Sample records for heteromita globosa reduces

  1. Negative effects of Phaeocystis globosa on microalgae (United States)

    Liu, Jiesheng; van Rijssel, Marion; Yang, Weidong; Peng, Xichun; Lü, Songhui; Wang, Yan; Chen, Jufang; Wang, Zhaohui; Qi, Yuzao


    The potential allelopathic effects of the microalga, Phaeocystis globosa Scherffel, on three harmful bloom algae, Prorocentrum donghaiense Lu, Chattonella marina (Subrahmanyan) Hara et Chihara and Chattonella ovata Hara et Chihara were studied. The growth of C. marina and C. ovata was markedly reduced when the organisms were co-cultured with P. globosa or cultured in cell-free spent medium. Haemolytic extracts from P. globosa cells in the senescence phase had a similar inhibitory effect on the three harmful bloom algae. However, P. globosa had less influence on the brine shrimp, Artemia salina. These results indicate that P. globosa may have an allelopathic effect on microalgae, which would explain the superior competitive abilities of P. globosa. Because the addition of the haemolytic toxins from P. globosa had similar effects on algae as spent media, these compounds may be involved in the allelopathic action of P. globosa.

  2. Buddleja globosa (United States)

    Fuentes, Manuel; Sepúlveda, Cesar; Alarcón, Marcelo; Palomo, Iván; Fuentes, Eduardo


    Platelets play a key role in thrombosis and cardiovascular diseases. Medicinal plants could be one of the most important factors that influence risks for platelet activation. Buddleja globosa (known as "matico") is a medicinal plant with many biological activities. The high content of polyphenols suggest that matico could have antiplatelet activity. The present study was aimed at evaluating mechanisms of antiplatelet action of an extract of matico. We demonstrated that matico extract at low concentrations and in a concentration dependent manner (0.05-1 mg/mL) was a potent inhibitor of platelet aggregation in response to collagen, convulsion and ADP (IC 50 values was 61 μg/mL, 72 μg/mL and 290 μg/mL, respectively). In this sense matico extract exerted the greatest antiaggregant activity induced by collagen. Similarly, matico showed a decrease in % of positive platelet for P-selectina (vehicle, 0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5 and 1 mg/mL were 32 ± 2%, 29 ± 2 (p < 0.05), 19 ± 1 (p < 0.01), 15 ± 2 (p < 0.01), 10 ± 1% (p < 0.01) and 7 ± 2% (p < 0.01), respectively) and PAC-1 binding (vehicle, 0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5 and 1 mg/mL were 59 ± 1, 58 ± 3 (n.s), 55 ± 2 (p < 0.05), 50 ± 2 (p < 0.01), 38 ± 1 (p < 0.01), 36 ± 2 (p < 0.01). The cellular mechanism for the antiplatelet activity of matico might be mediated by the inhibition of phospholipase C-gamma 2 and protein kinase C phosphorylation. This beneficial property of matico may be of importance in thrombosis, in which platelet activation and aggregation are important determinants of thrombus initiation and development, and may contribute to the beneficial effects of matico intake in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases.

  3. The ecophysiology of Phaeocystis globosa : A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riegman, R; vanBoekel, W

    A straightforward ecophysiological characterization of Phaeocystis globosa is hampered by its complex polymorphic life cycle in which flagellates and colonial cells express different physiological and morphological properties. There is also increasing evidence that, besides the existence of

  4. Negative effects of Phaeocystis globosa on microalgae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu Jiesheng, [No Value; Van Rijssel, Marion; Yang Weidong, [No Value; Peng Xichun, [No Value; Lue Songhui, [No Value; Wang Yan, [No Value; Chen Jufang, [No Value; Wang Zhaohui, [No Value; Qi Yuzao, [No Value

    The potential allelopathic effects of the microalga, Phaeocystis globosa Scherffel, on three harmful bloom algae, Prorocentrum donghaiense Lu, Chattonella marina (Subrahmanyan) Hara et Chihara and Chattonella ovata Hara et Chihara were studied. The growth of C. marina and C. ovata was markedly

  5. Origin and distribution of Sporothrix globosa causing sapronoses in Asia. (United States)

    Moussa, Tarek A A; Kadasa, Naif M S; Al Zahrani, Hassan S; Ahmed, Sarah Abdallah; Feng, Peiying; Gerrits van den Ende, Albertus H G; Zhang, Yu; Kano, Rui; Li, Fuqiu; Li, Shanshan; Song, Yang; Dong, Bilin; Rossato, Luana; Dolatabadi, Somayeh; Hoog, Sybren de


    The aim of the study was to evaluate the main sources and epidemiological patterns and speculate on the evolutionary origin of Sporothrix globosa in Asia. Case and case series literature on sporotrichosis in Asia from January 2007 onwards were reviewed using meta-analysis. Phylogenetic analysis of relevant S. globosa was carried out on the basis of concatenated sequences of ITS, TEF3 and CAL. A haplotype network of CAL sequences of 281 Sporothrix isolates was analysed to determine the population structure of S. globosa. Nearly all cases of sporotrichosis caused by S. globosa in Asia were human. In contrast to the remaining pathogenic Sporothrix species, feline transmission was exceptional; nearly all regional cat-associated cases were caused by Sporothrix schenckii. While the latter species was highly variable and showed recombination, S. globosa seemed to be a clonal offshoot, as was Sporothrix brasiliensis. The origin of the segregants was located in an area of high variability in S. schenckii with a relatively high frequency of Asian strains. In Asia, S. globosa was the prevalent species. The low diversity of S. globosa suggested a recent divergence with a founder effect of low variability from the variable ancestral species, S. schenckii.

  6. An In Vitro Study of the Antioxidant and Antihemolytic Properties of Buddleja globosa (Matico). (United States)

    Suwalsky, Mario; Duguet, José; Speisky, Hernán


    The antioxidant and antihemolytic properties contained in the leaves of Buddleja globosa (B. globosa), also known as "Matico," were determined. Aqueous extracts of leaves were assayed in human erythrocytes and molecular models of its membrane. The latter were bilayers built-up of lipids located in the outer and inner leaflets of the erythrocyte membrane. Observations by scanning electron microscopy showed that the extract altered the morphology of erythrocytes inducing the formation of crenated echinocytes. This result implied that the extract components were inserted into the outer leaflet of the cell membrane. This conclusion was confirmed by experiments carried out by fluorescence spectroscopy of red cell membranes and vesicles (LUV) of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and by X-ray diffraction of DMPC and dimyristoylphosphatidylethanolamine bilayers. Human erythrocytes were in vitro exposed to HClO, which is a natural powerful oxidant. Results demonstrated that low concentrations of B. globosa aqueous extract neutralized the harmful capacity of HClO. Hemolysis experiments also showed that the extract in very low concentrations reduced hemolysis induced by HClO.

  7. Lysing bloom-causing alga Phaeocystis globosa with microbial algicide: An efficient process that decreases the toxicity of algal exudates. (United States)

    Cai, Guanjing; Yang, Xujun; Lai, Qiliang; Yu, Xiaoqi; Zhang, Huajun; Li, Yi; Chen, Zhangran; Lei, Xueqian; Zheng, Wei; Xu, Hong; Zheng, Tianling


    Algicidal microbes could effectively remove the harmful algae from the waters. In this study, we were concerned with the ecological influence of an algicide extracted from Streptomyces alboflavus RPS, which could completely lyse the Phaeocystis globosa cells within two days. In microcosms, 4 μg/mL of the microbial algicide could efficiently remove P. globosa cells without suppressing other aquatic organisms. Bioluminescent assays confirmed that the toxicity of microbial algicide at this concentration was negligible. Interestingly, the toxicity of P. globosa exudates was also significantly reduced after being treated with the algicide. Further experiments revealed that the microbial algicide could instantly increase the permeability of the plasma membrane and disturb the photosynthetic system, followed by the deformation of organelles, vacuolization and increasing oxidative stress. The pre-incubation of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) verified that the rapid damages to the plasma membrane and photosynthetic system caused the algal death in the early phase, and the increasing oxidative stress killed the rest. The late accumulation and possible release of CAT also explained the decreasing toxicity of the algal culture. These results indicated that this microbial algicide has great potential in controlling the growth of P. globosa on site.

  8. Morphological diversity between culture strains of a chlorarachniophyte, Lotharella globosa.

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    Yoshihisa Hirakawa

    Full Text Available Chlorarachniophytes are marine unicellular algae that possess secondary plastids of green algal origin. Although chlorarachniophytes are a small group (the phylum of Chlorarachniophyta contains 14 species in 8 genera, they have variable and complex life cycles that include amoeboid, coccoid, and/or flagellate cells. The majority of chlorarachniophytes possess two or more cell types in their life cycles, and which cell types are found is one of the principle morphological criteria used for species descriptions. Here we describe an unidentified chlorarachniophyte that was isolated from an artificial coral reef that calls this criterion into question. The life cycle of the new strain includes all three major cell types, but DNA barcoding based on the established nucleomorph ITS sequences showed it to share 100% sequence identity with Lotharella globosa. The type strain of L. globosa was also isolated from a coral reef, but is defined as completely lacking an amoeboid stage throughout its life cycle. We conclude that L. globosa possesses morphological diversity between culture strains, and that the new strain is a variety of L. globosa, which we describe as Lotharella globosa var. fortis var. nov. to include the amoeboid stage in the formal description of L. globosa. This intraspecies variation suggest that gross morphological stages maybe lost rather rapidly, and specifically that the type strain of L. globosa has lost the ability to form the amoeboid stage, perhaps recently. This in turn suggests that even major morphological characters used for taxonomy of this group may be variable in natural populations, and therefore misleading.

  9. Flavanones from aerial parts of Cordia globosa (Jacq.) Kunth, Boraginaceae


    Silva, Sâmia Andricia S. da; Agra,Maria de Fátima; Josean F. Tavares; Emídio V. L. da-Cunha; Barbosa-Filho, José Maria; Silva, Marcelo S. da


    The phytochemical analysis of aerial parts of Cordia globosa, collected in the Municipality of Picuí, State of Paraíba, Brazil, resulted in the isolation and structural identification of narigenin-4',7-dimethyl ether (0.025 g) and eriodictyol (0.015 g). These compounds are the first flavanones aglycones isolated from the genus Cordia. A análise fitoquímica das partes aéreas de Cordia globosa, coletadas no município de Picuí, PB, Brasil, resultou no isolamento e identificação estrutural da ...

  10. [Sporothrix globosa isolation related to a case of lymphocutaneous sporotrichosis]. (United States)

    Cruz, Rodrigo; Vieille, Peggy; Oschilewski, David


    Sporothrix schenckii complex comprises a group of environmental dimorphic fungi that cause sporotrichosis. In Chile, isolated cases have been reported in humans, though no environmental isolates have been described. To achieve isolation of Sporothrix complex from the soil where a 75 year old patient with lymphocutaneous sporotrichosis performs horticulture work. In March and July 2011 soil and plant debris from five sectors where the patient does his work in horticulture was extracted. The soil samples were diluted and inoculated in Sabouraud agar with cycloheximide and chloramphenicol at 26 °C. The plant debris was directly inoculated in the same medium. Colonies suggestive of Sporothrix complex were reseeded in PDA agar at 26 ° C and identified as recommended by Marimon et al. Of the 10 plates from the first sampling, one colony was identified as Sporothrix globosa. In the second sampling, Sporothrix globosa grew in two plates seeded with soil, with a total of 6 colonies. There was no growth of Sporothrix complex in plant debris. The isolate from the patient was also identified as Sporothrix globosa. For the first time in Chile a species of Sporothrix complex was isolated from the environment. Sporothrix globosa was the species identified both in the ground and from the patient with sporotrichosis.

  11. First autochthone case of sporotrichosis by Sporothrix globosa in Portugal. (United States)

    de Oliveira, Manoel Marques Evangelista; Veríssimo, Cristina; Sabino, Raquel; Aranha, João; Zancopé-Oliveira, Rosely Maria; Sampaio, Paula; Pais, Célia


    In this study, we characterize the first autochthone case of human sporotrichosis reported in Lisbon, Portugal. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization revealed that the infection was caused by Sporothrix globosa. We conclude that sporotrichosis may be underdiagnosed particularly in Southern Europe and suggest Portugal as an emerging area for this fungal infection. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Flavanones from aerial parts of Cordia globosa (Jacq. Kunth, Boraginaceae

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    Sâmia Andricia S. da Silva


    Full Text Available The phytochemical analysis of aerial parts of Cordia globosa, collected in the Municipality of Picuí, State of Paraíba, Brazil, resulted in the isolation and structural identification of narigenin-4',7-dimethyl ether (0.025 g and eriodictyol (0.015 g. These compounds are the first flavanones aglycones isolated from the genus Cordia.

  13. Selective grazing of Temora longicornis in different stages of a Phaeocystis globosa bloom - a mesocosm study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koski, Marja; Dutz, Jörg; Breteler, W.C.M.K.


    Selective grazing of a calanoid copepod Temora longicornis was measured during different stages of a Phaeocystis globosa bloom, in order to reveal (1) if T longicornis feeds on single cells and/or colonies of P. globosa in the presence of alternative food sources, (2) if copepod food selection...... of alternative food sources. In contrast, feeding on single cells was never significant, and the total contribution of P globosa to carbon ingestion of T longicornis was minor. T longicornis fed most actively on the decaying colonies, whereas during the peak of the bloom copepods selected against P globosa...

  14. Whole-Genome Sequencing and In Silico Analysis of Two Strains of Sporothrix globosa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Lilin; Gao, Wenchao; Giosa, Domenico; Criseo, Giuseppe; Zhang, Jing; He, Tailong; Huang, Xiaowen; Sun, Jiufeng; Sun, Yao; Huang, Jiamin; Zhang, Yunqing; Brankovics, Balázs; Scordino, Fabio; D'Alessandro, Enrico; van Diepeningen, Anne; de Hoog, Sybren; Huang, Huaiqiu; Romeo, Orazio


    Sporothrix globosa is a thermo-dimorphic fungus belonging to a pathogenic clade that also includes Sporothrix schenckii, which causes human and animal sporotrichosis. Here, we present the first genome assemblies of two S. globosa strains providing data for future comparative genomic studies in

  15. Genetic variation of Sporothrix globosa isolates from diverse geographic and clinical origins in China. (United States)

    Zhao, Lipei; Cui, Yan; Zhen, Yu; Yao, Lei; Shi, Ying; Song, Yang; Chen, Ruili; Li, Shanshan


    Sporothrix globosa is the main causative agent of sporotrichosis, a common mycosis that usually affects the skin, in China. Despite increasing efforts in the molecular identification of this fungal pathogen, its modes of transmission and epidemiology remain poorly understood. The goals of this study were to assess the genetic diversity of S. globosa using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis and to assess the correlation of AFLP profiles with the geographic origins, growth rates, clinical forms, and antifungal susceptibilities of S. globosa isolates. AFLP analysis of 225 clinical S. globosa isolates from eight provinces or municipalities in China identified eight distinct clustering groups (I-VIII), with groups I, II and IV being the most common. The AFLP genotypes showed distinct distribution patterns among different regions within Jilin Province and between northern and southern China, but there was no obvious association between the AFLP genotypes and the growth rates, clinical forms or antifungal susceptibilities of the S. globosa isolates. These results expand our understanding of the genetic variation of S. globosa and suggest that AFLP analysis is a potentially useful tool for studying the epidemiology of this fungal pathogen.

  16. Succession of primary producers and micrograzers in a coastal ecosystem dominated by Phaeocystis globosa blooms


    Grattepanche, Jean-David; Breton, Elsa; Brylinski, Jean-Michel; Lecuyer, Eric; Christaki, Urania


    Abstract The community structures and succession of phytoplankton, protozooplankton and copepods were studied from February 2007 to July 2009 in a coastal area of the eastern English Channel subject to Phaeocystis globosa blooms. While diatoms blooms preceded P. globosa blooms each year, the community structure and stock of heterotrophic protists appeared to be related to the dominant P. globosa life cycle stages. In 2007 the dominance of large colonies (>100 ?m, 375 ?g C L-1) whic...

  17. Analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties of Buddleja globosa, Buddlejaceae. (United States)

    Backhouse, N; Rosales, L; Apablaza, C; Goïty, L; Erazo, S; Negrete, R; Theodoluz, C; Rodríguez, J; Delporte, C


    Buddleja globosa, known as "matico", is employed in Chile for wound healing. To validate the traditional use of the crude drug through in vivo and in vitro evaluation of the anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antioxidant properties of its extracts. Sequential hexane, dichloromethane, methanol and total methanol extracts were studied using bioguided fractionation. The following activities were investigated: analgesic (writhing test), oral and topic anti-inflammatory (paw- and ear-induced edema), free radical scavenging and antioxidant activities (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, DPPH, superoxide anion, lipid peroxidation and xanthine oxidase inhibition). Sodium naproxen, nimesulide, indomethacin were used as reference drugs for in vivo, quercetin and allopurinol for in vitro assays. A mixture of alpha- and beta-amyrins was isolated from the hexane extract that showed 41.2% of analgesic effect at 600 mg/kg, inhibited by 47.7 and 79.0% the arachidonic acid (AA) and 12-deoxyphorbol-13-decanoate (TPA)-induced inflammation at 3mg/20 microL/ear, respectively. A mixture of beta-sitosterol, stigmasterol, stigmastenol, stigmastanol and campesterol was isolated from the fraction CD4-N and beta-sitosterol-glycoside from the fraction CD5-N, reducing TPA-induced inflammation by 78.2 and 83.7% at 1mg/20 microL/ear, respectively. The fraction CD4-N at 300 mg/kg also showed analgesic activity (38.7%). The methanol extract at 600mg/kg per os showed anti-inflammatory effect (61.4%), topic anti-inflammatory (56.7% on TPA) and analgesic activity (38.5%). Verbascoside and luteolin-7-O-glucoside were the major components of the methanol extract; apigenin 7-O-glucoside was also detected. Inhibition of superoxide anion, lipoperoxidation, and DPPH bleaching effect was found in the methanol serial and global extracts. The present report demonstrate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of Buddleja globosa and validate its use in Chilean traditional medicine.

  18. A cytotoxic meroterpenoid benzoquinone from roots of Cordia globosa. (United States)

    Alencar de Menezes, Jane Eire; Lemos, Telma Leda; Pessoa, Otília Deusdênia; Braz-Filho, Raimundo; Montenegro, Raquel C; Wilke, Diego Veras; Costa-Lotufo, Letícia V; Pessoa, Cláudia; de Moraes, Manoel Odorico; Silveira, Edilberto R


    (1a S*,1b S*,7a S*,8a S*)-4,5-Dimethoxy-1a,7a-dimethyl-1,1a,1b,2,7, 7a,8,8a-octahydrocyclopropa cyclopenta[1,2-b]naphthalene-3,6-dione (1), a new meroterpenoid benzoquinone, and microphyllaquinone (2), a known naphthoquinone, have been isolated from roots of Cordia globosa. Both structure determinations were performed by conventional spectroscopic methods, including inverse detection NMR techniques, and by comparison with data from the literature for related compounds. Compound 1 displayed considerable cytotoxic activity against several cancer cell lines with IC50 values in the range of 1.2 to 5.0 microg/mL. The cytotoxic activity seemed to be related to DNA synthesis inhibition, as revealed by the reduction of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation, and apoptosis induction, as indicated by the acridine orange/ethidium bromide assay and morphological changes after 24 h of incubation on leukemic cells.

  19. The first case of isolation of malassezia globosa in our country

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    Arsić-Arsenijević Valentina S.


    Full Text Available Today is known that genus Malassezia includes seven species: M. furfur, M. sympodialis, M. obtusa, M. globosa, M. restricta, M. slooffiae and M. pachydermatis, but role of each of the species in the pathogenesis of desease has not been eluciated yet, so futher laboratory isolation and identification are necessary. We report the first case of isolation of Malassezia globosa in Serbia (Belgrade, in a patient suffering from Pityriasis versicolor. Identification of M. globosa was based on macroscopic, microscopic and biochemical characteristics. Isolation was done on Leeming and Notman medium and on mDixona agar, at 350C, during 7 days in aerobic conditions. Also the yeast's biochemical phenotype was determined as catalase (+, lipase (+, esculin degradation (-, Tween (20,40, 60 and 80 asimilation (-. M. globosa is a lipophilic yeast of the genus Malassezia and the common member of the skin flora. In concordance with some predis-poning factors M. globosa is implicated in the pathogenesis of several skin diseases (pityriasis versicolor, malassezia foliculitis sebor-rheic dermatitis and some forms of atopic dermatitis. In immuno-compromised patients and neonates this yeast can even cause fatal systemic infections. Because the role of Malassezia spp. in pathogenesis of skin desease is not still determined, we suggest laboratory diagnosis and identification of these species as a routine diagnostic procedure.

  20. Culture system for Wolffia globosa L. (Lemnaceae for hygiene human food

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    Nisachol Ruekaewma


    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop a suitable culture system for the mass production of Wolffia globosa for human consumption. W. globosa was grown in five different culture systems (static, vertical aeration, horizontal surface agitation, system with top water spraying and layer culturing system with top water spraying. Dry weight of W. globosa determined every 7 days indicated that a horizontal surface agitation provided the highest mass of 42.94±2.17 g/m2 and significantly difference with others in 28 days (p<0.05. Twenty one days-culture of W. globosa in the horizontal circulation produced the highest yield of 1.52±0.04 g dry weight/m2 /d and was significantly higher than yields in other systems. Frond size of W. globosa in 7 days culture was the biggest of all the culture systems; however, no significant difference was found among the culture systems. The biomass had 48.2% protein with complete essential amino acids, 9.6% fat and 14.5% crude fiber with low bacterial contamination.

  1. Antimicrobial activity, cytotoxicity, and phytochemical screening of Voacanga globosa (Blanco) Merr. leaf extract (Apocynaceae). (United States)

    Vital, Pierangeli G; Rivera, Windell L


    To determine the antibacterial, antifungal, antiprotozoal, cytotoxic, and phytochemical properties of ethanol extracts of leaves of Voacanga globosa (Blanco) Merr. (V. globosa). The extracts were tested against bacteria and fungus through disc diffusion assay; against protozoa through growth curve determination, antiprotozoal and cytotoxicity assays. The extract revealed antibacterial activities, inhibiting the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Micrococcus luteus, and Salmonella typhimurium. Antifungal assay showed that it inhibited Candida albicans. The antiprotozoal assay against Trichomonas vaginalis and Entamoeba histolytica showed that V. globosa can inhibit the parasites, wherein the action can be comparable to metronidazole. With the in situ cell death detection kit, Trichomonas vaginalis and Entamoeba histolytica exposed to V. globosa leaf extract was observed to fluoresce simultaneously in red and yellow signals signifying apoptotic-like changes. Preliminary phytochemical screening revealed the chemical composition of plant extract containing alkaloids, saponins, 2-deoxysugars, and hydrolysable tannins. Thus, this study provides scientific evidence on the traditional use of V. globosa leaf extract in treating microbial diseases. Further, the leaf extract can possibly be used to produce alternative forms of antimicrobials. Copyright © 2011 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Exposure of composite tannery effluent on snail, Pila globosa: A comparative assessment of toxic impacts of the untreated and membrane treated effluents. (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Priyankari; Swarnakar, Snehasikta; Mukhopadhyay, Aniruddha; Ghosh, Sourja


    Effluent from tannery industries can significantly affect the aquatic environment due to the presence of a variety of recalcitrant components. The present study focuses on a comparative assessment of the toxic impacts of an untreated tannery effluent and membrane treated effluents using snail, Pila globosa as an aquatic model. Composite tannery effluent collected from a common effluent treatment plant was selected as the untreated effluent. To investigate the effect of treated effluents on the aquatic organism the effluent was treated by two ways, viz. a single stage microfiltration (MF) using ceramic membrane and a two-step process involving MF followed by reverse osmosis (RO). The whole body tissue, gonad and mantle of P. globosa were subjected to enzyme assays like superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-GPx), glutathione S- transferase (GST), etc. for assessing toxic impact. Changes in the biochemical parameters like protein, carbohydrate and amino acid were observed including histological studies of gonad and mantle tissue upon treatment with tannery effluents. To examine potential DNA damage due to the exposure of the effluent, comet assay was conducted. The study revealed that with an exposure to the untreated effluent, activity of the antioxidant enzymes increased significantly while the protein and carbohydrate content reduced largely in the whole body tissue, gonad as well as mantle tissues of P. globosa. Histological study indicated considerable damage in the gonad and mantle tissues following exposure to the untreated effluent. Comet assay using hemolymph of P. globosa following exposure to tannery effluent, showed significant genotoxicity. Interestingly, compared to the untreated effluent, damaging effect was reduced in molluscs tissues when exposed to MF treated effluent and even lesser when exposed to MF+RO treated effluent. Apart from the reduced activities of oxidative stress enzymes, the

  3. The MAT1-1:MAT1-2 ratio of Sporothrix globosa isolates in Japan. (United States)

    Kano, Rui; Tsui, Clement K-M; Hamelin, Richard C; Anzawa, Kazushi; Mochizuki, Takashi; Nishimoto, Katsutaro; Hiruma, Masataro; Kamata, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko


    In order to understand the reproductive biology of pathogenic species in the Sporothrix schenckii complex, we characterized the partial mating type (MAT1-1) loci of Sporothrix schenckii, as well as the S. globosa MAT1-1-1 gene, which encoded 262 amino acid sequences. The data confirmed that the MAT1-1 locus of S. globosa was divergent from the MAT1-2 locus of the opposite mating type, suggesting that the fungus is heterothallic. To determine the mating type ratio of 20 isolates from Japanese patients, we analyzed the MAT loci by specific PCR amplification of MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-2-1 genes. The MAT1-1-1 was detected in 5 isolates but not in the other 15 isolates with the presence of MAT1-2-1. The MAT1-1:1-2 ratio of S. globosa isolates in Japan was estimated to be 1:3. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the sequences of the MAT1-1-1 were identical among S. globosa isolates but different from S. schenckii and Ophiostoma montium.

  4. Phaeocystis globosa (Prymnesiophyceae) colonies : Hollow structures built with small amounts of polysaccharides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijssel, M; Hamm, C.E.; Gieskes, W.W C

    In both field samples and cultures the total amount of sugar and of carbon in colonies of Phaeocystis globosa was correlated with colony surface area, suggesting a hollow structure. A conceptual model based on biochemical data and on the assumption that the mucus occurs as a layer of a Bred

  5. Effectiveness of an anti-algal compound in eliminating an aquatic unicellular harmful algal Phaeocystis globosa

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    Huajun eZhang


    Full Text Available Phaeocystis globosa blooms can have negative effects on higher trophic levels in the marine ecosystem and consequently influence human activities. Strain KA22, identified as the bacterium Hahella, was isolated from coastal surface water and used to control P. globosa growth. A methanol extract from the bacteral cells showed strong algicidal activity. After purification, the compound showed a similar structure to prodigiosin when identified with Q-Exactive Orbitrap MS and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra. The compound showed algicidal activity against P. globosa with a 50% Lethal Dose (LD50 of 2.24 μg/mL. The prodigiosin was stable under heat and acid environment, and it could be degraded under alkaline environment and natural light condition. The growth rates of strain KA22 was fast in 2216E medium and the content of prodigiosin in this medium was more than 70 μg/mL after 16 h incubation. The compound showed particularly strong algicidal activity against Prorocentrum donghaiense, P. globosa and Heterosigma akashiwo, but having little effect on three other phytoplankton species tested. The results of our research could increase our knowledge on harmful algal bloom control compound and lead to further study on the mechanisms of the lysis effect on harmful algae.

  6. First record of Aequorea globosa Eschscholtz, 1829 (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa in the coast of Syria

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    Full Text Available The Indo-Pacific jellyfish Aequorea globosa Eschscholtz, 1829 was reported last year for the first time in the Mediterranean Sea from Iskenderun Bay (S. Turkey. This jellyfish was observed in the coast of Syria, on 8 January 2012, during a regular monthly sampling program.

  7. Molecular epidemiology of human sporotrichosis in Venezuela reveals high frequency of Sporothrix globosa. (United States)

    Camacho, Emma; León-Navarro, Isabel; Rodríguez-Brito, Sabrina; Mendoza, Mireya; Niño-Vega, Gustavo A


    Sporotrichosis is a cutaneous and subcutaneous fungal disease of humans and other mammals, known to be caused by the Sporothrix schenckii species complex, which comprises four species of clinical importance: S. brasiliensis, S. globosa, S. luriei, and S. schenckii sensu stricto. Of them, S. globosa and S. schenckii s. str. show global distribution and differences in global frequency as causal agents of the disease. In the Americas, only three species are present: S. schenckii s. str., S. brasiliensis (so far, only reported in Brazil), and S. globosa. In Venezuela, since the first case of sporotrichosis reported in 1935, S. schenckii have been considered its unique etiological agent. In the present work, the presence of more than one species in the country was evaluated. By phenotypic key features and molecular phylogeny analyses, we re-examined 30 isolates from diverse Venezuelan regions belonging to the fungi collection of Instituto de Biomedicina, Caracas, Venezuela, and national reference center for skin diseases. All isolates were collected between 1973 and 2013, and maintained in distilled water. Sporotrichosis in Venezuela is mainly caused by S. schenckii s. str. (70%). However, a significant proportion (30%) of sporotrichosis cases in the country can be attributable to S. globosa. A correlation between intraspecific genotypes and clinical presentation is proposed. Our data suggest that sporotrichosis various clinical forms might be related to genetic diversity of isolates, and possibly, to diverse virulence profiles previously reported in the S. schenckii species complex. Sporothrix globosa was found to be the causative agent of 30% of sporotrichosis for the Venezuelan cases re-examined, the highest frequency of this species so far reported in the Americas. The high genetic variability presented by S. schenckii s. str. indicates that species distinction based on phenotypic key features could be a challenging and uncertain task; molecular identification

  8. Effect of Exogenous Application of Hydrogen Peroxide on Drought Tolerance of Glob Amaranth (Gomphrena globosa L.

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    M Goldani


    Full Text Available Drought is one of the important environmental stresses that reduce the crop growth. Oxidative stress is a secondary stress due to drought and other abiotic stresses. In order to study the effect of exogenous application of hydrogen peroxide on drought tolerance of glob amaranth (Gomphrena globosa L., an experiment was conducted in greenhouse conditions. This study was designed as factorial based on completely randomized design with 3 replications. Different concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (0, 2.5 and 5 mM and three levels of irrigation intervals (after 4, 7 and 10 days were treated in this study. The results showed that foliar application of hydrogen peroxide can improve shoot and root dry weight and alleviate adverse effects of drought stress. With increasing drought stress stomatal conductance, flower number, total chlorophyll and root volume decreased significantly. So that the lowest of these characterestics was in the irrigation after 10 days. Interaction effects of drought and hydrogen peroxide in shoot dry weight was significantly different in 5% level and in electrolyte leakage, relative water content, free proline and total root length was significantly different in 1% level. In control (4 day irrigation interval with increasing hydrogen peroxide of 2.5 mM, shoot dry weight and total root length increased 20% and 91%, respectively. In control, with increasing hydrogen peroxide to 5 mM total chlorophyll was increased 30.8% compared to 0 mM hydrogen peroxide application (control. The final result showed that foliar application of hydrogen peroxide decreased the adverse effects of drought stress.

  9. Cordiamyia globosa gen.n. e sp.n. (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae, Cecidomyiidi associado com Cordia Verbenacea DC. (Boraginaceae no Brasil Cordiamyia globosa gen.n. and sp.n. (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae associated with Cordia verbekacea DC. (Boraginaceae in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Cid Maia


    Full Text Available Cordiamyia globosa gen.n., sp.n. (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae, Cecidomyiidi associated with Cordia verbenacea (Boraginaceae, in Brazil, is described and illustrated (larva, pupa, male, female and gall.

  10. Occurrence of swarms of Sagitta enflata (Chaetognatha) and Pleurobrachia globosa (Ctenophora) in the coastal waters of Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Goswami, S.C.

    Swarms of Chaetognatha @iSagitta enflata@@ Grassi and Ctenophore @iPleurobrachia globosa@@. Moser were studied in coastal waters of Goa. These two forms together constituted 90 to 94% of total biomass. Medusae and Siphonophora were the other main...

  11. Trophic significance of solitary cells of the prymnesiophyte Phaeocystis globosa depends on cell type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dutz, Jörg; Koski, Marja


    nonflagellated cells were ingested at intermediate to high rates and resulted in high survival and development, comparable to the Rhodomonas sp. control. In contrast, the response to three mesoflagellate strains was highly variable. Feeding on two of these strains was avoided, whereas the third strain......With the use of five different isolates of Phaeocystis globosa solitary cells from the North Sea, we conducted experiments to reveal whether grazing and development of the nauplii of the calanoid copepod Temora longicornis varies in response to the cell type. Two P. globosa strains representing...... was ingested; however, the mesoflagellates induced poor survival and development regardless of the feeding response. These observations differ from previous results, which generally demonstrate microzooplankton feeding on Phaeocystis. The morphological characterization of strains, together with mixture...

  12. Detection of 2 immunoreactive antigens in the cell wall of Sporothrix brasiliensis and Sporothrix globosa. (United States)

    Ruiz-Baca, Estela; Hernández-Mendoza, Gustavo; Cuéllar-Cruz, Mayra; Toriello, Conchita; López-Romero, Everardo; Gutiérrez-Sánchez, Gerardo


    The cell wall of members of the Sporothrix schenckii complex contains highly antigenic molecules which are potentially useful for the diagnosis and treatment of sporotrichosis. In this study, 2 immunoreactive antigens of 60 (Gp60) and 70 kDa (Gp70) were detected in the cell wall of the yeast morphotypes of Sporothrix brasiliensis and Sporothrix globosa. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Antinociceptive activity of Buddleja globosa (matico) in several models of pain. (United States)

    Backhouse, Nadine; Delporte, Carla; Apablaza, Cecia; Farías, Mariela; Goïty, León; Arrau, Sylvia; Negrete, Rosa; Castro, Consuelo; Miranda, Hugo


    Leaf extracts of Buddleja globosa (Buddlejaceae) are used in Chilean folk medicine for wound healing. The anti-inflammatory (topic and per os), analgesic (per os) effects and the antioxidant activity of Buddleja globosa were for the first time reported by us. Assess the antinociceptive activity of the methanol sequential and global extracts using complementary chemical and thermal models of pain, characterize pharmacologically the antinociception induced, evaluate seasonal influence to support Buddleja globosa medicinal use. Global methanol, sequential methanol and ethanol (leaves collected in autumn and summer) extracts were evaluated for oral and topic analgesia in tail flick, formalin and writhing models, verbascoside and 7-O-luteolin glucoside were assayed in tail flick and writhing. Ibuprofen was used as reference. For characterization of induced antinociception, naltrexone, naltrindole, tropisetron, nor-binaltorphimine, prazosin, yohimbine, atropine, and N-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester were used as antagonists and inhibitors drugs. Seasonal influence was observed since autumn extract resulted less active. Extracts showed a dose-dependent antinociceptive activity in all assays, the highest effects were obtained for the formalin and writhing test. Verbascoside was more active than ibuprofen in the writhing test (67.6% and 50.0% at equimolar doses) and showed similar effects in the tail flick (topic and oral) near 25% at equivalent doses - ED25 or EC25 - to ibuprofen. Luteolin 7-O-glucoside was slightly more active in the tail flick test and nearly half active than verbascoside in the writhing assay. Effectiveness was higher for the sequential than for global alcoholic extracts, and can be increased by selective blocking of opioid receptors. Global methanol extract seems modulated only by naltrexone. Analgesic effect of Buddleja globosa is here demonstrated validating its use in traditional medicine. Season influence is important to be considered.

  14. Toxic Effects of Prodigiosin Secreted by Hahella sp. KA22 on Harmful Alga Phaeocystis globosa

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    Huajun Zhang


    Full Text Available Application of algicidal compounds secreted by bacteria is a promising and environmentally friendly strategy to control harmful algal blooms (HABs. Years ago prodigiosin was described as an efficient algicidal compound, but the details about the effect of prodigiosin on algal cells are still elusive. Prodigiosin shows high algicidal activity on Phaeocystis globosa, making it a potential algicide in HAB control. When P. globosa were treated with prodigiosin at 5 μg/mL, algae cells showed cytoplasmic hypervacuolization, chloroplast and nucleus rupture, flagella missing, and cell fracture, when observed by scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscopy. Prodigiosin induced a reactive oxygen species (ROS burst in P. globosa at 2 h, which could result in severe oxidative damage to algal cells. Chlorophyll a (Chl a fluorescence decreased significantly after prodigiosin treatment; about 45.3 and 90.0% of algal cells lost Chl a fluorescence at 24 and 48 h. The Fv/Fm value, reflecting the status of the photosystem II electron flow also decreased after prodigiosin treatment. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR analysis psbA and rbcS expression indicated that photosynthesis process was remarkably inhibited by prodigiosin. The results indicated that the inhibition of photosynthesis may produce excessive ROS causing cell necrosis. This study is the first report about algal lysis mechanism of prodigiosin on harmful algae. Our results could increase our knowledge on the interaction between algicidal compounds and harmful algae, which could lead to further studies in the microcosm.

  15. Surface coating-modulated toxic responses to silver nanoparticles in Wolffia globosa. (United States)

    Zou, Xiaoyan; Li, Penghui; Lou, Jie; Zhang, Hongwu


    With the omnipresence of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in our daily consumer products, their release has raised serious concerns. However, the biochemical mechanisms by which plants counteract the toxicity of nanoparticles are largely unknown. This study investigated the exposure of aquatic Wolffia globosa to ATP-nAg (AgNPs coated with adenosine triphosphate), cit-nAg (AgNPs coated with citrate), and Ag + . Hill reaction activity was basically lost in W. globosa treated with 10mg/L ATP-nAg and Ag + , while the activity was still maintained at 38.7%-38.9% of the respective controls at 10mg/L cit-nAg. The reduction of amounts of chlorophyll and soluble protein were shown in response to the Ag stresses. This was accompanied by the accumulation of sugar in W. globosa treated with cit-nAg. By contrast, the depletion of sugar was recorded after 10mg/L ATP-nAg and Ag + treatments. The superoxide dismutase and peroxidase activities were significantly increased after exposure to 10mg/L ATP-nAg and Ag + , which did not occurred in W. globosa treated with cit-nAg. The ratio between NADPH/NADP + was higher after cit-nAg and Ag + stresses than the respective controls. The accumulation of Ag was found to increase in a concentration-dependent manner. Ag + and ATP-nAg inhibited the uptake of P and K, and promoted the uptake of Fe and Cu. In contrast, cit-nAg only promoted the uptake of Cu. Our results implied that surface coating induced different physiological responses of W. globosa to AgNPs. Based on above results, we speculated that after exposure to cit-nAg, citrate possibly could serve as the substrate for the tricarboxylic acid cycle and accumulated sugar may promote pentose phosphate pathways. For ATP-nAg treatments, ATP would act as an exogenous energy source of plant metabolisms. Our findings demonstrate that surface coating regulates the physiological responses of plants to AgNPs through distinct mechanisms. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Effect of solvent type and high pressure treatment on the extraction of Gomphrena globosa L. bioactive compounds (United States)

    Fernandes, L.; Ramalhosa, E.; Pereira, J. A.; Casal, S.; Saraiva, J. A.


    The present study aimed to compare the influence of different extraction solvents (water, methanol, water:acetone (6:4, v/v)), methods (heating (37 °C, 30 min) or high pressure (HP) (300 or 500 MPa) and extraction time (7.5 or 15 min)) on flavonoids, hydrolysable tannins and antioxidant activity (Total Reducing Capacity (TRC), DPPH Free Radical Scavenging Activity and Reducing Power) of Gomphrena globosa L. flower extracts. The water:acetone extracts obtained by heating had the highest values of flavonoids, hydrolysable tannins and antioxidant activity. When applying HP, variable results were obtained. Still, the application of HP to water allowed to extract more hydrolysable tannins, as well as to obtain extracts with higher antioxidant activity than with heating, but no significant alterations were observed with methanol. In conclusion, both solvent and extraction method influence the content of bioactive compounds, being HP treatment a promising method to obtain enriched aqueous extracts in line with the principles of green-chemistry.

  17. Streptomyces alboflavus RPS and its novel and high algicidal activity against harmful algal bloom species Phaeocystis globosa.

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    Bangzhou Zhang

    Full Text Available Phaeocystis globosa blooms have frequently occurred along coastal waters and exerted serious impacts on ecological environments by releasing toxic hemolytic substances, forming nuisance foam, and causing oxygen depletion. An actinomycete strain RPS with high algicidal activity against P. globosa was isolated and identified as Streptomyces alboflavus, based on morphology, physiological and biochemical characteristics, and 16S rDNA sequence analysis. RPS lysed 95% of P. globosa within 48 h by releasing an extracellular active substance into the growth medium. The activity of RPS supernatant was sensitive to temperature at and above 50 °C and insensitive to pH from 3 to 11. The molecular weight of the active substance was between 100 Da and 1000 Da, and approximately 90% of it was extracted by ethyl acetate. It was presumed that the active component efficiently inhibited the movement of P. globosa, caused the flagella to fall off the algae, and finally lysed the algal cells. RPS showed a wide target range against harmful algae. S. alboflavus RPS with high algicidal activity and such novel features of temperature and pH sensitivity, low molecular weight, algicidal process, and target range possesses great potential in the biological control of P. globosa blooms.

  18. Molecular identification and phenotypic characterisation of Sporothrix globosa from clinical cases of Eastern Assam, North-east India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reema Nath


    Full Text Available Sporotrichosis is known to be endemic in the state of Assam, North-east India, which is situated in the Sub-Himalayan region. This disease is an acute or chronic infection caused by Sporothrix schenckii species complex which currently includes several species of clinical relevance such as Sporothrix brasiliensis, Sporothrix globosa, Sporothrix schenckii sensu stricto, Sporothrix albicans, Sporothrix mexicana, Sporothrix pallida and Sporothrix luriei. S. globosa is the prevalent species in India. Eight culture-positive patients were diagnosed from suspected consecutive cases of two lymphocutaneous and six fixed cutaneous forms over a period of 4 years in a clinical mycology laboratory of a tertiary care centre in Eastern Assam. Phenotypic speciation was inconclusive using the criteria of Marimon et al. because of atypical growth pattern shown by the isolates. Our isolates showed good growth at 37°C ranging from 6 to 27 mm; four of the isolates showed growth of 11–27 mm unlike S. globosa strains reported earlier. Molecular identification was done by sequencing both the internal transcribed spacer (ITS region and the calmodulin (CAL protein encoding gene (partial. All the isolates were identified as S. globosa. Molecular confirmation of species using ITS region and CAL protein encoding gene (partial is necessary for isolates of S. globosa showing atypical biopatterns.

  19. Streptomyces alboflavus RPS and its novel and high algicidal activity against harmful algal bloom species Phaeocystis globosa. (United States)

    Zhang, Bangzhou; Cai, Guanjing; Wang, Haitao; Li, Dong; Yang, Xujun; An, Xinli; Zheng, Xiaowei; Tian, Yun; Zheng, Wei; Zheng, Tianling


    Phaeocystis globosa blooms have frequently occurred along coastal waters and exerted serious impacts on ecological environments by releasing toxic hemolytic substances, forming nuisance foam, and causing oxygen depletion. An actinomycete strain RPS with high algicidal activity against P. globosa was isolated and identified as Streptomyces alboflavus, based on morphology, physiological and biochemical characteristics, and 16S rDNA sequence analysis. RPS lysed 95% of P. globosa within 48 h by releasing an extracellular active substance into the growth medium. The activity of RPS supernatant was sensitive to temperature at and above 50 °C and insensitive to pH from 3 to 11. The molecular weight of the active substance was between 100 Da and 1000 Da, and approximately 90% of it was extracted by ethyl acetate. It was presumed that the active component efficiently inhibited the movement of P. globosa, caused the flagella to fall off the algae, and finally lysed the algal cells. RPS showed a wide target range against harmful algae. S. alboflavus RPS with high algicidal activity and such novel features of temperature and pH sensitivity, low molecular weight, algicidal process, and target range possesses great potential in the biological control of P. globosa blooms.

  20. Phaeocystis globosa Scherffel, a harmful microalga, and its production of dimethylsulfoniopropionate (United States)

    Shen, Pingping; Qi, Yuzao; Wang, Yan; Huang, Liangmin


    The production of dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) and its cleavage products (DMS) are well studied in phytoplankton worldwide. However, less is known about their sources, distributions, and impacts in the coast of China. We examined the production of DMSP and DMS in Phaeocystis globosa Scherffel and other benthic macroalgae from the South China coast in relation to environmental conditions. P. globosa was a harmful marine microalgal species and its bloom took place in the eutrophic waters along the South China Sea frequently. It also produced high content of DMSP at different growth stages, with the highest concentration usually observed in the stationary period. Moreover, the production of DMSP in P. globosa was significantly affected by salinity and temperature with the highest contents associated with high salinity (e.g. 40) and low temperature (e.g. 20°C). In field benthic macroalgae, there was also a marked difference in the DMSP of various species or different samples of the same species. Chlorophyll a contents were also determined for each macroalgal species. The highest chlorophyll a (238.7 ng/g fresh weight) was recorded in Chlorophyta Ulva lactuca at Guishan Island (Zhuhai), while the lowest value (1.5 ng/g fresh weight) was found in Rhodophyta Gracilaria tenuistipitata in Zhanjiang. Further correlation analysis indicated that there was no significant relationship between the content of DMSP and chl- a in macroalgae samples ( P > 0.05). All the results suggested that the production of DMSP in marine algae was not only species- and stage-related, but also greatly affected by various environmental factors.

  1. A first report on a bloom of the marine prymnesiophycean, Phaeocystis globosa from the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Madhupratap, M.; Sawant, S.S.; Gauns, M.

    gangue ge´latineuse. D’un diame´tre d’environ 7 mm, les cellules ont une forme caracte´ristique double. L’intensite´ de la floraison est de 3 750 10 6 cellules par m 2 , avec une teneur en carbone comprise entre 33 et 550 mgL 1 . La population... phytoplanctonique est compose´e, pour pre`s de 90 % de P. globosa; les autres formes communes sont des chaıˆnes de diatome´es telles que Rhizosolenia spp., Nitzschia spp. et Chaetoceros spp. La teneur en chlorophylle a ne pre´sente cependant pas d...

  2. Atypical Clinical Presentation of Sporotrichosis Caused by Sporothrix globosa Resistant to Itraconazole. (United States)

    Fischman Gompertz, Olga; Rodrigues, Anderson M; Fernandes, Geisa F; Bentubo, Henri D L; de Camargo, Zoilo Pires; Petri, Valéria


    Sporotrichosis is a polymorphic disease of humans and animals, which is acquired via traumatic inoculation of Sporothrix propagules into cutaneous or subcutaneous tissue. The etiological agents are in a clinical complex, which includes Sporothrix brasiliensis, Sporothrix schenckii, Sporothrix globosa, and Sporothrix luriei, each of which has specific epidemiological and virulence characteristics. Classical manifestation in humans includes a fixed localized lesion at the site of trauma plus lymphocutaneous sporotrichosis with fungal spreading along the lymphatic channels. Atypical sporotrichosis is a challenge to diagnosis because it can mimic many other dermatological diseases. We report an unusual, itraconazole-resistant cutaneous lesion of sporotrichosis in a 66-year-old Brazilian man. Histopathological examination of the skin revealed vascular and fibroblastic proliferation with chronic granulomatous infiltrate composed of multinucleated giant cells. Sporothrix were isolated from the skin lesion, and phylogenetic analyses confirmed it to be sporotrichosis due to S. globosa, a widespread pathogen. Immunoblotting analysis showed several IgG-reactive molecules in autochthonous preparations of the whole cellular proteins (160, 80, 60, 55, 46, 38, 35, and 30 kDa) and exoantigen (35 and 33 kDa). The patient was first unsuccessfully treated with daily itraconazole, and then successfully treated with potassium iodide. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  3. A marine algicidal actinomycete and its active substance against the harmful algal bloom species Phaeocystis globosa. (United States)

    Zheng, Xiaowei; Zhang, Bangzhou; Zhang, Jinlong; Huang, Liping; Lin, Jing; Li, Xinyi; Zhou, Yanyan; Wang, Hui; Yang, Xiaoru; Su, Jianqiang; Tian, Yun; Zheng, Tianling


    A strain O4-6, which had pronounced algicidal effects to the harmful algal bloom causing alga Phaeocystis globosa, was isolated from mangrove sediments in the Yunxiao Mangrove National Nature Reserve, Fujian, China. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence and morphological characteristics, the isolate was found to be phylogenetically related to the genus Streptomyces and identified as Streptomyces malaysiensis O4-6. Heat stability, pH tolerance, molecular weight range and aqueous solubility were tested to characterize the algicidal compound secreted from O4-6. Results showed that the algicidal activity of this compound was not heat stable and not affected by pH changes. Residue extracted from the supernatant of O4-6 fermentation broth by ethyl acetate, was purified by Sephadex LH-20 column and silica gel column chromatography before further structure determination. Chemical structure of the responsible compound, named NIG355, was illustrated based on quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Q-TOF-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra. And this compound showed a stronger algicidal activity compared with other reported algicides. Furthermore, this article represents the first report of an algicide against P. globosa, and the compound may be potentially used as a bio-agent for controlling harmful algal blooms.

  4. The influence of Phaeocystis globosa on microscale spatial patterns of chlorophyll a and bulk-phase seawater viscosity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seuront, L.; Lacheze, C.; Doubell, M. J.; Seymour, J. R.; Van Dongen-Vogels, V.; Newton, K.; Alderkamp, A. C.; Mitchell, J. G.

    A two-dimensional microscale (5 cm resolution) sampler was used over the course of a phytoplankton spring bloom dominated by Phaeocystis globosa to investigate the structural properties of chlorophyll a and seawater excess viscosity distributions. The microscale distribution patterns of chlorophyll

  5. Description of Dactyladenia globosa (Chrysobalanaceae), a new tree species from Sierra Leone, Liberia and Cote d'Ivoire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongkind, C.C.H.


    Background and aims - While working on an inventory of forests in Nimba County in Liberia several species were collected that could not be identified. One of them, the Dactyladenia described here, proved to be new to science. Key results - The new forest tree species Dactyladenia globosa Jongkind is

  6. Effects of Buddleja globosa leaf and its constituents relevant to wound healing. (United States)

    Mensah, A Y; Sampson, J; Houghton, P J; Hylands, P J; Westbrook, J; Dunn, M; Hughes, M A; Cherry, G W


    An aqueous extract of Buddleja globosa leaves, used traditionally in Chile for wound healing, was tested for the ability to stimulate growth of fibroblasts in vitro and for antioxidant activity in the same fibroblast cell system challenged with hydrogen peroxide. Low concentrations of the extract gave an increase in fibroblast growth which was not statistically significant but cytotoxicity was observed at concentrations greater than 50 microg/ml. The extract showed strong antioxidant effect and fractionation led to the isolation of three flavonoids and two caffeic acid derivatives, each of which was shown to contribute to the antioxidant effect at concentrations below 10 microg/ml. These activities would accelerate the healing of wounds.

  7. Toxic effect of a marine bacterium on aquatic organisms and its algicidal substances against Phaeocystis globosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuchan Yang

    Full Text Available Harmful algal blooms have caused enormous damage to the marine ecosystem and the coastal economy in China. In this paper, a bacterial strain B1, which had strong algicidal activity against Phaeocystis globosa, was isolated from the coastal waters of Zhuhai in China. The strain B1 was identified as Bacillus sp. on the basis of 16S rDNA gene sequence and morphological characteristics. To evaluate the ecological safety of the algicidal substances produced by strain B1, their toxic effects on marine organisms were tested. Results showed that there were no adverse effects observed in the growth of Chlorella vulgaris, Chaetoceros muelleri, and Isochrystis galbana after exposure to the algicidal substances at a concentration of 1.0% (v/v for 96 h. The 48h LC50 values for Brachionus plicatilis, Moina mongolica Daday and Paralichthys olivaceus were 5.7, 9.0 and 12.1% (v/v, respectively. Subsequently, the algicidal substances from strain B1 culture were isolated and purified by silica gel column, Sephadex G-15 column and high-performance liquid chromatography. Based on quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry and PeakView Software, the purified substances were identified as prolyl-methionine and hypoxanthine. Algicidal mechanism indicated that prolyl-methionine and hypoxanthine inhibited the growth of P. globosa by disrupting the antioxidant systems. In the acute toxicity assessment using M. mongolica, 24h LC50 values of prolyl-methionine and hypoxanthine were 7.0 and 13.8 g/L, respectively. The active substances produced by strain B1 can be considered as ecologically and environmentally biological agents for controlling harmful algal blooms.

  8. Parasitic Eukaryotes in a Meso-Eutrophic Coastal System with Marked Phaeocystis globosa Blooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urania Christaki


    Full Text Available This study explored the potential interactions and relations of the putative Symbiotic/Decomposer/Parasitic community (SymbDec with other taxa and predominant environmental parameters in the eastern English Channel (EEC over a 2.5 years period (32 sampling dates. The EEC is a meso-eutrophic coastal system portrayed by intense reoccurring patterns in plankton succession with blooms of the Haptophyte Phaeocystis globosa and abundant populations of colonial diatoms and dinoflagellate grazers before and after the bloom. The study of the V2-V3 hypervariable region of the 18S rRNA gene allowed an overview of the planktonic community, which consisted of 32 high-level taxonomic groups. Forty-two percent of the identified OTUs belonged to symbionts, decomposers or other putative parasitic taxa belonging mainly to Syndiniales (MALV—MArine ALveolates, Fungi, Cercozoa, Perkinsea, and others, most of which were plankton parasites. We examined the Local Similarity Analysis (LSA network of lag delayed correlations on the 142 most abundant OTUs (>0.1% of the total number of reads. LSA showed that 99 OTUs had highly significant connections, involving 26 OTUs characterized as potential parasites, and 2 decomposers. The parasitic network had “small world” characteristics, rendering the assemblage more robust to abiotic variations, but more exposed to the removal of highly associated taxa. The majority of the highly connected OTUs belonged to MALV, which were mainly connected with dinoflagellates, suggesting that it might play an important role on dinoflagellate top-down control. The bloom forming P. globosa was not observed in connection with parasitic OTUs in the network. Four environmental parameters (O2, N, T, and N/P were strongly connected with only 11 OTUs, while correlations between microbes dominated the network.

  9. Sporothrix schenckii (sensu strict S. globosa) mating type 1-2 (MAT1-2) gene. (United States)

    Kano, Rui; Anzawa, Kazushi; Mochizuki, Takashi; Nishimoto, Katsutaro; Hiruma, Masataro; Kamata, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko


    Sporotix schenckii is a pathogenic fungus that causes human and animal sporotrichosis, and based on morphology of the sessile conidia and molecular analysis, it was recently recognized as a species complex comprising at least the following six sibling species: S. albicans, S. brasiliensis, S. globosa, S. luriei, S. mexicana and S. schenckii. However, apart from S. schenckii sensu strict, only S. brasiliensis, S. globosa and S. luriei are associated with human and animal infection. S. globosa has been most commonly isolated in Asia, Europe and the USA; therefore, molecular epidemiological study for S. globosa is important in relation to human sporotrichosis in Japan. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to determine the mating type 1-2 (MAT1-2) gene of Sporothrix schenckii with the aim of understanding the taxonomy of the genus Sporothrix. The MAT1-2 gene (1618 bp) encodes a protein sequence of 198 amino acids. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis also detected MAT1-2 gene mRNA expression in all of the S. schenckii strains examined, indicating that this gene is expressed in S. schenckii cells. Phylogenetic analysis of the MAT1-2 gene fragments of Ophiostoma himal-ulmi, O. novo-ulmi, O. ulmi and S. schenckii indicated that these isolates could be classified into four clusters. MAT1-1 gene-specific polymerase chain reaction was positive in 15 isolates, but negative in four human isolates and one feline isolate. © 2013 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  10. The different response mechanisms of Wolffia globosa: Light-induced silver nanoparticle toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, Xiaoyan; Li, Penghui [Key Laboratory of Urban Pollutant Conversion, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen (China); Huang, Qing [Key Laboratory of Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen (China); Zhang, Hongwu, E-mail: [Key Laboratory of Urban Pollutant Conversion, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen (China); Ningbo Research Center for Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo (China)


    Highlights: • The different physiological responses of AgNPs in Wolffia golbosa were studied. • Effects of AgNPs on W. golbosa relied on the illumination conditions. • Different phytotoxic mechanisms of AgNPs for different light schemes were proposed. - Abstract: Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have emerged as a promising bactericide. Plants are a major point of entry of contaminants into trophic chains. Here, the physiological responses of Wolffia globosa to AgNPs have been probed using different light schemes, and these data may reveal new insights into the toxic mechanism of AgNPs. W. globosa was grown in culture medium and treated with different concentrations of AgNPs for 24 h under pre- and post-illuminated conditions. However, fluorescence quenching, the accumulation of sugar and the reduction of Hill reaction activity were found in response to the AgNP-stresses. In the pre-illuminated condition, oxidative damage was obvious, as indicated by the higher malondialdehyde (MDA) content and an up-regulation of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. The maximum increases of MDA content and SOD activity were 1.14 and 2.52 times the respective controls when exposed to 10 mg/L AgNPs. In contrast, in the post-illuminated condition, the alterations in photosynthetic pigment and soluble proteins content were more significant than the alterations in oxidative stress. The contents of chlorophyll a, carotenoids and soluble protein decreased to 77.7%, 66.2% and 72.9% of the controls after treatment with the highest concentration of AgNPs (10 mg/L). Based on the different physiological responses, we speculated that in the pre-illuminated condition, oxidative stress was responsible for the decline in the oxygen evolution rate, while in the post-illuminated condition, the decrease in the Hill reaction activity could be attributed to the blocking of electron transfer and an insufficient proton supply. Our findings demonstrate that environmental factors regulate the

  11. Known and novel terpenes from Buddleja globosa displaying selective antifungal activity against dermatophytes. (United States)

    Mensah, A Y; Houghton, P J; Bloomfield, S; Vlietinck, A; Vanden Berghe, D


    Lipophilic extracts of the stembark of Buddleja globosa were found to have antifungal activity at 125 microg/mL against three dermatophytic fungal species but had no activity at 1000 microg/mL against four other fungal species or two yeast species. Bioassay-guided fractionation of Si gel column eluates using the sensitive fungal species resulted in active fractions from which were isolated five compounds that were characterized by spectroscopic methods as one novel and four known compounds. The known compounds were the diterpene buddlejone (1), the bisditerpene maytenone, and the two sesquiterpenes buddledin A and buddledin B, while the novel compound was characterized as the diterpene deoxybuddlejone (2). The minimum inhibitory concentration of all the compounds was determined against all the microorganisms under test, and buddledins A and B were shown to exhibit the greatest antifungal activity, with values of 43 microM and 51 microM, respectively, against the sensitive fungi Trichophyton rubrum, Tricophyton interdigitale, and Epidermophyton floccosum.

