athlete controls (OR = 1.93, 95% CI = 1.37-2.74, 41.0% vs. 26.4%, and a lower frequency of the 1/1 genotype (OR = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.40-0.77, 43.9% vs. 58.5%. Frequency of the IL-1RN 2/2 genotype did not differ between groups. No significant differences between athletes and controls were found for either -511 or +3954 IL-1B polymorphisms. However, the haplotype (-511C-(+3954T-(VNTR2 was 3-fold more frequent in athletes than in non-athletes (OR = 3.02, 95% CI = 1.16-7.87. Interestingly, the IL-1RN 1/2 genotype was more frequent in professional than in non-professional athletes (OR = 1.92, 95% CI = 1.02-3.61, 52.8% vs. 36.8%. Conclusions Our study found that variants at the IL-1ra gene associate with athletic status. This confirms the crucial role that cytokine IL-1ra plays in human physical exercise. The VNTR IL-1RN polymorphism may have implications for muscle health, performance, and/or recovery capacities. Further studies are needed to assess these specific issues. As VNTR IL-1RN

  2. Y-chromosome short tandem repeat intermediate variant alleles DYS392.2, DYS449.2, and DYS385.2 delineate new phylogenetic substructure in human Y-chromosome haplogroup tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myres, Natalie M; Ritchie, Kathleen H; Lin, Alice A; Hughes, Robert H; Woodward, Scott R; Underhill, Peter A

    2009-06-01

    To determine the human Y-chromosome haplogroup backgrounds of intermediate-sized variant alleles displayed by short tandem repeat (STR) loci DYS392, DYS449, and DYS385, and to evaluate the potential of each intermediate variant to elucidate new phylogenetic substructure within the human Y-chromosome haplogroup tree. Molecular characterization of lineages was achieved using a combination of Y-chromosome haplogroup defining binary polymorphisms and up to 37 short tandem repeat loci. DNA sequencing and median-joining network analyses were used to evaluate Y-chromosome lineages displaying intermediate variant alleles. We show that DYS392.2 occurs on a single haplogroup background, specifically I1*-M253, and likely represents a new phylogenetic subdivision in this European haplogroup. Intermediate variants DYS449.2 and DYS385.2 both occur on multiple haplogroup backgrounds, and when evaluated within specific haplogroup contexts, delineate new phylogenetic substructure, with DYS449.2 being informative within haplogroup A-P97 and DYS385.2 in haplogroups D-M145, E1b1a-M2, and R1b*-M343. Sequence analysis of variant alleles observed within the various haplogroup backgrounds showed that the nature of the intermediate variant differed, confirming the mutations arose independently. Y-chromosome short tandem repeat intermediate variant alleles, while relatively rare, typically occur on multiple haplogroup backgrounds. This distribution indicates that such mutations arise at a rate generally intermediate to those of binary markers and STR loci. As a result, intermediate-sized Y-STR variants can reveal phylogenetic substructure within the Y-chromosome phylogeny not currently detected by either binary or Y-STR markers alone, but only when such variants are evaluated within a haplogroup context.

  3. Prevalence, antimicrobial resistance and multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis profiles of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli isolated from different retail foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lili; Nakamura, Hiromi; Kage-Nakadai, Eriko; Hara-Kudo, Yukiko; Nishikawa, Yoshikazu

    2017-05-16

    Diarrheagenic E. coli (DEC) isolates were recovered from local retail markets and the Osaka Municipal Central Wholesale Market in Japan. Retail food samples were collected for analysis in Osaka Japan from 2005 to 2008 and consisted of 32 beef, 28 pork, 20 poultry, 136 fish, 66 fruits and vegetables and 51 ready-to-eat (RTE) food samples. A total of 82 DEC strains were recovered from 64 (19%) food samples with the highest prevalence in poultry (100%, 20/20), followed by pork (54%, 15/28), beef (28%, 9/32), fruits and vegetables (12%, 8/66), fish (6.6%, 9/136) and RTE foods (5.9%, 3/51). Most of the strains belonged to E. coli possessing the enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) heat-stable enterotoxin 1 (EAST1) gene (EAST1EC; n=62, Pcoli (EPEC; n=16, Pcoli (STEC), 1 to EAEC and 2 to enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) strains. Of the 82 DEC isolates, 22 O and 13H serogroups were detected, including some specific serogroups (O91, O103, O115, O119, O126, and O157) which have been associated with human diarrheal infections. Phylogenetic group A and B1 were predominant among the DEC isolates. Antimicrobial resistance to tetracycline was most common (49%), followed by nalidixic acid (28%), ampicillin (24%), sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (20%), and cephalothin (18%). All isolates were susceptible to aztreonam. Of the resistant strains, 44% (22/50) demonstrated resistance to >3 antimicrobial agents. Isolates resistant to >5 antimicrobials were only found in the meat samples, while isolates from the fruits and vegetables as well as RTE foods showed resistance to only 1 or 2 antimicrobial agents. Sixty one percent of EAST1EC, 56% of EPEC and all of the EAEC and ETEC were resistant to at least 1 antimicrobial agent. Multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) was used in this study for genotyping of DEC. The 82 isolates collected for this study showed 77 distinct MLVA profiles located among 3 branches. The Simpson's Index of Diversity (D) was 99.9% at its highest. The

  4. Analysis of Heteroplasmic Variants in the Cardiac Mitochondrial Genome of Individuals with Down Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefti, Erik; Bard, Jonathan; Blanco, Javier G

    2017-01-01

    Individuals with Down syndrome (DS, trisomy 21) exhibit a pro-oxidative cellular environment as well as mitochondrial dysfunction. Increased oxidative stress may damage the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). The coexistence of mtDNA variants in a cell or tissue (i.e., heteroplasmy) may contribute to mitochondrial dysfunction. Given the evidence on mitochondrial dysfunction and the relatively high incidence of multiorganic disorders associated with DS, we hypothesized that cardiac tissue from subjects with DS may exhibit higher frequencies of mtDNA variants in comparison to cardiac tissue from donors without DS. This study documents the analysis of mtDNA variants in heart tissue samples from donors with (n = 12) and without DS (n = 33) using massively parallel sequencing. Contrary to the original hypothesis, the study's findings suggest that the cardiac mitochondrial genomes from individuals with and without DS exhibit many similarities in terms of (1) total number of mtDNA variants per sample, (2) the frequency of mtDNA variants, (3) the type of mtDNA variants, and (4) the patterns of distribution of mtDNA variants. In both groups of samples, the mtDNA control region showed significantly more heteroplasmic variants in comparison to the number of variants in protein- and RNA-coding genes (P < 1.00×10(-4) , ANOVA). © 2016 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  5. Novel and heteroplasmic mutations in mitochondrial tRNA genes in Brugada syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallah Tafti, Mahsasadat; Khatami, Mehri; Rezaei, Shiva; Heidari, Mohammad Mehdi; Hadadzadeh, Mehdi

    2017-10-05

    Brugada syndrome (BrS) is a rare cardiac arrhythmia characterized by sudden death associated with electrocardiogram patterns characterized by incomplete right bundle-branch block and ST-segment elevations in the anterior precordial leads. This syndrome predominantly is seen in younger males with structurally normal hearts. Mitochondrial variants particularly mt-tRNA mutations, are hot spots that lead to cardiological disorders. Previous studies have shown that mutations in mitochondrial tRNA genes play an important causal or modifying role in BrS. The present study aims to evaluate the involvement of mitochondrial tRNA genes in arrhythmogenic BrS. In this study, 40 Iranian patients were investigated for the presence of the mutations in 6 mitochondrial tRNA genes (tRNA Ile, Met, Gln, Asn, Ala and Trp) by PCR-SSCP analysis. There were 4 mutations in tRNA genes, that for first time, were found in Brugada patients and these mutations were not in controls. Three of them were heteroplasmic and located in tRNAGln (T4377A) and tRNAMet (G4407A and C4456T) which were assessed as pathogenic mutations. A homoplasmic variant (5580T > C) in tRNATrp gene was located within the junction region between tRNATrp and tRNAAla genes. This mutation may disturb the processing of mt-tRNATrp. The results of this study suggest that mutations in mitochondrial tRNA genes might lead to deficiencies in translational process of critical proteins of the respiratory chain and potentially lead to BrS in Iranian subjects.

  6. Validation of 'variable number of tandem repeat'-based approach for examination of 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' diversity and its applications for the analysis of the pathogen populations in the areas of recent introduction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis A Matos

    Full Text Available Citrus greening (Huanglongbing, HLB is one of the most destructive diseases of citrus worldwide. In South Asia HLB has been known for more than a century, while in Americas the disease was found relatively recently. HLB is associated with three species of 'Candidatus Liberibacter' among which 'Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus' (CLas has most wide distribution. Recently, a number of studies identified different regions in the CLas genome with variable number of tandem repeats (VNTRs that could be used for examination of CLas diversity. One of the objectives of the work presented here was to further validate the VNTR analysis-based approach by assessing the stability of these repeats upon multiplication of the pathogen in a host over an extended period of time and upon its passaging from a host to a host using CLas populations from Florida. Our results showed that the numbers of tandem repeats in the four loci tested display very distinguishable "signature profiles" for the two Florida-type CLas haplotype groups. Remarkably, the profiles do not change upon passage of the pathogen in citrus and psyllid hosts as well as after its presence within a host over a period of five years, suggesting that VNTR analysis-based approach represents a valid methodology for examination of the pathogen populations in various geographical regions. Interestingly, an extended analysis of CLas populations in different locations throughout Florida and in several countries in the Caribbean and Central America regions and in Mexico where the pathogen has been introduced recently demonstrated the dispersion of the same haplotypes of CLas. On the other hand, these CLas populations appeared to differ significantly from those obtained from locations where the disease has been present for a much longer time.

  7. Deletion of intragenic tandem repeats in unit C of FLO1 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae increases the conformational stability of flocculin under acidic and alkaline conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ee Li

    Full Text Available Flocculation is an attractive property for Saccaromyces cerevisiae, which plays important roles in fermentation industry and environmental remediation. The process of flocculation is mediated by a family of cell surface flocculins. As one member of flocculins, Flo1 is characterized by four families of repeats (designated as repeat units A, B, C and D in the central domain. It is generally accepted that variation of repeat unit A in length in Flo1 influences the degree of flocculation or specificity for sugar recognization. However, no reports were observed for other repeat units. Here, we compared the flocculation ability and its sensitivity to environmental factors between yeast strain YSF1 carrying the intact FLO1 gene and yeast strains carrying the derived forms of FLO1 with partial or complete deletion of repeats in unit C. No obvious differences in flocculation ability and specificity of carbohydrate recognition were observed among these yeast strains, which indicates the truncated flocculins can stride across the cell wall and cluster the N-terminal domain on the surface of yeast cells as the intact Flo1 thereby improving intercellular binding. However, yeast strains with the truncated flocculins required more mannose to inhibit completely the flocculation, displayed broad tolerance of flocculation to pH fluctuation, and the fewer the repeats in unit C, the stronger adaptability of flocculation to pH change, which was not relevant to the position of deletion. This suggests that more stable active conformation is obtained for flocculin by deletion the repeat unit C in the central domain of Flo1, which was validated further by the higher hydrophobicity on the surface of cells of YSF1c with complete deletion of unit C under neutral and alkaline conditions and the stabilization of GFP conformation by fusion with flocculin with complete deletion of unit C in the central domain.

  8. First Insight into Genetic Diversity of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex in Albania Obtained by Multilocus Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Analysis and Spoligotyping Reveals the Presence of Beijing Multidrug-Resistant Isolates ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafaj, Silva; Zhang, Jian; Hauck, Yolande; Pourcel, Christine; Hafizi, Hasan; Zoraqi, Grigor; Sola, Christophe

    2009-01-01

    We characterized a set of 100 Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex clinical isolates from tuberculosis (TB) patients in Albania, typing them with a 24-locus variable-number tandem-repeat-spoligotyping scheme. Depending on the cluster definition, 43 to 49 patients were distributed into 15 to 16 clusters which were likely to be epidemiologically linked, indicative of a recent transmission rate of 28 to 34%. This result suggests that TB is under control in Albania. However, two multidrug-resistant (MDR) Beijing genotypes harboring the same S531A mutation on the rpoB gene were also found, suggesting a potential recent transmission of MDR TB. Three brand new genotypes, Albania-1 to Albania-3, are also described. PMID:19279172

  9. First insight into genetic diversity of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in Albania obtained by multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis and spoligotyping reveals the presence of beijing multidrug-resistant isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafaj, Silva; Zhang, Jian; Hauck, Yolande; Pourcel, Christine; Hafizi, Hasan; Zoraqi, Grigor; Sola, Christophe

    2009-05-01

    We characterized a set of 100 Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex clinical isolates from tuberculosis (TB) patients in Albania, typing them with a 24-locus variable-number tandem-repeat-spoligotyping scheme. Depending on the cluster definition, 43 to 49 patients were distributed into 15 to 16 clusters which were likely to be epidemiologically linked, indicative of a recent transmission rate of 28 to 34%. This result suggests that TB is under control in Albania. However, two multidrug-resistant (MDR) Beijing genotypes harboring the same S531A mutation on the rpoB gene were also found, suggesting a potential recent transmission of MDR TB. Three brand new genotypes, Albania-1 to Albania-3, are also described.

  10. Application of Molecular Typing Results in Source Attribution Models: The Case of Multiple Locus Variable Number Tandem Repeat Analysis (MLVA) of Salmonella Isolates Obtained from Integrated Surveillance in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Knegt, Leonardo; Pires, Sara Monteiro; Löfström, Charlotta

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella is an important cause of bacterial foodborne infections in Denmark. To identify the main animal-food sources of human salmonellosis, risk managers have relied on a routine application of a microbial subtyping-based source attribution model since 1995. In 2013, multiple locus variable...... number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) substituted phage typing as the subtyping method for surveillance of S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium isolated from animals, food, and humans in Denmark. The purpose of this study was to develop a modeling approach applying a combination of serovars, MLVA types......, and antibiotic resistance profiles for the Salmonella source attribution, and assess the utility of the results for the food safety decisionmakers. Full and simplified MLVA schemes from surveillance data were tested, and model fit and consistency of results were assessed using statistical measures. We conclude...

  11. A correlation between host-mediated expression of parasite genes as tandem inverted repeats and abrogation of development of female Heterodera glycines cyst formation during infection of Glycine max.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klink, Vincent P; Kim, Kyung-Hwan; Martins, Veronica; Macdonald, Margaret H; Beard, Hunter S; Alkharouf, Nadim W; Lee, Seong-Kon; Park, Soo-Chul; Matthews, Benjamin F

    2009-06-01

    Host-mediated (hm) expression of parasite genes as tandem inverted repeats was investigated as a means to abrogate the formation of mature Heterodera glycines (soybean cyst nematode) female cysts during its infection of Glycine max (soybean). A Gateway-compatible hm plant transformation system was developed specifically for these experiments in G. max. Three steps then were taken to identify H. glycines candidate genes. First, a pool of 150 highly conserved H. glycines homologs of genes having lethal mutant phenotypes or phenocopies from the free living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans were identified. Second, annotation of those 150 genes on the Affymetrix soybean GeneChip allowed for the identification of a subset of 131 genes whose expression could be monitored during the parasitic phase of the H. glycines life cycle. Third, a microarray analyses identified a core set of 32 genes with induced expression (>2.0-fold, log base 2) during the parasitic stages of infection. H. glycines homologs of small ribosomal protein 3a and 4 (Hg-rps-3a [accession number CB379877] and Hg-rps-4 [accession number CB278739]), synaptobrevin (Hg-snb-1 [accession number BF014436]) and a spliceosomal SR protein (Hg-spk-1 [accession number BI451523.1]) were tested for functionality in hm expression studies. Effects on H. glycines development were observed 8 days after infection. Experiments demonstrated that 81-93% fewer females developed on transgenic roots containing the genes engineered as tandem inverted repeats. The effect resembles RNA interference. The methodology has been used here as an alternative approach to engineer resistance to H. glycines.

  12. Identification of repeat sequence heterogeneity at the polymorphic short tandem repeat locus HUMTH01[AATG][sub n] and reassignment of alleles in population analysis by using a locus-specific allelic ladder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puers, C. (Institute for Forensic Medicine, Muenster (Germany)); Schumm, J.W. (Promega Corp., Madison, WI (United States)); Hammond, H.A.; Caskey, C.T.; Jin, L.

    1993-10-01

    An allelic ladder containing amplified sequences of seven alleles of the polymorphic human tyrosine hydroxylase locus, HUMTH01, was constructed and employed as a standard marker. Sequence analysis of each ladder component indicates that fragments differ by integral multiples of the AATG core repeat sequence characteristic of this locus. Individual alles are designated [open quotes]5[close quotes] through [open quotes]11,[close quotes] according to the number of complete reiterations of the core repeat contained within them. Comparison of the HUMTH01 allelic ladder with DNA samples amplified at this locus revealed core repeat length heterogeneity (i.e., deletions or insertions shorter than one core repeat) within the human population. In particular, a common allele was identified which migrates more quickly than allele 10, but more slowly than allele 9, on electrophoresis through a denaturing polyacrylamide gel. Sequence analysis of this allele, designated [open quotes]10-1,[close quotes] reveals lack of a single adenine normally present in the seventh copy of the AATG. The allelic ladder was used to reevaluate previously published population data. Results of testing for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and population substructure were not altered significantly by these modifications. 29 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  13. Plastid trnF pseudogenes are present in Jaltomata, the sister genus of Solanum (Solanaceae): molecular evolution of tandemly repeated structural mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poczai, Péter; Hyvönen, Jaakko

    2013-11-01

    Extensive gene duplication arranged in a tandem array is rare in the plastome of embryophytes. Interestingly, we found pseudogene copies of the trnF gene in the genus Jaltomata, the sister genus of Solanum where such gene duplication has been previously reported. In each Jaltomata sequence available we found two pseudogene copies in close 5'-proximity to the original functional gene. The size of each pseudogene copy ranged between 17 and 48 bp and the anticodon domain was identified as the most conserved element. A common ATT(G)n motif is particularly interesting and its modifications were found to border the 3' of the duplicated regions. Other motifs were partial residues, or entire parts of the T- and D-domains, and both domains proved to be variable in length among the pseudogenes identified. The residues of the 3' and 5' acceptor stem were not found among the copies. We further compared the newly discovered copies of Jaltomata with those ones previously described from Solanum and inferred phylogenetic relationships of the copies aligned. The evolution of Solanum copies, in contrast to Jaltomata, is hard to explain as resulting only in parsimonious changes since reticulate evolutionary patterns were detected among the copies. The dynamic evolutionary patterns of Solanum might be explained by possible inter- or intrachromosomal recombination. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Sequence alignment with tandem duplication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, G. [Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States)

    1997-12-01

    Algorithm development for comparing and aligning biological sequences has, until recently, been based on the SI model of mutational events which assumes that modification of sequences proceeds through any of the operations of substitution, insertion or deletion (the latter two collectively termed indels). While this model has worked farily well, it has long been apparent that other mutational events occur. In this paper, we introduce a new model, the DSI model which includes another common mutational event, tandem duplication. Tandem duplication produces tandem repeats which are common in DNA, making up perhaps 10% of the human genome. They are responsible for some human diseases and may serve a multitude of functions in DNA regulation and evolution. Using the DSI model, we develop new exact and heuristic algorithms for comparing and aligning DNA sequences when they contain tandem repeats. 30 refs., 3 figs.

  15. Detection and quantitative characterization of artificial extra peaks following polymerase chain reaction amplification of 14 short tandem repeat systems used in forensic investigations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meldgaard, Michael; Morling, N

    1997-01-01

    is one repeat unit shorter than the true allele peak. The existence of such artificial peaks is of special importance when the methods are used for forensic investigations because the artificial extra peaks may simulate true alleles when samples containing mixtures of DNA from different individuals...... alleles. Similar results were obtained when the PCR products were analyzed under native conditions. Low-copy genome analysis excluded that somatic heterogeneity of the STR regions caused the extra peaks. The systems HumVWA31A, HumFibra/FGA, and D21S11 were especially affected by low-stringency conditions...

  16. Variable number of tandem repeat markers in the genome sequence of Mycosphaerella fijiensis, the causal agent of black leaf streak disease of banana (Musa spp).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, S A L; Van der Lee, T A J; Ferreira, C F; Te Lintel Hekkert, B; Zapater, M-F; Goodwin, S B; Guzmán, M; Kema, G H J; Souza, M T

    2010-11-09

    We searched the genome of Mycosphaerella fijiensis for molecular markers that would allow population genetics analysis of this plant pathogen. M. fijiensis, the causal agent of banana leaf streak disease, also known as black Sigatoka, is the most devastating pathogen attacking bananas (Musa spp). Recently, the entire genome sequence of M. fijiensis became available. We screened this database for VNTR markers. Forty-two primer pairs were selected for validation, based on repeat type and length and the number of repeat units. Five VNTR markers showing multiple alleles were validated with a reference set of isolates from different parts of the world and a population from a banana plantation in Costa Rica. Polymorphism information content values varied from 0.6414 to 0.7544 for the reference set and from 0.0400 and 0.7373 for the population set. Eighty percent of the polymorphism information content values were above 0.60, indicating that the markers are highly informative. These markers allowed robust scoring of agarose gels and proved to be useful for variability and population genetics studies. In conclusion, the strategy we developed to identify and validate VNTR markers is an efficient means to incorporate markers that can be used for fungicide resistance management and to develop breeding strategies to control banana black leaf streak disease. This is the first report of VNTR-minisatellites from the M. fijiensis genome sequence.

  17. A novel heteroplasmic tRNA(Leu(CUN)) mtDNA point mutation associated with chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardaioli, Elena; Da Pozzo, Paola; Radi, Elena; Dotti, Maria Teresa; Federico, Antonio

    2005-02-18

    We have sequenced all mitochondrial tRNA genes from a patient with chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia (CPEO) and mitochondrial myopathy, who had no detectable large mtDNA deletions. Direct sequencing failed to detect previously reported mutations and showed a heteroplasmic mutation at nucleotide 12,276 in the tRNA(Leu(CUN)) gene, in the dihydrouridine stem, which is highly conserved through the species during evolution. RFLP analyses confirmed that 18% of muscle mtDNA harbored the mutation, while it was absent from DNA of fibroblasts and lymphocytes of the proband and in 110 patients with other encephalomyopathies. To date, besides large and single nucleotide deletions, several point mutations on mitochondrial tRNA genes have been reported in CPEO patients, but only three were in the gene coding for tRNA(Leu(CUN)).

  18. Longitudinal study of a heteroplasmic 3460 Leber hereditary optic neuropathy family by multiplexed primer-extension analysis and nucleotide sequencing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, S.S.; Fahy, E. [Applied Genetics, San Diego, CA (United States); Bodis-Wollner, I. [State Univ. of New York College of Optometry, New York, NY (United States)] [and others

    1996-02-01

    Nucleotide-sequencing and multiplexed primer-extension assays have been used to quantitate the mutant-allele frequency in 14 maternal relatives, spanning three generations, from a family that is heteroplasmic for the primary Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) mutation at nucleotide 3460 of the mitochondrial genome. There was excellent agreement between the values that were obtained with the two different methods. The longitudinal study shows that the mutant-allele frequency was constant within individual family members over a sampling period of 3.5 years. Second, although there was an overall increase in the mutant-allele frequency in successive generations, segregation in the direction of the mutant allele was not invariant, and there was one instance in which there was a significant decrease in the frequency from parent to offspring. From these two sets of results, and from previous studies of heteroplasmic LHON families, we conclude that there is no evidence for a marked selective pressure that determines the replication, segregation, or transmission of primary LHON mutations to white blood cells and platelets. Instead, the mtDNA molecules are most likely to replicate and segregate under conditions of random drift at the cellular level. Finally, the pattern of transmission in this maternal lineage is compatible with a developmental bottleneck model in which the number of mitochondrial units of segregation in the female germ line is relatively small in relation to the number of mtDNA molecules within a cell. However, this is not an invariant pattern for humans, and simple models of mitochondrial gene transmission are inappropriate at the present time. 37 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Real-time PCR detection of the HhaI tandem DNA repeat in pre- and post-patent Brugia malayi infections: a study in Indonesian transmigrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Lymphatic filariasis caused by Wuchereria bancrofti or Brugia spp. is a public health problem in developing countries. To monitor bancroftian filariasis infections, Circulating Filarial Antigen (CFA) test is commonly used, but for brugian infections only microfilariae (Mf) microscopy and indirect IgG4 antibody analyses are available. Improved diagnostics for detecting latent infections are required. Methods An optimized real-time PCR targeting the brugian HhaI repeat was validated with plasma from microfilariae negative Mongolian gerbils (jirds) infected with B. malayi. Plasma samples from microfilaremic patients infected with B. malayi or W. bancrofti were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. PCR results of plasma samples from a transmigrant population in a B. malayi endemic area were compared to those of life-long residents in the same endemic area; and to IgG4 serology results from the same population. To discriminate between active infections and larval exposure a threshold was determined by correlation and Receiver-Operating Characteristics (ROC) curve analyses. Results The PCR detected HhaI in pre-patent (56 dpi) B. malayi infected jirds and B. malayi Mf-positive patients from Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. HhaI was also detected in 9/9 elephantiasis patients. In South Sulawesi 87.4% of the transmigrants and life-long residents (94% Mf-negative) were HhaI PCR positive. Based on ROC-curve analysis a threshold for active infections was set to >53 HhaI copies/μl (AUC: 0.854). Conclusions The results demonstrate that the HhaI PCR detects brugian infections with greater sensitivity than the IgG4 test, most notably in Mf-negative patients (i.e. pre-patent or latent infections). PMID:24685183

  20. Mitochondrial DNA Sequence Variation in the Eastern House Mouse, Mus Musculus: Comparison with Other House Mice and Report of a 75-Bp Tandem Repeat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prager, E. M.; Tichy, H.; Sage, R. D.

    1996-01-01

    The control region and flanking tRNAs were sequenced from 139 Mus musculus mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNAs) from mice collected at 44 localities extending from Germany to Japan. Among the 36 types of M. musculus mtDNA resolved, five have an added 75-bp direct repeat; the two copies within an individual differ by two to four base substitutions. Among 90 M. domesticus mtDNAs sequenced, 12 new types were found; 96 M. domesticus types have now been identified by sequencing this segment. Representative mtDNAs from M. castaneus, M. macedonicus, M. spicilegus and M. spretus were also sequenced. A parsimony tree for the M. musculus mtDNAs is about half as deep as the tree for the M. domesticus mtDNAs, which is consistent with the idea that M. musculus is genetically less diverse and younger than M. domesticus. The patterns of variation as a function of position are similar but not identical in M. musculus and M. domesticus mtDNAs. M. castaneus and M. musculus mtDNAs are allied, at a tree depth about three times as great as the start of intra-M. musculus divergence. The coalescence of the M. musculus and M. castaneus mtDNAs is about half as deep as their coalescence with the M. domesticus mtDNA lineages. The mtDNAs of the aboriginal M. macedonicus and M. spicilegus are each other's closest relatives, at a tree depth greater than the deepest intracommensal node. The mtDNA results support the view that the aboriginal M. spretus is the sister group of the other five species. PMID:8722794

  1. Emergence of a multidrug-resistant (ASSuTTm) strain of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium DT120 in England in 2011 and the use of multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis in supporting outbreak investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranthaman, Karthikeyan; Haroon, Sophie; Latif, Samia; Vinnyey, Natalie; de Souza, Valerie; Welfare, William; Tahir, Mamoona; Cooke, Edward; Stone, Kirsten; Lane, Chris; Peters, Tansy; Puleston, Richard

    2013-10-01

    In summer 2011, two outbreaks of a unique, multidrug-resistant strain of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium phage type 120 (DT120) occurred mainly in the Midlands, England. The first outbreak occurred among guests attending a wedding in July 2011 ('Wedding outbreak'), followed by a more geographically dispersed outbreak in August and September 2011 ('Midlands outbreak'). Fifty-one cases were confirmed. Detailed epidemiological and environmental health investigations suggested that pork was the most likely source of both outbreaks. All human samples and one pork sample showed the specific multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) profile 3-11-12-NA-0211, with at most two loci variations. Trace-back investigations suggested a link to a butcher's shop and a pig farm in the East Midlands. The investigations highlight the utility of molecular analysis (MLVA) in supporting epidemiological investigations of outbreaks caused by S. Typhimurium DT120. Safe handling and cooking of pork by food business operators and consumers are key interventions to prevent future outbreaks.

  2. Analysis of a polycytosine tract and heteroplasmic length variation in the mitochondrial DNA D-loop of patients with diabetes, MELAS syndrome and race-matched controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill-Randall, R; Sherratt, E J; Thomas, A W; Gagg, J W; Lee, A; Alcolado, J C

    2001-05-01

    The T to C substitution at position 16189 nt of the human mitochondrial genome has been associated with the development of heteroplasmic length variation in the control region of mtDNA. Previous reports have suggested that this defect may be associated with the development of other pathogenic mtDNA mutations, including the diabetogenic A to G mutation in the tRNALEU(UUR). Recently the 16189 nt variant has also been associated with insulin resistance in British adult men. In order to investigate these associations further we studied 23 patients with the 3243 nt mutation, 150 patients with Type 2 diabetes and 149 non-diabetic controls. The region around 16189 nt was investigated by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and automated sequencing. We find that the T to C substitution at 16189 nt is associated with heteroplasmic length variation only when the resultant polycytosine tract is not interrupted by a second mutation. There are no significant differences in the prevalence of the 16189 nt variant or heteroplasmic length variation between patients with the 3243 nt mutation, patients with Type 2 diabetes or race-matched normal controls. We conclude that these variants are likely to represent normal polymorphisms and that previously reported associations should be treated with caution unless they can be replicated in other populations.

