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Sample records for heterogeneity affects genesis

  1. A Glutamine-Rich Factor Affects Stem Cell Genesis in Leech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristi A. Hohenstein

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Leech embryogenesis is a model for investigating cellular and molecular processes of development. Due to the unusually large size of embryonic stem cells (teloblasts: 50–300 μm in the glossiphoniid leech, Theromyzon tessulatum, and the presence of identifiable stem cell precursors (proteloblasts, we previously isolated a group of genes upregulated upon stem cell birth. In the current study, we show that one of these genes, designated Theromyzon proliferation (Tpr, is required for normal stem cell genesis; specifically, transient Tpr knockdown experiments conducted with antisense oligonucleotides and monitored by semiquantitative RT-PCR, caused abnormal proteloblast proliferation leading to embryonic death, but did not overtly affect neuroectodermal or mesodermal stem cell development once these cells were born. Tpr encodes a large glutamine-rich (∼34% domain that shares compositional similarity with strong transcriptional enhancers many of which have been linked with trinucleotide repeat disorders (e.g., Huntington's.

  2. Predictors of recurrence in affective disorder - analyses accounting for individual heterogeneity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Andersen, Elisabeth Anne Wreford; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2000-01-01

    affective disorder, depression, unipolar, bipolar, recurrence, predictors, life event, individual heterogeneity......affective disorder, depression, unipolar, bipolar, recurrence, predictors, life event, individual heterogeneity...

  3. Genesis of Ultra-High Pressure Garnet Pyroxenite in Orogenic Peridotites and its bearing on the Isotopic Chemical Heterogeneity in the Mantle Source of Oceanic Basalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varas Reus, María Isabel; Garrido, Carlos J.; Marchesi, Claudio; Bosch, Delphine; Hidas, Károly

    2017-04-01

    The genesis of ultra-high pressure (UHP) garnet pyroxenites in orogenic peridotite massifs and its implications on the formation of chemical heterogeneities in the mantle and on basalt petrogenesis are still not fully understood. Some UHP (diamond-bearing) garnet pyroxenites have isotopic, and major and trace element compositions similar to the recycled oceanic crustal component observed in oceanic basalts [1-6]. These pyroxenites hence provide an exceptional opportunity to investigate in situ the nature and scale of the Earth's mantle chemical heterogeneities. Here, we present an integrated geochemical study of UHP garnet pyroxenites from the Ronda (Betic Belt, S. Spain) and Beni Bousera (Rif Belt, N. Morocco) peridotite massifs. This investigation encompasses, in the same sample, bulk rock major and trace elements, as well as Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotopic analyses. According to their Al2O3 content, we classify UHP garnet pyroxenites into three groups that have distinct trace elements and Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotopic signatures. Group A pyroxenites (Al2O3: 15 - 17.5 wt. %) are characterized by low initial 87Sr/86Sr, relatively high 143Nd/144Nd, 206Pb/204Pb and 176Hf/177Hf ratios, and highly variable 207Pb/204Pb and 208Pb/204Pb ratios. Group B pyroxenites (Al2O3 element, and isotopic compositions of the studied Ronda and Beni Bousera UHP garnet pyroxenites lend support to the "Marble Cake Mantle" model [7] for the genesis of these pyroxenites. This model envisions the mantle source of oceanic basalts as a mélange of subducted, ancient oceanic crust —-represented by garnet pyroxenites in orogenic peridotites—- intimately mixed with peridotites by mantle convection. The present study reveals, however, that besides this exotic component of ancient recycled oceanic crust, the genesis of these pyroxenites requires a previously unnoticed component of recycled lower continental crust akin to the lower crustal section of the lithosphere where these UHP garnet pyroxenites now reside in

  4. On the genesis of heterogeneous photocatalysis: a brief historical perspective in the period 1910 to the mid-1980s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpone, N; Emeline, A V; Horikoshi, S; Kuznetsov, V N; Ryabchuk, V K

    2012-07-01

    The concept Photocatalysis and, of greater import here, Heterogeneous Photocatalysis were first introduced in the second decade (1910-1920) of the 20th century according to the CAPLUS and MEDLINE databases (SciFinder). This review reports a brief historical perspective on the origins of the two concepts, whether implied or explicitly stated, in some detail up to about the mid-1980s when heterogeneous photocatalysis witnessed the beginning of an exponential growth, with particular emphasis on the use of nanosized TiO(2) particles in powdered form as the (so-called) photocatalyst of choice in environmental applications because of its inherent properties of abundance and chemical stability in acidic and alkaline aqueous media (in the dark), in contrast to ZnO that had been the metal oxide of choice in the early days. The early workers in this area often used the term photosensitization rather than the current popular term photocatalysis, used since the early 1980s. The term Photocatalysis appeared in the literature as early as 1910 in a book by Plotnikow (Russia) and a few years later it was introduced in France by Landau. The review also reports on contributions during the early years by Terenin at the University of St. Petersburg (previously Leningrad, Soviet Union), and in the decade spanning 1975-1985 contributions by Bard's group at the University of Texas at Austin (USA) as well as those of other groups. Some activities into the conversion of light energy to chemical fuels (e.g. H(2)) during the 1975-1985 decade are also considered.

  5. Genesis machines

    CERN Document Server

    Amos, Martyn

    2014-01-01

    Silicon chips are out. Today's scientists are using real, wet, squishy, living biology to build the next generation of computers. Cells, gels and DNA strands are the 'wetware' of the twenty-first century. Much smaller and more intelligent, these organic computers open up revolutionary possibilities. Tracing the history of computing and revealing a brave new world to come, Genesis Machines describes how this new technology will change the way we think not just about computers - but about life itself.

  6. On Genesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis Althusser

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available On Genesis, written In 1966 is a short summary of Althusser’s earlytheory of encounter. In Althusser’s note we find description of structural causalityas opposed to teleological and mechanicist notions of historical determinations. Thetext has documentary value allowing the reader to look at problems presented insuch works as Reading Capital from the perspective proposed by Aalthusser in histexts devoted, among others, to aleatory conception of materialism and theory ofhistory.

  7. Disentangling How Landscape Spatial and Temporal Heterogeneity Affects Savanna Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Bronwyn; McAlpine, Clive A.; Kutt, Alex S.; Ward, Doug; Phinn, Stuart R.; Ludwig, John A.

    2013-01-01

    In highly seasonal tropical environments, temporal changes in habitat and resources are a significant determinant of the spatial distribution of species. This study disentangles the effects of spatial and mid to long-term temporal heterogeneity in habitat on the diversity and abundance of savanna birds by testing four competing conceptual models of varying complexity. Focussing on sites in northeast Australia over a 20 year time period, we used ground cover and foliage projected cover surfaces derived from a time series of Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery, rainfall data and site-level vegetation surveys to derive measures of habitat structure at local (1–100 ha) and landscape (100–1000s ha) scales. We used generalised linear models and an information theoretic approach to test the independent effects of spatial and temporal influences on savanna bird diversity and the abundance of eight species with different life-history behaviours. Of four competing models defining influences on assemblages of savanna birds, the most parsimonious included temporal and spatial variability in vegetation cover and site-scale vegetation structure, suggesting savanna bird species respond to spatial and temporal habitat heterogeneity at both the broader landscape scale and at the fine-scale. The relative weight, strength and direction of the explanatory variables changed with each of the eight species, reflecting their different ecology and behavioural traits. This study demonstrates that variations in the spatial pattern of savanna vegetation over periods of 10 to 20 years at the local and landscape scale strongly affect bird diversity and abundance. Thus, it is essential to monitor and manage both spatial and temporal variability in avian habitat to achieve long-term biodiversity outcomes. PMID:24066138

  8. Nitrogen isotopes in the recent solar wind from the analysis of genesis targets: evidence for large scale isotope heterogeneity in the nascent solar system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiens, Roger C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Marty, Bernard [INSU-CNRS; Zimmermann, Laurent [INSU-CNRS; Burnard, Peter G [INSU-CNRS; Burnett, Donald L [CALTECH; Heber, Veronika S [ETH ZURICH; Wieler, Rainer [ETH ZURICH; Bochsler, Peter [UNIV OV BERN

    2009-01-01

    Nitrogen, the fifth most abundant element in the universe, displays the largest stable isotope variations in the solar system reservoirs after hydrogen. Yet the value of isotopic composition of solar nitrogen, presumably the best proxy of the protosolar nebula composition, is not known. Nitrogen isotopes trapped in Genesis spacecraft target material indicate a 40 % depletion of {sup 15}N in solar wind N relative to inner planets and meteorites, and define a composition for the present-day Sun undistinguishable from that of Jupiter's atmosphere. These results indicate that the isotopic composition of of nitrogen in the outer convective zone of the Sun (OCZ) has not changed through time, and is representative of the protosolar nebula. Large {sup 15}N enrichments during e.g., irradiation, or contributions from {sup 15}N-rich presolar components, are required to account for planetary values.

  9. Spatial environmental heterogeneity affects plant growth and thermal performance on a green roof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckland-Nicks, Michael; Heim, Amy; Lundholm, Jeremy, E-mail: jlundholm@smu.ca

    2016-05-15

    Green roofs provide ecosystem services, including stormwater retention and reductions in heat transfer through the roof. Microclimates, as well as designed features of green roofs, such as substrate and vegetation, affect the magnitude of these services. Many green roofs are partially shaded by surrounding buildings, but the effects of this within-roof spatial environmental heterogeneity on thermal performance and other ecosystem services have not been examined. We quantified the effects of spatial heterogeneity in solar radiation, substrate depth and other variables affected by these drivers on vegetation and ecosystem services in an extensive green roof. Spatial heterogeneity in substrate depth and insolation were correlated with differential growth, survival and flowering in two focal plant species. These effects were likely driven by the resulting spatial heterogeneity in substrate temperature and moisture content. Thermal performance (indicated by heat flux and substrate temperature) was influenced by spatial heterogeneity in vegetation cover and substrate depth. Areas with less insolation were cooler in summer and had greater substrate moisture, leading to more favorable conditions for plant growth and survival. Spatial variation in substrate moisture (7%–26% volumetric moisture content) and temperature (21 °C–36 °C) during hot sunny conditions in summer could cause large differences in stormwater retention and heat flux within a single green roof. Shaded areas promote smaller heat fluxes through the roof, leading to energy savings, but lower evapotranspiration in these areas should reduce stormwater retention capacity. Spatial heterogeneity can thus result in trade-offs between different ecosystem services. The effects of these spatial heterogeneities are likely widespread in green roofs. Structures that provide shelter from sun and wind may be productively utilized to design higher functioning green roofs and increase biodiversity by providing habitat

  10. Factors Affecting Public Preferences for Grassland Landscape Heterogeneity in the Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Omkar; Becerra, Terrie A.; Engle, David M.; Fuhlendorf, Samuel D.; Elmore, R. Dwayne

    2017-11-01

    Agricultural intensification has fragmented rangelands in the Great Plains, which has contributed to uniform and homogeneous landscapes and decreased biodiversity. Alternative land management practices involving fire-grazing interactions can help maintain biodiversity without affecting livestock productivity. A survey was designed to understand the factors that influence preferences among the general population towards grassland landscape heterogeneity. Given the ordinal nature of survey responses, requisite data were analyzed using a generalized ordinal logit model. Results suggested that respondents who valued open space and those who recognized a need for a varying mix of uniform grasses and grasslands preferred landscape heterogeneity. Female respondents were about two times as likely to prefer heterogeneous landscapes compared to male respondents. In contrast, population groups that preferred wildlife habitat did not desire heterogeneous landscapes. Results suggest the need for extension and outreach activities to educate certain segments of the general population regarding benefits of alternative management practices that support landscape heterogeneity in the Great Plains.

  11. Spatial environmental heterogeneity affects plant growth and thermal performance on a green roof.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckland-Nicks, Michael; Heim, Amy; Lundholm, Jeremy

    2016-05-15

    Green roofs provide ecosystem services, including stormwater retention and reductions in heat transfer through the roof. Microclimates, as well as designed features of green roofs, such as substrate and vegetation, affect the magnitude of these services. Many green roofs are partially shaded by surrounding buildings, but the effects of this within-roof spatial environmental heterogeneity on thermal performance and other ecosystem services have not been examined. We quantified the effects of spatial heterogeneity in solar radiation, substrate depth and other variables affected by these drivers on vegetation and ecosystem services in an extensive green roof. Spatial heterogeneity in substrate depth and insolation were correlated with differential growth, survival and flowering in two focal plant species. These effects were likely driven by the resulting spatial heterogeneity in substrate temperature and moisture content. Thermal performance (indicated by heat flux and substrate temperature) was influenced by spatial heterogeneity in vegetation cover and substrate depth. Areas with less insolation were cooler in summer and had greater substrate moisture, leading to more favorable conditions for plant growth and survival. Spatial variation in substrate moisture (7%-26% volumetric moisture content) and temperature (21°C-36°C) during hot sunny conditions in summer could cause large differences in stormwater retention and heat flux within a single green roof. Shaded areas promote smaller heat fluxes through the roof, leading to energy savings, but lower evapotranspiration in these areas should reduce stormwater retention capacity. Spatial heterogeneity can thus result in trade-offs between different ecosystem services. The effects of these spatial heterogeneities are likely widespread in green roofs. Structures that provide shelter from sun and wind may be productively utilized to design higher functioning green roofs and increase biodiversity by providing habitat

  12. Heterogeneous staining: a tool for studies of how fluorescent dyes affect the physical properties of DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyberg, Lena; Persson, Fredrik; Akerman, Björn; Westerlund, Fredrik

    2013-10-01

    The commonly used fluorescent dye YOYO-1 (YOYO) has, using bulk techniques, been demonstrated to stain DNA heterogeneously at substoichiometric concentrations. We here, using nanofluidic channels and fluorescence microscopy, investigate the heterogeneous staining on the single DNA molecule level and demonstrate that the dye distribution is continuous. The equilibration of YOYO on DNA is extremely slow but can be accelerated by increasing the ionic strength and/or the temperature. Furthermore, we demonstrate how to use the heterogeneous staining as a tool for detailed and time-efficient studies of how fluorescent dyes affect the physical properties of DNA. We show that the relative increase in extension of DNA with increasing amount of YOYO bound is higher at low ionic strengths and also extrapolate the extension of native DNA. Our study reveals important information on how YOYO affects the physical properties of DNA, but it also has broader applications. First, it reveals how cationic intercalators, such as potential DNA drugs, affect DNA under strong confinement. Second, the strategy of using heterogeneous staining is of general use for single molecule studies of DNA interacting with proteins or ligands.

  13. Chromosomal heterogeneity and instability characterize pediatric medulloblastoma cell lines and affect neoplastic phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Gamero, Angel Mauricio; Borges, Kleiton Silva; Lira, Regia Caroline; Andrade, Augusto Faria; Fedatto, Paola Fernanda; Cruzeiro, Gustavo Alencastro Veiga; Silva, Ricardo Bonfim; Fontes, Aparecida Maria; Valera, Elvis Terci; Bobola, Michael; Scrideli, Carlos Alberto; Tone, Luiz Gonzaga

    2013-10-01

    Chromosomal heterogeneity is a hallmark of most tumors and it can drive critical events as growth advantages, survival advantages, progression and karyotypic evolution. Medulloblastoma (MB) is the most common malignant central nervous system tumor in children. This work attempted to investigate chromosomal heterogeneity and instability profiles of two MB pediatric cell lines and their relationship with cell phenotype. We performed GTG-banding and cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome assays, as well as morphological characterization, cell population doubling time, colony-forming efficiency, and chemo-sensitivity assays in two pediatric MB cell lines (UW402 and UW473). Both MB cells showed a high chromosomal heterogeneity. UW473 cells showed ~2 fold higher both clonal- and non-clonal chromosomal alterations than UW402 cells. Besides, UW473 showed two clonal-groups well-differentiated by ploidy level ( and ) and also presented a significantly higher number of chromosomal instability biomarkers. These results were associated with high morphological heterogeneity and survival advantages for UW473 and proliferation advantages for UW402 cells. Moreover, UW473 was significantly more sensitive to methotrexate, temozolomide and cisplatin while UW402 cells were more sensitive to doxorubicin. These data suggest that distinct different degrees of karyotypic heterogeneity and instability may affect neoplasic phenotype of MB cells. These findings bring new insights into cell and tumor biology.

  14. Genesis Sample Catalog

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Genesis mission, launched in August 2001, collected solar wind at Earth-Sun L1 location for 28 months, and returned to Earth September 2004 with collectors (very...

  15. Generalized galilean genesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishi, Sakine; Kobayashi, Tsutomu [Department of Physics, Rikkyo University, Toshima, Tokyo 175-8501 (Japan)

    2015-03-31

    The galilean genesis scenario is an alternative to inflation in which the universe starts expanding from Minkowski in the asymptotic past by violating the null energy condition stably. Several concrete models of galilean genesis have been constructed so far within the context of galileon-type scalar-field theories. We give a generic, unified description of the galilean genesis scenario in terms of the Horndeski theory, i.e., the most general scalar-tensor theory with second-order field equations. In doing so we generalize the previous models to have a new parameter (denoted by α) which results in controlling the evolution of the Hubble rate. The background dynamics is investigated to show that the generalized galilean genesis solution is an attractor, similarly to the original model. We also study the nature of primordial perturbations in the generalized galilean genesis scenario. In all the models described by our generalized genesis Lagrangian, amplification of tensor perturbations does not occur as opposed to what happens in quasi-de Sitter inflation. We show that the spectral index of curvature perturbations is determined solely from the parameter α and does not depend on the other details of the model. In contrast to the original model, a nearly scale-invariant spectrum of curvature perturbations is obtained for a specific choice of α.

  16. Heterogeneity of change in state affect following insulin therapy initiation in type 2 diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gruszczyńska Ewa

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to explore heterogeneity of change in state affect following the introduction of insulin therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes. State affect was assessed twice among 305 patients: just before the introduction of insulin therapy and at 1-month follow-up. Latent class growth modeling showed that negative affect (NA increased in 78% of the sample, whereas positive affect (PA improved in only 17% of the participants. On the basis of cross-tabulation of these changes a 4-class model of emotional response to the new treatment was obtained. The largest subgroup of participants (57% manifested “threat response”, i.e. moderate-stable PA with increase in NA. Participants in the “challenge response” subgroup (11.8% showed increases in both NA and PA. The third class (10.2% characterized by “no response”, had low-stable NA and moderate-stable PA. The smallest “stress response” subgroup (9.8% showed increase in NA and high-stable PA. Gender, age and education level were significant covariates of group membership. Thus, the findings revealed heterogeneous emotional response to the new treatment, which may be of clinical relevance for improving diabetic patients’ adjustment through a more individual, person-centered approach.

  17. Long-term Differences in Tillage and Land Use Affect Intra-aggregate Pore Heterogeneity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kravchenko, A.N.; Wang, A.N.W.; Smucker, A.J.M.; Rivers, M.L. (MSU); (UC)

    2012-10-25

    Recent advances in computed tomography provide measurement tools to study internal structures of soil aggregates at micrometer resolutions and to improve our understanding of specific mechanisms of various soil processes. Fractal analysis is one of the data analysis tools that can be helpful in evaluating heterogeneity of the intra-aggregate internal structures. The goal of this study was to examine how long-term tillage and land use differences affect intra-aggregate pore heterogeneity. The specific objectives were: (i) to develop an approach to enhance utility of box-counting fractal dimension in characterizing intra-aggregate pore heterogeneity; (ii) to examine intra-aggregate pores in macro-aggregates (4-6 mm in size) using the computed tomography scanning and fractal analysis, and (iii) to compare heterogeneity of intra-aggregate pore space in aggregates from loamy Alfisol soil subjected to 20 yr of contrasting management practices, namely, conventional tillage (chisel plow) (CT), no-till (NT), and native succession vegetation (NS). Three-dimensional images of the intact aggregates were obtained with a resolution of 14.6 {micro}m at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL. Proposed box-counting fractal dimension normalization was successfully implemented to estimate heterogeneity of pore voxel distributions without bias associated with different porosities in soil aggregates. The aggregates from all three studied treatments had higher porosity associated with large (>100 {micro}m) pores present in their centers than in their exteriors. Pores 15 to 60 {micro}m were equally abundant throughout entire aggregates but their distributions were more heterogeneous in aggregate interiors. The CT aggregates had greater numbers of pores 15 to 60 {micro}m than NT and NS. Distribution of pore voxels belonging to large pores was most heterogeneous in the aggregates from NS, followed by NT and by CT. This result was consistent with presence of

  18. Microdomain heterogeneity in 3D affects the mechanics of neonatal cardiac myocyte contraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Matthew W.; Budyn, Elisa; Desai, Tejal A.; Samarel, Allen M.

    2012-01-01

    Cardiac muscle cells are known to adapt to their physical surroundings, optimizing intracellular organization and contractile function for a given culture environment. A previously developed in vitro model system has shown that the inclusion of discrete microscale domains (or microrods) in three dimensions (3D) can alter long-term growth responses of neonatal ventricular myocytes. The aim of this work was to understand how cellular contact with such a domain affects various mechanical changes involved in cardiac muscle cell remodeling. Myocytes were maintained in 3D gels over 5 days in the presence or absence of 100 – μm-long microrods, and the effect of this local heterogeneity on cell behavior was analyzed via several imaging techniques. Microrod abutment resulted in approximately twofold increases in the maximum displacement of spontaneously beating myocytes, as based on confocal microscopy scans of the gel xy-plane or the myocyte long axis. In addition, microrods caused significant increases in the proportion of aligned myofibrils (≤20° deviation from long axis) in fixed myocytes. Microrod-related differences in axial contraction could be abrogated by long-term interruption of certain signals of the RhoA-/Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) or protein kinase C (PKC) pathway. Furthermore, microrod-induced increases in myocyte size and protein content were prevented by ROCK inhibition. In all, the data suggest that microdomain heterogeneity in 3D appears to promote the development of axially aligned contractile machinery in muscle cells, an observation that may have relevance to a number of cardiac tissue engineering interventions. PMID:22407215

  19. Lean Management Genesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parkes Aneta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Lean Management is a philosophy and management concept, based on reduction of the waste and resources used in the process of producing goods and providing services. Lean Management genesis dates back to scientific management in America (for example concepts of H. Ford and F.W. Taylor and quality management, including development of TQM concept. Japanese Toyota Production System has been inspired by chosen elements of these concepts, and then it evolved towards global concept called Toyota Way (which connects production rules with values and work attitude.

  20. Analysis of donor heterogeneity as a factor affecting the clinical outcome of oocyte donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Sarah E; Faddy, Malcolm; Levett, Stephen; Sharma, Vinay; Gosden, Roger

    2002-11-01

    This study investigated factors that may affect the clinical outcome of oocyte donation on the basis of data from a clinical programme involving 243 treatment cycles analysed retrospectively. In each cohort, oocytes were distributed randomly to one, two or three recipients, which enabled the outcomes in terms of pregnancy and live birth rates to be compared among donors. The results were compared with respect to age of the donor and recipient, number of oocytes collected, fertilization and cleavage rates, qualitative embryo criteria (morphological grade) and other clinical criteria. Most variables had no significant effect on either outcome, although the live birth rate varied inversely with recipient age. Unsurprisingly, the pregnancy rate was correlated positively with the number of embryos transferred. Most of the variation in pregnancy and live birth rates (85-90%) could not be accounted for by any specific donation characteristic, indicating that interdonor heterogeneity was the result of idiopathic factors. The factor most predictive of a recipient's cycle outcome was a history of previous success of the donor, which accounted for approximately 30% of the variation in live birth rates. Pregnancy success rates varied widely among oocyte donors, as has been found among sperm donors. This observation highlights the need to identify markers that predict developmental competence and help to identify the genetic and environmental bases of differential fertility. In conclusion, the quality of oocytes varied widely among women presumed to be fertile by clinical criteria, and the causative factors set a major limitation on the prospects of improving the outcome of egg donation.

  1. Chromosomal heterogeneity and instability characterize pediatric medulloblastoma cell lines and affect neoplastic phenotype

    OpenAIRE

    Castro-Gamero, Angel Mauricio; Borges, Kleiton Silva; Lira, Regia Caroline; Andrade, Augusto Faria; Fedatto, Paola Fernanda; Cruzeiro, Gustavo Alencastro Veiga; Silva, Ricardo Bonfim; Fontes,Aparecida Maria; Valera, Elvis Terci; Bobola, Michael; Scrideli,Carlos Alberto; Tone,Luiz Gonzaga

    2013-01-01

    Chromosomal heterogeneity is a hallmark of most tumors and it can drive critical events as growth advantages, survival advantages, progression and karyotypic evolution. Medulloblastoma (MB) is the most common malignant central nervous system tumor in children. This work attempted to investigate chromosomal heterogeneity and instability profiles of two MB pediatric cell lines and their relationship with cell phenotype. We performed GTG-banding and cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome assays, ...

  2. Spatial heterogeneity in light supply affects intraspecific competition of a stoloniferous clonal plant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pu Wang

    Full Text Available Spatial heterogeneity in light supply is common in nature. Many studies have examined the effects of heterogeneous light supply on growth, morphology, physiology and biomass allocation of clonal plants, but few have tested those effects on intraspecific competition. In a greenhouse experiment, we grew one (no competition or nine ramets (with intraspecific competition of a stoloniferous clonal plant, Duchesnea indica, in three homogeneous light conditions (high, medium and low light intensity and two heterogeneous ones differing in patch size (large and small patch treatments. The total light in the two heterogeneous treatments was the same as that in the homogeneous medium light treatment. Both decreasing light intensity and intraspecific competition significantly decreased the growth (biomass, number of ramets and total stolon length of D. indica. As compared with the homogeneous medium light treatment, the large patch treatment significantly increased the growth of D. indica without intraspecific competition. However, the growth of D. indica with competition did not differ among the homogeneous medium light, the large and the small patch treatments. Consequently, light heterogeneity significantly increased intraspecific competition intensity, as measured by the decreased log response ratio. These results suggest that spatial heterogeneity in light supply can alter intraspecific interactions of clonal plants.

  3. Microbial heterogeneity affects bioprocess robustness: dynamic single-cell analysis contributes to understanding of microbial populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delvigne, Frank; Goffin, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Heterogeneity or segregation of microbial populations has been the subject of much research, but the real impact of this phenomenon on bioprocesses remains poorly understood. The main reason for this lack of knowledge is the difficulty in monitoring microbial population heterogeneity under dynamic process conditions. The main concepts resulting in microbial population heterogeneity in the context of bioprocesses have been summarized by two distinct hypotheses. The first involves the individual history of microbial cells or the "path" followed during their residence time inside the process equipment. The second hypothesis involves a coordinated response by the microbial population as a bet-hedging strategy, in order to cope with process-related stresses. The respective contribution of each hypothesis to microbial heterogeneity in bioprocesses is still unclear. This illustrates the fact that, although microbial phenotypic heterogeneity has been thoroughly investigated at a fundamental level, the implications of this phenomenon in the context of microbial bioprocesses are still subject to debate. At this time, automated flow cytometry is the best technique for investigating microbial heterogeneity under process conditions. However, dedicated software and relevant biomarkers are needed for the proper integration of flow cytometry as a bioprocess control tool. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Translation as Genesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Gilberthorpe

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Translation of literature is generally understood as a copy of an original. As such, it finds itself compared negatively to the original; judged and found lacking either the style or meaning of the original text it was seeking to translate. However, this paper will explore the relationship between the text and its translation through the work of Jacques Derrida and his neologisms such as the supplement and différance in addition to the work of Walter Benjamin. Through understanding the translation as a supplement, this paper will explore whether the original text was complete in and of itself. Through this and Derrida’s understanding of the play of language, I argue that translation can be understood as the palingenesis of literature, as it is only through translation that literature is reborn and lives on. Moreover, this paper will conclude with an examination of Blanchot’s distinction between the Book and the book in order to argue that literature is in itself a form of translation. Thus, the relationship between translation and literature is one of a cycle of genesis and palingenesis, as translation finds itself at both the beginning and continual rebirth of literature. La traduzione letteraria viene generalmente intesa come la copia di un originale. In quanto tale essa viene considerata negativamente in rapporto a quest’ultimo, giudicata manchevole quanto a stile o contenuto rispetto al testo originale che cerca di tradurre. Questo articolo intende esaminare la relazione tra il testo e la sua traduzione attraverso l’opera di Jacques Derrida e i suoi neologismi, come supplemento e différance, e sulla scorta degli studi di Walter Benjamin. Considerando la traduzione come un supplemento, l’articolo indaga se l’originale sia completo in e di per se stesso. Attraverso questo concetto e la prospettiva di Derrida sul gioco del linguaggio, la tesi sostenuta è che la traduzione possa essere considerata come palingenesi della

  5. Sex-biased dispersal and spatial heterogeneity affect landscape resistance to gene flow in fisher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jody M. Tucker; Fred W. Allendorf; Richard L. Truex; Michael K. Schwartz

    2017-01-01

    Genetic connectivity results from the dispersal and reproduction of individuals across landscapes. Mammalian populations frequently exhibit sex-biased dispersal, but this factor has rarely been addressed in individual-based landscape genetics research. In this study, we evaluate the effects of sexbiased dispersal and landscape heterogeneity on genetic connectivity in a...

  6. Phenotypic heterogeneity affects Stenotrophomonas maltophilia K279a colony morphotypes and β-lactamase expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Mama Abda

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Phenotypic heterogeneity on the cellular level in response to various stresses e.g. antibiotic treatment has been reported for a number of bacteria. In a clonal population, cell-to-cell variation may result in phenotypic heterogeneity that is a mechanism to survive changing environments including antibiotic therapy. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia has been frequently isolated from cystic fibrosis patients, can cause numerous infections in other organs and tissues, and is difficult to treat due to antibiotic resistances. S. maltophilia K279a produces the L1 and L2 β-lactamases in response to β-lactam treatment. Here we report that the patient isolate S. maltophilia K279a diverges into cellular subpopulations with distinct but reversible morphotypes of small and big colonies when challenged with ampicillin. This observation is consistent with the formation of elongated chains of bacteria during exponential growth phase and the occurrence of mainly rod-shaped cells in liquid media. RNA-seq analysis of small versus big colonies revealed differential regulation of at least seven genes among the colony morphotypes. Among those, blaL1 and blaL2 were transcriptionally the most strongly upregulated genes. Promoter fusions of blaL1 and blaL2 genes indicated that expression of both genes is also subject to high levels of phenotypic heterogeneous expression on a single cell level. Additionally, the comE homologue was found to be differentially expressed in homogenously versus heterogeneously blaL2 expressing cells as identified by RNA-seq analysis. Overexpression of comE in S. maltophilia K279a reduced the level of cells that were in a blaL2-ON mode to 1 % or lower. Taken together, our data provide strong evidence that S. maltophilia K279a populations develop phenotypic heterogeneity in an ampicillin challenged model. This cellular variability is triggered by regulation networks including blaL1, blaL2 and comE.

  7. GENESIS: a French national resource to study the missing heritability of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinilnikova, Olga M; Dondon, Marie-Gabrielle; Eon-Marchais, Séverine; Damiola, Francesca; Barjhoux, Laure; Marcou, Morgane; Verny-Pierre, Carole; Sornin, Valérie; Toulemonde, Lucie; Beauvallet, Juana; Le Gal, Dorothée; Mebirouk, Noura; Belotti, Muriel; Caron, Olivier; Gauthier-Villars, Marion; Coupier, Isabelle; Buecher, Bruno; Lortholary, Alain; Dugast, Catherine; Gesta, Paul; Fricker, Jean-Pierre; Noguès, Catherine; Faivre, Laurence; Luporsi, Elisabeth; Berthet, Pascaline; Delnatte, Capucine; Bonadona, Valérie; Maugard, Christine M; Pujol, Pascal; Lasset, Christine; Longy, Michel; Bignon, Yves-Jean; Adenis, Claude; Venat-Bouvet, Laurence; Demange, Liliane; Dreyfus, Hélène; Frenay, Marc; Gladieff, Laurence; Mortemousque, Isabelle; Audebert-Bellanger, Séverine; Soubrier, Florent; Giraud, Sophie; Lejeune-Dumoulin, Sophie; Chevrier, Annie; Limacher, Jean-Marc; Chiesa, Jean; Fajac, Anne; Floquet, Anne; Eisinger, François; Tinat, Julie; Colas, Chrystelle; Fert-Ferrer, Sandra; Penet, Clotilde; Frebourg, Thierry; Collonge-Rame, Marie-Agnès; Barouk-Simonet, Emmanuelle; Layet, Valérie; Leroux, Dominique; Cohen-Haguenauer, Odile; Prieur, Fabienne; Mouret-Fourme, Emmanuelle; Cornélis, François; Jonveaux, Philippe; Bera, Odile; Cavaciuti, Eve; Tardivon, Anne; Lesueur, Fabienne; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Andrieu, Nadine

    2016-01-12

    Less than 20% of familial breast cancer patients who undergo genetic testing for BRCA1 and BRCA2 carry a pathogenic mutation in one of these two genes. The GENESIS (GENE SISter) study was designed to identify new breast cancer susceptibility genes in women attending cancer genetics clinics and with no BRCA1/2 mutation. The study involved the French national network of family cancer clinics. It was based on enrichment in genetic factors of the recruited population through case selection relying on familial criteria, but also on the consideration of environmental factors and endophenotypes like mammary density or tumor characteristics to assess potential genetic heterogeneity. One of the initial aims of GENESIS was to recruit affected sibpairs. Siblings were eligible when index cases and at least one affected sister were diagnosed with infiltrating mammary or ductal adenocarcinoma, with no BRCA1/2 mutation. In addition, unrelated controls and unaffected sisters were recruited. The enrolment of patients, their relatives and their controls, the collection of the clinical, epidemiological, familial and biological data were centralized by a coordinating center. Inclusion of participants started in February 2007 and ended in December 2013. A total of 1721 index cases, 826 affected sisters, 599 unaffected sisters and 1419 controls were included. 98% of participants completed the epidemiological questionnaire, 97% provided a blood sample, and 76% were able to provide mammograms. Index cases were on average 59 years old at inclusion, were born in 1950, and were 49.7 years of age at breast cancer diagnosis. The mean age at diagnosis of affected sisters was slightly higher (51.4 years). The representativeness of the control group was verified. The size of the study, the availability of biological specimens and the clinical data collection together with the detailed and complete epidemiological questionnaire make this a unique national resource for investigation of the missing

  8. Factors affecting gas migration and contaminant redistribution in heterogeneous porous media subject to electrical resistance heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munholland, Jonah L; Mumford, Kevin G; Kueper, Bernard H

    2016-01-01

    A series of intermediate-scale laboratory experiments were completed in a two-dimensional flow cell to investigate gas production and migration during the application of electrical resistance heating (ERH) for the removal of dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). Experiments consisted of heating water in homogeneous silica sand and heating 270 mL of trichloroethene (TCE) and chloroform (CF) DNAPL pools in heterogeneous silica sands, both under flowing groundwater conditions. Spatial and temporal distributions of temperature were measured using thermocouples and observations of gas production and migration were collected using front-face image capture throughout the experiments. Post-treatment soil samples were collected and analyzed to assess DNAPL removal. Results of experiments performed in homogeneous sand subject to different groundwater flow rates showed that high groundwater velocities can limit subsurface heating rates. In the DNAPL pool experiments, temperatures increased to achieve DNAPL-water co-boiling, creating estimated gas volumes of 131 and 114 L that originated from the TCE and CF pools, respectively. Produced gas migrated vertically, entered a coarse sand lens and subsequently migrated laterally beneath an overlying capillary barrier to outside the heated treatment zone where 31-56% of the original DNAPL condensed back into a DNAPL phase. These findings demonstrate that layered heterogeneity can potentially facilitate the transport of contaminants outside the treatment zone by mobilization and condensation of gas phases during ERH applications. This underscores the need for vapor phase recovery and/or control mechanisms below the water table during application of ERH in heterogeneous porous media during the co-boiling stage, which occurs prior to reaching the boiling point of water. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Descriptive characterization of a Nigerian heterogeneous rabbit population - factors affecting litter traits

    OpenAIRE

    Oseni, S.O.; Ajayi, B.A.

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of female body weight at conception (FWC), season of mating (SM), type of mating (TM) and litter size at birth (LSB) on the litter performance in a heterogeneous Nigerian population of rabbits. Data on 116 litters from 10 bucks and 48 does across three parities were analysed. Reproductive traits evaluated included LSB, number born alive (NBA), litter sizes and weights at 7, 14 and 21 d post-kindling, pre-weaning survival rate (SR) and daily weight gain of kits ...

  10. Kinetically influenced terms for solute transport affected by heterogeneous and homogeneous classical reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahr, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper extends a four-step derivation procedure, previously presented for cases of transport affected by surface reactions, to transport problems involving homogeneous reactions. Derivations for these classes of reactions are used to illustrate the manner in which mathematical differences between reaction classes are reflected in the mathematical derivation procedures required to identify kinetically influenced terms. Simulation results for a case of transport affected by a single solution phase complexation reaction and for a case of transport affected by a precipitation-dissolution reaction are used to demonstrate the nature of departures from equilibrium-controlled transport as well as the use of kinetically influenced terms in determining criteria for the applicability of the local equilibrium assumption. A final derivation for a multireaction problem demonstrates the application of the generalized procedure to a case of transport affected by reactions of several classes. -from Author

  11. Compartmentalized Epidermal Activation of β-Catenin Differentially Affects Lineage Reprogramming and Underlies Tumor Heterogeneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Kretzschmar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wnt/β-catenin activation in adult epidermis can induce new hair follicle formation and tumor development. We used lineage tracing to uncover the relative contribution of different stem cell populations. LGR6+ and LRIG1+ stem cells contributed to ectopic hair follicles formed in the sebaceous gland upon β-catenin activation, whereas LGR5+ cells did not. Lgr6, but not Lrig1 or Lgr5, was expressed in a subpopulation of interfollicular epidermal cells that were competent to form new hair follicles. Oncogenic β-catenin expression in LGR5+ cells led to formation of pilomatricomas, while LRIG1+ cells formed trichoadenomas and LGR6+ cells formed dermatofibromas. Tumor formation was always accompanied by a local increase in dermal fibroblast density and transient extracellular matrix remodeling. However, each tumor had a distinct stromal signature in terms of immune cell infiltrate and expression of CD26 and CD44. We conclude that compartmentalization of epidermal stem cells underlies different responses to β-catenin and skin tumor heterogeneity.

  12. Data and computing intensive applications in GENESI-DR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossu, Roberto; Pacini, Fabrizio; Gonçalves, Pedro; Fusco, Luigi

    2010-05-01

    GENESI-DR (Ground European Network for Earth Science Interoperations - Digital Repositories) is a European Commission (EC)-funded project, kicked-off early 2008 lead by ESA; partners include Space Agencies (DLR, ASI, CNES), both space and no-space data providers such as ENEA (I), Infoterra (UK), K-SAT (N), NILU (N), JRC (EU) and industry as Elsag Datamat (I), CS (F) and TERRADUE (I). GENESI-DR intends to meet the challenge of facilitating "time to science" from different Earth Science disciplines in discovery, access and use (combining, integrating, processing, …) of historical and recent Earth-related data from space, airborne and in-situ sensors, which are archived in large distributed repositories. GENESI-DR provides a framework where data repositories can be easily integrated and users are given a single access point for discovery and access to heterogeneous data and processing resources. Processing services can be easily integrated as well so supporting the users in the analysis of the data. Coupled with high-performance and sizeable computing resources managed by Grid technologies, GENESI-DR provides indeed the necessary flexibility for building a virtual environment that gives transparent, fast, and easy access to data (even heterogeneous and dispersed among different archives), processing services, computing resources, and results. These characteristics make GENESI-DR an ideal platform for processing large amounts of heterogeneous data (e.g., satellite and in-situ data), developing services which require fast production and delivery of results, comparing approaches and fully validating algorithms. Security solutions adopted in GENESI-DR guarantee that only authorized users can access data, processing services and processing resources. GENESI-DR is designed to support the need for an effective exploitation of the large archives. Among the different applications already integrated in GENESI-DR, in this presentation we will describe some results related to

  13. ROV Genesis: Revealing mysteries of the deep

    OpenAIRE

    2017-01-01

    The Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) Genesis is an underwater robot that is deployed internationally from research vessels for deep sea investigations. Genesis is used to film and take samples from eg. deep sea canyons, cold-water coral reefs, carbonate mounds, mud volcanoes, and cold seeps. Also nationally the ROV Genesis is deployed from the RV Simon Stevin to observe ship wrecks, biodiversity and bottom features of the shallow North Sea.

  14. Quantum Mechanics Genesis and Achievements

    CERN Document Server

    Komech, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    The focus of the present work is nonrelativistic and relativistic quantum mechanics with standard applications to the hydrogen atom. The author has aimed at presenting quantum mechanics in a comprehensive yet accessible for mathematicians and other non-physicists. The genesis of quantum mechanics, its applications to basic quantum phenomena, and detailed explanations of the corresponding mathematical methods are presented. The exposition is formalized (whenever possible) on the basis of the coupled Schroedinger, Dirac and Maxwell equations. Aimed at upper graduate and graduate students in mathematical and physical science studies.

  15. The Genesis of Feynman Diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Wuthrich, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    In a detailed reconstruction of the genesis of Feynman diagrams the author reveals that their development was constantly driven by the attempt to resolve fundamental problems concerning the uninterpretable infinities that arose in quantum as well as classical theories of electrodynamic phenomena. Accordingly, as a comparison with the graphical representations that were in use before Feynman diagrams shows, the resulting theory of quantum electrodynamics, featuring Feynman diagrams, differed significantly from earlier versions of the theory in the way in which the relevant phenomena were concep

  16. ABRAHAM IN GALATIANS AND IN GENESIS1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this paper is to focus on the portrayal of Abraham in the letter to the. Galatians and the book of Genesis respectively and to put it in perspective. What are the similarities and differences in the portrayal of Abraham in the Biblical books of Galatians and Genesis respectively? Three promises are made to Abraham ...

  17. Stimulus affectivity of the Danish Word Association Test as measured by response heterogeneity and Rasch scaled number of prolonged reaction times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanouw, Jan

    2006-02-01

    With the purpose of increasing the knowledge of the psychometric properties of the 70-item Danish Word Association Test, data from three samples of non-patients and psychiatric patients (N = 326) were used to provide two measures of affectivity of the stimulus words, response heterogeneity and reaction time prolongation. It was possible to fit an item response theory one-parameter measurement (Rasch) model to the number of reaction time prolongations (> or =3 seconds) for 54 of the stimulus words. Correlation between Rasch-model item parameters and response heterogeneity was high (r = 0.86), while no correlation was found between either of these measures and frequency of the stimulus words in the Danish language. Both measures of stimulus affectivity supported a theoretically based classification of stimulus words as emotional or neutral. Response heterogeneity measures and Rasch measurement item and person parameters for reaction time prolongations are provided.

  18. PROFESSIONALISM: GENESIS AND CATEGORICAL ANALYSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ирина Олеговна Авдеева

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article the theoretical-methodological analysis of the concept of «professional», describes the genesis and key aspects of its content and structure. In addition, this publication discusses some of the approaches to the definition of the studied concepts, including: system (professional it seems as multipart strictly organized education of consciousness and psyche of the individual; professional graphic (from a position of objective (professional description and subjective (mental graph the parties; integrative (as property, process, and status of the person; acmeological (as the dialectical the unity of the personality and activity components; in terms of motivation and operating parties and other Stresses the importance of personal (theoretical knowledge, professional qualities, value orientations, motivational orientation of others and specific features of labour employee (practical skills, professional experience and other, determining the effectiveness of its activities.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-10-12

  19. Genesis of Tuzla salt basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sušić, Amir; Baraković, Amir; Komatina, Snezana

    2017-04-01

    Salt is condition for the survival of the human race, and holds a special place in the exploitation of mineral resources. It is the only mineral raw material used in direct feeding, and therefore has its own specialty. Salt is a crystalline mineral that is found in seawater, as well as in underground areas where it is formed by deposition of salt sediments. Occurrences of salt water near Tuzla and Gornja Tuzla have been known since the time of the Romans as "ad salinas". The name itself connects Bosnia with its richness in salt, because the word barefoot, which is preserved in a north-Albanian dialect, means a place where boiling salted water are obtained. At the time of the Bosnian kings, these regions are named Soli, which is in connection with occurences of saline sources. Geological studies of rock salt in the area of Tuzla basin are practically began after the annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina by the Austro-Hungarian Empire, in the period from 1878 to 1918. Geological field work was conducted K. Paul, H. Hefer, E. Tietze and F. Katzer. Monomineral deposit of rock salt Tetima is made of halite and anhydrite mixed with marl belt, while the bay of salt in Tuzla is polymineral and contains a considerable amount of thenardite (Na2SO4) and rare minerals: nortupit, nahkolit, bradleit, probertit, glauberite and others. Both salt deposits were created as a product of chemical sedimentation in the lower Miocene Badenian sediments. The main objective of this paper is to show the genesis of the deposits and the spatial and genetic connection. In addition, genesis of geological research in the areas of Tuzla basin will be presented.

