WorldWideScience

Sample records for heterogeneous soc architectures

  1. 3D integration for NoC-based SoC architectures

    CERN Document Server

    Sheibanyrad, Abbas; Pétrot, Frédéric

    2011-01-01

    3D-Integration for NoC-based SoC Architectures gathers the recent advances in the whole domain by renowned experts in the field to build a comprehensive and consistent book around the hot topics of three-dimensional architectures and micro-architectures.

  2. Clock generators for SOC processors circuits and architectures

    CERN Document Server

    Fahim, Amr

    2004-01-01

    This book explores the design of fully-integrated frequency synthesizers suitable for system-on-a-chip (SOC) processors. The text takes a more global design perspective in jointly examining the design space at the circuit level as well as at the architectural level. The comprehensive coverage includes summary chapters on circuit theory as well as feedback control theory relevant to the operation of phase locked loops (PLLs). On the circuit level, the discussion includes low-voltage analog design in deep submicron digital CMOS processes, effects of supply noise, substrate noise, as well device noise. On the architectural level, the discussion includes PLL analysis using continuous-time as well as discrete-time models, linear and nonlinear effects of PLL performance, and detailed analysis of locking behavior. The book provides numerous real world applications, as well as practical rules-of-thumb for modern designers to use at the system, architectural, as well as the circuit level.

  3. Study of heterogeneous and reconfigurable architectures in the communication domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldkaemper, H. T.; Blume, H.; Noll, T. G.

    2003-05-01

    One of the most challenging design issues for next generations of (mobile) communication systems is fulfilling the computational demands while finding an appropriate trade-off between flexibility and implementation aspects, especially power consumption. Flexibility of modern architectures is desirable, e.g. concerning adaptation to new standards and reduction of time-to-market of a new product. Typical target architectures for future communication systems include embedded FPGAs, dedicated macros as well as programmable digital signal and control oriented processor cores as each of these has its specific advantages. These will be integrated as a System-on-Chip (SoC). For such a heterogeneous architecture a design space exploration and an appropriate partitioning plays a crucial role. On the exemplary vehicle of a Viterbi decoder as frequently used in communication systems we show which costs in terms of ATE complexity arise implementing typical components on different types of architecture blocks. A factor of about seven orders of magnitude spans between a physically optimised implementation and an implementation on a programmable DSP kernel. An implementation on an embedded FPGA kernel is in between these two representing an attractive compromise with high flexibility and low power consumption. Extending this comparison to further components, it is shown quantitatively that the cost ratio between different implementation alternatives is closely related to the operation to be performed. This information is essential for the appropriate partitioning of heterogeneous systems.

  4. Heterogeneous network architectures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henrik Lehrmann

    2006-01-01

    is flexibility. This thesis investigates such heterogeneous network architectures and how to make them flexible. A survey of algorithms for network design is presented, and it is described how using heuristics can increase the speed. A hierarchical, MPLS based network architecture is described......Future networks will be heterogeneous! Due to the sheer size of networks (e.g., the Internet) upgrades cannot be instantaneous and thus heterogeneity appears. This means that instead of trying to find the olution, networks hould be designed as being heterogeneous. One of the key equirements here...... and it is discussed that it is advantageous to heterogeneous networks and illustrated by a number of examples. Modeling and simulation is a well-known way of doing performance evaluation. An approach to event-driven simulation of communication networks is presented and mixed complexity modeling, which can simplify...

  5. Study of heterogeneous and reconfigurable architectures in the communication domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. T. Feldkaemper

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most challenging design issues for next generations of (mobile communication systems is fulfilling the computational demands while finding an appropriate trade-off between flexibility and implementation aspects, especially power consumption. Flexibility of modern architectures is desirable, e.g. concerning adaptation to new standards and reduction of time-to-market of a new product. Typical target architectures for future communication systems include embedded FPGAs, dedicated macros as well as programmable digital signal and control oriented processor cores as each of these has its specific advantages. These will be integrated as a System-on-Chip (SoC. For such a heterogeneous architecture a design space exploration and an appropriate partitioning plays a crucial role. On the exemplary vehicle of a Viterbi decoder as frequently used in communication systems we show which costs in terms of ATE complexity arise implementing typical components on different types of architecture blocks. A factor of about seven orders of magnitude spans between a physically optimised implementation and an implementation on a programmable DSP kernel. An implementation on an embedded FPGA kernel is in between these two representing an attractive compromise with high flexibility and low power consumption. Extending this comparison to further components, it is shown quantitatively that the cost ratio between different implementation alternatives is closely related to the operation to be performed. This information is essential for the appropriate partitioning of heterogeneous systems.

  6. Performance Evaluation of FIR Filter After Implementation on Different FPGA and SOC and Its Utilization in Communication and Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pandey, Bishwajeet; Das, Bhagwan; Kaur, Amanpreet

    2017-01-01

    that will energy efficient as well as faster than traditional design. Three different FPGA and SOC are taken under consideration and our design is implemented on these four ICs and we find the most energy efficient architecture and also find the architecture that will deliver highest performance among these four...... FPGA then we conclude that Zynq 7000 All programmable SOC is power hungry architecture and Kintex ultrascale architecture is the most energy efficient architecture that dissipates 20.86% less power than Zynq 700 All programmable SOC. For performance evaluation, we have taken benchmark C code of FIR...... provide by Xilinx. We transform that C code into HDL using Vivado HLS 2016.2 before power analysis on Vivado 2016.2. Ultrascale FPGA is generally used for packet processing in 100G networking and heterogeneous wireless infrastructure....

  7. Research on SEU hardening of heterogeneous Dual-Core SoC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kun; Hu, Keliu; Deng, Jun; Zhang, Tao

    2017-08-01

    The implementation of Single-Event Upsets (SEU) hardening has various schemes. However, some of them require a lot of human, material and financial resources. This paper proposes an easy scheme on SEU hardening for Heterogeneous Dual-core SoC (HD SoC) which contains three techniques. First, the automatic Triple Modular Redundancy (TMR) technique is adopted to harden the register heaps of the processor and the instruction-fetching module. Second, Hamming codes are used to harden the random access memory (RAM). Last, a software signature technique is applied to check the programs which are running on CPU. The scheme need not to consume additional resources, and has little influence on the performance of CPU. These technologies are very mature, easy to implement and needs low cost. According to the simulation result, the scheme can satisfy the basic demand of SEU-hardening.

  8. Architectures, Concepts and Architectures for Service Oriented Computing : proceedings of the 1st International Workshop - ACT4SOC 2007

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sinderen, Marten J.; Unknown, [Unknown

    2007-01-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of the First International Workshop on Architectures, Concepts and Technologies for Service Oriented Computing (ACT4SOC 2007), held on July 22 in Barcelona, Spain, in conjunction with the Second International Conference on Software and Data Technologies (ICSOFT

  9. Performance analysis of general purpose and digital signal processor kernels for heterogeneous systems-on-chip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. von Sydow

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Various reasons like technology progress, flexibility demands, shortened product cycle time and shortened time to market have brought up the possibility and necessity to integrate different architecture blocks on one heterogeneous System-on-Chip (SoC. Architecture blocks like programmable processor cores (DSP- and GPP-kernels, embedded FPGAs as well as dedicated macros will be integral parts of such a SoC. Especially programmable architecture blocks and associated optimization techniques are discussed in this contribution. Design space exploration and thus the choice which architecture blocks should be integrated in a SoC is a challenging task. Crucial to this exploration is the evaluation of the application domain characteristics and the costs caused by individual architecture blocks integrated on a SoC. An ATE-cost function has been applied to examine the performance of the aforementioned programmable architecture blocks. Therefore, representative discrete devices have been analyzed. Furthermore, several architecture dependent optimization steps and their effects on the cost ratios are presented.

  10. Designing Domain-Specific Heterogeneous Architectures from Dataflow Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süleyman Savas

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The last ten years have seen performance and power requirements pushing computer architectures using only a single core towards so-called manycore systems with hundreds of cores on a single chip. To further increase performance and energy efficiency, we are now seeing the development of heterogeneous architectures with specialized and accelerated cores. However, designing these heterogeneous systems is a challenging task due to their inherent complexity. We proposed an approach for designing domain-specific heterogeneous architectures based on instruction augmentation through the integration of hardware accelerators into simple cores. These hardware accelerators were determined based on their common use among applications within a certain domain.The objective was to generate heterogeneous architectures by integrating many of these accelerated cores and connecting them with a network-on-chip. The proposed approach aimed to ease the design of heterogeneous manycore architectures—and, consequently, exploration of the design space—by automating the design steps. To evaluate our approach, we enhanced our software tool chain with a tool that can generate accelerated cores from dataflow programs. This new tool chain was evaluated with the aid of two use cases: radar signal processing and mobile baseband processing. We could achieve an approximately 4 × improvement in performance, while executing complete applications on the augmented cores with a small impact (2.5–13% on area usage. The generated accelerators are competitive, achieving more than 90% of the performance of hand-written implementations.

  11. A Heterogeneous Quantum Computer Architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fu, X.; Riesebos, L.; Lao, L.; Garcia Almudever, C.; Sebastiano, F.; Versluis, R.; Charbon, E.; Bertels, K.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present a high level view of the heterogeneous quantum computer architecture as any future quantum computer will consist of both a classical and quantum computing part. The classical part is needed for error correction as well as for the execution of algorithms that contain both

  12. Position Paper: OpenMP scheduling on ARM big.LITTLE architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Butko , Anastasiia; Bessad , Louisa; Novo , David; Bruguier , Florent; Gamatié , Abdoulaye; Sassatelli , Gilles; Torres , Lionel; Robert , Michel

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Single-ISA heterogeneous multicore systems are emerging as a promising direction to achieve a more suitable balance between performance and energy consumption. However, a proper utilization of these architectures is essential to reach the energy benefits. In this paper, we demonstrate the ineffectiveness of popular OpenMP scheduling policies executing Rodinia benchmark on the Exynos 5 Octa (5422) SoC, which integrates the ARM big.LITTLE architecture.

  13. A heterogeneous hierarchical architecture for real-time computing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skroch, D.A.; Fornaro, R.J.

    1988-12-01

    The need for high-speed data acquisition and control algorithms has prompted continued research in the area of multiprocessor systems and related programming techniques. The result presented here is a unique hardware and software architecture for high-speed real-time computer systems. The implementation of a prototype of this architecture has required the integration of architecture, operating systems and programming languages into a cohesive unit. This report describes a Heterogeneous Hierarchial Architecture for Real-Time (H{sup 2} ART) and system software for program loading and interprocessor communication.

  14. Application-specific mesh-based heterogeneous FPGA architectures

    CERN Document Server

    Parvez, Husain

    2011-01-01

    This volume presents a new exploration environment for mesh-based, heterogeneous FPGA architectures. Readers will find a description of state-of-the-art techniques for reducing area requirements, which both increase performance and enable power reduction.

  15. How to ensure sustainable interoperability in heterogeneous distributed systems through architectural approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pape-Haugaard, Louise; Frank, Lars

    2011-01-01

    A major obstacle in ensuring ubiquitous information is the utilization of heterogeneous systems in eHealth. The objective in this paper is to illustrate how an architecture for distributed eHealth databases can be designed without lacking the characteristic features of traditional sustainable databases. The approach is firstly to explain traditional architecture in central and homogeneous distributed database computing, followed by a possible approach to use an architectural framework to obtain sustainability across disparate systems i.e. heterogeneous databases, concluded with a discussion. It is seen that through a method of using relaxed ACID properties on a service-oriented architecture it is possible to achieve data consistency which is essential when ensuring sustainable interoperability.

  16. Heterogeneous System Architectures from APUs to discrete GPUs

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2013-01-01

    We will present the Heterogeneous Systems Architectures that new AMD processors are bringing with the new GCN based GPUs and the new APUs. We will show how together they represent a huge step forward for programming flexibility and performance efficiently for Compute.

  17. Using Runtime Systems Tools to Implement Efficient Preconditioners for Heterogeneous Architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roussel Adrien

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Solving large sparse linear systems is a time-consuming step in basin modeling or reservoir simulation. The choice of a robust preconditioner strongly impact the performance of the overall simulation. Heterogeneous architectures based on General Purpose computing on Graphic Processing Units (GPGPU or many-core architectures introduce programming challenges which can be managed in a transparent way for developer with the use of runtime systems. Nevertheless, algorithms need to be well suited for these massively parallel architectures. In this paper, we present preconditioning techniques which enable to take advantage of emerging architectures. We also present our task-based implementations through the use of the HARTS (Heterogeneous Abstract RunTime System runtime system, which aims to manage the recent architectures. We focus on two preconditoners. The first is ILU(0 preconditioner implemented on distributing memory systems. The second one is a multi-level domain decomposition method implemented on a shared-memory system. Obtained results are then presented on corresponding architectures, which open the way to discuss on the scalability of such methods according to numerical performances while keeping in mind that the next step is to propose a massively parallel implementations of these techniques.

  18. Fundamentals of IP and SoC security design, verification, and debug

    CERN Document Server

    Ray, Sandip; Sur-Kolay, Susmita

    2017-01-01

    This book is about security in embedded systems and it provides an authoritative reference to all aspects of security in system-on-chip (SoC) designs. The authors discuss issues ranging from security requirements in SoC designs, definition of architectures and design choices to enforce and validate security policies, and trade-offs and conflicts involving security, functionality, and debug requirements. Coverage also includes case studies from the “trenches” of current industrial practice in design, implementation, and validation of security-critical embedded systems. Provides an authoritative reference and summary of the current state-of-the-art in security for embedded systems, hardware IPs and SoC designs; Takes a "cross-cutting" view of security that interacts with different design and validation components such as architecture, implementation, verification, and debug, each enforcing unique trade-offs; Includes high-level overview, detailed analysis on implementation, and relevant case studies on desi...

  19. A heterogeneous electronics architecture for dealing with complexity in modular robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, Ricardo Franco Mendoza

    2011-01-01

    Modular robots are robots built from many similar modules that can be arranged in different configurations to suit tasks in hand. Although promising, current incarnations of this technology suffer of an important drawback: modules are usually extremely expensive. This thesis proposes...... a heterogeneous electronics architecture that addresses the price and complexity of modular robots by focusing on the good aspects of homogeneous and heterogeneous designs, such as sequential implementation and reusable components. The architecture was implemented in four robots: Odin V1, Odin V2, Thor...... and Locomorph. In all cases, development time from conception to realization took less than a year, and two of these robots were able to take part in an international robot competition soon after their implementation. We conclude that heterogeneity brings three important advantages to the current stage...

  20. Internet of Things Heterogeneous Interoperable Network Architecture Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhalerao, Dipashree M.

    2014-01-01

    Internet of Thing‘s (IoT) state of the art deduce that there is no mature Internet of Things architecture available. Thesis contributes an abstract generic IoT system reference architecture development with specifications. Novelties of thesis are proposed solutions and implementations....... It is proved that reduction of data at a source will result in huge vertical scalability and indirectly horizontal also. Second non functional feature contributes in heterogeneous interoperable network architecture for constrained Things. To eliminate increasing number of gateways, Wi-Fi access point...... with Bluetooth, Zigbee (new access point is called as BZ-Fi) is proposed. Co-existence of Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, and Zigbee network technologies results in interference. To reduce the interference, orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) is proposed tobe implemented in Bluetooth and Zigbee. The proposed...

  1. High-Efficient Parallel CAVLC Encoders on Heterogeneous Multicore Architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Y. Su

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents two high-efficient parallel realizations of the context-based adaptive variable length coding (CAVLC based on heterogeneous multicore processors. By optimizing the architecture of the CAVLC encoder, three kinds of dependences are eliminated or weaken, including the context-based data dependence, the memory accessing dependence and the control dependence. The CAVLC pipeline is divided into three stages: two scans, coding, and lag packing, and be implemented on two typical heterogeneous multicore architectures. One is a block-based SIMD parallel CAVLC encoder on multicore stream processor STORM. The other is a component-oriented SIMT parallel encoder on massively parallel architecture GPU. Both of them exploited rich data-level parallelism. Experiments results show that compared with the CPU version, more than 70 times of speedup can be obtained for STORM and over 50 times for GPU. The implementation of encoder on STORM can make a real-time processing for 1080p @30fps and GPU-based version can satisfy the requirements for 720p real-time encoding. The throughput of the presented CAVLC encoders is more than 10 times higher than that of published software encoders on DSP and multicore platforms.

  2. Detecting small-scale spatial heterogeneity and temporal dynamics of soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks: a comparison between automatic chamber-derived C budgets and repeated soil inventories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Mathias; Jurisch, Nicole; Garcia Alba, Juana; Albiac Borraz, Elisa; Schmidt, Marten; Huth, Vytas; Rogasik, Helmut; Rieckh, Helene; Verch, Gernot; Sommer, Michael; Augustin, Jürgen

    2017-03-01

    Carbon (C) sequestration in soils plays a key role in the global C cycle. It is therefore crucial to adequately monitor dynamics in soil organic carbon (ΔSOC) stocks when aiming to reveal underlying processes and potential drivers. However, small-scale spatial (10-30 m) and temporal changes in SOC stocks, particularly pronounced in arable lands, are hard to assess. The main reasons for this are limitations of the well-established methods. On the one hand, repeated soil inventories, often used in long-term field trials, reveal spatial patterns and trends in ΔSOC but require a longer observation period and a sufficient number of repetitions. On the other hand, eddy covariance measurements of C fluxes towards a complete C budget of the soil-plant-atmosphere system may help to obtain temporal ΔSOC patterns but lack small-scale spatial resolution. To overcome these limitations, this study presents a reliable method to detect both short-term temporal dynamics as well as small-scale spatial differences of ΔSOC using measurements of the net ecosystem carbon balance (NECB) as a proxy. To estimate the NECB, a combination of automatic chamber (AC) measurements of CO2 exchange and empirically modeled aboveground biomass development (NPPshoot) were used. To verify our method, results were compared with ΔSOC observed by soil resampling. Soil resampling and AC measurements were performed from 2010 to 2014 at a colluvial depression located in the hummocky ground moraine landscape of northeastern Germany. The measurement site is characterized by a variable groundwater level (GWL) and pronounced small-scale spatial heterogeneity regarding SOC and nitrogen (Nt) stocks. Tendencies and magnitude of ΔSOC values derived by AC measurements and repeated soil inventories corresponded well. The period of maximum plant growth was identified as being most important for the development of spatial differences in annual ΔSOC. Hence, we were able to confirm that AC-based C budgets are able

  3. Methylation profiling of SOCS1, SOCS2, SOCS3, CISH and SHP1 in Philadelphia-negative myeloproliferative neoplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min Yue; Fung, Tsz Kin; Chen, Fang Yuan; Chim, Chor Sang

    2013-10-01

    Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT) signalling, pivotal in Philadelphia-negative (Ph-ve) myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN), is negatively regulated by molecules including SOCSs, CISH and SHP1. SOCS1, SOCS2 and SOCS3 methylation have been studied in MPN with discordant results. Herein, we studied the methylation status of SOCS1, SOCS2 and SOCS3, CISH and SHP1 by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MSP) in cell lines and 45 diagnostic marrow samples of Ph-ve MPN. Moreover, we attempted to explain the discordance of methylation frequency by mapping the studied MSP primers to the respective genes. Methylation was detected in normal controls using SOCS2 MSP primers in the 3'translated exonic sequence, but not primers around the transcription start site in the 5' untranslated regions (5'UTR). SOCS1, SOCS2, SOCS3 and CISH were completely unmethylated in primary MPN samples and cell lines. In contrast, methylation of SHP1 was detected in 8.9% primary marrow samples. Moreover, SHP1 was completely methylated in K562 cell line, leading to reversible SHP1 silencing. A review of methylation studies of SOCS1 and SOCS3 showed that spuriously high rates of SOCS methylation had been reported using MSP primers targeting CpG sites in the 3'translated exonic sequence, which is also methylated in normal controls. However, using MSP primers localized to the 5'UTR, methylation of SOCS1, SOCS2 and SOCS3 is infrequent across all studies. In summary, methylation of SOCS1, SOCS2, SOCS3 and CISH is infrequent in Ph-ve MPN. Appropriate MSP primers are important for accurate estimation of the methylation frequency. The role of SHP1 methylation in the pathogenesis of MPN warrants further investigation. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  4. Critical Path Driven Cosynthesis for Heterogeneous Target Architectures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn-Jørgensen, Peter; Madsen, Jan

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a critical path driven algorithm to produce a static schedule of a single-rate system onto a heterogeneous target architecture. Our algorithm is a list based scheduling algorithm which concurrently assigns tasks to processors and allocates nets to interprocessor communication........ Experimental results show that our algorithm is able to find good results, as compared to other methods, in small amount of CPU time....

  5. IGF-1 induces SOCS-2 but not SOCS-1 and SOCS-3 transcription in juvenile Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cai-Zhi; Luo, Yuan; Limbu, Samwel Mchele; Chen, Li-Qiao; Du, Zhen-Yu

    2018-05-20

    Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) plays a crucial role in regulating growth in vertebrates whereas suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) act as feedback inhibitors of the GH/IGF-1 axis. Although SOCS-2 binds the IGF-1 receptor and inhibits IGF-1-induced STAT3 activation, presently there is no clear evidence as to whether IGF-1 could induce SOCS gene expression. The current study aimed to determine whether IGF-1 could induce the transcription of SOCS in juvenile Nile tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus ). We show that there is a common positive relationship between the mRNA expression of IGF-I and SOCS-2 under different nutritional statuses and stimulants, but not the mRNA expression of SOCS-1 and SOCS-3 Furthermore, rhIGF-1 treatment and transcriptional activity assay confirmed the hypothesis that IGF-1 could induce SOCS-2 expression, whereas it had no effect or even decreased the expression of SOCS-1 and SOCS-3 Overall, we obtained evidence that the transcription of SOCS-2, but not SOCS-1 or SOCS-3, could be induced by IGF signaling, suggesting that SOCS-2 serves as a feedback suppressor of the IGF-1 axis in juvenile Nile tilapia. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  6. Confabulation Based Real-time Anomaly Detection for Wide-area Surveillance Using Heterogeneous High Performance Computing Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    CONFABULATION BASED REAL-TIME ANOMALY DETECTION FOR WIDE-AREA SURVEILLANCE USING HETEROGENEOUS HIGH PERFORMANCE COMPUTING ARCHITECTURE SYRACUSE...DETECTION FOR WIDE-AREA SURVEILLANCE USING HETEROGENEOUS HIGH PERFORMANCE COMPUTING ARCHITECTURE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8750-12-1-0251 5b. GRANT...processors including graphic processor units (GPUs) and Intel Xeon Phi processors. Experimental results showed significant speedups, which can enable

  7. Low-Power Differential SRAM design for SOC Based on the 25-um Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godugunuri, Sivaprasad; Dara, Naveen; Sambasiva Nayak, R.; Nayeemuddin, Md; Singh, Yadu, Dr.; Veda, R. N. S. Sunil

    2017-08-01

    In recent, the SOC styles area unit the vast complicated styles in VLSI these SOC styles having important low-power operations problems, to comprehend this we tend to enforced low-power SRAM. However these SRAM Architectures critically affects the entire power of SOC and competitive space. To beat the higher than disadvantages, during this paper, a low-power differential SRAM design is planned. The differential SRAM design stores multiple bits within the same cell, operates at minimum in operation low-tension and space per bit. The differential SRAM design designed supported the 25-um technology using Tanner-EDA Tool.

  8. HETEROGENEOUS SENSOR DATA EXPLORATION AND SUSTAINABLE DECLARATIVE MONITORING ARCHITECTURE: APPLICATION TO SMART BUILDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Servigne

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Concerning energy consumption and monitoring architectures, our goal is to develop a sustainable declarative monitoring architecture for lower energy consumption taking into account the monitoring system itself. Our second is to develop theoretical and practical tools to model, explore and exploit heterogeneous data from various sources in order to understand a phenomenon like energy consumption of smart building vs inhabitants' social behaviours. We focus on a generic model for data acquisition campaigns based on the concept of generic sensor. The concept of generic sensor is centered on acquired data and on their inherent multi-dimensional structure, to support complex domain-specific or field-oriented analysis processes. We consider that a methodological breakthrough may pave the way to deep understanding of voluminous and heterogeneous scientific data sets. Our use case concerns energy efficiency of buildings to understand relationship between physical phenomena and user behaviors. The aim of this paper is to give a presentation of our methodology and results concerning architecture and user-centric tools.

  9. Federated Access Control in Heterogeneous Intercloud Environment: Basic Models and Architecture Patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demchenko, Y.; Ngo, C.; de Laat, C.; Lee, C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents on-going research to define the basic models and architecture patterns for federated access control in heterogeneous (multi-provider) multi-cloud and inter-cloud environment. The proposed research contributes to the further definition of Intercloud Federation Framework (ICFF)

  10. Heterogeneous reconfigurable processors for real-time baseband processing from algorithm to architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Chenxin; Öwall, Viktor

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on domain-specific heterogeneous reconfigurable architectures, demonstrating for readers a computing platform which is flexible enough to support multiple standards, multiple modes, and multiple algorithms. The content is multi-disciplinary, covering areas of wireless communication, computing architecture, and circuit design. The platform described provides real-time processing capability with reasonable implementation cost, achieving balanced trade-offs among flexibility, performance, and hardware costs. The authors discuss efficient design methods for wireless communication processing platforms, from both an algorithm and architecture design perspective. Coverage also includes computing platforms for different wireless technologies and standards, including MIMO, OFDM, Massive MIMO, DVB, WLAN, LTE/LTE-A, and 5G. •Discusses reconfigurable architectures, including hardware building blocks such as processing elements, memory sub-systems, Network-on-Chip (NoC), and dynamic hardware reconfigur...

  11. A Heterogeneous Multi-core Architecture with a Hardware Kernel for Control Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Gang; Guan, Wei; Sierszecki, Krzysztof

    2012-01-01

    Rapid industrialisation has resulted in a demand for improved embedded control systems with features such as predictability, high processing performance and low power consumption. Software kernel implementation on a single processor is becoming more difficult to satisfy those constraints. This pa......Rapid industrialisation has resulted in a demand for improved embedded control systems with features such as predictability, high processing performance and low power consumption. Software kernel implementation on a single processor is becoming more difficult to satisfy those constraints......). Second, a heterogeneous multi-core architecture is investigated, focusing on its performance in relation to hard real-time constraints and predictable behavior. Third, the hardware implementation of HARTEX is designated to support the heterogeneous multi-core architecture. This hardware kernel has...... several advantages over a similar kernel implemented in software: higher-speed processing capability, parallel computation, and separation between the kernel itself and the applications being run. A microbenchmark has been used to compare the hardware kernel with the software kernel, and compare...

  12. Capturing spatial heterogeneity of soil organic carbon under changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, U.; Fan, Z.; Jastrow, J. D.; Matamala, R.; Vitharana, U.

    2015-12-01

    The spatial heterogeneity of the land surface affects water, energy, and greenhouse gas exchanges with the atmosphere. Designing observation networks that capture land surface spatial heterogeneity is a critical scientific challenge. Here, we present a geospatial approach to capture the existing spatial heterogeneity of soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks across Alaska, USA. We used the standard deviation of 556 georeferenced SOC profiles previously compiled in Mishra and Riley (2015, Biogeosciences, 12:3993-4004) to calculate the number of observations that would be needed to reliably estimate Alaskan SOC stocks. This analysis indicated that 906 randomly distributed observation sites would be needed to quantify the mean value of SOC stocks across Alaska at a confidence interval of ± 5 kg m-2. We then used soil-forming factors (climate, topography, land cover types, surficial geology) to identify the locations of appropriately distributed observation sites by using the conditioned Latin hypercube sampling approach. Spatial correlation and variogram analyses demonstrated that the spatial structures of soil-forming factors were adequately represented by these 906 sites. Using the spatial correlation length of existing SOC observations, we identified 484 new observation sites would be needed to provide the best estimate of the present status of SOC stocks in Alaska. We then used average decadal projections (2020-2099) of precipitation, temperature, and length of growing season for three representative concentration pathway (RCP 4.5, 6.0, and 8.5) scenarios of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change to investigate whether the location of identified observation sites will shift/change under future climate. Our results showed 12-41 additional observation sites (depending on emission scenarios) will be required to capture the impact of projected climatic conditions by 2100 on the spatial heterogeneity of Alaskan SOC stocks. Our results represent an ideal distribution

  13. [Evaluation of three-dimensional tumor microvascular architecture phenotype heterogeneity in non-small cell carcinoma and its significance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hui; Liu, Jinkang; Chen, Shengxi; Xiong, Zeng; Zhou, Jianhua; Tong, Shiyu; Chen, Hao; Zhou, Moling

    2012-06-01

    To explore the degree, mechanism and clinical significance of three-dimensional tumor microvascular architecture phenotype heterogeneity (3D-TMAPH) in non-small cell carcinoma (NSCLC). Twenty-one samples of solitary pulmonary nodules were collected integrally. To establish two-dimensional tumor microvascular architecture phenotype (2D-TMAP) and three-dimensional tumor microvascular architecture phenotype (3D-TMAP), five layers of each nodule were selected and embedded in paraffin. Test indices included the expressions of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), EphB4, ephfinB2 and microvascular density marked by anti-CD34 (CD34-MVD). The degrees of 3D-TMAPH were evaluated by the coefficient of variation and extend of heterogeneity. Spearman rank correlation analysis was used to investigate the relationships between 2D-TMAP, 3D-TMAP and clinicopathological features. 3D-TMAPH showed that 2D-TMAP heterogeneity was expressed in the tissues of NSCLC. The heterogeneities in the malignant nodules were significantly higher than those in the active inflammatory nodules and tubercular nodules. In addition, different degrees of heterogeneity of CD34-MVD and PCNA were found in NSCLC tissues. The coefficients of variation of CD34- MVD and PCNA were positively related to the degree of differentiation (all P0.05). The level of heterogeneity of various expression indexes (ephrinB2, EphB4, VEGF) in NSCLC tissues were inconsistent, but there were no significant differences in heterogeneity in NSCLC tissues with different histological types (P>0.05). 3D-TMAPH exists widely in the microenvironment during the genesis and development of NSCLC and has a significant impact on its biological complexity.

  14. Centaure: an heterogeneous parallel architecture for computer vision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peythieux, Marc

    1997-01-01

    This dissertation deals with the architecture of parallel computers dedicated to computer vision. In the first chapter, the problem to be solved is presented, as well as the architecture of the Sympati and Symphonie computers, on which this work is based. The second chapter is about the state of the art of computers and integrated processors that can execute computer vision and image processing codes. The third chapter contains a description of the architecture of Centaure. It has an heterogeneous structure: it is composed of a multiprocessor system based on Analog Devices ADSP21060 Sharc digital signal processor, and of a set of Symphonie computers working in a multi-SIMD fashion. Centaure also has a modular structure. Its basic node is composed of one Symphonie computer, tightly coupled to a Sharc thanks to a dual ported memory. The nodes of Centaure are linked together by the Sharc communication links. The last chapter deals with a performance validation of Centaure. The execution times on Symphonie and on Centaure of a benchmark which is typical of industrial vision, are presented and compared. In the first place, these results show that the basic node of Centaure allows a faster execution than Symphonie, and that increasing the size of the tested computer leads to a better speed-up with Centaure than with Symphonie. In the second place, these results validate the choice of running the low level structure of Centaure in a multi- SIMD fashion. (author) [fr

  15. Scaling impacts on environmental controls and spatial heterogeneity of soil organic carbon stocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, U.; Riley, W. J.

    2015-07-01

    The spatial heterogeneity of land surfaces affects energy, moisture, and greenhouse gas exchanges with the atmosphere. However, representing the heterogeneity of terrestrial hydrological and biogeochemical processes in Earth system models (ESMs) remains a critical scientific challenge. We report the impact of spatial scaling on environmental controls, spatial structure, and statistical properties of soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks across the US state of Alaska. We used soil profile observations and environmental factors such as topography, climate, land cover types, and surficial geology to predict the SOC stocks at a 50 m spatial scale. These spatially heterogeneous estimates provide a data set with reasonable fidelity to the observations at a sufficiently high resolution to examine the environmental controls on the spatial structure of SOC stocks. We upscaled both the predicted SOC stocks and environmental variables from finer to coarser spatial scales (s = 100, 200, and 500 m and 1, 2, 5, and 10 km) and generated various statistical properties of SOC stock estimates. We found different environmental factors to be statistically significant predictors at different spatial scales. Only elevation, temperature, potential evapotranspiration, and scrub land cover types were significant predictors at all scales. The strengths of control (the median value of geographically weighted regression coefficients) of these four environmental variables on SOC stocks decreased with increasing scale and were accurately represented using mathematical functions (R2 = 0.83-0.97). The spatial structure of SOC stocks across Alaska changed with spatial scale. Although the variance (sill) and unstructured variability (nugget) of the calculated variograms of SOC stocks decreased exponentially with scale, the correlation length (range) remained relatively constant across scale. The variance of predicted SOC stocks decreased with spatial scale over the range of 50 m to ~ 500 m, and remained

  16. Parametric Dense Stereovision Implementation on a System-on Chip (SoC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Montejo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel hardware implementation of a dense recovery of stereovision 3D measurements. Traditionally 3D stereo systems have imposed the maximum number of stereo correspondences, introducing a large restriction on artificial vision algorithms. The proposed system-on-chip (SoC provides great performance and efficiency, with a scalable architecture available for many different situations, addressing real time processing of stereo image flow. Using double buffering techniques properly combined with pipelined processing, the use of reconfigurable hardware achieves a parametrisable SoC which gives the designer the opportunity to decide its right dimension and features. The proposed architecture does not need any external memory because the processing is done as image flow arrives. Our SoC provides 3D data directly without the storage of whole stereo images. Our goal is to obtain high processing speed while maintaining the accuracy of 3D data using minimum resources. Configurable parameters may be controlled by later/parallel stages of the vision algorithm executed on an embedded processor. Considering hardware FPGA clock of 100 MHz, image flows up to 50 frames per second (fps of dense stereo maps of more than 30,000 depth points could be obtained considering 2 Mpix images, with a minimum initial latency. The implementation of computer vision algorithms on reconfigurable hardware, explicitly low level processing, opens up the prospect of its use in autonomous systems, and they can act as a coprocessor to reconstruct 3D images with high density information in real time.

  17. Parametric dense stereovision implementation on a system-on chip (SoC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardel, Alfredo; Montejo, Pablo; García, Jorge; Bravo, Ignacio; Lázaro, José L

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel hardware implementation of a dense recovery of stereovision 3D measurements. Traditionally 3D stereo systems have imposed the maximum number of stereo correspondences, introducing a large restriction on artificial vision algorithms. The proposed system-on-chip (SoC) provides great performance and efficiency, with a scalable architecture available for many different situations, addressing real time processing of stereo image flow. Using double buffering techniques properly combined with pipelined processing, the use of reconfigurable hardware achieves a parametrisable SoC which gives the designer the opportunity to decide its right dimension and features. The proposed architecture does not need any external memory because the processing is done as image flow arrives. Our SoC provides 3D data directly without the storage of whole stereo images. Our goal is to obtain high processing speed while maintaining the accuracy of 3D data using minimum resources. Configurable parameters may be controlled by later/parallel stages of the vision algorithm executed on an embedded processor. Considering hardware FPGA clock of 100 MHz, image flows up to 50 frames per second (fps) of dense stereo maps of more than 30,000 depth points could be obtained considering 2 Mpix images, with a minimum initial latency. The implementation of computer vision algorithms on reconfigurable hardware, explicitly low level processing, opens up the prospect of its use in autonomous systems, and they can act as a coprocessor to reconstruct 3D images with high density information in real time.

  18. An ESL Approach for Energy Consumption Analysis of Cache Memories in SoC Platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel G. Silva-Filho

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The design of complex circuits as SoCs presents two great challenges to designers. One is the speeding up of system functionality modeling and the second is the implementation of the system in an architecture that meets performance and power consumption requirements. Thus, developing new high-level specification mechanisms for the reduction of the design effort with automatic architecture exploration is a necessity. This paper proposes an Electronic-System-Level (ESL approach for system modeling and cache energy consumption analysis of SoCs called PCacheEnergyAnalyzer. It uses as entry a high-level UML-2.0 profile model of the system and it generates a simulation model of a multicore platform that can be analyzed for cache tuning. PCacheEnergyAnalyzer performs static/dynamic energy consumption analysis of caches on platforms that may have different processors. Architecture exploration is achieved by letting designers choose different processors for platform generation and different mechanisms for cache optimization. PCacheEnergyAnalyzer has been validated with several applications of Mibench, Mediabench, and PowerStone benchmarks, and results show that it provides analysis with reduced simulation effort.

  19. Heterogeneous computing architecture for fast detection of SNP-SNP interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sluga, Davor; Curk, Tomaz; Zupan, Blaz; Lotric, Uros

    2014-06-25

    The extent of data in a typical genome-wide association study (GWAS) poses considerable computational challenges to software tools for gene-gene interaction discovery. Exhaustive evaluation of all interactions among hundreds of thousands to millions of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) may require weeks or even months of computation. Massively parallel hardware within a modern Graphic Processing Unit (GPU) and Many Integrated Core (MIC) coprocessors can shorten the run time considerably. While the utility of GPU-based implementations in bioinformatics has been well studied, MIC architecture has been introduced only recently and may provide a number of comparative advantages that have yet to be explored and tested. We have developed a heterogeneous, GPU and Intel MIC-accelerated software module for SNP-SNP interaction discovery to replace the previously single-threaded computational core in the interactive web-based data exploration program SNPsyn. We report on differences between these two modern massively parallel architectures and their software environments. Their utility resulted in an order of magnitude shorter execution times when compared to the single-threaded CPU implementation. GPU implementation on a single Nvidia Tesla K20 runs twice as fast as that for the MIC architecture-based Xeon Phi P5110 coprocessor, but also requires considerably more programming effort. General purpose GPUs are a mature platform with large amounts of computing power capable of tackling inherently parallel problems, but can prove demanding for the programmer. On the other hand the new MIC architecture, albeit lacking in performance reduces the programming effort and makes it up with a more general architecture suitable for a wider range of problems.

  20. Respiratory Syncytial Virus Nonstructural Proteins Upregulate SOCS1 and SOCS3 in the Different Manner from Endogenous IFN Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junwen Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV infection upregulates genes of the suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS family, which utilize a feedback loop to inhibit type I interferon dependent antiviral signaling pathway. Here, we reconstituted RSV nonstructural (NS protein expression plasmids (pNS1, pNS2, and pNS1/2 and tested whether NS1 or NS2 would trigger SOCS1 and SOCS3 protein expression. These NS proteins inhibited interferon- (IFN- α signaling through a mechanism involving the induction of SOCS1 and SOCS3, which appeared to be different from autocrine IFN dependent. NS1 induced both SOCS1 and SOCS3 upregulation, while NS2 only induced SOCS1 expression. The induced expression of SOCS1 and SOCS3 preceded endogenous IFN-signaling activation and inhibited the IFN-inducible antiviral response as well as chemokine induction. Treatments with INF-α and NS proteins both induced SOCS1 expression; however, they had opposing effects on IFN-α-dependent antiviral gene expression. Our results indicate that NS1 and NS2, which induce the expression of SOCS1 or SOCS3, might represent an independent pathway of stimulating endogenous IFN signaling.

  1. SoCRocket: A Virtual Platform for SoC Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossati, Luca; Schuster, Thomas; Meyer, Rolf; Berekovic, Mladen

    2013-08-01

    Both in the commercial and in the aerospace domain, the continuous increase of transistor density on a single die is leading towards the production of more and more complex systems on a single chip, with an increasing number of components. This brought to the introduction of the System-On-Chip (SoC) architecture, that integrates on a single circuit all the elements of a full system. This strive for efficient utilization of the available silicon has triggered several paradigm shifts in system design. Similarly to what happened in the early 1990s, when VHDL and Verilog took over from schematic design, today SystemC and Transaction Level Modeling [1] are about to further raise the design abstraction level. Such descriptions have to be accurate enough to describe the entire system throughout the phases of its development, and has to provide enough flexibility to be refined iteratively up to the point where the actual device can be produced using current process technology. Besides requiring new languages and methodologies, the complexity of current and future SoCs (SCOC3 [16] and NGMP [5] are example in the space domain) forces the SoC design process to rely on pre-designed or third party components. Components obtained from different providers, and even those designed by different teams of the same company, may be heterogeneous on several aspects: design domains, interfaces, abstraction levels, granularity, etc. Therefore, component integration is required at system level. Only by applying design re-use it is possible to successfully and timely design such complex SoCs. This transition to new languages and design methods is also motivated by the implementation with software of an increasing amount of system functionalities. Hence the need for methodologies to enable early software development and which allow the analysis of the performance of the combined Hw/Sw system, as their design and configuration cannot be performed separately. Virtual Prototyping is a key

  2. The architecture of a virtual grid GIS server

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Pengfei; Fang, Yu; Chen, Bin; Wu, Xi; Tian, Xiaoting

    2008-10-01

    The grid computing technology provides the service oriented architecture for distributed applications. The virtual Grid GIS server is the distributed and interoperable enterprise application GIS architecture running in the grid environment, which integrates heterogeneous GIS platforms. All sorts of legacy GIS platforms join the grid as members of GIS virtual organization. Based on Microkernel we design the ESB and portal GIS service layer, which compose Microkernel GIS. Through web portals, portal GIS services and mediation of service bus, following the principle of SoC, we separate business logic from implementing logic. Microkernel GIS greatly reduces the coupling degree between applications and GIS platforms. The enterprise applications are independent of certain GIS platforms, and making the application developers to pay attention to the business logic. Via configuration and orchestration of a set of fine-grained services, the system creates GIS Business, which acts as a whole WebGIS request when activated. In this way, the system satisfies a business workflow directly and simply, with little or no new code.

  3. ALLIANCE: An architecture for fault tolerant, cooperative control of heterogeneous mobile robots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, L.E.

    1995-02-01

    This research addresses the problem of achieving fault tolerant cooperation within small- to medium-sized teams of heterogeneous mobile robots. The author describes a novel behavior-based, fully distributed architecture, called ALLIANCE, that utilizes adaptive action selection to achieve fault tolerant cooperative control in robot missions involving loosely coupled, largely independent tasks. The robots in this architecture possess a variety of high-level functions that they can perform during a mission, and must at all times select an appropriate action based on the requirements of the mission, the activities of other robots, the current environmental conditions, and their own internal states. Since such cooperative teams often work in dynamic and unpredictable environments, the software architecture allows the team members to respond robustly and reliably to unexpected environmental changes and modifications in the robot team that may occur due to mechanical failure, the learning of new skills, or the addition or removal of robots from the team by human intervention. After presenting ALLIANCE, the author describes in detail experimental results of an implementation of this architecture on a team of physical mobile robots performing a cooperative box pushing demonstration. These experiments illustrate the ability of ALLIANCE to achieve adaptive, fault-tolerant cooperative control amidst dynamic changes in the capabilities of the robot team.

  4. Architectural design of heterogeneous metallic nanocrystals--principles and processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yue; Zhang, Qingbo; Yao, Qiaofeng; Xie, Jianping; Lee, Jim Yang

    2014-12-16

    CONSPECTUS: Heterogeneous metal nanocrystals (HMNCs) are a natural extension of simple metal nanocrystals (NCs), but as a research topic, they have been much less explored until recently. HMNCs are formed by integrating metal NCs of different compositions into a common entity, similar to the way atoms are bonded to form molecules. HMNCs can be built to exhibit an unprecedented architectural diversity and complexity by programming the arrangement of the NC building blocks ("unit NCs"). The architectural engineering of HMNCs involves the design and fabrication of the architecture-determining elements (ADEs), i.e., unit NCs with precise control of shape and size, and their relative positions in the design. Similar to molecular engineering, where structural diversity is used to create more property variations for application explorations, the architectural engineering of HMNCs can similarly increase the utility of metal NCs by offering a suite of properties to support multifunctionality in applications. The architectural engineering of HMNCs calls for processes and operations that can execute the design. Some enabling technologies already exist in the form of classical micro- and macroscale fabrication techniques, such as masking and etching. These processes, when used singly or in combination, are fully capable of fabricating nanoscopic objects. What is needed is a detailed understanding of the engineering control of ADEs and the translation of these principles into actual processes. For simplicity of execution, these processes should be integrated into a common reaction system and yet retain independence of control. The key to architectural diversity is therefore the independent controllability of each ADE in the design blueprint. The right chemical tools must be applied under the right circumstances in order to achieve the desired outcome. In this Account, after a short illustration of the infinite possibility of combining different ADEs to create HMNC design

  5. SOCS proteins in development and disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trengove, Monique C; Ward, Alister C

    2013-01-01

    Cytokine and growth factor signaling mediates essential roles in the differentiation, proliferation, survival and function of a number of cell lineages. This is achieved via specific receptors located on the surface of target cells, with ligand binding activating key intracellular signal transduction cascades to mediate the requisite cellular outcome. Effective resolution of receptor signaling is also essential, with excessive signaling having the potential for pathological consequences. The Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) family of proteins represent one important mechanism to extinguish cytokine and growth factor receptor signaling. There are 8 SOCS proteins in mammals; SOCS1-7 and the alternatively named Cytokine-inducible SH2-containing protein (CISH). SOCS1-3 and CISH are predominantly associated with the regulation of cytokine receptor signaling, while SOCS4-7 are more commonly involved in the control of Receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling. Individual SOCS proteins are typically induced by specific cytokines and growth factors, thereby generating a negative feedback loop. As a consequence of their regulatory properties, SOCS proteins have important functions in development and homeostasis, with increasing recognition of their role in disease, particularly their tumor suppressor and anti-inflammatory functions. This review provides a synthesis of our current understanding of the SOCS family, with an emphasis on their immune and hematopoietic roles. PMID:23885323

  6. Energy-Efficiency of the Montium Reconfigurable Tile Processor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heysters, P.M.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Molenkamp, Egbert

    Primary requirements of wireless multimedia handheld computers are high-performance, flexibility, energy-efficiency and low costs. A compromise for these contradicting requirements can be found in a heterogeneous SoC. Besides conventional architectures such a SoC contains domain specific coarse

  7. Exploration of Heterogeneous FPGA Architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umer Farooq

    2011-01-01

    mesh and tree-based architectures are evaluated for three sets of benchmark circuits. Experimental results show that a more flexible floor-planning in mesh-based FPGA gives better results as compared to the column-based floor-planning. Also it is shown that compared to different floor-plannings of mesh-based FPGA, tree-based architecture gives better area, performance, and power results.

  8. Expression of the SOCS family in human chronic wound tissues: Potential implications for SOCS in chronic wound healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yi; Sanders, Andrew J.; Ruge, Fiona; Morris, Ceri-Ann; Harding, Keith G.; Jiang, Wen G.

    2016-01-01

    Cytokines play important roles in the wound healing process through various signalling pathways. The JAK-STAT pathway is utilised by most cytokines for signal transduction and is regulated by a variety of molecules, including suppressor of cytokine signalling (SOCS) proteins. SOCS are associated with inflammatory diseases and have an impact on cytokines, growth factors and key cell types involved in the wound-healing process. SOCS, a negative regulator of cytokine signalling, may hold the potential to regulate cytokine-induced signalling in the chronic wound-healing process. Wound edge tissues were collected from chronic venous leg ulcer patients and classified as non-healing and healing wounds. The expression pattern of seven SOCSs members, at the transcript and protein level, were examined in these tissues using qPCR and immunohistochemistry. Significantly higher levels of SOCS3 (P=0.0284) and SOCS4 (P=0.0376) in non-healing chronic wounds compared to the healing/healed chronic wounds were observed at the transcript level. Relocalisation of SOCS3 protein in the non-healing wound environment was evident in the investigated chronic biopsies. Thus, the results show that the expression of SOCS transcript indicated that SOCS members may act as a prognostic biomarker of chronic wounds. PMID:27635428

  9. SOCS2 and SOCS3 expression in ulcerative colitis and their correlation with inflammatory response and immune response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Huang1

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the correlation of SOCS2 and SOCS3 expression in ulcerative colitis tissue with inflammatory response and immune response. Methods: Ulcerative colitis lesions and normal mucosa from colonoscopic biopsy in Central Hospital of Zibo Mining Refco Group Ltd between May 2014 and July 2016 were selected and enrolled in UC group and control group respectively. RNA was extracted to determine mRNA expression of SOCS2 and SOCS3 as well as inflammatory response JAKs/STATs pathway molecules; protein was extracted to determine the contents of immune response cytokines. Results: SOCS2 mRNA expression in intestinal mucosa of UC group was not significantly different from that of control group, and SOCS3 mRNA expression was significantly lower than that of control group; JAK1, JAK2, JAK3, STAT1, STAT3 and STAT5 mRNA expression as well as IFN-γ and IL-17 protein contents in intestinal mucosa of UC group were significantly higher than those of control group while IL-4 and IL-10 protein contents were significantly lower than those of control group; JAK1, JAK2, JAK3, STAT1, STAT3 and STAT5 mRNA expression as well as IFN-γ and IL-17 protein contents in UC group of intestinal mucosa with low SOCS3 expression were significantly higher than those of intestinal mucosa with high SOCS3 expression while IL-4 and IL-10 protein contents were significantly lower than those of intestinal mucosa with high SOCS3 expression. Conclusion: Low expression of SOCS3 in ulcerative colitis can aggravate the inflammatory reaction and cause the imbalance of Th1/Th2 and Th17/Treg immune response.

  10. Seamless interworking architecture for WBAN in heterogeneous wireless networks with QoS guarantees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Pervez; Ullah, Niamat; Ullah, Sana; Kwak, Kyung Sup

    2011-10-01

    The IEEE 802.15.6 standard is a communication standard optimized for low-power and short-range in-body/on-body nodes to serve a variety of medical, consumer electronics and entertainment applications. Providing high mobility with guaranteed Quality of Service (QoS) to a WBAN user in heterogeneous wireless networks is a challenging task. A WBAN uses a Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) to gather data from body sensors and forwards it to a remote server through wide range wireless networks. In this paper, we present a coexistence study of WBAN with Wireless Local Area Networks (WLAN) and Wireless Wide Area Networks (WWANs). The main issue is interworking of WBAN in heterogenous wireless networks including seamless handover, QoS, emergency services, cooperation and security. We propose a Seamless Interworking Architecture (SIA) for WBAN in heterogenous wireless networks based on a cost function. The cost function is based on power consumption and data throughput costs. Our simulation results show that the proposed scheme outperforms typical approaches in terms of throughput, delay and packet loss rate.

  11. Homogeneous and Heterogeneous MPSoC Architectures with Network-On-Chip Connectivity for Low-Power and Real-Time Multimedia Signal Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Saponara

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Two multiprocessor system-on-chip (MPSoC architectures are proposed and compared in the paper with reference to audio and video processing applications. One architecture exploits a homogeneous topology; it consists of 8 identical tiles, each made of a 32-bit RISC core enhanced by a 64-bit DSP coprocessor with local memory. The other MPSoC architecture exploits a heterogeneous-tile topology with on-chip distributed memory resources; the tiles act as application specific processors supporting a different class of algorithms. In both architectures, the multiple tiles are interconnected by a network-on-chip (NoC infrastructure, through network interfaces and routers, which allows parallel operations of the multiple tiles. The functional performances and the implementation complexity of the NoC-based MPSoC architectures are assessed by synthesis results in submicron CMOS technology. Among the large set of supported algorithms, two case studies are considered: the real-time implementation of an H.264/MPEG AVC video codec and of a low-distortion digital audio amplifier. The heterogeneous architecture ensures a higher power efficiency and a smaller area occupation and is more suited for low-power multimedia processing, such as in mobile devices. The homogeneous scheme allows for a higher flexibility and easier system scalability and is more suited for general-purpose DSP tasks in power-supplied devices.

  12. The impact of soil redistribution on SOC pools in a Mediterranean agroforestry catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quijano, Laura; Gaspar, Leticia; Lizaga, Iván; Navas, Ana

    2017-04-01

    Soil redistribution processes play an important role influencing the spatial distribution patterns of soil and associated soil organic carbon (SOC) at landscape scale. Information on drivers of SOC dynamics is key for evaluating both soil degradation and SOC stability that can affect soil quality and sustainability. 137Cs measurements provide a very effective tool to infer spatial patterns of soil redistribution and quantify soil redistribution rates in different landscapes, but to date these data are scarce in mountain Mediterranean agroecosystems. We evaluate the effect of soil redistribution on SOC and SOC pools in relation to land use in a Mediterranean mountain catchment (246 ha). To this purpose, two hundred and four soil bulk cores were collected on a 100 m grid in the Estaña lakes catchment located in the central sector of the Spanish Pyrenees (31T 4656250N 295152E). The study area is an agroforestry and endorheic catchment characterized by the presence of evaporite dissolution induced dolines, some of which host permanent lakes. The selected landscape is representative of rainfed areas of Mediterranean continental climate with erodible lithology and shallow soils, and characterized by an intense anthropogenic activity through cultivation and water management. The cultivated and uncultivated areas are heterogeneously distributed. SOC and SOC pools (the active and decomposable fraction, ACF and the stable carbon fraction SCF) were measured by the dry combustion method and soil redistribution rates were derived from 137Cs measurements. The results showed that erosion predominated in the catchment, most of soil samples were identified as eroded sites (n=114) with an average erosion rate of 26.9±51.4 Mg ha-1 y-1 whereas the mean deposition rate was 13.0±24.2 Mg ha-1 y-1. In cultivated soils (n=54) the average of soil erosion rate was significantly higher (78.5±74.4 Mg ha-1 y-1) than in uncultivated soils (6.8±10.4 Mg ha-1 y-1). Similarly, the mean of soil

  13. Secure ASIC Architecture for Optimized Utilization of a Trusted Supply Chain for Common Architecture A and D Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Secure ASIC Architecture for Optimized Utilization of a Trusted Supply Chain for Common Architecture A&D Applications Ezra Hall, Ray Eberhard...use applications. Furthermore, a product roadmap must be comprehended as part of this platform, offering A&D programs a solution to their...existing solutions for adoption to occur. Additionally, a well-developed roadmap to future secure SoCs, leveraging the value add of future advanced

  14. Digital approach for the design of statistical analog data acquisition on SoCs

    OpenAIRE

    Adao Antonio de Souza Junior

    2005-01-01

    With the current demand for mixed-signal SoCs, an increasing number of designers are looking for ADC architectures that can be easily implemented over digital substrates. Since ADC performance is strongly dependent upon physical and electrical features, it gets more difficult for them to benefit from more recent technologies, where these features are more variable. This way, analog signal acquisition is not allowed to follow an evolutionary trend compatible with Moore’s Law. In fact, such tre...

  15. Spatial Heterogeneity and Sources of Soil Carbon in Southern African Savannas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macko, S.; Wang, L.; Okin, G.

    2007-12-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) is one of the largest and most dynamic reservoirs of C on Earth, with nearly twice as much C stored in SOC than in the biosphere and atmosphere combined. SOC storage in global tropical savannas constitutes approximately 56 Gt of C, which rises to 216 Gt of C (i.e., about 17% of the terrestrial non- agricultural SOC), when woodlands, shrublands, and desert scrub are included. Savannas cover about 20% of the global land surface, including about one-half of Africa, Australia and South America. The shared dominance of trees and grasses in savannas, the dominant physiognomy in southern Africa, add more complexity to soil C pool partitioning and dynamics than is found in landscapes with a single physiognomy. Here, the spatial variability of the soil C pool was investigated with particular emphasis on understanding the contribution to SOC from trees and grasses at two savanna sites of the Kalahari Transect, one wet and the other dry. Using a combination of stable isotope techniques and geostatistics, the results showed that spatial patterns of soil δ13 C exist and were related to the distributions of woody (C3) and herbaceous (C4) vegetation at both sites. Heterogeneity of the sources of SOC, as well as heterogeneity in the amount of SOC, was greater at the dry site relative to the wet site. At the dry site, the grasses were the major contributor to soil C whereas in the wet site, woody vegetation was the major contributor, regardless of the location with respect to woody canopies.

  16. EXPRESSION OF SOCS3 AND SOCS5 MRNAS IN PERIPHERAL BLOOD MONONUCLEARS FROM THE PATIENTS WITH BRONCHIAL ASTHMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Lim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We observed sixty patients with allergic bronchial asthma (ABA and 54 with non-allergic bronchial asthma (NABA. Quantitative SOCS3 and SOCS5 mRNA expression was evaluated by means of real-time PCR. Eighteen healthy persons served as a control group. In patients with bronchial asthma (irrespectively of pathogenetic form, a significant increase of SOCS3 transcription factor expression was detected in peripheral blood mononuclears, as compared with control group. This increase was more pronounced in NABA group. The mRNA SOCS5 level was significantly decreased in bronchial asthma patients, as compared to control group, especially, in ABA subgroup rather than in NABA patients. Thus, an increased expression of SOCS3 mRNA in BA patients could be regarded as a protective antiinflammatory response Decrease of SOCS5 mRNA expression in patients with bronchial asthma (being more pronounced in ABA, may be indicative for a deficiency in negative feedback regulation of gene transcription in allergic bronchial asthma.

  17. Heterogeneous High Throughput Scientific Computing with APM X-Gene and Intel Xeon Phi

    CERN Document Server

    Abdurachmanov, David; Elmer, Peter; Eulisse, Giulio; Knight, Robert; Muzaffar, Shahzad

    2014-01-01

    Electrical power requirements will be a constraint on the future growth of Distributed High Throughput Computing (DHTC) as used by High Energy Physics. Performance-per-watt is a critical metric for the evaluation of computer architectures for cost- efficient computing. Additionally, future performance growth will come from heterogeneous, many-core, and high computing density platforms with specialized processors. In this paper, we examine the Intel Xeon Phi Many Integrated Cores (MIC) co-processor and Applied Micro X-Gene ARMv8 64-bit low-power server system-on-a-chip (SoC) solutions for scientific computing applications. We report our experience on software porting, performance and energy efficiency and evaluate the potential for use of such technologies in the context of distributed computing systems such as the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG).

  18. Heterogeneous High Throughput Scientific Computing with APM X-Gene and Intel Xeon Phi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdurachmanov, David; Bockelman, Brian; Elmer, Peter; Eulisse, Giulio; Knight, Robert; Muzaffar, Shahzad

    2015-05-01

    Electrical power requirements will be a constraint on the future growth of Distributed High Throughput Computing (DHTC) as used by High Energy Physics. Performance-per-watt is a critical metric for the evaluation of computer architectures for cost- efficient computing. Additionally, future performance growth will come from heterogeneous, many-core, and high computing density platforms with specialized processors. In this paper, we examine the Intel Xeon Phi Many Integrated Cores (MIC) co-processor and Applied Micro X-Gene ARMv8 64-bit low-power server system-on-a-chip (SoC) solutions for scientific computing applications. We report our experience on software porting, performance and energy efficiency and evaluate the potential for use of such technologies in the context of distributed computing systems such as the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG).

  19. Heterogeneous High Throughput Scientific Computing with APM X-Gene and Intel Xeon Phi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdurachmanov, David; Bockelman, Brian; Elmer, Peter; Eulisse, Giulio; Muzaffar, Shahzad; Knight, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Electrical power requirements will be a constraint on the future growth of Distributed High Throughput Computing (DHTC) as used by High Energy Physics. Performance-per-watt is a critical metric for the evaluation of computer architectures for cost- efficient computing. Additionally, future performance growth will come from heterogeneous, many-core, and high computing density platforms with specialized processors. In this paper, we examine the Intel Xeon Phi Many Integrated Cores (MIC) co-processor and Applied Micro X-Gene ARMv8 64-bit low-power server system-on-a-chip (SoC) solutions for scientific computing applications. We report our experience on software porting, performance and energy efficiency and evaluate the potential for use of such technologies in the context of distributed computing systems such as the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG). (paper)

  20. Plant growth controls short-term changes in soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks of croplands - new insights from the CarboZALF experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Mathias; Jurisch, Nicole; Garcia Alba, Joana; Albiac Borraz, Elisa; Schmidt, Marten; Verch, Gernot; Sommer, Michael; Augustin, Jürgen

    2016-04-01

    The long-term influence of crop rotations, climate conditions or soil type on soil organic carbon stock (SOC) patterns and gaseous C emissions of agricultural landscapes is widely recognized. However, the question of short-term seasonal changes in SOC within these areas remains unclear. A main reason for this is the detection problem of temporal and spatial variability in gaseous C exchange and thus, changes in SOC stocks (ΔSOC) in a high resolution. This study introduces dynamic C balances as a method to obtain seasonal changes in SOC stocks. Dynamic C balances were calculated by a combination of automatic chamber CO2 exchange measurements and empirical biomass models. Measurements were performed for three consecutive years at a colluvial depression (Colluvic Regosol) in the hummocky ground moraine landscape of NE Germany (CarboZALF experimental site). The investigated crop rotation was maize, winter fodder rye, maize, winter fodder rye, and sudangrass. The site is characterized by a gradient in ground water level (GWL) and related spatial heterogeneity in soil properties, such as SOC as well as soil nitrogen (Nt) stocks. Modelled dynamic C balances reveal that up to 79% of the standard deviation of estimated annual ΔSOC between single chambers emerged during the main period of crop growth (three months in summer). No significant changes in ΔSOC were detected outside the growing season. Instead, differences between chambers remain constant despite ΔSOC dynamics. Environmental variables (Nt stocks of Ap horizon and GWL), affecting plant-mediated C sequestration, explained up to 95% of temporal and spatial variability in CO2 exchange and ΔSOC. Thus, plant activities were the major catalyst for small scale differences in annual ΔSOC of croplands.

  1. Reconfigurable Multicore Architectures for Streaming Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Kokkeler, Andre B.J.; Rauwerda, G.K.; Jacobs, J.W.M.; Nicolescu, G.; Mosterman, P.J.

    2009-01-01

    This chapter addresses reconfigurable heterogenous and homogeneous multicore system-on-chip (SoC) platforms for streaming digital signal processing applications, also called DSP applications. In streaming DSP applications, computations can be specified as a data flow graph with streams of data items

  2. A Framework for Safe Composition of Heterogeneous SOA Services in a Pervasive Computing Environment with Resource Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes Alamo, Jose M.

    2010-01-01

    The Service Oriented Computing (SOC) paradigm, defines services as software artifacts whose implementations are separated from their specifications. Application developers rely on services to simplify the design, reduce the development time and cost. Within the SOC paradigm, different Service Oriented Architectures (SOAs) have been developed.…

  3. An acceleration system for Laplacian image fusion based on SoC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Liwen; Zhao, Hongtu; Qu, Xiujie; Wei, Tianbo; Du, Peng

    2018-04-01

    Based on the analysis of Laplacian image fusion algorithm, this paper proposes a partial pipelining and modular processing architecture, and a SoC based acceleration system is implemented accordingly. Full pipelining method is used for the design of each module, and modules in series form the partial pipelining with unified data formation, which is easy for management and reuse. Integrated with ARM processor, DMA and embedded bare-mental program, this system achieves 4 layers of Laplacian pyramid on the Zynq-7000 board. Experiments show that, with small resources consumption, a couple of 256×256 images can be fused within 1ms, maintaining a fine fusion effect at the same time.

  4. MPTCP Tunnel: An Architecture for Aggregating Bandwidth of Heterogeneous Access Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolan Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Fixed and cellular networks are two typical access networks provided by operators. Fixed access network is widely employed; nevertheless, its bandwidth is sometimes not sufficient enough to meet user bandwidth requirements. Meanwhile, cellular access network owns unique advantages of wider coverage, faster increasing link speed, more flexible deployment, and so forth. Therefore, it is attractive for operators to mitigate the bandwidth shortage by bundling these two. Actually, there have been existing schemes proposed to aggregate the bandwidth of two access networks, whereas they all have their own problems, like packet reordering or extra latency overhead. To address this problem, we design new architecture, MPTCP Tunnel, to aggregate the bandwidth of multiple heterogeneous access networks from the perspective of operators. MPTCP Tunnel uses MPTCP, which solves the reordering problem essentially, to bundle multiple access networks. Besides, MPTCP Tunnel sets up only one MPTCP connection at play which adapts itself to multiple traffic types and TCP flows. Furthermore, MPTCP Tunnel forwards intact IP packets through access networks, maintaining the end-to-end TCP semantics. Experimental results manifest that MPTCP Tunnel can efficiently aggregate the bandwidth of multiple access networks and is more adaptable to the increasing heterogeneity of access networks than existing mechanisms.

  5. An Efficient Connected Component Labeling Architecture for Embedded Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny Spagnolo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Connected component analysis is one of the most fundamental steps used in several image processing systems. This technique allows for distinguishing and detecting different objects in images by assigning a unique label to all pixels that refer to the same object. Most of the previous published algorithms have been designed for implementation by software. However, due to the large number of memory accesses and compare, lookup, and control operations when executed on a general-purpose processor, they do not satisfy the speed performance required by the next generation high performance computer vision systems. In this paper, we present the design of a new Connected Component Labeling hardware architecture suitable for high performance heterogeneous image processing of embedded designs. When implemented on a Zynq All Programmable-System on Chip (AP-SOC 7045 chip, the proposed design allows a throughput rate higher of 220 Mpixels/s to be reached using less than 18,000 LUTs and 5000 FFs, dissipating about 620 μJ.