  3. Multilocus Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Analysis, Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis, and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns in Discrimination of Sporadic and Outbreak-Related Strains of Yersinia enterocolitica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skurnik Mikael

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We assessed the potential of multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing for discriminating 104 sporadic and outbreak-related Yersinia enterocolitica (YE bio/serotype 3-4/O:3 and 2/O:9 isolates. MLVA using six VNTR markers was performed in two separate multiplex PCRs, and the fluorescently labeled PCR products were accurately sized on an automated DNA sequencer. Results MLVA discriminated 82 sporadic YE 3-4/O:3 and 2/O:9 strains into 77 types, whereas PFGE with the restriction enzyme NotI discriminated the strains into 23 different PFGE pulsotypes. The discriminatory index for a sporadic strain was 0.862 for PFGE and 0.999 for MLVA. MLVA confirmed that a foodborne outbreak in the city of Kotka, Finland in 2003 had been caused by a multiresistant YE 4/O:3 strain that was distinctly different from those of epidemiologically unrelated strains with an identical PFGE pulsotype. The multiresistance of Y. enterocolitica strains (19% of the sporadic strains correlated significantly (p = 0.002 with travel abroad. All of the multiresistant Y. enterocolitica strains belonged to four PFGE pulsotypes that did not contain any susceptible strains. Resistance to nalidixic acid was related to changes in codons 83 or 87 that stemmed from mutations in the gyrA gene. The conjugation experiments demonstrated that resistance to CHL, STR, and SUL was carried by a conjugative plasmid. Conclusions MLVA using six loci had better discriminatory power than PFGE with the NotI enzyme. MLVA was also a less labor-intensive method than PFGE and the results were easier to analyze. The conjugation experiments demonstrated that a resistance plasmid can easily be transferred between Y. enterocolitica strains. Antimicrobial multiresistance of Y. enterocolitica strains was significantly associated with travel abroad.

  4. Origin of the Outbreak in France of Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae Biovar 3, the Causal Agent of Bacterial Canker of Kiwifruit, Revealed by a Multilocus Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunty, A; Cesbron, S; Poliakoff, F; Jacques, M-A; Manceau, C

    2015-10-01

    The first outbreaks of bacterial canker of kiwifruit caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae biovar 3 were detected in France in 2010. P. syringae pv. actinidiae causes leaf spots, dieback, and canker that sometimes lead to the death of the vine. P. syringae pv. actinidifoliorum, which is pathogenic on kiwi as well, causes only leaf spots. In order to conduct an epidemiological study to track the spread of the epidemics of these two pathogens in France, we developed a multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) analysis (MLVA). MLVA was conducted on 340 strains of P. syringae pv. actinidiae biovar 3 isolated in Chile, China, France, Italy, and New Zealand and on 39 strains of P. syringae pv. actinidifoliorum isolated in Australia, France, and New Zealand. Eleven polymorphic VNTR loci were identified in the genomes of P. syringae pv. actinidiae biovar 3 ICMP 18744 and of P. syringae pv. actinidifoliorum ICMP 18807. MLVA enabled the structuring of P. syringae pv. actinidiae biovar 3 and P. syringae pv. actinidifoliorum strains in 55 and 16 haplotypes, respectively. MLVA and discriminant analysis of principal components revealed that strains isolated in Chile, China, and New Zealand are genetically distinct from P. syringae pv. actinidiae strains isolated in France and in Italy, which appear to be closely related at the genetic level. In contrast, no structuring was observed for P. syringae pv. actinidifoliorum. We developed an MLVA scheme to explore the diversity within P. syringae pv. actinidiae biovar 3 and to trace the dispersal routes of epidemic P. syringae pv. actinidiae biovar 3 in Europe. We suggest using this MLVA scheme to trace the dispersal routes of P. syringae pv. actinidiae at a global level. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  5. Housekeeping Gene Sequencing and Multilocus Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Analysis To Identify Subpopulations within Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato That Correlate with Host Specificity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gironde, S.

    2012-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola causes bacterial spot on Brassicaceae worldwide, and for the last 10 years severe outbreaks have been reported in the Loire Valley, France. P. syringae pv. maculicola resembles P. syringae pv. tomato in that it is also pathogenic for tomato and causes the same types of symptoms. We used a collection of 106 strains of P. syringae to characterize the relationships between P. syringae pv. maculicola and related pathovars, paying special attention to P. syringae pv. tomato. Phylogenetic analysis of gyrB and rpoD gene sequences showed that P. syringae pv. maculicola, which causes diseases in Brassicaceae, forms six genetic lineages within genomospecies 3 of P. syringae strains as defined by L. Gardan et al. (Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 49[Pt 2]:469–478, 1999), whereas P. syringae pv. tomato forms two distinct genetic lineages. A multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) analysis (MLVA) conducted with eight minisatellite loci confirmed the genetic structure obtained with rpoD and gyrB sequence analyses. These results provide promising tools for fine-scale epidemiological studies on diseases caused by P. syringae pv. maculicola and P. syringae pv. tomato. The two pathovars had distinct host ranges; only P. syringae pv. maculicola strains were pathogenic for Brassicaceae. A subpopulation of P. syringae pv. maculicola strains that are pathogenic for Pto-expressing tomato plants were shown to lack avrPto1 and avrPtoB or to contain a disrupted avrPtoB homolog. Taking phylogenetic and pathological features into account, our data suggest that the DC3000 strain belongs to P. syringae pv. maculicola. This study shows that P. syringae pv. maculicola and P. syringae pv. tomato appear multiclonal, as they did not diverge from a single common ancestral group within the ancestral P. syringae genomospecies 3, and suggests that pathovar specificity within P. syringae may be due to independent genetic events. PMID:22389364

  6. Sub-typing of extended-spectrum-β-lactamase-producing isolates from a nosocomial outbreak: application of a 10-loci generic Escherichia coli multi-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Karami

    Full Text Available Extended-spectrum β-lactamase producing Escherichia coli (ESBL-E. coli were isolated from infants hospitalized in a neonatal, post-surgery ward during a four-month-long nosocomial outbreak and six-month follow-up period. A multi-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA, using 10 loci (GECM-10, for 'generic' (i.e., non-STEC E. coli was applied for sub-species-level (i.e., sub-typing delineation and characterization of the bacterial isolates. Ten distinct GECM-10 types were detected among 50 isolates, correlating with the types defined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE, which is recognized to be the 'gold-standard' method for clinical epidemiological analyses. Multi-locus sequence typing (MLST, multiplex PCR genotyping of bla CTX-M, bla TEM, bla OXA and bla SHV genes and antibiotic resistance profiling, as well as a PCR assay specific for detecting isolates of the pandemic O25b-ST131 strain, further characterized the outbreak isolates. Two clusters of isolates with distinct GECM-10 types (G06-04 and G07-02, corresponding to two major PFGE types and the MLST-based sequence types (STs 131 and 1444, respectively, were confirmed to be responsible for the outbreak. The application of GECM-10 sub-typing provided reliable, rapid and cost-effective epidemiological characterizations of the ESBL-producing isolates from a nosocomial outbreak that correlated with and may be used to replace the laborious PFGE protocol for analyzing generic E. coli.

  7. Application of multiple locus variable number of tandem repeat analysis (MLVA), phage typing and antimicrobial susceptibility testing to subtype Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium isolated from pig farms, pork slaughterhouses and meat producing plants in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prendergast, D M; O'Grady, D; Fanning, S; Cormican, M; Delappe, N; Egan, J; Mannion, C; Fanning, J; Gutierrez, M

    2011-08-01

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium is a common zoonotic pathogen encountered in Irish pigs and the pork industry and its characterisation using highly discriminatory typing methods is necessary for epidemiological studies, outbreak investigation and control. Multiple locus variable number of tandem repeat analysis (MLVA), phage typing and antimicrobial susceptibility testing were applied to characterise 301 S. typhimurium isolates of porcine origin isolated from farms, slaughterhouses and pork meat producing plants in Ireland over a four-year period. 154 MLVA patterns were obtained compared to 19 phage types and 38 AMR patterns, and MLVA was particularly useful for discriminating isolates of the same phage type, e.g. DT104 and DT104b, or isolates that were Untypable or in the category of "react with phage but does not conform to a recognised phage type" (RDNC) by the phage typing method. Cluster analysis of MLVA profiles using a minimum spanning tree (MST) demonstrated two major clusters (I and II), which showed to have a clear association with phage types, cluster I associated to phage types DT104, U302 and DT120 and cluster II associated to DT193 and U288. The results of this present study showed that MLVA is highly discriminatory and permitted the identification of identical profiles among isolates obtained at different points of the pork food chain. The same MLVA profile was observed in some cases among isolates with different phage types. While this can be explained by the fact that some phage types are closely related, it also indicates that combining phage typing and MLVA enhances strain typing of S. typhimurium. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of the Epidemiological Relevance of Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Genotyping of Mycobacterium bovis and Comparison of the Method with IS6110 Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis and Spoligotyping†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allix, Caroline; Walravens, Karl; Saegerman, Claude; Godfroid, Jacques; Supply, Philip; Fauville-Dufaux, Maryse

    2006-01-01

    Sources of Mycobacterium bovis contamination remain unclear for many cases of animal and human disease. A major limitation is the lack of sufficiently informative or epidemiologically well evaluated molecular methods for typing. Here, we report an evaluation of a high-throughput method based on 29 mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable-number tandem-repeat (MIRU-VNTR) loci to genotype 127 M. bovis isolates from cattle from 77 different Belgian farms, representative of a nationwide collection obtained from 1995 to 2003. MIRU-VNTR stability was demonstrated by analyzing a series of 74 isolates in total, obtained from different animals from a single farm or from different farms with an identified epidemiological link. The genotyping results and the genotypic diversity (h) were compared with those obtained by IS6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis and spoligotyping. Among 68 isolates with no known epidemiological link, MIRU-VNTR typing discriminated better than either RFLP analysis or spoligotyping, with isolates taken individually (32 versus 16 and 17 genotypes; h = 0.91 versus 0.73 and 0.85, respectively) or in combination (32 versus 28 genotypes; h = 0.91 versus 0.92). Maximal resolution was already achieved with a subset of 9 loci. The observed congruence of the genetic relationships based on IS6110 RFLP analysis, spoligotyping, and MIRU-VNTR markers is consistent with a clonal population structure of M. bovis. These results support MIRU-VNTR typing as a convenient and discriminatory technique for analysis of the population structure of M. bovis in much greater detail and for addressing some still unresolved issues in the epidemiology of the pathogen. PMID:16757584

  9. Segregation of the ND4/11778 and the ND1/3460 mutations in four heteroplasmic LHON families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puomila, Anu; Viitanen, Tommi; Savontaus, Marja Liisa; Nikoskelainen, Eeva; Huoponen, Kirsi

    2002-12-15

    Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is an ocular disease associated with mutations in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). The level of heteroplasmy in the mtDNA mutations ND4/11778 and ND1/3460 was followed over a period of 4-12 years in blood samples taken from nine members of four heteroplasmic LHON families. In addition, hair follicle and urinary tract epithelium samples of one individual were studied. The quantification of heteroplasmy was performed using the solid-phase minisequencing method. Only minor and random shifts in the heteroplasmy levels were observed over time, but there were no systematic changes towards an increasing or decreasing proportion of either LHON mutant in the individuals. This indicates that there is no selection for either mtDNA genotype but the segregation of the wild-type mtDNAs and those carrying LHON mutations is a stochastic process governed by random genetic drift. In this respect, LHON mutations seem to behave like neutral polymorphisms.

  10. Sugar binding properties of the two lectin domains of the tandem repeat-type galectin LEC-1 (N32) of Caenorhabditis elegans. Detailed analysis by an improved frontal affinity chromatography method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arata, Y; Hirabayashi, J; Kasai, K

    2001-02-02

    The 32-kDa galectin (LEC-1 or N32) of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is the first example of a tandem repeat-type galectin and is composed of two domains, each of which is homologous to typical vertebrate 14-kDa-type galectins. To elucidate the biological meaning of this unique structure containing two probable sugar binding sites in one molecule, we analyzed in detail the sugar binding properties of the two domains by using a newly improved frontal affinity chromatography system. The whole molecule (LEC-1), the N-terminal lectin domain (Nh), and the C-terminal lectin domain (Ch) were expressed in Escherichia coli, purified, and immobilized on HiTrap gel agarose columns, and the extent of retardation of various sugars by the columns was measured. To raise the sensitivity of the system, we used 35 different fluorescence-labeled oligosaccharides (pyridylaminated (PA) sugars). All immobilized proteins showed affinity for N-acetyllactosamine-containing N-linked complex-type sugar chains, and the binding was stronger for more branched sugars. Ch showed 2-5-fold stronger binding toward all complex-type sugars compared with Nh. Both Nh and Ch preferred Galbeta1-3GlcNAc to Galbeta1-4GlcNAc. Because the Fucalpha1-2Galbeta1-3GlcNAc (H antigen) structure was found to interact with all immobilized protein columns significantly, the K(d) value of pentasaccharide Fucalpha1-2Galbeta1-3GlcNAcbeta1-3Galbeta1-4Glc-PA for each column was determined by analyzing the concentration dependence. Obtained values for immobilized LEC-1, Nh, and Ch were 6.0 x 10(-5), 1.3 x 10(-4), and 6.5 x 10(-5) m, respectively. The most significant difference between Nh and Ch was in their affinity for GalNAcalpha1-3(Fucalpha1-2)Galbeta1-3GlcNAcbeta1-3Galbeta1-4Glc-PA, which contains the blood group A antigen; the K(d) value for immobilized Nh was 4.8 x 10(-5) m, and that for Ch was 8.1 x 10(-4) m. The present results clearly indicate that the two sugar binding sites of LEC-1 have different sugar

  11. [Multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis of Bordetella pertussis strains collected in the Czech Republic in 1967-2015: spread of a variant adapted to the population with a high vaccination coverage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lžičařová, D; Zavadilová, J; Musílek, M; Jandová, Z; Křížová, P; Fabiánová, K

    To perform multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) of B. pertussis strains from the collection of the National Reference Laboratory for Diphtheria and Pertussis (NRL/DIPE), National Institute of Public Health (NIPH), Prague. The study strains were isolated from clinical specimens collected mostly in the Czech Republic over a nearly 50-year period from 1967 to 2015 (June). The isolates from three periods characterized by different vaccination strategies and trends in pertussis are compared for genetic diversity and distribution of MLVA types (MT). Based on the results obtained, the suitability for use of MLVA in the analysis of epidemic outbreaks of B. pertussis in the Czech Republic is considered. DNA samples extracted from B. pertussis strains included in the present study were examined by MLVA using the standard protocol. Data were processed by means of the eBURST algorithm and the calculation of the Simpson diversity index (DI) was used for the statistical analysis. Data were analyzed as a whole and also separately for strains from the three periods: 1967-1980, 1990-2007, and 2008-2015 (June). Fourteen different MT were detected in the study strains, with three of them not being reported before. The most common MTs were MT27 and MT29. MT29 was predominant in 1967-1980 while MT27 was the most prevalent in 1990-2007 and 2008-2015 (June). The DI was the lowest (0.49) in 2008-2015 (June), and comparably higher DIs were calculated for the two previous periods (i.e. 0.667 for 1967-1980 and 0.654 for 1990-2007). MLVA revealed a decrease in genetic diversity and shifts in MT distribution of B. pertussis strains isolated from clinical specimens in the Czech Republic from 1967 to 2015 (June). These shifts in the Czech Republic can be characterized as a progressive increase in global MTs at the expense of the locally unique ones. The most common MT, similarly to other geographical areas with long-term high vaccination coverage, is MT27. The results of

  12. Topological characteristics of helical repeat proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groves, M R; Barford, D

    The recent elucidation of protein structures based upon repeating amino acid motifs, including the armadillo motif, the HEAT motif and tetratricopeptide repeats, reveals that they belong to the class of helical repeat proteins. These proteins share the common property of being assembled from tandem

  13. Expansion of protein domain repeats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asa K Björklund

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Many proteins, especially in eukaryotes, contain tandem repeats of several domains from the same family. These repeats have a variety of binding properties and are involved in protein-protein interactions as well as binding to other ligands such as DNA and RNA. The rapid expansion of protein domain repeats is assumed to have evolved through internal tandem duplications. However, the exact mechanisms behind these tandem duplications are not well-understood. Here, we have studied the evolution, function, protein structure, gene structure, and phylogenetic distribution of domain repeats. For this purpose we have assigned Pfam-A domain families to 24 proteomes with more sensitive domain assignments in the repeat regions. These assignments confirmed previous findings that eukaryotes, and in particular vertebrates, contain a much higher fraction of proteins with repeats compared with prokaryotes. The internal sequence similarity in each protein revealed that the domain repeats are often expanded through duplications of several domains at a time, while the duplication of one domain is less common. Many of the repeats appear to have been duplicated in the middle of the repeat region. This is in strong contrast to the evolution of other proteins that mainly works through additions of single domains at either terminus. Further, we found that some domain families show distinct duplication patterns, e.g., nebulin domains have mainly been expanded with a unit of seven domains at a time, while duplications of other domain families involve varying numbers of domains. Finally, no common mechanism for the expansion of all repeats could be detected. We found that the duplication patterns show no dependence on the size of the domains. Further, repeat expansion in some families can possibly be explained by shuffling of exons. However, exon shuffling could not have created all repeats.

  14. The combinatorics of tandem duplication trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascuel, Olivier; Hendy, Michael D; Jean-Marie, Alain; McLachlan, Robert

    2003-02-01

    We developed a recurrence relation that counts the number of tandem duplication trees (either rooted or unrooted) that are consistent with a set of n tandemly repeated sequences generated under the standard unequal recombination (or crossover) model of tandem duplications. The number of rooted duplication trees is exactly twice the number of unrooted trees, which means that on average only two positions for a root on a duplication tree are possible. Using the recurrence, we tabulated these numbers for small values of n. We also developed an asymptotic formula that for large n provides estimates for these numbers. These numbers give a priori probabilities for phylogenies of the repeated sequences to be duplication trees. This work extends earlier studies where exhaustive counts of the numbers for small n were obtained. One application showed the significance of finding that most maximum-parsimony trees constructed from repeat sequences from human immunoglobins and T-cell receptors were tandem duplication trees. Those findings provided strong support to the proposed mechanisms of tandem gene duplication. The recurrence relation also suggests efficient algorithms to recognize duplication trees and to generate random duplication trees for simulation. We present a linear-time recognition algorithm.

  15. Mitochondrial targeting of recombinant RNAs modulates the level of a heteroplasmic mutation in human mitochondrial DNA associated with Kearns Sayre Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comte, Caroline; Tonin, Yann; Heckel-Mager, Anne-Marie; Boucheham, Abdeldjalil; Smirnov, Alexandre; Auré, Karine; Lombès, Anne; Martin, Robert P; Entelis, Nina; Tarassov, Ivan

    2013-01-07

    Mitochondrial mutations, an important cause of incurable human neuromuscular diseases, are mostly heteroplasmic: mutated mitochondrial DNA is present in cells simultaneously with wild-type genomes, the pathogenic threshold being generally >70% of mutant mtDNA. We studied whether heteroplasmy level could be decreased by specifically designed oligoribonucleotides, targeted into mitochondria by the pathway delivering RNA molecules in vivo. Using mitochondrially imported RNAs as vectors, we demonstrated that oligoribonucleotides complementary to mutant mtDNA region can specifically reduce the proportion of mtDNA bearing a large deletion associated with the Kearns Sayre Syndrome in cultured transmitochondrial cybrid cells. These findings may be relevant to developing of a new tool for therapy of mtDNA associated diseases.

  16. Congenital encephalomyopathy and adult-onset myopathy and diabetes mellitus: Different phenotypic associations of a new heteroplasmic mtDNA tRNA glutamic acid mutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanna, M.G.; Nelson, I.; Sweeney, M.G.; Cooper, J.M.; Watkins, P.J.; Morgan-Hughes, J.A.; Harding, A.E. [Kings College Hospital, London (United Kingdom)

    1995-05-01

    We report the clinical, biochemical, and molecular genetic findings in a family with an unusual mitochondrial disease phenotype harboring a novel mtDNA tRNA glutamic acid mutation at position 14709. The proband and his sister presented with congenital myopathy and mental retardation and subsequently developed cerebellar ataxia. Other family members had either adult-onset diabetes mellitus with muscle weakness or adult-onset diabetes mellitus alone. Ragged-red and cytochrome c oxidase (COX)-negative fibers were present in muscle biopsies. Biochemical studies of muscle mitochondria showed reduced complex I and IV activities. The mtDNA mutation was heteroplasmic in blood and muscle in all matrilineal relatives analyzed. Primary myoblast, but not fibroblast, cultures containing high proportions of mutant mtDNA exhibited impaired mitochondrial translation. These observations indicate that mtDNA tRNA point mutations should be considered in the differential diagnosis of congenital myopathy. In addition they illustrate the diversity of phenotypes associated with this mutation in the same family and further highlight the association between mtDNA mutations and diabetes mellitus. 43 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Lack of Structural Variation but Extensive Length Polymorphisms and Heteroplasmic Length Variations in the Mitochondrial DNA Control Region of Highly Inbred Crested Ibis, Nipponia nippon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-Lian He

    Full Text Available The animal mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA length polymorphism and heteroplasmy are accepted to be universal. Here we report the lack of structural variation but the presence of length polymorphism as well as heteroplasmy in mtDNA control region of an endangered avian species - the Crested Ibis (Nipponia nippon. The complete control region was directly sequenced while the distribution pattern and inheritance of the length variations were examined using both direct sequencing and genotyping of the PCR fragments from captive birds with pedigrees, wild birds and a historical specimen. Our results demonstrated that there was no structural variation in the control region, however, different numbers of short tandem repeats with an identical motif of CA3CA2CA3 at the 3'-end of the control region determined the length polymorphisms among and heteroplasmy within individual birds. There were one to three predominant fragments in every bird; nevertheless multiple minor fragments coexist in all birds. These extremely high polymorphisms were suggested to have derived from the 'replication slippage' of a perfect microsatellite evolution following the step-wise mutational model. The patterns of heteroplasmy were found to be shifted between generations and among siblings but rather stable between blood and feather samples. This study provides the first evidence of a very extensive mtDNA length polymorphism and heteroplasmy in the highly inbred Crested Ibis which carries an mtDNA genome lack of structural genetic diversity. The analysis of pedigreed samples also sheds light on the transmission of mtDNA length heteroplasmy in birds following the genetic bottleneck theory. Further research focusing on the generation and transmission of particular mtDNA heteroplasmy patterns in single germ line of Crested Ibis is encouraged by this study.

  18. Regional mapping of short tandem repeats on human chromosome 10: Cytochrome P450 gene CYP2E, D10S196, D10S220, and D10S225

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koelble, K. (Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom))

    1993-12-01

    Human CYP2E encodes an ethanol-inducible cytochrome P450 monooxygenase that metabolizes various carcinogens and may therefore play a role in cancer susceptibility. An intronic (GGAT)[sub n] [center dot] (CCTA)[sub n] repeat element was found to display limited polymorphism in Caucasoids and was used as a sequence-tagged site for genomic amplification from somatic cell hybrids to localize CYP2E to 10q24.3-qter; using the same panel, three microsatellite markers, D10S196, D10S220, and D10S225, were mapped to 10q21. The close synteny of CYP2E, CYP2C, and CYP17 belonging to two different cytochrome P450 families suggests a central role for the long arm of chromosome 10 in the evolution of this large gene superfamily. 18 refs., 2 figs.

  19. Native tandem and ion mobility mass spectrometry highlight structural and modular similarities in clustered-regularly-interspaced shot-palindromic-repeats (CRISPR)-associated protein complexes from Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Duijn, Esther; Barbu, Ioana M; Barendregt, Arjan; Jore, Matthijs M; Wiedenheft, Blake; Lundgren, Magnus; Westra, Edze R; Brouns, Stan J J; Doudna, Jennifer A; van der Oost, John; Heck, Albert J R

    2012-11-01

    The CRISPR/Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated genes) immune system of bacteria and archaea provides acquired resistance against viruses and plasmids, by a strategy analogous to RNA-interference. Key components of the defense system are ribonucleoprotein complexes, the composition of which appears highly variable in different CRISPR/Cas subtypes. Previous studies combined mass spectrometry, electron microscopy, and small angle x-ray scattering to demonstrate that the E. coli Cascade complex (405 kDa) and the P. aeruginosa Csy-complex (350 kDa) are similar in that they share a central spiral-shaped hexameric structure, flanked by associating proteins and one CRISPR RNA. Recently, a cryo-electron microscopy structure of Cascade revealed that the CRISPR RNA molecule resides in a groove of the hexameric backbone. For both complexes we here describe the use of native mass spectrometry in combination with ion mobility mass spectrometry to assign a stable core surrounded by more loosely associated modules. Via computational modeling subcomplex structures were proposed that relate to the experimental IMMS data. Despite the absence of obvious sequence homology between several subunits, detailed analysis of sub-complexes strongly suggests analogy between subunits of the two complexes. Probing the specific association of E. coli Cascade/crRNA to its complementary DNA target reveals a conformational change. All together these findings provide relevant new information about the potential assembly process of the two CRISPR-associated complexes.

  20. The capacity of digital links in tandem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posner, E. C.; Rubin, A. L.

    1984-01-01

    The present investigation is concerned with the error control strategy used in connection with digital data networks, taking into account the capacity of the end-to-end channel. It is assumed that the only source of noise is Gaussian and that bandwidth limitation on capacity can be ignored. Attention is given to L links in tandem with binary repeaters, the asymptotic capacity with a large number of links, some alternative repeater strategies, and approaches for lowering the bit error probability. Numerical results are presented, taking into consideration capacity versus link error probability for various numbers of links.

  1. Tandem mobile robot system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttz, James H.; Shirey, David L.; Hayward, David R.

    2003-01-01

    A robotic vehicle system for terrain navigation mobility provides a way to climb stairs, cross crevices, and navigate across difficult terrain by coupling two or more mobile robots with a coupling device and controlling the robots cooperatively in tandem.

  2. Short tandem repeat (STR) haplotypes in HLA: an integrated 50-kb STR/linkage disequilibrium/gene map between the RING3 and HLA-B genes and identification of STR haplotype diversification in the class III region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorechovsky, I; Kralovicova, J; Laycock, M D; Webster, A D; Marsh, S G; Madrigal, A; Hammarström, L

    2001-08-01

    We present a dense STR/linkage disequilibrium(LD)/gene map between the RING3 and HLA-B loci, reference allelic sizes on the most prevalent HLA haplotypes and their allelic frequencies in pedigree founders. This resource will facilitate LD, evolution and gene mapping studies, including comparisons of HLA and STR haplotypes and identification of HLA recombinants. The map was constructed by testing novel and previously reported STRs using a panel of 885 individuals in 211 families and 60 DNA samples from cell lines and bone marrow donors homozygous in the HLA-A, -B and -DR loci selected from over 15 000 entries into the registry of Swedish bone marrow donors. We have also analysed the variability of STR alleles/haplotypes on the most prevalent HLA haplotypes to identify STRs useful for fine mapping of disease genes in the region previously implicated in susceptibility to many disorders. The analysis of 40 HLA-A*01, B*0801, DRB1*03011, DQB1*0201 haplotypes in homozygous donors showed a surprising stability in 23 STRs between the class II recombination hot spot and HLA-B, with the average of 1.9% (16/838) variant alleles. However, 40% variant alleles were found at the D6S2670 locus in intron 19 of the tenascin-X gene both in the families and homozygous donors. The nucleotide sequence analysis of this STR showed a complex polymorphism consisting of tetra- (CTTT)(8-18) and penta-nucleotide (CTTTT)(1-2) repeats, separated by an intervening non-polymorphic sequence of 42 bp. The HLA-A1, B*0801, DRB1*03011, DQB1*0201 haplotypes had five (CTTT)(14-18)/(CTTTT)(2) variants with a predominant (CTTT)(16) allele, implicating the tetranucleotide component as the source of this ancestral haplotype diversification, which may be due to the location of D6S2670 in the region of the highest GC content in the human MHC.

  3. GENETIC DIVERSITY OF TYPHA LATIFOLIA (TYPHACEAE) AND THE IMPACT OF POLLUTANTS EXAMINED WITH TANDEM-REPETITIVE DNA PROBES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic diversity at variable-number-tandem-repeat (VNTR) loci was examined in the common cattail, Typha latifolia (Typhaceae), using three synthetic DNA probes composed of tandemly repeated "core" sequences (GACA, GATA, and GCAC). The principal objectives of this investigation w...