  20. Genesis / Juta Kivimäe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kivimäe, Juta, 1952-

    2003-01-01

    Poola skulptori Magdalena Schmidt-G̤ra installatsioonid "Genesis I, II" rahvusraamatukogu fuajees ja peanäitusesaalis, kus oli samal ajal eksponeeritud eesti nahakunstnike Luule Maari ja Ruuda Maarandi köitenäitus

  1. Ensemble Prediction of Tropical Cyclone Genesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-23

    an environment with a near bottom vortex (EBV) and an environment with a mid-level vortex (EMV). The genesis time for each model run will be...predictors are further filtered by Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) to obtain prediction models which have optimal combinations of predictors. The...efficiency: Mid-level versus bottom vortex Cloud resolving WRF model is used to investigate the tropical cyclone genesis efficiency in an

  2. Augustine on redemption in Genesis 1�3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward L. Smither

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many theologians, including those concerned with theology of mission, frame the dramaof God�s story and mission (missio Dei through the three major acts of creation, fall andredemption. Others add that the new creation ought to be regarded as a fourth act. Althoughthis framework describes the entire biblical narrative, creation, fall and the hope of redemptionare, of course, quite present in the first three chapters of Genesis. In this article, I endeavouredto engage with the commentaries of the African church father Augustine of Hippo (354�430 CE to grasp his thoughts on redemption in Genesis 1�3. In his Genesis works, Augustinewas primarily concerned with clarifying the doctrine of creation and, relatively speaking, hadfar less to say about redemption. That said, Augustine was, quite interested with Scripture�sstory of redemption in his magnum opus De Civitate Dei [City of God]. Thus, in this article, Iexplored two major questions: firstly, why did Augustine pay so little attention to redemptionin Genesis 1�3? Secondly, how did he articulate and relate redemption in these chapters? Itwas shown that whilst his primary focus was to articulate creation, his thoughts on redemptionwere probably limited some because of the insufficiency of his Old Latin Bible translation andperhaps because of other distractions in ministry. Furthermore, it was argued that Augustine�sdoctrine of redemption was a subset of his discussion on creation � specifically, that the secondAdam (Christ brought new life to God�s image bearers affected by the fall of the first Adam.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: My aim was to establish Augustine�sthoughts on redemption as a point of dialogue for theologians of mission endeavouring toclarify a theology of mission. As most mission theologians do not consult Augustine in theirwork and as most early Christian scholars do not read Augustine missionally, this studyoffered fresh insights for

  3. Aspekte van versoening in die boek Genesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanie (S.D. Snyman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aspects of reconciliation in the book of Genesis. This contribution investigates the notion of reconciliation in the book of Genesis. The problem addressed is how the phenomenon of reconciliation between human beings happens in spite of, or perhaps because of, alienation between people. Research on the topic highlights three episodes in the book, Abraham and Lot (Gn 13, Jacob and Esau (Gn 33, and Joseph and his brothers (Gn 37–50. This contribution adds a fourth episode of reconciliation that is between Jacob and Laban (Gn 31. In the end, a few conclusions are drawn and applied to current society.

  4. Origins, transformations and key foci in instrumental genesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamborg, Andreas Lindenskov

    This paper investigates the origins of the instrumental genesis and instrumental orchestrations frameworks. This is done by reviewing instrumented activity situations, instrumental genesis, and instrumental orchestrations with the purpose of identifying their epistemological assumptions, what the...... and instrumental orchestrations have potential shortcomings since the technologies that currently exist in school contexts are rather different from the technologies instrumental genesis was originally developed to study....

  5. Origins, transformations and key foci in instrumental genesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamborg, Andreas Lindenskov

    This paper investigates the origins of the instrumental genesis and instrumental orchestrations frameworks. This is done by reviewing instrumented activity situations, instrumental genesis, and instrumental orchestrations with the purpose of identifying their epistemological assumptions, what the...... and instrumental orchestrations have potential shortcomings, since the technologies that currently exist in school contexts are rather different from the technologies instrumental genesis was originally developed to study....

  6. Contemporary African Relevance of the Genesis Creation Myth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The book of Genesis contains two creation myths which have corollaries in the Igbo creation myth, as in other ethnic groups in Africa. This is particularly in the area of sanctity of life. The first Genesis creation mythexplicitly states that man was created in the image (Hebrew צֶלֶם ) of God, and after His likeness, (Genesis 1: ...

  7. Understanding heterogeneity in borderline personality disorder: differences in affective reactivity explained by the traits of dependency and self-criticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopala-Sibley, Daniel C; Zuroff, David C; Russell, Jennifer J; Moskowitz, D S; Paris, Joel

    2012-08-01

    This study examined whether the personality traits of self-criticism and dependency respectively moderated the effects of perceived inferiority and emotional insecurity on negative affect during interpersonal interactions in individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD). A sample of 38 patients with BPD and matched community comparison participants completed event-contingent record forms after each significant interaction for a 20-day period. Multilevel models showed that, controlling for baseline levels of depressive symptoms and neuroticism, as well as lagged negative affect, event-level elevations in perceived inferiority and emotional insecurity were related to more negative affect in both groups. Event-level perceived inferiority was more strongly associated with negative affect in patients with BPD who reported higher levels of self-criticism, while event-level perceived emotional insecurity was more strongly associated with negative affect in patients with BPD who reported higher levels of dependency. No significant interactions emerged for the comparison group. These findings further our understanding of differences among patients with BPD and support the application of personality-vulnerability or diathesis-stress models in predicting negative affect in BPD. Results have implications for the design of therapies for patients with BPD. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. Taking an Instrumental Genesis Lens: New Insights into Collaborative Mobile Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerratto Pargman, Teresa; Nouri, Jalal; Milrad, Marcelo

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we argue that in order to gain a deeper understanding of collaborative mobile learning in schools, it is important to know not only how mobile devices affect collaborative learning but also how collaborative learning emerges and is mediated by these devices. We develop our argument by applying the instrumental genesis theory and the…

  9. Interactive Storytelling: From the Book of Genesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Keith

    2004-01-01

    Keith Park, advisory teacher for Sense (the National Deafblind Rubella Association) in Greenwich and Lewisham, London, has written about his approach to interactive storytelling for BJSE before. This article describes a series of poetry workshops based on chapters 37 to 45 of the Book of Genesis (the story of Joseph and his family) using the text…

  10. Finding the Genesis for a Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caroll, Joyce Armstrong

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a prewriting heuristics strategy that can help students find the genesis of their thesis. The 3 functions of the heuristic procedure are that it aids in retrieving relevant information stored in the mind; draws attention to important information that can be further researched or accessed; and prepares the mind for the…

  11. The Genesis of Quanta: 1890–1910

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 13; Issue 2. The Genesis of Quanta: 1890-1910. Manoj K Harbola. General Article Volume 13 Issue 2 February 2008 pp 134-171. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/013/02/0134-0171. Keywords.

  12. 76 FR 54454 - Issuance of Loan Guarantee to Genesis Solar, LLC, for the Genesis Solar Energy Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    ... Genesis Solar, LLC, for construction and startup of the Genesis Solar Energy Project (GSEP), a 250... to support the financing of the GSEP. NEPA Review BLM was the lead Federal agency in the preparation... Genesis Solar, LLC for $800 million to support construction and startup of the GSEP. Accordingly, the DOE...

  13. The plant host can affect the encapsidation of brome mosaic virus (BMV) RNA: BMV virions are surprisingly heterogeneous.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Peng; Vaughan, Robert C; Tragesser, Brady; Hoover, Haley; Kao, C Cheng

    2014-03-06

    Brome mosaic virus (BMV) packages its genomic and subgenomic RNAs into three separate viral particles. BMV purified from barley, wheat, and tobacco have distinct relative abundances of the encapsidated RNAs. We seek to identify the basis for the host-dependent differences in viral RNA encapsidation. Sequencing of the viral RNAs revealed recombination events in the 3' untranslated region of RNA1 of BMV purified from barley and wheat, but not from tobacco. However, the relative amounts of the BMV RNAs that accumulated in barley and wheat are similar and RNA accumulation is not sufficient to account for the difference in RNA encapsidation. Virions purified from barley and wheat were found to differ in their isoelectric points, resistance to proteolysis, and contacts between the capsid residues and the RNA. Mass spectrometric analyses revealed that virions from the three hosts had different post-translational modifications that should impact the physiochemical properties of the virions. Another major source of variation in RNA encapsidation was due to the purification of BMV particles to homogeneity. Highly enriched BMV present in lysates had a surprising range of sizes, buoyant densities, and distinct relative amounts of encapsidated RNAs. These results show that the encapsidated BMV RNAs reflect a combination of host effects on the physiochemical properties of the viral capsids and the enrichment of a subset of virions. The previously unexpected heterogeneity in BMV should influence the timing of the infection and also the host innate immune responses. © 2013.

  14. The emergence of "us and them" in 80 lines of code: modeling group genesis in homogeneous populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Kurt; Rand, David G; Ert, Eyal; Lewis, Kevin; Hershman, Steve; Norton, Michael I

    2014-04-01

    Psychological explanations of group genesis often require population heterogeneity in identity or other characteristics, whether deep (e.g., religion) or superficial (e.g., eye color). We used agent-based models to explore group genesis in homogeneous populations and found robust group formation with just two basic principles: reciprocity and transitivity. These emergent groups demonstrated in-group cooperation and out-group defection, even though agents lacked common identity. Group formation increased individual payoffs, and group number and size were robust to varying levels of reciprocity and transitivity. Increasing population size increased group size more than group number, and manipulating baseline trust in a population had predictable effects on group genesis. An interactive demonstration of the parameter space and source code for implementing the model are available online.

  15. How does layered heterogeneity affect the ability of subsurface dams to clean up coastal aquifers contaminated with seawater intrusion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdoulhalik, Antoifi; Ahmed, Ashraf A.

    2017-10-01

    The main purpose of this work was to examine how aquifer layering impacts the ability of subsurface dams to retain seawater intrusion (SWI) and to clean up contaminated coastal aquifers using both experimental and numerical techniques. Four different layering configurations were investigated, including a homogeneous case (case H), and three different layered cases where a low permeability layer was set at the top of the aquifer (case LH), at the middle part of the aquifer as interlayer (case HLH), and at the lower part of the aquifer (case HL). The subsurface dam was able to retain the saltwater wedge associated with a drop of the hydraulic gradient from 0.0158 down to 0.0095 in all the cases, thereby achieving up to 78% reduction in the saltwater toe length. In cases LH and HLH, the start of the saltwater spillage was delayed compared to the homogeneous case, and the time taken for the freshwater zone to be fully contaminated (post-spillage) was twice and three times longer, respectively. By contrast, the existence of a low K layer at the bottom of the aquifer (case HL) considerably weakened the ability of dams to retain the intrusion, allowing for quicker saltwater spillage past the wall. The natural cleanup of SWI-contaminated coastal aquifers was, for the first time, evidenced in heterogeneous settings. Depending on the stratification pattern, the presence of stratified layers however prolonged the cleanup time to various degrees, compared to the homogeneous scenario, particularly in case HL, where the cleanup time was nearly 50% longer.

  16. Modelling the Genesis and Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelholt, Morten; Damsgaard, Jan

    Over the last three decades, EU regulation of the internal market has become highly pervasive, affecting practically all the domains of European citizens’ lives. Many studies have focused on understanding the process and causes of regulatory reform. However, these have typically been small-scale ...

  17. Slip rate and tremor genesis in Cascadia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wech, Aaron G.; Bartlow, Noel M.

    2014-01-01

    At many plate boundaries, conditions in the transition zone between seismogenic and stable slip produce slow earthquakes. In the Cascadia subduction zone, these events are consistently observed as slow, aseismic slip on the plate interface accompanied by persistent tectonic tremor. However, not all slow slip at other plate boundaries coincides spatially and temporally with tremor, leaving the physics of tremor genesis poorly understood. Here we analyze seismic, geodetic, and strainmeter data in Cascadia to observe for the first time a large, tremor-generating slow earthquake change from tremor-genic to silent and back again. The tremor falls silent at reduced slip speeds when the migrating slip front pauses as it loads the stronger adjacent fault segment to failure. The finding suggests that rheology and slip-speed-regulated stressing rate control tremor genesis, and the same section of fault can slip both with and without detectable tremor, limiting tremor's use as a proxy for slip.

  18. Genesis of the Large Hadron Collider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Chris Llewellyn

    2015-01-13

    This paper describes the scientific, technical and political genesis of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It begins with an outline of the early history of the LHC, from first thoughts and accelerator and detector developments that underwrote the project, through the first studies of the LHC and its scientific potential and the genesis of the experimental programme, to the presentation of the proposal to build the LHC to the CERN Council in December 1993. The events that led to the proposal to build the LHC in two stages, which was approved in December 1994, are then described. Next, the role of non-Member State contributions and of the agreement that CERN could take loans, which allowed single stage construction to be approved in December 1996, despite a cut in the Members' contributions, are explained. The paper concludes by identifying points of potential relevance for the approval of possible future large particle physics projects.

  19. MRI analyses show that kinesio taping affects much more than just the targeted superficial tissues and causes heterogeneous deformations within the whole limb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamuk, Uluç; Yucesoy, Can A

    2015-12-16

    Kinesio taping (KT) is widely used in the treatment of sports injuries and various neuro-musculoskeletal disorders. However, it is considered as selectively effective on targeted tissues and its mechanical effects have not been quantified objectively. Ascribed to continuity of muscular and connective tissues, mechanical loading imposed can have widespread heterogeneous effects. The aim was to characterize the mechanical effects of KT objectively and to test the hypotheses that KT causes acutely, local deformations not necessarily (I) in agreement with tape adhering direction and (II) limited to the directly targeted tissues. High-resolution 3D magnetic resonance image sets were acquired in healthy human subjects (n=5) prior to and acutely after KT application over the skin along m. tibialis anterior (TA). Hip, knee and ankle angles were kept constant. Demons image registration algorithm was used to calculate local tissue deformations within the lower leg, in vivo. Mean peak tissue strains were significantly higher than strain artifacts. Only KT-to-TA region in part shows local deformations in agreement with tape adhering direction whereas, superficial skin, the rest of KT-to-TA and TA regions show deformations (up to 51.5% length change) in other directions. Non-targeted tissues also show sizable heterogeneous deformations, but in smaller amplitudes. Inter-subject variability is notable. Magnetic resonance imaging analyses allow for a detailed assessment of local tissue deformation occurring acutely after KT application. The findings confirm our hypotheses and characterize how KT affects the underlying tissues, both immediately targeted and distant. This allows revealing mechanisms that can affect clinical outcomes of KT objectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Anxiety and affective disorder comorbidity related to serotonin and other neurotransmitter systems: obsessive–compulsive disorder as an example of overlapping clinical and genetic heterogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Dennis L.; Moya, Pablo R.; Fox, Meredith A.; Rubenstein, Liza M.; Wendland, Jens R.; Timpano, Kiara R.

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) have also been shown to have comorbid lifetime diagnoses of major depressive disorder (MDD; rates greater than 70%), bipolar disorder (rates greater than 10%) and other anxiety disorders (e.g. panic disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)). In addition, overlap exists in some common genetic variants (e.g. the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4), the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene), and rare variants in genes/chromosomal abnormalities (e.g. the 22q11 microdeletion syndrome) found across the affective/anxiety disorder spectrums. OCD has been proposed as a possible independent entity for DSM-5, but by others thought best retained as an anxiety disorder subtype (its current designation in DSM-IV), and yet by others considered best in the affective disorder spectrum. This review focuses on OCD, a well-studied but still puzzling heterogeneous disorder, regarding alterations in serotonergic, dopaminergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission in addition to other systems involved, and how related genes may be involved in the comorbidity of anxiety and affective disorders. OCD resembles disorders such as depression, in which gene × gene interactions, gene × environment interactions and stress elements coalesce to yield OC symptoms and, in some individuals, full-blown OCD with multiple comorbid disorders. PMID:23440468

  1. Quantifying how fine-grained environmental heterogeneity and genetic variation affect demography in an annual plant population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latimer, Andrew M; Jacobs, Brooke S

    2012-11-01

    The ability of plant species to colonize new habitats and persist in changing environments depends on their ability to respond plastically to environmental variation and on the presence of genetic variation, thus allowing adaptation to new conditions. For invasive species in particular, the relationship between phenotypic trait expression, demography, and the quantitative genetic variation that is available to respond to selection are likely to be important determinants of the successful establishment and persistence of populations. However, the magnitude and sources of individual demographic variation in exotic plant populations remain poorly understood. How important is plasticity versus adaptability in populations of invasive species? Among environmental factors, is temperature, soil nutrients, or competition most influential, and at what scales and life stages do they affect the plants? To investigate these questions we planted seeds of the exotic annual plant Erodium brachycarpum into typical pasture habitat in a spatially nested design. Seeds were drawn from 30 inbred lines to enable quantification of genetic effects. Despite a positive population growth rate, a few plants (0.1 %) produced >50 % of the seeds, suggesting a low effective population size. Emergence and early growth varied by genotype, but as in previous studies on native plants, environmental effects greatly exceeded genetic effects, and survival was unrelated to genotype. Environmental influences shifted from microscale soil compaction and litter depth at emergence through to larger-scale soil nutrient gradients during growth and to competition during later survival and seed production. Temperature had no effect. Most demographic rates were positively correlated, but emergence was negatively correlated with other rates.

  2. Status of Genesis A 5 MA Programmable Pulsed Power Driver

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    parasitics through the dielectric are lumped at the nodes in Figure 8. Loads are represented by RL circuits and the modules by RLC circuits with a...adder, employing simple two-stage Marx generators configured in parallel to drive a low inductance disk transmission line. Genesis makes use of...Protogen demonstration test bed. II. GENESIS Genesis includes two hundred and forty, 200 kV, 60 kA modules connected in parallel through a

  3. Overexpression of an Arabidopsis heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein gene, AtRNP1, affects plant growth and reduces plant tolerance to drought and salt stresses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhenyu, E-mail: wzy72609@163.com [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Cell Activities and Stress Adaptations, School of Life Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730030 (China); Zhao, Xiuyang, E-mail: xiuzh@psb.vib-ugent.be [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Cell Activities and Stress Adaptations, School of Life Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730030 (China); Wang, Bing, E-mail: wangbing@ibcas.ac.cn [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Cell Activities and Stress Adaptations, School of Life Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730030 (China); Liu, Erlong, E-mail: liuel14@lzu.edu.cn [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Cell Activities and Stress Adaptations, School of Life Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730030 (China); Chen, Ni, E-mail: 63710156@qq.com [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Cell Activities and Stress Adaptations, School of Life Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730030 (China); Zhang, Wei, E-mail: wzhang1216@yahoo.com [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Bio-Energy Crops, School of Life Sciences, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Liu, Heng, E-mail: hengliu@lzu.edu.cn [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Cell Activities and Stress Adaptations, School of Life Sciences, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730030 (China)

    2016-04-01

    Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) participate in diverse regulations of plant growth and environmental stress responses. In this work, an Arabidopsis hnRNP of unknown function, AtRNP1, was investigated. We found that AtRNP1 gene is highly expressed in rosette and cauline leaves, and slightly induced under drought, salt, osmotic and ABA stresses. AtRNP1 protein is localized to both the nucleus and cytoplasm. We performed homologous overexpression of AtRNP1 and found that the transgenic plants showed shortened root length and plant height, and accelerated flowering. In addition, the transgenic plants also showed reduced tolerance to drought, salt, osmotic and ABA stresses. Further studies revealed that under both normal and stress conditions, the proline contents in the transgenic plants are markedly decreased, associated with reduced expression levels of a proline synthase gene and several stress-responsive genes. These results suggested that the overexpression of AtRNP1 negatively affects plant growth and abiotic stress tolerance. - Highlights: • AtRNP1 is a widely expressed gene and its expression is slightly induced under abiotic stresses. • AtRNP1 protein is localized to both the nucleus and cytoplasm. • Overexpression of AtRNP1 affects plant growth. • Overexpression of AtRNP1 reduces plant tolerance to drought and salt stresses. • AtRNP1 overexpression plants show decreased proline accumulation and stress-responsive gene expressions.

  4. Genetic heterogeneity of retinitis pigmentosa

    OpenAIRE

    Hartono, Hartono

    2015-01-01

    Genetic heterogeneity is a phenomenon in which a genetic disease can be transmitted by several modes of inheritance. The understanding of genetic heterogeneity is important in giving genetic counselling.The presence of genetic heterogeneity can be explained by the existence of:1.different mutant alleles at a single locus, and2.mutant alleles at different loci affecting the same enzyme or protein, or affecting different enzymes or proteins.To have an overall understanding of genetic heterogene...

  5. GENESI-DR: Discovery, Access and on-Demand Processing in Federated Repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossu, Roberto; Pacini, Fabrizio; Parrini, Andrea; Santi, Eliana Li; Fusco, Luigi

    2010-05-01

    GENESI-DR (Ground European Network for Earth Science Interoperations - Digital Repositories) is a European Commission (EC)-funded project, kicked-off early 2008 lead by ESA; partners include Space Agencies (DLR, ASI, CNES), both space and no-space data providers such as ENEA (I), Infoterra (UK), K-SAT (N), NILU (N), JRC (EU) and industry as Elsag Datamat (I), CS (F) and TERRADUE (I). GENESI-DR intends to meet the challenge of facilitating "time to science" from different Earth Science disciplines in discovery, access and use (combining, integrating, processing, …) of historical and recent Earth-related data from space, airborne and in-situ sensors, which are archived in large distributed repositories. In fact, a common dedicated infrastructure such as the GENESI-DR one permits the Earth Science communities to derive objective information and to share knowledge in all environmental sensitive domains over a continuum of time and a variety of geographical scales so addressing urgent challenges such as Global Change. GENESI-DR federates data, information and knowledge for the management of our fragile planet in line with one of the major goals of the many international environmental programmes such as GMES, GEO/GEOSS. As of today, 12 different Digital Repositories hosting more than 60 heterogeneous dataset series are federated in GENESI-DR. Series include satellite data, in situ data, images acquired by airborne sensors, digital elevation models and model outputs. ESA has started providing access to: Category-1 data systematically available on Internet; level 3 data (e.g., GlobCover map, MERIS Global Vegetation Index); ASAR products available in ESA Virtual Archive and related to the Supersites initiatives. In all cases, existing data policies and security constraints are fully respected. GENESI-DR also gives access to Grid and Cloud computing resources allowing authorized users to run a number of different processing services on the available data. The GENESI

  6. Isaac multiplex: Genesis 22 in a new historical representation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, a new interpretation of the Genesis 22:1-19 account is offered. Based on the new view of biblical historiography as anecdotal (Frykenberg), and drawing on the author's own recent studies on the historical problems related to, and historicallysensitive narratological interpretative possibilities of, this Genesis

  7. Dominating Roles of Ice Sheets and Insolation in Variation of Tropical Cyclone Genesis Potential Over the North Atlantic During the Last 21,000 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Qing; Zhang, Zhongshi

    2017-10-01

    To advance our knowledge on tropical cyclone (TC)'s sensitivity to various external forcings, we investigate evolution of TC genesis potential over the North Atlantic during the last 21,000 years that experienced more varied forcings than present-day using transient simulations. Abrupt large amplitude of fluctuations in genesis potential during the studied period was dominated by meltwater discharge, whereas insolation controlled the long-term trend. Increased (decreased) meltwater discharge from Northern Hemisphere ice sheets leads to detrimental (conducive) conditions for genesis via altering the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation and hence three-dimensional temperature structure and Hadley circulation. This effect is larger than the orographic effect of retreated ice sheets that favors TC formation. Decreasing (increasing) insolation broadly results in more (less) favorable conditions for genesis arising from larger (smaller) local vertical temperature contrast and stronger (weaker) meridional circulation. Our study highlights potential changes of ice sheets and insolation in affecting future long-term TC activity.

  8. How mantle heterogeneity can affect geochemistry of magmas and their styles of emplacement: a fascinating tale revealed by Etna alkaline lavas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viccaro, Marco; Zuccarello, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    Geochemical investigations of Mt. Etna magmas have led to notable findings on the nature of compositional heterogeneity of the mantle source beneath the volcano. Some of the observed features explain the short-term geochemical variability of volcanic rocks erupted at Mt. Etna in recent times, which are characterized by increase of LILE, 87Sr/86Sr and decrease of 143Nd/144Nd, 206Pb/204Pb,176Hf/177Hf. This compositional behavior has not attributed exclusively to differentiation processes such as fractional crystallization, crustal assimilation and effects of volatile flushing. In this study, based on some geochemical similarities of the Etnean and Hyblean alkaline magmas, we have modeled partial melting of a composite source constituted by two rock types, inferred by various observations performed on some Hyblean xenoliths, namely: a spinel lherzolite bearing phlogopite-amphibole and a garnet pyroxenite in form of veins intruded into lherzolite that is interpreted as metasomatic high-temperature fluids (silicate melts) crystallized at mantle conditions. Partial melting modeling has been applied to each rock type and the resulting primary liquids have been then mixed in various proportions. The concentrations of major and trace elements along with the water obtained from the modeling are remarkably comparable with those of Etnean melts re-equilibrated at primary conditions. Different proportions of spinel lherzolite bearing metasomatic phases and garnet pyroxenite can account for the signature of a large spectrum of Etnean alkaline magmas and for their geochemical variability through time. Our study implies that magmas characterized by variable compositions and volatile contents directly inherited from the source can undergo distinct histories of ascent and evolution in the plumbing system at crustal levels, potentially leading to a wide range of eruptive styles. A rather shallow source inferred from the model also excludes the presence of deep mantle structures

  9. Genesis Solar Wind Array Collector Cataloging Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkett, P.J.; Rodriguez, M.C.; Calaway, M.C.; Allton, J.H.

    2009-01-01

    Genesis solar wind array collectors were fractured upon landing hard in Utah in 2004. The fragments were retrieved from the damaged canister, imaged, repackaged and shipped to the Johnson Space Center curatorial facility [1]. As of January 2009, the collection consists of 3460 samples. Of these, 442 are comprised into "multiple" sample groupings, either affixed to adhesive paper (177) or collected in jars (17), culture trays (87), or sets of polystyrene vials (161). A focused characterization task was initiated in May 2008 to document the largest samples in the collection. The task consisted of two goals: to document sapphire based fragments greater than 2 cm in one dimension, and to document silicon based fragments greater than 1 cm in one direction.

  10. The Genesis Solar Wind Sample Return Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiens, Roger C.; Burnett, Donald S.; Neugebauer, Marcia; Sasaki, Chester; Sevilla, Donald; Stansbery, Eileen; Clark, Ben; Smith, Nick; Oldham, Lloyd

    1990-01-01

    The Genesis spacecraft was launched on August 8 from Cape Canaveral on a journey to become the first spacecraft to return from interplanetary space. The fifth in NASA's line of low-cost Discovery-class missions, its goal is to collect samples of solar wind and return them to Earth for detailed isotopic and elemental analysis. The spacecraft is to collect solar wind for over two years, while circling the L1 point 1.5 million km sunward of the earth, before heading back for a capsule-style re-entry in September, 2004. After parachute deployment, a mid-air helicopter recovery will be used to avoid a hard landing. The mission has been in the planning stages for over ten years. Its cost, including development, mission operations, and sample analysis, is approximately $209M. The Genesis science team, headed by principal investigator Donald Burnett of Caltech, consists of approximately 20 co-investigators from universities and science centers around the country and internationally. The spacecraft consists of a relatively flat spacecraft bus containing most of the subsystem components, situated below a sample return capsule (SRC) which holds the solar-wind collection substrates and an electrostatic solar wind concentrator. Some of the collectors are exposed throughout the collection period, for a sample of bulk solar wind, while others are exposed only to certain solar wind regimes, or types of flow. Ion and electron spectrometers feed raw data to the spacecraft control and data-handling (C&DH) unit, which determines ion moments and electron flux geometries in real time. An algorithm is used to robotically decide between interstream (IS), coronal hole (CH), and coronal mass ejection (CME) regimes, and to control deployment of the proper arrays to sample these wind regimes independently. This is the first time such a solar-wind decision algorithm has been used on board a spacecraft.

  11. Does Land-Surface Heterogeneity Affect the Evolution of Hurricanes after their Landfall in the Eastern US - A Numerical Study with the Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Model (OLAM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avissar, R.; Walko, R. L.

    2006-12-01

    simulate weather events such as hurricanes, which require a high- resolution grid in the region of the hurricane to properly simulate the eye of the storm but also need to interact with the large-scale dynamics, which they significantly affect and are affected by through complex interactions. Here, we investigate with OLAM the impact of land-surface heterogeneity on the evolution of hurricanes after their landfall in the eastern US. We use Hurricane Frances as a case study.

  12. GENESIS: GPS Environmental and Earth Science Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajj, George

    1999-01-01

    This presentation reviews the GPS ENvironmental and Earth Science Information System (GENESIS). The objectives of GENESIS are outlined (1) Data Archiving, searching and distribution for science data products derived from Space borne TurboRogue Space Receivers for GPS science and other ground based GPS receivers, (2) Data browsing using integrated visualization tools, (3) Interactive web/java-based data search and retrieval, (4) Data subscription service, (5) Data migration from existing GPS archived data, (6) On-line help and documentation, and (7) participation in the WP-ESIP federation. The presentation reviews the products and services of Genesis, and the technology behind the system.

  13. A 15N-poor isotopic composition for the solar system as shown by Genesis solar wind samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marty, B; Chaussidon, M; Wiens, R C; Jurewicz, A J G; Burnett, D S

    2011-06-24

    The Genesis mission sampled solar wind ions to document the elemental and isotopic compositions of the Sun and, by inference, of the protosolar nebula. Nitrogen was a key target element because the extent and origin of its isotopic variations in solar system materials remain unknown. Isotopic analysis of a Genesis Solar Wind Concentrator target material shows that implanted solar wind nitrogen has a (15)N/(14)N ratio of 2.18 ± 0.02 × 10(-3) (that is, ≈40% poorer in (15)N relative to terrestrial atmosphere). The (15)N/(14)N ratio of the protosolar nebula was 2.27 ± 0.03 × 10(-3), which is the lowest (15)N/(14)N ratio known for solar system objects. This result demonstrates the extreme nitrogen isotopic heterogeneity of the nascent solar system and accounts for the (15)N-depleted components observed in solar system reservoirs.

  14. Genesis of early Cambrian phosphorite of Krol Belt, Lesser Himalaya

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mazumdar, A.; Banerjee, D.M.

    for the modern Peru–Chile shelf–slope phosphorite is inadequate to explain the genesis of Cambrian phosphorite. Physicochemical characters of the Cambrian phosphorites demand a shallow marine phosphorous source. Based on the available early Cambrian oceanographic...

  15. 192 RE-INTERPRETING GENESIS 34 IN THE LIGHT OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    gives the causes of religious violence in both Israelite and. Nigerian societies. ... another, respect for sanctity of human life, forgiveness and ... Indeed, the level of violence and atrocities being perpetuated ... causes of violence in Genesis 34.

  16. [Papillomavirus in the genesis of oral leukoplakia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babichenko, I I; Rabinovich, O F; Ivina, A A; Rabinovich, I M; Togonidze, A A

    2014-01-01

    Immunohistochemical examination of the proliferative activity of cells was made investigating the expression of Ki-67 protein and the location of proteins associated with epithelial cell papillomavirus infection involving P16(INK4a) and HPV16 proteins in different cell areas of the intact mucosa, in leukoplakia with the signs of hyperplasia and dysplasia, and in squamous cell carcinoma. There was a positive correlation between the proliferative activity of cells in the parabasal cell areas and the expression of P16(INK4a) protein in oral leukoplakia with the signs of hyperplasia (r(s)=0.397; p=0.018). In oral leukoplakia with dysplastic changes, there was a positive correlation between the proliferation of cells in the parabasal and prickle cell layers and the location of HPV type 16 antigens (r(s)=0.515; p=0.041 and r(s)=0.651; p=0.006). Detection of papillomavirus infection in leukoplakia can solve not only the problems with its genesis, but this is also a morphological basis for the effective prevention and treatment of this common oral mucosal disease.

  17. Flow heterogeneity in reservoir rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosman, A.; Simon, R.

    1975-01-01

    A study by Chevron Oil Field Research Co. shows that microscopic flow heterogeneity values are essential for interpreting laboratory displacement data and properly evaluating field displacement projects. Chevron discusses microscopic flow heterogeneity in reservoir rocks: a measuring method, results of some measurements, and several applications to reservoir engineering problems. Heterogeneity is expressed in terms of both breakthrough recovery and the Dykstra-Parsons permeability variation. Microscopic flow heterogeneity in a reservoir rock is related to pore size, pore shape, and location of the different pore sizes that determine flow paths of various permeabilities. This flow heterogeneity affects secondary recovery displacement efficiency, residual oil and water saturations, and capillary pressure measurements.

  18. GENESI-DR - A single access point to Earth Science data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossu, R.; Goncalves, P.; Pacini, F.

    2009-04-01

    The amount of information being generated about our planet is increasing at an exponential rate, but it must be easily accessible in order to apply it to the global needs relating to the state of the Earth. Currently, information about the state of the Earth, relevant services, analysis results, applications and tools are accessible in a very scattered and uncoordinated way, often through individual initiatives from Earth Observation mission operators, scientific institutes dealing with ground measurements, service companies, data catalogues, etc. A dedicated infrastructure providing transparent access to all this will support Earth Science communities by allowing them to easily and quickly derive objective information and share knowledge based on all environmentally sensitive domains. The use of high-speed networks (GÉANT) and the experimentation of new technologies, like BitTorrent, will also contribute to better services for the Earth Science communities. GENESI-DR (Ground European Network for Earth Science Interoperations - Digital Repositories), an ESA-led, European Commission (EC)-funded two-year project, is taking the lead in providing reliable, easy, long-term access to Earth Science data via the Internet. This project will allow scientists from different Earth Science disciplines located across Europe to locate, access, combine and integrate historical and fresh Earth-related data from space, airborne and in-situ sensors archived in large distributed repositories. GENESI-DR builds a federated collection of heterogeneous digital Earth Science repositories to establish a dedicated infrastructure providing transparent access to all this and allowing Earth Science communities to easily and quickly derive objective information and share knowledge based on all environmentally sensitive domains. The federated digital repositories, seen as services and data providers, will share access to their resources (catalogue functions, data access, processing services etc

  19. The genesis solar-wind sample return mission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiens, Roger C [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    oxygen isotope heterogeneity, each theory predicting a different solar isotopic composition and each invoking a different early solar-system process to produce the heterogeneity. Other volatiles such as C, N, and H may also have experienced similar effects, but with only two isotopes it is often impossible to distinguish with these elements between mass-dependent fractionation and other effects such as mixing or mass-independent fractionation. Table 1 provides a summary of the major measurement objectives of the Genesis mission. Determining the solar oxygen isotopic composition is at the top of the list. Volatile element and isotope ratios constitute six of the top seven priorities. A number of disciplines stand to gain from information from the Genesis mission, as will be discussed later. Based on the Apollo solar-wind foil experiment, the Genesis mission was designed to capture solar wind over orders of magnitude longer duration and in a potentially much cleaner environment than the lunar surface.

  20. Heterogeneous Catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, R.

    1989-01-01

    Described is a heterogeneous catalysis course which has elements of materials processing embedded in the classical format of catalytic mechanisms and surface chemistry. A course outline and list of examples of recent review papers written by students are provided. (MVL)

  1. The genesis of low pressure hydrocephalus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akins, Paul T; Guppy, Kern H; Axelrod, Yekaterina V; Chakrabarti, Indro; Silverthorn, James; Williams, Alan R

    2011-12-01

    Low pressure hydrocephalus (LPH) is an uncommon entity. Recognition of this treatable condition is important when clinicians are faced with the paradox of symptomatic hydrocephalus despite low intracranial pressures (ICP). Its etiology remains enigmatic. We identified patients with LPH from the prospective, inpatient neuro-intensive care database over a 4-year period (2006-2010). Nine patients with LPH were identified over a 4-year period. The time from diagnosis of the initial neurosurgical condition to development of LPH varied from 7 days to 5 years. The sub-zero drainage method of Pang and Altschuler was successful in all cases. LPH was accompanied by transependymal edema in five patients despite low ICP. Four patients developed LPH during their initial admission for intracranial bleeding. As patients entered the LPH state, the ICP remained in a normal range yet daily CSF output from the external ventricular drain was reduced. When LPH patients were drained at sub-zero levels, daily CSF output exceeded baseline values for several days and then receded to baseline. Long-term management was achieved with low pressure shunt systems: six programmable shunts; one valveless ventriculoperitoneal shunt; two ventriculopleural shunts. Conditions most commonly associated with LPH are: subarachnoid hemorrhage, chronic hydrocephalus, brain tumors, and chronic CNS infections. Low pressure hydrocephalus is a challenging diagnosis. The genesis of LPH was associated with a drop in EVD output, symptomatic ventriculomegaly, and a remarkable absence of intracranial hypertension. When LPH was treated with the sub-zero method, a 'diuresis' of CSF ensued. These observations support a Darcy's flux of brain interstitial fluid due to altered brain poroelastance; in simpler terms, a boggy brain state.

  2. Genesis 3:15 in Suid-Afrikaanse konteks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul P. Krüger

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Genesis 3:15 is ’n crux interpretum met uiteenlopende verklarings. Hierdie artikel fokus op verklarings wat Suid-Afrikaanse Skrifverklaarders van die teks gee en plaas sodanige verklarings binne verskillende rasionaliteitsmodelle. Verklarings van die teks berus dikwels eerder op keuses vir ’n bepaalde verstaansmodel as op die noukeurige lees van die teks. Genesis 3:15 dui op sigself nie op Jesus Christus nie, maar binne ’n bepaalde rasionaliteitsmodel is dit geldig om die teks as moederbelofte (protevangelium te beskou. Genesis 3:15 in South African context. Genesis 3:15 is a crux interpretum that lends itself to diverse interpretations. The focus of this article is the interpretations of this text offered by South African scholars. The article views these interpretations against the background of various models of rationality. Interpretations of this text are more likely to be determined by the interpreter’s preferred model of understanding, than to be determined by a mere close reading of the text. Genesis 3:15 in itself does not point to Jesus Christ, but within a specifi model of rationality it is valid to regard the text as a foundational promise of salvation (protevangelium.

  3. Genesis 3:15 in Suid-Afrikaanse konteks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul P. Krüger

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Genesis 3:15 is ’n crux interpretum met uiteenlopende verklarings. Hierdie artikel fokus op verklarings wat Suid-Afrikaanse Skrifverklaarders van die teks gee en plaas sodanige verklarings binne verskillende rasionaliteitsmodelle. Verklarings van die teks berus dikwels eerder op keuses vir ’n bepaalde verstaansmodel as op die noukeurige lees van die teks. Genesis 3:15 dui op sigself nie op Jesus Christus nie, maar binne ’n bepaalde rasionaliteitsmodel is dit geldig om die teks as moederbelofte (protevangelium te beskou.Genesis 3:15 in South African context. Genesis 3:15 is a crux interpretum that lends itself to diverse interpretations. The focus of this article is the interpretations of this text offered by South African scholars. The article views these interpretations against the background of various models of rationality. Interpretations of this text are more likely to be determined by the interpreter’s preferred model of understanding, than to be determined by a mere close reading of the text. Genesis 3:15 in itself does not point to Jesus Christ, but within a specifi model of rationality it is valid to regard the text as a foundational promise of salvation (protevangelium.

  4. Heterogeneity in recombinant protein production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schalén, Martin; Johanson, Ted; Lundin, Luisa

    2012-01-01

    contribute to make a population in a fermenter heterogeneous, resulting in cell-to-cell variation in physiological parameters of the microbial culture. Our study aims at investigating how population heterogeneity and recombinant protein production is affected by environmental gradients in bioreactors...... are simulated in small bioreactors and the population heterogeneity can be visualised by analysing single cells with flow cytometry. This can give new insights to cell physiology and recombinant protein production at the industrial scale....

  5. Investigation of Backside Textures for Genesis Solar Wind Silicon Collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, C. P.; Burkett, P. J.; Rodriguez, M. C.; Allton, J. H.

    2014-01-01

    Genesis solar wind collectors were comprised of a suite of 15 types of ultrapure materials. The single crystal, pure silicon collectors were fabricated by two methods: float zone (FZ) and Czochralski (CZ). Because of slight differences in bulk purity and surface cleanliness among the fabrication processes and the specific vendor, it is desirable to know which variety of silicon and identity of vendor, so that appropriate reference materials can be used. The Czochralski method results in a bulk composition with slightly higher oxygen, for example. The CZ silicon array wafers that were Genesis-flown were purchased from MEMC Electronics. Most of the Genesis-flown FZ silicon was purchased from Unisil and cleaned by MEMC, although a few FZ wafers were acquired from International Wafer Service (IWS).

  6. Present status of the endangered limpet Cymbula nigra (Gastropoda, Patellidae in Ceuta: how do substrate heterogeneity and area accessibility affect population structure?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivera–Ingraham, G. A.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Cymbula nigra (Gastropoda, Patellidae is a threatened giant patellid limpet found on the North African coast from Namibia to Algeria. The objective of this study was to estimate the total number of individuals present in Ceuta (Strait of Gibraltar and to determine the effect of certain physical parameters on population structure and abundance. Between 2006 and 2010 we conducted an exhaustive census in the area. Results indicate that Ceuta could be home to 48,473 individuals. The most important populations were recorded on the North Bay, characterized by its Atlantic influence. While for other similar species, such as Patella ferruginea, human accessibility to the area plays an important role in determining the structure of populations, we found that substrate roughness (small scale topographic heterogeneity is the main determining factor in this species. Populations located on medium to low topographic heterogeneity substrates showed higher percentages of medium and large size individuals. However, recruitment rates did not differ between substrata of different roughness. Finally, and through the analysis of the C. nigra populations located on some recently constructed jetties, we obtained interesting new data regarding individual growth rates, thus contributing to our knowledge of the population structure of the species.

  7. Heterogeneous Fenton-like discoloration of methyl orange using Fe3O4/MWCNTs as catalyst: combination mechanism and affecting parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Huan-Yan; Wang, Yuan; Shi, Tian-Nuo; Zhao, Hang; Tan, Qu; Zhao, Bo-Chao; He, Xiu-Lan; Qi, Shu-Yan

    2018-01-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) can act not only as a support for Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs) but also as a coworker with synergistic effect, accordingly improving the heterogeneous Fenton-like efficiency of Fe3O4 NPs. In this study, Fe3O4 NPs were in situ anchored onto MWCNTs by a moderate co-precipitation method and the as-prepared Fe3O4/MWCNTs nanocomposites were employed as the highly efficient Fenton-like catalysts. The analyses of XRD, FTIR, Raman, FESEM, TEM and HRTEM results indicated the formation of Fe3O4 crystals in Fe3O4/MWCNTs nanocomposites prepared at different conditions and the interaction between Fe3O4 NPs and MWCNTs. Over a wide pH range, the surface of modified MWCNTs possessed negative charges. Based on these results, the possible combination mechanism between Fe3O4 NPs and MWCNTs was discussed and proposed. Moreover, the effects of preparation and catalytic conditions on the Fenton-like catalytic efficiency were investigated in order to gain further insight into the heterogeneous Fenton-like reaction catalyzed by Fe3O4/MWCNTs nanocomposites.

  8. Resolving Heterogeneity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hölzenspies, Jurriaan; Dela Cruz, Gelo Victoriano; M Brickman, Joshua

    2016-01-01

    sets of pluripotency and differentiation markers. It has become increasingly apparent that this transcriptional heterogeneity is an important characteristic of ESC culture. By sorting for specific populations of ESCs it is possible to enrich for cells with a capacity to colonize the embryo proper...

  9. Big Bounce Genesis and Possible Experimental Tests: A Brief Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeuk-Kwan Edna Cheung

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We review the recent status of big bounce genesis as a new possibility of using dark matter particles’ mass and interaction cross-section to test the existence of a bounce universe at the early stage of evolution in our currently-observed universe. To study the dark matter production and evolution inside the bounce universe, called big bounce genesis for short, we propose a model independent approach. We shall present the motivation for proposing big bounce, as well as the model independent predictions, which can be tested by dark matter direct searches. A positive finding shall have profound impact on our understanding of the early universe physics.

  10. 76 FR 73748 - Genesis Capital, LLC and Northern Lights Fund Trust; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Genesis Capital, LLC and Northern Lights Fund Trust; Notice of Application November 21, 2011... approval. Applicants: Genesis Capital, LLC (``Genesis Capital'' or the ``Adviser'') and Northern Lights...

  11. Heterogeneous Gossip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Davide; Guerraoui, Rachid; Kermarrec, Anne-Marie; Koldehofe, Boris; Mogensen, Martin; Monod, Maxime; Quéma, Vivien

    Gossip-based information dissemination protocols are considered easy to deploy, scalable and resilient to network dynamics. Load-balancing is inherent in these protocols as the dissemination work is evenly spread among all nodes. Yet, large-scale distributed systems are usually heterogeneous with respect to network capabilities such as bandwidth. In practice, a blind load-balancing strategy might significantly hamper the performance of the gossip dissemination.

  12. 269 megasporo genesis and female fertility in three ' edible triploid ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MEGASPORO GENESIS AND FEMALE FERTILITY IN THREE. ' EDIBLE TRIPLOID BANANAS. BY N. W_ SIMMONDS. [Regional Research Cairo-a, ImPeria/l College of Tropical. ' Agriculture, Trinidad, l'V.1.)* (Received 28 July, 1959). INTRODUCTION. iThe Wild bananas are highly seed fertile and show regular ...