  12. Scientific validation of synergistic antioxidant effects in commercialised mixtures of Cymbopogon citratus and Pterospartum tridentatum or Gomphrena globosa for infusions preparation. (United States)

    Roriz, Custódio Lobo; Barros, Lillian; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Ferreira, Isabel C F R


    Pterospartum tridentatum (L.) Willk., Gomphrena globosa L. and Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf. are examples of medicinal plants with antioxidant properties on their own, but that can be improved when mixed. In the present work, the antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds were determined in the infusions prepared from the individual plants, and from mixtures of these plants in different proportions. P. tridentatum > C. citratus > G. globosa was the order observed for antioxidant efficacy, which can be related to their different composition in phenolic compounds. Synergism was the main effect observed among the tested mixtures, mainly for the infusions prepared from the plants in proportion 40%:60% (either P. tridentatum and C. citratus; or G. globosa and C. citratus). The infusion obtained with 40% of P. tridentatum and 60% of C. citratus gave the highest antioxidant properties. The present study validates the commercialisation of the studied plants combined in specific proportions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Antibacterial Activity Test, Evaluation of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Screening of Some Extracts of Globe Amaranth (Gomphrena globosa

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    Kusmiati Kusmiati


    Full Text Available Indonesia is a rich biodiversity country where various medicinal plants are existed. One species of medicinal plants is Globe Amaranth (Gomphrena globosa, Amaranthaceae. This species is native to Central America and has been widely spread to the tropics. To date the species can be easily found at the home gardens as an ornamental plant. Medicinal plants has been used for generations by traditional people. It was empirically proven that medicinal plants have ability to cure certain diseases such as dysentery. All parts of this plant can be used as medicine. However, only the flower of the species was used in this study. Objective of the study was to identify the highest antimicrobial activity of Gomphrene globosa flower extract using ethanol, petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and n-butanol solvents. Gomphrena globosa flower was extracted using 96% ethanol and then was by partitied using petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and n-buthanol respectively. The extracts were then evaporated using a rotapavor until condensed extract was obtained. Phytochemical screening was done on both of the flower powder and extract. Result of Pharmacognosy evaluation of the Globe Amaranth flower as follows: water content 8.17%, total ash content 9.11%, acid-insoluble ash 1.50%, acid-soluble ash 6.43%, water-soluble extract 10.79%, ethanol-soluble extract 3.51% and dry content 10.19%. The condensed extracts were tested for antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Shigella dysenteriae. Result of antibacterial activity test by agar diffusion method showed that the higner concentration of the extract led to higher bacterial inhibition zone. The highest antimicrobial activity was obtained from n-butanol extract as indicated by a significant inhibition zone around paper disk

  14. Coastal bacterial viability and production in the eastern English Channel: A case study during a Phaeocystis globosa bloom (United States)

    Lamy, D.; Artigas, L. F.; Jauzein, C.; Lizon, F.; Cornille, V.


    Heterotrophic bacterial standing stocks (total and viable cells) and production were determined in the coastal surface waters of the eastern English Channel, during different stages of a phytoplankton succession. Two coastal zones of variable freshwater influence were surveyed within the 'coastal flow system' (Wimereux and Somme Bay) where massive and recurrent Phaeocystis globosa blooms take place in spring. The proportion of intact (MEM+) cells, assessed by the LIVE/DEAD® BacLight™ (L/D) method, varied from 15 to 94% at the two coastal stations studied (median of 46%). MEM+ and total (DAPI) cell counts were significantly correlated over the study period, whereas the higher proportion of MEM+ cells did not correspond to an elevated bacterial cell production (BP). Low levels of living (potentially active) cells were nevertheless responsible for the high productivity levels within the bacterial community when the P. globosa bloom declined. Our study revealed that the bacterial carbon production/primary production ratios (BCP/PP) showed broad variations (7 to 111%) within each site, going from low values (7-16%) when the bloom was the most productive, to higher values (61-111%) at the end of the bloom. This suggested (i) a temporal uncoupling between bacteria and phytoplankton throughout the bloom duration and (ii) a drastic change of the amount of PP potentially processed by the bacterial community among high and low productive periods. The BCP increase after the decline of the P. globosa bloom implies that, at this time, a large part of the phytoplankton-derived organic matter (OM) was remineralised via the bacterial heterotrophic production. With respect to the L/D results, this bacterial remineralisation was due to a small yet productive total cell fraction.

  15. Análisis demográfico preliminar de Taxus globosa Schlecht en el Parque Nacional El Chico, Hidalgo, México

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    Fernando Zavala Chávez


    Full Text Available Se presenta una evaluación preliminar de la población de individuos juveniles de Taxus globosa Schlecht en el parque nacional El Chico, Hidalgo, efectuada mediante el análisis del número de individuos y algunas de sus características dasométricas, además de incluir datos de semillas. Se discute el estatus de conservación de la especie, pues resultó difícil argumentar sobre la escasez o riesgo de desaparición de T. globosa en el área.

  16. Effects of temperature, salinity, and irradiance on the growth of harmful algal bloom species Phaeocystis globosa Scherffel (Prymnesiophyceae) isolated from the South China Sea (United States)

    Xu, Ning; Huang, Bozhu; Hu, Zhangxi; Tang, Yingzhong; Duan, Shunshan; Zhang, Chengwu


    Blooms of Phaeocystis globosa have been frequently reported in Chinese coastal waters, causing serious damage to marine ecosystems. To better understand the ecological characteristics of P. globosa in Chinese coastal waters that facilitate its rapid expansion, the effects of temperature, salinity and irradiance on the growth of P. globosa from the South China Sea were examined in the laboratory. The saturating irradiance for the growth of P. globosa ( I s) was 60 μmol/(m2•s), which was lower than those of other harmful algal species (70-114 μmol/(m2•s)). A moderate growth rate of 0.22/d was observed at 2 μmol/(m2•s) (the minimum irradiance in the experiment), and photo-inhibition did not occur at 230 μmol/(m2•s) (the maximum irradiance in the experiment). Exposed to 42 different combinations of temperatures (10-31°C) and salinities (10-40) under saturating irradiance, P. globosa exhibited its maximum specific growth rate of 0.80/d at the combinations of 24°C and 35, and 27°C and 40. The optimum growth rates (>0.80/d) were observed at temperatures ranging from 24 to 27°C and salinities from 35 to 40. While P. globosa was able to grow well at temperatures from 20°C to 31°C and salinities from 20 to 40, it could not grow at temperatures lower than 15°C or salinities lower than 15. Factorial analysis revealed that temperature and salinity has similar influences on the growth of this species. This strain of P. globosa not only prefers higher temperatures and higher salinity, but also possesses a flexible nutrient competing strategy, adapted to lower irradiance. Therefore, the P. globosa population from South China Sea should belong to a new ecotype. There is also a potentially high risk of blooms developing in this area throughout the year.

  17. Experimental and theoretical investigations on the antioxidant activity of isoorientin from Crotalaria globosa (United States)

    Deepha, V.; Praveena, R.; Sivakumar, Raman; Sadasivam, K.


    The increasing interests in naturally occurring flavonoids are well known for their bioactivity as antioxidants. The present investigations with combined experimental and theoretical methods are employed to determine the radical scavenging activity and phytochemicals present in Crotalaria globosa, a novel plant source. Preliminary quantification of ethanolic extract of leaves shows high phenolic and flavonoid content than root extract; also it is validated through DPPHrad assay. Further analysis is carried out with successive extracts of leaves of varying polarity of solvents. In DPPHrad and FRAP assays, ethyl acetate fraction (EtOAc) exhibit higher scavenging activity followed by ethanol fraction (EtOH) whereas in NOS assay ethanol fraction is slightly predominant over the EtOAc fraction. The LC-MS analysis provides tentative information about the presence of flavonoid C-glycoside in EtOAc fraction (yellow solid). Presence of flavonoid isorientin has been confirmed through isolation (PTLC) and detected by spectroscopy methods (UV-visible and 1H NMR). Utilizing B3LYP/6-311G (d,p) level of theory the structure and reactivity of flavonoid isoorientin theoretically have been explored. The analysis of the theoretical Bond dissociation energy values, for all Osbnd H sites of isoorientin reveals that minimum energy is required to dissociate H-atom from B-ring than A and C-rings. In order to validate the antioxidant characteristics of isoorientin the relevant molecular descriptors IP, HOMO-LUMO, Mulliken spin density analysis and molecular electrostatic potential surfaces have been computed and interpreted. From experimental and theoretical results, it is proved that isoorientin can act as potent antiradical scavenger in oxidative system.

  18. Acquisition of intact polar lipids from the prymnesiophyte Phaeocystis globosa by its lytic virus PgV-07T (United States)

    Maat, D. S.; Bale, N. J.; Hopmans, E. C.; Baudoux, A.-C.; Sinninghe Damsté, J. S.; Schouten, S.; Brussaard, C. P. D.


    Recent studies showed changes in phytoplankton lipid composition during viral infection and have indicated roles for specific lipids in the mechanisms of algal virus-host interaction. To investigate the generality of these findings and obtain a better understanding of the allocation of specific lipids to viruses, we studied the intact polar lipid (IPL) composition of virally infected and non-infected cultures of the prymnesiophyte Phaeocystis globosa G(A) and its lytic virus PgV-07T. The P. globosa IPL composition was relatively stable over a diel cycle and not strongly affected by viral infection. Glycolipids, phospholipids and betaine lipids were present in both the host and virus, although specific groups such as the diacylglyceryl-hydroxymethyltrimethyl-β-alanines and the sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerols, were present in a lower proportion or were not detected in the virus. Viral glycosphingolipids (vGSLs), which have been shown to play a role in the infection strategy of the virus EhV-86, infecting the prymnesiophyte Emiliania huxleyi CCMP374, were not encountered. Our results show that the involvement of lipids in virus-algal host interactions can be very different amongst virus-algal host systems.

  19. Value-chain analysis of freshwater apple snail (Pila globosa used for on-farm feeds in the freshwater prawn farming sector in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A.A. Nahid


    Full Text Available Growth of the freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii sector in Bangladesh since 1970s has been supported by natural availability of freshwater apple snail (Pila globosa, used for on-farm prawn feeds. The present study identified the current configuration of the value-chain benefits and constraints of freshwater apple snail in south-western Bangladesh in August 2011, based upon Rapid Market Appraisal (RMA approach. The site of snail collection was Chanda Beel in Gopalganj district, while trading, processing and final consumption was represented by Rayer Mahal Bazar in Khulna district. There were seven different nodes recognized throughout the value chain. Snail marketing was identified as a seasonal business and took place during June to November each year. Between 1995 and 2011 the price of whole snail, meat and shell has increased by 800%, 325% and 315%, respectively. The abundance of snail had been reduced and its demand has increased due to the expansion of the prawn farming industry. Prawn farmers preferred snail meat due to its’ low cost (US$ 0.21 kg-1 as a source of protein compared to commercial prawn feed (US$ 0.41 kg-1. Snail harvesting and processing were considered as additional livelihood options for the poor, where 60% of the labour involved in snail harvesting were women, and 95% the de-shelling workforce. Induced breeding in captivity and sustainable management in nature as well as development of commercial production of apple snails might reduce the pressure on ecosystems and positively contributed to the continued expansion of freshwater prawn farming in Bangladesh.

  20. Construction and analysis of the cDNA subtraction library of yeast and mycelial phases of Sporothrix globosa isolated in China: identification of differentially expressed genes. (United States)

    Hu, Qing-bi; He, Yu; Zhou, Xun


    Species included in the Sporothrix schenckii complex are temperature-dependent with dimorphic growth and cause sporotrichosis that is characterized by chronic and fatal lymphocutaneous lesions. The putative species included in the Sporothrix complex are S. brasiliensis, S. globosa, S. mexicana, S. pallida, S. schenckii, and S. lurei. S. globosa is the causal agent of sporotrichosis in China, and its pathogenicity appears to be closely related to the dimorphic transition, i.e. from the mycelial to the yeast phase, it adapts to changing environmental conditions. To determine the molecular mechanisms of the switching process that mediates the dimorphic transition of S. globosa, suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) was used to prepare a complementary DNA (cDNA) subtraction library from the yeast and mycelial phases. Bioinformatics analysis was performed to profile the relationship between differently expressed genes and the dimorphic transition. Two genes that were expressed at higher levels by the yeast form were selected, and their differential expression levels were verified using a quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). It is believed that these differently expressed genes are involved in the pathogenesis of S. globosa infection in China.

  1. Construction and analysis of the cDNA subtraction library of yeast and mycelial phases of Sporothrix globosa isolated in China: identification of differentially expressed genes* (United States)

    Hu, Qing-bi; He, Yu; Zhou, Xun


    Species included in the Sporothrix schenckii complex are temperature-dependent with dimorphic growth and cause sporotrichosis that is characterized by chronic and fatal lymphocutaneous lesions. The putative species included in the Sporothrix complex are S. brasiliensis, S. globosa, S. mexicana, S. pallida, S. schenckii, and S. lurei. S. globosa is the causal agent of sporotrichosis in China, and its pathogenicity appears to be closely related to the dimorphic transition, i.e. from the mycelial to the yeast phase, it adapts to changing environmental conditions. To determine the molecular mechanisms of the switching process that mediates the dimorphic transition of S. globosa, suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) was used to prepare a complementary DNA (cDNA) subtraction library from the yeast and mycelial phases. Bioinformatics analysis was performed to profile the relationship between differently expressed genes and the dimorphic transition. Two genes that were expressed at higher levels by the yeast form were selected, and their differential expression levels were verified using a quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). It is believed that these differently expressed genes are involved in the pathogenesis of S. globosa infection in China. PMID:26642182

  2. First Record of Janthina globosa Swainson, 1822 (Mollusca, Gastropoda and Prostheceraeus giesbrechtii Lang, 1884 (Platyhelminthes in the Gulf of Antalya

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    Serkan Teker


    Full Text Available During the survey study, a holo-planktonic gastropod species Janthina globosa Swainson, 1822 was captured for the first time during trawl shootings at 20-30 m depths from the Gulf of Antalya on 24th June 2015. On 15th July 2015, during the underwater diving, a colourful flatworm Prostheceraeus giesbrechtii was observed at the hard substratum depths of 5-7 m near the old Harbour (Antalya (36o 35’ 5,15’’N; 30o 42’ 1,45’’E. The flatworm was taken to laboratory and photographed. Its length was approximately 2-3 cm and 1-1.5 mm thick. This species is the first record for the Gulf of Antalya, the North-eastern Mediterranean part of Turkey.

  3. Contrasting bee pollination in two co-occurring distylic species of Cordia (Cordiaceae, Boraginales) in the Brazilian semi-arid Caatinga: generalist in C. globosa vs. specialist in C. leucocephala. (United States)

    Machado, Isabel C; Lopes, Ariadna V; Sazima, Marlies


    In this study we compare the reproductive biology of Cordia globosa and C. leucocephala (Cordiaceae, Boraginales; formerly referred to Boraginaceae) to understand the functioning of the floral morphs and the relations with their effective pollinators. The species are synchronopatric, distylic, and self-incompatible. Though they share melittophilous traits, the main visitor and pollinator of C. globosa was the generalist and exotic bee Apis mellifera, while the only one of C. leucocephala was the oligoletic bee Ceblurgus longipalpis. These two latter species are restricted to the Caatinga of NE Brazil, contrasting with the wide distribution of Cordia globosa. While the fruit-set for C. globosa was high, independently if the pollen donor/stigma receptor was a pin (long-styled) or thrum (short-styled) individual, in C. leucocephala the fruit-set was low and occurred only when a thrum individual was the pollen donor. This raises the possibility of this species moving towards dioecy. The high natural fruit-set of C. globosa confirms the generalist bee as its effective pollinator. The low fruit-set after manual crosses in C. leucocephala may be due to low pollen viability. Additionally, the low natural fruit-set (two times lower than after crosses) may be related with the foraging behavior of the specialist pollinator.

  4. Residue Asn277 Affects the Stability and Substrate Specificity of the SMG1 Lipase from Malassezia globosa

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    Dongming Lan


    Full Text Available Thermostability and substrate specificity are important characteristics of enzymes for industrial application, which can be improved by protein engineering. SMG1 lipase from Malassezia globosa is a mono- and diacylglycerol lipase (MDL that shows activity toward mono- and diacylglycerols, but no activity toward triacylglycerols. SMG1 lipase is considered a potential biocatalyst applied in oil/fat modification and its crystal structure revealed that an interesting residue-Asn277 may contribute to stabilize loop 273–278 and the 3104 helix which are important to enzyme characterization. In this study, to explore its role in affecting the stability and catalytic activity, mutagenesis of N277 with Asp (D, Val (V, Leu (L and Phe (F was conducted. Circular dichroism (CD spectral analysis and half-life measurement showed that the N277D mutant has better thermostability. The melting temperature and half-life of the N277D mutant were 56.6 °C and 187 min, respectively, while that was 54.6 °C and 121 min for SMG1 wild type (WT. Biochemical characterization of SMG1 mutants were carried out to test whether catalytic properties were affected by mutagenesis. N277D had similar enzymatic properties as SMG1 WT, but N277F showed a different substrate selectivity profile as compared to other SMG1 mutants. Analysis of the SMG1 3D model suggested that N277D formed a salt bridge via its negative charged carboxyl group with a positively charged guanidino group of R227, which might contribute to confer N277D higher temperature stability. These findings not only provide some clues to understand the molecular basis of the lipase structure/function relationship but also lay the framework for engineering suitable MDL lipases for industrial applications.

  5. Characterisation of betalain patterns of differently coloured inflorescences from Gomphrena globosa L. and Bougainvillea sp. by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MSn. (United States)

    Kugler, Florian; Stintzing, Florian C; Carle, Reinhold


    In the present study, the betaxanthin (bx) and betacyanin patterns of differently coloured inflorescences from Gomphrena globosa L. and Bougainvillea sp. have been investigated in detail by applying reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) coupled with positive ion electrospray mass spectrometry. Histidine-bx was found to be the predominant betaxanthin of Gomphrena globosa inflorescences. Furthermore, arginine-bx was detected as a novel betaxanthin, which to the best of our knowledge has not been reported as a pigment that occurs naturally so far. Dopa-bx was the major betaxanthin of Bougainvillea sp., although several minor betaxanthins were also present, including lysine-bx and putrescine-bx, novel betaxanthins hitherto not observed naturally. Remarkable differences in the betacyanin patterns between the purple, red and orange varieties were observed for both Gomphrena and Bougainvillea inflorescences. Hence, both the betacyanin profiles and the relative betaxanthin:betacyanin ratios determine the broad colour palette of Gomphrena petals and Bougainvillea bracts.

  6. High-speed counter-current chromatography in separation of betacyanins from flowers of red Gomphrena globosa L. cultivars. (United States)

    Spórna-Kucab, Aneta; Hołda, Ewelina; Wybraniec, Sławomir


    Antioxidant and possible chemopreventive properties of betacyanins, natural plant pigments, contribute to a growing interest in their chemistry and separation. Mixtures of betacyanins from fresh red Gomphrena globosa L. cultivar flowers were separated in three highly polar solvent systems by high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) for a direct comparison of their separation effectiveness. Three samples of crude extract (600mg) were run on semi-preparative scale in solvent system (NH4)2SO4soln - EtOH (2.0:1.0, v/v) (system I) and the modified systems: EtOH - ACN - 1-PrOH - (NH4)2SO4satd.soln - H2O (0.5:0.5:0.5:1.2:1.0, v/v/v/v/v) (system II) and EtOH - ACN - (NH4)2SO4satd.soln - H2O (1.0:0.5:1.2:1.0, v/v/v/v) (system III). The systems were used in the head-to-tail (system I) or tail-to-head (systems II and III) mode. The flow rate of the mobile phase was 2.0ml/min and the column rotation speed was 860rpm. The retention of the stationary phase was 52.0% (system I), 80.2% (systems II) and 82.0% (system III). The betacyanins in the crude extract as well as HSCCC fractions were analyzed by LC-MS/MS. System I was applied for the first time in HSCCC for the separation of betacyanins and was quite effective in separation of amaranthine and 17-decarboxy-amaranthine (αI=1.19) and very effective for 17-decarboxy-amaranthine and betanin (αI=2.20). Modification of system I with acetonitrile (system III) as well as acetonitrile and propanol (system II) increased their separation effectiveness. Systems II-III enable complete separation of 17-decarboxy-amaranthine (KD(II)=2.94,KD(III)=2.42) and betanin (KD(II)=2.46,KD(III)=1.10) as well as betanin and gomphrenin I (KD(II)=1.62, KD(III)=0.74). In addition, separation of amaranthine and 17-decarboxy-amaranthine is the most effective in system II, therefore, this system proved to be the most suitable for the separation of all polar betacyanins. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Characterization of virulence profile, protein secretion and immunogenicity of different Sporothrix schenckii sensu stricto isolates compared with S. globosa and S. brasiliensis species. (United States)

    Fernandes, Geisa Ferreira; dos Santos, Priscila Oliveira; Rodrigues, Anderson Messias; Sasaki, Alexandre Augusto; Burger, Eva; de Camargo, Zoilo Pires


    A comparative study about protein secretion, immunogenicity and virulence was performed in order to characterize and to compare eight Sporothrix schenckii sensu stricto isolates. For virulence characterization, a murine model, based on survival assay and CFU counting was used. S. brasiliensis and S. globosa, a highly virulent and a non-virulent isolates, respectively were used as external controls. Exoantigen profiles showed different secreted molecules; the 46- and 60-kDa molecules were commonly secreted by all three species. The S. schenckii s. str. isolates could be classified as non-virulent or presenting low, medium or high virulence, based on survival times after infection and recovery of viable fungi. The humoral response profiles of mice infected with S. schenckii s. str., S. globosa and S. brasiliensis were heterogeneous; five virulent isolates (S. schenckii s. str., n = 4 and S. brasiliensis, n = 1) had in common the recognition of the 60-kDa molecule by their respective antisera, suggesting that this antigen may be involved in virulence. Furthermore, the 110-kDa molecule was secreted and recognized by antisera from four virulent isolates (S. schenckii s. str., n = 3 and S. brasiliensis, n = 1), so there is a possibility that this molecule is also related to virulence. Our findings reveal different degrees of virulence in S. schenckii s. str. isolates and suggest the correlation of protein secretion and immunogenicity with virulence of S. schenckii complex. These findings provide new insights into the pathogenesis of S. schenckii s. str. and improve the knowledge about immunogenicity and protein profiles in S. schenckii complex.

  8. Estudo comparativo da produção de metabólitos secundários em cultura de células e na planta in natura de Gomphrena globosa (Amaranthaceae)


    André, A.C.G.M; Dias, D.A.; Pereira, P.S.; Abreu, L.C.P.; França, S.C.


    A cultura de calos de Gomphrena globosa a partir de segmentos foliares foi estabelecida em meio contendo combinações dos fitoreguladores auxina/citocinina. Metabólitos secundários identificados através da fitoquímica da planta in natura, foram utilizados como padrões em análises por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência e cromatografia de gás de extratos da cultura. O estudo comparativo revelou que os calos foram capazes de produzir alguns metabólitos sintetizados pela planta in natura. ...

  9. Deciphering the Physalis floridana Double-Layered-Lantern1 Mutant Provides Insights into Functional Divergence of the GLOBOSA Duplicates within the Solanaceae1[C][W (United States)

    Zhang, Ji-Si; Li, Zhichao; Zhao, Jing; Zhang, Shaohua; Quan, Hui; Zhao, Man; He, Chaoying


    Physalis spp. develop the “Chinese lantern” trait, also known as inflated calyx syndrome, that is a morphological novelty. Here, we identified the double-layered-lantern1 (doll1) mutant, a recessive and monofactorial mutation, in Physalis floridana; its corolla and androecium were transformed into the calyx and gynoecium, respectively. Two GLOBOSA-like MADS-box paralogous genes PFGLO1 and PFGLO2 were found in Physalis floridana, while the mutated phenotype was cosegregated with a large deletion harboring PFGLO1 and was complemented by the PFGLO1 genomic locus in transgenic plants, and severe PFGLO1 knockdowns phenocopied doll1. Thus, DOLL1 encodes the PFGLO1 protein and plays a primary role in determining corolla and androecium identity. However, specific PFGLO2 silencing showed no homeotic variation but rather affected pollen maturation. The two genes featured identical floral expression domains, but the encoding proteins shared 67% identity in sequences. PFGLO1 was localized in the nucleus when expressed in combination with a DEFICIENS homolog from Physalis floridana, whereas PFGLO2 was imported to the nucleus on its own. The two proteins were further found to have evolved different interacting partners and regulatory patterns, supporting the hypothesis that PFGLO2 is functionally separated from organ identity. Such a divergent pattern of duplicated GLO genes is unusual within the Solanaceae. Moreover, the phenotypes of the PFGLO1PFGLO2 double silencing mutants suggested that PFGLO2, through genetically interacting with PFGLO1, also exerts a role in the control of organ number and tip development of the second floral whorl. Our results, therefore, shed new light on the functional evolution of the duplicated GLO genes. PMID:24390390

  10. Separation of betacyanins from purple flowers of Gomphrena globosa L. by ion-pair high-speed counter-current chromatography. (United States)

    Spórna-Kucab, Aneta; Jagodzińska, Joanna; Wybraniec, Sławomir


    Betacyanins, known as antioxidants and chemopreventive natural compounds with colourful properties, were extracted from purple flowers of Gomphrena globosa L. belonging to the Amaranthaceae family and separated for the first time by ion-pair high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC). The pigments were detected by LC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS technique. Separation of betacyanins (300mg) by HSCCC was accomplished in four solvent systems: tert-butyl methyl ether - butanol - acetonitrile - water (0.7% and 1.0% HFBA - heptafluorobutyric acid - system I and III) and tert-butyl methyl ether - butanol - methanol - water (0.7% and 1.0% HFBA - system II and IV) (2:2:1:5, v/v/v/v) in the head-to-tail mode. The mobile phase (aqueous phase) was run at 2.0ml/min and the column rotation speed was 860rpm. The applied systems enabled to study the influence of HFBA concentration as well as systems polarity on betacyanins separation. Comparison of the systems containing 0.7% HFBA (systems I-II) demonstrates that the replacement of acetonitrile by methanol increases the resolution (Rs) between all betacyanins and does not influence the retention of the stationary phase (Sf=76%). Higher concentration of the acid in systems III-IV slightly decreases Sf to 71% in the systems with 1.0% HFBA. Comparison of the resolution values for betacyanins in the systems with 0.7% and 1.0% HFBA demonstrates that higher concentration of the acid improves the separation effectiveness for all betacyanins as a result of increasing of the chemical affinity of the pigments to the organic stationary phase in HSCCC. The systems III-IV with 1% HFBA are the most effective for the separation of all the studied betacyanins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Buddleja globosa (matico prevents collagen-induced platelet activation by decreasing phospholipase C-gamma 2 and protein kinase C phosphorylation signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Fuentes


    Full Text Available Platelets play a key role in thrombosis and cardiovascular diseases. Medicinal plants could be one of the most important factors that influence risks for platelet activation. Buddleja globosa (known as “matico” is a medicinal plant with many biological activities. The high content of polyphenols suggest that matico could have antiplatelet activity. The present study was aimed at evaluating mechanisms of antiplatelet action of an extract of matico. We demonstrated that matico extract at low concentrations and in a concentration dependent manner (0.05–1 mg/mL was a potent inhibitor of platelet aggregation in response to collagen, convulsion and ADP (IC50 values was 61 μg/mL, 72 μg/mL and 290 μg/mL, respectively. In this sense matico extract exerted the greatest antiaggregant activity induced by collagen. Similarly, matico showed a decrease in % of positive platelet for P-selectina (vehicle, 0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5 and 1 mg/mL were 32 ± 2%, 29 ± 2 (p < 0.05, 19 ± 1 (p < 0.01, 15 ± 2 (p < 0.01, 10 ± 1% (p < 0.01 and 7 ± 2% (p < 0.01, respectively and PAC-1 binding (vehicle, 0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5 and 1 mg/mL were 59 ± 1, 58 ± 3 (n.s, 55 ± 2 (p < 0.05, 50 ± 2 (p < 0.01, 38 ± 1 (p < 0.01, 36 ± 2 (p < 0.01. The cellular mechanism for the antiplatelet activity of matico might be mediated by the inhibition of phospholipase C-gamma 2 and protein kinase C phosphorylation. This beneficial property of matico may be of importance in thrombosis, in which platelet activation and aggregation are important determinants of thrombus initiation and development, and may contribute to the beneficial effects of matico intake in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases.

  12. Distribución de Taxus globosa (Taxaceae en México: Modelos ecológicos de nicho, efectos del cambio del uso de suelo y conservación Distribution of Taxus globosa (Taxaceae in Mexico: Ecological niche modeling, effects of land use change and conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Taxus globosa es una gimnosperma que habita principalmente en los bosques templados de México y el norte de América Central, y que está considerada como amenazada por las agencias de conservación tanto mexicanas como internacionales. En México, una de las mayores amenazas para la mayoría de las especies de los bosques nublados es la pérdida de hábitat, la cual se propicia por la modificación de la cobertura vegetal por factores antropogénicos. Con base en 73 registros de herbario se obtuvo la distribución potencial de la especie mediante el algoritmo Maxent. Asimismo, a partir del modelo obtenido se analizó la modificación de la cobertura vegetal durante tres períodos (1976, 1996 y 2000 y su influencia en la distribución potencial de esta especie. Su distribución potencial fue evaluada en relación con el actual Sistema Nacional de Áreas Naturales Protegidas a nivel federal (ANPs de México y las Regiones Terrestres Prioritarias para la Conservación (RTPs, con el fin de determinar el papel de estas áreas en su conservación y manejo. Los modelos de distribución potencial muestran que existe una reducción importante del área de distribución (hasta el 84 % al existir un cambio de uso de suelo. La especie está mal representada en las ANPs, pues menos del 10 % de su área potencial se encuentra dentro de estas áreas de protección federal. Este tipo de análisis representa una herramienta importante en biogeografía y conservación, así como en otras áreas del quehacer biológico, debido a su habilidad predictiva. Nuestros resultados muestran la urgencia que existe de conservar algunos parches de bosques templados mexicanos (principalmente los bosques nublados para garantizar la existencia de esta especie.Taxus globosa is a gymnosperm inhabiting Mexican and northern Central American temperate forests, and it has been considered as threatened by Mexican and international conservancy agencies. In México, habitat loss is one

  13. Phytoremediation assessment of Gomphrena globosa and Zinnia elegans grown in arsenic-contaminated hydroponic conditions as a safe and feasible alternative to be applied in arsenic-contaminated soils of the Bengal Delta. (United States)

    Signes-Pastor, A J; Munera-Picazo, S; Burló, F; Cano-Lamadrid, M; Carbonell-Barrachina, A A


    Several agricultural fields show high contents of arsenic because of irrigation with arsenic-contaminated groundwater. Vegetables accumulate arsenic in their edible parts when grown in contaminated soils. Polluted vegetables are one of the main sources of arsenic in the food chain, especially for people living in rural arsenic endemic villages of India and Bangladesh. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of floriculture in the crop rotation system of arsenic endemic areas of the Bengal Delta. The effects of different arsenic concentrations (0, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mg As L(-1)) and types of flowering plant (Gomphrena globosa and Zinnia elegans) on plant growth and arsenic accumulation were studied under hydroponic conditions. Total arsenic was quantified using atomic absorption spectrometer with hydride generation (HG-AAS). Arsenic was mainly accumulated in the roots (72 %), followed by leaves (12 %), stems (10 %), and flowers (<1 %). The flowering plants studied did not show as high phytoremediation capacities as other wild species, such as ferns. However, they behaved as arsenic tolerant plants and grew and bloomed well, without showing any phytotoxic signs. This study proves that floriculture could be included within the crop rotation system in arsenic-contaminated agricultural soils, in order to improve food safety and also food security by increasing farmer's revenue.

  14. Contribución al conocimiento de la morfología de la semilla, la germinación y el desarrollo de las plántulas de Beilschmiedia sulcata (R. et P. Kostem y Nectandra globosa (Aublet Mez. (Lauraceae Contribución al conocimiento de la morfología de la semilla, la germinación y el desarrollo de las plántulas de Beilschmiedia sulcata (R. et P. Kostem y Nectandra globosa (Aublet Mez. (Lauraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinedo Guerrero Mauricio


    Full Text Available Esta contribución contiene información sobre las características del fruto, la semilla, la plántulay la descripción del tipo y forma de germinación de dos especies de la Familia Lauraceaepertenecientes a los géneros Beilschmiediay Nectandra. La especie Beilschmiedia sulcata(R. et PKosterm se caracteriza por presentar un fruto simple denominado baya y la semilla es elipsoidecon una testa papiracea coriacea y un embrión grande, recto y carnoso. La plántula escriptocotilar y la germinación hipógea. El porcentaje de germinación es del 95%. La plántuladesarrolla 5 – 6 protofilas antes de desarrollar las eofilas. La especie presenta problemasfitosanitarios por la alta frecuencia de hongos del fruto evidentes después de la hidratación delfruto. Como mecanismo de control presenta un mucílago de naturaleza polisacárida queimpide la penetración de los micelios del hongo al interior del embrión. La semilla es fuerte-mente atacada por un insecto barrenador de la semilla. La especie Nectandra globosa(AubletMez. presenta un fruto simple denominado drupa. El fruto está subtendido e incluído parcial-mente en un perianto persistente transformado en cúpula o receptáculo cupuliforme típicode la familia. La semilla es globosa con una testa coriacea – crustácea, embrión total, rectoy carnoso. La plántula es criptocotilar y la germinación hipógea. El porcentaje de germinaciónes de 6%. La especie presenta problemas de germinación debido a la presencia de una testaindehiscente, de consistencia dura persistente durante todo el periodo de germinación. Lassemillas de la familia Lauraceaeson semillas de tipo recalcitrante caracterizadas por perder laviabilidad en corto tiempo. Las semillas para germinar necesitan buena humedad y suelosorgánicos. Presentan ataque de nemátodos e insectos barrenadores.The fruit of Beilschmiediasulcata (R. et P Kosterm is an ovoidellipsoid berry and the elipsoidseed has a papiraceous seedcoat and a broad

  15. Reduced Tillage


    Hegglin, Django; Clerc, Maurice; Dierauer, Hansueli


    Reduced tillage can significantly contribute to soil quality and fertility. By avoiding a deep and intense loosening of the soil, the soil structure and soil biology is better conserved and humus decomposition is slowed down. Furthermore, the load capacity, erosion sensitivity and water household of the soil are improved. However, avoiding the use of a plough brings certain challenges, especially in organic farming. For example, weed pressure can increase or nutrient supply can becom...

  16. Reducing Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindell, Johanna

    care may influence decisions on antibiotic use. Based on video-and audio recordings of physician-patient consultations it is investigated how treatment recommendations are presented, can be changed, are forecast and explained, and finally, how they seemingly meet resistance and how this resistance......Antibiotic resistance is a growing public health problem both nationally and internationally, and efficient strategies are needed to reduce unnecessary use. This dissertation presents four research studies, which examine how communication between general practitioners and patients in Danish primary...... is responded to.The first study in the dissertation suggests that treatment recommendations on antibiotics are often done in a way that encourages patient acceptance. In extension of this, the second study of the dissertation examines a case, where acceptance of such a recommendation is changed into a shared...

  17. Katabia gromovi nov. gen., nov sp. - a new soil flagellate with affinities to Heteromita (Cercomonadida)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karpov, S.A.; Ekelund, Flemming; Moestrup, Øjvind


    Katabia gromovi, cercomonads, ultrastructure, cytoskeleton, soil flagellates, partial SSU gene sequence......Katabia gromovi, cercomonads, ultrastructure, cytoskeleton, soil flagellates, partial SSU gene sequence...

  18. High acrylate concentrations in the mucus of Phaeocystis globosa colonies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordkamp, D.J B; Schotten, M; Gieskes, W.W C; Forney, L.J; Gottschal, J.C; van Rijssel, M


    Acrylate produced from dimethylsulphoniopropionate (DMSP) by Phaeocystis has been claimed to inhibit bacterial growth. However, the concentrations of acrylate measured in seawater during Phaeocystis blooms are not high enough to expect inhibition of bacterial growth. In this study, the total

  19. Metalycaea globosa stephensen, a valid species of Oxycephalidae (Amphipoda, Hyperiidea)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, K.K.C.

    stream_size 6 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name J_Plankton_Res_15_1171.pdf.txt stream_source_info J_Plankton_Res_15_1171.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  20. Reduced Rank Regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Søren


    The reduced rank regression model is a multivariate regression model with a coefficient matrix with reduced rank. The reduced rank regression algorithm is an estimation procedure, which estimates the reduced rank regression model. It is related to canonical correlations and involves calculating e...... eigenvalues and eigenvectors. We give a number of different applications to regression and time series analysis, and show how the reduced rank regression estimator can be derived as a Gaussian maximum likelihood estimator. We briefly mention asymptotic results......The reduced rank regression model is a multivariate regression model with a coefficient matrix with reduced rank. The reduced rank regression algorithm is an estimation procedure, which estimates the reduced rank regression model. It is related to canonical correlations and involves calculating...

  1. Reduced multiplication modules

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    for some ideal of . As defined for a commutative ring , an -module is said to be reduced if the intersection of prime submodules of is zero. The prime spectrum and minimal prime submodules of the reduced module are studied.

  2. Reducible oxide based catalysts (United States)

    Thompson, Levi T.; Kim, Chang Hwan; Bej, Shyamal K.


    A catalyst is disclosed herein. The catalyst includes a reducible oxide support and at least one noble metal fixed on the reducible oxide support. The noble metal(s) is loaded on the support at a substantially constant temperature and pH.

  3. Reducing Pesticide Drift (United States)

    Provides information about pesticide spray drift, including problems associated with drift, managing risks from drift and the voluntary Drift Reduction Technology program that seeks to reduce spray drift through improved spray equipment design.

  4. Reducing Childhood Obesity (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Reducing Childhood Obesity Past Issues / Summer 2007 Table of Contents For ... Ga. were the first three We Can! cities. Obesity Research: A New Approach The percentage of children ...

  5. Reduced Extended MHD (United States)

    Morrison, P. J.; Abdelhamid, H. M.; Grasso, D.; Hazeltine, R. D.; Lingam, M.; Tassi, E.


    Over the years various reduced fluid models have been obtained for modeling plasmas, with the goal of capturing important physics while maintaining computability. Such models have included the physics contained in various generalizations of Ohm's law, including Hall drift and electron inertia. In a recent publication it was shown that full 3D extended MHD is a Hamiltonian system by finding its noncanonical Poisson bracket. Subsequently, this bracket was shown to be derivable from that for Hall MHD by a series of remarkable transformations, which greatly simplifies the proof of the Jacobi identity and allows one to immediately obtain generalizations of the helicity and cross helicity. In this poster we use this structure to obtain exact reduced fluid models with the effects of full two-fluid theory. Results of numerical computations of collisionless reconnection using an exact reduced 4-field model will be presented and analytical comparisons of mode structure of previous reduced models will be made.

  6. Reduced shear power spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodelson, Scott; /Fermilab /Chicago U., Astron. Astrophys. Ctr. /Northwestern U.; Shapiro, Charles; /Chicago U. /KICP, Chicago; White, Martin J.; /UC, Berkeley, Astron.


    Measurements of ellipticities of background galaxies are sensitive to the reduced shear, the cosmic shear divided by (1-{kappa}) where {kappa} is the projected density field. They compute the difference between shear and reduced shear both analytically and with simulations. The difference becomes more important an smaller scales, and will impact cosmological parameter estimation from upcoming experiments. A simple recipe is presented to carry out the required correction.

  7. Reduced Magmatic Volatiles (United States)

    Hirschmann, M. M.; Withers, A. C.; Ardia, P.; Stanley, B. D.; Foley, N.


    Volatiles in Earth's upper mantle are dominated by H2O and CO2, but under more reduced conditions likely deeper in the mantle, other volatile species may be important or dominant. However, the speciation, solubilities, and effect on physical properties of reduced magmatic volatiles are poorly constrained. Here we summarize results from an experimental campaign to better understand reduced volatiles in magmas. Experiments emphasize spectroscopic and SIMS characterization of dissolved species in experiments for which fluid fugacities are known, thereby facilitating thermodynamic parameterization. Experimental determinations of molecular H2 solubility in basaltic and andesitic liquids show concentrations that are proportional to H2 fugacity. Because H2 increases with fH2 whereas dissolved H2O increases with fH2O1/2, the relative importance of H2 increases with pressure and for more hydrous magmas. At 1 GPa and IW-1, solubility in basalt reaches 0.3 wt.% (equivalent to 2.7 wt.% H2O). Solubilities at pressures of the deep upper mantle have not been explored experimentally (as is also true for H2O and CO2), but H2 could become the dominant hydrous species at 400 km and deeper, and so deep hydrous melts may have chiefly H2 rather than H2O or OH. Experiments suggest an extremely low partial specific density (0.18 kg/m3) for dissolved H2 at low pressure, and so appreciable dissolved H2 in melt atop the 410 km discontinuity or in the lower mantle may promote positive buoyancy. Solubilities of reduced C-species remain poorly known. In contrast to results in Na2O-SiO2 liquids (Mysen et al., 2009), experiments with a haplobasaltic liquid at controlled CH4 fugacities indicated very small (<0.05 wt.%) CH4 solubilities even at very reduced conditions (reduced conditions and in

  8. Tank closure reducing grout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldwell, T.B.


    A reducing grout has been developed for closing high level waste tanks at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina. The grout has a low redox potential, which minimizes the mobility of Sr{sup 90}, the radionuclide with the highest dose potential after closure. The grout also has a high pH which reduces the solubility of the plutonium isotopes. The grout has a high compressive strength and low permeability, which enhances its ability to limit the migration of contaminants after closure. The grout was designed and tested by Construction Technology Laboratories, Inc. Placement methods were developed by the Savannah River Site personnel.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    The invention relates to a novel process for making compositions comprising a polyamid, water and a salt, having reduced crystallinity, wherein the process comprising the steps of: a. mixing the polyamide, water and a salt b. heating the mixture to a temperature above 100°C in a range between 120°C

  10. Risk-reducing mastectomy. (United States)

    Edlich, Richard F; Winters, Kathryne L; Faulkner, Brent C; Lin, Kant Y


    Breast cancer is a malignant proliferation of epithelial cells lining the ducts or lobules of the breast. Excluding skin cancer, breast cancer is the most common cancer in women. Only lung cancer accounts for more cancer deaths in women. Breast cancer may exist for a long period either as an invasive or noninvasive disease, but not as a nonmetastatic disease. Consequently, timely diagnosis and appropriate management are lifesaving. Approximately 10% of human breast cancers are linked to germline mutations, such BRCA1 and BRCA2. Correct staging of breast cancer patients is critical. It permits an accurate diagnosis, as well as in many cases, therapeutic decisions based largely on the TNM classification. Staging provides the most important prognostic variable. Second opinions of the staging of breast cancer by pathologic examination of the tissue is recommended. There are some variables in which the association with disease-free survival and overall survival seem clear and include estrogen and progesterone receptor cells, S-phase analysis using flow cytometry, histologic classification, molecular changes in the tumor as well as neovasculature semi-quantitative scoring systems. There are four objectives to risk-reducing mastectomy. First, risk-reducing mastectomy should reduce the incidence of breast cancer in high-risk women, for example, BRCA1 or BRCA2 carriers. It should reduce mortality from breast cancer in high-risk women. Moreover, it should have psychological benefits in relieving anxiety about developing breast cancer. Finally, there must be a balance in the reduction in risk against cosmetic outcome, with subsequent quality of life issues. Women should be offered risk reduction mastectomy only on the basis of a strict selection and management plan, like that used in Manchester protocol. This protocol involves a minimum of two sessions with a geneticist/oncologist, a session with a psychiatrist and two sessions with a plastic and reconstructive surgeon with

  11. Why reduce health inequalities? (United States)

    Woodward, A; Kawachi, I


    It is well known that social, cultural and economic factors cause substantial inequalities in health. Should we strive to achieve a more even share of good health, beyond improving the average health status of the population? We examine four arguments for the reduction of health inequalities.1 Inequalities are unfair. Inequalities in health are undesirable to the extent that they are unfair, or unjust. Distinguishing between health inequalities and health inequities can be contentious. Our view is that inequalities become "unfair" when poor health is itself the consequence of an unjust distribution of the underlying social determinants of health (for example, unequal opportunities in education or employment).2 Inequalities affect everyone. Conditions that lead to marked health disparities are detrimental to all members of society. Some types of health inequalities have obvious spillover effects on the rest of society, for example, the spread of infectious diseases, the consequences of alcohol and drug misuse, or the occurrence of violence and crime.3 Inequalities are avoidable. Disparities in health are avoidable to the extent that they stem from identifiable policy options exercised by governments, such as tax policy, regulation of business and labour, welfare benefits and health care funding. It follows that health inequalities are, in principle, amenable to policy interventions. A government that cares about improving the health of the population ought therefore to incorporate considerations of the health impact of alternative options in its policy setting process.3 Interventions to reduce health inequalities are cost effective. Public health programmes that reduce health inequalities can also be cost effective. The case can be made to give priority to such programmes (for example, improving access to cervical cancer screening in low income women) on efficiency grounds. On the other hand, few programmes designed to reduce health inequalities have been formally

  12. Reducing rotor weight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheney, M.C. [PS Enterprises, Inc., Glastonbury, CT (United States)


    The cost of energy for renewables has gained greater significance in recent years due to the drop in price in some competing energy sources, particularly natural gas. In pursuit of lower manufacturing costs for wind turbine systems, work was conducted to explore an innovative rotor designed to reduce weight and cost over conventional rotor systems. Trade-off studies were conducted to measure the influence of number of blades, stiffness, and manufacturing method on COE. The study showed that increasing number of blades at constant solidity significantly reduced rotor weight and that manufacturing the blades using pultrusion technology produced the lowest cost per pound. Under contracts with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the California Energy Commission, a 400 kW (33m diameter) turbine was designed employing this technology. The project included tests of an 80 kW (15.5m diameter) dynamically scaled rotor which demonstrated the viability of the design.

  13. Reducing teenage pregnancy. (United States)

    Fallon, Debbie


    The Teenage Pregnancy Independent Advisory Group (TPIAG) was established in 2000 to advise the government about reducing teenage pregnancy rates and supporting teenage parents to continue with their education. The group reached the end of its tenure in December 2010. This short article highlights some of the key issues from the final report and provides some insights into past achievements and future directions from an interview with Gill Frances, TPIAG's chair.

  14. Interruption Practice Reduces Errors (United States)


    dangers of errors at the PCS. Electronic health record systems are used to reduce certain errors related to poor- handwriting and dosage...Arlington VA 22202-4302 Respondents should be aware that notwithstanding any other provision of law, no person shall be subject to a penalty for failing to...RESPONSIBLE PERSON a REPORT unclassified b ABSTRACT unclassified c THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39

  15. Reducing Employment Insecurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence Lebert


    Full Text Available The perception of job insecurity is known to be a stressful condition for employees. Less is known about employment insecurity and the ways employees and their families deal with it. This study investigates whether participation in further training is a strategy that employees adopt to reduce perceived employment insecurity. As participation in further training is often costly and time-consuming, we assume that the family context is of importance for the decision to take part in further training. To take account of possible self-selection, we apply a propensity score matching procedure on longitudinal data from the Swiss Household Panel (2004-2013. Three main findings can be emphasized: first, participation in further training is not a strategy adopted particularly by employees who perceive high employment insecurity as they are less likely to train than their secure counterparts. Second, even though further training is not a strategy that is actively adopted, employees who train subsequently report lower levels of perceived employment insecurity. Third, the family context indeed influences the likelihood to train: partnered employees are more likely to train and preschool-aged children act as a constraint on women’s but enhance men’s participation in further training. Yet, in the context of high perceived employment insecurity, children generally reduce their parents’ likelihood to train as the parents may turn to other strategies that reduce perceived employment insecurity.

  16. Speckle reducing anisotropic diffusion. (United States)

    Yu, Yongjian; Acton, Scott T


    This paper provides the derivation of speckle reducing anisotropic diffusion (SRAD), a diffusion method tailored to ultrasonic and radar imaging applications. SRAD is the edge-sensitive diffusion for speckled images, in the same way that conventional anisotropic diffusion is the edge-sensitive diffusion for images corrupted with additive noise. We first show that the Lee and Frost filters can be cast as partial differential equations, and then we derive SRAD by allowing edge-sensitive anisotropic diffusion within this context. Just as the Lee and Frost filters utilize the coefficient of variation in adaptive filtering, SRAD exploits the instantaneous coefficient of variation, which is shown to be a function of the local gradient magnitude and Laplacian operators. We validate the new algorithm using both synthetic and real linear scan ultrasonic imagery of the carotid artery. We also demonstrate the algorithm performance with real SAR data. The performance measures obtained by means of computer simulation of carotid artery images are compared with three existing speckle reduction schemes. In the presence of speckle noise, speckle reducing anisotropic diffusion excels over the traditional speckle removal filters and over the conventional anisotropic diffusion method in terms of mean preservation, variance reduction, and edge localization.

  17. Reducing Outdoor Advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrice de Rendinger


    Full Text Available The fundamental concept is that public space is not a private property. So, a facade (the outer skin, the last millimeter belongs to the town, not to the owner of the building. Changing the rendering, a window, adding or removing anything from a facade requires a permission delivered by the town's authority.In places like Paris, Bordeaux, Marseilles, Lyon, Strasbourg… everywhere one can find a registrated building such as a cathedral, a castle, or a group of ancient buildings, a national administration is controlling this permission. This administration is called «historical monuments administration» and is locally lead by a specialized architect.In the late seventies, French government decided to reduce advertising on the roads and on the city walls. Advertising on the road was leading to a confusion reducing the efficacy of the roadsigns and direction signs, which is dangerous. The reduction was under control of a national administration: the ministry of equipment in charge of the roads design. Advertising on the walls with publicity boards was under control of the cities. Every city has a townplanning regulation. Many cities included forbidding advertisement boards on the walls in this regulation.A couple of firms, but mainly once (Decaux found clever to give a hand to the cities to control advertising. Decaux developed a line of bus stop shelters including advertisements and advertising panels and paid the cities the right to put rather smaller publicities on the public domain.Now Decaux is no more alone on this market and the cities are comparing offers.Marseille turned to a foreign advertising firm who pays three times the price Decaux paid… for half of the advertising surface. Freiburg erased totally the public domain advertisements, selling the tramways and bus coachwork as advertising spaces. Paris is reopening the advertising market before the end of Deacaux's contract and will pay Deacaux a huge amount

  18. Reducing GWAS Complexity. (United States)

    Hazelett, Dennis J; Conti, David V; Han, Ying; Al Olama, Ali Amin; Easton, Doug; Eeles, Rosalind A; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Haiman, Christopher A; Coetzee, Gerhard A


    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have revealed numerous genomic 'hits' associated with complex phenotypes. In most cases these hits, along with surrogate genetic variation as measure by numerous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are in linkage disequilibrium, are not in coding genes making assignment of functionality or causality intractable. Here we propose that fine-mapping along with the matching of risk SNPs at chromatin biofeatures lessen this complexity by reducing the number of candidate functional/causal SNPs. For example, we show here that only on average 2 SNPs per prostate cancer risk locus are likely candidates for functionality/causality; we further propose that this manageable number should be taken forward in mechanistic studies. The candidate SNPs can be looked up for each prostate cancer risk region in 2 recent publications in 2015 (1,2) from our groups.

  19. Embodied intervention reduce depression (United States)

    Song, Dong-Qing; Bi, Xin; Fu, Ying


    To investigate the difference of the selected-rate of undergraduates' depression with respect to time, gender and scales and the intervention effect of embodied exercise, 201 Undergraduates were measured with Self-Rating Depression Scale and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI).The result shows there are significant difference of the selected-rates of undergraduates' depression resulted from long-time interval rather than from short-time interval and gender. After the intervention, the selected-rates are decreased and no significant difference has been found between the embodied groups and the controlled group. Only the embodied groups maintain the better effects of the intervention in the tracking. Also the result shows that only the participants of embodied groups obtain more positive emotional experience. We conclude that there is significant difference of selected-rate of undergraduates' depression on scales, and the embodied exercise can effectively reduce undergraduate's depression.

  20. Reduced Order Podolsky Model (United States)

    Thibes, Ronaldo


    We perform the canonical and path integral quantizations of a lower-order derivatives model describing Podolsky's generalized electrodynamics. The physical content of the model shows an auxiliary massive vector field coupled to the usual electromagnetic field. The equivalence with Podolsky's original model is studied at classical and quantum levels. Concerning the dynamical time evolution, we obtain a theory with two first-class and two second-class constraints in phase space. We calculate explicitly the corresponding Dirac brackets involving both vector fields. We use the Senjanovic procedure to implement the second-class constraints and the Batalin-Fradkin-Vilkovisky path integral quantization scheme to deal with the symmetries generated by the first-class constraints. The physical interpretation of the results turns out to be simpler due to the reduced derivatives order permeating the equations of motion, Dirac brackets and effective action.

  1. Stewarding a Reduced Stockpile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodwin, B T; Mara, G


    The future of the US nuclear arsenal continues to be guided by two distinct drivers: the preservation of world peace and the prevention of further proliferation through our extended deterrent umbrella. Timely implementation of US nuclear policy decisions depends, in part, on the current state of stockpile weapons, their delivery systems, and the supporting infrastructure within the Department of Defense (DoD) and the Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). In turn, the present is a product of past choices and world events. Now more than ever, the nuclear weapons program must respond to the changing global security environment and to increasing budget pressures with innovation and sound investments. As the nation transitions to a reduced stockpile, the successes of the Stockpile Stewardship Program (SSP) present options to transition to a sustainable complex better suited to stockpile size, national strategic goals and budgetary realities. Under any stockpile size, we must maintain essential human capital, forefront capabilities, and have a right-sized effective production capacity. We present new concepts for maintaining high confidence at low stockpile numbers and to effectively eliminate the reserve weapons within an optimized complex. We, as a nation, have choices to make on how we will achieve a credible 21st century deterrent.

  2. Reducing medical waste. (United States)

    Conrardy, Julie; Hillanbrand, Mary; Myers, Sandra; Nussbaum, George F


    Medical waste is a necessary by-product of any hospital environment; however, the majority of regulated medical waste is produced in the OR from the use of disposable surgical supplies (eg, drapes, gowns, basins, gloves, sponges). We conducted a concept comparison project in the ORs of two large medical centers in Bethesda, Maryland, and Washington, DC, to evaluate the effects of using reusable surgical basins, gowns, and table and Mayo stand covers in place of disposable products. Survey results indicated that surgeons and surgical technologists found the reusable products to be preferable to the disposable products currently in use. In addition, using reusable products provided a means to decrease regulated medical waste generated in the OR by an average of 65% as well as reduce the cost of waste disposal. AORN recommends evaluating the environmental effects of using reusable, reposable, and disposable products; our findings provide evidence that may be useful to surgical facilities that seek to adopt a "green" approach. Copyright 2010 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Does chemotherapy reduce stress? (United States)

    Gil, Francisco; Costa, G; Pérez, F J


    The purpose of this study was to assess the psychological care needs of cancer patients throughout the healthcare process: after diagnosis, after medical treatment (surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy) and during follow-up. A total of 703 ambulatory cancer patients were assessed in this study. The inclusion period was from April 1, 2005 to April 30, 2007. The first psychological scales used were the 14-item Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scales (HADS), which has two sub-scales for anxiety (7 items) and for depression (7 items). All patients with a score ≥ 14 were assessed through the Structured Clinical Interview for Psychiatric Disorder (SCID-I) of the DSM-IV. All data were compared with sociodemographic and medical characteristics. Of the 703 cancer patients in the study, 349 were men and 354 women, with a mean age of 53 years. The median time between the cancer diagnosis and our clinical interview was 6 months (range, 12 days to 190 months). Overall, the screening tools indicated that one in four patients needed psychological care. The most common psychiatric diagnosis was adjustment disorder (129 cases), whereas 10 patients were diagnosed with major depression. Using a HADS cut-off score of > 7 for anxiety and depression, 28% and 17% of patients, respectively, were classified as "possible clinical cases." Risk factors for distress included age constipation, and a low performance status. However, chemotherapy treatment was found to be a protector against distress in cancer patients. Chemotherapy treatment is interpreted by the patients as a protector against cancer, thereby reducing distress levels.

  4. Reducing late abortions. (United States)

    Diggory, P


    The report of a meeting organized by the Birth Control Trust and focusing on reducing late abortion indicates that referral and assessment for abortion takes longer within the National Health Services (NHS) than in the private and charitable sectors. The NHS performs only 21% of all its abortions prior to the 9th week in comparison with 44% in the private sector. The NHS emerges as reluctant to perform 2nd-trimester abortion when the indications are social factors threatening mental health. The report covers many specific issues including the need for better provision of early pregnancy testing in general practice and in community clinics, the early detection of fetal abnormality, and the great regional variations in the provision of abortion within the NHS. It describes how NHS can provide good abortion facilities and includes examples from several centers in England. There is considerable difference between abortion performed early in pregnancy and when a delay has occurred. The woman's feelings change. Initially, she knows only that her period is late, realizing subsequently she is pregnant and only later coming to feel that she is going to have a baby. This is why, until modern times, abortion was not viewed as a crime up until the time when the woman felt quickening. Regarding the actual procedures, abortion using suction is a simple and safe procedure best performed on an outpatient basis within the first 12 weeks of pregnancy. Early abortion uses fewer health resources, involves less time off work or away from the family, and is far more acceptable to the woman. When considering the basic causes of delay, the attitude and behavior of the woman herself is important, but much responsibility for delay lies with the medical profession. That the medical profession is failing to cope is shown by the fact that the NHS performs fewer than half of all those abortions performed in women who are UK residents. Politicians who genuinely want to minimize late abortion

  5. Oxygen-reducing catalyst layer (United States)

    O'Brien, Dennis P [Maplewood, MN; Schmoeckel, Alison K [Stillwater, MN; Vernstrom, George D [Cottage Grove, MN; Atanasoski, Radoslav [Edina, MN; Wood, Thomas E [Stillwater, MN; Yang, Ruizhi [Halifax, CA; Easton, E Bradley [Halifax, CA; Dahn, Jeffrey R [Hubley, CA; O'Neill, David G [Lake Elmo, MN


    An oxygen-reducing catalyst layer, and a method of making the oxygen-reducing catalyst layer, where the oxygen-reducing catalyst layer includes a catalytic material film disposed on a substrate with the use of physical vapor deposition and thermal treatment. The catalytic material film includes a transition metal that is substantially free of platinum. At least one of the physical vapor deposition and the thermal treatment is performed in a processing environment comprising a nitrogen-containing gas.