  6. A Generalized SOC-OCV Model for Lithium-Ion Batteries and the SOC Estimation for LNMCO Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caiping Zhang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A state-of-charge (SOC versus open-circuit-voltage (OCV model developed for batteries should preferably be simple, especially for real-time SOC estimation. It should also be capable of representing different types of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs, regardless of temperature change and battery degradation. It must therefore be generic, robust and adaptive, in addition to being accurate. These challenges have now been addressed by proposing a generalized SOC-OCV model for representing a few most widely used LIBs. The model is developed from analyzing electrochemical processes of the LIBs, before arriving at the sum of a logarithmic, a linear and an exponential function with six parameters. Values for these parameters are determined by a nonlinear estimation algorithm, which progressively shows that only four parameters need to be updated in real time. The remaining two parameters can be kept constant, regardless of temperature change and aging. Fitting errors demonstrated with different types of LIBs have been found to be within 0.5%. The proposed model is thus accurate, and can be flexibly applied to different LIBs, as verified by hardware-in-the-loop simulation designed for real-time SOC estimation.

  7. SOCS-1 deficiency does not prevent diet-induced insulin resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emanuelli, Brice; Macotela, Yazmin; Boucher, Jérémie

    2008-01-01

    Obesity is associated with inflammation and increased expression of suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins, which inhibit cytokine and insulin signaling. Thus, reducing SOCS expression could prevent the development of obesity-induced insulin resistance. Using SOCS-1 knockout mice, we...... investigated the contribution of SOCS-1 in the development of insulin resistance induced by a high-fat diet (HFD). SOCS-1 knockout mice on HFD gained 70% more weight, displayed a 2.3-fold increase in epididymal fat pads mass and increased hepatic lipid content. This was accompanied by increased mRNA expression...... of leptin and the macrophage marker CD68 in white adipose tissue and of SREBP1c and FAS in liver. HFD also induced hyperglycemia in SOCS-1 deficient mice with impairment of glucose and insulin tolerance tests. Thus, despite the role of SOCS proteins in obesity-related insulin resistance, SOCS-1 deficiency...

  8. State-of-the-art in Heterogeneous Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre R. Brodtkorb

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Node level heterogeneous architectures have become attractive during the last decade for several reasons: compared to traditional symmetric CPUs, they offer high peak performance and are energy and/or cost efficient. With the increase of fine-grained parallelism in high-performance computing, as well as the introduction of parallelism in workstations, there is an acute need for a good overview and understanding of these architectures. We give an overview of the state-of-the-art in heterogeneous computing, focusing on three commonly found architectures: the Cell Broadband Engine Architecture, graphics processing units (GPUs, and field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs. We present a review of hardware, available software tools, and an overview of state-of-the-art techniques and algorithms. Furthermore, we present a qualitative and quantitative comparison of the architectures, and give our view on the future of heterogeneous computing.

  9. TARGETED ANALYSIS OF JAK-STAT-SOCS GENES IN DAIRY CATTLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Sondur Jayappa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Janus kinase and signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK-STAT pathway genes along with suppressors of cytokine signalling (SOCS family genes play a crucial role in controlling cytokine signals in the mammary gland and thus mammary gland development. Mammary gene expression studies showed differential expression patterns for all the JAK-STAT pathway genes. Gene expression studies using qRT-PCR revealed differential expression of SOCS2, SOCS4 and SOCS5 genes across the lactation cycle in dairy cows. Using genotypes from 1,546 Australian Holstein- Friesian bulls, a statistical model based on SNPs within 500kb of JAK-STAT pathway genes, and SOCS genes alone was carried out. The analysis suggested that these genes and pathways make a significant contribution to the Australian milk production traits. Selection of 24 SNPs close to SOCS1, SOCS3, SOCS5, SOCS7 and CISH genes were significantly associated with, Australian Profit Ranking (APR, Australian Selection Index (ASI and protein yield (PY. This study supports the view that there may be some merit in choosing SNPs around functionally relevant genes for the selection and genetic improvement schemes for dairy production traits.

  10. High organic inputs explain shallow and deep SOC storage in a long-term agroforestry system - combining experimental and modeling approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinael, Rémi; Guenet, Bertrand; Chevallier, Tiphaine; Dupraz, Christian; Cozzi, Thomas; Chenu, Claire

    2018-01-01

    Agroforestry is an increasingly popular farming system enabling agricultural diversification and providing several ecosystem services. In agroforestry systems, soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks are generally increased, but it is difficult to disentangle the different factors responsible for this storage. Organic carbon (OC) inputs to the soil may be larger, but SOC decomposition rates may be modified owing to microclimate, physical protection, or priming effect from roots, especially at depth. We used an 18-year-old silvoarable system associating hybrid walnut trees (Juglans regia × nigra) and durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. subsp. durum) and an adjacent agricultural control plot to quantify all OC inputs to the soil - leaf litter, tree fine root senescence, crop residues, and tree row herbaceous vegetation - and measured SOC stocks down to 2 m of depth at varying distances from the trees. We then proposed a model that simulates SOC dynamics in agroforestry accounting for both the whole soil profile and the lateral spatial heterogeneity. The model was calibrated to the control plot only. Measured OC inputs to soil were increased by about 40 % (+ 1.11 t C ha-1 yr-1) down to 2 m of depth in the agroforestry plot compared to the control, resulting in an additional SOC stock of 6.3 t C ha-1 down to 1 m of depth. However, most of the SOC storage occurred in the first 30 cm of soil and in the tree rows. The model was strongly validated, properly describing the measured SOC stocks and distribution with depth in agroforestry tree rows and alleys. It showed that the increased inputs of fresh biomass to soil explained the observed additional SOC storage in the agroforestry plot. Moreover, only a priming effect variant of the model was able to capture the depth distribution of SOC stocks, suggesting the priming effect as a possible mechanism driving deep SOC dynamics. This result questions the potential of soils to store large amounts of carbon, especially at depth. Deep

  11. System on chip module configured for event-driven architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Kevin; Brady, Charles E.; Ashlock, Tad A.

    2017-10-17

    A system on chip (SoC) module is described herein, wherein the SoC modules comprise a processor subsystem and a hardware logic subsystem. The processor subsystem and hardware logic subsystem are in communication with one another, and transmit event messages between one another. The processor subsystem executes software actors, while the hardware logic subsystem includes hardware actors, the software actors and hardware actors conform to an event-driven architecture, such that the software actors receive and generate event messages and the hardware actors receive and generate event messages.

  12. Settling-velocity specific SOC distribution on hillslopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yaxian; Berhe, Asmeret Asefaw; Fogel, Marilyn L.

    The net effect of soil erosion by water, as a sink or source of atmospheric CO2, is determined by the spatial (re-)distribution and stability of eroded soil organic carbon (SOC). The depositional position of eroded SOC is a function of the transport distances of soil fractions where the SOC...... fractions. Eroding sandy soils and sediment were sampled after a series of rainfall events along a slope on a freshly seeded cropland in Jutland, Denmark. All the soil samples were fractionated into five settling classes using a settling tube apparatus. The spatial distribution of soil settling classes...... shows a coarsening effect immediately below the eroding slope, followed by a fining trend at the slope tail. The 13C values of soil fractions were more positive at the footslope than on the slope shoulder or at the slope tail, suggesting enhanced decomposition rate of fresh SOC input at the footslope...

  13. Correlation between the model accuracy and model-based SOC estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Qianqian; Wang, Jiao; Zhao, Pengju; Kang, Jianqiang; Yan, Few; Du, Changqing

    2017-01-01

    State-of-charge (SOC) estimation is a core technology for battery management systems. Considerable progress has been achieved in the study of SOC estimation algorithms, especially the algorithm on the basis of Kalman filter to meet the increasing demand of model-based battery management systems. The Kalman filter weakens the influence of white noise and initial error during SOC estimation but cannot eliminate the existing error of the battery model itself. As such, the accuracy of SOC estimation is directly related to the accuracy of the battery model. Thus far, the quantitative relationship between model accuracy and model-based SOC estimation remains unknown. This study summarizes three equivalent circuit lithium-ion battery models, namely, Thevenin, PNGV, and DP models. The model parameters are identified through hybrid pulse power characterization test. The three models are evaluated, and SOC estimation conducted by EKF-Ah method under three operating conditions are quantitatively studied. The regression and correlation of the standard deviation and normalized RMSE are studied and compared between the model error and the SOC estimation error. These parameters exhibit a strong linear relationship. Results indicate that the model accuracy affects the SOC estimation accuracy mainly in two ways: dispersion of the frequency distribution of the error and the overall level of the error. On the basis of the relationship between model error and SOC estimation error, our study provides a strategy for selecting a suitable cell model to meet the requirements of SOC precision using Kalman filter.

  14. SOCS-1 localizes to the microtubule organizing complex-associated 20S proteasome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuong, Bao Q; Arenzana, Teresita L; Showalter, Brian M; Losman, Julie; Chen, X Peter; Mostecki, Justin; Banks, Alexander S; Limnander, Andre; Fernandez, Neil; Rothman, Paul B

    2004-10-01

    The regulation of cytokine signaling is critical for controlling cellular proliferation and activation during an immune response. SOCS-1 is a potent inhibitor of Jak kinase activity and of signaling initiated by several cytokines. SOCS-1 protein levels are tightly regulated, and recent data suggest that SOCS-1 may regulate the protein levels of some signaling proteins by the ubiquitin proteasome pathway; however, the cellular mechanism by which SOCS-1 directs proteins for degradation is unknown. In this report, SOCS-1 is found to colocalize and biochemically copurify with the microtubule organizing complex (MTOC) and its associated 20S proteasome. The SOCS-1 SH2 domain is required for the localization of SOCS-1 to the MTOC. Overexpression of SOCS-1 targets Jak1 in an SH2-dependent manner to a perinuclear distribution resembling the MTOC-associated 20S proteasome. Analysis of MTOCs fractionated from SOCS-1-deficient cells demonstrates that SOCS-1 may function redundantly to regulate the localization of Jak1 to the MTOC. Nocodazole inhibits the protein turnover of SOCS-1, demonstrating that the minus-end transport of SOCS-1 to the MTOC-associated 20S proteasome is required to regulate SOCS-1 protein levels. These data link SOCS-1 directly with the proteasome pathway and suggest another function for the SH2 domain of SOCS-1 in the regulation of Jak/STAT signaling.

  15. Interleaved Subtask Scheduling on Multi Processor SOC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhe, M.

    2006-01-01

    The ever-progressing semiconductor processing technique has integrated more and more embedded processors on a single system-on-achip (SoC). With such powerful SoC platforms, and also due to the stringent time-to-market deadlines, many functionalities which used to be implemented in ASICs are

  16. A microkernel middleware architecture for distributed embedded real-zime systems

    OpenAIRE

    Pfeffer, Matthias

    2001-01-01

    A microkernel middleware architecture for distributed embedded real-zime systems / T. Ungerer ... - In: Symposium on Reliable Distributed Systems : Proceedings : October 28 - 31, 2001, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA. - Los Alamitos, Calif. [u.a.] : IEEE Computer Soc., 2001. - S. 218-226

  17. Power-efficient computer architectures recent advances

    CERN Document Server

    Själander, Magnus; Kaxiras, Stefanos

    2014-01-01

    As Moore's Law and Dennard scaling trends have slowed, the challenges of building high-performance computer architectures while maintaining acceptable power efficiency levels have heightened. Over the past ten years, architecture techniques for power efficiency have shifted from primarily focusing on module-level efficiencies, toward more holistic design styles based on parallelism and heterogeneity. This work highlights and synthesizes recent techniques and trends in power-efficient computer architecture.Table of Contents: Introduction / Voltage and Frequency Management / Heterogeneity and Sp

  18. Defective interleukin-4/Stat6 activity correlates with increased constitutive expression of negative regulators SOCS-3, SOCS-7, and CISH in colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao Hong; Xu, Shuang Bing; Yuan, Jia; Li, Ben Hui; Zhang, Yan; Yuan, Qin; Li, Pin Dong; Li, Feng; Zhang, Wen Jie

    2009-12-01

    Interleukin-4 (IL-4)-induced Stat6 activities (phenotypes) vary among human cancer cells, of which the HT-29 cell line carries an active Stat6(high) phenotype, while Caco-2 carries a defective Stat6(null) phenotype, respectively. Cancer cells with Stat6(high) show resistance to apoptosis and exaggerated metastasis, suggesting the clinical significance of Stat6 phenotypes. We previously showed that Stat6(high) HT-29 cells exhibited low constitutive expression of Stat6-negative regulators SOCS-1 and SHP-1 because of gene hypermethylation. This study further examined the constitutive expression of other closely related SOCS family numbers including SOCS-3, SOCS-5, SOCS-7, and CISH using RT-PCR. Similar to SOCS-1 and SHP-1, Stat6(high) HT-29 cells expressed low constitutive mRNA of SOCS-3, SOCS-7, and CISH than Stat6(null) Caco-2 cells. Interestingly, DNA demethylation using 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine in HT-29 cells up-regulated mRNA expression of the above genes, indicating a hypermethylation status, which was confirmed by methylation-specific sequencing in selected SOCS-3 gene. Furthermore, defective Stat6(null) Caco-2 exhibited impaired phosphorylation of Stat6 after IL-4 stimulation by flow cytometry, in keeping with the notion of an over-performed negative regulation. The findings that IL-4/Stat6 phenotypes show differential expression of multiple negative regulators suggest a model that a collective force of powerful negative regulators, directly and indirectly, acts on Stat6 activation, which may result in differential Stat6 phenotypes.

  19. SPAD array based TOF SoC design for unmanned vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, An; Xu, Yuan; Xie, Gang; Huang, Zhiyu; Zheng, Yanghao; Shi, Weiwei

    2018-03-01

    As for the requirement of unmanned-vehicle mobile Lidar system, this paper presents a SoC design based on pulsed TOF depth image sensor. This SoC has a detection range of 300m and detecting resolution of 1.5cm. Pixels are made of SPAD. Meanwhile, SoC adopts a structure of multi-pixel sharing TDC, which significantly reduces chip area and improve the fill factor of light-sensing surface area. SoC integrates a TCSPC module to achieve the functionality of receiving each photon, measuring photon flight time and processing depth information in one chip. The SOC is designed in the SMIC 0.13μm CIS CMOS technology

  20. Research on SOC Calibration of Large Capacity Lead Acid Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, W. Q.; Guo, Y. X.

    2018-05-01

    Large capacity lead-acid battery is used in track electric locomotive, and State of Charge (SOC) is an important quantitative parameter of locomotive power output and operating mileage of power emergency recovery vehicle. But State of Charge estimation has been a difficult part in the battery management system. In order to reduce the SOC estimation error better, this paper uses the linear relationship of Open Circuit Voltage (OCV) and State of Charge to fit the SOC-OCV curve equation by MATLAB. The method proposed in this paper is small, easy to implement and can be used in the battery non-working state SOC estimation correction, improve the estimation accuracy of SOC.

  1. High organic inputs explain shallow and deep SOC storage in a long-term agroforestry system – combining experimental and modeling approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Cardinael

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Agroforestry is an increasingly popular farming system enabling agricultural diversification and providing several ecosystem services. In agroforestry systems, soil organic carbon (SOC stocks are generally increased, but it is difficult to disentangle the different factors responsible for this storage. Organic carbon (OC inputs to the soil may be larger, but SOC decomposition rates may be modified owing to microclimate, physical protection, or priming effect from roots, especially at depth. We used an 18-year-old silvoarable system associating hybrid walnut trees (Juglans regia  ×  nigra and durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. subsp. durum and an adjacent agricultural control plot to quantify all OC inputs to the soil – leaf litter, tree fine root senescence, crop residues, and tree row herbaceous vegetation – and measured SOC stocks down to 2 m of depth at varying distances from the trees. We then proposed a model that simulates SOC dynamics in agroforestry accounting for both the whole soil profile and the lateral spatial heterogeneity. The model was calibrated to the control plot only. Measured OC inputs to soil were increased by about 40 % (+ 1.11 t C ha−1 yr−1 down to 2 m of depth in the agroforestry plot compared to the control, resulting in an additional SOC stock of 6.3 t C ha−1 down to 1 m of depth. However, most of the SOC storage occurred in the first 30 cm of soil and in the tree rows. The model was strongly validated, properly describing the measured SOC stocks and distribution with depth in agroforestry tree rows and alleys. It showed that the increased inputs of fresh biomass to soil explained the observed additional SOC storage in the agroforestry plot. Moreover, only a priming effect variant of the model was able to capture the depth distribution of SOC stocks, suggesting the priming effect as a possible mechanism driving deep SOC dynamics. This result questions the potential of soils to

  2. Runtime QoS control and revenue optimization within service oriented architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zivkovic, Miroslav

    2014-01-01

    The paradigms of service-oriented computing (SOC) and its underlying service-oriented architecture (SOA) have changed the way software applications are designed, developed, deployed, and consumed. Software engineers can therefore realize applications by service composition, using services offered by

  3. Favorable prognostic value of SOCS2 and IGF-I in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haffner, Michael C; Petridou, Barbara; Peyrat, Jean Phillipe; Révillion, Françoise; Müller-Holzner, Elisabeth; Daxenbichler, Günter; Marth, Christian; Doppler, Wolfgang

    2007-01-01

    Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins comprise a protein family, which has initially been described as STAT induced inhibitors of the Jak/Stat pathway. Recent in vivo and in vitro studies suggest that SOCS proteins are also implicated in cancer. The STAT5 induced IGF-I acts as an endocrine and para/autocrine growth and differentiation factor in mammary gland development. Whereas high levels of circulating IGF-I have been associated with increased cancer risk, the role of autocrine acting IGF-I is less clear. The present study is aimed to elucidate the clinicopathological features associated with SOCS1, SOCS2, SOCS3, CIS and IGF-I expression in breast cancer. We determined the mRNA expression levels of SOCS1, SOCS2, SOCS3, CIS and IGF-I in 89 primary breast cancers by reverse transcriptase PCR. SOCS2 protein expression was further evaluated by immuno-blot and immunohistochemistry. SOCS2 expression inversely correlated with histopathological grade and ER positive tumors exhibited higher SOCS2 levels. Patients with high SOCS2 expression lived significantly longer (108.7 vs. 77.7 months; P = 0.015) and high SOCS2 expression proved to be an independent predictor for good prognosis (HR = 0.45, 95% CI 0.23 – 0.91, P = 0.026). In analogy to SOCS2, high IGF-I expression was an independent predictor for good prognosis in the entire patient cohort. In the subgroup of patients with lymph-node negative disease, high IGF-I was a strong predictor for favorable outcome in terms of overall survival and relapse free survival (HR = 0.075, 95% CI 0.014 – 0.388, P = 0.002). This is the first report on the favorable prognostic value of high SOCS2 expression in primary mammary carcinomas. Furthermore a strong association of high IGF-I expression levels with good prognosis was observed especially in lymph-node negative patients. Our results suggest that high expression of the STAT5 target genes SOCS2 and IGF-I is a feature of differentiated and less malignant tumors

  4. Identification of suppressor of cytokine signalling (SOCS) 6, 7, 9 and CISH in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and analysis of their expression in relation to other known trout SOCS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tiehui; Gao, Qian; Nie, Pin; Secombes, Christopher J

    2010-10-01

    Four new members of the SOCS family of molecules in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), CISH and SOCS6, 7 and 9, are described for the first time in this species. The genes had a wide tissue distribution in trout, and were detected in gills, skin, muscle, liver, spleen, head kidney, intestine and brain, with brain having the highest expression levels. Stimulation of a rainbow trout leucocyte cell line, RTS-11, (mononuclear/macrophage-like cells) with LPS or Poly I:C had no effect on the expression of these genes, although in both cases the previously identified SOCS1-3 genes were up-regulated. Similarly, stimulation of RTS-11 or RTG-2 (fibroblasts) cells with the trout recombinant cytokines IFN-gamma or IL-1beta had no effect on CISH or SOCS6, 7 and 9 expression. However, PMA stimulation did impact on SOCS6 and SOCS9 expression, and LPS stimulation of primary cultures or bacterial infection (Yersinia ruckeri) increased significantly CISH expression (as well as SOCS1 and SOCS2 or SOCS3 respectively). It is apparent that the type II SOCS genes (CISH, SOCS1-3) are particularly relevant to immune regulation in fish, although the intriguing expansion of the SOCS4/5 subgroup in fish requires further investigation as to their role and functional divergence. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Favorable prognostic value of SOCS2 and IGF-I in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daxenbichler Günter

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS proteins comprise a protein family, which has initially been described as STAT induced inhibitors of the Jak/Stat pathway. Recent in vivo and in vitro studies suggest that SOCS proteins are also implicated in cancer. The STAT5 induced IGF-I acts as an endocrine and para/autocrine growth and differentiation factor in mammary gland development. Whereas high levels of circulating IGF-I have been associated with increased cancer risk, the role of autocrine acting IGF-I is less clear. The present study is aimed to elucidate the clinicopathological features associated with SOCS1, SOCS2, SOCS3, CIS and IGF-I expression in breast cancer. Methods We determined the mRNA expression levels of SOCS1, SOCS2, SOCS3, CIS and IGF-I in 89 primary breast cancers by reverse transcriptase PCR. SOCS2 protein expression was further evaluated by immuno-blot and immunohistochemistry. Results SOCS2 expression inversely correlated with histopathological grade and ER positive tumors exhibited higher SOCS2 levels. Patients with high SOCS2 expression lived significantly longer (108.7 vs. 77.7 months; P = 0.015 and high SOCS2 expression proved to be an independent predictor for good prognosis (HR = 0.45, 95% CI 0.23 – 0.91, P = 0.026. In analogy to SOCS2, high IGF-I expression was an independent predictor for good prognosis in the entire patient cohort. In the subgroup of patients with lymph-node negative disease, high IGF-I was a strong predictor for favorable outcome in terms of overall survival and relapse free survival (HR = 0.075, 95% CI 0.014 – 0.388, P = 0.002. Conclusion This is the first report on the favorable prognostic value of high SOCS2 expression in primary mammary carcinomas. Furthermore a strong association of high IGF-I expression levels with good prognosis was observed especially in lymph-node negative patients. Our results suggest that high expression of the STAT5 target genes SOCS2 and IGF

  6. Runtime QoS control and revenue optimisation within service oriented architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zivkovic, Miroslav

    2014-01-01

    The paradigms of service–oriented computing (SOC) and its underlying service–oriented architecture (SOA) have received a lot of attention recently and have changed the way software applications are designed, developed, deployed, and consumed. Due to these paradigms, software engineers can realize

  7. A generic library for large scale solution of PDEs on modern heterogeneous architectures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glimberg, Stefan Lemvig; Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter

    2012-01-01

    Adapting to new programming models for modern multi- and many-core architectures requires code-rewriting and changing algorithms and data structures, in order to achieve good efficiency and scalability. We present a generic library for solving large scale partial differential equations (PDEs......), capable of utilizing heterogeneous CPU/GPU environments. The library can be used for fast proto-typing of PDE solvers, based on finite difference approximations of spatial derivatives in one, two, or three dimensions. In order to efficiently solve large scale problems, we keep memory consumption...... and memory access low, using a low-storage implementation of flexible-order finite difference operators. We will illustrate the use of library components by assembling such matrix-free operators to be used with one of the supported iterative solvers, such as GMRES, CG, Multigrid or Defect Correction...

  8. ELASTIC CLOUD COMPUTING ARCHITECTURE AND SYSTEM FOR HETEROGENEOUS SPATIOTEMPORAL COMPUTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Shi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Spatiotemporal computation implements a variety of different algorithms. When big data are involved, desktop computer or standalone application may not be able to complete the computation task due to limited memory and computing power. Now that a variety of hardware accelerators and computing platforms are available to improve the performance of geocomputation, different algorithms may have different behavior on different computing infrastructure and platforms. Some are perfect for implementation on a cluster of graphics processing units (GPUs, while GPUs may not be useful on certain kind of spatiotemporal computation. This is the same situation in utilizing a cluster of Intel's many-integrated-core (MIC or Xeon Phi, as well as Hadoop or Spark platforms, to handle big spatiotemporal data. Furthermore, considering the energy efficiency requirement in general computation, Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA may be a better solution for better energy efficiency when the performance of computation could be similar or better than GPUs and MICs. It is expected that an elastic cloud computing architecture and system that integrates all of GPUs, MICs, and FPGAs could be developed and deployed to support spatiotemporal computing over heterogeneous data types and computational problems.

  9. Elastic Cloud Computing Architecture and System for Heterogeneous Spatiotemporal Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, X.

    2017-10-01

    Spatiotemporal computation implements a variety of different algorithms. When big data are involved, desktop computer or standalone application may not be able to complete the computation task due to limited memory and computing power. Now that a variety of hardware accelerators and computing platforms are available to improve the performance of geocomputation, different algorithms may have different behavior on different computing infrastructure and platforms. Some are perfect for implementation on a cluster of graphics processing units (GPUs), while GPUs may not be useful on certain kind of spatiotemporal computation. This is the same situation in utilizing a cluster of Intel's many-integrated-core (MIC) or Xeon Phi, as well as Hadoop or Spark platforms, to handle big spatiotemporal data. Furthermore, considering the energy efficiency requirement in general computation, Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) may be a better solution for better energy efficiency when the performance of computation could be similar or better than GPUs and MICs. It is expected that an elastic cloud computing architecture and system that integrates all of GPUs, MICs, and FPGAs could be developed and deployed to support spatiotemporal computing over heterogeneous data types and computational problems.

  10. Process modeling of a reversible solid oxide cell (r-SOC) energy storage system utilizing commercially available SOC reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mottaghizadeh, Pegah; Santhanam, Srikanth; Heddrich, Marc P.; Friedrich, K. Andreas; Rinaldi, Fabio

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • An electric energy storage system was developed based on a commercially available SOC reactor. • Heat generated in SOFC mode of r-SOC is utilized in SOEC operation of r-SOC using latent heat storage. • A round trip efficiency of 54.3% was reached for the reference system at atmospheric pressure. • An improved process system design achieved a round-trip efficiency of 60.4% at 25 bar. - Abstract: The increase of intermittent renewable energy contribution in power grids has urged us to seek means for temporal decoupling of electricity production and consumption. A reversible solid oxide cell (r-SOC) enables storage of surplus electricity through electrochemical reactions when it is in electrolysis mode. The reserved energy in form of chemical compounds is then converted to electricity when the cell operates as a fuel cell. A process system model was implemented using Aspen Plus® V8.8 based on a commercially available r-SOC reactor experimentally characterized at DLR. In this study a complete self-sustaining system configuration is designed by optimal thermal integration and balance of plant. Under reference conditions a round trip efficiency of 54.3% was achieved. Generated heat in fuel cell mode is exploited by latent heat storage tanks to enable endothermic operation of reactor in its electrolysis mode. In total, out of 100 units of thermal energy stored in heat storage tanks during fuel cell mode, 90% was utilized to offset heat demand of system in its electrolysis mode. Parametric analysis revealed the significance of heat storage tanks in thermal management even when reactor entered its exothermic mode of electrolysis. An improved process system design demonstrates a system round-trip efficiency of 60.4% at 25 bar.

  11. IL-10 and socs3 Are Predictive Biomarkers of Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Karem Flores-Mendoza

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cytokines play important roles in the physiopathology of dengue infection; therefore, the suppressors of cytokine signaling (socs that control the type and timing of cytokine functions could be involved in the origin of immune alterations in dengue. Objective. To explore the association of cytokine and socs levels with disease severity in dengue patients. Methods. Blood samples of 48 patients with confirmed dengue infection were analyzed. Amounts of interleukins IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, and IL-10, interferon- (IFN- γ, and tumor necrosis factor- (TNF- α were quantified by flow cytometry, and the relative expression of socs1 and socs3 mRNA was quantified by real-time RT-PCR. Results. Increased levels of IL-10 and socs3 and lower expression of socs1 were found in patients with dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF with respect to those with dengue fever (DF (p199.8-fold, socs1 (134 pg/ml have the highest sensitivity and specificity to discriminate between DF and DHF. Conclusion. Simultaneous changes in IL-10 and socs1/socs3 could be used as prognostic biomarkers of dengue severity.

  12. Suppressor of cytokine signaling 2 (Socs2 deletion protects bone health of mice with DSS-induced inflammatory bowel disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross Dobie

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD often present with poor bone health. The development of targeted therapies for this bone loss requires a fuller understanding of the underlying cellular mechanisms. Although bone loss in IBD is multifactorial, the altered sensitivity and secretion of growth hormone (GH and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 in IBD is understood to be a critical contributing mechanism. The expression of suppressor of cytokine signaling 2 (SOCS2, a well-established negative regulator of GH signaling, is stimulated by proinflammatory cytokines. Therefore, it is likely that SOCS2 expression represents a critical mediator through which proinflammatory cytokines inhibit GH/IGF-1 signaling and decrease bone quality in IBD. Using the dextran sodium sulfate (DSS model of colitis, we reveal that endogenously elevated GH function in the Socs2−/− mouse protects the skeleton from osteopenia. Micro-computed tomography assessment of DSS-treated wild-type (WT mice revealed a worsened trabecular architecture compared to control mice. Specifically, DSS-treated WT mice had significantly decreased bone volume, trabecular thickness and trabecular number, and a resulting increase in trabecular separation. In comparison, the trabecular bone of Socs2-deficient mice was partially protected from the adverse effects of DSS. The reduction in a number of parameters, including bone volume, was less, and no changes were observed in trabecular thickness or separation. This protected phenotype was unlikely to be a consequence of improved mucosal health in the DSS-treated Socs2−/− mice but rather a result of unregulated GH signaling directly on bone. These studies indicate that the absence of SOCS2 is protective against bone loss typical of IBD. This study also provides an improved understanding of the relative effects of GH/IGF-1 signaling on bone health in experimental colitis, information that is essential before these drugs are

  13. Perception SoC Based on an Ultrasonic Array of Sensors: Efficient DSP Core Implementation and Subsequent Experimental Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Haidar

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available We are concerned with the design, implementation, and validation of a perception SoC based on an ultrasonic array of sensors. The proposed SoC is dedicated to ultrasonic echography applications. A rapid prototyping platform is used to implement and validate the new architecture of the digital signal processing (DSP core. The proposed DSP core efficiently integrates all of the necessary ultrasonic B-mode processing modules. It includes digital beamforming, quadrature demodulation of RF signals, digital filtering, and envelope detection of the received signals. This system handles 128 scan lines and 6400 samples per scan line with a 90° angle of view span. The design uses a minimum size lookup memory to store the initial scan information. Rapid prototyping using an ARM/FPGA combination is used to validate the operation of the described system. This system offers significant advantages of portability and a rapid time to market.

  14. Perception SoC Based on an Ultrasonic Array of Sensors: Efficient DSP Core Implementation and Subsequent Experimental Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, A.; Sawan, M.; Boukadoum, M.; Haidar, A.

    2005-12-01

    We are concerned with the design, implementation, and validation of a perception SoC based on an ultrasonic array of sensors. The proposed SoC is dedicated to ultrasonic echography applications. A rapid prototyping platform is used to implement and validate the new architecture of the digital signal processing (DSP) core. The proposed DSP core efficiently integrates all of the necessary ultrasonic B-mode processing modules. It includes digital beamforming, quadrature demodulation of RF signals, digital filtering, and envelope detection of the received signals. This system handles 128 scan lines and 6400 samples per scan line with a[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] angle of view span. The design uses a minimum size lookup memory to store the initial scan information. Rapid prototyping using an ARM/FPGA combination is used to validate the operation of the described system. This system offers significant advantages of portability and a rapid time to market.

  15. Modulation of SOCS protein expression influences the interferon responsiveness of human melanoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesinski, Gregory B; Zimmerer, Jason M; Kreiner, Melanie; Trefry, John; Bill, Matthew A; Young, Gregory S; Becknell, Brian; Carson, William E III

    2010-01-01

    Endogenously produced interferons can regulate the growth of melanoma cells and are administered exogenously as therapeutic agents to patients with advanced cancer. We investigated the role of negative regulators of interferon signaling known as suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) in mediating interferon-resistance in human melanoma cells. Basal and interferon-alpha (IFN-α) or interferon-gamma (IFN-γ)-induced expression of SOCS1 and SOCS3 proteins was evaluated by immunoblot analysis in a panel of n = 10 metastatic human melanoma cell lines, in human embryonic melanocytes (HEM), and radial or vertical growth phase melanoma cells. Over-expression of SOCS1 and SOCS3 proteins in melanoma cells was achieved using the PINCO retroviral vector, while siRNA were used to inhibit SOCS1 and SOCS3 expression. Tyr 701 -phosphorylated STAT1 (P-STAT1) was measured by intracellular flow cytometry and IFN-stimulated gene expression was measured by Real Time PCR. SOCS1 and SOCS3 proteins were expressed at basal levels in melanocytes and in all melanoma cell lines examined. Expression of the SOCS1 and SOCS3 proteins was also enhanced following stimulation of a subset of cell lines with IFN-α or IFN-γ. Over-expression of SOCS proteins in melanoma cell lines led to significant inhibition of Tyr 701 -phosphorylated STAT1 (P-STAT1) and gene expression following stimulation with IFN-α (IFIT2, OAS-1, ISG-15) or IFN-γ (IRF1). Conversely, siRNA inhibition of SOCS1 and SOCS3 expression in melanoma cells enhanced their responsiveness to interferon stimulation. These data demonstrate that SOCS proteins are expressed in human melanoma cell lines and their modulation can influence the responsiveness of melanoma cells to IFN-α and IFN-γ

  16. Variation tolerant SoC design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozhikkottu, Vivek J.

    performance distribution. This task is particularly complex and challenging due to the inter-dependencies between components' execution, indirect effects of shared resources, and interactions between multiple system-level "execution paths". We argue that accurate variation-aware performance analysis requires Monte-Carlo based repeated system execution. Our proposed analysis framework leverages emulation to significantly speedup performance analysis without sacrificing the generality and accuracy achieved by Monte-Carlo based simulations. Our experiments show performance improvements of around 60x compared to state-of-the-art hardware-software co-simulation tools and also underscore the framework's potential to enable variation-aware design and exploration at the system level. Our second contribution addresses the problem of designing variation-tolerant SoCs using recovery based design, a popular circuit design paradigm that addresses variations by eliminating guard-bands and operating circuits at close to "zero margins" while detecting and recovering from timing errors. While previous efforts have demonstrated the potential benefits of recovery based design, we identify several challenges that need to be addressed in order to apply this technique to SoCs. We present a systematic design framework to apply recovery based design at the system level. We propose to partition SoCs into "recovery islands", wherein each recovery island consists of one or more SoC components that can recover independent of the rest of the SoC. We present a variation-aware design methodology that partitions a given SoC into recovery islands and computes the optimal operating points for each island, taking into account the various trade-offs involved. Our experiments demonstrate that the proposed design framework achieves an average of 32% energy savings over conventional worst-case designs, with negligible losses in performance. The third contribution of this thesis introduces disproportionate

  17. Applying transport-distance specific SOC distribution to calibrate soil erosion model WaTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yaxian; Heckrath, Goswin J.; Kuhn, Nikolaus J.

    2016-04-01

    Slope-scale soil erosion, transport and deposition fundamentally decide the spatial redistribution of eroded sediments in terrestrial and aquatic systems, which further affect the burial and decomposition of eroded SOC. However, comparisons of SOC contents between upper eroding slope and lower depositional site cannot fully reflect the movement of eroded SOC in-transit along hillslopes. The actual transport distance of eroded SOC is decided by its settling velocity. So far, the settling velocity distribution of eroded SOC is mostly calculated from mineral particle specific SOC distribution. Yet, soil is mostly eroded in form of aggregates, and the movement of aggregates differs significantly from individual mineral particles. This urges a SOC erodibility parameter based on actual transport distance distribution of eroded fractions to better calibrate soil erosion models. Previous field investigation on a freshly seeded cropland in Denmark has shown immediate deposition of fast settling soil fractions and the associated SOC at footslopes, followed by a fining trend at the slope tail. To further quantify the long-term effects of topography on erosional redistribution of eroded SOC, the actual transport-distance specific SOC distribution observed on the field was applied to a soil erosion model WaTEM (based on USLE). After integrating with local DEM, our calibrated model succeeded in locating the hotspots of enrichment/depletion of eroded SOC on different topographic positions, much better corresponding to the real-world field observation. By extrapolating into repeated erosion events, our projected results on the spatial distribution of eroded SOC are also adequately consistent with the SOC properties in the consecutive sample profiles along the slope.

  18. The simple art of SoC design

    CERN Document Server

    Keating, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This book tackles head-on the challenges of digital design in the era of billion-transistor SoCs. It discusses fundamental design concepts in design and coding required to produce robust, functionally correct designs. It also provides specific techniques for measuring and minimizing complexity in RTL code. Finally, it discusses the tradeoff between RTL and high-level (C-based) design and how tools and languages must progress to address the needs of tomorrow's SoC designs.

  19. A System-on-Chip Solution for Point-of-Care Ultrasound Imaging Systems: Architecture and ASIC Implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jeeun; Yoon, Changhan; Lee, Jaejin; Kye, Sang-Bum; Lee, Yongbae; Chang, Jin Ho; Kim, Gi-Duck; Yoo, Yangmo; Song, Tai-kyong

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we present a novel system-on-chip (SOC) solution for a portable ultrasound imaging system (PUS) for point-of-care applications. The PUS-SOC includes all of the signal processing modules (i.e., the transmit and dynamic receive beamformer modules, mid- and back-end processors, and color Doppler processors) as well as an efficient architecture for hardware-based imaging methods (e.g., dynamic delay calculation, multi-beamforming, and coded excitation and compression). The PUS-SOC was fabricated using a UMC 130-nm NAND process and has 16.8 GFLOPS of computing power with a total equivalent gate count of 12.1 million, which is comparable to a Pentium-4 CPU. The size and power consumption of the PUS-SOC are 27×27 mm(2) and 1.2 W, respectively. Based on the PUS-SOC, a prototype hand-held US imaging system was implemented. Phantom experiments demonstrated that the PUS-SOC can provide appropriate image quality for point-of-care applications with a compact PDA size ( 200×120×45 mm(3)) and 3 hours of battery life.

  20. Fish Suppressors of Cytokine Signaling (SOCS): Gene Discovery, Modulation of Expression and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tiehui; Gorgoglione, Bartolomeo; Maehr, Tanja; Holland, Jason W.; Vecino, Jose L. González; Wadsworth, Simon; Secombes, Christopher J.

    2011-01-01

    The intracellular suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) family members, including CISH and SOCS1 to 7 in mammals, are important regulators of cytokine signaling pathways. So far, the orthologues of all the eight mammalian SOCS members have been identified in fish, with several of them having multiple copies. Whilst fish CISH, SOCS3, and SOCS5 paralogues are possibly the result of the fish-specific whole genome duplication event, gene duplication or lineage-specific genome duplication may also contribute to some paralogues, as with the three trout SOCS2s and three zebrafish SOCS5s. Fish SOCS genes are broadly expressed and also show species-specific expression patterns. They can be upregulated by cytokines, such as IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-21, by immune stimulants such as LPS, poly I:C, and PMA, as well as by viral, bacterial, and parasitic infections in member- and species-dependent manners. Initial functional studies demonstrate conserved mechanisms of fish SOCS action via JAK/STAT pathways. PMID:22203897

  1. Effect of SOCS1 overexpression on RPE cell activation by proinflammatory cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazewicz, Magdalena; Draganova, Dafina; Makhoul, Maya; Chtarto, Abdel; Elmaleh, Valerie; Tenenbaum, Liliane; Caspers, Laure; Bruyns, Catherine; Willermain, François

    2016-09-06

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the in vitro effect of Suppressor Of Cytokine Signaling 1 (SOCS1) overexpression in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells on their activation by pro-inflammatory cytokines IFNγ, TNFα and IL-17. Retinal pigment epithelium cells (ARPE-19) were stably transfected with the control plasmid pIRES2-AcGFP1 or the plasmid pSOCS1-IRES2-AcGFP1. They were stimulated by IFNγ (150ng/ml), TNFα (30ng/ml) or IL-17 (100ng/ml). The levels of SOCS1 mRNA were measured by real-time PCR. Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 1 (STAT1) phosphorylation and IκBα expression were analysed by western Blot (WB). IL-8 secretion was analysed by ELISA and expression of MHCII molecules and ICAM-1/CD54 by flow cytometry. Our data show that SOCS1 mRNA overexpression in RPE cells prevents IFNγ-induced SOCS1 mRNA increase and IFNγ-mediated STAT1 phosphorylation. Moreover, SOCS1 overexpression in RPE cells inhibits IFNγ-induced decrease of IL-8 secretion and prevents IFNγ-induced MHC II and ICAM1/CD54 upregulation. However, SOCS1 overexpression does not affect TNFα-induced IκBα degradation nor block TNFα-induced or IL-17-induced IL-8 secretion. On the contrary, IL-17-induced secretion is increased by SOCS1 overexpression. In conclusion, SOCS1 overexpression in RPE cells inhibits some IFNγ-mediated responses that lead to uveitis development. This notion raises the possibility that SOCS1 overexpression could be a novel target for treating non-infectious uveitis. However, some proinflammatory effects of TNFα and IL-17 stimulation on RPE are not blocked by SOCS1 overexpression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Constitutive expression of the K-domain of a Vaccinium corymbosum SOC1-like (VcSOC1-K) MADS-box gene is sufficient to promote flowering in tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Guo-qing; Walworth, Aaron; Zhao, Dongyan; Hildebrandt, Britton; Leasia, Michael

    2013-11-01

    The K-domain of a blueberry-derived SOC1 -like gene promotes flowering in tobacco without negatively impacting yield, demonstrating potential for manipulation of flowering time in horticultural crops. The SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS 1 (SOC1) and SOC1-likes, belonging to the MIKC(c) (type II) MADS-box gene subfamily, are major floral activators and integrators of plant flowering. Both MADS-domains and K (Keratin)-domains are highly conserved in MIKC(c)-type MADS proteins. While there are many reports on overexpression of intact MIKC(c)-type MADS-box genes, few studies have been conducted to investigate the effects of the K-domains. In this report, a 474-bp K-domain of Vaccinium SOC1-like (VcSOC1-K) was cloned from the cDNA library of the northern highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.). Functional analysis of the VcSOC1-K was conducted by ectopically expressing of 35S:VcSOC1-K in tobacco. Reverse transcription PCR confirmed expression of the VcSOC1-K in T0 plants. Phenotypically, T1 transgenic plants (10 T1 plants/event) flowered sooner after seeding, and were shorter with fewer leaves at the time of flowering, than nontransgenic plants; but seed pod production of transgenic plants was not significantly affected. These results demonstrate that overexpression of the K-domain of a MIKC(c)-type MADS-box gene alone is sufficient to promote early flowering and more importantly without affecting seed production.

  3. Ontology Design for Solving Computationally-Intensive Problems on Heterogeneous Architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossam M. Faheem

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Viewing a computationally-intensive problem as a self-contained challenge with its own hardware, software and scheduling strategies is an approach that should be investigated. We might suggest assigning heterogeneous hardware architectures to solve a problem, while parallel computing paradigms may play an important role in writing efficient code to solve the problem; moreover, the scheduling strategies may be examined as a possible solution. Depending on the problem complexity, finding the best possible solution using an integrated infrastructure of hardware, software and scheduling strategy can be a complex job. Developing and using ontologies and reasoning techniques play a significant role in reducing the complexity of identifying the components of such integrated infrastructures. Undertaking reasoning and inferencing regarding the domain concepts can help to find the best possible solution through a combination of hardware, software and scheduling strategies. In this paper, we present an ontology and show how we can use it to solve computationally-intensive problems from various domains. As a potential use for the idea, we present examples from the bioinformatics domain. Validation by using problems from the Elastic Optical Network domain has demonstrated the flexibility of the suggested ontology and its suitability for use with any other computationally-intensive problem domain.

  4. Information system architecture to support transparent access to distributed, heterogeneous data sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, J.C.

    1994-08-01

    Quality situation assessment and decision making require access to multiple sources of data and information. Insufficient accessibility to data exists for many large corporations and Government agencies. By utilizing current advances in computer technology, today's situation analyst's have a wealth of information at their disposal. There are many potential solutions to the information accessibility problem using today's technology. The United States Department of Energy (US-DOE) faced this problem when dealing with one class of problem in the US. The result of their efforts has been the creation of the Tank Waste Information Network System -- TWINS. The TWINS solution combines many technologies to address problems in several areas such as User Interfaces, Transparent Access to Multiple Data Sources, and Integrated Data Access. Data related to the complex is currently distributed throughout several US-DOE installations. Over time, each installation has adopted their own set of standards as related to information management. Heterogeneous hardware and software platforms exist both across the complex and within a single installation. Standards for information management vary between US-DOE mission areas within installations. These factors contribute to the complexity of accessing information in a manner that enhances the performance and decision making process of the analysts. This paper presents one approach taken by the DOE to resolve the problem of distributed, heterogeneous, multi-media information management for the HLW Tank complex. The information system architecture developed for the DOE by the TWINS effort is one that is adaptable to other problem domains and uses

  5. Three-dimensional reconstruction of prostate cancer architecture with serial immunohistochemical sections: hallmarks of tumour growth, tumour compartmentalisation, and implications for grading and heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolkach, Yuri; Thomann, Stefan; Kristiansen, Glen

    2018-05-01

    Conventional morphology of prostate cancer considers only the two-dimensional (2D) architecture of the tumour. Our aim was to examine the feasibility of three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of tumour morphology based on multiple consecutive histological sections and to decipher relevant features of prostate cancer architecture. Seventy-five consecutive histological sections (5 μm) of a typical prostate adenocarcinoma (Gleason score of 3 + 4 = 7) were immunostained (pan-cytokeratin) and scanned for further 3D reconstructions with fiji/imagej software. The main findings related to the prostate cancer architecture in this case were: (i) continuity of all glands, with the tumour being an integrated system, even in Gleason pattern 4 with poorly formed glands-no short-range migration of cells by Gleason pattern 4 (poorly formed glands); (ii) no repeated interconnections between the glands, with a tumour building a tree-like branched structure with very 'plastic' branches (maximal depth of investigation 375 μm); (iii) very stark compartmentalisation of the tumour related to extensive branching, the coexistence of independent terminal units of such branches in one 2D slice explaining intratumoral heterogeneity; (iv) evidence of a craniocaudal growth direction in interglandular regions of the prostate and for a lateromedial growth direction in subcapsular posterolateral regions; and (v) a 3D architecture-based description of Gleason pattern 4 with poorly formed glands, and its continuum with Gleason pattern 3. Consecutive histological sections provide high-quality material for 3D reconstructions of the tumour architecture, with excellent resolution. The reconstruction of multiple regions in this typical case of a Gleason score 3 + 4 = 7 tumour provides insights into relevant aspects of tumour growth, the continuity of Gleason patterns 3 and 4, and tumour heterogeneity. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Modeling, analysis and optimization of network-on-chip communication architectures

    CERN Document Server

    Ogras, Umit Y

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, design space exploration for Systems-on-Chip (SoCs) has focused on the computational aspects of the problem at hand. However, as the number of components on a single chip and their performance continue to increase, the communication architecture plays a major role in the area, performance and energy consumption of the overall system. As a result, a shift from computation-based to communication-based design becomes mandatory. Towards this end, network-on-chip (NoC) communication architectures have emerged recently as a promising alternative to classical bus and point-to-point communication architectures. This book explores outstanding research problems related to modeling, analysis and optimization of NoC communication architectures. More precisely, we present novel design methodologies, software tools and FPGA prototypes to aid the design of application-specific NoCs.

  7. Evolving MPSoC Solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A key challenge of implementing an embedded systems application on a heterogeneous multiprocessor SoC platform is to find the right partitioning of the application onto the platform architecture. The right partitioning is dependent on the characteristics of the processors and the network connecting...

  8. Dynamic Voltage-Frequency and Workload Joint Scaling Power Management for Energy Harvesting Multi-Core WSN Node SoC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangyu Li

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a scheduling and power management solution for energy harvesting heterogeneous multi-core WSN node SoC such that the system continues to operate perennially and uses the harvested energy efficiently. The solution consists of a heterogeneous multi-core system oriented task scheduling algorithm and a low-complexity dynamic workload scaling and configuration optimization algorithm suitable for light-weight platforms. Moreover, considering the power consumption of most WSN applications have the characteristic of data dependent behavior, we introduce branches handling mechanism into the solution as well. The experimental result shows that the proposed algorithm can operate in real-time on a lightweight embedded processor (MSP430, and that it can make a system do more valuable works and make more than 99.9% use of the power budget.

  9. SOCS-1 Localizes to the Microtubule Organizing Complex-Associated 20S Proteasome

    OpenAIRE

    Vuong, Bao Q.; Arenzana, Teresita L.; Showalter, Brian M.; Losman, Julie; Chen, X. Peter; Mostecki, Justin; Banks, Alexander S.; Limnander, Andre; Fernandes, Neil; Rothman, Paul B.

    2005-01-01

    The regulation of cytokine signaling is critical for controlling cellular proliferation and activation during an immune response. SOCS-1 is a potent inhibitor of Jak kinase activity and of signaling initiated by several cytokines. SOCS-1 protein levels are tightly regulated, and recent data suggest that SOCS-1 may regulate the protein levels of some signaling proteins by the ubiquitin proteasome pathway; however, the cellular mechanism by which SOCS-1 directs proteins for degradation is unkno...

  10. Trichostatin A, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, suppresses JAK2/STAT3 signaling via inducing the promoter-associated histone acetylation of SOCS1 and SOCS3 in human colorectal cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Hua; Du, Wan; Zhang, Yan-Jie; Hong, Jie; Su, Wen-Yu; Tang, Jie-Ting; Wang, Ying-Chao; Lu, Rong; Fang, Jing-Yuan

    2012-02-01

    Aberrant janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK/STAT) signaling is involved in the oncogenesis of several cancers. Suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) genes and SH2-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase 1 (SHP1) proteins, which are negative regulators of JAK/STAT signaling, have been reported to have tumor suppressor functions. However, in colorectal cancer (CRC) cells, the mechanisms that regulate SOCS and SHP1 genes, and the cause of abnormalities in the JAK/STAT signaling pathway, remain largely unknown. The present study shows that trichostatin A (TSA), a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, leads to the hyperacetylation of histones associated with the SOCS1 and SOCS3 promoters, but not the SHP1 promoter in CRC cells. This indicates that histone modifications are involved in the regulation of SOCS1 and SOCS3. Moreover, upregulation of SOCS1 and SOCS3 expression was achieved using TSA, which also significantly downregulated JAK2/STAT3 signaling in CRC cells. We also demonstrate that TSA suppresses the growth of CRC cells, and induces G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis through the regulation of downstream targets of JAK2/STAT3 signaling, including Bcl-2, survivin and p16(ink4a) . Therefore, our data demonstrate that TSA may induce SOCS1 and SOCS3 expression by inducing histone modifications and consequently inhibits JAK2/STAT3 signaling in CRC cells. These results also establish a mechanistic link between the inhibition of JAK2/STAT3 signaling and the anticancer action of TSA in CRC cells. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. STAT3-mediated constitutive expression of SOCS-3 in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brender, C; Nielsen, M; Kaltoft, K

    2001-01-01

    ) obtained from affected skin from a patient with mycosis fungoides (MF) and from peripheral blood from a patient with Sezary syndrome (SS). In contrast, constitutive SOCS-3 expression is not found in the leukemic Jurkat T-cell line, the MOLT-4 acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell line, and the monocytic......, it has been hypothesized that an aberrant SOCS expression plays a role in neoplastic transformation. This study reports on a constitutive SOCS-3 expression in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) cell lines. SOCS-3 protein is constitutively expressed in tumor cell lines (but not in nonmalignant T cells...... leukemic cell line U937. Expression of SOCS-3 coincides with a constitutive activation of STAT3 in CTCL tumor cells, and stable transfection of CTCL tumor cells with a dominant negative STAT3 strongly inhibits SOCS-3 expression, whereas transfection with wild-type STAT3 does not. Moreover, the reduced SOCS...

  12. An orthogonal wavelet division multiple-access processor architecture for LTE-advanced wireless/radio-over-fiber systems over heterogeneous networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahapatra, Chinmaya; Leung, Victor CM; Stouraitis, Thanos

    2014-12-01

    The increase in internet traffic, number of users, and availability of mobile devices poses a challenge to wireless technologies. In long-term evolution (LTE) advanced system, heterogeneous networks (HetNet) using centralized coordinated multipoint (CoMP) transmitting radio over optical fibers (LTE A-ROF) have provided a feasible way of satisfying user demands. In this paper, an orthogonal wavelet division multiple-access (OWDMA) processor architecture is proposed, which is shown to be better suited to LTE advanced systems as compared to orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA) as in LTE systems 3GPP rel.8 (3GPP, http://www.3gpp.org/DynaReport/36300.htm). ROF systems are a viable alternative to satisfy large data demands; hence, the performance in ROF systems is also evaluated. To validate the architecture, the circuit is designed and synthesized on a Xilinx vertex-6 field-programmable gate array (FPGA). The synthesis results show that the circuit performs with a clock period as short as 7.036 ns (i.e., a maximum clock frequency of 142.13 MHz) for transform size of 512. A pipelined version of the architecture reduces the power consumption by approximately 89%. We compare our architecture with similar available architectures for resource utilization and timing and provide performance comparison with OFDMA systems for various quality metrics of communication systems. The OWDMA architecture is found to perform better than OFDMA for bit error rate (BER) performance versus signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in wireless channel as well as ROF media. It also gives higher throughput and mitigates the bad effect of peak-to-average-power ratio (PAPR).

  13. Essential issues in SOC design designing complex systems-on-chip

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Youn-long Steve

    2007-01-01

    Covers issues related to system-on-chip (SoC) design. This book covers IP development, verification, integration, chip implementation, testing and software. It contains valuable academic and industrial examples for those involved with the design of complex SOCs.

  14. Medicago truncatula SOC1 Genes Are Up-regulated by Environmental Cues That Promote Flowering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared B. Fudge

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Like Arabidopsis thaliana, the flowering of the legume Medicago truncatula is promoted by long day (LD photoperiod and vernalization. However, there are differences in the molecular mechanisms involved, with orthologs of two key Arabidopsis thaliana regulators, FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC and CONSTANS (CO, being absent or not having a role in flowering time function in Medicago. In Arabidopsis, the MADS-box transcription factor gene, SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS 1 (AtSOC1, plays a key role in integrating the photoperiodic and vernalization pathways. In this study, we set out to investigate whether the Medicago SOC1 genes play a role in regulating flowering time. Three Medicago SOC1 genes were identified and characterized (MtSOC1a–MtSOC1c. All three MtSOC1 genes, when heterologously expressed, were able to promote earlier flowering of the late-flowering Arabidopsis soc1-2 mutant. The three MtSOC1 genes have different patterns of expression. However, consistent with a potential role in flowering time regulation, all three MtSOC1 genes are expressed in the shoot apex and are up-regulated in the shoot apex of plants in response to LD photoperiods and vernalization. The up-regulation of MtSOC1 genes was reduced in Medicago fta1-1 mutants, indicating that they are downstream of MtFTa1. Insertion mutant alleles of Medicago soc1b do not flower late, suggestive of functional redundancy among Medicago SOC1 genes in promoting flowering.

  15. One-chip Integrated Module of MEMS Shock Sensor and Sensing Amplifier LSI using Pseudo-SOC Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iida, Atsuko; Onozuka, Yutaka; Nishigaki, Michihiko; Yamada, Hiroshi; Funaki, Hideyuki; Itaya, Kazuhiko

    We have been developing the pseudo-SOC technology for one-chip module integration of heterogeneous devices that realizes high electrical performance and high density of devices embodying the advantages of both SOC technology and SIP technology. Especially, this technology is available for MEMS-LSI integration. We developed a 0.2mm-thickness one-chip module integrating a MEMS shock sensor and a sensing amplifier LSI by applying this technology. The MEMS shock sensor and the sensing amplifier LSI were connected by high-rigidity epoxy resin optimized the material constants to reduce the stress and the warpage resulting from resin shrinkage due to curing. Then the planar insulating layer and the redistributed conducting layer were formed on it for the global layer. The MEMS shock sensor was preformed to be modularized with a glass cap. Electrical contacts were achieved by bonding of Au bumps on the MEMS fixed electrodes and via holes filled with Ag paste of the glass cap. Functional performance was confirmed by obtaining signal corresponding to the reference signal of the pick-up sensor. Furthermore, stress analysis was performed using the FEM model simulation considering the resin shrinkage.

  16. Co-verification of hardware and software for ARM SoC design

    CERN Document Server

    Andrews, Jason

    2004-01-01

    Hardware/software co-verification is how to make sure that embedded system software works correctly with the hardware, and that the hardware has been properly designed to run the software successfully -before large sums are spent on prototypes or manufacturing. This is the first book to apply this verification technique to the rapidly growing field of embedded systems-on-a-chip(SoC). As traditional embedded system design evolves into single-chip design, embedded engineers must be armed with the necessary information to make educated decisions about which tools and methodology to deploy. SoC verification requires a mix of expertise from the disciplines of microprocessor and computer architecture, logic design and simulation, and C and Assembly language embedded software. Until now, the relevant information on how it all fits together has not been available. Andrews, a recognized expert, provides in-depth information about how co-verification really works, how to be successful using it, and pitfalls to avoid. H...

  17. Over-expression of KdSOC1 gene affected plantlet morphogenesis in Kalanchoe daigremontiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chen; Wang, Li; Chen, Jinhua; Liu, Chenglan; Zeng, Huiming; Wang, Huafang

    2017-07-17

    Kalanchoe daigremontiana reproduces asexually by producing plantlets along the leaf margin. The aim of this study was to identify the function of the SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS 1 gene in Kalanchoe daigremontiana (KdSOC1) during plantlet morphogenesis. In this study, KdSOC1 gene expression was detected at stem cell niche during in vitro somatic embryogenesis and plantlet morphogenesis. Disrupting endogenous auxin transportation suppressed the KdSOC1 gene response. Knockdown of the KdSOC1 gene caused a defect in cotyledon formation during the early heart stage of somatic embryogenesis. Over-expression (OE) of the KdSOC1 gene resulted in asymmetric plantlet distribution, a reduced number of plantlets, thicker leaves, and thicker vascular fibers. Higher KdPIN1 gene expression and auxin content were found in OE plant compared to those of wild-type plant leaves, which indicated possible KdSOC1 gene role in affecting auxin distribution and accumulation. KdSOC1 gene OE in DR5-GUS Arabidopsis reporting lines resulted in an abnormal auxin response pattern during different stages of somatic embryogenesis. In summary, the KdSOC1 gene OE might alter auxin distribution and accumulation along leaf margin to initiate plantlet formation and distribution, which is crucial for plasticity during plantlet formation under various environmental conditions.

  18. Deletion of skeletal muscle SOCS3 prevents insulin resistance in obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck Jørgensen, Sebastian; O'Neill, Hayley M; Sylow, Lykke

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation that contributes to defects in energy metabolism and insulin resistance. Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS)-3 expression is increased in skeletal muscle of obese humans. SOCS3 inhibits leptin signaling in the hypothalamus and insulin...... of hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance because of enhanced skeletal muscle insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) and Akt phosphorylation that resulted in increased skeletal muscle glucose uptake. These data indicate that skeletal muscle SOCS3 does not play a critical role in regulating muscle development or energy...... expenditure, but it is an important contributing factor for inhibiting insulin sensitivity in obesity. Therapies aimed at inhibiting SOCS3 in skeletal muscle may be effective in reversing obesity-related glucose intolerance and insulin resistance....

  19. SOCS3 inhibiting migration of A549 cells correlates with PYK2 signaling in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Qingfu

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3 is considered to inhibit cytokine responses and play a negative role in migration of various cells. Proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 (PYK2 is a non-receptor kinase and has been found crucial to cell motility. However, little is known about whether SOCS3 could regulate PYK2 pro-migratory function in lung cancer. Methods The methylation status of SOCS3 was investigated in HBE and A549 cell lines by methylation-specific PCR. A549 cells were either treated with a demethylation agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine or transfected with three SOCS3 mutants with various functional domains deleted. Besides, cells were pretreated with a proteasome inhibitor β-lactacystin where indicated. The effects of SOCS3 up-regulation on PYK2 expression, PYK2 and ERK1/2 phosphorylations were assessed by western blot using indicated antibodies. RT-PCR was used to estimate PYK2 mRNA levels. Transwell experiments were performed to evaluate cell migration. Results SOCS3 expression was found impaired in A549 cells and higher PYK2 activity was correlated with enhanced cell migration. We identified that SOCS3 was aberrantly methylated in the exon 2, and 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine restored SOCS3 expression. Reactivation of SOCS3 attenuated PYK2 expression and phosphorylation, cell migration was inhibited as well. Transfection studies indicated that exogenous SOCS3 interacted with PYK2, and both the Src homology 2 (SH2 and the kinase inhibitory region (KIR domains of SOCS3 contributed to PYK2 binding. Furthermore, SOCS3 was found to inhibit PYK2-associated ERK1/2 activity in A549 cells. SOCS3 possibly promoted degradation of PYK2 in a SOCS-box-dependent manner and interfered with PYK2-related signaling events, such as cell migration. Conclusion These data indicate that SOCS3 negatively regulates cell motility and decreased SOCS3 induced by methylation may confer a migration advantage to A549 cells. These results also suggest a

  20. Characterizing permafrost active layer dynamics and sensitivity to landscape spatial heterogeneity in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Yonghong; Kimball, John S.; Chen, Richard H.; Moghaddam, Mahta; Reichle, Rolf H.; Mishra, Umakant; Zona, Donatella; Oechel, Walter C.

    2018-01-01

    An important feature of the Arctic is large spatial heterogeneity in active layer conditions, which is generally poorly represented by global models and can lead to large uncertainties in predicting regional ecosystem responses and climate feedbacks. In this study, we developed a spatially integrated modeling and analysis framework combining field observations, local-scale ( ˜ 50 m resolution) active layer thickness (ALT) and soil moisture maps derived from low-frequency (L + P-band) airborne radar measurements, and global satellite environmental observations to investigate the ALT sensitivity to recent climate trends and landscape heterogeneity in Alaska. Modeled ALT results show good correspondence with in situ measurements in higher-permafrost-probability (PP ≥ 70 %) areas (n = 33; R = 0.60; mean bias = 1.58 cm; RMSE = 20.32 cm), but with larger uncertainty in sporadic and discontinuous permafrost areas. The model results also reveal widespread ALT deepening since 2001, with smaller ALT increases in northern Alaska (mean trend = 0.32±1.18 cm yr-1) and much larger increases (> 3 cm yr-1) across interior and southern Alaska. The positive ALT trend coincides with regional warming and a longer snow-free season (R = 0.60 ± 0.32). A spatially integrated analysis of the radar retrievals and model sensitivity simulations demonstrated that uncertainty in the spatial and vertical distribution of soil organic carbon (SOC) was the largest factor affecting modeled ALT accuracy, while soil moisture played a secondary role. Potential improvements in characterizing SOC heterogeneity, including better spatial sampling of soil conditions and advances in remote sensing of SOC and soil moisture, will enable more accurate predictions of active layer conditions and refinement of the modeling framework across a larger domain.