  13. Genesis and Evolution of the Nursing and Midwifery Program

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rwanda Human Resources for Health Program: Genesis and Evolution of the. Nursing and Midwifery Program. Glorieuse Uwizeye1, Anne M Sliney2. 1Ministry of Health, Rwanda. 2Clinton Health Access Initiative, USA. Background. In 2010, the Permanent Secretary of the Rwanda Ministry of Health reached out to select ...

  14. Instrumental Genesis in GeoGebra Based Board Game Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misfeldt, Morten

    2013-01-01

    for teaching skills with GeoGebra, as well as an entrepreneurial attitude towards mathematics. Using the instrumental approach I discuss how open ended transdisciplinary design activities can support instrumental genesis, by considering the extent to which the pupils address mathematical knowledge...

  15. Genesis Solar Wind Collector Cleaning Assessment: 60366 Sample Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goreva, Y. S.; Gonzalez, C. P.; Kuhlman, K. R.; Burnett, D. S.; Woolum, D.; Jurewicz, A. J.; Allton, J. H.; Rodriguez, M. C.; Burkett, P. J.

    2014-01-01

    In order to recognize, localize, characterize and remove particle and thin film surface contamination, a small subset of Genesis mission collector fragments are being subjected to extensive study via various techniques [1-5]. Here we present preliminary results for sample 60336, a Czochralski silicon (Si-CZ) based wafer from the bulk array (B/C).

  16. 192 RE-INTERPRETING GENESIS 34 IN THE LIGHT OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Abstract. Religion plays significant roles in social harmony, yet it also serves as a motivation for violence. In Nigeria, religion has been at the centre of most violent conflicts, thereby gaining notoriety as one of the prime security challenges confronting the country. Genesis 34 is an important chapter in the Old. Testament Bible ...

  17. characteristics, classification, evaluation and genesis of soils of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Regarding the genesis of the soils, they have formed in parent materials of aeolian and colluvial origin deposited in late- Holocene over a surface cut in Kalambaina formation. Majority of the soils are underlain by continuous or discontinuous petroplinthite (ironstone hardpan) developed over the Kalambaina formation in a ...

  18. Gnostic Interpreters (Gnostic Revisions of Genesis Stories), Chapter I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luttikhuizen, Gerard. P.

    2005-01-01

    This book argues that the intellectuals behind early Gnostic revisions of Genesis stories were second-century Christians with an ideological background in Greek-Hellenistic philosophy, who adapted and reinterpreted biblical narrative materials with a view to exposing the inferiority of the

  19. Genesis and Evolution of Interfaces in Product Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donmez, Mehmet; Hsuan, Juliana

    Interfaces are elements of the product architecture that facilitates innovation and enables an organization to leverage the trade-off between cost and performance of its products. Despite the importance of interfaces for organizations, little is known about their genesis and evolution...

  20. Influence of the Soil Genesis on Physical and Mechanical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Marschalko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the influence of soil genesis on the physical-mechanical properties. The presented case study was conducted in the region of the Ostrava Basin where there is a varied genetic composition of the Quaternary geological structure on the underlying Neogeneous sediments which are sediments of analogous granulometry but different genesis. In this study, 7827 soil samples of an eolian, fluvial, glacial, and deluvial origin and their laboratory analyses results were used. The study identified different values in certain cases, mostly in coarser-grained foundation soils, such as sandy loam S4 (MS and clayey sand F4 (CS. The soils of the fluvial origin manifest different values than other genetic types. Next, based on regression analyses, dependence was proved neither on the deposition depth (depth of samples nor from the point of view of the individual foundation soil classes or the genetic types. The contribution of the paper is to point at the influence of genesis on the foundation soil properties so that engineering geologists and geotechnicians pay more attention to the genesis during engineering-geological and geotechnical investigations.

  1. Late Quaternary fine silt deposits of Jammu, NW Himalaya: Genesis ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The deposits termed as 'Potwar loessic silt' comprising sandy silt are essentially of late Quaternary age (75–18 ka) and are re-looked herein from the point of view of genesis and climatic significance. The sorting, skewness and kurtosis parameters of fine silts of Jammu suggest fluvial environment of the deposits wherein the ...

  2. Hermeneutics in identity formation: Paul's use of Genesis in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    2010-08-06

    Aug 6, 2010 ... Hermeneutics in identity formation: Paul's use of. Genesis in Galatians 4. Author: ..... oriented culture and continuous efforts to maintain and elaborate on it, necessarily required ... formation are intertwined, given the need to establish one's own identity through the annihilation of the identity of the Others (cf.

  3. Hemodynamic factors in the genesis of diabetic microangiopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parving, H H; Viberti, G C; Keen, H

    1983-01-01

    There are many candidate mechanisms to explain the phenomenon of delayed microvascular disease in the diabetic. All may play some part in determining the genesis, the evolution or the ultimate degree and form of the angiopathy. General metabolic and humoral factors may provide the pathogenetic...

  4. GENESIS: Agile Generation of Information Management Oriented Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Erasmo Gómez

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The specification for an information system can be clear from the beginning: it must acquire, display, query and modify data, using a database. The main issue is to decide which information to manage. In the case originating this work, information was always evolving, even up to the end of the project. This implies the construction of a new system each time the information is redefined. This article presents Genesis, an agile development infrastructure, and proposes an approach for the immediate construction of required information systems. Experts describe their information needs and queries, and Genesis generates the corresponding application, with the appropriate graphical interfaces and database.La especificación de un sistema de información puede estar clara desde el principio: debe adquirir, desplegar, consultar y modificar datos, usando una base de datos. El asunto es decidir cuál información manejar. En el caso que origina este trabajo, la información evoluciona permanentemente, incluso hasta el final del proyecto. Esto implica la construcción de un nuevo sistema cada vez que se redefine la información. Este artículo presenta Genesis, una infraestructura ágil para la construcción inmediata del sistema de información que sea requerido. Los expertos describen su información y consultas. Genesis produce el software correspondiente, generando las interfaces gráficas y la base de datos apropiados.

  5. Python as a federation tool for GENESIS 3.0.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelis, Hugo; Rodriguez, Armando L; Coop, Allan D; Bower, James M

    2012-01-01

    The GENESIS simulation platform was one of the first broad-scale modeling systems in computational biology to encourage modelers to develop and share model features and components. Supported by a large developer community, it participated in innovative simulator technologies such as benchmarking, parallelization, and declarative model specification and was the first neural simulator to define bindings for the Python scripting language. An important feature of the latest version of GENESIS is that it decomposes into self-contained software components complying with the Computational Biology Initiative federated software architecture. This architecture allows separate scripting bindings to be defined for different necessary components of the simulator, e.g., the mathematical solvers and graphical user interface. Python is a scripting language that provides rich sets of freely available open source libraries. With clean dynamic object-oriented designs, they produce highly readable code and are widely employed in specialized areas of software component integration. We employ a simplified wrapper and interface generator to examine an application programming interface and make it available to a given scripting language. This allows independent software components to be 'glued' together and connected to external libraries and applications from user-defined Python or Perl scripts. We illustrate our approach with three examples of Python scripting. (1) Generate and run a simple single-compartment model neuron connected to a stand-alone mathematical solver. (2) Interface a mathematical solver with GENESIS 3.0 to explore a neuron morphology from either an interactive command-line or graphical user interface. (3) Apply scripting bindings to connect the GENESIS 3.0 simulator to external graphical libraries and an open source three dimensional content creation suite that supports visualization of models based on electron microscopy and their conversion to computational models

  6. Python as a federation tool for GENESIS 3.0.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Cornelis

    Full Text Available The GENESIS simulation platform was one of the first broad-scale modeling systems in computational biology to encourage modelers to develop and share model features and components. Supported by a large developer community, it participated in innovative simulator technologies such as benchmarking, parallelization, and declarative model specification and was the first neural simulator to define bindings for the Python scripting language. An important feature of the latest version of GENESIS is that it decomposes into self-contained software components complying with the Computational Biology Initiative federated software architecture. This architecture allows separate scripting bindings to be defined for different necessary components of the simulator, e.g., the mathematical solvers and graphical user interface. Python is a scripting language that provides rich sets of freely available open source libraries. With clean dynamic object-oriented designs, they produce highly readable code and are widely employed in specialized areas of software component integration. We employ a simplified wrapper and interface generator to examine an application programming interface and make it available to a given scripting language. This allows independent software components to be 'glued' together and connected to external libraries and applications from user-defined Python or Perl scripts. We illustrate our approach with three examples of Python scripting. (1 Generate and run a simple single-compartment model neuron connected to a stand-alone mathematical solver. (2 Interface a mathematical solver with GENESIS 3.0 to explore a neuron morphology from either an interactive command-line or graphical user interface. (3 Apply scripting bindings to connect the GENESIS 3.0 simulator to external graphical libraries and an open source three dimensional content creation suite that supports visualization of models based on electron microscopy and their conversion to

  7. EuroGEOSS/GENESIS ``e-Habitat'' AIP-3 Use Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzetti, P.; Dubois, G.; Santoro, M.; Peedell, S.; de Longueville, B.; Nativi, S.; Craglia, M.

    2010-12-01

    Natural ecosystems are in rapid decline. Major habitats are disappearing at a speed never observed before. The current rate of species extinction is several orders of magnitude higher than the background rate from the fossil record. Protected Areas (PAs) and Protected Area Systems are designed to conserve natural and cultural resources, to maintain biodiversity (ecosystems, species, genes) and ecosystem services. The scientific challenge of understanding how environmental and climatological factors impact on ecosystems and habitats requires the use of information from different scientific domains. Thus, multidisciplinary interoperability is a crucial requirement for a framework aiming to support scientists. The Group on Earth Observations (or GEO) is coordinating international efforts to build a Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). This emerging public infrastructure is interconnecting a diverse and growing array of instruments and systems for monitoring and forecasting changes in the global environment. This “system of systems” supports multidisciplinary and cross-disciplinary scientific researches. The presented GEOSS-based interoperability framework facilitates the discovery and exploitation of datasets and models from heterogeneous scientific domains and Information Technology services (data sources). The GEO Architecture and Data Committee (ADC) launched the Architecture Implementation Pilot (AIP) Initiative to develop and deploy new processes and infrastructure components for the GEOSS Common Infrastructure (GCI) and the broader GEOSS architecture. The current AIP Phase 3 (AIP-3) aims to increase GEOSS capacity to support several strategic Societal Benefit Areas (SBAs) including: Disaster Management, Health/Air Quality, Biodiversity, Energy, Health/Disease and Water. As to Biodiversity, the EC-funded EuroGEOSS (http://www.eurogeoss.eu) and GENESIS (http://www.genesis-fp7.eu) projects have developed a use scenario called

  8. Interdecadal variation of tropical cyclone genesis and its relationship to the convective activities over the central Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huangfu, Jingliang; Huang, Ronghui; Chen, Wen

    2017-04-01

    Using the outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration archives, this paper analyzes the interdecadal variation of convective activities over the central Pacific (CP) from July to October of 1979-2013 and its impact on tropical cyclone (TC) genesis in the western North Pacific (WNP). Concurrent with the interdecadal decrease of TC genesis, the tropical convection underwent a significant interdecadal change in the late 1990s. Overall, the first leading empirical orthogonal function mode of the tropical OLR during July-October turned from a zonal dipole pattern during 1979-1997 to a tripole pattern during 1998-2013. Concomitant to this change, the boreal part of the Walker circulation shrank westward, with its downdraft branch located over the CP. The downward motion anomalies over the CP increased after the late 1990s, as did the trade easterlies. Consistent with the CP convective activity anomalies, the negative low-level relative vorticity anomalies and upper-level divergence anomalies, positive vertical wind shear anomalies and anomalous abundant water vapor can be observed over the southeastern part of the WNP. Additionally, the tropical depression (TD)-type waves associated with the CP convective activities are significantly different before and after the late 1990s. Before the late 1990s, the off-equatorial TD-type waves could be distinctly observed, with clear transitions located along the WNP monsoon trough. However, these transitions were vague after the late 1990s. Therefore, the convective activities over the CP may have played an important role in affecting the interdecadal change of TC genesis by affecting the genesis of TD-type waves.

  9. Morphological changes associated with the genesis and development of an excitatory glutemergic synapse: An integrated framework model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkateswaran Nagarajan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The genesis of an excitatory synapse has its inception when a dendritic filopodium makes a tactile contact with a presynaptic specialisation (bouton. The subsequent maturation of the synapse takes place via a series of interrelated biochemical and biophysical signalling pathways which controls the actin polymerisation in the presynaptic and the postsynaptic sites. Although individual models of many of these signalling transductions have been proposed, a holistic model integrating the various signalling pathways to the morphological plasticity associated with the genesis and development of synapses has not. In this poster an attempt has been made towards establishing a framework for an integrated model such as the one aforementioned, encompassing several signalling pathways which control the morphology and the efficacy of the synapse. Predominant pathways include those triggered by NMDA and AMPA receptors, Trkb-BDNF, Integrin and Epherin. Also, steps towards a model that elucidates the change in shape of the synapse carried out by zonal actin polymerisation (ZAP governed by the "wastage" of neurotransmitters during exo cum endocytosis processes and the assimilation of the postsynaptic density (PSD and cell adhesion molecules with emphasis on Neurexin-Neuriligin, have been explored. The cannabinoid receptors in the PAZ have extracellular lipophilic domains. Endocannabinoid receptors are triggered by the retrograde signalling cues which negatively affect the cAMP dependent mechanisms. Apart from this, autoreceptors also pilot a feedback mechanism via secondary messengers with Ca 2+ ion concentration and neurotransmitter concentration in the synaptic cleft as its stakeholders. Feedback signals of autoreceptors which functions in accordance to “Lock and Key Mechanism” plays a vital role in fine-tuning the plasticity of the synapse and in controlling the presynaptic release probability by invoking PKA dependent pathways. In a future continuation

  10. Genesis and Classification of Sodic Soils in the Northern Pantanal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Calderari de Oliveira Junior

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The simultaneous occurrence of high levels of exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP and alkalinity in soils imposes restrictions on plant development and affects physical properties such as porosity, bulk density, permeability, and hydraulic conductivity. Although sodic soils are frequent in the flood plain of the São Lourenço River, northern Pantanal, Brazil, few studies focus on their formation and classification, especially with regard to specific processes and detailed classification into lower categorical levels by the different systems available. The aim of this study was to identify the predominant pedogenetic processes occurring in sodic soils of the flood plain of the São Lourenço River to understand their genesis and assess how taxonomic classification systems contemplate the variations in soil properties. Five profiles were selected in sites with different progressive stages of dissection from erosion (P1, P2, P3, P4, and P5. At each site, a pit was dug for morphological description of the profiles and for collecting samples for chemical, particle size, mineralogical, micromorphological, and chronological analyses. Each profile was classified according to the Soil Taxonomy, World Reference Base (WRB, and Brazilian Soil Classification System (SiBCS/Sistema Brasileiro de Classificação de Solos. Argilluviation is the predominant process, with a localized and intense ferrolysis action in the E/Bt transition zones in profile P5. Soils showed signs of lithologic discontinuity. This makes it difficult to distinguish how much of the textural gradient is inherited from fluvial sedimentation processes and how much is the result of pedogenetic processes. In the most advanced stage of alteration, P5 had a paler color, thickening of the E horizon, and an abrupt and irregular transition entering the Bt horizon in the form of a “tongue”. When passing from the most preserved to the most eroded area, ferrolysis becomes more intense in

  11. Decomposition of ethnic heterogeneity on growth

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamura, Eiji

    2012-01-01

    Ethnic heterogeneity influences economic growth through various channels such as efficiency improvement, capital accumulation, and technological progress. However, it is open to discussion exactly how ethnic heterogeneity affects these channels. Hence, this paper attempts to examine the effects of heterogeneity on economic growth using data envelopment analysis. The empirical results of the estimations show that heterogeneity has a negative effect on efficiency improvements. However, heteroge...

  12. Nuts and Bolts - Techniques for Genesis Sample Curation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkett, Patti J.; Rodriquez, M. C.; Allton, J. H.

    2011-01-01

    The Genesis curation staff at NASA Johnson Space Center provides samples and data for analysis to the scientific community, following allocation approval by the Genesis Oversight Committee, a sub-committee of CAPTEM (Curation Analysis Planning Team for Extraterrestrial Materials). We are often asked by investigators within the scientific community how we choose samples to best fit the requirements of the request. Here we will demonstrate our techniques for characterizing samples and satisfying allocation requests. Even with a systematic approach, every allocation is unique. We are also providing updated status of the cataloging and characterization of solar wind collectors as of January 2011. The collection consists of 3721 inventoried samples consisting of a single fragment, or multiple fragments containerized or pressed between post-it notes, jars or vials of various sizes.

  13. Safety analysis of a pool Genesis II irradiator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues Junior, Ary de A. [Universidade Estadual de Maringa, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica

    2011-07-01

    The Genesis II Irradiator manufactured by GRAT{sup *}STAR Inc. (USA) is a category III gamma irradiator in which the sealed source is contained in a water filled storage pool and is shielded permanently, i.e. the material has to move down to the source. Even though the pool is 5.6 m deep, what would happen if the water level lowered? There are a series of safety devices that will avoid this situation and calculations show that the water level has to be very low in order to deliver a significant dose; moreover, only in case a person remains at the border of the pool for a long time this would be risky. In conclusion, it is practically impossible for someone to be exposed to radiation from a Genesis II Irradiator source. (author)

  14. Hepatic Steatosis and Steatohepatitis Is the Inevitability of Mixed Genesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.M. Stepanov

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the etiological and pathogenetic mechanisms of formation steatosis and steatohepatitis of mixed genesis is presented. It is shown that alcohol remains one of the main etiopathogenetic factors in the development of the hepatic steatosis and steatohepatitis, the role of which is observed in 46–65 % patients. There are strong evidence confirming that the obesity and insulin resistance are the independent factors of progression of steatosis and steatohepatitis of alcoholic, non-alcoholic and mixed etiology. The simultaneous influence of several etiological factors leads to the immediate development of steatosis and steatohepatitis in 95 % patients. Many trigger factors can be considered as complementary factors of liver damage of mixed genesis. Common approaches to the diagnosis, treatment, and the main group of drugs for the correction of steatosis and steatohepatitis of mixed origin are presented.

  15. EVALUATION OF BROWN COAL SPONTANEOUS COMBUSTION AND SOURCES GENESIS PROGNOSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlastimil MONI

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article presents summarizing information about the solution of partial part of research problem of prognoses of deposited brown coal spontaneous combustion sources genesis as a part of project TA01020351 – program ALFA. We will gradually describe the results of long term measurements carried out on selected brown coal heaps realized from 2011 to 2013. The attention is devoted to characterization of key parameters. These parameters influence the genesis of combustion. The second problem is the comparison of results of thermal imaging with laboratory results of gas and coal samples sampled in situ, with the influence of atmospheric conditions (insolation, aeration, rainfall, atmospheric pressure changes etc., with influence of coal mass degradation, physical and chemical factors and another failure factors to brown coal spontaneous combustion processes.

  16. Education in the Knowledge Society: Genesis of Concept and Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpov, Alexander O.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the article is to define the content of theoretical ideas about education in the knowledge society in terms of the birth of its social reality. It is shown that the genesis of the concept of education in the knowledge society goes back to the period of 1950-1960s and is due to the emergence of new qualities of an industrial worker that…

  17. GENESIS CONTRADICTIONS OF GENDER APPROACH IN EDUCATION OF CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    Zh. N. Dyuldina; A. Yu. Skorobogatova

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the investigation is to consider genesis contradictions of gender approach in modern education and training of children and possibilities of its application in an educational system during the newest period of the society development.Methods, results and scientific novelty. The retrospective analysis of the sources has shown that gender approach isn’t new and not studied: on the contrary, separate education and training of boys and girls in the past was a norm and a duty of parents...

  18. GENESIS OF METHODOLOGY OF MANAGEMENT BY DEVELOPMENT OF ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z.N. Varlamova

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In clause the genesis of methodology of management of development of organizations as sets of the used methodological approaches and methods is investigated. The results of the comparative analysis of the methodological approaches to management of organizational development are submitted. The traditional methodological approaches are complemented strategic experiment and methodology case studies. The approaches to formation of new methodology and technique of research of sources of competitive advantages of organization are considered.

  19. Dividing the Concentrator Target From the Genesis Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauer, H. V., Jr.; Burkett, P. J.; Clemett, S. J.; Gonzales, C. P.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Rodriquez, M. C.; See, T. H.; Sutter, B.

    2014-01-01

    The Genesis spacecraft, launched in 2001, traveled to a Lagrangian point between the Earth and Sun to collect particles from the solar wind and return them to Earth. However, during the return of the spacecraft in 2004, the parachute failed to open during descent, and the Genesis spacecraft crashed into the Utah desert. Many of the solar wind collectors were broken into smaller pieces, and the field team rapidly collected the capsule and collector pieces for later assessment. On each of the next few days, the team discovered that various collectors had survived intact, including three of four concentrator targets. Within a month, the team had imaged more than 10,000 fragments and packed them for transport to the Astromaterials Acquisition and Curation Office within the ARES Directorate at JSC. Currently, the Genesis samples are curated along with the other extraterrestrial sample collections within ARES. Although they were broken and dirty, the Genesis solar wind collectors still offered the science community the opportunity to better understand our Sun and the solar system as a whole. One of the more highly prized concentrator collectors survived the crash almost completely intact. The Genesis Concentrator was designed to concentrate the solar wind by a factor of at least 20 so that solar oxygen and nitrogen isotopes could be measured. One of these materials was the Diamond-on-Silicon (DoS) concentrator target. Unfortunately, the DoS concentrator broke on impact. Nevertheless, the scientific value of the DoS concentrator target was high. The Genesis Allocation Committee received a request for approximately 1 cm(sup 2) of the DoS specimen taken near the focal point of the concentrator for the analysis of solar wind nitrogen isotopes. The largest fragment, Genesis sample 60000, was designated for this allocation and needed to be precisely cut. The requirement was to subdivide the designated sample in a manner that prevented contamination of the sample and minimized

  20. On the genesis of the uraniferous deposits I; Consideraciones sobre la genesis de los yacimientos uraniferos. I.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mingarro, E.

    1964-07-01

    The main problems of the genesis of uranium deposits as hydro thermals are objectively considered here under three aspects: uranium source transport and deposition. The transport of uranium can be effected under a tetravalent form, or as complex ions of hexavalent uranium: as uranyl ion (UO{sub 2}){sup 2}+ or under complex carbonic or sulfuric forms, such as UO{sub 2}(XO{sub n}){sub 2}{sup 2}- or UO{sub 2}(XO{sub n}){sub 3}{sup 4}-. These three ways of transport correspond to the three basic geochemical para genesis of uranium: uranium-titanium, uranium-cobalt, uranium. Deposition is currently made by reduction and in some way is no dependent of mineralogical association. (Author) 61 refs.

  1. [Hypnosis: fundamentals of futuro-genesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollanda, L

    1975-01-27

    The future lies continously in the womb of the present. In every "today" one of the critical factors on which the configuration at any given conjuncture is the creativity of the intellectual and managerial élite. This creativity is to a great extent dependent on the fluidity of unconscious associative processes. These, in their turn, are decisively influenced by affective factors in the widest sense. Since, as will be shown later, hypnosis can be conceived in the manner of a "quid" identical with emotion, it inevitably follows that it must be treated as a basic element that is always present in and intimately bound up with the continous process that, at every moment, are producing the future.

  2. Subseasonal shift in tropical cyclone genesis over the western North Pacific in 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yumi; Ha, Kyung-Ja

    2017-09-01

    The 2013 subseasonal asymmetry in tropical cyclone (TC) genesis over the western North Pacific (WNP) was investigated by using the 1979-2013 RSMC best track dataset. The genesis frequency of the 2013 WNP TCs between June-August (summer) and September-November (fall) manifested an abnormal temporal asymmetry: fewer typhoons (more tropical storms) in summer and more typhoons (normal tropical storms) in fall. The 2013 active summer-tropical storm genesis arose from both a failure of eastward extension of monsoon confluence region, especially in August and a lack of moisture supply for TC genesis over the eastern part of WNP, and consequently from fewer probability to reach typhoon intensity due to the westward movement of favorable location for genesis. Thereafter, the eastward extension of monsoon shear line in September and the establishment of monsoon gyre in October induced the eastward movement of favorable location for genesis which increased probability to reach typhoon intensity. The relative contribution of mid-level relative humidity to the positive GPI change played a major role in favorable condition for typhoon genesis in September (45.2%) and October (50.9%). The monsoon gyre pattern played a leading role in the most active fall-typhoon in 2013 contributing to the highest number of October-typhoon. The eastward-migration of convection mainly contributed to the subseasonal shift of TC genesis location following eastward movement of local SST warming from summer to fall under the La Nina-like neutral state. The enhanced active boreal summer intraseasonal oscillation (BSISO) in fall provided more favorable conditions for TC genesis showing about twice as many TCs occurred regarding BSISO in fall than those in summer. This spatiotemporal asymmetry in the large-scale circulations and moisture conditions between summer and fall accounted for the subseasonal shift of genesis location of TCs, and consequently for the active summer-tropical storm genesis and the

  3. Heterogeneous Agglomeration

    OpenAIRE

    Faggio, G; Silva, O; Strange, W.C.

    2017-01-01

    Many prior treatments of agglomeration either explicitly or implicitly suppose that all industries agglomerate for the same reasons, with traditional Marshallian (1890) factors affecting all industries similarly. An important instance of this approach is the extrapolation of the agglomeration experience of one key sector or cluster to the larger economy. Another is the pooling of data to look at common tendencies in agglomeration. This paper uses UK establishment level data on coagglomeration...

  4. Genesis of mud volcano fluids in the Gulf of Cadiz - A novel model approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Christopher; Burwicz, Ewa; Hensen, Christian; Martínez-Loriente, Sara; Wallmann, Klaus; Gràcia, Eulàlia

    2017-04-01

    Mud volcanism and fluid seepage are common phenomena on the continental margin in the Gulf of Cadiz, North East Atlantic Ocean. Over the past 2 decades more than 50 mud volcanoes have been discovered and investigated interdisciplinarily. Mud volcano fluids emanating at these sites are sourced at great depths and migration is often mediated by strike slip faults in a seismically active region. The geochemical signals of the mud volcano fluids are affected by widespread various processes such as clay mineral dehydration, but also the recrystallization of ancient carbonate rocks and the alteration of oceanic crust have been suggested (Hensen et al., 2015). We developed a novel fully-coupled, basin-scale, reaction-transport model with an adaptive numerical mesh to simulate the fluid genesis in this region. An advantage of this model is the coupling of a realistic geophysical and geochemical approach, considering a growing sediment column over time together with instant compaction of sediments as well as diffusion and advection of dissolved pore water species and chemical reactions. In this proof of concept study, we looked at various scenarios to identify the processes of fluid genesis for 4 mud volcanoes, representing combinations in different subsurface settings. We can reproduce the fluid signatures (chloride, strontium, 87Sr/86Sr) of all mud volcanoes. Furthermore, we can give additional evidence that alteration of oceanic crust by fluid flow is a likely process affecting the fluid composition. Hensen, C., Scholz, F., Nuzzo, M., Valadares, V., Gràcia, E., Terrinha, P., Liebetrau, V., Kaul, N., Silva, S., Martínez-Loriente, S., Bartolome, R., Piñero, E., Magalhães, V. H., Schmidt, M., Weise, S. M., Cunha, M., Hilario, A., Perea, H., Rovelli, L., and Lackschewitz, K., 2015, Strike-slip faults mediate the rise of crustal-derived fluids and mud volcanism in the deep sea: Geology, v. 43, no. 4, p. 339-342.

  5. On the genesis of the Earth's magnetism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Paul H; King, Eric M

    2013-09-01

    Few areas of geophysics are today progressing as rapidly as basic geomagnetism, which seeks to understand the origin of the Earth's magnetism. Data about the present geomagnetic field pours in from orbiting satellites, and supplements the ever growing body of information about the field in the remote past, derived from the magnetism of rocks. The first of the three parts of this review summarizes the available geomagnetic data and makes significant inferences about the large scale structure of the geomagnetic field at the surface of the Earth's electrically conducting fluid core, within which the field originates. In it, we recognize the first major obstacle to progress: because of the Earth's mantle, only the broad, slowly varying features of the magnetic field within the core can be directly observed. The second (and main) part of the review commences with the geodynamo hypothesis: the geomagnetic field is induced by core flow as a self-excited dynamo. Its electrodynamics define 'kinematic dynamo theory'. Key processes involving the motion of magnetic field lines, their diffusion through the conducting fluid, and their reconnection are described in detail. Four kinematic models are presented that are basic to a later section on successful dynamo experiments. The fluid dynamics of the core is considered next, the fluid being driven into motion by buoyancy created by the cooling of the Earth from its primordial state. The resulting flow is strongly affected by the rotation of the Earth and by the Lorentz force, which alters fluid motion by the interaction of the electric current and magnetic field. A section on 'magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) dynamo theory' is devoted to this rotating magnetoconvection. Theoretical treatment of the MHD responsible for geomagnetism culminates with numerical solutions of its governing equations. These simulations help overcome the first major obstacle to progress, but quickly meet the second: the dynamics of Earth's core are too complex

  6. Genesis of the City Flood Queretaro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa, E. G.; Salinas, N. R.

    2013-12-01

    In 1446 the emperor Moctezuma Ihuicamina talked about of the Queretaro region, which was northern border of their empire (From Torquemeda, 1975). Septien (1999, page 17, Volume 1). "The news that came the Otomi region, spoken the good soil fertility of the Querétaro valley, being an attractive to this place". The aims research is show how the from foundation of the prehispanic period the city of Santiago Queretaro was marked by the development and growth, and as fascinating Mexico historical events recorded their urban-hydraulic direction shows a clear symbiosis between the model prehispanic and colonial urban was conceived it as a compact core, it is currently set to modern urbanization, fragmenting the natural system of the hydrologic surface runoff , adapting and adopting solutions that break the natural equilibrium of the valley Queretaro. In the period 1970-2003 in Mexico 1744 floods was reported but in Queretaro occurred only 10 floods because in 22nd place ranking by frequency of floods, Matias Ramirez et al (2006). Since the foundation of Santiago de Querétaro (1455) the changes of uses soils and the construction of channels had caused the strangulation of city, without regarding the natural of the ways of water of the river Querétaro, so occupied by collectors or drains that also constriction the system of urban water of city of Queretaro that breakdowns with the architecture and natural ways of water. Similarly, historical tracking flooding is not only an exploration of public actions on the implementation of protection works, but also updates the concept of cultural heritage, as fixed and cultivates social memory of the preservation of knowledge the territory. Every time a flood comes increasing concern of whether it corresponds to situations already lived. The flood occurred last February 2010 that affected five delegations besides Querétaro Historic Center (Alameda), the Arquitos, Quintas del Marques, among other colonies, is testimony to the

  7. Chaos in the Genesis and Maintenance of Cardiac Arrhythmias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Zhilin

    2010-01-01

    Dynamical chaos, an irregular behavior of deterministic systems, has been widely shown in nature. It also has been demonstrated in cardiac myocytes in many studies, including rapid pacing induced irregular beat-to-beat action potential alterations and slow pacing induced irregular early afterdepolarizations, etc. Here we review the roles of chaos in the genesis of cardiac arrhythmias, the transition to ventricular fibrillation, and the spontaneous termination of fibrillation, based on evidence from computer simulation of mathematical models and experiments of animal models. PMID:21078337

  8. [Hypotheses for the genesis of cancer: a historical perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morange, Michel

    2014-01-01

    The explanation of cancer has always been tightly related to the state of knowledge in biology, and its transformations. The present situation is not different. New techniques, such as deep sequencing, are rapidly moving our vision of cancer in an impredictable way. Systems biology, epigenetics, and the study of stem cells are generating new hypotheses on cancer and its evolution. New roles for aleatory events in the genesis of cancer have been proposed. In the traditional opposition between holism and reductionism, organisms and molecules, an intermediary level, the cancer cell, seems to be the most appropriate to study oncogenesis. © 2014 médecine/sciences – Inserm.

  9. Examples of Optical Assessment of Surface Cleanliness of Genesis Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriquez, Melissa C.; Allton, J. H.; Burkett, P. J.; Gonzalez, C. P.

    2013-01-01

    Optical microscope assessment of Genesis solar wind collector surfaces is a coordinated part of the effort to obtain an assessed clean subset of flown wafer material for the scientific community. Microscopic survey is typically done at 50X magnification at selected approximately 1 square millimeter areas on the fragment surface. This survey is performed each time a principle investigator (PI) returns a sample to JSC for documentation as part of the established cleaning plan. The cleaning plan encompasses sample handling and analysis by Genesis science team members, and optical survey is done at each step in the process. Sample surface cleaning is performed at JSC (ultrapure water [1] and UV ozone cleaning [2]) and experimentally by other science team members (acid etch [3], acetate replica peels [4], CO2 snow [5], etc.). The documentation of each cleaning method can potentially be assessed with optical observation utilizing Image Pro Plus software [6]. Differences in particle counts can be studied and discussed within analysis groups. Approximately 25 samples have been identified as part of the cleaning matrix effort to date.

  10. [Intervention of nicotinamide on skin melanin genesis after UVA exposed].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patam, Muhammad; Jin, Xi-peng; Zhang, Yu-bin; Pan, Jian-ying; Shen, Guang-zu

    2007-08-01

    To investigate the interference effect of nicotinamide on UVA-induced melanin genesis and melanin transport in human skin melanocyte. The optimum UVA dose expected to cause cell proliferation: 0.2 J/cm(2), nicotinamide was added immediately after the 0.2 J/cm(2) UVA exposure and the melanin content, cell cycles, cell apoptosis and mRNA express level were measured respectively. Melanin content in melanocytes was increased significantly after exposed to 0.2 J/cm(2) UVA. Melanin content in melanocytes was decreased after treatment with 10.0 mmol/ml nicotinamide following UVA exposure, but the cell cycles and the cell apoptosis rate were not significantly altered. mRNA express levels of TYR, TRP-1 were modulated by nicotinamide. Nicotinamide has more effect on decreasing melanin genesis after UVA exposure, nicotinamide also plays a role in modulating the mRNA express of TYR, TRP-1 gene. It is possible to consider nicotinamide as an efficient and safe sun screen to provide a certain level of protection for UVA exposed skin.

  11. The Genesis Project: Science Cases for a Large Submm Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Nicola

    2018-01-01

    The formation of stars is intimately linked to the structure and evolution of molecular clouds in the interstellar medium. In the context of the ANR/DFG project GENESIS (GENeration and Evolution of Structures in the Ism, http://www.astro.uni-koeln.de/node/965), we explore this link with a new approach by combining far-infrared maps and surveys of dust (Herschel) and cooling lines (CII, CI, CO, OI with SOFIA), with molecular line maps. Dedicated analysis tools are used to characterise molecular cloud structure, and we explore the coupling of turbulence with heating- and cooling processes. The project gathers a large observational data set, from molecular line maps at (sub)-mm wavelengths from ground-based telescopes (e.g. IRAM) up to high-frequency airborne spectroscopic and continuum observations (SOFIA). Nevertheless, we identified the need for a large single-dish submm telescope, operating in the southern hemisphere at high frequencies. Only such an instrument is able to observe important ISM cooling lines, like the CI lines at 490 and 810 GHz or high-J CO lines, shock tracers, or probes of turbulence dissipation with high angular resolution in Galactic and extragalactic sources. We will discuss possible science cases and demonstrate how those are addressed within GENESIS, and the science done with the new 6m Cologne-Cornell CCAT-prime submm telescope.

  12. GENESYS 1990-91: Selected Program Evaluations. Publication Number 90.39.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, David; Spano, Sedra G.

    GENESYS is a GENeric Evaluation SYStem for data collection and evaluation through computer technology. GENESYS gathers and reports the standard information (student characteristics, achievement, attendance, discipline, grades/credits, dropouts, and retainees) for specific groups of students. In the Austin (Texas) Independent School District's…

  13. Genesis 2–3 and Alcibiades's speech in Plato's Symposium : A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relationship between the Old Testament and Ancient Greek literature will be examined on the basis of Genesis 2–3 and Alcibiades's speech in Plato's Symposium (212c–223d). The following considerations and models of interpretation can arise from the analysis of Alcibiades's speech compared to M- and LXX-Genesis ...

  14. Abraham, Job and the Book of Jubilees : The Intertextual Relationship of Genesis 22

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiten, Jacques van; Noort/Ed,; Tigchelaar/Eibert,

    2002-01-01

    Jacques van Ruiten, “Abraham, Job and the Book of Jubilees: The Intertextual Relationship of Genesis 22:1-19, Job 1:1-2:13 and Jubilees 17:15-18:19,” in The Sacrifice of Isaac: The Aqedah (Genesis 22) and Its Interpretations (ed. Ed Noort and Eibert Tigchelaar; Themes in Biblical Narrative 4;

  15. Prices and heterogeneous search costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moraga Gonzalez, J.L.; Sandor, Z.; Wildenbeest, M.R.

    2017-01-01

    We study price formation in a model of consumer search for differentiated products in which consumers have heterogeneous search costs. We provide conditions under which a pure-strategy symmetric Nash equilibrium exists and is unique. Search costs affect two margins—the intensive search margin (or

  16. Heterogeneous Beliefs and Climate Catastrophes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiseleva, T.

    2016-01-01

    We study how heterogeneous beliefs about the causes and extent of global warming affect local mitigation and adaptation strategies and therefore global climate dynamics. Local policies are determined by expectations of policy makers about future climate. There are three types of expectations: strong

  17. 75 FR 69458 - Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision for the Genesis Solar Energy Project and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-12

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision for the Genesis Solar Energy... Genesis Solar Energy Project (GSEP). The GSEP is a concentrated solar electrical generating facility using...-mail: [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Genesis Solar, LLC, a wholly owned...

  18. Genesis, Retold: In Search of an Atlas of the Anthropocene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Struck, Wolfgang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available While, within the last decades, the atlas has lost its dominance as a medium of spatial representation to digital media, it has recently attracted a significant aesthetic interest. Artists and writers have created books that are explicitly or implicitly linked to the atlas, delving into its history, its epistemological preconditions, and its representational capacity. In this essay, I suggest a connection between this attraction to a supposedly outdated medium and the representational challenges raised by the model of the Anthropocene. A first example offers Sebastião Salgado’s Genesis (2013, a monumental collection of photographs that promises a journey “to the beginnings of our planet,” confronting the viewer with the dimension of geological time into which human agency has expanded. Due to the indexicality of photography, the Genesis-project has to approach deep time by movements within space, and thus it is not coincidental that the book that is credited as one of the most powerful representations of the Anthropocene resembles an atlas. In this resemblance, however, it also reproduces the abstract and generalized space of cartography. The atlas allows, as I try to demonstrate by a short view into its history, the representation of large dimensions through a negotiation of relations between part and whole, but in order to do so, it increases the distance between the observer and the observed. As an alternative model, I discuss Judith Schalansky’s Atlas of Remote Islands (2009, Engl. 2010. More aware of the problematic effects of media and modes of representation on the represented world, Schalansky’s atlas deconstructs the observer who looks at the territory from outside and above, and reinserts him or her into a landscape of multiple movements and connections. Exploring a multiplicity of cultural techniques and actors, human as well as non-human, involved in the production of the image of the globe, this atlas becomes a medium of

  19. On the genesis of the idiotypic network theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civello, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    The idiotypic network theory (INT) was conceived by the Danish immunologist Niels Kaj Jerne in 1973/1974. It proposes an overall view of the immune system as a network of lymphocytes and antibodies. The paper tries to offer a reconstruction of the genesis of the theory, now generally discarded and of mostly historical interest, first of all, by taking into account the context in which Jerne's theoretical proposal was advanced. It is argued the theory challenged, in a sense, the supremacy of the clonal selection theory (CST), this being regarded as the predominant paradigm in the immunological scenario. As CST found shortcomings in explaining certain phenomena, anomalies, one could view INT as a competing paradigm claiming to be able to make sense of such phenomena in its own conceptual framework. After a summary outline of the historical background and some relevant terminological elucidations, a narrative of the various phases of elaboration of the theory is proposed, up to its official public presentation.

  20. On Gravitational Chirality as the Genesis of Astrophysical Jets

    CERN Document Server

    Tucker, Robin W

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that single and double jets observed emanating from certain astrophysical objects may have a purely gravitational origin. We discuss new classes of plane-fronted and pulsed gravitational wave solutions to the equation for perturbations of Ricci-flat spacetimes around Minkowski metrics, as models for the genesis of such phenomena. These solutions are classified in terms of their chirality and generate a family of non-stationary spacetime metrics. Particular members of these families are used as backgrounds in analysing time-like solutions to the geodesic equation for test particles. They are found numerically to exhibit both single and double jet-like features with dimensionless aspect ratios suggesting that it may be profitable to include such backgrounds in simulations of astrophysical jet dynamics from rotating accretion discs involving electromagnetic fields.

  1. A Unified Theory of Matter Genesis: Asymmetric Freeze-In

    CERN Document Server

    Hall, Lawrence J; West, Stephen M

    2010-01-01

    We propose a unified theory of dark matter (DM) genesis and baryogenesis. It explains the observed link between the DM density and the baryon density, and is fully testable by a combination of collider experiments and precision tests. Our theory utilises the "thermal freeze-in" mechanism of DM production, generating particle anti-particle asymmetries in decays from visible to hidden sectors. Calculable, linked, asymmetries in baryon number and DM number are produced by the feeble interaction mediating between the two sectors, while the out-of-equilibrium condition necessary for baryogenesis is provided by the different temperatures of the visible and hidden sectors. An illustrative model is presented where the visible sector is the MSSM, with the relevant CP violation arising from phases in the gaugino and Higgsino masses, and both asymmetries are generated at temperatures of order 100 GeV. Experimental signals of this mechanism can be spectacular, including: long-lived metastable states late decaying at the ...

  2. Heavy noble gases in solar wind delivered by Genesis mission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshik, Alex; Hohenberg, Charles; Pravdivtseva, Olga; Burnett, Donald

    2014-02-15

    One of the major goals of the Genesis Mission was to refine our knowledge of the isotopic composition of the heavy noble gases in solar wind and, by inference, the Sun, which represents the initial composition of the solar system. This has now been achieved with permil precision: (36)Ar/(38)Ar = 5.5005 ± 0.0040, (86)Kr/(84)Kr = .3012 ± .0004, (83)Kr/(84)Kr = .2034 ± .0002, (82)Kr/(84)Kr = .2054 ± .0002, (80)Kr/(84)Kr = .0412 ± .0002, (78)Kr/(84)Kr = .00642 ± .00005, (136)Xe/(132)Xe = .3001 ± .0006, (134)Xe/(132)Xe = .3691 ± .0007, (131)Xe/(132)Xe = .8256 ± .0012, (130)Xe/(132)Xe = .1650 ± .0004, (129)Xe/(132)Xe = 1.0405 ± .0010, (128)Xe/(132)Xe = .0842 ± .0003, (126)Xe/(132)Xe = .00416 ± .00009, and (124)Xe/(132)Xe = .00491 ± .00007 (error-weighted averages of all published data). The Kr and Xe ratios measured in the Genesis solar wind collectors generally agree with the less precise values obtained from lunar soils and breccias, which have accumulated solar wind over hundreds of millions of years, suggesting little if any temporal variability of the isotopic composition of solar wind krypton and xenon. The higher precision for the initial composition of the heavy noble gases in the solar system allows (1) to confirm that, exept (136)Xe and (134)Xe, the mathematically derived U-Xe is equivalent to Solar Wind Xe and (2) to provide an opportunity for better understanding the relationship between the starting composition and Xe-Q (and Q-Kr), the dominant current "planetary" component, and its host, the mysterious phase-Q.

  3. GENESIS: new self-consistent models of exoplanetary spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Siddharth; Madhusudhan, Nikku

    2017-12-01

    We are entering the era of high-precision and high-resolution spectroscopy of exoplanets. Such observations herald the need for robust self-consistent spectral models of exoplanetary atmospheres to investigate intricate atmospheric processes and to make observable predictions. Spectral models of plane-parallel exoplanetary atmospheres exist, mostly adapted from other astrophysical applications, with different levels of sophistication and accuracy. There is a growing need for a new generation of models custom-built for exoplanets and incorporating state-of-the-art numerical methods and opacities. The present work is a step in this direction. Here we introduce GENESIS, a plane-parallel, self-consistent, line-by-line exoplanetary atmospheric modelling code that includes (a) formal solution of radiative transfer using the Feautrier method, (b) radiative-convective equilibrium with temperature correction based on the Rybicki linearization scheme, (c) latest absorption cross-sections, and (d) internal flux and external irradiation, under the assumptions of hydrostatic equilibrium, local thermodynamic equilibrium and thermochemical equilibrium. We demonstrate the code here with cloud-free models of giant exoplanetary atmospheres over a range of equilibrium temperatures, metallicities, C/O ratios and spanning non-irradiated and irradiated planets, with and without thermal inversions. We provide the community with theoretical emergent spectra and pressure-temperature profiles over this range, along with those for several known hot Jupiters. The code can generate self-consistent spectra at high resolution and has the potential to be integrated into general circulation and non-equilibrium chemistry models as it is optimized for efficiency and convergence. GENESIS paves the way for high-fidelity remote sensing of exoplanetary atmospheres at high resolution with current and upcoming observations.