  6. Reducing Lookups for Invariant Checking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jakob Grauenkjær; Clausen, Christian; Andersen, Kristoffer Just


    This paper helps reduce the cost of invariant checking in cases where access to data is expensive. Assume that a set of variables satisfy a given invariant and a request is received to update a subset of them. We reduce the set of variables to inspect, in order to verify that the invariant is still...

  7. Endogenous mobility-reducing norms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haagsma, R.; Koning, N.B.J.


    We present a model where a mobility-reducing norm arises in response to adverse economic conditions. Our example is the classical farm problem of low returns. A temporary transition barrier induces cognitive dissonance in farm youths, which they try to reduce by developing a belief that revalues

  8. Reducing energy with asynchronous circuits


    Rivas Barragan, Daniel


    Reducing energy consumption using asynchronous circuits. The elastic clocks approach has been implemented along with a closed-feedback loop in order to achieve a lower energy consumption along with more reliability in integrated circuits.

  9. Learning to REDUCE: A Reduced Electricity Consumption Prediction Ensemble

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aman, Saima; Chelmis, Charalampos; Prasanna, Viktor


    Utilities use Demand Response (DR) to balance supply and demand in the electric grid by involving customers in efforts to reduce electricity consumption during peak periods. To implement and adapt DR under dynamically changing conditions of the grid, reliable prediction of reduced consumption is critical. However, despite the wealth of research on electricity consumption prediction and DR being long in practice, the problem of reduced consumption prediction remains largely un-addressed. In this paper, we identify unique computational challenges associated with the prediction of reduced consumption and contrast this to that of normal consumption and DR baseline prediction.We propose a novel ensemble model that leverages different sequences of daily electricity consumption on DR event days as well as contextual attributes for reduced consumption prediction. We demonstrate the success of our model on a large, real-world, high resolution dataset from a university microgrid comprising of over 950 DR events across a diverse set of 32 buildings. Our model achieves an average error of 13.5%, an 8.8% improvement over the baseline. Our work is particularly relevant for buildings where electricity consumption is not tied to strict schedules. Our results and insights should prove useful to the researchers and practitioners working in the sustainable energy domain.

  10. Determining Reduced Order Models for Optimal Stochastic Reduced Order Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonney, Matthew S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Brake, Matthew R.W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)


    The use of parameterized reduced order models(PROMs) within the stochastic reduced order model (SROM) framework is a logical progression for both methods. In this report, five different parameterized reduced order models are selected and critiqued against the other models along with truth model for the example of the Brake-Reuss beam. The models are: a Taylor series using finite difference, a proper orthogonal decomposition of the the output, a Craig-Bampton representation of the model, a method that uses Hyper-Dual numbers to determine the sensitivities, and a Meta-Model method that uses the Hyper-Dual results and constructs a polynomial curve to better represent the output data. The methods are compared against a parameter sweep and a distribution propagation where the first four statistical moments are used as a comparison. Each method produces very accurate results with the Craig-Bampton reduction having the least accurate results. The models are also compared based on time requirements for the evaluation of each model where the Meta- Model requires the least amount of time for computation by a significant amount. Each of the five models provided accurate results in a reasonable time frame. The determination of which model to use is dependent on the availability of the high-fidelity model and how many evaluations can be performed. Analysis of the output distribution is examined by using a large Monte-Carlo simulation along with a reduced simulation using Latin Hypercube and the stochastic reduced order model sampling technique. Both techniques produced accurate results. The stochastic reduced order modeling technique produced less error when compared to an exhaustive sampling for the majority of methods.

  11. 78 FR 47109 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Status for Physaria globosa (Short's... (United States)


    ... parties concerning this proposed rule. We particularly seek comments concerning: (1) The species' biology... status of various taxa. Complete updates of the plant notice were published on September 27, 1985 (50 FR... virginica (fire-pink), and Verbascum thapsus (common mullein) (Shea 1993, p. 19). Biology. Published...

  12. Responses of the coastal bacterial community to viral infection of the algae Phaeocystis globosa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sheik, A.R.; Brussaard, C.P.D.; Lavik, G.; Lam, P.; Musat, N.; Krupke, A.; Littmann, S.; Strous, M.; Kuypers, M.M.M.


    The release of organic material upon algal cell lyses has a key role in structuring bacterial communities and affects the cycling of biolimiting elements in the marine environment. Here we show that already before cell lysis the leakage or excretion of organic matter by infected yet intact algal

  13. Strategies to Reduce Indoor Tanning (United States)

    Holman, Dawn M.; Fox, Kathleen A.; Glenn, Jeffrey D.; Guy, Gery P.; Watson, Meg; Baker, Katie; Cokkinides, Vilma; Gottlieb, Mark; Lazovich, DeAnn; Perna, Frank M.; Sampson, Blake P.; Seidenberg, Andrew B.; Sinclair, Craig; Geller, Alan C.


    Exposure to ultraviolet radiation from indoor tanning device use is associated with an increased risk of skin cancer, including risk of malignant melanoma, and is an urgent public health problem. By reducing indoor tanning, future cases of skin cancer could be prevented, along with the associated morbidity, mortality, and healthcare costs. On August 20, 2012, the CDC hosted a meeting to discuss the current body of evidence on strategies to reduce indoor tanning as well as research gaps. Using the Action Model to Achieve Healthy People 2020 Overarching Goals as a framework, the current paper provides highlights on the topics that were discussed, including (1) the state of the evidence on strategies to reduce indoor tanning; (2) the tools necessary to effectively assess, monitor, and evaluate the short- and long-term impact of interventions designed to reduce indoor tanning; and (3) strategies to align efforts at the national, state, and local levels through transdisciplinary collaboration and coordination across multiple sectors. Although many challenges and barriers exist, a coordinated, multilevel, transdisciplinary approach has the potential to reduce indoor tanning and prevent future cases of skin cancer. PMID:23683986

  14. Microbial methods of reducing technetium (United States)

    Wildung, Raymond E [Richland, WA; Garland, Thomas R [Greybull, WY; Gorby, Yuri A [Richland, WA; Hess, Nancy J [Benton City, WA; Li, Shu-Mei W [Richland, WA; Plymale, Andrew E [Richland, WA


    The present invention is directed toward a method for microbial reduction of a technetium compound to form other compounds of value in medical imaging. The technetium compound is combined in a mixture with non-growing microbial cells which contain a technetium-reducing enzyme system, a stabilizing agent and an electron donor in a saline solution under anaerobic conditions. The mixture is substantially free of an inorganic technetium reducing agent and its reduction products. The resulting product is Tc of lower oxidation states, the form of which can be partially controlled by the stabilizing agent. It has been discovered that the microorganisms Shewanella alga, strain Bry and Shewanelia putrifacians, strain CN-32 contain the necessary enzyme systems for technetium reduction and can form both mono nuclear and polynuclear reduced Tc species depending on the stabilizing agent.

  15. Breastfeeding reduces postpartum weight retention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Jennifer Lyn; Gamborg, Michael; Heitmann, Berit L


    BACKGROUND: Weight gained during pregnancy and not lost postpartum may contribute to obesity in women of childbearing age. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine whether breastfeeding reduces postpartum weight retention (PPWR) in a population among which full breastfeeding is common and breastfeeding......) reduced PPWR at 6 and 18 mo after adjustment for maternal prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG). RESULTS: GWG was positively (P ... by that time in women with GWG values of approximately 12 kg, and that the possibility of major weight gain (>or=5 kg) could be reduced in all but the heaviest women. CONCLUSION: Breastfeeding was associated with lower PPWR in all categories of prepregnancy BMI. These results suggest that, when combined...

  16. Welfare-Reducing Trade Liberalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Jørgensen, Jan G.

    tariff that maximizes national and world welfare. Applying one of the simplest specifications possible, namely a symmetric two-country intra-industry trade model with fixed export costs that are heterogeneous across firms, we find that the reciprocal reduction of small tariffs reduces welfare....

  17. Reducing cement's CO2 footprint (United States)

    van Oss, Hendrik G.


    The manufacturing process for Portland cement causes high levels of greenhouse gas emissions. However, environmental impacts can be reduced by using more energy-efficient kilns and replacing fossil energy with alternative fuels. Although carbon capture and new cements with less CO2 emission are still in the experimental phase, all these innovations can help develop a cleaner cement industry.

  18. Reducing Poverty through Preschool Interventions (United States)

    Duncan, Greg J.; Ludwig, Jens; Magnuson, Katherine A.


    Greg Duncan, Jens Ludwig, and Katherine Magnuson explain how providing high-quality care to disadvantaged preschool children can help reduce poverty. In early childhood, they note, children's cognitive and socioemotional skills develop rapidly and are sensitive to "inputs" from parents, home learning environments, child care settings, and the…

  19. Reduced False Memory after Sleep (United States)

    Fenn, Kimberly M.; Gallo, David A.; Margoliash, Daniel; Roediger, Henry L., III; Nusbaum, Howard C.


    Several studies have shown that sleep contributes to the successful maintenance of previously encoded information. This research has focused exclusively on memory for studied events, as opposed to false memories. Here we report three experiments showing that sleep reduces false memories in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) memory illusion. False…

  20. Does Microfinance Reduce Income Inequality?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermes, Niels


    This study addresses the question whether participation of the poor in microfinance contributes to reducing a country’s level of income inequality. Using data from 70 developing countries, we show that higher levels of microfinance participation are indeed associated with a reduction of the income

  1. Reducing Life-Cycle Costs. (United States)

    Roodvoets, David L.


    Presents factors to consider when determining roofing life-cycle costs, explaining that costs do not tell the whole story; discussing components that should go into the decision (cost, maintenance, energy use, and environmental costs); and concluding that important elements in reducing life-cycle costs include energy savings through increased…

  2. Reducing narcissus with a GRIN (United States)

    Vizgaitis, Jay; Hastings, Arthur


    Narcissus is caused by the reflection of the cold stop off a lens surface back to the image plane of a cooled infrared system and can be very difficult to remove from a lens design perspective. New infrared GRIN materials show the ability to reduce the amount of narcissus in an optical system without the reduction in performance or addition of optical elements.

  3. Reduced graphene oxide molecular sensors. (United States)

    Robinson, Jeremy T; Perkins, F Keith; Snow, Eric S; Wei, Zhongqing; Sheehan, Paul E


    We demonstrate reduced graphene oxide as the active material for high-performance molecular sensors. Sensors are fabricated from exfoliated graphene oxide platelets that are deposited to form an ultrathin continuous network. These graphene oxide networks are tunably reduced toward graphene by varying the exposure time to a hydrazine hydrate vapor. The conductance change of the networks upon exposure to trace levels of vapor is measured as a function of the chemical reduction. The level of reduction affects both the sensitivity and the level of 1/ f noise. The sensors are capable of detecting 10 s exposures to simulants of the three main classes of chemical-warfare agents and an explosive at parts-per-billion concentrations.

  4. BCJ numerators from reduced Pfaffian

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Yi-Jian [Center for Theoretical Physics, School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University,No. 299 Bayi Road, Wuhan 430072 (China); Teng, Fei [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah,115 South 1400 East, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States)


    By expanding the reduced Pfaffian in the tree level Cachazo-He-Yuan (CHY) integrands for Yang-Mills (YM) and nonlinear sigma model (NLSM), we can get the Bern-Carrasco-Johansson (BCJ) numerators in Del Duca-Dixon-Maltoni (DDM) form for arbitrary number of particles in any spacetime dimensions. In this work, we give a set of very straightforward graphic rules based on spanning trees for a direct evaluation of the BCJ numerators for YM and NLSM. Such rules can be derived from the Laplace expansion of the corresponding reduced Pfaffian. For YM, the each one of the (n−2)! DDM form BCJ numerators contains exactly (n−1)! terms, corresponding to the increasing trees with respect to the color order. For NLSM, the number of nonzero numerators is at most (n−2)!−(n−3)!, less than those of several previous constructions.

  5. Correlated Electrons in Reduced Dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonesteel, Nicholas E [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States)


    This report summarizes the work accomplished under the support of US DOE grant # DE-FG02-97ER45639, "Correlated Electrons in Reduced Dimensions." The underlying hypothesis of the research supported by this grant has been that studying the unique behavior of correlated electrons in reduced dimensions can lead to new ways of understanding how matter can order and how it can potentially be used. The systems under study have included i) fractional quantum Hall matter, which is realized when electrons are confined to two-dimensions and placed in a strong magnetic field at low temperature, ii) one-dimensional chains of spins and exotic quasiparticle excitations of topologically ordered matter, and iii) electrons confined in effectively ``zero-dimensional" semiconductor quantum dots.

  6. Alcohol reduces aversion to ambiguity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz eTyszka


    Full Text Available Several years ago, Cohen, Dearnaley, and Hansel [1] demonstrated that under the influence of alcohol drivers became more risk prone, although their risk perception remained unchanged. Research shows that ambiguity aversion is to some extent positively correlated with risk aversion, though not very highly [2]. The question addressed by the present research is whether alcohol reduces ambiguity aversion. Our research was conducted in a natural setting (a restaurant bar, where customers with differing levels of alcohol intoxication were offered a choice between a risky and an ambiguous lottery. We found that alcohol reduced ambiguity aversion and that the effect occurred in men but not women. We interpret these findings in terms of the risk-as-value hypothesis, according to which, people in Western culture tend to value risk, and suggest that alcohol consumption triggers adherence to socially and culturally valued patterns of conduct different for men and women.

  7. Reducing carbon dioxide to products (United States)

    Cole, Emily Barton; Sivasankar, Narayanappa; Parajuli, Rishi; Keets, Kate A


    A method reducing carbon dioxide to one or more products may include steps (A) to (C). Step (A) may bubble said carbon dioxide into a solution of an electrolyte and a catalyst in a divided electrochemical cell. The divided electrochemical cell may include an anode in a first cell compartment and a cathode in a second cell compartment. The cathode may reduce said carbon dioxide into said products. Step (B) may adjust one or more of (a) a cathode material, (b) a surface morphology of said cathode, (c) said electrolyte, (d) a manner in which said carbon dioxide is bubbled, (e), a pH level of said solution, and (f) an electrical potential of said divided electrochemical cell, to vary at least one of (i) which of said products is produced and (ii) a faradaic yield of said products. Step (C) may separate said products from said solution.

  8. Reducing the addictiveness of cigarettes


    HENNINGFIELD, J.; Benowitz, N; Slade, J; Houston, T.; Davis, R.; Deitchman, S.


    OBJECTIVE—To assess the feasibility of reducing tobacco-caused disease by gradually removing nicotine from cigarettes until they would not be effective causes of nicotine addiction.
DATA SOURCES—Issues posed by such an approach, and potential solutions, were identified from analysis of literature published by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in its 1996 Tobacco Rule, comments of the tobacco industry and other institutions and individuals on the rule, review of the reference lists of ...

  9. Numbers for reducible cubic scrolls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Vainsencher


    Full Text Available We show how to compute the number of reducible cubic scrolls of codimension 2 in (math blackboard symbol Pn incident to the appropriate number of linear spaces.Mostramos como calcular o número de rolos cúbicos redutíveis de codimensão 2 em (math blackboard symbol Pn incidentes a espaços lineares apropriados.

  10. Combined Reduced-Rank Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoli Torokhti


    Full Text Available We propose and justify a new approach to constructing optimal nonlinear transforms of random vectors. We show that the proposed transform improves such characteristics of {rank-reduced} transforms as compression ratio, accuracy of decompression and reduces required computational work. The proposed transform ${mathcal T}_p$ is presented in the form of a sum with $p$ terms where each term is interpreted as a particular rank-reduced transform. Moreover, terms in ${mathcal T}_p$ are represented as a combination of three operations ${mathcal F}_k$, ${mathcal Q}_k$ and ${oldsymbol{varphi}}_k$ with $k=1,ldots,p$. The prime idea is to determine ${mathcal F}_k$ separately, for each $k=1,ldots,p$, from an associated rank-constrained minimization problem similar to that used in the Karhunen--Lo`{e}ve transform. The operations ${mathcal Q}_k$ and ${oldsymbol{varphi}}_k$ are auxiliary for f/inding ${mathcal F}_k$. The contribution of each term in ${mathcal T}_p$ improves the entire transform performance. A corresponding unconstrained nonlinear optimal transform is also considered. Such a transform is important in its own right because it is treated as an optimal filter without signal compression. A rigorous analysis of errors associated with the proposed transforms is given.

  11. Reducing consumption through communal living

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herring, Horace [The Open Univ., Milton Keynes (United Kingdom). Energy and Environment Research Unit


    This paper examines ways consumers and communities can voluntarily adopt a low consumption (or low carbon) lifestyle, often termed 'voluntary simplicity' or a policy of 'sufficiency'. There is an increasing academic literature within Europe in the last five years on the whole question of 'sustainable consumption', and the relationship between income levels and consumption particularly at the household. This debate has moved beyond 'green consumerism' to look at building 'new concepts of prosperity' through local community actions, or reducing working time to allow more time for the creation of social capital. The paper will concentrate on one aspect of the quest for sustainable communities, the relevance of communal living to reducing consumption through examining energy consumption (both direct and indirect) in one such community in the UK. The results from this preliminary study reveal that it is not the sharing of resources that reduces consumption but the mutual reinforcement of attitudes towards a low consumption lifestyle. Thus it is the creation of social capital in a community that is its key to its ecological lifestyle.

  12. Reduced Fungicide Dose in Cereals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Lise Nistrup; Ørum, Jens Erik


    Often the fungicide rates that European farmers apply are lower than the labelled rates. The use of ‘adjusted appropriate rates’ is mainly driven by results from field trials showing sufficient control and better net yield responses compared to full rates. The optimal rate depends on several...... factors of which the intrinsic activity of the active ingredient, the pathogen for control, disease pressure and timing of treatments are the most important. Use of economic thresholds and monitoring systems can improve the use of appropriate rates. Reduced fungicide rates using single-site inhibitors can...

  13. Reduced fungicide dose in cereals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Lise Nistrup; Ørum, Jens Erik


    Often the fungicide rates that European farmers apply are lower than the labelled rates. The use of ‘adjusted appropriate rates’ is mainly driven by results from field trials showing sufficient control and better net yield responses compared to full rates. The optimal rate depends on several...... factors of which the intrinsic activity of the active ingredient, the pathogen for control, disease pressure and timing of treatments are the most important. Use of economic thresholds and monitoring systems can improve the use of appropriate rates. Reduced fungicide rates using single-site inhibitors can...

  14. Welfare-Reducing Trade Liberalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Jørgensen, Jan G.

    tariff that maximizes national and world welfare. Applying one of the simplest specifications possible, namely a symmetric two-country intra-industry trade model with fixed export costs that are heterogeneous across firms, we find that the reciprocal reduction of small tariffs reduces welfare. We explore......Recent literature on the workhorse model of intra-industry trade has explored heterogeneous cost structures at the firm level. These approaches have proven to add realism and predictive power. This note shows, however, that this added realism also implies that there may exist a positive bilateral...

  15. Reduced Mastication Impairs Memory Function. (United States)

    Fukushima-Nakayama, Y; Ono, Takehito; Hayashi, M; Inoue, M; Wake, H; Ono, Takashi; Nakashima, T


    Mastication is an indispensable oral function related to physical, mental, and social health throughout life. The elderly tend to have a masticatory dysfunction due to tooth loss and fragility in the masticatory muscles with aging, potentially resulting in impaired cognitive function. Masticatory stimulation has influence on the development of the central nervous system (CNS) as well as the growth of maxillofacial tissue in children. Although the relationship between mastication and cognitive function is potentially important in the growth period, the cellular and molecular mechanisms have not been sufficiently elucidated. Here, we show that the reduced mastication resulted in impaired spatial memory and learning function owing to the morphological change and decreased activity in the hippocampus. We used an in vivo model for reduced masticatory stimuli, in which juvenile mice were fed with powder diet and found that masticatory stimulation during the growth period positively regulated long-term spatial memory to promote cognitive function. The functional linkage between mastication and brain was validated by the decrease in neurons, neurogenesis, neuronal activity, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in the hippocampus. These findings taken together provide in vivo evidence for a functional linkage between mastication and cognitive function in the growth period, suggesting a need for novel therapeutic strategies in masticatory function-related cognitive dysfunction.

  16. Reducing ammonia emissions in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Brian H.


    The NEC directive has set targets for the 2010 ammonia emissions from a number of European countries. The target will be reached by most EU-countries and the total emission for EU-27 has been reduced by 22% from 1990 to 2007. Denmark is one of the countries with the largest reductions since 1990...... and the article looks at the measures and costs involved. The conclusion is that the costs have been under 3 €/kg NH3-N. The findings suggest that the same measures might be cheaper in the Netherlands and Denmark than in the UK and the USA due to technology advances and stricter regulations in the past. The new...

  17. Polymers reduce risk in waterflooding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCartney, J.A.; Sloat, B.


    Results of a waterflood and a polymer flood in the same formation are compared with computer model runs to show that the model is a reliable and efficient screening tool easily applied to any formation considered a waterflood prospect. Wyoming Minnelusa, Oklahoma Sims, and California Chapman formations are used to compare the present worth value of waterfloods and polymer floods. In addition to recovering more oil in a shorter time, polymer floods handle much less produced water. In 3 of the 4 examples, reduced water handling costs were more than enough to balance the front end cost of the polymer treatment program. Properly assessing the time value of money invested in and generated by polymer oil recovery projects is a job well suited for a computer model. The results are compared with predictions.

  18. Moral Violations Reduce Oral Consumption. (United States)

    Chan, Cindy; Van Boven, Leaf; Andrade, Eduardo B; Ariely, Dan


    Consumers frequently encounter moral violations in everyday life. They watch movies and television shows about crime and deception, hear news reports of corporate fraud and tax evasion, and hear gossip about cheaters and thieves. How does exposure to moral violations influence consumption? Because moral violations arouse disgust and because disgust is an evolutionarily important signal of contamination that should provoke a multi-modal response, we hypothesize that moral violations affect a key behavioral response to disgust: reduced oral consumption. In three experiments, compared with those in control conditions, people drank less water and chocolate milk while (a) watching a film portraying the moral violations of incest, (b) writing about moral violations of cheating or theft, and (c) listening to a report about fraud and manipulation. These findings imply that "moral disgust" influences consumption in ways similar to core disgust, and thus provide evidence for the associations between moral violations, emotions, and consumer behavior.

  19. Reducing information avoidance through affirmation. (United States)

    Howell, Jennifer L; Shepperd, James A


    Although screening for medical problems can have health benefits, the potentially threatening nature of the results can lead people to avoid screening. In three studies, we examined whether affirming people's self-worth reduces their avoidance of medical-screening feedback. Participants completed an online risk calculator for a fictitious medical condition and then were offered a choice to receive or not receive their risk feedback. Our results showed that affirmation decreased participants' avoidance of risk feedback (Study 1) and eliminated the increased avoidance typically observed when risk feedback might obligate people to engage in undesired behavior (Study 2) and when feedback is about risk for an untreatable disease (Study 3). These findings suggest that affirmation may be an effective strategy for increasing rates of medical screening.

  20. The Gambling Reducing Slot Machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, Mette Buhl; Thomsen, Kristine Rømer; Linnet, Jakob


      The Gambling Reducing Slot Machine - Preliminary results Mette Buhl Callesen, Kristine Rømer Thomsen, Jakob Linnet and Arne Møller The PET Centre, Aarhus University Hospital and Centre of Functionally Integrative Neuroscience, Aarhus, Denmark   Slot machines are among the most addictive forms...... of gambling due to their specific structural characteristics. These include a high event frequency (number of games per minute), a high frequency of small wins and near misses, and auditory as well as visual feedback that reinforce extended gambling behavior [1].   This study focused on gambling behavior...... in pathological gamblers and healthy controls, using one of the most popular slot machines in Denmark, ’Orient Expressen‘. The study included 20 pathological gamblers (10 females) and 20 healthy non-gambling controls (10 females). While being videotaped the subjects played two versions of the slot machine...

  1. Does the Internet Reduce Corruption?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Barnebeck; Bentzen, Jeanet Sinding; Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars


    We test the hypothesis that the Internet is a useful technology for controlling corruption. In order to do so, we develop a novel identification strategy for Internet diffusion. Power disruptions damage digital equipment, which increases the user cost of IT capital, and thus lowers the speed...... of Internet diffusion. A natural phenomenon causing power disruptions is lightning activity, which makes lightning a viable instrument for Internet diffusion. Using ground-based lightning detection censors as well as global satellite data, we construct lightning density data for the contiguous U.S. states...... and a large cross section of countries. Empirically, lightning density is a strong instrument for Internet diffusion and our IV estimates suggest that the emergence of the Internet has served to reduce the extent of corruption across U.S. states and across the world....

  2. Reducing Susceptibility to Courtesy Stigma. (United States)

    Bachleda, Catherine L; El Menzhi, Leila


    In light of the chronic shortage of health professionals willing to care for HIV/AIDS patients, and rising epidemics in many Muslim countries, this qualitative study examined susceptibility and resistance to courtesy stigma as experienced by nurses, doctors, and social workers in Morocco. Forty-nine in-depth interviews provided rich insights into the process of courtesy stigma and how it is managed, within the context of interactions with Islam, interactions within the workplace (patients, other health professionals), and interactions outside the workplace (the general public, friends, and family). Theoretically, the findings extend understanding of courtesy stigma and the dirty work literature. The findings also offer practical suggestions for the development of culturally appropriate strategies to reduce susceptibility to courtesy stigmatization. This study represents the first to explore courtesy stigma as a process experienced by health professionals providing HIV/AIDS care in an Islamic country.

  3. Reducing stillbirths: interventions during labour. (United States)

    Darmstadt, Gary L; Yakoob, Mohammad Yawar; Haws, Rachel A; Menezes, Esme V; Soomro, Tanya; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A


    Approximately one million stillbirths occur annually during labour; most of these stillbirths occur in low and middle-income countries and are associated with absent, inadequate, or delayed obstetric care. The low proportion of intrapartum stillbirths in high-income countries suggests that intrapartum stillbirths are largely preventable with quality intrapartum care, including prompt recognition and management of intrapartum complications. The evidence for impact of intrapartum interventions on stillbirth and perinatal mortality outcomes has not yet been systematically examined. We undertook a systematic review of the published literature, searching PubMed and the Cochrane Library, of trials and reviews (N = 230) that reported stillbirth or perinatal mortality outcomes for eight interventions delivered during labour. Where eligible randomised controlled trials had been published after the most recent Cochrane review on any given intervention, we incorporated these new trial findings into a new meta-analysis with the Cochrane included studies. We found a paucity of studies reporting statistically significant evidence of impact on perinatal mortality, especially on stillbirths. Available evidence suggests that operative delivery, especially Caesarean section, contributes to decreased stillbirth rates. Induction of labour rather than expectant management in post-term pregnancies showed strong evidence of impact, though there was not enough evidence to suggest superior safety for the fetus of any given drug or drugs for induction of labour. Planned Caesarean section for term breech presentation has been shown in a large randomised trial to reduce stillbirths, but the feasibility and consequences of implementing this intervention routinely in low-/middle-income countries add caveats to recommending its use. Magnesium sulphate for pre-eclampsia and eclampsia is effective in preventing eclamptic seizures, but studies have not demonstrated impact on perinatal mortality

  4. Variational integrators for reduced magnetohydrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraus, Michael, E-mail: [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstraße 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Technische Universität München, Zentrum Mathematik, Boltzmannstraße 3, 85748 Garching (Germany); Tassi, Emanuele, E-mail: [Aix-Marseille Université, Université de Toulon, CNRS, CPT, UMR 7332, 163 avenue de Luminy, case 907, 13288 cedex 9 Marseille (France); Grasso, Daniela, E-mail: [ISC-CNR and Politecnico di Torino, Dipartimento Energia, Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy)


    Reduced magnetohydrodynamics is a simplified set of magnetohydrodynamics equations with applications to both fusion and astrophysical plasmas, possessing a noncanonical Hamiltonian structure and consequently a number of conserved functionals. We propose a new discretisation strategy for these equations based on a discrete variational principle applied to a formal Lagrangian. The resulting integrator preserves important quantities like the total energy, magnetic helicity and cross helicity exactly (up to machine precision). As the integrator is free of numerical resistivity, spurious reconnection along current sheets is absent in the ideal case. If effects of electron inertia are added, reconnection of magnetic field lines is allowed, although the resulting model still possesses a noncanonical Hamiltonian structure. After reviewing the conservation laws of the model equations, the adopted variational principle with the related conservation laws is described both at the continuous and discrete level. We verify the favourable properties of the variational integrator in particular with respect to the preservation of the invariants of the models under consideration and compare with results from the literature and those of a pseudo-spectral code.

  5. Does thermophoresis reduce aggregate stability? (United States)

    Sachs, Eyal; Sarah, Pariente


    Thermophoresis is mass flow driven by a thermal gradient. As a result of Seebeck effect and Soret effect, colloids can move from the hot to the cold region or vice versa, depending on the electrolyte composition and on the particle size. This migration of colloids can weaken aggregates. The effect of raindrop temperatures on runoff generation and erosion on clayey soil was investigated in sprinkling experiments with a laboratory rotating disk rain simulator. The experiments were applied to Rhodoxeralt (Terra Rossa) soil with two pre-prepared moisture contents: hygroscopic and field capacity. For each moisture content three rainfall temperatures were applied: 2, 20, and 35°C. Erosion was generally lower in the pre-wetted soil than in the dry soil (12.5 and 24.4 g m-2 per 40 mm of rain,respectively). Whereas there was no significant effect of raindrop temperature on the dry soil the soil that was pre-moistened to field capacity was affected by rainwater temperature: runoff and erosion were high when the temperature difference between rainfall and soil surface was high, sediment yields were 13.9, 5.2, and 18.3 g m-2 per 40 mm of rain, for rain temperature of 2, 20, and 35 °C, respectively. It is reasonable to conclude that thermophoresis caused by thermal gradients within the soil solution reduces the stability of aggregates and then increase the soil losses.

  6. Reduced surround inhibition in musicians. (United States)

    Shin, Hae-Won; Kang, Suk Y; Hallett, Mark; Sohn, Young H


    To investigate whether surround inhibition (SI) in the motor system is altered in professional musicians, we performed a transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) study in 10 professional musicians and 15 age-matched healthy non-musicians. TMS was set to be triggered by self-initiated flexion of the index finger at different intervals ranging from 3 to 1,000 ms. Average motor evoked potential (MEP) amplitudes obtained from self-triggered TMS were normalized to average MEPs of the control TMS at rest and expressed as a percentage. Normalized MEP amplitudes of the abductor digiti minimi (ADM) muscles were compared between the musicians and non-musicians with the primary analysis being the intervals between 3 and 80 ms (during the movement). A mixed-design ANOVA revealed a significant difference in normalized ADM MEPs during the index finger flexion between groups, with less SI in the musicians. This study demonstrated that the functional operation of SI is less strong in musicians than non-musicians, perhaps due to practice of movement synergies involving both muscles. Reduced SI, however, could lead susceptible musicians to be prone to develop task-specific dystonia.

  7. Tongue Scrapers Only Slightly Reduce Bad Breath (United States)

    ... 2017 About | Contact InfoBites Quick Reference Learn more Halitosis (Bad Breath) Do You Have Traveler's Breath? Bad breath while ... your desktop! more... Tongue Scrapers Only Slightly Reduce Bad Breath Article Chapters Tongue Scrapers Only Slightly Reduce Bad ...

  8. Generalized Reduced Order Model Generation Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — M4 Engineering proposes to develop a generalized reduced order model generation method. This method will allow for creation of reduced order aeroservoelastic state...

  9. Microprocessor Protection of Power Reducing Transformers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A. Romanuk


    Full Text Available The paper contains analysis of advantages and disadvantages of existing differential protection terminals of power reducing transformers. The paper shows that there are good reasons to develop microprocessor protection of power reducing transformer which contains required functions and settings and which is based on Belarusian principles of relay protection system construction. The paper presents functional structure of microprocessor terminal of power reducing transformer which is developed. 

  10. Reducing energy costs in nursing homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The handbook presents ideas and techniques for energy conservation in nursing homes. Case studies were developed of nursing homes located in different parts of the US. The typical nursing home assessed was proprietary, of intermediate-care level, medicaid-certified, and had less than 200 beds. Specific energy conservation measures were analyzed to determine the energy and dollar savings that could be realized. These include reducing heat loss through the building shell; reducing hot water costs; recovering the heat generated by dryers; reducing lighting costs; reducing heating and cooling costs, and analyzing fuels and fuel rates. A case for converting electric clothes dryers to gas was analyzed. (MCW)

  11. Reducing pawing in horses using positive reinforcement. (United States)

    Fox, Adam E; Belding, Devon L


    Aversive control is a common method to reduce undesirable behavior in horses. However, it often results in unintended negative side effects, including potential abuse of the animal. Procedures based on positive reinforcement, such as differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO), may reduce undesirable behaviors with fewer negative consequences. The current study used DRO schedules to reduce pawing using a multiple baseline design across 3 horses. Results indicated that DRO schedules were effective at reducing pawing. However, individual differences in sensitivity to DRO and reinforcer efficacy may be important considerations. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  12. Filter apparatus for actively reducing noise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhoff, Arthur P.; Nijsse, G.


    A filter apparatus for reducing noise from a primary noise source, comprising a secondary source signal connector for generating secondary noise to reduce said primary noise and a sensor connector for connecting to a sensor for measuring said primary and secondary noise as an error signal. A first

  13. A filter apparatus for actively reducing noise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhoff, Arthur P.; Nijsse, G.


    A filter apparatus for reducing noise from a primary noise source, comprising a secondary source signal connector for generating secondary noise to reduce said primary noise and a sensor connector for connecting to a sensor for measuring said primary and secondary noise as an error signal. A first

  14. [Discussion on twirling reinforcing-reducing method]. (United States)

    Shen, Te-Li


    The essence of twirling reinforcing-reducing method is discussed to provide theoretical guidance for clinical application of reinforcing-reducing method. Through retrospection on historical literature of twirling reinforcing-reducing method, records and explanatory notes are thoroughly explored. Several existing opinions are analyzed and explained for instance twirling method has connection with circulation direction of channels; twirling method is subdivided into right and left, male and female, hand and foot; twriling method is related to quantity of stimulus and operation time; twriling method belongs to spiral motion and so on. As a result, it is found that the key of twirling reinforcing-reducing method is the posture of needle-holding hand that defines three-dimensional motion. If twirling method is subdivided into right and left, male and female, hand and foot and so on, steric effects of lifting-thrusting movement that come along with twirling method could be ignored at the same time. It is that the essence of twirling reinforcing-reducing method is close to the principle of lifting-thrusting reinforcing-reducing method, enriching effect with slow insertion and fast withdrawal of needle while reducing effect with fast insertion and slow withdrawal, which is recorded in Miraculous Pivot: Nine needle and Twelve Yuan. With this principle as guide, manipulation could be avoided to become a mere formality and illusory metaphysics during clinical application of twirling reinforcing-reducing method.

  15. Can we reduce capsule endoscopy reading times?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, Jessie; Koornstra, Jan J.; Weersma, Rinse K.

    Background: Analyzing small-bowel capsule endoscopy (CE) images is time Consuming. Objective: To determine the effect of reducing the number Of images on reacting time and interpretation of CE procedures. Design: Two techniques aimed at reducing the number of images to he viewed were Studied. The

  16. Optimizing Reduced-Order Transfer Functions (United States)

    Spanos, John T.; Milman, Mark H.; Mingori, D. Lewis


    Transfer-function approximations made optimal in special least-squares sense. Algorithm computes reduced-order rational-fraction approximates to single-input/single-output transfer functions. Reduces amount of computation needed for such purposes as numerical simulation of dynamics and design of control subsystems.

  17. Systems approach to reduce errors in surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dankelman, J.; Grimbergen, C. A.


    Reducing the number of medical errors significantly is the challenge for the coming decade. In medicine and in surgery, in particular, errors are traditionally treated as being committed by individuals. To reduce human errors, two approaches can be used: the person approach and the systems approach.

  18. Extending OFDM Symbols to Reduce Power Consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kokkeler, Andre B.J.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria


    Existing communication standards have limited capabilities to adapt to low SNR environments or to exploit low data rate requirements in a power efficient way. Existing techniques like e.g. control coding do not reduce the computational load when reducing data rates. In this paper, we introduce

  19. Simple Potentiometric Determination of Reducing Sugars (United States)

    Moresco, Henry; Sanson, Pedro; Seoane, Gustavo


    In this article a potentiometric method for reducing sugar quantification is described. Copper(II) ion reacts with the reducing sugar (glucose, fructose, and others), and the excess is quantified using a copper wire indicator electrode. In order to accelerate the kinetics of the reaction, working conditions such as pH and temperature must be…

  20. Biplots in Reduced-Rank Regression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braak, ter C.J.F.; Looman, C.W.N.


    Regression problems with a number of related response variables are typically analyzed by separate multiple regressions. This paper shows how these regressions can be visualized jointly in a biplot based on reduced-rank regression. Reduced-rank regression combines multiple regression and principal

  1. Novel Reduced Parts Online Uninterruptible Power Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Ashrafi


    Full Text Available This paper presents design consideration and performance analysis of novel reduced parts online three-phase uninterruptible power supply (UPS system. The proposed UPS system is based on reduced switch count dual bridge matrix converter. It employs only six power switches and results in reducing the cost of the system compared to conventional online UPS topologies, while achieving excellent performance. The performance of the proposed system is evaluated through simulation in terms of input/output waveforms quality and shows the viability of topology.

  2. Nitrate reduction in sulfate-reducing bacteria. (United States)

    Marietou, Angeliki


    Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRBs) gain their energy by coupling the oxidation of organic substrate to the reduction of sulfate to sulfide. Several SRBs are able to use alternative terminal electron acceptors to sulfate such as nitrate. Nitrate-reducing SRBs have been isolated from a diverse range of environments. In order to be able to understand the significance of nitrate reduction in SRBs, we need to examine the ecology and physiology of the nitrate-reducing SRB isolates. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  3. Vaccine Reduces HPV Infections in Young Men (United States)

    An international randomized clinical trial has shown that the vaccine Gardasil can reduce the incidence of anogenital human papillomavirus (HPV) infections in young men 16 to 26 years of age at the time of vaccination.

  4. Reducing toxicity chemicals plant protection products


    Litvishko, Valery; Myaskovskaya, Tatiana


    The samples of microencapsulated pesticide have been investigated in acute experiments on laboratory animals. The results of the research have determined that microencapsulation can reduce toxicity of plant protection chemicals.

  5. Oxytocin reduces caloric intake in men

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lawson, Elizabeth A; Marengi, Dean A; DeSanti, Rebecca L; Holmes, Tara M; Schoenfeld, David A; Tolley, Christiane J


    .... Oxytocin effects on nutrition and metabolism in humans are not well defined. It was hypothesized that oxytocin would reduce caloric intake and appetite and alter levels of appetite-regulating hormones...

  6. Dual photochemical replenisher system reduces chemical losses (United States)

    Kolber, J. M.


    Dual replenisher system reduces chemical losses and maintains optimum solution concentration during long nonprocessing cycles of photo processing machines. Using a single 3-position switch and solenoid control valves, the system provides instantaneous flow control to each processing tank.

  7. Reduced graphene oxide: nanotoxicological profile in rats

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mendonça, Monique Culturato Padilha; Soares, Edilene Siqueira; de Jesus, Marcelo Bispo; Ceragioli, Helder José; Irazusta, Silvia Pierre; Batista, Ângela Giovana; Vinolo, Marco Aurélio Ramirez; Maróstica Júnior, Mário Roberto; da Cruz-Höfling, Maria Alice


    We have previously demonstrated that reduced graphene oxide (rGO) administered intravenously in rats was detected inside the hippocampus after downregulation of the tight and adherens junction proteins of the blood-brain barrier...

  8. Electronic states in systems of reduced dimensionality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulloa, S.E.


    This report briefly discusses the following research: magnetically modulated systems, inelastic magnetotunneling, ballistic transport review, screening in reduced dimensions, raman and electron energy loss spectroscopy; and ballistic quantum interference effects. (LSP).

  9. Increased backcrossing has reduced the usefulness of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Increased backcrossing has reduced the usefulness of morphological and allozyme data for identifying Oreochromis niloticus , O. mossambicus (Teleostei: Cichlidae) and their hybrids in the Pafuri reach of the Luvuvhu River in the Kruger National Park, South Africa.

  10. Roadside management strategies to reduce greenhouse gases. (United States)


    Californias Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006 (AB 32), Sustainable Communities and Climate Protection Act : (SB 375), and Executive Order S-14-08 direct Caltrans to develop actions to reduce greenhouse gases (GHGs). Air : pollution reduction is...

  11. Democracy: A Determinant Factor in Reducing Inflation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mohamed Fenira


    .... The purpose of this paper is to extend the range of explanatory factors in explaining macroeconomic pathologies and to demonstrate that democracy is an important instrument in reducing inflation...

  12. Do conditional benefits reduce equilibrium unemployment?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ploeg, F.


    Although unconditional unemployment benefits destroy jobs in competitive and noncompetitive labor markets, conditional benefits can spur job growth in noncompetitive labor markets. Unconditional benefits reduce the penalty of shirking and misconduct, while conditional benefits increase this penalty.

  13. Producing Knowledge to Reduce Rhetorical Distance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampf, Constance

    Producing Knowledge to Reduce Rhetorical Distance: Extending Identity and Engaging Mainstream Ideology via the Web Constance Kampf, Department of Research Knowledge Communication, Aarhus School of Business, Denmark McLuhan describes technologies as extensions -the wheel being an extension...

  14. Reduced Chemical Kinetic Mechanisms for Hydrocarbon Fuels

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Montgomery, Christopher J; Cremer, Marc A; Heap, Michael P; Chen, Jhy-Yuan; Westbrook, Charles K; Maurice, Lourdes Q


    .... Reduced mechanisms for combustion of ethylene having as few as 10 species were found to give reasonable agreement with detailed chemistry over a range of stoichiometries and showed significant...

  15. Corticosteroid injections reduce size of rheumatoid nodules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baan, H.; Baan, H.; Haagsma, C.J.; van de Laar, Mart A F J


    Background: Symptomatic rheumatoid nodules are frequently surgically treated. Injection with steroids might be an alternative treatment. Patients and methods: To determine whether injection with triamcinolon acetonide reduces the size of rheumatoid nodules, we randomized twenty patients with

  16. Reduced herbicide rates: present and future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kudsk, Per


    Full Text Available Applying herbicides at rates lower than the label recommendation has been the rule rather than the exception in Denmark since the late 1980’s. Justifications for reducing herbicide rates can be 1 that the dominant weed species in the field are very susceptible to the herbicide, i.e. even reduced rates will result in maximum effects, 2 that the conditions at and around the time of application, e.g. growth stage of weeds, crop vigour and climatic condition are optimum promoting the activity of the herbicide and thus allows for the use of reduced herbicides rates, or 3 that less than maximum effects are accepted because the weed flora is not considered to have a significant effect on crop yield. “Crop Protection Online-Weed” (CPO-Weed is a web-based decision support system that was developed to support farmers in their choice of herbicide and herbicide rate. CPOWeed will, based on information on crop development and status and the composition of the weed flora, provide farmers with a list of herbicide solutions often recommending the use of reduced rates. The potential of CPO-Weed to reduced herbicide input has been proven in numerous validation trials. In recent years the use of reduced herbicide rates has been linked to the increasing number of cases of non-target resistance in outcrossing grass weed species like Alopecurus myosuroides and Lolium ssp. The underlying hypothesis is that the least susceptible individuals in the population will survive the use of reduced rates and that recombination will lead to a gradual increase in the resistance level in the weed population. This scenario is only valid if the use of reduced herbicide rates is prompted by acceptance of a lower effect but not if a high susceptibility of the weed species present in the field or optimum conditions are the reasons for reducing herbicide rates. This is an aspect that is often overlooked in the on-going discussion on herbicide rates and resistance. Large weed

  17. IHadoop: Asynchronous iterations for MapReduce

    KAUST Repository

    Elnikety, Eslam Mohamed Ibrahim


    MapReduce is a distributed programming frame-work designed to ease the development of scalable data-intensive applications for large clusters of commodity machines. Most machine learning and data mining applications involve iterative computations over large datasets, such as the Web hyperlink structures and social network graphs. Yet, the MapReduce model does not efficiently support this important class of applications. The architecture of MapReduce, most critically its dataflow techniques and task scheduling, is completely unaware of the nature of iterative applications; tasks are scheduled according to a policy that optimizes the execution for a single iteration which wastes bandwidth, I/O, and CPU cycles when compared with an optimal execution for a consecutive set of iterations. This work presents iHadoop, a modified MapReduce model, and an associated implementation, optimized for iterative computations. The iHadoop model schedules iterations asynchronously. It connects the output of one iteration to the next, allowing both to process their data concurrently. iHadoop\\'s task scheduler exploits inter-iteration data locality by scheduling tasks that exhibit a producer/consumer relation on the same physical machine allowing a fast local data transfer. For those iterative applications that require satisfying certain criteria before termination, iHadoop runs the check concurrently during the execution of the subsequent iteration to further reduce the application\\'s latency. This paper also describes our implementation of the iHadoop model, and evaluates its performance against Hadoop, the widely used open source implementation of MapReduce. Experiments using different data analysis applications over real-world and synthetic datasets show that iHadoop performs better than Hadoop for iterative algorithms, reducing execution time of iterative applications by 25% on average. Furthermore, integrating iHadoop with HaLoop, a variant Hadoop implementation that caches

  18. Boiler burden reduced at Bedford site. (United States)

    Horsley, Chris


    With the NHS aiming to reduce its 2007 carbon footprint by 10% by 2015, Chris Horsley, managing director of Babcock Wanson UK, a provider of industrial boilers and burners, thermal oxidisers, air treatment, water treatment, and associated services, looks at how one NHS Trust has approached the challenge, and considerably reduced its carbon emissions, by refurbishing its boiler house and moving from oil to gas-fired steam generation.

  19. Deciding for Others Reduces Loss Aversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Ola; Holm, Håkan J.; Tyran, Jean-Robert Karl


    We study risk taking on behalf of others, both when choices involve losses and when they do not. A large-scale incentivized experiment with subjects randomly drawn from the Danish population is conducted. We find that deciding for others reduces loss aversion. When choosing between risky prospect...... when losses loom. This finding is consistent with an interpretation of loss aversion as a bias in decision making driven by emotions and that these emotions are reduced when making decisions for others....

  20. Evaluating Active Interventions to Reduce Student Procrastination


    Martin, Joshua Deckert


    Procrastination is a pervasive problem in education. In computer science, procrastination and lack of necessary time management skills to complete programming projects are viewed as primary causes of student attrition. The most effective techniques known to reduce procrastination are resource-intensive and do not scale well to large classrooms. In this thesis, we examine three course interventions designed to both reduce procrastination and be scalable for large classrooms. Reflective writ...



    Matuszak (Prisyazhnaya) Alla Fedorovna; Bogdanowicz-Jaz Beata Irena


    The problem of young adolescents’ aggressive behaviour causes a deterioration of microclimate in the classroom and students’ lower academic achievement. The paper describes the experience of reducing aggressive behaviour of 10-11 year-olds in a primary school in Poland. The purpose is to describe an experiment to reduce young adolescents’ aggressive behaviour. Methodology. In the research methods of content analysis, theoretical and methodological analyses, as well as the empirical method of ...

  2. Geometric Analogue of Holographic Reduced Representation


    Aerts, Diederik; Czachor, Marek; De Moor, Bart


    Holographic reduced representations (HRR) are based on superpositions of convolution-bound $n$-tuples, but the $n$-tuples cannot be regarded as vectors since the formalism is basis dependent. This is why HRR cannot be associated with geometric structures. Replacing convolutions by geometric products one arrives at reduced representations analogous to HRR but interpretable in terms of geometry. Variable bindings occurring in both HRR and its geometric analogue mathematically correspond to two ...

  3. Programming MapReduce with Scalding

    CERN Document Server

    Chalkiopoulos, Antonios


    This book is an easy-to-understand, practical guide to designing, testing, and implementing complex MapReduce applications in Scala using the Scalding framework. It is packed with examples featuring log-processing, ad-targeting, and machine learning. This book is for developers who are willing to discover how to effectively develop MapReduce applications. Prior knowledge of Hadoop or Scala is not required; however, investing some time on those topics would certainly be beneficial.

  4. Reduced gravity - A new biomedical research environment (United States)

    Snyder, Robert S.


    Experiment programs for continuous flow electrophoresis and protein crystal growth are described to demonstrate the utility of the reduced gravity environment for scientific research. The advantages of the reduced gravity environment are outlined. The results of experiments on the Space Shuttle using the Continuous Flow Electrophoresis System and crystal growth experiments on Spacelab-1 and the Space Shuttle are examined, noting the importance of microgravity research.

  5. Reducing exposure risk in the operating room. (United States)

    Bollin, Marty; Murry, Lisa


    The purpose of this article is to evaluate and recommend current best practices related to safe handling of sharp instruments in reducing transmission of blood borne pathogens, specifically HIV, in the operating suite. 1) To identify the risk of exposure to bloodborne pathogens from sharps in the OR suite. 2) To identify practices to reduce the risk of exposure to bloodborne pathogens in the OR suite.

  6. Solar geoengineering reduces atmospheric carbon burden (United States)

    Keith, David W.; Wagner, Gernot; Zabel, Claire L.


    Solar geoengineering is no substitute for cutting emissions, but could nevertheless help reduce the atmospheric carbon burden. In the extreme, if solar geoengineering were used to hold radiative forcing constant under RCP8.5, the carbon burden may be reduced by ~100 GTC, equivalent to 12-26% of twenty-first-century emissions at a cost of under US$0.5 per tCO2.

  7. Acquisition of intact polar lipids from the prymnesiophyte Phaeocystis globosa by its lytic virus PgV-07T

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maat, D.S.; Bale, N.J.; Hopmans, E.C.; Baudoux, A.C.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Schouten, S.; Brussaard, C.P.D.


    Recent studies showed changes in phytoplankton lipid composition during viral infection and have indicated roles for specific lipids in the mechanisms of algal virus-host interaction. To investigate the generality of these findings and obtain a better understanding of the allocation of specific

  8. Dynamique bactérienne en Manche orientale - Relations avec les poussées de Phaeocystis globosa.


    Lamy, Dominique


    Bacterial dynamics (total, viable and active abundances, biomass and cell production, exo-enzymatic activities) was estimated in the eastern English Channel, from an ecosystemic approach to the use of specific microbial tools. It allows better understanding the role of heterotrophic bacteria, little studied in the eastern English Channel to date, in matter and energy fluxes, specially during phytoplankton bloom.The first aim was to determine the bacterial response to the space and time variab...

  9. Interventions to Reduce Myopia Progression in Children. (United States)

    Tay, Su Ann; Farzavandi, Sonal; Tan, Donald


    Efforts to reduce the progression of myopia in childhood are on the rise, due to an increasing incidence of myopia worldwide and its associated sight-threatening complications. Interventions are aimed at reducing myopia in childhood and include environmental considerations, spectacles, contact lenses, and pharmacological agents. We reviewed recent literature with interventions aimed at reducing myopia progression in children and found that a number of interventions were significant in reducing the progression of myopia. Of these interventions, atropine showed the largest dose-related effect on myopia progression control. Although higher doses are associated with side effects of pupil dilatation, loss of accommodation, near vision blur, and rebound phenomenon, low-dose atropine has also been shown to provide effective myopia control with minimal side effects and rebound. To a lesser degree, bifocal soft contact lenses have also been shown to be effective in reducing the progression of myopia, though compliance is an issue. Similarly, orthokeratology lenses have also been shown to be effective in reducing axial length elongation and myopia progression, though long-term data on its rebound effects are unavailable.

  10. Reduced chemical kinetic mechanisms for hydrocarbon fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montgomery, C J; Cremer, M A; Heap, M P; Chen, J -Y; Westbrook, C K; Maurice, L Q


    Using CARM (Computer Aided Reduction Method), a computer program that automates the mechanism reduction process, a variety of different reduced chemical kinetic mechanisms for ethylene and n-heptane have been generated. The reduced mechanisms have been compared to detailed chemistry calculations in simple homogeneous reactors and experiments. Reduced mechanisms for combustion of ethylene having as few as 10 species were found to give reasonable agreement with detailed chemistry over a range of stoichiometries and showed significant improvement over currently used global mechanisms. The performance of reduced mechanisms derived from a large detailed mechanism for n-heptane was compared to results from a reduced mechanism derived from a smaller semi-empirical mechanism. The semi-empirical mechanism was advantageous as a starting point for reduction for ignition delay, but not for PSR calculations. Reduced mechanisms with as few as 12 species gave excellent results for n-heptane/air PSR calculations but 16-25 or more species are needed to simulate n-heptane ignition delay.

  11. Evolution of technetium speciation in reducing grout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukens, Wayne W.; Bucher, Jerome J.; Shuh, David K.; Edelstein,Norman M.


    Cementitious waste forms (CWFs) are an important component of the strategy to immobilize high-level nuclear waste resulting from plutonium production by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Technetium (99Tc) is an abundant fission product of particular concern in CWFs due to the high solubility and mobility of pertechnetate, TcO4-, the stable form of technetium in aerobic environments. CWFs can more effectively immobilize 99Tc if they contain additives that reduce mobile TcO4- to immobile Tc(IV) species. Leaching of 99Tc from reducing CWFs that contain Tc(IV) is much slower than for CWFs containing TcO4-. Previous X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) studies showed that the Tc(IV) species were oxidized to TcO4- in reducing grout samples prepared on a laboratory scale. Whether the oxidizer was atmospheric O2 or NO3- in the waste simulant was not determined. In actual CWFs, rapid oxidation of Tc(IV) by NO3- would be a concern, whereas oxidation by atmospheric O2 would be of less concern due to the slow diffusion and reaction of O2 with the reducing CWF. To address this uncertainty, two series of reducing grouts were prepared using TcO4- containing waste simulants with and without NO3-. In the first series of samples, the TcO4- was completely reduced using Na2S, and the samples were placed in containers that permitted O2 diffusion. In these samples, all of the technetium was initially present as aTc(IV) sulfide compound, TcSx, which was characterized using extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy, and is likely Tc2S7. The TcSx initially present in the grout samples was steadily oxidized over 4 years. In the second series of samples, all of the TcO4- was not initially reduced, and the grout samples were placed in airtight containers. In these samples, the remaining TcO4- continued to be reduced as the samples aged, presumably due to the presence of reducing blast furnace slag. When samples in the second series were exposed to atmosphere, the

  12. Local stressors reduce coral resilience to bleaching. (United States)

    Carilli, Jessica E; Norris, Richard D; Black, Bryan A; Walsh, Sheila M; McField, Melanie


    Coral bleaching, during which corals lose their symbiotic dinoflagellates, typically corresponds with periods of intense heat stress, and appears to be increasing in frequency and geographic extent as the climate warms. A fundamental question in coral reef ecology is whether chronic local stress reduces coral resistance and resilience from episodic stress such as bleaching, or alternatively promotes acclimatization, potentially increasing resistance and resilience. Here we show that following a major bleaching event, Montastraea faveolata coral growth rates at sites with higher local anthropogenic stressors remained suppressed for at least 8 years, while coral growth rates at sites with lower stress recovered in 2-3 years. Instead of promoting acclimatization, our data indicate that background stress reduces coral fitness and resilience to episodic events. We also suggest that reducing chronic stress through local coral reef management efforts may increase coral resilience to global climate change.

  13. Targets set to reduce Lake Erie algae (United States)

    Evans, Mary


    In February 2016, the Great Lakes Executive Committee, which oversees the implementation of the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement (GLWQA) between the U.S. and Canada, approved phosphorus loading targets for Lake Erie to reduce the size of harmful algal blooms (HABs), reduce the presence of the low oxygen zone in the central basin, and protect nearshore water quality. The targets are set with respect to the nutrient loads calculated for 2008. To reduce the impacts of HABs on Lake Erie a target was set of a 40 percent reduction in total and soluble reactive phosphorus loads in the spring from two Canadian rivers and several Michigan and Ohio rivers, especially the Maumee River ( finalptargets-ciblesfinalesdep/). States and the province of Ontario are already developing Domestic Action Plans to accomplish the reductions and scientists are developing research and monitoring plans to assess progress.

  14. Outcomes of a program to reduce depression. (United States)

    Kim, Gyung Hee; Kim, Kyeha; Park, Hyojung


    Depression is increasing among Korean college students. Moreover, it is common for depressed individuals to consider attempting suicide. The purpose of this study therefore was to develop and examine the effectiveness of an intervention to reduce suicidal ideation and depression among female college students. Study participants were assigned to either an intervention (n = 27) or control (n = 31) group. The intervention group received a depression-reducing program in eight 1-hr weekly sessions. Measures of suicidal ideation and depression were administered. The program has effects on suicidal ideation and depression among female college students. The findings suggest that the study program may be useful in reducing suicidal ideation and depression among female college students.

  15. Experimental knee pain reduces muscle strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Marius; Mortensen, Sara Rosager; Aaboe, Jens


    Pain is the principal symptom in knee pathologies and reduced muscle strength is a common observation among knee patients. However, the relationship between knee joint pain and muscle strength remains to be clarified. This study aimed at investigating the changes in knee muscle strength following...... experimental knee pain in healthy volunteers, and if these changes were associated with the pain intensities. In a crossover study, 18 healthy subjects were tested on 2 different days. Using an isokinetic dynamometer, maximal muscle strength in knee extension and flexion was measured at angular velocities 0....... Knee pain reduced the muscle strength by 5 to 15% compared to the control conditions (P knee extension and flexion at all angular velocities. The reduction in muscle strength was positively correlated to the pain intensity. Experimental knee pain significantly reduced knee extension...

  16. Nature of Reduced Carbon in Martian Meteorites (United States)

    Gibson, Everett K., Jr.; McKay, D. S.; Thomas-Keprta, K. L.; Clemett, S. J.; White, L. M.