  4. Y-Chromosome short tandem repeat, typing technology, locus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aghomotsegin

    2015-07-08

    Jul 8, 2015 ... Chromosome Y microsatellites seem to be ideal markers to delineate differences between human populations. They are transmitted in uniparental and they are very sensitive for genetic drift. This review will highlight the importance of the Y- Chromosome as a tool for tracing human evolution and describes.

  5. Multiple Locus Variable Number Tandem Repeat Analysis of Francisella tularensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    indicated in the literature [15], but PHAC-NML has identified several alleles that appear to be separated by differences that were divisible by 6 but not...De La Puente , V. A.; Gutierrez, C. B.; Hadfield, T. L.; Kuhnert, P.; Frey, J.; Dominguez, L. and Rodriguez Ferri, E. F. (2002), Genotyping of

  6. Determination of allele frequencies in nine short tandem repeat loci ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Matching probability was below 0.2 hence power of discrimination was high, indicating that the alleles from the five subpopulations can be used in human identifications. The present study is the first reported attempt at determining allele frequencies of subpopulations in Botswana and could possibly be used in developing a ...

  7. Short tandem repeat (STR) polymorphisms in Turkish population

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    AmpFlSTR Profiler Plus PCR products were analyzed on ABI PrismTM 377 DNA sequencer. The. GeneScan-500 (ROX) internal lane size standard was used. Statistical analysis. The exact test was used to verify whether the genotypic dis- tribution at each locus was in conformity with Hardy-. Weinberg equilibrium (Guo et al.

  8. A novel quantitative assay of mitophagy: Combining high content fluorescence microscopy and mitochondrial DNA load to quantify mitophagy and identify novel pharmacological tools against pathogenic heteroplasmic mtDNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diot, Alan; Hinks-Roberts, Alex; Lodge, Tiffany; Liao, Chunyan; Dombi, Eszter; Morten, Karl; Brady, Stefen; Fratter, Carl; Carver, Janet; Muir, Rebecca; Davis, Ryan; Green, Charlotte J; Johnston, Iain; Hilton-Jones, David; Sue, Carolyn; Mortiboys, Heather; Poulton, Joanna

    2015-10-01

    Mitophagy is a cellular mechanism for the recycling of mitochondrial fragments. This process is able to improve mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) quality in heteroplasmic mtDNA disease, in which mutant mtDNA co-exists with normal mtDNA. In disorders where the load of mutant mtDNA determines disease severity it is likely to be an important determinant of disease progression. Measuring mitophagy is technically demanding. We used pharmacological modulators of autophagy to validate two techniques for quantifying mitophagy. First we used the IN Cell 1000 analyzer to quantify mitochondrial co-localisation with LC3-II positive autophagosomes. Unlike conventional fluorescence and electron microscopy, this high-throughput system is sufficiently sensitive to detect transient low frequency autophagosomes. Secondly, because mitophagy preferentially removes pathogenic heteroplasmic mtDNA mutants, we developed a heteroplasmy assay based on loss of m.3243A>G mtDNA, during culture conditions requiring oxidative metabolism ("energetic stress"). The effects of the pharmacological modulators on these two measures were consistent, confirming that the high throughput imaging output (autophagosomes co-localising with mitochondria) reflects mitochondrial quality control. To further validate these methods, we performed a more detailed study using metformin, the most commonly prescribed antidiabetic drug that is still sometimes used in Maternally Inherited Diabetes and Deafness (MIDD). This confirmed our initial findings and revealed that metformin inhibits mitophagy at clinically relevant concentrations, suggesting that it may have novel therapeutic uses. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Tandem resonator reflectance modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, I.J.; Wendt, J.R.

    1994-09-06

    A wide band optical modulator is grown on a substrate as tandem Fabry-Perot resonators including three mirrors spaced by two cavities. The absorption of one cavity is changed relative to the absorption of the other cavity by an applied electric field, to cause a change in total reflected light, as light reflecting from the outer mirrors is in phase and light reflecting from the inner mirror is out of phase with light from the outer mirrors. 8 figs.

  10. Enzyme catalysed tandem reactions

    OpenAIRE

    Oroz-Guinea, Isabel; García-Junceda, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    To transfer to the laboratory, the excellent efficiency shown by enzymes in Nature, biocatalysis, had to mimic several synthetic strategies used by the living organisms. Biosynthetic pathways are examples of tandem catalysis and may be assimilated in the biocatalysis field for the use of isolated multi-enzyme systems in the homogeneous phase. The concurrent action of several enzymes that work sequentially presents extraordinary advantages from the synthetic point of view, since it permits a r...

  11. Pentapeptide Repeat Proteins and Cyanobacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchko, Garry W.

    2009-10-16

    Cyanobacteria are unique in many ways and one unusual feature is the presence of a suite of proteins that contain at least one domain with a minimum of eight tandem repeated five-residues (Rfr) of the general consensus sequence A[N/D]LXX. The function of such pentapeptide repeat proteins (PRPs) are still unknown, however, their prevalence in cyanobacteria suggests that they may play some role in the unique biological activities of cyanobacteria. As part of an inter-disciplinary Membrane Biology Grand Challenge at the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory) and Washington University in St. Louis, the genome of Cyanothece 51142 was sequenced and its molecular biology studied with relation to circadian rhythms. The genome of Cyanothece encodes for 35 proteins that contain at least one PRP domain. These proteins range in size from 105 (Cce_3102) to 930 (Cce_2929) kDa with the PRP domains ranging in predicted size from 12 (Cce_1545) to 62 (cce_3979) tandem pentapeptide repeats. Transcriptomic studies with 29 out of the 35 genes showed that at least three of the PRPs in Cyanothece 51142 (cce_0029, cce_3083, and cce_3272) oscillated with repeated periods of light and dark, further supporting a biological function for PRPs. Using X-ray diffraction crystallography, the structure for two pentapeptide repeat proteins from Cyanothece 51142 were determined, cce_1272 (aka Rfr32) and cce_4529 (aka Rfr23). Analysis of their molecular structures suggests that all PRP may share the same structural motif, a novel type of right-handed quadrilateral β-helix, or Rfr-fold, reminiscent of a square tower with four distinct faces. Each pentapeptide repeat occupies one face of the Rfr-fold with four consecutive pentapeptide repeats completing a coil that, in turn, stack upon each other to form “protein skyscrapers”. Details of the structural features of the Rfr-fold are reviewed here together with a discussion for the possible role of end

  12. JAERI tandem-accelerator and tandem-booster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Tadashi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    In 1982, aiming at the new development of atomic energy research, the tandem accelerator of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) was installed. In fiscal year 1993, the superconducting boosters which can increase the ion energy by up to 4 times were added, and the research in the region below 1000 MeV became possible. Those are electrostatic type accelerators which are easy to be used especially in basic research field, and are useful for future research. The tandem accelerator has been operated while maintaining the first class performance as the accelerator for various kinds of heavy ion beam. It has the special shape among electrostatic type accelerators, and is excellent in the easiness of control and stability. The main particulars of the tandem accelerator are shown. As for the ion sources of the tandem accelerator, three cesium sputter type ion sources are installed on two high voltage stands. The kinds of the ions which can be accelerated are mainly negative ions. As the improvement, electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources are expected to be adopted. As for the tandem boosters, the 1/4 wavelength type resonance hollow cylinder was adopted. The constitution of the tandem boosters is explained. The way of utilizing the tandem accelerator system and the aim for hereafter are reported. (K.I.)

  13. Enzyme catalysed tandem reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oroz-Guinea, Isabel; García-Junceda, Eduardo

    2013-04-01

    To transfer to the laboratory, the excellent efficiency shown by enzymes in Nature, biocatalysis, had to mimic several synthetic strategies used by the living organisms. Biosynthetic pathways are examples of tandem catalysis and may be assimilated in the biocatalysis field for the use of isolated multi-enzyme systems in the homogeneous phase. The concurrent action of several enzymes that work sequentially presents extraordinary advantages from the synthetic point of view, since it permits a reversible process to become irreversible, to shift the equilibrium reaction in such a way that enantiopure compounds can be obtained from prochiral or racemic substrates, reduce or eliminate problems due to product inhibition or prevent the shortage of substrates by dilution or degradation in the bulk media, etc. In this review we want to illustrate the developments of recent studies involving in vitro multi-enzyme reactions for the synthesis of different classes of organic compounds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Tandem Van de Graaff facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Completed in 1970, the Tandem Van de Graaff facility was for many years the world's largest electrostatic accelerator facility. It can provide researchers with beams...

  15. Evolutionary appearance of mononucleotide repeats in the coding ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Acknowledgements. This work was funded by grants from the Fondation Suisse des. Bourses Médecine et Biologie (to APG), and by the National In- stitutes of Health, USA (to JRC). References. Borstnik B. and Pumpernik D. 2002 Tandem repeats in protein cod- ing regions of primate genes. Genome Res. 12, 909–915.

  16. MR-Tandem: parallel X!Tandem using Hadoop MapReduce on Amazon Web Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Brian; Howbert, J Jeffry; Tasman, Natalie I; Nilsson, Erik J

    2012-01-01

    MR-Tandem adapts the popular X!Tandem peptide search engine to work with Hadoop MapReduce for reliable parallel execution of large searches. MR-Tandem runs on any Hadoop cluster but offers special support for Amazon Web Services for creating inexpensive on-demand Hadoop clusters, enabling search volumes that might not otherwise be feasible with the compute resources a researcher has at hand. MR-Tandem is designed to drop in wherever X!Tandem is already in use and requires no modification to existing X!Tandem parameter files, and only minimal modification to X!Tandem-based workflows. MR-Tandem is implemented as a lightly modified X!Tandem C++ executable and a Python script that drives Hadoop clusters including Amazon Web Services (AWS) Elastic Map Reduce (EMR), using the modified X!Tandem program as a Hadoop Streaming mapper and reducer. The modified X!Tandem C++ source code is Artistic licensed, supports pluggable scoring, and is available as part of the Sashimi project at http://sashimi.svn.sourceforge.net/viewvc/sashimi/trunk/trans_proteomic_pipeline/extern/xtandem/. The MR-Tandem Python script is Apache licensed and available as part of the Insilicos Cloud Army project at http://ica.svn.sourceforge.net/viewvc/ica/trunk/mr-tandem/. Full documentation and a windows installer that configures MR-Tandem, Python and all necessary packages are available at this same URL. brian.pratt@insilicos.com

  17. MR-Tandem: parallel X!Tandem using Hadoop MapReduce on Amazon Web Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Brian; Howbert, J. Jeffry; Tasman, Natalie I.; Nilsson, Erik J.

    2012-01-01

    Summary: MR-Tandem adapts the popular X!Tandem peptide search engine to work with Hadoop MapReduce for reliable parallel execution of large searches. MR-Tandem runs on any Hadoop cluster but offers special support for Amazon Web Services for creating inexpensive on-demand Hadoop clusters, enabling search volumes that might not otherwise be feasible with the compute resources a researcher has at hand. MR-Tandem is designed to drop in wherever X!Tandem is already in use and requires no modification to existing X!Tandem parameter files, and only minimal modification to X!Tandem-based workflows. Availability and implementation: MR-Tandem is implemented as a lightly modified X!Tandem C++ executable and a Python script that drives Hadoop clusters including Amazon Web Services (AWS) Elastic Map Reduce (EMR), using the modified X!Tandem program as a Hadoop Streaming mapper and reducer. The modified X!Tandem C++ source code is Artistic licensed, supports pluggable scoring, and is available as part of the Sashimi project at http://sashimi.svn.sourceforge.net/viewvc/sashimi/trunk/trans_proteomic_pipeline/extern/xtandem/. The MR-Tandem Python script is Apache licensed and available as part of the Insilicos Cloud Army project at http://ica.svn.sourceforge.net/viewvc/ica/trunk/mr-tandem/. Full documentation and a windows installer that configures MR-Tandem, Python and all necessary packages are available at this same URL. Contact: brian.pratt@insilicos.com PMID:22072385

  18. Nanocrystal assembly for tandem catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Peidong; Somorjai, Gabor; Yamada, Yusuke; Tsung, Chia-Kuang; Huang, Wenyu

    2014-10-14

    The present invention provides a nanocrystal tandem catalyst comprising at least two metal-metal oxide interfaces for the catalysis of sequential reactions. One embodiment utilizes a nanocrystal bilayer structure formed by assembling sub-10 nm platinum and cerium oxide nanocube monolayers on a silica substrate. The two distinct metal-metal oxide interfaces, CeO.sub.2--Pt and Pt--SiO.sub.2, can be used to catalyze two distinct sequential reactions. The CeO.sub.2--Pt interface catalyzed methanol decomposition to produce CO and H.sub.2, which were then subsequently used for ethylene hydroformylation catalyzed by the nearby Pt--SiO.sub.2 interface. Consequently, propanal was selectively produced on this nanocrystal bilayer tandem catalyst.

  19. "Nanocrystal bilayer for tandem catalysis"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Yusuke; Tsung, Chia Kuang; Huang, Wenyu; Huo, Ziyang; E.Habas, Susan E; Soejima, Tetsuro; Aliaga, Cesar E; Samorjai, Gabor A; Yang, Peidong

    2011-01-24

    Supported catalysts are widely used in industry and can be optimized by tuning the composition and interface of the metal nanoparticles and oxide supports. Rational design of metal-metal oxide interfaces in nanostructured catalysts is critical to achieve better reaction activities and selectivities. We introduce here a new class of nanocrystal tandem catalysts that have multiple metal-metal oxide interfaces for the catalysis of sequential reactions. We utilized a nanocrystal bilayer structure formed by assembling platinum and cerium oxide nanocube monolayers of less than 10 nm on a silica substrate. The two distinct metal-metal oxide interfaces, CeO2-Pt and Pt-SiO2, can be used to catalyse two distinct sequential reactions. The CeO2-Pt interface catalysed methanol decomposition to produce CO and H2, which were subsequently used for ethylene hydroformylation catalysed by the nearby Pt-SiO2 interface. Consequently, propanal was produced selectively from methanol and ethylene on the nanocrystal bilayer tandem catalyst. This new concept of nanocrystal tandem catalysis represents a powerful approach towards designing high-performance, multifunctional nanostructured catalysts

  20. Flanking Variation Influences Rates of Stutter in Simple Repeats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    August E. Woerner

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available It has been posited that the longest uninterrupted stretch (LUS of tandem repeats, as defined by the number of exactly matching repeating motif units, is a better predictor of rates of stutter than the parental allele length (PAL. While there are cases where this hypothesis is likely correct, such as the 9.3 allele in the TH01 locus, there can be situations where it may not apply as well. For example, the PAL may capture flanking indel variations while remaining insensitive to polymorphisms in the repeat, and these haplotypic changes may impact the stutter rate. To address this, rates of stutter were contrasted against the LUS as well as the PAL on different flanking haplotypic backgrounds. This study shows that rates of stutter can vary substantially depending on the flanking haplotype, and while there are cases where the LUS is a better predictor of stutter than the PAL, examples to the contrary are apparent in commonly assayed forensic markers. Further, flanking variation that is 7 bp from the repeat region can impact rates of stutter. These findings suggest that non-proximal effects, such as DNA secondary structure, may be impacting the rates of stutter in common forensic short tandem repeat markers.

  1. Tandem mirror technology demonstration facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-10-01

    This report describes a facility for generating engineering data on the nuclear technologies needed to build an engineering test reactor (ETR). The facility, based on a tandem mirror operating in the Kelley mode, could be used to produce a high neutron flux (1.4 MW/M/sup 2/) on an 8-m/sup 2/ test area for testing fusion blankets. Runs of more than 100 h, with an average availability of 30%, would produce a fluence of 5 mW/yr/m/sup 2/ and give the necessary experience for successful operation of an ETR.

  2. Tandem Translation Classroom: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dohun; Koh, Taejin

    2018-01-01

    The transition to student-centred learning, advances in teleconferencing tools, and active international student exchange programmes have stimulated tandem learning in many parts of the world. This pedagogical model is based on a mutual language exchange between tandem partners, where each student is a native speaker in the language the…

  3. Detecting long tandem duplications in genomic sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audemard Eric

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Detecting duplication segments within completely sequenced genomes provides valuable information to address genome evolution and in particular the important question of the emergence of novel functions. The usual approach to gene duplication detection, based on all-pairs protein gene comparisons, provides only a restricted view of duplication. Results In this paper, we introduce ReD Tandem, a software using a flow based chaining algorithm targeted at detecting tandem duplication arrays of moderate to longer length regions, with possibly locally weak similarities, directly at the DNA level. On the A. thaliana genome, using a reference set of tandem duplicated genes built using TAIR,a we show that ReD Tandem is able to predict a large fraction of recently duplicated genes (dS  Conclusions ReD Tandem allows to identify large tandem duplications without any annotation, leading to agnostic identification of tandem duplications. This approach nicely complements the usual protein gene based which ignores duplications involving non coding regions. It is however inherently restricted to relatively recent duplications. By recovering otherwise ignored events, ReD Tandem gives a more comprehensive view of existing evolutionary processes and may also allow to improve existing annotations.

  4. Device operation of organic tandem solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadipour, A.; de Boer, B.; Blom, P. W. M.

    2008-01-01

    A generalized methodology is developed to obtain the current-voltage characteristic of polymer tandem solar cells by knowing the electrical performance of both sub cells. We demonstrate that the electrical characteristics of polymer tandem solar cells are correctly predicted for both the series and

  5. Conserved Repeat Motifs and Glucan Binding by Glucansucrases of Oral Streptococci and Leuconostoc mesenteroides

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Deepan S. H.; Joucla, Gilles; Remaud-Simeon, Magali; Russell, Roy R. B.

    2004-01-01

    Glucansucrases of oral streptococci and Leuconostoc mesenteroides have a common pattern of structural organization and characteristically contain a domain with a series of tandem amino acid repeats in which certain residues are highly conserved, particularly aromatic amino acids and glycine. In some glucosyltransferases (GTFs) the repeat region has been identified as a glucan binding domain (GBD). Such GBDs are also found in several glucan binding proteins (GBP) of oral streptococci that do n...

  6. Status of JAERI tandem accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Tadashi; Kanda, Susumu; Takeuchi, Suehiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment] (and others)

    2001-02-01

    JAERI Tandem Accelerator had been operated approximately 230 days in fiscal year of 1999. Meanwhile, we had three times of maintenance period with vent. Total operation-times were 5273 hours. We could not carry out the experiment using rare gas, due to malfunction of the RF power supply for the ECR ion source. The type of the RF power supply is peculiar and it is impossible to get spare parts for repair. We are now investigating the backup RF power supply. The power supply for the magnet became unstable due to degradation of insulation in the shunt resistance, which is used for feedback stabilization. Stability was recovered after cleaning. The acrylic resin shaft was cracked. This cracks have a potential for severe accidents. So far bearing of the shaft has no problem. The reason of cracks may be self-destruction by charge accumulation in the shaft. JAERI Tandem Accelerator is approximately 20 years old. There appear requirements on the higher ion currents for additional ion species. Therefore, authors are investigating cost effective improvement plans of RFQ (Radio Frequency Quadra-pole) and IH type accelerator based on KEK (High Energy Accelerator Research Organization) R and D. As a whole, maintenance services for the control system are increasing due to some changes of computer programs. There are some difficulties to keep skilled personnel for facilities operation. Authors are gradually increasing hired personnel with contract from 1993. However, loads for JAERI permanent staffs are still heavy. It takes much longer time to educate skilled persons especially for safety. (Y. Tanaka)

  7. Reduction of starch granule size by expression of an engineered tandem starch-binding domain in potato plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ji, Q.; Oomen, R.J.F.J.; Vincken, J.P.; Bolam, D.N.; Gilbert, H.J.; Suurs, L.C.J.M.; Visser, R.G.F.

    2004-01-01

    Granule size is an important parameter when using starch in industrial applications. An artificial tandem repeat of a family 20 starch-binding domain (SBD2) was engineered by two copies of the SBD derived from Bacillus circulans cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase via the Pro-Thr-rich linker peptice

  8. Honesty through repeated interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Patricia; Zollman, Kevin J S

    2016-04-21

    In the study of signaling, it is well known that the cost of deception is an essential element for stable honest signaling in nature. In this paper, we show how costs for deception can arise endogenously from repeated interactions between individuals. Utilizing the Sir Philip Sidney game as an illustrative case, we show that repeated interactions can sustain honesty with no observable signal costs, even when deception cannot be directly observed. We provide a number of potential experimental tests for this theory which distinguish it from the available alternatives. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The repeat region of the circumsporozoite protein is critical for sporozoite formation and maturation in Plasmodium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J P Ferguson

    Full Text Available The circumsporozoite protein (CSP is the major surface protein of the sporozoite stage of malaria parasites and has multiple functions as the parasite develops and then migrates from the mosquito midgut to the mammalian liver. The overall structure of CSP is conserved among Plasmodium species, consisting of a species-specific central tandem repeat region flanked by two conserved domains: the NH2-terminus and the thrombospondin repeat (TSR at the COOH-terminus. Although the central repeat region is an immunodominant B-cell epitope and the basis of the only candidate malaria vaccine in Phase III clinical trials, little is known about its functional role(s. We used the rodent malaria model Plasmodium berghei to investigate the role of the CSP tandem repeat region during sporozoite development. Here we describe two mutant parasite lines, one lacking the tandem repeat region (ΔRep and the other lacking the NH2-terminus as well as the repeat region (ΔNΔRep. We show that in both mutant lines oocyst formation is unaffected but sporozoite development is defective.

  10. Tandem Mirror Reactor Systems Code (Version I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, R.L.; Finn, P.A.; Gohar, M.Y.; Barrett, R.J.; Gorker, G.E.; Spampinaton, P.T.; Bulmer, R.H.; Dorn, D.W.; Perkins, L.J.; Ghose, S.

    1985-09-01

    A computer code was developed to model a Tandem Mirror Reactor. Ths is the first Tandem Mirror Reactor model to couple, in detail, the highly linked physics, magnetics, and neutronic analysis into a single code. This report describes the code architecture, provides a summary description of the modules comprising the code, and includes an example execution of the Tandem Mirror Reactor Systems Code. Results from this code for two sensitivity studies are also included. These studies are: (1) to determine the impact of center cell plasma radius, length, and ion temperature on reactor cost and performance at constant fusion power; and (2) to determine the impact of reactor power level on cost.

  11. Repeated Infections in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... he/she have ear tubes?What are the dangers of my child’s repeated infections?Should my child ... affect you or your baby through your breast milk.December 2017December 2017familydoctor.org editorial staffHip Problems in ...

  12. Higher-order repeat structure in alpha satellite DNA occurs in New World monkeys and is not confined to hominoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujiwattanarat, Penporn; Thapana, Watcharaporn; Srikulnath, Kornsorn; Hirai, Yuriko; Hirai, Hirohisa; Koga, Akihiko

    2015-05-14

    Centromeres usually contain large amounts of tandem repeat DNA. Alpha satellite DNA (AS) is the most abundant tandem repeat DNA found in the centromeres of simian primates. The AS of humans contains sequences organized into higher-order repeat (HOR) structures, which are tandem arrays of larger repeat units consisting of multiple basic repeat units. HOR-carrying AS also occurs in other hominoids, but results reported to date for phylogenetically more remote taxa have been negative. Here we show direct evidence for clear HOR structures in AS of the owl monkey and common marmoset. These monkeys are New World monkey species that are located phylogenetically outside of hominoids. It is currently postulated that the presence of HOR structures in AS is unique to hominoids. Our results suggest that this view must be modified. A plausible explanation is that generation of HOR structures is a general event that occurs occasionally or frequently in primate centromeres, and that, in humans, HOR-carrying AS became predominant in the central region of the centromere. It is often difficult to assemble sequence reads of tandem repeat DNAs into accurate contig sequences; our careful sequencing strategy allowed us to overcome this problem.

  13. TERRA: telomeric repeat-containing RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, Brian; Lingner, Joachim

    2009-09-02

    Telomeres, the physical ends of eukaryotic chromosomes, consist of tandem arrays of short DNA repeats and a large set of specialized proteins. A recent analysis has identified telomeric repeat-containing RNA (TERRA), a large non-coding RNA in animals and fungi, which forms an integral component of telomeric heterochromatin. TERRA transcription occurs at most or all chromosome ends and it is regulated by RNA surveillance factors and in response to changes in telomere length. TERRA functions that are emerging suggest important roles in the regulation of telomerase and in orchestrating chromatin remodelling throughout development and cellular differentiation. The accumulation of TERRA at telomeres can also interfere with telomere replication, leading to a sudden loss of telomere tracts. Such a phenotype can be observed upon impairment of the RNA surveillance machinery or in cells from ICF (Immunodeficiency, Centromeric region instability, Facial anomalies) patients, in which TERRA is upregulated because of DNA methylation defects in the subtelomeric region. Thus, TERRA may mediate several crucial functions at the telomeres, a region of the genome that had been considered to be transcriptionally silent.

  14. Inverted 3J Tandem Thermophotovoltaic Modules Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Spire Semiconductor proposes to make an InGaAs-based three-junction (3J) tandem thermophotovoltaic (TPV) cell to utilize more of the blackbody spectrum (from a GPHS)...

  15. North-American MP Tandem accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wegner, H.E.; Thieberger, P.

    1977-01-01

    There are six North-American MP Tandem accelerators: Yale; Minnesota; Chalk River; Rochester; and two at Brookhaven. The current status and operating characteristics of these six tandem accelerators are discussed. Upgrade and special improvements of the different machines is reviewed and new developments since the last Electrostatic Conference are discussed in detail. The overall operating characteristics of the different machines during the last year of operation are compared.

  16. Repeat-containing protein effectors of plant-associated organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesarich, Carl H.; Bowen, Joanna K.; Hamiaux, Cyril; Templeton, Matthew D.

    2015-01-01

    Many plant-associated organisms, including microbes, nematodes, and insects, deliver effector proteins into the apoplast, vascular tissue, or cell cytoplasm of their prospective hosts. These effectors function to promote colonization, typically by altering host physiology or by modulating host immune responses. The same effectors however, can also trigger host immunity in the presence of cognate host immune receptor proteins, and thus prevent colonization. To circumvent effector-triggered immunity, or to further enhance host colonization, plant-associated organisms often rely on adaptive effector evolution. In recent years, it has become increasingly apparent that several effectors of plant-associated organisms are repeat-containing proteins (RCPs) that carry tandem or non-tandem arrays of an amino acid sequence or structural motif. In this review, we highlight the diverse roles that these repeat domains play in RCP effector function. We also draw attention to the potential role of these repeat domains in adaptive evolution with regards to RCP effector function and the evasion of effector-triggered immunity. The aim of this review is to increase the profile of RCP effectors from plant-associated organisms. PMID:26557126

  17. Allowing repeat winners

    OpenAIRE

    Marco D. Huesch; Richard Brady

    2010-01-01

    Unbiased lotteries seem the least unfair and simplest procedures to allocate scarce indivisible resources to those with equal claims. But, when lotteries are repeated, it is not immediately obvious whether prior winners should be included or excluded. As in design questions surrounding single-shot lotteries, considerations of self-interest and distributive social preferences may interact. We investigate preferences for allowing participation of earlier winners in sequential lotteries. We foun...

  18. Duct Leakage Repeatability Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Iain [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sherman, Max [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Duct leakage often needs to be measured to demonstrate compliance with requirements or to determine energy or Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) impacts. Testing is often done using standards such as ASTM E1554 (ASTM 2013) or California Title 24 (California Energy Commission 2013 & 2013b), but there are several choices of methods available within the accepted standards. Determining which method to use or not use requires an evaluation of those methods in the context of the particular needs. Three factors that are important considerations are the cost of the measurement, the accuracy of the measurement and the repeatability of the measurement. The purpose of this report is to evaluate the repeatability of the three most significant measurement techniques using data from the literature and recently obtained field data. We will also briefly discuss the first two factors. The main question to be answered by this study is to determine if differences in the repeatability of these tests methods is sufficient to indicate that any of these methods is so poor that it should be excluded from consideration as an allowed procedure in codes and standards.

  19. Identifying uniformly mutated segments within repeats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahinalp, S Cenk; Eichler, Evan; Goldberg, Paul; Berenbrink, Petra; Friedetzky, Tom; Ergun, Funda

    2004-12-01

    Given a long string of characters from a constant size alphabet we present an algorithm to determine whether its characters have been generated by a single i.i.d. random source. More specifically, consider all possible n-coin models for generating a binary string S, where each bit of S is generated via an independent toss of one of the n coins in the model. The choice of which coin to toss is decided by a random walk on the set of coins where the probability of a coin change is much lower than the probability of using the same coin repeatedly. We present a procedure to evaluate the likelihood of a n-coin model for given S, subject a uniform prior distribution over the parameters of the model (that represent mutation rates and probabilities of copying events). In the absence of detailed prior knowledge of these parameters, the algorithm can be used to determine whether the a posteriori probability for n=1 is higher than for any other n>1. Our algorithm runs in time O(l4logl), where l is the length of S, through a dynamic programming approach which exploits the assumed convexity of the a posteriori probability for n. Our test can be used in the analysis of long alignments between pairs of genomic sequences in a number of ways. For example, functional regions in genome sequences exhibit much lower mutation rates than non-functional regions. Because our test provides means for determining variations in the mutation rate, it may be used to distinguish functional regions from non-functional ones. Another application is in determining whether two highly similar, thus evolutionarily related, genome segments are the result of a single copy event or of a complex series of copy events. This is particularly an issue in evolutionary studies of genome regions rich with repeat segments (especially tandemly repeated segments).