  4. NASA's Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) Field Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Scott A.; Kakar, Ramesh; Zipser, Edward; Heymsfield, Gerald; Albers, Cerese; Brown, Shannon; Durden, Stephen; Guimond, Stephen; Halverson, Jeffery; Heymsfield, Andrew; hide

    2013-01-01

    In August–September 2010, NASA, NOAA, and the National Science Foundation (NSF) conducted separate but closely coordinated hurricane field campaigns, bringing to bear a combined seven aircraft with both new and mature observing technologies. NASA's Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) experiment, the subject of this article, along with NOAA's Intensity Forecasting Experiment (IFEX) and NSF's Pre-Depression Investigation of Cloud-Systems in the Tropics (PREDICT) experiment, obtained unprecedented observations of the formation and intensification of tropical cyclones. The major goal of GRIP was to better understand the physical processes that control hurricane formation and intensity change, specifically the relative roles of environmental and inner-core processes. A key focus of GRIP was the application of new technologies to address this important scientific goal, including the first ever use of the unmanned Global Hawk aircraft for hurricane science operations. NASA and NOAA conducted coordinated flights to thoroughly sample the rapid intensification (RI) of Hurricanes Earl and Karl. The tri-agency aircraft teamed up to perform coordinated flights for the genesis of Hurricane Karl and Tropical Storm Matthew and the non-redevelopment of the remnants of Tropical Storm Gaston. The combined GRIP–IFEX–PREDICT datasets, along with remote sensing data from a variety of satellite platforms [Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES), Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), Aqua, Terra, CloudSat, and Cloud–Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO)], will contribute to advancing understanding of hurricane formation and intensification. This article summarizes the GRIP experiment, the missions flown, and some preliminary findings.

  5. CLINICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS AT THE CIRRHOSIS OF VARIOUS GENESIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Bilalova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the study. To carry out a comparative description of the clinical and biochemical parameters at patients with cirrhosis of an alcoholic genesis (CP-HGA and cirrhosis of mixed etiologies — CP-HGM (HСV+ alcohol.Materials and methods. The study involved 62 patients with cirrhosis of different etiologies, who carries out clinical, immunogenetic and biochemical studies.Results. Patients with the 3d genotype and low viral load were registered with cirrhosis of mixed etiologies (HСV+ alcohol. At the cirrhosis Class B for Child-Pugh basic data biochemical parameters were similar in patients with CP-HGA and CP-HGM, but ALT and AST activity, which are significantly higher than observed in patients with CP-HGM. At dismissal, ALT and GGT activities were detected significantly higher in patients with CP-HGM than the CP-HGA. At the cirrhosis Class C for Child-Pugh the baseline, reflecting cholestasis — is total bilirubin, GGT and alkaline phosphatase and were detected significantly higher in the CP-HGA, than with CP-HGM significantly reduced, and thore is no differences between the groups to be discharged from the hospital, in addition to the activity of GGT, which it remained significantly higher in the CP-HGA, than with CP-HGM. Cytolytic activity of enzymes (ALT, AST during the entire period of the disease was observed significantly higher normal values and did not depend on the CP etiology.Conclusion decision. The maximum rate of change of the basic biochemical parameters is observed in patients with cirrhosis of mixed etiologies Class B for Child-Pugh and at the cirrhosis of an alcoholic genesis — in patients with cirrhosis Class C.

  6. Alu repeats: A source for the genesis of primate microsatellites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arcot, S.S.; Batzer, M.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Wang, Zhenyuan [Marshfield Medical Research Foundation, WI (United States)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    As a result of their abundance, relatively uniform distribution, and high degree of polymorphism, microsatellites and minisatellites have become valuable tools in genetic mapping, forensic identity testing, and population studies. In recent years, a number of microsatellite repeats have been found to be associated with Alu interspersed repeated DNA elements. The association of an Alu element with a microsatellite repeat could result from the integration of an Alu element within a preexisting microsatellite repeat. Alternatively, Alu elements could have a direct role in the origin of microsatellite repeats. Errors introduced during reverse transcription of the primary transcript derived from an Alu {open_quotes}master{close_quote} gene or the accumulation of random mutations in the middle A-rich regions and oligo(dA)-rich tails of Alu elements after insertion and subsequent expansion and contraction of these sequences could result in the genesis of a microsatellite repeat. We have tested these hypotheses by a direct evolutionary comparison of the sequences of some recent Alu elements that are found only in humans and are absent from nonhuman primates, as well as some older Alu elements that are present at orthologous positions in a number of nonhuman primates. The origin of {open_quotes}young{close_quotes} Alu insertions, absence of sequences that resemble microsatellite repeats at the orthologous loci in chimpanzees, and the gradual expansion of microsatellite repeats in some old Alu repeats at orthologous positions within the genomes of a number of nonhuman primates suggest that Alu elements are a source for the genesis of primate microsatellite repeats. 48 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Genesis of the Mechanical Heart Valves' Ultrasonic Closing Clicks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Jun; Kobayashi, Kenji

    A new in vitro experimental tool was developed to study the mechanism of the ultrasonic closing clicks' genesis of mechanical heart valves. Since the newly developed tester adopted compressed air flow directly instead of the blood analog fluid to drive the mechanical heart valve, it is not possibe to generate any cavitation. Closing clicks were measured with a small accelerometer at the surface of the valve holder made of silicone rubber. Ultrasonic closing clicks as well as audible closing clicks, similar to those measured clinically, could be observed using this setup. Thus, it was confirmed that the ultrasonic closing clicks can be generated without the existence of cavitation. Simultaneous measurements of the valve motion were made with a high-speed video camera, and the analysis of the video frames and clicks showed that higher frequency signal components of more than 50kHz could be generated only at the instant of the closure, which means the collision of the occluder with the housing. Eighteen miniature accelerometers with an area of one square millimeter were developed and stuck on the housing to monitor the distribution of the housing vibrations in detail, and it was found that the vibrations correspond to the ultrasonic closing clicks propagated from the valve stop: the collision point of the occluder with the housing. This fact indicated that the generation of ultrasonic closing clicks are limited to the small area of the collision. From those results, it was concluded that the major origin of the ultrasonic closing clicks' genesis should be the collision of the occluder with the housing.

  8. [Review on landscape heterogeneity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yutao; Yu, Xinxiao; Guang, Wenbin

    2002-04-01

    On the base of precedent studies, the occurring mechanism, classification, measurement methods, and the important role of landscape heterogeneity in landscape ecology were reviewed. The inner and outer uncertain factors result in landscape heterogeneity. Landscape heterogeneity has close relations with landscape stability, landscape design, architecture, management and disturbance, scale and ecological diversity in ecology. Complexity of landscape heterogeneity research, non-system of measurement indices and methods, difficulties and limitations of landscape heterogeneity modelling were all discussed respectively. In addition, it is suggested that the theory and methods of ecological complexity should be used to improve landscape heterogeneity research.

  9. GENESI-DR Portal: a scientific gateway to distributed repositories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncalves, Pedro; Brito, Fabrice; D'Andria, Fabio; Cossu, Roberto; Fusco, Luigi

    2010-05-01

    GENESI-DR (Ground European Network for Earth Science Interoperations - Digital Repositories) is a European Commission (EC)-funded project, kicked-off early 2008 lead by ESA; partners include Space Agencies (DLR, ASI, CNES), both space and no-space data providers such as ENEA (I), Infoterra (UK), K-SAT (N), NILU (N), JRC (EU) and industry as Elsag Datamat (I), CS (F) and TERRADUE (I). GENESI-DR intends to meet the challenge of facilitating "time to science" from different Earth Science disciplines in discovery, access and use (combining, integrating, processing, …) of historical and recent Earth-related data from space, airborne and in-situ sensors, which are archived in large distributed repositories. "Discovering" which data are available on a "geospatial web" is one of the main challenges ES scientists have to face today. Some well- known data sets are referred to in many places, available from many sources. For core information with a common purpose many copies are distributed, e.g., VMap0, Landsat, and SRTM. Other data sets in low or local demand may only be found in a few places and niche communities. Relevant services, results of analysis, applications and tools are accessible in a very scattered and uncoordinated way, often through individual initiatives from Earth Observation mission operators, scientific institutes dealing with ground measurements, service companies or data catalogues. In the discourse of Spatial Data Infrastructures, there are "catalogue services" - directories containing information on where spatial data and services can be found. For metadata "records" describing spatial data and services, there are "registries". The Geospatial industry coins specifications for search interfaces, where it might do better to reach out to other information retrieval and Internet communities. These considerations are the basis for the GENESI-DR scientific portal, which adopts a simple model allowing the geo-spatial classification and discovery of

  10. Genesis and Diversity of Cryosols of the Northeast Siberian Lena River Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubrzycki, Sebastian; Pfeiffer, Eva-Maria; Kutzbach, Lars

    2017-04-01

    The North-Siberian Lena River Delta (LRD) is the largest Arctic delta and an important interface between the Arctic Ocean in the North and the large Siberian land masses in the South. LRD consists not only of Holocene deltaic sediment deposits as a river terrace and the modern active floodplains but also of remnants of the former Pleistocene mainland including large islands of ice-complex sediments and the Arga-Muora-Sise Island, which is composed of pure sand sediments of still debated origin. The highly diverse landscape structure of LRD is reflected by a great variety of permafrost-affected soils (cryosols). This study aims at describing this great cryosol diversity and at analysing the dominant soil-forming processes in this comparatively scarcely studied soil region. The soil development in the investigated continuous permafrost region is limited by the short thawing period of around three months (June to September) and takes place in the shallow (below 1 m) seasonally thawed active layer. The geological parent material plays an important role for the development of soils in the LRD region. The distribution of the various soil types closely follows the pattern of the geomorphic units characterised by differing sedimentation conditions. The properties and genesis of the soils on the Holocene river terrace and the modern floodplains are strongly affected by the enormous amounts of fluvial sediments (about 12 x 106 tons per year) brought by the Lena River into its delta. The fluvial sedimentation together with the also pronounced aeolian sedimentation results in a fast vertical growth of soils. The upward rise of the soil surface leads to an upward movement of the permafrost table resulting in fast incorporation of soil material formed in the supra-permafrost zone into the permafrost. Due to the morphodynamics of ice-wedge polygons and resulting formation of patterned ground with elevated rims and depressed and water-saturated centres, the Holocene river terrace

  11. Link-Heterogeneity vs. Node-Heterogeneity in Clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Beaumont, Olivier; Rosenberg, Arnold

    2010-01-01

    International audience; Heterogeneity in resources pervades all modern computing platforms. How do the effects of heterogeneity depend on which resources differ among computers in a platform? Some answers are derived within a formal framework, by comparing heterogeneity in computing power (node-heterogeneity) with heterogeneity in communication speed (link-heterogeneity). The former genre of heterogeneity seems much easier to understand than the latter.

  12. Heterogeneous network architectures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henrik Lehrmann

    2006-01-01

    Future networks will be heterogeneous! Due to the sheer size of networks (e.g., the Internet) upgrades cannot be instantaneous and thus heterogeneity appears. This means that instead of trying to find the olution, networks hould be designed as being heterogeneous. One of the key equirements here...

  13. Master of Science Degree Qualitative Social Research Methods at the Polytechnic University of Nicaragua: Critical Reconstruction of Genesis and Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aura Violeta Aldana Saraccini

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This article offers a descriptive and critic analysis of the genesis and evolution of the Master of Science degree in "Methods of Qualitative Social Research," offered by the Polytechnic University of Nicaragua. It is the result of an analysis whose objectives were aimed at rebuilding through the application of qualitative techniques, internal and external factors to University life that have affected and continue to affect the status of the degree program. This analysis is based on the events surrounding its rebuilding; in the article I also reflect on the importance of the qualitative paradigm to the development of strategies to address the complex task of teaching and learning how to conduct such research. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0801117

  14. La genesis de las parafilias sexuales y la homosexualidad egodistonica: el modelo de los Mecanismos Tensionales

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jimenez Diaz, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    ...), el presente articulo trata de exponer una serie de fenomenos que pueden estar pasando desapercibidos a la hora de explicar la genesis y el mantenimiento de las parafilias sexuales y la homosexualidad egodistonica...

  15. Lectures on Genesis 1:26-2:3 and 2:21-25

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Else Marie Wiberg; Stjerna, Kirsi

    2017-01-01

    This introduction to parts of Luther's lectures on Genesis (1535-45), namely his lectures on Genesis 1:26-2:3 and 2:21-25, discusses the reformer's grappling with the text in its historical and theological context. Not least is the question of gender taken under scrutiny, as the two authors, Kirs...... Stjerna and Else Marie Wiberg Pedersen, in each their part of the subsequent revised English translations of Luther's lectures take particular care with regard to Luther's terminology pertaining to gender.......This introduction to parts of Luther's lectures on Genesis (1535-45), namely his lectures on Genesis 1:26-2:3 and 2:21-25, discusses the reformer's grappling with the text in its historical and theological context. Not least is the question of gender taken under scrutiny, as the two authors, Kirsi...

  16. Heterogeneity and Microeconometrics Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Browning, Martin; Carro, Jesus

    Presented at the 2005 Econometric Society World Congress Plenary Session on "Modelling Heterogeneity". We survey the treatment of heterogeneity in applied microeconometrics analyses. There are three themes. First, there is usually much more heterogeneity than empirical researchers allow for. Second......, the inappropriate treatment of heterogeneity can lead to serious error when estimating outcomes of interest. Finally, once we move away from the traditional linear model with a single 'fixed effect', it is very difficult to account for heterogeneity and fit the data and maintain coherence with theory structures....... The latter task is one for economists: "heterogeneity is too important to be left to the statisticians". The paper concludes with a report of our own research on dynamic discrete choice models that allow for maximal heterogeneity...

  17. Petrography, alteration and genesis of iron mineralization in Roshtkhar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habib Biabangard

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Iron mineralization in Roshtkhar is located in 48 Km east of the city of Roshtkhar and south of the Khorasan Razavi province. It is geologically located in the north east of the Lut block and the Khaf-Bardeskan volcano-plutonic belt. The Khaf-Bardeskan belt is an important metallogenic province since it is a host of valuable ore deposits such as the Kuh-e-Zar Au-Spicularite, the Tanourcheh and the Khaf Iron ore deposits (Karimpour and Malekzadeh Shafaroudi, 2007. Iron and Copper mineralization in this belt are known as the hydrothermal, skarn and IOCG types (Karimpour and Malekzadeh Shafaroudi, 2007. IOCG deposits are a new type of magmatic to hydrothermal mineralization in the continental crust (Hitzman et al., 1992. Precambrian marble, Lower Paleozoic schist and metavolcanics are the oldest rocks of the area. The younger units are Oligocene conglomerate, shale and sandstone, Miocene marl and Quaternary deposits. Iron oxides and Cu sulfides are associated with igneous rocks. Fe and Cu mineralization in Roshtkhar has been subject of a few studies such as Yousefi Surani (2006. This study describes the petrography of the host rocks, ore paragenesis, alteration types, geochemistry, genesis and other features of the Fe and Cu mineralization in the Roshtkhar iron. Methods After detailed field studies and sampling, 30 thin sections and 20 polished sections that were prepared from host rocks and ores were studied by conventional petrographic and mineraloghraphic methods in the geology department of the University of Sistan and Baluchestan. 5 samples from the alteration zones were examined by XRD in the Yamagata University in Japan, and 8 samples from the less altered ones were analyzed by XRF and ICP-OES in the Kharazmi University and the Iranian mineral processing research center (IMPRC in Karaj, respectively. The XRF and ICP-OES data are presented in Table 1. Result and discussion The host rocks of the Roshtkhar Iron deposit are diorite

  18. Contributions of tropical waves to tropical cyclone genesis over the western North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Liang; Takahashi, Masaaki

    2017-09-01

    The present study investigates the relationship between the tropical waves and the tropical cyclone (TC) genesis over the western North Pacific (WNP) for the period 1979-2011. Five wave types are considered in this study. It is shown that the TC genesis is strongly related to enhanced low-level vorticity and convection of tropical waves and significant difference are detected in the TC modulation by dynamic and thermodynamic components of the waves. More TCs tend to form in regions of waves with overlapping cyclonic vorticity and active convection. About 83.2% of TCs form within active phase of tropical waves, mainly in a single wave and two coexisting waves. Each wave type-related genesis accounts for about 30% of all TC geneses except for the Kelvin waves that account for only 25.2% of TC geneses. The number of each wave type-related TC genesis consistently varies seasonally with peak in the TC season (July-November), which is attributed to a combined effect of active wave probability and intensity change. The interannual variation in the TC genesis is well reproduced by the tropical wave-related TC genesis, especially in the region east of 150°E. An eastward extension of the enhanced monsoon trough coincides with increased tropical wave activity by accelerated wave-mean flow interaction.

  19. Genesis and Maintenance of Attentional Biases: The Role of the Locus Coeruleus-Noradrenaline System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mana R. Ehlers

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Emotionally arousing events are typically better remembered than mundane ones, in part because emotionally relevant aspects of our environment are prioritized in attention. Such biased attentional tuning is itself the result of associative processes through which we learn affective and motivational relevance of cues. We propose that the locus coeruleus-noradrenaline (LC-NA system plays an important role in the genesis of attentional biases through associative learning processes as well as their maintenance. We further propose that individual differences in and disruptions of the LC-NA system underlie the development of maladaptive biases linked to psychopathology. We provide support for the proposed role of the LC-NA system by first reviewing work on attentional biases in development and its link to psychopathology in relation to alterations and individual differences in NA availability. We focus on pharmacological manipulations to demonstrate the effect of a disrupted system as well as the ADRA2b polymorphism as a tool to investigate naturally occurring differences in NA availability. We next review associative learning processes that—modulated by the LC-NA system—result in such implicit attentional biases. Further, we demonstrate how NA may influence aversive and appetitive conditioning linked to anxiety disorders as well as addiction and depression.

  20. Genesis of the methane in Lake Kivu (central Africa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tietze, K.; Geyh, M.; Mueller, H.; Schroeder, L.; Stahl, W.; Wehner, H.

    1980-01-01

    Large amounts of methane and carbon dioxide, among other gases, are dissolved in the deep water of Lake Kivu. There is no dispute about the primarily magmatic origin of the carbon dioxide, but models of the genesis of the methane have been contradictory up to now. They have been based on too few and partly too inaccurate data. On the basis of new measurements obtained from gas and sediment samples, some of the old concepts have been further developed to a new model. According to this model, the methane is generated mainly by bacteria from the organic carbon of the sediment. It probably also contains minor amounts of the thermocatalytic methane. About 70 of the organic carbon of the upper sediment is derived from mainly magmatic carbon dioxide (old carbon), which enters the biozone of the Lake from the deep water by eddy diffusion and is assimilated there. The remaining 30 comes from atmospheric carbon dioxide (young carbon) assimilated in the biozone. But because methane also migrates into the lake from deeper sediment, the /sup 14/C-content in the methane dissolved in the lake water is not 30 modern but only ca. 10 modern. More isotropic measurements on plankton, methane, carbon dioxide and sediment samples are necessary to support this model.

  1. The genesis of WiFi and its applications

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2008-01-01

    In 1985 changes to US regulations caused a paradigm shift by permitting the use of radio spectrum for devices that did not need to have an end-user license. After a few years, products appeared on the market and a group developed a standard for broadband wireless communications among computers. The presentation will explain how the standard developed and was adopted by the Wi-Fi Alliance, as well as the global harmonization and expansion of the available radio spectrum to over half a GHz. The success of Wi-Fi and user innovation and initiatives makes it a vehicle to bring broadband internet to rural areas both in developing as well as in developed countries. Vic Hayes is a Senior Research Fellow at the Delft University of Technology and is writing a book titled "The genesis of Wi-Fi and the road toward global success". He holds a BSEE and joined NCR in the Netherlands in 1974. He co-established and chaired the IEEE 802.11 Standards Working Group for Wireless Local Area Networks and became known as the "Fathe...

  2. Genesis of elevated aerosol loading over the Indian region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prijith, S. S.; Rao, P. V. N.; Mohan, Mannil

    2016-05-01

    Elevated aerosols assume importance as the diabatic heating due to aerosol absorption is more intense at higher altitudes where the atmosphere becomes thinner. Indian region, especially its central and northern latitudes, experiences significant loading of elevated aerosols during pre-monsoon and summer months. Genesis of elevated aerosol loading over Indian region is investigated in the present study, using multi-year satellite observations from Cloud Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) along with reanalysis winds from MERRA. Central India is observed to have prominent aerosols loading at higher altitudes during pre-monsoon season, whereas it is during summer months over north-west India. Further analysis reveals that the elevated aerosols over Indian region in pre-monsoon and summer months are significantly contributed by transported mineral dust from the arid continental regions at west. In addition to the mineral dust advection, aerosols at higher altitudes over Indian region are enriched by strong convection and associated vertical transport of surface level aerosols. Vertical transport of aerosols observed over Indian region during pre-monsoon and summer months is aided by intense convergence at the surface level and divergence at the upper level. Moreover, aerosol source/sink strength estimated using aerosol flux continuity equation show significant aerosol production over central India during pre-monsoon. Strong vertical transport prevails during pre-monsoon uplifts the locally produced aerosols, with considerable anthropogenic fraction, to higher altitudes where their impacts would be more intense.

  3. GENESIS CONTRADICTIONS OF GENDER APPROACH IN EDUCATION OF CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zh. N. Dyuldina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation is to consider genesis contradictions of gender approach in modern education and training of children and possibilities of its application in an educational system during the newest period of the society development.Methods, results and scientific novelty. The retrospective analysis of the sources has shown that gender approach isn’t new and not studied: on the contrary, separate education and training of boys and girls in the past was a norm and a duty of parents and teachers. However, the reflection of social processes shows the demolition of traditional system of gender stratification; weakening of women’s and men’s polarization of social roles; change of cultural stereotypes of masculinity and femininity; objective changes in the matrimonial relations. Everything listed above brings into focus an investigative search of new approaches to gender education. The essence of the terms «gender», «gender approach» is specified. Despite very long history of gender education (which was cultivated since the most ancient eras of existence of a mankind, insufficient study of this problem is stated now. Special importance of gender aspect in family education is emphasized. The different points of view in understanding of gender approach in modern science are revealed; the main perspective directions of researches on this subject are noted.Practical significance. The materials of the present article can be used in teaching history of pedagogics, gender psychology and gender pedagogics.

  4. Climatology and Genesis Environment of North Atlantic Polar Lows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Clio; Spengler, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Polar lows are intense maritime cyclones occurring during cold air outbreaks in high latitudes. We use the Melbourne University cyclone algorithm to detect and track polar lows. The algorithm employs the Laplacian of mean sea level pressure and is applied to the ERA-Interim reanalyses from 1979 to 2014. Track density maps indicate that polar lows mainly occur close to Svalbard, as well as in the northern Norwegian Sea and the Barents Sea. This is in accordance to previous studies about polar low tracks densities which are using less objective method and shorter time periods. Also the cyclogenesis density correlates well with the winter-time climatology of cold air outbreaks. Furthermore, we present inter- and intra-annual variability of polar lows and its relation to the NAO as well as sea ice extent. We also differentiated the polar low genesis environment into forward and reverse shear conditions, where forward shear implies that the thermal and mean wind are in the same direction, whereas they are opposite for reverse shear conditions. The forward and reverse shear results based on the objective tracking are similar to a previous study based on polar low tracks from the STARS data set provided by MET Norway.

  5. Joining hands across the seas: The genesis of IASAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger B. Ludeman

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper will outline the journey, personal and organisational, taken by me with many friends of student affairs and services around the world to envision and then create a new global professional association – the International Association of Student Affairs and Services (IASAS. It has been a rather long journey, one that was not without bumps and barriers. While it took over 20 years to get IASAS from the germ of an idea to its current successes, it has proven to be well worth the struggle. IASAS serves as a platform that promotes and allows discussion of issues and best practices in our field: higher education student affairs and services. No matter that there are great differences in delivery methods, breadth of service, views of the student, and sometimes conceptual underpinnings, when focusing on the student, all these differences are celebrated in the context of common values, and make for interesting discussions by practitioners coming from over 30 countries. I have been privileged to be at the centre of most of the efforts to form IASAS, a process not unlike the birthing and raising of a child (of which I have four. The reader will quicklysee the parallels that bring the disappointments on one hand that are easily overshadowed by the joys of seeing your child grow and develop into adolescents and, eventually, adults. So goes the following personal and reflexive account of the genesis of IASAS.

  6. The Big Bang, Genesis, and Knocking on Heaven's Door

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry, Robert

    2012-03-01

    Michael Shermer recently upped the ante in the big bang-Genesis controversy by citing Lisa Randall's provocative claim (Science 334, 762 (2011)) that ``it is inconceivable that God could continue to intervene without introducing a material trace of his actions.'' So does Randall's and Shermer's agreement that no such evidence exists disprove God's existence? Not in my view because my 1970s Science, Nature and ARNS publications, and my article in the 1982 AAAS Western Division's Symposium Proceedings, Evolution Confronts Creation, all contain validation of God's existence via discovery of His Fingerprints of Creation and falsification of the big bang and geological evolution. These results came to wide public/scientific attention in my testimony at the 1981 Arkansas creation/evolution trial. There ACLU witness G Brent Dalrymple from the USGS -- and 2005 Medal of Science recipient from President Bush -- admitted I had discovered a tiny mystery (primordial polonium radiohalos) in granite rocks that indicated their almost instant creation. As a follow-up in 1992 and 1995 he sent out SOS letters to the entire AGU membership that the polonium halo evidence for fiat creation still existed and that someone needed to urgently find a naturalistic explanation for them. Is the physics community guilty of a Watergate-type cover-up of this discovery of God's existence and falsification of the big bang? For the answer see www.halos.tv.

  7. Snow megadunes in Antarctica: Sedimentary structure and genesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frezzotti, M.; Gandolfi, S.; Urbini, S.

    2002-09-01

    Megadune fields occupy large areas in the interior of the East Antarctic ice sheet and are the result of unusual snow accumulation and redistribution processes. They therefore are important to surface mass balance and ice core interpretation. Field observations (GPS, GPR, and surface measurements) have provided a detailed description of megadune sedimentation and morphology over a 70 km2 area, located 200 km east of Dome C. A combination of remote sensing analysis (using Landsat and satellite radar altimetry) and field measurements indicate that slope in the prevailing wind direction (SPWD) and climatic conditions play a crucial role in megadune genesis. The megadune areas tend to be characterized by slightly steeper regional slope and the presence of highly persistent katabatic winds. The megadunes represent 2 to 4 m amplitude waves of 2 to 5 km wavelength formed by variable net accumulation, ranging between 25% (leeward faces) to 120% (windward faces) of the accumulation in adjacent nonmegadune areas. Leeward faces are characterized by glazed, sastrugi-free surfaces and extensive depth hoar formation. Windward faces are covered by large rough sastrugi up to 1.5 m in height.

  8. [Tumor genetic heterogeneity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi-Ling; Chu, Jia-You; Wang, Ming-Rong

    2013-01-01

    Although the majority of spontaneous tumors derive from a single cell, people have come to realize intra-tumor heterogeneity of individual tumors. Human cancers frequently display substantial difference in phenotypic features, such as the degree of differentiation, cell proliferation rate, invasion and metastatic potential, response to therapy and many other aspects. Molecular biology studies have confirmed the occurrence of new mutations during the process of tumor progression, which provide more powerful evidences to show the existence of intra-tumor genetic heterogeneity. This re-view will focus on recent major advances in the study of tumor genetic heterogeneity. Considering that genetic heterogene-ity analysis can provide important information to indicate how long normal cells transform into tumor cells and how to spread and migrate, we firstly describe experimental evidences of intra-tumor genetic heterogeneity. Then we discuss the research value of genetic diversity in the evolutionary history of human individual tumor, introduce the two modes of the genetic heterogeneity - cancer stem cell model and the clonal evolution model, and summarize the implications of in-tra-tumor heterogeneity studies in metastasis and therapy. In addition, the article presents the research methods of genetic heterogeneity, including specific gene and genome-wide level, pointing out their strengths and limitations.

  9. The Aledjo Quartzitic Ruins in Northern Togo: Genesis and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It corresponds to a ruiniform landscape which resulted from an erosive sculpturing that started at the end of the Pan-African tectogenesis within the ... A first interpretation of these spectacular sculptures attributed their great variety to predisposition factors related to the petrographic heterogeneity of the quartzites and to the ...

  10. Experimental approbation of a new ultrosound contrast agent based on sulfur geksafluoride in diagnostics of focal liver lesions of inflammatory genesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Fomina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the study. Experimental approbation of a new domestic ultrasound contrast agent (UCA based on sulfur hexafluoride in the diagnosis of focal liver lesions of inflammatory genesis.Materials and methods. The investigated ultrasound contrast agent (UCA was a heterogeneous gas-liquid system consisting of micro bubbles of a sparingly soluble gas of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6 surrounded by a flexible mobile membrane of surfactants. Experimental work was carried out on rabbits. The study group included rabbits of males and females with focal liver lesion of inflammatory genesis (n = 12 weighing 1500- 1700 g. UCA was administered to animals in the ear vein. Focal lesions of the liver in animals were created in the experimental laboratory conditions. 14 days after the operation, all animals were subjected to ultrasound examination of the surgical intervention zones by using the Toshiba Aplio 400 scanners (Japan with a 3,5–8 MHz convection sensor. In a natural study, the size, structure and echogenicity of the focus were assessed, the degree of vascularization, the evenness and clarity of the contours were determined. When performing post contrast ultrasound, the time of the onset of contrast enhancement, the total duration of contrast, the changes in the contrast enhancement of the focus in different phases of the study were measured, the dimensions of the focus were measured, and the evenness and acuity of contours were measured. For histological examination, liver fragments and lungs were used. 

  11. Genesis of petroduric and petrocalcic horizons in Latinamerica volcanic soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quantin, Paul

    2010-05-01

    Introduction. In Latinamerica, from Mexico to Chile, there are indurated volcanic soils horizons, named 'tepetate' in Mexico or cangahua in the Andes Mountains. Apart from original volcanic tuffs, these horizons were produced by pedogenesis: either through a former weathering of volcanic ash layers into fragic and later to petrocalcic horizons; or after a former soil formation through a second process of transformation from clayey volcanic soils to silicified petroduric horizons. This oral presentation will briefly deal with the formation of petroduric horizons in Mexico and petrocalcic horizon in Ecuador. Petroduric horizon genesis in Mexico. A soil climato-toposequence, near to Veracruz (Rossignol & Quantin, 1997), shows downwards an evolution from a ferralic Nitisol to a petroduric Durisol. A Durisol profile comports these successive horizons: at the top A and Eg, then columnar Btg-sim, laminar Bt-sim , prismatic Bsim, plinthite Cg, over andesite lava flow. Among its main features are especially recorded: clay mineralogy, microscopy and HRTEM. These data show: an increase in cristobalite at the expenses of 0.7 nm halloysite in Egsiltans, laminar Bt-sim, around or inside the columns or prisms of Btg-sim and Bsimhorizons. HRTEM (Elsass & al 2000) on ultra thin sections reveals an 'epigenesis' of clay sheets by amorphous silica, to form successively A-opal, Ct-opal and microcrystalline cristobalite. From these data and some groundwater chemical analyses, a scenario of duripan formation from a past clayey Nitisol is inferred: clay eluviation-illuviation process? alternate redoximorphy? clay degradation, Al leaching and Si accumulation, to form successively A-opal, Ct-opal and cristobalite. Petrocalcic horizon genesis in Ecuador. A soil climato-toposequence on pyroclastic flows, near to Bolivar in Ecuador (Quantin & Zebrowski, 1997), shows downwards the evolution from fragic-eutric-vitric Cambisols to petrocalcic-vitric Phaeozems, at the piedmont under semi

  12. The genesis and presentation of anxiety in disorders of autonomic overexcitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Andrew P; Low, David A; Iodice, Valeria; Critchley, Hugo D; Mathias, Christopher J

    2017-03-01

    We investigated the genesis and presentation of previously-reported anxiety in disorders of autonomic overexcitation in relation to interoception, body vigilance and trauma to test our hypothesis that patients with the postural tachycardia syndrome (PoTS), vasovagal syncope (VVS) and essential hyperhidrosis (EH) represent atypical anxiety phenotypes in whom affective symptoms are more related to apprehension and vigilance of physiological (interoceptive) feedback than neurotic or trauma-related factors. The Anxiety Sensitivity Index, Body Vigilance Scale, Self-consciousness Scale, Childhood Traumatic Events Scale and heartbeat tracking tasks were completed by 23 healthy controls, 21 PoTS, 20 EH and 20 VVS patients. Interoceptive accuracy (IA) was assessed during supine rest (9min), isometric exercise (3min), cold pressor (90s) and head up tilt (HUT) (9min). In comparison to controls, PoTS, VVS and EH patients reported increased symptoms of somatic anxiety but not of social anxiety/self-consciousness or trauma. Autonomic patients' IA was diminished and consistently underestimated even during autonomic arousal compared to controls. Controls and EH IA negatively correlated with somatic anxiety/hypervigilance, whereas PoTS and VVS IA and somatic anxiety/vigilance positively correlated. Affective symptoms in PoTS, VVS and EH appear to be driven by anxiety and vigilance of physical sensations/symptoms, rather than trauma or neurosis. Increased somatic vigilance/anxiety in PoTS and VVS may be due to interoception being anxiogenic in these cohorts. Diminished interoception may be due to a common central dysregulation, as both sudomotor and cardiovascular forms of autonomic dysfunction had comparable IA deficits. These findings provide a possible therapeutic pathway for psychological symptoms in PoTS, VVS and EH. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Exploring tumor heterogeneity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fessler, E.

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is a heterogeneous disease, which is reflected both on the cellular and the population level. Advances in detection, diagnosis, and treatment of malignancies have increased survival time of cancer patients; yet, the heterogeneity observed within and between tumors complicates accurate

  14. Tropical cyclone genesis in the Southern Hemisphere and its relationship with the ENSO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuleshov, Y.; Qi, L. [Australian Bureau of Meteorology, Melbourne, VIC (Australia). National Climate Centre; Chane Ming, F.; Chouaibou, I.; Hoareau, C. [UMR CNRS-Meteo-France-Univ. de la Reunion, La Reunion (France). Lab. de l' Atmosphere et des Cyclones; Roux, F. [Paul Sabatier Univ., CNRS, Toulouse (France). Lab. d' Aerologie

    2009-07-01

    Tropical cyclogenesis climatology over the South Indian and South Pacific Oceans has been developed using a new tropical cyclone (TC) archive for the Southern Hemisphere, and changes in geographical distribution of areas favourable for TC genesis related to changes in the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phases have been investigated. To explain these changes, large-scale environmental variables which influence TC genesis and development such as sea surface temperatures (SSTs), relative humidity in mid-troposphere, vertical wind shear and lower tropospheric vorticity have been examined. In the South Indian Ocean, reduction of TC genesis in the western part of the basin and its increase in the eastern part as well as displacement of the area favourable for TC genesis further away from the equator during La Nina events compared to El Nino events can be explained by changes in geographical distribution of relative humidity and vorticity across the basin as primary contributors; positive anomalies of SSTs observed during La Nina seasons in the eastern part of the basin additionally contribute to enhanced cyclogenesis near the Western Australia. In the South Pacific Ocean, changes in geographical distribution of relative humidity and vorticity appear to be the key large-scale environmental factors responsible for enhanced TC genesis in the eastern (western) part of the basin as well as for the northeast (southwest) shift of points of cyclogenesis during El Nino (La Nina) events, with vertical wind shear and SSTs as additional contributing large-scale environmental variables. (orig.)

  15. GENESIS OF A PRIMARY SCHOOL TEACHER TRAINING IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inna Khyzhnyak

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The genesis of primary school teachers training problem in Ukraine is described in the article. Based on the deep study of historical, scientific and methodological literature, author finds out that researchers in the field of primary education approached differently to the periodization of primary school teachers training and that the formation of this system takes place within the overall development degree of education in Ukraine, so first of all it should be based on the main stages of its development. Guided with the aim to submit the own periods of this process, the author puts forward the idea that the source of its origin should be seen in the establishment of fraternal schools in the seventeenth century where the first practical primary school teachers training was implemented. The article details the compliance of the major milestones of the primary school teachers’ training process of education degree development phase in Ukraine and historical realities of the formation of the specialists in modern system of primary education professional training, highlighted in the national scientific exploration. Integrating existing approaches to periodization of the training primary school teachers national system and based on modern scholars’ researches, the author singles out the following chronological stages based on their importance and contribution to training primary school teachers in Ukraine propaedeutic – the stage of the national professional primary school teacher training nascence (1620 – the first half of the nineteenth century; initial – phase of theoretical and methodological development of the primary schools teachers training principles (the second half of the nineteenth century – 1927; base – stage of the founding primary school teachers training faculties in colleges and universities of Ukraine (1928 – 1970; modernization – the stage of improving the primary school teachers training system under the

  16. Cosmological matching conditions and galilean genesis in Horndeski's theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishi, Sakine; Kobayashi, Tsutomu [Department of Physics, Rikkyo University, Toshima, Tokyo, 175-8501 (Japan); Tanahashi, Norihiro [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (IPMU), The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba, 277-8568 (Japan); Yamaguchi, Masahide, E-mail: sakine_n@rikkyo.ac.jp, E-mail: tsutomu@rikkyo.ac.jp, E-mail: norihiro.tanahashi@ipmu.jp, E-mail: gucci@phys.titech.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, 152-8551 (Japan)

    2014-03-01

    We derive the cosmological matching conditions for the homogeneous and isotropic background and for linear perturbations in Horndeski's most general second-order scalar-tensor theory. In general relativity, the matching is done in such a way that the extrinsic curvature is continuous across the transition hypersurface. This procedure is generalized so as to incorporate the mixing of scalar and gravity kinetic terms in the field equations of Horndeski's theory. Our matching conditions have a wide range of applications including the galilean genesis and the bounce scenarios, in which stable, null energy condition violating solutions play a central role. We demonstrate how our matching conditions are used in the galilean genesis scenario. In doing so, we extend the previous genesis models and provide a unified description of the theory admitting the solution that starts expanding from the Minkowski spacetime.

  17. On the variability of projected tropical cyclone genesis in GCM ensembles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Chattopadhyay

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The development of projections for changes in the genesis of tropical cyclones (TCs for a changed climate is explored in this article using outputs from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project: Phase 3 (CMIP3 models. In this study, we explore how the projected change in the genesis frequency of TCs strongly depends upon the selection of models used in the ensemble. Results from 16 CMIP3 models are analysed and validated against the National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP and European Centre for Medium Range Weather forecast re-analysis at 40 km (ERA40 reanalysis and an ensemble mean of TC genesis diagnostics is calculated using the CMIP3 models. The response of these models to a future climate using the IPCC A2 scenario is also studied in the context of selecting models to calculate an ensemble mean.

  18. Heterogeneous cellular networks

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Rose Qingyang

    2013-01-01

    A timely publication providing coverage of radio resource management, mobility management and standardization in heterogeneous cellular networks The topic of heterogeneous cellular networks has gained momentum in industry and the research community, attracting the attention of standardization bodies such as 3GPP LTE and IEEE 802.16j, whose objectives are looking into increasing the capacity and coverage of the cellular networks. This book focuses on recent progresses,  covering the related topics including scenarios of heterogeneous network deployment, interference management i

  19. The B cell antigen receptor and overexpression of MYC can cooperate in the genesis of B cell lymphomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosef Refaeli

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A variety of circumstantial evidence from humans has implicated the B cell antigen receptor (BCR in the genesis of B cell lymphomas. We generated mouse models designed to test this possibility directly, and we found that both the constitutive and antigen-stimulated state of a clonal BCR affected the rate and outcome of lymphomagenesis initiated by the proto-oncogene MYC. The tumors that arose in the presence of constitutive BCR differed from those initiated by MYC alone and resembled chronic B cell lymphocytic leukemia/lymphoma (B-CLL, whereas those that arose in response to antigen stimulation resembled large B-cell lymphomas, particularly Burkitt lymphoma (BL. We linked the genesis of the BL-like tumors to antigen stimulus in three ways. First, in reconstruction experiments, stimulation of B cells by an autoantigen in the presence of overexpressed MYC gave rise to BL-like tumors that were, in turn, dependent on both MYC and the antigen for survival and proliferation. Second, genetic disruption of the pathway that mediates signaling from the BCR promptly killed cells of the BL-like tumors as well as the tumors resembling B-CLL. And third, growth of the murine BL could be inhibited by any of three distinctive immunosuppressants, in accord with the dependence of the tumors on antigen-induced signaling. Together, our results provide direct evidence that antigenic stimulation can participate in lymphomagenesis, point to a potential role for the constitutive BCR as well, and sustain the view that the constitutive BCR gives rise to signals different from those elicited by antigen. The mouse models described here should be useful in exploring further the pathogenesis of lymphomas, and in preclinical testing of new therapeutics.

  20. Gap Junctions Contribute to Ictal/Interictal Genesis in Human Hypothalamic Hamartomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Wu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Human hypothalamic hamartoma (HH is a rare subcortical lesion associated with treatment-resistant epilepsy. Cellular mechanisms responsible for epileptogenesis are unknown. We hypothesized that neuronal gap junctions contribute to epileptogenesis through synchronous activity within the neuron networks in HH tissue. We studied surgically resected HH tissue with Western-blot analysis, immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy, biocytin microinjection of recorded HH neurons, and microelectrode patch clamp recordings with and without pharmacological blockade of gap junctions. Normal human hypothalamus tissue was used as a control. Western blots showed increased expression of both connexin-36 (Cx36 and connexin-43 (Cx43 in HH tissue compared with normal human mammillary body tissue. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that Cx36 and Cx43 are expressed in HH tissue, but Cx36 was mainly expressed within neuron clusters while Cx43 was mainly expressed outside of neuron clusters. Gap-junction profiles were observed between small HH neurons with electron microscopy. Biocytin injection into single recorded small HH neurons showed labeling of adjacent neurons, which was not observed in the presence of a neuronal gap-junction blocker, mefloquine. Microelectrode field recordings from freshly resected HH slices demonstrated spontaneous ictal/interictal-like discharges in most slices. Bath-application of gap-junction blockers significantly reduced ictal/interictal-like discharges in a concentration-dependent manner, while not affecting the action-potential firing of small gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA neurons observed with whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from the same patient's HH tissue. These results suggest that neuronal gap junctions between small GABAergic HH neurons participate in the genesis of epileptic-like discharges. Blockade of gap junctions may be a new therapeutic strategy for controlling seizure activity in HH patients.

  1. Converging Future Internet, “Things”, and Big Data: An Specification Following NovaGenesis Model

    OpenAIRE

    Alberti, Antonio Marcos; dos Reis, Eduardo Souza; Rosa Righi, Rodrigo da; Muñoz, Víctor Méndez; Chang, Victor

    2016-01-01

    The convergence of Internet of “things” (IoT) with big data platforms and cloud computing is already happening. However, the vast majority, if not all the proposals are based on the current Internet technologies. The convergence of IoT, big data and cloud in “clean slate” architectures is an unexplored topic. In this article, we discuss this convergence considering the viewpoint of a “clean slate” proposal called NovaGenesis. We specify a set of NovaGenesis services to publish sensor device’s...

  2. Improved Heterogeneous Distance Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, D. R.; Martinez, T. R.

    1996-01-01

    Instance-based learning techniques typically handle continuous and linear input values well, but often do not handle nominal input attributes appropriately. The Value Difference Metric (VDM) was designed to find reasonable distance values between nominal attribute values, but it largely ignores continuous attributes, requiring discretization to map continuous values into nominal values. This paper proposes three new heterogeneous distance functions, called the Heterogeneous Value Difference M...

  3. Scalable and fast heterogeneous molecular simulation with predictive parallelization schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Horacio V.; Junghans, Christoph; Kremer, Kurt; Stuehn, Torsten

    2017-11-01

    Multiscale and inhomogeneous molecular systems are challenging topics in the field of molecular simulation. In particular, modeling biological systems in the context of multiscale simulations and exploring material properties are driving a permanent development of new simulation methods and optimization algorithms. In computational terms, those methods require parallelization schemes that make a productive use of computational resources for each simulation and from its genesis. Here, we introduce the heterogeneous domain decomposition approach, which is a combination of an heterogeneity-sensitive spatial domain decomposition with an a priori rearrangement of subdomain walls. Within this approach, the theoretical modeling and scaling laws for the force computation time are proposed and studied as a function of the number of particles and the spatial resolution ratio. We also show the new approach capabilities, by comparing it to both static domain decomposition algorithms and dynamic load-balancing schemes. Specifically, two representative molecular systems have been simulated and compared to the heterogeneous domain decomposition proposed in this work. These two systems comprise an adaptive resolution simulation of a biomolecule solvated in water and a phase-separated binary Lennard-Jones fluid.