    Martian meteorites provide important information on the nature of reduced carbon components present on Mars throughout its history. The first in situ analyses for carbon on the surface of Mars by the Viking landers yielded disappointing results. With the recognition of Martian meteorites on Earth, investigations have shown carbon-bearing phases exist on Mars. Studies have yielded presence of reduced carbon, carbonates and inferred graphitic carbon phases. Samples ranging in age from the first approximately 4 Ga of Mars history [e.g. ALH84001] to nakhlites with a crystallization age of 1.3 Ga [e.g. Nakhla] with aqueous alteration processes occurring 0.5-0.7 Ga after crystallizaton. Shergottites demonstrate formation ages around 165-500 Ma with younger aqueous alterations events. Only a limited number of the Martian meteorites do not show evidence of significance terrestrial alterations. Selected areas within ALH84001, Nakhla, Yamato 000593 and possibly Tissint are suitable for study of their indigenous reduced carbon bearing phases. Nakhla possesses discrete, well-defined carbonaceous phases present within iddingsite alteration zones. Based upon both isotopic measurements and analysis of Nakhla's organic phases the presence of pre-terrestrial organics is now recognized. The reduced carbon-bearing phases appear to have been deposited during preterrestrial aqueous alteration events that produced clays. In addition, the microcrystalline layers of Nakhla's iddingsite have discrete units of salt crystals suggestive of evaporation processes. While we can only speculate on the origin of these unique carbonaceous structures, we note that the significance of such observations is that it may allow us to understand the role of Martian carbon as seen in the Martian meteorites with obvious implications for astrobiology and the pre-biotic evolution of Mars. In any case, our observations strongly suggest that reduced organic carbon exists as micrometer- size, discrete structures

  17. Stress, burnout, and strategies for reducing them (United States)

    Lee, F. Joseph; Stewart, Moira; Brown, Judith Belle


    OBJECTIVE To ascertain Canadian family physicians’ levels of stress and burnout and the strategies they use to reduce these problems. DESIGN Census survey. SETTING Kitchener-Waterloo, an urban area with a population of approximately 300 000 in southwestern Ontario. PARTICIPANTS Family physicians. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Scores on the Family Physician Stress Inventory, scores on strategies to reduce personal stress, scores on strategies to reduce stress on the job, and scores on the Maslach Burnout Inventory. RESULTS Participation rate was 77.8% (123 of 158 surveys returned). About 42.5% of participants had high stress levels. Burnout was defined by 3 components: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization (going through the day like an “automaton”), and perceived lack of personal accomplishment. Many respondents scored high on the burnout inventory, and almost half had high levels of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization (47.9% and 46.3%, respectively). No demographic factors were associated with high scores on these components. Use of strategies to reduce personal and occupational stress was associated with lower levels of burnout. Scores on the Family Physician Stress Inventory correlated highly with scores on the Maslach Burnout Inventory. CONCLUSION Regardless of demographic factors, family physicians are at risk of having high levels of stress and burnout. Classic burnout is related to stress brought on by factors such as too much paperwork, long waits for specialists and tests, feeling undervalued, feeling unsupported, and having to abide by rules and regulations. Common strategies for reducing personal stress included eating nutritiously and spending time with family and friends. Common strategies for reducing stress on the job included valuing relationships with patients and participating in continuing medical education. Stress and burnout are related to the desire to give up practice and are, therefore, a human resources issue for the entire health

  18. Reducing parametric backscattering by polarization rotation

    CERN Document Server

    Barth, Ido


    When a laser passes through underdense plasmas, Raman and Brillouin Backscattering can reflect a substantial portion of the incident laser energy. This is a major loss mechanism, for example, in inertial confinement fusion. However, by slow rotation of the incident linear polarization, the overall reflectivity can be reduced significantly. Particle in cell simulations show that, for parameters similar to those of indirect drive fusion experiments, polarization rotation reduces the reflectivity by a factor of $5$. A general, fluid-model based, analytical estimation for the reflectivity reduction agrees with simulations.

  19. Reducing Transmitted Vibration Using Delayed Hysteretic Suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lahcen Mokni


    Full Text Available Previous numerical and experimental works show that time delay technique is efficient to reduce transmissibility of vibration in a single pneumatic chamber by controlling the pressure in the chamber. The present work develops an analytical study to demonstrate the effectiveness of such a technique in reducing transmitted vibrations. A quarter-car model is considered and delayed hysteretic suspension is introduced in the system. Analytical predictions based on perturbation analysis show that a delayed hysteretic suspension enhances vibration isolation comparing to the case where the nonlinear damping is delay-independent.

  20. Reducing hypothetical bias in choice experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladenburg, Jacob; Olsen, Søren Bøye; Nielsen, Rasmus Christian Fejer

    eliminate some of the hypothetical bias. The present paper tests an addition to Cheap Talk, an Opt-Out Reminder. The Opt-Out Reminder is an objective short script presented prior to the choice sets, prompting the respondent to choose the opt-out alternative, if he/she finds the proposed policy generated...... alternatives in a choice set too expensive. The results suggest that adding an Opt-Out Reminder to Cheap Talk can in fact reduce hypothetical bias even further and reduces some of the ineffectiveness of CT in relation to the survey bid range and experienced respondents....

  1. The Assignment Game : The Reduced Game


    Guillermo OWEN


    Let v be an assignment game. For a given reference payoff vector (x; y), and a coalition S, bargaining within the coalition can be represented by either the reduced game or the derived game. It is known that the reduced game need not be an assignment game (in fact, it need not be super additive) while the derived game is another assignment game, with modified reservation prices. We prove that, when the reference vector is in the core of the game, the derived game is the super additive cover o...

  2. Reducing the capacitance of piezoelectric film sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    González, Martín G., E-mail: [Grupo de Láser, Óptica de Materiales y Aplicaciones Electromagnéticas (GLOMAE), Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Paseo Colón 850, C1063ACV Buenos Aires (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), C1425FQB Buenos Aires (Argentina); Sorichetti, Patricio A.; Santiago, Guillermo D. [Grupo de Láser, Óptica de Materiales y Aplicaciones Electromagnéticas (GLOMAE), Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Paseo Colón 850, C1063ACV Buenos Aires (Argentina)


    We present a novel design for large area, wideband, polymer piezoelectric sensor with low capacitance. The large area allows better spatial resolution in applications such as photoacoustic tomography and the reduced capacitance eases the design of fast transimpedance amplifiers. The metalized piezoelectric polymer thin film is segmented into N sections, electrically connected in series. In this way, the total capacitance is reduced by a factor 1/N{sup 2}, whereas the mechanical response and the active area of the sensor are not modified. We show the construction details for a two-section sensor, together with the impedance spectroscopy and impulse response experimental results that validate the design.

  3. Reduced herbicide rates: present and future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kudsk, Per


    effects are accepted because the weed flora is not considered to have a significant effect on crop yield. “Crop Protection Online-Weed” (CPO-Weed) is a web-based decision support system that was developed to support farmers in their choice of herbicide and herbicide rate. CPOWeed will, based...... on information on crop development and status and the composition of the weed flora, provide farmers with a list of herbicide solutions often recommending the use of reduced rates. The potential of CPO-Weed to reduced herbicide input has been proven in numerous validation trials. In recent years the use...



    Rafitasari, Yeti; Suhendar, Haris; Imani, Nurul; Luciana, Fitri; Radean, Hesti; Santoso, Iman


    Graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) have been synthesized chemically from graphite powder. Graphite powder was oxidized with strong oxidator agent molekul  to get graphite oxide, this process was called by Hummer’s methode. Graphite oxide was dispersed in water with ultasonic vibrator to exfoliated graphite oxide layers, and become graphene oxide. Epoxy group in GO structure was reduced by hydrazine 80 wt% to get rGO. Comparation was done between self synthetic rGO and S...

  5. Reduced alphabet for protein folding prediction. (United States)

    Huang, Jitao T; Wang, Titi; Huang, Shanran R; Li, Xin


    What are the key building blocks that would have been needed to construct complex protein folds? This is an important issue for understanding protein folding mechanism and guiding de novo protein design. Twenty naturally occurring amino acids and eight secondary structures consist of a 28-letter alphabet to determine folding kinetics and mechanism. Here we predict folding kinetic rates of proteins from many reduced alphabets. We find that a reduced alphabet of 10 letters achieves good correlation with folding rates, close to the one achieved by full 28-letter alphabet. Many other reduced alphabets are not significantly correlated to folding rates. The finding suggests that not all amino acids and secondary structures are equally important for protein folding. The foldable sequence of a protein could be designed using at least 10 folding units, which can either promote or inhibit protein folding. Reducing alphabet cardinality without losing key folding kinetic information opens the door to potentially faster machine learning and data mining applications in protein structure prediction, sequence alignment and protein design. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Reducing the Risk of Methadone Overdose

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    This podcast is based on the July 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. Approximately 14 people die every day of overdoses related to methadone. Listen to learn how to reduce your risk of an overdose.  Created: 7/3/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 7/3/2012.

  7. Sodium Valproate Withdrawal Correlates with Reduced Aggression (United States)

    Pritchard, Duncan; Hoerger, Marguerite; Dyer, Tim; Graham, Nicola; Penney, Heather; Mace, F. Charles


    People with learning disabilities are sometimes prescribed psychotropic medication to help manage their challenging behaviour. This case study describes how a multicomponent behavioural intervention in conjunction with the systematic withdrawal of sodium valproate was strongly correlated with reduced aggression. No symptoms of bipolar disorder or…

  8. Sexual Harassment at Camp: Reducing Liability. (United States)

    Oakleaf, Linda; Grube, Angela Johnson


    Employers are responsible for sexual harassment perpetrated by a supervisor. Camps may be responsible for sexual harassment between campers. Steps to reduce liability include providing multiple channels for reporting sexual harassment; having written policies prohibiting sexual harassment and procedures for reporting it; posting these policies and…

  9. An expression analysis package for REDUCE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hulzen, J.A.; Hulshof, B.J.A.


    An expression analysis package for REDUCE 2 is presented. This package, completely written in Standard LISP, can be considered as an extension of the algebraic mode. It allows to interactively dismantled and/or modify the last output expression as it is desplayed or printed. An interface with the

  10. Fluidized-bed combustion reduces atmospheric pollutants (United States)

    Jonke, A. A.


    Method of reducing sulfur and nitrogen oxides released during combustion of fossil fuels is described. Fuel is burned in fluidized bed of solids with simultaneous feeding of crushed or pulverized limestone to control emission. Process also offers high heat transfer rates and efficient contacting for gas-solid reactions.

  11. Teachers: Recognize Important Steps to Reduce Cheating (United States)

    Supon, Viola


    Teachers must walk the steps and live the steps if reducing cheating is going to occur. Teachers begin this process by being cognizant and vigilant relative to administering means of measurement and assigning written work. This process includes skill acquisition in regards to: (1) acknowledging cheating, (2) purposeful planning, (3) electronic…

  12. Reducing operational costs through MIPS management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwiatkowski, L.M.; Verhoef, C.


    We focus on an approach to reducing the costs of running applications. MIPS, which is a traditional acronym for millions of instructions per second, have evolved to become a measurement of processing power and CPU resource consumption. The need for controlling MIPS attributed costs is indispensable

  13. Reduced Voltage Scaling in Clock Distribution Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khader Mohammad


    Full Text Available We propose a novel circuit technique to generate a reduced voltage swing (RVS signals for active power reduction on main buses and clocks. This is achieved without performance degradation, without extra power supply requirement, and with minimum area overhead. The technique stops the discharge path on the net that is swinging low at a certain voltage value. It reduces active power on the target net by as much as 33% compared to traditional full swing signaling. The logic 0 voltage value is programmable through control bits. If desired, the reduced-swing mode can also be disabled. The approach assumes that the logic 0 voltage value is always less than the threshold voltage of the nMOS receivers, which eliminate the need of the low to high voltage translation. The reduced noise margin and the increased leakage on the receiver transistors using this approach have been addressed through the selective usage of multithreshold voltage (MTV devices and the programmability of the low voltage value.

  14. Preventing violence while reducing poverty | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ​​Can a poverty-reduction program also help reduce crime and violence? New findings from IDRC-supported research in South Africa suggest that it might, if it is implemented in the right way. In a new article for the Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation (CSVR), David Bruce traces one of the ways South ...

  15. Double Hall sensor structure reducing voltage offset (United States)

    Oszwaldowski, M.; El-Ahmar, S.


    In this paper, we report on the double Hall sensor structure (DHSS) in which the voltage offset can be effectively reduced. The DHSS is composed of two standard Hall sensors that are activated with two currents from electrically independent current sources. The operation principle of the DHSS is explained in detail, and the concluded properties of the DHSS are confirmed in the experimental part of the paper. The measurements are performed on DHSSs based on InSb thin films. The offset is reduced by about three orders of magnitude. The minimum value of the reduced offset obtained is 10 μV. It appears that the minimum reduced offset is limited by the electric noise. The advantage of DHSS is that it can be manufactured with the standard thin film technology enabling effective miniaturization of the system. The DHSS can effectively be used for the measurements of the Hall effect in ultra-thin layers containing the two dimensional electron gas, such as the epitaxial graphene.

  16. Reducing Maternal Mortality by Strengthening Community Maternal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    to emergency obstetric care will significantly reduce maternal mortality1,2. There are a number of factors that could affect the decision by pregnant women and their families to „seek‟,. „reach‟ and „receive‟ proper health services when experiencing complications associated with pregnancy, delivery and the postpartum ...

  17. Sulfate reducing potential in an estuarine beach

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    LokaBharathi, P.A.; Chandramohan, D.

    Sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) and their activity (SRA) together with total anaerobic and aerobic bacterial flora were estimated during July 1982-April 1983 and July-August 1984 from 1, 3 and 5 cm depths using core samples. The average number (no...

  18. 21 CFR 582.5375 - Iron reduced. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Iron reduced. 582.5375 Section 582.5375 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements...

  19. Reducibility of platinum supported on nanostructured carbons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plomp, A.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304837598; Schubert, T.; Storr, U.; de Jong, K.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/06885580X; Bitter, J.H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/160581435


    The nanostructure of graphite like carbon, i.e. carbon nanofibers (CNF), carbon nanotubes (CNT) and carbon nanoplatelets (CNP), displayed a significant influence on the reducibility of platinum deposited on these carbons. The onset temperature for reduction increased from 461 K for Pt/CNF to 466 K

  20. Managing Risk, Reducing Vulnerability and Enhancing Productivity ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Managing Risk, Reducing Vulnerability and Enhancing Productivity under a Changing Climate. The countries of the Greater Horn of Africa are particularly vulnerable to drought, exacerbated by widespread poverty and dependence on rainfed agriculture. Even with normal rainfall, the region does not produce enough food to ...

  1. Metabolic flexibility of sulfate-reducing bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plugge, C.M.; Zhang, Weinwen; Scholten, J.C.M.; Stams, A.J.M.


    Dissimilatory sulfate-reducing prokaryotes (SRB) are a very diverse group of anaerobic bacteria that are omnipresent in nature and play an imperative role in the global cycling of carbon and sulfur. In anoxic marine sediments sulfate reduction accounts for up to 50% of the entire organic

  2. Does zoning winter recreationists reduce recreation conflict? (United States)

    Aubrey D. Miller; Jerry J. Vaske; John R. Squires; Lucretia E. Olson; Elizabeth K. Roberts


    Parks and protected area managers use zoning to decrease interpersonal conflict between recreationists. Zoning, or segregation, of recreation - often by nonmotorized and motorized activity - is designed to limit physical interaction while providing recreation opportunities to both groups. This article investigated the effectiveness of zoning to reduce recreation...

  3. Criminal sanctions: does imprisonment strategy reduce crimes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Careful reading of the literature on psychology of criminal conduct and of prior reviews of studies of treatment effects suggested that neither criminal sanctioning without provision of rehabilitative treatment will succeed in reducing recidivism. What works, in our views, is the delivery of appropriate correctional treatment, and ...

  4. Reducing Radon in Schools: A Team Approach. (United States)

    Ligman, Bryan K.; Fisher, Eugene J.

    This document presents the process of radon diagnostics and mitigation in schools to help educators determine the best way to reduce elevated radon levels found in a school. The guidebook is designed to guide school leaders through the process of measuring radon levels, selecting the best mitigation strategy, and directing the efforts of a…

  5. Reducing the Deficit: Spending and Revenue Options (United States)


    objectives that range from promoting biodiversity to have economic policies designed to encourage reducing urban pollution. Reports issued by AID...are not the only examples of potential reductions, Palestinians, Jordan, and Morocco , Israel remains in though they may be the most likely area for cuts

  6. Reduced-dimension clustering for vegetation segmentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steward, B.L.; Tian, L.F.; Nettleton, D.; Tang, L.


    Segmentation of vegetation is a critical step in using machine vision for field automation tasks. A new method called reduced-dimensionclustering (RDC) was developed based on theoretical considerations about the color distribution of field images. RDC performed unsupervised classification of pixels

  7. Synthesis and characterization of a reduced heteropoly ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 114; Issue 2. Synthesis and characterization of a reduced heteropolytungstovanadate: (NH4)7[VVO4 W 10 VI V 2 IV O36]·ca. 22H2O. Vaddypally Shivaiah Samar K Das. Inorganic and Analytical Volume 114 Issue 2 April 2002 pp 107-114 ...

  8. General Reducibility and Solvability of Polynomial Equations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A complete work on general reducibility and solvability of polynomial equations by algebraic meansradicals is developed. These equations called, reanegbèd and vic-emmeous are designed by using simple algebraic principles on how systems of equations and polynomials behave. Reanegbèd equations are capable of ...

  9. Reduced Component Count RGB LED Driver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Pedro, I.; Ackermann, B.


    The goal of this master thesis is to develop new drive and contrololutions, for creating white light from mixing the light of different-color LEDs, aiming at a reduced component count resulting in less space required by the electronics and lower cost. It evaluates the LED driver concept proposed in

  10. Estimating Reduced Consumption for Dynamic Demand Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chelmis, Charalampos [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Aman, Saima [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Saeed, Muhammad Rizwan [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Frincu, Marc [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Prasanna, Viktor K. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)


    Growing demand is straining our existing electricity generation facilities and requires active participation of the utility and the consumers to achieve energy sustainability. One of the most effective and widely used ways to achieve this goal in the smart grid is demand response (DR), whereby consumers reduce their electricity consumption in response to a request sent from the utility whenever it anticipates a peak in demand. To successfully plan and implement demand response, the utility requires reliable estimate of reduced consumption during DR. This also helps in optimal selection of consumers and curtailment strategies during DR. While much work has been done on predicting normal consumption, reduced consumption prediction is an open problem that is under-studied. In this paper, we introduce and formalize the problem of reduced consumption prediction, and discuss the challenges associated with it. We also describe computational methods that use historical DR data as well as pre-DR conditions to make such predictions. Our experiments are conducted in the real-world setting of a university campus microgrid, and our preliminary results set the foundation for more detailed modeling.

  11. Toothpaste formulation efficacy in reducing oral flora

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Trop J Pharm Res February 2009; 8 (1): 72. INTRODUCTION. The purpose of oral hygiene using toothpaste is to reduce oral bacterial flora. Mouth bacteria have been linked to plaque, tooth decay and toothache. Plaque 1 (a layer that forms on the surface of a tooth, principally at its neck; composed of bacteria in an organic ...

  12. Does physical training reduce fatigue in sarcoidosis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcellis, R. G. J.; van der Veeke, M.A.F.; Mesters, I.; Drent, M.; Bie, R.A.; de Vries, Jolanda; Lenssen, A.F.


    Background: Sarcoidosis patients frequently experience fatigue, exercise intolerance and muscle weakness, resulting in reduced quality of life (QOL). Scientific studies on the benefits of physical training in sarcoidosis have been scarce, so the aim of this pilot study was to examine the impact of a

  13. Traces on reduced group C*-algebras


    Kennedy, Matthew; Raum, Sven


    In this short note we prove that the reduced group C*-algebra of a locally compact group admits a non-zero trace if and only if the amenable radical of the group is open. This completely answers a question raised by Forrest, Spronk and Wiersma.

  14. Project Horizon: How Utah Is Reducing Recidivism. (United States)

    Robinson, Daimar


    Project Horizon, Utah's statute to reduce the economic and social cost of recidivism, shifted funding for correctional education to the state education agency. Parolees who participated in Project Horizon had an 18-20 percent lower recidivism rate than nonparticipants and found post-release jobs 89 percent of the time. (JOW)

  15. Accelerating Bridge Construction to Reduce Congestion (United States)


    The magnitude of the "residual" displacements at the end of an earthquake can affect the amount of time needed to restore a bridge to service. It may be possible to reduce these displacements (and downtimes) by introducing prestressing forces into br...

  16. Plasma melatonin is reduced in Huntington's disease. (United States)

    Kalliolia, Eirini; Silajdžić, Edina; Nambron, Rajasree; Hill, Nathan R; Doshi, Anisha; Frost, Chris; Watt, Hilary; Hindmarsh, Peter; Björkqvist, Maria; Warner, Thomas T


    This study was undertaken to determine whether the production of melatonin, a hormone regulating sleep in relation to the light/dark cycle, is altered in Huntington's disease. We analyzed the circadian rhythm of melatonin in a 24-hour study of cohorts of control, premanifest, and stage II/III Huntington's disease subjects. The mean and acrophase melatonin concentrations were significantly reduced in stage II/III Huntington's disease subjects compared with controls. We also observed a nonsignificant trend toward reduced mean and acrophase melatonin in premanifest Huntington's disease subjects. Onset of melatonin rise was significantly more temporally spread in both premanifest and stage II/III Huntington's disease subjects compared with controls. A nonsignificant trend also was seen for reduced pulsatile secretion of melatonin. Melatonin concentrations are reduced in Huntington's disease. Altered melatonin patterns may provide an explanation for disrupted sleep and circadian behavior in Huntington's disease, and represent a biomarker for disease state. Melatonin therapy may help the sleep disorders seen in Huntington's disease. © © 2014 The Authors. Movement Disorders published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  17. Diva vaccines that reduce virus transmission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oirschot, van J.T.


    This brief review deals with the effect of diva (Differentiating Infected from VAccinated individuals) vaccines (also termed marker vaccines) on transmission of herpesviruses and pestiviruses in swine and cattle. Pseudorabies and bovine herpesvirus 1 diva vaccines have been demonstrated to reduce

  18. Interventions: Employees’ Perceptions of What Reduces Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Pignata


    Full Text Available Objective. To build upon research evaluating stress interventions, this qualitative study tests the framework of the extended Job Demands-Resources model to investigate employees’ perceptions of the stress-reduction measures implemented at 13 Australian universities. Methods. In a cross-sectional survey design, tenured and contract staff indicated whether their overall level of stress had changed during the previous three-four years, and, if so, they described the major causes. A total of 462 staff reported that their level of stress had decreased; the study examines commentary from 115 academic and 304 nonacademic staff who provided details of what they perceived to be effective in reducing stress. Results. Thematic analyses show that the key perceived causes were changes in job or work role, new heads of departments or supervisors, and the use of organizational strategies to reduce or manage stress. A higher percentage of academic staff reported reduced stress due to using protective coping strategies or their increased recognition and/or success, whereas a higher percentage of nonacademic staff reported reduced stress due to increases in staffing resources and/or systems. Conclusion. These results identify the importance of implementing multilevel strategies to enhance employees’ well-being. Nonacademic staff, in particular, specified a variety of organizational stress-reduction interventions.

  19. Targeting incentives to reduce habitat fragmentation (United States)

    David Lewis; Andrew Plantinga; Junjie Wu


    This article develops a theoretical model to analyze the spatial targeting of incentives for the restoration of forested landscapes when wildlife habitat can be enhanced by reducing fragmentation. The key theoretical result is that the marginal net benefits of increasing forest can be convex, in which case corner solutions--converting either none or all of the...

  20. Reducing Procrastination through Required Course Involvement. (United States)

    Wesp, Richard


    Students in two introductory psychology classes using a personalized system of instruction were assigned to either daily quizzing or self-initiated quizzing treatment conditions. Results showed students in the daily quizzing section completed course work more rapidly and earned higher grades by reducing procrastination. (Author/JDH)

  1. Characterization of (per)chlorate-reducing bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolterink, A.F.W.M.


    Some bacteria can use (per)chlorateas terminal electron acceptor for growth. These bacteria convert perchlorate via chlorate and chlorite into chloride and molecular oxygen. Oxygen formation in microbial respiration is unique. In this study two chlorate-reducing strains

  2. Reduced penetrance in human inherited disease | Shawky ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With the advancement of molecular genetics over the last few years, some of the underlying mechanisms of reduced penetrance have been elucidated. These include, mutation type, allelic variations in gene expression, epigenetic factors, gene-environment interplay, influence of age and sex, allele dosage, oligogenic and ...

  3. Prehydrolyzed dietary protein reduces gastrocnemial DNA without ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prehydrolyzed dietary protein reduces gastrocnemial DNA without impairing physical capacity in the rat. Viviane Costa Silva Zaffani, Carolina Cauduro Bensabath Carneiro-Leão, Giovana Ermetice de Almeida Costa, Pablo Christiano Barboza Lollo, Emilianne Miguel Salomão, Maria Cristina Cintra Gomes-Marcondes, ...

  4. Reducing Infant Mortality. KIDS COUNT Indicator Brief (United States)

    Shore, Rima; Shore, Barbara


    Despite the wide range of expertise that has been brought to bear on reducing infant mortality across the nation, the first year of life remains a time of considerable risk for many babies. Although the U.S. spends more on health care than any other country, its infant mortality rate remains higher than that of most other industrialized nations.…

  5. Reducing Abstraction When Learning Graph Theory (United States)

    Hazzan, Orit; Hadar, Irit


    This article presents research on students' understanding of basic concepts in Graph Theory. Students' understanding is analyzed through the lens of the theoretical framework of reducing abstraction (Hazzan, 1999). As it turns out, in spite of the relative simplicity of the concepts that are introduced in the introductory part of a traditional…

  6. Cost reducing investments and spatial competition


    Domenico Scalera; Alberto Zazzaro


    In this paper we analyze the relationship between competition and cost reducing investments in the context of a location model. In particular, we derive the symmetric subgame-perfect equilibrium of a three-stage circular city model with closed-loop strategies, and study the effects of changes in competition fundamentals under both a given number of firms and free entry

  7. [Interventions during labor for reducing instrumental deliveries]. (United States)

    Schmitz, T; Meunier, E


    Several interventions have been demonstrated, with high evidence levels (EL), to be associated with reduced instrumental deliveries and should therefore be undertaken during labor for increasing spontaneous vaginal deliveries. Using a partogram (EL1) and continuous support during labor and childbirth (EL1) lead to fewer operative vaginal deliveries. Systematic early amniotomy increases the frequency of fetal heart rate abnormalities (EL2) without decreasing the incidence of instrumental deliveries (EL1) and should thus be avoided. Early oxytocin in dysfunctional labor (EL2) and manual rotation of posterior and transverse presentations (EL3) may reduce operative vaginal deliveries. Even without epidural analgesia, any upright or lateral positions compared to supine or lithotomy positions do not reduce instrumental deliveries (EL2). Epidural analgesia alters significantly instrumental delivery rates and therefore patient management in the labor ward. Indeed, when used with high concentration of local anesthetic, epidural analgesia is associated with increased operative vaginal deliveries (EL1), at least in part because of increased posterior presentations (EL2). However, the effect of epidural analgesia on instrumental delivery rates closely depends from the type of anesthetic and concentrations used. This effect is reduced when low concentrations of local anesthetic are used in combination with fat-soluble morphinated agent (EL1). Finally, for nulliparous women with continuous epidural analgesia, unless irresistible urge to push or medical indication to shorten second stage of labor, delayed pushing is associated with reduced difficult instrumental deliveries (EL1). Fundal pressure maneuvers should be prohibited because of their inefficiency (EL2) and dangerousness (EL4).

  8. LLMapReduce: Multi-Lingual Map-Reduce for Supercomputing Environments (United States)


    1990s. Popularized by Google [36] and Apache Hadoop [37], map-reduce has become a staple technology of the ever- growing big data community...script. In addition, supercomputing schedulers have the advantage of being programming language agnostic. The Apache Hadoop map-reduce implementation...supercomputers systems [26], using the Lustre central storage system instead of the Apache Hadoop distributed filesystem (HDFS) [37]. LLMapReduce can

  9. Biomass Pyrolysis Solids as Reducing Agents: Comparison with Commercial Reducing Agents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adrados, Aitziber; De Marco, Isabel; López-Urionabarrenechea, Alexander; Solar, Jon; Caballero, Blanca; Gastelu, Naia

    ... to its extensive availability and its contribution to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass under appropriate conditions (slow heating rate and high temperatures)...

  10. Thermal properties of graphite oxide, thermally reduced graphene and chemically reduced graphene (United States)

    Jankovský, Ondřej; Sedmidubský, David; Lojka, Michal; Sofer, Zdeněk


    We compared thermal behavior and other properties of graphite oxide, thermally reduced graphene and chemically reduced graphene. Graphite was oxidized according to the Hofmann method using potassium chlorate as oxidizing agent in strongly acidic environment. In the next step, the formed graphite oxide was chemically or thermally reduced yielding graphene. The mechanism of thermal reduction was studied using STA-MS. Graphite oxide and both thermally and chemically reduced graphenes were analysed by SEM, EDS, elemental combustion analysis, XPS, Raman spectroscopy, XRD and BET. These findings will help for the large scale production of graphene with appropriate chemical composition.

  11. Designing reduced beacon trajectory for sensor localization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Localization is one of the substantial issues in wireless sensor networks. The key problem for the mobile beacon localization is how to choose the appropriate beacon trajectory. However, little research has been done on it. In this paper, firstly,we deduce the number of positions for a beacon to send a packet according to the acreage of ROI (region of interest); and next we present a novel method based on virtual force to arrange the positions in arbitrary ROI; then we apply TSP (travelling salesman problem) algorithm to the positions sequence to obtain the optimal touring path, i.e. the reduced beacon trajectory. When a mobile beacon moves along the touring path, sending RF signals at every position, the sensors in ROI can work out their position with trilateration. Experimental results demonstrate that the localization method, based on the beacon reduced path, is efficient and has flexible accuracy.

  12. Handgun waiting periods reduce gun deaths. (United States)

    Luca, Michael; Malhotra, Deepak; Poliquin, Christopher


    Handgun waiting periods are laws that impose a delay between the initiation of a purchase and final acquisition of a firearm. We show that waiting periods, which create a "cooling off" period among buyers, significantly reduce the incidence of gun violence. We estimate the impact of waiting periods on gun deaths, exploiting all changes to state-level policies in the Unites States since 1970. We find that waiting periods reduce gun homicides by roughly 17%. We provide further support for the causal impact of waiting periods on homicides by exploiting a natural experiment resulting from a federal law in 1994 that imposed a temporary waiting period on a subset of states. Copyright © 2017 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  13. Device for reducing vehicle aerodynamic resistance (United States)

    Graham, Sean C.


    A device for reducing vehicle aerodynamic resistance for vehicles having a generally rectangular body disposed above rear wheels, comprising a plurality of load bearing struts attached to the bottom of the rectangular body adjacent its sides, a plurality of opposing flat sheets attached to the load bearing struts, and angled flaps attached to the lower edge of the opposing sheets defining an obtuse angle with the opposing flat sheets extending inwardly with respect to the sides of the rectangular body to a predetermined height above the ground, which, stiffen the opposing flat sheets, bend to resist damage when struck by the ground, and guide airflow around the rear wheels of the vehicle to reduce its aerodynamic resistance when moving.

  14. Advanced technology development reducing CO2 emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Sup


    Responding to Korean government policies on green growth and global energy/ environmental challenges, SK energy has been developing new technologies to reduce CO2 emissions by 1) CO2 capture and utilization, 2) efficiency improvement, and 3) Li-ion batteries. The paper introduces three advanced technologies developed by SK energy; GreenPol, ACO, and Li-ion battery. Contributing to company vision, a more energy and less CO2, the three technologies are characterized as follows. GreenPol utilizes CO2 as a feedstock for making polymer. Advanced Catalytic Olefin (ACO) reduces CO2 emission by 20% and increase olefin production by 17%. Li-ion Batteries for automotive industries improves CO2 emission.

  15. Reducing health-information avoidance through contemplation. (United States)

    Howell, Jennifer L; Shepperd, James A


    Despite the importance of learning about one's health, people sometimes opt to remain ignorant. In three studies, we investigated whether prompting people to contemplate their reasons for seeking or avoiding information would reduce avoidance of personal health information. In Study 1, people were more likely to opt to learn their risk for type 2 diabetes if they had completed a motives questionnaire prior to making their decision than if they had not. In Study 2, people were more likely to opt to learn their risk for cardiovascular disease if they had first listed and rated reasons for seeking or avoiding the information than if they had not. Study 3 replicated Study 2 but also showed that contemplating reasons for avoiding versus seeking reduced avoidance of personal-risk information only when the risk condition was treatable.

  16. Suppressing Unwanted Memories Reduces Their Unintended Influences (United States)

    Hu, Xiaoqing; Bergström, Zara M.; Gagnepain, Pierre; Anderson, Michael C.


    The ability to control unwanted memories is critical for maintaining cognitive function and mental health. Prior research has shown that suppressing the retrieval of unwanted memories impairs their retention, as measured using intentional (direct) memory tests. Here, we review emerging evidence revealing that retrieval suppression can also reduce the unintended influence of suppressed traces. In particular, retrieval suppression (a) gradually diminishes the tendency for memories to intrude into awareness and (b) reduces memories’ unintended expressions on indirect memory tests. We present a neural account in which, during suppression, retrieval cues elicit hippocampally triggered neocortical activity that briefly reinstates features of the original event, which, in turn, are suppressed by targeted neocortical and hippocampal inhibition. This reactivation-dependent reinstatement principle could provide a broad mechanism by which suppressing retrieval of intrusive memories limits their indirect influences. PMID:28458471

  17. Reduced basis method for source mask optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Pomplun, J; Burger, S; Schmidt, F; Tyminski, J; Flagello, D; Toshiharu, N; 10.1117/12.866101


    Image modeling and simulation are critical to extending the limits of leading edge lithography technologies used for IC making. Simultaneous source mask optimization (SMO) has become an important objective in the field of computational lithography. SMO is considered essential to extending immersion lithography beyond the 45nm node. However, SMO is computationally extremely challenging and time-consuming. The key challenges are due to run time vs. accuracy tradeoffs of the imaging models used for the computational lithography. We present a new technique to be incorporated in the SMO flow. This new approach is based on the reduced basis method (RBM) applied to the simulation of light transmission through the lithography masks. It provides a rigorous approximation to the exact lithographical problem, based on fully vectorial Maxwell's equations. Using the reduced basis method, the optimization process is divided into an offline and an online steps. In the offline step, a RBM model with variable geometrical param...

  18. Reducing Psychological Resistance to Digital Repositories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Quinn


    Full Text Available The potential value of digital repositories is dependent on the cooperation of scholars to deposit their work. Although many researchers have been resistant to submitting their work, the literature on digital repositories contains very little research on the psychology of resistance. This article looks at the psychological literature on resistance and explores what its implications might be for reducing the resistance of scholars to submitting their work to digital repositories. Psychologists have devised many potentially useful strategies for reducing resistance that might be used to address the problem; this article examines these strategies and how they might be applied.

  19. Reduced TCA Flux in Diabetic Myotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaster, Michael


    The diabetic phenotype is complex, requiring elucidation of key initiating defects. Diabetic myotubes express a primary reduced tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle flux but at present it is unclear in which part of the TCA cycle the defect is localised. In order to localise the defect we studied ATP...... production in isolated mitochondria from substrates entering the TCA cycle at various points. ATP production was measured by luminescence with or without concomitant ATP utilisation by hexokinase in mitochondria isolated from myotubes established from eight lean and eight type 2 diabetic subjects. The ATP...... production of investigated substrate combinations was significantly reduced in mitochondria isolated from type 2 diabetic subjects compared to lean. However, when ATP synthesis rates at different substrate combinations were normalized to the corresponding individual pyruvate-malate rate...

  20. Activating Attachments Reduces Memories of Traumatic Images.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A Bryant

    Full Text Available Emotional memories, and especially intrusive memories, are a common feature of many psychological disorders, and are overconsolidated by stress. Attachment theory posits that activation of mental representations of attachment figures can reduce stress and boost coping. This study tested the proposition that attachment activation would reduce consolidation of emotional and intrusive memories. Sixty-seven undergraduate students viewed subliminal presentations of traumatic and neutral images, which were preceded by subliminal presentations of either attachment-related images or non-attachment-related images; free recall and intrusive memories were assessed two days later. Participants with low avoidant attachment tendencies who received the attachment primes recalled fewer memories and reported fewer intrusions than those who received the non-attachment primes. Unexpectedly, those with high anxious attachment tendencies reported fewer memories. These findings generally accord with attachment theory, and suggest that consolidation of emotional memories can be moderated by activation of attachment representations.

  1. A Reducing Resistance to Change Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Braduţanu


    Full Text Available The aim of this scientific paper is to present an original reducing resistance to change model. After analyzing the existent literature, I have concluded that the resistance to change subject has gained popularity over the years, but there are not too many models that could help managers implement more smoothly an organizational change process and at the same time, reduce effectively employees’ resistance. The proposed model is very helpful for managers and change agents who are confronted with a high degree of resistance when trying to implement a new change, as well as for researches. The key contribution of this paper is that resistance is not necessarily bad and if used appropriately, it can actually represent an asset. Managers must use employees’ resistance.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaenal Muttaqin


    Full Text Available In some developing countries, the instrument to alleviate the poverty is by using the economic growth. So, the increasing in investment, infrastructure development, and macroeconomics stability always be priority from developing countries. In this article explain that economic growth is not the important factor to alleviate the poverty, because equality sometimes is more important rather than the economic growth. In this context, its measure by inequality growth trade off index (IGTI. This method is to measure the influence of economic growth to reducing the inequality, with this method every country can measure which one is better to reducing the poverty whether the economic growth or equality. With this method, Laos in 2000 show that economic growth is more important than equality, but in the same year in Thailand show that equality is more important than economic growth.DOI: 10.15408/sjie.v1i1.2592

  3. Reducing rebound effect through fossil subsidies reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Jingzheng; Yang, Yingkui; Li, Hong


    by rebound effect. Energy subsidy as an economic regulation policy would significantly affect rebound effect. To explore how China's fossil subsidies reform would affect rebound effect, this study conducts a comprehensive evaluation based on a multi-sector computable general equilibrium (CGE) model. Rebound...... for electricity than for primary energies. Secondly, by removing fossil energy subsides, the rebound effect would be effectively mitigated, and removing all subsides would reduce the rebound effect most, however, it would bring significant negative impacts on the macro economy. Thirdly, an integrated policy...... with removal of fossil energy subsidies and increment of clean energy subsidies would be more effective, greatly reducing rebound effect and also bring benefits for both economy and environment. Our findings would be critical for China’s low-carbon policy making in the future....

  4. Gratitude: a tool for reducing economic impatience. (United States)

    DeSteno, David; Li, Ye; Dickens, Leah; Lerner, Jennifer S


    The human mind tends to excessively discount the value of delayed rewards relative to immediate ones, and it is thought that "hot" affective processes drive desires for short-term gratification. Supporting this view, recent findings demonstrate that sadness exacerbates financial impatience even when the sadness is unrelated to the economic decision at hand. Such findings might reinforce the view that emotions must always be suppressed to combat impatience. But if emotions serve adaptive functions, then certain emotions might be capable of reducing excessive impatience for delayed rewards. We found evidence supporting this alternative view. Specifically, we found that (a) the emotion gratitude reduces impatience even when real money is at stake, and (b) the effects of gratitude are differentiable from those of the more general positive state of happiness. These findings challenge the view that individuals must tamp down affective responses through effortful self-regulation to reach more patient and adaptive economic decisions. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Reducing parametric backscattering by polarization rotation (United States)

    Barth, Ido; Fisch, Nathaniel


    When a laser passes through underdense plasmas, Raman and Brillouin Backscattering can reflect a substantial portion of the incident laser energy. This is a major loss mechanism, for example, in inertial confinement fusion. However, by slow rotation of the incident linear polarization, the overall reflectivity can be reduced significantly. Particle in cell simulations show that, for parameters similar to those of indirect drive fusion experiments, polarization rotation reduces the reflectivity by a factor of 5. A general, fluid-model based, analytical estimation for the reflectivity reduction agrees with simulations. This work was supported by NNSA Grant No. DE- NA0002948, AFOSR Grant No. FA9550-15-1-0391, and DOE Contract No. DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  6. Methods of reducing vehicle aerodynamic drag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirenko V.; Rohatgi U.


    A small scale model (length 1710 mm) of General Motor SUV was built and tested in the wind tunnel for expected wind conditions and road clearance. Two passive devices, rear screen which is plate behind the car and rear fairing where the end of the car is aerodynamically extended, were incorporated in the model and tested in the wind tunnel for different wind conditions. The conclusion is that rear screen could reduce drag up to 6.5% and rear fairing can reduce the drag by 26%. There were additional tests for front edging and rear vortex generators. The results for drag reduction were mixed. It should be noted that there are aesthetic and practical considerations that may allow only partial implementation of these or any drag reduction options.

  7. Restricted fish feeding reduces cod otolith opacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høie, H.; Folkvord, A.; Mosegaard, Henrik


    in otolith opacity were found between individual fish both within groups and between groups. In two of the three groups significantly more translucent otolith material was deposited in response to reduced feeding. Our results show that variations in feeding and hence fish growth resulted in variation......The purpose of this work was to examine the effect of reduced feeding and constant temperature on cod otolith opacity. Three groups of juvenile cod were given restricted food rations at different times for 4 months, resulting in depressed somatic growth. Otolith opacity was measured on pictures...... of the otolith sections. The otolith carbonate deposited during the experimental period was generally opaque compared to the more translucent otolith material deposited prior to and after the experimental period, when the fish were kept in a pond and in sea-cages at higher temperatures. Large variations...

  8. Costs of reducing nutrient losses in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Brian H.; Abildtrup, Jens; Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård

    The economic calculations carried out prior to the Plan for the Aquatic Environment III included a comparison of regulation systems aimed at reducing nitrogen leaching, analyses of measures for reducing phosphorus losses and estimation of administrative costs. The conclusions were that taxation...... of the N-surplus introduced at the sector level was the most cost effective regulation when compared with administrative regulation and set a side. For phosphorus a balance between incoming and outgoing phosphorus is very costly as this requires that much slurry is transported from the western...... to the eastern part of Denmark. The final plan for the Aquatic Environment III from 2004 included a 13% reduction of N-leaching until 2015 based on cost effective administrative measures like wetlands and catch crops. Also a tax on mineral phosphorus in feedstuffs was included in order to half the phosphorus...

  9. Antibiotics Reduce Retinal Cell Survival In Vitro. (United States)

    Lindsey, Amy E; Townes-Anderson, Ellen


    Antibiotics such as gentamicin (an aminoglycoside) and penicillin (a beta-lactam antibiotic) are routinely used in retinal cell and explant cultures. In many cases, these in vitro systems are testing parameters regarding photoreceptor transplantation or preparing cells for transplantation. In vivo, milligram doses of gentamicin are neurotoxic to the retina. However, little is known about the effects of antibiotics to retina in vitro and whether smaller doses of gentamicin are toxic to retinal cells. To test toxicity, retinal cells were dissociated from tiger salamander, placed in culture, and treated with either 20 μg/ml gentamicin, 100 μg/ml streptomycin, 100 U/ml antibiotic/antimycotic, 0.25 μg/ml amphotericin B, or 100 U/ml penicillin G. All dosages were within manufacturer's recommended levels. Control cultures had defined medium only. Cells were fixed at 2 h or 7 days. Three criteria were used to assess toxicity: (1) survival of retinal neurons, (2) neuritic growth of photoreceptors assessed by the development of presynaptic varicosities, and (3) survival and morphology of Mueller cells. Rod cells were immunolabeled for rod opsin, Mueller cells for glial fibrillary acidic protein, and varicosities for synaptophysin. Neuronal cell density was reduced with all pharmacological treatments. The number of presynaptic varicosities was also significantly lower in both rod and cone photoreceptors in treated compared to control cultures; further, rods were more sensitive to gentamicin than cones. Penicillin G (100 U/ml) was overall the least inhibitory and amphotericin B the most toxic of all the agents to photoreceptors. Mueller cell survival was reduced with all treatments; reduced survival was accompanied by the appearance of proportionally fewer stellate and more rounded glial morphologies. These findings suggest that even microgram doses of antibiotic and antimycotic drugs can be neurotoxic to retinal cells and reduce neuritic regeneration in cell

  10. Ammunition Cartridge with Reduced Propellant Charge. (United States)


    spotting cartridge used in the Shoulder Launched Multi-purpose Assault Weapon ( SMAW ) spotting cartridge. The spotting cartridge in this weapon requires...understood from the following detailed description and reference to the appended drawings 15 wherein: Fig. 1 is a sectional side view of the SMAW ...Spotting Cartridge Case showing the lost foam case volume reducer; Fig 2 is a sectional side view of the SMAW Spotting Cartridge Case showing an

  11. Personalized music to reduce patient anxiety (abstract)


    Zwaag, M. van der; Tijs, T.J.W.; Westerink, J.H.D.


    Patient anxiety is a frequently occurring concern as it decreases patient satisfaction, increases consultation duration, and can influence successful medical outcome. To illustrate, for some diagnosis methods as PET scans patients need to be relaxed for successful medicaloutcome. Music can possibly reduce patients stress. However, hospital selected music has not always shown its effectiveness, and patient selected music has shown it could be arousing instead of relaxing.In two experiments the...

  12. Reducing Maternal Mortality from Unsafe Abortion among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reducing Maternal Mortality from Unsafe Abortion among Adolescents in Africa. ... Il est important de concentrer sur la prévention primaire y compris l'assurance d'une éducation et information sexuelle appropriées comme services de soutien pour permettre aux adolescentes d'éviter la grossesse non-désirées. Les efforts ...

  13. Clinker mineral hydration at reduced relative humidities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Mejlhede


    This report deals with gas phase hydration of pure cement clinker minerals at reduced relative humidities. This is an important subject in relation to modern high performance concrete which may self-desiccate during hydration. In addition the subject has relevance to storage stability where...... prehydration may occur. In the report both theoretical considerations and experimental data are presented. It is suggested that the initiation of hydration during water vapour exposure is nucleation controlled....

  14. Reflections on reducing insulin to lose weigh. (United States)

    Wilson, Val

    Diabulimia is not a recognised medical condition, although it is thought to affect one-third of women with type 1 diabetes. Diabulimia involves deliberately omitting or reducing insulin dosages to lose weight. This article reports the reflections of women with long-duration type 1 diabetes who said that they had manipulated their insulin in the past to lose weight. Many were now dealing with serious heart and neuropathic complications, which they felt were a result of their diabulimia.

  15. Tail Rotor Airfoils Stabilize Helicopters, Reduce Noise (United States)


    Founded by former Ames Research Center engineer Jim Van Horn, Van Horn Aviation of Tempe, Arizona, built upon a Langley Research Center airfoil design to create a high performance aftermarket tail rotor for the popular Bell 206 helicopter. The highly durable rotor has a lifetime twice that of the original equipment manufacturer blade, reduces noise by 40 percent, and displays enhanced performance at high altitudes. These improvements benefit helicopter performance for law enforcement, military training, wildfire and pipeline patrols, and emergency medical services.

  16. Reducing allergic symptoms through eliminating subgingival plaque


    Utomo, Haryono; Prahasanti, Chiquita; Ruhadi, Iwan


    Background: Elimination of subgingival plaque for prevention and treatment of periodontal diseases through scaling is a routine procedure. It is also well-known that periodontal disease is related to systemic diseases. Nevertheless, the idea how scaling procedures also able to reduce allergic symptoms i.e. eczema and asthma, is not easily accepted, because it is contradictory to the “hygiene hypothesis”. However, since allergic symptoms also depend on variable factors such as genetic, environ...

  17. Creating Diverse Ensemble Classifiers to Reduce Supervision (United States)


    disagree on some inputs (Hansen & Salamon, 1990; Tumer & Ghosh, 1996). We refer to the measure of disagreement as the diversity/ambiguity of the ensemble...they use an objective function that incorporates both an accuracy and diversity term. Tumer and Ghosh (1996) reduce the correlation between...controlled by the amount of features that are eliminated. This method, called input decimation, has been further explored by Tumer and Oza (1999). Zenobi and

  18. Leveraging Technology to Reduce Patient Transaction Costs. (United States)

    Edlow, Richard C


    Medical practices are under significant pressure to provide superior customer service in an environment of declining or flat reimbursement. The solution for many practices involves the integration of a variety of third-party technologies that conveniently interface with one's electronic practice management and medical records systems. Typically, the applications allow the practice to reduce the cost of each patient interaction. Drilling down to quantify the cost of each individual patient interaction helps to determine the practicality of implementation.

  19. Female Employment Reduces Fertility in Rural Senegal (United States)


    Economic growth and modernization of society are generally associated with fertility rate decreases but which forces trigger this is unclear. In this paper we assess how fertility changes with increased labor market participation of women in rural Senegal. Evidence from high-income countries suggests that higher female employment rates lead to reduced fertility rates but evidence from developing countries at an early stage of demographic transition is largely absent. We concentrate on a rural area in northern Senegal where a recent boom in horticultural exports has been associated with a sudden increase in female off-farm employment. Using survey data we show that employed women have a significantly higher age at marriage and at first childbirth, and significantly fewer children. As causal identification strategy we use instrumental variable and difference-in-differences estimations, combined with propensity score matching. We find that female employment reduces the number of children per woman by 25%, and that this fertility-reducing effect is as large for poor as for non-poor women and larger for illiterate than for literate women. Results imply that female employment is a strong instrument for empowering rural women, reducing fertility rates and accelerating the demographic transition in poor countries. The effectiveness of family planning programs can increase if targeted to areas where female employment is increasing or to female employees directly because of a higher likelihood to reach women with low-fertility preferences. Our results show that changes in fertility preferences not necessarily result from a cultural evolution but can also be driven by sudden and individual changes in economic opportunities. PMID:25816301

  20. Reduced Cortisol Metabolism during Critical Illness (United States)

    Boonen, Eva; Vervenne, Hilke; Meersseman, Philippe; Andrew, Ruth; Mortier, Leen; Declercq, Peter E.; Vanwijngaerden, Yoo-Mee; Spriet, Isabel; Wouters, Pieter J.; Perre, Sarah Vander; Langouche, Lies; Vanhorebeek, Ilse; Walker, Brian R.; Van den Berghe, Greet


    BACKGROUND Critical illness is often accompanied by hypercortisolemia, which has been attributed to stress-induced activation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis. However, low corticotropin levels have also been reported in critically ill patients, which may be due to reduced cortisol metabolism. METHODS In a total of 158 patients in the intensive care unit and 64 matched controls, we tested five aspects of cortisol metabolism: daily levels of corticotropin and cortisol; plasma cortisol clearance, metabolism, and production during infusion of deuterium-labeled steroid hormones as tracers; plasma clearance of 100 mg of hydrocortisone; levels of urinary cortisol metabolites; and levels of messenger RNA and protein in liver and adipose tissue, to assess major cortisol-metabolizing enzymes. RESULTS Total and free circulating cortisol levels were consistently higher in the patients than in controls, whereas corticotropin levels were lower (PCortisol production was 83% higher in the patients (P=0.02). There was a reduction of more than 50% in cortisol clearance during tracer infusion and after the administration of 100 mg of hydrocortisone in the patients (P≤0.03 for both comparisons). All these factors accounted for an increase by a factor of 3.5 in plasma cortisol levels in the patients, as compared with controls (Pcortisol clearance also correlated with a lower cortisol response to corticotropin stimulation. Reduced cortisol metabolism was associated with reduced inactivation of cortisol in the liver and kidney, as suggested by urinary steroid ratios, tracer kinetics, and assessment of liver-biopsy samples (P≤0.004 for all comparisons). CONCLUSIONS During critical illness, reduced cortisol breakdown, related to suppressed expression and activity of cortisol-metabolizing enzymes, contributed to hypercortisolemia and hence corticotropin suppression. The diagnostic and therapeutic implications for critically ill patients are unknown. (Funded by the Belgian

  1. Female employment reduces fertility in rural Senegal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goedele Van den Broeck

    Full Text Available Economic growth and modernization of society are generally associated with fertility rate decreases but which forces trigger this is unclear. In this paper we assess how fertility changes with increased labor market participation of women in rural Senegal. Evidence from high-income countries suggests that higher female employment rates lead to reduced fertility rates but evidence from developing countries at an early stage of demographic transition is largely absent. We concentrate on a rural area in northern Senegal where a recent boom in horticultural exports has been associated with a sudden increase in female off-farm employment. Using survey data we show that employed women have a significantly higher age at marriage and at first childbirth, and significantly fewer children. As causal identification strategy we use instrumental variable and difference-in-differences estimations, combined with propensity score matching. We find that female employment reduces the number of children per woman by 25%, and that this fertility-reducing effect is as large for poor as for non-poor women and larger for illiterate than for literate women. Results imply that female employment is a strong instrument for empowering rural women, reducing fertility rates and accelerating the demographic transition in poor countries. The effectiveness of family planning programs can increase if targeted to areas where female employment is increasing or to female employees directly because of a higher likelihood to reach women with low-fertility preferences. Our results show that changes in fertility preferences not necessarily result from a cultural evolution but can also be driven by sudden and individual changes in economic opportunities.

  2. Reducing the open porosity of pyroboroncarbon articles (United States)

    Martyushov, G. G.; Zakharevich, A. M.; Pichkhidze, S. Ya.; Koshuro, V. A.


    It is established that a decrease in the open porosity of pyroboroncarbon, a pyrolytic glassy composite material of interest for manufacturing prosthetic heart valves (PHVs), can be achieved via impregnation of articles with an alcohol solution of 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane and subsequent thermal treatment. The maximum roughness height and linear size of open pores on the surface of PHV parts made of pyroboroncarbon can additionally be reduced by final mechanical processing of a silicon oxide film formed on the surface.

  3. Can We Reduce Workplace Fatalities by Half?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Soo Quee Koh


    Full Text Available Singapore, an island republic of over 5 million inhabitants, has 3.1 million workers. Most are employed in the service, finance and tourist/transport industry. Significant numbers work in manufacturing, construction and heavy industry. Following a series of construction and shipyard accidents with multiple deaths in 2004, the government announced its intention to reduce workplace fatalities from 4.9 to 2.5 per 100,000 by 2015. There was strong political will to achieve this target. The strategic approaches were to build workplace safety and health (WSH capabilities; implement legislative changes with enforcement; promote benefits of WSH and recognize best practices, and enhance partnership with stakeholders. The anticipated outcomes were to reduce workplace fatality and injury rates; have WSH as an integral part of business; and establish a progressive and pervasive WSH culture. With these measures, the workplace fatality rate declined from 4.9/100,000 in 2004, to 2.2/100,000 in 2010. However, other confounding factors could also account for this decline, and have to be considered. The next target, announced by Singapore’s Prime Minister in 2008, is to further reduce the workplace fatality rate to 1.8/100,000 by 2018, and to have “one of the best workplace safety records in the world”.

  4. Oxytocin reduces caloric intake in men. (United States)

    Lawson, Elizabeth A; Marengi, Dean A; DeSanti, Rebecca L; Holmes, Tara M; Schoenfeld, David A; Tolley, Christiane J


    Preclinical studies indicate that oxytocin is anorexigenic and has beneficial metabolic effects. Oxytocin effects on nutrition and metabolism in humans are not well defined. It was hypothesized that oxytocin would reduce caloric intake and appetite and alter levels of appetite-regulating hormones. Metabolic effects of oxytocin were also explored. A randomized, placebo-controlled crossover study of single-dose intranasal oxytocin (24 IU) in 25 fasting healthy men was performed. After oxytocin/placebo, subjects selected breakfast from a menu and were given double portions. Caloric content of food consumed was measured. Visual analog scales were used to assess appetite, and blood was drawn for appetite-regulating hormones, insulin, and glucose before and after oxytocin/placebo. Indirect calorimetry assessed resting energy expenditure (REE) and substrate utilization. Oxytocin reduced caloric intake with a preferential effect on fat intake and increased levels of the anorexigenic hormone cholecystokinin without affecting appetite or other appetite-regulating hormones. There was no effect of oxytocin on REE. Oxytocin resulted in a shift from carbohydrate to fat utilization and improved insulin sensitivity. Intranasal oxytocin reduces caloric intake and has beneficial metabolic effects in men without concerning side effects. The efficacy and safety of sustained oxytocin administration in the treatment of obesity warrants investigation. © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  5. Ischemic preconditioning reduces transplanted submandibular gland injury. (United States)

    Yang, Ning-Yan; Shi, Liang; Zhang, Yan; Ding, Chong; Cong, Xin; Fu, Feng-Ying; Wu, Li-Ling; Yu, Guang-Yan


    Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) can reduce ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in multiple organs and species. However, the effect of IPC on transplanted submandibular glands remains unknown. We explored the protection of IPC in transplanted submandibular glands in the rabbit and the underlying mechanism. IPC was performed by clamping the lingual artery for 10 min, with 10 min of reperfusion before transplantation. Male rabbits were randomly divided into control, transplantation, and IPC groups (n = 6 each). Saliva secretion, oxidative stress, pro-inflammatory cytokine levels, and apoptosis-related protein levels were determined at 1, 12, and 24 h after reperfusion. Salivary flow was significantly increased at 12 h and decreased at 24 h in the transplanted glands. IPC treatment prevented the reduced saliva secretion at 24 h after reperfusion (P IPC treatment (all P IPC-treated glands at 1 and 12 h after reperfusion (all P IPC protects the secretory function of transplanted submandibular gland in the rabbit by reducing the inflammatory response, attenuating oxidative stress, and an anti-apoptosis process. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Simvastatin Reduces Capsular Fibrosis around Silicone Implants. (United States)

    Chung, Kyu Jin; Park, Ki Rin; Lee, Jun Ho; Kim, Tae Gon; Kim, Yong-Ha


    Capsular fibrosis and contracture occurs in most breast reconstruction patients who undergo radiotherapy, and there is no definitive solution for its prevention. Simvastatin was effective at reducing fibrosis in various models. Peri-implant capsular formation is the result of tissue fibrosis development in irradiated breasts. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of simvastatin on peri-implant fibrosis in rats. Eighteen male Sprague-Dawley rats were allocated to an experimental group (9 rats, 18 implants) or a control group (9 rats, 18 implants). Two hemispherical silicone implants, 10 mm in diameter, were inserted in subpanniculus pockets in each rat. The next day, 10-Gy of radiation from a clinical accelerator was targeted at the implants. Simvastatin (15 mg/kg/day) was administered by oral gavage in the experimental group, while animals in the control group received water. At 12 weeks post-implantation, peri-implant capsules were harvested and examined histologically and by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The average capsular thickness was 371.2 μm in the simvastatin group and 491.2 μm in the control group. The fibrosis ratio was significantly different, with 32.33% in the simvastatin group and 58.44% in the control group (P simvastatin group compared to the control group (P simvastatin reduces radiation-induced capsular fibrosis around silicone implants in rats. This finding offers an alternative therapeutic strategy for reducing capsular fibrosis and contracture after implant-based breast reconstruction.

  7. Reduced chemical kinetics for propane combustion (United States)

    Ying, Shuh-Jing; Nguyen, Hung Lee


    It is pointed out that a detailed chemical kinetics mechanism for the combustion of propane consists of 40 chemical species and 118 elementary chemical reactions. An attempt is made to reduce the number of chemical species and elementary chemical reactions so that the computer run times and storage requirements may be greatly reduced in three-dimensional gas turbine combustion flow calculations, while maintaining accurate predictions of the propane combustion and exhaust emissions. By way of a sensitivity analysis, the species of interest and chemical reactions are classified in descending order of importance. Nineteen species are chosen, and their pressure, temperature, and concentration profiles are presented for the reduced mechanisms, which are then compared with those from the full 118 reactions. It is found that 45 reactions involving 27 species have to be kept for comparable agreement. A comparison of the results obtained from the 45 reactions to that of the full 118 shows that the pressure and temperature profiles and concentrations of C3H8, O2, N2, H2O, CO, and CO2 are within 10 percent of maximum change.