  1. Detecting small-scale spatial differences and temporal dynamics of soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks: a comparison between automatic chamber-derived C budgets and repeated soil inventories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Mathias; Jurisch, Nicole; Garcia Alba, Juana; Albiac Borraz, Elisa; Schmidt, Marten; Huth, Vytas; Rogasik, Helmut; Rieckh, Helene; Verch, Gernot; Sommer, Michael; Augustin, Jürgen

    2017-04-01

    Carbon (C) sequestration in soils plays a key role in the global C cycle. It is therefore crucial to adequately monitor dynamics in soil organic carbon (ΔSOC) stocks when aiming to reveal underlying processes and potential drivers. However, small-scale spatial and temporal changes in SOC stocks, particularly pronounced on arable lands, are hard to assess. The main reasons for this are limitations of the well-established methods. On the one hand, repeated soil inventories, often used in long-term field trials, reveal spatial patterns and trends in ΔSOC but require a longer observation period and a sufficient number of repetitions. On the other hand, eddy covariance measurements of C fluxes towards a complete C budget of the soil-plant-atmosphere system may help to obtain temporal ΔSOC patterns but lack small-scale spatial resolution. To overcome these limitations, this study presents a reliable method to detect both short-term temporal as well as small-scale spatial dynamics of ΔSOC. Therefore, a combination of automatic chamber (AC) measurements of CO2 exchange and empirically modeled aboveground biomass development (NPPshoot) was used. To verify our method, results were compared with ΔSOC observed by soil resampling. AC measurements were performed from 2010 to 2014 under a silage maize/winter fodder rye/sorghum-Sudan grass hybrid/alfalfa crop rotation at a colluvial depression located in the hummocky ground moraine landscape of NE Germany. Widespread in large areas of the formerly glaciated Northern Hemisphere, this depression type is characterized by a variable groundwater level (GWL) and pronounced small-scale spatial heterogeneity in soil properties, such as SOC and nitrogen (Nt). After monitoring the initial stage during 2010, soil erosion was experimentally simulated by incorporating topsoil material from an eroded midslope soil into the plough layer of the colluvial depression. SOC stocks were quantified before and after soil manipulation and at the end

  2. Bio-inspired heterogeneous composites for broadband vibration mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanyu; Wang, Lifeng

    2015-12-08

    Structural biological materials have developed heterogeneous and hierarchical architectures that are responsible for the outstanding performance to provide protection against environmental threats including static and dynamic loading. Inspired by this observation, this research aims to develop new material and structural concepts for broadband vibration mitigation. The proposed composite materials possess a two-layered heterogeneous architecture where both layers consist of high-volume platelet-shape reinforcements and low-volume matrix, similar to the well-known "brick and mortar" microstructure of biological composites. Using finite element method, we numerically demonstrated that broadband wave attenuation zones can be achieved by tailoring the geometric features of the heterogeneous architecture. We reveal that the resulting broadband attenuation zones are gained by directly superimposing the attenuation zones in each constituent layer. This mechanism is further confirmed by the investigation into the phonon dispersion relation of each layer. Importantly, the broadband wave attenuation capability will be maintained when the mineral platelet orientation is locally manipulated, yet a contrast between the mineral platelet concentrations of the two constituent layers is essential. The findings of this work will provide new opportunities to design heterogeneous composites for broadband vibration mitigation and impact resistance under mechanically challenging environmental conditions.

  3. Evaluation of SOC for the presumptive identification of Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, W H; Knezek, K L; Dorn, G L

    1987-01-01

    SOC, a fungal growth medium composed of Solryth, oxgall, and caffeic acid, was evaluated as a medium to provide rapid, differential identification of Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans. Using a variety of common isolation media to produce the yeast inocula, the germ tube methods tested ranked in the following order of decreasing sensitivity: SOC (97% +/- 1), serum (92% +/- 5), rabbit coagulase plasma with EDTA in combination with tryptic soy broth (89% +/- 5), TOC (89% +/- 6), and rabbit coagulase plasma with EDTA (83% +/- 4). In chlamydospore production, SOC also proved to be the most sensitive after 24 h incubation: SOC (96% +/- 2), TOC (80% +/- 2), and cornmeal-Tween 80 agar (14% +/- 3). Other medically important yeasts showed normal patterns of growth within 24 h on SOC, thus assisting in their identification. Eighty strains of Cryptococcus neoformans showed characteristic brown pigmentation on SOC and TOC within 18 h, while all other species of the genus Cryptococcus and 229 Candida isolates did not show a change in pigmentation.

  4. Estimation of power lithium-ion battery SOC based on fuzzy optimal decision

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Dongmei; Hou, Enguang; Qiao, Xin; Liu, Guangmin

    2018-06-01

    In order to improve vehicle performance and safety, need to accurately estimate the power lithium battery state of charge (SOC), analyzing the common SOC estimation methods, according to the characteristics open circuit voltage and Kalman filter algorithm, using T - S fuzzy model, established a lithium battery SOC estimation method based on the fuzzy optimal decision. Simulation results show that the battery model accuracy can be improved.

  5. What are the effects of agricultural management on soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Söderström, Bo; Hedlund, Katarina; Jackson, Louise E.

    2014-01-01

    the physical and biological properties of the soil. Intensification of agriculture and land-use change from grasslands to croplands are generally known to deplete SOC stocks. The depletion is exacerbated through agricultural practices with low return of organic material and various mechanisms......Changes in soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks significantly influence the atmospheric C concentration. Agricultural management practices that increase SOC stocks thus may have profound effects on climate mitigation. Additional benefits include higher soil fertility since increased SOC stocks improve......, such as oxidation/mineralization, leaching and erosion. However, a systematic review comparing the efficacy of different agricultural management practices to increase SOC stocks has not yet been produced. Since there are diverging views on this matter, a systematic review would be timely for framing policies...

  6. Single Assignment C: HP^2 programming for heterogeneous concurrent architectures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholz, S.-B.; Herhut, S.; Grelck, C.

    2010-01-01

    The range of architectures used in high-performance computing is quickly expanding and at the same time lifetimes of platforms are decreasing. This shift threatens the return on investment for tuning applications to specific architectures and platforms, which until now was the prevailing development

  7. Defining inter-cloud architecture for interoperability and integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demchenko, Y.; Ngo, C.; Makkes, M.X.; Strijkers, R.; de Laat, C.; Zimmermann, W.; Lee, Y.W.; Demchenko, Y.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an on-going research to develop the Inter-Cloud Architecture, which addresses the architectural problems in multi-provider multi-domain heterogeneous cloud based applications integration and interoperability, including integration and interoperability with legacy infrastructure

  8. An Architectural Framework for Integrating COTS/GOTS/Legacy Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gee, Karen

    2000-01-01

    .... To fully realize the DoD's goal, a new architectural framework is needed. This thesis proposes an architectural framework suitable for integrating COTS/GOTS/legacy systems in a distributed, heterogeneous environment...

  9. Selection of key terrain attributes for SOC model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Mogens Humlekrog; Adhikari, Kabindra; Chellasamy, Menaka

    As an important component of the global carbon pool, soil organic carbon (SOC) plays an important role in the global carbon cycle. SOC pool is the basic information to carry out global warming research, and needs to sustainable use of land resources. Digital terrain attributes are often use...... was selected, total 2,514,820 data mining models were constructed by 71 differences grid from 12m to 2304m and 22 attributes, 21 attributes derived by DTM and the original elevation. Relative importance and usage of each attributes in every model were calculated. Comprehensive impact rates of each attribute...

  10. An Online SOC and SOH Estimation Model for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyh-Chin Huang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring and prognosis of cell degradation in lithium-ion (Li-ion batteries are essential for assuring the reliability and safety of electric and hybrid vehicles. This paper aims to develop a reliable and accurate model for online, simultaneous state-of-charge (SOC and state-of-health (SOH estimations of Li-ion batteries. Through the analysis of battery cycle-life test data, the instantaneous discharging voltage (V and its unit time voltage drop, V′, are proposed as the model parameters for the SOC equation. The SOH equation is found to have a linear relationship with 1/V′ times the modification factor, which is a function of SOC. Four batteries are tested in the laboratory, and the data are regressed for the model coefficients. The results show that the model built upon the data from one single cell is able to estimate the SOC and SOH of the three other cells within a 5% error bound. The derived model is also proven to be robust. A random sampling test to simulate the online real-time SOC and SOH estimation proves that this model is accurate and can be potentially used in an electric vehicle battery management system (BMS.

  11. NEW EPICS/RTEMS IOC BASED ON ALTERA SOC AT JEFFERSON LAB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Jianxun [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Seaton, Chad [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Allison, Trent L. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Bevins, Brian S. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Cuffe, Anthony W. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2018-02-01

    A new EPICS/RTEMS IOC based on the Altera System-on-Chip (SoC) FPGA is being designed at Jefferson Lab. The Altera SoC FPGA integrates a dual ARM Cortex-A9 Hard Processor System (HPS) consisting of processor, peripherals and memory interfaces tied seamlessly with the FPGA fabric using a high-bandwidth interconnect backbone. The embedded Altera SoC IOC has features of remote network boot via U-Boot from SD card or QSPI Flash, 1Gig Ethernet, 1GB DDR3 SDRAM on HPS, UART serial ports, and ISA bus interface. RTEMS for the ARM processor BSP were built with CEXP shell, which will dynamically load the EPICS applications at runtime. U-Boot is the primary bootloader to remotely load the kernel image into local memory from a DHCP/TFTP server over Ethernet, and automatically run RTEMS and EPICS. The first design of the SoC IOC will be compatible with Jefferson Lab’s current PC104 IOCs, which have been running in CEBAF 10 years. The next design would be mounting in a chassis and connected to a daughter card via standard HSMC connectors. This standard SoC IOC will become the next generation of low-level IOC for the accelerator controls at Jefferson Lab.

  12. Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS)5 ameliorates influenza infection via inhibition of EGFR signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedzierski, Lukasz; Tate, Michelle D; Hsu, Alan C; Kolesnik, Tatiana B; Linossi, Edmond M; Dagley, Laura; Dong, Zhaoguang; Freeman, Sarah; Infusini, Giuseppe; Starkey, Malcolm R; Bird, Nicola L; Chatfield, Simon M; Babon, Jeffrey J; Huntington, Nicholas; Belz, Gabrielle; Webb, Andrew; Wark, Peter Ab; Nicola, Nicos A; Xu, Jianqing; Kedzierska, Katherine; Hansbro, Philip M; Nicholson, Sandra E

    2017-02-14

    Influenza virus infections have a significant impact on global human health. Individuals with suppressed immunity, or suffering from chronic inflammatory conditions such as COPD, are particularly susceptible to influenza. Here we show that suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) five has a pivotal role in restricting influenza A virus in the airway epithelium, through the regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Socs5 -deficient mice exhibit heightened disease severity, with increased viral titres and weight loss. Socs5 levels were differentially regulated in response to distinct influenza viruses (H1N1, H3N2, H5N1 and H11N9) and were reduced in primary epithelial cells from COPD patients, again correlating with increased susceptibility to influenza. Importantly, restoration of SOCS5 levels restricted influenza virus infection, suggesting that manipulating SOCS5 expression and/or SOCS5 targets might be a novel therapeutic approach to influenza.

  13. NIRS as an alternative to conventional soil analysis for Greenland soils (focus on SOC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knadel, Maria; Ogric, Mateja; Adhikari, Kabindra

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) is an important soil property. It is the main constituents of soil organic matter and a good indicator of soil quality. The estimation and mapping of SOC content could be used to select potential agricultural areas in the Arctic areas. However, conventional analysis of SOC...... are time consuming and expensive. They involve a lot of sample preparation, and chemicals and are destructive. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in the range between 400 and 2500 nm is an alternative method for SOC analysis. It is fast and non-destructive. The aims of this study where to test...... the feasibility of using NIRS to estimate SOC content on a landscape and field scale in Greenland. Partial Least squares regression models were built to correlated soil spectra and their reference SOC data to develop calibration models. Very good predictive ability for both landscape and field scale were obtained...

  14. Coordinated Energy Management in Heterogeneous Processors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrani Paul

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines energy management in a heterogeneous processor consisting of an integrated CPU–GPU for high-performance computing (HPC applications. Energy management for HPC applications is challenged by their uncompromising performance requirements and complicated by the need for coordinating energy management across distinct core types – a new and less understood problem. We examine the intra-node CPU–GPU frequency sensitivity of HPC applications on tightly coupled CPU–GPU architectures as the first step in understanding power and performance optimization for a heterogeneous multi-node HPC system. The insights from this analysis form the basis of a coordinated energy management scheme, called DynaCo, for integrated CPU–GPU architectures. We implement DynaCo on a modern heterogeneous processor and compare its performance to a state-of-the-art power- and performance-management algorithm. DynaCo improves measured average energy-delay squared (ED2 product by up to 30% with less than 2% average performance loss across several exascale and other HPC workloads.

  15. Automated Design of Application-Specific Smart Camera Architectures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caarls, W.

    2008-01-01

    Parallel heterogeneous multiprocessor systems are often shunned in embedded system design, not only because of their design complexity but because of the programming burden. Programs for such systems are architecture-dependent: the application developer needs architecture-specific knowledge to

  16. Low Power Implementation of Non Power-of-Two FFTs on Coarse-Grain Reconfigurable Architectures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Q.; Wolkotte, P.T.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Rivaton, Arnaud; Quevremont, Jérôme

    2005-01-01

    The DRM standard for digital radio broadcast in the AM band requires integrated devices for radio receivers at very low power. A System on Chip (SoC) call DiMITRI was developed based on a dual ARM9 RISC core architecture. Analyses showed that most computation power is used in the Coded Orthogonal

  17. Synergy of SOCS-1 Inhibition and Microbial-Based Cancer Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    SH2 domain; a docking motif for interaction with tyrosine...IL‐ 4, IL‐7, IL‐15), IFN‐α, IFN‐γ, and IL‐12. While the SH2 domain targets the SOCS proteins to specific molecules within the JAK‐ STAT pathway, the...SOCS‐box functions as an E3 ubiquitin ligase, promoting degradation of the cytokine receptor complex. SOCS1 also contains a kinase inhibitory

  18. Mapping of H.264 decoding on a multiprocessor architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Tol, Erik B.; Jaspers, Egbert G.; Gelderblom, Rob H.

    2003-05-01

    Due to the increasing significance of development costs in the competitive domain of high-volume consumer electronics, generic solutions are required to enable reuse of the design effort and to increase the potential market volume. As a result from this, Systems-on-Chip (SoCs) contain a growing amount of fully programmable media processing devices as opposed to application-specific systems, which offered the most attractive solutions due to a high performance density. The following motivates this trend. First, SoCs are increasingly dominated by their communication infrastructure and embedded memory, thereby making the cost of the functional units less significant. Moreover, the continuously growing design costs require generic solutions that can be applied over a broad product range. Hence, powerful programmable SoCs are becoming increasingly attractive. However, to enable power-efficient designs, that are also scalable over the advancing VLSI technology, parallelism should be fully exploited. Both task-level and instruction-level parallelism can be provided by means of e.g. a VLIW multiprocessor architecture. To provide the above-mentioned scalability, we propose to partition the data over the processors, instead of traditional functional partitioning. An advantage of this approach is the inherent locality of data, which is extremely important for communication-efficient software implementations. Consequently, a software implementation is discussed, enabling e.g. SD resolution H.264 decoding with a two-processor architecture, whereas High-Definition (HD) decoding can be achieved with an eight-processor system, executing the same software. Experimental results show that the data communication considerably reduces up to 65% directly improving the overall performance. Apart from considerable improvement in memory bandwidth, this novel concept of partitioning offers a natural approach for optimally balancing the load of all processors, thereby further improving the

  19. Impact of vegetation types on soil organic carbon stocks SOC-S in Mediterranean natural areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parras-Alcántara, Luis; Lozano-García, Beatriz; Cantudo-Pérez, Marta

    2015-04-01

    Soils play a key role in the carbon geochemical cycle because they can either emit large quantities of CO2 or on the contrary they can act as a store for carbon. Agriculture and forestry are the only activities that can achieve this effect through photosynthesis and the carbon incorporation into carbohydrates (Parras-Alcántara et al., 2013). The Mediterranean evergreen oak Woodland (MEOW - dehesa) is a type of pasture with scattered evergreen and deciduous oak stands in which cereals are often grown under the tree cover. It is a system dedicated to the combined production of Iberian swine, sheep, fuel wood, coal and cork as well as to hunting. These semi-natural areas still preserve some of the primitive vegetation of the Mediterranean oak forests. The dehesa is a pasture where the herbaceous layer is comprised of either cultivated cereals such as oat, barley and wheat or native vegetation dominated by annual species, which are used as grazing resources. These Iberian open woodland rangelands (dehesas) have been studied from different points of view: hydrologically, with respect to soil organic matter content, as well as in relation to gully erosion, topographical thresholds, soil erosion and runoff production, soil degradation and management practices…etc, among others. The soil organic carbon stock capacity depends not only on abiotic factors such as the mineralogical composition and the climate, but also on soil use and management (Parras et al., 2014 and 2015). In Spanish soils, climate, use and management strongly affect the carbon variability, mainly in soils in dry Mediterranean climates characterized by low organic carbon content, weak structure and readily degradable soils. Hontoria et al. (2004) emphasized that the climate and soil use are two factors that greatly influence carbon content in the Mediterranean climate. This research sought to analyze the SOC stock (SOCS) variability in MEOW - dehesa with cereals, olive grove and Mediterranean oak forest

  20. Exploring Heterogeneous Multicore Architectures for Advanced Embedded Uncertainty Quantification.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phipps, Eric T.; Edwards, Harold C.; Hu, Jonathan J.

    2014-09-01

    We explore rearrangements of classical uncertainty quantification methods with the aim of achieving higher aggregate performance for uncertainty quantification calculations on emerging multicore and manycore architectures. We show a rearrangement of the stochastic Galerkin method leads to improved performance and scalability on several computational architectures whereby un- certainty information is propagated at the lowest levels of the simulation code improving memory access patterns, exposing new dimensions of fine grained parallelism, and reducing communica- tion. We also develop a general framework for implementing such rearrangements for a diverse set of uncertainty quantification algorithms as well as computational simulation codes to which they are applied.

  1. DMPD: Regulation of cytokine signaling by SOCS family molecules. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 14644140 Regulation of cytokine signaling by SOCS family molecules. Fujimoto M, Nak...a T. Trends Immunol. 2003 Dec;24(12):659-66. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Regulation of cytokine signaling by SOCS family... molecules. PubmedID 14644140 Title Regulation of cytokine signaling by SOCS family molec

  2. An Overview and Comparison of Online Implementable SOC Estimation Methods for Lithium-ion Battery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng, Jinhao; Ricco, Mattia; Luo, Guangzhao

    2018-01-01

    . Many SOC estimation methods have been proposed in the literature. However, only a few of them consider the real-time applicability. This paper reviews recently proposed online SOC estimation methods and classifies them into five categories. Their principal features are illustrated, and the main pros...... and cons are provided. The SOC estimation methods are compared and discussed in terms of accuracy, robustness, and computation burden. Afterward, as the most popular type of model based SOC estimation algorithms, seven nonlinear filters existing in literature are compared in terms of their accuracy...

  3. Technology-design-manufacturing co-optimization for advanced mobile SoCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Da; Gan, Chock; Chidambaram, P. R.; Nallapadi, Giri; Zhu, John; Song, S. C.; Xu, Jeff; Yeap, Geoffrey

    2014-03-01

    How to maintain the Moore's Law scaling beyond the 193 immersion resolution limit is the key question semiconductor industry needs to answer in the near future. Process complexity will undoubtfully increase for 14nm node and beyond, which brings both challenges and opportunities for technology development. A vertically integrated design-technologymanufacturing co-optimization flow is desired to better address the complicated issues new process changes bring. In recent years smart mobile wireless devices have been the fastest growing consumer electronics market. Advanced mobile devices such as smartphones are complex systems with the overriding objective of providing the best userexperience value by harnessing all the technology innovations. Most critical system drivers are better system performance/power efficiency, cost effectiveness, and smaller form factors, which, in turns, drive the need of system design and solution with More-than-Moore innovations. Mobile system-on-chips (SoCs) has become the leading driver for semiconductor technology definition and manufacturing. Here we highlight how the co-optimization strategy influenced architecture, device/circuit, process technology and package, in the face of growing process cost/complexity and variability as well as design rule restrictions.

  4. The toolbus coordination architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Klint, P.

    1996-01-01

    Building large, heterogeneous, distributed software systems poses serious problems for the software engineer; achieving interoperability of software systems is still a major challenge. We describe an experiment in designing a generic software architecture for solving these problems. To get

  5. Key KdSOC1 gene expression profiles during plantlet morphogenesis under hormone, photoperiod, and drought treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C; Zhu, C; Zeng, H M

    2016-02-11

    Kalanchoe daigremontiana utilizes plantlet formation between its zigzag leaf margins as its method of asexual reproduction. In this study, K. daigremontiana SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS 1 (KdSOC1), a key intermediate in the transition from vegetative to asexual growth, was cloned. Furthermore, its expression profiles during plantlet formation under different environmental and hormone induction conditions were analyzed. The full-KdSOC1 cDNA sequence length was 1410 bp with 70% shared homology with Carya cathayensis SOC1. The conserved domain search of KdSOC1 showed the absence of I and C domains, which might indicate novel biological functions in K. daigremontiana. The full-KdSOC1 promoter sequence was 1401 bp long and contained multiple-hormone-responsive cis-acting elements. Hormone induction assays showed that gibberellins and salicylic acid mainly regulated KdSOC1 expression. The swift change from low to high KdSOC1 expression levels during long-day induction was accompanied by the rapid emergence of plantlets. Drought stress stimulated KdSOC1 expression in leaves both with and without plantlet formation. Together, the results suggested that KdSOC1 was closely involved in environmental stimulation signal perception and the transduction of K. daigremontiana plantlet formation. Therefore, future identification of KdSOC1 functions might reveal key information that will help elucidate the transition network between embryogenesis and organogenesis during plantlet formation.

  6. The ENCOURAGE ICT architecture for heterogeneous smart grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albano, Michele; Ferreira, Luis; Le Guilly, Thibaut

    2013-01-01

    The ENCOURAGE project aims at rationalizing energy usage in building by implementing a smart energy grid based on intelligent scheduling of energy consuming appliances, renewable energy production, and inter-building energy trading. This paper presents the reference architecture proposed in the c...

  7. Efficient Architecture for Spike Sorting in Reconfigurable Hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Wen-Jyi; Lee, Wei-Hao; Lin, Shiow-Jyu; Lai, Sheng-Ying

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel hardware architecture for fast spike sorting. The architecture is able to perform both the feature extraction and clustering in hardware. The generalized Hebbian algorithm (GHA) and fuzzy C-means (FCM) algorithm are used for feature extraction and clustering, respectively. The employment of GHA allows efficient computation of principal components for subsequent clustering operations. The FCM is able to achieve near optimal clustering for spike sorting. Its performance is insensitive to the selection of initial cluster centers. The hardware implementations of GHA and FCM feature low area costs and high throughput. In the GHA architecture, the computation of different weight vectors share the same circuit for lowering the area costs. Moreover, in the FCM hardware implementation, the usual iterative operations for updating the membership matrix and cluster centroid are merged into one single updating process to evade the large storage requirement. To show the effectiveness of the circuit, the proposed architecture is physically implemented by field programmable gate array (FPGA). It is embedded in a System-on-Chip (SOC) platform for performance measurement. Experimental results show that the proposed architecture is an efficient spike sorting design for attaining high classification correct rate and high speed computation. PMID:24189331

  8. Efficient Architecture for Spike Sorting in Reconfigurable Hardware

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Ying Lai

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel hardware architecture for fast spike sorting. The architecture is able to perform both the feature extraction and clustering in hardware. The generalized Hebbian algorithm (GHA and fuzzy C-means (FCM algorithm are used for feature extraction and clustering, respectively. The employment of GHA allows efficient computation of principal components for subsequent clustering operations. The FCM is able to achieve near optimal clustering for spike sorting. Its performance is insensitive to the selection of initial cluster centers. The hardware implementations of GHA and FCM feature low area costs and high throughput. In the GHA architecture, the computation of different weight vectors share the same circuit for lowering the area costs. Moreover, in the FCM hardware implementation, the usual iterative operations for updating the membership matrix and cluster centroid are merged into one single updating process to evade the large storage requirement. To show the effectiveness of the circuit, the proposed architecture is physically implemented by field programmable gate array (FPGA. It is embedded in a System-on-Chip (SOC platform for performance measurement. Experimental results show that the proposed architecture is an efficient spike sorting design for attaining high classification correct rate and high speed computation.

  9. Sustainable, Reliable Mission-Systems Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Graham; Orr, James K.; Watson, Steve

    2007-01-01

    A mission-systems architecture, based on a highly modular infrastructure utilizing: open-standards hardware and software interfaces as the enabling technology is essential for affordable and sustainable space exploration programs. This mission-systems architecture requires (a) robust communication between heterogeneous system, (b) high reliability, (c) minimal mission-to-mission reconfiguration, (d) affordable development, system integration, and verification of systems, and (e) minimal sustaining engineering. This paper proposes such an architecture. Lessons learned from the Space Shuttle program and Earthbound complex engineered system are applied to define the model. Technology projections reaching out 5 years are mde to refine model details.

  10. 77 FR 61786 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Heterogeneous...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-11

    ... Production Act of 1993--Heterogeneous System Architecture Foundation Notice is hereby given that, on August..., 15 U.S.C. 4301 et seq. (``the Act''), Heterogeneous System Architecture Foundation (``HSA Foundation... limited to, building and promoting the common business interests of the semiconductor industry by...

  11. A Semantic Middleware Architecture Focused on Data and Heterogeneity Management within the Smart Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén de Diego

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing tendency of turning the current power grid, essentially unaware of variations in electricity demand and scattered energy sources, into something capable of bringing a degree of intelligence by using tools strongly related to information and communication technologies, thus turning into the so-called Smart Grid. In fact, it could be considered that the Smart Grid is an extensive smart system that spreads throughout any area where power is required, providing a significant optimization in energy generation, storage and consumption. However, the information that must be treated to accomplish these tasks is challenging both in terms of complexity (semantic features, distributed systems, suitable hardware and quantity (consumption data, generation data, forecasting functionalities, service reporting, since the different energy beneficiaries are prone to be heterogeneous, as the nature of their own activities is. This paper presents a proposal on how to deal with these issues by using a semantic middleware architecture that integrates different components focused on specific tasks, and how it is used to handle information at every level and satisfy end user requests.

  12. Effects of SOC-dependent electrolyte viscosity on performance of vanadium redox flow batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Q.; Zhao, T.S.; Zhang, C.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The correlations of electrolyte viscosity and SOC are obtained. • Effect of SOC-dependent electrolyte viscosity is considered in this model. • This model enables a more realistic simulation of variable distributions. • It provides accurate estimations of pumping work and system efficiency. - Abstract: The viscosity of the electrolyte in vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs) varies during charge and discharge as the concentrations of acid and vanadium ions in the electrolyte continuously change with the state of charge (SOC). In previous VRFB models, however, the electrolyte has been treated as a constant-viscosity solution. In this work, a mass-transport and electrochemical model taking account of the effect of SOC-dependent electrolyte viscosity is developed. The comparison between the present model and the model with the constant-viscosity simplification indicates that the consideration of the SOC-dependent electrolyte viscosity enables (i) a more realistic simulation of the distributions of overpotential and current density in the electrodes, and (ii) more accurate estimations of pumping work and the system efficiency of VRFBs

  13. Robustness of SOC Estimation Algorithms for EV Lithium-Ion Batteries against Modeling Errors and Measurement Noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available State of charge (SOC is one of the most important parameters in battery management system (BMS. There are numerous algorithms for SOC estimation, mostly of model-based observer/filter types such as Kalman filters, closed-loop observers, and robust observers. Modeling errors and measurement noises have critical impact on accuracy of SOC estimation in these algorithms. This paper is a comparative study of robustness of SOC estimation algorithms against modeling errors and measurement noises. By using a typical battery platform for vehicle applications with sensor noise and battery aging characterization, three popular and representative SOC estimation methods (extended Kalman filter, PI-controlled observer, and H∞ observer are compared on such robustness. The simulation and experimental results demonstrate that deterioration of SOC estimation accuracy under modeling errors resulted from aging and larger measurement noise, which is quantitatively characterized. The findings of this paper provide useful information on the following aspects: (1 how SOC estimation accuracy depends on modeling reliability and voltage measurement accuracy; (2 pros and cons of typical SOC estimators in their robustness and reliability; (3 guidelines for requirements on battery system identification and sensor selections.

  14. Designing area optimized application-specific network-on-chip architectures while providing hard QoS guarantees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajid Gul Khawaja

    Full Text Available With the increase of transistors' density, popularity of System on Chip (SoC has increased exponentially. As a communication module for SoC, Network on Chip (NoC framework has been adapted as its backbone. In this paper, we propose a methodology for designing area-optimized application specific NoC while providing hard Quality of Service (QoS guarantees for real time flows. The novelty of the proposed system lies in derivation of a Mixed Integer Linear Programming model which is then used to generate a resource optimal Network on Chip (NoC topology and architecture while considering traffic and QoS requirements. We also present the micro-architectural design features used for enabling traffic and latency guarantees and discuss how the solution adapts for dynamic variations in the application traffic. The paper highlights the effectiveness of proposed method by generating resource efficient NoC solutions for both industrial and benchmark applications. The area-optimized results are generated in few seconds by proposed technique, without resorting to heuristics, even for an application with 48 traffic flows.

  15. Enhancement of antiproliferative activity of interferons by RNA interference-mediated silencing of SOCS gene expression in tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Yuki; Kaneda, Haruka; Takasuka, Nana; Hattori, Kayoko; Nishikawa, Makiya; Watanabe, Yoshihiko; Takakura, Yoshinobu

    2008-08-01

    The suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins, negative regulators of interferon (IFN)-induced signaling pathways, is involved in IFN resistance of tumor cells. To improve the growth inhibitory effect of IFN-beta and IFN-gamma on a murine melanoma cell line, B16-BL6, and a murine colon carcinoma cell line, Colon26 cells, SOCS-1 and SOCS-3 gene expression in tumor cells was downregulated by transfection of plasmid DNA expressing short hairpin RNA targeting one of these genes (pshSOCS-1 and pshSOCS-3, respectively). Transfection of pshSOCS-1 significantly increased the antiproliferative effect of IFN-gamma on B16-BL6 cells. However, any other combinations of plasmids and IFN had little effect on the growth of B16-BL6 cells. In addition, transfection of pshSOCS-1 and pshSOCS-3 produced little improvement in the effect of IFN on Colon26 cells. To understand the mechanism underlining these findings, the level of SOCS gene expression was measured by real time polymerase chain reaction. Addition of IFN-gamma greatly increased the SOCS-1 mRNA expression in B16-BL6 cells. Taking into account the synergistic effect of pshSOCS-1 and IFN-gamma on the growth of B16-BL6 cells, these findings suggest that IFN-gamma-induced high SOCS-1 gene expression in B16-BL6 cells significantly interferes with the antiproliferative effect of IFN-gamma. These results indicate that silencing SOCS gene expression can be an effective strategy to enhance the antitumor effect of IFN under conditions in which the SOCS gene expression is upregulated by IFN.

  16. Web Service Architecture for e-Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong Qiu

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Message-based Web Service architecture provides a unified approach to applications and Web Services that incorporates the flexibility of messaging and distributed components. We propose SMMV and MMMV collaboration as the general architecture of collaboration based on a Web service model, which accommodates both instructor-led learning and participatory learning. This approach derives from our message-based Model-View-Controller (M-MVC architecture of Web applications, comprises an event-driven Publish/Subscribe scheme, and provides effective collaboration with high interactivity of rich Web content for diverse clients over heterogeneous network environments.

  17. Architectures for single-chip image computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gove, Robert J.

    1992-04-01

    This paper will focus on the architectures of VLSI programmable processing components for image computing applications. TI, the maker of industry-leading RISC, DSP, and graphics components, has developed an architecture for a new-generation of image processors capable of implementing a plurality of image, graphics, video, and audio computing functions. We will show that the use of a single-chip heterogeneous MIMD parallel architecture best suits this class of processors--those which will dominate the desktop multimedia, document imaging, computer graphics, and visualization systems of this decade.

  18. Porting AMG2013 to Heterogeneous CPU+GPU Nodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samfass, Philipp [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-01-26

    LLNL's future advanced technology system SIERRA will feature heterogeneous compute nodes that consist of IBM PowerV9 CPUs and NVIDIA Volta GPUs. Conceptually, the motivation for such an architecture is quite straightforward: While GPUs are optimized for throughput on massively parallel workloads, CPUs strive to minimize latency for rather sequential operations. Yet, making optimal use of heterogeneous architectures raises new challenges for the development of scalable parallel software, e.g., with respect to work distribution. Porting LLNL's parallel numerical libraries to upcoming heterogeneous CPU+GPU architectures is therefore a critical factor for ensuring LLNL's future success in ful lling its national mission. One of these libraries, called HYPRE, provides parallel solvers and precondi- tioners for large, sparse linear systems of equations. In the context of this intern- ship project, I consider AMG2013 which is a proxy application for major parts of HYPRE that implements a benchmark for setting up and solving di erent systems of linear equations. In the following, I describe in detail how I ported multiple parts of AMG2013 to the GPU (Section 2) and present results for di erent experiments that demonstrate a successful parallel implementation on the heterogeneous ma- chines surface and ray (Section 3). In Section 4, I give guidelines on how my code should be used. Finally, I conclude and give an outlook for future work (Section 5).

  19. ArcFVDSL, a DSEL Combined to HARTS, a Runtime System Layer to Implement Efficient Numerical Methods to Solve Diffusive Problems on New Heterogeneous Hardware Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gratien Jean-Marc

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, some frameworks like Arcane and Dune offer a number of advanced tools to deal with the complexity related to parallelism, meshes and linear solvers. However, they do not handle the high level complexity related to discretization methods and physical models. Generative programming and Domain Specific Languages (DSL are key technologies allowing to write code with a high level expressive language and take advantage of the efficiency of generated code with low level services. DSL may be embedded in host languages like Python or C++. Such languages, named in that case Domain Specific Embedded Languages (DSEL, are applied for instance in frameworks like Fenics or Feel++ which are dedicated to the domain of Finite Element (FE methods and Galerkin methods. ArcFVDSL is a DSEL developed on top of the Arcane framework, aiming to implement various lowest order methods (Finite-Volume (FV, Mimetic Finite Difference (MFD, Mixed Hybrid Finite Volume (MHFV, etc. for diffusive problems on general meshes. In this paper, we present various implementations of different complex academic problems. We focus on the capability of the language to allow the description and the resolution of these problems with several lowest-order methods. We illustrate the benefits of such technology combined to runtime system tools like Heterogeneous Abstract RunTime System (HARTS and its ability to handle seamlessly new heterogeneous architectures with multi-core processors enhanced by General Purpose computing on Graphics Processing Units (GP-GPU. We present the performance results of each implementation on different kinds of heterogeneous hardware architecture.

  20. A multiscale framework with extended Kalman filter for lithium-ion battery SOC and capacity estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Chao; Youn, Byeng D.; Chung, Jaesik

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We develop a mutiscale framework with EKF to estimate SOC and capacity. ► The framework is a hybrid of coulomb counting and adaptive filtering techniques. ► It decouples SOC and capacity estimation in terms of measurement and time-scale. ► Results verify the framework achieves higher accuracy and efficiency than dual EKF. -- Abstract: State-of-charge (SOC) and capacity estimation plays an essential role in many battery-powered applications, such as electric vehicle (EV) and hybrid electric vehicle (HEV). However, commonly used joint/dual extended Kalman filter (EKF) suffers from the lack of accuracy in the capacity estimation since (i) the cell voltage is the only measurable data for the SOC and capacity estimation and updates and (ii) the capacity is very weakly linked to the cell voltage. The lack of accuracy in the capacity estimation may further reduce the accuracy in the SOC estimation due to the strong dependency of the SOC on the capacity. Furthermore, although the capacity is a slowly time-varying quantity that indicates cell state-of-health (SOH), the capacity estimation is generally performed on the same time-scale as the quickly time-varying SOC, resulting in high computational complexity. To resolve these difficulties, this paper proposes a multiscale framework with EKF for SOC and capacity estimation. The proposed framework comprises two ideas: (i) a multiscale framework to estimate SOC and capacity that exhibit time-scale separation and (ii) a state projection scheme for accurate and stable capacity estimation. Simulation results with synthetic data based on a valid cell dynamic model suggest that the proposed framework, as a hybrid of coulomb counting and adaptive filtering techniques, achieves higher accuracy and efficiency than joint/dual EKF. Results of the cycle test on Lithium-ion prismatic cells further verify the effectiveness of our framework.

  1. Multi-Softcore Architecture on FPGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouna Baklouti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To meet the high performance demands of embedded multimedia applications, embedded systems are integrating multiple processing units. However, they are mostly based on custom-logic design methodology. Designing parallel multicore systems using available standards intellectual properties yet maintaining high performance is also a challenging issue. Softcore processors and field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs are a cheap and fast option to develop and test such systems. This paper describes a FPGA-based design methodology to implement a rapid prototype of parametric multicore systems. A study of the viability of making the SoC using the NIOS II soft-processor core from Altera is also presented. The NIOS II features a general-purpose RISC CPU architecture designed to address a wide range of applications. The performance of the implemented architecture is discussed, and also some parallel applications are used for testing speedup and efficiency of the system. Experimental results demonstrate the performance of the proposed multicore system, which achieves better speedup than the GPU (29.5% faster for the FIR filter and 23.6% faster for the matrix-matrix multiplication.

  2. Heterogeneous architecture to process swarm optimization algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A. Dávila-Guzmán

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Since few years ago, the parallel processing has been embedded in personal computers by including co-processing units as the graphics processing units resulting in a heterogeneous platform. This paper presents the implementation of swarm algorithms on this platform to solve several functions from optimization problems, where they highlight their inherent parallel processing and distributed control features. In the swarm algorithms, each individual and dimension problem are parallelized by the granularity of the processing system which also offer low communication latency between individuals through the embedded processing. To evaluate the potential of swarm algorithms on graphics processing units we have implemented two of them: the particle swarm optimization algorithm and the bacterial foraging optimization algorithm. The algorithms’ performance is measured using the acceleration where they are contrasted between a typical sequential processing platform and the NVIDIA GeForce GTX480 heterogeneous platform; the results show that the particle swarm algorithm obtained up to 36.82x and the bacterial foraging swarm algorithm obtained up to 9.26x. Finally, the effect to increase the size of the population is evaluated where we show both the dispersion and the quality of the solutions are decreased despite of high acceleration performance since the initial distribution of the individuals can converge to local optimal solution.

  3. The Immunohistochemical Analysis of SOCS3 Protein Identifies a Subgroup of Prostatic Cancer Biopsies With Aggressive Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierconti, Francesco; Martini, Maurizio; Cenci, Tonia; Larocca, Luigi M

    Recently, we demonstrated that hypermethylation of SOCS3 determines a significant reduction of its mRNA and protein expression and identifies a subgroup of prostate cancer with aggressive behavior. In this paper, our objective was to investigate whether the immunohistochemical expression of the SOCS3 protein could represent an alternative method to molecular analysis for the individualization of aggressive prostate carcinoma. We analyzed the SOCS3 immunohistochemical expression in 65 patients undergoing biopsies at the Institute of Urology of our hospital between September 2011 and October 2011 (median age, 66.4 y; range, 50 to 73 y), and in 35 cases, a subset of 65 cases originally used for the immunohistochemical study, we studied the methylation status of the SOCS3 promoter. We found that the percentage of cases with SOCS3 negativity (-) or with SOCS3 weak staining in <50% of the neoplastic glands (+/-) correlated to the worst prognosis in terms of the Gleason score (P=0.0001; Fisher's exact test), the pT stage (P=0.012; Fisher's exact test), and progression-free survival (P=0.0334; hazard ratio, 0.34; and 95% confidence interval, from 0.1261 to 0.9188). Moreover, some cases with an SOCS3 unmethylated pattern showed SOCS3-negative immunostaining (-) or SOCS3-negative glands with weak cytoplasmatic staining in <50% of the neoplastic glands (+/-). Our data suggest that in prostatic cancer biopsies, the immunohistochemical analysis of SOCS3 protein expression may provide a method that is less expensive and easier to apply than SOCS3 methylation analysis for the distinction of a subgroup of prostate cancer with a more aggressive behavior.

  4. Purification of SOCS (Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling) SH2 Domains for Structural and Functional Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liau, Nicholas P D; Laktyushin, Artem; Babon, Jeffrey J

    2017-01-01

    Src Homology 2 (SH2) domains are protein domains which have a high binding affinity for specific amino acid sequences containing a phosphorylated tyrosine residue. The Suppressors of Cytokine Signaling (SOCS) proteins use an SH2 domain to bind to components of certain cytokine signaling pathways to downregulate the signaling cascade. The recombinantly produced SH2 domains of various SOCS proteins have been used to undertake structural and functional studies elucidating the method of how such targeting occurs. Here, we describe the protocol for the recombinant production and purification of SOCS SH2 domains, with an emphasis on SOCS3.

  5. C-Arc: A Novel Architecture for Next Generation Context- Aware ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, the common architecture principles of context-aware systems are presented and the crucial contextaware architecture issues to support the next generation context-aware systems which will enable seamless service provisioning in heterogeneous, dynamically varying computing and communication ...

  6. SoC Estimation for Lithium-ion Batteries: Review and Future Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Rivera-Barrera

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Energy storage emerged as a top concern for the modern cities, and the choice of the lithium-ion chemistry battery technology as an effective solution for storage applications proved to be a highly efficient option. State of charge (SoC represents the available battery capacity and is one of the most important states that need to be monitored to optimize the performance and extend the lifetime of batteries. This review summarizes the methods for SoC estimation for lithium-ion batteries (LiBs. The SoC estimation methods are presented focusing on the description of the techniques and the elaboration of their weaknesses for the use in on-line battery management systems (BMS applications. SoC estimation is a challenging task hindered by considerable changes in battery characteristics over its lifetime due to aging and to the distinct nonlinear behavior. This has led scholars to propose different methods that clearly raised the challenge of establishing a relationship between the accuracy and robustness of the methods, and their low complexity to be implemented. This paper publishes an exhaustive review of the works presented during the last five years, where the tendency of the estimation techniques has been oriented toward a mixture of probabilistic techniques and some artificial intelligence.

  7. Synthesis of highly monodispersed Ga-soc-MOF hollow cubes, colloidosomes and nanocomposites

    KAUST Repository

    Cai, Xuechao

    2016-07-06

    Ga-soc-MOF hollow cubes with an average size of about 300 nm were prepared by a polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) assisted acid etching process. Colloidosomes with sizes of around 5-10 mu m composed of single-layer tetrakaidecahedron building blocks (BBs) were synthesized for the first time. Au@Ga-soc-MOF nanocomposites with excellent catalytic properties were obtained.

  8. Synthesis of highly monodispersed Ga-soc-MOF hollow cubes, colloidosomes and nanocomposites

    KAUST Repository

    Cai, Xuechao; Deng, Xiaoran; Xie, Zhongxi; Bao, Shouxin; Shi, Yanshu; Lin, Jun; Pang, Maolin; Eddaoudi, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Ga-soc-MOF hollow cubes with an average size of about 300 nm were prepared by a polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) assisted acid etching process. Colloidosomes with sizes of around 5-10 mu m composed of single-layer tetrakaidecahedron building blocks (BBs) were synthesized for the first time. Au@Ga-soc-MOF nanocomposites with excellent catalytic properties were obtained.

  9. Boosted gain programmable OpAmp with embedded gain monitor for dependable SoCs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wan, J.; Kerkhoff, Hans G.

    2011-01-01

    SoCs used in safety-critical applications need to be dependable. However in the deep-submicron region, different kinds of aging effects like negative bias temperature instability (NBTI) make the SoCs, especially the analog/mixed-signal parts, undependable. In this paper, a dependability-improved

  10. A semantically-aided architecture for a web-based monitoring system for carotid atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolias, Vassileios D; Stamou, Giorgos; Golemati, Spyretta; Stoitsis, Giannis; Gkekas, Christos D; Liapis, Christos D; Nikita, Konstantina S

    2015-08-01

    Carotid atherosclerosis is a multifactorial disease and its clinical diagnosis depends on the evaluation of heterogeneous clinical data, such as imaging exams, biochemical tests and the patient's clinical history. The lack of interoperability between Health Information Systems (HIS) does not allow the physicians to acquire all the necessary data for the diagnostic process. In this paper, a semantically-aided architecture is proposed for a web-based monitoring system for carotid atherosclerosis that is able to gather and unify heterogeneous data with the use of an ontology and to create a common interface for data access enhancing the interoperability of HIS. The architecture is based on an application ontology of carotid atherosclerosis that is used to (a) integrate heterogeneous data sources on the basis of semantic representation and ontological reasoning and (b) access the critical information using SPARQL query rewriting and ontology-based data access services. The architecture was tested over a carotid atherosclerosis dataset consisting of the imaging exams and the clinical profile of 233 patients, using a set of complex queries, constructed by the physicians. The proposed architecture was evaluated with respect to the complexity of the queries that the physicians could make and the retrieval speed. The proposed architecture gave promising results in terms of interoperability, data integration of heterogeneous sources with an ontological way and expanded capabilities of query and retrieval in HIS.

  11. Heterogeneous networking in the home environment

    OpenAIRE

    Bolla, Raffaele; Davoli, Franco; Repetto, Matteo; Fragopoulos, Tasos; Serpanos, D.; Chessa, Stefano; Ferro, Erina

    2006-01-01

    The management and control at multiple protocol layers of a heterogeneous networking structure, to support multimedia applications in the home environment, is considered. The paper examines possible scenarios, and corresponding architectural solutions, also in the light of existing wireless and sensor networks technologies.

  12. Socs36E Controls Niche Competition by Repressing MAPK Signaling in the Drosophila Testis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Amoyel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Drosophila testis is a well-established system for studying stem cell self-renewal and competition. In this tissue, the niche supports two stem cell populations, germ line stem cells (GSCs, which give rise to sperm, and somatic stem cells called cyst stem cells (CySCs, which support GSCs and their descendants. It has been established that CySCs compete with each other and with GSCs for niche access, and mutations have been identified that confer increased competitiveness to CySCs, resulting in the mutant stem cell and its descendants outcompeting wild type resident stem cells. Socs36E, which encodes a negative feedback inhibitor of the JAK/STAT pathway, was the first identified regulator of niche competition. The competitive behavior of Socs36E mutant CySCs was attributed to increased JAK/STAT signaling. Here we show that competitive behavior of Socs36E mutant CySCs is due in large part to unbridled Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK signaling. In Socs36E mutant clones, MAPK activity is elevated. Furthermore, we find that clonal upregulation of MAPK in CySCs leads to their outcompetition of wild type CySCs and of GSCs, recapitulating the Socs36E mutant phenotype. Indeed, when MAPK activity is removed from Socs36E mutant clones, they lose their competitiveness but maintain self-renewal, presumably due to increased JAK/STAT signaling in these cells. Consistently, loss of JAK/STAT activity in Socs36E mutant clones severely impairs their self-renewal. Thus, our results enable the genetic separation of two essential processes that occur in stem cells. While some niche signals specify the intrinsic property of self-renewal, which is absolutely required in all stem cells for niche residence, additional signals control the ability of stem cells to compete with their neighbors. Socs36E is node through which these processes are linked, demonstrating that negative feedback inhibition integrates multiple aspects of stem cell behavior.

  13. A Scalable Multicore Architecture With Heterogeneous Memory Structures for Dynamic Neuromorphic Asynchronous Processors (DYNAPs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Saber; Qiao, Ning; Stefanini, Fabio; Indiveri, Giacomo

    2018-02-01

    Neuromorphic computing systems comprise networks of neurons that use asynchronous events for both computation and communication. This type of representation offers several advantages in terms of bandwidth and power consumption in neuromorphic electronic systems. However, managing the traffic of asynchronous events in large scale systems is a daunting task, both in terms of circuit complexity and memory requirements. Here, we present a novel routing methodology that employs both hierarchical and mesh routing strategies and combines heterogeneous memory structures for minimizing both memory requirements and latency, while maximizing programming flexibility to support a wide range of event-based neural network architectures, through parameter configuration. We validated the proposed scheme in a prototype multicore neuromorphic processor chip that employs hybrid analog/digital circuits for emulating synapse and neuron dynamics together with asynchronous digital circuits for managing the address-event traffic. We present a theoretical analysis of the proposed connectivity scheme, describe the methods and circuits used to implement such scheme, and characterize the prototype chip. Finally, we demonstrate the use of the neuromorphic processor with a convolutional neural network for the real-time classification of visual symbols being flashed to a dynamic vision sensor (DVS) at high speed.

  14. Robust Architectures for Complex Multi-Agent Heterogeneous Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-23

    cooperative trajectory generation framework with account of spatial and temporal constraints [2], and iii) developing a decoupled architecture for...in the presence of dynamic information flow and quantized measurements [1], ii) developing a cooperative trajectory generation framework with account ... CIE 2013, Portland, OR, DETC2013-12744, 2013 (one of the five finalists for “best student paper award”). 8. R. Choe, V. Cichella, E. Xargay, N

  15. Gas-particle partitioning of semivolatile organic compounds (SOCs) on mixtures of aerosols in a smog chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandramouli, Bharadwaj; Jang, Myoseon; Kamens, Richard M

    2003-09-15

    The partitioning behavior of a set of diverse SOCs on two and three component mixtures of aerosols from different sources was studied using smog chamber experimental data. A set of SOCs of different compound types was introduced into a system containing a mixture of aerosols from two or more sources. Gas and particle samples were taken using a filter-filter-denuder sampling system, and a partitioning coefficient Kp was estimated using Kp = Cp/(CgTSP). Particle size distributions were measured using a differential mobility analyzer and a light scattering detector. Gas and particle samples were analyzed using GCMS. The aerosol composition in the chamber was tracked chemically using a combination of signature compounds and the organic matter mass fraction (f(om)) of the individual aerosol sources. The physical nature of the aerosol mixture in the chamber was determined using particle size distributions, and an aggregate Kp was estimated from theoretically calculated Kp on the individual sources. Model fits for Kp showed that when the mixture involved primary sources of aerosol, the aggregate Kp of the mixture could be successfully modeled as an external mixture of the Kp on the individual aerosols. There were significant differences observed for some SOCs between modeling the system as an external and as an internal mixture. However, when one of the aerosol sources was secondary, the aggregate model Kp required incorporation of the secondary aerosol products on the preexisting aerosol for adequate model fits. Modeling such a system as an external mixture grossly overpredicted the Kp of alkanes in the mixture. Indirect evidence of heterogeneous, acid-catalyzed reactions in the particle phase was also seen, leading to a significant increase in the polarity of the resulting aerosol mix and a resulting decrease in the observed Kp of alkanes in the chamber. The model was partly consistent with this decrease but could not completely explain the reduction in Kp because of

  16. The SOC in cells’ living expectations of Conway’s Game of Life and its extended version

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Jinling; Zhou, Haiyan; Meng, Jun; Zhang, Fan; Chen, Yunmo; Zhou, Su

    2016-01-01

    In self-organized systems such as Conway’s Game of Life (CGL). Wikipedia, Conway’s game of the life, (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conway%27s-Game-of-Life)., though whether the single cell will survive or die seems unpredictable, the log–log distribution of all cells living frequency satisfies the 1/f linear law, thus meets the Self-organized Criticality(SOC) rule, which not only proves that CGL is a self-organized system, but more significantly, that the chance of living for each cell is spatial heterogeneous, and is statistical fractal. After carried out CGL, the specified iterative period which begins with a random initial condition and ends when it reaches the homeostasis, add up all the states which the living cells are marked by 1s, and the dead are marked by 0s. The resulted sum picture consisting of cells having its gray level representing the living times during the iterative process. By plotting the gray level distribution of the sum picture on log–log scale, the graph indicates the spatial living expectations distributions. Then we find the curve of the graph satisfies the Self-organized Criticality(SOC) rule, showing its linear feature in the intermediate zone, which also has name of 1/f feature. To examine its universality, we designed a more complicated self-organized cellular automata with each cell having five possible states thus the rule table becomes more complicated. As expected, the consequence shows the similar feature, and the linear feature is even more obvious when the similar experiments are carried out. To conclude, it is a new discovery of SOC from a new perspective. And with the self-organized systems expanding to other different rule tables, this feature may still be satisfied. More further, considering the natural self-organized systems of living creatures, the spatial living expectations of different phenotypes may satisfy the 1/f law, too. Though we regard this as an inspirational orientation, the supposition needs more

  17. Comparison Study on the Battery SoC Estimation with EKF and UKF Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwen He

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The battery state of charge (SoC, whose estimation is one of the basic functions of battery management system (BMS, is a vital input parameter in the energy management and power distribution control of electric vehicles (EVs. In this paper, two methods based on an extended Kalman filter (EKF and unscented Kalman filter (UKF, respectively, are proposed to estimate the SoC of a lithium-ion battery used in EVs. The lithium-ion battery is modeled with the Thevenin model and the model parameters are identified based on experimental data and validated with the Beijing Driving Cycle. Then space equations used for SoC estimation are established. The SoC estimation results with EKF and UKF are compared in aspects of accuracy and convergence. It is concluded that the two algorithms both perform well, while the UKF algorithm is much better with a faster convergence ability and a higher accuracy.

  18. Approaches Regarding Business Logic Modeling in Service Oriented Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Maria Ioana FLOREA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As part of the Service Oriented Computing (SOC, Service Oriented Architecture (SOA is a technology that has been developing for almost a decade and during this time there have been published many studies, papers and surveys that are referring to the advantages of projects using it. In this article we discuss some ways of using SOA in the business environment, as a result of the need to reengineer the internal business processes with the scope of moving forward towards providing and using standardized services and achieving enterprise interoperability.

  19. A step toward 'plug and play' robotics with SoC technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Anders Stengaard; Falsig, Simon; Ugilt, Rolf

    p, li { white-space: pre-wrap; } This article describe our progress toward simplifying and streamlining the low level systems integration of experimental robots, combining a System on Chip (SoC) approach with conventional modular approaches. The combined approach has increased flexibility, improved...... the embedded integration, and decreased the complexity of programming, compared to conventional modular approaches. We show the impact of the SoC approach in a simple demonstration and teaching model of a walking robot....

  20. Study on SOC wavelet analysis for LiFePO4 battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuepeng; Zhao, Dongmei

    2017-08-01

    Improving the prediction accuracy of SOC can reduce the complexity of the conservative and control strategy of the strategy such as the scheduling, optimization and planning of LiFePO4 battery system. Based on the analysis of the relationship between the SOC historical data and the external stress factors, the SOC Estimation-Correction Prediction Model based on wavelet analysis is established. Using wavelet neural network prediction model is of high precision to achieve forecast link, external stress measured data is used to update parameters estimation in the model, implement correction link, makes the forecast model can adapt to the LiFePO4 battery under rated condition of charge and discharge the operating point of the variable operation area. The test results show that the method can obtain higher precision prediction model when the input and output of LiFePO4 battery are changed frequently.

  1. System architecture for ubiquitous live video streaming in university network environment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dludla, AG

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available an architecture which supports ubiquitous live streaming for university or campus networks using a modified bluetooth inquiry mechanism with extended ID, integrated end-user device usage and adaptation to heterogeneous networks. Riding on that architecture...

  2. Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS genes are silenced by DNA hypermethylation and histone deacetylation and regulate response to radiotherapy in cervical cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moon-Hong Kim

    Full Text Available Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS family is an important negative regulator of cytokine signaling and deregulation of SOCS has been involved in many types of cancer. All cervical cancer cell lines tested showed lower expression of SOCS1, SOCS3, and SOCS5 than normal tissue or cell lines. The immunohistochemistry result for SOCS proteins in human cervical tissue also confirmed that normal tissue expressed higher level of SOCS proteins than neighboring tumor. Similar to the regulation of SOCS in other types of cancer, DNA methylation contributed to SOCS1 downregulation in CaSki, ME-180, and HeLa cells. However, the expression of SOCS3 or SOCS5 was not recovered by the inhibition of DNA methylation. Histone deacetylation may be another regulatory mechanism involved in SOCS1 and SOCS3 expression, however, SOCS5 expression was neither affected by DNA methylation nor histone deacetylation. Ectopic expression of SOCS1 or SOCS3 conferred radioresistance to HeLa cells, which implied SOCS signaling regulates the response to radiation in cervical cancer. In this study, we have shown that SOCS expression repressed by, in part, epigenetically and altered SOCS1 and SOCS3 expression could contribute to the radiosensitive phenotype in cervical cancer.

  3. A 0.7-V 17.4- μ W 3-lead wireless ECG SoC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khayatzadeh, Mahmood; Zhang, Xiaoyang; Tan, Jun; Liew, Wen-Sin; Lian, Yong

    2013-10-01

    This paper presents a fully integrated sub-1 V 3-lead wireless ECG System-on-Chip (SoC) for wireless body sensor network applications. The SoC includes a two-channel ECG front-end with a driven-right-leg circuit, an 8-bit SAR ADC, a custom-designed 16-bit microcontroller, two banks of 16 kb SRAM, and a MICS band transceiver. The microcontroller and SRAM blocks are able to operate at sub-/near-threshold regime for the best energy consumption. The proposed SoC has been implemented in a standard 0.13- μ m CMOS process. Measurement results show the microcontroller consumes only 2.62 pJ per instruction at 0.35 V . Both microcontroller and memory blocks are functional down to 0.25 V. The entire SoC is capable of working at single 0.7-V supply. At the best case, it consumes 17.4 μ W in heart rate detection mode and 74.8 μW in raw data acquisition mode under sampling rate of 500 Hz. This makes it one of the best ECG SoCs among state-of-the-art biomedical chips.

  4. Mapping SOC (Soil Organic Carbon) using LiDAR-derived vegetation indices in a random forest regression model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Will, R. M.; Glenn, N. F.; Benner, S. G.; Pierce, J. L.; Spaete, L.; Li, A.

    2015-12-01

    Quantifying SOC (Soil Organic Carbon) storage in complex terrain is challenging due to high spatial variability. Generally, the challenge is met by transforming point data to the entire landscape using surrogate, spatially-distributed, variables like elevation or precipitation. In many ecosystems, remotely sensed information on above-ground vegetation (e.g. NDVI) is a good predictor of below-ground carbon stocks. In this project, we are attempting to improve this predictive method by incorporating LiDAR-derived vegetation indices. LiDAR provides a mechanism for improved characterization of aboveground vegetation by providing structural parameters such as vegetation height and biomass. In this study, a random forest model is used to predict SOC using a suite of LiDAR-derived vegetation indices as predictor variables. The Reynolds Creek Experimental Watershed (RCEW) is an ideal location for a study of this type since it encompasses a strong elevation/precipitation gradient that supports lower biomass sagebrush ecosystems at low elevations and forests with more biomass at higher elevations. Sagebrush ecosystems composed of Wyoming, Low and Mountain Sagebrush have SOC values ranging from .4 to 1% (top 30 cm), while higher biomass ecosystems composed of aspen, juniper and fir have SOC values approaching 4% (top 30 cm). Large differences in SOC have been observed between canopy and interspace locations and high resolution vegetation information is likely to explain plot scale variability in SOC. Mapping of the SOC reservoir will help identify underlying controls on SOC distribution and provide insight into which processes are most important in determining SOC in semi-arid mountainous regions. In addition, airborne LiDAR has the potential to characterize vegetation communities at a high resolution and could be a tool for improving estimates of SOC at larger scales.

  5. Research on State-of-Charge (SOC) estimation using current integration based on temperature compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, J.; Shen, Y.; Liu, X. T.; Zeng, G. J.; Liu, D. C.

    2017-11-01

    The traditional current integral method for the state-of-charge (SOC) estimation has an unusable estimation accuracy because of the current measuring error. This paper proposed a closed-loop temperature compensation method to improve the SOC estimation accuracy of current integral method by eliminating temperature drift. Through circuit simulation result in Multisim, the stability of current measuring accuracy is improved by more than 10 times. In a designed 70 charge-discharge experimental circle, the SOC estimation error with temperature compensation had 30 times less than error in normal situation without compensation.

  6. Suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1) limits NFkappaB signaling by decreasing p65 stability within the cell nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strebovsky, Julia; Walker, Patrick; Lang, Roland; Dalpke, Alexander H

    2011-03-01

    Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins are inhibitors of cytoplasmic Janus kinases (Jak) and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) signaling pathways. Previously the authors surprisingly observed that SOCS1 translocated into the nucleus, which was because of the presence of a nuclear localization sequence. This report now hypothesizes that SOCS1 mediates specific functions within the nuclear compartment because it is instantly transported into the nucleus, as shown by photoactivation and live cell imaging in human HEK293 cells. The NFκB component p65 is identified as an interaction partner for SOCS1 but not for other members of the SOCS family. SOCS1 bound to p65 only within the nucleus. By means of its SOCS box domain, SOCS1 operated as a ubiquitin ligase, leading to polyubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of nuclear p65. Thus, SOCS1 limited prolonged p65 signaling and terminated expression of NFκB inducible genes. Using mutants that lack either nuclear translocation or a functional SOCS box, this report identifies genes that are regulated in a manner dependent on the nuclear availability of SOCS1. Data show that beyond its receptor-proximal function in Jak/STAT signaling, SOCS1 also regulates the duration of NFκB signaling within the cell nucleus, thus exerting a heretofore unrecognized function.

  7. DMPD: Regulation of innate immunity by suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS)proteins. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 18406369 Regulation of innate immunity by suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS)proteins...svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Regulation of innate immunity by suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS)proteins. ...PubmedID 18406369 Title Regulation of innate immunity by suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS)proteins

  8. Intercloud Architecture for interoperability and integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demchenko, Y.; Makkes, M.X.; Strijkers, R.J.; Laat, C. de

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents on-going research to develop the Intercloud Architecture Framework (ICAF) that addresses problems in multi-provider multi-domain heterogeneous cloud based infrastructure services and applications integration and interoperability. The paper refers to existing standards in Cloud

  9. Intercloud architecture for interoperability and integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demchenko, Y.; Makkes, M.X.; Strijkers, R.; de Laat, C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents on-going research to develop the Intercloud Architecture Framework (ICAF) that addresses problems in multi-provider multi-domain heterogeneous cloud based infrastructure services and applications integration and interoperability. The paper refers to existing standards in Cloud

  10. Capturing Structural Heterogeneity in Chromatin Fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekundayo, Babatunde; Richmond, Timothy J; Schalch, Thomas

    2017-10-13

    Chromatin fiber organization is implicated in processes such as transcription, DNA repair and chromosome segregation, but how nucleosomes interact to form higher-order structure remains poorly understood. We solved two crystal structures of tetranucleosomes with approximately 11-bp DNA linker length at 5.8 and 6.7 Å resolution. Minimal intramolecular nucleosome-nucleosome interactions result in a fiber model resembling a flat ribbon that is compatible with a two-start helical architecture, and that exposes histone and DNA surfaces to the environment. The differences in the two structures combined with electron microscopy reveal heterogeneous structural states, and we used site-specific chemical crosslinking to assess the diversity of nucleosome-nucleosome interactions through identification of structure-sensitive crosslink sites that provide a means to characterize fibers in solution. The chromatin fiber architectures observed here provide a basis for understanding heterogeneous chromatin higher-order structures as they occur in a genomic context. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The Architecture of WiFi-Based WSN for AMR System and E-HWMP Routing Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li LI

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available With the development of SoC technology in recent years, the ultra-low power WiFi System on SoC Chip has emerged. As a result, WiFi-based Wireless Sensor Networks come into use, especially used in Automatic Meter Reading. While because the nodes of Wireless Sensor Networks have limited energy supply, smaller storage capability and slower calculation ability, the current WiFi technology cannot be directly applied to WiFi-based Wireless Sensor Networks. The protocols should be upgraded and the security algorithms should be improved to meet the new requests. Firstly, this article describes the network architecture of WiFi-based WSN for AMR system and discusses the reason for using this analogous Mesh architecture. Secondly, the new Hardware architecture of WiFi-based WSN node is designed to realize the AMR system and verify the research work. The node can collect the data of power meter by WiFi and can be powered by a Lithium Battery. Thirdly, on the basis of study work of WiFi original routing protocol HWMP, a new method on improving the energy saving ability of HWMP to adapt the new features of WiFi-based WSN is proposed. And the simulation work on the new routing protocol E-HWMP has been done with NS2 and the simulation results show that the life cycle of the network has been extended to some degree.

  12. Heterogeneous computing with OpenCL

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Heterogeneous Computing with OpenCL teaches OpenCL and parallel programming for complex systems that may include a variety of device architectures: multi-core CPUs, GPUs, and fully-integrated Accelerated Processing Units (APUs) such as AMD Fusion technology. Designed to work on multiple platforms and with wide industry support, OpenCL will help you more effectively program for a heterogeneous future. Written by leaders in the parallel computing and OpenCL communities, this book will give you hands-on OpenCL experience to address a range of fundamental parallel algorithms. The authors explore memory spaces, optimization techniques, graphics interoperability, extensions, and debugging and profiling. Intended to support a parallel programming course, Heterogeneous Computing with OpenCL includes detailed examples throughout, plus additional online exercises and other supporting materials.