  4. Genesis of ion-adsorption type REE ores in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanematsu, K.; Yoshiaki, K.; Watanabe, Y.

    2012-04-01

    Ion-adsorption type REE deposits, which have been economically mined only in southern China, are predominant supply sources for HREE in the world. The ore bodies consist of weathered granites called ion-adsorption ores. The majority of REE (>50 %) are electrostatically adsorbed onto weathering products in the ores and they can be extracted by ion exchange using an electrolyte solution (e.g., ammonium sulfate solution). Recently the occurrences of ion-adsorption ores have been reported in Indochina, SE Asia. In this study, we discuss geochemical and mineralogical characteristics of parent granites and weathered granites in Thailand in order to reveal the genesis of ion-adsorption ores. Permo-Triassic and Cretaceous-Paleogene granite plutons are distributed from northern Thailand to western Indonesia through eastern Myanmar and Peninsular Malaysia. They are mostly ilmenite-series calcalkaline biotite or hornblende-biotite granites. REE contents of the granites range from 60 to 600 ppm and they are relatively high in Peninsula Thailand. REE-bearing minerals consist mainly of apatite, zircon, allanite, titanite, monazite and xenotime. Some I-type granites contain REE fluorocarbonate (probably synchysite-(Ce)) in cavities and cracks in feldspars and it is the dominant source of REE for ion-adsorption ores because the fluorocarbonate is easily soluble during weathering. In contrast, insoluble monazite and xenotime are not preferable for ion-adsorption ores although they are common ore minerals of placer REE deposits. Weathered granites show REE contents ranging from 60 to 1100 ppm in Thailand because REE are relatively immobile compared with mobile elements (e.g., Na, K, Ca). In the weathered granites, REE are contained in residual minerals and secondary minerals and are adsorbed onto the surface of weathering products. A weathering profile of granite with ion-adsorption type mineralization can be divided into upper and lower parts based on REE enrichment and Ce

  5. Cellulose Acetate Replica Cleaning Study of Genesis Non-Flight Sample 3CZ00327

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlman, K. R.; Schmeling, M.; Gonzalez, C. P.; Allton, J. H.; Burnett, D. S.

    2014-01-01

    The Genesis mission collected solar wind and brought it back to Earth in order to provide precise knowledge of solar isotopic and elemental compositions. The ions in the solar wind were stopped in the collectors at depths on the order of 10 to a few hundred nanometers. This shallow implantation layer is critical for scientific analysis of the composition of the solar wind and must be preserved throughout sample handling, cleaning, processing, distribution, preparation and analysis. We are working interactively with the community of scientists analyzing Genesis samples, using our unique laboratory facilities -- and, where needed, our unique cleaning techniques -- to significantly enhance the science return from the Genesis mission. This work is motivated by the need to understand the submicron contamination on the collectors in the Genesis payload as recovered from the crash site in the Utah desert, and -- perhaps more importantly -- how to remove it. That is, we are evaluating the effectiveness of the wet-chemical "cleaning" steps used by various investigators, to enable them to design improved methods of stripping terrestrial contamination from surfaces while still leaving the solar-wind signal intact.

  6. ClasSoil Genesis in Volcanic Areas of the Jos Plateau, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to explain the genesis of soils formed in the volcanic areas of the Jos Plateau, Nigeria. Ten soil profile pits, representing the various landscape segments of a typical volcano and a lava plain, were dug, described and sampled for physical, chemical and mineralogical analyses. The results show ...

  7. Redesigning Task Sequences to Support Instrumental Genesis in the Use of Movable Points and Slider Bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahlgren, Maria

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the process of instrumental genesis through which students develop their proficiency in making use of movable points and slider bars--two tools that dynamic mathematics software provides for working with variable coordinates and parameters in the field of functions. The paper analyses students' responses to task sequences…

  8. Re-interpreting Genesis 34 in the Light of Religious Violence in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Religion plays significant roles in social harmony, yet it also serves as a motivation for violence. In Nigeria, religion has been at the centre of most violent conflicts, thereby gaining notoriety as one of the prime security challenges confronting the country. Genesis 34 is an important chapter in the Old Testament Bible.

  9. Genesis 2–3 and Alcibiades's speech in Plato's Symposium: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-08-26

    Aug 26, 2015 ... language. Read online: Scan this QR code with your smart phone or mobile device to read online. Introduction. Genesis 2–3 is of central importance for the anthropology of the Old Testament: It describes in dramatic fashion the creation and fall of humans, using selectively language and images with a.

  10. God's Holy Spirit: A back-story from the Joseph narrative (Genesis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With the help of the philosopher/theorist Mikhail Bakhtin, the narrated experience of the character in seven scenes is examined for evidence of Judah's journey of transformation – presumably guided by God's widening and inspiring Spirit, with special attention given to the scene (Genesis 44) where Judah must persuade his ...

  11. Post-Disaster Image Processing for Damage Analysis Using GENESI-DR, WPS and Grid Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Pappalardo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the two year Ground European Network for Earth Science Interoperations-Digital Repositories (GENESI-DR project was to build an open and seamless access service to Earth science digital repositories for European and world-wide science users. In order to showcase GENESI-DR, one of the developed technology demonstrators focused on fast search, discovery, and access to remotely sensed imagery in the context of post-disaster building damage assessment. This paper describes the scenario and implementation details of the technology demonstrator, which was developed to support post-disaster damage assessment analyst activities. Once a disaster alert has been issued, response time is critical to providing relevant damage information to analysts and/or stakeholders. The presented technology demonstrator validates the GENESI-DR project data search, discovery and security infrastructure and integrates the rapid urban area mapping and the near real-time orthorectification web processing services to support a post-disaster damage needs assessment analysis scenario. It also demonstrates how the GENESI-DR SOA can be linked to web processing services that access grid computing resources for fast image processing and use secure communication to ensure confidentiality of information.

  12. Challenges and Implications of Genesis 2:18 – 24 on Same-Sex ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper examined biblical marriage from the perspective of Genesis 2:18. The text established the divine institution and order for marriage which is simply expressed in a man and woman union. Other implications of this sacred union were glaringly elucidated through the hermeneutical study and literary analysis of some ...

  13. Genesis of iron-apatite ores in Posht-e-Badam Block (central Iran ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 122; Issue 3. Genesis of iron-apatite ores in Posht-e-Badam Block (central ... On the other hand, they are comparable to the REE patterns of apatites in Kiruna-type iron ores in different parts of the world. The REE patterns of apatites, iron-apatite ores and iron ores ...

  14. PSYCHOANALYTIC INTERPRETATION OF JUSTICE IN CONTEXT OF PROBLEMS OF TECHNO-GENESIS (Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Mushinskij

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Carl Gustav Jung, Erich Fromm, Karen Horney, Jacques Lacan, Gilles Deleuze, Felix Guattari continue to develop a psychoanalytic theory of Freud under modern conditions. They investigate archetypes of unconscious which are linked with up-to-date conception of Justice. Ethics of psychoanalysis interprets the category of Justice from humanistic positions in the context of the techno-genesis processes.

  15. De interpretatie van Genesis 4,6-7 in de Septuaginta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiten, Jacques van; Welzen/P.H.M.,

    1998-01-01

    Jacques van Ruiten, “De interpretatie van Genesis 4,6-7 in de Septuaginta,” in Exegeten aan het werk: Vertalen en interpreteren van de Bijbel: Opstellen van leden van het Bijbels Werkgenootschap St. Hiëronymus (ed. P.H.M. Welzen et al.; ’s-Hertogenbosch: Katholieke Bijbelstichting; Brugge:

  16. PSYCHOANALYTIC INTERPRETATION OF JUSTICE IN CONTEXT OF PROBLEMS OF TECHNO-GENESIS (Part II)

    OpenAIRE

    N. I. Mushinskij

    2009-01-01

    Carl Gustav Jung, Erich Fromm, Karen Horney, Jacques Lacan, Gilles Deleuze, Felix Guattari continue to develop a psychoanalytic theory of Freud under modern conditions. They investigate archetypes of unconscious which are linked with up-to-date conception of Justice. Ethics of psychoanalysis interprets the category of Justice from humanistic positions in the context of the techno-genesis processes.

  17. Landscape formation and soil genesis in volcanic parent materials in humid tropical lowlands of Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuyse, A.

    1996-01-01


    The influence of volcanism on landscape genesis, and formation of soils on volcanic parent material was studied in the Atlantic lowland of Costs Rica. This lowland is a subduction basin of tectonic origin, in which thick alluvial and marine sediments are accumulated. At its southwestern

  18. Influences of sea surface temperature in the tropical Pacific and Indian Oceans on tropical cyclone genesis over the western North Pacific in May

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huangfu, Jingliang; Chen, Wen; Ma, Tianjiao; Huang, Ronghui

    2017-11-01

    This study investigated the effects of sea surface temperature (SST) in different tropical regions on tropical cyclone (TC) genesis over the western North Pacific (WNP) in May. The results revealed that positive SST anomalies over the tropical Pacific (Indian) Ocean in March may lead to increased (decreased) numbers of TCs over the WNP in May by affecting the atmospheric circulation anomalies over the WNP. Warmer SSTs over the tropical Pacific Ocean (TPO) may lead to stronger low-level southwesterly winds and enhanced convection. However, warmer SSTs over the tropical Indian Ocean (TIO) may enhance the western part of the western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH) and suppress convection. Further analysis suggests that changes in the atmospheric circulation anomalies over the WNP are related to changes in environmental factors. Concomitantly with the positive SST anomalies over the TPO, a favorable environment for TC genesis in May is present, with stronger low-level relative vorticity and upper-level divergence, smaller vertical wind shear and abundant water vapor. In contrast, the positive SST anomalies over the TIO might lead to an unfavorable environment for TC genesis over the WNP. This study also investigated the joint contributions of the TPO and TIO, and the results indicate that positive SST anomalies over the TPO and negative SST anomalies over the TIO may lead to an increased number of TC geneses. The analysis of the energy budget suggests that the joint activity of the TPO and TIO influences the barotropic eddy kinetic energy conversions and is mainly attributed to the contributions from the meridional shear of the mean zonal winds and the zonal wind convergence.

  19. Green heterogeneous wireless networks

    CERN Document Server

    Ismail, Muhammad; Nee, Hans-Peter; Qaraqe, Khalid A; Serpedin, Erchin

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on the emerging research topic "green (energy efficient) wireless networks" which has drawn huge attention recently from both academia and industry. This topic is highly motivated due to important environmental, financial, and quality-of-experience (QoE) considerations. Specifically, the high energy consumption of the wireless networks manifests in approximately 2% of all CO2 emissions worldwide. This book presents the authors’ visions and solutions for deployment of energy efficient (green) heterogeneous wireless communication networks. The book consists of three major parts. The first part provides an introduction to the "green networks" concept, the second part targets the green multi-homing resource allocation problem, and the third chapter presents a novel deployment of device-to-device (D2D) communications and its successful integration in Heterogeneous Networks (HetNets). The book is novel in that it specifically targets green networking in a heterogeneous wireless medium, which re...

  20. Tropical cyclone genesis in the Southern Hemisphere and its relationship with the ENSO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Kuleshov

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Tropical cyclogenesis climatology over the South Indian and South Pacific Oceans has been developed using a new tropical cyclone (TC archive for the Southern Hemisphere, and changes in geographical distribution of areas favourable for TC genesis related to changes in the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO phases have been investigated. To explain these changes, large-scale environmental variables which influence TC genesis and development such as sea surface temperatures (SSTs, relative humidity in mid-troposphere, vertical wind shear and lower tropospheric vorticity have been examined. In the South Indian Ocean, reduction of TC genesis in the western part of the basin and its increase in the eastern part as well as displacement of the area favourable for TC genesis further away from the equator during La Niña events compared to El Niño events can be explained by changes in geographical distribution of relative humidity and vorticity across the basin as primary contributors; positive anomalies of SSTs observed during La Niña seasons in the eastern part of the basin additionally contribute to enhanced cyclogenesis near the Western Australia. In the South Pacific Ocean, changes in geographical distribution of relative humidity and vorticity appear to be the key large-scale environmental factors responsible for enhanced TC genesis in the eastern (western part of the basin as well as for the northeast (southwest shift of points of cyclogenesis during El Niño (La Niña events, with vertical wind shear and SSTs as additional contributing large-scale environmental variables.

  1. Possible relationship between NAO and tropical cyclone genesis frequency in the western North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jae-Won; Cha, Yumi

    2017-03-01

    This study examined a strong positive correlation between the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index during June and the total tropical cyclone (TC) genesis frequency in the western North Pacific during July and August. To investigate a possible cause for this relation, the mean difference between highest positive NAO years and lowest negative NAO years was analyzed by dividing into when the El Niño and La Niña years were included and when the El Niño and La Niña years were not included. When the El Niño and La Niña years were included, for positive NAO years, the TCs mostly occurred in the northwestern region of tropical and subtropical western Pacific, and showed a pattern that migrate from the sea northeast of the Philippines, pass the East China Sea, and move toward the mid-latitudes of East Asia. In contrast, for negative NAO years, the TCs mostly occurred in the southeastern region of tropical and subtropical western Pacific, and showed a pattern that migrate westward from the sea southeast of the Philippines, pass the South China Sea, and move toward the southern coast of China and Indochinese peninsula. These two different TC migration patterns affect the recurving location of TC, and for positive NAO years, the recurving of TC was averagely found to take place in the further northeast. In addition, the migration patterns also affect the TC intensity, and the TCs of positive NAO years had stronger intensity than the TCs of negative NAO years as sufficient energy can be absorbed from the ocean while moving north in the mid-latitudes of East Asia. The TCs of negative NAO years showed weak intensity as they weaken or disappear shortly while landing on the southern coast of China and Indochinese peninsula. On the other hand, the above result of analysis is also similarly observed when the El Niño and La Niña years were not included.

  2. Isotopes in heterogeneous catalysis

    CERN Document Server

    Hargreaves, Justin SJ

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to review the current, state-of-the-art application of isotopic methods to the field of heterogeneous catalysis. Isotopic studies are arguably the ultimate technique in in situ methods for heterogeneous catalysis. In this review volume, chapters have been contributed by experts in the field and the coverage includes both the application of specific isotopes - Deuterium, Tritium, Carbon-14, Sulfur-35 and Oxygen-18 - as well as isotopic techniques - determination of surface mobility, steady state transient isotope kinetic analysis, and positron emission profiling.

  3. Source-Related Chemical and Isotopic Heterogeneities in Granitoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helps, P. A.; Clemens, J. D.; Petford, N.

    2004-05-01

    A survey of a large number of post-orogenic plutons, shows that regional-scale, intraplutonic isotope heterogeneities (initial 87Sr/86Sr and/or eNd) are common in crustally derived granitic rocks. This is to be expected since the source materials, from which the granitic magmas were created by partial melting, are themselves heterogeneous. If we accept that granitic magmas can ascend rapidly along dykes then there must be potential for the preservation of source-inherited isotopic heterogeneities. However, their preservation will depend on the extent of subsequent homogenisation processes, such as diffusion and convective mixing, occurring in the magma chambers. Two granitic intrusions from the UK are selected to show examples of isotopically and chemically heterogeneous granitoids. We are obtaining high-precision geochemical and isotopic (Sr, Nd, and O) data for spatially well constrained samples, to study the scales over which isotope heterogeneities are preserved, and the maximum volumes of magma over which isotope and elemental homogenisation may have been achieved. This information will provide important constraints on the physical and chemical characteristics of processes that occur during magma genesis, ascent, and emplacement. The Criffell pluton in the Southern Uplands of Scotland has previously been shown to be isotopically heterogeneous on the regional scale, with initial 87Sr/86Sr varying from 0.70521 to 0.70728, generally increasing inwards towards the centre of the pluton. This was interpreted as preservation of heterogeneity inherited from the magma source. Isotope data from our study reveal 87Sr/86Sr and eNd homogeneity on the decametre to the 100 m scale, suggesting a minimum scale over which homogenisation (mixing) was achieved. Alternatively, this scale represents the size of a single isotopically distinct batch of magma, within a pluton composed of many such batches. In contrast, the Dartmoor granite (SW Britain) shows marked variation in

  4. Social support among heterogeneous partners : an experimental test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogt, Sonja; Weesie, Jeroen

    2006-01-01

    This paper studies how dyadic social support is affected by heterogeneity of the partners.We distinguish heterogeneity with respect to three parameters: the likelihood of needing support; the benefits from receiving support; and the costs of providing support. Hypotheses are based on a

  5. Heterogeneity and option pricing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benninga, Simon; Mayshar, Joram

    2000-01-01

    An economy with agents having constant yet heterogeneous degrees of relative risk aversion prices assets as though there were a single decreasing relative risk aversion pricing representative agent. The pricing kernel has fat tails and option prices do not conform to the Black-Scholes formula.

  6. Why does heterogeneity matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.B. Pierce

    2007-01-01

    This is a review of the book "Ecosystem function in heterogeneous landscapes" published in 2005. The authors are G. Lovett, C. Jones, M.G. Turner, and K.C. Weathers. It was published by Springer, New York. The book is a synthesis of the 10th Gary conference held at the Institute of Ecosystem Studies in Millbrook, New York, in 2003.

  7. Heterogeneous chromium catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2005-01-01

    The present invention relates to a heterogeneous chromium catalyst system for the polymerisation of ethylene and/or alpha olefins prepared by the steps of: (a) providing a silica-containing support, (b) treating the silica-containing support with a chromium compound to form a chromium-based

  8. Receiver Heterogeneity Helps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kovács, Erika R.; Pedersen, Morten Videbæk; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani

    2014-01-01

    Heterogeneity amongst devices and desired service are commonly seen as a source of additional challenges for setting up an efficient multi-layer multicast service. In particular, devices requiring only the base layer can become a key bottleneck to the performance for other devices. This paper...

  9. Heterogeneity of Intellectual Assets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlgren, Johan Henrich; Lund Jensen, Rasmus; Valentin, Finn

    2004-01-01

    This paper deals with methodological issues of assessing the composition and level ofheterogeneity of firms' intellectual assets. It develops an original metric - referred to asthe H-index - for measuring heterogeneity using data extracted from patent documents.The main purpose is to improve...

  10. Quantifying hidden individual heterogeneity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Ulrich; Lenart, Adam; Vaupel, James W.

    Aging is assumed to be driven by the accumulation of damage or some other aging factor which shapes demographic patterns, including the classical late age mortality plateaus. However to date, heterogeneity in these damage stages is not observed. Here, we estimate underlying stage distributions...

  11. Heterogeneity of Dutch rainfall

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witter, J.V.

    1984-01-01

    Rainfall data for the Netherlands have been used in this study to investigate aspects of heterogeneity of rainfall, in particular local differences in rainfall levels, time trends in rainfall, and local differences in rainfall trend. The possible effect of urbanization and industrialization on the

  12. Heterogeneous computing in economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dziubinski, Matt P.; Grassi, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    This paper shows the potential of heterogeneous computing in solving dynamic equilibrium models in economics. We illustrate the power and simplicity of C++ Accelerated Massive Parallelism (C++ AMP) recently introduced by Microsoft. Starting from the same exercise as Aldrich et al. (J Econ Dyn...

  13. Genetic heterogeneity in hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porteous, M E; Curtis, A; Williams, O; Marchuk, D; Bhattacharya, S S; Burn, J

    1994-01-01

    A locus causing hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) has recently been mapped to 9q34 in four families and designated HHT1. In this paper, the results of a linkage study showing genetic heterogeneity in four families in whom HHT is segregating are reported. All the previously reported 9q34 linked families contain at least one affected member with a symptomatic pulmonary arteriovenous malformation. We postulate that clinical heterogeneity may also be a feature of HHT with a significantly higher predisposition to symptomatic PAVMs associated with the HHT1 linked families. PMID:7891373

  14. Scales of mantle heterogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J. C.; Akber-Knutson, S.; Konter, J.; Kellogg, J.; Hart, S.; Kellogg, L. H.; Romanowicz, B.

    2004-12-01

    A long-standing question in mantle dynamics concerns the scale of heterogeneity in the mantle. Mantle convection tends to both destroy (through stirring) and create (through melt extraction and subduction) heterogeneity in bulk and trace element composition. Over time, these competing processes create variations in geochemical composition along mid-oceanic ridges and among oceanic islands, spanning a range of scales from extremely long wavelength (for example, the DUPAL anomaly) to very small scale (for example, variations amongst melt inclusions). While geochemical data and seismic observations can be used to constrain the length scales of mantle heterogeneity, dynamical mixing calculations can illustrate the processes and timescales involved in stirring and mixing. At the Summer 2004 CIDER workshop on Relating Geochemical and Seismological Heterogeneity in the Earth's Mantle, an interdisciplinary group evaluated scales of heterogeneity in the Earth's mantle using a combined analysis of geochemical data, seismological data and results of numerical models of mixing. We mined the PetDB database for isotopic data from glass and whole rock analyses for the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) and the East Pacific Rise (EPR), projecting them along the ridge length. We examined Sr isotope variability along the East Pacific rise by looking at the difference in Sr ratio between adjacent samples as a function of distance between the samples. The East Pacific Rise exhibits an overall bowl shape of normal MORB characteristics, with higher values in the higher latitudes (there is, however, an unfortunate gap in sampling, roughly 2000 km long). These background characteristics are punctuated with spikes in values at various locations, some, but not all of which are associated with off-axis volcanism. A Lomb-Scargle periodogram for unevenly spaced data was utilized to construct a power spectrum of the scale lengths of heterogeneity along both ridges. Using the same isotopic systems (Sr, Nd

  15. Endogenous molecular network reveals two mechanisms of heterogeneity within gastric cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Site; Zhu, Xiaomei; Liu, Bingya; Wang, Gaowei; Ao, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Intratumor heterogeneity is a common phenomenon and impedes cancer therapy and research. Gastric cancer (GC) cells have generally been classified into two heterogeneous cellular phenotypes, the gastric and intestinal types, yet the mechanisms of maintaining two phenotypes and controlling phenotypic transition are largely unknown. A qualitative systematic framework, the endogenous molecular network hypothesis, has recently been proposed to understand cancer genesis and progression. Here, a minimal network corresponding to such framework was found for GC and was quantified via a stochastic nonlinear dynamical system. We then further extended the framework to address the important question of intratumor heterogeneity quantitatively. The working network characterized main known features of normal gastric epithelial and GC cell phenotypes. Our results demonstrated that four positive feedback loops in the network are critical for GC cell phenotypes. Moreover, two mechanisms that contribute to GC cell heterogeneity were identified: particular positive feedback loops are responsible for the maintenance of intestinal and gastric phenotypes; GC cell progression routes that were revealed by the dynamical behaviors of individual key components are heterogeneous. In this work, we constructed an endogenous molecular network of GC that can be expanded in the future and would broaden the known mechanisms of intratumor heterogeneity. PMID:25962957

  16. Sequence heterogeneity in Parkinsonian speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, A K; Bradshaw, J L; Cunnington, R; Phillips, J G; Iansek, R

    1998-08-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative movement disorder primarily due to basal ganglia dysfunction. While much research has been conducted on Parkinsonian deficits in the traditional arena of musculoskeletal limb movement, research in other functional motor tasks is lacking. The present study examined articulation in PD with increasingly complex sequences of articulatory movement. Of interest was whether dysfunction would affect articulation in the same manner as in limb-movement impairment. In particular, since very similar (homogeneous) articulatory sequences (the tongue twister effect) are more difficult for healthy individuals to achieve than dissimilar (heterogeneous) gestures, while the reverse may apply for skeletal movements in PD, we asked which factor would dominate when PD patients articulated various grades of artificial tongue twisters: the influence of disease or a possible difference between the two motor systems. Execution was especially impaired when articulation involved a sequence of motor program heterogeneous in terms of place of articulation. The results are suggestive of a hypokinesic tendency in complex sequential articulatory movement as in limb movement. It appears that PD patients do show abnormalities in articulatory movement which are similar to those of the musculoskeletal system. The present study suggests that an underlying disease effect modulates movement impairment across different functional motor systems. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  17. Role of deep crustal fluids in the genesis of intraplate earthquakes in the Kachchh region, northwestern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavan Kumar, G.; Mahesh, P.; Nagar, Mehul; Mahender, E.; Kumar, Virendhar; Mohan, Kapil; Ravi Kumar, M.

    2017-05-01

    Fluids play a prominent role in the genesis of earthquakes, particularly in intraplate settings. In this study, we present evidence for a highly heterogeneous nature of electrical conductivity in the crust and uppermost mantle beneath the Kachchh rift basin of northwestern India, which is host to large, deadly intraplate earthquakes. We interpret our results of high conductive zones inferred from magnetotelluric and 3-D local earthquake tomography investigations in terms of a fluid reservoir in the upper mantle. The South Wagad Fault (SWF) imaged as a near-vertical north dipping low resistivity zone traversing the entire crust and an elongated south dipping conductor demarcating the North Wagad Fault (NWF) serve as conduits for fluid flow from the reservoir to the middle to lower crustal depths. Importantly, the epicentral zone of the 2001 main shock is characterized as a fluid saturated zone at the rooting of NWF onto the SWF.Plain Language SummaryFluids play a significant role in generation of earthquakes in intraplate and interplate settings. However, knowledge of the nature, origin, and localization of crustal fluids in stable continental interiors (intraplate) remains uncertain. The Kachchh rift basin of northwestern India is host to large, deadly intraplate earthquakes like those in 1819 (Mw7.8) and 2001 (Mw7.7). In the present study we carried out extensive geophysical investigations to understand the cause for seismic activity in the region. The study provides the evidence for the presence of fluids in the seismically active intraplate region of northwest India. This study demonstrates that the dynamics of mantle fluids controlled by geological faults could lead to large and moderate-sized earthquakes.

  18. Numerical modeling and analysis of the effect of Greek complex topography on tornado genesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsangouras, I. T.; Pytharoulis, I.; Nastos, P. T.

    2014-02-01

    Tornadoes have been reported in Greece over the last decades in specific sub-geographical areas and have been associated with strong synoptic forcing. It is well known that meteorological conditions over Greece are affected at various scales by the significant variability of topography, the Ionian Sea at the west and the Aegean Sea at the east. However, there is still uncertainty regarding topography's importance on tornadic generation and development. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of topography in significant tornado genesis events that were triggered under strong synoptic scale forcing over Greece. Three tornado events that occurred over the last years in Thiva (Boeotia, 17 November 2007), Vrastema (Chalkidiki, 12 February 2010) and Vlychos (Lefkada, 20 September 2011) have been selected for numerical experiments. These events were associated with synoptic scale forcing, while their intensity was T4-T5 (Torro scale) and caused significant damage. The simulations were performed using the non-hydrostatic Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF), initialized with ECMWF gridded analyses, with telescoping nested grids that allow the representation of atmospheric circulations ranging from the synoptic scale down to the meso scale. In the experiments the topography of the inner grid was modified by: (a) 0% (actual topography) and (b) -100% (without topography). The aim was to determine whether the occurrence of tornadoes - mainly identified by various severe weather instability indices - could be indicated by modifying topography. The main utilized instability variables concerned the Bulk Richardson number shear (BRN), the energy helicity index (EHI), the storm-relative environmental helicity (SRH) and the maximum convective available potential energy (MCAPE, for parcel with maximum theta-e). Additional a verification of model was conducted for every sensitivity experiment accompanied with analysis absolute vorticity budget. Numerical simulations

  19. A stochastic model for tumor heterogeneity

    CERN Document Server

    Simone, Giuseppina

    2015-01-01

    Phenotype variations define heterogeneity of biological and molecular systems, which play a crucial role in several mechanisms. Heterogeneity has been demonstrated in tumor cells. Here, samples from blood of patients affected from colon tumor were analyzed and fished with a microfluidic assay based on galactose active moieties, and incubated, for culturing, in SCID mice. Following the experimental investigation, a model based on Markov theory was implemented and discussed to explain the equilibrium existing between phenotypes of subpopulations of cells sorted using the microfluidic assay. The model in combination with the experimental results had many implications for tumor heterogeneity. It displayed interconversion of phenotypes, as observed after experiments. The interconversion generates of metastatic cells and implies that targeting the CTCs will be not an efficient method to prevent tumor recurrence. Most importantly, understanding the transitions between cell phenotypes in cell population can boost the...

  20. Voice over IP in Wireless Heterogeneous Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fathi, Hanane; Chakraborty, Shyam; Prasad, Ramjee

    with the deployment of wireless heterogeneous systems, both speech and data traffic are carrried over wireless links by the same IP-based packet-switched infrastructure. However, this combination faces some challenges due to the inherent properties of the wireless network. The requirements for good quality VoIP...... communications are difficult to achieve in a time-varying environment due to channel errors and traffic congestion and across different systems. The provision of VoIP in wireless heterogeneous networks requires a set of time-efficient control mechanisms to support a VoIP session with acceptable quality....... The focus of Voice over IP in Wierless Heterogeneous Networks is on mechanisms that affect the VoIP user satisfaction  while not explicitly involved in the media session. This relates to the extra delays introduced by the security and the signaling protocols used to set up an authorized VoIP session...

  1. Cleaning Genesis Mission Payload for Flight with Ultra-Pure Water and Assembly in ISO Class 4 Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allton, Judith H.

    2012-01-01

    Genesis mission to capture and return to Earth solar wind samples had very stringent contamination control requirements in order to distinguish the solar atoms from terrestrial ones. Genesis mission goals were to measure solar composition for most of the periodic table, so great care was taken to avoid particulate contamination. Since the number 1 and 2 science goals were to determine the oxygen and nitrogen isotopic composition, organic contamination was minimized by tightly controlling offgassing. The total amount of solar material captured in two years is about 400 micrograms spread across one sq m. The contamination limit requirement for each of C, N, and O was <1015 atoms/sq cm. For carbon, this is equivalent to 10 ng/cm2. Extreme vigilance was used in pre-paring Genesis collectors and cleaning hardware for flight. Surface contamination on polished silicon wafers, measured in Genesis laboratory is approximately 10 ng/sq cm.

  2. Role of cannabis and endocannabinoids in the genesis of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Espejo, Emilio; Viveros, Maria-Paz; Núñez, Luis; Ellenbroek, Bart A; Rodriguez de Fonseca, Fernando

    2009-11-01

    Cannabis abuse and endocannabinoids are associated to schizophrenia. It is important to discern the association between schizophrenia and exogenous Cannabis sativa, on one hand, and the endogenous cannabinoid system, on the other hand. On one hand, there is substantial evidence that cannabis abuse is a risk factor for psychosis in genetically predisposed people, may lead to a worse outcome of the disease, or it can affect normal brain development during adolescence, increasing the risk for schizophrenia in adulthood. Regarding genetic predisposition, alterations affecting the cannabinoid CNR1 gene could be related to schizophrenia. On the other hand, the endogenous cannabinoid system is altered in schizophrenia (i.e., increased density of cannabinoid CB1 receptor binding in corticolimbic regions, enhanced cerebrospinal fluid anandamide levels), and dysregulation of this system can interact with neurotransmitter systems in such a way that a "cannabinoid hypothesis" can be integrated in the neurobiological hypotheses of schizophrenia. Finally, there is also evidence that some genetic alterations of the CNR1 gene can act as a protectant factor against schizophrenia or can induce a better pharmacological response to atypical antipsychotics. Cannabis abuse is a risk factor for psychosis in predisposed people, it can affect neurodevelopment during adolescence leading to schizophrenia, and a dysregulation of the endocannabinoid system can participate in schizophrenia. It is also worth noting that some specific cannabinoid alterations can act as neuroprotectant for schizophrenia or can be a psychopharmacogenetic rather than a vulnerability factor.

  3. Information and Heterogeneous Beliefs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Ove; Qin, Zhenjiang

    2014-01-01

    In an incomplete market with heterogeneous prior beliefs, we show public information can have a substantial impact on the ex ante cost of capital, trading volume, and investor welfare. The Pareto effcient public information system is the system enjoying the maximum ex ante cost of capital...... ante risk premium is unaffected by the informativeness of the public information system. Similar results are obtained in a production economy, but the impact on the ex ante cost of capital is dampened compared to the exchange economy due to welfare improving reductions in real investments to smooth...... and the maximum expected abnormal trading volume. Imperfect public information increases the gains-to-trade based on heterogeneously updated posterior beliefs. In an exchange economy, this leads to higher growth in the investors' certainty equivalents and, thus, a higher equilibrium interest rate, whereas the ex...

  4. HETEROGENEOUS INTEGRATION TECHNOLOGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-24

    the “product component” is a result of technology push only, it struggles to fit into a conservative system environment . If the “product component...makes the categorization difficult. In a technology push environment , the evolution of technology is easier to track since it starts evolving from a... environmental information. The role of the heterogeneous integration technology for reducing the size and the power consumption of small sensors was studied

  5. Micromechanics of heterogeneous materials

    CERN Document Server

    Buryachenko, Valeriy

    2007-01-01

    Here is an accurate and timely account of micromechanics, which spans materials science, mechanical engineering, applied mathematics, technical physics, geophysics, and biology. The book features rigorous and unified theoretical methods of applied mathematics and statistical physics in the material science of microheterogeneous media. Uniquely, it offers a useful demonstration of the systematic and fundamental research of the microstructure of the wide class of heterogeneous materials of natural and synthetic nature.

  6. Heterogeneous chromium catalysts

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    The present invention relates to a heterogeneous chromium catalyst system for the polymerisation of ethylene and/or alpha olefins prepared by the steps of: (a) providing a silica-containing support, (b) treating the silica-containing support with a chromium compound to form a chromium-based silica-containing support, (c) activating the chromium-based silica-containing support, (d) chemically reducing the activated chromium-based silica-containing support to produce a precursor catalyst, (e) r...

  7. Implications of Heterogeneity in Multiple Myeloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay de Mel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple myeloma is the second most common hematologic malignancy in the world. Despite improvement in outcome, the disease is still incurable for most patients. However, not all myeloma are the same. With the same treatment, some patients can have very long survival whereas others can have very short survival. This suggests that there is underlying heterogeneity in myeloma. Studies over the years have revealed multiple layers of heterogeneity. First, clinical parameters such as age and tumor burden could significantly affect outcome. At the genetic level, there are also significant heterogeneity ranging for chromosome numbers, genetic translocations, and genetic mutations. At the clonal level, there appears to be significant clonal heterogeneity with multiple clones coexisting in the same patient. At the cell differentiation level, there appears to be a hierarchy of clonally related cells that have different clonogenic potential and sensitivity to therapies. These levels of complexities present challenges in terms of treatment and prognostication as well as monitoring of treatment. However, if we can clearly delineate and dissect this heterogeneity, we may also be presented with unique opportunities for precision and personalized treatment of myeloma. Some proof of concepts of such approaches has been demonstrated.

  8. Modeling Ellipsometry Measurements of Molecular Thin-Film Contamination on Genesis Array Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calaway, Michael J.; Stansbery, E. K.; McNamara, K. M.

    2006-01-01

    The discovery of a molecular thin-film contamination on Genesis flown array samples changed the course of preliminary assessment strategies. Analytical techniques developed to measure solar wind elemental abundances must now compensate for a thin-film contamination. Currently, this is done either by experimental cleaning before analyses or by depth-profiling techniques that bypass the surface contamination. Inside Johnson Space Center s Genesis dedicated ISO Class 4 (Class 10) cleanroom laboratory, the selection of collector array fragments allocated for solar wind analyses are based on the documentation of overall surface quality, visible surface particle contamination greater than 1 m, and the amount of thin film contamination measured by spectroscopic ellipsometry. Documenting the exact thickness, surface topography, and chemical composition of these contaminates is also critical for developing accurate cleaning methods. However, the first step in characterization of the molecular film is to develop accurate ellipsometry models that will determine an accurate thickness measurement of the contamination film.

  9. Cleaning Surface Particle Contamination with Ultrapure Water (UPW) Megasonic Flow on Genesis Array Collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allton, J. H.; Calaway, Michael J.; Hittle, J. D.; Rodriquez, M. C.; Stansbery, E. K.; McNamara, K. M.

    2006-01-01

    The hard landing experienced by the Genesis sample return capsule breached the science canister containing the solar wind collectors. This impact into the damp lakebed contaminated collector surfaces with pulverized collector and spacecraft materials and Utah sediment and brine residue. The gold foil, polished aluminum, and bulk metallic glass remained intact, but the solar wind bulk and regime-specific array collectors were jarred loose from their frames and fractured into greater than 10,000 specimens. After a year of investigation and cleaning experimentation, the Genesis Science Team determined that array collectors had 4 classes of contaminants: particles, molecular film, submicron inorganic particulate ("aerosol"), and pre-launch surface contamination. We discuss here use of megasonically energized ultrapure water (UPW) for removing particulate debris from array collector fragments.

  10. Using Image Pro Plus Software to Develop Particle Mapping on Genesis Solar Wind Collector Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriquez, Melissa C.; Allton, J. H.; Burkett, P. J.

    2012-01-01

    The continued success of the Genesis mission science team in analyzing solar wind collector array samples is partially based on close collaboration of the JSC curation team with science team members who develop cleaning techniques and those who assess elemental cleanliness at the levels of detection. The goal of this collaboration is to develop a reservoir of solar wind collectors of known cleanliness to be available to investigators. The heart and driving force behind this effort is Genesis mission PI Don Burnett. While JSC contributes characterization, safe clean storage, and benign collector cleaning with ultrapure water (UPW) and UV ozone, Burnett has coordinated more exotic and rigorous cleaning which is contributed by science team members. He also coordinates cleanliness assessment requiring expertise and instruments not available in curation, such as XPS, TRXRF [1,2] and synchrotron TRXRF. JSC participates by optically documenting the particle distributions as cleaning steps progress. Thus, optical document supplements SEM imaging and analysis, and elemental assessment by TRXRF.

  11. Effects of chronic buproprion and nicotine administration on cell genesis and DNA fragmentation in adult rat dentate gyrus

    OpenAIRE

    Scerri, Charles;

    2006-01-01

    Previous experiments have shown that chronic subcutaneous administration of nicotine dose-dependently inhibits the acquisition and retention of a spatial task in the Morris water maze and reduces cell genesis in the dentate gyrus (DG) of adult rats.1 In the present study, the effects of nicotine and buproprion, an atypical antidepressant used in smoking cessation, on dentate gyrus cell genesis and DNA fragmentation were investigated. The results show that nicotine, chronically infused for 21 ...

  12. Dynamic heterogeneity in life histories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuljapurkar, Shripad; Steiner, Uli; Orzack, Steven Hecht

    2009-01-01

    generate dynamic heterogeneity: life-history differences produced by stochastic stratum dynamics. We characterize dynamic heterogeneity in a range of species across taxa by properties of the Markov chain: the entropy, which describes the extent of heterogeneity, and the subdominant eigenvalue, which...... distributions of lifetime reproductive success. Dynamic heterogeneity contrasts with fixed heterogeneity: unobserved differences that generate variation between life histories. We show by an example that observed distributions of lifetime reproductive success are often consistent with the claim that little...... or no fixed heterogeneity influences this trait. We propose that dynamic heterogeneity provides a 'neutral' model for assessing the possible role of unobserved 'quality' differences between individuals. We discuss fitness for dynamic life histories, and the implications of dynamic heterogeneity...

  13. Comparative study of pedagogical forecasting genesis in Russian and Polish pedagogical education

    OpenAIRE

    MATUSZAK (PRISYAZHNAYA) ALLA FEDOROVNA

    2015-01-01

    The paper describes the genesis of pedagogical forecasting in Russia and Poland in the context of the development of general forecasting theory mainly with the emphasis on pedagogical education. The periods of forecasting theory development (implicit, explicit, institutional, global) are presented. The content of each period viewing Russian and Polish education is described. In the implicit period the first attempts are made to predict educational issues. During the explicit period pedagogica...

  14. Vocabulary Learning in Digital-Game Based Learning Using Sega Genesis Video Games

    OpenAIRE

    Jhon, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Digital game is not only a tool of entertainment, but it can also be used in pedagogical setting, making it an interesting issue of unconventional technology-integrated learning experience. This research aims to explore the respondents' vocabulary learning which mainly focuses on the use of four Sega Genesis video games, within the Digital Game-Based Learning experience. The research was conducted in Binus University which the respondents were 75 non-English departments' students whose BNEPT ...

  15. THE LAKES OF THE TRANSYLVANIAN PLAIN: GENESIS, EVOLUTION AND TERRITORIAL REPARTITION

    OpenAIRE

    Victor SOROCOVSCHI

    2008-01-01

    This article is concerned with the genesis of the Transylvanian Plain lakes’ basins and their evolution in time and space. Natural lakes in this area are reduced in point of their types of geneses (pseudokarst and lanslide lakes) and number. Their evolution in time is quite fast, especially of the pseudokarst lakes. Among the anthropic lakes, the ponds represent the most frequent genetic type, which gives a particular aspect to the landscape of the Transylvanian Plain. They used to be much mo...

  16. The Genesis solar wind sample return mission: Past, present, and future

    OpenAIRE

    Burnett, D. S.

    2013-01-01

    The Genesis Discovery mission returned solar matter in the form of the solar wind with the goal of obtaining precise solar isotopic abundances (for the first time) and greatly improved elemental abundances. Measurements of the light noble gases in regime samples demonstrate that isotopes are fractionated in the solar wind relative to the solar photosphere. Theory is required for correction. Measurement of the solar wind O and N isotopes shows that these are very different from any inner solar...

  17. Hebb and Cattell: The Genesis of the Theory of Fluid and Crystallized Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Richard E.

    2016-01-01

    Raymond B. Cattell is credited with the development of the theory of fluid and crystallized intelligence. The genesis of this theory is, however, vague. Cattell, in different papers, stated that it was developed in 1940, 1941 or 1942. Carroll (1984, Multivariate Behavioral Research, 19, 300-306) noted the similarity of Cattell's theory to ?Hebb's notion of two types of intelligence,? which was presented at the 1941 APA meeting, but the matter has been left at that. Correspondence between Catt...

  18. SOCIAL HISTORY OF ―GOLDEN YOUTH‖: SOCIAL AND HISTORICAL ISSUES OF GENESIS

    OpenAIRE

    V. E. Petrov

    2016-01-01

    The article is an attempt to brief sociological analysis of the social and historical genesis and transformation of the phenomenon of the "golden youth". Based on the methodology of "social history" as the key areas of modern social sciences author explores general and specific features, as well as historically accidental and erroneous to characterize and further scientific analysis of such a complex variety of elites. It is a scientific novelty of the research as integral analyst of social h...

  19. Obesity and osteoarthritis: disease genesis and nonpharmacologic weight management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messier, Stephen P

    2008-08-01

    The mechanisms by which obesity affects osteoarthritis (OA) are of great concern to osteoarthritis researchers and clinicians who manage this disease. Inflammation and joint loads are pathways commonly believed to cause or to exacerbate the disease process. This article reviews the physiologic and mechanical consequences of obesity in older adults who have knee OA, the effects of long-term exercise and weight-loss interventions, the most effective nonpharmacologic treatments for obesity, and the usefulness and feasibility of translating these results to clinical practice.

  20. Genesis Solar Wind Interstream, Coronal Hole and Coronal Mass Ejection Samples: Update on Availability and Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allton, J. H.; Gonzalez, C. P.; Allums, K. K.

    2017-01-01

    Recent refinement of analysis of ACE/SWICS data (Advanced Composition Explorer/Solar Wind Ion Composition Spectrometer) and of onboard data for Genesis Discovery Mission of 3 regimes of solar wind at Earth-Sun L1 make it an appropriate time to update the availability and condition of Genesis samples specifically collected in these three regimes and currently curated at Johnson Space Center. ACE/SWICS spacecraft data indicate that solar wind flow types emanating from the interstream regions, from coronal holes and from coronal mass ejections are elementally and isotopically fractionated in different ways from the solar photosphere, and that correction of solar wind values to photosphere values is non-trivial. Returned Genesis solar wind samples captured very different kinds of information about these three regimes than spacecraft data. Samples were collected from 11/30/2001 to 4/1/2004 on the declining phase of solar cycle 23. Meshik, et al is an example of precision attainable. Earlier high precision laboratory analyses of noble gases collected in the interstream, coronal hole and coronal mass ejection regimes speak to degree of fractionation in solar wind formation and models that laboratory data support. The current availability and condition of samples captured on collector plates during interstream slow solar wind, coronal hole high speed solar wind and coronal mass ejections are de-scribed here for potential users of these samples.