  8. Reduced versions of dysphonia coping protocols. (United States)

    Oliveira, Gisele; Zambon, Fabiana; Vaiano, Thays; Costa, Flavia; Behlau, Mara


    The purpose of the study is to explore two reduced versions of the PEED-27 (Brazilian VDCQ) and compare them to the original version. It was performed a retrospective analysis of PEED-27 questionnaires of 100 individuals with vocal disorder, 37 men and 63 women, mean age of 43.7 in order to compare reduced versions of the instrument. The analysis showed that the three instruments have high level of correlation, thus their results are comparable (PEED 27 x 15, r=+0.910, p< 0.001; PEED 27 x 10, r=+0.873, p<0.001 and PEED 15 x 10, r=+0.924, p< 0.001). The PEED-10 and PEED-15 are reduced and adapted versions to the Brazilian Portuguese language. They evaluate strategies used by dysphonic individuals to cope with their voice problem. The clinician must decide which version to use based on the available time and on the need of more detailed information.

  9. Reducing the stigmatization of teen mothers. (United States)

    SmithBattle, Lee I


    Teen mothers are stigmatized by stereotypes that they are unmotivated, irresponsible, and incompetent parents. In spite of the pervasiveness of these stereotypes, stigma is rarely described as a contributing factor to teen mothers' difficulties and their health and social disparities. After tracing how teen mothers have been misrepresented and stereotyped over the last half century, I describe what is known about the stigma associated with teen mothering, reasons for its persistence, efforts to reduce it, and its potentially harmful effects. Stigma should be of concern to nurses because stigmatizing practices impede effective clinical care, contribute to teen mothers' many challenges, and violate the nursing ethic that patients be treated with respect and dignity. Recommendations for restoring dignity and reducing stigma in healthcare focus on developing recognition practices that are predicated on respect and concern for the teen's well-being and her capacity as a mother. Nurses are also urged to advocate for services and policies that reduce the stigmatization and marginalization of teen mothers.

  10. Analytic thinking reduces belief in conspiracy theories. (United States)

    Swami, Viren; Voracek, Martin; Stieger, Stefan; Tran, Ulrich S; Furnham, Adrian


    Belief in conspiracy theories has been associated with a range of negative health, civic, and social outcomes, requiring reliable methods of reducing such belief. Thinking dispositions have been highlighted as one possible factor associated with belief in conspiracy theories, but actual relationships have only been infrequently studied. In Study 1, we examined associations between belief in conspiracy theories and a range of measures of thinking dispositions in a British sample (N=990). Results indicated that a stronger belief in conspiracy theories was significantly associated with lower analytic thinking and open-mindedness and greater intuitive thinking. In Studies 2-4, we examined the causational role played by analytic thinking in relation to conspiracist ideation. In Study 2 (N=112), we showed that a verbal fluency task that elicited analytic thinking reduced belief in conspiracy theories. In Study 3 (N=189), we found that an alternative method of eliciting analytic thinking, which related to cognitive disfluency, was effective at reducing conspiracist ideation in a student sample. In Study 4, we replicated the results of Study 3 among a general population sample (N=140) in relation to generic conspiracist ideation and belief in conspiracy theories about the July 7, 2005, bombings in London. Our results highlight the potential utility of supporting attempts to promote analytic thinking as a means of countering the widespread acceptance of conspiracy theories. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Reducing Operating Temperature in Photovoltaic Modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silverman, Timothy J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Deceglie, Michael G [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Repins, Ingrid L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Subedi, Indra [University of Toledo; Podraza, Nikolas J. [University of Toledo; Slauch, Ian M. [University of Minnesota; Ferry, Vivian E. [University of Minnesota


    Reducing the operating temperature of photovoltaic modules increases their efficiency and lifetime. This can be achieved by reducing the production of waste heat or by improving the rejection of waste heat. We tested, using a combination of simulation and experiment, several thermal modifications in each category. To predict operating temperature and energy yield changes in response to changes to the module, we implemented a physics-based transient simulation framework based almost entirely on measured properties. The most effective thermal modifications reduced the production of waste heat by reflecting unusable light from the cell or the module. Consistent with previous results and verified in this work through year-long simulations, the ideal reflector resulted in an annual irradiance-weighted temperature reduction of 3.8 K for crystalline silicon (c-Si). Our results illustrate that more realistic reflector concepts must balance detrimental optical effects with the intended thermal effects to realize the optimal energy production advantage. Methods improving thermal conductivity or back-side emissivity showed only modest improvements of less than 1 K. We also studied a GaAs module, which uses high-efficiency and high-subbandgap reflectivity to operate at an annual irradiance-weighted temperature 12 K cooler than that of a c-Si module under the same conditions.

  12. Radiotherapy reduces sialorrhea in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. (United States)

    Neppelberg, E; Haugen, D F; Thorsen, L; Tysnes, O-B


    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder. Sialorrhea is a frequent problem in ALS patients with bulbar symptoms, because of progressive weakness of oral, lingual and pharyngeal muscles. This prospective study aimed to investigate the putative effect of palliative single-dose radiotherapy on problematic sialorrhea in patients with ALS. Twenty patients with ALS and problematic drooling were included; 14 were given radiotherapy with a single fraction of 7.5 Grey (Gy). Five patients were treated with botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) injections (20 U) into the parotid glands; two of these were later given radiotherapy. Symptom assessment, clinical examination and measurements of salivary flow (ml/min) were performed before and after treatment (1-2 weeks, 3 months). Salivary secretion was significantly reduced after radiation treatment, with a mean reduction of 60% (1 week) and 51% (2 weeks). Three months post-treatment, 21% reduction of the salivary secretion was observed compared with salivation before treatment. Mean salivary flow was not reduced after BTX-A treatment in five patients. No serious side-effects were observed with either of the two treatment modalities. Single-dose radiotherapy (7.5 Gy) significantly reduces sialorrhea and is an effective and safe palliative treatment in patients with ALS.

  13. Heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. (United States)

    Bloom, Michelle W; Greenberg, Barry; Jaarsma, Tiny; Januzzi, James L; Lam, Carolyn S P; Maggioni, Aldo P; Trochu, Jean-Noël; Butler, Javed


    Heart failure is a global public health problem that affects more than 26 million people worldwide. The global burden of heart failure is growing and is expected to increase substantially with the ageing of the population. Heart failure with reduced ejection fraction accounts for approximately 50% of all cases of heart failure in the United States and is associated with substantial morbidity and reduced quality of life. Several diseases, such as myocardial infarction, certain infectious diseases and endocrine disorders, can initiate a primary pathophysiological process that can lead to reduced ventricular function and to heart failure. Initially, ventricular impairment is compensated for by the activation of the sympathetic nervous system and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, but chronic activation of these pathways leads to worsening cardiac function. The symptoms of heart failure can be associated with other conditions and include dyspnoea, fatigue, limitations in exercise tolerance and fluid accumulation, which can make diagnosis difficult. Management strategies include the use of pharmacological therapies and implantable devices to regulate cardiac function. Despite these available treatments, heart failure remains incurable, and patients have a poor prognosis and high mortality rate. Consequently, the development of new therapies is imperative and requires further research.

  14. Reduced barrier efficiency in axillary stratum corneum. (United States)

    Watkinson, A; Lee, R S; Moore, A E; Pudney, P D A; Paterson, S E; Rawlings, A V


    The skin of the axilla is cosmetically important with millions of consumers daily applying antiperspirant/deodorant products. Despite this, we know virtually nothing about axillary skin or how antiperspirant (AP) use impacts upon it. To characterize the axillary stratum corneum and determine whether this is a unique skin type, we have looked at stratum corneum composition and function, particularly its barrier properties, and compared it with other body sites. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and corneosurfametry (CSM) revealed a reduced barrier function in the axilla. HPTLC analysis of the stratum corneum lipids demonstrated statistically elevated levels of fatty acids, ceramides, and particularly cholesterol in the axilla. Both ceramide and cholesterol did not appear to change with depth, indicating that they were predominantly of stratum corneum origin. On the other hand, at least some of the fatty acid had a sebaceous origin. We hypothesized that the reduced barrier function might be owing to the changes in the crucial ceramide : cholesterol ratio. To address this, we used a combination of attenuated total reflectance-Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) with cyanoacrylate sampling. These results demonstrated more ordered lipid-lamellae phase behaviour in the axilla, suggesting that the elevated cholesterol might form crystal microdomains within the lipid lamellae, allowing an increase in water flux. Since an exaggerated application of antiperspirant had no effect upon the axilla barrier properties, it is concluded that this region of skin physiologically has a reduced barrier function.

  15. Detecting reduced renal function in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Trine Borup; Jødal, Lars; Erlandsen, Erland J


    Background The aim of this study was to compare the ability of renal indicators [serum creatinine (SCr), cystatin C (SCysC)] and glomerular filtration rate (GFR)-models to discriminate normal and reduced renal function. As a single cut-off level will always lead to false classifications, we propose...... using two cut-off levels, dividing renal function into normal or reduced, with an intermediate "gray zone" of indeterminable results.Methods Glomerular filtration rate was measured by plasma clearance of 51Cr-EDTA (13.7–147.4 mL/min/1.73 m2) in 119 children (age range 2.3–14.9 years).Reduced renal.......01), with the BCM-model performing the best (Pformula and SCr-ratio both performed better than SCr and SCysC.Conclusions Among the 119 children enrolled in this study and the renal indicators tested, the BCM-model had the best diagnostic performance in terms of screeningor normal...

  16. Reducing whole body vibration in forklift drivers. (United States)

    Motmans, R


    Forklift drivers in warehouses are often exposed to whole body vibration (WBV) during the total day. There is however an association between working as a forklift operator and the development of low back pain. In this study the exposure to WBV was measured in five forklift drivers who performed a standardised order picking task during 10 minutes. The effect of driving surface (uneven concrete vs. new flat concrete), driving speed (15 km/h vs. 8 km/h) and seat suspension (mechanical suspension vs. air suspension) was investigated. Improving the driving surface was the most effective preventive measure by reducing the whole body vibration with 39%, from 1.14 to 0.69 m/s2. Lowering the speed limit resulted in a reduction of WBV with 26% (1.05 vs. 0.78 m/s2). An air suspension seat was 22% more effective compared to mechanical suspension (1.02 vs. 0.80 m/s2). On uneven concrete an air suspension seat performed even better by reducing the WBV by 29% (1.33 vs. 0.95 m/s2). A combination of a new driving surface, limiting the maximum speed and the introduction of an air suspension seat reduced the whole body vibrations below the action limit of 0.5 m/s2 as mentioned in the European directive. None of the interventions were effective enough on their own.

  17. The reducing antioxidant capacity of Mycoplasma fermentans. (United States)

    Yavlovich, Amichai; Kohen, Ron; Ginsburg, Isaac; Rottem, Shlomo


    Mycoplasma fermentans is an extracellular microorganism capable of adhering to the surface of host cells. It has been recently shown that plasminogen binding to M. fermentans in the presence of the urokinase-type plasminogen activator promotes the invasion of host cells by this organism. In this report, we show that viable mycoplasmas persist within the infected HeLa cells for prolonged periods of time despite the expectation that within host cells the organism may be exposed to oxidative stress. Using cyclic voltammetry and luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence assays, we detected a potent reducing antioxidant activity in M. fermentans. The reducing antioxidant activity was heat stable, not affected by proteolysis and was almost totally lost upon dialysis suggesting that the activity is due to a nonproteinaceus low molecular weight antioxidant. This antioxidant was partially purified by Bio-Gel column chromatography followed by high-pressure liquid chromatographic analysis. We suggest that the high reducing antioxidant capacity in M. fermentans is a principal defense mechanism playing a major role in the battle of the organism against oxidative stress within the host cells.

  18. Normal Forms for Reduced Stochastic Climate Models (United States)

    Franzke, C.; Majda, A.; Crommelin, D.


    The systematic development of reduced low-dimensional stochastic climate models from observations or comprehensive high-dimensional climate models is an important topic for low-frequency variability, climate sensitivity, and improved extended range forecasting. Here techniques from applied mathematics are utilized to systematically derive normal forms for reduced stochastic climate models for low-frequency variables. The use of a few Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOF) depending on observational data to span the low-frequency subspace requires the assessment of dyad interactions besides the more familiar triads in the interaction between the low- and high-frequency subspaces of the dynamics. It will be shown that the dyad and multiplicative triad interactions combine with the climatological linear operator interactions to simultaneously produce both strong nonlinear dissipation and Correlated Additive and Multiplicative (CAM) stochastic noise. For a single low-frequency variable the dyad interactions and climatological linear operator alone produce a normal form with CAM noise from advection of the large-scales by the small scales and simultaneously strong cubic damping. This normal form should prove useful for developing systematic regression fitting strategies for stochastic models of climate data. The validity of the one and two dimensional normal forms will be presented. Also the analytical PDF form for one-dimensional reduced models will be derived. This PDF can exhibit power-law decay only over a limited range and its ultimate decay is determined by the cubic damping. This cubic damping produces a Gaussian tail.

  19. Refractory of Furnaces to Reduce Environmental Impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanzawa, Shigeru, E-mail: [NGK Insulators, LTD., Mizuho, Nagoya (Japan)


    The energy load of furnaces used in the manufacturing process of ceramics is quite large. Most of the environmental impact of ceramics manufacturing is due to the CO{sub 2} produced from this high energy load. To improve this situation, R and D has focused on furnace systems and techniques of control in order to reduce energy load. Since furnaces are comprised of refractory, consideration of their mechanical and thermal characteristics is important. Herein are described several refractory types which were chosen through comparison of the characteristics which contribute to heat capacity reduction, heat insulating reinforcement and high emissivity, thereby improving thermal radiation heat transfer efficiency to the ceramic articles. One selected refractory material which will reduce the environmental impact of a furnace, chosen considering low heat capacity and high emissivity characteristics, is SiC. In this study, thermal radiation heat transfer efficiency improvement and its effect on ceramic articles in the furnace and oxidation behaviour were investigated at 1700K. A high density SiC refractory, built into the furnace at construction, has relatively high oxidation durability and has the ability to reduce environmental impact-CO{sub 2} by 10 percent by decreasing the furnace's energy load. However, new oxidation prevention techniques for SiC will be necessary for long-term use in industrial furnaces, because passive to active oxidation transition behaviour of commercial SiC refractory is coming to close ideal.

  20. Monitoring sulfide and sulfate-reducing bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanner, R.S.


    Simple yet precise and accurate methods for monitoring sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and sulfide remain useful for the study of bacterial souring and corrosion. Test kits are available to measure sulfide in field samples. A more precise methylene blue sulfide assay for both field and laboratory studies is described here. Improved media, compared to that in API RP-38, for enumeration of SRB have been formulated. One of these, API-RST, contained cysteine (1.1 mM) as a reducing agent, which may be a confounding source of sulfide. While cysteine was required for rapid enumeration of SRB from environmental samples, the concentration of cysteine in medium could be reduced to 0.4 mM. It was also determined that elevated levels of yeast extract (>1 g/liter) could interfere with enumeration of SRB from environmental samples. The API-RST medium was modified to a RST-11 medium. Other changes in medium composition, in addition to reduction of cysteine, included reduction of the concentration of phosphate from 3.4 mM to 2.2 mM, reduction of the concentration of ferrous iron from 0.8 mM to 0.5 mM and preparation of a stock mineral solution to ease medium preparation. SRB from environmental samples could be enumerated in a week in this medium.

  1. Reducing dietary sodium intake: the Canadian context. (United States)

    Barr, Susan I


    Sodium is a required nutrient; Adequate Intakes for adults range from 1200 to 1500 mg*day(-1), depending on age. The Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) for sodium is 2300 mg*day(-1) for adults, based on the relationship between sodium intake and increased blood pressure. Elevated blood pressure, which is prevalent among Canadians, is, in turn, a major risk factor for stroke, cardiovascular disease, and renal disease. Sodium intake is not the only determinant of blood pressure; other modifiable risk factors include relative mass, physical activity, overall dietary quality, and alcohol consumption. However, because >90% of adult Canadian men and two thirds of Canadian women have sodium intakes above the UL, Health Canada's Working Group on Dietary Sodium Reduction has been charged with developing, implementing, and overseeing a strategy to reduce Canadians' sodium intakes. It is estimated that approximately 75% of dietary sodium is added during food processing; in addition to taste and palatability, sodium also has functional roles in food manufacturing and preservation, although the amounts used often exceed those required. Because of the central role of processed foods in sodium intake, the strategy proposed by Health Canada's Working Group includes voluntary reduction of sodium in processed foods and foods sold in food service establishments. It will also include an education and awareness campaign, and research and surveillance. Initiatives to reduce sodium in other parts of the world have demonstrated that it will be challenging to reduce sodium intake to the recommended range and will likely require many years to accomplish.

  2. Reducing environmental bias when measuring natural selection. (United States)

    Scheiner, Samuel M; Donohue, Kathleen; Dorn, Lisa A; Mazer, Susan J; Wolfe, Lorne M


    Crucial to understanding the process of natural selection is characterizing phenotypic selection. Measures of phenotypic selection can be biased by environmental variation among individuals that causes a spurious correlation between a trait and fitness. One solution is analyzing genotypic data, rather than phenotypic data. Genotypic data, however, are difficult to gather, can be gathered from few species, and typically have low statistical power. Environmental correlations may act through traits other than through fitness itself. A path analytic framework, which includes measures of such traits, may reduce environmental bias in estimates of selection coefficients. We tested the efficacy of path analysis to reduce bias by re-analyzing three experiments where both phenotypic and genotypic data were available. All three consisted of plant species (Impatiens capensis, Arabidopsis thaliana, and Raphanus sativus) grown in experimental plots or the greenhouse. We found that selection coefficients estimated by path analysis using phenotypic data were highly correlated with those based on genotypic data with little systematic bias in estimating the strength of selection. Although not a panacea, using path analysis can substantially reduce environmental biases in estimates of selection coefficients. Such confidence in phenotypic selection estimates is critical for progress in the study of natural selection.

  3. Reducing blood viscosity with magnetic fields. (United States)

    Tao, R; Huang, K


    Blood viscosity is a major factor in heart disease. When blood viscosity increases, it damages blood vessels and increases the risk of heart attacks. Currently, the only method of treatment is to take drugs such as aspirin, which has, however, several unwanted side effects. Here we report our finding that blood viscosity can be reduced with magnetic fields of 1 T or above in the blood flow direction. One magnetic field pulse of 1.3 T lasting ~1 min can reduce the blood viscosity by 20%-30%. After the exposure, in the absence of magnetic field, the blood viscosity slowly moves up, but takes a couple of hours to return to the original value. The process is repeatable. Reapplying the magnetic field reduces the blood viscosity again. By selecting the magnetic field strength and duration, we can keep the blood viscosity within the normal range. In addition, such viscosity reduction does not affect the red blood cells' normal function. This technology has much potential for physical therapy.

  4. Swimming Motility Reduces Deposition to Silica Surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Nanxi [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Massoudieh, Arash [The Catholic Univ. of America, Washington, DC (United States); Liang, Xiaomeng [The Catholic Univ. of America, Washington, DC (United States); Hu, Dehong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kamai, Tamir [Agricultural Research Organization, Bet Dagan (Israel); Ginn, Timothy R. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States); Zilles, Julie L. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Nguyen, Thanh H. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States)


    The role of swimming motility on bacterial transport and fate in porous media was evaluated. We present microscopic evidence showing that strong swimming motility reduces attachment of Azotobacter vinelandii cells to silica surfaces. Applying global and cluster statistical analyses to microscopic videos taken under non-flow conditions, wild type, flagellated A. vinelandii strain DJ showed strong swimming ability with an average speed of 13.1 μm/s, DJ77 showed impaired swimming averaged at 8.7 μm/s, and both the non-flagellated JZ52 and chemically treated DJ cells were non-motile. Quantitative analyses of trajectories observed at different distances above the collector of a radial stagnation point flow cell (RSPF) revealed that both swimming and non-swimming cells moved with the flow when at a distance of at least 20 μm from the collector surface. Near the surface, DJ cells showed both horizontal and vertical movement diverging them from reaching surfaces, while chemically treated DJ cells moved with the flow to reach surfaces, suggesting that strong swimming reduced attachment. In agreement with the RSPF results, the deposition rates obtained for two-dimensional multiple-collector micromodels were also lowest for DJ, while DJ77 and JZ52 showed similar values. Strong swimming specifically reduced deposition on the upstream surfaces of the micromodel collectors.

  5. Methamphetamine reduces human influenza A virus replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Hsiang Chen

    Full Text Available Methamphetamine (meth is a highly addictive psychostimulant that is among the most widely abused illicit drugs, with an estimated over 35 million users in the world. Several lines of evidence suggest that chronic meth abuse is a major factor for increased risk of infections with human immunodeficiency virus and possibly other pathogens, due to its immunosuppressive property. Influenza A virus infections frequently cause epidemics and pandemics of respiratory diseases among human populations. However, little is known about whether meth has the ability to enhance influenza A virus replication, thus increasing severity of influenza illness in meth abusers. Herein, we investigated the effects of meth on influenza A virus replication in human lung epithelial A549 cells. The cells were exposed to meth and infected with human influenza A/WSN/33 (H1N1 virus. The viral progenies were titrated by plaque assays, and the expression of viral proteins and cellular proteins involved in interferon responses was examined by Western blotting and immunofluorescence staining. We report the first evidence that meth significantly reduces, rather than increases, virus propagation and the susceptibility to influenza infection in the human lung epithelial cell line, consistent with a decrease in viral protein synthesis. These effects were apparently not caused by meth's effects on enhancing virus-induced interferon responses in the host cells, reducing viral biological activities, or reducing cell viability. Our results suggest that meth might not be a great risk factor for influenza A virus infection among meth abusers. Although the underlying mechanism responsible for the action of meth on attenuating virus replication requires further investigation, these findings prompt the study to examine whether other structurally similar compounds could be used as anti-influenza agents.

  6. Does antenatal education reduce fear of childbirth? (United States)

    Karabulut, Ö; Coşkuner Potur, D; Doğan Merih, Y; Cebeci Mutlu, S; Demirci, N


    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of antenatal education on fear of childbirth, acceptance of pregnancy and identification with motherhood role. There is insufficient evidence pertaining to the effect of antenatal education on fear of childbirth, acceptance of pregnancy and identification with motherhood role. The purpose of antenatal education is to help couples make the right decisions during delivery. Through antenatal education, couples prepare themselves for delivery. This is a quasi-experimental and prospective study that employs a pre- and post-education model. In total, 192 pregnant women (education group, n = 69 and control group, n = 123) participated in the study. Data were collected using the pregnancy identification form: the Prenatal Self-Evaluation Questionnaire and a version of the Wijma Delivery Expectancy/Experience Questionnaire. Prior to participating in the study, the education group and control group had similar levels of acceptance of pregnancy and identification with motherhood role, whereas a significant difference was found in their fear of childbirth levels. When surveyed again after receiving education, the two groups' levels of acceptance of pregnancy and fear of childbirth were found to be significantly different. However, they had similar levels of identification with the motherhood role. Antenatal education appears to increase the acceptance of pregnancy, does not affect the identification with motherhood role and reduces the fear of childbirth. A systematic antenatal education programme, as part of routine antenatal care services, would help reduce the rate of interventional labour and facilitate pregnant women's conscious participation in the act of labour by reducing their fear of childbirth. © 2015 International Council of Nurses.

  7. Reducing Delay in Diagnosis: Multistage Recommendation Tracking. (United States)

    Wandtke, Ben; Gallagher, Sarah


    The purpose of this study was to determine whether a multistage tracking system could improve communication between health care providers, reducing the risk of delay in diagnosis related to inconsistent communication and tracking of radiology follow-up recommendations. Unconditional recommendations for imaging follow-up of all diagnostic imaging modalities excluding mammography (n = 589) were entered into a database and tracked through a multistage tracking system for 13 months. Tracking interventions were performed for patients for whom completion of recommended follow-up imaging could not be identified 1 month after the recommendation due date. Postintervention compliance with the follow-up recommendation required examination completion or clinical closure (i.e., biopsy, limited life expectancy or death, or subspecialist referral). Baseline radiology information system checks performed 1 month after the recommendation due date revealed timely completion of 43.1% of recommended imaging studies at our institution before intervention. Three separate tracking interventions were studied, showing effectiveness between 29.0% and 57.8%. The multistage tracking system increased the examination completion rate to 70.5% (a 52% increase) and reduced the rate of unknown follow-up compliance and the associated risk of delay in diagnosis to 13.9% (a 74% decrease). Examinations completed after tracking intervention generated revenue of 4.1 times greater than the labor cost. Performing sequential radiology recommendation tracking interventions can substantially reduce the rate of unknown follow-up compliance and add value to the health system. Unknown follow-up compliance is a risk factor for delay in diagnosis, a form of preventable medical error commonly identified in malpractice claims involving radiologists and office-based practitioners.

  8. Intensive agriculture reduces soil biodiversity across Europe. (United States)

    Tsiafouli, Maria A; Thébault, Elisa; Sgardelis, Stefanos P; de Ruiter, Peter C; van der Putten, Wim H; Birkhofer, Klaus; Hemerik, Lia; de Vries, Franciska T; Bardgett, Richard D; Brady, Mark Vincent; Bjornlund, Lisa; Jørgensen, Helene Bracht; Christensen, Sören; Hertefeldt, Tina D'; Hotes, Stefan; Gera Hol, W H; Frouz, Jan; Liiri, Mira; Mortimer, Simon R; Setälä, Heikki; Tzanopoulos, Joseph; Uteseny, Karoline; Pižl, Václav; Stary, Josef; Wolters, Volkmar; Hedlund, Katarina


    Soil biodiversity plays a key role in regulating the processes that underpin the delivery of ecosystem goods and services in terrestrial ecosystems. Agricultural intensification is known to change the diversity of individual groups of soil biota, but less is known about how intensification affects biodiversity of the soil food web as a whole, and whether or not these effects may be generalized across regions. We examined biodiversity in soil food webs from grasslands, extensive, and intensive rotations in four agricultural regions across Europe: in Sweden, the UK, the Czech Republic and Greece. Effects of land-use intensity were quantified based on structure and diversity among functional groups in the soil food web, as well as on community-weighted mean body mass of soil fauna. We also elucidate land-use intensity effects on diversity of taxonomic units within taxonomic groups of soil fauna. We found that between regions soil food web diversity measures were variable, but that increasing land-use intensity caused highly consistent responses. In particular, land-use intensification reduced the complexity in the soil food webs, as well as the community-weighted mean body mass of soil fauna. In all regions across Europe, species richness of earthworms, Collembolans, and oribatid mites was negatively affected by increased land-use intensity. The taxonomic distinctness, which is a measure of taxonomic relatedness of species in a community that is independent of species richness, was also reduced by land-use intensification. We conclude that intensive agriculture reduces soil biodiversity, making soil food webs less diverse and composed of smaller bodied organisms. Land-use intensification results in fewer functional groups of soil biota with fewer and taxonomically more closely related species. We discuss how these changes in soil biodiversity due to land-use intensification may threaten the functioning of soil in agricultural production systems. © 2014 John Wiley

  9. Deciding for Future Selves Reduces Loss Aversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiqi Cheng


    Full Text Available In this paper, we present an incentivized experiment to investigate the degree of loss aversion when people make decisions for their current selves and future selves under risk. We find that when participants make decisions for their future selves, they are less loss averse compared to when they make decisions for their current selves. This finding is consistent with the interpretation of loss aversion as a bias in decision-making driven by emotions, which are reduced when making decisions for future selves. Our findings endorsed the external validity of previous studies on the impact of emotion on loss aversion in a real world decision-making environment.

  10. Suspensions with reduced violin string modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, B H; Ju, L; Blair, D G [School of Physics, University of Western Australia, Crawley 6009, WA (Australia)


    We discuss the possibility of significantly reducing the number and Q-factor of violin string modes in the mirror suspension. Simulations of a bar-flexure suspension and an orthogonal ribbon have shown a reduction in the number of violin string modes when compared to a normal ribbon suspension. By calculating the expected suspension thermal noise, we find that the orthogonal ribbon provides a promising suspension alternative. A lower number of violin modes oscillating in the direction of the laser and a reduction in violin mode peak values of at least 23dB can be achieved with a slight increase in thermal noise above 40Hz.

  11. Reducing Future International Chemical and Biological Dangers.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddal, Chad [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bull, Diana L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hernandez, Patricia Marie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Foley, John T. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    The International Biological and Chemical Threat Reduction Program at Sandia National Laboratories is developing a 15 - year technology road map in support the United States Government efforts to reduce international chemical and biological dangers . In 2017, the program leadership chartered an analysis team to explore dangers in the future international chemical and biological landscape through engagements with national security experts within and beyond Sandia to gain a multidisciplinary perspective on the future . This report offers a hi gh level landscape of future chemical and biological dangers based upon analysis of those engagements and provides support for further technology road map development.

  12. Clinker mineral hydration at reduced relative humidities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Mejlhede; Hansen, Per Freiesleben; Lachowski, Eric E.


    Vapour phase hydration of purl cement clinker minerals at reduced relative humidities is described. This is relevant to modern high performance concrete that may self-desiccate during hydration and is also relevant to the quality of the cement during storage. Both the oretical considerations...... and experimental data are presented showing that C(3)A can hydrate at lower humidities than either C3S or C2S. It is suggested that the initiation of hydration during exposure to water vapour is nucleation controlled. When C(3)A hydrates at low humidity, the characteristic hydration product is C(3)AH(6...

  13. Reducible gauge theories in very special relativity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upadhyay, Sudhaker, E-mail: [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, 208016, Kanpur (India)


    In this paper we analyze the tensor field (reducible gauge) theories in the context of very special relativity (VSR). Particularly, we study the VSR gauge symmetry as well as VSR BRST symmetry of Kalb–Ramond and Abelian 3-form fields involving a fixed null vector. We observe that the Kalb–Ramond and Abelian 3-form fields and corresponding ghosts get masses in the VSR framework. The effective action in VSR-type axial gauge is greatly simplified compared with the VSR-type Lorenz gauge. Further, we quantize these models using a Batalin–Vilkovisy (BV) formulation in VSR.

  14. Reducible gauge theories in very special relativity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upadhyay, Sudhaker [Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Department of Physics, Kanpur (India)


    In this paper we analyze the tensor field (reducible gauge) theories in the context of very special relativity (VSR). Particularly, we study the VSR gauge symmetry as well as VSR BRST symmetry of Kalb-Ramond and Abelian 3-form fields involving a fixed null vector. We observe that the Kalb-Ramond and Abelian 3-form fields and corresponding ghosts get masses in the VSR framework. The effective action in VSR-type axial gauge is greatly simplified compared with the VSR-type Lorenz gauge. Further, we quantize these models using a Batalin-Vilkovisy (BV) formulation in VSR. (orig.)

  15. Improving Realism in Reduced Gravity Simulators (United States)

    Cowley, Matthew; Harvil, Lauren; Clowers, Kurt; Clark, Timothy; Rajulu, Sudhakar


    Since man was first determined to walk on the moon, simulating the lunar environment became a priority. Providing an accurate reduced gravity environment is crucial for astronaut training and hardware testing. This presentation will follow the development of reduced gravity simulators to a final comparison of environments between the currently used systems. During the Apollo program era, multiple systems were built and tested, with several NASA centers having their own unique device. These systems ranged from marionette-like suspension devices where the subject laid on his side, to pneumatically driven offloading harnesses, to parabolic flights. However, only token comparisons, if any, were made between systems. Parabolic flight allows the entire body to fall at the same rate, giving an excellent simulation of reduced gravity as far as the biomechanics and physical perceptions are concerned. While the effects are accurate, there is limited workspace, limited time, and high cost associated with these tests. With all mechanical offload systems only the parts of the body that are actively offloaded feel any reduced gravity effects. The rest of the body still feels the full effect of gravity. The Partial Gravity System (Pogo) is the current ground-based offload system used to training and testing at the NASA Johnson Space Center. The Pogo is a pneumatic type system that allows for offloaded motion in the z-axis and free movement in the x-axis, but has limited motion in the y-axis. The pneumatic system itself is limited by cylinder stroke length and response time. The Active Response Gravity Offload System (ARGOS) is a next generation groundbased offload system, currently in development, that is based on modern robotic manufacturing lines. This system is projected to provide more z-axis travel and full freedom in both the x and y-axes. Current characterization tests are underway to determine how the ground-based offloading systems perform, how they compare to parabolic

  16. Environment, Renewable Energy and Reduced Carbon Emissions (United States)

    Sen, S.; Khazanov, G.; Kishimoto, Y.


    Increased energy security and reduced carbon emissions pose significant challenges for science and technology. However, they also create substantial opportunities for innovative research and development. In this review paper, we highlight some of the key opportunities and mention public policies that are needed to enable the efforts and to maximize the probability of their success. Climate is among the uttermost nonlinear behaviors found around us. As recent studies showed the possible effect of cosmic rays on the Earth's climate, we investigate how complex interactions between the planet and its environment can be responsible for climate anomalies.

  17. Reducing hazards for animals from humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul-Pierre Pastoret


    Full Text Available If animals may be a source of hazards for humans, the reverse is equally true. The main sources of hazards from humans to animals, are the impact of human introduction of transboundary animal diseases, climate change, globalisation, introduction of invasive species and reduction of biodiversity.There is also a trend toward reducing genetic diversity in domestic animals, such as cattle; there are presently around 700 different breeds of cattle many of which at the verge of extinction (less than 100 reproductive females. The impact of humans is also indirect through detrimental effects on the environment. It is therefore urgent to implement the new concept of “one health"....

  18. Reduce proton energy spread by target ablation

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Shuan; Chen, Jiaer; Yan, Xueqing


    It's shown that, with strong target ablation monoenergetic protons along the laser direction is available during the laser aluminum foil interaction, which is different from the classic TNSA theory. When the laser pre-pulse is too strong that the whole target is vaporized, the energetic electrons generated in the gas preplasma will play an important role for the ion acceleration because the sheath field will not be available. These electrons beam, which is highly directional, will setup triangle envelope acceleration field along the laser direction at the target rear, reducing the ion energy spread.

  19. Approaches to reduce bullying in schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kousholt, Kristine; Fisker, Tine Basse


    In this article, recent research literature on bullying in schools is discussed. The authors approach the discussion from a critical angle, distinguishing between first-order perspectives (bullying as part of individuals’ dysfunction) and second-order perspectives (bullying as part of social...... processes) to embrace the different understandings of bullying and to discuss these critically. The purpose is to present important knowledge to reduce bullying and to engage in a discussion of different perspectives on bullying. This article contributes to the existing knowledge of the field by discussing...

  20. Model Checking Properties on Reduced Trace Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Santone


    Full Text Available Temporal logic has become a well-established method for specifying the behavior of distributed systems. In this paper, we interpret a temporal logic over a partial order model that is a trace system. The satisfaction of the formulae is directly defined on traces on the basis of rewriting rules; so, the graph representation of the system can be completely avoided; moreover, a method is presented that keeps the trace system finite, also in the presence of infinite computations. To further reduce the complexity of model checking temporal logic formulae, an abstraction technique is applied to trace systems.

  1. Reducing risk where tectonic plates collide (United States)

    Gomberg, Joan S.; Ludwig, Kristin A.


    Most of the world’s earthquakes, tsunamis, landslides, and volcanic eruptions are caused by the continuous motions of the many tectonic plates that make up the Earth’s outer shell. The most powerful of these natural hazards occur in subduction zones, where two plates collide and one is thrust beneath another. The U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) “Reducing Risk Where Tectonic Plates Collide—A USGS Plan to Advance Subduction Zone Science” is a blueprint for building the crucial scientific foundation needed to inform the policies and practices that can make our Nation more resilient to subduction zone-related hazards.

  2. Autonomous Droop Scheme With Reduced Generation Cost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nutkani, Inam Ullah; Loh, Poh Chiang; Wang, Peng


    . This objective might, however, not suit microgrids well since DGs are usually of different types, unlike synchronous generators. Other factors like cost, efficiency, and emission penalty of each DG at different loading must be considered since they contribute directly to the total generation cost (TGC......) of the microgrid. To reduce this TGC without relying on fast communication links, an autonomous droop scheme is proposed here, whose resulting power sharing is decided by the individual DG generation costs. Comparing it with the traditional scheme, the proposed scheme retains its simplicity and it is hence more...

  3. Hadoop MapReduce v2 cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Gunarathne, Thilina


    If you are a Big Data enthusiast and wish to use Hadoop v2 to solve your problems, then this book is for you. This book is for Java programmers with little to moderate knowledge of Hadoop MapReduce. This is also a one-stop reference for developers and system admins who want to quickly get up to speed with using Hadoop v2. It would be helpful to have a basic knowledge of software development using Java and a basic working knowledge of Linux.

  4. Urban warming reduces aboveground carbon storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meineke, Emily; Youngsteadt, Elsa; Dunn, Robert Roberdeau


    sequestration (carbon stored per year) of mature trees. Urban warming increased herbivorous arthropod abundance on trees, but these herbivores had negligible effects on tree carbon sequestration. Instead, urban warming was associated with an estimated 12% loss of carbon sequestration, in part because...... photosynthesis was reduced at hotter sites. Ecosystem service assessments that do not consider urban conditions may overestimate urban tree carbon storage. Because urban and global warming are becoming more intense, our results suggest that urban trees will sequester even less carbon in the future....

  5. Reducing stigma and discrimination: Candidate interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kassam Aliya


    Full Text Available Abstract This paper proposes that stigma in relation to people with mental illness can be understood as a combination of problems of knowledge (ignorance, attitudes (prejudice and behaviour (discrimination. From a literature review, a series of candidate interventions are identified which may be effective in reducing stigmatisation and discrimination at the following levels: individuals with mental illness and their family members; the workplace; and local, national and international. The strongest evidence for effective interventions at present is for (i direct social contact with people with mental illness at the individual level, and (ii social marketing at the population level.

  6. How writing records reduces clinical knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, Niels


    drew on data from an extended fieldwork on two Danish "special observation" wards. The results indicated that the nurses' recording produced "stereotyping" representations of the patients and reduced the nurses' clinical knowledge but that this particular way of recording made good sense in relation......Through the practices of recording, psychiatric nurses produce clinical knowledge about the patients in their care. The objective of this study was to examine the conventionalized practices of recording among psychiatric nurses and the typical linguistic organization of their records. The study...

  7. Motivational Counseling to Reduce Sitting Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aadahl, Mette; Linneberg, Allan; Møller, Trine C


    BACKGROUND: Sedentary behavior is regarded as a distinct risk factor for cardiometabolic morbidity and mortality, but knowledge of the efficacy of interventions targeting reductions in sedentary behavior is limited. PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of an individualized face-to-face motivational...... counseling intervention aimed at reducing sitting time. DESIGN: A randomized, controlled, observer-blinded, community-based trial with two parallel groups using open-end randomization with 1:1 allocation. SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: A total of 166 sedentary adults were consecutively recruited from the population...... and improving cardiometabolic health in sedentary adults. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study is registered at (NCT00289237)....

  8. Novel Reduced-Feedback Wireless Communication Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Shaqfeh, Mohammad Obaidah


    Modern communication systems apply channel-aware adaptive transmission techniques and dynamic resource allocation in order to exploit the peak conditions of the fading wireless links and to enable significant performance gains. However, conveying the channel state information among the users’ mobile terminals into the access points of the network consumes a significant portion of the scarce air-link resources and depletes the battery resources of the mobile terminals rapidly. Despite its evident drawbacks, the channel information feedback cannot be eliminated in modern wireless networks because blind communication technologies cannot support the ever-increasing transmission rates and high quality of experience demands of current ubiquitous services. Developing new transmission technologies with reduced-feedback requirements is sought. Network operators will benefit from releasing the bandwidth resources reserved for the feedback communications and the clients will enjoy the extended battery life of their mobile devices. The main technical challenge is to preserve the prospected transmission rates over the network despite decreasing the channel information feedback significantly. This is a noteworthy research theme especially that there is no mature theory for feedback communication in the existing literature despite the growing number of publications about the topic in the last few years. More research efforts are needed to characterize the trade-off between the achievable rate and the required channel information and to design new reduced-feedback schemes that can be flexibly controlled based on the operator preferences. Such schemes can be then introduced into the standardization bodies for consideration in next generation broadband systems. We have recently contributed to this field and published several journal and conference papers. We are the pioneers to propose a novel reduced-feedback opportunistic scheduling scheme that combines many desired features

  9. Reducing robotic prostatectomy costs by minimizing instrumentation. (United States)

    Delto, Joan C; Wayne, George; Yanes, Rafael; Nieder, Alan M; Bhandari, Akshay


    Since the introduction of robotic surgery for radical prostatectomy, the cost-benefit of this technology has been under scrutiny. While robotic surgery professes to offer multiple advantages, including reduced blood loss, reduced length of stay, and expedient recovery, the associated costs tend to be significantly higher, secondary to the fixed cost of the robot as well as the variable costs associated with instrumentation. This study provides a simple framework for the careful consideration of costs during the selection of equipment and materials. Two experienced robotic surgeons at our institution as well as several at other institutions were queried about their preferred instrument usage for robot-assisted prostatectomy. Costs of instruments and materials were obtained and clustered by type and price. A minimal set of instruments was identified and compared against alternative instrumentation. A retrospective review of 125 patients who underwent robotically assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy for prostate cancer at our institution was performed to compare estimated blood loss (EBL), operative times, and intraoperative complications for both surgeons. Our surgeons now conceptualize instrument costs as proportional changes to the cost of the baseline minimal combination. Robotic costs at our institution were reduced by eliminating an energy source like the Ligasure or vessel sealer, exploiting instrument versatility, and utilizing inexpensive tools such as Hem-o-lok clips. Such modifications reduced surgeon 1's cost of instrumentation to ∼40% less compared with surgeon 2 and up to 32% less than instrumentation used by surgeons at other institutions. Surgeon 1's combination may not be optimal for all robotic surgeons; however, it establishes a minimally viable toolbox for our institution through a rudimentary cost analysis. A similar analysis may aid others in better conceptualizing long-term costs not as nominal, often unwieldy prices, but as percent changes in

  10. Reducing the spectral index in supernatural inflation (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Min; Cheung, Kingman


    Supernatural inflation is an attractive model based on just a flat direction with soft supersymmetry breaking mass terms in the framework of supersymmetry. The beauty of the model is that it needs no fine-tuning. However, the prediction of the spectral index is ns≳1, in contrast to experimental data. In this paper, we discuss supernatural inflation with the spectral index reduced to ns=0.96 without any fine-tuning, considering the general feature that a flat direction is lifted by a nonrenormalizable term with an A-term.

  11. Recommendations for reducing ambiguity in written procedures.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matzen, Laura E.


    Previous studies in the nuclear weapons complex have shown that ambiguous work instructions (WIs) and operating procedures (OPs) can lead to human error, which is a major cause for concern. This report outlines some of the sources of ambiguity in written English and describes three recommendations for reducing ambiguity in WIs and OPs. The recommendations are based on commonly used research techniques in the fields of linguistics and cognitive psychology. The first recommendation is to gather empirical data that can be used to improve the recommended word lists that are provided to technical writers. The second recommendation is to have a review in which new WIs and OPs and checked for ambiguities and clarity. The third recommendation is to use self-paced reading time studies to identify any remaining ambiguities before the new WIs and OPs are put into use. If these three steps are followed for new WIs and OPs, the likelihood of human errors related to ambiguity could be greatly reduced.

  12. Quantifying data worth toward reducing predictive uncertainty (United States)

    Dausman, A.M.; Doherty, J.; Langevin, C.D.; Sukop, M.C.


    The present study demonstrates a methodology for optimization of environmental data acquisition. Based on the premise that the worth of data increases in proportion to its ability to reduce the uncertainty of key model predictions, the methodology can be used to compare the worth of different data types, gathered at different locations within study areas of arbitrary complexity. The method is applied to a hypothetical nonlinear, variable density numerical model of salt and heat transport. The relative utilities of temperature and concentration measurements at different locations within the model domain are assessed in terms of their ability to reduce the uncertainty associated with predictions of movement of the salt water interface in response to a decrease in fresh water recharge. In order to test the sensitivity of the method to nonlinear model behavior, analyses were repeated for multiple realizations of system properties. Rankings of observation worth were similar for all realizations, indicating robust performance of the methodology when employed in conjunction with a highly nonlinear model. The analysis showed that while concentration and temperature measurements can both aid in the prediction of interface movement, concentration measurements, especially when taken in proximity to the interface at locations where the interface is expected to move, are of greater worth than temperature measurements. Nevertheless, it was also demonstrated that pairs of temperature measurements, taken in strategic locations with respect to the interface, can also lead to more precise predictions of interface movement. Journal compilation ?? 2010 National Ground Water Association.

  13. Counter measures to effectively reduce end flare (United States)

    Moneke, Matthias; Groche, Peter


    Roll forming is a manufacturing process, whose profitability is predicated on its high output. When roll formed profiles are cut to length, process related residual stresses are released and increased deformation at the profile ends at the cut-off occurs, also known as end flare. U-profiles typically show a flaring in at the lead end and a flaring out at the tail end. Due to this deformation, deviations from the dimensional accuracy can occur, which cause problems during further processing of the parts. Additional operations are necessary to compensate for the end flare, thereby increasing plant deployment time and production costs. Recent research focused on the cause of the residual stresses and it was shown, that a combination of residual longitudinal stresses and residual shear stresses are responsible for end flare. By exploiting this knowledge, it is possible to determine, depending on the flaring of the profile, in which part of the profile residual longitudinal or residual shear stresses are prevalent and which counter measures can specifically counteract the responsible residual stresses. For this purpose numerical and experimental investigations on a U-, Hat- and C-Profile were conducted. It could be shown that overbending and bending back of the profile is most effective in reducing end flare. Another developed method is lowering and elevating the profile to reduce residual longitudinal stresses.

  14. Reducing substance use improves adolescents' school attendance. (United States)

    Engberg, John; Morral, Andrew R


    Substance use initiation and frequency are associated with reduced educational attainments among adolescents. We examined if decreases in substance use substantially improve youths' school attendance. A total of 1084 US adolescents followed quarterly for 1 year after entering substance abuse treatment. Random and fixed effects regression models were used to differentiate the lagged effects of drug use from other time-varying and time-invariant covariates. Self-reports of alcohol, marijuana, stimulants, sedatives, hallucinogens and other drug use were used to predict subsequent school attendance, after controlling for demographic and drug use history characteristics, problem indices and other covariates. Reductions in the frequency of alcohol, stimulants and other drug use and the elimination of marijuana use were each associated independently with increased likelihoods of school attendance. Because years of completed schooling is highly correlated with long-term social and economic outcomes, the possibility that reductions in substance use may improve school attendance has significant implications for the cost-effectiveness of substance abuse treatment and other interventions designed to reduce adolescents' substance use.

  15. Night myopia is reduced in binocular vision. (United States)

    Chirre, Emmanuel; Prieto, Pedro M; Schwarz, Christina; Artal, Pablo


    Night myopia, which is a shift in refraction with light level, has been widely studied but still lacks a complete understanding. We used a new infrared open-view binocular Hartmann-Shack wave front sensor to quantify night myopia under monocular and natural binocular viewing conditions. Both eyes' accommodative response, aberrations, pupil diameter, and convergence were simultaneously measured at light levels ranging from photopic to scotopic conditions to total darkness. For monocular vision, reducing the stimulus luminance resulted in a progression of the accommodative state that tends toward the subject's dark focus or tonic accommodation and a change in convergence following the induced accommodative error. Most subjects presented a myopic shift of accommodation that was mitigated in binocular vision. The impact of spherical aberration on the focus shift was relatively small. Our results in monocular conditions support the hypothesis that night myopia has an accommodative origin as the eye progressively changes its accommodation state with decreasing luminance toward its resting state in total darkness. On the other hand, binocularity restrains night myopia, possibly by using fusional convergence as an additional accommodative cue, thus reducing the potential impact of night myopia on vision at low light levels.

  16. Towards quantitative connectivity analysis: reducing tractography biases. (United States)

    Girard, Gabriel; Whittingstall, Kevin; Deriche, Rachid; Descoteaux, Maxime


    Diffusion MRI tractography is often used to estimate structural connections between brain areas and there is a fast-growing interest in quantifying these connections based on their position, shape, size and length. However, a portion of the connections reconstructed with tractography is biased by their position, shape, size and length. Thus, connections reconstructed are not equally distributed in all white matter bundles. Quantitative measures of connectivity based on the streamline distribution in the brain such as streamline count (density), average length and spatial extent (volume) are biased by erroneous streamlines produced by tractography algorithms. In this paper, solutions are proposed to reduce biases in the streamline distribution. First, we propose to optimize tractography parameters in terms of connectivity. Then, we propose to relax the tractography stopping criterion with a novel probabilistic stopping criterion and a particle filtering method, both based on tissue partial volume estimation maps calculated from a T1-weighted image. We show that optimizing tractography parameters, stopping and seeding strategies can reduce the biases in position, shape, size and length of the streamline distribution. These tractography biases are quantitatively reported using in-vivo and synthetic data. This is a critical step towards producing tractography results for quantitative structural connectivity analysis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Listening to music reduces eye movements. (United States)

    Schäfer, Thomas; Fachner, Jörg


    Listening to music can change the way that people visually experience the environment, probably as a result of an inwardly directed shift of attention. We investigated whether this attentional shift can be demonstrated by reduced eye movement activity, and if so, whether that reduction depends on absorption. Participants listened to their preferred music, to unknown neutral music, or to no music while viewing a visual stimulus (a picture or a film clip). Preference and absorption were significantly higher for the preferred music than for the unknown music. Participants exhibited longer fixations, fewer saccades, and more blinks when they listened to music than when they sat in silence. However, no differences emerged between the preferred music condition and the neutral music condition. Thus, music significantly reduces eye movement activity, but an attentional shift from the outer to the inner world (i.e., to the emotions and memories evoked by the music) emerged as only one potential explanation. Other explanations, such as a shift of attention from visual to auditory input, are discussed.

  18. Reduced-order modelling numerical homogenization. (United States)

    Abdulle, A; Bai, Y


    A general framework to combine numerical homogenization and reduced-order modelling techniques for partial differential equations (PDEs) with multiple scales is described. Numerical homogenization methods are usually efficient to approximate the effective solution of PDEs with multiple scales. However, classical numerical homogenization techniques require the numerical solution of a large number of so-called microproblems to approximate the effective data at selected grid points of the computational domain. Such computations become particularly expensive for high-dimensional, time-dependent or nonlinear problems. In this paper, we explain how numerical homogenization method can benefit from reduced-order modelling techniques that allow one to identify offline and online computational procedures. The effective data are only computed accurately at a carefully selected number of grid points (offline stage) appropriately 'interpolated' in the online stage resulting in an online cost comparable to that of a single-scale solver. The methodology is presented for a class of PDEs with multiple scales, including elliptic, parabolic, wave and nonlinear problems. Numerical examples, including wave propagation in inhomogeneous media and solute transport in unsaturated porous media, illustrate the proposed method. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  19. How Damage Diversification Can Reduce Systemic Risk

    CERN Document Server

    Burkholz, Rebekka; Schweitzer, Frank


    We consider the problem of risk diversification in complex networks. Nodes represent e.g. financial actors, whereas weighted links represent e.g. financial obligations (credits/debts). Each node has a risk to fail because of losses resulting from defaulting neighbors, which may lead to large failure cascades. Classical risk diversification strategies usually neglect network effects and therefore suggest that risk can be reduced if possible losses (i.e., exposures) are split among many neighbors (exposure diversification, ED). But from a complex networks perspective diversification implies higher connectivity of the system as a whole which can also lead to increasing failure risk of a node. To cope with this, we propose a different strategy (damage diversification, DD), i.e. the diversification of losses that are imposed on neighboring nodes as opposed to losses incurred by the node itself. Here, we quantify the potential of DD to reduce systemic risk in comparison to ED. For this, we develop a branching proce...

  20. Spaceflight reduces somatic embryogenesis in orchardgrass (Poaceae) (United States)

    Conger, B. V.; Tomaszewski, Z. Jr; McDaniel, J. K.; Vasilenko, A.


    Somatic embryos initiate and develop from single mesophyll cells in in vitro cultured leaf segments of orchard-grass (Dactylis glomerata L.). Segments were plated at time periods ranging from 21 to 0.9 d (21 h) prior to launch on an 11 d spaceflight (STS-64). Using a paired t-test, there was no significant difference in embryogenesis from preplating periods of 14 d and 21 d. However, embryogenesis was reduced by 70% in segments plated 21 h before launch and this treatment was significant at P=0.0001. The initial cell divisions leading to embryo formation would be taking place during flight in this treatment. A higher ratio of anticlinal:periclinal first cell divisions observed in the flight compared to the control tissue suggests that microgravity affects axis determination and embryo polarity at a very early stage. A similar reduction in zygotic embryogenesis would reduce seed formation and have important implications for long-term space flight or colonization where seeds would be needed either for direct consumption or to grow another generation of plants.

  1. Production technologies for reduced alcoholic wines. (United States)

    Schmidtke, Leigh M; Blackman, John W; Agboola, Samson O


    The production and sale of alcohol-reduced wines, and the lowering of ethanol concentration in wines with alcohol levels greater than acceptable for a specific wine style, poses a number of technical and marketing challenges. Several engineering solutions and wine production strategies that focus upon pre- or postfermentation technologies have been described and patented for production of wines with lower ethanol concentrations than would naturally arise through normal fermentation and wine production techniques. However, consumer perception and acceptance of the sensory quality of wines manufactured by techniques that utilize thermal distillation for alcohol removal is generally unfavorable. This negative perception from consumers has focused attention on nonthermal production processes and the development or selection of specific yeast strains with downregulated or modified gene expression for alcohol production. The information presented in this review will allow winemakers to assess the relative technical merits of each of the technologies described and make decisions regarding implementation of novel winemaking techniques for reducing ethanol concentration in wine. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  2. Treating Fibrous Insulation to Reduce Thermal Conductivity (United States)

    Zinn, Alfred; Tarkanian, Ryan


    A chemical treatment reduces the convective and radiative contributions to the effective thermal conductivity of porous fibrous thermal-insulation tile. The net effect of the treatment is to coat the surfaces of fibers with a mixture of transition-metal oxides (TMOs) without filling the pores. The TMO coats reduce the cross-sectional areas available for convection while absorbing and scattering thermal radiation in the pores, thereby rendering the tile largely opaque to thermal radiation. The treatment involves a sol-gel process: A solution containing a mixture of transition-metal-oxide-precursor salts plus a gelling agent (e.g., tetraethylorthosilicate) is partially cured, then, before it visibly gels, is used to impregnate the tile. The solution in the tile is gelled, then dried, and then the tile is fired to convert the precursor salts to the desired mixed TMO phases. The amounts of the various TMOs ultimately incorporated into the tile can be tailored via the concentrations of salts in the solution, and the impregnation depth can be tailored via the viscosity of the solution and/or the volume of the solution relative to that of the tile. The amounts of the TMOs determine the absorption and scattering spectra.

  3. Ontological approach to reduce complexity in polypharmacy. (United States)

    Farrish, Susan; Grando, Adela


    Patients that are on many medications are often non-compliant due to the complexity of the medication regimen; consequently, a patient that is non-compliant can have poor medical outcomes. Providers are not always aware of the complexity of their patient's prescriptions. Methods have been developed to calculate the complexity for a patient's regimen but there are no widely available automated tools that will do this for a provider. Given that ontologies are known to provide well-principled, sharable, setting-independent and machine-interpretable declarative specification frameworks for modeling and reasoning on biomedical problems, we have explored their use in the context of reducing medication complexity. Previously we proposed an Ontology for modeling drug-related knowledge and a repository for complexity scoring. Here we tested the Ontology with patient data from the University of California San Diego Epic database, and we built a decision aide that computes the complexity and recommends changes to reduce the complexity, if needed.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan A. SHAHEEN, Ph.D.


    Fortunately, transportation technologies and strategies are emerging that can help to meet the climate challenge. These include automotive and fuel technologies, intelligent transportation systems (ITS, and mobility management strategies that can reduce the demand for private vehicles. While the climate change benefits of innovative engine and vehicle technologies are relatively well understood, there are fewer studies available on the energy and emission impacts of ITS and mobility management strategies. In the future, ITS and mobility management will likely play a greater role in reducing fuel consumption. Studies are often based on simulation models, scenario analysis, and limited deployment experience. Thus, more research is needed to quantify potential impacts. Of the nine ITS technologies examined, traffic signal control, electronic toll collection, bus rapid transit, and traveler information have been deployed more widely and demonstrated positive impacts (but often on a limited basis. Mobility management approaches that have established the greatest CO2 reduction potential, to date, include road pricing policies (congestion and cordon and carsharing (short-term auto access. Other approaches have also indicated CO2 reduction potential including: low-speed modes, integrated regional smart cards, park-and-ride facilities, parking cash out, smart growth, telecommuting, and carpooling.

  5. Energy conservation by reducing process variability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wising, Ulrika; Lafourcade, Sebastien [Pepite S.A., Liege (Belgium); Mack, Philippe [Pepite Technologies Inc., Montreal (Canada)


    Energy conservation is becoming an increasingly important instrument to stay competitive in today is increasingly global market. Important investments have been made in infrastructure and personnel in order to improve the management of energy such as increased metering, energy dashboards, energy managers, etc. Despite these investments, the results have not materialized and there is still a significant potential to further reduce energy consumption. In this paper a new methodology will be presented that helps industry better operate existing assets in order to reduce energy consumption, without having to make capital investments. The methodology uses a combination of advanced data analysis tools and a specific implementation scheme that has lead to significant savings in industry. The advanced data analysis tools are used to analyze the variability of the process in order to assess when the plant has been operated well or not so well in the past. By finding the root causes of these variations and the key variables that can explain them, improved operating guidelines and models can be developed and implemented. The specific implementation scheme is an important part of the methodology as it involves the people operating the plant. Several user cases will be presented showing an energy conservation of between 10%-20% without capital investments necessary. (author)

  6. Explicit information reduces discounting behavior in monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John ePearson


    Full Text Available Animals are notoriously impulsive in common laboratory experiments, preferring smaller, sooner rewards to larger, delayed rewards even when this reduces average reward rates. By contrast, the same animals often engage in natural behaviors that require extreme patience, such as food caching, stalking prey, and traveling long distances to high quality food sites. One possible explanation for this discrepancy is that standard laboratory delay discounting tasks artificially inflate impulsivity by subverting animals’ common learning strategies. To test this idea, we examined choices made by rhesus macaques in two variants of a standard delay discounting task. In the conventional variant, post-reward delays were uncued and adjusted to render total trial length constant; in the second, all delays were cued explicitly. We found that measured discounting was significantly reduced in the cued task, with discount rates well below those reported in studies using the standard uncued design. When monkeys had complete information, their decisions were more consistent with a strategy of reward rate maximization. These results indicate that monkeys, and perhaps other animals, are more patient than is normally assumed, and that laboratory measures of delay discounting may overstate impulsivity.