  13. A Bayesian Belief Network framework to predict SOC stock change: the Veneto region (Italy) case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Ferro, Nicola; Quinn, Claire Helen; Morari, Francesco

    2017-04-01

    A key challenge for soil scientists is predicting agricultural management scenarios that combine crop productions with high standards of environmental quality. In this context, reversing the soil organic carbon (SOC) decline in croplands is required for maintaining soil fertility and contributing to mitigate GHGs emissions. Bayesian belief networks (BBN) are probabilistic models able to accommodate uncertainty and variability in the predictions of the impacts of management and environmental changes. By linking multiple qualitative and quantitative variables in a cause-and-effect relationships, BBNs can be used as a decision support system at different spatial scales to find best management strategies in the agroecosystems. In this work we built a BBN to model SOC dynamics (0-30 cm layer) in the low-lying plain of Veneto region, north-eastern Italy, and define best practices leading to SOC accumulation and GHGs (CO2-equivalent) emissions reduction. Regional pedo-climatic, land use and management information were combined with experimental and modelled data on soil C dynamics as natural and anthropic key drivers affecting SOC stock change. Moreover, utility nodes were introduced to determine optimal decisions for mitigating GHGs emissions from croplands considering also three different IPCC climate scenarios. The network was finally validated with real field data in terms of SOC stock change. Results showed that the BBN was able to model real SOC stock changes, since validation slightly overestimated SOC reduction (+5%) at the expenses of its accumulation. At regional level, probability distributions showed 50% of SOC loss, while only 17% of accumulation. However, the greatest losses (34%) were associated with low reduction rates (100-500 kg C ha-1 y-1), followed by 33% of stabilized conditions (-100 < SOC < 100 kg ha-1 y-1). Land use management (especially tillage operations and soil cover) played a primary role to affect SOC stock change, while climate conditions

  14. SOCS2 deletion protects against hepatic steatosis but worsens insulin resistance in high-fat-diet-fed mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zadjali, Fahad; Santana-Farre, Ruyman; Vesterlund, Mattias

    2012-01-01

    in the development of diet-induced hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance. SOCS2-knockout (SOCS2(-/-)) mice and wild-type littermates were fed for 4 mo with control or high-fat diet, followed by assessment of insulin sensitivity, hepatic lipid content, and expression of inflammatory cytokines. SOCS2(-/-) mice...

  15. SOCS5 is expressed in primary B and T lymphoid cells but is dispensable for lymphocyte production and function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brender, Christine; Columbus, Ruth; Metcalf, Donald

    2004-01-01

    the importance of SOCS5 in T helper cell responses. Unexpectedly, SOCS5-deficient CD4 T cells showed no abnormalities in Th1/Th2 differentiation and Socs5(-/-) mice showed normal resistance to infection with Leishmania major. Therefore, although SOCS5 is expressed in primary B and T cells, it appears...

  16. Biological evidence that SOCS-2 can act either as an enhancer or suppressor of growth hormone signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greenhalgh, Christopher J; Metcalf, Donald; Thaus, Anne L

    2002-01-01

    Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS)-2 is a member of a family of intracellular proteins implicated in the negative regulation of cytokine signaling. The generation of SOCS-2-deficient mice, which grow to one and a half times the size of their wild-type littermates, suggests that SOCS-2 may at...

  17. Intercloud Architecture Framework for Interoperability and Integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demchenko, Y.; Ngo, C.; Makkes, M.X.; Strijkers, R.J.

    2013-01-01

    This report presents on-going research to develop the Intercloud Architecture Framework (ICAF) that addresses interoperability and integration issues in multi-provider multi-domain heterogeneous Cloud based infrastructure services and applications provisioning, including integration and

  18. Advanced Technology for Ultra-Low Power System-on-Chip (SoC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    was proposed for lower power applications with Ioff=10pA/μm and VDD=0.5V. In this project, the optimized structure shows great potential in both Lg...AFRL-RY-WP-TR-2017-0115 ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY FOR ULTRA-LOW POWER SYSTEM-ON-CHIP (SoC) Jason Woo, Weicong Li, and Peng Lu University of California...September 2015 – 31 March 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY FOR ULTRA-LOW POWER SYSTEM-ON- CHIP (SoC) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8650-15-1-7574 5b

  19. DMPD: Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) 2, a protein with multiple functions. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17070092 Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) 2, a protein with multiple function...Epub 2006 Oct 27. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) 2, a protein with multiple function...SOCS) 2, a protein with multiple functions. Authors Rico-Bautista E, Flores-Morales A, Fernandez-Perez L. Pu

  20. NTP Radioisotopes SOC Ltd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letule, T.

    2017-01-01

    NTP Radioisotopes SOC Ltd, a wholly owned subsidiary of the South African Nuclear Energy Corporation (NECSA). Supplies around 20% of the world's medical radioisotopes used. NTP is a pioneer in the introduction and growth of nuclear medicine as in South Africa. Nuclear medicine is the medical specialty that involves the use of radioactive isotopes in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases. Nuclear medicine contributes to enhancing the lives of the society. There is a compelling need for nuclear medicine to be promoted and utilized in the rest of Africa, due to the increasing prevalence of cancer. Cancer is rapidly becoming a public health crisis in low-income and middle-income countries. In sub-Saharan Africa, patients often present with advanced disease

  1. An architectural model for network interconnection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sinderen, Marten J.; Vissers, C.A.; Kalin, T.

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents a technique of successive decomposition of a common users' activity to illustrate the problems of network interconnection. The criteria derived from this approach offer a structuring principle which is used to develop an architectural model that embeds heterogeneous subnetworks

  2. Increased linear bone growth by GH in the absence of SOCS2 is independent of IGF-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobie, Ross; Ahmed, Syed F; Staines, Katherine A; Pass, Chloe; Jasim, Seema; MacRae, Vicky E; Farquharson, Colin

    2015-11-01

    Growth hormone (GH) signaling is essential for postnatal linear bone growth, but the relative importance of GHs actions on the liver and/or growth plate cartilage remains unclear. The importance of liver derived insulin like-growth factor-1 (IGF-1) for endochondral growth has recently been challenged. Here, we investigate linear growth in Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling-2 (SOCS2) knockout mice, which have enhanced growth despite normal systemic GH/IGF-1 levels. Wild-type embryonic ex vivo metatarsals failed to exhibit increased linear growth in response to GH, but displayed increased Socs2 transcript levels (P growth over a 12 day period. Despite this increase, IGF-1 transcript and protein levels were not increased in response to GH. In accordance with these data, IGF-1 levels were unchanged in GH-challenged postnatal Socs2(-/-) conditioned medium despite metatarsals showing enhanced linear growth. Growth-plate Igf1 mRNA levels were not elevated in juvenile Socs2(-/-) mice. GH did however elevate IGF-binding protein 3 levels in conditioned medium from GH challenged metatarsals and this was more apparent in Socs2(-/-) metatarsals. GH did not enhance the growth of Socs2(-/-) metatarsals when the IGF receptor was inhibited, suggesting that IGF receptor mediated mechanisms are required. IGF-2 may be responsible as IGF-2 promoted metatarsal growth and Igf2 expression was elevated in Socs2(-/-) (but not WT) metatarsals in response to GH. These studies emphasise the critical importance of SOCS2 in regulating GHs ability to promote bone growth. Also, GH appears to act directly on the metatarsals of Socs2(-/-) mice, promoting growth via a mechanism that is independent of IGF-1. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Cellular Physiology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Architecture and reservoir quality of low-permeable Eocene lacustrine turbidite sandstone from the Dongying Depression, East China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munawar, Muhammad Jawad; Lin, Chengyan; Chunmei, Dong; Zhang, Xianguo; Zhao, Haiyan; Xiao, Shuming; Azeem, Tahir; Zahid, Muhammad Aleem; Ma, Cunfei

    2018-05-01

    The architecture and quality of lacustrine turbidites that act as petroleum reservoirs are less well documented. Reservoir architecture and multiscale heterogeneity in turbidites represent serious challenges to production performance. Additionally, establishing a hierarchy profile to delineate heterogeneity is a challenging task in lacustrine turbidite deposits. Here, we report on the turbidites in the middle third member of the Eocene Shahejie Formation (Es3), which was deposited during extensive Middle to Late Eocene rifting in the Dongying Depression. Seismic records, wireline log responses, and core observations were integrated to describe the reservoir heterogeneity by delineating the architectural elements, sequence stratigraphic framework and lithofacies assemblage. A petrographic approach was adopted to constrain microscopic heterogeneity using an optical microscope, routine core analyses and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses. The Es3m member is interpreted as a sequence set composed of four composite sequences: CS1, CS2, CS3 and CS4. A total of forty-five sequences were identified within these four composite sequences. Sand bodies were mainly deposited as channels, levees, overbank splays, lobes and lobe fringes. The combination of fining-upward and coarsening-upward lithofacies patterns in the architectural elements produces highly complex composite flow units. Microscopic heterogeneity is produced by diagenetic alteration processes (i.e., feldspar dissolution, authigenic clay formation and quartz cementation). The widespread kaolinization of feldspar and mobilization of materials enhanced the quality of the reservoir by producing secondary enlarged pores. In contrast, the formation of pore-filling authigenic illite and illite/smectite clays reduced its permeability. Recovery rates are higher in the axial areas and smaller in the marginal areas of architectural elements. This study represents a significant insight into the reservoir architecture and

  4. SOCS3 promoter hypermethylation is a favorable prognosticator and a novel indicator for G-CIMP-positive GBM patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ying; Wang, Zheng; Bao, Zhaoshi; Yan, Wei; You, Gan; Wang, Yinyan; Hu, Huimin; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Quangeng; Jiang, Tao

    2014-01-01

    Hypermethylation of the suppressor of cytokine signaling 3(SOCS3) promoter has been reported to predict a poor prognosis in several cancers including glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). We explored the function of SOCS3 promoter hypermethylation in GBM cohorts, including analysis of the CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP), when a large number of gene loci are simultaneously hypermethylated. A whole genome promoter methylation profile was performed in a cohort of 33 GBM samples, with 13 long-term survivors (LTS; overall survival ≥ 18 months) and 20 short-term survivors (STS; overall survival ≤ 9 months). The SOCS3 promoter methylation status was compared between the two groups. In addition, we investigated the relationship of SOCS3 promoter methylation and G-CIMP status. Interestingly, in our present study, we found that SOCS3 promoter methylation was statistically significantly higher in the 13 LTS than that in the 20 STS. Furthermore, high SOCS3 promoter methylation detected via pyro-sequencing predicted a better prognosis in an independent cohort containing 62 GBM patients. This correlation was validated by the dataset from the Cancer Genome Atlas(TCGA) and the Chinese Cancer Genome Atlas(CGGA). In addition, we found that hypermethylation of the SOCS3 promoter was tightly associated with the G-CIMP-positive GBM patients. Using a total of 359 clinical samples, we demonstrate that SOCS3 promoter hypermethylation status has a favorable prognostic value in GBM patients because of whole genome methylation status. Particularly, the hypermethylation of the SOCS3 promoter indicates positive G-CIMP status.

  5. SOCS3 promoter hypermethylation is a favorable prognosticator and a novel indicator for G-CIMP-positive GBM patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Feng

    Full Text Available Hypermethylation of the suppressor of cytokine signaling 3(SOCS3 promoter has been reported to predict a poor prognosis in several cancers including glioblastoma multiforme (GBM. We explored the function of SOCS3 promoter hypermethylation in GBM cohorts, including analysis of the CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP, when a large number of gene loci are simultaneously hypermethylated.A whole genome promoter methylation profile was performed in a cohort of 33 GBM samples, with 13 long-term survivors (LTS; overall survival ≥ 18 months and 20 short-term survivors (STS; overall survival ≤ 9 months. The SOCS3 promoter methylation status was compared between the two groups. In addition, we investigated the relationship of SOCS3 promoter methylation and G-CIMP status.Interestingly, in our present study, we found that SOCS3 promoter methylation was statistically significantly higher in the 13 LTS than that in the 20 STS. Furthermore, high SOCS3 promoter methylation detected via pyro-sequencing predicted a better prognosis in an independent cohort containing 62 GBM patients. This correlation was validated by the dataset from the Cancer Genome Atlas(TCGA and the Chinese Cancer Genome Atlas(CGGA. In addition, we found that hypermethylation of the SOCS3 promoter was tightly associated with the G-CIMP-positive GBM patients.Using a total of 359 clinical samples, we demonstrate that SOCS3 promoter hypermethylation status has a favorable prognostic value in GBM patients because of whole genome methylation status. Particularly, the hypermethylation of the SOCS3 promoter indicates positive G-CIMP status.

  6. Correct-by-construction approaches for SoC design

    CERN Document Server

    Sinha, Roopak; Basu, Samik

    2013-01-01

    This book describes an approach for designing Systems-on-Chip such that the system meets precise mathematical requirements. The methodologies presented enable embedded systems designers to reuse intellectual property (IP) blocks from existing designs in an efficient, reliable manner, automatically generating correct SoCs from multiple, possibly mismatching, components.

  7. Mapping SOC in a river catchment by integrating laboratory spectra wavelength with remote sensing spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peng, Yi; Xiong, Xiong; Knadel, Maria

    There is potential to use soil ·-proximal and remote sensing derived spectra concomitantly to develop soil organic carbon (SOC) models. Yet mixing spectral data from different sources and technologies to improve soil models is still in its infancy. The objective of this study was to incorporate...... soil spectral features indicative of SOC from laboratory visible near-infrared reflectance (vis-NlR) spectra and incorporate them with remote sensing (RS) images to improve predictions of top SOC in the Skjem river catchment, Denmark. The secondary objective was to improve prediction results...

  8. Designing Scientific Software for Heterogeneous Computing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glimberg, Stefan Lemvig

    , algorithms and data structures must be designed to utilize the underlying parallel architecture. The architectural changes in hardware design within the last decade, from single to multi and many-core architectures, require software developers to identify and properly implement methods that both exploit...... makes parallel software design applicable, but also a challenge for scientific software developers at all levels. We have developed a generic C++ library for fast prototyping of large-scale PDEs solvers based on flexible-order finite difference approximations on structured regular grids. The library...... is designed with a high abstraction interface to improve developer productivity. The library is based on modern template-based design concepts as described in Glimberg, Engsig-Karup, Nielsen & Dammann (2013). The library utilizes heterogeneous CPU/GPU environments in order to maximize computational throughput...

  9. SOCS2 mediates the cross talk between androgen and growth hormone signaling in prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iglesias Gato, Diego; Chuan, Yin Choy; Wikström, Pernilla

    2014-01-01

    ) as mediator of the cross talk between androgens and GH signals in the prostate and its potential role as tumor suppressor in prostate cancer (PCa). We observed that SOCS2 protein levels assayed by immunohistochemistry are elevated in hormone therapy-naive localized prostatic adenocarcinoma in comparison...... of transcription 5 protein (STAT5) and androgen receptor-dependent transcription. Consequentially, SOCS2 inhibits GH activation of Janus kinase 2, Src and STAT5 as well as both cell invasion and cell proliferation in vitro. In vivo, SOCS2 limits proliferation and production of IGF-1 in the prostate in response......Anabolic signals such as androgens and the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor 1 (GH/IGF-1) axis play an essential role in the normal development of the prostate but also in its malignant transformation. In this study, we investigated the role of suppressor of cytokine signaling 2 (SOCS2...

  10. Growth hormone preferentially induces the rapid, transient expression of SOCS-3, a novel inhibitor of cytokine receptor signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adams, T E; Hansen, J A; Starr, R

    1998-01-01

    Four members (SOCS-1, SOCS-2, SOCS-3, and CIS) of a family of cytokine-inducible, negative regulators of cytokine receptor signaling have recently been identified. To address whether any of these genes are induced in response to growth hormone (GH), serum-starved 3T3-F442A fibroblasts were incuba...

  11. SOC Strategies and Organizational Citizenship Behaviors toward the Benefits of Co-workers: A Multi-Source Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Andreas; Weigl, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    Background: Individuals’ behavioral strategies like selection, optimization, and compensation (SOC) contribute to efficient use of available resources. In the work context, previous studies revealed positive associations between employees’ SOC use and favorable individual outcomes, like engagement and job performance. However, the social implications of self-directed behaviors like SOC that are favorable for the employee but may imply consequences for coworkers have not been investigated yet in an interpersonal work context. Objective: This study aimed to assess associations between employees’ use of SOC behaviors at work and their organizational citizenship behaviors (OCB) toward the benefits of co-workers rated by their peers at work. We further sought to identify age-specific associations between SOC use and OCB. Design and Method: A cross-sectional design combining multi-source data was applied in primary school teachers (age range: 23–58 years) who frequently teach in dyads. N = 114 dyads were finally included. Teachers reported on their SOC strategies at work. Their peer colleagues evaluated teachers’ OCB. Control variables were gender, workload, working hours, and perceived proximity of relationship between the dyads. Results: We observed a positive effect of loss-based selection behaviors on peer-rated OCB. Moreover, there was a significant two-way interaction effect between the use of compensation strategies and age on OCB, such that there was a positive association for older employees and a negative association for younger employees. There were no significant main and age-related interaction effects of elective selection, optimization, and of overall SOC strategies on OCB. Conclusion: Our study suggests that high use of loss-based selection and high use of compensation strategies in older employees is positively related with OCB as perceived by their colleagues. However, high use of compensation strategies in younger employees is perceived

  12. Matching soil grid unit resolutions with polygon unit scales for DNDC modelling of regional SOC pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H. D.; Yu, D. S.; Ni, Y. L.; Zhang, L. M.; Shi, X. Z.

    2015-03-01

    Matching soil grid unit resolution with polygon unit map scale is important to minimize uncertainty of regional soil organic carbon (SOC) pool simulation as their strong influences on the uncertainty. A series of soil grid units at varying cell sizes were derived from soil polygon units at the six map scales of 1:50 000 (C5), 1:200 000 (D2), 1:500 000 (P5), 1:1 000 000 (N1), 1:4 000 000 (N4) and 1:14 000 000 (N14), respectively, in the Tai lake region of China. Both format soil units were used for regional SOC pool simulation with DeNitrification-DeComposition (DNDC) process-based model, which runs span the time period 1982 to 2000 at the six map scales, respectively. Four indices, soil type number (STN) and area (AREA), average SOC density (ASOCD) and total SOC stocks (SOCS) of surface paddy soils simulated with the DNDC, were attributed from all these soil polygon and grid units, respectively. Subjecting to the four index values (IV) from the parent polygon units, the variation of an index value (VIV, %) from the grid units was used to assess its dataset accuracy and redundancy, which reflects uncertainty in the simulation of SOC. Optimal soil grid unit resolutions were generated and suggested for the DNDC simulation of regional SOC pool, matching with soil polygon units map scales, respectively. With the optimal raster resolution the soil grid units dataset can hold the same accuracy as its parent polygon units dataset without any redundancy, when VIV indices was assumed as criteria to the assessment. An quadratic curve regression model y = -8.0 × 10-6x2 + 0.228x + 0.211 (R2 = 0.9994, p < 0.05) was revealed, which describes the relationship between optimal soil grid unit resolution (y, km) and soil polygon unit map scale (1:x). The knowledge may serve for grid partitioning of regions focused on the investigation and simulation of SOC pool dynamics at certain map scale.

  13. SOC Strategies and Organizational Citizenship Behaviors toward the Benefits of Co-workers: A Multi-Source Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Müller

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Individuals’ behavioral strategies like selection, optimization, and compensation (SOC contribute to efficient use of available resources. In the work context, previous studies revealed positive associations between employees’ SOC use and favorable individual outcomes, like engagement and job performance. However, the social implications of self-directed behaviors like SOC that are favorable for the employee but may imply consequences for coworkers have not been investigated yet in an interpersonal work context.Objective: This study aimed to assess associations between employees’ use of SOC behaviors at work and their organizational citizenship behaviors (OCB toward the benefits of co-workers rated by their peers at work. We further sought to identify age-specific associations between SOC use and OCB.Design and Method: A cross-sectional design combining multi-source data was applied in primary school teachers (age range: 23–58 years who frequently teach in dyads. N = 114 dyads were finally included. Teachers reported on their SOC strategies at work. Their peer colleagues evaluated teachers’ OCB. Control variables were gender, workload, working hours, and perceived proximity of relationship between the dyads.Results: We observed a positive effect of loss-based selection behaviors on peer-rated OCB. Moreover, there was a significant two-way interaction effect between the use of compensation strategies and age on OCB, such that there was a positive association for older employees and a negative association for younger employees. There were no significant main and age-related interaction effects of elective selection, optimization, and of overall SOC strategies on OCB.Conclusion: Our study suggests that high use of loss-based selection and high use of compensation strategies in older employees is positively related with OCB as perceived by their colleagues. However, high use of compensation strategies in younger employees is

  14. SOC Strategies and Organizational Citizenship Behaviors toward the Benefits of Co-workers: A Multi-Source Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Andreas; Weigl, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    Background: Individuals' behavioral strategies like selection, optimization, and compensation (SOC) contribute to efficient use of available resources. In the work context, previous studies revealed positive associations between employees' SOC use and favorable individual outcomes, like engagement and job performance. However, the social implications of self-directed behaviors like SOC that are favorable for the employee but may imply consequences for coworkers have not been investigated yet in an interpersonal work context. Objective: This study aimed to assess associations between employees' use of SOC behaviors at work and their organizational citizenship behaviors (OCB) toward the benefits of co-workers rated by their peers at work. We further sought to identify age-specific associations between SOC use and OCB. Design and Method: A cross-sectional design combining multi-source data was applied in primary school teachers (age range: 23-58 years) who frequently teach in dyads. N = 114 dyads were finally included. Teachers reported on their SOC strategies at work. Their peer colleagues evaluated teachers' OCB. Control variables were gender, workload, working hours, and perceived proximity of relationship between the dyads. Results: We observed a positive effect of loss-based selection behaviors on peer-rated OCB. Moreover, there was a significant two-way interaction effect between the use of compensation strategies and age on OCB, such that there was a positive association for older employees and a negative association for younger employees. There were no significant main and age-related interaction effects of elective selection, optimization, and of overall SOC strategies on OCB. Conclusion: Our study suggests that high use of loss-based selection and high use of compensation strategies in older employees is positively related with OCB as perceived by their colleagues. However, high use of compensation strategies in younger employees is perceived negatively

  15. Noise and Spurious Tones Management Techniques for Multi-GHz RF-CMOS Frequency Synthesizers Operating in Large Mixed Analog-Digital SOCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim Adrian

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents circuit techniques and power supply partitioning, filtering, and regulation methods aimed at reducing the phase noise and spurious tones in frequency synthesizers operating in large mixed analog-digital system-on-chip (SOC. The different noise and spur coupling mechanisms are presented together with solutions to minimize their impact on the overall PLL phase noise performance. Challenges specific to deep-submicron CMOS integration of multi-GHz PLLs are revealed, while new architectures that address these issues are presented. Layout techniques that help reducing the parasitic noise and spur coupling between digital and analog blocks are described. Combining system-level and circuit-level low noise design methods, low phase noise frequency synthesizers were achieved which are compatible with the demanding nowadays wireless communication standards.

  16. EpSoc: Social-Based Epidemic-Based Routing Protocol in Opportunistic Mobile Social Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halikul Lenando

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In opportunistic networks, the nature of intermittent and disruptive connections degrades the efficiency of routing. Epidemic routing protocol is used as a benchmark for most of routing protocols in opportunistic mobile social networks (OMSNs due to its high message delivery and latency. However, Epidemic incurs high cost in terms of overhead and hop count. In this paper, we propose a hybrid routing protocol called EpSoc which utilizes the Epidemic routing forwarding strategy and exploits an important social feature, that is, degree centrality. Two techniques are used in EpSoc. Messages’ TTL is adjusted based on the degree centrality of nodes, and the message blocking mechanism is used to control replication. Simulation results show that EpSoc increases the delivery ratio and decreases the overhead ratio, the average latency, and the hop counts as compared to Epidemic and Bubble Rap.

  17. Specifying structural constraints of architectural patterns in the ARCHERY language

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, Alejandro; Barbosa, Luis S.; Riesco, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    ARCHERY is an architectural description language for modelling and reasoning about distributed, heterogeneous and dynamically reconfigurable systems in terms of architectural patterns. The language supports the specification of architectures and their reconfiguration. This paper introduces a language extension for precisely describing the structural design decisions that pattern instances must respect in their (re)configurations. The extension is a propositional modal logic with recursion and nominals referencing components, i.e., a hybrid µ-calculus. Its expressiveness allows specifying safety and liveness constraints, as well as paths and cycles over structures. Refinements of classic architectural patterns are specified

  18. Specifying structural constraints of architectural patterns in the ARCHERY language

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, Alejandro [Departamento de Informática, Universidad Nacional de San Luis, Ejército de los Andes 950, D5700HHW San Luis (Argentina); HASLab INESC TEC and Universidade do Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); Barbosa, Luis S. [HASLab INESC TEC and Universidade do Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); Riesco, Daniel [Departamento de Informática, Universidad Nacional de San Luis, Ejército de los Andes 950, D5700HHW San Luis (Argentina)

    2015-03-10

    ARCHERY is an architectural description language for modelling and reasoning about distributed, heterogeneous and dynamically reconfigurable systems in terms of architectural patterns. The language supports the specification of architectures and their reconfiguration. This paper introduces a language extension for precisely describing the structural design decisions that pattern instances must respect in their (re)configurations. The extension is a propositional modal logic with recursion and nominals referencing components, i.e., a hybrid µ-calculus. Its expressiveness allows specifying safety and liveness constraints, as well as paths and cycles over structures. Refinements of classic architectural patterns are specified.

  19. Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling (SOCS 5 utilises distinct domains for regulation of JAK1 and interaction with the adaptor protein Shc-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmond M Linossi

    Full Text Available Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling (SOCS5 is thought to act as a tumour suppressor through negative regulation of JAK/STAT and epidermal growth factor (EGF signaling. However, the mechanism/s by which SOCS5 acts on these two distinct pathways is unclear. We show for the first time that SOCS5 can interact directly with JAK via a unique, conserved region in its N-terminus, which we have termed the JAK interaction region (JIR. Co-expression of SOCS5 was able to specifically reduce JAK1 and JAK2 (but not JAK3 or TYK2 autophosphorylation and this function required both the conserved JIR and additional sequences within the long SOCS5 N-terminal region. We further demonstrate that SOCS5 can directly inhibit JAK1 kinase activity, although its mechanism of action appears distinct from that of SOCS1 and SOCS3. In addition, we identify phosphoTyr317 in Shc-1 as a high-affinity substrate for the SOCS5-SH2 domain and suggest that SOCS5 may negatively regulate EGF and growth factor-driven Shc-1 signaling by binding to this site. These findings suggest that different domains in SOCS5 contribute to two distinct mechanisms for regulation of cytokine and growth factor signaling.

  20. Dynamics and fate of SOC in tidal marshes along a salinity gradient (Scheldt estuary, Belgium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Broek, Marijn; Temmermann, Stijn; Merckx, Roel; Wang, Zhengang; Govers, Gerard

    2016-04-01

    Coastal ecosystems have been attributed the potential to store large amounts of organic carbon (OC), often referred to as blue carbon, of which a considerable amount is stored in tidal marsh soils. Large uncertainties still exist with respect to the amount and controlling factors of soil organic carbon (SOC) stored in these ecosystems. Moreover, most research has focused on SOC dynamics of saltmarshes, while brackish and freshwater marshes are often even more productive and thus receive even larger organic carbon inputs. Therefore, in this study the OC dynamics of tidal marsh soils along an estuarine gradient are studied in order to contribute to our knowledge of 1) the stocks, 2) the controlling factors and 3) the fate of SOC in tidal marshes with different environmental characteristics. This research thus contributes to a better understanding of the potential of coastal environments to store organic carbon under future climatic changes. Soil and vegetation samples are collected in tidal salt-, brackish- and freshwater marshes in the Scheldt estuary (Belgium - The Netherlands). At each tidal marsh, three replicate soil cores up to 1.5m depth in 0.03m increments are collected at locations with both a low and a high elevation. These cores are analyzed for OC, stable C and N isotopes, bulk density and texture. Incubation experiments of topsoil samples were conducted and both aboveground and belowground biomass were collected. The results show that SOC stocks (range: 13,5 - 35,4 kg OC m-2), standing biomass (range: 2000 - 7930 g DW m-2) and potential soil respiration of CO2 (range: 0,03 - 0,12 % per unit OC per day) decrease with increasing salinity. This shows that both the amount of OC from local macrophytes and the quality of the organic matter are important factors controlling the SOC stocks. In addition, based on the analysis of stable C and N isotopes, it appears that when a significant fraction of SOC is derived from local macrophytes, higher SOC stocks are

  1. Architecture of the Multi-Modal Organizational Research and Production Heterogeneous Network (MORPHnet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aiken, R.J.; Carlson, R.A.; Foster, I.T. [and others

    1997-01-01

    The research and education (R&E) community requires persistent and scaleable network infrastructure to concurrently support production and research applications as well as network research. In the past, the R&E community has relied on supporting parallel network and end-node infrastructures, which can be very expensive and inefficient for network service managers and application programmers. The grand challenge in networking is to provide support for multiple, concurrent, multi-layer views of the network for the applications and the network researchers, and to satisfy the sometimes conflicting requirements of both while ensuring one type of traffic does not adversely affect the other. Internet and telecommunications service providers will also benefit from a multi-modal infrastructure, which can provide smoother transitions to new technologies and allow for testing of these technologies with real user traffic while they are still in the pre-production mode. The authors proposed approach requires the use of as much of the same network and end system infrastructure as possible to reduce the costs needed to support both classes of activities (i.e., production and research). Breaking the infrastructure into segments and objects (e.g., routers, switches, multiplexors, circuits, paths, etc.) gives the capability to dynamically construct and configure the virtual active networks to address these requirements. These capabilities must be supported at the campus, regional, and wide-area network levels to allow for collaboration by geographically dispersed groups. The Multi-Modal Organizational Research and Production Heterogeneous Network (MORPHnet) described in this report is an initial architecture and framework designed to identify and support the capabilities needed for the proposed combined infrastructure and to address related research issues.

  2. Communication-Oriented Design Space Exploration for Reconfigurable Architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gogniat Guy

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Many academic works in computer engineering focus on reconfigurable architectures and associated tools. Fine-grain architectures, field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs, are the most well-known structures of reconfigurable hardware. Dedicated tools (generic or specific allow for the exploration of their design space to choose the best architecture characteristics and/or to explore the application characteristics. The aim is to increase the synergy between the application and the architecture in order to get the best performance. However, there is no generic tool to perform such an exploration for coarse-grain or heterogeneous-grain architectures, just a small number of very specific tools are able to explore a limited set of architectures. To address this major lack, in this paper we propose a new design space exploration approach adapted to fine- and coarse-grain granularities. Our approach combines algorithmic and architecture explorations. It relies on an automatic estimation tool which computes the communication hierarchical distribution and the architectural processing resources use rate for the architecture under exploration. Such an approach forwards the rapid definition of efficient reconfigurable architectures dedicated to one or several applications.

  3. Longevity of contributions to SOC stocks from roots and aboveground plant litter below a Miscanthus plantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Andrew; Smith, Pete; Davies, Christian; Bottoms, Emily; McNamara, Niall

    2013-04-01

    Miscanthus is a lignocellulosic crop that uses the Hatch-Slack (C4) photosynthetic pathway as opposed to most C3 vegetation native to the UK. Miscanthus can be grown for a number of practical end-uses but recently interest has increased in its viability as a bioenergy crop; both providing a renewable source of energy and helping to limit climate change by improving the carbon (C) budgets associated with energy generation. Recent studies have shown that Miscanthus plantations may increase stocks of soil organic carbon (SOC), however the longevity and origin of this 'new' SOC must be assessed. Consequently, we combined an input manipulation experiment with physio-chemical soil fractionation to quantify new SOC and CO2 emissions from Miscanthus roots, decomposing plant litter and soil individually. Further, fractionation of SOC from the top 30 cm gave insight into the longevity of that SOC. In January 2009 twenty-five 2 m2 plots were set up in a three-year old 11 hectare Miscanthus plantation in Lincolnshire, UK; with five replicates of five treatments. These treatments varied plant input to the soil by way of controlled exclusion techniques. Treatments excluded roots only ("No Roots"), surface litter only ("No Litter"), both roots and surface litter ("No Roots or Litter") or had double the litter amount added to the soil surface ("Double Litter"). A fifth treatment was a control with undisturbed roots and an average amount of litter added. Monthly measurements of CO2 emissions were taken at the soil surface from each treatment between March 2009 and March 2013, and soil C from the top 30 cm was monitored in all plots over the same period. Miscanthus-derived SOC was determined using the isotopic discrimination between C4 plant matter and C3 soil, and soil fractionation was then used to establish the longevity of that Miscanthus-derived SOC. Ongoing results for CO2 emissions indicate a strong seasonal variation; litter decomposition forms a large portion of the CO2

  4. Efficient Support for Matrix Computations on Heterogeneous Multi-core and Multi-GPU Architectures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Fengguang [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Tomov, Stanimire [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Dongarra, Jack [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2011-06-01

    We present a new methodology for utilizing all CPU cores and all GPUs on a heterogeneous multicore and multi-GPU system to support matrix computations e ciently. Our approach is able to achieve the objectives of a high degree of parallelism, minimized synchronization, minimized communication, and load balancing. Our main idea is to treat the heterogeneous system as a distributed-memory machine, and to use a heterogeneous 1-D block cyclic distribution to allocate data to the host system and GPUs to minimize communication. We have designed heterogeneous algorithms with two di erent tile sizes (one for CPU cores and the other for GPUs) to cope with processor heterogeneity. We propose an auto-tuning method to determine the best tile sizes to attain both high performance and load balancing. We have also implemented a new runtime system and applied it to the Cholesky and QR factorizations. Our experiments on a compute node with two Intel Westmere hexa-core CPUs and three Nvidia Fermi GPUs demonstrate good weak scalability, strong scalability, load balance, and e ciency of our approach.

  5. Management of Distributed and Extendible Heterogeneous Radio Architectures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramkumar, Venkata; Mihovska, Albena D.; Prasad, Neeli R.

    2009-01-01

    Wireless communication systems are dynamic by nature, which comes from several factors, namely: radio propagation impairments, traffic changes, interference conditions, user mobility, etc. In a heterogeneous environment, , the dynamic network behavior calls for a dynamic management of the radio...... resources; a process that associates a large number of parameters and quality/performance indicators that need to be set, measured, analyzed, and optimized. Radio-over-fiber (RoF) technology involves the use of optical fiber links to distribute radio frequency (RF) signals from a central location to remote...

  6. Defining Inter-Cloud Architecture for Interoperability and Integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demchenko, Y.; Ngo, C.; Makkes, M.X.; Strijkers, R.J.; Laat, C. de

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents on-going research to develop the Inter-Cloud Architecture that should address problems in multi-provider multi-domain heterogeneous Cloud based applications integration and interoperability, including integration and interoperability with legacy infrastructure services. Cloud

  7. Suppressor of cytokine signaling 2 (SOCS2) deletion protects against multiple low dose streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes in adult male mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alkharusi, Amira; Mirecki-Garrido, Mercedes; Ma, Zuheng

    2016-01-01

    Background: Diabetes type 1 is characterized by the failure of beta cells to produce insulin. Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins are important regulators of the Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK-STAT) pathway. Previous studies have shown that GH can...... prevent the development of type I diabetes in mice and that SOCS2 deficiency mimics a state of increased GH sensitivity. Methodology: The elevated sensitivity of SOCS2-/- mice to GH and possibly to PRL was the rationale to analyze the effects of multiple low dose streptozotocin (MLDSTZ)-induced diabetes...... in SOCS2-/- mice. Results: We show that 6-month-old SOCS2-/- mice, but not 2-month-old mice, were less sensitive to MLDSTZ-induced diabetes, compared to controls. MLDSTZ treatment induced glucose intolerance in both SOCS2+/+ and SOCS2-/- mice, as shown by glucose tolerance tests, with SOCS2+/+ mice...

  8. A Practical Software Architecture for Virtual Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Peifeng; Shi, Yuanchun; Qin, Weijun

    2006-01-01

    This article introduces a practical software architecture called CUBES, which focuses on system integration and evolvement for online virtual universities. The key of CUBES is a supporting platform that helps to integrate and evolve heterogeneous educational applications developed by different organizations. Both standardized educational…

  9. The mechanisms behind the formation of a strong Sense of Coherence (SOC): The role of migration and integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slootjes, J.; Keuzenkamp, Saskia; Saharso, S.

    2017-01-01

    Considering how much we know about the impact of the Sense of Coherence (SOC) on different health-related outcomes, we know surprisingly little about how a strong SOC actually develops. In this study we examine the mechanisms behind the formation of a strong SOC and study the role of migration,

  10. LCM-seq reveals the crucial role of LsSOC1 in heat-promoted bolting of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zijing; Zhao, Wensheng; Ge, Danfeng; Han, Yingyan; Ning, Kang; Luo, Chen; Wang, Shenglin; Liu, Renyi; Zhang, Xiaolan; Wang, Qian

    2018-05-17

    Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) is one of the most economically important vegetables. The floral transition in lettuce is accelerated under high temperatures, which can significantly decrease yields. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the floral tranition in lettuce is poorly known. Using laser capture microdissection coupled with RNA sequencing, we isolated shoot apical meristem cells from the bolting-sensitive lettuce line S39 at four critical stages of development. Subsequently, we screened specifically for the flowering-related gene LsSOC1 during the floral transition through comparative transcriptomic analysis. Molecular biology, developmental biology, and biochemical tools were combined to investigate the biological function of LsSOC1 in lettuce. LsSOC1 knockdown by RNA interference resulted in a significant delay in the timing of bolting and insensitivity to high temperature, which indicated that LsSOC1 functions as an activator during heat-promoted bolting in lettuce. We determined that two heat-shock transcription factors, HsfA1e and HsfA4c, bound to the promoter of LsSOC1 to confirm that LsSOC1 played an important role in heat-promoted bolting. This study indicates that LsSOC1 plays a crucial role in the heat-promoted bolting process in lettuce. Further investigation of LsSOC1 may be useful for clarification of the bolting mechanism in lettuce. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  11. Heterogeneous Multicore Parallel Programming for Graphics Processing Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois Bodin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid parallel multicore architectures based on graphics processing units (GPUs can provide tremendous computing power. Current NVIDIA and AMD Graphics Product Group hardware display a peak performance of hundreds of gigaflops. However, exploiting GPUs from existing applications is a difficult task that requires non-portable rewriting of the code. In this paper, we present HMPP, a Heterogeneous Multicore Parallel Programming workbench with compilers, developed by CAPS entreprise, that allows the integration of heterogeneous hardware accelerators in a unintrusive manner while preserving the legacy code.

  12. Influenza A virus inhibits type I IFN signaling via NF-kappaB-dependent induction of SOCS-3 expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva-K Pauli

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The type I interferon (IFN system is a first line of defense against viral infections. Viruses have developed various mechanisms to counteract this response. So far, the interferon antagonistic activity of influenza A viruses was mainly observed on the level of IFNbeta gene induction via action of the viral non-structural protein 1 (NS1. Here we present data indicating that influenza A viruses not only suppress IFNbeta gene induction but also inhibit type I IFN signaling through a mechanism involving induction of the suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 (SOCS-3 protein. Our study was based on the observation that in cells that were infected with influenza A virus and subsequently stimulated with IFNalpha/beta, phosphorylation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription protein 1 (STAT1 was strongly reduced. This impaired STAT1 activation was not due to the action of viral proteins but rather appeared to be induced by accumulation of viral 5' triphosphate RNA in the cell. SOCS proteins are potent endogenous inhibitors of Janus kinase (JAK/STAT signaling. Closer examination revealed that SOCS-3 but not SOCS-1 mRNA levels increase in an RNA- and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB-dependent but type I IFN-independent manner early in the viral replication cycle. This direct viral induction of SOCS-3 mRNA and protein expression appears to be relevant for suppression of the antiviral response since in SOCS-3 deficient cells a sustained phosphorylation of STAT1 correlated with elevated expression of type I IFN-dependent genes. As a consequence, progeny virus titers were reduced in SOCS-3 deficient cells or in cells were SOCS-3 expression was knocked-down by siRNA. These data provide the first evidence that influenza A viruses suppress type I IFN signaling on the level of JAK/STAT activation. The inhibitory effect is at least in part due to the induction of SOCS-3 gene expression, which results in an impaired antiviral response.

  13. An Automated Planning Model for RoF Heterogeneous Wireless Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shawky, Ahmed; Bergheim, Hans; Ragnarsson, Ólafur

    2010-01-01

    The number of users in wireless WANs is increasing like never before, at the same time as the bandwidth demands by users increase.The structure of the third generation Wireless WANs makes it expensive for Wireless ISPs to meet these demands.The FUTON architecture is a RoF heterogeneous wireless...... network architecture under development,that will be cheaper to deploy and operate.This paper shows a method to plan an implementation of this architecture.The planning is done as automatic as possible,covering radio planning, fiber planning and network dimensioning. The out come of the paper is a planning...

  14. Characterization of oil and gas reservoir heterogeneity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyler, N.; Barton, M.D.; Bebout, D.G.; Fisher, R.S.; Grigsby, J.D.; Guevara, E.; Holtz, M.; Kerans, C.; Nance, H.S.; Levey, R.A.

    1992-10-01

    Research described In this report addresses the internal architecture of two specific reservoir types: restricted-platform carbonates and fluvial-deltaic sandstones. Together, these two reservoir types contain more than two-thirds of the unrecovered mobile oil remaining ill Texas. The approach followed in this study was to develop a strong understanding of the styles of heterogeneity of these reservoir types based on a detailed outcrop description and a translation of these findings into optimized recovery strategies in select subsurface analogs. Research targeted Grayburg Formation restricted-platform carbonate outcrops along the Algerita Escarpment and In Stone Canyon In southeastern New Mexico and Ferron deltaic sandstones in central Utah as analogs for the North Foster (Grayburg) and Lake Creek (Wilcox) units, respectively. In both settings, sequence-stratigraphic style profoundly influenced between-well architectural fabric and permeability structure. It is concluded that reservoirs of different depositional origins can therefore be categorized Into a heterogeneity matrix'' based on varying intensity of vertical and lateral heterogeneity. The utility of the matrix is that it allows prediction of the nature and location of remaining mobile oil. Highly stratified reservoirs such as the Grayburg, for example, will contain a large proportion of vertically bypassed oil; thus, an appropriate recovery strategy will be waterflood optimization and profile modification. Laterally heterogeneous reservoirs such as deltaic distributary systems would benefit from targeted infill drilling (possibly with horizontal wells) and improved areal sweep efficiency. Potential for advanced recovery of remaining mobile oil through heterogeneity-based advanced secondary recovery strategies In Texas is projected to be an Incremental 16 Bbbl. In the Lower 48 States this target may be as much as 45 Bbbl at low to moderate oil prices over the near- to mid-term.

  15. Cardiac-Specific SOCS3 Deletion Prevents In Vivo Myocardial Ischemia Reperfusion Injury through Sustained Activation of Cardioprotective Signaling Molecules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takanobu Nagata

    Full Text Available Myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI adversely affects cardiac performance and the prognosis of patients with acute myocardial infarction. Although myocardial signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT 3 is potently cardioprotective during IRI, the inhibitory mechanism responsible for its activation is largely unknown. The present study aimed to investigate the role of the myocardial suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS-3, an intrinsic negative feedback regulator of the Janus kinase (JAK-STAT signaling pathway, in the development of myocardial IRI. Myocardial IRI was induced in mice by ligating the left anterior descending coronary artery for 1 h, followed by different reperfusion times. One hour after reperfusion, the rapid expression of JAK-STAT-activating cytokines was observed. We precisely evaluated the phosphorylation of cardioprotective signaling molecules and the expression of SOCS3 during IRI and then induced myocardial IRI in wild-type and cardiac-specific SOCS3 knockout mice (SOCS3-CKO. The activation of STAT3, AKT, and ERK1/2 rapidly peaked and promptly decreased during IRI. This decrease correlated with the induction of SOCS3 expression up to 24 h after IRI in wild-type mice. The infarct size 24 h after reperfusion was significantly reduced in SOCS3-CKO compared with wild-type mice. In SOCS3-CKO mice, STAT3, AKT, and ERK1/2 phosphorylation was sustained, myocardial apoptosis was prevented, and the expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family member myeloid cell leukemia-1 (Mcl-1 was augmented. Cardiac-specific SOCS3 deletion led to the sustained activation of cardioprotective signaling molecules including and prevented myocardial apoptosis and injury during IRI. Our findings suggest that SOCS3 may represent a key factor that exacerbates the development of myocardial IRI.

  16. DART: A Functional-Level Reconfigurable Architecture for High Energy Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Raphaël

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Flexibility becomes a major concern for the development of multimedia and mobile communication systems, as well as classical high-performance and low-energy consumption constraints. The use of general-purpose processors solves flexibility problems but fails to cope with the increasing demand for energy efficiency. This paper presents the DART architecture based on the functional-level reconfiguration paradigm which allows a significant improvement in energy efficiency. DART is built around a hierarchical interconnection network allowing high flexibility while keeping the power overhead low. To enable specific optimizations, DART supports two modes of reconfiguration. The compilation framework is built using compilation and high-level synthesis techniques. A 3G mobile communication application has been implemented as a proof of concept. The energy distribution within the architecture and the physical implementation are also discussed. Finally, the VLSI design of a 0.13  m CMOS SoC implementing a specialized DART cluster is presented.

  17. DART: A Functional-Level Reconfigurable Architecture for High Energy Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Pillement

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Flexibility becomes a major concern for the development of multimedia and mobile communication systems, as well as classical high-performance and low-energy consumption constraints. The use of general-purpose processors solves flexibility problems but fails to cope with the increasing demand for energy efficiency. This paper presents the DART architecture based on the functional-level reconfiguration paradigm which allows a significant improvement in energy efficiency. DART is built around a hierarchical interconnection network allowing high flexibility while keeping the power overhead low. To enable specific optimizations, DART supports two modes of reconfiguration. The compilation framework is built using compilation and high-level synthesis techniques. A 3G mobile communication application has been implemented as a proof of concept. The energy distribution within the architecture and the physical implementation are also discussed. Finally, the VLSI design of a 0.13 μm CMOS SoC implementing a specialized DART cluster is presented.

  18. Hierarchical unilamellar vesicles of controlled compositional heterogeneity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maik Hadorn

    Full Text Available Eukaryotic life contains hierarchical vesicular architectures (i.e. organelles that are crucial for material production and trafficking, information storage and access, as well as energy production. In order to perform specific tasks, these compartments differ among each other in their membrane composition and their internal cargo and also differ from the cell membrane and the cytosol. Man-made structures that reproduce this nested architecture not only offer a deeper understanding of the functionalities and evolution of organelle-bearing eukaryotic life but also allow the engineering of novel biomimetic technologies. Here, we show the newly developed vesicle-in-water-in-oil emulsion transfer preparation technique to result in giant unilamellar vesicles internally compartmentalized by unilamellar vesicles of different membrane composition and internal cargo, i.e. hierarchical unilamellar vesicles of controlled compositional heterogeneity. The compartmentalized giant unilamellar vesicles were subsequently isolated by a separation step exploiting the heterogeneity of the membrane composition and the encapsulated cargo. Due to the controlled, efficient, and technically straightforward character of the new preparation technique, this study allows the hierarchical fabrication of compartmentalized giant unilamellar vesicles of controlled compositional heterogeneity and will ease the development of eukaryotic cell mimics that resemble their natural templates as well as the fabrication of novel multi-agent drug delivery systems for combination therapies and complex artificial microreactors.

  19. Suppressor of cytokine signaling 4 (SOCS4 protects against severe cytokine storm and enhances viral clearance during influenza infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukasz Kedzierski

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS proteins are key regulators of innate and adaptive immunity. There is no described biological role for SOCS4, despite broad expression in the hematopoietic system. We demonstrate that mice lacking functional SOCS4 protein rapidly succumb to infection with a pathogenic H1N1 influenza virus (PR8 and are hypersusceptible to infection with the less virulent H3N2 (X31 strain. In SOCS4-deficient animals, this led to substantially greater weight loss, dysregulated pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine production in the lungs and delayed viral clearance. This was associated with impaired trafficking of influenza-specific CD8 T cells to the site of infection and linked to defects in T cell receptor activation. These results demonstrate that SOCS4 is a critical regulator of anti-viral immunity.

  20. SOCS3 inhibits the pathological effects of IL-22 in non-melanoma skin tumor-derived keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madonna, Stefania; Scarponi, Claudia; Morelli, Martina; Sestito, Rosanna; Scognamiglio, Pasqualina Liana; Marasco, Daniela; Albanesi, Cristina

    2017-04-11

    Basal cell carcinomas (BCC) and squamous-cell carcinomas (SCC) are common malignancies in humans, caused by neoplastic transformation of keratinocytes of the basal or suprabasal layers of epidermis, respectively. Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) are frequently found in BCC and SCC, and functionally promote epithelial carcinogenesis. TILs secreting IL-22, in particular, participate to BCC and SCC growth by inducing keratinocyte proliferation and migration, as well as the expression of inflammatory, anti-apoptotic and pro-angiogenic genes.In this study, we identified SOCS3 as a valid candidate to be manipulated for suppressing tumorigenic functions in BCC and SCC. We found that SOCS3 and SOCS1 expression was reduced in vivo, in tumor lesions of BCC and SCC, as compared to other skin inflammatory conditions such as psoriasis, despite the high number of IL-22-secreting TILs. Moreover, IL-22 was not able to induce in vitro the transcriptional expression of SOCS3 in BCC-or SCC-derived keratinocytes, contrarily to healthy cells. Aimed at rescuing SOCS3 activity in these tumor contexts, a SOCS3-derived peptide, named KIR-ESS, was synthesized, and its ability in suppressing IL-22-induced responses was evaluated in healthy and transformed keratinocytes. We found that KIR-ESS peptide efficiently suppressed the IL-22 molecular signaling in keratinocytes, by acting on STAT3 and Erk1/2 cascade, as well as on the expression of STAT3-dependent downstream genes. Interestingly, after treatment with peptide, both healthy and transformed keratinocytes could no longer aberrantly proliferate and migrate in response to IL-22. Finally, treatment of athymic nude mice bearing SCC xenografts with KIR-ESS peptide concomitantly reduced tumor growth and activated STAT3 levels. As a whole, these data provides the rationale for the use in BCC and SCC skin tumors of SOCS3 mimetics, being able to inhibit the deleterious effects of IL-22 in these contexts.

  1. Heterogeneous Organo-Catalysis: Sustainable Pathways to Furanics from Biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glucose and fructose are among the most abundant plant-derived materials1 and have been converted into useful building units often used in the drug discovery and polymer architecture.2 Unfortunately, most of these conversions require mineral acids and complex heterogeneous cataly...

  2. Transport-distance specific SOC distribution: Does it skew erosion induced C fluxes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yaxian; Berbe, Asmerat Asefaw; Fogel, Marilyn L.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The net effect of soil erosion by water, as a sink or source of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), is determined by the spatial (re-)distribution and stability of eroded soil organic carbon (SOC), and the dynamic replacement of eroded C by the production of new photosynthate. The depositi......Abstract The net effect of soil erosion by water, as a sink or source of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), is determined by the spatial (re-)distribution and stability of eroded soil organic carbon (SOC), and the dynamic replacement of eroded C by the production of new photosynthate...... the actual movement of eroded soil fractions along hillslopes, let alone the re-distribution pattern of SOC fractions. Eroding sandy soils and sediment were sampled after a series of rainfall events along a slope on a freshly seeded cropland in Jutland, Denmark. All the soil samples were fractionated...... into five settling classes using a settling tube apparatus. The spatial distribution of soil settling classes shows a coarsening effect immediately below the eroding slope, followed by a fining trend at the slope tail. These findings support the validity of the conceptual model proposed by Starr et al...

  3. Die-stacking architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Xie, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    The emerging three-dimensional (3D) chip architectures, with their intrinsic capability of reducing the wire length, promise attractive solutions to reduce the delay of interconnects in future microprocessors. 3D memory stacking enables much higher memory bandwidth for future chip-multiprocessor design, mitigating the ""memory wall"" problem. In addition, heterogenous integration enabled by 3D technology can also result in innovative designs for future microprocessors. This book first provides a brief introduction to this emerging technology, and then presents a variety of approaches to design

  4. Design of a Bidirectional Energy Storage System for a Vanadium Redox Flow Battery in a Microgrid with SOC Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingwu Gong

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper used a Vanadium Redox flow Battery (VRB as the storage battery and designed a two-stage topology of a VRB energy storage system in which a phase-shifted full bridge dc-dc converter and three-phase inverter were used, considering the low terminal voltage of the VRB. Following this, a model of the VRB was simplified, according to the operational characteristics of the VRB in this designed topology of a VRB energy storage system (ESS. By using the simplified equivalent model of the VRB, the control parameters of the ESS were designed. For effectively estimating the state of charge (SOC of the VRB, a traditional method for providing the SOC estimation was simplified, and a simple and effective SOC estimation method was proposed in this paper. Finally, to illustrate the proper design of the VRB ESS and the proposed SOC estimation method, a corresponding simulation was designed by Simulink. The test results have demonstrated that this proposed SOC estimation method is feasible and effective for indicating the SOC of a VRB and the proper design of this VRB ESS is very reasonable for VRB applications.

  5. Architecture for multi-technology real-time location systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodas, Javier; Barral, Valentín; Escudero, Carlos J

    2013-02-07

    The rising popularity of location-based services has prompted considerable research in the field of indoor location systems. Since there is no single technology to support these systems, it is necessary to consider the fusion of the information coming from heterogeneous sensors. This paper presents a software architecture designed for a hybrid location system where we can merge information from multiple sensor technologies. The architecture was designed to be used by different kinds of actors independently and with mutual transparency: hardware administrators, algorithm developers and user applications. The paper presents the architecture design, work-flow, case study examples and some results to show how different technologies can be exploited to obtain a good estimation of a target position.

  6. Policy-Based mobility Management for Heterogeneous Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mihovska, Albena D.

    2007-01-01

    Next generation communications will be composed of flexible, scalable and context-aware, secure and resilient architectures and technologies that allow full mobility of the user and enable dynamic management policies that ensure end-to-end secure transmission of data and services across heterogen......Next generation communications will be composed of flexible, scalable and context-aware, secure and resilient architectures and technologies that allow full mobility of the user and enable dynamic management policies that ensure end-to-end secure transmission of data and services across...... access technology (RAT) association, user and flow context transfer, handover decision, and deployment priority. Index Terms— distributed RRM, centralized...

  7. The Chameleon Architecture for Streaming DSP Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André B. J. Kokkeler

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available We focus on architectures for streaming DSP applications such as wireless baseband processing and image processing. We aim at a single generic architecture that is capable of dealing with different DSP applications. This architecture has to be energy efficient and fault tolerant. We introduce a heterogeneous tiled architecture and present the details of a domain-specific reconfigurable tile processor called Montium. This reconfigurable processor has a small footprint (1.8 mm2 in a 130 nm process, is power efficient and exploits the locality of reference principle. Reconfiguring the device is very fast, for example, loading the coefficients for a 200 tap FIR filter is done within 80 clock cycles. The tiles on the tiled architecture are connected to a Network-on-Chip (NoC via a network interface (NI. Two NoCs have been developed: a packet-switched and a circuit-switched version. Both provide two types of services: guaranteed throughput (GT and best effort (BE. For both NoCs estimates of power consumption are presented. The NI synchronizes data transfers, configures and starts/stops the tile processor. For dynamically mapping applications onto the tiled architecture, we introduce a run-time mapping tool.

  8. The Chameleon Architecture for Streaming DSP Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heysters PaulM

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We focus on architectures for streaming DSP applications such as wireless baseband processing and image processing. We aim at a single generic architecture that is capable of dealing with different DSP applications. This architecture has to be energy efficient and fault tolerant. We introduce a heterogeneous tiled architecture and present the details of a domain-specific reconfigurable tile processor called Montium. This reconfigurable processor has a small footprint (1.8 mm2 in a 130 nm process, is power efficient and exploits the locality of reference principle. Reconfiguring the device is very fast, for example, loading the coefficients for a 200 tap FIR filter is done within 80 clock cycles. The tiles on the tiled architecture are connected to a Network-on-Chip (NoC via a network interface (NI. Two NoCs have been developed: a packet-switched and a circuit-switched version. Both provide two types of services: guaranteed throughput (GT and best effort (BE. For both NoCs estimates of power consumption are presented. The NI synchronizes data transfers, configures and starts/stops the tile processor. For dynamically mapping applications onto the tiled architecture, we introduce a run-time mapping tool.

  9. Adaptive heterogeneous multi-robot teams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, L.E.

    1998-11-01

    This research addresses the problem of achieving fault tolerant cooperation within small- to medium-sized teams of heterogeneous mobile robots. The author describes a novel behavior-based, fully distributed architecture, called ALLIANCE, that utilizes adaptive action selection to achieve fault tolerant cooperative control in robot missions involving loosely coupled, largely independent tasks. The robots in this architecture possess a variety of high-level functions that they can perform during a mission, and must at all times select an appropriate action based on the requirements of the mission, the activities of other robots, the current environmental conditions, and their own internal states. Since such cooperative teams often work in dynamic and unpredictable environments, the software architecture allows the team members to respond robustly and reliably to unexpected environmental changes and modifications in the robot team that may occur due to mechanical failure, the learning of new skills, or the addition or removal of robots from the team by human intervention. After presenting ALLIANCE, the author describes in detail the experimental results of an implementation of this architecture on a team of physical mobile robots performing a cooperative box pushing demonstration. These experiments illustrate the ability of ALLIANCE to achieve adaptive, fault-tolerant cooperative control amidst dynamic changes in the capabilities of the robot team.

  10. Kepler: A Search for Terrestrial Planets - SOC 9.3 DR25 Pipeline Parameter Configuration Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jennifer R.

    2017-01-01

    This document describes the manner in which the pipeline and algorithm parameters for the Kepler Science Operations Center (SOC) science data processing pipeline were managed. This document is intended for scientists and software developers who wish to better understand the software design for the final Kepler codebase (SOC 9.3) and the effect of the software parameters on the Data Release (DR) 25 archival products.

  11. Imaging of heterogeneous materials by prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staples, Parrish; Prettyman, Tom; Lestone, John

    1999-01-01

    We have used a Tomographic Gamma Scanner (TGS) to produce tomographic Prompt Gamma-Ray Neutron Activation Imaging of heterogeneous matrices [T.H. Prettyman, R.J. Estep, G.A. Sheppard, Trans. Am. Nucl. Soc. 69 (1993) 183-184]. The TGS was modified by the addition of graphite reflectors that contain isotopic neutron sources for sample interrogation. We are in the process of developing the analysis methodology necessary for a quantitative assay of large containers of heterogeneous material. This nondestructive analysis technique can be used for material characterization and the determination of neutron assay correction factors. The most difficult question to be answered is the determination of the source to sample coupling term. To assist in the determination of the coupling term we have obtained images for a range of samples that are very well characterized; such as, homogenous pseudo one-dimensional samples to three-dimensional heterogeneous samples. We then compare the measurements to Monte Carlo N-particle calculations. For an accurate quantitative measurement it is also necessary to determine the sample gamma-ray self attenuation at higher gamma-ray energies, namely pair production should be incorporated into the analysis codes

  12. IoT Architectural Framework: Connection and Integration Framework for IoT Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Uviase, Onoriode; Kotonya, Gerald

    2018-01-01

    The proliferation of the Internet of Things (IoT) has since seen a growing interest in architectural design and adaptive frameworks to promote the connection between heterogeneous IoT devices and IoT systems. The most widely favoured software architecture in IoT is the Service Oriented Architecture (SOA), which aims to provide a loosely coupled systems to leverage the use and reuse of IoT services at the middle-ware layer, to minimise system integration problems. However, despite the flexibil...

  13. Computational model of 18650 lithium-ion battery with coupled strain rate and SOC dependencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Jun; Liu, Binghe; Wang, Xinyi; Hu, Dayong

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • An anisotropic model to describe mechanical behaviors of LIB is established. • SOC dependency is included in the mechanical model of the jellyroll. • Dynamic effect is considered in the model for LIB. - Abstract: Highly nonlinear structures and constituent materials and hazardous experiment situations have resulted in a pressing need for a numerical mechanical model for lithium-ion battery (LIB). However, such a model is still not well established. In this paper, an anisotropic homogeneous model describing the jellyroll and the battery shell is established and validated through compression, indentation, and bending tests at quasi-static loadings. In this model, state-of-charge (SOC) dependency of the LIB is further included through an analogy with the strain-rate effect. Moreover, with consideration of the inertia and strain-rate effects, the anisotropic homogeneous model is extended into the dynamic regime and proven capable of predicting the dynamic response of the LIB using the drop-weight test. The established model may help to predict extreme cases with high SOCs and crashing speeds with an over 135% improved accuracy compared to traditional models. The established coupled strain rate and SOC dependencies of the numerical mechanical model for the LIB aims to provide a solid step toward unraveling and quantifying the complicated problems for research on LIB mechanical integrity.

  14. Online cell SOC estimation of Li-ion battery packs using a dual time-scale Kalman filtering for EV applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Haifeng; Wei, Xuezhe; Sun, Zechang; Wang, Jiayuan; Gu, Weijun

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We use an equivalent circuit model to describe the characteristics of battery. ► A dual time-scale estimator is used to calculate pack average SOC and cell SOC. ► The estimator is based on the dynamic descriptions and extended Kalman filter. ► Three different test cases are designed to validate the proposed method. ► Test results indicate a good performance of the method for EV applications. -- Abstract: For the vehicular operation, due to the voltage and power/energy requirements, the battery systems are usually composed of up to hundreds of cells connected in series or parallel. To accommodate the operation conditions, the battery management system (BMS) should estimate State of Charge (SOC) to facilitate safe and efficient utilization of the battery. The performance difference among the cells makes a pure pack SOC estimation hardly provide sufficient information, which at last affects the computation of available energy and power and the safety of the battery system. So for a reliable and accurate management, the BMS should “know” the SOC of each individual cell. Several possible solutions on this issue have been reported in the recent years. This paper studies a method to determine online all individual cell SOCs of a series-connected battery pack. This method, with an equivalent circuit based “averaged cell” model, estimates the battery pack’s average SOC first, and then incorporates the performance divergences between the “averaged cell” and each individual cell to generate the SOC estimations for all cells. This method is developed based on extended Kalman filter (EKF), and to reduce the computation cost, a dual time-scale implementation is designed. The method is validated using results obtained from the measurements of a Li-ion battery pack under three different tests, and analysis indicates the good performance of the algorithm.

  15. Integrating hospital information systems in healthcare institutions: a mediation architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Azami, Ikram; Cherkaoui Malki, Mohammed Ouçamah; Tahon, Christian

    2012-10-01

    Many studies have examined the integration of information systems into healthcare institutions, leading to several standards in the healthcare domain (CORBAmed: Common Object Request Broker Architecture in Medicine; HL7: Health Level Seven International; DICOM: Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine; and IHE: Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise). Due to the existence of a wide diversity of heterogeneous systems, three essential factors are necessary to fully integrate a system: data, functions and workflow. However, most of the previous studies have dealt with only one or two of these factors and this makes the system integration unsatisfactory. In this paper, we propose a flexible, scalable architecture for Hospital Information Systems (HIS). Our main purpose is to provide a practical solution to insure HIS interoperability so that healthcare institutions can communicate without being obliged to change their local information systems and without altering the tasks of the healthcare professionals. Our architecture is a mediation architecture with 3 levels: 1) a database level, 2) a middleware level and 3) a user interface level. The mediation is based on two central components: the Mediator and the Adapter. Using the XML format allows us to establish a structured, secured exchange of healthcare data. The notion of medical ontology is introduced to solve semantic conflicts and to unify the language used for the exchange. Our mediation architecture provides an effective, promising model that promotes the integration of hospital information systems that are autonomous, heterogeneous, semantically interoperable and platform-independent.

  16. A microprocessor from AVR to embedded SoC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Geum Seoh

    2005-01-01

    This book was divided into two parts. The first part consists of ten chapter, which are basic knowledge, code vision AVR compiler, analysis on code vision, introduction and characteristic of AVR, I/O ports, interrupt and timer/counter, LCD, serial communication, analog comparator and stepping Motor and digital control of DC Motor. In the second part, it introduces Embedded Soc including application field, its characteristic, general description, functional description, designs with Quartus II.

  17. A Cryptographic SoC for Robust Protection of Secret Keys in IPTV DRM Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sanghan; Yang, Hae-Yong; Yeom, Yongjin; Park, Jongsik

    The security level of an internet protocol television (IPTV) digital right management (DRM) system ultimately relies on protection of secret keys. Well known devices for the key protection include smartcards and battery backup SRAMs (BB-SRAMs); however, these devices could be vulnerable to various physical attacks. In this paper, we propose a secure and cost-effective design of a cryptographic system on chip (SoC) that integrates the BB-SRAM with a cell-based design technique. The proposed SoC provides robust safeguard against the physical attacks, and satisfies high-speed and low-price requirements of IPTV set-top boxes. Our implementation results show that the maximum encryption rate of the SoC is 633Mb/s. In order to verify the data retention capabilities, we made a prototype chip using 0.18µm standard cell technology. The experimental results show that the integrated BB-SRAM can reliably retain data with a 1.4µA leakage current.