  1. NR2A contributes to genesis and propagation of cortical spreading depression in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Fan; Du, Ruoxing; Li, Yi; Quinn, John P; Wang, Minyan

    2016-01-01

    Cortical spreading depression (CSD) is a transient propagating excitation of synaptic activity followed by depression, which is implicated in migraine. Increasing evidence points to an essential role of NR2A-containing NMDA receptors in CSD propagation in vitro; however, whether these receptors mediate CSD genesis in vivo requires clarification and the role of NR2A on CSD propagation is still under debate. Using in vivo CSD in rats with electrophysiology and in vitro CSD in chick retina with intrinsic optical imaging, we addressed the role of NR2A in CSD. We demonstrated that NVP-AAM077, a potent antagonist for NR2A-containing receptors, perfused through microdialysis probes, markedly reduced cortex susceptibility to CSD, but also reduced magnitude of CSD genesis in rats. Additionally, NVP-AAM077 at 0.3 nmol perfused into the contralateral ventricle, considerably suppressed the magnitude of CSD propagation wave and propagation rate in rats. This reduction in CSD propagation was also observed with TCN-201, a negative allosteric modulator selective for NR2A, at 3 μM, in the chick retina. Our data provides strong evidence that NR2A subunit contributes to CSD genesis and propagation, suggesting drugs selectively antagonizing NR2A-containing receptors might constitute a highly specific strategy treating CSD associated migraine with a likely better safety profile. PMID:27001011

  2. Canavan disease, a rare early-onset human spongiform leukodystrophy: insights into its genesis and possible clinical interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baslow, M H; Guilfoyle, D N

    2013-04-01

    The brain contains high concentrations of the amino acid N-acetyl-l-aspartate (NAA) and its' glutamate adduct N-acetyl-l-aspartylglutamate (NAAG), both synthesized primarily by and stored in neurons. Upon depolarization both are exported to extracellular fluid (ECF) with NAA targeted to oligodendrocytes and NAAG targeted to astrocytes where they are hydrolyzed by specific enzymes. While the functions of these substances are incompletely known, their unique tri-cellular metabolism is apparently vital to normal brain function. Canavan disease (CD) is a globally occurring but rare early-onset human spongiform leukodystrophy associated with inborn genetic errors affecting the activity of aspartoacylase (ASPA), the enzyme highly expressed in oligodendrocytes that hydrolyzes NAA. Several hypotheses attempt to explain how the lack of ASPA activity results in the inability of oligodendrocytes to build or maintain axon-enveloping myelin sheaths, a failure reflected in the CD syndrome by profound neurological disturbances. Based on evidence provided by recent studies, as well as on descriptions of several atypical mild cases of CD and of a singular human case of an inborn error where NAA cannot be synthesized, we provide insights into the possible genesis of the CD syndrome and many of its phenotypic expressions. In this article we also evaluate current hypotheses, and discuss possible clinical interventions that may be of value in treatment of CD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Tumor Heterogeneity in Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turashvili, Gulisa; Brogi, Edi

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease and differs greatly among different patients (intertumor heterogeneity) and even within each individual tumor (intratumor heterogeneity). Clinical and morphologic intertumor heterogeneity is reflected by staging systems and histopathologic classification of breast cancer. Heterogeneity in the expression of established prognostic and predictive biomarkers, hormone receptors, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 oncoprotein is the basis for targeted treatment. Molecular classifications are indicators of genetic tumor heterogeneity, which is probed with multigene assays and can lead to improved stratification into low- and high-risk groups for personalized therapy. Intratumor heterogeneity occurs at the morphologic, genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic levels, creating diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. Understanding the molecular and cellular mechanisms of tumor heterogeneity that are relevant to the development of treatment resistance is a major area of research. Despite the improved knowledge of the complex genetic and phenotypic features underpinning tumor heterogeneity, there has been only limited advancement in diagnostic, prognostic, or predictive strategies for breast cancer. The current guidelines for reporting of biomarkers aim to maximize patient eligibility for targeted therapy, but do not take into account intratumor heterogeneity. The molecular classification of breast cancer is not implemented in routine clinical practice. Additional studies and in-depth analysis are required to understand the clinical significance of rapidly accumulating data. This review highlights inter- and intratumor heterogeneity of breast carcinoma with special emphasis on pathologic findings, and provides insights into the clinical significance of molecular and cellular mechanisms of heterogeneity. PMID:29276709

  4. Engineering aspects of heterogeneous and homogeneous reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickson, Jr, P W

    1977-01-01

    The core arrangement in an LMFBR can potentially affect the lower internals, upper internals, radial shielding, vessel, hot leg transients, head access area and control systems as well as breeding ratio, doubling time and core inventory. This paper describes the results of a study of the impact on these components and parameters that would result if the Clinch River Breeder Reactor were to incorporate a heterogeneous core.

  5. The impact of aquifer heterogeneity on the performance of aquifer thermal energy storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sommer, W.T.; Valstar, J.R.; Gaans, van P.; Grotenhuis, J.T.C.; Rijnaarts, H.

    2013-01-01

    Heterogeneity in hydraulic properties of the subsurface is not accounted for in current design calculations of aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES). However, the subsurface is heterogeneous and thus affects the heat distribution around ATES wells. In this paper, the influence of heterogeneity on

  6. Out-of-Sequence Thrust in the Higher Himalaya- a Review & Possible Genesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, S.; Koyi, H. A.; Talbot, C. J.

    2009-04-01

    OOST is more dominant with migmatites and leucogranites (Searle, 1999; Yin et al., 2006; Carosi et al., 2007; Grujic et al., 2002; Hollister and Grujic, 2006), but the footwall side does contain these rocks (Hodges et al., 1996; Chambers et al., 2008). The thickness of the OOST are 50 m (Carosi et al., 2007), >150 m (Yin et al., 2006), 3-6 km (Searle, 1999) and ~ 1.5 km (Vannay and Hodges, 1996). A number of hypotheses have been put forward to explain the genesis of the OOST. These are (i) a disparity in erosion rates triggered mainly by a spatial variation in the intensity of rainfall (Wobus et al., 2005). (ii) The lower boundary of the channel flow extrusion defined the OOST (Hollister and Grujic, 2006). (iii) As a result of a heterogeneous velocity profile of channel flow extrusion across lithologic discontinuity (Carosi et al., 2007). The granitic melt at depth in some way led to this thrusting (Swapp and Hollister, 1991). Had channel flow been the extrusion mechanism of the Higher Himalaya, the genesis of the OOST might somehow be related to this extrusion. In this work, a channel flow box was prepared and polydimethylsiloxane was used as the model material. A channel flow was generated in the horizontal channel and was allowed to extrude through an inclined channel similar to the Higher Himalaya (Mukherjee, 2007). In different considerations, the walls of the Higher Himalaya are parallel and diverging-up. A late formed blind thrust plane forms at the corner joining the inclined and the horizontal wall and crops to the surface much later to the initiation of channel flow. On the basis of its late arrival to the surface than the channel flow and its relative position in the model Higher Himalaya, the thrust is comparable with the OOST. This means that (i) climatic factors nor lithologic discontinuity were a trigger to the OOST; and (ii) the OOST is a delayed product of channel flow that initiated at a sub-horizontal channel below the Tibetan plateau and extrude the

  7. Reproductive consequences of farmland heterogeneity in little owls (Athene noctua).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Vanja T; Naef-Daenzer, Beat; Keil, Herbert; Grüebler, Martin U

    2017-04-01

    The amount of high-quality habitat patches, their distribution, and the resource accessibility therein play a key role in regulating habitat effects on reproductive success. Heterogeneous habitats offer non-substitutable resources (e.g. nest sites and food) and substitutable resources (e.g. different types of food) in close proximity, thereby facilitating landscape complementation and supplementation. However, it remains poorly understood how spatial resource separation in homogeneous agricultural landscapes affects reproductive success. To fill this gap, we investigated the relationships between farmland heterogeneity and little owl (Athene noctua) reproductive success, including potential indirect effects of the heterogeneity-dependent home-range size on reproduction. Little owl home-ranges were related to field heterogeneity in summer and to structural heterogeneity in winter. Clutch size was correlated with the amount of food-rich habitat close to the nest irrespective of female home-range size, suggesting importance of landscape complementation. Nestling survival was positively correlated with male home-range size, suggesting importance of landscape supplementation. At the same time, fledgling condition was negatively correlated with male home-range size. We conclude that decreasing farmland heterogeneity constrains population productivity by two processes: increasing separation of food resources from nest or roost sites results in low landscape complementation, and reduction of alternative food resources limits landscape supplementation. Our results suggest that structural heterogeneity affects landscape complementation, whereas the heterogeneity and management of farmland fields affect landscape supplementation. Thus, to what extent a reduction of the heterogeneity within agricultural landscapes results in species-specific habitat degradation depends on the ecological processes (i.e. landscape complementation or supplementation) which are affected.

  8. Interdecadal variation of tropical cyclone genesis and its relationship to the monsoon trough over the western North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huangfu, Jingliang; Huang, Ronghui; Chen, Wen

    2017-04-01

    This study reexamines the recent interdecadal shift in tropical cyclone (TC) genesis over the western North Pacific (WNP) in the late 1990s. An interdecadal decrease in the frequency of the WNP TC genesis was observed during 1998-2013 compared to the period of 1979-1997. The spatial distribution of the interdecadal decrease of the WNP TC genesis running northwest-southeast, consistent with the monsoon trough (MT) zone. The results imply that the WNP genesis may be closely related to the MT on the interdecadal timescale. After the late 1990s, the intensity of the WNP MT becomes weaker and it extends more westward, thereby providing an unfavorable condition for the TC genesis. Through a diagnosis of the energetics, we suggested that the barotropic energy conversion in the eastern part of the WNP MT tends to be weakened in the late 1990s, hence less energy to support the WNP TC genesis. Both the meridional shear and the convergence of the mean zonal winds over the eastern WNP MT have an important impact on the conversion from mean kinetic energy to eddy kinetic energy, which can be considered as the atmospheric cause of the interdecadal decrease of TC genesis. Additionally, the tropical depression (TD)-type waves associated with the WNP MT are significantly different before and after the late 1990s. Before the late 1990s, the off-equatorial TD-type waves could be distinctly observed, with clear transitions along the WNP MT. However, these transitions were vague after the late 1990s.

  9. Gênese da dor na artrose Genesis of pain in arthrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Luis Camanho

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Avanços no conhecimento da fisiopatologia da dor em doentes com osteoartrose de joelho apontam para a participação do sistema nervoso central como fonte mantenedora e amplificadora do quadro álgico refratário aos tratamentos ortopédico e reumatológico habituais. Inicialmente, a hipersensibilidade é observada apenas no local afetado. Entretanto, quando a dor torna-se refratária, mecanismos de sensibilização central e periférica passam a contribuir para a manutenção e amplificação dos quadros dolorosos, independentes do processo periférico que a originou. Neste estágio, mesmo a remoção do agente etiológico pode não mais ser suficiente para o alívio dos sintomas dolorosos. Faz-se necessário então considerar que outros fatores, distantes da própria articulação acometida, podem ser os responsáveis pelos sintomas dolorosos e incapacitantes nestes doentes. No momento não há cura conhecida para a osteoartrose e o objetivo do tratamento é a melhora da dor, da função e da qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde, minimizando, sempre que possível, a toxicidade terapêutica. Diante das evidências emergentes sugerindo o papel do sistema nervoso central na fisiopatologia da dor em doentes com artrose de joelho, os alvos terapêuticos devem contemplar as estruturas do sistema nervoso central, ao invés do tratamento apenas local com analgésicos comuns, antiinflamatórios e medidas não farmacológicas. Assim, modalidades de modulação da medula espinal e do córtex cerebral, incluindo o uso de antidepressivos, podem ter o seu papel no manejo desses doentes.Advances in knowledge regarding the pathophysiology of pain among patients with knee osteoarthritis suggest that the central nervous system is involved as a source that maintains and amplifies the painful condition such that it is refractory to conventional orthopedic and rheumatological treatment. Initially, hyperalgesia is observed only at the affected site. However

  10. Heterogeneous structure and its effect on properties and electrochemical behavior of ion-exchange membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariono, D.; Khoiruddin; Subagjo; Wenten, I. G.

    2017-02-01

    Generally, commercially available ion-exchange membrane (IEM) can be classified into homogeneous and heterogeneous membranes. The classification is based on degree of heterogeneity in membrane structure. It is well known that the heterogeneity greatly affects the properties of IEM, such as conductivity, permselectivity, chemical and mechanical stability. The heterogeneity also influences ionic and electrical current transfer behavior of IEM-based processes during their operation. Therefore, understanding the role of heterogeneity in IEM properties is important to provide preliminary information on their operability and applicability. In this paper, the heterogeneity and its effect on IEM properties are reviewed. Some models for describing the heterogeneity of IEM and methods for characterizing the degree of heterogeneity are discussed. In addition, the influence of heterogeneity on the performance of IEM-based processes and their electrochemical behavior are described.

  11. Large epidemic thresholds emerge in heterogeneous networks of heterogeneous nodes

    OpenAIRE

    Hui Yang; Ming Tang; Thilo Gross

    2015-01-01

    One of the famous results of network science states that networks with heterogeneous connectivity are more susceptible to epidemic spreading than their more homogeneous counterparts. In particular, in networks of identical nodes it has been shown that network heterogeneity, i.e. a broad degree distribution, can lower the epidemic threshold at which epidemics can invade the system. Network heterogeneity can thus allow diseases with lower transmission probabilities to persist and spread. Howeve...

  12. Mutation screening of MIR146A/B and BRCA1/2 3'-UTRs in the GENESIS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Amandine I; Buisson, Monique; Damiola, Francesca; Tessereau, Chloé; Barjhoux, Laure; Verny-Pierre, Carole; Sornin, Valérie; Dondon, Marie-Gabrielle; Eon-Marchais, Séverine; Caron, Olivier; Gautier-Villars, Marion; Coupier, Isabelle; Buecher, Bruno; Vennin, Philippe; Belotti, Muriel; Lortholary, Alain; Gesta, Paul; Dugast, Catherine; Noguès, Catherine; Fricker, Jean-Pierre; Faivre, Laurence; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Andrieu, Nadine; Sinilnikova, Olga M; Mazoyer, Sylvie

    2016-08-01

    Although a wide number of breast cancer susceptibility alleles associated with various levels of risk have been identified to date, about 50% of the heritability is still missing. Although the major BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes are being extensively screened for truncating and missense variants in breast and/or ovarian cancer families, potential regulatory variants affecting their expression remain largely unexplored. In an attempt to identify such variants, we focused our attention on gene regulation mediated by microRNAs (miRs). We screened two genes, MIR146A and MIR146B, producing miR-146a and miR-146b-5p, respectively, that regulate BRCA1, and the 3'- untranslated regions (3'-UTRs) of BRCA1 and BRCA2 in the GENESIS French national case/control study (BRCA1- and BRCA2-negative breast cancer cases with at least one sister with breast cancer and matched controls). We identified one rare variant in MIR146A, four in MIR146B, five in BRCA1 3'-UTR and one in BRCA2 3'-UTR in 716 index cases and 619 controls. Among these 11 rare variants, 7 were identified each in 1 index case. None of the three relevant MIR146A/MIR146B variants affected the pre-miR sequences. The potential causality of the four relevant BRCA1/BRCA2 3'-UTRs variants was evaluated with luciferase reporter assays and co-segregation studies, as well as with bioinformatics analyses to predict miRs-binding sites, RNA secondary structures and RNA accessibility. This is the first study to report the screening of miR genes and of BRCA2 3'-UTR in a large series of familial breast cancer cases. None of the variant identified in this study gave convincing evidence of potential pathogenicity.

  13. Large epidemic thresholds emerge in heterogeneous networks of heterogeneous nodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hui; Tang, Ming; Gross, Thilo

    2015-08-21

    One of the famous results of network science states that networks with heterogeneous connectivity are more susceptible to epidemic spreading than their more homogeneous counterparts. In particular, in networks of identical nodes it has been shown that network heterogeneity, i.e. a broad degree distribution, can lower the epidemic threshold at which epidemics can invade the system. Network heterogeneity can thus allow diseases with lower transmission probabilities to persist and spread. However, it has been pointed out that networks in which the properties of nodes are intrinsically heterogeneous can be very resilient to disease spreading. Heterogeneity in structure can enhance or diminish the resilience of networks with heterogeneous nodes, depending on the correlations between the topological and intrinsic properties. Here, we consider a plausible scenario where people have intrinsic differences in susceptibility and adapt their social network structure to the presence of the disease. We show that the resilience of networks with heterogeneous connectivity can surpass those of networks with homogeneous connectivity. For epidemiology, this implies that network heterogeneity should not be studied in isolation, it is instead the heterogeneity of infection risk that determines the likelihood of outbreaks.

  14. Heterogeneous logics of competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mossin, Christiane

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the article is to demonstrate that in order to understand competition as a socially organizing phenomenon, we should not examine competition in isolation, but as constellations of heterogeneous logics. More precisely, the article is based on two main theoretical points: (1) Logics...... of competition are only realized as particular forms of social organization by virtue of interplaying with other kinds of logics, like legal logics. (2) Competition logics enjoy a peculiar status in-between constructedness and givenness; although competition depends on laws and mechanisms of socialization, we...... still experience competition as an expression of spontaneous human activities. On the basis of these perspectives, a study of fundamental rights of EU law, springing from the principle of ‘free movement of people’, is conducted. The first part of the empirical analysis seeks to detect the presence...

  15. Heterogenous networks and services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Su-En

    2006-01-01

    of the market. If mainstream technology firms do not address the disruption, it is likely they will fail and the new disruptive firm will grow in size and importance in the industry. As we move to 3G (3rd Generation Mobile Services) and beyond 3G, one of the biggest challenges is to bridge network heterogeneity...... representations of strategy, will then help to determine the success or failure of the technology. This is shown typically in the case of WiFi. WiFi is a wireless technology that addressed a new market, but was soon adopted as a complement by mobile operators into their suite of services. However, the future......This thesis considers the development of the mobile industry from a techno-economic perspective. Theory of disruptive technologies and related theories are examined and further developed. While much of technology change has been analysed on either a technical level or a market level, another plane...

  16. Comparative effects of amphetamine-like psychostimulants on rat hippocampal cell genesis at different developmental ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Cabrerizo, Rubén; García-Fuster, M Julia

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of amphetamine-like psychostimulant drugs (i.e., MDMA, methamphetamine, D-amphetamine) on rat hippocampal cell genesis at different developmental ages (i.e., early adolescence vs. young adulthood) to determine if there were periods of vulnerability to drug-induced brain changes. Although adolescence is a period of great vulnerability to the neurochemical effects of specific drugs of abuse, several reports suggest that adult rats are more susceptible than adolescents to the negative effects of these drugs. The main results suggest that the effects of these amphetamine drugs on cell genesis depend on the rat's developmental age, with the young adult period being more sensitive than the early adolescent one. In particular, MDMA and methamphetamine, but not D-amphetamine impaired hippocampal cell genesis (i.e., cell proliferation and cell survival) in young adult rats. These effects were dependent on the accumulative dose administered, as they were only observed with the highest dose tested (12 pulses of 5mg/kg over 4days: 60mg/kg total). The present results extend previous reports on adolescent insensitivity (i.e., better adaptation) to amphetamine-drugs and suggest for young adult rats certain degree of hippocampal damage that may mediate some of the addiction-like behaviors that depend on this brain region. Moreover, the present results, in line with previous data, suggest a possible role for the neuroplasticity marker BDNF and serotonin in regulating cell survival, as mBDNF protein regulation paralleled hippocampal cell survival and 5-HT2C-receptor content in young adult rats treated with these psychostimulant drugs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A climatological model of North Indian Ocean tropical cyclone genesis, tracks and landfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahiduzzaman, Mohammad; Oliver, Eric C. J.; Wotherspoon, Simon J.; Holbrook, Neil J.

    2017-10-01

    Extensive damage and loss of life can be caused by tropical cyclones (TCs) that make landfall. Modelling of TC landfall probability is beneficial to insurance/re-insurance companies, decision makers, government policy and planning, and residents in coastal areas. In this study, we develop a climatological model of tropical cyclone genesis, tracks and landfall for North Indian Ocean (NIO) rim countries based on kernel density estimation, a generalised additive model (GAM) including an Euler integration step, and landfall detection using a country mask approach. Using a 35-year record (1979-2013) of tropical cyclone track observations from the Joint Typhoon Warning Centre (part of the International Best Track Archive Climate Stewardship Version 6), the GAM is fitted to the observed cyclone track velocities as a smooth function of location in each season. The distribution of cyclone genesis points is approximated by kernel density estimation. The model simulated TCs are randomly selected from the fitted kernel (TC genesis), and the cyclone paths (TC tracks), represented by the GAM together with the application of stochastic innovations at each step, are simulated to generate a suite of NIO rim landfall statistics. Three hindcast validation methods are applied to evaluate the integrity of the model. First, leave-one-out cross validation is applied whereby the country of landfall is determined by the majority vote (considering the location by only highest percentage of landfall) from the simulated tracks. Second, the probability distribution of simulated landfall is evaluated against the observed landfall. Third, the distances between the point of observed landfall and simulated landfall are compared and quantified. Overall, the model shows very good cross-validated hindcast skill of modelled landfalling cyclones against observations in each of the NIO tropical cyclone seasons and for most NIO rim countries, with only a relatively small difference in the percentage of

  18. Modelling the genesis of equatorial podzols: age and implications for carbon fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doupoux, Cédric; Merdy, Patricia; Régina Montes, Célia; Nunan, Naoise; José Melfi, Adolpho; José Ribeiro Pereira, Osvaldo; Lucas, Yves

    2017-05-01

    Amazonian podzols store huge amounts of carbon and play a key role in transferring organic matter to the Amazon River. In order to better understand their C dynamics, we modelled the formation of representative Amazonian podzol profiles by constraining both total carbon and radiocarbon. We determined the relationships between total carbon and radiocarbon in organic C pools numerically by setting constant C and 14C inputs over time. The model was an effective tool for determining the order of magnitude of the carbon fluxes and the time of genesis of the main carbon-containing horizons, i.e. the topsoil and deep Bh. We performed retrocalculations to take into account the bomb carbon in the young topsoil horizons (calculated apparent 14C age from 62 to 109 years). We modelled four profiles representative of Amazonian podzols, two profiles with an old Bh (calculated apparent 14C age 6.8 × 103 and 8.4 × 103 years) and two profiles with a very old Bh (calculated apparent 14C age 23.2 × 103 and 25.1 × 103 years). The calculated fluxes from the topsoil to the perched water table indicate that the most waterlogged zones of the podzolized areas are the main source of dissolved organic matter found in the river network. It was necessary to consider two Bh carbon pools to accurately represent the carbon fluxes leaving the Bh as observed in previous studies. We found that the genesis time of the studied soils was necessarily longer than 15 × 103 and 130 × 103 years for the two younger and two older Bhs, respectively, and that the genesis time calculated considering the more likely settings runs to around 15 × 103-25 × 103 and 150 × 103-250 × 103 years, respectively.

  19. Space Qualified Heterogeneous Processing Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Space Micro proposes to develop a radiation hardened, monolithic, heterogeneous processor for space imaging and radar systems. High performance processors are needed...

  20. Entrainment of heterogeneous glycolytic oscillations in single cells

    CERN Document Server

    Gustavsson, A -K; Mehlig, B; Goksör, M

    2015-01-01

    Cell signaling, gene expression, and metabolism are affected by cell-cell heterogeneity and random changes in the environment. The effects of such fluctuations on cell signaling and gene expression have recently been studied intensively using single-cell experiments. In metabolism heterogeneity may be particularly important because it may affect synchronisation of metabolic oscillations, an important example of cell-cell communication. This synchronisation is notoriously difficult to describe theoretically as the example of glycolytic oscillations shows: neither is the mechanism of glycolytic synchronisation understood nor the role of cell-cell heterogeneity. To pin down the mechanism and to assess its robustness and universality we have experimentally investigated the entrainment of glycolytic oscillations in individual yeast cells by periodic external perturbations. We find that oscillatory cells synchronise through phase shifts and that the mechanism is insensitive to cell heterogeneity (robustness) and si...

  1. THE SOMEŞAN PLATEAU LAKES: GENESIS, EVOLUTION AND TERRITORIAL REPARTITION

    OpenAIRE

    Victor SOROCOVSCHI; Gheorghe ŞERBAN

    2010-01-01

    The present paper analyzes the genesis of the lake depressions in the Someşan Plateau and the way they evolved in time and space, as well as the morphometric elements characteristic of the different genetic types of lakes. The natural lakes in this region are few and their dimensions are small; they generally appear solitarily and only rarely as lake complexes. In this category have been included the valley lakes, the lakes formed in abandoned meanders and the lakes formed in areas with lands...

  2. Evoluzionismo e gestaltismo. La psicologia della forma e il problema della genesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Gardini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article carries out a critique of the abstract and disembodied character owned by the structures of the Psychology of Form. The Psychology of Form ignores and removes the genesis of forms, thus remaining trapped in the "dialectic of enlightenment" as described by Adorno and Horkheimer. Through the critical contribution of the works of Piaget and Eibl-Eibesfeldt, is brought to light that history of the relations between the individual and the environment which the Gestaltpsychologie finds only in his final static result.

  3. Recent Optical and SEM Characterization of Genesis Solar Wind Concentrator Diamond on Silicon Collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allton, Judith H.; Rodriquez, M. C.; Burkett, P. J.; Ross, D. K.; Gonzalez, C. P.; McNamara, K. M.

    2013-01-01

    One of the 4 Genesis solar wind concentrator collectors was a silicon substrate coated with diamond-like carbon (DLC) in which to capture solar wind. This material was designed for analysis of solar nitrogen and noble gases [1, 2]. This particular collector fractured during landing, but about 80% of the surface was recovered, including a large piece which was subdivided in 2012 [3, 4, 5]. The optical and SEM imaging and analysis described below supports the subdivision and allocation of the diamond-on-silicon (DOS) concentrator collector.

  4. Individual heterogeneity in life histories and eco-evolutionary dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vindenes, Yngvild; Langangen, Øystein

    2015-05-01

    Individual heterogeneity in life history shapes eco-evolutionary processes, and unobserved heterogeneity can affect demographic outputs characterising life history and population dynamical properties. Demographic frameworks like matrix models or integral projection models represent powerful approaches to disentangle mechanisms linking individual life histories and population-level processes. Recent developments have provided important steps towards their application to study eco-evolutionary dynamics, but so far individual heterogeneity has largely been ignored. Here, we present a general demographic framework that incorporates individual heterogeneity in a flexible way, by separating static and dynamic traits (discrete or continuous). First, we apply the framework to derive the consequences of ignoring heterogeneity for a range of widely used demographic outputs. A general conclusion is that besides the long-term growth rate lambda, all parameters can be affected. Second, we discuss how the framework can help advance current demographic models of eco-evolutionary dynamics, by incorporating individual heterogeneity. For both applications numerical examples are provided, including an empirical example for pike. For instance, we demonstrate that predicted demographic responses to climate warming can be reversed by increased heritability. We discuss how applications of this demographic framework incorporating individual heterogeneity can help answer key biological questions that require a detailed understanding of eco-evolutionary dynamics. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  5. Evolutionary game dynamics in populations with heterogenous structures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wes Maciejewski

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary graph theory is a well established framework for modelling the evolution of social behaviours in structured populations. An emerging consensus in this field is that graphs that exhibit heterogeneity in the number of connections between individuals are more conducive to the spread of cooperative behaviours. In this article we show that such a conclusion largely depends on the individual-level interactions that take place. In particular, averaging payoffs garnered through game interactions rather than accumulating the payoffs can altogether remove the cooperative advantage of heterogeneous graphs while such a difference does not affect the outcome on homogeneous structures. In addition, the rate at which game interactions occur can alter the evolutionary outcome. Less interactions allow heterogeneous graphs to support more cooperation than homogeneous graphs, while higher rates of interactions make homogeneous and heterogeneous graphs virtually indistinguishable in their ability to support cooperation. Most importantly, we show that common measures of evolutionary advantage used in homogeneous populations, such as a comparison of the fixation probability of a rare mutant to that of the resident type, are no longer valid in heterogeneous populations. Heterogeneity causes a bias in where mutations occur in the population which affects the mutant's fixation probability. We derive the appropriate measures for heterogeneous populations that account for this bias.

  6. The effect of heterogeneity on invasion in spatial epidemics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neri, Franco M; Bates, Anne; Füchtbauer, Winnie Sophie

    2011-01-01

    Heterogeneity in host populations is an important factor affecting the ability of a pathogen to invade, yet the quantitative investigation of its effects on epidemic spread is still an open problem. In this paper, we test recent theoretical results, which extend the established “percolation...... paradigm” to the spread of a pathogen in discrete heterogeneous host populations. In particular, we test the hypothesis that the probability of epidemic invasion decreases when host heterogeneity is increased. We use replicated experimental microcosms, in which the ubiquitous pathogenic fungus Rhizoctonia...... agreement with the theoretical predictions. We briefly discuss how our results can be exploited in the design and implementation of disease control strategies...

  7. Unsupervised data-driven stratification of mentalizing heterogeneity in autism

    OpenAIRE

    Lombardo, Michael V; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Auyeung, Bonnie; Holt, Rosemary J; Allison, Carrie; Smith, Paula; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Ruigrok, Amber N V; Suckling, John; Bullmore, Edward T.; MRC AIMS Consortium; Ecker, Christine; Craig, Michael C.; Murphy, Declan G. M.; Happé, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    This is the final version of the article. It first appeared from Nature Publishing Group via https://doi.org/10.1038/srep35333 Individuals affected by autism spectrum conditions (ASC) are considerably heterogeneous. Novel approaches are needed to parse this heterogeneity to enhance precision in clinical and translational research. Applying a clustering approach taken from genomics and systems biology on two large independent cognitive datasets of adults with and without ASC (n = 694; n = 2...

  8. Heterogeneity of an earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvinova, T.; Petrova, A.

    2009-04-01

    The study of magnetic anomaly field structure of the Barents Sea water area along seismic and extended profiles intersecting known fields is carried out. Geomagnetic and density sections down to 40 km depth are constructed. This allowed the estimation of heterogeneities of the Barents Sea water area deep structure. The analysis of geomagnetic and density sections along extended profiles showed the confinedness of oil-and-gas bearing provinces to deep permeable zones characterized by reduced magnetic and density features. Based on the analysis of permeable zones, regional diagnostic features similar to those obtained earlier in oil-and-gas bearing provinces in other regions, for example, in Timan-Pechora, Volga-Urals and Siberian, as well as in the Northern and Norwegian seas water areas, are revealed. The analysis of magnetic and gravity fields over the region area allowed the delineation of weakened zones as intersection areas of weakly magnetic areals with reduced density. Within the Barents Sea water area, permeable areas with lenticular-laminated structure of the upper and lower Earth's crust containing weakly magnetic areals with reduced rock density within the depth range of 8-12 and 15-20 km are revealed. Such ratio of magnetic and density heterogeneities in the Earth's crust is characteristic for zones with proved oil-and-gas content in the European part of the Atlantic Ocean water area. North Kildin field on 1 AR profile is confined to a trough with thick weakly magnetic stratum discontinuously traced to a depth of 6-10 km. At a depth of approximately 15 km, a lens of weakly magnetic and porous formations is observed. Ludlov field in the North Barents trough is confined to a zone of weakly magnetic rocks with reduced density traced to a depth of 8-9 km. Deeper, at Н=15 km, a lenticular areal of weakly magnetic formations with reduced density is observed. The profile transecting the Stockman field shows that it is located in the central part of a permeable

  9. Spatial Heterogeneity of Carbonates: genetic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Violette, Sophie; Gonçalvès, Julio; de Marsily, Ghislain

    2010-05-01

    Homogeneous equivalent property is a classical concept used in hydrogeology to define heterogeneity of hydraulic properties. Known as averaging, it tries to describe the spatial variability of the rock properties from geologic observations and local measurements. The techniques available for these descriptions are mostly continuous Geostatistical models, or discontinuous facies models such as the Boolean, Indicator or Gaussian-Threshold models and the Markow chain model. These facies models are better suited to treating issues of rock strata connectivity, e.g. buried high permeability channels or low permeability barriers, which greatly affect flow and, above all, transport in aquifers. Genetic models provide new ways to incorporate more geology into the facies description, an approach that has been well developed in the oil industry, but not enough in hydrogeology. Here we present how a 3Dbasin model, based on a detailed stratigraphic data base, has been used in a genetic way to reproduce the permeability and storage coefficient heterogeneities at the regional scale.

  10. Importance of melt fraction and source rock composition in crustal genesis — the example of two granitic suites of northern Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtz, François

    1989-12-01

    In the Montalegre area (northern Portugal) two varieties of syn- to late-tectonic Hercynian aluminous granitoids are distinguished: (1) Muscovite-rich, two-mica granites, forming many successively emplaced bodies with little chemical variation. The chemical characteristics of these units suggest partial melting of various crustal rocks under distinct P- T and water saturation conditions. There has been no homogenization between the different melt batches. The rocks contain very few restitic minerals. Segregation processes may have operated either in the source rock or in an early magmatic stage. (2) A cordierite-, biotite- and muscovite-bearing granitic body. Its mineralogical composition is extremely heterogeneous and it contains many xenoliths. The genesis of this granite results essentially from partial melting of peraluminous orthogneisses. The melt fraction was higher than the rheological critical melt percentage (RCMP). During anatexis, the rigid framework of the source rock broke down, leading to migration of both melt and residual minerals towards upper-crustal levels. The heterogeneity of the resulting granite is mostly related to an incomplete separation of residual crystals and melt. The existence of biotite- and cordierite-rich samples is the result of accumulation of residual minerals during the magma emplacement. This study emphasizes the role of the source rock composition, which controls the degree of partial melting at given P- T, and water saturation conditions during crustal melting. The strong geochemical differences between the two kinds of granitoids are related to the near absence of residual minerals in the muscovite-rich granites and to the presence of residual minerals in the cordierite-bearing granite. It is suggested that the muscovite-rich granites are mostly low-melt-fraction ( RCMP) granites. In contrast, the source rock of the cordierite granite underwent partial melting with a high melt fraction ( > RCMP). The presence of many

  11. Heterogeneity: multilingualism and democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Jürgen Krumm

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Linguistic diversity and multilingualism on the part of individuals are aprerequisite and a constitutive condition of enabling people to live togetherin a world of growing heterogeneity. Foreign language teaching plays animportant part in democratic education because it can be seen as a trainingin respecting otherness and developing an intercultural, non-ethnocentricperception and attitude. This is all the more important because of the neces-sity of integrating children from migrant families into school life.My article argues that language education policy has to take this per-spective into account, i.e., of establishing a planned diversification so thatpupils (and their parents will not feel satisfied with learning English only,but also become motivated to learn languages of their own neighbourhood,such as migrant and minority languages. However, in order to make use ofthe linguistic resources in the classroom, relating it to the democratic impetusof foreign language education, it is necessary to revise existing languagepolicies and to develop a multilingual perspective for all educational institutions.

  12. Theory of heterogeneous viscoelasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirmacher, Walter; Ruocco, Giancarlo; Mazzone, Valerio

    2016-03-01

    We review a new theory of viscoelasticity of a glass-forming viscous liquid near and below the glass transition. In our model, we assume that each point in the material has a specific viscosity, which varies randomly in space according to a fluctuating activation free energy. We include a Maxwellian elastic term, and assume that the corresponding shear modulus fluctuates as well with the same distribution as that of the activation barriers. The model is solved in coherent potential approximation, for which a derivation is given. The theory predicts an Arrhenius-type temperature dependence of the viscosity in the vanishing frequency limit, independent of the distribution of the activation barriers. The theory implies that this activation energy is generally different from that of a diffusing particle with the same barrier height distribution. If the distribution of activation barriers is assumed to have the Gaussian form, the finite-frequency version of the theory describes well the typical low-temperature alpha relaxation peak of glasses. Beta relaxation can be included by adding another Gaussian with centre at much lower energies than that is responsible for the alpha relaxation. At high frequencies, our theory reduces to the description of an elastic medium with spatially fluctuating elastic moduli (heterogeneous elasticity theory), which explains the occurrence of the boson peak-related vibrational anomalies of glasses.

  13. Parsing Heterogeneous Striatal Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kae Nakamura

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The striatum is an input channel of the basal ganglia and is well known to be involved in reward-based decision making and learning. At the macroscopic level, the striatum has been postulated to contain parallel functional modules, each of which includes neurons that perform similar computations to support selection of appropriate actions for different task contexts. At the single-neuron level, however, recent studies in monkeys and rodents have revealed heterogeneity in neuronal activity even within restricted modules of the striatum. Looking for generality in the complex striatal activity patterns, here we briefly survey several types of striatal activity, focusing on their usefulness for mediating behaviors. In particular, we focus on two types of behavioral tasks: reward-based tasks that use salient sensory cues and manipulate outcomes associated with the cues; and perceptual decision tasks that manipulate the quality of noisy sensory cues and associate all correct decisions with the same outcome. Guided by previous insights on the modular organization and general selection-related functions of the basal ganglia, we relate striatal activity patterns on these tasks to two types of computations: implementation of selection and evaluation. We suggest that a parsing with the selection/evaluation categories encourages a focus on the functional commonalities revealed by studies with different animal models and behavioral tasks, instead of a focus on aspects of striatal activity that may be specific to a particular task setting. We then highlight several questions in the selection-evaluation framework for future explorations.

  14. ENSO Effect on East Asian Tropical Cyclone Landfall via Changes in Tracks and Genesis in a Statistical Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonekura, Emmi; Hall, Timothy M.

    2014-01-01

    Improvements on a statistical tropical cyclone (TC) track model in the western North Pacific Ocean are described. The goal of the model is to study the effect of El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on East Asian TC landfall. The model is based on the International Best-Track Archive for Climate Stewardship (IBTrACS) database of TC observations for 1945-2007 and employs local regression of TC formation rates and track increments on the Nino-3.4 index and seasonally varying climate parameters. The main improvements are the inclusion of ENSO dependence in the track propagation and accounting for seasonality in both genesis and tracks. A comparison of simulations of the 1945-2007 period with observations concludes that the model updates improve the skill of this model in simulating TCs. Changes in TC genesis and tracks are analyzed separately and cumulatively in simulations of stationary extreme ENSO states. ENSO effects on regional (100-km scale) landfall are attributed to changes in genesis and tracks. The effect of ENSO on genesis is predominantly a shift in genesis location from the southeast in El Nino years to the northwest in La Nina years, resulting in higher landfall rates for the East Asian coast during La Nina. The effect of ENSO on track propagation varies seasonally and spatially. In the peak activity season (July-October), there are significant changes in mean tracks with ENSO. Landfall-rate changes from genesis- and track-ENSO effects in the Philippines cancel out, while coastal segments of Vietnam, China, the Korean Peninsula, and Japan show enhanced La Nina-year increases.

  15. Fiscal Consolidations and Heterogeneous Expectations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hommes, C.; Lustenhouwer, J.; Mavromatis, K.

    2015-01-01

    We analyze fiscal consolidations using a New Keynesian model where agents have heterogeneous expectations and are uncertain about the composition of consoidations. Heterogeneity in expectations may amplify expansions, stabilizing thus the debt-to-GDP ratio faster under tax based consolidations, in

  16. Query Expansion Using Heterogeneous Thesauri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandala, Rila; Tokunaga, Takenobu; Tanaka, Hozumi

    2000-01-01

    Proposes a method to improve the performance of information retrieval systems by expanding queries using heterogeneous thesauri. Experiments show that using heterogeneous thesauri with an appropriate weighting method results in better retrieval performance than using only one type of thesaurus. (Author/LRW)

  17. Dynamic heterogeneity in life histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuljapurkar, Shripad; Steiner, Ulrich K; Orzack, Steven Hecht

    2009-01-01

    Longitudinal data on natural populations have been analysed using multistage models in which survival depends on reproductive stage, and individuals change stages according to a Markov chain. These models are special cases of stage-structured population models. We show that stage-structured models generate dynamic heterogeneity: life-history differences produced by stochastic stratum dynamics. We characterize dynamic heterogeneity in a range of species across taxa by properties of the Markov chain: the entropy, which describes the extent of heterogeneity, and the subdominant eigenvalue, which describes the persistence of reproductive success during the life of an individual. Trajectories of reproductive stage determine survivorship, and we analyse the variance in lifespan within and between trajectories of reproductive stage. We show how stage-structured models can be used to predict realized distributions of lifetime reproductive success. Dynamic heterogeneity contrasts with fixed heterogeneity: unobserved differences that generate variation between life histories. We show by an example that observed distributions of lifetime reproductive success are often consistent with the claim that little or no fixed heterogeneity influences this trait. We propose that dynamic heterogeneity provides a 'neutral' model for assessing the possible role of unobserved 'quality' differences between individuals. We discuss fitness for dynamic life histories, and the implications of dynamic heterogeneity for the evolution of life histories and senescence.

  18. Heterogeneous noise enhances spatial reciprocity

    CERN Document Server

    Yao, Y

    2014-01-01

    Recent research has identified the heterogeneity as crucial for the evolution of cooperation in spatial population. However, the influence of heterogeneous noise is still lack. Inspired by this interesting question, in this work, we try to incorporate heterogeneous noise into the evaluation of utility, where only a proportion of population possesses noise, whose range can also be tuned. We find that increasing heterogeneous noise monotonously promotes cooperation and even translates the full defection phase (of the homogeneous version) into the complete cooperation phase. Moreover, the promotion effect of this mechanism can be attributed to the leading role of cooperators who have the heterogeneous noise. These type of cooperators can attract more agents penetrating into the robust cooperator clusters, which is beyond the text of traditional spatial reciprocity. We hope that our work may shed light on the understanding of the cooperative behavior in the society.

  19. Field heterogeneity: some basic issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philip, J.R.

    1980-04-01

    Present-day soil-water physics enables useful quantitative predictions in the laboratory and in simple field situations. However, difficulties frequently arise for areas of appreciable size in the field. Two types of heterogeneity are distinguished: deterministic and stochastic. The first often demands an extension of established analyses and may involve important phenomena absent from the analogous homogeneous problem. Stochastic heterogeneity may involve many scales and is imperfectly known. The statistical properties may be stationary, but in more complicated cases, randomness may be embedded in (either known or unknown) systematic trends. Some aspects of unsaturated and generally unsteady flow in heterogeneous systems are reviewed: the mathematical nature of the flow equation; the concept of scale-heterogeneity; analytical and quasianalytical solutions. The enormity of the total problem of unsaturated unsteady flow in stochastic heterogeneous systems is illustrated through a dialectic of 8 successive stages of simplification. 37 references.

  20. Assortative sociality, limited dispersal, infectious disease and the genesis of the global pattern of religion diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fincher, Corey L; Thornhill, Randy

    2008-01-01

    Why are religions far more numerous in the tropics compared with the temperate areas? We propose, as an answer, that more religions have emerged and are maintained in the tropics because, through localized coevolutionary races with hosts, infectious diseases select for three anticontagion behaviours: in-group assortative sociality; out-group avoidance; and limited dispersal. These behaviours, in turn, create intergroup boundaries that effectively fractionate, isolate and diversify an original culture leading to the genesis of two or more groups from one. Religion is one aspect of a group's culture that undergoes this process. If this argument is correct then, across the globe, religion diversity should correlate positively with infectious disease diversity, reflecting an evolutionary history of antagonistic coevolution between parasites and hosts and subsequent religion genesis. We present evidence that supports this model: for a global sample of traditional societies, societal range size is reduced in areas with more pathogens compared with areas with few pathogens, and in contemporary countries religion diversity is positively related to two measures of parasite stress. PMID:18664438

  1. A mouse model for monitoring islet cell genesis and developing therapies for diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshinori Shimajiri

    2011-03-01

    Transient expression of the transcription factor neurogenin-3 marks progenitor cells in the pancreas as they differentiate into islet cells. We developed a transgenic mouse line in which the surrogate markers secreted alkaline phosphatase (SeAP and enhanced green florescent protein (EGFP can be used to monitor neurogenin-3 expression, and thus islet cell genesis. In transgenic embryos, cells expressing EGFP lined the pancreatic ducts. SeAP was readily detectable in embryos, in the media of cultured embryonic pancreases and in the serum of adult animals. Treatment with the γ-secretase inhibitor DAPT, which blocks Notch signaling, enhanced SeAP secretion rates and increased the number of EGFP-expressing cells as assayed by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS and immunohistochemistry in cultured pancreases from embryos at embryonic day 11.5, but not in pancreases harvested 1 day later. By contrast, treatment with growth differentiation factor 11 (GDF11 reduced SeAP secretion rates. In adult mice, partial pancreatectomy decreased, whereas duct ligation increased, circulating SeAP levels. This model will be useful for studying signals involved in islet cell genesis in vivo and developing therapies that induce this process.

  2. Catastrophic Impact of Silicon on Silicon: Unraveling the Genesis Impact Using Sample 61881

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlman, K. R.; Kim, H.; Jurewicz, A. J. G.; Gonzalez, C. P.; Allums, K. K.

    2016-01-01

    The Genesis mission collected solar wind and brought it back to Earth in order to provide precise knowledge of solar isotopic and elemental compositions. The ions in the solar wind were stopped in the collectors at depths on the order of 10 to a few hundred nanometers. This shallow implantation layer is critical for scientific analysis of the composition of the solar wind and must be preserved throughout sample handling, cleaning, processing, distribution, preparation and analysis. The current work is motivated by the need to understand the interaction of the Genesis payload with contamination during the crash in the Utah desert. Silicon contamination has been found to be notoriously difficult to remove from silicon samples despite multiple cleanings with multiple techniques. However, the question has been posed, "Does the silicon really need to be removed for large area analyses?." If the recalcitrant silicon contamination is all pure silicon from fractured collectors, only a very tiny fraction of that bulk material will contain solar wind, which could skew the analyses. This could be complicated if the silicon trapped other materials and/or gases as it impacted the surface.