  7. Mechanisms and Effectivity of Sulfate Reducing Bioreactors ... (United States)

    Mining-influenced water (MIW) is the main environmental challenges associated with the mining industry. Passive MIW remediation can be achieved through microbial activity in sulfate-reducing bioreactors (SRBRs), but their actual removal rates depend on different factors, one of which is the substrate composition. Chitinous materials have demonstrated high metal removal rates, particularly for the two recalcitrant MIW contaminants Zn and Mn, but their removal mechanisms need further study. We studied Cd, Fe, Zn, and Mn removal in bioactive and abiotic SRBRs to elucidate the metal removal mechanisms and the differences in metal and sulfate removal rates using a chitinous material as substrate. We found that sulfate-reducing bacteria are effective in increasing metal and sulfate removal rates and duration of operation in SRBRs, and that the main mechanism involved was metal precipitation as sulfides. The solid residues provided evidence of the presence of sulfides in the bioactive column, more specifically ZnS, according to XPS analysis. The feasibility of passive treatments with a chitinous substrate could be an important option for MIW remediation. Mining influenced water (MIW) remediation is still one of the top priorities for the agency because it addresses the most important environmental problem associated with the mining industry and that affects thousands of communities in the U.S. and worldwide. In this paper, the MIW bioremediation mechanisms are studied

  8. Reduced-port surgery in gynecologic fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwaho Kikuchi


    Full Text Available Reduced-port surgery (RPS is widely used for various abdominal surgeries. In this paper, we review RPS as it applies specifically to the field of obstetrics and gynecology with a view toward its usefulness and future prospects. Due to an advisory that was issued by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in May 2014 sales of the Johnson & Johnson Morcellex devices were discontinued, as a result a great number of institutions are forced to seek alternative methods of morcellation. Thus, we also approach the question of specimen retrieval during myomectomy. When RPS, including single-port surgery, is performed by a competent surgeon for established indications, it is superior to conventional laparoscopic surgery in cosmetic outcome, and it can also reduce pain and shorten the hospital stay. Although ligature manipulations can be problematic, sealing devices are useful for performing total hysterectomy and adnexectomy without ligature. Furthermore, using a single-port technique when it is possible to extend the umbilical incision, manual tissue morcellation is facilitated.

  9. A Fast Reduced Kernel Extreme Learning Machine. (United States)

    Deng, Wan-Yu; Ong, Yew-Soon; Zheng, Qing-Hua


    In this paper, we present a fast and accurate kernel-based supervised algorithm referred to as the Reduced Kernel Extreme Learning Machine (RKELM). In contrast to the work on Support Vector Machine (SVM) or Least Square SVM (LS-SVM), which identifies the support vectors or weight vectors iteratively, the proposed RKELM randomly selects a subset of the available data samples as support vectors (or mapping samples). By avoiding the iterative steps of SVM, significant cost savings in the training process can be readily attained, especially on Big datasets. RKELM is established based on the rigorous proof of universal learning involving reduced kernel-based SLFN. In particular, we prove that RKELM can approximate any nonlinear functions accurately under the condition of support vectors sufficiency. Experimental results on a wide variety of real world small instance size and large instance size applications in the context of binary classification, multi-class problem and regression are then reported to show that RKELM can perform at competitive level of generalized performance as the SVM/LS-SVM at only a fraction of the computational effort incurred. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Reduced cooling following future volcanic eruptions (United States)

    Hopcroft, Peter O.; Kandlbauer, Jessy; Valdes, Paul J.; Sparks, R. Stephen J.


    Volcanic eruptions are an important influence on decadal to centennial climate variability. Large eruptions lead to the formation of a stratospheric sulphate aerosol layer which can cause short-term global cooling. This response is modulated by feedback processes in the earth system, but the influence from future warming has not been assessed before. Using earth system model simulations we find that the eruption-induced cooling is significantly weaker in the future state. This is predominantly due to an increase in planetary albedo caused by increased tropospheric aerosol loading with a contribution from associated changes in cloud properties. The increased albedo of the troposphere reduces the effective volcanic aerosol radiative forcing. Reduced sea-ice coverage and hence feedbacks also contribute over high-latitudes, and an enhanced winter warming signal emerges in the future eruption ensemble. These findings show that the eruption response is a complex function of the environmental conditions, which has implications for the role of eruptions in climate variability in the future and potentially in the past.

  11. Remifentanil Reduces Blood Loss During Orthognathic Surgery. (United States)

    Matsuura, Nobuyuki; Okamura, Taiki; Ide, Satoko; Ichinohe, Tatsuya


    Remifentanil is reported to reduce oral tissue blood flow. We performed a retrospective investigation using logistic regression analysis of anesthesia records to investigate whether the use of remifentanil infusion in a balanced anesthesia technique was useful as a primary technique to reduce blood loss during orthognathic surgery. Subjects were 80 patients who underwent Le Fort I osteotomy and sagittal split ramus osteotomy of the mandible. The variables included gender, age, weight, type of maintenance anesthetic, type and dose or infusion rate of opioid, mean systolic blood pressure (SBP-mean), coefficient of variation of systolic blood pressure (CVSBP) during surgery, mean heart rate (HR-mean), duration of surgery, total blood loss, volume of infusion used, amount of local anesthetic used, body temperature, and urine output. Gender, type of maintenance anesthetic, type of opioid, SBP-mean, CVSBP, HR-mean, and duration of surgery were used as candidates for independent variables. Logistic regression analysis was performed for the selected independent variables with the total blood loss as the dependent variable. The factors associated with the reduction of blood loss were the use of remifentanil (odds ratio, 3.112; 95% CI, 1.166-8.307; P = .023) and smaller CVSBP (odds ratio, 2.747; 95% CI, 1.07-7.053; P = .036). Use of remifentanil and smaller CVSBP were associated with a reduction of blood loss during orthognathic surgery.

  12. Biomass Pyrolysis Solids as Reducing Agents: Comparison with Commercial Reducing Agents (United States)

    Adrados, Aitziber; De Marco, Isabel; López-Urionabarrenechea, Alexander; Solar, Jon; Caballero, Blanca M.; Gastelu, Naia


    Biomass is one of the most suitable options to be used as renewable energy source due to its extensive availability and its contribution to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass under appropriate conditions (slow heating rate and high temperatures) can produce a quality solid product, which could be applicable to several metallurgical processes as reducing agent (biocoke or bioreducer). Two woody biomass samples (olives and eucalyptus) were pyrolyzed to produce biocoke. These biocokes were characterized by means of proximate and ultimate analysis, real density, specific surface area, and porosity and were compared with three commercial reducing agents. Finally, reactivity tests were performed both with the biocokes and with the commercial reducing agents. Bioreducers have lower ash and sulfur contents than commercial reducers, higher surface area and porosity, and consequently, much higher reactivity. Bioreducers are not appropriate to be used as top burden in blast furnaces, but they can be used as fuel and reducing agent either tuyére injected at the lower part of the blast furnace or in non-ferrous metallurgical processes where no mechanical strength is needed as, for example, in rotary kilns. PMID:28787805

  13. Effect of reducing system on capacitive behavior of reduced graphene oxide film: Application for supercapacitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akbi, Hamdane; Yu, Lei; Wang, Bin; Liu, Qi [Key Laboratory of Superlight Material and Surface Technology, Ministry of Education, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Wang, Jun, E-mail: [Key Laboratory of Superlight Material and Surface Technology, Ministry of Education, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Institute of Advanced Marine Materials, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Liu, Jingyuan; Song, Dalei [Key Laboratory of Superlight Material and Surface Technology, Ministry of Education, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Sun, Yanbo [State Key Laboratory of Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, Institute of Theoretical Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China); Liu, Lianhe [Key Laboratory of Superlight Material and Surface Technology, Ministry of Education, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Institute of Advanced Marine Materials, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China)


    To determine the best chemical reduction of graphene oxide film with hydriodic acid that gives maximum energy and power density, we studied the effect of two reducing systems, hydriodic acid/water and hydriodic acid/acetic acid, on the morphology and electrochemical features of reduced graphene oxide film. Using acetic acid as solvent results in high electrical conductivity (5195 S m{sup −1}), excellent specific capacitance (384 F g{sup −1}) and good cyclic stability (about 98% of its initial response after 4000 cycles). Using water as a solvent, results in an ideal capacitive behavior and excellent cyclic stability (about 6% increase of its initial response after 2100 cycles). - Graphical abstract: The choice of reducing system determines the morphology and structure of the chemically reduced graphene film and, as a result, affects largely the capacitive behavior. - Highlights: • The structure of the graphene film has a pronounced effect on capacitive behavior. • The use of water/HI as reducing system results in an ideal capacitive behavior. • The use of acetic acid/HI as reducing system results in a high specific capacitance.

  14. Reducing Financing Costs for Federal ESPCs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, P.J.


    This report documents the recommendations of a working group commissioned by the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) in 2002 to identify ways to reduce financing costs in federal energy savings performance contract (ESPC) projects. The working group is part of continuing efforts launched by FEMP since the award of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Super ESPCs in 1998 and 1999 to ensure that practical, flexible, and cost-effective alternative financing for energy-efficiency improvements is available to all federal agencies. During FY 2002-2004, the working group pursued extensive fact finding, consulted with government and private-sector finance experts, and analyzed data from federal and local government ESPC programs. The working group observed that both competition and transparency were lacking in federal ESPCs. The working group also found that the government often falls short of full compliance with certain provisions of the final rule that codifies the federal ESPC authority into regulation (10 CFR 436), which speak to due diligence in determining fair and reasonable pricing. Based on these findings, the working group formulated their short-term recommendations of actions that agencies can take immediately to reduce ESPC financing costs. The working group recommended requiring competitive solicitation of offers from prospective financiers of ESPC projects, standardization of processes to keep the playing field level and reduce energy service companies (ESCOs) project development costs, and assuring transparency by specifying that the government will see and review all bids. The reforms are intended to enable the government to determine quickly and reliably whether the portion of price related to financing is fair and reasonable and to provide auditable records of the transaction. The working group's recommendations were incorporated into modifications to the Super ESPCs and requirements to be included in the Super ESPC delivery order

  15. The European Procedure on Reduced Value Claims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandrina Zaharia


    Full Text Available Maintaining and developing the area of freedom, security and justice is a major objective of theEuropean Community, which guarantees the free movement of persons. As a result of litigations regardingthe applications with a reduced value arising among physical or legal persons, it was felt the need for acommunity legislation that would guarantee identical conditions, both for creditors and debtors throughoutthe entire European Union territory. The European procedure regarding the debts recovery of reducedvalue facilitates the access to justice and it is characterized by simplifying and expediting the settling of thetransboundary litigations, reducing costs, the recognition and execution of the court order in a MemberState given in another Member State. This procedure is available to litigants as an alternative to theprocedures provided by the laws of Member States. The Regulation (EC no. 861/2007 establishing aEuropean procedure regarding the applications with reduced value applies in civil and commercial matters inthe transboundary cases, regardless the nature of the court when the application value, without taking intoaccount the interest, expenditures and other costs, does not exceed 2000 Euro at the time of receiving theapplication form by the competent court. This procedure does not apply to revenue, customs oradministrative matters or in regard to state responsibility for acts or omissions in exercising the publicauthority, and other matters specifically referred to in the Regulation. A cause is transboundary in naturewhen one of the parties has its habitual residence in a Member State, other than the one where the courtreceives such application. The proper procedure of application resolution for the recovery of debts withreduced value is governed by the rules of procedural law of the Member State in which the proceedings areconducted, and the execution of court of law is made by state legislation in which it takes place. The

  16. Reducing multiple births in assisted reproduction technology. (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Siladitya; Kamath, Mohan S


    Multiple pregnancy, a complication of assisted reproduction technology, is associated with poorer maternal and perinatal outcomes. The primary reason behind this is the strategy of replacing more than one embryo during an assisted reproduction technology cycle to maximise pregnancy rates. The solution to this problem is to reduce the number of embryos transferred during in-vitro fertilisation. The transition from triple- to double-embryo transfer, which decreased the risk of triplets without compromising pregnancy rates, was easily implemented. The adoption of a single embryo transfer policy has been slow because of concerns about impaired pregnancy rates in a fresh assisted reproduction technology cycle. Widespread availability of effective cryopreservation programmes means that elective single embryo transfer, along with subsequent frozen embryo transfers, could provide a way forward. Any such strategy will need to consider couples' preferences and existing funding policies, both of which have a profound influence on decision making around embryo transfer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Maximizing competition : reducing barriers for new players

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, H. [Independent Electricity Market Operator, Toronto, ON (Canada); Cramer, D. [Sithe Energies Inc., Toronto, ON (Canada); McLeese, R. [Access Capital Corp., Toronto, ON (Canada); Singer, J. [Ontario Power Generation Inc., Toronto, ON (Canada)


    This session included highlights from four guest speakers who commented on ways to reduce barriers to competition in Ontario's electric power industry. Topics of discussion included intertie transaction failures, the lack of overall investment in the market, the government's inaction which is preventing investment, the continued underwriting of Ontario Power Generation's activities by the government which discourages investment in the private sector, and indecisiveness regarding policy on coal plants. It was emphasized that investors need to know for certain that they can get a reasonable rate of return on their investments, that the market will be transparent and there will be no shift in policy. The need to promote new, efficient power generation by means of nuclear, coal, natural gas, and hydro energy was also emphasized. Charts depicting total energy production by source were presented for 2001 with projections to 2012. figs.

  18. Rotational Rebound Attacks on Reduced Skein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khovratovich, Dmitry; Nikolić, Ivica; Rechberger, Christian


    number of rounds. We also use neutral bits and message modification methods from the practice of collision search in MD5 and SHA-1 hash functions. These methods push the rotational property through more rounds than previous analysis suggested, and eventually establish a distinguishing property......In this paper we combine two powerful methods of symmetric cryptanalysis: rotational cryptanalysis and the rebound attack. Rotational cryptanalysis was designed for the analysis of bit-oriented designs like ARX (Addition-Rotation-XOR) schemes. It has been applied to several hash functions and block...... ciphers, including the new standard SHA-3 (Keccak). The rebound attack is a start-from-the-middle approach for finding differential paths and conforming pairs in byte-oriented designs like Substitution-Permutation networks and AES. We apply our new compositional attack to the reduced version of the hash...

  19. Composite binders for concrete with reduced permeability (United States)

    Fediuk, R.; Yushin, A.


    Composite binder consisting of cement (55%), acid fly ash (40%) and limestone (5%) has been designed. It is obtained by co-milling to a specific surface of 550 kg/m2, it has an activity of 77.3 MPa and can produce a more dense cement stone structure. Integrated study revealed that the concrete on the composite binder basis provides an effective diffusion coefficient D. So we can conclude that the concrete layer protects buildings from toxic effects of expanded polystyrene. Low water absorption of the material (2.5% by weight) is due to the structure of its cement stone pore space. Besides lime powder prevents the penetration of moisture, reduces water saturation of the coverage that has a positive effect on useful life period. It also explains rather low water vapor permeability of the material - 0.021 mg/(m- hour-Pa).

  20. Plasma gelsolin is reduced in trauma patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, B; Schiødt, F V; Ott, P


    in the circulation can lead to a condition resembling multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS), and we have previously demonstrated that the level of Gc-globulin is decreased after severe trauma. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether the plasma levels of gelsolin were altered in the early phase...... after trauma. Twenty-three consecutive trauma patients were studied. Plasma samples were assayed for gelsolin by immunonephelometry with polyclonal rabbit antihuman gelsolin prepared in our own laboratory. The median time from injury until the time the first blood sample was taken was 52 min (range 20......-110) and the median Injury Severity Score (ISS) was 20 (range 4-50). The gelsolin level on admission was reduced significantly in the trauma patients compared with normal controls. The median level was 51 mg/L (7-967) vs. 207 mg/L (151-621), P

  1. Vibration reduces thermal pain in adjacent dermatomes. (United States)

    Yarnitsky, D; Kunin, M; Brik, R; Sprecher, E


    Spatial summation of thermal pain crosses dermatomal boundaries. In this study we examined whether a vibrational stimulus applied to adjacent or remote dermatomes affects thermal pain perception to the volar forearm. Contact heat at 2 degrees C above thermal pain threshold was applied, and a Visual Analog Scale (VAS) was used for pain assessment. We found a significant decrease in mean VAS rating when simultaneous vibratory stimuli were given to the dermatome adjacent to that receiving thermal stimulation, or to the same dermatome on the contralateral side. There was no change in VAS rating when vibration was given two or more dermatomes away. Vibration within the same dermatome also did not yield a significant change in VAS rating, possibly due to difficulty in magnitude assessment of stimuli given simultaneously within a single dermatome. The finding that vibration can reduce pain across dermatomes may allow for more flexible design of stimulation therapy for pain.

  2. A relatively reduced Hadean continental crust (United States)

    Yang, Xiaozhi; Gaillard, Fabrice; Scaillet, Bruno


    Among the physical and chemical parameters used to characterize the Earth, oxidation state, as reflected by its prevailing oxygen fugacity (fO2), is a particularly important one. It controls many physicochemical properties and geological processes of the Earth's different reservoirs, and affects the partitioning of elements between coexisting phases and the speciation of degassed volatiles in melts. In the past decades, numerous studies have been conducted to document the evolution of mantle and atmospheric oxidation state with time and in particular the possible transition from an early reduced state to the present oxidized conditions. So far, it has been established that the oxidation state of the uppermost mantle is within ±2 log units of the quartz-fayalite-magnetite (QFM) buffer, probably back to ~4.4 billion years ago (Ga) based on trace-elements studies of mantle-derived komatiites, kimberlites, basalts, volcanics and zircons, and that the O2 levels of atmosphere were initially low and rose markedly ~2.3 Ga known as the Great Oxidation Event (GOE), progressively reaching its present oxidation state of ~10 log units above QFM. In contrast, the secular evolution of oxidation state of the continental crust, an important boundary separating the underlying upper mantle from the surrounding atmosphere and buffering the exchanges and interactions between the Earth's interior and exterior, has rarely been addressed, although the presence of evolved crustal materials on the Earth can be traced back to ~4.4 Ga, e.g. by detrital zircons. Zircon is a common accessory mineral in nature, occurring in a wide variety of igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks, and is almost ubiquitous in crustal rocks. The physical and chemical durability of zircons makes them widely used in geochemical studies in terms of trace-elements, isotopes, ages and melt/mineral inclusions; in particular, zircons are persistent under most crustal conditions and can survive many secondary

  3. Reducing US Oil Dependence Using Simulation (United States)

    Ayoub, Fadi; Arnaout, Georges M.


    People across the world are addicted to oil; as a result, the instability of oil prices and the shortage of oil reserves have influenced human behaviors and global businesses. Today, the United States makes up only 5% of the global population but consumes 25% of the. world total energy. Most of this energy is generated from fossil fuels in the form of electricity. The contribution of this paper is to examine the possibilities of replacing fossil fuel with renewable energies to generate electricity as well as to examine other methods to reduce oil and gas consumption. We propose a system dynamics model in an attempt to predict the future US dependence on fossil fuels by using renewable energy resources such as, nuclear, wind, solar, and hydro powers. Based on the findings of our model, the study expects to provide insights towards promising solutions of the oil dependency problem.

  4. Quantum State Tomography via Reduced Density Matrices. (United States)

    Xin, Tao; Lu, Dawei; Klassen, Joel; Yu, Nengkun; Ji, Zhengfeng; Chen, Jianxin; Ma, Xian; Long, Guilu; Zeng, Bei; Laflamme, Raymond


    Quantum state tomography via local measurements is an efficient tool for characterizing quantum states. However, it requires that the original global state be uniquely determined (UD) by its local reduced density matrices (RDMs). In this work, we demonstrate for the first time a class of states that are UD by their RDMs under the assumption that the global state is pure, but fail to be UD in the absence of that assumption. This discovery allows us to classify quantum states according to their UD properties, with the requirement that each class be treated distinctly in the practice of simplifying quantum state tomography. Additionally, we experimentally test the feasibility and stability of performing quantum state tomography via the measurement of local RDMs for each class. These theoretical and experimental results demonstrate the advantages and possible pitfalls of quantum state tomography with local measurements.

  5. Nanotexturing of surfaces to reduce melting point.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Ernest J.; Zubia, David (University of Texas at El Paso El Paso, TX); Mireles, Jose (Universidad Aut%C3%94onoma de Ciudad Ju%C3%94arez Ciudad Ju%C3%94arez, Mexico); Marquez, Noel (University of Texas at El Paso El Paso, TX); Quinones, Stella (University of Texas at El Paso El Paso, TX)


    This investigation examined the use of nano-patterned structures on Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) material to reduce the bulk material melting point (1414 C). It has been found that sharp-tipped and other similar structures have a propensity to move to the lower energy states of spherical structures and as a result exhibit lower melting points than the bulk material. Such a reduction of the melting point would offer a number of interesting opportunities for bonding in microsystems packaging applications. Nano patterning process capabilities were developed to create the required structures for the investigation. One of the technical challenges of the project was understanding and creating the specialized conditions required to observe the melting and reshaping phenomena. Through systematic experimentation and review of the literature these conditions were determined and used to conduct phase change experiments. Melting temperatures as low as 1030 C were observed.

  6. Reduced energy consumption for melting in foundries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skov-Hansen, S.


    By improving the gating technology in traditional gating systems it is possible to reduce the amount of metal to be re-melted, and hence reduce the energy consumption for melting in foundries. Traditional gating systems are known for a straight tapered down runner a well base and 90 deg. bends in the runner system. In the streamlined gating systems there are no sharp changes in direction and a large effort is done to confine and control the flow of the molten metal during mould filling. Experiments in real production lines have proven that using streamlined gating systems improves yield by decreasing the poured weight compared to traditional layouts. In a layout for casting of valve housings in a vertically parted mould the weight of the gating system was reduced by 1,1kg which is a 20% weight reduction for the gating system. In a layout for horizontally parted moulds the weight of the gating system has been reduced by 3,7kg which is a weight reduction of 60% for the gating system. The experiments casting valve housings in ductile iron also proved that it is possible to lower the pouring temperature from 1400 deg. C to 1300 deg. C without the risk of cold runs. Glass plate fronted moulds have been used to study the flow of melt during mould filling. These experiments have also been used for studying the flow pattern when ceramic filters are used. The thorough study of the use of filters revealed that the metal passing through the filter is divided into a number of small jets. This proves that filters do not have the claimed positive effect on the flow of metal. The volumes necessary on either side of the filter is not filled till a backpressure is build up and results in formation of pressure shocks when backfilled. These pressure shocks result in more turbulence inside the casting than the same gating system with no filter. Not using filters can mean a reduction in poured weight of 0,6kg. To examine if the experiments using glass plate fronted moulds give

  7. Promoter proximal polyadenylation sites reduce transcription activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Pia Kjølhede; Lykke-Andersen, Søren; Jensen, Torben Heick


    Gene expression relies on the functional communication between mRNA processing and transcription. We previously described the negative impact of a point-mutated splice donor (SD) site on transcription. Here we demonstrate that this mutation activates an upstream cryptic polyadenylation (CpA) site......, which in turn causes reduced transcription. Functional depletion of U1 snRNP in the context of the wild-type SD triggers the same CpA event accompanied by decreased RNA levels. Thus, in accordance with recent findings, U1 snRNP can shield premature pA sites. The negative impact of unshielded pA sites...... RNA polymerase II-transcribed genes use specialized termination mechanisms to maintain high transcription levels....

  8. Reducing backward masking through action game training. (United States)

    Li, Renjie; Polat, Uri; Scalzo, Fabien; Bavelier, Daphne


    Action video game play enhances basic visual skills such as crowding acuity and contrast sensitivity (C. S. Green & D. Bavelier, 2007; R. Li, U. Polat, W. Makous, & D. Bavelier, 2009). Here, we ask whether the dynamics of perception may also be altered as a result of playing action games. A backward masking paradigm was used to test the hypothesis that action video game play also alters the temporal dynamics of vision. As predicted, action gamers showed reduced backward masking and an accompanying training study established the causal role of action game play in this enhancement. Implications of this result are discussed in the context of the faster reaction times and enhanced sensitivity also documented after action game play.

  9. Engineering reduced evolutionary potential for synthetic biology. (United States)

    Renda, Brian A; Hammerling, Michael J; Barrick, Jeffrey E


    The field of synthetic biology seeks to engineer reliable and predictable behaviors in organisms from collections of standardized genetic parts. However, unlike other types of machines, genetically encoded biological systems are prone to changes in their designed sequences due to mutations in their DNA sequences after these devices are constructed and deployed. Thus, biological engineering efforts can be confounded by undesired evolution that rapidly breaks the functions of parts and systems, particularly when they are costly to the host cell to maintain. Here, we explain the fundamental properties that determine the evolvability of biological systems. Then, we use this framework to review current efforts to engineer the DNA sequences that encode synthetic biology devices and the genomes of their microbial hosts to reduce their ability to evolve and therefore increase their genetic reliability so that they maintain their intended functions over longer timescales.

  10. Reduced attentional scope in cocaine polydrug users.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenza S Colzato

    Full Text Available Cocaine is Europe's second preferred recreational drug after cannabis but very little is known about possible cognitive impairments in the upcoming type of recreational cocaine user (monthly consumption. We asked whether recreational use of cocaine impacts early attentional selection processes. Cocaine-free polydrug controls (n = 18 and cocaine polydrug users (n = 18 were matched on sex, age, alcohol consumption, and IQ (using the Raven's progressive matrices, and were tested by using the Global-Local task to measure the scope of attention. Cocaine polydrug users attended significantly more to local aspects of attended events, which fits with the idea that a reduced scope of attention may be associated with the perpetuation of the use of the drug.

  11. Reducing VOC Press Emission from OSB Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Gary D. McGinnis; Laura S. WIlliams; Amy E. Monte; Jagdish Rughani: Brett A. Niemi; Thomas M. Flicker


    Current regulations require industry to meet air emission standards with regard to particulates, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) and other gases. One of many industries that will be affected by the new regulations is the wood composites industry. This industry generates VOCs, HAPs, and particulates mainly during the drying and pressing of wood. Current air treatment technologies for the industry are expensive to install and operate. As regulations become more stringent, treatment technologies will need to become more efficient and cost effective. The overall objective of this study is to evaluate the use of process conditions and chemical additives to reduce VOC/HAPs in air emitted from presses and dryers during the production of oriented strand board.

  12. Reducing Bullying Through Leadership Skills Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynette Black


    Full Text Available The heart wrenching and disturbing statistics regarding bullying in the schools is a reason for concern. Looking at a popular definition of bullying: aggressive intentional behavior involving an imbalance of power or strength (Stop, one can see a lack of caring and compassion for others. The 4-H Study of Positive Youth Development (Lerner, et al., 2008 indicates the 4-H Youth Development Program is successfully guiding youth onto the best trajectory for positive youth development. As a result of the Lerner PYD study, one rural school in Oregon invited an Extension 4-H Educator to teach leadership skills to children in grades 4-8. The goal of the training was to increase caring and compassion through interactive, teambuilding activities thereby reducing bullying. Evaluation results indicated a significant impact by the program on youth defining their ability to positively work with others.

  13. Maintained intentional weight loss reduces cardiovascular outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caterson, I D; Finer, N; Coutinho, W


    Aim: The Sibutramine Cardiovascular OUTcomes trial showed that sibutramine produced greater mean weight loss than placebo but increased cardiovascular morbidity but not mortality. The relationship between 12-month weight loss and subsequent cardiovascular outcomes is explored. Methods: Overweight/obese...... change to Month 12 was -4.18 kg (sibutramine) or -1.87 kg (placebo). Degree of weight loss during Lead-in Period or through Month 12 was associated with a progressive reduction in risk for the total population in primary outcome events and cardiovascular mortality over the 5-year assessment. Although...... more events occurred in the randomized sibutramine group, on an average, a modest weight loss of approximately 3 kg achieved in the Lead-in Period appeared to offset this increased event rate. Moderate weight loss (3-10 kg) reduced cardiovascular deaths in those with severe, moderate or mild...

  14. Reducing SMEs informal economy through institutionalization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Lopez Lira Arjona


    Full Text Available The informal sector has been growing throughout the last century in emerging economies. Particularly in Latin America, both a long-term instability in economic and political environments, and a continuous migration from rural to urban areas; have triggered the appearance of unregulated businesses and employments. Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs operate informally in one or more business processes, in order to reduce costs and maximize profits. Leaving aside tax evasion and illegal labor, such SMEs often have low technology and an unskilled work force; which threatens its survival in highly competitive environments. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the impact of the Multi National Corporation (MNC and the Academia in the formalization of SMEs. This is aimed through a collaborative model for the institutionalization of operational and managerial knowledge within SMEs. Qualitative results indicate that improvements are triggered by a self-conscious awareness of the value derived from institutionalizing best business practices.

  15. Multiple hearth furnace for reducing iron oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandon, Mark M [Charlotte, NC; True, Bradford G [Charlotte, NC


    A multiple moving hearth furnace (10) having a furnace housing (11) with at least two moving hearths (20) positioned laterally within the furnace housing, the hearths moving in opposite directions and each moving hearth (20) capable of being charged with at least one layer of iron oxide and carbon bearing material at one end, and being capable of discharging reduced material at the other end. A heat insulating partition (92) is positioned between adjacent moving hearths of at least portions of the conversion zones (13), and is capable of communicating gases between the atmospheres of the conversion zones of adjacent moving hearths. A drying/preheat zone (12), a conversion zone (13), and optionally a cooling zone (15) are sequentially positioned along each moving hearth (30) in the furnace housing (11).

  16. Vitamin D with calcium reduces mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rejnmark, Lars; Avenell, Alison; Masud, Tahir


    Introduction:Vitamin D may affect multiple health outcomes. If so, an effect on mortality is to be expected. Using pooled data from randomized controlled trials, we performed individual patient data (IPD) and trial level meta-analyses to assess mortality among participants randomized to either...... calcium (odds ratio, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.88-0.99), but not with vitamin D alone (odds ratio, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.91-1.06).Conclusion:Vitamin D with calcium reduces mortality in the elderly, whereas available data do not support an effect of vitamin D alone....... vitamin D alone or vitamin D with calcium.Subjects and Methods:Through a systematic literature search, we identified 24 randomized controlled trials reporting data on mortality in which vitamin D was given either alone or with calcium. From a total of 13 trials with more than 1000 participants each, eight...

  17. Ligand-Stabilized Reduced-Dimensionality Perovskites

    KAUST Repository

    Quan, Li Na


    Metal halide perovskites have rapidly advanced thin film photovoltaic performance; as a result, the materials’ observed instabilities urgently require a solution. Using density functional theory (DFT), we show that a low energy of formation, exacerbated in the presence of humidity, explains the propensity of perovskites to decompose back into their precursors. We find, also using DFT, that intercalation of phenylethylammonium between perovskite layers introduces quantitatively appreciable van der Waals interactions; and these drive an increased formation energy and should therefore improve material stability. Here we report the reduced-dimensionality (quasi-2D) perovskite films that exhibit improved stability while retaining the high performance of conventional three-dimensional perovskites. Continuous tuning of the dimensionality, as assessed using photophysical studies, is achieved by the choice of stoichiometry in materials synthesis. We achieved the first certified hysteresis-free solar power conversion in a planar perovskite solar cell, obtaining a 15.3% certified PCE, and observe greatly improved performance longevity.

  18. Reduced Dietary Sodium Intake Increases Heart Rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graudal, Niels A; Hubeck-Graudal, Thorbjørn; Jürgens, Gesche


    Reduced dietary sodium intake (sodium reduction) increases heart rate in some studies of animals and humans. As heart rate is independently associated with the development of heart failure and increased risk of premature death a potential increase in heart rate could be a harmful side......-effect of sodium reduction. The purpose of the present meta-analysis was to investigate the effect of sodium reduction on heart rate. Relevant studies were retrieved from an updated pool of 176 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published in the period 1973-2014. Sixty-three of the RCTs including 72 study...... populations reported data on heart rate. In a meta-analysis of these data sodium reduction increased heart rate with 1.65 beats per minute [95% CI: 1.19, 2.11], p heart rate. This effect was independent of baseline blood pressure. In conclusion sodium reduction...

  19. Reduced central blood volume in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik; Bendtsen, Flemming; Sørensen, T I


    for measuring the central blood volume. We have developed a method that enables us to determine directly the central blood volume, i.e., the blood volume in the heart cavities, lungs, and central arterial tree. In 60 patients with cirrhosis and 16 control subjects the central blood volume was assessed according......The pathogenesis of ascites formation in cirrhosis is uncertain. It is still under debate whether the effective blood volume is reduced (underfilling theory) or whether the intravascular compartment is expanded (overflow theory). This problem has not yet been solved because of insufficient tools...... to the kinetic theory as the product of cardiac output and mean transit time of the central vascular bed. Central blood volume was significantly smaller in patients with cirrhosis than in controls (mean 21 vs. 27 ml/kg estimated ideal body weight, p less than 0.001; 25% vs. 33% of the total blood volume, p less...

  20. RCT Testing Bystander Effectiveness to Reduce Violence. (United States)

    Coker, Ann L; Bush, Heather M; Cook-Craig, Patricia G; DeGue, Sarah A; Clear, Emily R; Brancato, Candace J; Fisher, Bonnie S; Recktenwald, Eileen A


    Bystander-based programs have shown promise to reduce interpersonal violence at colleges, yet limited rigorous evaluations have addressed bystander intervention effectiveness in high schools. This study evaluated the Green Dot bystander intervention to reduce sexual violence and related forms of interpersonal violence in 26 high schools over 5 years. A cluster RCT was conducted. Kentucky high schools were randomized to intervention or control (wait list) conditions. Green Dot-trained educators conducted schoolwide presentations and recruited student popular opinion leaders to receive bystander training in intervention schools beginning in Year 1. The primary outcome was sexual violence perpetration, and related forms of interpersonal violence victimization and perpetration were also measured using anonymous student surveys collected at baseline and annually from 2010 to 2014. Because the school was the unit of analysis, violence measures were aggregated by school and year and school-level counts were provided. A total of 89,707 students completed surveys. The primary, as randomized, analyses conducted in 2014-2016 included linear mixed models and generalized estimating equations to examine the condition-time interaction on violence outcomes. Slopes of school-level totals of sexual violence perpetration (condition-time, pviolence perpetration in the intervention relative to control schools were 0.83 (95% CI=0.70, 0.99) in Year 3 and 0.79 (95% CI=0.67, 0.94) in Year 4. Similar patterns were observed for sexual violence victimization, sexual harassment, stalking, and dating violence perpetration and victimization. Implementation of Green Dot in Kentucky high schools significantly decreased not only sexual violence perpetration but also other forms of interpersonal violence perpetration and victimization. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Reducing the losses of optical metamterials (United States)

    Fang, Anan

    The field of metamaterials is driven by fascinating and far-reaching theoretical visions, such as perfect lenses, invisibility cloaking, and enhanced optical nonlinearities. However, losses have become the major obstacle towards real world applications in the optical regime. Reducing the losses of optical metamaterials becomes necessary and extremely important. In this thesis, two approaches are taken to reduce the losses. One is to construct an indefinite medium. Indefinite media are materials where not all the principal components of the permittivity and permeability tensors have the same sign. They do not need the resonances to achieve negative permittivity, epsilon. So, the losses can be comparatively small. To obtain indefinite media, three-dimensional (3D) optical metallic nanowire media with different structures are designed. They are numerically demonstrated that they are homogeneous effective indefinite anisotropic media by showing that their dispersion relations are hyperbolic. Negative group refraction and pseudo focusing are observed. Another approach is to incorporate gain into metamaterial nanostructures. The nonlinearity of gain is included by a generic four-level atomic model. A computational scheme is presented, which allows for a self-consistent treatment of a dispersive metallic photonic metamaterial coupled to a gain material incorporated into the nanostructure using the finitedifference time-domain (FDTD) method. The loss compensations with gain are done for various structures, from 2D simplified models to 3D realistic structures. Results show the losses of optical metamaterials can be effectively compensated by gain. The effective gain coefficient of the combined system can be much larger than the bulk gain counterpart, due to the strong local-field enhancement.

  2. Reduced lung function among sisal processors. (United States)

    Kayumba, Akwilina; Moen, Bente Elisabeth; Bråtveit, Magne; Eduard, Wijnand; Mashalla, Yohana


    The objective of this study was to examine lung function and chronic respiratory symptoms among sisal workers in Tanzania and compare the results with a control group. A cross-sectional study on chronic respiratory symptoms and lung function was conducted in 2006 among male Tanzanian sisal processing workers from six sisal estates. Participants included 86 workers in decortication departments, 68 workers in brushing departments and 30 low exposed security guards. The response rate was 97%. Chronic respiratory symptoms and background information were obtained by structured interview. Forced ventilatory capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)) were estimated before and after a work shift, and FEV(1)/FVC ratio calculated. Workers were aged 19-85, with the oldest in the brushing and security departments. Chronic cough and chest tightness were experienced by 38% and 68% of workers in brushing departments, 20% and 6% of workers in decortication and 7% and 0% of security workers, respectively. A reduced FEV(1)/FVC ratio related to years of work was found among workers in brushing departments when adjusting for age, smoking, previous respiratory illnesses and body mass index, using regression analyses. Work in decortication departments was not related to reduced lung function parameters. The prevalence of FEV(1)/FVC<70 was above 50 for all three groups. Lung function parameters were similar before and after work shifts, except that peak expiratory flow increased among workers in brushing departments after work shifts. The results indicate a relationship between work in sisal brushing departments and the development of obstructive lung disorders.

  3. Reduced Language Connectivity in Pediatric Epilepsy (United States)

    Leigh N., Sepeta; Louise J., Croft; Lauren A., Zimmaro; Elizabeth S., Duke; Virginia K., Terwilliger; Benjamin E., Yerys; Xiaozhen., You; Chandan J., Vaidya; William D., Gaillard; Madison M., Berl


    Objective Functional connectivity (FC) among language regions is decreased in adults with epilepsy compared to controls, but less is known about FC in children with epilepsy. We sought to determine if language FC is reduced in pediatric epilepsy, and examined clinical factors that associate with language FC in this population. Methods We assessed FC during an age-adjusted language task in children with left-hemisphere focal epilepsy (n=19) compared to controls (n=19). Time series data were extracted for three left ROIs and their right homologues: inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), middle frontal gyrus (MFG), and Wernicke's area (WA) using SPM8. Associations between FC and factors such as cognitive performance, language dominance, and epilepsy duration were assessed. Results Children with epilepsy showed decreased interhemispheric connectivity compared to controls, particularly between core left language regions (IFG, WA) and their right hemisphere homologues, as well as decreased intrahemispheric right frontal FC. Increased intrahemispheric FC between left IFG and left WA was a positive predictor of language skills overall, and naming ability in particular. FC of language areas was not affected by language dominance, as the effects remained when only examining study participants with left language dominance. Overall FC did not differ according to duration of epilepsy or age of onset. Significance FC during a language task is reduced in children, similar to findings in adults. In specific, children with left focal epilepsy demonstrated decreased interhemispheric FC in temporal and frontal language connections and decreased intrahemispheric right frontal FC. These differences were present near the onset of epilepsy. Greater FC between left language centers is related to better language ability. Our results highlight that connectivity of language areas has a developmental pattern and is related to cognitive ability. PMID:25516399

  4. Carbon dioxide reducing processes; Koldioxidreducerande processer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svensson, Fredrik


    This thesis discusses different technologies to reduce or eliminate the carbon dioxide emissions, when a fossil fuel is used for energy production. Emission reduction can be accomplished by separating the carbon dioxide for storage or reuse. There are three different ways of doing the separation. The carbon dioxide can be separated before the combustion, the process can be designed so that the carbon dioxide can be separated without any energy consumption and costly systems or the carbon dioxide can be separated from the flue gas stream. Two different concepts of separating the carbon dioxide from a combined cycle are compared, from the performance and the economical point of view, with a standard natural gas fired combined cycle where no attempts are made to reduce the carbon dioxide emissions. One concept is to use absorption technologies to separate the carbon dioxide from the flue gas stream. The other concept is based on a semi-closed gas turbine cycle using carbon dioxide as working fluid and combustion with pure oxygen, generated in an air-separating unit. The calculations show that the efficiency (power) drop is smaller for the first concept than for the second, 8.7 % points compared to 13.7 % points, when power is produced. When both heat and power are produced, the relation concerning the efficiency (power) remains. Regarding the overall efficiency (heat and power) the opposite relation is present. A possible carbon dioxide tax must exceed 0.21 SEK/kg CO{sub 2} for it to be profitable to separate carbon dioxide with any of these technologies.

  5. Robust Optical Richness Estimation with Reduced Scatter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rykoff, E.S.; /LBL, Berkeley; Koester, B.P.; /Chicago U. /Chicago U., KICP; Rozo, E.; /Chicago U. /Chicago U., KICP; Annis, J.; /Fermilab; Evrard, A.E.; /Michigan U. /Michigan U., MCTP; Hansen, S.M.; /Lick Observ.; Hao, J.; /Fermilab; Johnston, D.E.; /Fermilab; McKay, T.A.; /Michigan U. /Michigan U., MCTP; Wechsler, R.H.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC


    Reducing the scatter between cluster mass and optical richness is a key goal for cluster cosmology from photometric catalogs. We consider various modifications to the red-sequence matched filter richness estimator of Rozo et al. (2009b), and evaluate their impact on the scatter in X-ray luminosity at fixed richness. Most significantly, we find that deeper luminosity cuts can reduce the recovered scatter, finding that {sigma}{sub ln L{sub X}|{lambda}} = 0.63 {+-} 0.02 for clusters with M{sub 500c} {approx}> 1.6 x 10{sup 14} h{sub 70}{sup -1} M{sub {circle_dot}}. The corresponding scatter in mass at fixed richness is {sigma}{sub ln M|{lambda}} {approx} 0.2-0.3 depending on the richness, comparable to that for total X-ray luminosity. We find that including blue galaxies in the richness estimate increases the scatter, as does weighting galaxies by their optical luminosity. We further demonstrate that our richness estimator is very robust. Specifically, the filter employed when estimating richness can be calibrated directly from the data, without requiring a-priori calibrations of the red-sequence. We also demonstrate that the recovered richness is robust to up to 50% uncertainties in the galaxy background, as well as to the choice of photometric filter employed, so long as the filters span the 4000 {angstrom} break of red-sequence galaxies. Consequently, our richness estimator can be used to compare richness estimates of different clusters, even if they do not share the same photometric data. Appendix A includes 'easy-bake' instructions for implementing our optimal richness estimator, and we are releasing an implementation of the code that works with SDSS data, as well as an augmented maxBCG catalog with the {lambda} richness measured for each cluster.

  6. Reducing Actinide Production Using Inert Matrix Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deinert, Mark [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)


    The environmental and geopolitical problems that surround nuclear power stem largely from the longlived transuranic isotopes of Am, Cm, Np and Pu that are contained in spent nuclear fuel. New methods for transmuting these elements into more benign forms are needed. Current research efforts focus largely on the development of fast burner reactors, because it has been shown that they could dramatically reduce the accumulation of transuranics. However, despite five decades of effort, fast reactors have yet to achieve industrial viability. A critical limitation to this, and other such strategies, is that they require a type of spent fuel reprocessing that can efficiently separate all of the transuranics from the fission products with which they are mixed. Unfortunately, the technology for doing this on an industrial scale is still in development. In this project, we explore a strategy for transmutation that can be deployed using existing, current generation reactors and reprocessing systems. We show that use of an inert matrix fuel to recycle transuranics in a conventional pressurized water reactor could reduce overall production of these materials by an amount that is similar to what is achievable using proposed fast reactor cycles. Furthermore, we show that these transuranic reductions can be achieved even if the fission products are carried into the inert matrix fuel along with the transuranics, bypassing the critical separations hurdle described above. The implications of these findings are significant, because they imply that inert matrix fuel could be made directly from the material streams produced by the commercially available PUREX process. Zirconium dioxide would be an ideal choice of inert matrix in this context because it is known to form a stable solid solution with both fission products and transuranics.

  7. Reducing the losses of optical metamaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Anan [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    The field of metamaterials is driven by fascinating and far-reaching theoretical visions, such as perfect lenses, invisibility cloaking, and enhanced optical nonlinearities. However, losses have become the major obstacle towards real world applications in the optical regime. Reducing the losses of optical metamaterials becomes necessary and extremely important. In this thesis, two approaches are taken to reduce the losses. One is to construct an indefinite medium. Indefinite media are materials where not all the principal components of the permittivity and permeability tensors have the same sign. They do not need the resonances to achieve negative permittivity, ε. So, the losses can be comparatively small. To obtain indefinite media, three-dimensional (3D) optical metallic nanowire media with different structures are designed. They are numerically demonstrated that they are homogeneous effective indefinite anisotropic media by showing that their dispersion relations are hyperbolic. Negative group refraction and pseudo focusing are observed. Another approach is to incorporate gain into metamaterial nanostructures. The nonlinearity of gain is included by a generic four-level atomic model. A computational scheme is presented, which allows for a self-consistent treatment of a dispersive metallic photonic metamaterial coupled to a gain material incorporated into the nanostructure using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. The loss compensations with gain are done for various structures, from 2D simplified models to 3D realistic structures. Results show the losses of optical metamaterials can be effectively compensated by gain. The effective gain coefficient of the combined system can be much larger than the bulk gain counterpart, due to the strong local-field enhancement.

  8. Reduced turning frequency and delayed poultry manure addition reduces N loss from sugarcane compost. (United States)

    Bryndum, S; Muschler, R; Nigussie, A; Magid, J; de Neergaard, A


    Composting is an effective method to recycle biodegradable waste as soil amendment in smallholder farming systems. Although all essential plant nutrients are found in compost, a substantial amount of nitrogen is lost during composting. This study therefore investigated the potential of reducing N losses by (i) delaying the addition of nitrogen-rich substrates (i.e. poultry manure), and (ii) reducing the turning frequency during composting. Furthermore, we tested the effect of compost application method on nitrogen mineralization. Sugarcane-waste was composted for 54days with addition of poultry manure at the beginning (i.e. early addition) or after 21days of composting (delayed addition). The compost pile was then turned either every three or nine days. Composts were subsequently applied to soil as (i) homogeneously mixed, or (ii) stratified, and incubated for 28days to test the effect of compost application on nitrogen mineralization. The results showed that delayed addition of poultry manure reduced total nitrogen loss by 33% and increased mineral nitrogen content by >200% compared with early addition. Similarly, less frequent turning reduced total N loss by 12% compared with frequent turning. Stratified placement of compost did not enhance N mineralization compared to a homogeneous mixing. Our results suggested that simple modifications of the composting process (i.e. delayed addition and/or turning frequency) could significantly reduce N losses and improve the plant-nutritional value of compost. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Tobacco packaging design for reducing tobacco use. (United States)

    McNeill, Ann; Gravely, Shannon; Hitchman, Sara C; Bauld, Linda; Hammond, David; Hartmann-Boyce, Jamie


    Tobacco use is the largest single preventable cause of death and disease worldwide. Standardised tobacco packaging is an intervention intended to reduce the promotional appeal of packs and can be defined as packaging with a uniform colour (and in some cases shape and size) with no logos or branding, apart from health warnings and other government-mandated information, and the brand name in a prescribed uniform font, colour and size. Australia was the first country to implement standardised tobacco packaging between October and December 2012, France implemented standardised tobacco packaging on 1 January 2017 and several other countries are implementing, or intending to implement, standardised tobacco packaging. To assess the effect of standardised tobacco packaging on tobacco use uptake, cessation and reduction. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO and six other databases from 1980 to January 2016. We checked bibliographies and contacted study authors to identify additional peer-reviewed studies. Primary outcomes included changes in tobacco use prevalence incorporating tobacco use uptake, cessation, consumption and relapse prevention. Secondary outcomes covered intermediate outcomes that can be measured and are relevant to tobacco use uptake, cessation or reduction. We considered multiple study designs: randomised controlled trials, quasi-experimental and experimental studies, observational cross-sectional and cohort studies. The review focused on all populations and people of any age; to be included, studies had to be published in peer-reviewed journals. We examined studies that assessed the impact of changes in tobacco packaging such as colour, design, size and type of health warnings on the packs in relation to branded packaging. In experiments, the control condition was branded tobacco packaging but could include variations of standardised packaging. Screening and data extraction followed standard Cochrane methods. We used different 'Risk of bias' domains for

  10. Empowering the Impoverished and Reducing Healthcare Costs (United States)

    Warren, Kimberlie J.


    Background: Socioeconomic disadvantage is a major risk factor for poor health and a consistent contributor to chronic stress, both of which are disempowering to individuals and communities. Poverty has been linked to a higher prevalence of many health conditions, including increased risk of chronic disease, injury, deprived infant development, anxiety, depression, premature death, and the negative impact of allostatic load associated with chronic stress. With the rising costs of healthcare, there is an urgent and ongoing need for effective strategies for the impoverished to diminish the negative impact of the stress response and enhance their level of empowerment. Method: Individuals associated with a community-based organization that assists impoverished individuals to move toward self-sufficiency were invited to attend a HeartMath (HM) two-session workshop series (4 weeks apart), and an additional discussion-only session was scheduled 4 weeks after the second session. Participants completed Personal and Organizational Quality Assessments (POQAs) at both workshop sessions to gather pre- and post-intervention data. Each session 1 participant received a Quiet Joy CD and was asked to practice the techniques that they learned between sessions 1 and 2. A third session was scheduled 4 weeks after session 2 as a check-in with participants to determine if they continued to use the HeartMath techniques and for them to share their experiences as a result of exposure to the information. Results: Twenty individuals participated in workshop session 1; 14 participated in workshop session 2; and 11 individuals attended session 3. Although an equal-pair comparison was not possible, pre and post POQA analysis results demonstrated a general improvement in emotional well-being and reduction in stress symptoms for the group. However, there was a slight but notable reduction in two areas: positive outlook and gratitude. Individuals showed reduced symptoms in the six General Health

  11. Stopping or reducing dietary fiber intake reduces constipation and its associated symptoms. (United States)

    Ho, Kok-Sun; Tan, Charmaine You Mei; Mohd Daud, Muhd Ashik; Seow-Choen, Francis


    To investigate the effect of reducing dietary fiber on patients with idiopathic constipation. Sixty-three cases of idiopathic constipation presenting between May 2008 and May 2010 were enrolled into the study after colonoscopy excluded an organic cause of the constipation. Patients with previous colon surgery or a medical cause of their constipation were excluded. All patients were given an explanation on the role of fiber in the gastrointestinal tract. They were then asked to go on a no fiber diet for 2 wk. Thereafter, they were asked to reduce the amount of dietary fiber intake to a level that they found acceptable. Dietary fiber intake, symptoms of constipation, difficulty in evacuation of stools, anal bleeding, abdominal bloating or abdominal pain were recorded at 1 and 6 mo. The median age of the patients (16 male, 47 female) was 47 years (range, 20-80 years). At 6 mo, 41 patients remained on a no fiber diet, 16 on a reduced fiber diet, and 6 resumed their high fiber diet for religious or personal reasons. Patients who stopped or reduced dietary fiber had significant improvement in their symptoms while those who continued on a high fiber diet had no change. Of those who stopped fiber completely, the bowel frequency increased from one motion in 3.75 d (± 1.59 d) to one motion in 1.0 d (± 0.0 d) (P fiber intake had increased bowel frequency from a mean of one motion per 4.19 d (± 2.09 d) to one motion per 1.9 d (± 1.21 d) on a reduced fiber diet (P fiber diet continued to have a mean of one motion per 6.83 d (± 1.03 d) before and after consultation. For no fiber, reduced fiber and high fiber groups, respectively, symptoms of bloating were present in 0%, 31.3% and 100% (P dietary fiber.

  12. Methods Reduce Cost, Enhance Quality of Nanotubes (United States)


    For all the challenges posed by the microgravity conditions of space, weight is actually one of the more significant problems NASA faces in the development of the next generation of U.S. space vehicles. For the Agency s Constellation Program, engineers at NASA centers are designing and testing new vessels as safe, practical, and cost-effective means of space travel following the eventual retirement of the space shuttle. Program components like the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle, intended to carry astronauts to the International Space Station and the Moon, must be designed to specific weight requirements to manage fuel consumption and match launch rocket capabilities; Orion s gross liftoff weight target is about 63,789 pounds. Future space vehicles will require even greater attention to lightweight construction to help conserve fuel for long-range missions to Mars and beyond. In order to reduce spacecraft weight without sacrificing structural integrity, NASA is pursuing the development of materials that promise to revolutionize not only spacecraft construction, but also a host of potential applications on Earth. Single-walled carbon nanotubes are one material of particular interest. These tubular, single-layer carbon molecules - 100,000 of them braided together would be no thicker than a human hair - display a range of remarkable characteristics. Possessing greater tensile strength than steel at a fraction of the weight, the nanotubes are efficient heat conductors with metallic or semiconductor electrical properties depending on their diameter and chirality (the pattern of each nanotube s hexagonal lattice structure). All of these properties make the nanotubes an appealing material for spacecraft construction, with the potential for nanotube composites to reduce spacecraft weight by 50 percent or more. The nanotubes may also feature in a number of other space exploration applications, including life support, energy storage, and sensor technologies. NASA s various

  13. Using Excel to reduce a Square Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Holoubek


    Full Text Available When solving operations research problems, one can use either specialised computer programs such as Lingo, Lindo, Storm or more universal programs such Excel, Matlab, and R. To obtain the input data, one can use either a program’s own editor or other programs commonly available such as Excel. While the problem-solving methods, being part of various programs, are the subjects of numerous publications (such as Gros, 2003; Jablonský, 2002; Plevný – Žižka, 2007; Stevenson – Ozgur, 2009, the way the input data are obtained, recorded, and processed receives far less attention although this part of problem-solving requires considerable effort and, if the method for data recording is inadequate, may cause subsequent difficulties in their further processing. A problem known as “the travelling salesman problem” (TSP may serve as an example. Here, the input data form a “square matrix of distances”. This paper is concerned with some Excel tools that can be used to obtain and subsequently modify such a square matrix. Given a square m × m matrix, an ordinary user might want to reduce it to an i × i square matrix (where i < m without having to copy data from the matrix, skip some of its rows and/or columns or write a program to implement such a reduction.In her degree project, Kourková, 2009 was looking for an efficient method of reducing an Excel matrix. She had found no relevant papers on this subject concluding that the authors of the commercial program had not considered this. Therefore, she offered her own solution unconventionally using the contingency table menu option. Although this had resulted in the desired submatrix, some of its parts were superfluous and even baffling for the user.For this reason, the authors analyse the method of representing an m × m matrix and the way of its reduction. Finally, a better option is offered to achieve the desired objective as well as other methods of obtaining the required submatrix that even

  14. Reducing sodium intake from meat products. (United States)

    Ruusunen, Marita; Puolanne, Eero


    Sodium intake exceeds the nutritional recommendations in many industrialized countries. Excessive intake of sodium has been linked to hypertension and consequently to increased risk of stroke and premature death from cardiovascular diseases. The main source of sodium in the diet is sodium chloride. It has been established that the consumption of more than 6g NaCl/day/person is associated with an age-increase in blood pressure. Therefore, it has been recommended that the total amount of dietary salt should be maintained at about 5-6g/day. Genetically salt susceptible individuals and hypertensives would particularly benefit from low-sodium diets, the salt content of which should range between 1 and 3g/day. In industrialized countries, meat products and meat meals at home and in catering comprise one of the major sources of sodium, in the form of sodium chloride. Sodium chloride affects the flavour, texture and shelf life of meat products. The salt intake derived from meat dishes can be lowered by, whenever possible, adding the salt, not during preparation, but at the table. In most cases, salt contents of over 2% can be markedly lowered without substantial sensory deterioration or technological problems causing economical losses. Salt contents down to 1.4% NaCl in cooked sausages and 1.75% in lean meat products are enough to produce a heat stable gel with acceptable perceived saltiness as well as firmness, water-binding and fat retention. A particular problem with low-salt meat products is, however, that not only the perceived saltiness, but also the intensity of the characteristic flavour decreases. Increased meat protein content (i.e. lean meat content) in meat products reduces perceived saltiness. The required salt content for acceptable gel strength depends on the formulation of the product. When phosphates are added or the fat content is high, lower salt additions provide a more stable gel than in non-phosphate and in low-fat products. Small differences in salt


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Bojanić


    Full Text Available Decades of research support the theory that when there are sports competitions the¬re is also the question of what to eat and drink in order to enhance sports per¬for¬man¬ce. Optimal diet can reduce fatigue, and allow athletes who train longer and compete to recovering faster (Lin and Lee, 2005. Nutritional status has a direct impact on the level of physical effect. In other words, the physical condition of pre¬paration much depends on the nutritional status of persons engaged in sport (Beals and Manore, 1998. Methods: The sample was composed of 60 professional athletes from Montenegro (football, basketball and judo. Knowledge of reduced sports nu¬tri¬tion was tested by means of a standardized questionnaire. The questionnaire was designed to determine the knowledge of sports nutrition, the ingredients that are nece¬ssa¬ry in order to provide a sufficient amount of energy for training and compe¬tition, the dietary supplements, a meal prior to the competition as well as dehydration and re¬hy¬dration during training and competition. Results: According to the results as a who¬le, it can be concluded that the professional athletes’ knowledge of sports nutrition is at a satisfactory level. Out of 1200 responses 787 correct answers were achieved, or 65.5%. However, when looking at the individual responses then the satisfaction with the relative high percentage is not equal since we observed large gaps on very import¬ant issues related to sports nutrition. Discussion: By analyzing and comparing re¬se¬arch results (Matkovic, Prince & Cigrovski, 2006,in a sample of 56 basketball and ski¬ing coaches, 77.8% of correct answers were received. From a survey (Vasiljevic, Bo¬ja¬nic, Petkovic & Muratovic, 2014 of 30 licensed coaches from Mon¬tenegro (foot¬ball, handball, basketball, volleyball, athletics and tennis 78.,1% of correct answers were received. By looking into the results of our study, it is clear that the results indicate that

  16. Protosemiosis: agency with reduced representation capacity. (United States)

    Sharov, Alexei A; Vehkavaara, Tommi


    Life has semiotic nature; and as life forms differ in their complexity, functionality, and adaptability, we assume that forms of semiosis also vary accordingly. Here we propose a criterion to distinguish between the primitive kind of semiosis, which we call "protosemiosis" (following Prodi) from the advanced kind of semiosis, or "eusemiosis". In protosemiosis, agents associate signs directly with actions without considering objects, whereas in eusemiosis, agents associate signs with objects and only then possibly with actions. Protosemiosis started from the origin of life, and eusemiosis started when evolving agents acquired the ability to track and classify objects. Eusemiosis is qualitatively different from protosemiosis because it can not be reduced to a small number of specific signaling pathways. Proto-signs can be classified into proto-icons that signal via single specific interaction, proto-indexes that combine several functions, and proto-symbols that are processed by a universal subagent equipped with a set of heritable adapters. Prefix "proto" is used here to characterize signs at the protosemiotic level. Although objects are not recognized by protosemiotic agents, they can be reliably reconstructed by human observers. In summary, protosemiosis is a primitive kind of semiosis that supports "know-how" without "know-what". Without studying protosemiosis, the biosemiotics theory would be incomplete.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tristan Barnett


    Full Text Available Long matches can cause problems for tournaments. For example, the starting times of subsequent matches can be substantially delayed causing inconvenience to players, spectators, officials and television scheduling. They can even be seen as unfair in the tournament setting when the winner of a very long match, who may have negative aftereffects from such a match, plays the winner of an average or shorter length match in the next round. Long matches can also lead to injuries to the participating players. One factor that can lead to long matches is the use of the advantage set as the fifth set, as in the Australian Open, the French Open and Wimbledon. Another factor is long rallies and a greater than average number of points per game. This tends to occur more frequently on the slower surfaces such as at the French Open. The mathematical method of generating functions is used to show that the likelihood of long matches can be substantially reduced by using the tiebreak game in the fifth set, or more effectively by using a new type of game, the 50-40 game, throughout the match

  18. Gastric bypass reduces fat intake and preference (United States)

    Bueter, Marco; Theis, Nadine; Werling, Malin; Ashrafian, Hutan; Löwenstein, Christian; Athanasiou, Thanos; Bloom, Stephen R.; Spector, Alan C.; Olbers, Torsten; Lutz, Thomas A.