  18. The ZYNQ book embedded processing with the ARM Cortex-A9 on the Xilinx Zynq-7000 all programmable SoC

    CERN Document Server

    Crockett, Louise H; Enderwitz, Martin A; Stewart, Robert W

    2014-01-01

    This book is about the Zynq-7000 All Programmable System on Chip, the family of devices from Xilinx that combines an application-grade ARM Cortex-A9 processor with traditional FPGA logic fabric. Catering for both new and experienced readers, it covers fundamental issues in an accessible way, starting with a clear overview of the device architecture, and an introduction to the design tools and processes for developing a Zynq SoC. Later chapters progress to more advanced topics such as embedded systems development, IP block design and operating systems. Maintaining a 'real-world' perspective, the book also compares Zynq with other device alternatives, and considers end-user applications. The Zynq Book is accompanied by a set of practical tutorials hosted on a companion website. These tutorials will guide the reader through first steps with Zynq, following on to a complete, audio-based embedded systems design.

  19. Gaining Insights on the H2–Sorbent Interactions: Robust soc-MOF Platform as a Case Study

    KAUST Repository

    Cairns, Amy

    2016-09-18

    We report on the synthesis and gas adsorption properties (i.e., Ar and H2) of four robust 3-periodic metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) having the targeted soc topology. These cationic MOFs are isostructural to the parent indium-based MOF, In-soc-MOF-1a (for NO3–), previously reported by us, and likewise are constructed from the assembly of rigid μ3-oxygen-centered trinuclear metal carboxylate clusters, [M3O(O2C−)6], where M = In3+ or Fe3+. Each inorganic trinuclear molecular building block (MBB), generated in situ, is bridged by six 3,3′,5,5′-azobenzenetetracarboxylate (ABTC4–) ligands to give the extended (4,6)-connected MOF, soc-MOF. In our previous work, we confirmed that the parent soc-MOF, i.e., In-soc-MOF-1a, possesses unique structural characteristics (e.g., vacant In binding sites and narrow pores with higher localized charge density), which led to exceptional hydrogen (H2) storage capabilities. Therefore, charged MOFs with soc topology can be viewed collectively as an ideal prototypical platform to examine the impact of specific structural parameters on H2–MOF interactions via systematic gas adsorption studies. We infer that enhanced binding of molecular H2 is primarily governed by the presence and type of vacant metal centers (i.e., Fe was shown to exhibit stronger H2–MOF interactions at low H2 loading compared to the In analogues). These findings are evident from the associated isosteric heat of adsorption (Qst) at low loadings and inelastic neutron scattering (INS) experiments of the rotational transitions of sorbed H2, as well as, temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) studies (for a select compound). The importance of localized charge density is also highlighted, where the extra-framework nitrate anions in the Fe-soc-MOF-1a (for NO3–) facilitate enhanced binding affinities as compared to the chloride analogue.

  20. Prediction of SOC content by Vis-NIR spectroscopy at European scale using a modified local PLS algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocita, M.; Stevens, A.; Toth, G.; van Wesemael, B.; Montanarella, L.

    2012-12-01

    In the context of global environmental change, the estimation of carbon fluxes between soils and the atmosphere has been the object of a growing number of studies. This has been motivated notably by the possibility to sequester CO2 into soils by increasing the soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks and by the role of SOC in maintaining soil quality. Spatial variability of SOC masks its slow accumulation or depletion, and the sampling density required to detect a change in SOC content is often very high and thus very expensive and labour intensive. Visible near infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (Vis-NIR DRS) has been shown to be a fast, cheap and efficient tool for the prediction of SOC at fine scales. However, when applied to regional or country scales, Vis-NIR DRS did not provide sufficient accuracy as an alternative to standard laboratory soil analysis for SOC monitoring. Under the framework of Land Use/Cover Area Frame Statistical Survey (LUCAS) project of the European Commission's Joint Research Centre (JRC), about 20,000 samples were collected all over European Union. Soil samples were analyzed for several physical and chemical parameters, and scanned with a Vis-NIR spectrometer in the same laboratory. The scope of our research was to predict SOC content at European scale using LUCAS spectral library. We implemented a modified local partial least square regression (l-PLS) including, in addition to spectral distance, other potentially useful covariates (geography, texture, etc.) to select for each unknown sample a group of predicting neighbours. The dataset was split in mineral soils under cropland, mineral soils under grassland, mineral soils under woodland, and organic soils due to the extremely diverse spectral response of the four classes. Four every class training (70%) and test (30%) sets were created to calibrate and validate the SOC prediction models. The results showed very good prediction ability for mineral soils under cropland and mineral soils

  1. UD-DKF-based Parameters on-line Identification Method and AEKF-Based SOC Estimation Strategy of Lithium-ion Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuanju Dang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available State of charge (SOC is a significant parameter for the Battery Management System (BMS. The accurate estimation of the SOC can not only guarantee the SOC remaining within a reasonable scope of work, but also prevent the battery from being over or deeply-charged to extend the lifespan of battery. In this paper, the third-order RC equivalent circuit model is adopted to describe cell characteristics and the dual Kalman filter (DKF is used online to identify model parameters for battery. In order to avoid the impacts of rounding error calculation leading to the estimation error matrix loss of non-negative qualitative which result in the filtering divergence phenomenon, the UD decomposition method is applied for filtering time and state updates simultaneously to enhance the stability of the algorithm, reduce the computational complexity and improve the high recognition accuracy. Based on the obtained model parameters, Adaptive Extended Kalman Filter (AEKF is introduced to online estimate the SOC of battery. The simulation and experimental results demonstrate that the established third-order RC equivalent circuit model is effective, and the SOC estimation has a higher precision.

  2. Architecture for Multi-Technology Real-Time Location Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodas, Javier; Barral, Valentín; Escudero, Carlos J.

    2013-01-01

    The rising popularity of location-based services has prompted considerable research in the field of indoor location systems. Since there is no single technology to support these systems, it is necessary to consider the fusion of the information coming from heterogeneous sensors. This paper presents a software architecture designed for a hybrid location system where we can merge information from multiple sensor technologies. The architecture was designed to be used by different kinds of actors independently and with mutual transparency: hardware administrators, algorithm developers and user applications. The paper presents the architecture design, work-flow, case study examples and some results to show how different technologies can be exploited to obtain a good estimation of a target position. PMID:23435050

  3. Role of Ubiquitylation in Controlling Suppressor of Cytokine Signalling 3 (SOCS3 Function and Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie J. L. Williams

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The realisation that unregulated activation of the Janus kinase–signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK–STAT pathway is a key driver of a wide range of diseases has identified its components as targets for therapeutic intervention by small molecule inhibitors and biologicals. In this review, we discuss JAK-STAT signalling pathway inhibition by the inducible inhibitor “suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3, its role in diseases such as myeloproliferative disorders, and its function as part of a multi-subunit E3 ubiquitin ligase complex. In addition, we highlight potential applications of these insights into SOCS3-based therapeutic strategies for management of conditions such as vascular re-stenosis associated with acute vascular injury, where there is strong evidence that multiple processes involved in disease progression could be attenuated by localized potentiation of SOCS3 expression levels.

  4. Efficient Programming for Multicore Processor Heterogeneity: OpenMP versus OmpSs

    OpenAIRE

    Butko , Anastasiia; Bruguier , Florent; Gamatié , Abdoulaye; Sassatelli , Gilles

    2017-01-01

    International audience; ARM single-ISA heterogeneous multicore processors combine high-performance big cores with power-efficient small cores. They aim at achieving a suitable balance between performance and energy. How- ever, a main challenge is to program such architectures so as to efficiently exploit their features. In this paper, we study the impact on performance and energy trade-offs of single-ISA architecture according to OpenMP 3.0 and the OmpSs programming models. We consider differ...

  5. Space Operations Center system analysis. Volume 3, book 2: SOC system definition report, revision A

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    The Space Operations Center (SOC) orbital space station program operations are described. A work breakdown structure for the general purpose support equipment, construction and transportation support, and resupply and logistics support systems is given. The basis for the design of each element is presented, and a mass estimate for each element supplied. The SOC build-up operation, construction, flight support, and satellite servicing operations are described. Detailed programmatics and cost analysis are presented.

  6. Soil organic carbon content assessment in a heterogeneous landscape: comparison of digital soil mapping and visible and near Infrared spectroscopy approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michot, Didier; Fouad, Youssef; Pascal, Pichelin; Viaud, Valérie; Soltani, Inès; Walter, Christian

    2017-04-01

    This study aims are: i) to assess SOC content distribution according to the global soil map (GSM) project recommendations in a heterogeneous landscape ; ii) to compare the prediction performance of digital soil mapping (DSM) and visible-near infrared (Vis-NIR) spectroscopy approaches. The study area of 140 ha, located at Plancoët, surrounds the unique mineral spring water of Brittany (Western France). It's a hillock characterized by a heterogeneous landscape mosaic with different types of forest, permanent pastures and wetlands along a small coastal river. We acquired two independent datasets: j) 50 points selected using a conditioned Latin hypercube sampling (cLHS); jj) 254 points corresponding to the GSM grid. Soil samples were collected in three layers (0-5, 20-25 and 40-50cm) for both sampling strategies. SOC content was only measured in cLHS soil samples, while Vis-NIR spectra were measured on all the collected samples. For the DSM approach, a machine-learning algorithm (Cubist) was applied on the cLHS calibration data to build rule-based models linking soil carbon content in the different layers with environmental covariates, derived from digital elevation model, geological variables, land use data and existing large scale soil maps. For the spectroscopy approach, we used two calibration datasets: k) the local cLHS ; kk) a subset selected from the regional spectral database of Brittany after a PCA with a hierarchical clustering analysis and spiked by local cLHS spectra. The PLS regression algorithm with "leave-one-out" cross validation was performed for both calibration datasets. SOC contents for the 3 layers of the GSM grid were predicted using the different approaches and were compared with each other. Their prediction performance was evaluated by the following parameters: R2, RMSE and RPD. Both approaches led to satisfactory predictions for SOC content with an advantage for the spectral approach, particularly as regards the pertinence of the variation

  7. Augmenting interoperability across repositories architectural ideas

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2005-01-01

    The aDORe digital repository architecture designed and implemented by the Los Alamos Research Library is fully standards-based and highly modular, with the various components of the architecture interacting in a protocol-driven manner. Although aDORe was designed for use in the context of the Los Alamos Library, its modular and standards-based design has led to interesting insights regarding possible new levels of interoperability in a federation of heterogeneous repositories. The presentation will discuss these insights, and will illustrate that attractive federations of repositories can be built by introducing rather basic interoperability requirements. The presentation will also show that, once these requirements are met, a powerful service framework that overlays the federation can emerge.

  8. A Framework for Hardware-Accelerated Services Using Partially Reconfigurable SoCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MACHIDON, O. M.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The current trend towards ?Everything as a Service? fosters a new approach on reconfigurable hardware resources. This innovative, service-oriented approach has the potential of bringing a series of benefits for both reconfigurable and distributed computing fields by favoring a hardware-based acceleration of web services and increasing service performance. This paper proposes a framework for accelerating web services by offloading the compute-intensive tasks to reconfigurable System-on-Chip (SoC devices, as integrated IP (Intellectual Property cores. The framework provides a scalable, dynamic management of the tasks and hardware processing cores, based on dynamic partial reconfiguration of the SoC. We have enhanced security of the entire system by making use of the built-in detection features of the hardware device and also by implementing active counter-measures that protect the sensitive data.

  9. Efficient Numeric and Geometric Computations using Heterogeneous Shared Memory Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-04

    to the memory architectures of CPUs and GPUs to obtain good performance and result in good memory performance using cache management. These methods ...Accomplishments: The PI and students has developed new methods for path and ray tracing and their Report Date: 14-Oct-2017 INVESTIGATOR(S): Phone...The efficiency of our method makes it a good candidate for forming hybrid schemes with wave-based models. One possibility is to couple the ray curve

  10. Cache Performance Optimization for SoC Vedio Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Lei Li; Wei Zhang; HuiYao An; Xing Zhang; HuaiQi Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Chip Multiprocessors (CMPs) are adopted by industry to deal with the speed limit of the single-processor. But memory access has become the bottleneck of the performance, especially in multimedia applications. In this paper, a set of management policies is proposed to improve the cache performance for a SoC platform of video application. By analyzing the behavior of Vedio Engine, the memory-friendly writeback and efficient prefetch policies are adopted. The experiment platform is simulated by ...

  11. Design of a Programmable Passive SoC for Biomedical Applications Using RFID ISO 15693/NFC5 Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayukh Bhattacharyya

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Low power, low cost inductively powered passive biotelemetry system involving fully customized RFID/NFC interface base SoC has gained popularity in the last decades. However, most of the SoCs developed are application specific and lacks either on-chip computational or sensor readout capability. In this paper, we present design details of a programmable passive SoC in compliance with ISO 15693/NFC5 standard for biomedical applications. The integrated system consists of a 32-bit microcontroller, a sensor readout circuit, a 12-bit SAR type ADC, 16 kB RAM, 16 kB ROM and other digital peripherals. The design is implemented in a 0.18 μ m CMOS technology and used a die area of 1.52 mm × 3.24 mm. The simulated maximum power consumption of the analog block is 592 μ W. The number of external components required by the SoC is limited to an external memory device, sensors, antenna and some passive components. The external memory device contains the application specific firmware. Based on the application, the firmware can be modified accordingly. The SoC design is suitable for medical implants to measure physiological parameters like temperature, pressure or ECG. As an application example, the authors have proposed a bioimplant to measure arterial blood pressure for patients suffering from Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD.

  12. Implementing a low-latency parallel graphic equalizer with heterogeneous computing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norilo, Vesa; Verstraelen, Martinus Johannes Wilhelmina; Valimaki, Vesa; Svensson, Peter; Kristiansen, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the implementation of a recently introduced parallel graphic equalizer (PGE) in a heterogeneous way. The control and audio signal processing parts of the PGE are distributed to a PC and to a signal processor, of WaveCore architecture, respectively. This arrangement is

  13. A Flexible ADC Approach for Mixed-signal SoC Platforms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zanikopoulos, A.; Harpe, P.J.A.; Hegt, J.A.; Roermund, van A.H.M.

    2005-01-01

    Time-to-market pressure and increased design complexity created what is called a "design gap" [1] in the design of systems-on-chip (SoC). As a solution to that problem the Platform-Based Design (PBD), based on the design-reuse methodology, has been proposed [2], and successfully applied to digital

  14. Structural basis for c-KIT inhibition by the suppressor of cytokine signaling 6 (SOCS6) ubiquitin ligase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zadjali, Fahad; Pike, Ashley C W; Vesterlund, Mattias

    2011-01-01

    to substrate residue position pY+6 and envelopes the c-KIT phosphopeptide with a large BG loop insertion that contributes significantly to substrate interaction. We demonstrate that SOCS6 has ubiquitin ligase activity toward c-KIT and regulates c-KIT protein turnover in cells. Our data support a role of SOCS6...

  15. ORCHIDEE-SOM: modeling soil organic carbon (SOC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) dynamics along vertical soil profiles in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camino-Serrano, Marta; Guenet, Bertrand; Luyssaert, Sebastiaan; Ciais, Philippe; Bastrikov, Vladislav; De Vos, Bruno; Gielen, Bert; Gleixner, Gerd; Jornet-Puig, Albert; Kaiser, Klaus; Kothawala, Dolly; Lauerwald, Ronny; Peñuelas, Josep; Schrumpf, Marion; Vicca, Sara; Vuichard, Nicolas; Walmsley, David; Janssens, Ivan A.

    2018-03-01

    Current land surface models (LSMs) typically represent soils in a very simplistic way, assuming soil organic carbon (SOC) as a bulk, and thus impeding a correct representation of deep soil carbon dynamics. Moreover, LSMs generally neglect the production and export of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from soils to rivers, leading to overestimations of the potential carbon sequestration on land. This common oversimplified processing of SOC in LSMs is partly responsible for the large uncertainty in the predictions of the soil carbon response to climate change. In this study, we present a new soil carbon module called ORCHIDEE-SOM, embedded within the land surface model ORCHIDEE, which is able to reproduce the DOC and SOC dynamics in a vertically discretized soil to 2 m. The model includes processes of biological production and consumption of SOC and DOC, DOC adsorption on and desorption from soil minerals, diffusion of SOC and DOC, and DOC transport with water through and out of the soils to rivers. We evaluated ORCHIDEE-SOM against observations of DOC concentrations and SOC stocks from four European sites with different vegetation covers: a coniferous forest, a deciduous forest, a grassland, and a cropland. The model was able to reproduce the SOC stocks along their vertical profiles at the four sites and the DOC concentrations within the range of measurements, with the exception of the DOC concentrations in the upper soil horizon at the coniferous forest. However, the model was not able to fully capture the temporal dynamics of DOC concentrations. Further model improvements should focus on a plant- and depth-dependent parameterization of the new input model parameters, such as the turnover times of DOC and the microbial carbon use efficiency. We suggest that this new soil module, when parameterized for global simulations, will improve the representation of the global carbon cycle in LSMs, thus helping to constrain the predictions of the future SOC response to global

  16. The architecture of enterprise hospital information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xudong; Duan, Huilong; Li, Haomin; Zhao, Chenhui; An, Jiye

    2005-01-01

    Because of the complexity of the hospital environment, there exist a lot of medical information systems from different vendors with incompatible structures. In order to establish an enterprise hospital information system, the integration among these heterogeneous systems must be considered. Complete integration should cover three aspects: data integration, function integration and workflow integration. However most of the previous design of architecture did not accomplish such a complete integration. This article offers an architecture design of the enterprise hospital information system based on the concept of digital neural network system in hospital. It covers all three aspects of integration, and eventually achieves the target of one virtual data center with Enterprise Viewer for users of different roles. The initial implementation of the architecture in the 5-year Digital Hospital Project in Huzhou Central hospital of Zhejiang Province is also described.

  17. [Characteristics of Soil Respiration along Eroded Sloping Land with Different SOC Background on the Hilly Loess Plateau].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gai; Xu, Ming-xiang; Zhang, Ya-feng; Wang, Chao-hua; Fan, Hui-min; Wang, Shan-shan

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to characterize soil respiration along eroded sloping land at erosion and deposition area under different soil organic carbon(SOC) levels, and linked the relationship between soil respiration and soil temperature, soil moisture, SOC and slope position. Experiments were carried out in the plots of S type slopes include five different soil organic carbon levels in the Loess Hilly Region. The S type slopes were divided into control area at the top of the slope, erosion area at the middle of the slope and deposition area at the toe of the slope. We found that soil temperature had a greater impact on soil respiration in the deposition area, whereas soil moisture had a greater impact on soil respiration in the erosion area compared among control area, erosion area and deposition area. In addition, SOC was the most important factor affecting soil respiration, which can explain soil respiration variation 54. 72%, followed by soil moisture, slope position and soil temperature, which explain soil respiration variation 18. 86% , 16. 13% and 10. 29%, respectively. Soil respiration response to erosion showed obvious on-site and off-site effects along the eroded sloping land. Soil respiration in the erosion area was reduced by 21. 14% compared with control area, and soil respiration in the deposition area was increased by 21. 93% compared with control area. Erosion effect on source and sink of carbon emission was correlated with SOC content of the eroded sloping land. When SOC content was higher than 6. 82 g.kg-1, the slope. erosion tended to be a carbon sequestration process, and when SOC content was lower than 3.03 g.kg-1, the slope erosion tended to be a process of the carbon emission source. The model could reflect the relationship between soil respiration and independent variables of soil organic carbon content, soil temperature and moisture.

  18. An integrated architecture for the ITER RH control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, David Thomas; Tesini, Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Control system architecture integrating ITER remote handling equipment systems. ► Standard control system architecture for remote handling equipment systems. ► Research and development activities to validate control system architecture. ► Standardization studies to select standard parts for control system architecture. - Abstract: The ITER remote handling (RH) system has been divided into 7 major equipment system procurements that deliver complete systems (operator interfaces, equipment controllers, and equipment) according to task oriented functional specifications. Each equipment system itself is an assembly of transporters, power manipulators, telemanipulators, vehicular systems, cameras, and tooling with a need for controllers and operator interfaces. From an operational perspective, the ITER RH systems are bound together by common control rooms, operations team, and maintenance team; and will need to achieve, to a varying degree, synchronization of operations, co-operation on tasks, hand-over of components, and sharing of data and resources. The separately procured RH systems must, therefore, be integrated to form a unified RH system for operation from the RH control rooms. The RH system will contain a heterogeneous mix of specially developed RH systems and off-the-shelf RH equipment and parts. The ITER Organization approach is to define a control system architecture that supports interoperable heterogeneous modules, and to specify a standard set of modules for each system to implement within this architecture. Compatibility with standard parts for selected modules is required to limit the complexity for operations and maintenance. A key requirement for integrating the control system modules is interoperability, and no module should have dependencies on the implementation details of other modules. The RH system is one of the ITER Plant systems that are integrated and coordinated through the hierarchical structure of the ITER CODAC system

  19. IL-6 modulates hepatocyte proliferation via induction of HGF/p21cip1: Regulation by SOCS3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Rui; Jaruga, Barbara; Kulkarni, Shailin; Sun Haoyu; Gao Bin

    2005-01-01

    The precise role of IL-6 in liver regeneration and hepatocyte proliferation is controversial and the role of SOCS3 in liver regeneration remains unknown. Here we show that in vitro treatment with IL-6 inhibited primary mouse hepatocyte proliferation. IL-6 induced p21 cip1 protein expression in primary mouse hepatocytes. Disruption of the p21 cip1 gene abolished the inhibitory effect of IL-6 on cell proliferation. Co-culture with nonparenchymal liver cells diminished IL-6 inhibition of hepatocyte proliferation, which was likely due to IL-6 stimulation of nonparenchymal cells to produce HGF. Finally, IL-6 induced higher levels of p21 cip1 protein expression and a slightly stronger inhibition of cell proliferation in SOCS3 +/- mouse hepatocytes compared to wild-type hepatocytes, while liver regeneration was enhanced and prolonged in SOCS3 +/- mice. Our findings suggest that IL-6 directly inhibits hepatocyte proliferation via a p21 cip1 -dependent mechanism and indirectly enhances hepatocyte proliferation via stimulating nonparenchymal cells to produce HGF. SOCS3 negatively regulates liver regeneration

  20. Improved OCV Model of a Li-Ion NMC Battery for Online SOC Estimation Using the Extended Kalman Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Baccouche

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Accurate modeling of the nonlinear relationship between the open circuit voltage (OCV and the state of charge (SOC is required for adaptive SOC estimation during the lithium-ion (Li-ion battery operation. Online SOC estimation should meet several constraints, such as the computational cost, the number of parameters, as well as the accuracy of the model. In this paper, these challenges are considered by proposing an improved simplified and accurate OCV model of a nickel manganese cobalt (NMC Li-ion battery, based on an empirical analytical characterization approach. In fact, composed of double exponential and simple quadratic functions containing only five parameters, the proposed model accurately follows the experimental curve with a minor fitting error of 1 mV. The model is also valid at a wide temperature range and takes into account the voltage hysteresis of the OCV. Using this model in SOC estimation by the extended Kalman filter (EKF contributes to minimizing the execution time and to reducing the SOC estimation error to only 3% compared to other existing models where the estimation error is about 5%. Experiments are also performed to prove that the proposed OCV model incorporated in the EKF estimator exhibits good reliability and precision under various loading profiles and temperatures.

  1. Earth system modelling on system-level heterogeneous architectures: EMAC (version 2.42) on the Dynamical Exascale Entry Platform (DEEP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christou, Michalis; Christoudias, Theodoros; Morillo, Julián; Alvarez, Damian; Merx, Hendrik

    2016-09-01

    We examine an alternative approach to heterogeneous cluster-computing in the many-core era for Earth system models, using the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts Hamburg (ECHAM)/Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy) Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC) model as a pilot application on the Dynamical Exascale Entry Platform (DEEP). A set of autonomous coprocessors interconnected together, called Booster, complements a conventional HPC Cluster and increases its computing performance, offering extra flexibility to expose multiple levels of parallelism and achieve better scalability. The EMAC model atmospheric chemistry code (Module Efficiently Calculating the Chemistry of the Atmosphere (MECCA)) was taskified with an offload mechanism implemented using OmpSs directives. The model was ported to the MareNostrum 3 supercomputer to allow testing with Intel Xeon Phi accelerators on a production-size machine. The changes proposed in this paper are expected to contribute to the eventual adoption of Cluster-Booster division and Many Integrated Core (MIC) accelerated architectures in presently available implementations of Earth system models, towards exploiting the potential of a fully Exascale-capable platform.

  2. Analysis of Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling 2 Gene (SOCS2 Polymorphism in Different Dog Breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Miluchová

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available SOCS2 is a negative regulator of growth hormone signaling. The deletion of SOCS2 in mice results in a 30-50% increase in post-natal growth. The aim of the paper was to identify of suppressor of cytokine signaling 2 gene (SOCS2 polymorphism in different dog breeds. The material involved 77 dogs from 14 different breeds. Canine genomic DNA was isolated from saliva by modified method with using DNAzol® (Molecular Research Center and linear polyacrylamide (LPA carrier and from blood by using NucleospinBlood (Macherey-Nagel and used in order to estimate SOCS2 genotypes by PCR-RFLP method. The PCR products were digested with TaqI restriction enzyme. The T allele was distributed among large dog breeds (Czech pointer, Golden retriever, Rottweiler with an allele frequency ranging from 0.2857 to 1.00. In the population of Czech pointer we detected all genotypes. There were detected homozygote genotype GG with frequency 0.5476, heterozygote genotype GT with frequency 0.3333 and homozygote genotype TT with frequency 0.1191. Results point out that frequency of G allele was high and was represented 0.7143. Frequency of T allele was 0.2857. In Rottweiler was detected homozygote genotype TT. Genotypes GG and GT has not been observed. In Golden retriever we detected only heterozygote genotype GT.

  3. Synchronous message-based communication for distributed heterogeneous systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, N.; Dohan, D.

    1992-01-01

    The use of a synchronous, message-based real-time operating system (Unison) as the basis of transparent interprocess and inter-processor communication over VME-bus is described. The implementation of a synchronous, message-based protocol for network communication between heterogeneous systems is discussed. In particular, the design and implementation of a message-based session layer over a virtual circuit transport layer protocol using UDP/IP is described. Inter-process communication is achieved via a message-based semantic which is portable by virtue of its ease of implementation in other operating system environments. Protocol performance for network communication among heterogeneous architecture is presented, including VMS, Unix, Mach and Unison. (author)

  4. Land use changing SOC pool: A field investigation from four catchments on the Loess Plateau in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shengli; Wang, Rui; Hu, Yaxian

    2017-04-01

    The Loess Plateau in China has long been known for severe erosion, a degraded ecosystem and heavy sediment delivery to the Yellow River. Apart from, the highly erodible loess soil and the hilly geomorphology, intensive cultivation has been caused such most destructive human activities. This made the Loess Plateau once the least fertile region in China with extreme poverty. To restore soil fertility and ecosystem sustainability, a national-level project was launched in 1990s to encourage land use changes via afforestation or conversion of cropland back to grassland or woodland. After nearly three decades of land use conversion, the SOC pool in the soil can be expected to have substantially changed. However, climate conditions, geomorphic types and soil properties were spatially distinctive across the Loess Plateau. Their individual as well interactive impacts on changes of soil carbon pool during land use conversions must thus be properly accounted for. In this study, four watersheds distributed over the Loess Plateau were investigated. The four watersheds mainly consisted of three geomorphic types: wide gully, loess ridge, and round knoll. On each geomorphic feature, three land use types prevailed: cropland, grassland and woodland. In total, 695 soil samples were taken from the top 20 cm of the four watersheds during 2010 and 2011. Our results show: 1) Degrees of erosion hugely differed among the four watersheds, with Catchment A (hilly) having three times more erosion modulus than the least eroded Catchment D (gully) (12000 vs. 1800 Mg per km2 per year). 2) The increasing SOC content from 4 mg g-1 at Catchment A to 8.1 mg g-1 at Catchment D agreed well with their decreasing erosion, suggesting that geomorphology induced erosion history was the predominant factor to set the general level of watershed-scale SOC reservoir. 3) Within each watershed, grassland and woodland consistently had at least 34% more SOC than cropland, demonstrating the influence of land use

  5. Characterization of oil and gas reservoir heterogeneity. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyler, N.; Barton, M.D.; Bebout, D.G.; Fisher, R.S.; Grigsby, J.D.; Guevara, E.; Holtz, M.; Kerans, C.; Nance, H.S.; Levey, R.A.

    1992-10-01

    Research described In this report addresses the internal architecture of two specific reservoir types: restricted-platform carbonates and fluvial-deltaic sandstones. Together, these two reservoir types contain more than two-thirds of the unrecovered mobile oil remaining ill Texas. The approach followed in this study was to develop a strong understanding of the styles of heterogeneity of these reservoir types based on a detailed outcrop description and a translation of these findings into optimized recovery strategies in select subsurface analogs. Research targeted Grayburg Formation restricted-platform carbonate outcrops along the Algerita Escarpment and In Stone Canyon In southeastern New Mexico and Ferron deltaic sandstones in central Utah as analogs for the North Foster (Grayburg) and Lake Creek (Wilcox) units, respectively. In both settings, sequence-stratigraphic style profoundly influenced between-well architectural fabric and permeability structure. It is concluded that reservoirs of different depositional origins can therefore be categorized Into a ``heterogeneity matrix`` based on varying intensity of vertical and lateral heterogeneity. The utility of the matrix is that it allows prediction of the nature and location of remaining mobile oil. Highly stratified reservoirs such as the Grayburg, for example, will contain a large proportion of vertically bypassed oil; thus, an appropriate recovery strategy will be waterflood optimization and profile modification. Laterally heterogeneous reservoirs such as deltaic distributary systems would benefit from targeted infill drilling (possibly with horizontal wells) and improved areal sweep efficiency. Potential for advanced recovery of remaining mobile oil through heterogeneity-based advanced secondary recovery strategies In Texas is projected to be an Incremental 16 Bbbl. In the Lower 48 States this target may be as much as 45 Bbbl at low to moderate oil prices over the near- to mid-term.

  6. An Energy-Efficient Reconfigurable Circuit Switched Network-on-Chip

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolkotte, P.T.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Rauwerda, G.K.; Smit, L.T.

    Network-on-Chip (NoC) is an energy-efficient on-chip communication architecture for multi-tile System-on-Chip (SoC) architectures. The SoC architecture, including its run-time software, can replace inflexible ASICs for future ambient systems. These ambient systems have to be flexible as well as

  7. Daily Socs1 rhythms alter with aging differentially in peripheral clocks in male Wistar rats: therapeutic effects of melatonin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinod, Ch; Jagota, Anita

    2017-06-01

    Suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) in synchronization with the peripheral clocks regulates the temporal oscillations leading to overt rhythms. Aging leads to attenuation of such circadian regulation, accompanied by increased inflammatory mediators prevalently the cytokines. Suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) family of proteins such as SOCS 1, 3 and cytokine-inducible SH2-containing protein (CIS) negatively regulate the cytokine signaling pathway. The role of SOCS1 in aging and circadian system is obscure. We therefore studied the daily rhythms of rSocs1 mRNA expression at Zeitgeber time (ZT) -0, 6, 12 and 18 in peripheral clocks such as liver, kidney, intestine and heart of 3, 12 and 24 months (m) old male Wistar rats. Interestingly the peripheral clocks studied displayed a rhythmic rSocs1 gene expression in 3 months. In 12 months group, 12 h phase advance in liver and 12 h phase delay in kidney and heart was observed with abolition of rhythms in intestine. Aging (24 months group) resulted in a phase advance by 6 h in liver and heart with abolition of rhythms in intestine in 24 months group. Kidney was also significantly affected upon aging with significant decrease in the rSocs1 levels and abolition of rhythms. The decrease in melatonin levels with aging is associated with decreased immunity and increased oxidative stress. The exogenous administration of melatonin has been linked to play a role in re-synchronization of circadian rhythms, reducing oxidative stress and enhancing immune properties. We therefore had studied the effect of exogenous melatonin upon age induced changes in daily rSocs1 gene expression patterns. Melatonin treatment partially restored the rhythms and daily pulse (ratio of maximum:minimum levels) in liver and intestine in 12 months group. Melatonin administration resulted in a significant increase in mean 24 h rSocs1 expression in intestine and heart of 24 months group compared to that of 3 months. The melatonin administration

  8. 0.45 v and 18 μA/MHz MCU SOC with Advanced Adaptive Dynamic Voltage Control (ADVC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzi Zangi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available An ultra-low-power MicroController Unit System-on-Chip (MCU SOC is described with integrated DC to DC power management and Adaptive Dynamic Voltage Control (ADVC mechanism. The SOC, designed and fabricated in a 40 nm ULP standard CMOS technology, includes the complete Synopsys ARC EM5D core MCU, featuring a full set of DSP instructions and minimizing energy consumption at a wide range of frequencies: 312 K–80 MHz. A number of unique low voltage digital libraries, comprising of approximately 300 logic cells and sequential elements, were used for the MCU SOC design. On-die silicon sensors were utilized to continuously change the operating voltage to optimize power/performance for a given frequency and environmental conditions, and also to resolve yield and life time problems, while operating at low voltages. A First Fail (FFail mechanism, which can be digitally and linearly controlled with up to 8 bits, detects the failing SOC voltage at a given frequency. The core operates between 0.45–1.1 V volts with a direct battery connection for an input voltage of 1.6–3.6 V. Measurement results show that the peak energy efficiency is 18μW/MHz. A comparison to state-of-the-art commercial SOCs is presented, showing a 3–5× improved current/DMIPS (Dhrystone Million Instructions per second compared to the next best chip.

  9. A new circuit for at-speed scan SoC testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Wei; Shi Wenlong

    2013-01-01

    It is very important to detect transition-delay faults and stuck-at faults in system on chip (SoC) under 90 nm processing technology, and the transition-delay faults can only be detected by using an at-speed testing method. In this paper, an on-chip clock (OCC) controller with a bypass function based on an internal phase-locked loop is designed to test faults in SoC. Furthermore, a clock chain logic which can eliminate the metastable state is realized to generate an enable signal for the OCC controller, and then, the test pattern is generated by automatic test pattern generation (ATPG) tools. Next, the scan test pattern is simulated by using the Synopsys tool and the correctness of the design is verified. The result shows that the design of an at-speed scan test in this paper is highly efficient for detecting timing-related defects. Finally, the 89.29% transition-delay fault coverage and the 94.50% stuck-at fault coverage are achieved, and it is successfully applied to an integrated circuit design. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  10. The Diagrammatic Inquiry of Architectural Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Bertram

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available According to the philosopher C.S. Peirce the diagram is a system of interrelated parts that operates in a manner similar to another system of interrelated parts. It is a mental map of relations. It drives an open-ended inquiry on a given problem. In architectural discourse a diagram is often defined as a particular form of drawing. It is a simplified image and/or it uses a notation system. In this context, the latter is termed a digital diagram. However, an architectural medium has material properties that influence both the making and the translation of the drawing. It is both a singular artefact and a set of instructions for actions undertaken in another space than that of the medium. This article introduces the notion of an immanent diagram to discuss how the composition of a drawing is distributed. The proposition is that the architectural diagrammatic inquiry operates in the struggle between digital and analogue diagrams. I develop the argument using a traditional architectural drawing as a starting point. In the last section, I discuss a contemporary computer based design practice in which drawings and prototype modelling constitute a heterogeneous technological environment.

  11. Architecture-Aware Configuration and Scheduling of Matrix Multiplication on Asymmetric Multicore Processors

    OpenAIRE

    Catalán, Sandra; Igual, Francisco D.; Mayo, Rafael; Rodríguez-Sánchez, Rafael; Quintana-Ortí, Enrique S.

    2015-01-01

    Asymmetric multicore processors (AMPs) have recently emerged as an appealing technology for severely energy-constrained environments, especially in mobile appliances where heterogeneity in applications is mainstream. In addition, given the growing interest for low-power high performance computing, this type of architectures is also being investigated as a means to improve the throughput-per-Watt of complex scientific applications. In this paper, we design and embed several architecture-aware ...

  12. Implementation of QoSS (Quality-of-Security Service) for NoC-Based SoC Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepúlveda, Johanna; Pires, Ricardo; Strum, Marius; Chau, Wang Jiang

    Many of the current electronic systems embedded in a SoC (System-on-Chip) are used to capture, store, manipulate and access critical data, as well as to perform other key functions. In such a scenario, security is considered as an important issue. The Network-on-chip (NoC), as the foreseen communication structure of next-generation SoC devices, can be used to efficiently incorporate security. Our work proposes the implementation of QoSS (Quality of Security Service) to overcome present SoC vulnerabilities. QoSS is a novel concept for data protection that introduces security as a dimension of QoS. In this paper, we present the implementation of two security services (access control and authentication), that may be configured to assume one from several possible levels, the implementation of a technique to avoid denial-of-service (DoS) attacks, evaluate their effectiveness and estimate their impact on NoC performance.

  13. Increasing SoC Dependability via Known Good Tile NoC Testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkhoff, Hans G.; Kuiken, O.J.; Zhang, X.

    2008-01-01

    Advanced CMOS technology possibilities, power, communication and flexibility issues as well as the design gap are directing System-on-Chip (SoC) platforms towards Network-on-Chip (NoC) interconnected identical processing tiles (PT) such as the Montium processor [1]. It is broadly acknowledged that

  14. Functional SOCS1 polymorphisms are associated with variation in obesity in whites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gylvin, T; Ek, J; Nolsøe, R.

    2009-01-01

    . A total of more than 8100 individuals were genotyped. RESULTS: Eight variations were identified in the 5' untranslated region (UTR) region. Two of these had allele frequencies below 1% and were not further examined. The six other variants were analysed in groups of T1D families (n = 1461 subjects) and T2D...... of both the rs33977706 and the rs243330 (-1656G > A) variants to obesity were found (p = 0.047 and p = 0.015) respectively. The rs33977706 affected both binding of a nuclear protein to and the transcriptional activity of the SOCS1 promoter, indicating a relationship between this polymorphism and gene...... regulation. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: This study demonstrates that functional variations in the SOCS1 promoter may associate with alterations in BMI in the general white population....

  15. Using SoC Online Correction Method Based on Parameter Identification to Optimize the Operation Range of NI-MH Battery for Electric Boat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bumin Meng

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses a design of a Battery Management System (BMS solution for extending the life of Nickel-Metal Hydride (NI-MH battery. Combined with application of electric boat, a State of Charge (SoC optimal operation range control method based on high precision energy metering and online SoC correction is proposed. Firstly, a power metering scheme is introduced to reduce the original energy measurement error. Secondly, by establishing a model based parameter identification method and combining with Extended Kalman Filter (EKF method, the estimation accuracy of SoC is guaranteed. Finally, SoC optimal operation range control method is presented to make battery running in the optimal range. After two years of operation, the battery managed by proposed method has much better status, compared to batteries that use AH integral method and fixed SoC operating range. Considering the SoC estimation of NI-MH battery is more difficult becausing special electrical characteristics, proposed method also would have a very good reference value for other types of battery management.

  16. Combining a Multi-Agent System and Communication Middleware for Smart Home Control: A Universal Control Platform Architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Song; Zhang, Qi; Zheng, Rong; Huang, Bi-Qin; Song, Yi-Lin; Chen, Xin-Chu

    2017-09-16

    In recent years, the smart home field has gained wide attention for its broad application prospects. However, families using smart home systems must usually adopt various heterogeneous smart devices, including sensors and devices, which makes it more difficult to manage and control their home system. How to design a unified control platform to deal with the collaborative control problem of heterogeneous smart devices is one of the greatest challenges in the current smart home field. The main contribution of this paper is to propose a universal smart home control platform architecture (IAPhome) based on a multi-agent system and communication middleware, which shows significant adaptability and advantages in many aspects, including heterogeneous devices connectivity, collaborative control, human-computer interaction and user self-management. The communication middleware is an important foundation to design and implement this architecture which makes it possible to integrate heterogeneous smart devices in a flexible way. A concrete method of applying the multi-agent software technique to solve the integrated control problem of the smart home system is also presented. The proposed platform architecture has been tested in a real smart home environment, and the results indicate that the effectiveness of our approach for solving the collaborative control problem of different smart devices.

  17. Combining a Multi-Agent System and Communication Middleware for Smart Home Control: A Universal Control Platform Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Song; Zhang, Qi; Zheng, Rong; Huang, Bi-Qin; Song, Yi-Lin; Chen, Xin-Chu

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, the smart home field has gained wide attention for its broad application prospects. However, families using smart home systems must usually adopt various heterogeneous smart devices, including sensors and devices, which makes it more difficult to manage and control their home system. How to design a unified control platform to deal with the collaborative control problem of heterogeneous smart devices is one of the greatest challenges in the current smart home field. The main contribution of this paper is to propose a universal smart home control platform architecture (IAPhome) based on a multi-agent system and communication middleware, which shows significant adaptability and advantages in many aspects, including heterogeneous devices connectivity, collaborative control, human-computer interaction and user self-management. The communication middleware is an important foundation to design and implement this architecture which makes it possible to integrate heterogeneous smart devices in a flexible way. A concrete method of applying the multi-agent software technique to solve the integrated control problem of the smart home system is also presented. The proposed platform architecture has been tested in a real smart home environment, and the results indicate that the effectiveness of our approach for solving the collaborative control problem of different smart devices. PMID:28926957

  18. Combining a Multi-Agent System and Communication Middleware for Smart Home Control: A Universal Control Platform Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Zheng

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the smart home field has gained wide attention for its broad application prospects. However, families using smart home systems must usually adopt various heterogeneous smart devices, including sensors and devices, which makes it more difficult to manage and control their home system. How to design a unified control platform to deal with the collaborative control problem of heterogeneous smart devices is one of the greatest challenges in the current smart home field. The main contribution of this paper is to propose a universal smart home control platform architecture (IAPhome based on a multi-agent system and communication middleware, which shows significant adaptability and advantages in many aspects, including heterogeneous devices connectivity, collaborative control, human-computer interaction and user self-management. The communication middleware is an important foundation to design and implement this architecture which makes it possible to integrate heterogeneous smart devices in a flexible way. A concrete method of applying the multi-agent software technique to solve the integrated control problem of the smart home system is also presented. The proposed platform architecture has been tested in a real smart home environment, and the results indicate that the effectiveness of our approach for solving the collaborative control problem of different smart devices.

  19. C-HEAP : a heterogeneous multi-processor architecture template and scalable and flexible protocol for the design of embedded signal processing systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwland, A.K.; Kang, J.; Gangwal, O.P.; Sethuraman, R.; Busá, N.G.; Goossens, K.G.W.; Peset Llopis, R.; Lippens, P.E.R.

    2002-01-01

    The key issue in the design of Systems-on-a-Chip (SoC) is to trade-off efficiency against flexibility, and time to market versus cost. Current deep submicron processing technologies enable integration of multiple software programmable processors (e.g., CPUs, DSPs) and dedicated hardware components

  20. MOF Crystal Chemistry Paving the Way to Gas Storage Needs: Aluminum Based soc-MOF for CH4, O2 and CO2 Storage

    KAUST Repository

    Alezi, Dalal

    2015-09-28

    The molecular building block approach was employed effectively to construct a series of novel isoreticular, highly porous and stable, aluminum based Metal-Organic Frameworks with soc topology. From this platform, three compounds were experimentally isolated and fully characterized, namely, the parent Al-soc-MOF-1 and its naphthalene and anthracene analogues. Al-soc-MOF-1 exhibits outstanding gravimetric methane uptake (total and working capacity). It is shown experimentally, for the first time, that the Al-soc-MOF platform can address the challenging Department of Energy dual target of 0.5 g/g (gravimetric) and 264 cm3 (STP)/cm3 (volumetric) methane storage. Furthermore, Al-soc-MOF exhibited the highest total gravimetric and volumetric uptake for carbon dioxide and the utmost total and deliverable uptake for oxygen at relatively high pressures among all microporous MOFs. In order to correlate the MOF pore structure and functionality to the gas storage properties, to better understand the structure-properties relationship, we performed a molecular simulation study and evaluated the methane storage performance of Al-soc-MOF platform using diverse organic linkers. It was found that shortening the parent Al-soc-MOF-1 linker resulted in a noticeable enhancement in the working volumetric capacity at specific temperatures and pressures with amply conserved gravimetric uptake/working capacity. In contrast, further expansion of the organic linker (branches and/or core) led to isostructural Al-soc-MOFs with enhanced gravimetric uptake but noticeably lower volumetric capacity. The collective experimental and simulation studies indicated that the parent Al-soc-MOF-1 exhibits the best compromise between the volumetric and gravimetric total and working uptakes in a wide range of pressure and temperature conditions.

  1. MOF Crystal Chemistry Paving the Way to Gas Storage Needs: Aluminum Based soc-MOF for CH4, O2 and CO2 Storage

    KAUST Repository

    Alezi, Dalal; Belmabkhout, Youssef; Suetin, Mikhail; Bhatt, Prashant; Weselinski, Lukasz Jan; Solovyeva, Vera; Adil, Karim; Spanopoulos, Ioannis; Trikalitis, Pantelis N.; Emwas, Abdul-Hamid M.; Eddaoudi, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    The molecular building block approach was employed effectively to construct a series of novel isoreticular, highly porous and stable, aluminum based Metal-Organic Frameworks with soc topology. From this platform, three compounds were experimentally isolated and fully characterized, namely, the parent Al-soc-MOF-1 and its naphthalene and anthracene analogues. Al-soc-MOF-1 exhibits outstanding gravimetric methane uptake (total and working capacity). It is shown experimentally, for the first time, that the Al-soc-MOF platform can address the challenging Department of Energy dual target of 0.5 g/g (gravimetric) and 264 cm3 (STP)/cm3 (volumetric) methane storage. Furthermore, Al-soc-MOF exhibited the highest total gravimetric and volumetric uptake for carbon dioxide and the utmost total and deliverable uptake for oxygen at relatively high pressures among all microporous MOFs. In order to correlate the MOF pore structure and functionality to the gas storage properties, to better understand the structure-properties relationship, we performed a molecular simulation study and evaluated the methane storage performance of Al-soc-MOF platform using diverse organic linkers. It was found that shortening the parent Al-soc-MOF-1 linker resulted in a noticeable enhancement in the working volumetric capacity at specific temperatures and pressures with amply conserved gravimetric uptake/working capacity. In contrast, further expansion of the organic linker (branches and/or core) led to isostructural Al-soc-MOFs with enhanced gravimetric uptake but noticeably lower volumetric capacity. The collective experimental and simulation studies indicated that the parent Al-soc-MOF-1 exhibits the best compromise between the volumetric and gravimetric total and working uptakes in a wide range of pressure and temperature conditions.

  2. Integrated Nationwide Electronic Health Records system: Semi-distributed architecture approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragidis, Leonidas L; Chatzoglou, Prodromos D; Aggelidis, Vassilios P

    2016-11-14

    The integration of heterogeneous electronic health records systems by building an interoperable nationwide electronic health record system provides undisputable benefits in health care, like superior health information quality, medical errors prevention and cost saving. This paper proposes a semi-distributed system architecture approach for an integrated national electronic health record system incorporating the advantages of the two dominant approaches, the centralized architecture and the distributed architecture. The high level design of the main elements for the proposed architecture is provided along with diagrams of execution and operation and data synchronization architecture for the proposed solution. The proposed approach effectively handles issues related to redundancy, consistency, security, privacy, availability, load balancing, maintainability, complexity and interoperability of citizen's health data. The proposed semi-distributed architecture offers a robust interoperability framework without healthcare providers to change their local EHR systems. It is a pragmatic approach taking into account the characteristics of the Greek national healthcare system along with the national public administration data communication network infrastructure, for achieving EHR integration with acceptable implementation cost.

  3. Matrine suppresses airway inflammation by downregulating SOCS3 expression via inhibition of NF-κB signaling in airway epithelial cells and asthmatic mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Daqing [Department of Respiration, Xi’an Children’s Hospital, Xi’an 710003 (China); Wang, Jing [Department of Neonatology, Xi’an Children’s Hospital, Xi’an 710003 (China); Yang, Niandi [Outpatient Department, School of Aerospace Engineering, Air Force Engineering University, Xi’an 710038 (China); Ma, Haixin, E-mail: drhaixinma@163.com [Department of Quality Control, Xi’an Children’s Hospital, Xi’an 710003 (China)

    2016-08-12

    Matrine has been demonstrated to attenuate allergic airway inflammation. Elevated suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) was correlated with the severity of asthma. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of matrine on SOCS3 expression in airway inflammation. In this study, we found that matrine significantly inhibited OVA-induced AHR, inflammatory cell infiltration, goblet cell differentiation, and mucous production in a dose-dependent manner in mice. Matrine also abrogated the level of interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13, but enhanced interferon (IFN)-γ expression, both in BALF and in lung homogenates. Furthermore, matrine impeded TNF-α-induced the expression of IL-6 and adhesion molecules in airway epithelial cells (BEAS-2B and MLE-12). Additionally, we found that matrine inhibited SOCS3 expression, both in asthmatic mice and TNF-α-stimulated epithelial cells via suppression of the NF-κB signaling pathway by using pcDNA3.1-SOCS3 plasmid, SOCS3 siRNA, or nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) inhibitor PDTC. Conclusions: Matrine suppresses airway inflammation by downregulating SOCS3 expression via inhibition of NF-κB signaling in airway epithelial cells and asthmatic mice. - Highlights: • Matrine attenuates asthmatic symptoms and regulates Th1/Th2 balance in vivo. • Matrine suppresses inflammation responses in vitro. • Matrine decreases SOCS3 expression both in vivo and in vitro. • Matrine inhibits SOCS3 expression by suppressing NF-κB signaling.

  4. Modeling of SOC-700 Hyperspectral Imagery with the CAMEO-SIM Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-10-26

    Yannick, 2001, “SOC-700 and HS-Analysis 2 User’s Manual”, Surface Optics, San Diego [2] Cohen, Michael F. and Wallace, John R., 1993, “ Radiosity ...and Realistic Image Synthesis”, Academic Press, San Francisco [3] Sillion, Francois X. and Puech, Claude, 1994, “ Radiosity and Global Illumination

  5. Methylation of SOCS3 is inversely associated with metabolic syndrome in an epigenome-wide association study of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Omar; Cerjak, Diana; Kent, Jack W; James, Roland; Blangero, John; Carless, Melanie A; Zhang, Yi

    2016-09-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms, including DNA methylation, mediate the interaction between gene and environment and may play an important role in the obesity epidemic. We assessed the relationship between DNA methylation and obesity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) at 485,000 CpG sites across the genome in family members (8-90 y of age) using a discovery cohort (192 individuals) and a validation cohort (1,052 individuals) of Northern European ancestry. After Bonferroni-correction (P α=0.05 = 1.31 × 10 -7 ) for genome-wide significance, we identified 3 loci, cg18181703 (SOCS3), cg04502490 (ZNF771), and cg02988947 (LIMD2), where methylation status was associated with body mass index percentile (BMI%), a clinical index for obesity in children, adolescents, and adults. These sites were also associated with multiple metabolic syndrome (MetS) traits, including central obesity, fat depots, insulin responsiveness, and plasma lipids. The SOCS3 methylation locus was also associated with the clinical definition of MetS. In the validation cohort, SOCS3 methylation status was found to be inversely associated with BMI% (P = 1.75 × 10 -6 ), waist to height ratio (P = 4.18 × 10 -7 ), triglycerides (P = 4.01 × 10 -4 ), and MetS (P = 4.01 × 10 -7 ), and positively correlated with HDL-c (P = 4.57 × 10 -8 ). Functional analysis in a sub cohort (333 individuals) demonstrated SOCS3 methylation and gene expression in PBMCs were inversely correlated (P = 2.93 × 10 -4 ) and expression of SOCS3 was positively correlated with status of MetS (P = 0.012). We conclude that epigenetic modulation of SOCS3, a gene involved in leptin and insulin signaling, may play an important role in obesity and MetS.

  6. A configurable and low-power mixed signal SoC for portable ECG monitoring applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyejung; Kim, Sunyoung; Van Helleputte, Nick; Artes, Antonio; Konijnenburg, Mario; Huisken, Jos; Van Hoof, Chris; Yazicioglu, Refet Firat

    2014-04-01

    This paper describes a mixed-signal ECG System-on-Chip (SoC) that is capable of implementing configurable functionality with low-power consumption for portable ECG monitoring applications. A low-voltage and high performance analog front-end extracts 3-channel ECG signals and single channel electrode-tissue-impedance (ETI) measurement with high signal quality. This can be used to evaluate the quality of the ECG measurement and to filter motion artifacts. A custom digital signal processor consisting of 4-way SIMD processor provides the configurability and advanced functionality like motion artifact removal and R peak detection. A built-in 12-bit analog-to-digital converter (ADC) is capable of adaptive sampling achieving a compression ratio of up to 7, and loop buffer integration reduces the power consumption for on-chip memory access. The SoC is implemented in 0.18 μm CMOS process and consumes 32 μ W from a 1.2 V while heart beat detection application is running, and integrated in a wireless ECG monitoring system with Bluetooth protocol. Thanks to the ECG SoC, the overall system power consumption can be reduced significantly.

  7. Scheduling Driven Partitioning of Heterogeneous Embedded Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pop, Paul; Eles, Petru; Peng, Zebo

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we present an algorithm for system level hardware/software partitioning of heterogeneous embedded systems. The system is represented as an abstract graph which captures both data-flow and the flow of control. Given an architecture consisting of several processors, ASICs and shared...... busses, our partitioning algorithm finds the partitioning with the smallest hardware cost and is able to predict and guarantee the performance of the system in terms of worst case delay....

  8. A theoretical framework for determining cerebral vascular function and heterogeneity from dynamic susceptibility contrast MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digernes, Ingrid; Bjørnerud, Atle; Vatnehol, Svein Are S; Løvland, Grete; Courivaud, Frédéric; Vik-Mo, Einar; Meling, Torstein R; Emblem, Kyrre E

    2017-06-01

    Mapping the complex heterogeneity of vascular tissue in the brain is important for understanding cerebrovascular disease. In this translational study, we build on previous work using vessel architectural imaging (VAI) and present a theoretical framework for determining cerebral vascular function and heterogeneity from dynamic susceptibility contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Our tissue model covers realistic structural architectures for vessel branching and orientations, as well as a range of hemodynamic scenarios for blood flow, capillary transit times and oxygenation. In a typical image voxel, our findings show that the apparent MRI relaxation rates are independent of the mean vessel orientation and that the vortex area, a VAI-based parameter, is determined by the relative oxygen saturation level and the vessel branching of the tissue. Finally, in both simulated and patient data, we show that the relative distributions of the vortex area parameter as a function of capillary transit times show unique characteristics in normal-appearing white and gray matter tissue, whereas tumour-voxels in comparison display a heterogeneous distribution. Collectively, our study presents a comprehensive framework that may serve as a roadmap for in vivo and per-voxel determination of vascular status and heterogeneity in cerebral tissue.

  9. A Modular Architecture for Developing Robots for Industrial Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faina, Andres; Orjales, Felix; Souto, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    addresses the problem the other way around. In this line, we start by defining the industrial settings the architecture is aimed at and then extract the main features that would be required from a modular robotic architecture to operate successfully in this context. Finally, a particular heterogeneous......This chapter is concerned with proposing ways to make feasible the use of robots in many sectors characterized by dynamic and unstructured environments. In particular, we are interested in addressing the problem through a new approach, based on modular robotics, to allow the fast deployment...... modular robotic architecture is designed from these requirements and a laboratory implementation of it is built in order to test its capabilities and show its versatility using a set of different configurations including manipulators, climbers and walkers....

  10. Pengaruh Variasi Jumlah Tembakan Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Fields (Nspefs Terhadap Ekspresi Gen Socs3 pada Sel Kanker Serviks Hela S3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Kurnia Rohmah

    2017-12-01

    Abstract Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Fields (NsPEFs is bioelectric that was developed by electroporation technology. NsPEFs use high intensity in short time exposure (1 – 300 nanosecond. NsPEFs have biological effect and was developed in cancer therapy. In cervical cancer, viral protein of HPV depresses some tumor suppressors like Socs3 gene. This research aims to investigate the effect of short variation in Socs3 gene expression. HeLa S3 cells were cultured in α-MEM with FBS 10%. NsPEFs as much as 20 kV/cm and 80 nano seconds was exposure over HeLa S3 cell in 4 mm cuvette. Wave of NsPEFs was detected by high voltage probe in oscilloscope. NsPEFs was exposure at 0 (control, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 shots. Socs3 gene expression was analyzed using real time PCR and RT-PCR. Quantitative data was analyzed by Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Anova, and HSD Tuker (p<0.05. This research show that NsPEFs is significantly increase Socs3 gene expression (p=0.000. The optimal shot 20 and 30 shots increase Socs3 gene expression subsequently = 2.779 and = 3.105 times. This expression decrease in higher than 30 shots of NsPEFs exposure.   Keywords: NsPEFs, shot, expression, Socs3

  11. An overview of online implementable SOC estimation methods for Lithium-ion batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jinhao, Meng; Ricco, Mattia; Guangzhao, Luo

    2017-01-01

    With the popularity of Electrical Vehicles (EVs), Lithium-ion battery industry is also developing rapidly. To ensure the battery safety usage and reduce the average lifecycle cost, accurate State Of Charge (SOC) tracking algorithms for real-time implementation are required in different applications...

  12. Rock-Eval analysis of French forest soils: the influence of depth, soil and vegetation types on SOC thermal stability and bulk chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soucemarianadin, Laure; Cécillon, Lauric; Baudin, François; Cecchini, Sébastien; Chenu, Claire; Mériguet, Jacques; Nicolas, Manuel; Savignac, Florence; Barré, Pierre

    2017-04-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) is the largest terrestrial carbon pool and SOM degradation has multiple consequences on key ecosystem properties like nutrients cycling, soil emissions of greenhouse gases or carbon sequestration potential. With the strong feedbacks between SOM and climate change, it becomes particularly urgent to develop reliable routine methodologies capable of indicating the turnover time of soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks. Thermal analyses have been used to characterize SOM and among them, Rock-Eval 6 (RE6) analysis of soil has shown promising results in the determination of in-situ SOC biogeochemical stability. This technique combines a phase of pyrolysis followed by a phase of oxidation to provide information on both the SOC bulk chemistry and thermal stability. We analyzed with RE6 a set of 495 soils samples from 102 permanent forest sites of the French national network for the long-term monitoring of forest ecosystems (''RENECOFOR'' network). Along with covering pedoclimatic variability at a national level, these samples include a range of 5 depths up to 1 meter (0-10 cm, 10-20 cm, 20-40 cm, 40-80 cm and 80-100 cm). Using RE6 parameters that were previously shown to be correlated to short-term (hydrogen index, HI; T50 CH pyrolysis) or long-term (T50 CO2 oxidation and HI) SOC persistence, and that characterize SOM bulk chemical composition (oxygen index, OI and HI), we tested the influence of depth (n = 5), soil class (n = 6) and vegetation type (n = 3; deciduous, coniferous-fir, coniferous-pine) on SOM thermal stability and bulk chemistry. Results showed that depth was the dominant discriminating factor, affecting significantly all RE6 parameters. With depth, we observed a decrease of the thermally labile SOC pool and an increase of the thermally stable SOC pool, along with an oxidation and a depletion of hydrogen-rich moieties of the SOC. Soil class and vegetation type had contrasted effects on the RE6 parameters but both affected significantly T

  13. Dynamic tables: an architecture for managing evolving, heterogeneous biomedical data in relational database management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corwin, John; Silberschatz, Avi; Miller, Perry L; Marenco, Luis

    2007-01-01

    Data sparsity and schema evolution issues affecting clinical informatics and bioinformatics communities have led to the adoption of vertical or object-attribute-value-based database schemas to overcome limitations posed when using conventional relational database technology. This paper explores these issues and discusses why biomedical data are difficult to model using conventional relational techniques. The authors propose a solution to these obstacles based on a relational database engine using a sparse, column-store architecture. The authors provide benchmarks comparing the performance of queries and schema-modification operations using three different strategies: (1) the standard conventional relational design; (2) past approaches used by biomedical informatics researchers; and (3) their sparse, column-store architecture. The performance results show that their architecture is a promising technique for storing and processing many types of data that are not handled well by the other two semantic data models.

  14. Analysis and Synthesis of Communication-Intensive Heterogeneous Real-Time Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pop, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Embedded computer systems are now everywhere: from alarm clocks to PDAs, from mobile phones to cars, almost all the devices we use are controlled by embedded computer systems. An important class of embedded computer systems is that of real-time systems, which have to fulfill strict timing...... requirements. As realtime systems become more complex, they are often implemented using distributed heterogeneous architectures. The main objective of this thesis is to develop analysis and synthesis methods for communication-intensive heterogeneous hard real-time systems. The systems are heterogeneous...... is the synthesis of the communication infrastructure, which has a significant impact on the overall system performance and cost. To reduce the time-to-market of products, the design of real-time systems seldom starts from scratch. Typically, designers start from an already existing system, running certain...

  15. Robust Networking Architecture and Secure Communication Scheme for Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeal, McKenzie, III.

    2012-01-01

    Current networking architectures and communication protocols used for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have been designed to be energy efficient, low latency, and long network lifetime. One major issue that must be addressed is the security in data communication. Due to the limited capabilities of low cost and small sized sensor nodes, designing…

  16. Multicore systems on-chip practical software/hardware design

    CERN Document Server

    Abdallah, Abderazek Ben

    2013-01-01

    System on chips designs have evolved from fairly simple unicore, single memory designs to complex heterogeneous multicore SoC architectures consisting of a large number of IP blocks on the same silicon. To meet high computational demands posed by latest consumer electronic devices, most current systems are based on such paradigm, which represents a real revolution in many aspects in computing.The attraction of multicore processing for power reduction is compelling. By splitting a set of tasks among multiple processor cores, the operating frequency necessary for each core can be reduced, allowi

  17. Comparison Study on Two Model-Based Adaptive Algorithms for SOC Estimation of Lithium-Ion Batteries in Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Tian

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available State of charge (SOC estimation is essential to battery management systems in electric vehicles (EVs to ensure the safe operations of batteries and providing drivers with the remaining range of the EVs. A number of estimation algorithms have been developed to get an accurate SOC value because the SOC cannot be directly measured with sensors and is closely related to various factors, such as ambient temperature, current rate and battery aging. In this paper, two model-based adaptive algorithms, including the adaptive unscented Kalman filter (AUKF and adaptive slide mode observer (ASMO are applied and compared in terms of convergence behavior, tracking accuracy, computational cost and estimation robustness against parameter uncertainties of the battery model in SOC estimation. Two typical driving cycles, including the Dynamic Stress Test (DST and New European Driving Cycle (NEDC are applied to evaluate the performance of the two algorithms. Comparison results show that the AUKF has merits in convergence ability and tracking accuracy with an accurate battery model, while the ASMO has lower computational cost and better estimation robustness against parameter uncertainties of the battery model.

  18. EtherBone - A Network Layer for the Wishbone SoC Bus

    CERN Document Server

    Kreider, M; Lewis, J; Włostowski, T; Serrano, J

    2011-01-01

    Today, there are several System on a Chip (SoC) bus systems. Typically, these buses are confined on-chip and rely on higher level components to communicate with the outside world. Taking these systems a step further, we see the possibility of extending the reach of the SoC bus to remote FPGAs or processors. This leads to the idea of the EtherBone (EB) core, which connects a Wishbone (WB) Ver. 4 Bus via a Gigabit Ethernet based network link to remote peripheral devices. EB acts as a transparent interconnect module towards attached WB Bus devices. Address information and data from one or more WB bus cycles is preceded with a descriptive header and encapsulated in a UDP/IP packet. Because of this standard compliance, EB is able to traverse Wide Area Networks and is therefore not bound to a geographic location. Due to the low level nature of the WB bus, EB provides a sound basis for remote hardware tools like a JTAG debugger, In-System-Programmer (ISP), boundary scan interface or logic analyser module. EB was de...

  19. The ubiquitin ligase Cullin5SOCS2 regulates NDR1/STK38 stability and NF-κB transactivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paul, Indranil; Batth, Tanveer S; Iglesias-Gato, Diego

    2017-01-01

    SOCS2 is a pleiotropic E3 ligase. Its deficiency is associated with gigantism and organismal lethality upon inflammatory challenge. However, mechanistic understanding of SOCS2 function is dismal due to our unawareness of its protein substrates. We performed a mass spectrometry based proteomic pro...

  20. Effect of vegetative canopy architecture on vertical transport of massless particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    A series of large-eddy simulations were performed to examine the effect of canopy architecture on particle dispersion. A heterogeneous canopy geometry was simulated that consists of a set of infinitely repeating vegetation rows. Simulations in which row structure was approximately resolved were comp...