  3. SERCA in genesis of arrhythmias: what we already know and what is new?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkasap, Nilüfer

    2007-07-01

    This review mainly focuses on the structure, function of the sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum calcium pump (SERCA) and its role in genesis of arrhythmias. SERCA is a membrane protein that belongs to the family of P-type ion translocating ATPases and pumps free cytosolic calcium into intracellular stores. Active transport of Ca2+ is achieved, according to the E1-E2 model, changing of SERCA structure by Ca2+. The affinity of Ca2+ -binding sites varies from high (E1) to low (E2). Three different SERCA genes were identified-SERCA1, SERCA2, and SERCA3. SERCA is mainly represented by the SERCA2a isoform in the heart. In heart muscle, during systole, depolarization triggers the release of Ca2+ from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) and starts contraction. During diastole, muscle relaxation occurs as Ca2+ is again removed from cytosol, predominantly by accumulation into SR via the action of SERCA2a. The main regulator of SERCA2a is phospholamban and another regulator proteolipid of SERCA is sarcolipin. There are a lot of studies on the effect of decreased and/or increased SERCA activity in genesis of arrhythmia. Actually both decrease and increase of SERCA activity in the heart result in some pathological mechanisms such as heart failure and arrhythmia.

  4. Pagan myth in confrontation with Christianity: Skírnismál and Genesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gro Steinsland

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Skírnismál is the only one of the Eddaic lays which is dedicated to the god of vanir, Freyr. The poem deals with the offer of marriage to the giantess Gerör which the messanger, Skírnir, takes to htunheimr on Freyr's behalf. Regarding the question of age and interpretation of the lay, various suggestions have been made by scholars. A central question for scholars has been whether the poem contains genuine pagan myth. In recent years several scholars have argued that the lay is late and that, in spite of its preoccupation with pre-Christian mythology, it deals mainly with medieval ideology. We shall focus instead on a point which has not hitherto been recognized: the possible connection between Skírnismál and the Jewish-Christian myth of the fall in Genesis. It is possible that the poet of Skírnismal borrowed ideas from several traditions, from Nordic, mythological ones and at the same time from biblical tradition, from the myth of the fall in Genesis. This conclusion means that the pagan, mythological tradition of the North was recreated at the time of Conversion, for the biblical elements in Skírnismál are used within the frame of a lay which, in its deepest conception, belongs to the pre-Christian tradition.

  5. The Genesis of Romanian Football. Social Factors and Processes behind the Game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PÉTER, László

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present article deals with those social and economic factors that contributed to the genesis of Romanian soccer at the turn of the previous century. The author argues that football was imported from abroad via peregrination and schools, but certain social processes, such as urbanization, capitalization and the appearance of massive working classes, are the reasons why this beautiful game became socially embedded in the local environments. The different circumstances in Banat and Transylvania and in the old Romanian Kingdom marked the social history and trajectory “travelled” by the ball. While in the western part of the country, football arrived in a fertile ground because of the already existing bourgeois sport associations and the rapidly emerging local working classes, the role of foreign companies and expats in implementing football was more significant in the southern regions. This difference in the genesis of the game produced two distinct styles of playing football. These two styles clearly reflect the historical and social background specific to the different regions.

  6. A multifaceted coating on titanium dictates osteoimmunomodulation and osteo/angio-genesis towards ameliorative osseointegration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Long; Du, Zhibin; Du, Jingjing; Yao, Wei; Zhang, Jiaming; Weng, Zeming; Liu, Si; Zhao, Ya; Liu, Yanlian; Zhang, Xiangyu; Huang, Xiaobo; Yao, Xiaohong; Crawford, Ross; Hang, Ruiqiang; Huang, Di; Tang, Bin; Xiao, Yin

    2018-04-01

    A multifaceted coating for hard tissue implants, with favorable osteogenesis, angiogenesis, and osteoimmunomodulation abilities, would be of great value since it could improve osseointegration and alleviate prosthesis loosening. However, to date there are few coatings that fully satisfy these criteria. Herein we describe a microporous TiO 2 coating decorated with hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles that is generated by micro-arc oxidation of pure titanium (Ti) and followed annealing. By altering the annealing temperature, it is possible to simultaneously tune the coating's physical (morphology and wettability) and chemical (composites and crystallinity) properties. A coating produced with micro-arc oxidization (MAO) with an annealing temperature of 650 °C (MAO-650) exhibits numerous favorable physicochemical properties, such as hybrid micro-nano morphology, superhydrophilicity, and highly crystalline HA nanoparticles. In vitro experiments reveal that the MAO-650 coating not only supports proliferation and differentiation of both osteoblasts and endothelial cells, but also inhibits the inflammatory response of macrophages and enables a favorable osteoimmunomodulation to facilitate osteo/angio-genesis. In vivo evaluation mirrors these results, and shows that the MAO-650 coating results in ameliorative osseointegration when compared with the pristine MAO coating. These data highlight the profound effect of surface physicochemical properties on the regulation of osteo/angio-genesis and osteoimmunomodulation in the enhancement of osseointegration. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Role of ocean in the genesis and annihilation of the core of the warm pool in the southeastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shenoi, S.S.C.; Shankar, D.; Gopalakrishna, V.V.; Durand, F.

    warming that takes place all over the NIO. They argued that the SSTH has its genesis in events that occur about 6 months earlier in the Bay of Bengal, when the *Current affiliation : LEGOS-IRD-UMR5566, 14 Av. E. Belin, 31400 Toulouse, France (147) 148... band indicates the location of stations that constitute the best sampled section; data from this section were used for Fig. 12 3 SHENOI et al. : GENESIS AND ANNIHILATION OF CORE OF WARM POOL 149 Fig. 3. Evolution of weekly SST (?C), based on the data...

  8. Die teologies-polemiese gerigtheid van Genesis 1-3: implikasies vir die gereformeerde leer oor die erfsonde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Vorster

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The theological polemic purpose of Genesis 1-3: implications for the reformed doctrine on original sin This article focuses on the polemic nature of Genesis 1-3 and the implications thereof on the reformed doctrine regarding original sin. In the first place the views of the creation narratives as historical-literal and mythological material are discussed. Thereafter the article proposes that the creation narratives must be treated as theological material with a polemic and prophetic purpose. The implications of this for the reformed doctrine on original sin are subsequently discussed.

  9. A numerical and observational study of the genesis of concentric eyewall hurricanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nong, Shangyao

    This work attempts to understand the dynamics of the genesis of concentric eyewall hurricanes. More specifically, we focus on the effects of external eddy forcing associated with upper-level wave asymmetries in the environment of tropical cyclones, and through what processes these effects can be achieved. Our approach is a combination of numerical modeling and observational case studies. We have made use of two numerical models, namely a simple two-layer model and a two-dimensional cloud resolving non-hydrostatic model. The latter is called the full physics model for short. Owing to the lack of direct measurements of upper-level atmospheric conditions, we choose to use reanalysis data from National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) and National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) and European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). A somewhat lengthy evaluation suggests that both datasets are marginally suitable for case studies of tropical, cyclones. Our major conclusions are as follows: (1)Numerical simulations from the simple and full physics models suggest that the genesis of concentric eyewall hurricane results from finite-amplitude wind-induced surface heat exchange (WISHE) instability of the tropical atmosphere. (2)The results from the full physics model suggest that the role of the eddy forcing is like the catalyst in a chemical reaction. The forcing helps manifest internal finite-amplitude instabilities which themselves are driven by surface enthalpy fluxes. (3)The results from our extensive case studies suggest that a causal relationship does not always exist between environmental forcing and genesis of a secondary eyewall. Some cases, for example, Hurricane Allen of 1980, Hurricane Elena of 1985 and Hurricane Opal of 1995, show a good and clear relationship between their eyewall replacement cycles and their external forcings. Some cases, for example, Hurricane Gilbert of 1998 and Hurricane Andrew of 1992, show some degree of

  10. Genetic heterogeneity in tuberous sclerosis: phenotypic correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winship, I M; Connor, J M; Beighton, P H

    1990-01-01

    There is increasing evidence for genetic heterogeneity in tuberous sclerosis (TSC) on the basis of linkage analysis in affected kindreds. We have performed a detailed assessment of an affected South African family in which there is no evidence of linkage to chromosome 9 markers. The affected persons have atypical clinical features, namely prominent nuchal skin tags, a confetti pattern of hypopigmentation of the skin of the lower legs, and absence of ungual fibromata. Further investigation of these unusual phenotypic features is warranted in order to determine whether these lesions are consistently present in families in whom the gene for TSC is not on 9q34. We conclude that confetti depigmentation and nuchal skin tags may be clinical pointers to an alternative locus for TSC. Images PMID:2395158

  11. About soil cover heterogeneity of agricultural research stations' experimental fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rannik, Kaire; Kõlli, Raimo; Kukk, Liia

    2013-04-01

    , which landscape is characterized by till and limestone plains with thin Quaternary cover, the soil cover is more heterogeneous than in previous area. Kuusiku soil cover is more variegated by the soil texture and as well as by the genesis of soils. In addition to Cambisols, Leptosols, Gleysols and Luvisols may be found here as well. The dominating soils in Olustvere research area, which is situated on wavy upland plateau, are Albeluvisols.

  12. Source-Related Chemical And Isotopic Heterogeneities In Granitoid Magmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helps, P. A.; Clemens, J. D.; Petford, N.

    2004-12-01

    A survey of a large number of post-orogenic plutons, shows that regional-scale, intraplutonic isotope heterogeneities (initial 87Sr/86Sr and/or eNd) are common in crustally derived granitic rocks. This is expected since the source materials, from which the granitic magmas were created by partial melting, are themselves heterogeneous, especially from metasedimentary sources. If we accept models of granite emplacement involving the rapid ascent of magma along dykes, there must be potential for the preservation of source-inherited chemical and isotopic heterogeneities. However, their preservation will depend on the extent of post-emplacement homogenisation processes, such as diffusion and convective mixing, in the magma chambers. Micro-sampling of feldspar crystals in granites has revealed complex internal Sr and Nd isotope variations thought to reveal subtle variations in the isotopic composition of the melt from which particular zones crystallised. We therefore have evidence of both macro-scale (regional) and micro-scale isotopic variation within granitic magmas. What is unknown is the extent of chemical and isotopic variation on the meso-scale. We have obtained high-precision geochemical and isotopic (Sr, Nd, and O) analyses for spatially well constrained samples, from two granitic intrusions from the UK, to study the scales over which isotope heterogeneities are preserved, and the maximum volumes of magma over which isotope and elemental homogenisation may have been achieved. These data provide important constraints on the physical and chemical characteristics of processes that occur during magma genesis, ascent, and emplacement. The Criffell pluton (SW Scotland) has previously been shown to be isotopically heterogeneous on the regional scale, with initial 87Sr/86Sr varying from 0.70521 to 0.70728, generally increasing inward, towards the centre of the pluton. This was interpreted as representing isotopic heterogeneity within the source region. Our study has

  13. Heterogeneous Beliefs, Public Information, and Option Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Zhenjiang

    rate in the investors’ certainty equivalents and, thus, a higher equilibrium interest rate. The public infor- mation system facilitates improved dynamic trading opportunities in option markets based on the heterogeneously updated posterior beliefs. With an intermediate signal precision and the option...... with intermediate strike price, the highest efficiency of side-betting is achieved, re‡ected by a unique maximum point of the ex ante equilibrium interest rate. The public signal precision affects ex ante equilibrium risk premium only via its relationship with option....

  14. Rhyolite genesis at the Picabo Volcanic Center of the Snake River Plain: Progressive recycling of hydrothermally altered rhyolites revealed by high resolution analysis of individual zircons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, D.; Bindeman, I. N.; Watts, K. E.; Schmitt, A. K.; McCurry, M. O.

    2012-12-01

    The Picabo eruptive center of the Snake River Plain (SRP) produced a series of normal and low δ18O rhyolites from 10.44 Ma to 6.62 Ma, providing the first evidence of progressive recycling of hydrothermally altered rhyolites during the formation of a caldera complex. In this study we present a characterization of ignimbrites and associated lavas based on U-Pb ages and δ18O compositions of individual zircon cores measured by ion microprobe, phenocryst δ18O values measured by laser fluorination, whole rock 87Sr/86Sr and 143Nd/144Nd compositions, and whole rock geochemistry. Our data define rhyolite genesis at the Picabo volcanic center through time and have implications for the transition between volcanic centers. Caldera complex evolution at Picabo began with eruption of the 10.44 ± 0.27 Ma Tuff of Arbon Valley (TAV), a chemically zoned unit with a normal δ18Omelt value (8.15‰), very high 87Sr/86Sr (up to 0.734430) and very low ɛNd (-18). Eruptions continued with the ~9.1 Ma Two-and-a-Half-Mile Rhyolite (Kellogg et al., 1988), a unit significant in that it has an even lower ɛNd than the TAV and a normal δ18Omelt value (8.10‰). This low ɛNd of -23, of the Two-and-a-Half-Mile Rhyolite, reveals that greater than 40% of Archean crust was assimilated. These normal δ18O eruptions were followed by a series of lower δ18O eruptions distinguishable by Sr and Nd isotopes and whole rock chemistry. The 8.25 ± 0.26 Ma Rhyolite of West Pocatello has the lowest δ18Omelt value (3.34‰) of these eruptions, and based on nearly identical age, 87Sr/86Sr, 143Nd/144Nd, and whole rock chemistry, we correlate it to a 1,000 m thick intracaldera tuff (present in the INEL drillcore). Along with a distinct decrease in δ18O, from the TAV to the Rhyolite of West Pocatello, there is a corresponding increase in δ18Ozircon heterogeneity from the TAV (1‰ variation) to the low δ18O units with the greatest δ18Ozircon diversity (up to 5‰). Although morphological evidence for

  15. Translating Periosteum's Regenerative Power: Insights From Quantitative Analysis of Tissue Genesis With a Periosteum Substitute Implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Shannon R; Heu, Céline; Yu, Nicole Y C; Whan, Renee M; Knothe, Ulf R; Milz, Stefan; Knothe Tate, Melissa L

    2016-12-01

    : An abundance of surgical studies during the past 2 centuries provide empirical evidence of periosteum's regenerative power for reconstructing tissues as diverse as trachea and bone. This study aimed to develop quantitative, efficacy-based measures, thereby providing translational guidelines for the use of periosteum to harness the body's own healing potential and generate target tissues. The current study quantitatively and qualitatively demonstrated tissue generation modulated by a periosteum substitute membrane that replicates the structural constituents of native periosteum (elastin, collagen, progenitor cells) and its barrier, extracellular, and cellular properties. It shows the potentiation of the periosteum's regenerative capacity through the progenitor cells that inhabit the tissue, biological factors intrinsic to the extracellular matrix of periosteum, and mechanobiological factors related to implant design and implementation. In contrast to the direct intramembranous bone generated in defects surrounded by patent periosteum in situ, tissue generation in bone defects bounded by the periosteum substitute implant occurred primarily via endochondral mechanisms whereby cartilage was first generated and then converted to bone. In addition, in defects treated with the periosteum substitute, tissue generation was highest along the major centroidal axis, which is most resistant to prevailing bending loads. Taken together, these data indicate the possibility of designing modular periosteum substitute implants that can be tuned for vectorial and spatiotemporal delivery of biological agents and facilitation of target tissue genesis for diverse surgical scenarios and regenerative medicine approaches. It also underscores the potential to develop physical therapy protocols to maximize tissue genesis via the implant's mechanoactive properties. In the past 2 centuries, the periosteum, a niche for stem cells and super-smart biological material, has been used empirically

  16. Genealogies and spiritualities in Genesis 4:17-22, 4:25-26, 5:1-32 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The three genealogies in Genesis 4:17-22, 4:25-26 en 5:1-32 show different intentions: the first wants (amongst other purposes) to give an aetiology of the trades; the second wants to stress the importance of a new beginning; the third wants to relate Adam to Noah. Each of these approaches to genealogy has a different ...

  17. Improvement of orthopedic dental treatment of patients suffering post-surgery defects of the maxilla of cancer genesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Arutyunov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a comprehensive study identifying the key issuesand giving the mathematical, and clinical and microbiological substantiation of modern principles of providing orthopedic dental care to patients with acquired defects of the upper jaw of cancer genesis.

  18. Homogeneous, Heterogeneous, and Enzymatic Catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyama, S. Ted; Somorjai, Gabor A.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses three areas of catalysis: homegeneous, heterogeneous, and enzymatic. Explains fundamentals and economic impact of catalysis. Lists and discusses common industrial catalysts. Provides a list of 107 references. (MVL)

  19. Formation of Rationally Heterogeneous Expectations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pfajfar, D.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: This paper models expectation formation by taking into account that agents produce heterogeneous expectations due to model uncertainty, informational frictions and different capacities for processing information. We show that there are two general classes of steady states within this

  20. Electrocardiographic assessment of repolarization heterogeneity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooft van Huysduynen, Bart

    2006-01-01

    Repolarization heterogeneity refers to differences in repolarization instants in the heart. Normally, repolarization in the human heart is a relatively smooth, continuous process, during which adjacent areas repolarize almost simultaneously. Several drugs or cardiac diseases may disturb the

  1. Optimizations in Heterogeneous Mobile Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popovska Avramova, Andrijana

    Heterogeneous Mobile Networks bring advantages over homogeneous deployments in achieving the demand for mobile network capacity and coverage not just outdoor rural and urban areas, but also to homes and enterprises where the large portion of the mobile traffic is generated. However......, the heterogeneity in the mobile networks bring many challenges that are discusses with this dissertation. More focus is placed on specific issues with indifferent areas of heterogeneity by proposing optimizations in order to overcome the considered problems.The heterogeneity of mobile networks, together...... with the densification of the base stations, bring into a very complex network management and operation control for the mobile operators. Furthermore, the need to provide always best connection and service with high quality demands for a joint overall network resource management. This thesis addresses this challenge...

  2. Tropical cyclone genesis frequency over the western North Pacific simulated in medium-resolution coupled general circulation models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoi, Satoru [University of Tokyo, Center for Climate System Research, Kashiwa, Chiba (Japan); Takayabu, Yukari N. [University of Tokyo, Center for Climate System Research, Kashiwa, Chiba (Japan); Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, Research Institute for Global Change, Yokosuka, Kanagawa (Japan); Chan, Johnny C.L. [City University of Hong Kong, Laboratory for Atmospheric Research, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)

    2009-10-15

    This study examines the tropical cyclone (TC) genesis frequency over the western North Pacific simulated in atmosphere-ocean coupled general circulation models from the World Climate Research Programme's Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 3. We first evaluate performances of eight models with atmospheric horizontal resolution of T63 or T106 by analyzing their daily-mean atmospheric outputs of twentieth-century climate simulations available from the Program for Climate Model Diagnosis and Intercomparison database. The genesis frequency is validated against the best-track data issued by the Japan Meteorological Agency. Five of the eight models reproduce realistic horizontal distribution of the TC genesis with a large fraction over the 10 -20 N, 120 -150 E area. These five high-performance models also realistically simulate the summer-winter contrast of the frequency. However, detailed seasonal march is slightly unrealistic; four of the models overestimate the frequency in the early season (May-June) while all of them underestimate the frequency in the mature season (July-September). Reasons for these biases in the seasonal march for the five high-performance models are discussed using the TC genesis potential (GP) index proposed by Emanuel and Nolan (in Am Meteor Soc, pp 240-241, 2004). The simulated GP has seasonal biases consistent with those of the TC genesis frequency. For all five models, the seasonal biases in GP are consistent with those in environmental lower-tropospheric vorticity, vertical wind shear, and relative humidity, which can be attributed to the simulated behavior of monsoon trough. The observed trough migrates northward from the equatorial region to reach the 10 -20 N latitudinal band during the mature season and contributes to the TC frequency maximum, whereas the simulated trough migrates northward too rapidly and reaches this latitude band in the early season, leading to the overestimation of the TC genesis frequency. In the

  3. DYNAMIC HETEROGENEITY IN LIFE HISTORIES

    OpenAIRE

    Tuljapurkar, Shripad; Steiner, Ulrich K.; Orzack, Steven Hecht

    2008-01-01

    Longitudinal data on natural populations have been analyzed using multi-stage models in which survival depends on reproductive stage, and individuals change stages according to a Markov chain. These models are special cases of stage-structured population models. We show that stage-structured models generate dynamic heterogeneity: life history differences produced by stochastic stratum dynamics. We characterize dynamic heterogeneity in a range of species across taxa by properties of the Markov...

  4. Between normal and pathological: Ludwik Fleck, Georges Canguilhem and the genesis of historical epistemology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Lucio Leitão Condé

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this article is to address, starting from some aspects of the thought of Ludwik Fleck and Georges Canguilhem, the genesis of historical epistemology in the history of science. Specifically, it seeks the contribution of the biological matrix, or the life sciences, presented by these authors, as a central framework in the constitution of historical epistemology. In other words, more than a search of similarities between Fleck and Canguilhem, the main goal is to show how, in formulating independently their ideas of history of science – especially the history of medicine – these authors contributed decisively to the basis of a historical epistemology that will be, throughout the twentieth century, a new thought style for understanding the history of science.

  5. Scale genesis and gravitational wave in a classically scale invariant extension of the standard model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubo, Jisuke [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kanazawa University,Kanazawa 920-1192 (Japan); Yamada, Masatoshi [Department of Physics, Kyoto University,Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Heidelberg,Philosophenweg 16, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2016-12-01

    We assume that the origin of the electroweak (EW) scale is a gauge-invariant scalar-bilinear condensation in a strongly interacting non-abelian gauge sector, which is connected to the standard model via a Higgs portal coupling. The dynamical scale genesis appears as a phase transition at finite temperature, and it can produce a gravitational wave (GW) background in the early Universe. We find that the critical temperature of the scale phase transition lies above that of the EW phase transition and below few O(100) GeV and it is strongly first-order. We calculate the spectrum of the GW background and find the scale phase transition is strong enough that the GW background can be observed by DECIGO.

  6. The genesis and development of the Endodontic Study Club of Brisbane (1964-1970).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akers, Harry Francis

    2017-04-01

    This narrative delineates the International, Australian and Queensland settings, between 1940 and 1970 that impeded the development of endodontology and evidence-based endodontic practice. It explores the genesis of the Endodontic Study Club of Brisbane between 1964 and 1970. Pioneers' contributions to endodontology in Australia, together with contemporaneous problems, are identified. The author used literature review and historic method. The historical and constitutional backgrounds contributed to the disjointed origins of the Australian Society of Endodontology, which were networked but autonomous study clubs that appeared in capital cities between 1960 and 1965. This was an era when dental education in Queensland was emerging from serious problems. Brown and Simpson liaised with Ehrmann and established the Endodontic Study Club of Brisbane. Members of the Endodontic Study Club of Brisbane were collegiate, disciplined, few, innovative, insular, isolated and visionary. Membership demanded a commitment to self-education, collective learning and peer review. © 2016 Australian Society of Endodontology Inc.

  7. Genesis of the city Šabac and origin of its name

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grčić Mirko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Origin and meaning of the name of the city of Šabac was object of interest for many Serbian and foreign historical geographers, linguist geographers, anthropogeographers and others. Nevertheless, the meaning of this name has not been clearly researched till today. Some scientist believed that „Zaslon, the city on the river Sava, is Šabac in Greek“, some others believe that the name Šabac is in Serbian language. In this research paper authors deals with two hypotheses about the name. First hypothesis connects city name with the river Sava, and the second with name of god Sabacius (Sabazije, who was identified as Dionysus and Thracian god horse rider. However, these names are much older than material evidences about city genesis.

  8. Cleaning Genesis Solar Wind Collectors with Ultrapure Water: Residual Contaminant Particle Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allton, J. H.; Wentworth, S. J.; Rodriquez, M. C.; Calaway, M. J.

    2008-01-01

    Additional experience has been gained in removing contaminant particles from the surface of Genesis solar wind collectors fragments by using megasonically activated ultrapure water (UPW)[1]. The curatorial facility has cleaned six of the eight array collector material types to date: silicon (Si), sapphire (SAP), silicon-on-sapphire (SOS), diamond-like carbon-on-silicon (DOS), gold-on-sapphire (AuOS), and germanium (Ge). Here we make estimates of cleaning effectiveness using image analysis of particle size distributions and an SEM/EDS reconnaissance of particle chemistry on the surface of UPW-cleaned silicon fragments (Fig. 1). Other particle removal techniques are reported by [2] and initial assessment of molecular film removal is reported by [3].

  9. Neon Genesis Evangelion ou la déconstruction du robot anime

    OpenAIRE

    Suvilay, Bounthavy

    2017-01-01

    Au Japon, le développement du manga et du dessin animé est indissociable de la science-fiction et du développement du genre du robot anime (dessin animé avec robot géant). S’éloignant de l’esthétique des robots géants généralement imposée par les fabricants de jouets, les créatures de Neon Genesis Evangelion mélangent science, religion et psychanalyse dans une intrigue qui reflète à la fois la situation du spectateur passionné de SF et celle du réalisateur de la série au sein de l’animation j...

  10. THE LAKES OF THE TRANSYLVANIAN PLAIN: GENESIS, EVOLUTION AND TERRITORIAL REPARTITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor SOROCOVSCHI

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is concerned with the genesis of the Transylvanian Plain lakes’ basins and their evolution in time and space. Natural lakes in this area are reduced in point of their types of geneses (pseudokarst and lanslide lakes and number. Their evolution in time is quite fast, especially of the pseudokarst lakes. Among the anthropic lakes, the ponds represent the most frequent genetic type, which gives a particular aspect to the landscape of the Transylvanian Plain. They used to be much more numerous in the past than at present. Those whose dimensions are not significant, situated on the tributaries of the main rivers, have a rapid evolution. The anthropic salt lakes formed following the exploitation of salt in the western area of the country had a fast evolution and they are not numerous today

  11. The genesis of the Brazilian nation in XIX century’s iconography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verediana C. da Silva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to understand the genesis of the idea of Brazilian nation through the nineteenth century’s iconography, approaching the study of images and deepening into the analysis of four artworks: Engenho da cachoeira. Corte de cana-de-açúcar by Hércule Florence, Primeira Missa no Brasil by Victor Meirelles, O Grito do Ipiranga by Pedro Américo and Evangelho das Selvas by Benedito Calixto. Besides the pictures we paid attention to the texts belonging to the same period, mainly those produced by the cultural elite related to the Instituto Histórico e Geográfico Brasileiro (IHGB, to the travel reports as text-images, as well as to the emergence of the Instituto and of the Academia Imperial de Belas Artes (AIBA in a context of pursuit of homogeneity in the promising Brazilian nation.

  12. Plan for Subdividing Genesis Mission Diamond-on-Silicon 60000 Solar Wind Collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkett, Patti J.; Allton, J. A.; Clemett, S. J.; Gonzales, C. P.; Lauer, H. V., Jr.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Rodriquez, M. C.; See, T. H.; Sutter, B.

    2013-01-01

    NASA's Genesis solar wind sample return mission experienced an off nominal landing resulting in broken, albeit useful collectors. Sample 60000 from the collector is comprised of diamond-like-carbon film on a float zone (FZ) silicon wafer substrate Diamond-on-Silicon (DOS), and is highly prized for its higher concentration of solar wind (SW) atoms. A team of scientist at the Johnson Space Center was charged with determining the best, nondestructive and noncontaminating method to subdivide the specimen that would result in a 1 sq. cm subsample for allocation and analysis. Previous work included imaging of the SW side of 60000, identifying the crystallographic orientation of adjacent fragments, and devising an initial cutting plan.

  13. Status of Reconstruction of Fragmented Diamond-on-Silicon Collector From Genesis Spacecraft Solar Wind Concentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriquez, Melissa C.; Calaway, M. C.; McNamara, K. M.; Hittle, J. D.

    2009-01-01

    In addition to passive solar wind collector surfaces, the Genesis Discovery Mission science canister had on board an electrostatic concave mirror for concentrating the solar wind ions, known as the concentrator . The 30-mm-radius collector focal point (the target) was comprised of 4 quadrants: two of single crystal SiC, one of polycrystalline 13C diamond and one of diamond-like-carbon (DLC) on a silicon substrate. [DLC-on-silicon is also sometimes referenced as Diamond-on-silicon, DOS.] Three of target quadrants survived the hard landing intact, but the DLC-on-silicon quadrant fractured into numerous pieces (Fig. 1). This abstract reports the status of identifying the DLC target fragments and reconstructing their original orientation.

  14. Sun-genesis 21: Empowering the global village in the digital age and the solar century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamasaki, Les [Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2000-07-01

    Sun-Genesis 21 is a global economic development plan for creating an environmentally sustainable future in the developing world. Its premise is that the solution to the survival of civil stability and democracy in developing countries in the Information Age is to slow the migration of the rural poor into the urban centers as well as dispersing some of the residents of the already impacted cities into new agro-communities. This strategy envisions empowering the 25 million coffee farmers located in the poorest countries in the world to control their own economic destiny by marketing their products directly to the international marketplace over the World Wide Web (Coffee Belt Plan 2020). The plan also envisions creating a network of new agricultural communities called World Farm Solar Telecommunities that utilizes telecommunications and environmental technologies to disperse the impacted urban population. Proven profitable commodities such as industrial hemp, aloe vera, and aquacultural farming will be the economic foundation of these agro-communities. The goal is to empower rural agro-entrepreneurs to become an economic engine for job creation and be able to afford the Coffee Solar Televillages that include distant learning centers, telemedicine clinics, food processing centers, e-commerce centers, and solar crop-drying centers. The Genesis 21 program includes creative financing strategies to deal with these massive problems of poverty and hunger through the concept of trade, not aid, including the use of barter in a proposed Green Technology for Green Coffee program. [Spanish] Sun-Genesis 21 es un plan global de desarrollo economico para crear un futuro ambiental sustentable en el mundo en desarrollo. La premisa del plan es que la solucion para la supervivencia de la estabilidad civil y la democracia en paises en desarrollo dentro de la Era de la Informacion es desacelerar la migracion de la gente pobre de las areas rurales hacia los centros urbanos, asi como

  15. Graphics Processing Unit Acceleration and Parallelization of GENESIS for Large-Scale Molecular Dynamics Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jaewoon; Naurse, Akira; Kobayashi, Chigusa; Sugita, Yuji

    2016-10-11

    The graphics processing unit (GPU) has become a popular computational platform for molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of biomolecules. A significant speedup in the simulations of small- or medium-size systems using only a few computer nodes with a single or multiple GPUs has been reported. Because of GPU memory limitation and slow communication between GPUs on different computer nodes, it is not straightforward to accelerate MD simulations of large biological systems that contain a few million or more atoms on massively parallel supercomputers with GPUs. In this study, we develop a new scheme in our MD software, GENESIS, to reduce the total computational time on such computers. Computationally intensive real-space nonbonded interactions are computed mainly on GPUs in the scheme, while less intensive bonded interactions and communication-intensive reciprocal-space interactions are performed on CPUs. On the basis of the midpoint cell method as a domain decomposition scheme, we invent the single particle interaction list for reducing the GPU memory usage. Since total computational time is limited by the reciprocal-space computation, we utilize the RESPA multiple time-step integration and reduce the CPU resting time by assigning a subset of nonbonded interactions on CPUs as well as on GPUs when the reciprocal-space computation is skipped. We validated our GPU implementations in GENESIS on BPTI and a membrane protein, porin, by MD simulations and an alanine-tripeptide by REMD simulations. Benchmark calculations on TSUBAME supercomputer showed that an MD simulation of a million atoms system was scalable up to 256 computer nodes with GPUs.

  16. Nurr1 regulates Top IIβ and functions in axon genesis of mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng Xin

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background NURR1 (also named as NR4A2 is a member of the steroid/thyroid hormone receptor family, which can bind to DNA and modulate expression of target genes. Previous studies have shown that NURR1 is essential for the nigral dopaminergic neuron phenotype and function maintenance, and the defects of the gene are possibly associated with Parkinson's disease (PD. Results In this study, we used new born Nurr1 knock-out mice combined with Affymetrix genechip technology and real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR to identify Nurr1 regulated genes, which led to the discovery of several transcripts differentially expressed in the nigro-striatal pathway of Nurr1 knock-out mice. We found that an axon genesis gene called Topoisomerase IIβ (Top IIβ was down-regulated in Nurr1 knock-out mice and we identified two functional NURR1 binding sites in the proximal Top IIβ promoter. While in Top IIβ null mice, we saw a significant loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantial nigra and lack of neurites along the nigro-striatal pathway. Using specific TOP II antagonist ICRF-193 or Top IIβ siRNA in the primary cultures of ventral mesencephalic (VM neurons, we documented that suppression of TOP IIβ expression resulted in VM neurites shortening and growth cones collapsing. Furthermore, microinjection of ICRF-193 into the mouse medial forebrain bundle (MFB led to the loss of nigro-striatal projection. Conclusion Taken together, our findings suggest that Top IIβ might be a down-stream target of Nurr1, which might influence the processes of axon genesis in dopaminergic neurons via the regulation of TOP IIβ expression. The Nurr1-Top IIβ interaction may shed light on the pathologic role of Nurr1 defect in the nigro-striatal pathway deficiency associated with PD.

  17. SOME CONSIDERATIONS CONCERNING THE ROLE OF COSMIC ENVIRONMENT IN SOIL GENESIS AND EVOLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Munteanu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The present day concept of soil is strongly connected to the terrestrial environment. Among the cosmic factors of soil genesis the energy (as light and heat provided by the Sun is by far the most important. The other outer space possible agents e.g. meteorites, comets, cosmic radiation and cosmic dust, are usually neglected or scarcely mentioned. The advancing of cosmic exploration spurred soil scientists to extend their interest upon the extraterrestrial regoliths of Earth-like planets (Mars, Venus and Moon. The concept of “Universal soil” in whose genesis the biotic factor and water are not mandatory, has been recently advanced. The first papers about “lunar soils” are already quoted in soil science literature; some also speak about “Martian soil” or “Venusian soil”. Although these seem to be mere regoliths quite different from the “terrestrial soil” (by absence of life and water one believes that they may give information about impact upon lithological material of severe environment of these planets. This paper tries to outline the cosmic destiny of the soil, to enlarge its meaning and to reveal the hidden connections that the soil has with some planetary and cosmic parameters. In cosmic vision the “soil” – either “lunar”, “martian”, or “terrestrial” – can be viewed as the interface of energy and matter exchange between the land masses of these celestial body and their cosmic environment. The role of the solar activity, extragalactic events, distance from the Sun, obliquity (tilt of Earth’s rotation axis and Earth’s orbit circularity are analyzed in connection with Quaternary glaciations and their influences upon the development of terrestrial soils. The influence of Moon is emphasized as being very important in shaping the zonal geography of the terrestrial soils.

  18. Extraction of Solar Wind Nitrogen and Noble Gases From the Genesis Gold Foil Collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlutter, D. J.; Pepin, R. O.

    2005-12-01

    The Genesis gold foil is a bulk solar wind collector, integrating fluences from all three of the wind regimes. Pyrolytic extraction of small foil samples at Minnesota yielded He fluences, corrected for backscatter, in good agreement with measurements by on-board spacecraft instruments, and He/Ne elemental ratios close to those implanted in collector foils deployed on the lunar surface during the Apollo missions. Isotopic distributions of He, Ne and Ar are under study. Pyrolysis to temperatures above the gold melting point generates nitrogen blanks large enough to obscure the solar-wind nitrogen component. An alternative technique for nitrogen and noble gas extraction, by room-temperature amalgamation of the gold foil surface, will be discussed. Ne and Ar releases in preliminary tests of this technique on small foil samples were close to 100% of the amounts expected from the high-temperature pyrolysis yields, indicating that amalgamation quantitatively liberates gases from several hundred angstroms deep in the gold, beyond the implantation depth of most of the solar wind. Present work is focused on two problems currently interfering with accurate nitrogen measurements at the required picogram to sub-picogram levels: a higher than expected blank likely due to tiny air bubbles rolled into the gold sheet during fabrication, and the presence of a refractory hydrocarbon film on Genesis collector surfaces (the "brown stain") that, if left in place on the foil, shields the underlying gold from mercury attack. We have found, however, that the film is efficiently removed within tens of seconds by oxygen plasma ashing. Potential nitrogen contaminants introduced during the crash of the sample return canister are inert in amalgamation, and so are not hazards to the measurements.

  19. Genesis Solar Wind Collector Cleaning Assessment: Update on 60336 Sample Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goreva, Y. S.; Allums, K. K.; Gonzalez, C. P.; Jurewicz, A. J.; Burnett, D. S.; Allton, J. H.; Kuhlman, K. R.; Woolum, D.

    2015-01-01

    To maximize the scientific return of Genesis Solar Wind return mission it is necessary to characterize and remove a crash-derived particle and thin film surface contamination. A small subset of Genesis mission collector fragments are being subjected to extensive study via various techniques. Here we present an update on the sample 60336, a Czochralski silicon (Si-CZ) based wafer from the bulk array (B/C). This sample has undergone multiple cleaning steps (see the table below): UPW spin wash, aggressive chemical cleanings (including aqua regia, hot xylene and RCA1), as well as optical and chemical (EDS, ToF-SIMS) imaging. Contamination appeared on the surface of 60336 after the initial 2007 UPW cleaning. Aqua regia and hot xylene treatment (8/13/2013) did little to remove contaminants. The sample was UPW cleaned for the third time and imaged (9/16/13). The UPW removed the dark stains that were visible on the sample. However, some features, like "the Flounder" (a large, 100 micron feature in Fig. 1b) appeared largely intact, resisting all previous cleaning efforts. These features were likely from mobilized adhesive, derived from the Post-It notes used to stabilize samples for transport from Utah after the hard landing. To remove this contamination, an RCA step 1 organic cleaning (RCA1) was employed. Although we are still uncertain on the nature of the Flounder and why it is resistant to UPW and aqua regia/hot xylene treatment, we have found RCA1 to be suitable for its removal. It is likely that the glue from sticky pads used during collector recovery may have been a source for resistant organic contamination [9]; however [8] shows that UPW reaction with crash-derived organic contamination does not make particle removal more difficult.

  20. The Relation Between Dry Vortex Merger and Tropical Cyclone Genesis over the Atlantic Ocean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Shu-Hua; Liu, Yi-Chin

    2014-10-27

    A strong, convective African tropical disturbance has a greater chance to develop into a Tropical 23 Depression (TD) if it merges with a shallow, dry vortex (D-vortex) from the north of the African 24 easterly jet (AEJ) after leaving the western coast. Using 11-year reanalysis data we found that the 25 western tip of a vortex strip at northwestern Africa can serve as dry vortices for the D-vortex 26 merger if it shifts southward. Another source of D-vortices is the westward propagating lows 27 along the southern edge of the Saharan air. The D-vortex merger process occurred for 63.5% of 28 tropical cyclones (TCs) or developing systems over the main development region of the Atlantic 29 Ocean, while it occurred for 54% of non-developing systems. TC genesis could be largely 30 controlled by the large-scale environment, but the differences in characteristics of vortices 31 associated with the D-vortex merger between developing and non-developing systems could 32 potentially help determine their destinies; in general, developing systems were dominated by a 33 more intense and moist south vortex, while non-developing systems were dominated by a north 34 vortex which was more intense, drier, and larger in size. Analysis also shows that 74% of intense 35 developing systems were involved with the D-vortex merger process. More attention needs to be 36 paid to the D-vortex merger and the characteristics of those vortices as they can play significant 37 roles or have a strong indication in Atlantic TC genesis.

  1. Role of the serotonergic system in the genesis of vasovagal syncope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alboni, P; Bondanelli, M; Dinelli, M; Gruppillo, P; Franceschetti, P; Marchi, P; degli Uberti, E C

    2000-04-01

    The hypotensive reflex responsible for vasovagal syncope appears related to a reduction in sympathetic neural outflow. Several animal studies suggest that serotonin may play a role in the genesis of this reflex, through inhibition of sympathetic activity. However, the role of the serotonergic system is unknown in humans. The purpose of the study was to investigate the role of the serotonergic system in the genesis of vasovagal syncope by means of the level of platelet and plasma serotonin, as well as plasma catecholamines, during tilt-induced syncope. Fifteen patients (age 34 +/- 16 years) with vasovagal syncope underwent a head-up tilt test (HUT, 60 degrees , 45 min). If syncope did not develop, 300 microg nitroglycerin was administered sublingually and patients continued to be tilted for a further 20 min. Blood samples were obtained in the supine position, and then after 3, 10, 15, 30, 45, 48 and 65 min of HUT. If syncope developed, blood samples were obtained at the beginning of the prodrome, during syncope and after the recovery of consciousness. Platelet and plasma serotonin and plasma catecholamines were measured using high-pressure liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Ten patients developed syncope during the unmedicated HUT and four after nitroglycerin. In these patients plasma adrenaline significantly increased from the last programmed sample before the prodrome to its beginning and showed a further increase during loss of consciousness, whereas plasma noradrenaline did not increase, as an expression of inhibition of sympathetic neural outflow. In the patients experiencing syncope, both platelet and plasma serotonin showed no significant change after tilt-up, at the beginning of prodrome, during syncope and after recovery of consciousness. These results do not suggest that the serotonergic system plays a role in the pathophysiology of vasovagal syncope.

  2. Microstructure and geochemical evidences for genesis of the Gol-Gohar iron deposit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahryar Mahmoudi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The Gol-Gohar iron ore deposit located in 55 km South West of the city of Sirjan, in the Sanandaj-Sirjan structural zone. Sanandaj-Sirjan zone (SSZ is part of the Alpian-Hymalian orogenic belt and it is located in the west of the central Iran microplate. SSZ represented the metamorphic belt of the Zagros orogeny, that extends for 1500 km from Sirjan in the southeast to Sanandaj in the northwest of Iran (Mohajjel et al, 2003. The Gol-Gohar iron ore deposit is surrounded by a complex of igneous and metamorphic rocks mainly consisting of pelitic schists, basic schists, gneiss, amphibolite, marble, granodiorit, granite and mylonitic granite. In the early studies on the genesis of Gol-Gohr iron deposits, it was considered that sedimentary and tectonic processes were more effective in iron ore deposition. Later studies mainly confirmed a magmatic genesis for Gol-Gohar iron ore (Mucke and Golestaneh, 1982. Although some researchers argued that skarnisation process was the main cause of mineralisation (Hallaj and Jacobpor, 1991؛ Torabian, 2007, still some discussions on Gol-Gohr genesis are underway. Materials and methods – Gol-Gohar mine is divided into three blocks and several exploratory boreholes have been drilled down to 200 to 1400m depths in the third block. The representative samples were taken from exploration drill holes and outcrops around the mine. Microscopic observation (Zeiss Aksioscope in thin and polish sections show that the main ore mineral in the Gol-Gohar deposit is magnetite formed into two types with distinctive optical properties; the milky-gray magnetite (type1 named also “upper ore” and blue to brown magnetite (type2 named also “lower ore” (Mucke and Golestaneh, 1982. Mineralogy and microtectonic study were carried out on 100 thin and 30 polished sections using Zeiss research microscope. For geochemical analyses 20 samples were selected from 3 major exploration drill holes. After whole rock chemical

  3. Genesis and Development of Soils along Different Geomorphic Surfaces in Kouh Birk Area, Mehrestan City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Akbar Bahoorzahi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The optimum and sustainable use of soil is only possible with correct and complete understanding of its properties. The objectives of the present research were to study 1 genesis and development of soils related to different geomorphic surfaces in Kouh Birk Area (Mehrestan City, 2 Soil classification according to Soil Taxonomy (2014 and WRB (2014 systems, and 3 physicochemical properties, clay mineralogy and micromorphology of soils. Materials and Methods: Mean annual rainfall and soil temperature in the selected location are 153.46 mm and 19.6 oC, respectively. From geological point of view, the studied area is a part of west and south west zones and Flysch zone of east Iran. Soil temperature and moisture regimes of this part are thermic and aridic, respectively. Eight representative pedons on different surfaces including rock pediment, mantled pediment, Alluvial fan and Upper terraces were selected, sampled, and described. Routine physicochemical analyses, clay mineralogy, and micromorphological observations performed on soil samples. Soil reaction, texture, electrical conductivity, calcium carbonate, and gypsum were identified. Four samples including Bt horizon of pedon 1, Bk1 horizon of pedon 4, By2 horizon of pedon 5 and Bk1 horizon of pedon 7 were selected for clay mineralogy investigations. Four slides including Mg saturated, Mg saturated treated with ethylene glycol, K saturated, and K saturated heated up to 550 oC were analyzed. A Brucker X-Ray diffractometer at 40 kV and 30 mA was used for XRD analyses. Undisturbed soil samples from Bt horizon of pedon 1, Bk2 horizon of pedon 2, Btn horizon of pedon 3, By2 horizon of pedon 5, Bk1 horizon of pedon 7, and By1 horizon of pedon 8 were selected for micromorphological observations. A vestapol resin with stearic acid and cobalt as hardener was used for soil impregnation. Bk-Pol petrographic microscope was used for micromorphology investigations. Results and Discussion: Due to

  4. Genetic heterogeneity of familial hemiplegic migraine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joutel, A.; Ducros, A.; Vahedi, K. [Faculte de Medecine Necker-Enfants Malades, Paris (France)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM) is an autosomal dominant subtype of migraine with aura, characterized by the occurrence of a transient hemiplegia during the aura. We previously mapped the affected gene to the short arm of chromosome 19, within a 30 cM interval bracketed by D19S216 and D19S215. Linkage analysis conducted on 2 large FHM pedigrees did not show evidence of heterogeneity, despite their clinical differences due to the presence in one family of a cerebellar ataxia and a nystagmus. Herein we report linkage data on 9 additional FHM families including 2 other ones with cerebellar ataxia. Analysis was conducted with a set of 7 markers spanning the D19S216-D19S215 interval. Two point and multipoint lodscores analysis as well as HOMOG testing provided significant evidence for genetic heterogenity. Strong evidence of linkage was obtained in 3 families and absence of linkage in 6 families. Thus within the 11 families so far tested, 5 were linked, including those with an associated cerebellar ataxia. We could not find any clinical difference between the {open_quotes}pure{close_quotes} FHM families whether or not they were linked. This study also allowed us to establish that the most likely location of the gene is a 12 cM interval bracketed by D19S413 and D19S226. One of the unlinked family was large enough to conduct genetic mapping of the affected gene. Data will be presented at the meeting.