  20. Optimization of sequence alignment for simple sequence repeat regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogbonnaya Francis C

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microsatellites, or simple sequence repeats (SSRs, are tandemly repeated DNA sequences, including tandem copies of specific sequences no longer than six bases, that are distributed in the genome. SSR has been used as a molecular marker because it is easy to detect and is used in a range of applications, including genetic diversity, genome mapping, and marker assisted selection. It is also very mutable because of slipping in the DNA polymerase during DNA replication. This unique mutation increases the insertion/deletion (INDELs mutation frequency to a high ratio - more than other types of molecular markers such as single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs. SNPs are more frequent than INDELs. Therefore, all designed algorithms for sequence alignment fit the vast majority of the genomic sequence without considering microsatellite regions, as unique sequences that require special consideration. The old algorithm is limited in its application because there are many overlaps between different repeat units which result in false evolutionary relationships. Findings To overcome the limitation of the aligning algorithm when dealing with SSR loci, a new algorithm was developed using PERL script with a Tk graphical interface. This program is based on aligning sequences after determining the repeated units first, and the last SSR nucleotides positions. This results in a shifting process according to the inserted repeated unit type. When studying the phylogenic relations before and after applying the new algorithm, many differences in the trees were obtained by increasing the SSR length and complexity. However, less distance between different linage had been observed after applying the new algorithm. Conclusions The new algorithm produces better estimates for aligning SSR loci because it reflects more reliable evolutionary relations between different linages. It reduces overlapping during SSR alignment, which results in a more realistic

  1. Tandem Catalysis Utilizing Olefin Metathesis Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zieliński, Grzegorz K; Grela, Karol

    2016-07-04

    Since olefin metathesis transformation has become a favored synthetic tool in organic synthesis, more and more distinct non-metathetical reactions of alkylidene ruthenium complexes have been developed. Depending on the conditions applied, the same olefin metathesis catalysts can efficiently promote isomerization reactions, hydrogenation of C=C double bonds, oxidation reactions, and many others. Importantly, these transformations can be carried out in tandem with olefin metathesis reactions. Through addition of one portion of a catalyst, a tandem process provides structurally advanced products from relatively simple substrates without the need for isolation of the intermediates. These aspects not only make tandem catalysis very attractive from a practical point of view, but also open new avenues in (retro)synthetic planning. However, in the literature, the term "tandem process" is sometimes used improperly to describe other types of multi-reaction sequences. In this Concept, a number of examples of tandem catalysis involving olefin metathesis are discussed with an emphasis on their synthetic value. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Tandemly Arrayed Genes in Vertebrate Genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng Pan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Tandemly arrayed genes (TAGs are duplicated genes that are linked as neighbors on a chromosome, many of which have important physiological and biochemical functions. Here we performed a survey of these genes in 11 available vertebrate genomes. TAGs account for an average of about 14% of all genes in these vertebrate genomes, and about 25% of all duplications. The majority of TAGs (72–94% have parallel transcription orientation (i.e., they are encoded on the same strand in contrast to the genome, which has about 50% of its genes in parallel transcription orientation. The majority of tandem arrays have only two members. In all species, the proportion of genes that belong to TAGs tends to be higher in large gene families than in small ones; together with our recent finding that tandem duplication played a more important role than retroposition in large families, this fact suggests that among all types of duplication mechanisms, tandem duplication is the predominant mechanism of duplication, especially in large families. Finally, several species have a higher proportion of large tandem arrays that are species-specific than random expectation.

  3. Repeatability of Cryogenic Multilayer Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, W. L.; Vanderlaan, M.; Wood, J. J.; Rhys, N. O.; Guo, W.; Van Sciver, S.; Chato, D. J.

    2017-01-01

    Due to the variety of requirements across aerospace platforms, and one off projects, the repeatability of cryogenic multilayer insulation has never been fully established. The objective of this test program is to provide a more basic understanding of the thermal performance repeatability of MLI systems that are applicable to large scale tanks. There are several different types of repeatability that can be accounted for: these include repeatability between multiple identical blankets, repeatability of installation of the same blanket, and repeatability of a test apparatus. The focus of the work in this report is on the first two types of repeatability. Statistically, repeatability can mean many different things. In simplest form, it refers to the range of performance that a population exhibits and the average of the population. However, as more and more identical components are made (i.e. the population of concern grows), the simple range morphs into a standard deviation from an average performance. Initial repeatability testing on MLI blankets has been completed at Florida State University. Repeatability of five GRC provided coupons with 25 layers was shown to be +/- 8.4 whereas repeatability of repeatedly installing a single coupon was shown to be +/- 8.0. A second group of 10 coupons have been fabricated by Yetispace and tested by Florida State University, through the first 4 tests, the repeatability has been shown to be +/- 16. Based on detailed statistical analysis, the data has been shown to be statistically significant.

  4. Repeatability of Cryogenic Multilayer Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, W. L.; Vanderlaan, M.; Wood, J. J.; Rhys, N. O.; Guo, W.; Van Sciver, S.; Chato, D. J.

    2017-12-01

    Due to the variety of requirements across aerospace platforms, and one off projects, the repeatability of cryogenic multilayer insulation (MLI) has never been fully established. The objective of this test program is to provide a more basic understanding of the thermal performance repeatability of MLI systems that are applicable to large scale tanks. There are several different types of repeatability that can be accounted for: these include repeatability between identical blankets, repeatability of installation of the same blanket, and repeatability of a test apparatus. The focus of the work in this report is on the first two types of repeatability. Statistically, repeatability can mean many different things. In simplest form, it refers to the range of performance that a population exhibits and the average of the population. However, as more and more identical components are made (i.e. the population of concern grows), the simple range morphs into a standard deviation from an average performance. Initial repeatability testing on MLI blankets has been completed at Florida State University. Repeatability of five Glenn Research Center (GRC) provided coupons with 25 layers was shown to be +/- 8.4% whereas repeatability of repeatedly installing a single coupon was shown to be +/- 8.0%. A second group of 10 coupons has been fabricated by Yetispace and tested by Florida State University, the repeatability between coupons has been shown to be +/- 15-25%. Based on detailed statistical analysis, the data has been shown to be statistically significant.

  5. Duct Leakage Repeatability Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Iain [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sherman, Max [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate the repeatability of the three most significant measurement techniques for duct leakage using data from the literature and recently obtained field data. We will also briefly discuss the first two factors. The main question to be answered by this study is to determine if differences in the repeatability of these tests methods is sufficient to indicate that any of these methods is so poor that it should be excluded from consideration as an allowed procedure in codes and standards. The three duct leak measurement methods assessed in this report are the two duct pressurization methods that are commonly used by many practitioners and the DeltaQ technique. These are methods B, C and A, respectively of the ASTM E1554 standard. Although it would be useful to evaluate other duct leak test methods, this study focused on those test methods that are commonly used and are required in various test standards, such as BPI (2010), RESNET (2014), ASHRAE 62.2 (2013), California Title 24 (CEC 2012), DOE Weatherization and many other energy efficiency programs.

  6. Decreased Rate of Evolution in Y Chromosome STR Loci of Increased Size of the Repeat Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järve, Mari; Zhivotovsky, Lev A.; Rootsi, Siiri; Help, Hela; Rogaev, Evgeny I.; Khusnutdinova, Elza K.; Kivisild, Toomas; Sanchez, Juan J.

    2009-01-01

    Background Polymorphic Y chromosome short tandem repeats (STRs) have been widely used in population genetic and evolutionary studies. Compared to di-, tri-, and tetranucleotide repeats, STRs with longer repeat units occur more rarely and are far less commonly used. Principal Findings In order to study the evolutionary dynamics of STRs according to repeat unit size, we analysed variation at 24 Y chromosome repeat loci: 1 tri-, 14 tetra-, 7 penta-, and 2 hexanucleotide loci. According to our results, penta- and hexanucleotide repeats have approximately two times lower repeat variance and diversity than tri- and tetranucleotide repeats, indicating that their mutation rate is about half of that of tri- and tetranucleotide repeats. Thus, STR markers with longer repeat units are more robust in distinguishing Y chromosome haplogroups and, in some cases, phylogenetic splits within established haplogroups. Conclusions Our findings suggest that Y chromosome STRs of increased repeat unit size have a lower rate of evolution, which has significant relevance in population genetic and evolutionary studies. PMID:19789645

  7. Differential Regulation of Strand-Specific Transcripts from Arabidopsis Centromeric Satellite Repeats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Centromeres interact with the spindle apparatus to enable chromosome disjunction and typically contain thousands of tandemly arranged satellite repeats interspersed with retrotransposons. While their role has been obscure, centromeric repeats are epigenetically modified and centromere specification has a strong epigenetic component. In the yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, long heterochromatic repeats are transcribed and contribute to centromere function via RNA interference (RNAi. In the higher plant Arabidopsis thaliana, as in mammalian cells, centromeric satellite repeats are short (180 base pairs, are found in thousands of tandem copies, and are methylated. We have found transcripts from both strands of canonical, bulk Arabidopsis repeats. At least one subfamily of 180-base pair repeats is transcribed from only one strand and regulated by RNAi and histone modification. A second subfamily of repeats is also silenced, but silencing is lost on both strands in mutants in the CpG DNA methyltransferase MET1, the histone deacetylase HDA6/SIL1, or the chromatin remodeling ATPase DDM1. This regulation is due to transcription from Athila2 retrotransposons, which integrate in both orientations relative to the repeats, and differs between strains of Arabidopsis. Silencing lost in met1 or hda6 is reestablished in backcrosses to wild-type, but silencing lost in RNAi mutants and ddm1 is not. Twenty-four-nucleotide small interfering RNAs from centromeric repeats are retained in met1 and hda6, but not in ddm1, and may have a role in this epigenetic inheritance. Histone H3 lysine-9 dimethylation is associated with both classes of repeats. We propose roles for transcribed repeats in the epigenetic inheritance and evolution of centromeres.

  8. Research Update: Programmable tandem repeat proteins inspired by squid ring teeth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena-Francesch, Abdon; Domeradzka, Natalia E.; Jung, Huihun; Barbu, Benjamin; Vural, Mert; Kikuchi, Yusuke; Allen, Benjamin D.; Demirel, Melik C.

    2018-01-01

    Cephalopods have evolved many interesting features that can serve as inspiration. Repetitive squid ring teeth (SRT) proteins from cephalopods exhibit properties such as strength, self-healing, and biocompatibility. These proteins have been engineered to design novel adhesives, self-healing textiles, and the assembly of 2d-layered materials. Compared to conventional polymers, repetitive proteins are easy to modify and can assemble in various morphologies and molecular architectures. This research update discusses the molecular biology and materials science of polypeptides inspired by SRT proteins, their properties, and perspectives for future applications.

  9. Thymidylate synthase (TS tandem repeat promoter polymorphism and susceptibility to colorectal cancer of romanian subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai TOMA

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The risk of colorectal cancer (CRC is influence by polymorphisms located in the genes encoding enzymes of the folate pathway. The aim of this study was to evaluate if 2R/3R TS (rs34743033 polymorphism is involved in predisposition for colorectal in Romanian subjects. In the present case-control study, 75 sporadic CRC subjects and 60 healthy controls were genotyped by PCR method. The frequency of 3R/3R genotype was 40% in control group and 42.7% in cancer group. We found that there was no statistically significant association between the risk for CRC and 2R/3R TS polymorphism in Romanian subjects.

  10. Recombination analysis of autosomal short tandem repeats in Chinese Han families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiu-Ling; Luo, Hong; Zhao, Hu; Huang, Xiao-Ling; Cheng, Jian-Ding; Lu, De-Jian

    2014-03-01

    Recombination fractions between forensic STRs can be extrapolated from the International HapMap Project, but the concordance between recombination fractions predicated from genetic maps and derived from observation of STR transmissions in families is still ambiguous for autosomal STRs because of limited family studies. Therefore, the main goal of this study is to compare recombination fractions estimated by pedigree analysis with those derived from HapMap phase SNP data. Genotypes of nine autosomal STR pairs (TPOX-D2S1772, D5S818-CSF1PO, D7S3048-D7S820, D8S1132-D8S1179, TH01-D11S2368, vWA-D12S391, D13S325-D13S317, D18S51-D18S1364, and D21S11-PentaD) from 207 two-generation families with two to five children (the number of families with five, four, three, and two children was 2, 3, 20, and 182, respectively) were used to analyze the recombination. The linkage analysis showed that significant linkage was observed at six STR pairs (D5S818-CSF1PO, D8S1132-D8S1179, TH01-D11S2368, vWA-D12S391, D13S325-D13S317, and D18S51-D18S1364) with genetic distances HapMap. Their recombination fractions calculated from family data were very close to those derived from HapMap. However, three STR pairs of TPOX-D2S1772, D7S3048-D7S820, and D21S11-PentaD showed no significant linkage with genetic distances from 43.38 to 91.49 cM. Our results indicate that recombination fractions extrapolated from HapMap can provide a substitute if empirical data are unavailable for the linkage STR pair with a genetic distance spanned <36.22 cM. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Analysis of genetic polymorphism of nine short tandem repeat loci in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-03-15

    Mar 15, 2012 ... The genotype distributions were in accordance with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (p>0.05). New core sequences were found in D2S1772, D7S3048, and D22GATA198B05 STR loci in Chinese Han population of Henan province, which were different from those of other populations. Two single-nucleotide.

  12. Allele frequencies for 12 autosomal short tandem repeat loci in two Bolivian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifuentes, L; Jorquera, H; Acuña, M; Ordóñez, J; Sierra, A L

    2008-03-18

    Two hundred and sixty unrelated subjects who asked for paternity testing at two Bolivian Laboratories in La Paz and Santa Cruz were studied. The loci D3S1358, vWA, FGA, D8S1179, D21S11, D18S51, D5S818, D13S317, D7S820, TH01, TPOX, and CSF1PO were typed from blood samples, amplifying DNA by polymerase chain reactions and electrophoresis. Allele frequencies were estimated by simple counting and the unbiased heterozygosity was calculated. Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was studied and gene frequencies were compared between the two samples. All loci conformed to the Hardy-Weinberg law and allele frequencies were similar in samples from the two cities. The Bolivian gene frequencies estimated were significantly different from those described for Chile and the United States Hispanic-Americans for most of the loci.

  13. Detection of short tandem repeat polymorphisms from human nails using direct polymerase chain reaction method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tie, Jian; Uchigasaki, Seisaku

    2014-11-01

    Human nail is an important forensic material for parental testing and individual identification in large-scale disasters. Detection of STR polymorphism from hard tissues generally requires DNA purification, which is technically complicated and time consuming. In the present study, we attempted to detect STR polymorphisms from untreated human nail samples by direct PCR amplification method using the primer mixture supplied with the GenePrint® SilverSTR® III System or the AmpFℓSTR® Identifiler® PCR Amplification Kit, and Tks Gflex DNA polymerase known to be effective for amplification from crude samples. A nail fragment measuring approximately 1.5 mm in breadth and 0.5 mm in length was placed directly into a PCR tube, and various PCR conditions were tested. The PCR products were analyzed by denaturing acrylamide gel electrophoresis or CE. Multiple STR polymorphisms were detected successfully. This method that detects STR polymorphisms not only from fresh human fingernails, but also from old nail fragments stored at room temperature for up to 10 years is expected to become a novel DNA analytical method in forensic medicine and genetic studies. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Genetic analysis of eight x-chromosomal short tandem repeat loci in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aghomotsegin

    2015-07-29

    Jul 29, 2015 ... Figure 2. Electropherogram of the allelic ladder Mentype® Argus X-8 analysed on an ABI PRISM® 310 genetic analyzer. software. Amplicons were then converted to allele numbers using the Genotyper® 3.7 (Applied Biosystems). Statistical analysis. Once frequencies are obtained, specific statistical tests ...

  15. Evaluating the weight of evidence by using quantitative short tandem repeat data in DNA mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvedebrink, Torben; Eriksen, Poul Svante; Mogensen, Helle Smidt

    2010-01-01

    he evaluation of results from mixtures of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) from two or more people in crime case investigations may be improved by taking not only the qualitative but also the quantitative part of the results into consideration. We present a statistical likelihood approach to assess...... distribution of peak areas for assessing the weight of the evidence. On the basis of data from analyses of controlled experiments with mixed DNA samples, we exploited the linear relationship between peak heights and peak areas, and the linear relationships of the means and variances of the measurements...... to factorization of the likelihood, properties of the normal distribution and use of auxiliary variables, an ordinary implementation of the EM algorithm solved the missing data problem....

  16. Toward Male Individualization with Rapidly Mutating Y-Chromosomal Short Tandem Repeats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ballantyne, Kaye N; Ralf, Arwin; Aboukhalid, Rachid

    2014-01-01

    .9999985, regional: 0.99919-0.9999988). Haplotype sharing between populations was almost absent except for six (0.05%) of the 12,156 haplotypes. Haplotype sharing within populations was generally rare (0.8% non-unique haplotypes), significantly lower in urban (0.9%) than rural (2.1%) and highest in endogamous groups...

  17. Multiple‐locus variable‐number tandem repeat analysis of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Dublin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, M. K.; Torpdahl, M.; Campos, J.

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella serovar Dublin causes disease in cattle and leads to considerable production losses. In humans, severe invasive disease and high mortality rates are reported. The presently available typing methods provide insufficient discrimination within Salm. Dublin for epidemiological investigatio...

  18. Polymorphism of 11 Y Chromosome Short Tandem Repeat Markers among Malaysian Aborigines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Yussup, Sofia Sakina; Marzukhi, Marlia; Md-Zain, Badrul Munir; Mamat, Kamaruddin; Mohd Yusof, Farida Zuraina

    2017-01-01

    The conventional technique such as patrilocality suggests some substantial effects on population diversity. With that, this particular study investigated the paternal line, specifically Scientific Working Group on DNA Analysis Methods (SWGDAM)-recommended Y-STR markers, namely, DYS19, DYS385, DYS389I/II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS438, and DYS439. These markers were tested to compare 184 Orang Asli individuals from 3 tribes found in Peninsular Malaysia. As a result, the haplotype diversity and the discrimination capacity obtained were 0.9987 and 0.9076, respectively. Besides, the most diverse marker was DYS385b, whereas the least was DYS391. Furthermore, the Senoi and Proto-Malay tribes were found to be the most distant, whereas the Senoi and Negrito clans were almost similar to each other. In addition, the analysis of molecular variance analysis revealed 82% of variance within the population, but only 18% of difference between the tribes. Finally, the phylogenetic trees constructed using Neighbour Joining and UPGMA (Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean) displayed several clusters that were tribe specific. With that, future studies are projected to analyse individuals based on more specific sub-tribes. PMID:29085238

  19. Variable Number of Tandem Repeats (VNTR) analysis of Flavobacterium psychrophilum from salmonids in Chile and Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Apablaza, Patricia; Brevik, Oyvind J.; Mjos, Svein

    2015-01-01

    compared to those from Norway, which suggests a more homogenous reservoir in Norway. Transgenerational transmission of F. psychrophilum from other countries, exporting salmon embryos to Chile, may explain the differences in diversity. The same transmission mechanisms could also explain the wide...

  20. Analysis of genetic polymorphism of nine short tandem repeat loci in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-03-15

    Mar 15, 2012 ... loci including D2S1772, D6S1043, D7S3048, D8S1132, D11S2368, D12S391, D13S325, D18S1364 and. D22GATA198B05 in Chinese Han population of Henan province and to assess its value in forensic science. Genomic DNA was extracted by means of phenol-chloroform from 212 blood samples of.

  1. "New turns from old STaRs": enhancing the capabilities of forensic short tandem repeat analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Christopher; Gelabert-Besada, Miguel; Fernandez-Formoso, Luis; García-Magariños, Manuel; Santos, Carla; Fondevila, Manuel; Ballard, David; Syndercombe Court, Denise; Carracedo, Angel; Lareu, Maria Victoria

    2014-11-01

    The field of research and development of forensic STR genotyping remains active, innovative, and focused on continuous improvements. A series of recent developments including the introduction of a sixth dye have brought expanded STR multiplex sizes while maintaining sensitivity to typical forensic DNA. New supplementary kits complimenting the core STRs have also helped improve analysis of challenging identification cases such as distant pairwise relationships in deficient pedigrees. This article gives an overview of several recent key developments in forensic STR analysis: availability of expanded core STR kits and supplementary STRs, short-amplicon mini-STRs offering practical options for highly degraded DNA, Y-STR enhancements made from the identification of rapidly mutating loci, and enhanced analysis of genetic ancestry by analyzing 32-STR profiles with a Bayesian forensic classifier originally developed for SNP population data. As well as providing scope for genotyping larger numbers of STRs optimized for forensic applications, the launch of compact next-generation sequencing systems provides considerable potential for genotyping the sizeable proportion of nucleotide variation existing in forensic STRs, which currently escapes detection with CE. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Allele frequencies of ten short tandem repeats loci in the central ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2009-04-03

    Apr 3, 2009 ... Laboratoire de Biologie Moléculaire, Hôpital Ibn El Jazzar, Avenue Ibn El Jazzar, Kairouan 3140, Tunisia. Introduction. Different methodologies have been used in studies on genetic variability in human populations to assess their genetic com- position and the evolutionary factors to which they are sub-.

  3. Development and diversity of a novel panel of short tandem repeat ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    AngeL

    2018-01-11

    Jan 11, 2018 ... polymorphism information content (PIC) was evaluated by Cervus 3.0.7 program. Results and discussion. All the previously reported STR markers for the SCN5A gene .... Pathogenesis and management of Brugada syndrome. Nat Rev Cardiol advance online publication. Tester, D.J. and Ackerman, M.J. ...

  4. Polymorphism of 11 Y Chromosome Short Tandem Repeat Markers among Malaysian Aborigines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Yussup, Sofia Sakina; Marzukhi, Marlia; Md-Zain, Badrul Munir; Mamat, Kamaruddin; Mohd Yusof, Farida Zuraina

    2017-01-01

    The conventional technique such as patrilocality suggests some substantial effects on population diversity. With that, this particular study investigated the paternal line, specifically Scientific Working Group on DNA Analysis Methods (SWGDAM)-recommended Y-STR markers, namely, DYS19, DYS385, DYS389I/II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS438, and DYS439. These markers were tested to compare 184 Orang Asli individuals from 3 tribes found in Peninsular Malaysia. As a result, the haplotype diversity and the discrimination capacity obtained were 0.9987 and 0.9076, respectively. Besides, the most diverse marker was DYS385b, whereas the least was DYS391. Furthermore, the Senoi and Proto-Malay tribes were found to be the most distant, whereas the Senoi and Negrito clans were almost similar to each other. In addition, the analysis of molecular variance analysis revealed 82% of variance within the population, but only 18% of difference between the tribes. Finally, the phylogenetic trees constructed using Neighbour Joining and UPGMA (Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean) displayed several clusters that were tribe specific. With that, future studies are projected to analyse individuals based on more specific sub-tribes.

  5. Polymorphism of 11 Y Chromosome Short Tandem Repeat Markers among Malaysian Aborigines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Sakina Mohd Yussup

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The conventional technique such as patrilocality suggests some substantial effects on population diversity. With that, this particular study investigated the paternal line, specifically Scientific Working Group on DNA Analysis Methods (SWGDAM-recommended Y-STR markers, namely, DYS19, DYS385, DYS389I/II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS438, and DYS439. These markers were tested to compare 184 Orang Asli individuals from 3 tribes found in Peninsular Malaysia. As a result, the haplotype diversity and the discrimination capacity obtained were 0.9987 and 0.9076, respectively. Besides, the most diverse marker was DYS385b, whereas the least was DYS391. Furthermore, the Senoi and Proto-Malay tribes were found to be the most distant, whereas the Senoi and Negrito clans were almost similar to each other. In addition, the analysis of molecular variance analysis revealed 82% of variance within the population, but only 18% of difference between the tribes. Finally, the phylogenetic trees constructed using Neighbour Joining and UPGMA (Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean displayed several clusters that were tribe specific. With that, future studies are projected to analyse individuals based on more specific sub-tribes.

  6. Repeat Customer Success in Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bess, Melissa M.; Traub, Sarah M.

    2013-01-01

    Four multi-session research-based programs were offered by two Extension specialist in one rural Missouri county. Eleven participants who came to multiple Extension programs could be called "repeat customers." Based on the total number of participants for all four programs, 25% could be deemed as repeat customers. Repeat customers had…

  7. Repeated judgment sampling: Boundaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Muller-Trede

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the boundaries of the recent result that eliciting more than one estimate from the same person and averaging these can lead to accuracy gains in judgment tasks. It first examines its generality, analysing whether the kind of question being asked has an effect on the size of potential gains. Experimental results show that the question type matters. Previous results reporting potential accuracy gains are reproduced for year-estimation questions, and extended to questions about percentage shares. On the other hand, no gains are found for general numerical questions. The second part of the paper tests repeated judgment sampling's practical applicability by asking judges to provide a third and final answer on the basis of their first two estimates. In an experiment, the majority of judges do not consistently average their first two answers. As a result, they do not realise the potential accuracy gains from averaging.

  8. Allowing repeat winners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco D. Huesch

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Unbiased lotteries seem the least unfair and simplest procedures to allocate scarce indivisible resources to those with equal claims. But, when lotteries are repeated, it is not immediately obvious whether prior winners should be included or excluded. As in design questions surrounding single-shot lotteries, considerations of self-interest and distributive social preferences may interact. We investigate preferences for allowing participation of earlier winners in sequential lotteries. We found a strong preference for exclusion, both in settings where subjects were involved, and those where they were not. Subjects who answered questions about both settings did not differ in their tendency to prefer exclusion. Stated rationales significantly predicted choice but did not predict switching of choices between the two settings.

  9. Unsteady aerodynamics of single and tandem wheels

    OpenAIRE

    Spagnolo, Stefano; Zhang, Xin; Hu, Zhiwei; Stalnov, Oksana; Angland, David

    2017-01-01

    The major unsteady aerodynamic forces and major physics of a generic single wheel and tandem wheels are studied for the first time using wind tunnel tests. The wind-tunnel tests are performed in the 2.1 m × 1.5 m wind tunnel at the University of Southampton. The tandem-wheel configuration consists of two in-line wheels that can be tested at different inter-axis distances and various installation angles. A vibration test is performed in situ on the model assembly to validate the unsteady-load ...

  10. Tandem transformation of glycerol to esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotenko, Maria V; Rebroš, Martin; Sans, Victor S; Loponov, Konstantin N; Davidson, Matthew G; Stephens, Gill; Lapkin, Alexei A

    2012-12-31

    Tandem transformation of glycerol via microbial fermentation and enzymatic esterification is presented. The reaction can be performed with purified waste glycerol from biodiesel production in a continuous mode, combining continuous fermentation with membrane-supported enzymatic esterification. Continuous anaerobic fermentation was optimized resulting in the productivity of 2.4 g L⁻¹ h⁻¹ of 1,3-propanediol. Biphasic esterification of 1,3-propanediol was optimized to achieve ester yield of up to 75%. A hollow fibre membrane contactor with immobilized Rhizomucor miehei lipase was demonstrated for the continuous tandem fermentation-esterification process. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Pediatric Tandem Therapeutic Apheresis: A Multidisciplinary Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirignano, Rachel M; Meyer, Erin K; Fasano, Ross; Paden, Matthew L

    2017-08-31

    The epidemiology, safety, and efficacy of pediatric multiple tandem extracorporeal therapies are not well understood. We conducted a retrospective chart review of therapeutic apheresis (TA) from January 1, 2012 to October 31, 2015. We collected procedural/clinical demographics, American Society for Apheresis (ASFA) indication, complications, and mortality. One hundred eighty tandem TA procedures were performed in 53 patients. Median age was 9 years (range: 2 months to 21 years) with a median weight of 28 kg (range: 6-170.3 kg) with nine patients weighing download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal.

  12. Development of new VNTR markers for pike and assessment of variability at di- and tetranucleotide repeat microsatellite loci

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Møller; Taggart, J.B.; Meldrup, Dorte

    1999-01-01

    Levels of variation at six VNTR (variable number of tandem repeats) loci, one minisatellite and five microsatellite loci, isolated from tri- and tetranucleotide enriched DNA libraries for northern pike were generally low in two Danish populations (1-4 alleles; expected heterozygosity 0-0.57), tho...

  13. 47 CFR 69.129 - Signalling for tandem switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Signalling for tandem switching. 69.129 Section... (CONTINUED) ACCESS CHARGES Computation of Charges § 69.129 Signalling for tandem switching. A charge that is... provision of signalling for tandem switching. ...

  14. Vortex interaction between two tandem flexible propulsors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung Goon; Sung, Hyung Jin; Flow Control Laboratory Team

    2015-11-01

    Schooling behaviors of flying and swimming animals are widespread phenomena in nature. Inspired by schooling behaviors of swimming jellyfish, self-propelling flexible bodies with a paddling-based locomotion were modeled in a tandem configuration. The interactions between surrounding fluids and propulsors were considered by using the immersed boundary method. The hydrodynamic patterns generated by the interactions between tandem flexible propulsors were analyzed in the presen study. As a result of the flow-mediated interactions between them, stable configurations were formed spontaneously in which the gap distance between propulsors increased and decreased during the contraction and relaxation phases of the upstream propulsor. The stable configuration was not affected by the initial gap distance but influenced by the phase difference in the flapping frequency between them. Both tandem propulsors benefited from the tandem configuration in terms of the locomotion as compared with an isolated propulsor. This study was supported by the Creative Research Initiatives (No. 2015-001828) program of the National Research Foundation of Korea (MSIP).