    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass is the most effective therapy for morbid obesity. This study investigated how gastric bypass affects intake of and preference for high-fat food in an experimental (rat) study and within a trial setting (human). Proportion of dietary fat in gastric bypass patients was significantly lower 6 yr after surgery compared with patients after vertical-banded gastroplasty (P = 0.046). Gastric bypass reduced total fat and caloric intake (P bypass rats displayed much lower preferences for Intralipid concentrations > 0.5% in an ascending concentration series (0.005%, 0.01%, 0.05%, 0.1%, 0.5%, 1%, 5%) of two-bottle preference tests (P = 0.005). This effect was demonstrated 10 and 200 days after surgery. However, there was no difference in appetitive or consummatory behavior in the brief access test between the two groups (P = 0.71) using similar Intralipid concentrations (0.005% through 5%). Levels of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) were increased after gastric bypass as expected. An oral gavage of 1 ml corn oil after saccharin ingestion in gastric bypass rats induced a conditioned taste aversion. These findings suggest that changes in fat preference may contribute to long-term maintained weight loss after gastric bypass. Postingestive effects of high-fat nutrients resulting in conditioned taste aversion may partially explain this observation; the role of GLP-1 in mediating postprandial responses after gastric bypass requires further investigation. PMID:21734019

  19. Attentional retraining can reduce chocolate consumption. (United States)

    Kemps, Eva; Tiggemann, Marika; Orr, Jenna; Grear, Justine


    There is emerging evidence that attentional biases are related to the consumption of substances such as alcohol and tobacco, and that attentional bias modification can reduce unwanted consumption of these substances. We present evidence for the first time to our knowledge that the same logical argument applies in the food and eating domain. We conducted two experiments that used a modified dot probe paradigm to train undergraduate women to direct their attention toward ("attend") or away from ("avoid") food cues (i.e., pictures of chocolate). In Experiment 1, attentional bias for chocolate cues increased in the "attend" group, and decreased in the "avoid" group. Experiment 2 showed that these training effects generalized to novel, previously unseen chocolate pictures. Importantly, attentional retraining affected chocolate consumption and craving. In both experiments, participants in the "avoid" group ate less chocolate in a so-called taste test than did those in the "attend" group. In addition, in Experiment 2, but not in Experiment 1, the "attend" group reported stronger chocolate cravings following training, whereas the "avoid" group reported less intense cravings. The results support predictions of cognitive-motivational models of craving and consumption that attentional biases play a causal role in consumption behavior. Furthermore, they present a promising avenue for tackling unwanted food cravings and (over)eating. © 2013 American Psychological Association

  20. Protosemiosis: agency with reduced representation capacity (United States)

    Sharov, Alexei A.; Vehkavaara, Tommi


    Life has semiotic nature; and as life forms differ in their complexity, functionality, and adaptability, we assume that forms of semiosis also vary accordingly. Here we propose a criterion to distinguish between the primitive kind of semiosis, which we call “protosemiosis” (following Prodi) from the advanced kind of semiosis, or “eusemiosis”. In protosemiosis, agents associate signs directly with actions without considering objects, whereas in eusemiosis, agents associate signs with objects and only then possibly with actions. Protosemiosis started from the origin of life, and eusemiosis started when evolving agents acquired the ability to track and classify objects. Eusemiosis is qualitatively different from protosemiosis because it can not be reduced to a small number of specific signaling pathways. Proto-signs can be classified into proto-icons that signal via single specific interaction, proto-indexes that combine several functions, and proto-symbols that are processed by a universal subagent equipped with a set of heritable adapters. Prefix “proto” is used here to characterize signs at the protosemiotic level. Although objects are not recognized by protosemiotic agents, they can be reliably reconstructed by human observers. In summary, protosemiosis is a primitive kind of semiosis that supports “know-how” without “know-what”. Without studying protosemiosis, the biosemiotics theory would be incomplete. PMID:25937852

  1. Does Post Septoplasty Nasal Packing Reduce Complications?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijan Naghibzadeh


    Full Text Available The main issues in nasal surgery are to stabilize the nose in the good position after surgery and preserve the cartilages and bones in the favorable situation and reduce the risk of deviation recurrence. Also it is necessary to avoid the synechia formation, nasal valve narrowing, hematoma and bleeding. Due to the above mentioned problems and in order to solve and minimize them nasal packing, nasal splint and nasal mold have been advised. Patients for whom the nasal packing used may faced to some problems like naso-pulmonary reflex, intractable pain, sleep disorder, post operation infection and very dangerous complication like toxic shock syndrome. We have two groups of patients and three surgeons (one of the surgeons used post operative nasal packing in his patients and the two others surgeons did not.Complications and morbidities were compared in these two groups. Comparing the two groups showed that the rate of complication and morbidities between these two groups were same and the differences were not valuable, except the pain and discomfort post operatively and at the time of its removal. Nasal packing has several risks for the patients while its effects are not studied. Septoplasty can be safely performed without postoperative nasal packing. Nasal packing had no main findings that compensated its usage. Septal suture is one of the procedures that can be used as alternative method to nasal packing. Therefore the nasal packing after septoplasty should be reserved for the patients with increased risk of bleeding.

  2. Gait transitions in simulated reduced gravity. (United States)

    Ivanenko, Yuri P; Labini, Francesca Sylos; Cappellini, Germana; Macellari, Velio; McIntyre, Joseph; Lacquaniti, Francesco


    Gravity has a strong effect on gait and the speed of gait transitions. A gait has been defined as a pattern of locomotion that changes discontinuously at the transition to another gait. On Earth, during gradual speed changes, humans exhibit a sudden discontinuous switch from walking to running at a specific speed. To study the effects of altered gravity on both the stance and swing legs, we developed a novel unloading exoskeleton that allows a person to step in simulated reduced gravity by tilting the body relative to the vertical. Using different simulation techniques, we confirmed that at lower gravity levels the transition speed is slower (in accordance with the previously reported Froude number ∼0.5). Surprisingly, however, we found that at lower levels of simulated gravity the transition between walking and running was generally gradual, without any noticeable abrupt change in gait parameters. This was associated with a significant prolongation of the swing phase, whose duration became virtually equal to that of stance in the vicinity of the walk-run transition speed, and with a gradual shift from inverted-pendulum gait (walking) to bouncing gait (running).

  3. Reducing food losses by intelligent food logistics. (United States)

    Jedermann, Reiner; Nicometo, Mike; Uysal, Ismail; Lang, Walter


    The need to feed an ever-increasing world population makes it obligatory to reduce the millions of tons of avoidable perishable waste along the food supply chain. A considerable share of these losses is caused by non-optimal cold chain processes and management. This Theme Issue focuses on technologies, models and applications to monitor changes in the product shelf life, defined as the time remaining until the quality of a food product drops below an acceptance limit, and to plan successive chain processes and logistics accordingly to uncover and prevent invisible or latent losses in product quality, especially following the first-expired-first-out strategy for optimized matching between the remaining shelf life and the expected transport duration. This introductory article summarizes the key findings of this Theme Issue, which brings together research study results from around the world to promote intelligent food logistics. The articles include three case studies on the cold chain for berries, bananas and meat and an overview of different post-harvest treatments. Further contributions focus on the required technical solutions, such as the wireless sensor and communication system for remote quality supervision, gas sensors to detect ethylene as an indicator of unwanted ripening and volatile components to indicate mould infections. The final section of this introduction discusses how improvements in food quality can be targeted by strategic changes in the food chain.

  4. Reducing Field Distortion in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (United States)

    Eom, Byeong Ho; Penanen, Konstantin; Hahn, Inseob


    A concept for a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system that would utilize a relatively weak magnetic field provides for several design features that differ significantly from the corresponding features of conventional MRI systems. Notable among these features are a magnetic-field configuration that reduces (relative to the conventional configuration) distortion and blurring of the image, the use of a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer as the detector, and an imaging procedure suited for the unconventional field configuration and sensor. In a typical application of MRI, a radio-frequency pulse is used to excite precession of the magnetic moments of protons in an applied magnetic field, and the decaying precession is detected for a short time following the pulse. The precession occurs at a resonance frequency proportional to the strengths of the magnetic field and the proton magnetic moment. The magnetic field is configured to vary with position in a known way; hence, by virtue of the aforesaid proportionality, the resonance frequency varies with position in a known way. In other words, position is encoded as resonance frequency. MRI using magnetic fields weaker than those of conventional MRI offers several advantages, including cheaper and smaller equipment, greater compatibility with metallic objects, and higher image quality because of low susceptibility distortion and enhanced spin-lattice-relaxation- time contrast. SQUID MRI is being developed into a practical MRI method for applied magnetic flux densities of the order of only 100 T

  5. Text messaging reduces analgesic requirements during surgery. (United States)

    Guillory, Jamie E; Hancock, Jeffrey T; Woodruff, Christopher; Keilman, Jeffrey


    This study aims to determine whether communicating via short message service text message during surgery procedures leads to decreased intake of fentanyl for patients receiving regional anesthesia below the waist compared with a distraction condition and no intervention. Ninety-eight patients receiving regional anesthesia for minor surgeries were recruited from a hospital in Montreal, QC, between January and March 2012. Patients were randomly assigned to text message with a companion, text message with a stranger, play a distracting mobile phone game, or receive standard perioperative management. Participants who were asked to text message or play a game did so before receiving the anesthetic and continued until the end of the procedure. The odds of receiving supplemental analgesia during surgery for patients receiving standard perioperative management were 6.77 (P=0.009; N=13/25) times the odds for patients in the text a stranger condition (N=22/25 of patients), 4.39 times the odds for those in the text a companion condition (P=0.03; N=19/23), and 1.96 times the odds for those in the distraction condition (P=0.25; N=17/25). Text messaging during surgery provides analgesic-sparing benefits that surpass distraction techniques, suggesting that mobile phones provide new opportunities for social support to improve patient comfort and reduce analgesic requirements during minor surgeries and in other clinical settings. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Ethics of Reducing Inequality: Some Points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazi A. S. M. Nurul Huda


    Full Text Available Favoring people without valid reason leads to inequality which tends to arouse a judgment of injustice that makes it one of the foremost moral issues. One of the main problems that this paper examines is the object regarding which the question of inequality reduction comes to the fore to which different philosophers offer numerous replies.  Some of these replies are related to treating goods and services equally, just income and resources, fair allocation of primary goods, equalization of utility, equality of opportunity, equality of capabilities, etc. Another problem of reducing inequality that is examined by this paper is the subject of equality. Inequalities are inflicted on the people based on their memberships to different genders, religions, races, classes, or regions. An important dimension of the problem of the subjects of equality is the moral bearing of the present people to ensure the equal living conditions of the people to come. In order to solve these problems apropos of the inequality reduction, it is suggested that economic endeavors should not be ignorant of ethics, that is, a connection between ethics and economics should be established. This connection would help understand the necessity of equality among citizens.

  7. Exploiting Data Similarity to Reduce Memory Footprints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswas, S; de Supinski, B R; Schulz, M; Franklin, D; Sherwood, T; Chong, F T


    Memory size has long limited large-scale applications on high-performance computing (HPC) systems. Since compute nodes frequently do not have swap space, physical memory often limits problem sizes. Increasing core counts per chip and power density constraints, which limit the number of DIMMs per node, have exacerbated this problem. Further, DRAM constitutes a significant portion of overall HPC system cost. Therefore, instead of adding more DRAM to the nodes, mechanisms to manage memory usage more efficiently - preferably transparently - could increase effective DRAM capacity and thus the benefit of multicore nodes for HPC systems. MPI application processes often exhibit significant data similarity. These data regions occupy multiple physical locations across the individual rank processes within a multicore node and thus offer a potential savings in memory capacity. These regions, primarily residing in heap, are dynamic, which makes them difficult to manage statically. Our novel memory allocation library, SBLLmalloc, automatically identifies identical memory blocks and merges them into a single copy. SBLLmalloc does not require application or OS changes since we implement it as a user-level library. Overall, we demonstrate that SBLLmalloc reduces the memory footprint of a range of MPI applications by 32.03% on average and up to 60.87%. Further, SBLLmalloc supports problem sizes for IRS over 21.36% larger than using standard memory management techniques, thus significantly increasing effective system size. Similarly, SBLLmalloc requires 43.75% fewer nodes than standard memory management techniques to solve an AMG problem.

  8. Using a foreign language reduces mental imagery. (United States)

    Hayakawa, Sayuri; Keysar, Boaz


    Mental imagery plays a significant role in guiding how we feel, think, and even behave. These mental simulations are often guided by language, making it important to understand what aspects of language contribute to imagery vividness and consequently to the way we think. Here, we focus on the native-ness of language and present evidence that using a foreign language leads to less vivid mental imagery than using a native tongue. In Experiment 1, participants using a foreign language reported less vivid imagery of sensory experiences such as sight and touch than those using their native tongue. Experiment 2 provided an objective behavioral measure, showing that muted imagery reduced accuracy when judging the similarity of shapes of imagined objects. Lastly, Experiment 3 demonstrated that this reduction in mental imagery partly accounted for the previously observed foreign language effects in moral choice. Together, the findings suggest that our mental images change when using a foreign tongue, leading to downstream consequences for how we make decisions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Reducing the bias of causality measures (United States)

    Papana, A.; Kugiumtzis, D.; Larsson, P. G.


    Measures of the direction and strength of the interdependence between two time series are evaluated and modified to reduce the bias in the estimation of the measures, so that they give zero values when there is no causal effect. For this, point shuffling is employed as used in the frame of surrogate data. This correction is not specific to a particular measure and it is implemented here on measures based on state space reconstruction and information measures. The performance of the causality measures and their modifications is evaluated on simulated uncoupled and coupled dynamical systems and for different settings of embedding dimension, time series length, and noise level. The corrected measures, and particularly the suggested corrected transfer entropy, turn out to stabilize at the zero level in the absence of a causal effect and detect correctly the direction of information flow when it is present. The measures are also evaluated on electroencephalograms (EEG) for the detection of the information flow in the brain of an epileptic patient. The performance of the measures on EEG is interpreted in view of the results from the simulation study.

  10. Reducing the risk of wrong route errors. (United States)

    Bridge, Louise


    Infants in the neonatal intensive care unit are at particular risk from clinical errors because of their fragility and vulnerability, as well as the complex nature of medication and other treatment regimes. Wrong route errors have been well documented, particularly related to enteral nutrition and medication. Published guidance for preventing such errors should inform changes in practice at the local level. In 2005, the Regional Neonatal Intensive Care Unit at the University Hospital of Wales Cardiff undertook a change in clinical practice to improve standards of care for all babies requiring enteral nutrition and medication, thus reducing the risk of a wrong route error. A routine revision of departmental policy resulted in a review of available evidence to inform the practice changes. Colour-coded enteral/oral syringes with a new style nasogastric tube were introduced. By promoting best practice through networking with other colleagues, staff have worked towards standardising the delivery of care in order to minimise the risk wrong route errors.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. O. Magomedov


    Full Text Available Summary. Was studied the technology of producing aerated candies "Souffle" with replacement of sugar to molasses with increased shelf life, molded by "jetting" with a vacuum syringe with continuous action, which is used in the meat industry, into metallized film type "flow-pack ". Studied the process of foaming disperse systems. Studied the process of gelation and gelation affected by various factors. To establish a relationship between the effective viscosity and jelly mass of gelation ability of agar were achieved the dependence according to the effective viscosity of the jelly mass shear rate and a shear rate on the shear stress at temperature of 65 ˚C and a mass fraction of solids of 78%. Viscosity reduction has a positive effect on the process of molding molasses candies by the "extrusion". Were definede values of the plastic strength of jelly masses and found that replacing sugar to molasses reduces the plastic strength, but it does not affect a good form-stable ability. Cinnamon was added into the prescription whipped composition to improve the nutritional value of products. Were defined organoleptic, physical and chemical qualities, calculated energy value of the products. High hygroscopic souffle on molasses requires hermetic packaging. Proposed a new progressive method of forming a souffle with a vacuum syringe with continuous action, which is used in the meat industry to form sausages. Curing and structure foarming implemented directly in the shell for 2 h, which is an important advantage of this method. Whipped products on molasses are functional.

  12. Can intersectional innovations reduce hospital infection? (United States)

    Saint, S


    Preventing healthcare-associated infection remains an international priority given the clinical and economic consequences of this largely preventable patient safety harm. Whereas important strides have been made in preventing hospital infections over the past several decades, thorny issues remain, including how to consistently improve hand hygiene rates and further reduce device-related complications such as catheter-associated urinary tract infection. Rather than relying solely on directional innovations - incremental changes that continue to serve as the bedrock of scientific advancement - perhaps we should also search for 'intersectional innovations', which represent breakthrough discoveries that emanate from the intersection of often widely divergent disciplines. Several intersectional innovations that have the potential to greatly impact infection prevention efforts include human factors engineering, sociology, and engaging the senses. Indeed, Professor Edward Joseph Lister Lowbury, the namesake of this lecture, exemplified intersectional thinking in his own life, having been both an accomplished bacteriologist and poet. By incorporating approaches outside of traditional biomedical science we may hope to provide patients with the safe care they expect and deserve. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Drag Reducing and Cavitation Resistant Coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pease, Leonard F.


    Client, Green Building Systems (GBS), presented PNNL a coating reported to reduce drag and prevent cavitation damage on marine vessels, turbines and pumps. The composition of the coating remains proprietary but has as constituents including silicon oxides, aliphatic carbon chains, and fluorine rich particles. The coating is spray applied to surfaces. Prior GBS testing and experiments suggest reduction of both drag and cavitation on industrial scale propellers, but the underlying mechanism for these effects remains unclear. Yet, the application is compelling because even modest reductions in drag to marine vessels and cavitation to propellers and turbines present a significant economic and environmental opportunity. To discern among possible mechanisms, PNNL considered possible mechanisms with the client, executed multiple experiments, and completed one theoretical analysis (see appendix). The remainder of this report first considers image analysis to gain insight into drag reduction mechanisms and then exposes the coating to cavitation to explore its response to an intensely cavitating environment. Although further efforts may be warranted to confirm mechanisms, this report presents a first investigation into these coatings within the scope and resources of the technology assistance program (TAP).

  14. Melatonin reduces the severity of experimental amoebiasis. (United States)

    França-Botelho, Aline C; França, Juliana L; Oliveira, Fabrício M S; Franca, Eduardo L; Honório-França, Adenilda C; Caliari, Marcelo V; Gomes, Maria A


    Melatonin has immunomodulatory effects but very little is known about its influence in protozoan infections, such as Entamoeba histolytica, which causes amoebiasis, a disease with significant morbidity and mortality. In this study, we evaluated the effects of exogenous melatonin interference in experimental amoebiasis and on interactions between human blood cells and E. histolytica trophozoites. The effect of melatonin was investigated in models of experimental amoebiasis in hamsters and rats by evaluating the area of necrosis induced by E. histolytica. The activity of melatonin on the interactions between leukocytes and amoebae was determined by examining leukophagocytosis. For in vitro tests, polymorphonuclear and mononuclear human blood leucocytes were incubated with E. histolytica trophozoites. The areas of amoebic necrosis were significantly reduced in animals treated with melatonin. Melatonin treatment increased leukophagocytosis but was associated with a greater number of dead amoebae. These results suggest that melatonin may play a beneficial role in the control of amoebic lesions, raising the possibility that this drug may be used as an adjuvant in anti-amoebic therapy.

  15. Melatonin reduces the severity of experimental amoebiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honório-França Adenilda C


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Melatonin has immunomodulatory effects but very little is known about its influence in protozoan infections, such as Entamoeba histolytica, which causes amoebiasis, a disease with significant morbidity and mortality. In this study, we evaluated the effects of exogenous melatonin interference in experimental amoebiasis and on interactions between human blood cells and E. histolytica trophozoites. Methods The effect of melatonin was investigated in models of experimental amoebiasis in hamsters and rats by evaluating the area of necrosis induced by E. histolytica. The activity of melatonin on the interactions between leukocytes and amoebae was determined by examining leukophagocytosis. For in vitro tests, polymorphonuclear and mononuclear human blood leucocytes were incubated with E. histolytica trophozoites. Results The areas of amoebic necrosis were significantly reduced in animals treated with melatonin. Melatonin treatment increased leukophagocytosis but was associated with a greater number of dead amoebae. Conclusions These results suggest that melatonin may play a beneficial role in the control of amoebic lesions, raising the possibility that this drug may be used as an adjuvant in anti-amoebic therapy.

  16. Reduced white matter integrity in amateur boxers. (United States)

    Herweh, Christian; Hess, Klaus; Meyding-Lamadé, Uta; Bartsch, Andreas J; Stippich, Christoph; Jost, Joachim; Friedmann-Bette, Birgit; Heiland, Sabine; Bendszus, Martin; Hähnel, Stefan


    Professional boxing can lead to chronic traumatic encephalopathy, a variant of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Its occurrence in amateur boxers is a matter of debate since amateur boxing is considered to be less harmful due to more strict regulations. However, several studies using different methodological approaches have revealed subtle signs of TBI even in amateurs. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is sensitive to microscopic white matter changes and has been proven useful in TBI when routine MR imaging often is unrevealing. DTI, with tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) together with neuropsychological examination of executive functions and memory, was used to investigate a collective of 31 male amateur boxers and 31 age-matched controls as well as a subgroup of 19 individuals, respectively, who were additionally matched for intellectual performance (IQ). All participants had normal findings in neurological examination and conventional MR. Amateur boxers did not show deficits in neuropsychological tests when their IQ was taken into account. Fractional anisotropy was significantly reduced, while diffusivity measures were increased along central white matter tracts in the boxers group. These changes were in part associated with the number of fights. TBSS revealed widespread white matter disturbance partially related to the individual fighting history in amateur boxers. These findings closely resemble those in patients with accidental TBI and indicate similar histological changes in amateur boxers.

  17. Reducing the Diagnostic Heterogeneity of Schizoaffective Disorder. (United States)

    Seldin, Katherine; Armstrong, Kristan; Schiff, Max L; Heckers, Stephan


    Clinical outcome studies of schizoaffective disorder patients have yielded conflicting results. One reason is the heterogeneity of samples drawn from the schizoaffective disorder population. Here, we studied schizoaffective disorder patients who showed marked functional impairment and continuous signs of illness for at least 6 months (i.e., DSM criteria B and C for schizophrenia). We assessed 176 chronic psychosis patients with a structured interview (SCID-IV-TR) and the Diagnostic Interview for Genetic Studies schizoaffective disorder module. We diagnosed 114 patients with schizophrenia and 62 with schizoaffective disorder. The two groups were similar with regard to age, gender, and race. We tested for group differences in antecedent risk factors, clinical features, and functional outcome. The schizoaffective disorder group differed from the schizophrenia group on two measures only: they showed higher rates of suicidality (more suicide attempts, p  disorder comorbidity ( p  schizoaffective disorder patients meet DSM criteria B and C for schizophrenia, they resemble schizophrenia patients on several measures used to assess validity. The increased rate of anxiety disorders and suicidality warrants clinical attention. Our data suggest that a more explicit definition of schizoaffective disorder reduces heterogeneity and may increase validity.

  18. Sex reduces genetic variation: a multidisciplinary review. (United States)

    Gorelick, Root; Heng, Henry H Q


    For over a century, the paradigm has been that sex invariably increases genetic variation, despite many renowned biologists asserting that sex decreases most genetic variation. Sex is usually perceived as the source of additive genetic variance that drives eukaryotic evolution vis-à-vis adaptation and Fisher's fundamental theorem. However, evidence for sex decreasing genetic variation appears in ecology, paleontology, population genetics, and cancer biology. The common thread among many of these disciplines is that sex acts like a coarse filter, weeding out major changes, such as chromosomal rearrangements (that are almost always deleterious), but letting minor variation, such as changes at the nucleotide or gene level (that are often neutral), flow through the sexual sieve. Sex acts as a constraint on genomic and epigenetic variation, thereby limiting adaptive evolution. The diverse reasons for sex reducing genetic variation (especially at the genome level) and slowing down evolution may provide a sufficient benefit to offset the famed costs of sex. © 2010 The Author(s). Evolution© 2010 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  19. Developmental Hypothyroidism Reduces the Expression of ... (United States)

    Disruption of thyroid hormone (TH) is a known effect of environmental contaminants. Neurotrophins including brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) have been implicated in brain dysfunction resulting from severe developmental TH insufficiency. Neurotrophins are also implicated in activity-dependent plasticity, a process critical for appropriate use-dependent connectivity in the developing brain and for memory formation in the adult. This study examined activity-induced expression of neurotrophin gene products in the hippocampus using the long-term potentiation (LTP) after developmental hypothyroidism induced by propylthiouracil (PTU). Pregnant rats were exposed to PTU (0 or I0ppm) via the drinking water from early gestation to weaning. Adult male offspring were anesthetized with urethane and implanted with electrodes in the dentate gyrus (00) and perforant path (PP). LTP was induced by PP stimulation and responses from 00 were monitored at 15m intervals until sacrifice of the animals 5 h later. The 00 was dissected from the stimulated and nonstimulated hemispheres for rtPCR analysis of the neurotrophins Bdnf, Ngf, Ntf3 and related genes Egrl, Arc, Klf9. We found no PTU-induced difference in basal levels of expression of any of these genes in the nonstimulated 00. LTP increased expression of Bdnf, Ngf, Arc and Klj9 in the control DG, and reduced expression of Ntf3. LTP in DG from PTU animals failed to increase expression of Bdnf,

  20. Reducing employee travelling time through smart commuting (United States)

    Rahman, A. N. N. A.; Yusoff, Z. M.; Aziz, I. S.; Omar, D.


    Extremely congested roads will definitely delay the arrival time of each trip.This certainly impacted the journey of employees. Tardiness at the workplace has become a perturbing issue for companies where traffic jams are the most common worker excuses. A depressing consequence on daily life and productivity of the employee occurs. The issues of commuting distance between workplace and resident area become the core point of this research. This research will emphasize the use of Geographical Information System (GIS) technique to explore the distance parameter to the employment area and will focus on the accessibility pattern of low-cost housing. The research methodology consists of interview sessions and a questionnaire to residents of low-cost housing areas in Melaka Tengah District in Malaysia. The combination of these processes will show the criteria from the selected parameter for each respondent from their resident area to the employment area. This will further help in the recommendation of several options for a better commute or improvement to the existing routes and public transportations system. Thus enhancing quality of life for employees and helping to reduce stress, decrease lateness, absenteeism and improving productivity in workplace.

  1. Do clinical guidelines reduce clinician dependent costs? (United States)

    Kosimbei, George; Hanson, Kara; English, Mike


    Clinician dependent costs are the costs of care that are under the discretion of the healthcare provider. These costs include the costs of drugs, tests and investigations, and discretionary outpatient visits and impatient stays. The purpose of this review was to summarize recent evidence, relevant to both developed and developing countries on whether evidence based clinical guidelines can change hospitals variable costs which are clinician dependent, and the degree of financial savings achieved at hospital level. Potential studies for inclusion were identified using structured searches of Econlit, J-Stor, and Pubmed databases. Two reviewers independently evaluated retrieved studies for inclusion. The methodological quality of the selected articles was assessed using the Oxford Centre for Evidence- Based Medicine (CEBM) levels of evidence. The results suggest that 10 of the 11 interventions were successful reducing financial costs. Most of the interventions, either in modeling studies or real interventions generate significant financial saving, although the former reported higher savings because the studies assumed 100 percent compliance.

  2. Targeting lysyl oxidase reduces peritoneal fibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R Harlow

    Full Text Available Abdominal surgery and disease cause persistent abdominal adhesions, pelvic pain, infertility and occasionally, bowel obstruction. Current treatments are ineffective and the aetiology is unclear, although excessive collagen deposition is a consistent feature. Lysyl oxidase (Lox is a key enzyme required for crosslinking and deposition of insoluble collagen, so we investigated whether targeting Lox might be an approach to reduce abdominal adhesions.Female C57Bl/6 mice were treated intraperitoneally with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (NT to induce fibrosis, together with chemical (ß-aminoproprionitrile-BAPN or miRNA Lox inhibitors, progesterone or dexamethasone. Fibrotic lesions on the diaphragm, and expression of fibrosis-related genes in abdominal wall peritoneal mesothelial cells (PMC were measured. Effects of BAPN and dexamethasone on collagen fibre alignment were observed by TEM. Isolated PMC were cultured with interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1α and progesterone to determine effects on Lox mRNA in vitro.NT-induced fibrosis and collagen deposition on the diaphragm was ameliorated by BAPN, Lox miRNA, or steroids. BAPN and dexamethasone disrupted collagen fibres. NT increased PMC Lox, Col1a1, Col3a1 and Bmp1 mRNA, which was inhibited by steroids. Progesterone significantly inhibited IL-1α induced Lox expression by PMC in vitro.Our results provide proof-of-concept that targeting peritoneal Lox could be an effective approach in ameliorating fibrosis and adhesion development.

  3. Targeting lysyl oxidase reduces peritoneal fibrosis. (United States)

    Harlow, Christopher R; Wu, Xuan; van Deemter, Marielle; Gardiner, Fiona; Poland, Craig; Green, Rebecca; Sarvi, Sana; Brown, Pamela; Kadler, Karl E; Lu, Yinhui; Mason, J Ian; Critchley, Hilary O D; Hillier, Stephen G


    Abdominal surgery and disease cause persistent abdominal adhesions, pelvic pain, infertility and occasionally, bowel obstruction. Current treatments are ineffective and the aetiology is unclear, although excessive collagen deposition is a consistent feature. Lysyl oxidase (Lox) is a key enzyme required for crosslinking and deposition of insoluble collagen, so we investigated whether targeting Lox might be an approach to reduce abdominal adhesions. Female C57Bl/6 mice were treated intraperitoneally with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (NT) to induce fibrosis, together with chemical (ß-aminoproprionitrile-BAPN) or miRNA Lox inhibitors, progesterone or dexamethasone. Fibrotic lesions on the diaphragm, and expression of fibrosis-related genes in abdominal wall peritoneal mesothelial cells (PMC) were measured. Effects of BAPN and dexamethasone on collagen fibre alignment were observed by TEM. Isolated PMC were cultured with interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1α) and progesterone to determine effects on Lox mRNA in vitro. NT-induced fibrosis and collagen deposition on the diaphragm was ameliorated by BAPN, Lox miRNA, or steroids. BAPN and dexamethasone disrupted collagen fibres. NT increased PMC Lox, Col1a1, Col3a1 and Bmp1 mRNA, which was inhibited by steroids. Progesterone significantly inhibited IL-1α induced Lox expression by PMC in vitro. Our results provide proof-of-concept that targeting peritoneal Lox could be an effective approach in ameliorating fibrosis and adhesion development.

  4. Analyzing and reducing plagiarism at university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge López Puga


    Full Text Available Plagiarism is one of the less desirable practises in the academic context. This paper presents an experience of massive plagiarism detection at university and the steps taken to prevent its subsequent occurrence. Plagiarism was detected in the first assessment phase of a research project practise. As a result, students were required to arrange ethical group discussions with the professor to prevent plagiarism in the future. A substantial reduction in the rate of plagiarism was observed from the first practical assessment to the second one, t(16=2.5, p=.02, d=0.83, 1-?=.63, unilateral contrast. Additionally, a survey was developed to analyse students’ opinions and attitudes about plagiarism. A sample of 64 students (15 boys and 49 girls with an average age of 22.69 (SD=2.8 filled in an electronic questionnaire. More than a half of the sample (56.92% admitted that they had plagiarised before but most of the students (83.08% agreed they would not like someone else plagiarising their reports. A preliminary short scale to measure attitude towards plagiarism in undergraduate students at university is provided. Finally, a set of recommendations are given based on this experience to prevent and to reduce the level of plagiarism in the university contex.

  5. Reducing the Consequences of a Nuclear Detonation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buddemeier, B R


    The 2002 National Strategy to Combat Weapons of Mass Destruction states that 'the United States must be prepared to respond to the use of WMD against our citizens, our military forces, and those of friends and allies'. Scenario No.1 of the 15 Department of Homeland Security national planning scenarios is an improvised nuclear detonation in the national capitol region. An effective response involves managing large-scale incident response, mass casualty, mass evacuation, and mass decontamination issues. Preparedness planning activities based on this scenario provided difficult challenges in time critical decision making and managing a large number of casualties within the hazard area. Perhaps even more challenging is the need to coordinate a large scale response across multiple jurisdictions and effectively responding with limited infrastructure and resources. Federal response planning continues to make improvements in coordination and recommending protective actions, but much work remains. The most critical life-saving activity depends on actions taken in the first few minutes and hours of an event. The most effective way to reduce the enormous national and international social and economic disruptions from a domestic nuclear explosion is through planning and rapid action, from the individual to the federal response. Anticipating response resources for survivors based on predicted types and distributions of injuries needs to be addressed.

  6. Mindful attention reduces linguistic intergroup bias. (United States)

    Tincher, Moses M; Lebois, Lauren A M; Barsalou, Lawrence W


    A brief mindfulness intervention diminished bias in favor of one's in-group and against one's out-group. In the linguistic intergroup bias (LIB), individuals expect in-group members to behave positively, and out-group members to behave negatively. Consequently, individuals choose abstract language beset with character inferences to describe these expected behaviors, and in contrast, choose concrete, objective language to describe unexpected behaviors. Eighty-four participants received either mindful attention instructions (observe their thoughts as fleeting mental states) or immersion instructions (become absorbed in the vivid details of thoughts). After instruction, participants viewed visual depictions of an imagined in-group or out-group member's positive or negative behavior, selecting the best linguistic description from a set of four descriptions that varied in abstractness. Immersion groups demonstrated a robust LIB. Mindful attention groups, however, exhibited a markedly tempered LIB, suggesting that even a brief mindfulness-related instruction can implicitly reduce the propensity to perpetuate stereotypical thinking through language. These results contribute to understanding the mechanisms that facilitate unprejudiced thinking.

  7. How Neighborhood Disadvantage Reduces Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Moiduddin


    Full Text Available In this analysis we connect structural neighborhood conditions to birth outcomes through their intermediate effects on mothers’ perceptions of neighborhood danger and their tendency to abuse substances during pregnancy. We hypothesize that neighborhood poverty and racial/ethnic concentration combine to produce environments that mothers perceive as unsafe, thereby increasing the likelihood of negative coping behaviors (substance abuse. We expect these behaviors, in turn, to produce lower birth weights. Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a survey of a cohort of children born between 1998 and 2000 and their mothers in large cities in the United States, we find little evidence to suggest that neighborhood circumstances have strong, direct effects on birth weight. Living in a neighborhood with more foreigners had a positive effect on birth weight. To the extent that neighborhood conditions influence birth weight, the effect mainly occurs through an association with perceived neighborhood danger and subsequent negative coping behaviors. Poverty and racial/ethnic concentration increase a mother’s sense that her neighborhood is unsafe. The perception of an unsafe neighborhood, in turn, associates with a greater likelihood of smoking cigarettes and using illegal drugs, and these behaviors have strong and significant effects in reducing birth weight. However, demographic characteristics, rather than perceived danger or substance abuse, mediate the influence of neighborhood characteristics on birth weight.

  8. Operating Costs Reducing in MDF Manufacturing Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Augusto Coeve Florino


    Full Text Available The sustained efforts by electric motors when subjected to cutting, trimming or finishing are directly related to the material being machined and the angle of attack of the tool. Choosing the right tool for this operation depends on an expected result. So the engines behave differently to each operation. The optimization between strength, speed, power, material and type of operation, can be found to reduce operational costs of production, besides determining the exact time to make the set-up of worn tool. The reduction in operating costs is an item of sustainability that outlines the strategic positioning on companies to become competitive in the global marketplace. With the great technological development present today, this issue goes away with the very latest products on the market for professionals who productivity will be dealt with in these modern maintenance equipment such as power quality analyzer, Imager, profile projector and microscope for research. The result of this work is the optimization of the cutting operation and energy consumption thereby demonstrating an optimum point of operation in a case study presented in this work.

  9. Strategies to reduce PWR inspection time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerra, J.; Gonzalez, E. [TECNATOM SA, Madrid (Spain)


    During last few years, a constant reduction in inspection time was clearly demanded by most nuclear plant owners. This requirement has to be accomplished without any impact in inspection quality that, in general, has also to be improved. All this in a market with increasing competition that forces price reductions. Under these new demands from our customers, Tecnatom reoriented its development efforts to improve his products and services to meet this challenges. Two of our main inspection activities that have clear impact in outage duration are Steam Generator and Vessel inspections. This paper describes the improvements made in these two activities as an example of the reorientation of our development efforts with a focus on the technical improvements made on the software and robotic tools applied as in the data acquisition and analysis systems. In the Steam Generator inspections, new robots with dual guide tubes are commonly used. New eddy current instruments and software were developed to keep up with the data rates produced by the faster acquisition system. Use of automatic analysis software is also helping to improve speed while reducing cost and improving overall job quality. Production rates are close to double from the previous inspection system. (author)

  10. Reducing food losses by intelligent food logistics (United States)

    Jedermann, Reiner; Nicometo, Mike; Uysal, Ismail; Lang, Walter


    The need to feed an ever-increasing world population makes it obligatory to reduce the millions of tons of avoidable perishable waste along the food supply chain. A considerable share of these losses is caused by non-optimal cold chain processes and management. This Theme Issue focuses on technologies, models and applications to monitor changes in the product shelf life, defined as the time remaining until the quality of a food product drops below an acceptance limit, and to plan successive chain processes and logistics accordingly to uncover and prevent invisible or latent losses in product quality, especially following the first-expired-first-out strategy for optimized matching between the remaining shelf life and the expected transport duration. This introductory article summarizes the key findings of this Theme Issue, which brings together research study results from around the world to promote intelligent food logistics. The articles include three case studies on the cold chain for berries, bananas and meat and an overview of different post-harvest treatments. Further contributions focus on the required technical solutions, such as the wireless sensor and communication system for remote quality supervision, gas sensors to detect ethylene as an indicator of unwanted ripening and volatile components to indicate mould infections. The final section of this introduction discusses how improvements in food quality can be targeted by strategic changes in the food chain. PMID:24797131

  11. Acute stress selectively reduces reward sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa H Berghorst


    Full Text Available Stress may promote the onset of psychopathology by disrupting reward processing. However, the extent to which stress impairs reward processing, rather than incentive processing more generally, is unclear. To evaluate the specificity of stress-induced reward processing disruption, 100 psychiatrically healthy females were administered a probabilistic stimulus selection task enabling comparison of sensitivity to reward-driven (Go and punishment-driven (NoGo learning under either ‘no stress’ or ‘stress’ (threat-of-shock conditions. Cortisol samples and self-report measures were collected. Contrary to hypotheses, the groups did not differ significantly in task performance or cortisol reactivity. However, further analyses focusing only on individuals under ‘stress’ who were high responders with regard to both cortisol reactivity and self-reported negative affect revealed reduced reward sensitivity relative to individuals tested in the ‘no stress’ condition; importantly, these deficits were reward-specific. Overall, findings provide preliminary evidence that stress-reactive individuals show diminished sensitivity to reward but not punishment under stress. While such results highlight the possibility that stress-induced anhedonia might be an important mechanism linking stress to affective disorders, future studies are necessary to confirm this conjecture.

  12. Acute stress selectively reduces reward sensitivity (United States)

    Berghorst, Lisa H.; Bogdan, Ryan; Frank, Michael J.; Pizzagalli, Diego A.


    Stress may promote the onset of psychopathology by disrupting reward processing. However, the extent to which stress impairs reward processing, rather than incentive processing more generally, is unclear. To evaluate the specificity of stress-induced reward processing disruption, 100 psychiatrically healthy females were administered a probabilistic stimulus selection task (PSST) that enabled comparison of sensitivity to reward-driven (Go) and punishment-driven (NoGo) learning under either “no stress” or “stress” (threat-of-shock) conditions. Cortisol samples and self-report measures were collected. Contrary to hypotheses, the groups did not differ significantly in task performance or cortisol reactivity. However, further analyses focusing only on individuals under “stress” who were high responders with regard to both cortisol reactivity and self-reported negative affect revealed reduced reward sensitivity relative to individuals tested in the “no stress” condition; importantly, these deficits were reward-specific. Overall, findings provide preliminary evidence that stress-reactive individuals show diminished sensitivity to reward, but not punishment, under stress. While such results highlight the possibility that stress-induced anhedonia might be an important mechanism linking stress to affective disorders, future studies are necessary to confirm this conjecture. PMID:23596406

  13. Mere Recollection of Food Reduces Altruistic Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okamura Yasuto


    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was twofold: Experiment 1 tested the possibility that the mere recollection of food aroused a state of hunger and that different types of food influenced the state of hunger differently; Experiment 2 tested the possibility that food cues affected altruistic behavior. In Experiment 1, 28 participants reported how hungry they felt before and after their recollection of certain foods (noodles and pudding. Results suggest that recollection of food increased hunger and that the type of food influenced the degree of hunger (F(2,54 = 31.88, p < .001, η2 = .54. In Experiment 2, 63 participants were randomly assigned to one of three recollection conditions: (1 noodles, (2 pudding, and (3 control. Participants in the two conditions described each food in detail; control group participants did not. Participants were then asked how much they would be willing to participate in an ostensible experiment. Results indicate that recollection-induced hunger reduced altruistic behavior (F(2, 60 = 4.11, p = .021, η2 = .12. Cue reactivity theory and the hierarchy of needs could explain these results.

  14. Bose-Bose mixtures in reduced dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minardi, F; Barontini, G; Catani, J; Lamporesi, G; Inguscio, M [LENS and Universita di Firenze, Via Nello Carrara 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Nishida, Y, E-mail: [Center for Theoretical Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)


    The two-body scattering is greatly modified in reduced dimensions. With ultracold atoms, low dimensional configurations are routinely accessible thanks to the use of optical lattices which allow confinements sufficiently strong to freeze the motion along chosen directions. With two different atomic species, we use a species-selective optical potential, in the form of a standing wave, to confine only one species in 2D disks and study the scattering between particles existing in different dimensions, i.e., we realize a 2D-3D mix-dimensional configuration, reminiscent of a brane world. We review the scattering theory specific to this configuration and derive an effective scattering length {alpha}{sub eff} in terms of the free-space scattering length {alpha} and the confinement parameters. We detect experimentally the enhancement of inelastic collisions arising at particular values of {alpha} and relate these values to the divergences of {alpha}{sub eff}. Unlike the confinement-induced resonances predicted and observed for identical particles, our mixed-dimensional resonances occur in a series of several resonances, because the relative and centre-of-mass motion are coupled.

  15. Reducing financial avalanches by random investments (United States)

    Biondo, Alessio Emanuele; Pluchino, Alessandro; Rapisarda, Andrea; Helbing, Dirk


    Building on similarities between earthquakes and extreme financial events, we use a self-organized criticality-generating model to study herding and avalanche dynamics in financial markets. We consider a community of interacting investors, distributed in a small-world network, who bet on the bullish (increasing) or bearish (decreasing) behavior of the market which has been specified according to the S&P 500 historical time series. Remarkably, we find that the size of herding-related avalanches in the community can be strongly reduced by the presence of a relatively small percentage of traders, randomly distributed inside the network, who adopt a random investment strategy. Our findings suggest a promising strategy to limit the size of financial bubbles and crashes. We also obtain that the resulting wealth distribution of all traders corresponds to the well-known Pareto power law, while that of random traders is exponential. In other words, for technical traders, the risk of losses is much greater than the probability of gains compared to those of random traders.

  16. Food Supplement Reduces Fat, Improves Flavor (United States)


    Diversified Services Corporation, seeking to develop a new nutritional fat replacement and flavor enhancement product, took advantage of the NASA Glenn Garrett Morgan Commercialization Initiative (GMCI) for technology acquisition and development and introductions to potential customers and strategic partners. Having developed and commercialized the product, named Nurtigras, the company is now marketing it through its subsidiary, H.F. Food Technologies Inc. The Nutrigras fat substitute is available in liquid, gel, or dry form and can be easily customized to the specific needs of the food manufacturer. It is primarily intended for use as a partial replacement for animal fat in beef patties and other normally high-fat meat products, and can also be used in soups, sauces, bakery items, and desserts. In addition to the nutritional benefits, the fat replacement costs less than the food it replaces, and as such can help manufacturers reduce material costs. In precooked products, Nutrigras can increase moisture content and thereby increase product yield. The company has been able to repay the help provided by NASA by contributing to the Space Agency's astronaut diet-the Nutrigras fat substitute can be used as a flavor enhancer and shelf-life extender for food on the ISS.

  17. Monitoring Air Circulation Under Reduced Pressures (United States)

    Rygalov, Vadim

    Adequate air circulation is required for controlled environments to maintain uniform temperature and humidity control, and hence the ability to measure air flow accurately is important. Human and associated life support habitats (e.g.,. plant production systems) for future space missions will likely be operated at pressures less than 100 kPa to minimize gas leakage and structural mass. Under such reduced pressures, the outputs from conventional anemometers for monitoring air flow can change and require re-calibration. These effects of atmospheric pressure on different types of air flow measurements are not completely understood; hence we compared the performance of several air flow sensors across a range of hypobaric pressures. Sensors included a propeller type anemometer, a hot-wire anemometer, and a Pitot-tube based device. Theoretical schematics (including mathematical models) underlying these measurements were developed. Results demonstrated that changes in sensor outputs were predictable based on their operating principles, and that corrections could be developed for sensors calibrated under normal Earth atmosphere pressure ( 100 kPa) and then used at different pressures. The potential effects of hypobaric atmospheres and their altered air flows on plant physiology are also discussed.

  18. Nicotine reduces distraction under low perceptual load. (United States)

    Behler, Oliver; Breckel, Thomas P K; Thiel, Christiane M


    Several studies provide evidence that nicotine alleviates the detrimental effects of distracting sensory stimuli. It is been suggested that nicotine may either act as a stimulus filter that prevents irrelevant stimuli entering awareness or by enhancing the attentional focus to relevant stimuli via a boost in processing capacity. To differentiate between these two accounts, we administered nicotine to healthy non-smokers and investigated distractor interference in a visual search task with low and high perceptual load to tax processing capacity. Thirty healthy non-smokers received either 7 mg transdermal nicotine or a matched placebo in a double blind within subject design 1 h prior to performing the visual search task with different fixation distractors. Nicotine reduced interference of incongruent distractors, but only under low-load conditions, where distractor effects were large. No effects of nicotine were observed under high-load conditions. Highly distractible subjects showed the largest effects of nicotine. The findings suggest that nicotine acts primarily as a stimulus filter that prevents irrelevant stimuli from entering awareness in situations of high distractor interference.

  19. Mild hypothermia reduces ventilator-induced lung injury, irrespective of reducing respiratory rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aslami, Hamid; Kuipers, Maria T.; Beurskens, Charlotte J. P.; Roelofs, Joris J. T. H.; Schultz, Marcus J.; Juffermans, Nicole P.


    In the era of lung-protective mechanical ventilation using limited tidal volumes, higher respiratory rates are applied to maintain adequate minute volume ventilation. However, higher respiratory rates may contribute to ventilator-induced lung injury (VIII). Induced hypothermia reduces carbon dioxide

  20. Reducing glycosphingolipid content in adipose tissue of obese mice restores insulin sensitivity, adipogenesis and reduces inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco van Eijk

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue is a critical mediator in obesity-induced insulin resistance. Previously we have demonstrated that pharmacological lowering of glycosphingolipids and subsequently GM3 by using the iminosugar AMP-DNM, strikingly improves glycemic control. Here we studied the effects of AMP-DNM on adipose tissue function and inflammation in detail to provide an explanation for the observed improved glucose homeostasis. Leptin-deficient obese (Lep(Ob mice were fed AMP-DNM and its effects on insulin signalling, adipogenesis and inflammation were monitored in fat tissue. We show that reduction of glycosphingolipid biosynthesis in adipose tissue of Lep(Ob mice restores insulin signalling in isolated ex vivo insulin-stimulated adipocytes. We observed improved adipogenesis as the number of larger adipocytes was reduced and expression of genes like peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR gamma, insulin responsive glucose transporter (GLUT-4 and adipsin increased. In addition, we found that adiponectin gene expression and protein were increased by AMP-DNM. As a consequence of this improved function of fat tissue we observed less inflammation, which was characterized by reduced numbers of adipose tissue macrophages (crown-like structures and reduced levels of the macrophage chemo attractants monocyte-chemoattractant protein-1 (Mcp-1/Ccl2 and osteopontin (OPN. In conclusion, pharmacological lowering of glycosphingolipids by inhibition of glucosylceramide biosynthesis improves adipocyte function and as a consequence reduces inflammation in adipose tissue of obese animals.

  1. Solid-phase reducing agents as alternative for reducing disulfide bonds in proteins. (United States)

    Grazú, Valeria; Ovsejevi, Karen; Cuadra, Karina; Betancor, Lorena; Manta, Carmen; Batista-Viera, Francisco


    Disulfide reduction of Kluyveromyces lactis and Aspergillus oryzae beta-galactosidases and beta-lactoglobulin was assessed. Reduction was performed using one of two thiol-containing agents: dithiothreitol (DTT) or thiopropyl-agarose with a high degree of substitution (1000 micromol of SH groups/g of dried gel). Both reductants allowed an increase of three- (for K. lactis beta-galactosidase) and fourfold (for A. oryzae beta-galactosidase) in the initial content of SH groups in the lactases. Nearly sevenfold fewer micromoles of SH groups per milligram of protein were needed to perform the reduction of K. lactis beta-galactosidase with thiopropyl-agarose than for the same reduction with DTT. However, for A. oryzae beta-galactosidase, nearly twice as many micromoles of SH groups per milligram of protein were needed with thiopropylagarose than with DTT. Disulfide bonds in beta-lactoglobulin were not accessible to thiopropyl-agarose, since this reduction was only possible in the presence of 6 M urea. These results proved that highly substituted thiopropyl-agarose is as good a reducing agent as DTT, for the reduction of disulfide bonds in proteins. Moreover, excess reducing agent was very simply separated from the reduced protein by filtration, making it easier to control the reaction and providing reduced protein solutions free of reductant. All these advantages substantially cut down the time required and therefore the cost of the overall process.

  2. Innovative approaches to reduce animal testing : replace whenever possible, reduce through refinement and mechanistic understanding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ravenzwaay, van B.


    'Many of the in vitro toxicological studies have not been sufficiently validated to determine their applicability domain, even less have gained regulatory acceptance. Major advantage of in vitro testing today is the early identification of significant hazards in compound development and reduced and

  3. Reducing allergic symptoms through eliminating subgingival plaque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haryono Utomo


    Full Text Available Background: Elimination of subgingival plaque for prevention and treatment of periodontal diseases through scaling is a routine procedure. It is also well-known that periodontal disease is related to systemic diseases. Nevertheless, the idea how scaling procedures also able to reduce allergic symptoms i.e. eczema and asthma, is not easily accepted, because it is contradictory to the “hygiene hypothesis”. However, since allergic symptoms also depend on variable factors such as genetic, environmental and infection factors; every possible effort to eliminate or avoid from these factors had to be considered. Subgingival plaque is a source of infection, especially the Gram-negative bacteria that produced endotoxin (lipopolysaccharides, LPS, a potential stimulator of immunocompetent cells, which may also related to allergy, such as mast cells and basophils. In addition, it also triggers the “neurogenic switching” mechanism which may be initiated from chronic gingivitis. Objective: This case report may explain the possible connection between subgingival plaque and allergy based on evidence-based cases. Case: Two adult siblings who suffered from chronic gingivitis also showed different manifestations of allergy that were allergic dermatitis and asthma for years. They were also undergone unsuccessful medical treatment for years. Oral and topical corticosteroids were taken for dermatitis and inhalation for asthma. Case Management: Patients were conducted deep scaling procedures, allergic symptoms gradually diminished in days even though without usual medications. Conclusion: Concerning to the effectiveness of scaling procedures which concomitantly eliminate subgingival plaque in allergic patients, it concluded that this concept is logical. Nevertheless, further verification and collaborated study with allergic expert should be done.

  4. Does Zoning Winter Recreationists Reduce Recreation Conflict? (United States)

    Miller, Aubrey D.; Vaske, Jerry J.; Squires, John R.; Olson, Lucretia E.; Roberts, Elizabeth K.


    Parks and protected area managers use zoning to decrease interpersonal conflict between recreationists. Zoning, or segregation, of recreation—often by non-motorized and motorized activity—is designed to limit physical interaction while providing recreation opportunities to both groups. This article investigated the effectiveness of zoning to reduce recreation conflict in the Vail Pass Winter Recreation Area in Colorado, USA. Despite a zoning management system, established groomed travel routes were used by both non-motorized recreationists (backcountry skiers, snowboarders, snowshoers) and motorized recreationists (snowmobilers). We hypothesized that persistent recreation conflict reported by non-motorized recreationists was the result of recreation occurring in areas of mixed non-motorized and motorized use, mostly along groomed routes. We performed a geospatial analysis of recreation [from Global Positioning System (GPS) points, n = 1,233,449] in the Vail Pass Winter Recreation Area to identify areas of mixed non-motorized and motorized use. We then surveyed non-motorized recreationists ( n = 199) to test whether reported conflict is higher for respondents who traveled in areas of mixed-use, compared with respondents traveling outside areas of mixed-use. Results from the geospatial analysis showed that only 0.7 % of the Vail Pass Winter Recreation Area contained recreation from both groups, however that area contained 14.8 % of all non-motorized recreation and 49.1 % of all motorized recreation. Survey analysis results showed higher interpersonal conflict for all five standard conflict variables among non-motorized respondents who traveled in areas of mixed-use, compared with those traveling outside mixed-use areas. Management implications and recommendations for increasing the effectiveness of zoning are provided.

  5. Thoracic sympathetic block reduces respiratory system compliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Ely Martins Benseñor

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Thoracic epidural anesthesia (TEA following thoracic surgery presents known analgesic and respiratory benefits. However, intraoperative thoracic sympathetic block may trigger airway hyperreactivity. This study weighed up these beneficial and undesirable effects on intraoperative respiratory mechanics. DESIGN AND SETTING: Randomized, double-blind clinical study at a tertiary public hospital. METHODS: Nineteen patients scheduled for partial lung resection were distributed using a random number table into groups receiving active TEA (15 ml 0.5% bupivacaine, n = 9 or placebo (15 ml 0.9% saline, n = 10 solutions that also contained 1:200,000 epinephrine and 2 mg morphine. Under general anesthesia, flows and airway and esophageal pressures were recorded. Pressure-volume curves, lower inflection points (LIP, resistance and compliance at 10 ml/kg tidal volume were established for respiratory system, chest wall and lungs. Student’s t test was performed, including confidence intervals (CI. RESULTS: Bupivacaine rose 5 ± 1 dermatomes upwards and 6 ± 1 downwards. LIP was higher in the bupivacaine group (6.2 ± 2.3 versus 3.6 ± 0.6 cmH2O, p = 0.016, CI = -3.4 to -1.8. Respiratory system and lung compliance were higher in the placebo group (respectively 73.3 ± 10.6 versus 51.9 ± 15.5, p = 0.003, CI = 19.1 to 23.7; 127.2 ± 31.7 versus 70.2 ± 23.1 ml/cmH2O, p < 0.001, CI = 61 to 53. Resistance and chest wall compliance showed no difference. CONCLUSION: TEA decreased respiratory system compliance by reducing its lung component. Resistance was unaffected. Under TEA, positive end-expiratory pressure and recruitment maneuvers are advisable.

  6. Hamiltonian gadgets with reduced resource requirements (United States)

    Cao, Yudong; Babbush, Ryan; Biamonte, Jacob; Kais, Sabre


    Application of the adiabatic model of quantum computation requires efficient encoding of the solution to computational problems into the lowest eigenstate of a Hamiltonian that supports universal adiabatic quantum computation. Experimental systems are typically limited to restricted forms of two-body interactions. Therefore, universal adiabatic quantum computation requires a method for approximating quantum many-body Hamiltonians up to arbitrary spectral error using at most two-body interactions. Hamiltonian gadgets, introduced around a decade ago, offer the only current means to address this requirement. Although the applications of Hamiltonian gadgets have steadily grown since their introduction, little progress has been made in overcoming the limitations of the gadgets themselves. In this experimentally motivated theoretical study, we introduce several gadgets which require significantly more realistic control parameters than similar gadgets in the literature. We employ analytical techniques which result in a reduction of the resource scaling as a function of spectral error for the commonly used subdivision, three- to two-body and k -body gadgets. Accordingly, our improvements reduce the resource requirements of all proofs and experimental proposals making use of these common gadgets. Next, we numerically optimize these gadgets to illustrate the tightness of our analytical bounds. Finally, we introduce a gadget that simulates a Y Y interaction term using Hamiltonians containing only {X ,Z ,X X ,Z Z } terms. Apart from possible implications in a theoretical context, this work could also be useful for a first experimental implementation of these key building blocks by requiring less control precision without introducing extra ancillary qubits.