  1. CogWnet: A Resource Management Architecture for Cognitive Wireless Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Alqerm, Ismail

    2013-07-01

    With the increasing adoption of wireless communication technologies, there is a need to improve management of existing radio resources. Cognitive radio is a promising technology to improve the utilization of wireless spectrum. Its operating principle is based on building an integrated hardware and software architecture that configures the radio to meet application requirements within the constraints of spectrum policy regulations. However, such an architecture must be able to cope with radio environment heterogeneity. In this paper, we propose a cognitive resource management architecture, called CogWnet, that allocates channels, re-configures radio transmission parameters to meet QoS requirements, ensures reliability, and mitigates interference. The architecture consists of three main layers: Communication Layer, which includes generic interfaces to facilitate the communication between the cognitive architecture and TCP/IP stack layers; Decision-Making Layer, which classifies the stack layers input parameters and runs decision-making optimization algorithms to output optimal transmission parameters; and Policy Layer to enforce policy regulations on the selected part of the spectrum. The efficiency of CogWnet is demonstrated through a testbed implementation and evaluation.

  2. Energy-aware system design algorithms and architectures

    CERN Document Server

    Kyung, Chong-Min

    2011-01-01

    Power consumption becomes the most important design goal in a wide range of electronic systems. There are two driving forces towards this trend: continuing device scaling and ever increasing demand of higher computing power. First, device scaling continues to satisfy Moore’s law via a conventional way of scaling (More Moore) and a new way of exploiting the vertical integration (More than Moore). Second, mobile and IT convergence requires more computing power on the silicon chip than ever. Cell phones are now evolving towards mobile PC. PCs and data centers are becoming commodities in house and a must in industry. Both supply enabled by device scaling and demand triggered by the convergence trend realize more computation on chip (via multi-core, integration of diverse functionalities on mobile SoCs, etc.) and finally more power consumption incurring power-related issues and constraints. Energy-Aware System Design: Algorithms and Architectures provides state-of-the-art ideas for low power design methods from ...

  3. Induction of CML28-specific cytotoxic T cell responses using co-transfected dendritic cells with CML28 DNA vaccine and SOCS1 small interfering RNA expression vector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Hongsheng; Zhang Donghua; Wang Yaya; Dai Ming; Zhang Lu; Liu Wenli; Liu Dan; Tan Huo; Huang Zhenqian

    2006-01-01

    CML28 is an attractive target for antigen-specific immunotherapy. SOCS1 represents an inhibitory control mechanism for DC antigen presentation and the magnitude of adaptive immunity. In this study, we evaluated the potential for inducing CML28-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) responses by dendritic cells (DCs)-based vaccination. We constructed a CML28 DNA vaccine and a SOCS1 siRNA vector and then cotransfect monocyte-derived DCs. Flow cytometry analysis showed gene silencing of SOCS1 resulted in higher expressions of costimulative moleculars in DCs. Mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) indicated downregulation of SOCS1 stronger capability to stimulate proliferation of responder cell in DCs. The CTL assay revealed transfected DCs effectively induced autologous CML28-specific CTL responses and the lytic activities induced by SOCS1-silenced DCs were significantly higher compared with those induced by SOCS1-expressing DCs. These results in our study indicates gene silencing of SOCS1 remarkably enhanced the cytotoxicity efficiency of CML28 DNA vaccine in DCs

  4. SOCS proteins in regulation of receptor tyrosine kinase signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazi, Julhash U.; Kabir, Nuzhat N.; Flores Morales, Amilcar

    2014-01-01

    Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are a family of cell surface receptors that play critical roles in signal transduction from extracellular stimuli. Many in this family of kinases are overexpressed or mutated in human malignancies and thus became an attractive drug target for cancer treatment....... The signaling mediated by RTKs must be tightly regulated by interacting proteins including protein-tyrosine phosphatases and ubiquitin ligases. The suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) family proteins are well-known negative regulators of cytokine receptors signaling consisting of eight structurally similar...

  5. IL-8 induces miR-424-5p expression and modulates SOCS2/STAT5 signaling pathway in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hsuan-Yu; Jiang, Shih-Sheng; Hsiao, Jenn-Ren; Hsiao, Michael; Hsu, Yuan-Ming; Wu, Guan-Hsun; Chang, Wei-Min; Chang, Jang-Yang; Jin, Shiow-Lian Catherine; Shiah, Shine-Gwo

    2016-06-01

    Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins are negative feedback regulators of the Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT) pathway. Dysregulation of SOCS protein expression in cancers can be one of the mechanisms that maintain STAT activation, but this mechanism is still poorly understood in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Here, we report that SOCS2 protein is significantly downregulated in OSCC patients and its levels are inversely correlated with miR-424-5p expression. We identified the SOCS2 protein, which modulates STAT5 activity, as a direct target of miR-424-5p. The miR-424-5p-induced STAT5 phosphorylation, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) expression, and cell migration and invasion were blocked by SOCS2 restoration, suggesting that miR-424-5p exhibits its oncogenic activity through negatively regulating SOCS2 levels. Furthermore, miR-424-5p expression could be induced by the cytokine IL-8 primarily through enhancing STAT5 transcriptional activity rather than NF-κB signaling. Antagomir-mediated inactivation of miR-424-5p prevented the IL-8-induced cell migration and invasion, indicating that miR-424-5p is required for IL-8-induced cellular invasiveness. Taken together, these data indicate that STAT5-dependent expression of miR-424-5p plays an important role in mediating IL-8/STAT5/SOCS2 feedback loop, and scavenging miR-424-5p function using antagomir may have therapeutic potential for the treatment of OSCC. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Thinning of heterogeneous lithosphere: insights from field observations and numerical modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petri, B.; Duretz, T.; Mohn, G.; Schmalholz, S. M.

    2017-12-01

    The nature and mechanisms of formation of extremely thinned continental crust (N Italy) and in the Southern Alps (N Italy) were selected for their exceptional level of preservation of rift-related structures. This situation enables us to characterize (1) the pre-rift architecture of the continental lithosphere, (2) the localization of rift-related deformation in distinct portion of the lithosphere and (3) the interaction between initial heterogeneities of the lithosphere and rift-related structures. In a second stage, these observations are integrated in high-resolution, two-dimensional thermo-mechanical models taking into account various patterns of initial mechanical heterogeneities. Our results show the importance of initial pre-rift architecture of the continental lithosphere during rifting. Key roles are given to high-angle and low-angle normal faults, anastomosing shear-zones and decoupling horizons. We propose that during the first stages of thinning, deformation is strongly controlled by the complex pre-rift architecture of the lithosphere, localized along major structures responsible for the lateral extrusion of mid to lower crustal levels. This extrusion juxtaposes mechanically stronger levels in the hyper-thinned continental crust, being exhumed by subsequent low-angle normal faults. Altogether, these results highlight the critical role of the extraction of mechanically strong layers of the lithosphere during the extreme thinning of the continental lithosphere and allows to propose a new model for the formation of continental passive margins.

  7. LOSS OF JAK2 REGULATION VIA VHL-SOCS1 E3 UBIQUITIN HETEROCOMPLEX UNDERLIES CHUVASH POLYCYTHEMIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Ryan C.; Sufan, Roxana I.; Zhou, Bing; Heir, Pardeep; Bunda, Severa; Sybingco, Stephanie S.; Greer, Samantha N.; Roche, Olga; Heathcote, Samuel A.; Chow, Vinca W.K.; Boba, Lukasz M.; Richmond, Terri D.; Hickey, Michele M.; Barber, Dwayne L.; Cheresh, David A.; Simon, M. Celeste; Irwin, Meredith S.; Kim, William Y.; Ohh, Michael

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Chuvash polycythemia (CP) is a rare congenital form of polycythemia caused by homozygous R200W and H191D mutations in the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) gene whose gene product is the principal negative regulator of hypoxia-inducible factor. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying some of the hallmark features of CP such as hypersensitivity to erythropoietin are unclear. Here, we show that VHL directly binds suppressor of cytokine signalling 1 (SOCS1) to form a heterodimeric E3 ligase that targets phosphorylated (p)JAK2 for ubiquitin-mediated destruction. In contrast, CP-associated VHL mutants have altered affinity for SOCS1 and fail to engage and degrade pJAK2. Systemic administration of a highly selective JAK2 inhibitor, TG101209, reverses the disease phenotype in vhlR200W/R200W knock-in mice, a model that faithfully recapitulates human CP. These results reveal VHL as a SOCS1-cooperative negative regulator of JAK2 and provide compelling biochemical and preclinical evidence for JAK2- targeted therapy in CP patients. PMID:21685897

  8. Molecular Cloning, Characterization, and Expression of MiSOC1: A Homolog of the Flowering Gene SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS1 from Mango (Mangifera indica L)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Junya; Liu, Debing; Liu, Guoyin; Tang, Jie; Chen, Yeyuan

    2016-01-01

    MADS-box transcription factor plays a crucial role in plant development, especially controlling the formation and development of floral organs. Mango (Mangifera indica L) is an economically important fruit crop, but its molecular control of flowering is largely unknown. To better understand the molecular basis of flowering regulation in mango, we isolated and characterized the MiSOC1, a putative mango orthologs for the Arabidopsis SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS1/AGAMOUS-LIKE 20 (SOC1/AGL20) with homology-based cloning and RACE. The full-length cDNA (GenBank accession No.: KP404094) is 945 bp in length including a 74 bp long 5′ UTR and a 189 bp long 3′ UTR and the open reading frame was 733 bps, encoding 223 amino acids with molecular weight 25.6 kD. Both sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis all indicated that deduced protein contained a conservative MADS-box and semi-conservative K domain and belonged to the SOC1/TM3 subfamily of the MADS-box family. Quantitative real-time PCR was performed to investigate the expression profiles of MiSOC1 gene in different tissues/organs including root, stem, leaves, flower bud, and flower. The result indicated MiSOC1 was widely expressed at different levels in both vegetative and reproductive tissues/organs with the highest expression level in the stems’ leaves and inflorescences, low expression in roots and flowers. The expression of MiSOC1 in different flower developmental stages was different while same tissue –specific pattern among different varieties. In addition, MiSOC1 gene expression was affect by ethephon while high concentration ethephon inhibit the expression of MiSOC1. Overexpression of MiSOC1 resulted in early flowering in Arabidopsis. In conclusion, these results suggest that MiSOC1 may act as induce flower function in mango. PMID:27965680

  9. Molecular Cloning, Characterization, and Expression of MiSOC1: A Homolog of the Flowering Gene SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS1 from Mango (Mangifera indica L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Junya; Liu, Debing; Liu, Guoyin; Tang, Jie; Chen, Yeyuan

    2016-01-01

    MADS-box transcription factor plays a crucial role in plant development, especially controlling the formation and development of floral organs. Mango ( Mangifera indica L) is an economically important fruit crop, but its molecular control of flowering is largely unknown. To better understand the molecular basis of flowering regulation in mango, we isolated and characterized the MiSOC1, a putative mango orthologs for the Arabidopsis SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS1/AGAMOUS-LIKE 20 (SOC1/AGL20) with homology-based cloning and RACE. The full-length cDNA (GenBank accession No.: KP404094) is 945 bp in length including a 74 bp long 5' UTR and a 189 bp long 3' UTR and the open reading frame was 733 bps, encoding 223 amino acids with molecular weight 25.6 kD. Both sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis all indicated that deduced protein contained a conservative MADS-box and semi-conservative K domain and belonged to the SOC1/TM3 subfamily of the MADS-box family. Quantitative real-time PCR was performed to investigate the expression profiles of MiSOC1 gene in different tissues/organs including root, stem, leaves, flower bud, and flower. The result indicated MiSOC1 was widely expressed at different levels in both vegetative and reproductive tissues/organs with the highest expression level in the stems' leaves and inflorescences, low expression in roots and flowers. The expression of MiSOC1 in different flower developmental stages was different while same tissue -specific pattern among different varieties. In addition, MiSOC1 gene expression was affect by ethephon while high concentration ethephon inhibit the expression of MiSOC1. Overexpression of MiSOC1 resulted in early flowering in Arabidopsis . In conclusion, these results suggest that MiSOC1 may act as induce flower function in mango.

  10. Multilevel QoS-policy-based routing management architecture appropriate for heterogeneous network environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzaki, Magda; Sartzetakis, Stelios

    1998-09-01

    As telecom providers introduce new and more sophisticated services the necessity of a global, unified view of the network infrastructure becomes demanding. Today, heterogenous backbone networks are interconnected in order to provide global connectivity. Due to technological impairments the cost of network operation, the maintenance complexity and the overuse of resources are extremely high under the goal of supporting the diverting customer requirements. We propose a scheme for ATM QoS support in such heterogenous, multi-domain, multi-technology network environment. The objective is to optimize users' and networks' profits by giving them the opportunity to satisfy their requirements. Our approach introduces a manager able to take routing decisions supporting quality of service guarantees for the customers, while making efficient use of network resources.

  11. Rapid Development of System-on-Chip (SoC for Network-Enabled Visible Light Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trio Adiono

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Visible Light Communication (VLC is an emerging optical communication technology with rapid development nowadays. VLC is considered as a compliment and successor of radio-frequency (RF wireless communication. There are various typical implementations of VLC in which one of them is for exchanging data TCP/IP packets, thus the user can browse the internet as in established Wireless fidelity (Wi-Fi technology. Briefly, we can call it by Light fidelity (Li-Fi. This paper described the design and implementation of System-on-Chip (SoC subsystem for Li-Fi application where the implemented SoC consists of hardware (H/W and software (S/W. In the H/W aspect, Physical Layer (PHY is made by using UART communication with Ethernet connection to communicate with Host/Device personal-computer (PC. In the S/W aspect, Xillinux operating system (OS is used. The H/W- as well as S/W-SoC, are realized in FPGA Zybo Zynq-7000 EPP development board. The functional test result shows (without optical channel or Zybo-to-Zybo only that the implemented SoC is working as expected. It is able to exchange TCP/IP packets between two PCs. Moreover, Ethernet connection has bandwidth up to 83.6 Mbps and PHY layer baud rate has bandwidth up to 921600 bps.

  12. Common variants in SOCS7 gene predict obesity, disturbances in lipid metabolism and insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellechea, M L; Steinhardt, A Penas; Rodriguez, G; Taverna, M J; Poskus, E; Frechtel, G

    2013-05-01

    Specific Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling (SOCS) members, such as SOCS7, may play a role in the development of insulin resistance (IR) owing to their ability to inhibit insulin signaling pathways. The objective was to explore the association between common variants and related haplotypes in SOCS7 gene and metabolic traits related to obesity, lipid metabolism and IR. 780 unrelated men were included in a cross-sectional study. We selected three tagged SNPs that capture 100% of SNPs with minor allele frequency ≥ 0.10. Analyses were done separately for each SNP and followed up by haplotype analysis. rs8074124C was associated with both obesity (p = 0.005) and abdominal obesity (p = 0.002) and allele C carriers showed, in comparison with TT carriers, lower BMI (p = 0.001) and waist circumference (p = 0.001). rs8074124CC- carriers showed lower fasting insulin (p = 0.017) and HOMA-IR (p = 0.018) than allele T carriers. rs12051836C was associated with hypertriglyceridemia (p = 0.009) and hypertriglyceridemic waist (p = 0.006). rs12051836CC- carriers showed lower fasting insulin (p = 0.043) and HOMA-IR (p = 0.042). Haplotype-based association analysis (rs8074124 and rs12051836 in that order) showed associations with lipid and obesity -related phenotypes, consistent with single locus analysis. Haplotype analysis also revealed association between haplotype CT and both decreased HDL-C (p = 0.026) and HDL-C (p = 0.014) as a continuous variable. We found, for the first time, significant associations between SOCS7 common variants and related haplotypes and obesity, IR and lipid metabolism disorders. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Information architecture: Profile of adopted standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE), like other Federal agencies, is under increasing pressure to use information technology to improve efficiency in mission accomplishment as well as delivery of services to the public. Because users and systems have become interdependent, DOE has enterprise wide needs for common application architectures, communication networks, databases, security, and management capabilities. Users need open systems that provide interoperability of products and portability of people, data, and applications that are distributed throughout heterogeneous computing environments. The level of interoperability necessary requires the adoption of DOE wide standards, protocols, and best practices. The Department has developed an information architecture and a related standards adoption and retirement process to assist users in developing strategies and plans for acquiring information technology products and services based upon open systems standards that support application software interoperability, portability, and scalability. This set of Departmental Information Architecture standards represents guidance for achieving higher degrees of interoperability within the greater DOE community, business partners, and stakeholders. While these standards are not mandatory, particular and due consideration of their applications in contractual matters and use in technology implementations Department wide are goals of the Chief Information Officer.

  14. Monolithic distributed power management for systems-on-chip (SoC); Gestion monolithique distribuee de puissance pour les systemes sur puce (SOC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abedinpour, S. [Motorola, Semiconductor Products Sector, Tempe (United States); Bakkaloglu, B. [Texas Instruments, Broadband Communications Group, Dallas, Texas (United States); Kiaei, S. [Arizona State Univ., Connection one Research Center, Tempe (United States)

    2004-08-01

    With increasing drive towards higher level of integration, lower cost, and longer battery life in wireless applications, there is a need for efficient monolithic DC-DC power converters. This tutorial paper summarizes the topology tradeoffs that are involved in the implementation of monolithic distributed power management in the future generations of SoCs for portable wireless applications. These circuits have a broad range of requirements including high power density, high energy efficiency, low noise, small size, and low cost. The advantages and disadvantages of each of the competing topologies, namely low-dropout linear, switched capacitor, and switched-mode DC-DC converters are examined in light of these requirements. (authors)

  15. Effects of land use change and management on SOC and soil quality in Mediterranean rangelands areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parras-Alcántara, Luis; Lozano-García, Beatriz; Requejo, Ana; Zornoza, Raúl

    2017-04-01

    INTRODUCTION Rangelands in the Iberian Peninsula occupy more than 90,000 km2. These rangelands were created from the former Mediterranean oak forests, mainly composed of holm oak and cork oak (Quercus ilex rotundifolia and Quercus suber), by clear-cutting shrubs, removing selected trees and cultivating. These man-made landscapes are called 'dehesas' in Spain and 'montados' in Portugal. Between 1955 and 1981, more than 5,000 km2 of dehesas was converted from pastureland to cultivated land. This process has been accelerated since 1986 owing to subsidies from the European Common Agricultural Policy (Parras-Alcántara et al., 2015a). The role that natural rangelands play in the global carbon cycle is extremely important, accounting for 10-30% of the world's total soil organic carbon (SOC), in addition, SOC concentration is closely related to soil quality and vegetation productivity (Brevik, 2012). Therefore, to study the land use and management changes is important, particularly in Mediterranean soils, as they are characterized by low organic carbon content, furthermore, the continuous use of ploughing for grain production is the principal cause of soil degradation. Therefore, land use decisions and management systems can increase or decrease SOC content and stock (Corral-Fernández et al., 2013; Parras-Alcántara et al., 2014, 2015a and 2015b; Parras-Alcántara and Lozano-García, 2014) MATERIAL AND METHODS A field study was conducted to determine the land use change (Mediterranean evergreen oak woodland to olive grove and cereal, all of them managed under conventional tillage and under conservationist practices) effects on SOC stocks and the soil quality (Stratification Ratio) in Los Pedroches valley, southern Spain. RESULTS Results for the present study indicate that management practices had little effect on SOC storage in dehesas. The stratification ratio was >2 both under conventional tillage and under organic farming, so, soils under dehesa had high quality

  16. Decoupled Vector-Fetch Architecture with a Scalarizing Compiler

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Yunsup

    2016-01-01

    As we approach the end of conventional technology scaling, computer architects are forced to incorporate specialized and heterogeneous accelerators into general-purpose processors for greater energy efficiency. Among the prominent accelerators that have recently become more popular are data-parallel processing units, such as classic vector units, SIMD units, and graphics processing units (GPUs). Surveying a wide range of data-parallel architectures and their parallel programming models and ...

  17. Heterogeneous computing with OpenCL 2.0

    CERN Document Server

    Kaeli, David R; Schaa, Dana; Zhang, Dong Ping

    2015-01-01

    Heterogeneous Computing with OpenCL 2.0 teaches OpenCL and parallel programming for complex systems that may include a variety of device architectures: multi-core CPUs, GPUs, and fully-integrated Accelerated Processing Units (APUs). This fully-revised edition includes the latest enhancements in OpenCL 2.0 including: Shared virtual memory to increase programming flexibility and reduce data transfers that consume resources Dynamic parallelism which reduces processor load and avoids bottlenecks Improved imaging support and integration with OpenGL  Designed to work on multiple platfor

  18. Supporting Local Mobility in Healthcare by Application Roaming among Heterogeneous Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bardram, Jacob Eyvind; Kjær, Thomas A.K.; Nielsen, Christina

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents results from a research project aiming at developing an architecture supporting local mobility within hospitals. The architecture is based on fieldwork and design workshops within a large Danish hospital and it has been implemented and evaluated after a pilot phase. Our...... fieldwork has emphasised the differences between remote mobility, where users travel over long distances, and local mobility, where users walk around within a fixed set of buildings and/or places. Based on our field studies and our design work, we conclude that local mobility puts up three requirements...... for computer support; (i) it should integrate into the existing infrastructure, (ii) it should support the use of various heterogeneous devices, and (iii) it should enable seamless application roaming between these devices. The paper describes how these requirements were realized in an architecture for local...

  19. A Sustainable, Reliable Mission-Systems Architecture that Supports a System of Systems Approach to Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Steve; Orr, Jim; O'Neil, Graham

    2004-01-01

    A mission-systems architecture based on a highly modular "systems of systems" infrastructure utilizing open-standards hardware and software interfaces as the enabling technology is absolutely essential for an affordable and sustainable space exploration program. This architecture requires (a) robust communication between heterogeneous systems, (b) high reliability, (c) minimal mission-to-mission reconfiguration, (d) affordable development, system integration, and verification of systems, and (e) minimum sustaining engineering. This paper proposes such an architecture. Lessons learned from the space shuttle program are applied to help define and refine the model.

  20. Effects of different soil types in natural Mediterranean areas on soil organic carbon (SOC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requejo Silva, Ana; Lozano García, Beatriz; Parras Alcántara, Luis

    2017-04-01

    Effects of different soil types in natural Mediterranean areas on soil organic carbon (SOC) Ana Requejo1, Beatriz Lozano-García1, Luis Parras Alcántara1 1 Department of Agricultural Chemistry and Soil Science, Faculty of Science, Agrifood Campus of International Excellence - ceiA3, University of Córdoba, Spain. The carbon content of the atmosphere can be influenced by soils, since they can store carbon or emit large quantities of CO2. C sequestration into soils is one of the most important ecosystems services because of its role in climate regulation (IPPC, 2007). Thereof, agriculture and forestry are the only activities that can contribute to C sequestration through photosynthesis and its carbon incorporation into carbohydrates (Parras Alcántara et al., 2013). Dehesa is a multifunctional agro-sylvo-pastoral system and typical landscape of southern and central Spain and southern Portugal. It is an anthropogenic system dedicated to the combined production of black iberian pigs, a variety of foods, fuel, coal, and cork. Besides, it acts as well in the production of endangered species as wildlife habitat and as sustainable hunting areas. These dehesa areas are defined by a relationship between productivity and conservation of forest oaks, providing environmental benefits such as carbon capture and storage. The area focused in this study is the Cardeña-Montoro Nature Reserve, located within the Sierra Morena (Córdoba, South Spain). The most representative soils in Cardeña-Montoro Nature Reserve are Cambisols, Regosols, Leptosols and Fluvisols according to IUSS Working Group WRB (2006). They are characterized by a low fertility, poor physical conditions and marginal capacity for agricultural use, along with low organic matter content due to climate conditions (semiarid Mediterranean climate) and soil texture (sandy). Several studies have shown that land use affects the SOC concentration (Lozano-García et al., 2016; Khaledian et al., 2016). Based on this

  1. Temperature dependent heterogeneous rotational correlation in lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadashvand, Neda; Othon, Christina M

    2016-11-15

    Lipid structures exhibit complex and highly dynamic lateral structure; and changes in lipid density and fluidity are believed to play an essential role in membrane targeting and function. The dynamic structure of liquids on the molecular scale can exhibit complex transient density fluctuations. Here the lateral heterogeneity of lipid dynamics is explored in free standing lipid monolayers. As the temperature is lowered the probes exhibit increasingly broad and heterogeneous rotational correlation. This increase in heterogeneity appears to exhibit a critical onset, similar to those observed for glass forming fluids. We explore heterogeneous relaxation in in a single constituent lipid monolayer of 1, 2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine  by measuring the rotational diffusion of a fluorescent probe (1-palmitoyl-2-[1]-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine), which is embedded in the lipid monolayer at low labeling density. Dynamic distributions are measured using wide-field time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy. The observed relaxation exhibits a narrow, liquid-like distribution at high temperatures (τ ∼ 2.4 ns), consistent with previous experimental measures (Dadashvand et al 2014 Struct. Dyn. 1 054701, Loura and Ramalho 2007 Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1768 467-478). However, as the temperature is quenched, the distribution broadens, and we observe the appearance of a long relaxation population (τ ∼ 16.5 ns). This supports the heterogeneity observed for lipids at high packing densities, and demonstrates that the nanoscale diffusion and reorganization in lipid structures can be significantly complex, even in the simplest amorphous architectures. Dynamical heterogeneity of this form can have a significant impact on the organization, permeability and energetics of lipid membrane structures.

  2. Application of a Multimedia Service and Resource Management Architecture for Fault Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Alfonso; Sedano, Andrés A; García, Fco Javier; Villoslada, Eduardo; Villagrá, Víctor A

    2017-12-28

    Nowadays, the complexity of global video products has substantially increased. They are composed of several associated services whose functionalities need to adapt across heterogeneous networks with different technologies and administrative domains. Each of these domains has different operational procedures; therefore, the comprehensive management of multi-domain services presents serious challenges. This paper discusses an approach to service management linking fault diagnosis system and Business Processes for Telefónica's global video service. The main contribution of this paper is the proposal of an extended service management architecture based on Multi Agent Systems able to integrate the fault diagnosis with other different service management functionalities. This architecture includes a distributed set of agents able to coordinate their actions under the umbrella of a Shared Knowledge Plane, inferring and sharing their knowledge with semantic techniques and three types of automatic reasoning: heterogeneous, ontology-based and Bayesian reasoning. This proposal has been deployed and validated in a real scenario in the video service offered by Telefónica Latam.

  3. ETHERBONE - a network layer for the wishbone SoC bus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreider, M.; Terpstra, W.; Lewis, J.; Serrano, J.; Wlostowski, T.

    2012-01-01

    Today, there are several System on a Chip (SoC) bus systems. Typically, these buses are confined on-chip and rely on higher level components to communicate with the outside world. Taking these systems a step further, we see the possibility of extending the reach of the SoC bus to remote FPGAs or processors. This leads to the idea of the EtherBone (EB) core, which connects a Wishbone (WB) Ver. 4 Bus via a Gigabit Ethernet based network link to remote peripheral devices. EB acts as a transparent interconnect module towards attached WB Bus devices. Address information and data from one or more WB bus cycles is preceded with a descriptive header and encapsulated in a UDP/IP packet. Because of this standard compliance, EB is able to traverse Wide Area Networks and is therefore not bound to a geographic location. Due to the low level nature of the WB bus, EB provides a sound basis for remote hardware tools like a JTAG debugger, In-System-Programmer (ISP), boundary scan interface or logic analyser module. EB was developed in the scope of the White-Rabbit Timing Project (WR) at CERN and GSI/FAIR, which employs GigaBit Ethernet technology to communicate with memory mapped slave devices. WR will make use of EB as means to issue commands to its timing nodes and control connected accelerator hardware. (authors)

  4. A multi-chip data acquisition system based on a heterogeneous system-on-chip platform

    CERN Document Server

    Fiergolski, Adrian

    2017-01-01

    The Control and Readout Inner tracking BOard (CaRIBOu) is a versatile readout system targeting a multitude of detector prototypes. It profits from the heterogeneous platform of the Zynq System-on-Chip (SoC) and integrates in a monolithic device front-end FPGA resources with a back-end software running on a hard-core ARM-based processor. The user-friendly Linux terminal with the pre-installed DAQ software is combined with the efficiency and throughput of a system fully implemented in the FPGA fabric. The paper presents the design of the SoC-based DAQ system and its building blocks. It also shows examples of the achieved functionality for the CLICpix2 readout ASIC.

  5. From green architecture to architectural green

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Earon, Ofri

    2011-01-01

    that describes the architectural exclusivity of this particular architecture genre. The adjective green expresses architectural qualities differentiating green architecture from none-green architecture. Currently, adding trees and vegetation to the building’s facade is the main architectural characteristics...... they have overshadowed the architectural potential of green architecture. The paper questions how a green space should perform, look like and function. Two examples are chosen to demonstrate thorough integrations between green and space. The examples are public buildings categorized as pavilions. One......The paper investigates the topic of green architecture from an architectural point of view and not an energy point of view. The purpose of the paper is to establish a debate about the architectural language and spatial characteristics of green architecture. In this light, green becomes an adjective...

  6. Compositionally heterogeneous podiform chromitite in the Shetland Ophiolite Complex (Scotland): Implications for chromitite petrogenesis and late-stage alteration in the upper mantle portion of a supra-subduction zone ophiolite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derbyshire, E. J.; O'Driscoll, B.; Lenaz, D.; Gertisser, R.; Kronz, A.

    2013-03-01

    The mantle sequence of the ~ 492 Ma Shetland Ophiolite Complex (SOC; Scotland) contains abundant compositionally heterogeneous podiform chromitite bodies enclosed in elongate dunite lenses in the vicinity of the petrological Moho. Chromitite petrogenesis and late-stage alteration events recorded in these seams are examined here using petrography, mineral chemistry and crystal structural data. The resistant nature of Cr-spinel to serpentinisation and other late-stage alteration means that primary igneous compositions are preserved in unaltered crystal cores. Chromitite mineralogy and texture from five sampled localities at The Viels, Hagdale, Harold's Grave, Nikka Vord and Cliff reveal significant inter-pod chemical heterogeneity. The Cr-spinel mineral chemistry is consistent with supra-subduction zone melt extraction from the SOC peridotites. The occurrence of chromitite seams in the centres of the dunite lenses combined with variable Cr-spinel compositions at different chromitite seam localities supports a model of chromitite formation from spatially (and temporally?) fluctuating amounts of melt-rock interaction through channelised and/or porous melt flow. Pervasive serpentinisation of the SOC has led to the almost complete replacement of the primary (mantle) silicate mineral assemblages with serpentine (lizardite with minor chrysotile and antigorite). Magmatic sulphide (e.g., pentlandite) in dunite and chromitite is locally converted to reduced Ni-sulphide varieties (e.g., heazlewoodite and millerite). A post-serpentinisation (prograde) oxidisation event is recorded in the extensively altered Cliff chromitite seams in the west of the studied area, where chromitite Cr-spinel is extensively altered to ferritchromit. The ferritchromit may comprise > 50% of the volume of the Cliff Cr-spinels and contain appreciable quantities of 1-2 μm inclusions of sperrylite (PtAs2) and Ni-arsenide, signifying the coeval formation of these minerals with ferritchromit at

  7. Distributed Input and State Estimation Using Local Information in Heterogeneous Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzung Tran

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A new distributed input and state estimation architecture is introduced and analyzed for heterogeneous sensor networks. Specifically, nodes of a given sensor network are allowed to have heterogeneous information roles in the sense that a subset of nodes can be active (that is, subject to observations of a process of interest and the rest can be passive (that is, subject to no observation. Both fixed and varying active and passive roles of sensor nodes in the network are investigated. In addition, these nodes are allowed to have non-identical sensor modalities under the common underlying assumption that they have complimentary properties distributed over the sensor network to achieve collective observability. The key feature of our framework is that it utilizes local information not only during the execution of the proposed distributed input and state estimation architecture but also in its design in that global uniform ultimate boundedness of error dynamics is guaranteed once each node satisfies given local stability conditions independent from the graph topology and neighboring information of these nodes. As a special case (e.g., when all nodes are active and a positive real condition is satisfied, the asymptotic stability can be achieved with our algorithm. Several illustrative numerical examples are further provided to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed architecture.

  8. Calcineurin inhibitor-induced complement system activation via ERK1/2 signalling is inhibited by SOCS-3 in human renal tubule cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeschenberger, Beatrix; Niess, Lea; Würzner, Reinhard; Schwelberger, Hubert; Eder, Iris E; Puhr, Martin; Guenther, Julia; Troppmair, Jakob; Rudnicki, Michael; Neuwirt, Hannes

    2018-02-01

    One factor that significantly contributes to renal allograft loss is chronic calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) nephrotoxicity (CIN). Among other factors, the complement (C-) system has been proposed to be involved CIN development. Hence, we investigated the impact of CNIs on intracellular signalling and the effects on the C-system in human renal tubule cells. In a qPCR array, CNI treatment upregulated C-factors and downregulated SOCS-3 and the complement inhibitors CD46 and CD55. Additionally, ERK1/-2 was required for these regulations. Following knock-down and overexpression of SOCS-3, we found that SOCS-3 inhibits ERK1/-2 signalling. Finally, we assessed terminal complement complex formation, cell viability and apoptosis. Terminal complement complex formation was induced by CNIs. Cell viability was significantly decreased, whereas apoptosis was increased. Both effects were reversed under complement component-depleted conditions. In vivo, increased ERK1/-2 phosphorylation and SOCS-3 downregulation were observed at the time of transplantation in renal allograft patients who developed a progressive decline of renal function in the follow-up compared to stable patients. The progressive cohort also had lower total C3 levels, suggesting higher complement activity at baseline. In conclusion, our data suggest that SOCS-3 inhibits CNI-induced ERK1/-2 signalling, thereby blunting the negative control of C-system activation. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. DMA Controller for LEON3 SoC:s Using AMBA

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Emelie

    2013-01-01

    A DMA Controller can offload a processor tremendously. A memory copy operation can be initiated by the processor and while the processor executes others tasks the memory copy can be fulfilled by the DMA Controller. An implementation of a DMA Controller for use in LEON3 SoC:s has been made during this master thesis. Problems that occurred while designing a controller of this type concerned AMBA buses, data transfers, alignment and interrupt handling. The DMA Controller supports AMBA and is att...

  10. Comparing architectural solutions of IPT application SDKs utilizing H.323 and SIP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskinarkaus, Anja; Korhonen, Jani; Ohtonen, Timo; Kilpelanaho, Vesa; Koskinen, Esa; Sauvola, Jaakko J.

    2001-07-01

    This paper presents two approaches to efficient service development for Internet Telephony. In first approach we consider services ranging from core call signaling features and media control as stated in ITU-T's H.323 to end user services that supports user interaction. The second approach supports IETF's SIP protocol. We compare these from differing architectural perspectives, economy of network and terminal development, and propose efficient architecture models for both protocols. In their design, the main criteria were component independence, lightweight operation and portability in heterogeneous end-to-end environments. In proposed architecture, the vertical division of call signaling and streaming media control logic allows for using the components either individually or combined, depending on the level of functionality required by an application.

  11. Overexpression of DOSOC1, an ortholog of Arabidopsis SOC1, promotes flowering in the orchid Dendrobium Chao Parya Smile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Lihua; Wang, Yanwen; Yu, Hao

    2013-04-01

    SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS1 (SOC1) encodes a MADS-box protein that plays an essential role in integrating multiple flowering signals to regulate the transition from vegetative to reproductive development in the model plant Arabidopsis. Although SOC1-like genes have been isolated in various angiosperms, its orthologs in Orchidaceae, one of the largest families of flowering plants, are so far unknown. To investigate the regulatory mechanisms of flowering time control in orchids, we isolated a SOC1-like gene, DOSOC1, from Dendrobium Chao Praya Smile. DOSOC1 was highly expressed in reproductive organs, including inflorescence apices, pedicels, floral buds and open flowers. Its expression significantly increased in whole plantlets during the transition from vegetative to reproductive development, which usually occurred after 8 weeks of culture in Dendrobium Chao Praya Smile. In the shoot apex at the floral transitional stage, DOSOC1 was particularly expressed in emerging floral meristems. Overexpression of DOSOC1 in wild-type Arabidopsis plants resulted in early flowering, which was coupled with the up-regulation of two other flowering promoters, AGAMOUS-LIKE 24 and LEAFY. In addition, overexpression of DOSOC1 was able partially to complement the late-flowering phenotype of Arabidopsis soc1-2 loss-of-function mutants. Furthermore, we successfully created seven 35S:DOSOC1 transgenic Dendrobium orchid lines, which consistently exhibited earlier flowering than wild-type orchids. Our results suggest that SOC1-like genes play an evolutionarily conserved role in promoting flowering in the Orchidaceae family, and that DOSOC1 isolated from Dendrobium Chao Praya Smile could serve as an important target for genetic manipulation of flowering time in orchids.

  12. Assessment of LabSOCS as a tool for the calculation of self-attenuation coefficients in gamma spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, J.; De Medeiros, M. P.; Garcez, R.; Filgueiras, R.; Thalhofer, J.; Da Silva, A. X. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Programa de Engenharia Nuclear, Av. Horacio Macedo 2030, 21945-970 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Freitas R, W., E-mail: marqueslopez@yahoo.com.br [Instituto Militar de Engenharia, Secao de Engenharia Nuclear, Praca Gen. Tiburcio 80, 22290-270 Urca, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2017-10-15

    In spectrometry, the self-attenuation coefficients are fundamental to correct the efficiency of the detection of samples whose density is different from the radioactive standard. To facilitate the procedure of coefficient calculation, mathematical simulations have been widespread as a tool. In this paper, LabSOCS was used to calculate the self-attenuation coefficients for some geometries and the values found were compared to those obtained with MCNPX and experimental values. The percentage deviations found for the self-attenuation coefficient calculated by LabSOCS were below 1.6%, when compared to experimental values. In the extrapolation zone of the fitting curve of the experimental model, the deviations were below 1.9%. The results obtained show that the deviations increase proportionally to the amplitude between the density values of the radioactive standard and the sample. High percentage deviations were also obtained in simulations whose samples had high densities, complex geometries and low energy levels. However, the results indicate that LabSOCS is a tool which may be used in the calculation of self-attenuation coefficients. (Author)

  13. Architecture on Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Karen

    2016-01-01

    that is not scientific or academic but is more like a latent body of data that we find embedded in existing works of architecture. This information, it is argued, is not limited by the historical context of the work. It can be thought of as a virtual capacity – a reservoir of spatial configurations that can...... correlation between the study of existing architectures and the training of competences to design for present-day realities.......This paper will discuss the challenges faced by architectural education today. It takes as its starting point the double commitment of any school of architecture: on the one hand the task of preserving the particular knowledge that belongs to the discipline of architecture, and on the other hand...

  14. A resource management architecture for metacomputing systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czajkowski, K.; Foster, I.; Karonis, N.; Kesselman, C.; Martin, S.; Smith, W.; Tuecke, S.

    1999-08-24

    Metacomputing systems are intended to support remote and/or concurrent use of geographically distributed computational resources. Resource management in such systems is complicated by five concerns that do not typically arise in other situations: site autonomy and heterogeneous substrates at the resources, and application requirements for policy extensibility, co-allocation, and online control. We describe a resource management architecture that addresses these concerns. This architecture distributes the resource management problem among distinct local manager, resource broker, and resource co-allocator components and defines an extensible resource specification language to exchange information about requirements. We describe how these techniques have been implemented in the context of the Globus metacomputing toolkit and used to implement a variety of different resource management strategies. We report on our experiences applying our techniques in a large testbed, GUSTO, incorporating 15 sites, 330 computers, and 3600 processors.

  15. Chimera-like states in structured heterogeneous networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Saad, David

    2017-04-01

    Chimera-like states are manifested through the coexistence of synchronous and asynchronous dynamics and have been observed in various systems. To analyze the role of network topology in giving rise to chimera-like states, we study a heterogeneous network model comprising two groups of nodes, of high and low degrees of connectivity. The architecture facilitates the analysis of the system, which separates into a densely connected coherent group of nodes, perturbed by their sparsely connected drifting neighbors. It describes a synchronous behavior of the densely connected group and scaling properties of the induced perturbations.

  16. Neighborhood-resources for the development of a strong SOC and the importance of understanding why and how resources work: a grounded theory approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maass, Ruca; Lindström, Bengt; Lillefjell, Monica

    2017-09-12

    Providing individuals with psychosocial resources such as sense of coherence (SOC) seems a beneficial strategy for health promotion in the neighborhood. In order to become a supporting theory for health promotion, Salutogenesis should renew its focus on resources for health, and explore how the development of a strong SOC can be facilitated. Relevant issues were explored using a Grounded Theory- approach. Three focus-group-sessions and three in-depth interviews were conducted with strategically sampled participants. The transcripts of the focus groups were initially analyzed line-by-line to ensure that insights emerged from the data. We then applied focused and systemic analyses to achieve axial coding, and to include insights into how social interactions during focus groups may reveal social processes in real-life-neighborhoods. The data from the in-depth interviews were used to validate and fill emerging categories, as well as to ensure data-saturation. Findings indicate the importance of repeated experiences with resources and every-day-challenges to develop a strong SOC. Active engagement with resources is a favorable condition for significant experiences, which enhance the internalization of resources. Core experiences are characterized by a re-organization of resources. Participation in intellectual meaning-making through equal power dialogue seems to broaden perspectives and promote the strengthening of SOC. A strong SOC can also be described as a deeper understanding of how and why resources work, which allows for a more flexible use of resources, including replacing missing resources. A new understanding of SOC as an intuitive understanding of how, why and under which circumstances resources work, as well as a new focus on everyday life and repeated experiences might facilitate new approaches to a purposeful strengthening of SOC through the planning and implementation of public measures.

  17. Federated querying architecture with clinical & translational health IT application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livne, Oren E; Schultz, N Dustin; Narus, Scott P

    2011-10-01

    We present a software architecture that federates data from multiple heterogeneous health informatics data sources owned by multiple organizations. The architecture builds upon state-of-the-art open-source Java and XML frameworks in innovative ways. It consists of (a) federated query engine, which manages federated queries and result set aggregation via a patient identification service; and (b) data source facades, which translate the physical data models into a common model on-the-fly and handle large result set streaming. System modules are connected via reusable Apache Camel integration routes and deployed to an OSGi enterprise service bus. We present an application of our architecture that allows users to construct queries via the i2b2 web front-end, and federates patient data from the University of Utah Enterprise Data Warehouse and the Utah Population database. Our system can be easily adopted, extended and integrated with existing SOA Healthcare and HL7 frameworks such as i2b2 and caGrid.

  18. The fate of SOC during the processes of water erosion and subsequent deposition: a field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hemelryck, H.; Govers, G.; van Oost, K.; Merckx, R.

    2009-04-01

    Globally soils are the largest terrestrial pool of carbon (C). A relatively small increase or decrease in soil carbon content due to changes in land use or management practices could therefore result in a significant net exchange of C between the soil C reservoir and the atmosphere. As such, the geomorphic processes of water and tillage erosion have been identified to significantly impact on this large pool of soil organic carbon (SOC). Soil erosion, transport and deposition not only result in redistribution of sediments and associated carbon within a landscape, but also affect the exchange of C between the pedosphere and the atmosphere. The direction and magnitude of an erosion-induced change in the global C balance is however a topic of much debate as opposing processes interact: i) At eroding sites a net uptake of C could be the result of reduced respiration rates and continued inputs of newly produced carbon. ii) Colluvial deposition of eroded sediment and SOC leads to the burial of the original topsoil and this may constrain the decomposition of its containing SOC. iii) Eroded sediment could be transported to distal depositional environments or fluvial systems where it will either be conserved or become rapidly mineralized. iv) Increased emission of CO2 due to erosion may result from the disruptive energy of erosive forces causing the breakdown of aggregates and exposing previously protected SOC to microbial decomposition. The above-mentioned processes show a large spatial and temporal variability and assessing their impact requires an integrated modeling approach. However uncertainties about the basic processes that accompany SOC displacement are still large. This study focuses on one of these large information gaps: the fate of eroded and subsequently deposited SOC. A preceding experimental study (Van Hemelryck et al., 2008) was used to identify controlling factors (erosional intensity, changes in soil structure,…). However this experimental research

  19. Evaluating the Influence of Pore Architecture and Initial Saturation on Wettability and Relative Permeability in Heterogeneous, Shallow-Shelf Carbonates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byrnes, Alan P.; Bhattacharya, Saibal; Victorine, John; Stalder, Ken

    2007-09-30

    Thin (3-40 ft thick), heterogeneous, limestone and dolomite reservoirs, deposited in shallow-shelf environments, represent a significant fraction of the reservoirs in the U.S. midcontinent and worldwide. In Kansas, reservoirs of the Arbuckle, Mississippian, and Lansing-Kansas City formations account for over 73% of the 6.3 BBO cumulative oil produced over the last century. For these reservoirs basic petrophysical properties (e.g., porosity, absolute permeability, capillary pressure, residual oil saturation to waterflood, resistivity, and relative permeability) vary significantly horizontally, vertically, and with scale of measurement. Many of these reservoirs produce from structures of less than 30-60 ft, and being located in the capillary pressure transition zone, exhibit vertically variable initial saturations and relative permeability properties. Rather than being simpler to model because of their small size, these reservoirs challenge characterization and simulation methodology and illustrate issues that are less apparent in larger reservoirs where transition zone effects are minor and most of the reservoir is at saturations near S{sub wirr}. These issues are further augmented by the presence of variable moldic porosity and possible intermediate to mixed wettability and the influence of these on capillary pressure and relative permeability. Understanding how capillary-pressure properties change with rock lithology and, in turn, within transition zones, and how relative permeability and residual oil saturation to waterflood change through the transition zone is critical to successful reservoir management and as advanced waterflood and improved and enhanced recovery methods are planned and implemented. Major aspects of the proposed study involve a series of tasks to measure data to reveal the nature of how wettability and drainage and imbibition oil-water relative permeability change with pore architecture and initial water saturation. Focus is placed on

  20. Imaging intratumor heterogeneity: role in therapy response, resistance, and clinical outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, James P B; Rose, Chris J; Waterton, John C; Carano, Richard A D; Parker, Geoff J M; Jackson, Alan

    2015-01-15

    Tumors exhibit genomic and phenotypic heterogeneity, which has prognostic significance and may influence response to therapy. Imaging can quantify the spatial variation in architecture and function of individual tumors through quantifying basic biophysical parameters such as CT density or MRI signal relaxation rate; through measurements of blood flow, hypoxia, metabolism, cell death, and other phenotypic features; and through mapping the spatial distribution of biochemical pathways and cell signaling networks using PET, MRI, and other emerging molecular imaging techniques. These methods can establish whether one tumor is more or less heterogeneous than another and can identify subregions with differing biology. In this article, we review the image analysis methods currently used to quantify spatial heterogeneity within tumors. We discuss how analysis of intratumor heterogeneity can provide benefit over more simple biomarkers such as tumor size and average function. We consider how imaging methods can be integrated with genomic and pathology data, instead of being developed in isolation. Finally, we identify the challenges that must be overcome before measurements of intratumoral heterogeneity can be used routinely to guide patient care. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  1. On Radio over Fiber for Heterogeneous Wireless Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riaz, M. Tahir; Nielsen, Rasmus Hjorth; Pedersen, Jens Myrup

    2009-01-01

    The paper provides an overview of the radio over fiber (RoF) technology and its potential use in heterogeneous wireless networks. Wireless communications have seen a huge growth in the last decade. It has been estimated that five in every six people in the entire world will have a mobile phone...... in 2010. The vast growing use of Internet on the mobile devices has also been increased significantly. In order to provide a broadband access for mobile communications, a new wireless infrastructure (fiber optic networks for distributed, extendible heterogeneous radio architectures and service...... provisioning - FUTON) based on RoF technology has been introduced. The project adopts centralized processing of radio signals for number of wireless base stations can enhance the network performance in terms of bandwidth, and QoS parameters. The simplified remote access units (RAU) are expected to not only...

  2. Job scheduling in a heterogenous grid environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliker, Leonid; Biswas, Rupak; Shan, Hongzhang; Smith, Warren

    2004-02-11

    Computational grids have the potential for solving large-scale scientific problems using heterogeneous and geographically distributed resources. However, a number of major technical hurdles must be overcome before this potential can be realized. One problem that is critical to effective utilization of computational grids is the efficient scheduling of jobs. This work addresses this problem by describing and evaluating a grid scheduling architecture and three job migration algorithms. The architecture is scalable and does not assume control of local site resources. The job migration policies use the availability and performance of computer systems, the network bandwidth available between systems, and the volume of input and output data associated with each job. An extensive performance comparison is presented using real workloads from leading computational centers. The results, based on several key metrics, demonstrate that the performance of our distributed migration algorithms is significantly greater than that of a local scheduling framework and comparable to a non-scalable global scheduling approach.

  3. ALLIANCE: An architecture for fault tolerant multi-robot cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, L.E.

    1995-02-01

    ALLIANCE is a software architecture that facilitates the fault tolerant cooperative control of teams of heterogeneous mobile robots performing missions composed of loosely coupled, largely independent subtasks. ALLIANCE allows teams of robots, each of which possesses a variety of high-level functions that it can perform during a mission, to individually select appropriate actions throughout the mission based on the requirements of the mission, the activities of other robots, the current environmental conditions, and the robot`s own internal states. ALLIANCE is a fully distributed, behavior-based architecture that incorporates the use of mathematically modeled motivations (such as impatience and acquiescence) within each robot to achieve adaptive action selection. Since cooperative robotic teams usually work in dynamic and unpredictable environments, this software architecture allows the robot team members to respond robustly, reliably, flexibly, and coherently to unexpected environmental changes and modifications in the robot team that may occur due to mechanical failure, the learning of new skills, or the addition or removal of robots from the team by human intervention. The feasibility of this architecture is demonstrated in an implementation on a team of mobile robots performing a laboratory version of hazardous waste cleanup.

  4. ALLIANCE: An architecture for fault tolerant multi-robot cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, L.E.

    1995-02-01

    ALLIANCE is a software architecture that facilitates the fault tolerant cooperative control of teams of heterogeneous mobile robots performing missions composed of loosely coupled, largely independent subtasks. ALLIANCE allows teams of robots, each of which possesses a variety of high-level functions that it can perform during a mission, to individually select appropriate actions throughout the mission based on the requirements of the mission, the activities of other robots, the current environmental conditions, and the robot's own internal states. ALLIANCE is a fully distributed, behavior-based architecture that incorporates the use of mathematically modeled motivations (such as impatience and acquiescence) within each robot to achieve adaptive action selection. Since cooperative robotic teams usually work in dynamic and unpredictable environments, this software architecture allows the robot team members to respond robustly, reliably, flexibly, and coherently to unexpected environmental changes and modifications in the robot team that may occur due to mechanical failure, the learning of new skills, or the addition or removal of robots from the team by human intervention. The feasibility of this architecture is demonstrated in an implementation on a team of mobile robots performing a laboratory version of hazardous waste cleanup

  5. SOFTWARE ARCHITECTURE DESIGN OF GIS WEB SERVICE AGGREGATION BASED ON SERVICE GROUP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-C. Liu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on the analysis of research status of domestic and international GIS web service aggregation and development tendency of public platform of GIS web service, the paper designed software architecture of GIS web service aggregation based on GIS web service group. Firstly, using heterogeneous GIS services model, the software architecture converted a variety of heterogeneous services to a unified interface of GIS services, and divided different types of GIS services into different service groups referring to description of GIS services. Secondly, a service aggregation process model was designed. This model completed the task of specific service aggregation instance, by automatically selecting member GIS Web services in the same service group. Dynamic capabilities and automatic adaptation of GIS Web services aggregation process were achieved. Thirdly, this paper designed a service evaluation model of GIS web service aggregation based on service group from three aspects, i.e. GIS Web Service itself, networking conditions and service consumer. This model implemented effective quality evaluation and performance monitoring of GIS web service aggregation. It could be used to guide the execution, monitor and service selection of aggregation process. Therefore, robustness of aggregated GIS web service was improved. Finally, the software architecture has been widely used in public platform of GIS web service and a number of geo-spatial framework constructions for digital city in Sichuan Province, and aggregated various GIS web services such as World Map(National Public Platform of Geo-spatial Service, ArcGIS, SuperMap, MapGIS, NewMap etc. Applications of items showed that this software architecture was practicability.

  6. Wellbeing of professionals at entry into the labour market: a follow up survey of medicine and architecture students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, P; Koivisto, A M

    2001-11-01

    Knowledge about changes in wellbeing during the passage from professional studies to working life is scarce and controversial. This study examined these changes among university graduates with good and poor employment prospects. A longitudinal study with four postal questionnaire surveys of a closed cohort. Cohorts of graduating Finnish physicians and architects were followed up from 1994 to 1998. In 1994 Finland's national economy was still struggling to break loose from a period of severe recession, and unemployment rates were high even among educated professionals. As economic growth eventually got under way the unemployment situation began to ease for physicians but not for architects. Architecture students (n = 189) from Finland's three technical universities and medical students (n = 638) from Finland's five medical faculties. Both had started their studies in 1989. In the first questionnaire survey there were no differences between the professions in strain resistance resources, as indicated by Sense of Coherence (SOC), or in psychological distress, as indicated by General Health Questionnaire (GHQ). Profession emerged as a significant between subject factor in analysis of variance for repeated measures of both SOC and GHQ. Physicians' scores on the 13 item SOC questionnaire improved during the follow up from 62.6 to 67.5 and on the 12 item GHQ questionnaire from 24.2 to 22.2. Among architects the corresponding scores remained unchanged (62.5-62.2 and 23.1-22.6). The significance of profession remained unchanged when gender and individuals' graduation and total work experience were introduced to the statistical models as between subject factors. Improved SOC in physicians but not in architects supports the hypothesis that good employment prospects are important to employee wellbeing. Although less consistent, indicating fluctuations in day to day psychological distress, GHQ findings are also in line with the hypothesis. In both professions the indicators

  7. Metal–organic frameworks to satisfy gas upgrading demands: fine-tuning the soc-MOF platform for the operative removal of H2S

    KAUST Repository

    Belmabkhout, Youssef

    2017-01-06

    A cooperative experimental/modeling strategy was used to unveil the structure/gas separation performance relationship for a series of isostructural metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with soc-topology (square-octahedral) hosting different extra-framework counter ions (NO3-, Cl- and Br-). In3+-, Fe3+-, Ga3+-and the newly isolated Al(III)-based isostructural soc-MOF were extensively studied and evaluated for the separation-based production of high-quality fuels (i.e., CH4, C3H8 and n-C4H10) and olefins. The structural/chemical fine-tuning of the soc-MOF platform promoted equilibrium-based selectivity toward C2+ (C2H6, C2H4, C3H6 C3H8 and n-C4H10) and conferred the desired chemical stability toward H2S. The noted dual chemical stability and gas/vapor selectivity, which have rarely been reported for equilibrium-based separation agents, are essential for the production of high-purity H-2, CH4 and C2+ fractions in high yields. Interestingly, the evaluated soc-MOF analogues exhibited high selectivity for C2H4, C3H6 and n-C4H10. In particular, the Fe, Ga and Al analogues presented relatively enhanced C2+/CH4 adsorption selectivities. Notably, the Ga and Al analogues were found to be technically preferable because their structural integrities and separation performances were maintained upon exposure to H2S, indicating that these materials are highly tolerant to H2S. Therefore, the Ga-soc-MOF was further examined for the selective adsorption of H2S in the presence of CO2-and CH4-containing streams, such as refinery-off gases (ROG) and natural gas (NG). Grand canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) simulations based on a specific force field describing the interactions between the guest molecules and the Ga sites supported and confirmed the considerably higher affinity of the Ga-soc-MOF for C2+ (as exemplified by n-C4H10) than for CH4. The careful selection of an appropriate metal for the trinuclear inorganic molecular building block (MBB), i. e., a Ga metal center, imbues the soc

  8. An Architecture for Cross-Cloud System Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodda, Ravi Teja; Smith, Chris; van Moorsel, Aad

    The emergence of the cloud computing paradigm promises flexibility and adaptability through on-demand provisioning of compute resources. As the utilization of cloud resources extends beyond a single provider, for business as well as technical reasons, the issue of effectively managing such resources comes to the fore. Different providers expose different interfaces to their compute resources utilizing varied architectures and implementation technologies. This heterogeneity poses a significant system management problem, and can limit the extent to which the benefits of cross-cloud resource utilization can be realized. We address this problem through the definition of an architecture to facilitate the management of compute resources from different cloud providers in an homogenous manner. This preserves the flexibility and adaptability promised by the cloud computing paradigm, whilst enabling the benefits of cross-cloud resource utilization to be realized. The practical efficacy of the architecture is demonstrated through an implementation utilizing compute resources managed through different interfaces on the Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2) service. Additionally, we provide empirical results highlighting the performance differential of these different interfaces, and discuss the impact of this performance differential on efficiency and profitability.

  9. System on chip (SoC) microcontrollers (μC) as digitisers for ion beam analysis (IBA) instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitlow, Harry J., E-mail: harry.j@whitlow.se

    2016-09-15

    Data digitisation of the analogue signals from detectors to digital data is an essential process in ion beam analysis (IBA). The low-cost, easy availability and development environments that have a low learning threshold makes system-on-chip (SoC) microcontrollers (μC) attractive for this task. These μC combine, on one die, analogue and digital inputs and outputs with serial USB interfaces, which opens up simple implementation of tailor-made interfaces for specific IBA measurement systems. We have investigated the design and performance limitations based on development of three different digitisation interfaces for IBA. These were a two-channel nuclear instrumentation module (NIM) ADC event mode interface (EMI) for a high-resolution magnetic RBS spectrometer, a simple headless-multi-channel analyser (MCA) and a combined dual channel headless MCA and EMI. It is shown that SoC μC based interfaces for digitisation of analogue spectroscopy pulses in IBA systems can be implemented for material costs less than 100 €. The performance of the SoC devices for many IBA applications is close to what can be achieved with state-of-the-art instruments. The simple pulse spectroscopy interface circuit and software are included in the auxiliary archive.

  10. 5G heterogeneous networks self-organizing and optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Rong, Bo; Kadoch, Michel; Sun, Songlin; Li, Wenjing

    2016-01-01

    This SpringerBrief provides state-of-the-art technical reviews on self-organizing and optimization in 5G systems. It covers the latest research results from physical-layer channel modeling to software defined network (SDN) architecture. This book focuses on the cutting-edge wireless technologies such as heterogeneous networks (HetNets), self-organizing network (SON), smart low power node (LPN), 3D-MIMO, and more. It will help researchers from both the academic and industrial worlds to better understand the technical momentum of 5G key technologies.

  11. Soil organic carbon (SOC) accumulation in rice paddies under long-term agro-ecosystem experiments in southern China - VI. Changes in microbial community structure and respiratory activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, D.; Liu, X.; Liu, Y.; Li, L.; Pan, G.; Crowley, D.; Tippkötter, R.

    2011-02-01

    Biological stabilization within accumulated soil organic carbon (SOC) has not been well understood, while its role in physical and chemical protection as well as of chemical recalcitrance had been addressed in Chinese rice paddies. In this study, topsoil samples were collected and respiratory activity measured in situ following rice harvest under different fertilization treatments of three long-term experimental sites across southern China in 2009. The SOC contents, microbial biomass carbon (SMBC) and nitrogen (SMBN) were analysed using chemical digestion and microbial community structure assessment via clony dilute plate counting methods. While SOC contents were consistently higher under compound chemical fertilization (Comp-Fert) or combined organic and inorganic fertilization (Comb-Fert) compared to N fertilization only (N-Fert), there was significantly higher fungal-bacterial ratio under Comb-Fert than under N-Fert and Comp-Fert. When subtracting the background effect under no fertilization treatment (Non-Fert), the increase both in SMBC and SMBN under fertilization treatment was found very significantly correlated to the increase in SOC over controls across the sites. Also, the ratio of culturable fungal to bacterial population numbers (F/B ratio) was well correlated with soil organic carbon contents in all samples across the sites studied. SOC accumulation favoured a build-up the microbial community with increasing fungal dominance in the rice paddies under fertilization treatments. While soil respiration rates were high under Comb-Fert as a result of enhanced microbial community build-up, the specific soil respiratory activity based on microbial biomass carbon was found in a significantly negatively correlation with the SOC contents for overall samples. Thus, a fungal-dominated microbial community seemed to slow SOC turnover, thereby favouring SOC accumulation under Comp-Fert or under Comb-Fert in the rice paddies. Therefore, the biological stabilization

  12. Employing lidar to detail vegetation canopy architecture for prediction of aeolian transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankey, Joel B.; Law, Darin J.; Breshears, David D.; Munson, Seth M.; Webb, Robert H.

    2013-01-01

    The diverse and fundamental effects that aeolian processes have on the biosphere and geosphere are commonly generated by horizontal sediment transport at the land surface. However, predicting horizontal sediment transport depends on vegetation architecture, which is difficult to quantify in a rapid but accurate manner. We demonstrate an approach to measure vegetation canopy architecture at high resolution using lidar along a gradient of dryland sites ranging from 2% to 73% woody plant canopy cover. Lidar-derived canopy height, distance (gaps) between vegetation elements (e.g., trunks, limbs, leaves), and the distribution of gaps scaled by vegetation height were correlated with canopy cover and highlight potentially improved horizontal dust flux estimation than with cover alone. Employing lidar to estimate detailed vegetation canopy architecture offers promise for improved predictions of horizontal sediment transport across heterogeneous plant assemblages.

  13. Assessing SOC labile fractions through respiration test, density-size fractionation and thermal analysis - A comparison of methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soucemarianadin, Laure; Cécillon, Lauric; Chenu, Claire; Baudin, François; Nicolas, Manuel; Savignac, Florence; Barré, Pierre

    2017-04-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) is the biggest terrestrial carbon reservoir, storing 3 to 4 times more carbon than the atmosphere. However, despite its major importance for climate regulation SOM dynamics remains insufficiently understood. For instance, there is still no widely accepted method to assess SOM lability. Soil respiration tests and particulate organic matter (POM) obtained by different fractionation schemes have been used for decades and are now considered as classical estimates of very labile and labile soil organic carbon (SOC), respectively. But the pertinence of these methods to characterize SOM turnover can be questioned. Moreover, they are very time-consuming and their reproducibility might be an issue. Alternate ways of determining the labile SOC component are thus well-needed. Thermal analyses have been used to characterize SOM among which Rock-Eval 6 (RE6) analysis of soil has shown promising results in the determination of SOM biogeochemical stability (Gregorich et al., 2015; Barré et al., 2016). Using a large set of samples of French forest soils representing contrasted pedoclimatic conditions, including deep samples (up to 1 m depth), we compared different techniques used for SOM lability assessment. We explored whether results from soil respiration test (10-week laboratory incubations), SOM size-density fractionation and RE6 thermal analysis were comparable and how they were correlated. A set of 222 (respiration test and RE6), 103 (SOM fractionation and RE6) and 93 (respiration test, SOM fractionation and RE6) forest soils samples were respectively analyzed and compared. The comparison of the three methods (n = 93) using a principal component analysis separated samples from the surface (0-10 cm) and deep (40-80 cm) layers, highlighting a clear effect of depth on the short-term persistence of SOC. A correlation analysis demonstrated that, for these samples, the two classical methods of labile SOC determination (respiration and SOM fractionation

  14. A high performance 90 nm CMOS SAR ADC with hybrid architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong Xingyuan; Zhu Zhangming; Yang Yintang; Chen Jianming

    2010-01-01

    A 10-bit 2.5 MS/s SAR A/D converter is presented. In the circuit design, an R-C hybrid architecture D/A converter, pseudo-differential comparison architecture and low power voltage level shifters are utilized. Design challenges and considerations are also discussed. In the layout design, each unit resistor is sided by dummies for good matching performance, and the capacitors are routed with a common-central symmetry method to reduce the nonlin-earity error. This proposed converter is implemented based on 90 nm CMOS logic process. With a 3.3 V analog supply and a 1.0 V digital supply, the differential and integral nonlinearity are measured to be less than 0.36 LSB and 0.69 LSB respectively. With an input frequency of 1.2 MHz at 2.5 MS/s sampling rate, the SFDR and ENOB are measured to be 72.86 dB and 9.43 bits respectively, and the power dissipation is measured to be 6.62 mW including the output drivers. This SAR A/D converter occupies an area of 238 x 214 μm 2 . The design results of this converter show that it is suitable for multi-supply embedded SoC applications. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  15. A Heterogeneous Multi-core Architecture with a Hardware Kernel for Control Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Gang; Guan, Wei; Sierszecki, Krzysztof

    2012-01-01

    Rapid industrialisation has resulted in a demand for improved embedded control systems with features such as predictability, high processing performance and low power consumption. Software kernel implementation on a single processor is becoming more difficult to satisfy those constraints....... This paper presents a multi-core architecture incorporating a hardware kernel on FPGAs, intended for high performance applications in control engineering domain. First, the hardware kernel is investigated on the basis of a component-based real-time kernel HARTEX (Hard Real-Time Executive for Control Systems...