  15. The PSI/ETH tandem accelerator facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Synal, H.A.; Doebeli, M.; Fuhrmann, H.; Kubik, P.W.; Nebiker, P.W. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)] [and others

    1997-09-01

    The 1996 operation of the PSI/ETH tandem accelerator at ETH Hoenggerberg is summarised with a detailed compilation of the beam time statistics and the statistics of AMS samples for the different radioisotopes and for the major fields of research. (author) 2 tab.

  16. Technology for large tandem mirror experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomassen, K.I.

    1980-09-04

    Construction of a large tandem mirror (MFTF-B) will soon begin at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Designed to reach break-even plasma conditions, the facility will significantly advance the physics and technology of magnetic-mirror-based fusion reactors. This paper describes the objectives and the design of the facility.

  17. Organic Tandem Solar Cells: Design and Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Chao

    In the past decade, research on organic solar cells has gone through an important development stage leading to major enhancements in power conversion efficiency, from 4% to 9% in single-junction devices. During this period, there are many novel processing techniques and device designs that have been proposed and adapted in organic solar-cell devices. One well-known device architecture that helps maximize the solar cell efficiency is the multi-junction tandem solar-cell design. Given this design, multiple photoactive absorbers as subcells are stacked in a monolithic fashion and assembled via series connection into one complete device, known as the tandem solar cell. Since multiple absorbers with different optical energy bandgaps are being applied in one tandem solar-cell device, the corresponding solar cell efficiency is maximized through expanded absorption spectrum and reduced carrier thermalization loss. In Chapter 3, the architecture of solution-processible, visibly transparent solar cells is introduced. Unlike conventional organic solar-cell devices with opaque electrodes (such as silver, aluminum, gold and etc.), the semi-transparent solar cells rely on highly transparent electrodes and visibly transparent photoactive absorbers. Given these two criteria, we first demonstrated the visibly transparent single-junction solar cells via the polymer absorber with near-infrared absorption and the top electrode based on solution-processible silver nanowire conductor. The highest visible transparency (400 ˜ 700 nm) of 65% was achieved for the complete device structure. More importantly, power conversion efficiency of 4% was also demonstrated. In Chapter 4, we stacked two semi-transparent photoactive absorbers in the tandem architecture in order to realize the semi-transparent tandem solar cells. A noticeable performance improvement from 4% to 7% was observed. More importantly, we modified the interconnecting layers with the incorporation of a thin conjugated

  18. Modelling of tandem cell temperature coefficients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, D.J. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-05-01

    This paper discusses the temperature dependence of the basic solar-cell operating parameters for a GaInP/GaAs series-connected two-terminal tandem cell. The effects of series resistance and of different incident solar spectra are also discussed.

  19. Advances in Tandem Mirror fusion power reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perkins, L.J.; Logan, B.G.

    1986-05-20

    The Tandem Mirror exhibits several distinctive features which make the reactor embodiment of the principle very attractive: Simple low-technology linear central cell; steady-state operation; high-..beta.. operation; no driven current or disruptions; divertorless operation; direction conversion of end-loss power; low-surface heat loads; and advanced fusion fuel capability. In this paper, we examine these features in connection with two tandem mirror reactor designs, MARS and MINIMARS, and several advanced reactor concepts including the wall-stabilized reactor and the field-reversed mirror. With a novel compact end plug scheme employing octopole stabilization, MINIMARS is expressly designed for short construction times, factory-built modules, and a small (600 MWe) but economic reactor size. We have also configured the design for low radioactive afterheat and inherent/passive safety under LOCA/LOFA conditions, thereby obviating the need for expensive engineered safety systems. In contrast to the complex and expensive double-quadrupole end-cell of the MARS reactor, the compact octopole end-cell of MINIMARS enables ignition to be achieved with much shorter central cell lengths and considerably improves the economy of scale for small (approx.250 to 600 MWe) tandem mirror reactors. Finally, we examine the prospects for realizing the ultimate potential of the tandem mirror with regard to both innovative configurations and novel neutron energy conversion schemes, and stress that advanced fuel applications could exploit its unique reactor features.

  20. Efficient simulation of a tandem Jackson network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroese, Dirk; Nicola, V.F.

    2002-01-01

    The two-node tandem Jackson network serves as a convenient reference model for the analysis and testing of different methodologies and techniques in rare event simulation. In this paper we consider a new approach to efficiently estimate the probability that the content of the second buffer exceeds

  1. A tandem queue with delayed server release

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nawijn, W.M.

    1997-01-01

    We consider a tandem queue with two stations. The rst station is an s-server queue with Poisson arrivals and exponential service times. After terminating his service in the rst station, a customer enters the second station to require service at an exponential single server, while in the meantime he

  2. Tandem queue with server slow-down

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miretskiy, D.I.; Scheinhardt, W.R.W.; Mandjes, M.R.H.

    2007-01-01

    We study how rare events happen in the standard two-node tandem Jackson queue and in a generalization, the socalled slow-down network, see [2]. In the latter model the service rate of the first server depends on the number of jobs in the second queue: the first server slows down if the amount of

  3. STATIONARY DISTRIBUTION OF A TANDEM QUEUE WITH ADDITIONAL FLOWS ON THE STATIONS OF THE TANDEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Klimenok

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A tandem queueing system consisting of a finite number of multi-server stations without buffers is analized. The input flow at the first station is a ???????????? (Markovian arrival process. The customers from this flow aim to be served at all stations of the tandem. For any station, besides transit customers proceeding from the previous station, an additional ???????????? flow of new customers arrives at this station directly. Customers from this flow aim to be served at this station and all subsequent stations of the tandem. The service times of customer at the stations are exponentially distributed with the service rate depending of number of the station. The algorithms for culculation of stationary distributions and the loss probabilities associated with the tandem are given.

  4. Solution structure of the tandem acyl carrier protein domains from a polyunsaturated fatty acid synthase reveals beads-on-a-string configuration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uldaeliz Trujillo

    Full Text Available The polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA synthases from deep-sea bacteria invariably contain multiple acyl carrier protein (ACP domains in tandem. This conserved tandem arrangement has been implicated in both amplification of fatty acid production (additive effect and in structural stabilization of the multidomain protein (synergistic effect. While the more accepted model is one in which domains act independently, recent reports suggest that ACP domains may form higher oligomers. Elucidating the three-dimensional structure of tandem arrangements may therefore give important insights into the functional relevance of these structures, and hence guide bioengineering strategies. In an effort to elucidate the three-dimensional structure of tandem repeats from deep-sea anaerobic bacteria, we have expressed and purified a fragment consisting of five tandem ACP domains from the PUFA synthase from Photobacterium profundum. Analysis of the tandem ACP fragment by analytical gel filtration chromatography showed a retention time suggestive of a multimeric protein. However, small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS revealed that the multi-ACP fragment is an elongated monomer which does not form a globular unit. Stokes radii calculated from atomic monomeric SAXS models were comparable to those measured by analytical gel filtration chromatography, showing that in the gel filtration experiment, the molecular weight was overestimated due to the elongated protein shape. Thermal denaturation monitored by circular dichroism showed that unfolding of the tandem construct was not cooperative, and that the tandem arrangement did not stabilize the protein. Taken together, these data are consistent with an elongated beads-on-a-string arrangement of the tandem ACP domains in PUFA synthases, and speak against synergistic biocatalytic effects promoted by quaternary structuring. Thus, it is possible to envision bioengineering strategies which simply involve the artificial linking of

  5. Solution Structure of the Tandem Acyl Carrier Protein Domains from a Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Synthase Reveals Beads-on-a-String Configuration

    KAUST Repository

    Trujillo, Uldaeliz

    2013-02-28

    The polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) synthases from deep-sea bacteria invariably contain multiple acyl carrier protein (ACP) domains in tandem. This conserved tandem arrangement has been implicated in both amplification of fatty acid production (additive effect) and in structural stabilization of the multidomain protein (synergistic effect). While the more accepted model is one in which domains act independently, recent reports suggest that ACP domains may form higher oligomers. Elucidating the three-dimensional structure of tandem arrangements may therefore give important insights into the functional relevance of these structures, and hence guide bioengineering strategies. In an effort to elucidate the three-dimensional structure of tandem repeats from deep-sea anaerobic bacteria, we have expressed and purified a fragment consisting of five tandem ACP domains from the PUFA synthase from Photobacterium profundum. Analysis of the tandem ACP fragment by analytical gel filtration chromatography showed a retention time suggestive of a multimeric protein. However, small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) revealed that the multi-ACP fragment is an elongated monomer which does not form a globular unit. Stokes radii calculated from atomic monomeric SAXS models were comparable to those measured by analytical gel filtration chromatography, showing that in the gel filtration experiment, the molecular weight was overestimated due to the elongated protein shape. Thermal denaturation monitored by circular dichroism showed that unfolding of the tandem construct was not cooperative, and that the tandem arrangement did not stabilize the protein. Taken together, these data are consistent with an elongated beads-on-a-string arrangement of the tandem ACP domains in PUFA synthases, and speak against synergistic biocatalytic effects promoted by quaternary structuring. Thus, it is possible to envision bioengineering strategies which simply involve the artificial linking of multiple ACP

  6. To Repeat or Not to Repeat a Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Michael J.; Biktimirov, Ernest N.

    2013-01-01

    The difficult transition from high school to university means that many students need to repeat (retake) 1 or more of their university courses. The authors examine the performance of students repeating first-year core courses in an undergraduate business program. They used data from university records for 116 students who took a total of 232…

  7. Repeat-induced gene silencing of L1 transgenes is correlated with differential promoter methylation

    OpenAIRE

    Rosser, James M.; An, Wenfeng

    2010-01-01

    Recent transgenic studies on L1 retrotransposons have afforded exciting insights into L1 biology, and a unique opportunity to model their function and regulation in vivo. Thus far, the majority of the transgenic L1 mouse lines are constructed via pronuclear microinjection, a procedure that typically results in the integration of tandem arrayed transgenes. Transgene arrays are susceptible to repeat-induced gene silencing (RIGS) in both plants and animals. In order to examine the potential impa...

  8. Intramolecular folding in human ILPR fragment with three C-rich repeats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soma Dhakal

    Full Text Available Enrichment of four tandem repeats of guanine (G rich and cytosine (C rich sequences in functionally important regions of human genome forebodes the biological implications of four-stranded DNA structures, such as G-quadruplex and i-motif, that can form in these sequences. However, there have been few reports on the intramolecular formation of non-B DNA structures in less than four tandem repeats of G or C rich sequences. Here, using mechanical unfolding at the single-molecule level, electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA, circular dichroism (CD, and ultraviolet (UV spectroscopy, we report an intramolecularly folded non-B DNA structure in three tandem cytosine rich repeats, 5'-TGTC4ACAC4TGTC4ACA (ILPR-I3, in the human insulin linked polymorphic region (ILPR. The thermal denaturation analyses of the sequences with systematic C to T mutations have suggested that the structure is linchpinned by a stack of hemiprotonated cytosine pairs between two terminal C4 tracts. Mechanical unfolding and Br(2 footprinting experiments on a mixture of the ILPR-I3 and a 5'-C4TGT fragment have further indicated that the structure serves as a building block for intermolecular i-motif formation. The existence of such a conformation under acidic or neutral pH complies with the strand-by-strand folding pathway of ILPR i-motif structures.

  9. Nifty Nines and Repeating Decimals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    The traditional technique for converting repeating decimals to common fractions can be found in nearly every algebra textbook that has been published, as well as in many precalculus texts. However, students generally encounter repeating decimal numerals earlier than high school when they study rational numbers in prealgebra classes. Therefore, how…

  10. All-photonic quantum repeaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Koji; Tamaki, Kiyoshi; Lo, Hoi-Kwong

    2015-01-01

    Quantum communication holds promise for unconditionally secure transmission of secret messages and faithful transfer of unknown quantum states. Photons appear to be the medium of choice for quantum communication. Owing to photon losses, robust quantum communication over long lossy channels requires quantum repeaters. It is widely believed that a necessary and highly demanding requirement for quantum repeaters is the existence of matter quantum memories. Here we show that such a requirement is, in fact, unnecessary by introducing the concept of all-photonic quantum repeaters based on flying qubits. In particular, we present a protocol based on photonic cluster-state machine guns and a loss-tolerant measurement equipped with local high-speed active feedforwards. We show that, with such all-photonic quantum repeaters, the communication efficiency scales polynomially with the channel distance. Our result paves a new route towards quantum repeaters with efficient single-photon sources rather than matter quantum memories. PMID:25873153

  11. Evolutionary Origin of Higher-Order Repeat Structure in Alpha-Satellite DNA of Primate Centromeres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, Akihiko; Hirai, Yuriko; Terada, Shoko; Jahan, Israt; Baicharoen, Sudarath; Arsaithamkul, Visit; Hirai, Hirohisa

    2014-01-01

    Alpha-satellite DNA (AS) is a main DNA component of primate centromeres, consisting of tandemly repeated units of ∼170 bp. The AS of humans contains sequences organized into higher-order repeat (HOR) structures, in which a block of multiple repeat units forms a larger repeat unit and the larger units are repeated tandemly. The presence of HOR in AS is widely thought to be unique to hominids (family Hominidae; humans and great apes). Recently, we have identified an HOR-containing AS in the siamang, which is a small ape species belonging to the genus Symphalangus in the family Hylobatidae. This result supports the view that HOR in AS is an attribute of hominoids (superfamily Hominoidea) rather than hominids. A single example is, however, not sufficient for discussion of the evolutionary origin of HOR-containing AS. In the present study, we developed an efficient method for detecting signs of large-scale HOR and demonstrated HOR of AS in all the three other genera. Thus, AS organized into HOR occurs widely in hominoids. Our results indicate that (i) HOR-containing AS was present in the last common ancestor of hominoids or (ii) HOR-containing AS emerged independently in most or all basal branches of hominoids. We have also confirmed HOR occurrence in centromeric AS in the Hylobatidae family, which remained unclear in our previous study because of the existence of AS in subtelomeric regions, in addition to centromeres, of siamang chromosomes. PMID:24585002

  12. Diffuse transition state structure for the unfolding of a leucine-rich repeat protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Sadie E; Meisl, Georg; Rowling, Pamela J E; McLaughlin, Stephen H; Knowles, Tuomas; Itzhaki, Laura S

    2014-04-14

    Tandem-repeat proteins, such as leucine-rich repeats, comprise arrays of small structural motifs that pack in a linear fashion to produce elongated architectures. They lack contacts between residues that are distant in primary sequence, a feature that distinguishes them from the complex topologies of globular proteins. Here we have investigated the unfolding pathway of the leucine-rich repeat domain of the mRNA export protein TAP (TAPLRR) using Φ-value analysis. Whereas most of the tandem-repeat proteins studied to date have been found to unfold via a polarised mechanism in which only a small, localised number of repeats are structured in the transition state, the unfolding mechanism of TAPLRR is more diffuse in nature. In the transition state for unfolding of TAPLRR, three of the four LRRs are highly structured and non-native interactions are formed within the N-terminal α-helical cap and the first LRR. Thus, the α-helical cap plays an important role in which non-native interactions are required to provide a scaffold for the LRRs to pack against in the folding reaction.

  13. Oak Ridge 25-MV tandem accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziegler, N.F.; Richardson, E.G.; Mann, J.E.; Juras, R.C.; Jones, C.M.; Biggerstaff, J.A.; Benjamin, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    A new heavy-ion accelerator facility is nearing completion at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This paper presents a brief description of the scope and status of this project and a discussion of some aspects of the first operational experience with the 25 MV tandem accelerator which is being provided by the National Electrostatics Corporation (NEC) as a major component of the first phase of the facility.

  14. [Body-mind unity in tandem hypnotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vas P, József; Császár, Noémi

    2012-01-01

    The new bodymind theory describes unity of body and mind as a quantum process, which can go back to embryonic period of life. Authors have worked out tandem hypnotherapy method regarding bodymind theory. Tandem has two meanings: (1) a multi-seater bicycle, (2) a mosaic word: Touch of Ancient and New generations with a Dialogue Experiencing Oneness of Minds (TANDEM). Hypnotherapy, psychodrama, family therapy, Hellinger's systemic-phenomenological approach, and, the holding-therapy can be viewed as precedents of the method. More than two persons in a physical closeness touching each other take part in therapy: (1) patient(s), (2) one or more co-therapists; one or more antagonists (in the latter case is of hypnodrama), (3) therapist, who is responsible to take the tandem of patient(s) and co-therapist(s) to trance, while (s)he keeps distance securing neutrality. The method will be illustrated with some case-vignettes. Sensory-motor level of development is supposed by the authors as stemmed from fetal period of life. It is suggested to be paralled to associative mode of experiencing, in which object and subject can't be viewed as differenciated from each other resulting unity or oneness experience. The most effective stimulus of associative mode of experiencing is regarded to be physical closeness and touching, which are seen in intimate situations. That is the reason why fundamental rules of therapeutic touching are to be kept. The new method can be viewed as a form of bodypsychotherapy having possibilities to resolve pathological consequences of either fetal or intergenerational traumas.

  15. Cold Climate Heat Pumps Using Tandem Compressors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Bo [ORNL; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Rice, C Keith [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    In cold climate zones, e.g. ASHRAE climate regions IV and V, conventional electric air-source heat pumps (ASHP) do not work well, due to high compressor discharge temperatures, large pressure ratios and inadequate heating capacities at low ambient temperatures. Consequently, significant use of auxiliary strip heating is required to meet the building heating load. We introduce innovative ASHP technologies as part of continuing efforts to eliminate auxiliary strip heat use and maximize heating COP with acceptable cost-effectiveness and reliability. These innovative ASHP were developed using tandem compressors, which are capable of augmenting heating capacity at low temperatures and maintain superior part-load operation efficiency at moderate temperatures. Two options of tandem compressors were studied; the first employs two identical, single-speed compressors, and the second employs two identical, vapor-injection compressors. The investigations were based on system modeling and laboratory evaluation. Both designs have successfully met the performance criteria. Laboratory evaluation showed that the tandem, single-speed compressor ASHP system is able to achieve heating COP = 4.2 at 47 F (8.3 C), COP = 2.9 at 17 F (-8.3 C), and 76% rated capacity and COP = 1.9 at -13 F (-25 C). This yields a HSPF = 11.0 (per AHRI 210/240). The tandem, vapor-injection ASHP is able to reach heating COP = 4.4 at 47 F, COP = 3.1 at 17 F, and 88% rated capacity and COP = 2.0 at -13 F. This yields a HSPF = 12.0. The system modeling and further laboratory evaluation are presented in the paper.

  16. Achieving 15% Tandem Polymer Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-23

    final support also enabled us to explore novel hybrid perovskite solar cells in depth. For example, single junction cell efficiency of 19.3% under...novel hybrid perovskite solar cells in depth. For example, single junction cell efficiency of 19.3% under reverse bias was achieved and the results...3 In a second effort, a monolithic integration of perovskite and LBG polymer:fullerene subcells into a tandem structure is realized through a full

  17. ORNL 25 MV tandem accelerator control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juras, R.C.; Biggerstaff, J.A.; Hoglund, D.E.

    1986-06-01

    The CAMAC-based control system for the 25 MV tandem electrostatic accelerator of the Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was specified by ORNL and built by the National Electrostatics Corporation. Two Perkin-Elmer 32-bit minicomputers are used in the system: a message switching computer and a supervisory computer. The message switching computer transmits and receives control information on six serial highways. This computer shares memory with the supervisory computer. Operator consoles are located on a serial highway; control is by means of a console CRT, trackball, and assignable shaft encoders and meters. Two identical consoles operate simultaneously: one is located in the tandem control room; the other is located in the cyclotron control room to facilitate operation during injection of tandem beams into the cyclotron or when beam lines under control of the cyclotron control system are used. The supervisory computer is used for accelerator parameter setup calculations, actual accelerator setup for new beams based on scaled, recorded parameters from previously run beams, and various other functions. The experience of nearly seven years of control system operation and improvements is discussed.

  18. ORNL 25 MV tandem accelerator control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juras, R.C.; Biggerstaff, J.A.; Hoglund, D.E.

    1985-01-01

    The CAMAC-based control system for the 25 MV tandem electrostatic accelerator of the Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was specified by ORNL and built by the National Electrostatics Corporation. Two Perkin-Elmer 32-bit minicomputers are used in the system, a message switching computer and a supervisory computer. The message switching computer transmits and receives control information on six serial highways. This computer shares memory with the supervisory computer. Operator consoles are located on a serial highway; control is by means of a console CRT, trackball, and assignable shaft encoders and meters. Two identical consoles operate simultaneously: one is located in the tandem control room; the other is located in the cyclotron control room to facilitate operation during injection of tandem beams into the cyclotron or when beam lines under control of the cyclotron control system are used. The supervisory computer is used for accelerator parameter setup calculations, actual accelerator setup for new beams based on scaled, recorded parameters from previously run beams, and various other functions. Nearly seven years of control system operation and improvements will be discussed.

  19. TandEM: Titan and Enceladus mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coustenis, A.; Atreya, S.K.; Balint, T.; Brown, R.H.; Dougherty, M.K.; Ferri, F.; Fulchignoni, M.; Gautier, D.; Gowen, R.A.; Griffith, C.A.; Gurvits, L.I.; Jaumann, R.; Langevin, Y.; Leese, M.R.; Lunine, J.I.; McKay, C.P.; Moussas, X.; Muller-Wodarg, I.; Neubauer, F.; Owen, T.C.; Raulin, F.; Sittler, E.C.; Sohl, F.; Sotin, Christophe; Tobie, G.; Tokano, T.; Turtle, E.P.; Wahlund, J.-E.; Waite, J.H.; Baines, K.H.; Blamont, J.; Coates, A.J.; Dandouras, I.; Krimigis, T.; Lellouch, E.; Lorenz, R.D.; Morse, A.; Porco, C.C.; Hirtzig, M.; Saur, J.; Spilker, T.; Zarnecki, J.C.; Choi, E.; Achilleos, N.; Amils, R.; Annan, P.; Atkinson, D.H.; Benilan, Y.; Bertucci, C.; Bezard, B.; Bjoraker, G.L.; Blanc, M.; Boireau, L.; Bouman, J.; Cabane, M.; Capria, M.T.; Chassefiere, E.; Coll, P.; Combes, M.; Cooper, J.F.; Coradini, A.; Crary, F.; Cravens, T.; Daglis, I.A.; de Angelis, E.; De Bergh, C.; de Pater, I.; Dunford, C.; Durry, G.; Dutuit, O.; Fairbrother, D.; Flasar, F.M.; Fortes, A.D.; Frampton, R.; Fujimoto, M.; Galand, M.; Grasset, O.; Grott, M.; Haltigin, T.; Herique, A.; Hersant, F.; Hussmann, H.; Ip, W.; Johnson, R.; Kallio, E.; Kempf, S.; Knapmeyer, M.; Kofman, W.; Koop, R.; Kostiuk, T.; Krupp, N.; Kuppers, M.; Lammer, H.; Lara, L.-M.; Lavvas, P.; Le, Mouelic S.; Lebonnois, S.; Ledvina, S.; Li, Ji; Livengood, T.A.; Lopes, R.M.; Lopez-Moreno, J. -J.; Luz, D.; Mahaffy, P.R.; Mall, U.; Martinez-Frias, J.; Marty, B.; McCord, T.; Salvan, C.M.; Milillo, A.; Mitchell, D.G.; Modolo, R.; Mousis, O.; Nakamura, M.; Neish, Catherine D.; Nixon, C.A.; Mvondo, D.N.; Orton, G.; Paetzold, M.; Pitman, J.; Pogrebenko, S.; Pollard, W.; Prieto-Ballesteros, O.; Rannou, P.; Reh, K.; Richter, L.; Robb, F.T.; Rodrigo, R.; Rodriguez, S.; Romani, P.; Bermejo, M.R.; Sarris, E.T.; Schenk, P.; Schmitt, B.; Schmitz, N.; Schulze-Makuch, D.; Schwingenschuh, K.; Selig, A.; Sicardy, B.; Soderblom, L.; Spilker, L.J.; Stam, D.; Steele, A.; Stephan, K.; Strobel, D.F.; Szego, K.; Szopa,

    2009-01-01

    TandEM was proposed as an L-class (large) mission in response to ESA's Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 Call, and accepted for further studies, with the goal of exploring Titan and Enceladus. The mission concept is to perform in situ investigations of two worlds tied together by location and properties, whose remarkable natures have been partly revealed by the ongoing Cassini-Huygens mission. These bodies still hold mysteries requiring a complete exploration using a variety of vehicles and instruments. TandEM is an ambitious mission because its targets are two of the most exciting and challenging bodies in the Solar System. It is designed to build on but exceed the scientific and technological accomplishments of the Cassini-Huygens mission, exploring Titan and Enceladus in ways that are not currently possible (full close-up and in situ coverage over long periods of time). In the current mission architecture, TandEM proposes to deliver two medium-sized spacecraft to the Saturnian system. One spacecraft would be an orbiter with a large host of instruments which would perform several Enceladus flybys and deliver penetrators to its surface before going into a dedicated orbit around Titan alone, while the other spacecraft would carry the Titan in situ investigation components, i.e. a hot-air balloon (Montgolfi??re) and possibly several landing probes to be delivered through the atmosphere. ?? Springer Science + Business Media B.V. 2008.

  20. Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder children with a 7-repeat allele of the dopamine recepter D4 gene have extreme behavior but normal performance on critical neuropsychological tests of attention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swanson, J.; Oosterlaan, J.; Murias, M.; Schuck, S.; Flodman, P.; Spence, M.A.; Wasdell, M.; Ding, Y.; Chi, H-C.; Smith, M.; Mann, M.; Carlson, C.; Kennedy, J.L.; Sergeant, J.A.; Leung, P.; Zhang, Y-P.; Sadeh, A.; Chan, C.; Whalen, C.K.; Babb, K.; Moyzis, R.; Posner, M.I.

    2000-01-01

    An association of the dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) gene located on chromosome 11p15.5 and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been demonstrated and replicated by multiple investigators. A specific allele [the 7-repeat of a 48-bp variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) in exon 3] has

  1. Thermodynamic characterization of tandem mismatches found in naturally occurring RNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Martha E.; Znosko, Brent M.

    2009-01-01

    Although all sequence symmetric tandem mismatches and some sequence asymmetric tandem mismatches have been thermodynamically characterized and a model has been proposed to predict the stability of previously unmeasured sequence asymmetric tandem mismatches [Christiansen,M.E. and Znosko,B.M. (2008) Biochemistry, 47, 4329–4336], experimental thermodynamic data for frequently occurring tandem mismatches is lacking. Since experimental data is preferred over a predictive model, the thermodynamic parameters for 25 frequently occurring tandem mismatches were determined. These new experimental values, on average, are 1.0 kcal/mol different from the values predicted for these mismatches using the previous model. The data for the sequence asymmetric tandem mismatches reported here were then combined with the data for 72 sequence asymmetric tandem mismatches that were published previously, and the parameters used to predict the thermodynamics of previously unmeasured sequence asymmetric tandem mismatches were updated. The average absolute difference between the measured values and the values predicted using these updated parameters is 0.5 kcal/mol. This updated model improves the prediction for tandem mismatches that were predicted rather poorly by the previous model. This new experimental data and updated predictive model allow for more accurate calculations of the free energy of RNA duplexes containing tandem mismatches, and, furthermore, should allow for improved prediction of secondary structure from sequence. PMID:19509311

  2. Alu repeats as markers for forensic DNA analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batzer, M.A.; Alegria-Hartman, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Kass, D.H. [Louisiana State Univ., New Orleans, LA (United States)] [and others

    1994-01-01

    The Human-Specific (HS) subfamily of Alu sequences is comprised of a group of 500 nearly identical members which are almost exclusively restricted to the human genome. Individual subfamily members share an average of 98.9% nucleotide identity with the HS subfamily consensus sequence, and have an average age of 2.8 million years. We have developed a Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) based assay using primers complementary to the 5 inch and 3 inch unique flanking DNA sequences from each HS Alu that allow the locus to be assayed for the presence or absence of the Alu repeat. The dimorphic HS Alu sequences probably inserted in the human genome after the radiation of modem humans (within the last 200,000-one million years) and represent a unique source of information for human population genetics and forensic DNA analyses. These sites can be developed into Dimorphic Alu Sequence Tagged Sites (DASTS) for the Human Genome Project. HS Alu family member insertions differ from other types of polymorphism (e.g. Variable Number of Tandem Repeat [VNTR] or Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism [RFLP]) in that polymorphisms due to Alu insertions arise as a result of a unique event which has occurred only one time in the human population and spread through the population from that point. Therefore, individuals that share HS Alu repeats inherited these elements from a common ancestor. Most VNTR and RFLP polymorphisms may arise multiple times in parallel within a population.