  7. Indoor Spatial Updating with Reduced Visual Information.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon E Legge

    Full Text Available Spatial updating refers to the ability to keep track of position and orientation while moving through an environment. People with impaired vision may be less accurate in spatial updating with adverse consequences for indoor navigation. In this study, we asked how artificial restrictions on visual acuity and field size affect spatial updating, and also judgments of the size of rooms.Normally sighted young adults were tested with artificial restriction of acuity in Mild Blur (Snellen 20/135 and Severe Blur (Snellen 20/900 conditions, and a Narrow Field (8° condition. The subjects estimated the dimensions of seven rectangular rooms with and without these visual restrictions. They were also guided along three-segment paths in the rooms. At the end of each path, they were asked to estimate the distance and direction to the starting location. In Experiment 1, the subjects walked along the path. In Experiment 2, they were pushed in a wheelchair to determine if reduced proprioceptive input would result in poorer spatial updating.With unrestricted vision, mean Weber fractions for room-size estimates were near 20%. Severe Blur but not Mild Blur yielded larger errors in room-size judgments. The Narrow Field was associated with increased error, but less than with Severe Blur. There was no effect of visual restriction on estimates of distance back to the starting location, and only Severe Blur yielded larger errors in the direction estimates. Contrary to expectation, the wheelchair subjects did not exhibit poorer updating performance than the walking subjects, nor did they show greater dependence on visual condition.If our results generalize to people with low vision, severe deficits in acuity or field will adversely affect the ability to judge the size of indoor spaces, but updating of position and orientation may be less affected by visual impairment.

  8. Chlorhexidine varnish has caries-reducing potential. (United States)

    Chestnutt, Ivor G


    A double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted. Children in the test group received 6-monthly applications of a 40% chlorhexidine varnish whereas children in the control group received a placebo varnish, over the course of 2 years. Clinical examination was undertaken at baseline and after 24 months by two calibrated dentists who did not know to which groups children were assigned. Decayed, missing, or primary filled molar surfaces (dmfs-molar) were monitored. At baseline, there was no significant difference between the mean dmfs-molar scores of the two groups (2.8 vs 2.6; P>0.05 ). After 2 years, 44 children (13%) were lost to follow-up, because some (n=31) had moved to other kindergartens, and some (n=13) objected to the taste of the varnish and refused to be examined. After 2 years, 290 children remained in the study, of whom 155 were in the test group and 135 were in the placebo group. The mean caries increment of the primary molars was 1.0 dmfs-molar in the test-group children and 1.6 dmfs-molar in the placebo group. The difference of 0.6 tooth surface equated to a 37.3% reduction in caries increment (number-needed-to-treat of 3), and was statistically significant (P 0.036; 95% confidence interval, 0.04-1.16). No side-effects (such as soft-tissue lesions and staining of teeth) were found at the 24-month examination. Six-monthly applications of chlorhexidine varnish were effective in reducing the incidence of dental caries in primary molars.

  9. Assessing possible hazards of reducing serum cholesterol. (United States)

    Law, M R; Thompson, S G; Wald, N J


    To assess whether low serum cholesterol concentration increases mortality from any cause. Systematic review of published data on mortality from causes other than ischaemic heart disease derived from the 10 largest cohort studies, two international studies, and 28 randomised trials, supplemented by unpublished data on causes of death obtained when necessary. Excess cause specific mortality associated with low or lowered serum cholesterol concentration. The only cause of death attributable to low serum cholesterol concentration was haemorrhagic stroke. The excess risk was associated only with concentrations below about 5 mmol/l (relative risk 1.9, 95% confidence interval 1.4 to 2.5), affecting about 6% of people in Western populations. For noncirculatory causes of death there was a pronounced difference between cohort studies of employed men, likely to be healthy at recruitment, and cohort studies of subjects in community settings, necessarily including some with existing disease. The employed cohorts showed no excess mortality. The community cohorts showed associations between low cholesterol concentration and lung cancer, haemopoietic cancers, suicide, chronic bronchitis, and chronic liver and bowel disease; these were most satisfactorily explained by early disease or by factors that cause the disease lowering serum cholesterol concentration (depression causes suicide and lowers cholesterol concentration, for example). In the randomised trials nine deaths (from a total of 687 deaths not due to ischaemic heart disease in treated subjects) were attributed to known adverse effects of the specific treatments, but otherwise there was no evidence of an increased mortality from any cause arising from reduction in cholesterol concentration. There is no evidence that low or reduced serum cholesterol concentration increases mortality from any cause other than haemorrhagic stroke. This risk affects only those people with a very low concentration and even in these will be

  10. Reducing dust exposure in indoor climbing gyms. (United States)

    Weinbruch, Stephan; Dirsch, Thomas; Kandler, Konrad; Ebert, Martin; Heimburger, Gerhard; Hohenwarter, Franz


    As users of indoor climbing gyms are exposed to high concentrations (PM(10) up to 4000 μg m(-3); PM(2.5) up to 500 μg m(-3)) of hydrated magnesium carbonate hydroxide (magnesia alba), reduction strategies have to be developed. In the present paper, the influence of the use of different kinds of magnesia alba on dust concentrations is investigated. Mass concentrations, number concentrations and size distributions of particles in indoor climbing gyms were determined with an optical particle counter, a synchronized, hybrid ambient real-time particulate monitor and an electrical aerosol spectrometer. PM(10) obtained with these three different techniques generally agreed within 25%. Seven different situations of magnesia alba usage were studied under controlled climbing activities. The use of a suspension of magnesia alba in ethanol (liquid chalk) leads to similar low mass concentrations as the prohibition of magnesia alba. Thus, liquid chalk appears to be a low-budget option to reduce dust concentrations. Magnesia alba pressed into blocks, used as powder or sieved to 2-4 mm diameter, does not lead to significant reduction of the dust concentrations. The same is true for chalk balls (powder enclosed in a sack of porous mesh material). The promotion of this kind of magnesia alba as a means of exposure reduction (as seen in many climbing gyms) is not supported by our results. Particle number concentrations are not influenced by the different kinds of magnesia alba used. The particle size distributions show that the use of magnesia alba predominantly leads to emission of particles with diameters above 1 μm.

  11. Role of ecolabeling in reducing ecotoxicology. (United States)

    Chakravarthy, Yogita; Potdar, Aditee; Singh, Anju; Unnikrishnan, Seema; Naik, Neelima


    Ecolabeling helps consumers to select environment friendly products, while meeting high demands on occupational health, safety, and usability. Ecolabeling undertakes cradle-to-grave approach which helps in minimizing the toxicological impacts at every stage of the product life cycle. The ecolabeling procedure calls for substitution or reduction of hazardous substances thereby reducing the toxicity caused due to these chemicals. China, Japan, Australia, European Union, and Nordic countries are leading in the race of awareness and implementation of ecolabeling schemes. In India, the ecolabeling scheme (Ecomark) was initiated in 1991. The Ecomark scheme lacked adoption of the green marketing principles and thus failed to create an impact. This study presents an overview of ecolabels in European Union, Nordic countries, Germany, China and India. Furthermore, it assesses the awareness of ecolabels among the retailers and traders of environment friendly products in India through a survey. The study highlights that the ecolabels are a success in most of the countries studied and are applied across a range of industrial sectors. The survey is administered to 80 retailers and traders of stores selling environment friendly products across different Indian cities. A correlation is established with the variables identified. The survey results indicate that although the retailers and traders of environment friendly products have low awareness of the ecolabels on environment friendly products, they are taking considerable efforts to promote and deliver environment friendly products to consumers. Large-scale awareness drives initiated by the Ministry of Environment, Forests & Climate Change permeating at grass root levels with the involvement of stakeholders could prove beneficial for promotion of the ecolabeling schemes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Beam Steering Devices Reduce Payload Weight (United States)


    Scientists have long been able to shift the direction of a laser beam, steering it toward a target, but often the strength and focus of the light is altered. For precision applications, where the quality of the beam cannot be compromised, scientists have typically turned to mechanical steering methods, redirecting the source of the beam by swinging the entire laser apparatus toward the target. Just as the mechanical methods used for turning cars has evolved into simpler, lighter, power steering methods, so has the means by which researchers can direct lasers. Some of the typical contraptions used to redirect lasers are large and bulky, relying on steering gimbals pivoted, rotating supports to shift the device toward its intended target. These devices, some as large and awkward as a piece of heavy luggage, are subject to the same issues confronted by mechanical parts: Components rub, wear out, and get stuck. The poor reliability and bulk not to mention the power requirements to run one of the machines have made mechanical beam steering components less than ideal for use in applications where weight, bulk, and maneuverability are prime concerns, such as on an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) or a microscope. The solution to developing reliable, lighter weight, nonmechanical steering methods to replace the hefty steering boxes was to think outside the box, and a NASA research partner did just that by developing a new beam steering method that bends and redirects the beam, as opposed to shifting the entire apparatus. The benefits include lower power requirements, a smaller footprint, reduced weight, and better control and flexibility in steering capabilities. Such benefits are realized without sacrificing aperture size, efficiency, or scanning range, and can be applied to myriad uses: propulsion systems, structures, radiation protection systems, and landing systems.

  13. Affordable housing: Reducing the energy cost burden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, A.D.; Chin, R.I.; Marden, C.L.


    Residential energy expenditures are a key determinant of housing affordability, particularly for lower Income households. For years, federal, state and local governments and agencies have sought to defray energy expenses and Increase residential energy efficiency for low Income households through legislative and regulatory actions and programs. Nevertheless, household energy costs continue to place a major burden on lower Income families. This issue paper was written to help formulate national energy policy by providing the United States Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE) with Information to help define the affordable housing issue; Identify major drivers, key factors, and primary stakeholders shaping the affordable housing issue; and review how responding to this Issue may impact EE`s goals and objectives and Influence the strategic direction of the office. Typically, housing affordability is an Issue associated with lower income households. This issue paper adopts this perspective, but it is important to note that reducing energy utility costs can make {open_quotes}better{close_quote} housing affordable to any household regardless of income. As energy efficiency is improved throughout all sectors of the economy, special consideration must be given to low income households. Of all households, low income households are burdened the most by residential energy costs; their residences often are the least energy-efficient and have the greatest potential for efficiency improvements, but the occupants have the fewest resources to dedicate to conservation measures. This paper begins with a definition of {open_quotes}affordability{close_quotes} as it pertains to total housing costs and summarizes several key statistics related to housing affordability and energy use by lower income households.

  14. Workforce reductions: low morale, reduced quality care. (United States)

    Gilliland, M


    As the number of positions decreases, the workload becomes more stressful for nurses left to pick up the slack. Mistakes are made, patient complaints increase as tensions rise, and the quality of nursing care decreases. The use of contingency staffing and overtime may increase as the workforce is reduced. Lack of job security forces acceptance of overtime, leaving less time for family life which may lead to resentment. The success of an organization is linked to employees' willingness to perform and use their skills. With deteriorating attitudes, employees will not perform at maximum effectiveness. Services do not meet established standards or customer expectations and are reflected in negative customer feedback and decreasing revenues. "There are no quick fixes. Tossing out last month's 'cure' to usher in this month's idea is a big waste of time" (Austin, 1994, p. 19). The impact from layoffs has long-lasting effects on employees, their families, and the community. Support for those displaced, and for those retained, provides a release for pent-up emotions and allows employees to get on with the work at hand. Workforce reductions will continue with the decrease in funding and the decline in patient census, but it is imperative that the quality of care be maintained. Registered nurses cannot be replaced at the bedside by UAP who do not have the specialized knowledge and skills required to provide safe and effective care (Thomas, 1995). Efforts to cut costs should be directed toward decreasing waste and eliminating redundant work, not at decreasing the number of RNs. The RN must remain the primary caregiver at the bedside to maintain quality care. Changes that remove the RN from the bedside will influence the quality of care that patients receive in the future. Increased demands and fewer, less-experienced staff result in less time for patient care. One negative patient outcome can be much more costly, directly and indirectly, than the salaries of several staff

  15. Metabolic Flexibility of Sulfate Reducing Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline M. Plugge


    Full Text Available Dissimilatory sulfate-reducing prokaryotes (SRB are a very diverse group of anaerobic bacteria that are omnipresent in nature and play an imperative role in the global cycling of carbon and sulfur. In anoxic marine sediments sulfate reduction accounts for up to 50% of the entire organic mineralization in coastal and shelf ecosystems where sulfate diffuses several meters deep into the sediment. As a consequence, SRB would be expected in the sulfate-containing upper sediment layers, whereas methanogenic Archaea would be expected to succeed in the deeper sulfate-depleted layers of the sediment. Where sediments are high in organic matter, sulfate is depleted at shallow sediment depths, and biogenic methane production will occur. In the absence of sulfate, many SRB ferment organic acids and alcohols, producing hydrogen, acetate, and carbon dioxide, and may even rely on hydrogen- and acetate-scavenging methanogens to convert organic compounds to methane. SRB can establish two different life styles, and these can be termed as sulfidogenic and acetogenic, hydrogenogenic metabolism. The advantage of having different metabolic capabilities is that it raises the chance of survival in environments when electron acceptors become depleted. In marine sediments, SRB and methanogens do not compete but rather complement each other in the degradation of organic matter.Also in freshwater ecosystems with sulfate concentrations of only 10-200 μM, sulfate is consumed efficiently within the top several cm of the sediments. Here, many of the δ-Proteobacteria present have the genetic machinery to perform dissimilatory sulfate reduction, yet they have an acetogenic, hydrogenogenic way of life.In this review we evaluate the physiology and metabolic mode of SRB in relation with their environment.

  16. Does Zoning Winter Recreationists Reduce Recreation Conflict? (United States)

    Miller, Aubrey D; Vaske, Jerry J; Squires, John R; Olson, Lucretia E; Roberts, Elizabeth K


    Parks and protected area managers use zoning to decrease interpersonal conflict between recreationists. Zoning, or segregation, of recreation-often by non-motorized and motorized activity-is designed to limit physical interaction while providing recreation opportunities to both groups. This article investigated the effectiveness of zoning to reduce recreation conflict in the Vail Pass Winter Recreation Area in Colorado, USA. Despite a zoning management system, established groomed travel routes were used by both non-motorized recreationists (backcountry skiers, snowboarders, snowshoers) and motorized recreationists (snowmobilers). We hypothesized that persistent recreation conflict reported by non-motorized recreationists was the result of recreation occurring in areas of mixed non-motorized and motorized use, mostly along groomed routes. We performed a geospatial analysis of recreation [from Global Positioning System (GPS) points, n = 1,233,449] in the Vail Pass Winter Recreation Area to identify areas of mixed non-motorized and motorized use. We then surveyed non-motorized recreationists (n = 199) to test whether reported conflict is higher for respondents who traveled in areas of mixed-use, compared with respondents traveling outside areas of mixed-use. Results from the geospatial analysis showed that only 0.7 % of the Vail Pass Winter Recreation Area contained recreation from both groups, however that area contained 14.8 % of all non-motorized recreation and 49.1 % of all motorized recreation. Survey analysis results showed higher interpersonal conflict for all five standard conflict variables among non-motorized respondents who traveled in areas of mixed-use, compared with those traveling outside mixed-use areas. Management implications and recommendations for increasing the effectiveness of zoning are provided.

  17. Mitochondrial Respiration Is Reduced in Atherosclerosis, Promoting Necrotic Core Formation and Reducing Relative Fibrous Cap Thickness. (United States)

    Yu, Emma P K; Reinhold, Johannes; Yu, Haixiang; Starks, Lakshi; Uryga, Anna K; Foote, Kirsty; Finigan, Alison; Figg, Nichola; Pung, Yuh-Fen; Logan, Angela; Murphy, Michael P; Bennett, Martin


    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage is present in murine and human atherosclerotic plaques. However, whether endogenous levels of mtDNA damage are sufficient to cause mitochondrial dysfunction and whether decreasing mtDNA damage and improving mitochondrial respiration affects plaque burden or composition are unclear. We examined mitochondrial respiration in human atherosclerotic plaques and whether augmenting mitochondrial respiration affects atherogenesis. Human atherosclerotic plaques showed marked mitochondrial dysfunction, manifested as reduced mtDNA copy number and oxygen consumption rate in fibrous cap and core regions. Vascular smooth muscle cells derived from plaques showed impaired mitochondrial respiration, reduced complex I expression, and increased mitophagy, which was induced by oxidized low-density lipoprotein. Apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE-/-) mice showed decreased mtDNA integrity and mitochondrial respiration, associated with increased mitochondrial reactive oxygen species. To determine whether alleviating mtDNA damage and increasing mitochondrial respiration affects atherogenesis, we studied ApoE-/- mice overexpressing the mitochondrial helicase Twinkle (Tw+/ApoE-/-). Tw+/ApoE-/- mice showed increased mtDNA integrity, copy number, respiratory complex abundance, and respiration. Tw+/ApoE-/- mice had decreased necrotic core and increased fibrous cap areas, and Tw+/ApoE-/- bone marrow transplantation also reduced core areas. Twinkle increased vascular smooth muscle cell mtDNA integrity and respiration. Twinkle also promoted vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and protected both vascular smooth muscle cells and macrophages from oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. Endogenous mtDNA damage in mouse and human atherosclerosis is associated with significantly reduced mitochondrial respiration. Reducing mtDNA damage and increasing mitochondrial respiration decrease necrotic core and increase fibrous cap areas independently of changes in reactive oxygen

  18. Yoga reduces performance anxiety in adolescent musicians. (United States)

    Khalsa, Sat Bir S; Butzer, Bethany; Shorter, Stephanie M; Reinhardt, Kristen M; Cope, Stephen


    Professional musicians often experience high levels of stress, music performance anxiety (MPA), and performance-related musculoskeletal disorders (PRMDs). Given the fact that most professional musicians begin their musical training before the age of 12, it is important to identify interventions that will address these issues from an early age. This study intended to replicate and expand upon adult research in this area by evaluating the effects of a yoga intervention on MPA and PRMDs in a population of adolescent musicians. The present study was the first to examine these effects. The research team assigned participants, adolescent musicians, into two groups. The intervention group (n = 84) took part in a 6-wk yoga program, and the control group (n = 51) received no treatment. The team evaluated the effects of the yoga intervention by comparing the scores of the intervention group to those of the control group on a number of questionnaires related to MPA and PRMDs. The study was conducted at the Boston University Tanglewood Institute (BUTI). BUTI is a training academy for advanced adolescent musicians, located in Lenox, Massachusetts. Participants were adolescent, residential music students (mean age = 16 y) in a 6-wk summer program at the BUTI in 2007 and 2008. Participants in the yoga intervention group were requested to attend three, 60-min, Kripalustyle yoga classes each wk for 6 wk. MPA was measured using the Performance Anxiety Questionnaire (PAQ) and the Music Performance Anxiety Inventory for Adolescents (MPAI-A). PRMDs were measured using the Performance-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders Questionnaire (PRMD-Q). RESULTS • Yoga participants showed statistically significant reductions in MPA from baseline to the end of the program compared to the control group, as measured by several subscales of the PAQ and MPAI-A; however, the results for PRMDs were inconsistent. The findings suggest that yoga may be a promising way for adolescents to reduce MPA and

  19. Cardiovascular function following reduced aerobic activity (United States)

    Raven, P. B.; Welch-O'Connor, R. M.; Shi, X.; Blomqvist, C. G. (Principal Investigator)


    -volume relationship resulted in the reduced LBNP tolerance, despite the accentuated aortic and cardiopulmonary baroreflex function following deconditioning.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    -term (3 days and distance (2 years interventional methods applied; clinical investigation of complications arising post intervention; studying behavior synthetic amnion. Conclusions: The cause of PRAS is multifactorial. Traditionally, fetal membrane rupture has been attributed to increased physical stress, which weakens the membranes. At the molecular level PRAS is the result of reducing collagen synthesis, alteration of the structure of collagen to accelerate degradation. In addition, these biochemical changes can be amplified and biophysical stress today. The priorities of this research include elucidation of the normal biological process of fetal membranes, including extracellular matrix remodeling, apoptosis.

  1. Reduced Pain Sensation and Reduced BOLD Signal in Parietofrontal Networks during Religious Prayer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmholdt, Else-Marie; Skewes, Joshua Charles; Dietz, Martin


    Previous studies suggest that religious prayer can alter the experience of pain via expectation mechanisms. While brain processes related to other types of top-down modulation of pain have been studied extensively, no research has been conducted on the potential effects of active religious coping....... Here, we aimed at investigating the neural mechanisms during pain modulation by prayer and their dependency on the opioidergic system. Twenty-eight devout Protestants performed religious prayer and a secular contrast prayer during painful electrical stimulation in two fMRI sessions. Naloxone or saline...... was administered prior to scanning. Results show that pain intensity was reduced by 11% and pain unpleasantness by 26% during religious prayer compared to secular prayer. Expectancy predicted large amounts (70–89%) of the variance in pain intensity. Neuroimaging results revealed reduced neural activity during...

  2. Reduced turning frequency and delayed poultry manure addition reduces N loss from sugarcane compost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bryndum, Sofie; Muschler, R.; Nigatu, Abebe Nigussie


    Composting is an effective method to recycle biodegradable waste as soil amendment in smallholder farming systems. Although all essential plant nutrients are found in compost, a substantial amount of nitrogen is lost during composting. This study therefore investigated the potential of reducing N...... losses by (i) delaying the addition of nitrogen-rich substrates (i.e. poultry manure), and (ii) reducing the turning frequency during composting. Furthermore, we tested the effect of compost application method on nitrogen mineralization. Sugarcane-waste was composted for 54days with addition of poultry...... manure at the beginning (i.e. early addition) or after 21days of composting (delayed addition). The compost pile was then turned either every three or nine days. Composts were subsequently applied to soil as (i) homogeneously mixed, or (ii) stratified, and incubated for 28days to test the effect...

  3. LLMapReduce: Multi-Level Map-Reduce for High Performance Data Analysis (United States)


    frequency of 21 text files over 3 compute tasks. The map-reduce jobs were executed with the BLOCK and MIMO options, and the total processing time was...Dynamic distributed dimensional data model (D4M) database and computation system. In Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP), 2012...interconnects [6]), High performance math libraries (e.g., BLAS [7, 8], LAPACK [9], ScaLAPACK [10]) designed to exploit special processing hardware, High

  4. Obstetric outcomes in reduced and non-reduced twin pregnancies. A single hospital experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    UmmKulthoum E. AlShelaly


    Full Text Available Objectives: To compare pregnancy outcomes between high-order multiple pregnancies resulting from assisted reproductive technology (ART reduced to twins and non-reduced pregnancies, and to evaluate indications for using ART. Methods: This is a descriptive retrospective review of women with high-order multiple pregnancies reduced to twin carried out at the Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between December 2010 and December 2013. The control group consisted of subjects with twin pregnancies who received their fertility treatment at the same hospital during the same period. Results: One hundred and twelve women were included in this study. Of women reaching fetal viability, significantly more women delivered before the thirtieth week in the study group (50% versus 12%, p<0.004. Miscarriage/delivery prior to fetal viability, chorioamnionitis, and preterm premature rupture of membranes were statistically higher in the study group. A total of 83% of the miscarriages in the study group were in women carrying 4 or more fetuses initially, and 50% of women in the study group were multiparous with no clear indication for fertility treatment. Conclusion: Although fetal reduction is a safe procedure, it is associated with complications. Primary prevention of high-order multiple pregnancy is recommended.

  5. Reduced intrinsic heart rate is associated with reduced arrhythmic susceptibility in guinea-pig heart. (United States)

    Osadchii, Oleg E


    In the clinical setting, patients with slower resting heart rate are less prone to cardiovascular death compared with those with elevated heart rate. However, electrophysiological adaptations associated with reduced cardiac rhythm have not been thoroughly explored. In this study, relationships between intrinsic heart rate and arrhythmic susceptibility were examined by assessments of action potential duration (APD) rate adaptation and inducibility of repolarization alternans in sinoatrial node (SAN)-driven and atrioventricular (AV)-blocked guinea-pig hearts perfused with Langendorff apparatus. Electrocardiograms, epicardial monophasic action potentials, and effective refractory periods (ERP) were assessed in normokalemic and hypokalemic conditions. Slower basal heart rate in AV-blocked hearts was associated with prolonged ventricular repolarization during spontaneous beating, and with attenuated APD shortening at increased cardiac activation rates during dynamic pacing, when compared with SAN-driven hearts. During hypokalemic perfusion, the inducibility of repolarization alternans and tachyarrhythmia by rapid pacing was found to be lower in AV-blocked hearts. This difference was ascribed to prolonged ERP in the setting of reduced basal heart rate, which prevented ventricular capture at critically short pacing intervals required to induce arrhythmia. Reduced basal heart rate is associated with electrophysiological changes that prevent electrical instability upon an abrupt cardiac acceleration.

  6. Evaluating Process Effectiveness to Reduce Risk (United States)

    Shepherd, Christena C.


    It is well documented that government agencies do not have the same incentive as the private sector to focus on process effectiveness and continual improvement of those processes. It is also well documented whenever government agencies fail to deliver efficient, effective, consistent, and fair services to the citizens. In spite of the various "reinventing government" and "effectiveness initiatives" of the past decades, and in spite of the efforts on the part of many agencies to improve, government in general still lags behind industry in creating a culture of effective processes and systems. While the tragic events that unfolded recently in Flint, Michigan, teach us that running government "like a business" does not always take the needs of the citizenry into account, there are many lessons and techniques from the private sector that government agencies can use to improve. The incentive to improve, while mandated by various administrations1, needs to come from within the workforce, in order to effectively take root. The best, most effective incentive is to reduce, control or eliminate risk. Government agencies face some of the same risks as the private sector, while some are unique. While ISO 310002 has been around since 2009, risk has taken on increased visibility within the private sector with the advent of the emphasis on risk-based thinking in ISO 9001:20153. The relationship between risk-based thinking and effective processes is simple and direct. Those processes that are well thought out and standardized (i.e. Plan-Do-Check-Act), will have taken into account the applicable policy, statutory, regulatory, safety, quality and technical parameters, which may not occur to someone performing the process with minimal experience or training; and thus protect the employees, the public and the agency from statutory and regulatory violations; delay in providing services; non-delivery of services; harm to public or employee safety and health; cost overruns; breaches in

  7. Reducing Peripheral Inflammation with Infliximab Reduces Neuroinflammation and Improves Cognition in Rats with Hepatic Encephalopathy (United States)

    Dadsetan, Sherry; Balzano, Tiziano; Forteza, Jerónimo; Cabrera-Pastor, Andrea; Taoro-Gonzalez, Lucas; Hernandez-Rabaza, Vicente; Gil-Perotín, Sara; Cubas-Núñez, Laura; García-Verdugo, José-Manuel; Agusti, Ana; Llansola, Marta; Felipo, Vicente


    Inflammation contributes to cognitive impairment in patients with hepatic encephalopathy (HE). However, the process by which peripheral inflammation results in cognitive impairment remains unclear. In animal models, neuroinflammation and altered neurotransmission mediate cognitive impairment. Taking into account these data, we hypothesized that in rats with HE: (1) peripheral inflammation is a main contributor to neuroinflammation; (2) neuroinflammation in hippocampus impairs spatial learning by altering AMPA and/or NMDA receptors membrane expression; (3) reducing peripheral inflammation with infliximab (anti-TNF-a) would improve spatial learning; (4) this would be associated with reduced neuroinflammation and normalization of the membrane expression of glutamate receptors. The aims of this work were to assess these hypotheses. We analyzed in rats with portacaval shunt (PCS) and control rats, treated or not with infliximab: (a) peripheral inflammation by measuring prostaglandin E2, IL10, IL-17, and IL-6; (b) neuroinflammation in hippocampus by analyzing microglial activation and the content of TNF-a and IL-1b; (c) AMPA and NMDA receptors membrane expression in hippocampus; and (d) spatial learning in the Radial and Morris water mazes. We assessed the effects of treatment with infliximab on peripheral inflammation, on neuroinflammation and AMPA and NMDA receptors membrane expression in hippocampus and on spatial learning and memory. PCS rats show increased serum prostaglandin E2, IL-17, and IL-6 and reduced IL-10 levels, indicating increased peripheral inflammation. PCS rats also show microglial activation and increased nuclear NF-kB and expression of TNF-a and IL-1b in hippocampus. This was associated with altered AMPA and NMDA receptors membrane expression in hippocampus and impaired spatial learning and memory in the radial and Morris water maze. Treatment with infliximab reduces peripheral inflammation in PCS rats, normalizing prostaglandin E2, IL-17, IL-6, and

  8. Pushover Analysis of Steel Seismic Resistant Frames with Reduced Web Section and Reduced Beam Section Connections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Tomas Naughton


    Full Text Available The widespread brittle failure of welded beam-to-column connections caused by the 1994 Northridge and 1995 Kobe earthquakes highlighted the need for retrofitting measures effective in reducing the strength demand imposed on connections under cyclic loading. Researchers presented the reduced beam section (RBS as a viable option to create a weak zone away from the connection, aiding the prevention of brittle failure at the connection weld. More recently, an alternative connection known as a reduced web section (RWS has been developed as a potential replacement, and initial studies show ideal performance in terms of rotational capacity and ductility. This study performs a series of non-linear static pushover analyses using a modal load case on three steel moment-resisting frames of 4-, 8-, and 16-storeys. The frames are studied with three different connection arrangements; fully fixed moment connections, RBSs and RWSs, in order to compare the differences in capacity curves, inter-storey drifts, and plastic hinge formation. The seismic-resistant connections have been modeled as non-linear hinges in ETABS, and their behavior has been defined by moment-rotation curves presented in previous recent research studies. The frames are displacement controlled to the maximum displacement anticipated in an earthquake with ground motions having a 2% probability of being exceeded in 50 years. The study concludes that RWSs perform satisfactorily when compared with frames with fully fixed moment connections in terms of providing consistent inter-storey drifts without drastic changes in drift between adjacent storeys in low- to mid-rise frames, without significantly compromising the overall strength capacity of the frames. The use of RWSs in taller frames causes an increase in inter-storey drifts in the lower storeys, as well as causing a large reduction in strength capacity (33%. Frames with RWSs behave comparably to frames with RBSs and are deemed a suitable

  9. Pathogen Inactivation Technologies: The Advent of Pathogen-Reduced Blood Components to Reduce Blood Safety Risk. (United States)

    Devine, Dana V; Schubert, Peter


    Pathogen inactivation technologies represent a shift in blood safety from a reactive approach to a proactive protective strategy. Commercially available technologies demonstrate effective killing of most viruses, bacteria, and parasites and are capable of inactivating passenger leukocytes in blood products. The use of pathogen inactivation causes a decrease in the parameters of products that can be readily measured in laboratory assays but that do not seem to cause any alteration in hemostatic effect of plasma or platelet transfusions. Effort needs to be made to further develop these technologies so that the negative quality impact is ameliorated without reducing the pathogen inactivation effectiveness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Disease Prevention : Saving Lives or Reducing Health Care Costs?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grootjans-van Kampen, I.; Engelfriet, P.M.; Van Baal, P.H.M.


    Background Disease prevention has been claimed to reduce health care costs. However, preventing lethal diseases increases life expectancy and, thereby, indirectly increases the demand for health care. Previous studies have argued that on balance preventing diseases that reduce longevity increases

  11. Ten Years of Tamoxifen Reduces Breast Cancer Recurrences, Improves Survival (United States)

    ... Years of Tamoxifen Reduces Breast Cancer Recurrences, Improves Survival For some women with breast cancer , taking adjuvant ... Years of Tamoxifen Reduces Breast Cancer Recurrences, Improves Survival was originally published by the National Cancer Institute.” ...

  12. Strategies to reduce sodium intake in the United States

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Henney, Jane E; Taylor, Christine Lewis; Boon, Caitlin S


    "Reducing the intake of sodium is an important public health goal for Americans. Since the 1970s, an array of public health interventions and national dietary guidelines has sought to reduce sodium intake. However, the U.S...

  13. Refrigeration arrangement and methods for reducing charge migration (United States)

    Litch, Andrew D.; Wu, Guolian


    A refrigerator appliance including a refrigerant circuit between a condenser, an evaporator, and a compressor that includes two conduits and pressure reducing devices arranged in parallel between the evaporator and the condenser. The appliance also includes a valve system to direct refrigerant through one, both or none of the conduits and pressure reducing devices, and a heat exchanging member in thermal contact with either one pressure reducing device, or one conduit between the pressure reducing device and the valve system.

  14. A comparative study on electromagnetic interference shielding behaviors of chemically reduced and thermally reduced graphene aerogels. (United States)

    Bi, Shuguang; Zhang, Liying; Mu, Chenzhong; Lee, Heng Yeong; Cheah, Jun Wei; Chua, Eng Kee; See, Kye Yak; Liu, Ming; Hu, Xiao


    Electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding performance of chemically and thermally reduced graphene aerogels (GAs) was systematically studied. The EMI shielding mechanisms were extensively analyzed in terms of the distinct surface characteristics resulted from the different reduction methods for the first time. EMI shielding effectiveness (SE) of chemically and thermally reduced GAs reached 27.6 (GAC) and 40.2dB (GAT) at the thickness of 2.5mm, respectively. It was found that the introduction of nitrogen atoms through chemical reduction induced localized charges on the carbon backbone leading to strong polarization effects of GAC. The relatively incomplete reduction caused a large number of side polar groups which prevented the graphene sheets from π-π stacking. In contrast, the higher extent of reduction of graphene sheets in GAT left a smaller amount of side polar groups and formed more sp 2 graphitic lattice, both factors favored π-π stacking between the adjacent graphene sheets, resulting in higher electrical conductivity and enhanced EMI SE. The EMI shielding performance of the GAs prepared outperformed the recent reported porous carbon materials with respect to the absolute SE value at the similar thickness and/or density. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Reduced growth due to belowground sink limitation is not fully explained by reduced photosynthesis. (United States)

    Campany, Courtney E; Medlyn, Belinda E; Duursma, Remko A


    Sink limitation is known to reduce plant growth, but it is not known how plant carbon (C) balance is affected, limiting our ability to predict growth under sink-limited conditions. We manipulated soil volume to impose sink limitation of growth in Eucalyptus tereticornis Sm. seedlings. Seedlings were grown in the field in containers of different sizes and planted flush to the soil alongside freely rooted (Free) seedlings. Container volume negatively affected aboveground growth throughout the experiment, and light saturated rates of leaf photosynthesis were consistently lower in seedlings in containers (-26%) compared with Free seedlings. Significant reductions in photosynthetic capacity in containerized seedlings were related to both reduced leaf nitrogen content and starch accumulation, indicating direct effects of sink limitation on photosynthetic downregulation. After 120 days, harvested biomass of Free seedlings was on average 84% higher than seedlings in containers, but biomass distribution in leaves, stems and roots was not different. However, the reduction in net leaf photosynthesis over the growth period was insufficient to explain the reduction in growth, so that we also observed an apparent reduction in whole-plant C-use efficiency (CUE) between Free seedlings and seedlings in containers. Our results show that sink limitation affects plant growth through feedbacks to both photosynthesis and CUE. Mass balance approaches to predicting plant growth under sink-limited conditions need to incorporate both of these feedbacks. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  16. Designing GUIs for low vision by simulating reduced visual acuity: reduced resolution versus shrinking. (United States)

    Sandnes, Frode Eika


    The visual uniqueness of information carrying icon and text elements has received little attention in the HCI research literature. The information carrying elements of graphical designs must be visually unique in order to be visually recognizable. This is increasingly important with the diversity of form factors and types of information displays. This paper explores two simple strategies for testing visual designs by simulating low visual acuity, namely by reducing the resolution and by shrinking. Two case studies demonstrate that low vision simulation by shrinking is more effective than reducing the resolution. Moreover, the case studies show how the low vision simulation can help identify design aspects that need attention. Design shrinking is not a substitute for user testing on actual user groups, but meant as a tool for early screening of designs and an aid for designers to help understand the effects of their design. The method can also be used as a tool for communicating design problems and justifying design decisions to stakeholders of a project through presentations and reports.

  17. Reducing Color/Brightness Interaction in Color Television (United States)

    Marchman, Robert H.


    Proposed digitally sampled scan-conversion scheme for color television reduces unwanted interactions between chrominance and luminance signals. New scheme reduces luminance and chrominance bandwidth to increase frequency separation between signals. To avoid proportionally reducing horizontal brightness resolution and horizontal color resolution, horizontal interlace of luminance signal and two color-difference signals used.

  18. 7 CFR 28.39 - Cotton reduced in grade. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cotton reduced in grade. 28.39 Section 28.39... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Classification § 28.39 Cotton reduced in grade. If cotton be reduced in grade, by reason of the presence of...

  19. 7 CFR 27.37 - Cotton reduced in grade. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cotton reduced in grade. 27.37 Section 27.37... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Classification and Micronaire Determinations § 27.37 Cotton reduced in grade. If cotton be reduced in grade, by reason of the presence of...

  20. Association of aggressive periodontitis with reduced erythrocyte counts and reduced hemoglobin levels. (United States)

    Anand, P S; Sagar, D K; Ashok, S; Kamath, K P


    Studies have shown that erythrocyte counts and hemoglobin levels are reduced in patients with chronic periodontitis, suggesting that this condition may be associated with anemia of chronic disease. Although increased leukocyte counts have been reported in aggressive periodontitis, very little is known about the effects of aggressive periodontitis on erythrocyte counts. The present study was undertaken to determine whether generalized aggressive periodontitis is associated with reduced erythrocyte counts and reduced hemoglobin levels. The present study was conducted as a case-control study in which 64 patients with generalized aggressive periodontitis were categorized as cases and 58 periodontally healthy individuals were categorized as controls. Erythrocyte parameters (such as erythrocyte count, hemoglobin concentration, and hematocrit and erythrocyte indices) and clinical parameters (such as gingival index, plaque index, probing depth, clinical attachment level and percentage of severe sites) were recorded. Significant differences were observed between cases and controls in mean erythrocyte count (4.45 ± 0.6 × 10(6) erythrocytes/μL and 4.78 ± 0.56 × 10(6) erythrocytes/μL respectively, p = 0.002) and hemoglobin level (12.43 ± 1.83 g/dL and 13.53 ± 1.64 g/dL, respectively, p = 0.001). Other erythrocyte parameters, such as hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin, were also significantly lower among cases compared with controls. Logistic regression analyses showed that generalized aggressive periodontitis was significantly associated with lower erythrocyte counts ( p = 0.032) and a lower hemoglobin concentration ( p = 0.017). The findings of the present study suggest that patients with generalized aggressive periodontitis tend to have lower erythrocyte counts and lower hemoglobin levels compared with periodontally healthy controls. This suggests that generalized aggressive periodontitis, like chronic

  1. Implementing Parallel Google Map-Reduce in Eden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthold, Jost; Dieterle, Mischa; Loogen, Rita


    Recent publications have emphasised map-reduce as a general programming model (labelled Google map-reduce), and described existing high-performance implementations for large data sets. We present two parallel implementations for this Google map-reduce skeleton, one following earlier work, and one...... of the Google map-reduce skeleton in usage and performance, and deliver runtime analyses for example applications. Although very flexible, the Google map-reduce skeleton is often too general, and typical examples reveal a better runtime behaviour using alternative skeletons....

  2. Using preventive home monitoring to reduce hospital admission rates and reduce costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dinesen, Birthe; Hæsum, Lisa Korsbakke Emtekær; Sørensen, Natascha


    We studied whether preventive home monitoring of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) could reduce the frequency of hospital admissions and lower the cost of hospitalization. Patients were recruited from a health centre, general practitioner (GP) or the pulmonary hospital ward....... They were randomized to usual care or tele-rehabilitation with a telehealth monitoring device installed in their home for four months. A total of 111 patients were suitable for inclusion and consented to be randomized: 60 patients were allocated to intervention and three were lost to follow...... of admissions was €3461 per patient in the intervention group and €4576 in the control group; this difference was not significant. The Kaplan-Meier estimates for time to hospital admission were longer for the intervention group than the controls, but the difference was not significant. Future work requires...

  3. Reducing discards without reducing profit: Free gear choice in a Danish result-based management trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Lars O.; Ulrich, Clara; Qvist Eliasen, Søren


    The 2013 Common Fisheries Policy introduced a landing obligation on a range of species. This is changing the fundamental principles on which EU fisheries management is based, with more focus on the full accountability of all catches (a move towards catch quota management) and less accountability......, and adjusted their test fishery over time through incremental small steps. A total of 1497 hauls were analysed for landings, discards and discard-ratio (discard to catch ratio), along with species composition and temporal trends. Nine vessels reduced discard ratio in the test fishery, one showed no difference...... between test and control fishery, while two vessels displayed an increase in discard ratio. The catch compositions were also significantly different, with fewer predicted “choke species” occurring in the test fisheries and a more valuable size composition. Ultimately, despite smaller landings in multiple...

  4. Reduced expression of ferroportin-1 mediates hyporesponsiveness of suckling rats to stimuli that reduce iron absorption. (United States)

    Darshan, Deepak; Wilkins, Sarah J; Frazer, David M; Anderson, Gregory J


    Suckling mammals absorb high levels of iron to support their rapid growth. In adults, iron absorption is controlled by systemic signals that alter expression of the iron-regulatory hormone hepcidin. We investigated whether hepcidin and absorption respond appropriately to systemic stimuli during suckling. In Sprague-Dawley rats, iron levels increased following administration of iron dextran, and inflammation was induced with lipopolysaccharide. Gene expression was measured by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction; protein levels were measured by immunoblot analyses. Iron absorption was determined based on retention of an oral dose of 59Fe. Iron absorption was high during suckling and reduced to adult levels upon weaning. In response to iron dextran or lipopolysaccharide, iron absorption in adults decreased substantially, but, in suckling animals, the changes were minimal. Despite this, expression of hepcidin messenger RNA was strongly induced by each agent, before and after weaning. The hyporesponsiveness of iron absorption to increased levels of hepcidin during suckling correlated with reduced or absent duodenal expression of ferroportin 1 (Fpn1), normally a hepcidin target. Fpn1 expression was robust in adults. Predominance of the Fpn1A splice variant, which is under iron-dependent translational control, accounts for the low level of Fpn1 in the iron-deficient intestine of suckling rats. Iron absorption during suckling is largely refractory to changes in expression of the systemic iron regulator hepcidin, and this in turn reflects limited expression of Fpn1 protein in the small intestine. Iron absorption is therefore not always controlled by hepcidin. Copyright © 2011 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Has reducing fine particulate matter and ozone caused reduced mortality rates in the United States? (United States)

    Cox, Louis Anthony Tony; Popken, Douglas A


    Between 2000 and 2010, air pollutant levels in counties throughout the United States changed significantly, with fine particulate matter (PM2.5) declining over 30% in some counties and ozone (O3) exhibiting large variations from year to year. This history provides an opportunity to compare county-level changes in average annual ambient pollutant levels to corresponding changes in all-cause (AC) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality rates over the course of a decade. Past studies have demonstrated associations and subsequently either interpreted associations causally or relied on subjective judgments to infer causation. This article applies more quantitative methods to assess causality. This article examines data from these "natural experiments" of changing pollutant levels for 483 counties in the 15 most populated US states using quantitative methods for causal hypothesis testing, such as conditional independence and Granger causality tests. We assessed whether changes in historical pollution levels helped to predict and explain changes in CVD and AC mortality rates. A causal relation between pollutant concentrations and AC or CVD mortality rates cannot be inferred from these historical data, although a statistical association between them is well supported. There were no significant positive associations between changes in PM2.5 or O3 levels and corresponding changes in disease mortality rates between 2000 and 2010, nor for shorter time intervals of 1 to 3 years. These findings suggest that predicted substantial human longevity benefits resulting from reducing PM2.5 and O3 may not occur or may be smaller than previously estimated. Our results highlight the potential for heterogeneity in air pollution health effects across regions, and the high potential value of accountability research comparing model-based predictions of health benefits from reducing air pollutants to historical records of what actually occurred. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  6. Is reducing drinking always the answer to reducing consequences in first-year college students? (United States)

    Mallett, Kimberly A; Marzell, Miesha; Turrisi, Rob


    Pre-college drinking has been shown to be a predictor of risky drinking and harmful outcomes in college. By contrast, less is known about how pre-college alcohol consequences influence subsequent consequences during the freshman year. The present study examined pre-college drinking and consequences in relationship to consequences experienced during the freshman year to better understand alcohol-related problems in this population. Incoming freshmen (N = 340, 58% female) were randomly selected and completed measures of drinking quantity, alcohol-related consequences, and drinking style behaviors at pre-college baseline and at 10-month follow-up. Pre-college consequences demonstrated a unique relationship with consequences at 10-month follow-up controlling for both pre-college and freshman-year alcohol consumption. Furthermore, precollege consequences moderated the relationship between pre-college drinking and consequences at 10-month follow-up. For individuals who reported above-average pre-college consequences, no differences in 10-month follow-up consequences were observed across different levels of drinking. Finally, drinking style significantly mediated the relationship between the interaction between pre-college drinking and consequences and consequences at follow-up. The findings demonstrate the need to identify students who are at an increased risk of experiencing alcohol-related problems during their freshman year based on their history of consequences before college. Interventions aimed at these students may benefit from examining the usefulness of increasing protective behaviors as a method to reduce consequences in addition to reducing drinking quantity.

  7. Is Reducing Drinking Always the Answer to Reducing Consequences in First-Year College Students?* (United States)

    Mallett, Kimberly A.; Marzell, Miesha; Turrisi, Rob


    Objective: Pre-college drinking has been shown to be a predictor of risky drinking and harmful outcomes in college. By contrast, less is known about how pre-college alcohol consequences influence subsequent consequences during the freshman year. The present study examined pre-college drinking and consequences in relationship to consequences experienced during the freshman year to better understand alcohol-related problems in this population. Method: Incoming freshmen (N = 340, 58% female) were randomly selected and completed measures of drinking quantity, alcohol-related consequences, and drinking style behaviors at pre-college baseline and at 10-month follow-up. Results: Pre-college consequences demonstrated a unique relationship with consequences at 10-month follow-up controlling for both pre-college and freshman-year alcohol consumption. Furthermore, pre-college consequences moderated the relationship between pre-college drinking and consequences at 10-month follow-up. For individuals who reported above-average pre-college consequences, no differences in 10-month follow-up consequences were observed across different levels of drinking. Finally, drinking style significantly mediated the relationship between the interaction between pre-college drinking and consequences and consequences at follow-up. Conclusions: The findings demonstrate the need to identify students who are at an increased risk of experiencing alcohol-related problems during their freshman year based on their history of consequences before college. Interventions aimed at these students may benefit from examining the usefulness of increasing protective behaviors as a method to reduce consequences in addition to reducing drinking quantity. PMID:21388597

  8. Reduced vaginal elasticity, reduced lubrication, and deep and superficial dyspareunia in irradiated gynecological cancer survivors. (United States)

    Stinesen Kollberg, Karin; Waldenström, Ann-Charlotte; Bergmark, Karin; Dunberger, Gail; Rossander, Anna; Wilderäng, Ulrica; Åvall-Lundqvist, Elisabeth; Steineck, Gunnar


    The purpose of this study was to examine whether or not vaginal elasticity or lack of lubrication is associated with deep or superficial dyspareunia. We investigated gynecological cancer survivors treated with radiation therapy. In a population-based study with 616 women answering a questionnaire (participation rate 78%) and who were treated with radiotherapy for gynecological cancer, we analyzed information from 243 women (39%) who reported that they had had intercourse during the previous six months. Analyses included log-binomial regression (relative risks) and multiple imputations by chained equations in combination with Bayesian Model Averaging, yielding a posterior probability value. Age range of this cancer recurrent-free group of women was 29-80. Dyspareunia affected 164 of 243 of the women (67%). One hundred thirty-four women (55%) reported superficial pain, 97 women (40%) reported deep pain, and 87 women (36%) reported both types of dyspareunia. The relative risk (RR) of deep dyspareunia was 1.87 (CI 1.41-2.49) with impaired vaginal elasticity compared to normal vaginal elasticity. Age and lower abdominal swelling were separate risk factors for deep dyspareunia. However, effects remain after adjusting for these factors. The relative risk of deep dyspareunia was almost twice as high with impaired vaginal elasticity compared to normal vaginal elasticity. If we wish to treat or even prevent deep dyspareunia in women with gynecological cancer, we may use our knowledge of the pathophysiology of deep dyspareunia and increasingly provide dilators together with instructions on how to use them for stretching exercises in order to retain vaginal elasticity. Results highlight the need for studies with more precise questions distinguishing superficial from deep dyspareunia so that in the future we may be able to primarily try to avoid reduced vaginal elasticity and secondarily reduce the symptoms.

  9. Sorting, Searching, and Simulation in the MapReduce Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goodrich, Michael T.; Sitchinava, Nodari; Zhang, Qin


    usefulness of our approach by designing and analyzing efficient MapReduce algorithms for fundamental sorting, searching, and simulation problems. This study is motivated by a goal of ultimately putting the MapReduce framework on an equal theoretical footing with the well-known PRAM and BSP parallel...... models, which would benefit both the theory and practice of MapReduce algorithms. We describe efficient MapReduce algorithms for sorting, multi-searching, and simulations of parallel algorithms specified in the BSP and CRCW PRAM models. We also provide some applications of these results to problems...... in parallel computational geometry for the MapReduce framework, which result in efficient MapReduce algorithms for sorting, 2- and 3-dimensional convex hulls, and fixed-dimensional linear programming. For the case when mappers and reducers have a memory/message-I/O size of M = (N), for a small constant > 0...

  10. Study on Water—Soluble Organic Reducing Substances.I.Determination of Organic Reducing Substances by Differential Pulse Voltammetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    A new method was proposed for study of organic reducing substances in soils.According to the theoretical relationship between the voltammetric behaviors and reduction-oxidation reaction of reducing substances,the working conditions of differential pulse voltammetry (d.p.v.)for determining the organic reducing substances produced during the processes of the anaerobic decomposition of plant materials were established with a glass carbon electrode as working electrode,1M Ag-AgCl electrode with large area as reference electrode,0.2M NH4Ac as supporting from -0.5 to +1.2 voltage(vs.M Ag-AgCl).The peak current proportional to the concentration of reducing substances,and the characteristic peak potential of each organic reducing substance were regarded as the quantitative and qualitative base,respectively.These results obtained under the conditions mentioned above directly reflect both the reducing intensity and capacity of the organic reducing system in soils.

  11. Reducing ethylene levels along the food supply chain: a key to reducing food waste? (United States)

    Blanke, Michael M


    Excessive waste along the food supply chain of 71 (UK, Netherlands) to 82 (Germany) kg per head per year sparked widespread criticism of the agricultural food business and provides a great challenge and task for all its players and stakeholders. Origins of this food waste include private households, restaurants and canteens, as well as supermarkets, and indicate that 59-65% of this food waste can be avoided. Since ∼50% of the food waste is fruit and vegetables, monitoring and control of their natural ripening gas - ethylene - is suggested here as one possible key to reducing food waste. Ethylene accelerates ripening of climacteric fruits, and accumulation of ethylene in the supply chain can lead to fruit decay and waste. While ethylene was determined using a stationary gas chromatograph with gas cylinders, the new generation of portable sensor-based instruments now enables continuous in situ determination of ethylene along the food chain, a prerequisite to managing and maintaining the quality and ripeness of fruits and identifying hot spots of ethylene accumulation along the supply chain. Ethylene levels were measured in a first trial, along the supply chain of apple fruit from harvest to the consumer, and ranged from 10 ppb in the CA fruit store with an ethylene scrubber, 70 ppb in the fruit bin, to 500 ppb on the sorting belt in the grading facility, to ppm levels in perforated plastic bags of apples. This paper also takes into account exogenous ethylene originating from sources other than the fruit itself. Countermeasures are discussed, such as the potential of breeding for low-ethylene fruit, applications of ethylene inhibitors (e.g. 1-MCP) and absorber strips (e.g. 'It's Fresh', Ryan'), packages (e.g. 'Peakfresh'), both at the wholesale and retail level, vents and cooling for the supply chain, sale of class II produce ('Wunderlinge'), collection (rather than waste) of produce on the 'sell by' date ('Die Tafel') and whole crop purchase (WCP) to aid reducing

  12. Evidence for reduced arterial plasma input, prolonged lung retention and reduced lung monoamine oxidase in smokers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logan, Jean [Chemistry Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)]. E-mail:; Fowler, Joanna S. [Chemistry Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)


    We have previously found that smokers have reduced brain monoamine oxidase (MAO) A and B using positron emission tomography (PET) and the irreversible mechanism-based radiotracers [{sup 11}C]-labeled clorgyline (CLG) and deprenyl (DEP) and their deuterated analogs (D CLG, D DEP). More recently, we have estimated MAO A and B activity in other organs using the deuterium isotope effect to determine binding specificity for MAO and a three-compartment model to estimate k {sub 3}, the model term proportional to MAO A activity. Here, we have investigated the robustness of the model term k {sub 3} for estimating lung MAO A and B in light of our unexpected finding that lung MAO activity (k {sub 3}) was reduced for smokers relative to nonsmokers, although radiotracer uptake in the lungs was similar at peak and plateau for the two groups. Methods: Time-activity data from lung and arterial plasma were used from seven nonsmokers and seven smokers scanned previously with CLG and D CLG, and five nonsmokers and nine smokers scanned previously with DEP and D DEP. The measured time-activity curves for lung and plasma and the integrals for the arterial plasma time-activity curves were compared at an early time point (2.5 min) and at the end of the study (55 min). A three-compartment irreversible model was used to estimate the differences between smokers and nonsmokers, and the stability of the parameter (k {sub 3}) while varying model assumptions for the relative fractions of lung tissue, blood and air in the PET voxel. Results: The peak in the arterial plasma input function and the integral of the arterial plasma time-activity curve over the first 2.5 min after radiotracer injection were significantly lower for smokers relative to nonsmokers for all four tracers. However, although the peak and plateau of the lung time-activity curves were similar for smokers and nonsmokers, the decline in radioactivity from peak to plateau was slower for smokers for all tracers. Using a three

  13. Reducing smoking reduces suicidality among individuals with psychosis: Complementary outcomes from a Healthy Lifestyles intervention study. (United States)

    Sankaranarayanan, Anoop; Clark, Vanessa; Baker, Amanda; Palazzi, Kerrin; Lewin, Terry J; Richmond, Robyn; Kay-Lambkin, Frances J; Filia, Sacha; Castle, David; Williams, Jill M


    This study sought to explore the impact of smoking reduction on suicidality (suicide ideation and behaviour) among people with a psychotic disorder (n=235) who participated in a randomized trial of a healthy lifestyle intervention trial. Suicidality, measured by item -4 of the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) was the main variable of interest. Measures were collected by research assistants blind to treatment allocation at baseline, at 15 weeks (mid-intervention) and 12 months after baseline. Mediation analysis, adjusted for confounders, was used to determine the relationship between smoking reduction and suicidality and to explore whether this was mediated through depression. At 12 months, smoking reduction was found to be significantly associated with suicidality change; an association was also seen between smoking reduction and depression and depression and suicidality. After adjusting for depression, the association between smoking reduction and suicidality was attenuated but remained statistically significant; the proportion of the total effect that was mediated through depression was 30%. There was no significant association between suicidality and treatment group (vs. controls) over time. Our study suggests that smoking interventions may have benefits over and above those for improved physical health, by reducing suicidal ideation in people with psychosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Burnout Is Associated with Reduced Parasympathetic Activity and Reduced HPA Axis Responsiveness, Predominantly in Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wieke de Vente


    Full Text Available There is mounting evidence that burnout is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD. Stress-related dysregulation of the sympathetic and parasympathetic system and the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA axis may explain the enhanced risk for CVD. To test this hypothesis, 55 patients (34 males and 21 females with burnout on sickness absence and 40 healthy participants (16 males and 24 females were exposed to a psychosocial stressor consisting of mental arithmetic and public speech. Physiological variables (i.e., blood pressure, heart rate, cardiac output, vascular resistance, cortisol, and alpha-amylase were measured. Basal levels, reactivity, and recovery were compared between groups. In male patients, baseline systolic blood pressure was higher, whereas basal alpha-amylase and cortisol reactivity were lower than in healthy males. In female patients, a tendency for lower basal cortisol was found as compared to healthy females. Furthermore, reduced basal heart rate variability and a trend for elevated basal cardiac output were observed in both male and female patients. Burnout is characterised by dysregulation of the sympathetic and parasympathetic system and the HPA axis, which was more pronounced in males than in females. This study further supports burnout as being a risk factor for CVD through dysregulation of the sympathetic and parasympathetic system and the HPA axis.

  15. Inventions on reducing keyboard size: A TRIZ based analysis


    Mishra, Umakant


    A conventional computer keyboard consists of as many as 101 keys. The keyboard has several sections, such as text entry section, navigation section, and numeric keypad etc. and each having several keys on the keyboard. The size of the keyboard is a major inconvenience for portable computers, as they cannot be carried easily. Thus there are certain circumstances which compels to reduce the size of a keyboard. Reducing the size of a keyboard leads to several problems. A reduced size keyboard ma...

  16. Reducing Abdominal Fat Deposition in Broiler Through Feeding Management


    Cecep Hidayat


    Abdominal fat in broiler carcass is considered as a waste and its existence reduces the carcass quality. Abdominal fat deposition is affected by several factors such as genetic, nutrition, feed, sex, age and environment. Reducing abdominal fat deposition can be carried out by regulating the nutrient intake to ensure that no excessive nutrient was consumed. Nutrition effects to reduce abdominal fat deposition are associated with nutrient concentration of ration and quantity of daily feed intak...

  17. Sustainable development and reduced crime in urban environment


    Jalal Mozaffari


    Sustainable development is one of the ideal aspects of governments to provide favorable quality of life for residents, since it solves the problem of unemployment, reduces poverty rate, increases income, and establishes social justice. It also paves the way to increase participation in management of the country. Additionally, it increases the security and reduces crime rate in urban areas. In other words, there is mutual relationship between sustainable development and reduced crime rates....

  18. The research on reactivity of alternative carbon reducers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lipart


    Full Text Available The research involved measuring of the speed of zinc oxide with carbon reducers. Samples weighing between 60 and 100 mg were tested with the use of thermogravimetric analysis within the range of temperatures up to 1 100 °C in nitrogen atmosphere. The speed of heating was 20 deg min-1. The research involved also reducers normally used in reduction processes. The results obtained prove that some of the alternative reducers may be used for industrial purposes.

  19. Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Research Priorities Funding Opportunities & Notices Contract Opportunities Grants Process, Policies & ... Video: Surgery on Fetus Reduces Complications of Spina Bifida Share ...

  20. Pioglitazone acutely reduces energy metabolism and insulin secretion in rats

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lamontagne, Julien; Jalbert-Arsenault, Elise; Pepin, Emilie; Peyot, Marie-Line; Ruderman, Neil B; Nolan, Christopher J; Joly, Erik; Madiraju, S R Murthy; Poitout, Vincent; Prentki, Marc


    Our objective was to determine if the insulin-sensitizing drug pioglitazone acutely reduces insulin secretion and causes metabolic deceleration in vivo independently of change in insulin sensitivity...