  16. Socially Aware Heterogeneous Wireless Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmides, Pavlos; Adamopoulou, Evgenia; Demestichas, Konstantinos; Theologou, Michael; Anagnostou, Miltiades; Rouskas, Angelos

    2015-06-11

    The development of smart cities has been the epicentre of many researchers' efforts during the past decade. One of the key requirements for smart city networks is mobility and this is the reason stable, reliable and high-quality wireless communications are needed in order to connect people and devices. Most research efforts so far, have used different kinds of wireless and sensor networks, making interoperability rather difficult to accomplish in smart cities. One common solution proposed in the recent literature is the use of software defined networks (SDNs), in order to enhance interoperability among the various heterogeneous wireless networks. In addition, SDNs can take advantage of the data retrieved from available sensors and use them as part of the intelligent decision making process contacted during the resource allocation procedure. In this paper, we propose an architecture combining heterogeneous wireless networks with social networks using SDNs. Specifically, we exploit the information retrieved from location based social networks regarding users' locations and we attempt to predict areas that will be crowded by using specially-designed machine learning techniques. By recognizing possible crowded areas, we can provide mobile operators with recommendations about areas requiring datacell activation or deactivation.

  17. E-CMIRC - towards a model for the integration of services between SOCs and CSIRTs

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacobs, P

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available , including governments. While the focus of a SOC is on the monitoring of technical security controls and critical assets, and the response to attacks and threats, CSIRTs’ main focus is on response and incident management. One postulation is that a CSIRT...

  18. An Overview and Comparison of Online Implementable SOC Estimation Methods for Lithium-ion Battery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng, Jinhao; Ricco, Mattia; Luo, Guangzhao

    2018-01-01

    With the popularity of Electrical Vehicles (EVs), Lithium-ion battery industry is developing rapidly. To ensure the battery safe usage and to reduce its average lifecycle cost, an accurate State of Charge (SOC) tracking algorithms for real-time implementation are required for different applications...

  19. SOCS3 Expression Correlates with Severity of Inflammation, Expression of Proinflammatory Cytokines, and Activation of STAT3 and p38 MAPK in LPS-Induced Inflammation In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Antônio Chaves de Souza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available SOCS3 is an inducible endogenous negative regulator of JAK/STAT pathway, which is relevant in inflammatory conditions. We used a model of LPS-induced periodontal disease in rats to correlate SOCS3 expression with the inflammatory status. In vitro we used a murine macrophage cell line to assess the physical interaction between SOCS3 and STAT3 by coimmunoprecipitation. 30 ug of LPS from Escherichia coli were injected in the gingival tissues on the palatal aspect of first molars of the animals 3x/week for up to 4 weeks. Control animals were injected with the vehicle (PBS. The rats were sacrificed at 7, 15, and 30 days. Inflammation and gene expression were assessed by stereometric analysis, immunohistochemistry, RT-qPCR, and western blot. LPS injections increased inflammation, paralleled by an upregulation of SOCS3, of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α and increased phosphorylation of STAT3 and p38 MAPK. SOCS3 expression accompanied the severity of inflammation and the expression of proinflammatory cytokines, as well as the activation status of STAT3 and p38 MAPK. LPS stimulation in a macrophage cell line in vitro induced transient STAT3 activation, which was inversely correlated with a dynamic physical interaction with SOCS3, suggesting that this may be a mechanism for SOCS3 regulatory function.

  20. Network Function Virtualization (NFV) based architecture to address connectivity, interoperability and manageability challenges in Internet of Things (IoT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haseeb, Shariq; Hashim, Aisha Hassan A.; Khalifa, Othman O.; Faris Ismail, Ahmad

    2017-11-01

    IoT aims to interconnect sensors and actuators built into devices (also known as Things) in order for them to share data and control each other to improve existing processes for making people’s life better. IoT aims to connect between all physical devices like fridges, cars, utilities, buildings and cities so that they can take advantage of small pieces of information collected by each one of these devices and derive more complex decisions. However, these devices are heterogeneous in nature because of various vendor support, connectivity options and protocol suit. Heterogeneity of such devices makes it difficult for them to leverage on each other’s capabilities in the traditional IoT architecture. This paper highlights the effects of heterogeneity challenges on connectivity, interoperability, management in greater details. It also surveys some of the existing solutions adopted in the core network to solve the challenges of massive IoT deployments. Finally, the paper proposes a new architecture based on NFV to address the problems.

  1. Does plant architectural complexity increase with increasing habitat complexity? A test with a pioneer shrub in the Brazilian Cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FAO Silveira

    Full Text Available Understanding variation in plant traits in heterogeneous habitats is important to predict responses to changing environments, but trait-environment associations are poorly known along ecological gradients. We tested the hypothesis that plant architectural complexity increases with habitat complexity along a soil fertility gradient in a Cerrado (Neotropical savanna area in southeastern Brazil. Plant architecture and productivity (estimated as the total number of healthy infructescences of Miconia albicans (SW. Triana were examined in three types of vegetation which together form a natural gradient of increasing soil fertility, tree density and canopy cover: grasslands (campo sujo, CS, shrublands (cerrado sensu strico, CE and woodlands (cerradão, CD. As expected, plants growing at the CS were shorter and had a lower branching pattern, whereas plants at the CD were the tallest. Unexpectedly, however, CD plants did not show higher architectural complexity compared to CE plants. Higher architectural similarity between CE and CD plants compared to similarity between CS and CE plants suggests reduced expression of functional architectural traits under shade. Plants growing at the CE produced more quaternary shoots, leading to a larger number of infructescences. This higher plant productivity in CE indicates that trait variation in ecological gradients is more complex than previously thought. Nematode-induced galls accounted for fruit destruction in 76.5% infructescences across physiognomies, but percentage of attack was poorly related to architectural variables. Our data suggest shade-induced limitation in M. albicans architecture, and point to complex phenotypic variation in heterogeneous habitats in Neotropical savannas.

  2. ZnO@TiO2 Architectures for a High Efficiency Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei, Jianfei; Liu, Shuli; Du, Kai; Lv, Shijie; Liu, Chaojie; Zhao, Lingzhi

    2015-01-01

    Graphical Abstract: A fast and improved electrochemical process was reported to fabricate ZnO@TiO 2 heterogeneous architectures with enhanced power conversion efficiency (ƞ = 2.16%). This paper focuses on achieving high dye loading via binding noncorrosive TiO 2 nanocones to the outermost layer, while retaining the excellent electron transport behavior of the ZnO-based internal layer. Display Omitted -- Highlights: • Nanoconic TiO 2 particles are loaded on the surface of aligned ZnO NWs successfully by a liquid phase deposition method. • ZnO@TiO 2 architectures exhibit high efficiency of the DSSCs. -- Abstract: Instead of the spin coating step, an improved electrochemical process is reported in this paper to prepare ZnO seeded substrates and ZnO nanowires (ZnO NWs). Vertically aligned ZnO NWs are deposited electrochemically on the ZnO seeded substrates directly forming backbones for loading nanoconic TiO 2 particles, and hence ZnO@TiO 2 heterogeneous architectures are obtained. When used as photoanode materials of the dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), ZnO@TiO 2 architectures exhibit enhanced power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the DSSCs. Results of the solar cell testing show that addition of TiO 2 shells to the ZnO NWs significantly increases short circuit current (from 2.6 to 4.7 mA cm −2 ), open circuit voltage (from 0.53 V to 0.77 V) and fill factor (from 0.30 to 0.59). The PCE jumped from 0.4% for bare ZnO NWs to 2.16% for ZnO@TiO 2 architectures under 100 mW cm −2 of AM 1.5 G illumination

  3. The establishment of heterogeneous networks in performative spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suenson, Valinka; Harder, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical research combining the Actor Network Theory with a development of RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) technology for tracking indoor movement behavior. The aim of the paper is to disucss the value of RFID technology as a method for observing heterogeneous networks...... and architecture through this theoretical perspective, it highlights the importance of the user involvement in the performative spaces where materiality becomes an actant on equal terms with the users. This paper discusses the use of RFID technology for tracking indoor movenment behavior as a method for examining...

  4. Fetal functional imaging portrays heterogeneous development of emerging human brain networks

    OpenAIRE

    Schwartz, Ernst; Kasprian, Gregor; Gruber, Gerlinde M.; Prayer, Daniela; Langs, Georg; Jakab, András; Schöpf, Veronika

    2014-01-01

    The functional connectivity architecture of the adult human brain enables complex cognitive processes, and exhibits a remarkably complex structure shared across individuals. We are only beginning to understand its heterogeneous structure, ranging from a strongly hierarchical organization in sensorimotor areas to widely distributed networks in areas such as the parieto-frontal cortex. Our study relied on the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data of 32 fetuses with no detectable mor...

  5. 4G and Beyond - Exploiting Heterogeneity in Mobile Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zakrzewska, Anna

    of mobile networks and focuses on the main challenges resulting from their heterogeneity. To effectively manage this diversity, a novel hierarchical approach considering all types of resources, spectral, optical and computational is proposed. The generic framework covers all kinds of network heterogeneity...... and can be beneficial at any stage of network deployment or operation. Furthermore, a dedicated study of RAT selection and resource allocation is performed and a new optimisation model is introduced and evaluated. The results show a significant reduction of number of handovers at the cost of a slight...... throughput degradation, which leads to a more stable connectivity in multi-RAT environments. A new HetNet architecture with control and user plane separation is thoroughly evaluated. The study focuses on the soft-pilot requirements and assignment problem, which is solved using a proposed optimisation model...

  6. Communication architecture of an early warning system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Angermann

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses aspects of communication architecture for early warning systems (EWS in general and gives details of the specific communication architecture of an early warning system against tsunamis. While its sensors are the "eyes and ears" of a warning system and enable the system to sense physical effects, its communication links and terminals are its "nerves and mouth" which transport measurements and estimates within the system and eventually warnings towards the affected population. Designing the communication architecture of an EWS against tsunamis is particularly challenging. Its sensors are typically very heterogeneous and spread several thousand kilometers apart. They are often located in remote areas and belong to different organizations. Similarly, the geographic spread of the potentially affected population is wide. Moreover, a failure to deliver a warning has fatal consequences. Yet, the communication infrastructure is likely to be affected by the disaster itself. Based on an analysis of the criticality, vulnerability and availability of communication means, we describe the design and implementation of a communication system that employs both terrestrial and satellite communication links. We believe that many of the issues we encountered during our work in the GITEWS project (German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System, Rudloff et al., 2009 on the design and implementation communication architecture are also relevant for other types of warning systems. With this article, we intend to share our insights and lessons learned.

  7. Functional network analysis of genes differentially expressed during xylogenesis in soc1ful woody Arabidopsis plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davin, Nicolas; Edger, Patrick P; Hefer, Charles A; Mizrachi, Eshchar; Schuetz, Mathias; Smets, Erik; Myburg, Alexander A; Douglas, Carl J; Schranz, Michael E; Lens, Frederic

    2016-06-01

    Many plant genes are known to be involved in the development of cambium and wood, but how the expression and functional interaction of these genes determine the unique biology of wood remains largely unknown. We used the soc1ful loss of function mutant - the woodiest genotype known in the otherwise herbaceous model plant Arabidopsis - to investigate the expression and interactions of genes involved in secondary growth (wood formation). Detailed anatomical observations of the stem in combination with mRNA sequencing were used to assess transcriptome remodeling during xylogenesis in wild-type and woody soc1ful plants. To interpret the transcriptome changes, we constructed functional gene association networks of differentially expressed genes using the STRING database. This analysis revealed functionally enriched gene association hubs that are differentially expressed in herbaceous and woody tissues. In particular, we observed the differential expression of genes related to mechanical stress and jasmonate biosynthesis/signaling during wood formation in soc1ful plants that may be an effect of greater tension within woody tissues. Our results suggest that habit shifts from herbaceous to woody life forms observed in many angiosperm lineages could have evolved convergently by genetic changes that modulate the gene expression and interaction network, and thereby redeploy the conserved wood developmental program. © 2016 The Authors. The Plant Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Modeling of a 3DTV service in the software-defined networking architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilczewski, Grzegorz

    2014-11-01

    In this article a newly developed concept towards modeling of a multimedia service offering stereoscopic motion imagery is presented. Proposed model is based on the approach of utilization of Software-defined Networking or Software Defined Networks architecture (SDN). The definition of 3D television service spanning SDN concept is identified, exposing basic characteristic of a 3DTV service in a modern networking organization layout. Furthermore, exemplary functionalities of the proposed 3DTV model are depicted. It is indicated that modeling of a 3DTV service in the Software-defined Networking architecture leads to multiplicity of improvements, especially towards flexibility of a service supporting heterogeneity of end user devices.

  9. Heterogeneous real-time computing in radio astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, John M.; Demorest, Paul; Ransom, Scott

    2010-07-01

    Modern computer architectures suited for general purpose computing are often not the best choice for either I/O-bound or compute-bound problems. Sometimes the best choice is not to choose a single architecture, but to take advantage of the best characteristics of different computer architectures to solve your problems. This paper examines the tradeoffs between using computer systems based on the ubiquitous X86 Central Processing Units (CPU's), Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) based signal processors, and Graphical Processing Units (GPU's). We will show how a heterogeneous system can be produced that blends the best of each of these technologies into a real-time signal processing system. FPGA's tightly coupled to analog-to-digital converters connect the instrument to the telescope and supply the first level of computing to the system. These FPGA's are coupled to other FPGA's to continue to provide highly efficient processing power. Data is then packaged up and shipped over fast networks to a cluster of general purpose computers equipped with GPU's, which are used for floating-point intensive computation. Finally, the data is handled by the CPU and written to disk, or further processed. Each of the elements in the system has been chosen for its specific characteristics and the role it can play in creating a system that does the most for the least, in terms of power, space, and money.

  10. A Decentralized Control Architecture applied to DC Nanogrid Clusters for Rural Electrification in Developing Regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nasir, Mashood; Jin, Zheming; Khan, Hassan

    2018-01-01

    resources with the community. An adaptive I-V droop method is used which relies on local measurements of SOC and DC bus voltage for the coordinated power sharing among the contributing nanogrids. PV generation capability of individual nanogrids is synchronized with the grid stability conditions through......DC microgrids built through bottom-up approach are becoming very popular for swarm electrification due to their scalability and resource sharing capabilities. However, they typically require sophisticated control techniques involving communication among the distributed resources for stable...... and coordinated operation. In this work, we present a communication-less strategy for the decentralized control of a PV/battery-based highly distributed DC microgrid. The architecture consists of clusters of nanogrids (households), where each nanogrid can work independently along with provisions of sharing...

  11. Universal interface on Zynq"® SoC with CAN, RS-232, Ethernet and AXI GPIO for instrumentation & control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Abhijeet; Rajpal, Rachana; Pujara, Harshad; Mandaliya, Hitesh; Edappala, Praveenalal

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We have designed Universal Interface on Zynq"® SoC with CAN, RS-232, Ethernet and AXI GPIO for Instrumentation & Control. This project is based on Zynq"®-7000 family xc7z020clg484-1 chip. • We explored the full design flow starting from the hardware development in Vivado to software development in SDK using APIs in C language and then interfacing the host application developed in LabVIEW. • We also explored how to make custom IP with AXI bus interface in Vivado. • Useful for those who wants to make custom hardware on Zynq"® SoC. - Abstract: This paper describes an application developed on the latest Zynq"®-7000 All Programmable SoC (AP SoC) [1] devices which integrate the software programmability of an ARM"®-based processor with the hardware programmability of an FPGA, on a single device. In this paper we have implemented application which uses various interfaces like CAN, RS-232, Ethernet and AXI GPIO, so that our host application running on PC in LabVIEW can communicates with any hardware which has at least any one of the available interface. Zynq-7000 All Programmable SoCs (System On Chip) infuse customizable intelligence into today’s embedded systems to suit your unique application requirements. This family of FPGA is meant for high end application because it has huge resources on single chip. It offers you to make your own custom hardware IP, in fact we have made our custom IP called myIP in our design. The beauty of this chip is that it can write drivers for your custom IP which has AXI bus layer attached. After exporting the hardware information to the Software Development Kit (SDK), the tool is able to write drivers for your custom IP. This simplifies your development to a great extent. In a way this application provides the universal interfacing option to user. User can also write the digital data on the GPIO (General Purpose Input Output) through LabVIEW Test application GUI. This project can be used for remote control and

  12. A processing architecture for associative short-term memory in electronic noses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pioggia, G.; Ferro, M.; Di Francesco, F.; DeRossi, D.

    2006-11-01

    Electronic nose (e-nose) architectures usually consist of several modules that process various tasks such as control, data acquisition, data filtering, feature selection and pattern analysis. Heterogeneous techniques derived from chemometrics, neural networks, and fuzzy rules used to implement such tasks may lead to issues concerning module interconnection and cooperation. Moreover, a new learning phase is mandatory once new measurements have been added to the dataset, thus causing changes in the previously derived model. Consequently, if a loss in the previous learning occurs (catastrophic interference), real-time applications of e-noses are limited. To overcome these problems this paper presents an architecture for dynamic and efficient management of multi-transducer data processing techniques and for saving an associative short-term memory of the previously learned model. The architecture implements an artificial model of a hippocampus-based working memory, enabling the system to be ready for real-time applications. Starting from the base models available in the architecture core, dedicated models for neurons, maps and connections were tailored to an artificial olfactory system devoted to analysing olive oil. In order to verify the ability of the processing architecture in associative and short-term memory, a paired-associate learning test was applied. The avoidance of catastrophic interference was observed.

  13. A single-mode data acquisition architecture for PET/MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sportelli, Giancarlo; Belcari, Nicola; Bisogni, Maria Giuseppina; Camarlinghi, Niccolo; Zaccaro, Emanuele; Del Guerra, Alberto [Department of Physics, University of Pisa and INFN, Pisa (Italy)

    2015-05-18

    The development of MRI compatible detectors based on compact solid state photomultipliers has recently led to simultaneous fully integrated PET/MRI systems for human imaging. The PET acquisition design for MRI integration is known to have several additional constraints, including smaller space, electromagnetic compatibility issues and thermal management. The current work presents the PET acquisition architecture that has been developed for the TRIMAGE project, whose aim is to provide a cost effective, commercial grade trimodality PET/MRI/EEG scanner. The TRIMAGE PET component consists of 216 modules of 2.5 cm x 2.5 cm, arranged in 18 rectangular detectors of 5 cm x 15 cm, the latter in the axial direction, to form a full ring of 31 cm diameter. Each module consists of a staggered dual layer LYSO matrix read out by two arrays of 4 x 8 SiPMs and an ASIC. The detector board hosts a low-power low-end FPGA that performs pixel identification, energy calibration and handles the communication between the ASICs and the motherboard, which is located in proximity of the scanner. Data is streamed using high-density shielded cables and high-speed LVDS transmission to 9 low-end SoC FPGAs and from there to a central mainboard where coincidences and events statistics are processed. Coincidence data is finally transmitted to a host PC for image reconstruction. The proposed architecture and technological solutions will be presented and discussed.

  14. A single-mode data acquisition architecture for PET/MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sportelli, Giancarlo; Belcari, Nicola; Bisogni, Maria Giuseppina; Camarlinghi, Niccolo; Zaccaro, Emanuele; Del Guerra, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    The development of MRI compatible detectors based on compact solid state photomultipliers has recently led to simultaneous fully integrated PET/MRI systems for human imaging. The PET acquisition design for MRI integration is known to have several additional constraints, including smaller space, electromagnetic compatibility issues and thermal management. The current work presents the PET acquisition architecture that has been developed for the TRIMAGE project, whose aim is to provide a cost effective, commercial grade trimodality PET/MRI/EEG scanner. The TRIMAGE PET component consists of 216 modules of 2.5 cm x 2.5 cm, arranged in 18 rectangular detectors of 5 cm x 15 cm, the latter in the axial direction, to form a full ring of 31 cm diameter. Each module consists of a staggered dual layer LYSO matrix read out by two arrays of 4 x 8 SiPMs and an ASIC. The detector board hosts a low-power low-end FPGA that performs pixel identification, energy calibration and handles the communication between the ASICs and the motherboard, which is located in proximity of the scanner. Data is streamed using high-density shielded cables and high-speed LVDS transmission to 9 low-end SoC FPGAs and from there to a central mainboard where coincidences and events statistics are processed. Coincidence data is finally transmitted to a host PC for image reconstruction. The proposed architecture and technological solutions will be presented and discussed.

  15. A SCORM Thin Client Architecture for E-Learning Systems Based on Web Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casella, Giovanni; Costagliola, Gennaro; Ferrucci, Filomena; Polese, Giuseppe; Scanniello, Giuseppe

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we propose an architecture of e-learning systems characterized by the use of Web services and a suitable middleware component. These technical infrastructures allow us to extend the system with new services as well as to integrate and reuse heterogeneous software e-learning components. Moreover, they let us better support the…

  16. A model of tumor architecture and spatial interactions with tumor microenvironment in breast carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Cheikh, Bassem; Bor-Angelier, Catherine; Racoceanu, Daniel

    2017-03-01

    Breast carcinomas are cancers that arise from the epithelial cells of the breast, which are the cells that line the lobules and the lactiferous ducts. Breast carcinoma is the most common type of breast cancer and can be divided into different subtypes based on architectural features and growth patterns, recognized during a histopathological examination. Tumor microenvironment (TME) is the cellular environment in which tumor cells develop. Being composed of various cell types having different biological roles, TME is recognized as playing an important role in the progression of the disease. The architectural heterogeneity in breast carcinomas and the spatial interactions with TME are, to date, not well understood. Developing a spatial model of tumor architecture and spatial interactions with TME can advance our understanding of tumor heterogeneity. Furthermore, generating histological synthetic datasets can contribute to validating, and comparing analytical methods that are used in digital pathology. In this work, we propose a modeling method that applies to different breast carcinoma subtypes and TME spatial distributions based on mathematical morphology. The model is based on a few morphological parameters that give access to a large spectrum of breast tumor architectures and are able to differentiate in-situ ductal carcinomas (DCIS) and histological subtypes of invasive carcinomas such as ductal (IDC) and lobular carcinoma (ILC). In addition, a part of the parameters of the model controls the spatial distribution of TME relative to the tumor. The validation of the model has been performed by comparing morphological features between real and simulated images.

  17. A Geo-Distributed System Architecture for Different Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moßgraber, Jürgen; Middleton, Stuart; Tao, Ran

    2013-04-01

    The presentation will describe work on the system-of-systems (SoS) architecture that is being developed in the EU FP7 project TRIDEC on "Collaborative, Complex and Critical Decision-Support in Evolving Crises". In this project we deal with two use-cases: Natural Crisis Management (e.g. Tsunami Early Warning) and Industrial Subsurface Development (e.g. drilling for oil). These use-cases seem to be quite different at first sight but share a lot of similarities, like managing and looking up available sensors, extracting data from them and annotate it semantically, intelligently manage the data (big data problem), run mathematical analysis algorithms on the data and finally provide decision support on this basis. The main challenge was to create a generic architecture which fits both use-cases. The requirements to the architecture are manifold and the whole spectrum of a modern, geo-distributed and collaborative system comes into play. Obviously, one cannot expect to tackle these challenges adequately with a monolithic system or with a single technology. Therefore, a system architecture providing the blueprints to implement the system-of-systems approach has to combine multiple technologies and architectural styles. The most important architectural challenges we needed to address are 1. Build a scalable communication layer for a System-of-sytems 2. Build a resilient communication layer for a System-of-sytems 3. Efficiently publish large volumes of semantically rich sensor data 4. Scalable and high performance storage of large distributed datasets 5. Handling federated multi-domain heterogeneous data 6. Discovery of resources in a geo-distributed SoS 7. Coordination of work between geo-distributed systems The design decisions made for each of them will be presented. These developed concepts are also applicable to the requirements of the Future Internet (FI) and Internet of Things (IoT) which will provide services like smart grids, smart metering, logistics and

  18. I(Re2-WiNoC: Exploring scalable wireless on-chip micronetworks for heterogeneous embedded many-core SoCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Zhao

    2015-02-01

    In this work, an irregular and reconfigurable WiNoC platform is proposed to tackle ever increasing complexity, density and heterogeneity challenges. A flexible RF infrastructure is established where RF nodes are properly distributed and IP cores are clustered. Consequently, a performance-cost effective topology is formed. A region-aided routing scheme is further deigned and implemented to realize loop-free, minimum path cost and high scalability for irregular WiNoC infrastructure. To implement the data transmission protocol, the RF microarchitecture of WiNoC is developed where the RF nodes are designed to fulfill the functions of distributed table routing, multi-channel arbitration, virtual output queuing, and distributed flow control. Our simulation studies based on synthetic traffics demonstrate the network efficiency and scalability of WiNoC.

  19. Transient receptor potential ion channel Trpm7 regulates exocrine pancreatic epithelial proliferation by Mg2+-sensitive Socs3a signaling in development and cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson S. Yee

    2011-03-01

    Genetic analysis of pancreatic development has provided new insights into the mechanisms underlying the formation of exocrine pancreatic neoplasia. Zebrafish sweetbread (swd mutants develop hypoplastic acini and dysmorphic ducts in the exocrine pancreas, with impeded progression of cell division cycle and of epithelial growth. Positional cloning and allelic complementation have revealed that the swd mutations affect the transient receptor potential melastatin-subfamily member 7 (trpm7 gene, which encodes a divalent cation-permeable channel with kinase activity. Supplementary Mg2+ partially rescued the exocrine pancreatic defects of the trpm7 mutants by improving cell-cycle progression and growth and repressing the suppressor of cytokine signaling 3a (socs3a gene. The role of Socs3a in Trpm7-mediated signaling is supported by the findings that socs3a mRNA level is elevated in the trpm7 mutants, and antisense inhibition of socs3a expression improved their exocrine pancreatic growth. TRPM7 is generally overexpressed in human pancreatic adenocarcinoma. TRPM7-deficient cells are impaired in proliferation and arrested in the G0-G1 phases of the cell division cycle. Supplementary Mg2+ rescued the proliferative defect of the TRPM7-deficient cells. Results of this study indicate that Trpm7 regulates exocrine pancreatic development via the Mg2+-sensitive Socs3a pathway, and suggest that aberrant TRPM7-mediated signaling contributes to pancreatic carcinogenesis.

  20. Integration Of Data From Heterogeneous Sources Using Etl Technology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Macura

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Data integration is a crucial issue in environments of heterogeneous data sources. At present mentioned heterogeneity is becoming widespread. Whenever, based on various data sources, we want to gain useful information and knowledge we must solve data integration problem in order to apply appropriate analytical methods on comprehensive and uniform data. Such activity is known as knowledge discovery from data process. Therefore approaches to data integration problem are very interesting and bring us closer to the "age of information". The paper presents an architecture, which implements knowledge discovery from data process. The solution combines ETL technology and wrapper layer known from mediated systems. It also provides semantic integration through connections mechanism between data elements. The solution allows for integration of any data sources and implementation of analytical methods in one environment. The proposed environment is verified by applying it to data sources on the foundry industry.

  1. Biofilm three-dimensional architecture influences in situ pH distribution pattern on the human enamel surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jin; Hara, Anderson T; Kim, Dongyeop; Zero, Domenick T; Koo, Hyun; Hwang, Geelsu

    2017-06-01

    To investigate how the biofilm three-dimensional (3D) architecture influences in situ pH distribution patterns on the enamel surface. Biofilms were formed on human tooth enamel in the presence of 1% sucrose or 0.5% glucose plus 0.5% fructose. At specific time points, biofilms were exposed to a neutral pH buffer to mimic the buffering of saliva and subsequently pulsed with 1% glucose to induce re-acidification. Simultaneous 3D pH mapping and architecture of intact biofilms was performed using two-photon confocal microscopy. The enamel surface and mineral content characteristics were examined successively via optical profilometry and microradiography analyses. Sucrose-mediated biofilm formation created spatial heterogeneities manifested by complex networks of bacterial clusters (microcolonies). Acidic regions (pHinterior of microcolonies, which impedes rapid neutralization (taking more than 120 min for neutralization). Glucose exposure rapidly re-created the acidic niches, indicating formation of diffusion barriers associated with microcolonies structure. Enamel demineralization (white spots), rougher surface, deeper lesion and more mineral loss appeared to be associated with the localization of these bacterial clusters at the biofilm-enamel interface. Similar 3D architecture was observed in plaque-biofilms formed in vivo in the presence of sucrose. The formation of complex 3D architectures creates spatially heterogeneous acidic microenvironments in close proximity of enamel surface, which might correlate with the localized pattern of the onset of carious lesions (white spot like) on teeth.

  2. Architectural slicing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak; Hansen, Klaus Marius

    2013-01-01

    Architectural prototyping is a widely used practice, con- cerned with taking architectural decisions through experiments with light- weight implementations. However, many architectural decisions are only taken when systems are already (partially) implemented. This is prob- lematic in the context...... of architectural prototyping since experiments with full systems are complex and expensive and thus architectural learn- ing is hindered. In this paper, we propose a novel technique for harvest- ing architectural prototypes from existing systems, \\architectural slic- ing", based on dynamic program slicing. Given...... a system and a slicing criterion, architectural slicing produces an architectural prototype that contain the elements in the architecture that are dependent on the ele- ments in the slicing criterion. Furthermore, we present an initial design and implementation of an architectural slicer for Java....

  3. SoC Design Approach Using Convertibility Verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basu Samik

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Compositional design of systems on chip from preverified components helps to achieve shorter design cycles and time to market. However, the design process is affected by the issue of protocol mismatches, where two components fail to communicate with each other due to protocol differences. Convertibility verification, which involves the automatic generation of a converter to facilitate communication between two mismatched components, is a collection of techniques to address protocol mismatches. We present an approach to convertibility verification using module checking. We use Kripke structures to represent protocols and the temporal logic to describe desired system behavior. A tableau-based converter generation algorithm is presented which is shown to be sound and complete. We have developed a prototype implementation of the proposed algorithm and have used it to verify that it can handle many classical protocol mismatch problems along with SoC problems. The initial idea for -based convertibility verification was presented at SLA++P '07 as presented in the work by Roopak Sinha et al. 2008.

  4. A High-Throughput, High-Accuracy System-Level Simulation Framework for System on Chips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanyi Sun

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Today's System-on-Chips (SoCs design is extremely challenging because it involves complicated design tradeoffs and heterogeneous design expertise. To explore the large solution space, system architects have to rely on system-level simulators to identify an optimized SoC architecture. In this paper, we propose a system-level simulation framework, System Performance Simulation Implementation Mechanism, or SPSIM. Based on SystemC TLM2.0, the framework consists of an executable SoC model, a simulation tool chain, and a modeling methodology. Compared with the large body of existing research in this area, this work is aimed at delivering a high simulation throughput and, at the same time, guaranteeing a high accuracy on real industrial applications. Integrating the leading TLM techniques, our simulator can attain a simulation speed that is not slower than that of the hardware execution by a factor of 35 on a set of real-world applications. SPSIM incorporates effective timing models, which can achieve a high accuracy after hardware-based calibration. Experimental results on a set of mobile applications proved that the difference between the simulated and measured results of timing performance is within 10%, which in the past can only be attained by cycle-accurate models.

  5. Agent-Oriented Privacy-Based Information Brokering Architecture for Healthcare Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulmutalib Masaud-Wahaishi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Healthcare industry is facing a major reform at all levels—locally, regionally, nationally, and internationally. Healthcare services and systems become very complex and comprise of a vast number of components (software systems, doctors, patients, etc. that are characterized by shared, distributed and heterogeneous information sources with varieties of clinical and other settings. The challenge now faced with decision making, and management of care is to operate effectively in order to meet the information needs of healthcare personnel. Currently, researchers, developers, and systems engineers are working toward achieving better efficiency and quality of service in various sectors of healthcare, such as hospital management, patient care, and treatment. This paper presents a novel information brokering architecture that supports privacy-based information gathering in healthcare. Architecturally, the brokering is viewed as a layer of services where a brokering service is modeled as an agent with a specific architecture and interaction protocol that are appropriate to serve various requests. Within the context of brokering, we model privacy in terms of the entities ability to hide or reveal information related to its identities, requests, and/or capabilities. A prototype of the proposed architecture has been implemented to support information-gathering capabilities in healthcare environments using FIPA-complaint platform JADE.

  6. Agent-oriented privacy-based information brokering architecture for healthcare environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaud-Wahaishi, Abdulmutalib; Ghenniwa, Hamada

    2009-01-01

    Healthcare industry is facing a major reform at all levels-locally, regionally, nationally, and internationally. Healthcare services and systems become very complex and comprise of a vast number of components (software systems, doctors, patients, etc.) that are characterized by shared, distributed and heterogeneous information sources with varieties of clinical and other settings. The challenge now faced with decision making, and management of care is to operate effectively in order to meet the information needs of healthcare personnel. Currently, researchers, developers, and systems engineers are working toward achieving better efficiency and quality of service in various sectors of healthcare, such as hospital management, patient care, and treatment. This paper presents a novel information brokering architecture that supports privacy-based information gathering in healthcare. Architecturally, the brokering is viewed as a layer of services where a brokering service is modeled as an agent with a specific architecture and interaction protocol that are appropriate to serve various requests. Within the context of brokering, we model privacy in terms of the entities ability to hide or reveal information related to its identities, requests, and/or capabilities. A prototype of the proposed architecture has been implemented to support information-gathering capabilities in healthcare environments using FIPA-complaint platform JADE.

  7. SUSTAINABLE ARCHITECTURE : WHAT ARCHITECTURE STUDENTS THINK

    OpenAIRE

    SATWIKO, PRASASTO

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable architecture has become a hot issue lately as the impacts of climate change become more intense. Architecture educations have responded by integrating knowledge of sustainable design in their curriculum. However, in the real life, new buildings keep coming with designs that completely ignore sustainable principles. This paper discusses the results of two national competitions on sustainable architecture targeted for architecture students (conducted in 2012 and 2013). The results a...

  8. Measurement of the complete core plasma flow across the LOC-SOC transition at ASDEX Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebschy, A.; McDermott, R. M.; Angioni, C.; Geiger, B.; Prisiazhniuk, D.; Cavedon, M.; Conway, G. D.; Dux, R.; Dunne, M. G.; Kappatou, A.; Pütterich, T.; Stroth, U.; Viezzer, E.; the ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2018-02-01

    A newly installed core charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (CXRS) diagnostic at ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) enables the evaluation of the core poloidal rotation (upol ) through the inboard-outboard asymmetry of the toroidal rotation with an accuracy of 0.5 to 1 km s-1 . Using this technique, the total plasma flow has been measured in Ohmic L-mode plasmas across the transition from the linear to saturated ohmic confinement (LOC-SOC) regimes. The core poloidal rotation of the plasma around mid-radius is found to be always in the ion diamagnetic direction, in disagreement with neoclassical (NC) predictions. The edge rotation is found to be electron-directed and consistent with NC codes. This measurement provides as well the missing ingredient to evaluate the core E×B velocity (uE×B ) from data only, which can then be compared to measurements of the perpendicular velocity of the turbulent fluctuations (u\\perp ) to gain information on the turbulent phase velocity (vph ). The non neoclassical upol from CXRS leads to good agreement between uE×B and u\\perp indicating that vph is small and at similar values as found with gyrokinetic simulations. Moreover, the data shows a shift of vph in the ion-diamagnetic direction at the edge after the transition from LOC to SOC consistent with a change in the dominant turbulence regime. The upgrade of the core CXRS system provides as well a deeper insight into the intrinsic rotation. This paper shows that the reversal of the core toroidal rotation occurs clearly after the LOC-SOC transition and concomitant with the peaking of the electron density.

  9. Universal interface on Zynq{sup ®} SoC with CAN, RS-232, Ethernet and AXI GPIO for instrumentation & control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Abhijeet, E-mail: akumar@ipr.res.in; Rajpal, Rachana; Pujara, Harshad; Mandaliya, Hitesh; Edappala, Praveenalal

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • We have designed Universal Interface on Zynq{sup ®} SoC with CAN, RS-232, Ethernet and AXI GPIO for Instrumentation & Control. This project is based on Zynq{sup ®}-7000 family xc7z020clg484-1 chip. • We explored the full design flow starting from the hardware development in Vivado to software development in SDK using APIs in C language and then interfacing the host application developed in LabVIEW. • We also explored how to make custom IP with AXI bus interface in Vivado. • Useful for those who wants to make custom hardware on Zynq{sup ®} SoC. - Abstract: This paper describes an application developed on the latest Zynq{sup ®}-7000 All Programmable SoC (AP SoC) [1] devices which integrate the software programmability of an ARM{sup ®}-based processor with the hardware programmability of an FPGA, on a single device. In this paper we have implemented application which uses various interfaces like CAN, RS-232, Ethernet and AXI GPIO, so that our host application running on PC in LabVIEW can communicates with any hardware which has at least any one of the available interface. Zynq-7000 All Programmable SoCs (System On Chip) infuse customizable intelligence into today’s embedded systems to suit your unique application requirements. This family of FPGA is meant for high end application because it has huge resources on single chip. It offers you to make your own custom hardware IP, in fact we have made our custom IP called myIP in our design. The beauty of this chip is that it can write drivers for your custom IP which has AXI bus layer attached. After exporting the hardware information to the Software Development Kit (SDK), the tool is able to write drivers for your custom IP. This simplifies your development to a great extent. In a way this application provides the universal interfacing option to user. User can also write the digital data on the GPIO (General Purpose Input Output) through LabVIEW Test application GUI. This project can be used

  10. Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Clear, Nic

    2014-01-01

    When discussing science fiction’s relationship with architecture, the usual practice is to look at the architecture “in” science fiction—in particular, the architecture in SF films (see Kuhn 75-143) since the spaces of literary SF present obvious difficulties as they have to be imagined. In this essay, that relationship will be reversed: I will instead discuss science fiction “in” architecture, mapping out a number of architectural movements and projects that can be viewed explicitly as scien...

  11. Use of 'sense of coherence (SOC)' scale to measure resilience in Eritrea: interrogating both the data and the scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almedom, Astier M; Tesfamichael, Berhe; Saeed Mohammed, Zein; Mascie-Taylor, C G N; Alemu, Zemui

    2007-01-01

    An adapted 'sense of coherence' scale short form (SOC-13) was administered in nine languages of Eritrea with a total of 265 participants (162 women and 103 men) in order to assess 'resilience' in quantitative terms. Statistical analysis yielded significant differences in SOC scores between the displaced and non-displaced: mean=54.84 (SD=6.48) in internally displaced person (IDP) camps, compared with mean=48.94 (SD=11.99) in urban and rural settlements (t=3.831, purban (non-displaced) residents. Those in rural but traditionally mobile (pastoralist or transhumant) communities scored more or less the same as the urban non-displaced - i.e. significantly higher than those in IDP camps (purban and pastoralist/transhumant groups are similar, while women in IDP camps are lower scoring (RR=0.268, p<0.001), Hamboka women being worst affected due to their experience of serial displacement. These findings are interpreted and discussed in the light of qualitative information gleaned from the study participants' interrogation of the content of the SOC scale; and in the wider context of historical, socio-political and cultural characteristics of Eritrea. The study's implications for humanitarian and public health policy are considered.

  12. Energy efficient HPC on embedded SoCs : optimization techniques for mali GPU

    OpenAIRE

    Grasso, Ivan; Radojkovic, Petar; Rajovic, Nikola; Gelado Fernandez, Isaac; Ramírez Bellido, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    A lot of effort from academia and industry has been invested in exploring the suitability of low-power embedded technologies for HPC. Although state-of-the-art embedded systems-on-chip (SoCs) inherently contain GPUs that could be used for HPC, their performance and energy capabilities have never been evaluated. Two reasons contribute to the above. Primarily, embedded GPUs until now, have not supported 64-bit floating point arithmetic - a requirement for HPC. Secondly, embedded GPUs did not pr...

  13. An improved PNGV modeling and SOC estimation for lithium iron phosphate batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng

    2017-11-01

    Because lithium iron phosphate battery has many advantages, it has been used more and more widely in the field of electric vehicle. The lithium iron phosphate battery, presents the improved PNGV model, and the batteries charge discharge characteristics and pulse charge discharge experiments, identification of parameters of the battery model by interpolation and least square fitting method, to achieve a more accurate modeling of lithium iron phosphate battery, and the extended Calman filter algorithm (EKF) is completed state nuclear power battery (SOC) estimate.

  14. [Mesh structure of two-dimensional tumor microvascular architecture phenotype heterogeneity in non-small cell lung cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Zeng; Zhou, Hui; Liu, Jin-Kang; Hu, Cheng-Ping; Zhou, Mo-Ling; Xia, Yu; Zhou, Jian-Hua

    2009-11-01

    To investigate the structural characteristics and clinical significance of two-dimensional tumor microvascular architecture phenotype (2D-TMAP) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Thirty surgical specimens of NSCLC were collected. The sections of the tumor tissues corresponding to the slice of CT perfusion imaging were selected to construct the 2D-TMAP expression. Spearman correlation analysis was used to examine the relation between the 2D-TMAP expression and the clinicopathological features of NSCLC. A heterogeneity was noted in the 2D-TMAP expression of NSCLC. The microvascular density (MVD) in the area surrounding the tumor was higher than that in the central area, but the difference was not statistically significant. The density of the microvessels without intact lumen was significantly greater in the surrounding area than in the central area (P=0.030). The total MVD was not correlated to tumor differentiation (r=0.042, P=0.831). The density of the microvessels without intact lumen in the surrounding area was positively correlated to degree of tumor differentiation and lymph node metastasis (r=0.528 and 0.533, P=0.041 and 0.028, respectively), and also to the expressions of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), ephrinB2, EphB4, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) (r=0.504, 0.549, 0.549, and 0.370; P=0.005, 0.002, 0.002, and 0.048, respectively). The degree of tumor differentiation was positively correlated to PCNA and VEGF expression (r=0.604 and 0.370, P=0.001 and 0.048, respectively), but inversely to the integrity of microvascular basement membrane (r=-0.531, P=0.033). The 2D-TMAP suggests the overall state of the micro-environment for tumor growth. The 2D-TMAP of NSCLC regulates angiogenesis and tumor cell proliferation through a mesh-like structure, and better understanding of the characteristics and possible mechanism of 2D-TMAP expression can be of great clinical importance.

  15. Wireless sensors in heterogeneous networked systems configuration and operation middleware

    CERN Document Server

    Cecilio, José

    2014-01-01

    This book presents an examination of the middleware that can be used to configure and operate heterogeneous node platforms and sensor networks. The middleware requirements for a range of application scenarios are compared and analysed. The text then defines middleware architecture that has been integrated in an approach demonstrated live in a refinery. Features: presents a thorough introduction to the major concepts behind wireless sensor networks (WSNs); reviews the various application scenarios and existing middleware solutions for WSNs; discusses the middleware mechanisms necessary for hete

  16. A modular control architecture for real-time synchronous and asynchronous systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, P.L.; Jones, J.P.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes a control architecture for real-time control of complex robotic systems. The Modular Integrated Control Architecture (MICA), which is actually two complementary control systems, recognizes and exploits the differences between asynchronous and synchronous control. The asynchronous control system simulates shared memory on a heterogeneous network. For control information, a portable event-scheme is used. This scheme provides consistent interprocess coordination among multiple tasks on a number of distributed systems. The machines in the network can vary with respect to their native operating systems and the intemal representation of numbers they use. The synchronous control system is needed for tight real-time control of complex electromechanical systems such as robot manipulators, and the system uses multiple processors at a specified rate. Both the synchronous and asynchronous portions of MICA have been developed to be extremely modular. MICA presents a simple programming model to code developers and also considers the needs of system integrators and maintainers. MICA has been used successfully in a complex robotics project involving a mobile 7-degree-of-freedom manipulator in a heterogeneous network with a body of software totaling over 100,000 lines of code. MICA has also been used in another robotics system, controlling a commercial long-reach manipulator

  17. Modeling Architectural Patterns Using Architectural Primitives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zdun, Uwe; Avgeriou, Paris

    2005-01-01

    Architectural patterns are a key point in architectural documentation. Regrettably, there is poor support for modeling architectural patterns, because the pattern elements are not directly matched by elements in modeling languages, and, at the same time, patterns support an inherent variability that

  18. Image processing methods and architectures in diagnostic pathology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar DĂŠniz

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Grid technology has enabled the clustering and the efficient and secure access to and interaction among a wide variety of geographically distributed resources such as: supercomputers, storage systems, data sources, instruments and special devices and services. Their main applications include large-scale computational and data intensive problems in science and engineering. General grid structures and methodologies for both software and hardware in image analysis for virtual tissue-based diagnosis has been considered in this paper. This methods are focus on the user level middleware. The article describes the distributed programming system developed by the authors for virtual slide analysis in diagnostic pathology. The system supports different image analysis operations commonly done in anatomical pathology and it takes into account secured aspects and specialized infrastructures with high level services designed to meet application requirements. Grids are likely to have a deep impact on health related applications, and therefore they seem to be suitable for tissue-based diagnosis too. The implemented system is a joint application that mixes both Web and Grid Service Architecture around a distributed architecture for image processing. It has shown to be a successful solution to analyze a big and heterogeneous group of histological images under architecture of massively parallel processors using message passing and non-shared memory.

  19. A multi-agent system architecture for sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes-Fernández, Rubén; Guijarro, María; Pajares, Gonzalo

    2009-01-01

    The design of the control systems for sensor networks presents important challenges. Besides the traditional problems about how to process the sensor data to obtain the target information, engineers need to consider additional aspects such as the heterogeneity and high number of sensors, and the flexibility of these networks regarding topologies and the sensors in them. Although there are partial approaches for resolving these issues, their integration relies on ad hoc solutions requiring important development efforts. In order to provide an effective approach for this integration, this paper proposes an architecture based on the multi-agent system paradigm with a clear separation of concerns. The architecture considers sensors as devices used by an upper layer of manager agents. These agents are able to communicate and negotiate services to achieve the required functionality. Activities are organized according to roles related with the different aspects to integrate, mainly sensor management, data processing, communication and adaptation to changes in the available devices and their capabilities. This organization largely isolates and decouples the data management from the changing network, while encouraging reuse of solutions. The use of the architecture is facilitated by a specific modelling language developed through metamodelling. A case study concerning a generic distributed system for fire fighting illustrates the approach and the comparison with related work.

  20. A uniform approach for programming distributed heterogeneous computing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, Ivan; Pellegrini, Simone; Cosenza, Biagio; Fahringer, Thomas

    2014-12-01

    Large-scale compute clusters of heterogeneous nodes equipped with multi-core CPUs and GPUs are getting increasingly popular in the scientific community. However, such systems require a combination of different programming paradigms making application development very challenging. In this article we introduce libWater, a library-based extension of the OpenCL programming model that simplifies the development of heterogeneous distributed applications. libWater consists of a simple interface, which is a transparent abstraction of the underlying distributed architecture, offering advanced features such as inter-context and inter-node device synchronization. It provides a runtime system which tracks dependency information enforced by event synchronization to dynamically build a DAG of commands, on which we automatically apply two optimizations: collective communication pattern detection and device-host-device copy removal. We assess libWater's performance in three compute clusters available from the Vienna Scientific Cluster, the Barcelona Supercomputing Center and the University of Innsbruck, demonstrating improved performance and scaling with different test applications and configurations.

  1. A CFD Heterogeneous Parallel Solver Based on Collaborating CPU and GPU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Jianqi; Tian, Zhengyu; Li, Hua; Pan, Sha

    2018-03-01

    Since Graphic Processing Unit (GPU) has a strong ability of floating-point computation and memory bandwidth for data parallelism, it has been widely used in the areas of common computing such as molecular dynamics (MD), computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and so on. The emergence of compute unified device architecture (CUDA), which reduces the complexity of compiling program, brings the great opportunities to CFD. There are three different modes for parallel solution of NS equations: parallel solver based on CPU, parallel solver based on GPU and heterogeneous parallel solver based on collaborating CPU and GPU. As we can see, GPUs are relatively rich in compute capacity but poor in memory capacity and the CPUs do the opposite. We need to make full use of the GPUs and CPUs, so a CFD heterogeneous parallel solver based on collaborating CPU and GPU has been established. Three cases are presented to analyse the solver’s computational accuracy and heterogeneous parallel efficiency. The numerical results agree well with experiment results, which demonstrate that the heterogeneous parallel solver has high computational precision. The speedup on a single GPU is more than 40 for laminar flow, it decreases for turbulent flow, but it still can reach more than 20. What’s more, the speedup increases as the grid size becomes larger.

  2. System-on-Chip Environment: A SpecC-Based Framework for Heterogeneous MPSoC Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel D. Gajski

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The constantly growing complexity of embedded systems is a challenge that drives the development of novel design automation techniques. C-based system-level design addresses the complexity challenge by raising the level of abstraction and integrating the design processes for the heterogeneous system components. In this article, we present a comprehensive design framework, the system-on-chip environment (SCE which is based on the influential SpecC language and methodology. SCE implements a top-down system design flow based on a specify-explore-refine paradigm with support for heterogeneous target platforms consisting of custom hardware components, embedded software processors, dedicated IP blocks, and complex communication bus architectures. Starting from an abstract specification of the desired system, models at various levels of abstraction are automatically generated through successive step-wise refinement, resulting in a pin-and cycle-accurate system implementation. The seamless integration of automatic model generation, estimation, and verification tools enables rapid design space exploration and efficient MPSoC implementation. Using a large set of industrial-strength examples with a wide range of target architectures, our experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of our framework and show significant productivity gains in design time.

  3. Approche complète de développement des IPs pour les SoCs A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CoFluent and Quartus II tools have helped us to get the different models. ... Key words : IPs – SoC - Design and Reuse – UML – System C ... nouvelles techniques de conception doivent- .... obtenir un prototype fabriqué et testé. ..... Information Technology and Control, ... A new logic circuit design methodology with UMLl.

  4. Knit as bespoke material practice for architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette; Tamke, Martin; Karmon, Ayelet

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an inquiry into how to inform material systems that allow for a high degree of variation and gradation of their material composition. Presenting knit as a particular system of material fabrication, we discuss how new practices that integrate material design into the architectu......This paper presents an inquiry into how to inform material systems that allow for a high degree of variation and gradation of their material composition. Presenting knit as a particular system of material fabrication, we discuss how new practices that integrate material design...... into the architectural design chain present new opportunities and challenges for how we understand and create cycles of design, analysis, specification and fabrication. By tracing current interdisciplinary efforts to establish simulation methods for knitted textiles, our aim is to question how these efforts can...... be understood and extended in the context of knitted architectural textiles. The paper draws on a number of projects that prototype methods for using simulation and sensing as grounds for informing the design of complex, heterogeneous and performative materials. It asks how these methods can allow feedback...

  5. Innovative global architecture for sustainable nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheeler, John; Kagramanyan, Vladimir; Poplavskaya, Elena; Edwards, Geoffrey; Dixon, Brent; Usanov, Vladimir; Hayashi, Hideyuki; Beatty, Randall

    2011-01-01

    The INPRO collaborative project 'Global architecture of innovative nuclear energy systems based on thermal and fast reactors with the inclusion of a closed nuclear fuel cycle (GAINS)' was one of several scenario studies implemented in the IAEA in recent years. The objective of GAINS was to develop a standard framework for assessing future nuclear energy systems (NESs) taking into account sustainable development, and to validate the results through sample analyses. Belgium, Canada, China, the Czech Republic, France, India, Italy, Japan, the Republic of Korea, the Russian Federation, Slovakia, Ukraine, USA, the European Commission and Argentina as an observer participated in the project. The results received are discussed in the paper, including: development of a heterogeneous multi-group model of a global NES, estimation of nuclear energy demand, identification of a representative set of reactors and fuel cycles, evaluation capability of available analytical and modelling tools, and quantitative analysis of the different options of the global architecture. It was shown that the approach used contributes to development of a coherent vision of driving forces for nuclear energy system development and deployment. (author)

  6. Early secreted antigen ESAT-6 of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis promotes apoptosis of macrophages via targeting the microRNA155-SOCS1 interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shaojun; Li, Fake; Jia, Shuangrong; Zhang, Kejun; Jiang, Wenbing; Shang, Ya; Chang, Kai; Deng, Shaoli; Chen, Ming

    2015-01-01

    The early secreted antigenic target 6-kDa protein (ESAT-6) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) not only acts as a key player for virulence but also exhibits a strong immunotherapeutic potential against Mtb. However, little is known about the molecular basis for its potential in immunotherapy. The present study was designed to unravel the role of miRNA-155 in ESAT-6-mediated enhancement of host immunity and apoptosis in macrophages. Lentivirus-mediated miR-155 sponge and miR-155 and SOCS1 overexpression vectors were developed in macrophages. TLR2- or p65-specific siRNA knockdown was employed to silence TLR2 or p65. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting analyses were performed to determine mRNA and protein expression levels, respectively. Macrophage apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry. ESAT-6 significantly increased miR-155 expression, which was dependent on TLR2/NF-κB activation in macrophages. Induced expression of miRNA-155 was required for the ESAT-6-mediated protective immune response and macrophage apoptosis. ESAT-6 promoted macrophage apoptosis by targeting the miR-155-SOCS1 pathway. The differential expression levels of TLR2, BIC, and SOCS1 were involved in regulating the immune response in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with active tuberculosis (TB) and latent TB (LTB). ESAT-6 promotes apoptosis of macrophages via targeting the miRNA155-SOCS1 interaction. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Early Secreted Antigen ESAT-6 of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Promotes Apoptosis of Macrophages via Targeting the MicroRNA155-SOCS1 Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaojun Yang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The early secreted antigenic target 6-kDa protein (ESAT-6 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb not only acts as a key player for virulence but also exhibits a strong immunotherapeutic potential against Mtb. However, little is known about the molecular basis for its potential in immunotherapy. The present study was designed to unravel the role of miRNA-155 in ESAT-6-mediated enhancement of host immunity and apoptosis in macrophages. Methods: Lentivirus-mediated miR-155 sponge and miR-155 and SOCS1 overexpression vectors were developed in macrophages. TLR2- or p65-specific siRNA knockdown was employed to silence TLR2 or p65. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting analyses were performed to determine mRNA and protein expression levels, respectively. Macrophage apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry. Results: ESAT-6 significantly increased miR-155 expression, which was dependent on TLR2/NF-κB activation in macrophages. Induced expression of miRNA-155 was required for the ESAT-6-mediated protective immune response and macrophage apoptosis. ESAT-6 promoted macrophage apoptosis by targeting the miR-155-SOCS1 pathway. The differential expression levels of TLR2, BIC, and SOCS1 were involved in regulating the immune response in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with active tuberculosis (TB and latent TB (LTB. Conclusion: ESAT-6 promotes apoptosis of macrophages via targeting the miRNA155-SOCS1 interaction.

  8. Angiotensin II (AngII) induces the expression of suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS)-3 in rat hypothalamus - a mechanism for desensitization of AngII signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torsoni, Márcio A; Carvalheira, José B; Calegari, Vivian C; Bezerra, Rosangela M N; Saad, Mário J A; Gontijo, José A; Velloso, Lício A

    2004-04-01

    Angiotensin II exerts a potent dypsogenic stimulus on the hypothalamus, which contributes to its centrally mediated participation in the control of water balance and blood pressure. Repetitive intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injections of angiotensin II lead to a loss of effect characterized as physiological desensitization to the peptide's action. In the present study, we demonstrate that angiotensin II induces the expression of suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS)-3 via angiotensin receptor 1 (AT1) and JAK-2, mostly located at the median preoptic lateral and anterodorsal preoptic nuclei. SOCS-3 produces an inhibitory effect upon the signal transduction pathways of several cytokines and hormones that employ members of the JAK/STAT families as intermediaries. The partial inhibition of SOCS-3 translation by antisense oligonucleotide was sufficient to significantly reduce the refractoriness of repetitive i.c.v. angiotensin II injections, as evaluated by water ingestion. Thus, by acting through AT1 on the hypothalamus, angiotensin II induces the expression of SOCS-3 which, in turn, blocks further activation of the pathway and consequently leads to desensitization to angiotensin II stimuli concerning its dypsogenic effect.

  9. E-health and healthcare enterprise information system leveraging service-oriented architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Sung-Huai; Hsieh, Sheau-Ling; Cheng, Po-Hsun; Lai, Feipei

    2012-04-01

    To present the successful experiences of an integrated, collaborative, distributed, large-scale enterprise healthcare information system over a wired and wireless infrastructure in National Taiwan University Hospital (NTUH). In order to smoothly and sequentially transfer from the complex relations among the old (legacy) systems to the new-generation enterprise healthcare information system, we adopted the multitier framework based on service-oriented architecture to integrate the heterogeneous systems as well as to interoperate among many other components and multiple databases. We also present mechanisms of a logical layer reusability approach and data (message) exchange flow via Health Level 7 (HL7) middleware, DICOM standard, and the Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise workflow. The architecture and protocols of the NTUH enterprise healthcare information system, especially in the Inpatient Information System (IIS), are discussed in detail. The NTUH Inpatient Healthcare Information System is designed and deployed on service-oriented architecture middleware frameworks. The mechanisms of integration as well as interoperability among the components and the multiple databases apply the HL7 standards for data exchanges, which are embedded in XML formats, and Microsoft .NET Web services to integrate heterogeneous platforms. The preliminary performance of the current operation IIS is evaluated and analyzed to verify the efficiency and effectiveness of the designed architecture; it shows reliability and robustness in the highly demanding traffic environment of NTUH. The newly developed NTUH IIS provides an open and flexible environment not only to share medical information easily among other branch hospitals, but also to reduce the cost of maintenance. The HL7 message standard is widely adopted to cover all data exchanges in the system. All services are independent modules that enable the system to be deployed and configured to the highest degree of flexibility

  10. SEMICONDUCTOR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS: A high performance 90 nm CMOS SAR ADC with hybrid architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xingyuan, Tong; Jianming, Chen; Zhangming, Zhu; Yintang, Yang

    2010-01-01

    A 10-bit 2.5 MS/s SAR A/D converter is presented. In the circuit design, an R-C hybrid architecture D/A converter, pseudo-differential comparison architecture and low power voltage level shifters are utilized. Design challenges and considerations are also discussed. In the layout design, each unit resistor is sided by dummies for good matching performance, and the capacitors are routed with a common-central symmetry method to reduce the nonlin-earity error. This proposed converter is implemented based on 90 nm CMOS logic process. With a 3.3 V analog supply and a 1.0 V digital supply, the differential and integral nonlinearity are measured to be less than 0.36 LSB and 0.69 LSB respectively. With an input frequency of 1.2 MHz at 2.5 MS/s sampling rate, the SFDR and ENOB are measured to be 72.86 dB and 9.43 bits respectively, and the power dissipation is measured to be 6.62 mW including the output drivers. This SAR A/D converter occupies an area of 238 × 214 μm2. The design results of this converter show that it is suitable for multi-supply embedded SoC applications.

  11. Insulin resistance, adipokine profile and hepatic expression of SOCS-3 gene in chronic hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójcik, Kamila; Jabłonowska, Elżbieta; Omulecka, Aleksandra; Piekarska, Anna

    2014-08-14

    To analyze adipokine concentrations, insulin resistance and hepatic expression of suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS-3) in patients with chronic hepatitis C genotype 1 with normal body weight, glucose and lipid profile. The study group consisted of 31 patients with chronic hepatitis C and 9 healthy subjects. Total levels of adiponectin, leptin, resistin, visfatin, omentin, osteopontin and insulin were measured using an ELISA kit. The hepatic expression of SOCS-3 was determined by the use of the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction method. Homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) values were significantly higher in hepatitis C virus (HCV) infected patients without metabolic disorders compared to healthy controls (2.24 vs 0.59, P = 0.0003). Hepatic steatosis was observed in 32.2% of patients with HCV infection and was found in patients with increased HOMA-IR index (2.81 vs 1.99, P = 0.05) and reduced adiponectin level (5.96 vs 8.37, P = 0.04). Inflammatory activity (G ≥ 2) was related to increased osteopontin concentration (34.04 vs 23.35, P = 0.03). Advanced liver fibrosis (S ≥ 2) was associated with increased levels of omentin and osteopontin (436.94 vs 360.09, P = 0.03 and 32.84 vs 20.29, P = 0.03) and reduced resistin concentration (1.40 vs 1.74, P = 0.047). No correlations were reported between adipokine profile, HOMA-IR values and hepatic expression of the SOCS-3 gene. We speculated that no relationship between adipokines and HOMA-IR values may indicate that HCV can induce insulin resistance itself. Some adipokines appear to be biochemical markers of steatosis, inflammation and fibrosis in patients with chronic HCV infection. © 2014 Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Framework Architecture Enabling an Agent-Based Inter-Company Integration with XML

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klement Fellner

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available More and more cooperating companies utilize the World Wide Web (WWW to federate and further integrate their heterogeneous business application systems. At the same time, innovative business strategies, like virtual organizations, supply chain management or one-to-one marketing as well as trendsetting competitive strategies, like mass customisation are realisable. Both, the necessary integration and the innovative concepts are demanding software supporting automation of communication as well as coordination across system boundaries. In this paper, we describe a framework architecture for intercompany integration of business processes based on commonly accepted and (partially standardized concepts and techniques. Further on, it is shown how the framework architecture helps to automate procurement processes and how a cost-saving black-box re-use is achieved following a component oriented implementation paradigm.