  3. Evolution of short inverted repeat in cupressophytes, transfer of accD to nucleus in Sciadopitys verticillata and phylogenetic position of Sciadopityaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; Gao, Lei; Chen, Shanshan; Tao, Ke; Su, Yingjuan; Wang, Ting

    2016-02-11

    Sciadopitys verticillata is an evergreen conifer and an economically valuable tree used in construction, which is the only member of the family Sciadopityaceae. Acquisition of the S. verticillata chloroplast (cp) genome will be useful for understanding the evolutionary mechanism of conifers and phylogenetic relationships among gymnosperm. In this study, we have first reported the complete chloroplast genome of S. verticillata. The total genome is 138,284 bp in length, consisting of 118 unique genes. The S. verticillata cp genome has lost one copy of the canonical inverted repeats and shown distinctive genomic structure comparing with other cupressophytes. Fifty-three simple sequence repeat loci and 18 forward tandem repeats were identified in the S. verticillata cp genome. According to the rearrangement of cupressophyte cp genome, we proposed one mechanism for the formation of inverted repeat: tandem repeat occured first, then rearrangement divided the tandem repeat into inverted repeats located at different regions. Phylogenetic estimates inferred from 59-gene sequences and cpDNA organizations have both shown that S. verticillata was sister to the clade consisting of Cupressaceae, Taxaceae, and Cephalotaxaceae. Moreover, accD gene was found to be lost in the S. verticillata cp genome, and a nucleus copy was identified from two transcriptome data.

  4. Evolution of short inverted repeat in cupressophytes, transfer of accD to nucleus in Sciadopitys verticillata and phylogenetic position of Sciadopityaceae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; Gao, Lei; Chen, Shanshan; Tao, Ke; Su, Yingjuan; Wang, Ting

    2016-01-01

    Sciadopitys verticillata is an evergreen conifer and an economically valuable tree used in construction, which is the only member of the family Sciadopityaceae. Acquisition of the S. verticillata chloroplast (cp) genome will be useful for understanding the evolutionary mechanism of conifers and phylogenetic relationships among gymnosperm. In this study, we have first reported the complete chloroplast genome of S. verticillata. The total genome is 138,284 bp in length, consisting of 118 unique genes. The S. verticillata cp genome has lost one copy of the canonical inverted repeats and shown distinctive genomic structure comparing with other cupressophytes. Fifty-three simple sequence repeat loci and 18 forward tandem repeats were identified in the S. verticillata cp genome. According to the rearrangement of cupressophyte cp genome, we proposed one mechanism for the formation of inverted repeat: tandem repeat occured first, then rearrangement divided the tandem repeat into inverted repeats located at different regions. Phylogenetic estimates inferred from 59-gene sequences and cpDNA organizations have both shown that S. verticillata was sister to the clade consisting of Cupressaceae, Taxaceae, and Cephalotaxaceae. Moreover, accD gene was found to be lost in the S. verticillata cp genome, and a nucleus copy was identified from two transcriptome data. PMID:26865528

  5. Analysis of repeated measures data

    CERN Document Server

    Islam, M Ataharul

    2017-01-01

    This book presents a broad range of statistical techniques to address emerging needs in the field of repeated measures. It also provides a comprehensive overview of extensions of generalized linear models for the bivariate exponential family of distributions, which represent a new development in analysing repeated measures data. The demand for statistical models for correlated outcomes has grown rapidly recently, mainly due to presence of two types of underlying associations: associations between outcomes, and associations between explanatory variables and outcomes. The book systematically addresses key problems arising in the modelling of repeated measures data, bearing in mind those factors that play a major role in estimating the underlying relationships between covariates and outcome variables for correlated outcome data. In addition, it presents new approaches to addressing current challenges in the field of repeated measures and models based on conditional and joint probabilities. Markov models of first...

  6. Repeated DNA sequences in fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, S.K.

    1974-11-01

    Several fungal species, representatives of all broad groups like basidiomycetes, ascomycetes and phycomycetes, were examined for the nature of repeated DNA sequences by DNA:DNA reassociation studies using hydroxyapatite chromatography. All of the fungal species tested contained 10 to 20 percent repeated DNA sequences. There are approximately 100 to 110 copies of repeated DNA sequences of approximately 4 x 10/sup 7/ daltons piece size of each. Repeated DNA sequence homoduplexes showed on average 5/sup 0/C difference of T/sub e/50 (temperature at which 50 percent duplexes dissociate) values from the corresponding homoduplexes of unfractionated whole DNA. It is suggested that a part of repetitive sequences in fungi constitutes mitochondrial DNA and a part of it constitutes nuclear DNA. (auth)

  7. A strategy of gene overexpression based on tandem repetitive promoters in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Mingji

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For metabolic engineering, many rate-limiting steps may exist in the pathways of accumulating the target metabolites. Increasing copy number of the desired genes in these pathways is a general method to solve the problem, for example, the employment of the multi-copy plasmid-based expression system. However, this method may bring genetic instability, structural instability and metabolic burden to the host, while integrating of the desired gene into the chromosome may cause inadequate transcription or expression. In this study, we developed a strategy for obtaining gene overexpression by engineering promoter clusters consisted of multiple core-tac-promoters (MCPtacs in tandem. Results Through a uniquely designed in vitro assembling process, a series of promoter clusters were constructed. The transcription strength of these promoter clusters showed a stepwise enhancement with the increase of tandem repeats number until it reached the critical value of five. Application of the MCPtacs promoter clusters in polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB production proved that it was efficient. Integration of the phaCAB genes with the 5CPtacs promoter cluster resulted in an engineered E.coli that can accumulate 23.7% PHB of the cell dry weight in batch cultivation. Conclusions The transcription strength of the MCPtacs promoter cluster can be greatly improved by increasing the tandem repeats number of the core-tac-promoter. By integrating the desired gene together with the MCPtacs promoter cluster into the chromosome of E. coli, we can achieve high and stale overexpression with only a small size. This strategy has an application potential in many fields and can be extended to other bacteria.

  8. Brief-stimulus presentations on multiform tandem schedules

    OpenAIRE

    Reed, Phil

    1994-01-01

    Three experiments examined the influence of a brief stimulus (a light) on the behavior of food-deprived rats whose lever pressing on tandem schedules comprising components of different schedule types resulted in food presentation. In Experiment 1, either a tandem variable-ratio variable-interval or a tandem variable-interval variable-ratio schedule was used. The variable-interval requirement in the tandem variable-ratio variable-interval schedule was yoked to the time taken to complete the va...

  9. Flexible and fragmentable tandem photosensitive nanocrystal skins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhavan, S; Uran, C; Bozok, B; Gungor, K; Kelestemur, Y; Lesnyak, V; Gaponik, N; Eychmüller, A; Demir, H V

    2016-02-28

    We proposed and demonstrated the first account of large-area, semi-transparent, tandem photosensitive nanocrystal skins (PNSs) constructed on flexible substrates operating on the principle of photogenerated potential buildup, which avoid the need for applying an external bias and circumvent the current-matching limitation between junctions. We successfully fabricated and operated the tandem PNSs composed of single monolayers of colloidal water-soluble CdTe and CdHgTe nanocrystals (NCs) in adjacent junctions on a Kapton polymer tape. Owing to the usage of a single NC layer in each junction, noise generation was significantly reduced while keeping the resulting PNS films considerably transparent. In each junction, photogenerated excitons are dissociated at the interface of the semi-transparent Al electrode and the NC layer, with holes migrating to the contact electrode and electrons trapped in the NCs. As a result, the tandem PNSs lead to an open-circuit photovoltage buildup equal to the sum of those of the two single junctions, exhibiting a total voltage buildup of 128.4 mV at an excitation intensity of 75.8 μW cm(-2) at 350 nm. Furthermore, we showed that these flexible PNSs could be bent over 3.5 mm radius of curvature and cut out in arbitrary shapes without damaging the operation of individual parts and without introducing any significant loss in the total sensitivity. These findings indicate that the NC skins are promising as building blocks to make low-cost, flexible, large-area UV/visible sensing platforms with highly efficient full-spectrum conversion.

  10. Method of fabricating bifacial tandem solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtczuk, Steven J; Chiu, Philip T; Zhang, Xuebing; Gagnon, Edward; Timmons, Michael

    2014-10-07

    A method of fabricating on a semiconductor substrate bifacial tandem solar cells with semiconductor subcells having a lower bandgap than the substrate bandgap on one side of the substrate and with subcells having a higher bandgap than the substrate on the other including, first, growing a lower bandgap subcell on one substrate side that uses only the same periodic table group V material in the dislocation-reducing grading layers and bottom subcells as is present in the substrate and after the initial growth is complete and then flipping the substrate and growing the higher bandgap subcells on the opposite substrate side which can be of different group V material.

  11. Tandem robot control system and method for controlling mobile robots in tandem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, David R.; Buttz, James H.; Shirey, David L.

    2002-01-01

    A control system for controlling mobile robots provides a way to control mobile robots, connected in tandem with coupling devices, to navigate across difficult terrain or in closed spaces. The mobile robots can be controlled cooperatively as a coupled system in linked mode or controlled individually as separate robots.

  12. Sporozoite neutralizing antibodies elicited in mice and rhesus macaques immunized with a Plasmodium falciparum repeat peptide conjugated to meningococcal outer membrane protein complex

    OpenAIRE

    Craig ePrzysiecki; Bob eLucas; Robert eMitchell; Zhiyun eWen; Daniel eCarapau; Xin-Min eWang; Debbie eNahas; Chengwei eWu; Robert eHepler; Elizabeth eOttinger; Jan eter Meulen; David eKaslow; John eShiver; Hui eXu; Elizabeth eNardin

    2012-01-01

    Antibodies that neutralize infectivity of malaria sporozoites target the central repeat region of the circumsporozoite (CS) protein, which in Plasmodium falciparum is comprised primarily of 30–40 tandem NANP tetramer repeats. We evaluated immunogenicity of an alum-adsorbed (NANP)6 peptide conjugated to an outer membrane protein complex (OMPC) derived from Neisseria meningitidis, a carrier protein used in a licensed Haemophilus influenzae pediatric vaccine. Mice immunized with (NANP)6-OMPC ads...

  13. Repeat-mediated epigenetic dysregulation of the FMR1 gene in the fragile X-related disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usdin, Karen; Kumari, Daman

    2015-01-01

    The fragile X-related disorders are members of the Repeat Expansion Diseases, a group of genetic conditions resulting from an expansion in the size of a tandem repeat tract at a specific genetic locus. The repeat responsible for disease pathology in the fragile X-related disorders is CGG/CCG and the repeat tract is located in the 5' UTR of the FMR1 gene, whose protein product FMRP, is important for the proper translation of dendritic mRNAs in response to synaptic activation. There are two different pathological FMR1 allele classes that are distinguished only by the number of repeats. Premutation alleles have 55-200 repeats and confer risk of fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome and fragile X-associated primary ovarian insufficiency. Full mutation alleles on the other hand have >200 repeats and result in fragile X syndrome, a disorder that affects learning and behavior. Different symptoms are seen in carriers of premutation and full mutation alleles because the repeat number has paradoxical effects on gene expression: Epigenetic changes increase transcription from premutation alleles and decrease transcription from full mutation alleles. This review will cover what is currently known about the mechanisms responsible for these changes in FMR1 expression and how they may relate to other Repeat Expansion Diseases that also show repeat-mediated changes in gene expression.

  14. On the improvement of tandem solar cell conversion efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Kosheiry, M.A.; Shousha, A.H.M. (Cairo Univ. (EG). Electronics and Electrical Communications Dept.)

    1992-02-01

    The main objectives of this paper is to investigate how the physical and structural parameters of the tandem series-connected solar cell structure can be chosen to yield higher conversion efficiencies. A quick suboptimal tandem cell design method based on the criterion of photocurrent matching in the individual cells forming the tandem structure is presented. In this method, the algorithm does not involve detailed calculations in order to obtain a suboptimal tandem cell design. In this respect, the method offers a significant speed advantage compared to the previous tandem cell efficiency calculations. To further enhance the tandem cell efficiency, a constrained optimization program is developed and merged with the tandem solar cell model. Here, the values of all the relevant parameters are allowed to change simultaneously within the limits dictated by the cell's physics and fabrication technology. The resulting boost in efficiency is assessed by comparison with the common suboptimal design based on tandem cell modelling alone, and is shown to be significant in the cases considered. (author).

  15. Beam optics of the folded tandem ion accelerator at BARC

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 59; Issue 1. Beam optics of the folded tandem ion accelerator ... The beam optics of the 6 MV folded tandem ion accelerator, that has recently been commissioned at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, is presented. Typical beam trajectories for proton and 12C ...

  16. A solution process for inverted tandem solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen-Olsen, Thue Trofod; Bundgaard, Eva; Sylvester-Hvid, Kristian O.

    2011-01-01

    Tandem solar cells with normal and inverted device geometries were prepared by a solution process. Both device types were based on the use of zinc(II)oxide as the electron transporting layer (ETL). The hole transporting layer (HTL) was either PEDOT:PSS for normal geometry tandem solar cells...

  17. Negotiating Multiple Identities through eTandem Learning Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Se Jeong; Yi, Youngjoo

    2017-01-01

    Much of eTandem research has investigated either linguistic or cross-cultural aspects of second language (L2) learning, but relatively little is known about issues of identity construction in an eTandem context. Situating the study within theories and research of language learner identity, we examined ways in which two adult L2 learners (a Korean…

  18. INVESTIGATION OF InGaN/Si DOUBLE JUNCTION TANDEM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-12-31

    Dec 31, 2012 ... 1. INTRODUCTION. Photovoltaic (PV) tandem cells have been widely demonstrated in recent years as an effective pathway to realize higher conversion efficiency, showing promising prospects in both terrestrial and space applications. Theoretical modelling of two-junction tandem solar cells shows that for ...

  19. Efficiency of repeated network interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmer, Judith B.; Mandjes, M.R.H.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we consider a network with interactions by two users. Each of them repeatedly issues download requests on the network. These requests may be unsuccessful due to congestion or non-congestion related errors. A user decides when to cancel a request (that is, what his impatience threshold

  20. Selection pressure on human STR loci and its relevance in repeat expansion disease

    KAUST Repository

    Shimada, Makoto K.

    2016-06-11

    Short Tandem Repeats (STRs) comprise repeats of one to several base pairs. Because of the high mutability due to strand slippage during DNA synthesis, rapid evolutionary change in the number of repeating units directly shapes the range of repeat-number variation according to selection pressure. However, the remaining questions include: Why are STRs causing repeat expansion diseases maintained in the human population; and why are these limited to neurodegenerative diseases? By evaluating the genome-wide selection pressure on STRs using the database we constructed, we identified two different patterns of relationship in repeat-number polymorphisms between DNA and amino-acid sequences, although both patterns are evolutionary consequences of avoiding the formation of harmful long STRs. First, a mixture of degenerate codons is represented in poly-proline (poly-P) repeats. Second, long poly-glutamine (poly-Q) repeats are favored at the protein level; however, at the DNA level, STRs encoding long poly-Qs are frequently divided by synonymous SNPs. Furthermore, significant enrichments of apoptosis and neurodevelopment were biological processes found specifically in genes encoding poly-Qs with repeat polymorphism. This suggests the existence of a specific molecular function for polymorphic and/or long poly-Q stretches. Given that the poly-Qs causing expansion diseases were longer than other poly-Qs, even in healthy subjects, our results indicate that the evolutionary benefits of long and/or polymorphic poly-Q stretches outweigh the risks of long CAG repeats predisposing to pathological hyper-expansions. Molecular pathways in neurodevelopment requiring long and polymorphic poly-Q stretches may provide a clue to understanding why poly-Q expansion diseases are limited to neurodegenerative diseases. © 2016, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  1. Optimization PCR for Detection CTG/CCTG-Repeat Expansions in the Diagnosis of Myotonic Dystrophies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yan-Xin; Shen, Hong-Rui; Zhao, Zhe; Bing, Qi; Li, Nan; Hu, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Myotonic dystrophies (DMs) are a group of autosomal dominant neuromuscular disorders which are caused by large CTG/CCTG-repeat expansions in untranslated regions of DMPK/ZNF9 gene. The "phenotypic overlap" in DMs creates complication in distinguishing patients with DM1 from patients with DM2 and underscores the need for these patients to undergo genetic test; therefore, detection and accurate sizing of the CTG/CCTG-repeat expansions are necessary. Templates with long CTG/CCTG tandem repeats are difficult to amplify by convention PCR. The aim of our study was to develop an efficient, economic amplification method which based on combination of primer design, modified annealing, and extension conditions in PCR amplification. We detected and analyzed the CTG-repeat expansions in patients having clinical, electrophysiological, and muscle pathology features indicative of DMs by optimization PCR. If no CTG-repeat expansions were detected, we subsequently analyzed the CCTG-repeat expansions in the remaining patients. 42 participants included 25 DMs patients and 17 family members. 22 patients showed CTG-repeat expansions, the CTG-repeat ranged from 53 to 683 and the average was 535; 3 patients showed CCTG-repeat expansions, the CCTG-repeat ranged from 400 to 450 and the average was 416. Molecular genetic tests are essential for DMs diagnosis; Optimization PCR under the optimal conditions of primer design, modified annealing, and extension conditions can be used for efficient PCR in DMs diagnosis; Optimization PCR can greatly improve the positive detection of DMs, provide an economic, accurate, and rapid method for routine diagnostic use. © 2015 by the Association of Clinical Scientists, Inc.

  2. Tandem come tirocinio: la riflessione nel corso dell'azione - in un tandem in presenza italiano-portoghese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luisa Vassallo

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available II presente studio è dedicato al Tandem, un metodo di studio delle lingue straniere autonomo e collaborativo. Esso illustra alcune potenzialità di questa forma didattica per la formazione degli insegnanti, utilizzando il concetto di riflessione nel corso dell'azione elaborato dal filosofo statunitense Donald Schön (1983. Il capitolo 1 introduce il metodo Tandem. Il capitolo 2 analizza il Tandem alla luce della teoria di Schön. Il capitolo 3 descrive l'aspetto riflessivo in un Tandem in presenza, svolto nel 2004 in Brasile. II capitolo 4 propone alcuni motivi per considerare il metodo Tandem un contesto complementare utile per la formazione alla pratica docente attraverso il tirocinio.

  3. Protein Sequencing with Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziady, Assem G.; Kinter, Michael

    The recent introduction of electrospray ionization techniques that are suitable for peptides and whole proteins has allowed for the design of mass spectrometric protocols that provide accurate sequence information for proteins. The advantages gained by these approaches over traditional Edman Degradation sequencing include faster analysis and femtomole, sometimes attomole, sensitivity. The ability to efficiently identify proteins has allowed investigators to conduct studies on their differential expression or modification in response to various treatments or disease states. In this chapter, we discuss the use of electrospray tandem mass spectrometry, a technique whereby protein-derived peptides are subjected to fragmentation in the gas phase, revealing sequence information for the protein. This powerful technique has been instrumental for the study of proteins and markers associated with various disorders, including heart disease, cancer, and cystic fibrosis. We use the study of protein expression in cystic fibrosis as an example.

  4. MSDB: A Comprehensive Database of Simple Sequence Repeats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avvaru, Akshay Kumar; Saxena, Saketh; Sowpati, Divya Tej; Mishra, Rakesh Kumar

    2017-06-01

    Microsatellites, also known as Simple Sequence Repeats (SSRs), are short tandem repeats of 1-6 nt motifs present in all genomes, particularly eukaryotes. Besides their usefulness as genome markers, SSRs have been shown to perform important regulatory functions, and variations in their length at coding regions are linked to several disorders in humans. Microsatellites show a taxon-specific enrichment in eukaryotic genomes, and some may be functional. MSDB (Microsatellite Database) is a collection of >650 million SSRs from 6,893 species including Bacteria, Archaea, Fungi, Plants, and Animals. This database is by far the most exhaustive resource to access and analyze SSR data of multiple species. In addition to exploring data in a customizable tabular format, users can view and compare the data of multiple species simultaneously using our interactive plotting system. MSDB is developed using the Django framework and MySQL. It is freely available at http://tdb.ccmb.res.in/msdb. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  5. A repeating fast radio burst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitler, L. G.; Scholz, P.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Bogdanov, S.; Brazier, A.; Camilo, F.; Chatterjee, S.; Cordes, J. M.; Crawford, F.; Deneva, J.; Ferdman, R. D.; Freire, P. C. C.; Kaspi, V. M.; Lazarus, P.; Lynch, R.; Madsen, E. C.; McLaughlin, M. A.; Patel, C.; Ransom, S. M.; Seymour, A.; Stairs, I. H.; Stappers, B. W.; van Leeuwen, J.; Zhu, W. W.

    2016-03-01

    Fast radio bursts are millisecond-duration astronomical radio pulses of unknown physical origin that appear to come from extragalactic distances. Previous follow-up observations have failed to find additional bursts at the same dispersion measure (that is, the integrated column density of free electrons between source and telescope) and sky position as the original detections. The apparent non-repeating nature of these bursts has led to the suggestion that they originate in cataclysmic events. Here we report observations of ten additional bursts from the direction of the fast radio burst FRB 121102. These bursts have dispersion measures and sky positions consistent with the original burst. This unambiguously identifies FRB 121102 as repeating and demonstrates that its source survives the energetic events that cause the bursts. Additionally, the bursts from FRB 121102 show a wide range of spectral shapes that appear to be predominantly intrinsic to the source and which vary on timescales of minutes or less. Although there may be multiple physical origins for the population of fast radio bursts, these repeat bursts with high dispersion measure and variable spectra specifically seen from the direction of FRB 121102 support an origin in a young, highly magnetized, extragalactic neutron star.

  6. A tandem-based compact dual-energy gamma generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persaud, A; Kwan, J W; Leitner, M; Leung, K-N; Ludewigt, B; Tanaka, N; Waldron, W; Wilde, S; Antolak, A J; Morse, D H; Raber, T

    2010-02-01

    A dual-energy tandem-type gamma generator has been developed at E. O. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories. The tandem accelerator geometry allows higher energy nuclear reactions to be reached, thereby allowing more flexible generation of MeV-energy gammas for active interrogation applications. Both positively charged ions and atoms of hydrogen are created from negative ions via a gas stripper. In this paper, we show first results of the working tandem-based gamma generator and that a gas stripper can be utilized in a compact source design. Preliminary results of monoenergetic gamma production are shown.

  7. Alu repeats as markers for human population genetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batzer, M.A.; Alegria-Hartman, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Bazan, H. [Louisiana State Univ., New Orleans, LA (United States). Medical Center] [and others

    1993-09-01

    The Human-Specific (HS) subfamily of Alu sequences is comprised of a group of 500 nearly identical members which are almost exclusively restricted to the human genome. Individual subfamily members share an average of 97.9% nucleotide identity with each other and an average of 98.9% nucleotide identity with the HS subfamily consensus sequence. HS Alu family members are thought to be derived from a single source ``master`` gene, and have an average age of 2.8 million years. We have developed a Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) based assay using primers complementary to the 5 in. and 3 in. unique flanking DNA sequences from each HS Alu that allows the locus to be assayed for the presence or absence of an Alu repeat. Individual HS Alu sequences were found to be either monomorphic or dimorphic for the presence or absence of each repeat. The monomorphic HS Alu family members inserted in the human genome after the human/great ape divergence (which is thought to have occurred 4--6 million years ago), but before the radiation of modem man. The dimorphic HS Alu sequences inserted in the human genome after the radiation of modem man (within the last 200,000-one million years) and represent a unique source of information for human population genetics and forensic DNA analyses. These sites can be developed into Dimorphic Alu Sequence Tagged Sites (DASTS) for the Human Genome Project as well. HS Alu family member insertion dimorphism differs from other types of polymorphism (e.g. Variable Number of Tandem Repeat [VNTR] or Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism [RFLP]) because individuals share HS Alu family member insertions based upon identity by descent from a common ancestor as a result of a single event which occurred one time within the human population. The VNTR and RFLP polymorphisms may arise multiple times within a population and are identical by state only.

  8. A versatile PCR-based tandem epitope tagging system for Streptomyces coelicolor genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Nu; Yi, Jeong Sang; Lee, Bo-Rahm; Kim, Eun-Jung; Kim, Min Woo; Song, Yoseb; Cho, Byung-Kwan; Kim, Byung-Gee

    2012-07-20

    Epitope tagging approaches have been widely used for the analysis of functions, interactions and subcellular distributions of proteins. However, incorporating epitope sequence into protein loci in Streptomyces is time-consuming procedure due to the absence of the versatile tagging methods. Here, we developed a versatile PCR-based tandem epitope tagging tool for the Streptomyces genome engineering. We constructed a series of template plasmids that carry repeated sequence of c-myc epitope, Flp recombinase target (FRT) sites, and apramycin resistance marker to insert epitope tags into any desired spot of the chromosomal loci. A DNA module which includes the tandem epitope-encoding sequence and a selectable marker was amplified by PCR with primers that carry homologous extensions to the last portion and downstream region of the targeted gene. We fused the epitope tags at the 3' region of global transcription factors of Streptomyces coelicolor to test the validity of this system. The proper insertion of the epitope tag was confirmed by PCR and western blot analysis. The recombinants showed the identical phenotype to the wild-type that proved the conservation of in vivo function of the tagged proteins. Finally, the direct binding targets were successfully detected by chromatin immunoprecipitation with the increase in the signal-to-noise ratio. The epitope tagging system describes here would provide wide applications to study the protein functions in S. coelicolor. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Determination of bromate in drinking water by ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsohaimi, Ibrahim Hotan; Alothman, Zeid Abdullah; Khan, Mohammad Rizwan; Abdalla, Mohammad Abulhassan; Busquets, Rosa; Alomary, Ahmad Khodran

    2012-10-01

    Bromate is a byproduct formed as a result of disinfection of bromide-containing source water with ozone or hypochlorite. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has recognized bromate as a possible human carcinogen, thus it is essential to determine in drinking water. Present work highlights a development of sensitive and fast analytical method for bromate determination in drinking water by using ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The quality parameters of the developed method were established, obtaining very low limit of detection (0.01 ng/mL), repeatability and reproducibility have been found to be less than 3% in terms of relative standard deviation when analyzing a bromate standard at 0.05 μg/mL with 0.4 min analysis time. Developed method was applied for the analysis of metropolitan and bottled water from Saudi Arabia; 22 samples have been analyzed. Bromate was detected in the metropolitan water samples (from desalinization source) at concentrations ranging between 3.43 and 75.04 ng/mL and in the bottled water samples at concentrations ranging between 2.07 and 21.90 ng/mL. Moreover, in comparison to established analytical methods such as liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, the proposed method was found to be very sensitive, selective and rapid for the routine analysis of bromate at low level in drinking water. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Summary report on the Oak Ridge 25 MV tandem accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alton, G. D.; Bair, J. K.; Benjamin, J. A.; Biggerstaff, J. A.; Jones, C. M.; Juras, R. C.; Mann, J. E.; Richardson, E. G.; Weisser, D. C.; Ziegler, N. F.

    1979-01-01

    Status of the ORNL 25 MV tandem accelerator is given. Topics include: installation; voltage test details; ORNL development activities including stripper foil studies, air-SF/sub 6/ separation, CAMAC buncher controller, and ion source development. (GHT)

  11. Sequencing of Oligourea Foldamers by Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bathany, Katell; Owens, Neil W; Guichard, Gilles; Schmitter, Jean-Marie

    2013-01-01

    This study is focused on sequence analysis of peptidomimetic helical oligoureas by means of tandem mass spectrometry, to build a basis for de novo sequencing for future high-throughput combinatorial...

  12. Monolithic Perovskite Silicon Tandem Solar Cells with Advanced Optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldschmidt, Jan C.; Bett, Alexander J.; Bivour, Martin; Blasi, Benedikt; Eisenlohr, Johannes; Kohlstadt, Markus; Lee, Seunghun; Mastroianni, Simone; Mundt, Laura; Mundus, Markus; Ndione, Paul; Reichel, Christian; Schubert, Martin; Schulze, Patricia S.; Tucher, Nico; Veit, Clemens; Veurman, Welmoed; Wienands, Karl; Winkler, Kristina; Wurfel, Uli; Glunz, Stefan W.; Hermle, Martin

    2016-11-14

    For high efficiency monolithic perovskite silicon tandem solar cells, we develop low-temperature processes for the perovskite top cell, rear-side light trapping, optimized perovskite growth, transparent contacts and adapted characterization methods.

  13. Liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric assay for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric assay for simultaneous quantitation of tofacitinib, cabozantinib and afatinib in human plasma and urine. Adnan A. Kadi, Ali S. Abdelhameed, Hany W. Darwish, Mohamed W. Attwa, Ahmed H. Bakheit ...

  14. Zinc Mediated Tandem Fragmentation-Allylation of Methyl 5-Iodopentofuranosides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldtoft, Lene; Madsen, Robert

    1999-01-01

    In the presence of zinc and allyl bromide methyl 5-iodopentofuranosides undergo a tandem fragmentation alkylation to give functionalized dienes. These can undergo ring-closing olefin metathesis to produce cyclohexenes which on dihydroxylation give quercitols....