  13. Spatial intratumoral heterogeneity of proliferation in immunohistochemical images of solid tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valous, Nektarios A.; Lahrmann, Bernd; Halama, Niels; Grabe, Niels; Bergmann, Frank; Jäger, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The interactions of neoplastic cells with each other and the microenvironment are complex. To understand intratumoral heterogeneity, subtle differences should be quantified. Main factors contributing to heterogeneity include the gradient ischemic level within neoplasms, action of microenvironment, mechanisms of intercellular transfer of genetic information, and differential mechanisms of modifications of genetic material/proteins. This may reflect on the expression of biomarkers in the context of prognosis/stratification. Hence, a rigorous approach for assessing the spatial intratumoral heterogeneity of histological biomarker expression with accuracy and reproducibility is required, since patterns in immunohistochemical images can be challenging to identify and describe. Methods: A quantitative method that is useful for characterizing complex irregular structures is lacunarity; it is a multiscale technique that exhaustively samples the image, while the decay of its index as a function of window size follows characteristic patterns for different spatial arrangements. In histological images, lacunarity provides a useful measure for the spatial organization of a biomarker when a sampling scheme is employed and relevant features are computed. The proposed approach quantifies the segmented proliferative cells and not the textural content of the histological slide, thus providing a more realistic measure of heterogeneity within the sample space of the tumor region. The aim is to investigate in whole sections of primary pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (pNENs), using whole-slide imaging and image analysis, the spatial intratumoral heterogeneity of Ki-67 immunostains. Unsupervised learning is employed to verify that the approach can partition the tissue sections according to distributional heterogeneity. Results: The architectural complexity of histological images has shown that single measurements are often insufficient. Inhomogeneity of distribution depends

  14. Spatial intratumoral heterogeneity of proliferation in immunohistochemical images of solid tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valous, Nektarios A; Lahrmann, Bernd; Halama, Niels; Bergmann, Frank; Jäger, Dirk; Grabe, Niels

    2016-06-01

    The interactions of neoplastic cells with each other and the microenvironment are complex. To understand intratumoral heterogeneity, subtle differences should be quantified. Main factors contributing to heterogeneity include the gradient ischemic level within neoplasms, action of microenvironment, mechanisms of intercellular transfer of genetic information, and differential mechanisms of modifications of genetic material/proteins. This may reflect on the expression of biomarkers in the context of prognosis/stratification. Hence, a rigorous approach for assessing the spatial intratumoral heterogeneity of histological biomarker expression with accuracy and reproducibility is required, since patterns in immunohistochemical images can be challenging to identify and describe. A quantitative method that is useful for characterizing complex irregular structures is lacunarity; it is a multiscale technique that exhaustively samples the image, while the decay of its index as a function of window size follows characteristic patterns for different spatial arrangements. In histological images, lacunarity provides a useful measure for the spatial organization of a biomarker when a sampling scheme is employed and relevant features are computed. The proposed approach quantifies the segmented proliferative cells and not the textural content of the histological slide, thus providing a more realistic measure of heterogeneity within the sample space of the tumor region. The aim is to investigate in whole sections of primary pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (pNENs), using whole-slide imaging and image analysis, the spatial intratumoral heterogeneity of Ki-67 immunostains. Unsupervised learning is employed to verify that the approach can partition the tissue sections according to distributional heterogeneity. The architectural complexity of histological images has shown that single measurements are often insufficient. Inhomogeneity of distribution depends not only on percentage

  15. Spatial intratumoral heterogeneity of proliferation in immunohistochemical images of solid tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valous, Nektarios A. [Applied Tumor Immunity Clinical Cooperation Unit, National Center for Tumor Diseases, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg 69120 (Germany); Lahrmann, Bernd; Halama, Niels; Grabe, Niels [Department of Medical Oncology, National Center for Tumor Diseases, Heidelberg University Hospital, Heidelberg 69120 (Germany); Bergmann, Frank [Institute of Pathology, Heidelberg University Hospital, Heidelberg 69120 (Germany); Jäger, Dirk [Department of Medical Oncology, National Center for Tumor Diseases, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg 69120, Germany and National Center for Tumor Diseases, Heidelberg University Hospital, Heidelberg 69120 (Germany)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The interactions of neoplastic cells with each other and the microenvironment are complex. To understand intratumoral heterogeneity, subtle differences should be quantified. Main factors contributing to heterogeneity include the gradient ischemic level within neoplasms, action of microenvironment, mechanisms of intercellular transfer of genetic information, and differential mechanisms of modifications of genetic material/proteins. This may reflect on the expression of biomarkers in the context of prognosis/stratification. Hence, a rigorous approach for assessing the spatial intratumoral heterogeneity of histological biomarker expression with accuracy and reproducibility is required, since patterns in immunohistochemical images can be challenging to identify and describe. Methods: A quantitative method that is useful for characterizing complex irregular structures is lacunarity; it is a multiscale technique that exhaustively samples the image, while the decay of its index as a function of window size follows characteristic patterns for different spatial arrangements. In histological images, lacunarity provides a useful measure for the spatial organization of a biomarker when a sampling scheme is employed and relevant features are computed. The proposed approach quantifies the segmented proliferative cells and not the textural content of the histological slide, thus providing a more realistic measure of heterogeneity within the sample space of the tumor region. The aim is to investigate in whole sections of primary pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (pNENs), using whole-slide imaging and image analysis, the spatial intratumoral heterogeneity of Ki-67 immunostains. Unsupervised learning is employed to verify that the approach can partition the tissue sections according to distributional heterogeneity. Results: The architectural complexity of histological images has shown that single measurements are often insufficient. Inhomogeneity of distribution depends

  16. Community Readiness Within Systems of Care: The Validity and Reliability of the System of Care Readiness and Implementation Measurement Scale (SOC-RIMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas, Scott R; Behar, Lenore B; Hydaker, William M

    2016-01-01

    Establishing a system of care requires communities to identify ways to successfully implement strategies and support positive outcomes for children and their families. Such community transformation is complex and communities vary in terms of their readiness for implementing sustainable community interventions. Assessing community readiness and guiding implementation, specifically for the funded communities implementing a system of care, requires a well-designed tool with sound psychometric properties. This scale development study used the results of a previously published concept mapping study to create, administer, and assess the psychometric characteristics of the System of Care Readiness and Implementation Measurement Scale (SOC-RIMS). The results indicate the SOC-RIMS possesses excellent internal consistency characteristics, measures clearly discernible dimensions of community readiness, and demonstrates the target constructs exist within a broad network of content. The SOC-RIMS can be a useful part of a comprehensive assessment in communities where system of care practices, principles, and philosophies are implemented and evaluated.

  17. Comments on "Precise model measurements versus theoretical prediction of barrier insertion loss in presence of the ground" [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 73, 44–54 (1983)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Karsten Bo

    1983-01-01

    Some of the theoretical curves in the article by J. Nicolas et al. [J. Acoust. soc. Am. 73, 44–54 (1983)] appear to be erroneous.......Some of the theoretical curves in the article by J. Nicolas et al. [J. Acoust. soc. Am. 73, 44–54 (1983)] appear to be erroneous....

  18. Reduced expression of TAC1, PENK and SOCS2 in Hcrtr-2 mutated narcoleptic dog brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mignot Emmanuel

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Narcolepsy causes dramatic behavioral alterations in both humans and dogs, with excessive sleepiness and cataplexy triggered by emotional stimuli. Deficiencies in the hypocretin system are well established as the origin of the condition; both from studies in humans who lack the hypocretin ligand (HCRT and in dogs with a mutation in hypocretin receptor 2 (HCRTR2. However, little is known about molecular alterations downstream of the hypocretin signals. Results By using microarray technology we have screened the expression of 29760 genes in the brains of Doberman dogs with a heritable form of narcolepsy (homozygous for the canarc-1 [HCRTR-2-2] mutation, and their unaffected heterozygous siblings. We identified two neuropeptide precursor molecules, Tachykinin precursor 1 (TAC1 and Proenkephalin (PENK, that together with Suppressor of cytokine signaling 2 (SOCS2, showed reduced expression in narcoleptic brains. The difference was particularly pronounced in the amygdala, where mRNA levels of PENK were 6.2 fold lower in narcoleptic dogs than in heterozygous siblings, and TAC1 and SOCS2 showed 4.4 fold and 2.8 fold decrease in expression, respectively. The results obtained from microarray experiments were confirmed by real-time RT-PCR. Interestingly, it was previously shown that a single dose of amphetamine-like stimulants able to increase wakefulness in the dogs, also produce an increase in the expression of both TAC1 and PENK in mice. Conclusion These results suggest that TAC1, PENK and SOCS2 might be intimately connected with the excessive daytime sleepiness not only in dogs, but also in other species, possibly including humans.

  19. 3D Embedded Reconfigurable SoC for Expediting Magnetometric Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekoulis, George

    2016-07-01

    This paper describes the development of a state-of-the-art three-dimensional embedded reconfigurable System-on-Chip (SoC) for accelerating the design of future magnetometric space missions. This involves measurements of planetary magnetic fields or measurements of heliospheric physics events' signatures superimposed on the aggregate measurements of the stronger planetary fields. The functionality of the embedded core is fully customizable, therefore, its operation is independent of the magnetic sensor being used. Standard calibration procedures still apply for setting the magnetometer measurements to the desired initial state and removing any seriatim interference inferred by the adjacent environment. The system acts as a pathfinder for future high-resolution heliospheric space missions.

  20. Study of Reversible Logic Synthesis with Application in SOC: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Chinmay; Pahuja, Hitesh; Dadhwal, Mandeep; Singh, Balwinder

    2017-08-01

    The prime concern in today’s SOC designs is the power dissipation which increases with technology scaling. The reversible logic possesses very high potential in reducing power dissipation in these designs. It finds its application in latest research fields such as DNA computing, quantum computing, ultra-low power CMOS design and nanotechnology. The reversible circuits can be easily designed using the conventional CMOS technology at a cost of a garbage output which maintains the reversibility. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the developments that have occurred till date in this concept and how the new reversible logic gates are used to design the logic functions.

  1. Protein Interaction Screening for the Ankyrin Repeats and Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling (SOCS) Box (ASB) Family Identify Asb11 as a Novel Endoplasmic Reticulum Resident Ubiquitin Ligase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Christina Aaen; Smedegaard, Stine; Sylvestersen, Kathrine Beck

    2014-01-01

    The Ankyrin and SOCS (Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling) box (ASB) family of proteins function as the substrate recognition subunit in a subset of Elongin-Cullin-SOCS (ECS) E3 ubiquitin ligases. Despite counting with 18 members in humans, the identity of the physiological targets of the Asb protei...

  2. Observation of self-organized criticality (SOC) behavior during edge biasing experiment on TEXTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Y.H.; Jachmich, S.; Weynants, R.R. [Ecole Royale Militaire/Koninklijke Militaire School, Laboratory for Plasma Physics, Euratom-Belgian State Association, Brussels, Belgium, Partner in the Trilateral Euregio Cluster (Belgium)

    2004-07-01

    The self-organized criticality (SOC) behavior of the edge plasma transport has been investigated using the fluctuation data measured in the plasma edge and the scrape-off layer of TEXTOR tokamak before and during the edge electrode biasing experiments. In the 'non-shear' discharge phase before biasing, both the potential and density fluctuations clearly exhibit some of the characteristics associated with SOC: (1) existence of f{sup -1} power-law dependence in the frequency spectrum, (2) slowly decaying long tails in the autocorrelation function, (3) values of Hurst parameters larger than 0.5 at all the detected radial locations, (4) non-Gaussian probability density function of fluctuations and (5) radial propagation of avalanche-like events in the edge plasma area. During the biasing phase, with the generation of an edge radial electric field E{sub r} and hence a sheared E{sub r} x B flow, the local turbulence is found to be well de-correlated by the E{sub r} x B velocity shear, consistent with theoretical predictions. Nevertheless, it is concomitantly found that the Hurst parameters are substantially enhanced in the negative flow shear region and in the scrape-off layer as well, which is contrary to theoretical expectation. Implication of these observations to our understanding of plasma transport mechanisms is discussed. (authors)

  3. Architectural prototyping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bardram, Jakob Eyvind; Christensen, Henrik Bærbak; Hansen, Klaus Marius

    2004-01-01

    A major part of software architecture design is learning how specific architectural designs balance the concerns of stakeholders. We explore the notion of "architectural prototypes", correspondingly architectural prototyping, as a means of using executable prototypes to investigate stakeholders...

  4. Architectural communication: Intra and extra activity of architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamatović-Vučković Slavica

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Apart from a brief overview of architectural communication viewed from the standpoint of theory of information and semiotics, this paper contains two forms of dualistically viewed architectural communication. The duality denotation/connotation (”primary” and ”secondary” architectural communication is one of semiotic postulates taken from Umberto Eco who viewed architectural communication as a semiotic phenomenon. In addition, architectural communication can be viewed as an intra and an extra activity of architecture where the overall activity of the edifice performed through its spatial manifestation may be understood as an act of communication. In that respect, the activity may be perceived as the ”behavior of architecture”, which corresponds to Lefebvre’s production of space.

  5. GPGPU Accelerated Deep Object Classification on a Heterogeneous Mobile Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Tahir Hussain Rizvi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Deep convolutional neural networks achieve state-of-the-art performance in image classification. The computational and memory requirements of such networks are however huge, and that is an issue on embedded devices due to their constraints. Most of this complexity derives from the convolutional layers and in particular from the matrix multiplications they entail. This paper proposes a complete approach to image classification providing common layers used in neural networks. Namely, the proposed approach relies on a heterogeneous CPU-GPU scheme for performing convolutions in the transform domain. The Compute Unified Device Architecture(CUDA-based implementation of the proposed approach is evaluated over three different image classification networks on a Tegra K1 CPU-GPU mobile processor. Experiments show that the presented heterogeneous scheme boasts a 50× speedup over the CPU-only reference and outperforms a GPU-based reference by 2×, while slashing the power consumption by nearly 30%.

  6. Quantifying geological uncertainty for flow and transport modeling in multi-modal heterogeneous formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyen, Luc; Caers, Jef

    2006-06-01

    In this work, we address the problem of characterizing the heterogeneity and uncertainty of hydraulic properties for complex geological settings. Hereby, we distinguish between two scales of heterogeneity, namely the hydrofacies structure and the intrafacies variability of the hydraulic properties. We employ multiple-point geostatistics to characterize the hydrofacies architecture. The multiple-point statistics are borrowed from a training image that is designed to reflect the prior geological conceptualization. The intrafacies variability of the hydraulic properties is represented using conventional two-point correlation methods, more precisely, spatial covariance models under a multi-Gaussian spatial law. We address the different levels and sources of uncertainty in characterizing the subsurface heterogeneity, and explore their effect on groundwater flow and transport predictions. Typically, uncertainty is assessed by way of many images, termed realizations, of a fixed statistical model. However, in many cases, sampling from a fixed stochastic model does not adequately represent the space of uncertainty. It neglects the uncertainty related to the selection of the stochastic model and the estimation of its input parameters. We acknowledge the uncertainty inherent in the definition of the prior conceptual model of aquifer architecture and in the estimation of global statistics, anisotropy, and correlation scales. Spatial bootstrap is used to assess the uncertainty of the unknown statistical parameters. As an illustrative example, we employ a synthetic field that represents a fluvial setting consisting of an interconnected network of channel sands embedded within finer-grained floodplain material. For this highly non-stationary setting we quantify the groundwater flow and transport model prediction uncertainty for various levels of hydrogeological uncertainty. Results indicate the importance of accurately describing the facies geometry, especially for transport

  7. Enumeration of virtual libraries of combinatorial modular macrocyclic (bracelet, necklace) architectures and their linear counterparts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Masahiko; Du, Hai; Lindsey, Jonathan S

    2013-09-23

    A wide variety of cyclic molecular architectures are built of modular subunits and can be formed combinatorially. The mathematics for enumeration of such objects is well-developed yet lacks key features of importance in chemistry, such as specifying (i) the structures of individual members among a set of isomers, (ii) the distribution (i.e., relative amounts) of products, and (iii) the effect of nonequal ratios of reacting monomers on the product distribution. Here, a software program (Cyclaplex) has been developed to determine the number, identity (including isomers), and relative amounts of linear and cyclic architectures from a given number and ratio of reacting monomers. The program includes both mathematical formulas and generative algorithms for enumeration; the latter go beyond the former to provide desired molecular-relevant information and data-mining features. The program is equipped to enumerate four types of architectures: (i) linear architectures with directionality (macroscopic equivalent = electrical extension cords), (ii) linear architectures without directionality (batons), (iii) cyclic architectures with directionality (necklaces), and (iv) cyclic architectures without directionality (bracelets). The program can be applied to cyclic peptides, cycloveratrylenes, cyclens, calixarenes, cyclodextrins, crown ethers, cucurbiturils, annulenes, expanded meso-substituted porphyrin(ogen)s, and diverse supramolecular (e.g., protein) assemblies. The size of accessible architectures encompasses up to 12 modular subunits derived from 12 reacting monomers or larger architectures (e.g. 13-17 subunits) from fewer types of monomers (e.g. 2-4). A particular application concerns understanding the possible heterogeneity of (natural or biohybrid) photosynthetic light-harvesting oligomers (cyclic, linear) formed from distinct peptide subunits.

  8. A Multi-Agent System Architecture for Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Guijarro

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The design of the control systems for sensor networks presents important challenges. Besides the traditional problems about how to process the sensor data to obtain the target information, engineers need to consider additional aspects such as the heterogeneity and high number of sensors, and the flexibility of these networks regarding topologies and the sensors in them. Although there are partial approaches for resolving these issues, their integration relies on ad hoc solutions requiring important development efforts. In order to provide an effective approach for this integration, this paper proposes an architecture based on the multi-agent system paradigm with a clear separation of concerns. The architecture considers sensors as devices used by an upper layer of manager agents. These agents are able to communicate and negotiate services to achieve the required functionality. Activities are organized according to roles related with the different aspects to integrate, mainly sensor management, data processing, communication and adaptation to changes in the available devices and their capabilities. This organization largely isolates and decouples the data management from the changing network, while encouraging reuse of solutions. The use of the architecture is facilitated by a specific modelling language developed through metamodelling. A case study concerning a generic distributed system for fire fighting illustrates the approach and the comparison with related work.

  9. Architectural freedom and industrialized architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Inge

    2012-01-01

    to explain that architecture can be thought as a complex and diverse design through customization, telling exactly the revitalized storey about the change to a contemporary sustainable and better performing expression in direct relation to the given context. Through the last couple of years we have...... proportions, to organize the process on site choosing either one room wall components or several rooms wall components – either horizontally or vertically. Combined with the seamless joint the playing with these possibilities the new industrialized architecture can deliver variations in choice of solutions...... for retrofit design. If we add the question of the installations e.g. ventilation to this systematic thinking of building technique we get a diverse and functional architecture, thereby creating a new and clearer story telling about new and smart system based thinking behind architectural expression....

  10. Architectural freedom and industrialized architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Inge

    2012-01-01

    to explain that architecture can be thought as a complex and diverse design through customization, telling exactly the revitalized storey about the change to a contemporary sustainable and better performing expression in direct relation to the given context. Through the last couple of years we have...... expression in the specific housing area. It is the aim of this article to expand the different design strategies which architects can use – to give the individual project attitudes and designs with architectural quality. Through the customized component production it is possible to choose different...... for retrofit design. If we add the question of the installations e.g. ventilation to this systematic thinking of building technique we get a diverse and functional architecture, thereby creating a new and clearer story telling about new and smart system based thinking behind architectural expression....

  11. Architectural freedom and industrialised architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Inge

    2012-01-01

    Architectural freedom and industrialized architecture. Inge Vestergaard, Associate Professor, Cand. Arch. Aarhus School of Architecture, Denmark Noerreport 20, 8000 Aarhus C Telephone +45 89 36 0000 E-mai l inge.vestergaard@aarch.dk Based on the repetitive architecture from the "building boom" 1960...... customization, telling exactly the revitalized storey about the change to a contemporary sustainable and better performed expression in direct relation to the given context. Through the last couple of years we have in Denmark been focusing a more sustainable and low energy building technique, which also include...... to the building physic problems a new industrialized period has started based on light weight elements basically made of wooden structures, faced with different suitable materials meant for individual expression for the specific housing area. It is the purpose of this article to widen up the different design...

  12. Extensions to the Parallel Real-Time Artificial Intelligence System (PRAIS) for fault-tolerant heterogeneous cycle-stealing reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, David

    1991-01-01

    Extensions to an architecture for real-time, distributed (parallel) knowledge-based systems called the Parallel Real-time Artificial Intelligence System (PRAIS) are discussed. PRAIS strives for transparently parallelizing production (rule-based) systems, even under real-time constraints. PRAIS accomplished these goals (presented at the first annual C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS) conference) by incorporating a dynamic task scheduler, operating system extensions for fact handling, and message-passing among multiple copies of CLIPS executing on a virtual blackboard. This distributed knowledge-based system tool uses the portability of CLIPS and common message-passing protocols to operate over a heterogeneous network of processors. Results using the original PRAIS architecture over a network of Sun 3's, Sun 4's and VAX's are presented. Mechanisms using the producer-consumer model to extend the architecture for fault-tolerance and distributed truth maintenance initiation are also discussed.

  13. Enterprise architecture evaluation using architecture framework and UML stereotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narges Shahi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing need for enterprise architecture in numerous organizations with complicated systems with various processes. Support for information technology, organizational units whose elements maintain complex relationships increases. Enterprise architecture is so effective that its non-use in organizations is regarded as their institutional inability in efficient information technology management. The enterprise architecture process generally consists of three phases including strategic programing of information technology, enterprise architecture programing and enterprise architecture implementation. Each phase must be implemented sequentially and one single flaw in each phase may result in a flaw in the whole architecture and, consequently, in extra costs and time. If a model is mapped for the issue and then it is evaluated before enterprise architecture implementation in the second phase, the possible flaws in implementation process are prevented. In this study, the processes of enterprise architecture are illustrated through UML diagrams, and the architecture is evaluated in programming phase through transforming the UML diagrams to Petri nets. The results indicate that the high costs of the implementation phase will be reduced.

  14. Workflow-enabled distributed component-based information architecture for digital medical imaging enterprises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Stephen T C; Tjandra, Donny; Wang, Huili; Shen, Weimin

    2003-09-01

    Few information systems today offer a flexible means to define and manage the automated part of radiology processes, which provide clinical imaging services for the entire healthcare organization. Even fewer of them provide a coherent architecture that can easily cope with heterogeneity and inevitable local adaptation of applications and can integrate clinical and administrative information to aid better clinical, operational, and business decisions. We describe an innovative enterprise architecture of image information management systems to fill the needs. Such a system is based on the interplay of production workflow management, distributed object computing, Java and Web techniques, and in-depth domain knowledge in radiology operations. Our design adapts the approach of "4+1" architectural view. In this new architecture, PACS and RIS become one while the user interaction can be automated by customized workflow process. Clinical service applications are implemented as active components. They can be reasonably substituted by applications of local adaptations and can be multiplied for fault tolerance and load balancing. Furthermore, the workflow-enabled digital radiology system would provide powerful query and statistical functions for managing resources and improving productivity. This paper will potentially lead to a new direction of image information management. We illustrate the innovative design with examples taken from an implemented system.

  15. A Principled Approach to the Specification of System Architectures for Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKelvin, Mark L. Jr.; Castillo, Robert; Bonanne, Kevin; Bonnici, Michael; Cox, Brian; Gibson, Corrina; Leon, Juan P.; Gomez-Mustafa, Jose; Jimenez, Alejandro; Madni, Azad

    2015-01-01

    Modern space systems are increasing in complexity and scale at an unprecedented pace. Consequently, innovative methods, processes, and tools are needed to cope with the increasing complexity of architecting these systems. A key systems challenge in practice is the ability to scale processes, methods, and tools used to architect complex space systems. Traditionally, the process for specifying space system architectures has largely relied on capturing the system architecture in informal descriptions that are often embedded within loosely coupled design documents and domain expertise. Such informal descriptions often lead to misunderstandings between design teams, ambiguous specifications, difficulty in maintaining consistency as the architecture evolves throughout the system development life cycle, and costly design iterations. Therefore, traditional methods are becoming increasingly inefficient to cope with ever-increasing system complexity. We apply the principles of component-based design and platform-based design to the development of the system architecture for a practical space system to demonstrate feasibility of our approach using SysML. Our results show that we are able to apply a systematic design method to manage system complexity, thus enabling effective data management, semantic coherence and traceability across different levels of abstraction in the design chain. Just as important, our approach enables interoperability among heterogeneous tools in a concurrent engineering model based design environment.

  16. An OCP Compliant Network Adapter for GALS-based SoC Design Using the MANGO Network-on-Chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Tobias; Mahadevan, Shankar; Olsen, Rasmus Grøndahl

    2005-01-01

    decouples communication and computation, providing memory-mapped OCP transactions based on primitive message-passing services of the network. Also, it facilitates GALS-type systems, by adapting to the clockless network. This helps leverage a modular SoC design flow. We evaluate performance and cost of 0...

  17. Software architecture 2

    CERN Document Server

    Oussalah, Mourad Chabanne

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, software architectures have significantly contributed to the development of complex and distributed systems. Nowadays, it is recognized that one of the critical problems in the design and development of any complex software system is its architecture, i.e. the organization of its architectural elements. Software Architecture presents the software architecture paradigms based on objects, components, services and models, as well as the various architectural techniques and methods, the analysis of architectural qualities, models of representation of architectural templa

  18. Lightweight enterprise architectures

    CERN Document Server

    Theuerkorn, Fenix

    2004-01-01

    STATE OF ARCHITECTUREArchitectural ChaosRelation of Technology and Architecture The Many Faces of Architecture The Scope of Enterprise Architecture The Need for Enterprise ArchitectureThe History of Architecture The Current Environment Standardization Barriers The Need for Lightweight Architecture in the EnterpriseThe Cost of TechnologyThe Benefits of Enterprise Architecture The Domains of Architecture The Gap between Business and ITWhere Does LEA Fit? LEA's FrameworkFrameworks, Methodologies, and Approaches The Framework of LEATypes of Methodologies Types of ApproachesActual System Environmen

  19. Software architecture 1

    CERN Document Server

    Oussalah , Mourad Chabane

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, software architectures have significantly contributed to the development of complex and distributed systems. Nowadays, it is recognized that one of the critical problems in the design and development of any complex software system is its architecture, i.e. the organization of its architectural elements. Software Architecture presents the software architecture paradigms based on objects, components, services and models, as well as the various architectural techniques and methods, the analysis of architectural qualities, models of representation of architectural template

  20. ISP: an optimal out-of-core image-set processing streaming architecture for parallel heterogeneous systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Linh Khanh; Krüger, Jens; Dihl Comba, João Luiz; Silva, Cláudio T; Joshi, Sarang

    2012-06-01

    Image population analysis is the class of statistical methods that plays a central role in understanding the development, evolution, and disease of a population. However, these techniques often require excessive computational power and memory that are compounded with a large number of volumetric inputs. Restricted access to supercomputing power limits its influence in general research and practical applications. In this paper we introduce ISP, an Image-Set Processing streaming framework that harnesses the processing power of commodity heterogeneous CPU/GPU systems and attempts to solve this computational problem. In ISP, we introduce specially designed streaming algorithms and data structures that provide an optimal solution for out-of-core multiimage processing problems both in terms of memory usage and computational efficiency. ISP makes use of the asynchronous execution mechanism supported by parallel heterogeneous systems to efficiently hide the inherent latency of the processing pipeline of out-of-core approaches. Consequently, with computationally intensive problems, the ISP out-of-core solution can achieve the same performance as the in-core solution. We demonstrate the efficiency of the ISP framework on synthetic and real datasets.

  1. Design and implementation of a reconfigurable mixed-signal SoC based on field programmable analog arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lintao; Gao, Yuhan; Deng, Jun

    2017-11-01

    This work presents a reconfigurable mixed-signal system-on-chip (SoC), which integrates switched-capacitor-based field programmable analog arrays (FPAA), analog-to-digital converter (ADC), digital-to-analog converter, digital down converter , digital up converter, 32-bit reduced instruction-set computer central processing unit (CPU) and other digital IPs on a single chip with 0.18 μm CMOS technology. The FPAA intellectual property could be reconfigured as different function circuits, such as gain amplifier, divider, sine generator, and so on. This single-chip integrated mixed-signal system is a complete modern signal processing system, occupying a die area of 7 × 8 mm 2 and consuming 719 mW with a clock frequency of 150 MHz for CPU and 200 MHz for ADC/DAC. This SoC chip can help customers to shorten design cycles, save board area, reduce the system power consumption and depress the system integration risk, which would afford a big prospect of application for wireless communication. Project supported by the National High Technology and Development Program of China (No. 2012AA012303).

  2. Indigenous architecture as a context-oriented architecture, a look at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    What has become problematic as the achievement of international style and globalization of architecture during the time has been the purely technological look at architecture, and the architecture without belonging to a place. In recent decades, the topic of sustainable architecture and reconsidering indigenous architecture ...

  3. Research and Design of Dynamic Migration Access Control Technology Based on Heterogeneous Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Feng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the continuous development of wireless networks, the amount of privacy services in heterogeneous mobile networks is increasing, such as information storage, user access, and so on. Access control security issues for heterogeneous mobile radio network, this paper proposes a dynamic migration access control technology based on heterogeneous network. Through the system architecture of the mutual trust system, we can understand the real-time mobile node failure or abnormal state. To make the service can be terminated for the node. And adopt the 802.1X authentication way to improve the security of the system. Finally, it by combining the actual running test data, the trust update algorithm of the system is optimized to reduce the actual security threats in the environment. Experiments show that the system’s anti-attack, the success rate of access, bit error rate is in line with the expected results. This system can effectively reduce the system authentication information is illegally obtained after the network security protection mechanism failure and reduce the risk of user data leakage.

  4. Architecture in the Islamic Civilization: Muslim Building or Islamic Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Yassin, Ayat Ali; Utaberta, Dr. Nangkula

    2012-01-01

    The main problem of the theory in the arena of islamic architecture is affected by some of its Westernthoughts, and stereotyping the islamic architecture according to Western thoughts; this leads to the breakdownof the foundations in the islamic architecture. It is a myth that islamic architecture is subjected to theinfluence from foreign architectures. This paper will highlight the dialectical concept of islamic architecture ormuslim buildings and the areas of recognition in islamic architec...

  5. SOCS3 deficiency in leptin receptor-expressing cells mitigates the development of pregnancy-induced metabolic changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais T. Zampieri

    2015-03-01

    Conclusions: Our study identified the increased hypothalamic expression of SOCS3 as a key mechanism responsible for triggering pregnancy-induced leptin resistance and metabolic adaptations. These findings not only help to explain a common phenomenon of the mammalian physiology, but it may also aid in the development of approaches to prevent and treat gestational metabolic imbalances.

  6. A system-level multiprocessor system-on-chip modeling framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virk, Kashif Munir; Madsen, Jan

    2004-01-01

    We present a system-level modeling framework to model system-on-chips (SoC) consisting of heterogeneous multiprocessors and network-on-chip communication structures in order to enable the developers of today's SoC designs to take advantage of the flexibility and scalability of network-on-chip and...... SoC design. We show how a hand-held multimedia terminal, consisting of JPEG, MP3 and GSM applications, can be modeled as a multiprocessor SoC in our framework....

  7. Integrated Sedimentological Approach to Assess Reservoir Quality and Architecture of Khuff Carbonates: Outcrop Analog, Central Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Mutsim; Abdullatif, Osman

    2017-04-01

    The Permian to Triassic Khuff carbonate reservoirs (and equivalents) in the Middle East are estimated to contain about 38.4% of the world's natural gas reserves. Excellent exposed outcrops in central Saudi Arabia provide good outcrop equivalents to subsurface Khuff reservoirs. This study conduct high resolution outcrop scale investigations on an analog reservoir for upper Khartam of Khuff Formation. The main objective is to reconstruct litho- and chemo- stratigraphic outcrop analog model that may serve to characterize reservoir high resolution (interwell) heterogeneity, continuity and architecture. Given the fact of the limitation of subsurface data and toolsin capturing interwell reservoir heterogeneity, which in turn increases the value of this study.The methods applied integrate sedimentological, stratigraphic petrographic, petrophysical data and chemical analyses for major, trace and rare earth elements. In addition, laser scanning survey (LIDAR) was also utilized in this study. The results of the stratigraphic investigations revealed that the lithofacies range from mudstone, wackestone, packestone and grainstone. These lithofacies represent environments ranging from supratidal, intertidal, subtidal and shoal complex. Several meter-scale and less high resolution sequences and composite sequences within 4th and 5th order cycles were also recognized in the outcrop analog. The lithofacies and architectural analysis revealed several vertically and laterally stacked sequences at the outcrop as revealed from the stratigraphic sections and the lidar scan. Chemostratigraphy is effective in identifying lithofacies and sequences within the outcrop analog. Moreover, different chemical signatures were also recognized and allowed establishing and correlating high resolution lithofacies, reservoir zones, layers and surfaces bounding reservoirs and non-reservoir zones at scale of meters or less. The results of this high resolution outcrop analog study might help to understand

  8. Computing effective properties of random heterogeneous materials on heterogeneous parallel processors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidi, Tiziano; Scocchi, Giulio; Grossi, Loris; Pusterla, Simone; D'Angelo, Claudio; Thiran, Jean-Philippe; Ortona, Alberto

    2012-11-01

    In recent decades, finite element (FE) techniques have been extensively used for predicting effective properties of random heterogeneous materials. In the case of very complex microstructures, the choice of numerical methods for the solution of this problem can offer some advantages over classical analytical approaches, and it allows the use of digital images obtained from real material samples (e.g., using computed tomography). On the other hand, having a large number of elements is often necessary for properly describing complex microstructures, ultimately leading to extremely time-consuming computations and high memory requirements. With the final objective of reducing these limitations, we improved an existing freely available FE code for the computation of effective conductivity (electrical and thermal) of microstructure digital models. To allow execution on hardware combining multi-core CPUs and a GPU, we first translated the original algorithm from Fortran to C, and we subdivided it into software components. Then, we enhanced the C version of the algorithm for parallel processing with heterogeneous processors. With the goal of maximizing the obtained performances and limiting resource consumption, we utilized a software architecture based on stream processing, event-driven scheduling, and dynamic load balancing. The parallel processing version of the algorithm has been validated using a simple microstructure consisting of a single sphere located at the centre of a cubic box, yielding consistent results. Finally, the code was used for the calculation of the effective thermal conductivity of a digital model of a real sample (a ceramic foam obtained using X-ray computed tomography). On a computer equipped with dual hexa-core Intel Xeon X5670 processors and an NVIDIA Tesla C2050, the parallel application version features near to linear speed-up progression when using only the CPU cores. It executes more than 20 times faster when additionally using the GPU.

  9. A Framework for Joint Optical-Wireless Resource Management in Multi-RAT, Heterogeneous Mobile Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zakrzewska, Anna; Popovska Avramova, Andrijana; Christiansen, Henrik Lehrmann

    2013-01-01

    Mobile networks are constantly evolving: new Radio Access Technologies (RATs) are being introduced, and backhaul architectures like Cloud-RAN (C-RAN) and distributed base stations are being proposed. Furthermore, small cells are being deployed to enhance network capacity. The end-users wish...... to be always connected to a high-quality service (high bit rates, low latency), thus causing a very complex network control task from an operator’s point of view. We thus propose a framework allowing joint overall network resource management. This scheme covers different types of network heterogeneity (multi......-RAT, multi-layer, multi-architecture) by introducing a novel, hierarchical approach to network resource management. Self-Organizing Networks (SON) and cognitive network behaviors are covered as well as more traditional mobile network features. The framework is applicable to all phases of network operation...

  10. Software architecture analysis tool : software architecture metrics collection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muskens, J.; Chaudron, M.R.V.; Westgeest, R.

    2002-01-01

    The Software Engineering discipline lacks the ability to evaluate software architectures. Here we describe a tool for software architecture analysis that is based on metrics. Metrics can be used to detect possible problems and bottlenecks in software architectures. Even though metrics do not give a

  11. Enterprise interoperability ontology for SOC applied to logistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman, W.J.

    2010-01-01

    The Service Oriented Architecture (SOA, [1]) can be applied to enterprise integration. It creates an Internet of services for enterprises. Service science [2] defines services in term of value propositions of enterprises to customers. Both service science and the Internet of services require a form

  12. Timing Analysis of Mixed-Criticality Hard Real-Time Applications Implemented on Distributed Partitioned Architectures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marinescu, Sorin Ovidiu; Tamas-Selicean, Domitian; Acretoaie, Vlad

    In this paper we are interested in the timing analysis of mixed-criticality embedded real-time applications mapped on distributed heterogeneous architectures. Mixedcriticality tasks can be integrated onto the same architecture only if there is enough spatial and temporal separation among them. We...... in partitions using fixedpriority preemptive scheduling. We have extended the stateof- the-art algorithms for schedulability analysis to take into account the partitions. The proposed algorithm has been evaluated using several synthetic and real-life benchmarks....... consider that the separation is provided by partitioning, such that applications run in separate partitions, and each partition is allocated several time slots on a processor. Each partition can have its own scheduling policy. We are interested to determine the worst-case response times of tasks scheduled...

  13. A heterogeneous boron distribution in soil influences the poplar root system architecture development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, R.; Robinson, B. H.; Hartmann, S.; Lehmann, E.; Schulin, R.

    2009-04-01

    Poplars are well suited for the phytomanagement of boron (B)-contaminated sites, due to their high transpiration rate and tolerance to elevated soil B concentrations. However, the uptake and the fate of B in poplar stands are not well understood. This information is crucial to improve the design of phytomanagement systems, where the primary role of poplars is to reduce B leaching by reducing the water flux through the contaminated material. Like other trace elements, B occurs heterogeneously in soils. Concentrations can differ up to an order of magnitude within centimetres. These gradients affect plant root growth and thus via preferential flow along the roots water and mass transport in soils to ground and surface waters. Generally there are three possible reactions of plant roots to patches with elevated trace element concentrations in soils: indifference, avoidance, or foraging. While avoidance or indifference might seem to be the most obvious strategies, foraging cannot be excluded a priori, because of the high demand of poplars for B compared to other tree species. We aimed to determine the rooting strategies of poplars in soils where B is either homo- or heterogeneously distributed. We planted 5 cm cuttings of Populus tremula var. Birmensdorf clones in aluminum (Al) containers with internal dimensions of 64 x 67 x 1.2 cm. The soil used was subsoil from northern Switzerland with a naturally low B and organic C concentration. We setup two treatments and a control with three replicates each. We spiked a bigger and a smaller portion of the soil with the same amount of B(OH)3-salt, in order to obtain soil concentrations of 7.5 mg B kg-1 and 20 mg B kg-1. We filled the containers with (a) un-spiked soil, (b) the 7.5 mg B kg-1 soil and (c) heterogeneously. The heterogeneous treatment consisted of one third 20 mg B kg-1 soil and two thirds control soil. We grew the poplars in a small greenhouse over 2 months and from then on in a climate chamber for another 3 months

  14. Design Optimization of Mixed-Criticality Real-Time Applications on Cost-Constrained Partitioned Architectures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamas-Selicean, Domitian; Pop, Paul

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we are interested to implement mixed-criticality hard real-time applications on a given heterogeneous distributed architecture. Applications have different criticality levels, captured by their Safety-Integrity Level (SIL), and are scheduled using static-cyclic scheduling. Mixed......-criticality tasks can be integrated onto the same architecture only if there is enough spatial and temporal separation among them. We consider that the separation is provided by partitioning, such that applications run in separate partitions, and each partition is allocated several time slots on a processor. Tasks...... slots on each processor and (iv) the schedule tables, such that all the applications are schedulable and the development costs are minimized. We have proposed a Tabu Search-based approach to solve this optimization problem. The proposed algorithm has been evaluated using several synthetic and real...

  15. A 6.45 μW Self-Powered SoC With Integrated Energy-Harvesting Power Management and ULP Asymmetric Radios for Portable Biomedical Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Abhishek; Klinefelter, Alicia; Yahya, Farah B; Chen, Xing; Gonzalez-Guerrero, Luisa Patricia; Lukas, Christopher J; Kamakshi, Divya Akella; Boley, James; Craig, Kyle; Faisal, Muhammad; Oh, Seunghyun; Roberts, Nathan E; Shakhsheer, Yousef; Shrivastava, Aatmesh; Vasudevan, Dilip P; Wentzloff, David D; Calhoun, Benton H

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents a batteryless system-on-chip (SoC) that operates off energy harvested from indoor solar cells and/or thermoelectric generators (TEGs) on the body. Fabricated in a commercial 0.13 μW process, this SoC sensing platform consists of an integrated energy harvesting and power management unit (EH-PMU) with maximum power point tracking, multiple sensing modalities, programmable core and a low power microcontroller with several hardware accelerators to enable energy-efficient digital signal processing, ultra-low-power (ULP) asymmetric radios for wireless transmission, and a 100 nW wake-up radio. The EH-PMU achieves a peak end-to-end efficiency of 75% delivering power to a 100 μA load. In an example motion detection application, the SoC reads data from an accelerometer through SPI, processes it, and sends it over the radio. The SPI and digital processing consume only 2.27 μW, while the integrated radio consumes 4.18 μW when transmitting at 187.5 kbps for a total of 6.45 μW.

  16. An open, object-based modeling approach for simulating subsurface heterogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, J.; Ross, M.; Haslauer, C. P.; Cirpka, O. A.

    2017-12-01

    Characterization of subsurface heterogeneity with respect to hydraulic and geochemical properties is critical in hydrogeology as their spatial distribution controls groundwater flow and solute transport. Many approaches of characterizing subsurface heterogeneity do not account for well-established geological concepts about the deposition of the aquifer materials; those that do (i.e. process-based methods) often require forcing parameters that are difficult to derive from site observations. We have developed a new method for simulating subsurface heterogeneity that honors concepts of sequence stratigraphy, resolves fine-scale heterogeneity and anisotropy of distributed parameters, and resembles observed sedimentary deposits. The method implements a multi-scale hierarchical facies modeling framework based on architectural element analysis, with larger features composed of smaller sub-units. The Hydrogeological Virtual Reality simulator (HYVR) simulates distributed parameter models using an object-based approach. Input parameters are derived from observations of stratigraphic morphology in sequence type-sections. Simulation outputs can be used for generic simulations of groundwater flow and solute transport, and for the generation of three-dimensional training images needed in applications of multiple-point geostatistics. The HYVR algorithm is flexible and easy to customize. The algorithm was written in the open-source programming language Python, and is intended to form a code base for hydrogeological researchers, as well as a platform that can be further developed to suit investigators' individual needs. This presentation will encompass the conceptual background and computational methods of the HYVR algorithm, the derivation of input parameters from site characterization, and the results of groundwater flow and solute transport simulations in different depositional settings.

  17. The Impact of Strong Cathodic Polarization on SOC Electrolyte Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreka, Kosova; Hansen, Karin Vels; Jacobsen, Torben

    2016-01-01

    One of the most promising reversible energy conversion/storage technologies is that of Solid Oxide Fuel/Electrolysis Cells (SOFC/SOEC, collectively termed SOC). Long term durability is typically required for such devises to become economically feasible, hence considerable amount of work has...... of impurities at the grain boundaries, electrode poisoning, delamination or cracks of the electrolyte etc., have been observed in cells operated at such conditions, lowering the lifetime of the cell1,2. High polarizations are observed at the electrolyte/cathode interface of an electrolysis cell operated at high...... current density. In case of a cell voltage above 1.6 V, p-type and n-type electronic conductivity are often observed at the anode and cathode respectively3. Hence, a considerable part of the current is lost as leakage through the electrolyte, thus lowering the efficiency of the cell considerably....

  18. Hypomethylation of inflammatory genes (COX2, EGR1, and SOCS3) and increased urinary 8-nitroguanine in arsenic-exposed newborns and children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phookphan, Preeyaphan; Navasumrit, Panida [Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology, Chulabhorn Research Institute, Laksi, Bangkok (Thailand); Post-graduate Program in Environmental Toxicology, Chulabhorn Graduate Institute, Laksi, Bangkok (Thailand); Center of Excellence on Environmental Health, Toxicology (EHT), Office of the Higher Education Commission, Ministry of Education (Thailand); Waraprasit, Somchamai; Promvijit, Jeerawan; Chaisatra, Krittinee; Ngaotepprutaram, Thitirat [Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology, Chulabhorn Research Institute, Laksi, Bangkok (Thailand); Ruchirawat, Mathuros, E-mail: mathuros@cri.or.th [Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology, Chulabhorn Research Institute, Laksi, Bangkok (Thailand); Center of Excellence on Environmental Health, Toxicology (EHT), Office of the Higher Education Commission, Ministry of Education (Thailand)

    2017-02-01

    Early-life exposure to arsenic increases risk of developing a variety of non-malignant and malignant diseases. Arsenic-induced carcinogenesis may be mediated through epigenetic mechanisms and pathways leading to inflammation. Our previous study reported that prenatal arsenic exposure leads to increased mRNA expression of several genes related to inflammation, including COX2, EGR1, and SOCS3. This study aimed to investigate the effects of arsenic exposure on promoter DNA methylation and mRNA expression of these inflammatory genes (COX2, EGR1, and SOCS3), as well as the generation of 8-nitroguanine, which is a mutagenic DNA lesion involved in inflammation-related carcinogenesis. Prenatally arsenic-exposed newborns had promoter hypomethylation of COX2, EGR1, and SOCS3 in cord blood lymphocytes (p < 0.01). A follow-up study in these prenatally arsenic-exposed children showed a significant hypomethylation of these genes in salivary DNA (p < 0.01). In vitro experiments confirmed that arsenite treatment at short-term high doses (10–100 μM) and long-term low doses (0.5–1 μM) in human lymphoblasts (RPMI 1788) caused promoter hypomethylation of these genes, which was in concordance with an increase in their mRNA expression. Additionally, the level of urinary 8-nitroguanine was significantly higher (p < 0.01) in exposed newborns and children, by 1.4- and 1.8-fold, respectively. Arsenic accumulation in toenails was negatively correlated with hypomethylation of these genes and positively correlated with levels of 8-nitroguanine. These results indicated that early-life exposure to arsenic causes hypomethylation of COX2, EGR1, and SOCS3, increases mRNA expression of these genes, and increases 8-nitroguanine formation. These effects may be linked to mechanisms of arsenic-induced inflammation and cancer development later in life. - Highlight: • Early-life arsenic exposure caused promoter hypomethylation of COX2, EGR1 and SOCS3. • Hypomethylation of these genes is

  19. Hypomethylation of inflammatory genes (COX2, EGR1, and SOCS3) and increased urinary 8-nitroguanine in arsenic-exposed newborns and children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phookphan, Preeyaphan; Navasumrit, Panida; Waraprasit, Somchamai; Promvijit, Jeerawan; Chaisatra, Krittinee; Ngaotepprutaram, Thitirat; Ruchirawat, Mathuros

    2017-01-01

    Early-life exposure to arsenic increases risk of developing a variety of non-malignant and malignant diseases. Arsenic-induced carcinogenesis may be mediated through epigenetic mechanisms and pathways leading to inflammation. Our previous study reported that prenatal arsenic exposure leads to increased mRNA expression of several genes related to inflammation, including COX2, EGR1, and SOCS3. This study aimed to investigate the effects of arsenic exposure on promoter DNA methylation and mRNA expression of these inflammatory genes (COX2, EGR1, and SOCS3), as well as the generation of 8-nitroguanine, which is a mutagenic DNA lesion involved in inflammation-related carcinogenesis. Prenatally arsenic-exposed newborns had promoter hypomethylation of COX2, EGR1, and SOCS3 in cord blood lymphocytes (p < 0.01). A follow-up study in these prenatally arsenic-exposed children showed a significant hypomethylation of these genes in salivary DNA (p < 0.01). In vitro experiments confirmed that arsenite treatment at short-term high doses (10–100 μM) and long-term low doses (0.5–1 μM) in human lymphoblasts (RPMI 1788) caused promoter hypomethylation of these genes, which was in concordance with an increase in their mRNA expression. Additionally, the level of urinary 8-nitroguanine was significantly higher (p < 0.01) in exposed newborns and children, by 1.4- and 1.8-fold, respectively. Arsenic accumulation in toenails was negatively correlated with hypomethylation of these genes and positively correlated with levels of 8-nitroguanine. These results indicated that early-life exposure to arsenic causes hypomethylation of COX2, EGR1, and SOCS3, increases mRNA expression of these genes, and increases 8-nitroguanine formation. These effects may be linked to mechanisms of arsenic-induced inflammation and cancer development later in life. - Highlight: • Early-life arsenic exposure caused promoter hypomethylation of COX2, EGR1 and SOCS3. • Hypomethylation of these genes is

  20. Open architecture design and approach for the Integrated Sensor Architecture (ISA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulton, Christine L.; Krzywicki, Alan T.; Hepp, Jared J.; Harrell, John; Kogut, Michael

    2015-05-01

    Integrated Sensor Architecture (ISA) is designed in response to stovepiped integration approaches. The design, based on the principles of Service Oriented Architectures (SOA) and Open Architectures, addresses the problem of integration, and is not designed for specific sensors or systems. The use of SOA and Open Architecture approaches has led to a flexible, extensible architecture. Using these approaches, and supported with common data formats, open protocol specifications, and Department of Defense Architecture Framework (DoDAF) system architecture documents, an integration-focused architecture has been developed. ISA can help move the Department of Defense (DoD) from costly stovepipe solutions to a more cost-effective plug-and-play design to support interoperability.

  1. Towards Porting a Real-World Seismological Application to the Intel MIC Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    V. Weinberg

    2014-01-01

    This whitepaper aims to discuss first experiences with porting an MPI-based real-world geophysical application to the new Intel Many Integrated Core (MIC) architecture. The selected code SeisSol is an application written in Fortran that can be used to simulate earthquake rupture and radiating seismic wave propagation in complex 3-D heterogeneous materials. The PRACE prototype cluster EURORA at CINECA, Italy, was accessed to analyse the MPI-performance of SeisSol on Intel Xeon Phi on both sing...

  2. Egr2 enhances insulin resistance via JAK2/STAT3/SOCS-1 pathway in HepG2 cells treated with palmitate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lin; Ye, Xinhua; Yao, Qing; Lu, Aijiao; Zhao, Zhen; Ding, Yang; Meng, Chuchen; Yu, Wenlong; Du, Yunfeng; Cheng, JinLuo

    2018-05-01

    Insulin resistance is generally responsible for the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Early growth response proteins-2 (Egr2) has been reported to be able to increase the expression of the suppressors of cytokine signaling-1 (SOCS-1), and impair insulin signaling pathway through suppression of insulin receptor substrates (IRS), including IRS-1 and IRS-2. However, whether Egr2 is directly involved in the development of insulin resistance, and how its potential contributions to insulin resistance still remain unknown. Here, our present investigation found that the expression levels of Egr2 were up-regulated when insulin resistance occurs, and knockdown of Egr2 abolished the effect of insulin resistance in HepG2 cells induced with palmitate (PA). Importantly, inhibition of Egr2 decreased the expression of SOCS-1 as well as reduced phosphorylation of JAK2 and STAT3. And, our data indicated that silencing of Egr2 accelerated hepatic glucose uptake and reversed the impaired lipid metabolism upon insulin resistance. In summary, the present study confirms that Egr2 could deteriorate insulin resistance via the pathway of JAK2/STAT3/SOCS-1 and may shed light on resolving insulin resistance and further the pathogenesis of T2DM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Analysis of Architecture Pattern Usage in Legacy System Architecture Documentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harrison, Neil B.; Avgeriou, Paris

    2008-01-01

    Architecture patterns are an important tool in architectural design. However, while many architecture patterns have been identified, there is little in-depth understanding of their actual use in software architectures. For instance, there is no overview of how many patterns are used per system or

  4. Real-Time Control System for Improved Precision and Throughput in an Ultrafast Carbon Fiber Placement Robot Using a SoC FPGA Extended Processing Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Ochoa-Ruiz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an architecture for accelerating the processing and execution of control commands in an ultrafast fiber placement robot. The system consists of a robotic arm designed by Coriolis Composites whose purpose is to move along a surface, on which composite fibers are deposed, via an independently controlled head. In first system implementation, the control commands were sent via Profibus by a PLC, limiting the reaction time and thus the precision of the fiber placement and the maximum throughput. Therefore, a custom real-time solution was imperative in order to ameliorate the performance and to meet the stringent requirements of the target industry (avionics, aeronautical systems. The solution presented in this paper is based on the use of a SoC FPGA processing platform running a real-time operating system (FreeRTOS, which has enabled an improved comamnd retrieval mechanism. The system’s placement precision was improved by a factor of 20 (from 1 mm to 0.05 mm, while the maximum achievable throughput was 1 m/s, compared to the average 30 cm/s provided by the original solution, enabling fabricating more complex and larger pieces in a significant fraction of the time.

  5. On the Architectural Engineering Competences in Architectural Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2007-01-01

    In 1997 a new education in Architecture & Design at Department of Architecture and Design, Aalborg University was started with 50 students. During the recent years this number has increased to approximately 100 new students each year, i.e. approximately 500 students are following the 3 years...... bachelor (BSc) and the 2 years master (MSc) programme. The first 5 semesters are common for all students followed by 5 semesters with specialization into Architectural Design, Urban Design, Industrial Design or Digital Design. The present paper gives a short summary of the architectural engineering...

  6. Adaptive Monitoring and Control Architectures for Power Distribution Grids over Heterogeneous ICT Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Rasmus Løvenstein; Hägerling, Christian; Kurtz, Fabian M.

    2014-01-01

    The expected growth in distributed generation will significantly affect the operation and control of today’s distribution grids. Being confronted with short time power variations of distributed generations, the assurance of a reliable service (grid stability, avoidance of energy losses) and the q......The expected growth in distributed generation will significantly affect the operation and control of today’s distribution grids. Being confronted with short time power variations of distributed generations, the assurance of a reliable service (grid stability, avoidance of energy losses...... to the reliability due to the stochastic behaviour found in such networks. Therefore, key concepts are presented in this paper targeting the support of proper smart grid control in these network environments. An overview on the required Information and Communication Technology (ICT) architecture and its...

  7. Soc stock in different forest-related land-uses in central Stara planina mountain, Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyanski Miglena

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Forest conversions may lead to an accumulation of carbon in vegetation, but little is known about changes in soil C storage with establishment of plantation forests. Understanding these effects is important to addressing issues relevant to ecosystem function and productivity, and to global balance of carbon. The study investigated the effects of the created coniferous plantations on former beech and pasture sites on the soil organic carbon storage. The major forest-related land-uses in the high mountainous regions of central Stara Planina Mountain were investigated: mountainous pasture, coniferous plantations (planted on previous pasture and beech forests between four and five decades ago and natural beech forests. The experimental data of soil properties, conducted in 2005, 2006 and 2007, were used in determining the variations in organic carbon storage in forest litter and in mineral soil under different land-use patterns. At each site five representative soil profiles were opened and described giving a total 75 soil samples from the soil layers respectively at 0-10, 10-30 and 30-50 cm depth. A total of 55 samples from forest floor layers (Aol, Aof, Aoh and greensward were collected with 25:25 cm plastic frame. The main soil properties were determined in accordance with the standardized methods in the Laboratory of soil science at the Forest Research Institute - BAS. The IPCC Good Practice Guidance for Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry was used to estimate the soil organic carbon stock in soil and litter. The results obtained showed that the SOC stock was quite similar among forest land-uses. The conversion of natural beech forests to coniferous plantations in studied region is related with slightly expressed decrease in soil carbon storage. The values of SOC stocks in 0-50 cm soil layer in these sites were 8.5 (±2.1 tones/ha for pine and 11.0 (±1.4 tones/ha for spruce, while under the natural beech forest it was 14.8 (±1.0 tones

  8. Connecting Architecture and Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchgeher, Georg; Weinreich, Rainer

    Software architectures are still typically defined and described independently from implementation. To avoid architectural erosion and drift, architectural representation needs to be continuously updated and synchronized with system implementation. Existing approaches for architecture representation like informal architecture documentation, UML diagrams, and Architecture Description Languages (ADLs) provide only limited support for connecting architecture descriptions and implementations. Architecture management tools like Lattix, SonarJ, and Sotoarc and UML-tools tackle this problem by extracting architecture information directly from code. This approach works for low-level architectural abstractions like classes and interfaces in object-oriented systems but fails to support architectural abstractions not found in programming languages. In this paper we present an approach for linking and continuously synchronizing a formalized architecture representation to an implementation. The approach is a synthesis of functionality provided by code-centric architecture management and UML tools and higher-level architecture analysis approaches like ADLs.

  9. Inflammation and linear bone growth: the inhibitory role of SOCS2 on GH/IGF-1 signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquharson, Colin; Ahmed, S Faisal

    2013-04-01

    Linear bone growth is widely recognized to be adversely affected in children with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and other chronic inflammatory disorders. The growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) pathway is anabolic to the skeleton and inflammatory cytokines compromise bone growth through a number of different mechanisms, which include interference with the systemic as well as the tissue-level GH/IGF-1 axis. Despite attempts to promote growth and control disease, there are an increasing number of reports of the persistence of poor growth in a substantial proportion of patients receiving rhGH and/or drugs that block cytokine action. Thus, there is an urgent need to consider better and alternative forms of therapy that are directed specifically at the mechanism of the insult which leads to abnormal bone health. Suppressor of cytokine signaling 2 (SOCS2) expression is increased in inflammatory conditions including CKD, and is a recognized inhibitor of GH signaling. Therefore, in this review, we will focus on the premise that SOCS2 signaling represents a critical pathway in growth plate chondrocytes through which pro-inflammatory cytokines alter both GH/IGF-1 signaling and cellular function.

  10. Quartile and Outlier Detection on Heterogeneous Clusters Using Distributed Radix Sort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meredith, Jeremy S.; Vetter, Jeffrey S.

    2011-01-01

    In the past few years, performance improvements in CPUs and memory technologies have outpaced those of storage systems. When extrapolated to the exascale, this trend places strict limits on the amount of data that can be written to disk for full analysis, resulting in an increased reliance on characterizing in-memory data. Many of these characterizations are simple, but require sorted data. This paper explores an example of this type of characterization - the identification of quartiles and statistical outliers - and presents a performance analysis of a distributed heterogeneous radix sort as well as an assessment of current architectural bottlenecks.

  11. CRIS and the GRIDs Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Jeffery

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The end-user demands low effort threshold access to systems providing e-information, e-business, and e-entertainment. Innovators and entrepreneurs require also equally low-energy access to heterogeneous information homogenised to a form and language familiar to them. On top of that, decision-makers, whether in a control room or government strategic planning, demand equally easy access to information that is statistically or inductively enhanced to knowledge and access to modelling or simulation systems to allow 'what if?' requests. Researchers and technical workers have an additional requirement for rapid integration of information with statistical, induction, modelling, and simulation systems to generate and verify hypotheses so generating data and information, to be used by others, which in turn advances knowledge. Access is required, and can now be provided, anytime, anyhow, anywhere through ambient computing technology. A new paradigm, GRIDs, provides the architectural framework.

  12. CellPilot: Seamless communication within Cell BE and heterogeneous clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girard, N; Carter, J; Gardner, W B; Grewal, G

    2010-01-01

    The Pilot library is targeted to novice scientific programmers within High Performance Computing. The CellPilot library extends the Pilot library to the Cell Broadband Engine processor and heterogeneous clusters. Using Pilot's process and channel abstractions, the CellPilot library can create a process on any of the processor types, both PPEs and SPEs, across the cluster. Communication is achieved by creating a channel between any two processes, and using the write/read channel functions in the participating processes. The CellPilot library uses MPI for the inter-node communication and the Cell SDK within a Cell node. All the architecture specific details of Cell communications are hidden from the user.

  13. A Modular Environment for Geophysical Inversion and Run-time Autotuning using Heterogeneous Computing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myre, Joseph M.

    Heterogeneous computing systems have recently come to the forefront of the High-Performance Computing (HPC) community's interest. HPC computer systems that incorporate special purpose accelerators, such as Graphics Processing Units (GPUs), are said to be heterogeneous. Large scale heterogeneous computing systems have consistently ranked highly on the Top500 list since the beginning of the heterogeneous computing trend. By using heterogeneous computing systems that consist of both general purpose processors and special- purpose accelerators, the speed and problem size of many simulations could be dramatically increased. Ultimately this results in enhanced simulation capabilities that allows, in some cases for the first time, the execution of parameter space and uncertainty analyses, model optimizations, and other inverse modeling techniques that are critical for scientific discovery and engineering analysis. However, simplifying the usage and optimization of codes for heterogeneous computing systems remains a challenge. This is particularly true for scientists and engineers for whom understanding HPC architectures and undertaking performance analysis may not be primary research objectives. To enable scientists and engineers to remain focused on their primary research objectives, a modular environment for geophysical inversion and run-time autotuning on heterogeneous computing systems is presented. This environment is composed of three major components: 1) CUSH---a framework for reducing the complexity of programming heterogeneous computer systems, 2) geophysical inversion routines which can be used to characterize physical systems, and 3) run-time autotuning routines designed to determine configurations of heterogeneous computing systems in an attempt to maximize the performance of scientific and engineering codes. Using three case studies, a lattice-Boltzmann method, a non-negative least squares inversion, and a finite-difference fluid flow method, it is shown that

  14. Rapid Prototyping for Heterogeneous Multicomponent Systems: An MPEG-4 Stream over a UMTS Communication Link

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorel Y

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Future generations of mobile phones, including advanced video and digital communication layers, represent a great challenge in terms of real-time embedded systems. Programmable multicomponent architectures can provide suitable target solutions combining flexibility and computation power. The aim of our work is to develop a fast and automatic prototyping methodology dedicated to signal processing application implementation on parallel heterogeneous architectures, two major features required by future systems. This paper presents the whole methodology based on the SynDEx CAD tool that directly generates a distributed implementation onto various platforms from a high-level application description, taking real-time aspects into account. It illustrates the methodology in the context of real-time distributed executives for multilayer applications based on an MPEG-4 video codec and a UMTS telecommunication link.

  15. Dermal Contributions to Human Interfollicular Epidermal Architecture and Self-Renewal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kynan T. Lawlor

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The human interfollicular epidermis is renewed throughout life by populations of proliferating basal keratinocytes. Though interfollicular keratinocyte stem cells have been identified, it is not known how self-renewal in this compartment is spatially organized. At the epidermal-dermal junction, keratinocytes sit atop a heterogeneous mix of dermal cells that may regulate keratinocyte self-renewal by influencing local tissue architecture and signalling microenvironments. Focusing on the rete ridges and complementary dermal papillae in human skin, we review the identity and organisation of abundant dermal cells types and present evidence for interactions between the dermal microenvironment and the interfollicular keratinocytes.

  16. How organisation of architecture documentation affects architectural knowledge retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf, K.A.; Liang, P.; Tang, A.; Vliet, J.C.

    A common approach to software architecture documentation in industry projects is the use of file-based documents. This approach offers a single-dimensional arrangement of the architectural knowledge. Knowledge retrieval from file-based architecture documentation is efficient if the organisation of

  17. Cloudification of mmwave-based and packet-based fronthaul for future heterogeneous mobile networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artuso, Matteo; Marcano, Andrea; Christiansen, Henrik Lehrmann

    2015-01-01

    is seen as an enabler for next-generation heterogeneous mobile networks. This allows for simpler base stations and savings in deployment costs, but introduces challenges in the fronthaul network connecting the sites to the processing pool. The fronthaul needs to have very low latency and high capacity......, but the traditional architecture of this network uses point-to-point links between each site and the pool, thus making it impossible to share capacity as the demands change. To address these challenges, a flexible network architecture for the fronthaul is presented that is based on Ethernet to carry the baseband......Current deployments of mobile networks are seriously challenged by increasing capacity demands, and traditional solutions are no longer practical. The use of small cells is considered as a viable technique to meet these demands. In this context, the use of centralized signal processing in a pool...

  18. Large epidemic thresholds emerge in heterogeneous networks of heterogeneous nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hui; Tang, Ming; Gross, Thilo

    2015-08-01

    One of the famous results of network science states that networks with heterogeneous connectivity are more susceptible to epidemic spreading than their more homogeneous counterparts. In particular, in networks of identical nodes it has been shown that network heterogeneity, i.e. a broad degree distribution, can lower the epidemic threshold at which epidemics can invade the system. Network heterogeneity can thus allow diseases with lower transmission probabilities to persist and spread. However, it has been pointed out that networks in which the properties of nodes are intrinsically heterogeneous can be very resilient to disease spreading. Heterogeneity in structure can enhance or diminish the resilience of networks with heterogeneous nodes, depending on the correlations between the topological and intrinsic properties. Here, we consider a plausible scenario where people have intrinsic differences in susceptibility and adapt their social network structure to the presence of the disease. We show that the resilience of networks with heterogeneous connectivity can surpass those of networks with homogeneous connectivity. For epidemiology, this implies that network heterogeneity should not be studied in isolation, it is instead the heterogeneity of infection risk that determines the likelihood of outbreaks.

  19. Large epidemic thresholds emerge in heterogeneous networks of heterogeneous nodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hui; Tang, Ming; Gross, Thilo

    2015-08-21

    One of the famous results of network science states that networks with heterogeneous connectivity are more susceptible to epidemic spreading than their more homogeneous counterparts. In particular, in networks of identical nodes it has been shown that network heterogeneity, i.e. a broad degree distribution, can lower the epidemic threshold at which epidemics can invade the system. Network heterogeneity can thus allow diseases with lower transmission probabilities to persist and spread. However, it has been pointed out that networks in which the properties of nodes are intrinsically heterogeneous can be very resilient to disease spreading. Heterogeneity in structure can enhance or diminish the resilience of networks with heterogeneous nodes, depending on the correlations between the topological and intrinsic properties. Here, we consider a plausible scenario where people have intrinsic differences in susceptibility and adapt their social network structure to the presence of the disease. We show that the resilience of networks with heterogeneous connectivity can surpass those of networks with homogeneous connectivity. For epidemiology, this implies that network heterogeneity should not be studied in isolation, it is instead the heterogeneity of infection risk that determines the likelihood of outbreaks.

  20. The genomic architecture of mastitis resistance in dairy sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banos, G; Bramis, G; Bush, S J; Clark, E L; McCulloch, M E B; Smith, J; Schulze, G; Arsenos, G; Hume, D A; Psifidi, A

    2017-08-16

    Mastitis is the most prevalent disease in dairy sheep with major economic, hygienic and welfare implications. The disease persists in all dairy sheep production systems despite the implementation of improved management practises. Selective breeding for enhanced mastitis resistance may provide the means to further control the disease. In the present study, we investigated the genetic architecture of four mastitis traits in dairy sheep. Individual animal records for clinical mastitis occurrence and three mastitis indicator traits (milk somatic cell count, total viable bacterial count in milk and the California mastitis test) were collected monthly throughout lactation for 609 ewes of the Greek Chios breed. All animals were genotyped with a custom-made 960-single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) DNA array based on markers located in quantitative trait loci (QTL) regions for mastitis resistance previously detected in three other distinct dairy sheep populations. Heritable variation and strong positive genetic correlations were estimated for clinical mastitis occurrence and the three mastitis indicator traits. SNP markers significantly associated with these mastitis traits were confirmed on chromosomes 2, 3, 5, 16 and 19. We identified pathways, molecular interaction networks and functional gene clusters for mastitis resistance. Candidate genes within the detected regions were identified based upon analysis of an ovine transcriptional atlas and transcriptome data derived from milk somatic cells. Relevant candidate genes implicated in innate immunity included SOCS2, CTLA4, C6, C7, C9, PTGER4, DAB2, CARD6, OSMR, PLXNC1, IDH1, ICOS, FYB, and LYFR. The results confirmed the presence of animal genetic variability in mastitis resistance and identified genomic regions associated with specific mastitis traits in the Chios sheep. The conserved genetic architecture of mastitis resistance between distinct dairy sheep breeds suggests that across-breed selection programmes would be