  15. Crystal Structure of NFAT Bound to the HIV-1 LTR Tandem κB Enhancer Element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, Darren L.; Barthel, Kristen K.B.; Wu, Yongqing; Kalhor, Reza; Stroud, James C.; Giffin, Michael J.; Chen, Lin (UCLA); (Colorado)

    2008-05-27

    Here, we have determined the crystal structure of the DNA binding domain of NFAT bound to the HIV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR) tandem {kappa}B enhancer element of 3.05 {angstrom} resolution. NFAT binds as a dimer to the upstream {kappa}B site (Core II), but as a monomer to the 3' end of the downstream {kappa}B site (Core I). The DNA shows a significant bend near the 5' end of Core I, where a lysine residue from NFAT bound to the 3' end of Core II inserts into the minor groove and seems to cause DNA bases to flip out. Consistent with this structural feature, the 5' end of Core I become hypersensitive to dimethylsulfate in the in vivo footprinting upon transcriptional activation of the HIV-1 LTR. Our studies provide a basis for futher investigating the functional mechanism of NFAT in HIV-1 transcription and replication.

  16. ¹H, ¹⁵N and ¹³C backbone chemical shift assignment of the titin A67-A68 domain tandem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czajlik, András; Thompson, Gary S; Khan, Ghulam N; Kalverda, Arnout P; Homans, Steve W; Trinick, John

    2012-04-01

    Single molecules of the giant protein titin extend across half of the muscle sarcomere, from the Z-line to the M-line, and have roles in muscle assembly and elasticity. In the A-band titin is attached to thick filaments and here the domain arrangement occurs in regular patterns of eleven called the large super-repeat. The large super-repeat itself occurs eleven times and forms nearly half the titin molecule. Interactions of the large super-repeats with myosin are consistent with a role in thick filament assembly. Here we report backbone assignments of the titin A67-A68 domain tandem (Fn-Ig) from the third super-repeat (A65-A75) completed using triple resonance NMR experiments.

  17. Solution-Processed Nanocrystal Quantum Dot Tandem Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Joshua J.

    2011-06-03

    Solution-processed tandem solar cells created from nanocrystal quantum dots with size-tuned energy levels are demonstrated. Prototype devices featuring interconnected quantum dot layers of cascaded energy gaps exhibit IR sensitivity and an open circuit voltage, V oc, approaching 1 V. The tandem solar cell performance depends critically on the optical and electrical properties of the interlayer. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Coordinated hybrid automatic repeat request

    KAUST Repository

    Makki, Behrooz

    2014-11-01

    We develop a coordinated hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ) approach. With the proposed scheme, if a user message is correctly decoded in the first HARQ rounds, its spectrum is allocated to other users, to improve the network outage probability and the users\\' fairness. The results, which are obtained for single- and multiple-antenna setups, demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed approach in different conditions. For instance, with a maximum of M retransmissions and single transmit/receive antennas, the diversity gain of a user increases from M to (J+1)(M-1)+1 where J is the number of users helping that user.

  19. Improving repeatability by improving quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronen, Shuki; Ackers, Mark; Schlumberger, Geco-Prakla; Brink, Mundy

    1998-12-31

    Time lapse (4-D) seismic is a promising tool for reservoir characterization and monitoring. The method is apparently simple: to acquire data repeatedly over the same reservoir, process and interpret the data sets, then changes between the data sets indicate changes in the reservoir. A problem with time lapse seismic data is that reservoirs are a relatively small part of the earth and important reservoir changes may cause very small differences to the time lapse data. The challenge is to acquire and process economical time lapse data such that reservoir changes can be detected above the noise of varying acquisition and environment. 7 refs., 9 figs.

  20. Traditional and modern medicine working in tandem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Pretorius

    1991-09-01

    Full Text Available Because of the many problem relating to health care delivery in Africa, it is becoming apparent that neither the exclusive/monopolistic nor the tolerant legislative systems should be tolerated any longer. Especially since the Alma Ata Conference held by the WHO/UNICEF there has been growing impetus towards either inclusive/parallel (the beneficial co-existence of traditional and modern medical systems, or integrated systems. Although the idea of making traditional and modern medicine work in tandem in a united treatment context has its merits, it is also plagued by issues such as the nature of the products of an integrated training, resistance by stubborn protagonists of either of the two systems, or that only lip-service is paid to the idea of co-operation. Nevertheless, it is believed that all interest groups - the authorities responsible for health care delivery, the Western-trained health care workers, the traditional healers and the users of these services - stand to gain from such liaison.

  1. How tandem gait stumbled into the neurological exam: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolesky, Jason; Singer, Carlos

    2017-09-11

    Tandem gait testing is an integral part of the neurological exam. It is informative in a wide variety of disorders ranging from cerebellar disease to vestibular and peripheral neuropathies, parkinsonism, and other neurodegenerative conditions. We discuss the history and development of tandem gait testing as well as its technique, utility, and limitations in the assessment of neurological conditions. Tandem gait has emerged as a tool in the assessment of cerebellar disease, Huntington disease, idiopathic Parkinson's disease, atypical parkinsonism, peripheral neuropathies, and vestibulopathies. Its origin can be deduced from experimental observation and clinical experience as far back as the early nineteenth century. Despite the long history and ubiquitous performance of tandem gait testing, there is no standardized, guideline-based protocol to model for more homogenous research and clinical practices. Such a protocol should be developed using historical texts and manuscripts as well as the consensus of the medical research community. With standard protocols, further studies could define the sensitivity of abnormal tandem gait testing in cerebellar disorders, more diffuse neurodegeneration, and peripheral pathologies. Tandem gait can be a useful marker of dysfunction in neurologic conditions whose pathologies extend beyond the vermis or vestibulocerebellar module to include interconnected networks throughout the nervous system.

  2. Thermal stability of chicken brain {alpha}-spectrin repeat 17: a spectroscopic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenner, Annette K. [University of Bergen, Department of Chemistry (Norway); Kieffer, Bruno [Ecole Superieure de Biotechnologie de Strasbourg, IGBMC Biomolecular NMR Group, CNRS UMR 7104 (France); Trave, Gilles [Ecole Superieure de Biotechnologie de Strasbourg, Equipe Oncoproteines, IREBS, UMR 7242 (France); Froystein, Nils Age [University of Bergen, Department of Chemistry (Norway); Raae, Arnt J., E-mail: arnt.raae@mbi.uib.no [University of Bergen, Department of Molecular Biology (Norway)

    2012-06-15

    Spectrin is a rod-like multi-modular protein that is mainly composed of triple-helical repeats. These repeats show very similar 3D-structures but variable conformational and thermodynamical stabilities, which may be of great importance for the flexibility and dynamic behaviour of spectrin in the cell. For instance, repeat 17 (R17) of the chicken brain spectrin {alpha}-chain is four times less stable than neighbouring repeat 16 (R16) in terms of Increment G. The structure of spectrin repeats has mainly been investigated by X-ray crystallography, but the structures of a few repeats, e.g. R16, have also been determined by NMR spectroscopy. Here, we undertook a detailed characterization of the neighbouring R17 by NMR spectroscopy. We assigned most backbone resonances and observed NOE restraints, relaxation values and coupling constants that all indicated that the fold of R17 is highly similar to that of R16, in agreement with previous X-ray analysis of a tandem repeat of the two domains. However, {sup 15}N heteronuclear NMR spectra measured at different temperatures revealed particular features of the R17 domain that might contribute to its lower stability. Conformational exchange appeared to alter the linker connecting R17 to R16 as well as the BC-loop in close proximity. In addition, heat-induced splitting was observed for backbone resonances of a few spatially related residues including V99 of helix C, which in R16 is replaced by the larger hydrophobic tryptophan residue that is relatively conserved among other spectrin repeats. These data support the view that the substitution of tryptophan by valine at this position may contribute to the lower stability of R17.

  3. Cryptic satellites rich in inverted repeats comprise 30% of the genome of a hermit crab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, R.F.; Skinner, D.M.

    1985-01-25

    One major very highly repeated (VHR) DNA (approx. 7 x 10W copies/genome; repeat unit = 156 base pairs (bp)), a family of three minor VHR DNAs (approx. 2.8 x 10W copies/genome; repeat units = 71-74 bp), and a number of trace components account for almost 30% of the genome of a hermit crab. The repeat units of the three minor variants are defined by identical 14-bp G + C-rich inverted repeats that might form cruciforms. Two copies of the repeat unit (CCTA) of one of two patent satellites of this crab occur at the center of one in seven of the G + C-rich inverted repeats; copies of the other patent satellite are found in main component DNA. The sequences of both the major and minor VHR DNAs are characterized by short tracts of A/sub n/ and/or T/sub n/ (n = 4-7) residues whose presence would permit the formation of perfectly matched stems separated by loops of 8-16 bp. The A/sub n/ and/or T/sub n/ tracts are interspersed with segments of G + C-rich DNA and are arranged differently in the major and minor VHR DNAs. Although the repeat units of the major and the three minor VHR DNAs are arranged in tandem, the composition and sequence of their bases are such that they do not form distinct bands in CsCl gradients; they are cryptic satellites. 42 references, 7 figures, 1 table.

  4. Actualization of the Tandem-E N Accelerator of the Nuclear Centre of Mexico; Actualizacion del Acelerador Tandem-EN del Centro Nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villasenor S, P.; Aguilera R, E.; Aspiazu F, J.; Fernandez A, J.; Fernandez B, M.; Garcia R, B.; Lopez M, J.; Martinez Q, E.; Mendez G, B.; Moreno B, E.; Murillo O, G.; Policroniades R, R.; Ramirez T, J.; Reynoso V, R.; Varela G, A.; Vega C, J. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    In this work, the activities are described carried out to change the tubes accelerators and original resistances of the accelerator Tandem-E N of the Nuclear Center, for tubes DOWLISH and resistances again design, both donated ones for ORNL. This way same, the problem is described that imply this changes, and like it was solved by the personnel of the laboratory, without having to appeal to external services, what there is redounded in a considerable increment in the costs. In form preliminary the improvements are described observed after the rehabilitation of the Accelerator. (Author)

  5. Structure, organization, and sequence of alpha satellite DNA from human chromosome 17: evidence for evolution by unequal crossing-over and an ancestral pentamer repeat shared with the human X chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waye, J S; Willard, H F

    1986-09-01

    The centromeric regions of all human chromosomes are characterized by distinct subsets of a diverse tandemly repeated DNA family, alpha satellite. On human chromosome 17, the predominant form of alpha satellite is a 2.7-kilobase-pair higher-order repeat unit consisting of 16 alphoid monomers. We present the complete nucleotide sequence of the 16-monomer repeat, which is present in 500 to 1,000 copies per chromosome 17, as well as that of a less abundant 15-monomer repeat, also from chromosome 17. These repeat units were approximately 98% identical in sequence, differing by the exclusion of precisely 1 monomer from the 15-monomer repeat. Homologous unequal crossing-over is suggested as a probable mechanism by which the different repeat lengths on chromosome 17 were generated, and the putative site of such a recombination event is identified. The monomer organization of the chromosome 17 higher-order repeat unit is based, in part, on tandemly repeated pentamers. A similar pentameric suborganization has been previously demonstrated for alpha satellite of the human X chromosome. Despite the organizational similarities, substantial sequence divergence distinguishes these subsets. Hybridization experiments indicate that the chromosome 17 and X subsets are more similar to each other than to the subsets found on several other human chromosomes. We suggest that the chromosome 17 and X alpha satellite subsets may be related components of a larger alphoid subfamily which have evolved from a common ancestral repeat into the contemporary chromosome-specific subsets.

  6. Conservation of human chromosome 13 polymorphic microsatellite (CA){sub n} repeats in chimpanzees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deka, R.; Shriver, M.D.; Yu, L.M. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)] [and others

    1994-07-01

    Tandemly repeated (dC-dA){sub n} {center_dot} (dG-dT){sub n} sequences occur abundantly and are found in most eukaryotic genomes. To investigate the level of conservation of these repeat sequences in nonhuman primates, the authors have analyzed seven human chromosome 13 dinucleotide (CA){sub n} repeat loci in chimpanzees by DNA amplification using primers designed for analysis of human loci. Comparable levels of polymorphism at these loci in the two species, revealed by the number of alleles, heterozygosity, and allele sizes, suggest that the (CA){sub n} repeat arrays and their genomic locations are highly conserved. Even though the proportion of shared alleles between the two species varies enormously and the modal alleles are not the same, allelic lengths at each locus in the chimpanzees are detected within the bounds of the allele size range observed in humans. A similar observation has been noted in a limited number of gorillas and orangutans. Using a new measure of genetic distance that takes into account the size of alleles, they have compared the genetic distance between humans and chimpanzees. The genetic distance between these two species was found to be ninefold smaller than expected assuming there is no selection or mutational bias toward retention of (CA){sub n} repeat arrays. These findings suggest a functional significance for these microsatellite loci. 34 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  7. Solid-state power converter repeatability analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Dal Gobbo, Anthony; Aguglia, Davide

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a method for evaluating power converter repeatability. The focus is on solid-state switch mode power converter for which the most problematic non-repeatability sources are the jitter of the drivers and of the switches leading to output voltage pulses bad repeatability. Both driver and switch turn-on and turn-off delay dispersion have been measured. These measurements confirm that the delay is Gaussian distributed and that the repeatability prediction method is valid.

  8. Repeated expansion in burn sequela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitanguy, Ivo; Gontijo de Amorim, Natale Ferreira; Radwanski, Henrique N; Lintz, José Eduardo

    2002-08-01

    This paper presents a retrospective study of the use of 346 expanders in 132 patients operated at the Ivo Pitanguy Clinic, between the period of 1985 and 2000. The expanders were used in the treatment of burn sequela. In the majority of cases, more than one expander was used at the same time. In 42 patients, repeated tissue expansion was done. The re-expanded flaps demonstrated good distension and viability. With the increase in area at each new expansion, larger volume expanders were employed, achieving an adequate advancement of the flaps to remove the injured tissue. The great advantage of using tissue re-expansion in the burned patient is the reconstruction of extensive areas with the same color and texture of neighboring tissues, without the addition of new scars.

  9. The impact of genome triplication on tandem gene evolution in Brassica rapa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu eFang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Whole genome duplication (WGD and tandem duplication (TD are both important modes of gene expansion. However, how whole genome duplication influences tandemly duplicated genes is not well studied. We used Brassica rapa, which has undergone an additional genome triplication (WGT and shares a common ancestor with Arabidopsis thaliana, Arabidopsis lyrata and Thellungiella parvula, to investigate the impact of genome triplication on tandem gene evolution. We identified 2,137, 1,569, 1,751 and 1,135 tandem gene arrays in B. rapa, A. thaliana, A. lyrata and T. parvula respectively. Among them, 414 conserved tandem arrays are shared by the 3 species without WGT, which were also considered as existing in the diploid ancestor of B. rapa. Thus, after genome triplication, B. rapa should have 1,242 tandem arrays according to the 414 conserved tandems. Here, we found 400 out of the 414 tandems had at least one syntenic ortholog in the genome of B. rapa. Furthermore, 294 out of the 400 shared syntenic orthologs maintain tandem arrays (more than one gene for each syntenic hit in B. rapa. For the 294 tandem arrays, we obtained 426 copies of syntenic paralogous tandems in the triplicated genome of B. rapa. In this study, we demonstrated that tandem arrays in B. rapa were dramatically fractionated after WGT when compared either to non-tandem genes in the B. rapa genome or to the tandem arrays in closely related species that have not experienced a recent whole-genome polyploidization event.

  10. A refined Panax ginseng karyotype based on an ultra-high copy 167-bp tandem repeat and ribosomal DNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nomar Espinosa Waminal

    2017-10-01

    Conclusion: Identification of individual P. ginseng chromosomes was achieved using Pg167TR-FISH. Chromosome identification is important in understanding the P. ginseng genome structure, and our method will be useful for future integration of genetic linkage maps and genome scaffold anchoring. Additionally, it is a good tool for comparative studies with related species in efforts to understand the evolution of P. ginseng.

  11. Characterization and functional analysis of a tandem-repeat galectin-9 in large yellow croaker Larimichthys crocea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dong Ling; Lv, Chang Huan; Yu, Da Hui; Wang, Zhi Yong

    2016-05-01

    Galectins are a family of endogenous lectins with β-galactosides affinity, playing significant roles in the innate immunity of vertebrates and invertebrates. In this report, a new galectin-9 cDNA was identified and characterized in large yellow croaker Larimichthys crocea (designated as LcGal-9). The complete cDNA sequence of LcGal-9 was 1795 bp, with an open reading frame (ORF) of 1032 bp encoding 343 amino acids. The putative LcGal-9 protein contained two carbohydrate recognition domains (CRDs) connected by a linker peptide, with each carrying two conserved β-galactoside binding motifs H-NPR and WG-EE-, and it possessed neither a signal peptide nor a transmembrane domain. LcGal-9 protein shared 43-74% identity with galectin-9 sequences from other species. The qRT-PCR analysis revealed that LcGal-9 mRNA was constitutively expressed in all tissues examined, predominately expressed in liver, spleen, gill, kidney, head-kidney and intestine. Western blot analysis showed that LcGal-9 protein was highly expressed in liver, spleen, intestine, kidney, head-kidney, skin, gill, and heart, but not detected in muscle and plasma. LcGal-9 mRNA transcripts were induced by poly I:C in the liver (from 6 h to 48 h), spleen (at 12 h) and head-kidney (at 12 h and 24 h). In contrast, Vibrio parahaemolyticus caused a significant down-regulation in these three tissues, except for in spleen of 48 h and head-kidney of 3 h. Post-infection with Cryptocaryon irritans, the transcripts were dramatically up-regulated in gill, skin, spleen and head-kidney during initial infection period, while significant down-regulation afterward was also observed both in spleen and head-kidney. The recombinant LcGal-9 (named as rLcGal-9) purified from Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) demonstrated hemagglutination against human, rabbit and L. crocea in a Ca(2+)-independent manner, which was inhibited by α-Lactose and LPS. The results of bacterial agglutination assays showed that rLcGal-9 was able to agglutinate Gram-negative bacteria V. alginolyticus and Aeromonas hydrophila in a Ca(2+)-independent manner. By immunohistochemistry assay, significant increases of LcGal-9 protein appeared in the spleen stimulated with poly I:C (for 12 h) and V. parahaemolyticus (for 48 h) compared with the control. Based on the collective data, LcGal-9 might play an important role in innate immune responses, especially defense against Gram-negative bacteria in L. crocea. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. PCR typing of DNA fragments of the short tandem repeat (STR) system HUMTH01 in Danes and Greenland Eskimos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nellemann, L J; Møller, A; Morling, N

    1994-01-01

    /child pairs were analyzed. Significant differences were observed between the distribution of fragments ('alleles'), whereby allele number 7 was considerably more frequent in Eskimos (0.687) than in Danes (0.201). The distributions of HUMTH01 phenotypes were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in both the Eskimo...

  13. Monoclonal antibodies recognizing the non-tandem repeat regions of the human mucin MUC4 in pancreatic cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maneesh Jain

    Full Text Available The MUC4 mucin is a high molecular weight, membrane-bound, and highly glycosylated protein. It is a multi-domain protein that is putatively cleaved into a large mucin-like subunit (MUC4α and a C-terminal growth-factor like subunit (MUC4β. MUC4 plays critical roles in physiological and pathological conditions and is aberrantly overexpressed in several cancers, including those of the pancreas, cervix, breast and lung. It is also a potential biomarker for the diagnosis, prognosis and progression of several malignancies. Further, MUC4 plays diverse functional roles in cancer initiation and progression as evident from its involvement in oncogenic transformation, proliferation, inhibition of apoptosis, motility and invasion, and resistance to chemotherapy in human cancer cells. We have previously generated a monoclonal antibody 8G7, which is directed against the TR region of MUC4, and has been extensively used to study the expression of MUC4 in several malignancies. Here, we describe the generation of anti-MUC4 antibodies directed against the non-TR regions of MUC4. Recombinant glutathione-S-transferase (GST-fused MUC4α fragments, both upstream (MUC4α-N-Ter and downstream (MUC4α-C-Ter of the TR domain, were used as immunogens to immunize BALB/c mice. Following cell fusion, hybridomas were screened using the aforementioned recombinant proteins ad lysates from human pancreatic cell lines. Three anti MUC4α-N-Ter and one anti-MUC4α-C-Ter antibodies were characterized by several inmmunoassays including enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, immunoblotting, immunofluorescene, flow cytometry and immunoprecipitation using MUC4 expressing human pancreatic cancer cell lines. The antibodies also reacted with the MUC4 in human pancreatic tumor sections in immunohistochemical analysis. The new domain-specific anti-MUC4 antibodies will serve as important reagents to study the structure-function relationship of MUC4 domains and for the development of MUC4-based diagnostics and therapeutics.

  14. In utero exposure to nanosized carbon black (Printex90) does not induce tandem repeat mutations in female murine germ cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boisen, Anne Mette Zenner; Shipley, Thomas; Jackson, Petra

    2013-01-01

    cell division, which occurs during fetal development in females. We investigated the effects of prenatal exposure to carbon black nanoparticles (CB) on induction of mutations in the female mouse germline during fetal development, spanning the critical developmental stages of oogenesis. Pregnant C57BL/6...

  15. AB103. A sequence variation of short tandem repeat observed in paternity cases using massively parallel sequencing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukawutthiya, Poonyapat; Sathirapatyaa, Tikumphorn; Vongpaisarnsina, Kornkiat

    2017-01-01

    Background STR has been regularly used as genetic marker in paternity testing. The current standard procedure of STR allele detection based on DNA fragment analysis using CE. However, the MPS offers the high-throughput sequencing with lower cost per nucleotide. This technology has increase an opportunity for STR allele detection in national database and paternity testing as well. The high degree polymorphism of STR makes them informative that is an influence of their high mutation rate. Moreover, the usefulness even in homozygous alleles is determined by sequence variation in particular STR marker. In this study, we compare a STR allele designation from CE and a STR sequencing from MPS. The sequence variation has observed in particular STR. Methods The DNA of eighteen families were analyzed on a CE using two commercial test kits, while a MPS analysis was performed using MiSeq FG×TM forensic genomics system (Illumina). Results The results from MPS platforms showed totally concordant with CE data and also demonstrated the advantage of sequencing-based method in homozygous alleles. The sequencing variation of STR was detected and identified an inherited pattern even on homozygous alleles. For example, locus D3S1358 of child DNA was typed homozygous allele 16,16 on CE while distinguishable sequence suggested (TCTA)1(TCTG)3(TCTA)12 from father and (TCTA)1(TCTG)2(TCTA)13 from mother, respectively. The variety of STR allele sequences that indicated the allele inherited was detected in 8 of 18 families (44%) in our analysis. The sequence polymorphism was demonstrated in markers, including D2S1338, D3S1358, D4S2408, D5S818, D8S1179, D9S1122 and D21S11. Moreover, the success identification of STR inherited pattern of allele sharing among family also increases a CPI in paternity testing. Conclusions The results from MPS platforms showed totally concordant with CE data. The sequence variation of STR from MPS could be indicated the allele inherited pattern in paternity and other relatedness testing.

  16. Identification of bodies from the scene of a mass disaster using DNA amplification of short tandem repeat (STR) loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, T M; Whitaker, J P; Maguire, C N

    1995-11-30

    The accompanying paper in this issue describes work conducted during a collaborative effort to identify the victims of a mass disaster that occurred on the 19th of April 1993 near Waco, Texas. The DNA identification programme was also used partly as an exercise to further investigate the robustness and reliability of a recently developed STR quadruplex. The preceding paper provides details of the loci used and also deals with efforts to assess the applicability of STR profiling and its suitability for forensic investigations of this nature. In this paper, we present the results obtained from 61 Waco bodies. Using reference blood samples and family trees 26 positive identifications were made using a 'paternity style' analytical approach. Worked examples, representing a range of casework situations, are used to illustrate the kind of approach taken in interpretation of the data and highlight factors which affected its success. Additionally, we report on the successful application of a PCR-based gender test to 24 of the Waco bodies.

  17. DNA Commission of the International Society of Forensic Genetics: recommendations on forensic analysis using Y-chromosome short tandem repeats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gill, P.; Brenner, C.; Brinkmann, B.

    2001-01-01

    During the past few years the DNA commission of the International Society of Forensic Genetics has published a series of documents providing guidelines and recommendations concerning the application of DNA polymorphisms to the problems of human identification. This latest report addresses...

  18. The IL-1Ra gene variable number tandem repeat variant is associated with susceptibility to temporomandibular disorders in Turkish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumer, Mehmet Kemal; Nursal, Ayse Feyda; Tekcan, Akin; Yerliyurt, Kaan; Geyko, Anastasia; Yigit, Serbulent

    2017-06-14

    Temporomandibular joint disorders (TMD) are a group of disorders involving temporomandibular joint and related structures. Interleukine-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) is an important anti-inflammatory molecule that competes with other interleukin-1 molecules. This study was designed to investigate the possible association of the IL-1Ra VNTR variant with the risk of TMD in the Turkish population. Peripheral blood samples were collected from 100 patients with TMD (23 males, 77 females) and 110 healthy individuals (35 males, 75 females). Genotyping of IL-1Ra 86 bp VNTR variant was evaluated by gel electrophoresis after polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Our results show that there is a statistically significant difference between TMD patients and control group with respect to IL-1Ra genotype distribution and allele frequencies. 1.2, 1.4, and 4.4 genotypes were more common in patients, while 2.2 and 3.3 genotypes were rarer (P<.000). Frequency of alleles 1 and 4 was higher in patient groups (P<.000), whereas alleles 2 and 3 had a lower frequency in patients with TMD (P<.000). This is the first correlation study that evaluates the association between IL-1Ra gene VNTR variant and TMD. The VNTR variant related to IL-1Ra gene showed a strong pattern of association with TMD that may have a potential impact on disease counseling and management. Larger studies with various ethnicities are needed to establish the impact of IL-1Ra VNTR variant on risk of developing TMD. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. The design and numerical analysis of tandem thermophotovoltaic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hao-Yu; Liu, Ren-Jun; Wang, Lian-Kai; Lü, You; Li, Tian-Tian; Li, Guo-Xing; Zhang, Yuan-Tao; Zhang, Bao-Lin

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, numerical analysis of GaSb =(Eg = 0.72 eV)/Ga0.84In0.16As0.14Sb0.86 (Eg = 0.53 eV) tandem thermophotovoltaic (TPV) cells is carried out by using Silvaco/Atlas software. In the tandem cells, a GaSb p-n homojunction is used for the top cell and a GaInAsSb p-n homojunction for the bottom cell. A heavily doped GaSb tunnel junction connects the two sub-cells together. The simulations are carried out at a radiator temperature of 2000 K and a cell temperature of 300 K. The radiation photons are injected from the top of the tandem cells. Key properties of the single- and dual-junction TPV cells, including I-V characteristic, maximum output power (Pmax), open-circuit voltage (Voc), short-circuit current (Isc), etc. are presented. The effects of the sub-cell thickness and carrier concentration on the key properties of tandem cells are investigated. A comparison of the dual-TPV cells with GaSb and GaInAsSb single junction cells shows that the Pmax of tandem cells is almost twice as great as that of the single-junction cells.

  20. High-Efficiency Polycrystalline Thin Film Tandem Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranz, Lukas; Abate, Antonio; Feurer, Thomas; Fu, Fan; Avancini, Enrico; Löckinger, Johannes; Reinhard, Patrick; Zakeeruddin, Shaik M; Grätzel, Michael; Buecheler, Stephan; Tiwari, Ayodhya N

    2015-07-16

    A promising way to enhance the efficiency of CIGS solar cells is by combining them with perovskite solar cells in tandem devices. However, so far, such tandem devices had limited efficiency due to challenges in developing NIR-transparent perovskite top cells, which allow photons with energy below the perovskite band gap to be transmitted to the bottom cell. Here, a process for the fabrication of NIR-transparent perovskite solar cells is presented, which enables power conversion efficiencies up to 12.1% combined with an average sub-band gap transmission of 71% for photons with wavelength between 800 and 1000 nm. The combination of a NIR-transparent perovskite top cell with a CIGS bottom cell enabled a tandem device with 19.5% efficiency, which is the highest reported efficiency for a polycrystalline thin film tandem solar cell. Future developments of perovskite/CIGS tandem devices are discussed and prospects for devices with efficiency toward and above 27% are given.

  1. A polymorphic repeat in the IGF1 promoter influences the risk of endometrial cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine A Bolton

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to the lack of high-throughput genetic assays for tandem repeats, there is a paucity of knowledge about the role they may play in disease. A polymorphic CA repeat in the promoter region of the insulin-like growth factor 1 gene (IGF1 has been studied extensively over the past 10 years for association with the risk of developing breast cancer, among other cancers, with variable results. The aim of this study was to determine if this CA repeat is associated with the risk of developing breast cancer and endometrial cancer. Using a case–control design, we analysed the length of this CA repeat in a series of breast cancer and endometrial cancer cases and compared this with a control population. Our results showed an association when both alleles were considered in breast and endometrial cancers (P=0.029 and 0.011, respectively, but this did not pass our corrected threshold for significance due to multiple testing. When the allele lengths were analysed categorically against the most common allele length of 19 CA repeats, an association was observed with the risk of endometrial cancer due to a reduction in the number of long alleles (P=0.013. This was confirmed in an analysis of the long alleles separately for endometrial cancer risk (P=0.0012. Our study found no association between the length of this polymorphic CA repeat and breast cancer risk. The significant association observed between the CA repeat length and the risk of developing endometrial cancer has not been previously reported.

  2. Transposed genes in Arabidopsis are often associated with flanking repeats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret R Woodhouse

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Much of the eukaryotic genome is known to be mobile, largely due to the movement of transposons and other parasitic elements. Recent work in plants and Drosophila suggests that mobility is also a feature of many nontransposon genes and gene families. Indeed, analysis of the Arabidopsis genome suggested that as many as half of all genes had moved to unlinked positions since Arabidopsis diverged from papaya roughly 72 million years ago, and that these mobile genes tend to fall into distinct gene families. However, the mechanism by which single gene transposition occurred was not deduced. By comparing two closely related species, Arabidopsis thaliana and Arabidopsis lyrata, we sought to determine the nature of gene transposition in Arabidopsis. We found that certain categories of genes are much more likely to have transposed than others, and that many of these transposed genes are flanked by direct repeat sequence that was homologous to sequence within the orthologous target site in A. lyrata and which was predominantly genic in identity. We suggest that intrachromosomal recombination between tandemly duplicated sequences, and subsequent insertion of the circular product, is the predominant mechanism of gene transposition.

  3. De Novo Methylation of Repeated Sequences in Coprinus Cinereus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, T.; Pukkila, P. J.

    1993-01-01

    We have examined the stability of duplicated DNA sequences in the sexual phase of the life cycle of the basidiomycete fungus, Coprinus cinereus. We observed premeiotic de novo methylation in haploid nuclei containing either a triplication, a tandem duplication, or an ectopic duplication. Methylation changes were not observed in unique sequences. Repeated sequences underwent methylation changes during the dikaryotic stage. In one cross, 27% of the segregants exhibited methylation-directed gene inactivation. However, all auxotrophs eventually reverted to prototrophy. C to T transition mutations were not observed in this study. Our studies also revealed one inversion that occurred in 50% of the segregants in a single triplication cross, and a single pop-out event that occurred during vegetative growth. These alterations were similar to changes reported in experiments with duplicated sequences in Neurospora crassa and Ascobolus immersus. However, significant differences were also noted. First, the extent of methylation was much less in C. cinereus than in the other two fungi. Second, CpG sequences appeared to be the preferred targets of methylation. PMID:8244000

  4. Counter-Rotating Tandem Motor Drilling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kent Perry

    2009-04-30

    Gas Technology Institute (GTI), in partnership with Dennis Tool Company (DTC), has worked to develop an advanced drill bit system to be used with microhole drilling assemblies. One of the main objectives of this project was to utilize new and existing coiled tubing and slimhole drilling technologies to develop Microhole Technology (MHT) so as to make significant reductions in the cost of E&P down to 5000 feet in wellbores as small as 3.5 inches in diameter. This new technology was developed to work toward the DOE's goal of enabling domestic shallow oil and gas wells to be drilled inexpensively compared to wells drilled utilizing conventional drilling practices. Overall drilling costs can be lowered by drilling a well as quickly as possible. For this reason, a high drilling rate of penetration is always desired. In general, high drilling rates of penetration (ROP) can be achieved by increasing the weight on bit and increasing the rotary speed of the bit. As the weight on bit is increased, the cutting inserts penetrate deeper into the rock, resulting in a deeper depth of cut. As the depth of cut increases, the amount of torque required to turn the bit also increases. The Counter-Rotating Tandem Motor Drilling System (CRTMDS) was planned to achieve high rate of penetration (ROP) resulting in the reduction of the drilling cost. The system includes two counter-rotating cutter systems to reduce or eliminate the reactive torque the drillpipe or coiled tubing must resist. This would allow the application of maximum weight-on-bit and rotational velocities that a coiled tubing drilling unit is capable of delivering. Several variations of the CRTDMS were designed, manufactured and tested. The original tests failed leading to design modifications. Two versions of the modified system were tested and showed that the concept is both positive and practical; however, the tests showed that for the system to be robust and durable, borehole diameter should be substantially larger

  5. Repeated Maxima of Sunspot Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivodubskij, V.

    2015-12-01

    The explanation for the observed phenomenon of repeated maxima of sunspot cycles is proposed. Key roles in the proposed scenarioplay two tides of toroidal field from the lower base of the solar convection zone (SCZ) to the surface. Deep toroidal field is excited due to Ω-effectnear the bottom of the SCZ at the beginning of the cycle. Then this field is transported to the surface due to combined acting of magnetic buoyancy,magnetic ∇ρ-flow and turbulent diamagnetism in the equatorial domain. Over time the magnetic fragments can be seen as bipolar spots in themiddle latitudes in the "royal zone". This first wave of toroidal field, which is directed up, gives the main maximum activity spots. However, theunderlying toroidal field in the high-latitude polar domains at the beginning of the cycle is blocked by directed downward magnetic∇ρ-pumping and turbulent diamagnetism. Directed to the equator deep meridional flow replaces this field to the low latitudes (the equatorialdomain) during about 1 - 2 years. After that the turn of floating this "retarded" field to surface (second tide of toroidal field). Coming to the surfaceat low latitudes this second portion of toroidal field leads to second sunspot maximum.

  6. Potassium bromate, a potent DNA oxidizing agent, exacerbates germline repeat expansion in a Fragile X premutation mouse model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entezam, A.; Lokanga, A. R.; Le, W.; Hoffman, G.; Usdin, K.

    2010-01-01

    Tandem repeat expansion is responsible for the Repeat Expansion Diseases, a group of human genetic disorders that includes Fragile X syndrome. FXS results from expansion of a premutation (PM) allele having 55–200 CGG•CCG-repeats in the 5’ UTR of the FMR1 gene. The mechanism of expansion is unknown. We have treated FX PM mice with potassium bromate (KBrO3), a potent DNA oxidizing agent. We then monitored the germline and somatic expansion frequency in the progeny of these animals. We show here that KBrO3 increased both the level of 8-oxoG in the oocytes of treated animals and the germline expansion frequency. Our data thus suggest that oxidative damage may be a factor that could affect expansion risk in humans. PMID:20213777

  7. Repeats and EST analysis for new organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonassen Inge

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Repeat masking is an important step in the EST analysis pipeline. For new species, genomic knowledge is scarce and good repeat libraries are typically unavailable. In these cases it is common practice to mask against known repeats from other species (i.e., model organisms. There are few studies that investigate the effectiveness of this approach, or attempt to evaluate the different methods for identifying and masking repeats. Results Using zebrafish and medaka as example organisms, we show that accurate repeat masking is an important factor for obtaining a high quality clustering. Furthermore, we show that masking with standard repeat libraries based on curated genomic information from other species has little or no positive effect on the quality of the resulting EST clustering. Library based repeat masking which often constitutes a computational bottleneck in the EST analysis pipeline can therefore be reduced to species specific repeat libraries, or perhaps eliminated entirely. In contrast, substantially improved results can be achived by applying a repeat library derived from a partial reference clustering (e.g., from mapping sequences against a partially sequenced genome. Conclusion Of the methods explored, we find that the best EST clustering is achieved after masking with repeat libraries that are species specific. In the absence of such libraries, library-less masking gives results superior to the current practice of using cross-species, genome-based libraries.

  8. Tandem photovoltaic solar cells and increased solar energy conversion efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loferski, J. J.

    1976-01-01

    Tandem photovoltaic cells, as proposed by Jackson (1955) to increase the efficiency of solar energy conversion, involve the construction of a system of stacked p/n homojunction photovoltaic cells composed of different semiconductors. It had been pointed out by critics, however, that the total power which could be extracted from the cells in the stack placed side by side was substantially greater than the power obtained from the stacked cells. A reexamination of the tandem cell concept in view of the development of the past few years is conducted. It is concluded that the use of tandem cell systems in flat plate collectors, as originally envisioned by Jackson, may yet become feasible as a result of the development of economically acceptable solar cells for large scale terrestrial power generation.

  9. Self-passivating hybrid (organic/inorganic) tandem solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Jin; Cartwright, Alexander N. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14260 (United States); Institute for Lasers, Photonics and Biophotonics, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14260 (United States); Kim, Won Jin [Institute for Lasers, Photonics and Biophotonics, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14260 (United States); Prasad, Paras N. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14260 (United States); Department of Chemistry, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14260 (United States); Institute for Lasers, Photonics and Biophotonics, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY 14260 (United States)

    2009-05-15

    A tandem photovoltaic device structure, consisting of a PbSe nanocrystal film and a P3HT/PCBM bulk heterojunction film, was fabricated. The PbSe film (top layer) serves as a photocurrent generator as well as a UV protector for the underlying polymer cell. The P3HT/PCBM photovoltaic cell (bottom layer) provides the necessary electric field to the top photoconducting layer to extract the photogenerated charge from that layer. The charge extraction from the PbSe layer is demonstrated by using light-biased spectral response measurements. In addition, device lifetime measurements were performed under AM 1.5 and UV-enhanced illumination on the tandem cell and on a control P3HT/PCBM device. These measurements demonstrated that the hybrid tandem cell is significantly more durable due to the preferential UV absorption in the upper inorganic PbSe nanocrystal film. (author)

  10. Low-Cost CdTe/Silicon Tandem Solar Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamboli, Adele C [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bobela, David C [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kanevce, Ana [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Remo, Timothy W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Alberi, Kirstin M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Woodhouse, Michael A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-06

    Achieving higher photovoltaic efficiency in single-junction devices is becoming increasingly difficult, but tandem modules offer the possibility of significant efficiency improvements. Device modeling shows that four-terminal CdTe/Si tandem solar modules offer the prospect of 25%-30% module efficiency, and technoeconomic analysis predicts that these efficiency gains can be realized at costs per Watt that are competitive with CdTe and Si single junction alternatives. The cost per Watt of the modeled tandems is lower than crystalline silicon, but slightly higher than CdTe alone. However, these higher power modules reduce area-related balance of system costs, providing increased value especially in area-constrained applications. This avenue for high-efficiency photovoltaics enables improved performance on a near-term timeframe, as well as a path to further reduced levelized cost of electricity as module and cell processes continue to advance.

  11. Ultimate performance of polymer: fullerene bulk heterojunction tandem solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Kotlarski, J. D.; Blom, P. W. M.

    2011-01-01

    We present the model calculations to explore the potential of polymer: fullerene tandem solar cells. As an approach we use a combined optical and electrical device model, where the absorption profiles are used as starting point for the numerical current-voltage calculations. With this model a maximum power efficiency of 11.7% for single cells has been achieved as a reference. For tandem structures with a ZnO/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/poly(styrenesulphonic acid) middle electrode an ulti...

  12. Combinatorics of Tandem Duplication Random Loss Mutations on Circular Genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Tom; Chu, An-Chiang; Middendorf, Martin; Bernt, Matthias

    2016-09-26

    The tandem duplication random loss operation (TDRL) is an important genome rearrangement operation in metazoan mitochondrial genomes. A TDRL consists of a duplication of a contiguous set of genes in tandem followed by a random loss of one copy of each duplicated gene. This paper presents an analysis of the combinatorics of TDRLs on circular genomes, e.g., the mitochondrial genome. In particular, results on TDRLs for circular genomes and their linear representatives are established. Moreover, the distance between gene orders with respect to linear TDRLs and circular TDRLs is studied. An analysis of the available animal mitochondrial gene orders shows the practical relevance of the theoretical results.

  13. Highly charged ion injector in the terminal of tandem accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, M; Asozu, T; Nakanoya, T; Kutsukake, K; Hanashima, S; Takeuchi, S, E-mail: matsuda.makoto@jaea.go.j [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai Research and Development Center, Nuclear Science Research Institute, Tandem Accelerator Section 2-4 Shirakata-Shirane, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki, 319-1195 (Japan)

    2009-04-01

    A highly charged heavy ion injector using an all permanent magnet type electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) has been constructed in the high voltage terminal of the vertical and folded type 20UR Pelletron tandem accelerator at Japan Atomic Energy Agency at Tokai. The new in-terminal injector made it possible to accelerate highly charged heavy ions which have not been obtained from the tandem accelerator. Beam energy and beam intensity have been remarkably increased and the noble gas ion beams have become available.

  14. Interpretation of tandem mass spectra of posttranslationally modified peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bunkenborg, J.; Matthiesen, R.

    2013-01-01

    Tandem mass spectrometry provides a sensitive means of analyzing the amino acid sequence of peptides and modified peptides by providing accurate mass measurements of precursor and fragment ions. Modern mass spectrometry instrumentation is capable of rapidly generating many thousands of tandem mas...... spectra and protein database search engines have been developed to match the experimental data to peptide candidates. In most studies there is a schism between discarding perfectly valid data and including nonsensical peptide identifications-this is currently a major bottleneck in data...

  15. Strengthening concept learning by repeated testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiklund-Hörnqvist, Carola; Jonsson, Bert; Nyberg, Lars

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether repeated testing with feedback benefits learning compared to rereading of introductory psychology key-concepts in an educational context. The testing effect was examined immediately after practice, after 18 days, and at a five-week delay in a sample of undergraduate students (n = 83). The results revealed that repeated testing with feedback significantly enhanced learning compared to rereading at all delays, demonstrating that repeated retrieval enhances retention compared to repeated encoding in the short- and the long-term. In addition, the effect of repeated testing was beneficial for students irrespectively of working memory capacity. It is argued that teaching methods involving repeated retrieval are important to consider by the educational system. PMID:24313425

  16. Development of high band gap materials for tandem solar cells and simulation studies on mechanical tandem solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, Vishnuvardhanan

    Development of low cost, high efficiency tandem solar cells is essential for large scale adoption of solar energy especially in densely populated regions of the world. In this thesis four-terminal mechanical (stack like) tandem solar cells were evaluated using detailed simulation models and design criteria for selecting candidate materials were established. Since silicon solar cells are low cost and have a multi-giga watt global manufacturing and supply chain capacity already in place then only tandem stacks incorporating silicon as one of the layers in the device was investigated. Two candidate materials which have high band gaps that could be used as top cells in the mechanical tandem device were explored as part of the thesis. Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) sensitized with N719 dye (one of the candidates for the top cell) were fabricated with the goal of enabling a flexible processing path to lower cost. Stainless steel (SS) mesh substrates were used to fabricate anodes for flexible DSSC in order to evaluate them as replacements for more expensive Transparent Conducting Oxides (TCO's). Loss mechanisms in DSSC's due to SS mesh oxidation were quantified and protective coatings to prevent oxidation of SS mesh were developed. The second material which was evaluated for use as the top cell was copper zinc tin sulfide (CZTS). CZTS was deposited through a solution deposition route. Detailed investigations were done on the deposited films to understand the chemistry, crystal structure and its opto-electronic properties. Deposited CZTS films were found to be highly crystalline in direction. The films had a direct band gap of 1.5 eV with absorption coefficient greater than 104 cm -1 in agreement with published values. In the second part of the thesis detailed electrical and optical simulation models of the mechanical tandem solar cells were developed based on the most up-to-date materials physical constants available for each layer. The modeling was used to quantify

  17. The Sobering Reality of Perovskite/Si Tandem Solar Cells under Realistic Operating Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Futscher, Moritz H.; Ehrler, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    Perovskite/Si tandem solar cells have the potential to considerably out-perform conventional solar cells. Under standard test conditions, perovskite/Si tandem solar cells already outperform the Si single junction. Under realistic conditions, however, as we show, tandem solar cells made from current record cells are hardly more efficient than the Si cell alone. We model the performance of realistic perovskite/Si tandem solar cells under real-world climate conditions, by incorporating parasitic...

  18. Tandem Recruitment and Foraging in the Ponerine Ant Pachycondyla harpax (Fabricius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grüter, C; Wüst, M; Cipriano, A P; Nascimento, F S

    2018-01-10

    Tandem running is a common recruitment strategy in ant species with small colony sizes. During a tandem run, an informed leader guides a usually naïve nestmate to a food source or a nest site. Some species perform tandem runs only during house hunting, suggesting that tandem running does not always improve foraging success in species known to use tandem running as a recruitment strategy, but more natural history information on tandem running under natural conditions is needed to better understand the adaptive significance of tandem recruitment in foraging. Studying wild colonies in Brazil, we for the first time describe tandem running in the ponerine ant Pachycondyla harpax (Fabricius). We asked if foragers perform tandem runs to carbohydrate- (honey) and protein-rich (cheese) food items. Furthermore, we tested whether the speed and success rate of tandem runs depend on the foraging distance. Foragers performed tandem runs to both carbohydrate food sources and protein-rich food items that exceed a certain size. The probability to perform a tandem run and the travelling speed increase with increasing foraging distances, which could help colonies monopolize more distant food sources in a competitive environment. Guiding a recruit to a food source is costly for leaders as ants are ~66% faster when travelling alone. If tandem runs break up (~23% of all tandem runs), followers do not usually discover the food source on their own but return to the nest. Our results show that tandem running to food sources is common in P. harpax, but that foragers modify their behaviour according to the type of food and its distance from the nest. Competition with other ants was intense and we discuss how tandem running in P. harpax might help colonies to build-up a critical number of ants at large food items that can then defend the food source against competitors.

  19. Using multiple visual tandem streams in audio-visual speech recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Topkaya, İbrahim Saygın; Topkaya, Ibrahim Saygin; Erdoğan, Hakan; Erdogan, Hakan

    2011-01-01

    The method which is called the "tandem approach" in speech recognition has been shown to increase performance by using classifier posterior probabilities as observations in a hidden Markov model. We study the effect of using visual tandem features in audio-visual speech recognition using a novel setup which uses multiple classifiers to obtain multiple visual tandem features. We adopt the approach of multi-stream hidden Markov models where visual tandem features from two different classifiers ...

  20. Characterization of simple sequence repeats (SSRs from Phlebotomus papatasi (Diptera: Psychodidae expressed sequence tags (ESTs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamarsheh Omar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phlebotomus papatasi is a natural vector of Leishmania major, which causes cutaneous leishmaniasis in many countries. Simple sequence repeats (SSRs, or microsatellites, are common in eukaryotic genomes and are short, repeated nucleotide sequence elements arrayed in tandem and flanked by non-repetitive regions. The enrichment methods used previously for finding new microsatellite loci in sand flies remain laborious and time consuming; in silico mining, which includes retrieval and screening of microsatellites from large amounts of sequence data from sequence data bases using microsatellite search tools can yield many new candidate markers. Results Simple sequence repeats (SSRs were characterized in P. papatasi expressed sequence tags (ESTs derived from a public database, National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI. A total of 42,784 sequences were mined, and 1,499 SSRs were identified with a frequency of 3.5% and an average density of 15.55 kb per SSR. Dinucleotide motifs were the most common SSRs, accounting for 67% followed by tri-, tetra-, and penta-nucleotide repeats, accounting for 31.1%, 1.5%, and 0.1%, respectively. The length of microsatellites varied from 5 to 16 repeats. Dinucleotide types; AG and CT have the highest frequency. Dinucleotide SSR-ESTs are relatively biased toward an excess of (AXn repeats and a low GC base content. Forty primer pairs were designed based on motif lengths for further experimental validation. Conclusion The first large-scale survey of SSRs derived from P. papatasi is presented; dinucleotide SSRs identified are more frequent than other types. EST data mining is an effective strategy to identify functional microsatellites in P. papatasi.

  1. Interim report on the tandem mirror hybrid design study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moir, R.W. (ed.)

    1979-08-01

    The initial phase of a 2-year design study of a tandem mirror fusion reactor is presented. The following chapters are included: (1) mechanical design of the plant; (2) plasma physics; (3) blanket design; (4) magnet design; (5) injector design; (6) direct convertor design; (7) balance of plant design; (8) fission burner reactor; (9) environment and safety; and (10) economic analysis. (MOW)

  2. Ultimate performance of polymer : fullerene bulk heterojunction tandem solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kotlarski, J. D.; Blom, P. W. M.

    2011-01-01

    We present the model calculations to explore the potential of polymer: fullerene tandem solar cells. As an approach we use a combined optical and electrical device model, where the absorption profiles are used as starting point for the numerical current-voltage calculations. With this model a

  3. Dynamics of tandem bubble interaction in a microfluidic channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Fang; Sankin, Georgy; Zhong, Pei

    2011-01-01

    The dynamics of tandem bubble interaction in a microfluidic channel (800 × 21 μm, W × H) have been investigated using high-speed photography, with resultant fluid motion characterized by particle imaging velocimetry. A single or tandem bubble is produced reliably via laser absorption by micron-sized gold dots (6 μm in diameter with 40 μm in separation distance) coated on a glass surface of the microfluidic channel. Using two pulsed Nd:YAG lasers at λ = 1064 nm and ∼10 μJ/pulse, the dynamics of tandem bubble interaction (individual maximum bubble diameter of 50 μm with a corresponding collapse time of 5.7 μs) are examined at different phase delays. In close proximity (i.e., interbubble distance = 40 μm or γ = 0.8), the tandem bubbles interact strongly with each other, leading to asymmetric deformation of the bubble walls and jet formation, as well as the production of two pairs of vortices in the surrounding fluid rotating in opposite directions. The direction and speed of the jet (up to 95 m/s), as well as the orientation and strength of the vortices can be varied by adjusting the phase delay. PMID:22088007

  4. Beam optics of the folded tandem ion accelerator at BARC

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    second magnetic quadrupole triplet and the switching magnet. The optics design of FOTIA is discussed in §2. The design parameters of the individual components are discussed in §3. The summary and conclusions are given in the §4. Figure 1. Schematic assembly of the 6 MV folded tandem ion accelerator at BARC. 54.

  5. Water-accelerated tandem Claisen rearrangement-catalytic asymmetric carboalumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wipf, P; Ribe, S

    2001-05-17

    [reaction: see text] The addition of stoichiometric quantities of water accelerates both the trimethylaluminum-mediated aromatic Claisen reaction and the chiral zirconocene-catalyzed asymmetric carboalumination of terminal alkenes. The two reactions occur in a tandem sequence resulting in the selective formation of two new C-C and one C-O bond after oxidative quench of the intermediate trialkylalane.

  6. Production of Arq+ ions with a tandem linear Paul trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higaki, H.; Nagayasu, K.; Iwai, T.; Ito, K.; Okamoto, H.

    2015-06-01

    A tandem linear Paul trap was used to create highly charged Argon ions by electron impact ionizations. By improving the operation scheme, the production of Ar4+ ions was confirmed. Possible improvements for the future experiments with laser cooled Ca+ ions are suggested.

  7. 14 CFR 105.45 - Use of tandem parachute systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of tandem parachute systems. 105.45 Section 105.45 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION..., freefall, operating the parachute after freefall, landing approach, and landing. (ii) Uses the harness...

  8. Bio-olefins from unsaturated fatty acids via tandem catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new catalytic route to bio-olefins from unsaturated fatty acids will be described. At the heart of the process, the catalyst apparently functions in a tandem mode by both dynamically isomerizing the positions of double bonds in an aliphatic chain and, subsequently, decarboxylating specific isomers...

  9. Interpretation of tandem mass spectra of posttranslationally modified peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunkenborg, Jakob; Matthiesen, Rune

    2013-01-01

    Tandem mass spectrometry provides a sensitive means of analyzing the amino acid sequence of peptides and modified peptides by providing accurate mass measurements of precursor and fragment ions. Modern mass spectrometry instrumentation is capable of rapidly generating many thousands of tandem mass spectra and protein database search engines have been developed to match the experimental data to peptide candidates. In most studies there is a schism between discarding perfectly valid data and including nonsensical peptide identifications-this is currently a major bottleneck in data-analysis and it calls for an understanding of tandem mass spectrometry data. Manual evaluation of the data and perhaps experimental cross-checking of the MS data can save many months of experimental work trying to do biological follow-ups based on erroneous identifications. Especially for posttranslationally modified peptides there is a need for manual validation of the data because search algorithms seldom have been optimized for the identification of modified peptides and because there are many pitfalls for the unwary. This chapter describes some of the issues that should be considered when interpreting and validating tandem mass spectra and gives some useful tables to aid this process.

  10. II-IV-V Based Thin Film Tandem Photovoltaic Cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman, Nathan [Arizona State Univ., Mesa, AZ (United States); van Schilfgaarde, Mark [Arizona State Univ., Mesa, AZ (United States)

    2012-10-04

    [Through a combination of theory and experiment that, absent unknown mitigating factors, a tandem cell whose (wide-gap. 1.8 eV) top layer is made of ZnSnP2 and whose (narrow gap, 1.1 eV) bottom layer consisting of ZnGeAs2 are near-ideal materials for a tandem cell. Not only are there gaps optimally adjusted to the solar spectrum, but the two compounds are lattice-matched, and their energy band structure and optical absorption are also near-ideal (they closely resemble that of GaAs). Our first major challenge is to establish that high-quality II-IV-V thin films can be synthesized. We have begun growing and characterizing films of ZnGeAs2 and ZnSnP2, initially grown on Ge substrates (the lattice constant of Ge matches these compounds) by pulsed laser ablation and sputtering. In tandem are theoretical calculations to guide the experiments. The goal is to develop methods that can be used to produce a pair of lattice-matched thin films that will be useful in tandem cells.

  11. State-dependent importance sampling for a Jackson tandem network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miretskiy, D.I.; Scheinhardt, Willem R.W.; Mandjes, M.R.H.

    2010-01-01

    This article considers importance sampling as a tool for rare-event simulation. The focus is on estimating the probability of overflow in the downstream queue of a Jacksonian two-node tandem queue; it is known that in this setting “traditional‿ state-independent importance-sampling distributions

  12. State-dependent importance sampling for a Jackson tandem network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miretskiy, D.; Scheinhardt, W.; Mandjes, M.

    2010-01-01

    This article considers importance sampling as a tool for rare-event simulation. The focus is on estimating the probability of overflow in the downstream queue of a Jacksonian two-node tandem queue; it is known that in this setting "traditional" state-independent importance-sampling distributions

  13. Tandem, roostes sild ja erinnüsed / Andres Langemets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Langemets, Andres, 1948-

    2002-01-01

    Arvustus: Tandem. Pegasus on pisut pervers. Tln. : Perioodika, 2002. (Loomingu Raamatukogu ; 1) ; Sild, Ivar. Minu erünnised. Tallinn : LauaPealne, 2002 ; Rooste, Jürgen. Igapäevane Psyhho : kalendaarium et mõista elu / kujund. Mammut. I. k. : Sulemees, 2001

  14. The "Bologna-München" Tandem--Experiencing Interculturality

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Martino, Sandro

    2016-01-01

    This case study describes the "Bologna-München" Tandem, a cross-border collaboration which began in 2011. The aim of the collaboration is to give students studying Italian at the Ludwig- Maximilians-University in Munich and students studying German at the University of Bologna the opportunity to experience interculturality through…

  15. Tandem fluid queues fed by homogeneous on-off sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheinhardt, Willem R.W.; Aalto, Samuli

    2000-01-01

    We consider a tandem fluid model with multiple consecutive buffers. The input of buffer j+1 is the output from buffer j, while the first buffer is fed by a, possibly infinite, number of independent homogeneous on–off sources. The sources have exponentially distributed silent periods and generally

  16. Tandem neopentyl glycol maltosides (TNMs) for membrane protein stabilisation†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Hyoung Eun; Mortensen, Jonas S.; Ribeiro, Orquidea; Du, Yang; Ehsan, Muhammad; Kobilka, Brian K.; Loland, Claus J.; Byrne, Bernadette

    2017-01-01

    A novel class of detergents, designated tandem neopentyl glycol maltosides (TNMs), were evaluated with four target membrane proteins. The best detergent varied depending on the target, but TNM-C12L and TNM-C11S were notable for their ability to confer increased membrane protein stability compared to DDM. These agents have potential for use in membrane protein research. PMID:27711401

  17. Tandem neopentyl glycol maltosides (TNMs) for membrane protein stabilisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bae, Hyoung Eun; Mortensen, Jonas S; Ribeiro, Orquidea

    2016-01-01

    A novel class of detergents, designated tandem neopentyl glycol maltosides (TNMs), were evaluated with four target membrane proteins. The best detergent varied depending on the target, but TNM-C12L and TNM-C11S were notable for their ability to confer increased membrane protein stability compared...

  18. A tandem queue with server slow-down and blocking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Foreest, N.D.; Mandjes, M.R.H.; van Ommeren, Jan C.W.; Scheinhardt, Willem R.W.

    2005-01-01

    We consider two variants of a two-station tandem network with blocking. In both variants the first server ceases to work when the queue length at the second station hits a `blocking threshold'. In addition, in variant $2$ the first server decreases its service rate when the second queue exceeds a

  19. Note on a tandem queue with delayed server release

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nawijn, W.M.

    2000-01-01

    We consider a tandem queue with two stations. The first station is an $s$-server queue with Poisson arrivals and exponential service times. After terminating his service in the first station, a customer enters the second station to require service at a single server, while in the meantime he is

  20. A tandem queue with server slow-down and blocking.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.D. van Foreest; M.R.H. Mandjes (Michel); J.C.W. van Ommeren; W.R.W. Scheinhardt (Werner)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractWe consider two variants of a two-station tandem network with blocking. In both variants the first server ceases to work when the queue length at the second station hits a blocking threshold . In addition, in variant 2 the first server decreases its service rate when the second queue