  5. Organizational heterogeneity of vertebrate genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Frenkel

    Full Text Available Genomes of higher eukaryotes are mosaics of segments with various structural, functional, and evolutionary properties. The availability of whole-genome sequences allows the investigation of their structure as "texts" using different statistical and computational methods. One such method, referred to as Compositional Spectra (CS analysis, is based on scoring the occurrences of fixed-length oligonucleotides (k-mers in the target DNA sequence. CS analysis allows generating species- or region-specific characteristics of the genome, regardless of their length and the presence of coding DNA. In this study, we consider the heterogeneity of vertebrate genomes as a joint effect of regional variation in sequence organization superimposed on the differences in nucleotide composition. We estimated compositional and organizational heterogeneity of genome and chromosome sequences separately and found that both heterogeneity types vary widely among genomes as well as among chromosomes in all investigated taxonomic groups. The high correspondence of heterogeneity scores obtained on three genome fractions, coding, repetitive, and the remaining part of the noncoding DNA (the genome dark matter--GDM allows the assumption that CS-heterogeneity may have functional relevance to genome regulation. Of special interest for such interpretation is the fact that natural GDM sequences display the highest deviation from the corresponding reshuffled sequences.

  6. Reaction Selectivity in Heterogeneous Catalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somorjai, Gabor A.; Kliewer, Christopher J.

    2009-02-02

    The understanding of selectivity in heterogeneous catalysis is of paramount importance to our society today. In this review we outline the current state of the art in research on selectivity in heterogeneous catalysis. Current in-situ surface science techniques have revealed several important features of catalytic selectivity. Sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy has shown us the importance of understanding the reaction intermediates and mechanism of a heterogeneous reaction, and can readily yield information as to the effect of temperature, pressure, catalyst geometry, surface promoters, and catalyst composition on the reaction mechanism. DFT calculations are quickly approaching the ability to assist in the interpretation of observed surface spectra, thereby making surface spectroscopy an even more powerful tool. HP-STM has revealed three vitally important parameters in heterogeneous selectivity: adsorbate mobility, catalyst mobility, and selective site-blocking. The development of size controlled nanoparticles from 0.8 to 10 nm, of controlled shape, and of controlled bimetallic composition has revealed several important variables for catalytic selectivity. Lastly, DFT calculations may be paving the way to guiding the composition choice for multi-metallic heterogeneous catalysis for the intelligent design of catalysts incorporating the many factors of selectivity we have learned.

  7. Driver heterogeneity in rubbernecking behaviour at an incident site (abstract)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rhasbudin Shah, S.M.; Knoop, V.L.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.

    2013-01-01

    Incidents can affect the flow in non?incident direction due to rubbernecking. To this date, only homogeneous rubbernecking behaviour has been assessed. This study provides insights into inter?driver heterogeneity in rubbernecking behaviour while passing an incident site. We use empirical trajectory

  8. Driver heterogeneity in rubbernecking behaviour at an incident site (poster)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rhasbudin Shah, S.M.; Knoop, V.L.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.

    2013-01-01

    Incidents can affect the flow in non?incident direction due to rubbernecking. To this date, only homogeneous rubbernecking behaviour has been assessed. This study provides insights into inter?driver heterogeneity in rubbernecking behaviour while passing an incident site. We use empirical trajectory

  9. Heterogeneity of soil surface temperature induced by xerophytic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Variation characteristics of the soil surface temperature induced by shrub canopy greatly affects the near- surface biological and biochemical processes in desert ecosystems. However, information regarding the effects of shrub upon the heterogeneity of soil surface temperature is scarce. Here we aimed to characterize.

  10. Heterogeneity of soil surface temperature induced by xerophytic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Variation characteristics of the soil surface temperature induced by shrub canopy greatly affects the nearsurface biological and biochemical processes in desert ecosystems. However, information regarding the effects of shrub upon the heterogeneity of soil surface temperature is scarce. Here we aimed to characterize the ...

  11. Heterogeneous firms, mark-ups and income inequality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tamminen, S.H.

    2014-01-01

    Firm heterogeneity affects not only the implications of trade policies for countries, but also income distributions within-countries since firms generate most of wage and capital income payments. Recently, both within-country wage- and capital income inequality have been rising in various countries.

  12. The Effects of Peer Group Heterogeneity on the Production of Human Capital at West Point

    OpenAIRE

    David S. Lyle

    2009-01-01

    Understanding how heterogeneity in peer group composition affects academic attainment has important implications for how schools organize students in group settings. The random assignment of cadets to companies at West Point affords an opportunity to investigate this issue empirically. Estimates of the impact of peer group heterogeneity in math SAT scores on freshmen-year academic performance reveals that more heterogeneous peer groups have positive effects on individual grades. High-ability ...

  13. Dynamics in population heterogeneity during batch and continuous fermentation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heins, Anna-Lena; Lencastre Fernandes, Rita; Lundin, L.

    2012-01-01

    environmental changes, which might pose stress on the cells, affect their metabolism and consequently influence the level of heterogeneity of the population. To gain a deeper understanding of population heterogeneity and the triggering phenomena, a Saccharomyces cerevisiae growth reporter strain based...... distribution during different growth stages. To further simulate which effect gradients have on population heterogeneity, glucose and ethanol perturbations during continuous cultivation were performed. Physiological changes were analyzed on single cell level by using flow cytometry followed by cell sorting...

  14. Heterogeneity in Preferences and Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gørtz, Mette

    This paper discusses the determinants of the retirement decision and the implications of retirement on economic well-being. The main contribution of the paper is to formulate the role of individual heterogeneity explicitly. We argue that individual heterogeneity in 1) productivity of market work...... choices of expenditure, household production and leisure for people in and around retirement. The unobserved individual heterogeneity factor is isolated by comparing cross-sectional evidence and panel data estimates of the effects of retirement on consumption and time allocation. Based on cross......-section data, we can identify a difference in consumption due to retirement status, but when the panel nature of the data is exploited, the effect of retirement on consumption is small and insignificant. Moreover, the analyses point at a large positive effect of retirement on household production. Our results...

  15. Numerical Characterization of Concrete Heterogeneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roque Luiz Pitangueira

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a finite element model including both material heterogeneity and size effects is presented. The concrete is considered as a statistical combination of constituent phase with different properties (aggregate, mortar and interface material. The material point response is based on a combination of the random occurrence of the solid phases in the structural volume as well as on the differences of structural response due to the size effect. Such combination allows for higher or lower heterogeneity corresponding to smaller or larger structural size. Simulations of the material heterogeneity and associated size effect in a computationally efficient and simple manner show good qualitative agreement with available experimental results for the three-point bending and Brazilian split tests.

  16. Coordination Frictions and Job Heterogeneity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kennes, John; le Maire, Christian Daniel

    This paper develops and extends a dynamic, discrete time, job to worker matching model in which jobs are heterogeneous in equilibrium. The key assumptions of this economic environment are (i) matching is directed and (ii) coordination frictions lead to heterogeneous local labor markets. We de- rive...... a number of new theoretical results, which are essential for the empirical application of this type of model to matched employer-employee microdata. First, we o¤er a robust equilibrium concept in which there is a continu- ous dispersion of job productivities and wages. Second, we show that our model can...... be readily solved with continuous exogenous worker heterogene- ity, where high type workers (high outside options and productivity) earn higher wages in high type jobs and are hired at least as frequently to the better job types as low type workers (low outside options and productivity). Third, we...

  17. How to measure genetic heterogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Ryo

    2009-12-01

    Genetic information of organisms is coded as a string of four letters, A, T, G and C, a sequence in macromolecules called deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). DNA sequence offers blueprint of organisms and its heterogeneity determines identity and variation of species. The quantitation of this genetic heterogeneity is fundamental to understand biology. We compared previously-reported three measures, covariance matrix expression of list of loci (pair-wise r2), the most popular index in genetics, and its multi-dimensional form, Ψ, and entropy-based index, epsilon. Thereafter we proposed two methods so that we could handle the diplotypic heterogeneity and quantitate the conditions where the number of DNA sequence samples is much smaller than the number of possible variants.

  18. How to measure genetic heterogeneity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Ryo, E-mail: ryamada@genome.med.kyoto-u.ac.j [Unit of Statistical Genetics, Center for Genomic Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Yoshida-Konoe-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-0815 (Japan)

    2009-12-01

    Genetic information of organisms is coded as a string of four letters, A, T, G and C, a sequence in macromolecules called deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). DNA sequence offers blueprint of organisms and its heterogeneity determines identity and variation of species. The quantitation of this genetic heterogeneity is fundamental to understand biology. We compared previously-reported three measures, covariance matrix expression of list of loci (pair-wise r{sup 2}), the most popular index in genetics, and its multi-dimensional form, {Psi}, and entropy-based index, {epsilon}. Thereafter we proposed two methods so that we could handle the diplotypic heterogeneity and quantitate the conditions where the number of DNA sequence samples is much smaller than the number of possible variants.

  19. Heterogeneity and Collective Action for Forest Management

    OpenAIRE

    Harini Nagendra

    2011-01-01

    Heterogeneity influences the likelihood of collective action for forest management. Theoretical examinations, focusing largely on economic heterogeneity, suggest that heterogeneity increases the likelihood of collective action. Field research however indicates that heterogeneity, whether in economic, social, or other dimensions, presents a challenge for collective action with variations in perceptions of costs and benefits amongst different groups, high transaction costs faced by the disadvan...

  20. Dynamic fracture of heterogeneous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stout, M.G.; Liu, C.; Addessio, F.L.; Williams, T.O.; Bennett, J.G.; Haberman, K.S.; Asay, B.W.

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective of this project was to investigate the fundamental aspects of the process of dynamic fracture propagation in heterogeneous materials. The work focused on three important, but poorly understood, aspects of dynamic fracture for materials with a heterogeneous microstructure. These were: the appropriateness of using a single-parameter asymptotic analysis to describe dynamic crack-tip deformation fields, the temperature rises at the tip and on the flanks of a running crack, and the constitutive modeling of damage initiation and accumulation.

  1. Structures and processes of biological soil crusts during initial ecosystem genesis of an artificial watershed in Lusatia, NE Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spröte, Roland; Fischer, Thomas; Veste, Maik; Yair, Aaron; Wiehe, Wolfgang; Lange, Philipp; Bens, Oliver; Raab, Thomas; Hüttl, Reinhard F.

    2010-05-01

    The influence of biological soil crusts (BSC) in natural ecosystems on structures and processes is well investigated. In southern Brandenburg (NE Germany) it was possible to study the development of BSCs during initial ecosystem genesis on the artificial water catchment 'Hühnerwasser'. The experimental site is located in the recultivation area of the lignite open-cast mining district of southern Brandenburg (Germany). The geomorphological differentiation at the site was related to crust development, where substrate-dependent water availability defined the crust types. The mosaic-like pattern of the BSCs was associated with the distribution of fine-grained material. We defined three types if BSC: (a) initial cyanobacterial crusts (BSC-I), (b) cyanobacterial and green algae crusts on the soil surface (BSC-CG) and (c) crusts with mosses (BSC-M) between dense vegetation. The chlorophyll A content as an index for the biomass of the cryptogams increased significantly with crust type from 0.97 mg m-2 (BSC-I), 6.34 mg m-2 (BSC-CG) to 13.32 mg m-2(BSC-M). The sandy substrates with high contents of silt and clay were poorly sorted and spatially re-distributed by fluvial and aeolian processes. The contents of silt and clay were 15.9%-23.8% in the cyanobacterial crusts (BSC-I, BSC-CG) and 30.5% in the moss-crust (BSC-M). The pH values were about 7 (neutral) in all BSCs. The heighest Corg contents were found in BSC-CG (0.51%), but were not significantly lower in BSC-I (0.47%) and BSC-M (0.44%), where Corg concentrations of the original substrate ranged from 0.16 to 0.22% at construction of the catchment. The BSC types were very heterogeneously distributed and developed. Different crust types occurred in small-scale patches. Cyanobacteria which exude mucilaginous material and the rhizoids and protonemata of mosses contributed to aggregating sand grains and enhanced the topsoil stability. Furthermore, filamentous cyanobacteria and algae partially filled in the matrix pores and

  2. Firing rate dynamics in recurrent spiking neural networks with intrinsic and network heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Cheng

    2015-12-01

    Heterogeneity of neural attributes has recently gained a lot of attention and is increasing recognized as a crucial feature in neural processing. Despite its importance, this physiological feature has traditionally been neglected in theoretical studies of cortical neural networks. Thus, there is still a lot unknown about the consequences of cellular and circuit heterogeneity in spiking neural networks. In particular, combining network or synaptic heterogeneity and intrinsic heterogeneity has yet to be considered systematically despite the fact that both are known to exist and likely have significant roles in neural network dynamics. In a canonical recurrent spiking neural network model, we study how these two forms of heterogeneity lead to different distributions of excitatory firing rates. To analytically characterize how these types of heterogeneities affect the network, we employ a dimension reduction method that relies on a combination of Monte Carlo simulations and probability density function equations. We find that the relationship between intrinsic and network heterogeneity has a strong effect on the overall level of heterogeneity of the firing rates. Specifically, this relationship can lead to amplification or attenuation of firing rate heterogeneity, and these effects depend on whether the recurrent network is firing asynchronously or rhythmically firing. These observations are captured with the aforementioned reduction method, and furthermore simpler analytic descriptions based on this dimension reduction method are developed. The final analytic descriptions provide compact and descriptive formulas for how the relationship between intrinsic and network heterogeneity determines the firing rate heterogeneity dynamics in various settings.

  3. A study of heterogeneity of environmental variance for slaughter weight in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibánez-Escriche, N; Varona, L; Sorensen, D

    2008-01-01

    This work presents an analysis of heterogeneity of environmental variance for slaughter weight (175 days) in pigs. This heterogeneity is associated with systematic and additive genetic effects. The model also postulates the presence of additive genetic effects affecting the mean and environmental...

  4. THE URBAN GENESIS IN THE WEST OF BAHIA, BRAZIL: CLUSTERS AND THE TOWN’S NETWORK IN NINETEENTH CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iann Dellano da Silva Santos

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article analysis the process that defined the urban network’s spatial form in the west of Bahia, Brazil, in the past, demonstrating the function the center’s Barra, like a main center of commercial’s interchangeable in the region, from the colonial time. To understand the initial process of development any urban network, it’s necessary to verify elements like the genesis, geographic position, size and urban functions of the centers, beyond spatial interactions caused by these urban functions, like a interchangeable of the people, goods, capital and information, and urban network’s spatial form (CORRÊA, 2000. The discussion starts about the occupation on the left side of river São Francisco, in the state of Bahia, Brazil, occurred from second part sixteenth century (IBGE, 1958, and ends identifying the urban network genesis in the end nineteenth century (SANTOS FILHO, 1989.

  5. Languages as semiotically heterogenous systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendon, Adam

    2017-01-01

    The target article is consistent with seeing languages as semiotically heterogenous, using categorial, depictive, and analogic semiotic signs. "Gesture," used in the target article, is shown to be vague and not useful. Kendon's view, criticised in the target, is restated. His proposal for comparative semiotic analyses of how visible bodily action is used in utterance production is reexplained.

  6. Communicating to heterogeneous target groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Karsten

    very often have to communicate to rather heterogeneous target groups that have little more in common than a certain geographical habitat. That goes against most schoolbook teaching in the field of communication, but is none the less the terms with which that kind of communication has to live...

  7. Molecular Mechanism of Heterogeneous Catalysis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 13; Issue 6. Molecular Mechanism of Heterogeneous Catalysis - The 2007 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. R S Swathi K L Sebastian. General Article Volume 13 Issue 6 June 2008 pp 548-560 ...

  8. Genetic heterogeneity within the chondroitinsulphaturias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danes, B S; Rottell, B K; Eviatar, L; Stolzenberg, J

    1977-01-01

    The approach, identification of clinical phenotype followed by lysosomal enzyme assays in cell culture, used in the classification of the genetic mucopolysaccharidoses I-VI has been applied to the chondroitinsulphaturias. There was evidence of heterogeneity in the first 9 patients reported. Images PMID:404409

  9. Dynamic heterogeneity and life histories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuljapurkar, Shripad; Steiner, Uli

    2010-01-01

    of the variation among individual characteristics that is generated by dynamic heterogeneity. We conclude by discussing our ongoing and planned work on animals and humans. We also discuss the connections between our work and recent work on human mortality, disability and health, and life course theory....

  10. A Heterogeneous Quantum Computer Architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fu, X.; Riesebos, L.; Lao, L.; Garcia Almudever, C.; Sebastiano, F.; Versluis, R.; Charbon, E.; Bertels, K.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present a high level view of the heterogeneous quantum computer architecture as any future quantum computer will consist of both a classical and quantum computing part. The classical part is needed for error correction as well as for the execution of algorithms that contain both

  11. Social Capital and Community Heterogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffe, Hilde

    2009-01-01

    Recent findings indicate that more pronounced community heterogeneity is associated with lower levels of social capital. These studies, however, concentrate on specific aspects in which people differ (such as income inequality or ethnic diversity). In the present paper, we introduce the number of parties in the local party system as a more…

  12. Social capital and community heterogeneity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coffé, Hilde R.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Recent findings indicate that more pronounced community heterogeneity is associated with lower levels of social capital. These studies, however, concentrate on specific aspects in which people differ (such as income inequality or ethnic diversity). In the present paper, we introduce the

  13. Decreasing trend of tropical cyclone genesis frequency in July-August over the western North Pacific in the last 20 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ki-Seon; Kim, Hae-Dong; Kang, Sung-Dae; Shim, Chang-Sup

    2016-07-01

    This study analyzed the frequency of tropical cyclones (TCs) that occurred in each month of July to September, which is when most TCs occur during a year, in the western North Pacific for the last 20 years. Since the mid-1990s, the TC genesis frequency has tended to decrease during July to August but to increase during September. Therefore, the time series of the TC genesis frequency during July to August was analyzed. The average TC genesis frequency during July to August was 10TCs. Until 2006, a greater number of years had a TC genesis frequency more than 10TCs; however, from 2006, a greater number of years had a TC genesis frequency less than 10TCs. To determine why the TC genesis frequency showed this change in the mid-2000s, the difference between the average of July and August 2007 to 2014 (0714) and that of July and August 1995 to 2006 (9506) was analyzed. With regard to the TC genesis frequency, TCs occurred largely in the eastern sea of the Philippines during 0714 and in the distant eastern sea of the Philippines during 9506. With regard to the TC passage frequency, TCs came ashore at the southeastern area of China via the South China Sea from the Philippines during 0714 and tended to go north toward Korea and Japan through the East China Sea from the distant eastern sea of the Philippines during 9506. The cause of the differences in TC tracks between the two periods was verified through an analysis of the 850- and 500-hPa streamlines. During 0714, anomalous anticyclonic circulations were strengthened in most areas of the western North Pacific. Therefore, the TC genesis frequency during 0714 was lower than that during 9506 in the tropical and subtropical western North Pacific; in particular, in this area, anomalous easterlies were strengthened, which caused TCs to go toward the southeastern area of China.

  14. The Influence of Particle Charge on Heterogeneous Reaction Rate Coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikin, A. C.; Pesnell, W. D.

    2000-01-01

    The effects of particle charge on heterogeneous reaction rates are presented. Many atmospheric particles, whether liquid or solid are charged. This surface charge causes a redistribution of charge within a liquid particle and as a consequence a perturbation in the gaseous uptake coefficient. The amount of perturbation is proportional to the external potential and the square of the ratio of debye length in the liquid to the particle radius. Previous modeling has shown how surface charge affects the uptake coefficient of charged aerosols. This effect is now included in the heterogeneous reaction rate of an aerosol ensemble. Extension of this analysis to ice particles will be discussed and examples presented.

  15. Orphanhood as Genesis in Miguel Delibes’s La sombra del ciprés es alargada

    OpenAIRE

    Squires, Jeremy S.‏

    2015-01-01

    Miguel Delibes's La sombra del ciprés es alargada (1948) has been read as a Catholic novel (Hart 1990), a demythifying novel (Agawu-Kakraba 1996) and an existentialist novel (Buckley 2012). These interpretations share a common focus on the young protagonist's obsession with death and on the malign influence of the doctrine of non-involvement (desasimiento), as propounded by the protagonist's teacher. However, this article contends that the genesis of the youth's angst is unresolved mourning r...

  16. Genesis & the Human Ribcage: An Opportunity to Correct a Misconception & Introduce an Evolution Lesson into the Anatomy Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senter, Phil

    2013-01-01

    Many anatomy students begin the course with a misconception that human males and females do not have the same number of ribs. At the root of that misconception is Genesis 2:21-22, in which God removes a rib from Adam to make Eve. Removal of a body part is a surgical procedure, and one does not pass on the results of surgery to one's offspring. The…

  17. The permeability of heterogeneous rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvadurai, Patrick

    2017-04-01

    Darcy's original concept of permeability is largely associated with estimation of the hydraulic conductivity characteristics of isotropic and homogeneous porous media where the fluid flow characteristics can be estimated by appeal to a single scalar measure. Naturally occurring geomaterials are heterogeneous and the estimation of the effective permeability characteristics of such geomaterials presents a challenge not only in terms of the experimental procedures that should be used to ensure flow through the porous medium but also in the correct use of the theoretical concepts needed to accurately interpret the data. Relatively widely referred to rocks such as Indiana Limestone can exhibit spatial heterogeneity in the permeability characteristics even though the visual appearance can suggest the absence of such spatial and directional attributes (Selvadurai and Selvadurai, 2010). Argillaceous rocks such as the Cobourg Limestone found in southern Ontario, Canada can display hydraulic heterogeneity that is attributed to the presence of dolomitic and calcite nodular regions separated by calcite rock partings that contain an argillaceous component (Figure 1). Also, these rocks have extremely low permeability that requires the use of transient hydraulic pulse tests for the estimation of permeability. The performance of such pulse tests will be influenced by the bulk compressibility and bulk porosity of the porous skeleton consisting of the identifiable phases and their spatial distributions. The concepts of effective compressibilities and porosities therefore needs to be introduced if convenient procedures are to be developed for the accurate interpretation of even bench scale experiments (Selvadurai and Gɫowacki, 2017). The paper will describe both experimental and theoretical approaches for interpreting the effective Darcy permeability of the heterogeneous rocks using both experimental and computational approaches. In particular, the applicability of the "Geometric

  18. Genetic heterogeneity of familial hemiplegic migraine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ophoff, R.A.; Van Eijk, R.; Sandkuijl, L.A. [Leiden Univ. (Netherlands)] [and others

    1994-07-01

    Familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM) is a distinctive form of migraine with an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance. The migraine-like attacks are associated with transient hemiparesis. A locus for FHM has recently been assigned to chromosome 19 by linkage mapping. In the present study, five unrelated pedigrees with multiple members suffering from hemiplegic migraine were investigated. In two of the pedigrees additional symptoms, cerebellar ataxia and benign neonatal convulsions, respectively, were observed in affected members. Three pedigrees showed linkage to loci D19S391, D19S221, and D19S226 at chromosome 19p13. Haplotyping suggested a location of a FHM gene between D19S391 and D19S221. In the two remaining families, evidence against linkage was found. These results confirm the localization of a gene for familial hemiplegic migraine to the short arm of chromosome 19, but locus heterogeneity not corresponding to the observed clinical heterogeneity is likely to exist. 19 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Genetic heterogeneity in Pakistani microcephaly families revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, I; Baig, S M; Abdulkareem, A R; Hussain, M S; Sur, I; Toliat, M R; Nürnberg, G; Dalibor, N; Moawia, A; Waseem, S S; Asif, M; Nagra, H; Sher, M; Khan, M M A; Hassan, I; Rehman, S Ur; Thiele, H; Altmüller, J; Noegel, A A; Nürnberg, P

    2017-07-01

    Autosomal recessive primary microcephaly (MCPH) is a rare and heterogeneous genetic disorder characterized by reduced head circumference, low cognitive prowess and, in general, architecturally normal brains. As many as 14 different loci have already been mapped. We recruited 35 MCPH families in Pakistan and could identify the genetic cause of the disease in 31 of them. Using homozygosity mapping complemented with whole-exome, gene panel or Sanger sequencing, we identified 12 novel mutations in 3 known MCPH-associated genes - 9 in ASPM, 2 in MCPH1 and 1 in CDK5RAP2. The 2 MCPH1 mutations were homozygous microdeletions of 164,250 and 577,594 bp, respectively, for which we were able to map the exact breakpoints. We also identified four known mutations - three in ASPM and one in WDR62. The latter was initially deemed to be a missense mutation but we demonstrate here that it affects splicing. As to ASPM, as many as 17 out of 27 MCPH5 families that we ascertained in our sample were found to carry the previously reported founder mutation p.Trp1326*. This study adds to the mutational spectra of four known MCPH-associated genes and updates our knowledge about the genetic heterogeneity of MCPH in the Pakistani population considering its ethnic diversity. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Genetic heterogeneity of Usher syndrome type II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieke Dahl, S; Kimberling, W J; Gorin, M B; Weston, M D; Furman, J M; Pikus, A; Möller, C

    1993-01-01

    Usher syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterised by retinitis pigmentosa and congenital sensorineural hearing loss. A gene for Usher syndrome type II (USH2) has been localised to chromosome 1q32-q41. DNA from a family with four of seven sibs affected with clinical characteristics of Usher syndrome type II was genotyped using markers spanning the 1q32-1q41 region. These included D1S70 and D1S81, which are believed to flank USH2. Genotypic results and subsequent linkage analysis indicated non-linkage of this family to these markers. The A test analysis for heterogeneity with this family and 32 other Usher type II families was statistically significant at p < 0.05. Further clinical evaluation of this family was done in light of the linkage results to determine if any phenotypic characteristics would allow for clinical identification of the unlinked type. No clear phenotypic differences were observed; however, this unlinked family may represent a previously unreported subtype of Usher type II characterised by a milder form of retinitis pigmentosa and mild vestibular abnormalities. Heterogeneity of Usher syndrome type II complicates efforts to isolate and clone Usher syndrome genes using linkage analysis and limits the use of DNA markers in early detection of Usher type II. Images PMID:7901420

  1. Design and descriptive results of the "Growth, Exercise and Nutrition Epidemiological Study In preSchoolers": The GENESIS Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manios Yannis

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Growth, Exercise and Nutrition Epidemiological Study in preSchoolers (GENESIS attempts to evaluate the food and nutrient intakes, as well as growth and development of a representative sample of Greek toddlers and preschool children. In the current work the study design, data collection procedures and some preliminary data of the GENESIS study are presented. Methods From April 2003 to July 2004, 1218 males and 1156 females 1 to 5 years old, stratified by parental educational level (Census 1999, were examined from 105 nurseries in five counties. Approximately 300 demographic, lifestyle, physical activity, dietary, anthropometrical and DNA variables have been recorded from the study population (children and parents. Results Regarding anthropometrical indices, boys were found to be taller than girls at all ages (P Conclusion The prevalence of overweight in the current preschool population is considerably high. Future but more extensive analyses of the GENESIS data will be able to reveal the interactions of the parameters leading to this phenomenon.

  2. Paulus als Schriftuitlegger Paulus’ vertolking van Genesis 15:5b-6 in Romeinen 4:3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter K. Baaij

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Paul as expositor of Scripture. Paul’s interpretation of Genesis 15:5b-6 in Romans 4:3 The author of this article has since 1986 been working exclusively on the translation and exegesis of the Epistle to the Romans. In the course of this work, he discovered that Paul first carefully considered his text in Biblical Hebrew before writing it accurately in Greek. It then transpires that “the difficult Paul” proclaimed the gospel of the crowning of the Law (10:4 with great clarity. The real Paul is pre-eminently the expositor of Scripture. Provided we use the instruments provided to the reader by Paul, we shall thus not only understand the proclamation of Paul better but also Scripture itself.  In this article the author illustrates that Paul in Romans 4:3 accurately renders what is written in Genesis 15:5b and 6. Paul teaches us to understand the Hebrew text better by indicating where the emphasis lies in the Hebrew text and how we must interpret the Hebrew terms used. For this reason Paul’s interpretation of Genesis 15:5b and 6 in Romans 4:3 is of great importance in the continually more topical debate on how we must translate the Bible.

  3. Heterogeneous Viscoelasticity: A Combined Theory of Dynamic and Elastic Heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirmacher, Walter; Ruocco, Giancarlo; Mazzone, Valerio

    2015-07-03

    We present a heterogeneous version of Maxwell's theory of viscoelasticity based on the assumption of spatially fluctuating local viscoelastic coefficients. The model is solved in coherent-potential approximation. The theory predicts an Arrhenius-type temperature dependence of the viscosity in the vanishing-frequency limit, independent of the distribution of the activation energies. It is shown that this activation energy is generally different from that of a diffusing particle with the same barrier-height distribution, which explains the violation of the Stokes-Einstein relation observed frequently in glasses. At finite but low frequencies, the theory describes low-temperature asymmetric alpha relaxation. As examples, we report the good agreement obtained for selected inorganic, metallic, and organic glasses. At high frequencies, the theory reduces to heterogeneous elasticity theory, which explains the occurrence of the boson peak and related vibrational anomalies.

  4. Micromorphology, mineralogy, and genesis of soils and fracture fills and the Pajarito Plateau, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davenport, D.W. [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The town of Los Alamos, and the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), are located on the Pajarito Plateau in north-central New Mexico. Environmental concerns have recently focused attention on the numerous fractures in the Bandelier Tuff, the series of volcanic rock units that make up most of the plateau. These fractures have come into question as possible conduits for transport of contaminants downward through the tuff. This, study arose out of a need to evaluate the potential for contaminant transport in the fractures. Because the fractures are typically filled, or partially filled, with soil-like material, and appear to be physically continuous with the soils on the surface of the Pajarito Plateau, it was decided to approach the question of the fractures from a soil genesis and morphology standpoint. Specifically, it was believed that soil characterization techniques, including soil micromorphological and mineralogical analyses, could provide information about the dominant processes (past and present) acting in the soils and fractures. The specific objectives of this research were to investigate: (1) the physical, mineralogical and chemical nature of fracture-filling materials in the Bandelier Tuff, as well as associated surface soils; (2) the relationships among fracture-fills, tuff bedrock, and surface soils of the Pajarito Plateau; (3) the processes responsible for the development of the fracture-fills; and (4) the likely sequence of events leading to the present morphology of the soils and fracture-fills.

  5. Vanadium-rich ruby and sapphire within Mogok Gemfield, Myanmar: implications for gem color and genesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaw, Khin; Sutherland, Lin; Yui, Tzen-Fu; Meffre, Sebastien; Thu, Kyaw

    2015-01-01

    Rubies and sapphires are of both scientific and commercial interest. These gemstones are corundum colored by transition elements within the alumina crystal lattice: Cr3+ yields red in ruby and Fe2+, Fe3+, and Ti4+ ionic interactions color sapphires. A minor ion, V3+ induces slate to purple colors and color change in some sapphires, but its role in coloring rubies remains enigmatic. Trace element and oxygen isotope composition provide genetic signatures for natural corundum and assist geographic typing. Here, we show that V can dominate chromophore contents in Mogok ruby suites. This raises implications for their color quality, enhancement treatments, geographic origin, exploration and exploitation and their comparison with rubies elsewhere. Precise LA-ICP-MS analysis of ruby and sapphire from Mogok placer and in situ deposits reveal that V can exceed 5,000 ppm, giving V/Cr, V/Fe and V/Ti ratios up to 26, 78, and 97 respectively. Such values significantly exceed those found elsewhere suggesting a localized geological control on V-rich ruby distribution. Our results demonstrate that detailed geochemical studies of ruby suites reveal that V is a potential ruby tracer, encourage comparisons of V/Cr-variation between ruby suites and widen the scope for geographic typing and genesis of ruby. This will allow more precise comparison of Asian and other ruby fields and assist confirmation of Mogok sources for rubies in historical and contemporary gems and jewelry.

  6. Building an outpatient imaging center: A case study at genesis healthcare system, part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanci, Jim

    2006-01-01

    In the second of 2 parts, this article will focus on process improvement projects utilizing a case study at Genesis HealthCare System located in Zanesville, OH. Operational efficiency is a key step in developing a freestanding diagnostic imaging center. The process improvement projects began with an Expert Improvement Session (EIS) on the scheduling process. An EIS session is a facilitated meeting that can last anywhere from 3 hours to 2 days. Its intention is to take a group of people involved with the problem or operational process and work to understand current failures or breakdowns in the process. Recommendations are jointly developed to overcome any current deficiencies, and a work plan is structured to create ownership over the changes. A total of 11 EIS sessions occurred over the course of this project, covering 5 sections: Scheduling/telephone call process, Pre-registration, Verification/pre-certification, MRI throughput, CT throughput. Following is a single example of a project focused on the process improvement efforts. All of the process improvement projects utilized a quasi methodology of "DMAIC" (Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, and Control).

  7. Ecosystem Composition Controls the Fate of Rare Earth Elements during Incipient Soil Genesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaharescu, Dragos G.; Burghelea, Carmen I.; Dontsova, Katerina; Presler, Jennifer K.; Maier, Raina M.; Huxman, Travis; Domanik, Kenneth J.; Hunt, Edward A.; Amistadi, Mary K.; Gaddis, Emily E.; Palacios-Menendez, Maria A.; Vaquera-Ibarra, Maria O.; Chorover, Jon

    2017-02-01

    The rare earth elements (REE) are increasingly important in a variety of science and economic fields, including (bio)geosciences, paleoecology, astrobiology, and mining. However, REE distribution in early rock-microbe-plant systems has remained elusive. We tested the hypothesis that REE mass-partitioning during incipient weathering of basalt, rhyolite, granite and schist depends on the activity of microbes, vascular plants (Buffalo grass), and arbuscular mycorrhiza. Pore-water element abundances revealed a rapid transition from abiotic to biotic signatures of weathering, the latter associated with smaller aqueous loss and larger plant uptake. Abiotic dissolution was 39% of total denudation in plant-microbes-mycorrhiza treatment. Microbes incremented denudation, particularly in rhyolite, and this resulted in decreased bioavailable solid pools in this rock. Total mobilization (aqueous + uptake) was ten times greater in planted compared to abiotic treatments, REE masses in plant generally exceeding those in water. Larger plants increased bioavailable solid pools, consistent with enhanced soil genesis. Mycorrhiza generally had a positive effect on total mobilization. The main mechanism behind incipient REE weathering was carbonation enhanced by biotic respiration, the denudation patterns being largely dictated by mineralogy. A consistent biotic signature was observed in La:phosphate and mobilization: solid pool ratios, and in the pattern of denudation and uptake.

  8. Electric Field Measurements During the Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) Field Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, Monte G.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Mach, Douglas M.

    2010-01-01

    During the Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) field program, a system of 6 electric field mills was flown on one of NASA's Global Hawk aircraft. We placed several mills on the aircraft to enable us to measure the vector electric field. We created a distributed, ethernet-connected system so that each sensor has its own embedded Linux system, complete with web server. This makes our current generation system fully "sensor web enabled." The Global Hawk has several unique qualities, but relevant to quality storm electric field measurements are high altitude (20 km) and long duration (20-30 hours) flights. There are several aircraft participating in the GRIP program, and coordinated measurements are happening. Lightning and electric field measurements will be used to study the relationships between lightning and other storm characteristics. It has been long understood that lightning can be used as a marker for strong convective activity. Past research and field programs suggest that lightning flash rate may serve as an indicator and precursor for rapid intensification change in tropical cyclones and hurricanes. We have the opportunity to sample hurricanes for many hours at a time and observe intensification (or de-intensification) periods. The electrical properties of hurricanes during such periods are not well known. American

  9. The Genesis of Participatory Democracy in Brazil: a Scientific (ReConstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Hélène Sa Vilas Boas

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The rise of participatory democracy has often been explained by the renewal of collective action in Europe and Latin America. This review essay questions the 'movement-based' genesis of Brazilian participatory democracy by analyzing the idea of the state upon which it rests. It argues that the focus on social movements falls short of explaining the spread of participatory experiments, and that it rests on a simplified understanding of the dynamics of the Brazilian State prior to the 1980s. The argument is developed along three axes. First, the essay analyses how the 'classics' of Brazilian political sociology framed the early studies on participatory democracy. Second, it shows that even if the unifying notion of the state has been challenged, progress has focussed on the study of the democratic period. Third, it presents evidence that participation, as a practical category, was an integral part of the military regime's discourse and practice. Finally, the essay defines lines of investigation to reconsider the origins of participatory democracy in Brazil.

  10. Hebb and Cattell: The Genesis of the Theory of Fluid and Crystallized Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Richard E.

    2016-01-01

    Raymond B. Cattell is credited with the development of the theory of fluid and crystallized intelligence. The genesis of this theory is, however, vague. Cattell, in different papers, stated that it was developed in 1940, 1941 or 1942. Carroll (1984, Multivariate Behavioral Research, 19, 300-306) noted the similarity of Cattell's theory to “Hebb's notion of two types of intelligence,” which was presented at the 1941 APA meeting, but the matter has been left at that. Correspondence between Cattell, Donald Hebb and George Humphrey of Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, however, indicates that Cattell adopted Hebb's ideas of intelligence A and B and renamed them. This paper describes Hebb's two types of intelligence, and shows how Cattell used them to develop his ideas of crystallized and fluid intelligence. Hebb and Cattell exchanged a number of letters before Cattell's paper was rewritten in such a way that everyone was satisfied. This paper examines the work of Hebb and Cattell on intelligence, their correspondence, the development of the ideas of fluid and crystallized intelligence, and why Cattell (1943, p. 179) wrote that “Hebb has independently stated very clearly what constitutes two thirds of the present theory.” PMID:28018191

  11. ‘Protodesign’: The genesis of design, or a few things that changed the world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Yu Bronzino

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept ‘design’ that has recently become popular in everyday discourse and among social scientists has not received an unambiguous interpretation. The ambiguity of the concept is due primarily to the complexity of the interpretation of very diverse social practices, the history of which can be traced to the earliest cultural practices of the humankind. This gives the design a universal character and exceptional significance: through the prism of this concept, we can trace the evolution of human culture as a whole. Thus, the study of the concept ‘design’ in the article is based on this theoretical background and emphasizes its basic feature - projectivity genetically related to the project thinking as an essential attribute of human activity. The logic of the article corresponds to the sequence of the main historical stages of the project thinking formation marked by specific inventions. Such an approach allows us to trace the evolution of the design revealing its genesis in the connection with the key moments of the industrial development and scientific and technological revolution as well as the most important social events that contributed to the development of the modern society urban environment and predetermined its social structure.

  12. Genesis of the "Critical-Acceleration of MOND" and Its Role in "Formation of Structures"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tank H. K.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available As an attempt to explain the “flattening of galaxies rotation-curves”, Milgrom proposed a Modification of Newtonian Dynamics MOND, in which he needed a new constant of nature a 0 , termed as “critical-acceleration-of MOND”, in his best-fit empirical formula. But so far it has been an ad-hoc introduction of a new constant. Whereas this article pro- poses: (i a genesis of this constant; (ii explains its recurrences in various physical sit- uations; and (iii its role in determining the size and radii of various structures, like: the electron, the proton, the nucleus-of-atom, the globular-clusters, the spiral-galaxies, the galactic-clusters and the whole universe. In this process we get a new interpretation of “the cosmological-red-shift”, that the linear part of the cosmological-red-shift may not be due to “metric-expansion-of-space”; and even the currently-believed “accelerated- expansion” may be slowing down with time.

  13. Genesis and microstratigraphy of calcite coralloids analysed by high resolution imaging and petrography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanghi, V.; Frisia, S.; Borsato, A.

    2017-08-01

    The genesis of calcite coralloid speleothems from Lamalunga cave (Southern Italy) is here investigated from a purely petrographic perspective, which constitutes the basis for any subsequent chemical investigation. Lamalunga cave coralloids formed on bones and debris on the floor of the cave. They consist of elongated columnar crystals whose elongation progressively increases from the flanks to the tips of the coralloid, forming a succession of lens-shaped layers, which may be separated by micrite or impurity-rich layers. Organic molecules are preferentially concentrated toward the centre of convex lenses as highlighted by epifluorescence. Their occurrence on cave floor, lens-shaped morphology and concentration of impurities toward the apex of the convex lenses supports the hypothesis that their water supply was hydroaerosol, generated by the fragmentation of cave drips. Evaporation and degassing preferentially occurred on tips, enhancing the digitated morphology and trapping the organic molecules and impurities, carried by the hydroaerosol, between the growing crystals which became more elongated. Micrite layers, that cap some coralloid lenses, likely identify periods when decreasing in hydroaerosol resulted in stronger evaporation and higher supersaturation with respect to calcite of the parent film of fluid. This interpretation of coralloid formation implies that these speleothems can be used to extract hydroclimate information.

  14. The Genesis of Myth in V. Solovyov’s Early Writings. Myth as Theogon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaganova Natal'ia

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In Vladimir Solovyov’s works myth is presented in two ways: as the authorial myth, which is a part of the future “universal religion”, and as an object of theoretical refl ection in the process of philosophical and religious research. In both cases myth is understood as an actual process of theogony, and so Solovyov’s “religious studies” turn out to be a part of his religious metaphysics. The philosopher marks three periods in mythological process: uranic – solar – phallic, and maintains such development to be a law. Solovyov’s theory of the origin of religion is based upon the idea of the essential analogy between cosmic and theogonic processes. These two processes are different ways in which the same conscious principle of the world manifests itself; in Solovyov’s religious doctrine this principle is described as the “universal soul” which strives for the divine unity. The theory of mythological process by Solovyov is compared with a similar conception of bishop Chrysanthus (Retivtsev, who also appeals to primeval monotheism as the basic form of religion. In contrast to Solovyov’s theory, Chrysanthus understands the genesis of the ancient religion as a development of tribal psychology, which is localized entirely in the consciousness of a collective religious subject.

  15. [Which is the role of parasites and yeasts in the genesis of chronic blepharitis?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anane, S; Anane Touzri, R; Malouche, N; El Aich, F; Beltaief, O; Zhioua, R; Kaouech, E; Belhaj, S; Kallel, K; Jeddi, A; Meddeb Ouertani, A; Chaker, E

    2007-09-01

    The chronic blepharitis is a current ophthalmic disease posing a therapeutic problem. The etiologic diagnosis is essential for adapting the treatment. The aim of this study is to describe the role of Demodex sp, Malassezia sp and Candida sp in the pathogenesis of chronic blepharitis. It's a prospective study realized during a period of 14 months. It interested 69 patients with chronic blepharitis and 96 controls. The prevalence of Demodex sp, Malassezia sp and Candida sp on the eyelash of chronic blepharitis patients and controls was investigated. Demodex folliculorum was found in 58% of patients with chronic blepharitis and in 15,6% of controls. The difference between the two groups was statistically significant (Pfolliculorum in the two groups. Malassezia sp was identified in 10,4% of the control group and 31,88% of the group with chronic blepharitis. The difference is significant (Pfolliculorum and Malassezia sp seem to be accused in the genesis of the chronic blepharitis. Their systematic search is necessary in order to adapt the treatment.

  16. Genesis of folia in a non-thermal epigenic cave (Matanzas, Cuba)

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angeli, Ilenia Maria; De Waele, Jo; Melendres, Osmany Ceballo; Tisato, Nicola; Sauro, Francesco; Gonzales, Esteban Ruben Grau; Bernasconi, Stefano M.; Torriani, Stefano; Bontognali, Tomaso R. R.

    2015-01-01

    Folia are an unusual speleothem type resembling inverted cups or bracket fungi. The mechanism of folia formation is not fully understood and is the subject of an ongoing debate. This study focuses on an occurrence of folia present in Santa Catalina Cave, a non-thermal epigenic cave located close to Matanzas (Cuba). The sedimentology, morphology, petrology, permeability and geochemistry of these folia have been studied to gain new insight on the processes leading to their development. It is concluded that folia in Santa Catalina Cave formed at the top of a fluctuating water body, through CO2-degassing or evaporation, which may have been enhanced by the proximity to cave entrances. Two observations strongly support our conclusions. (1) When compared to other subaqueous speleothems (e.g. cave clouds) present in the same rooms, folia occur exclusively within a limited vertical interval that likely represents an ancient water level. Folia occur together with calcite rafts and tower cones that developed, respectively, on top of and below the water level. This suggests that a fluctuating interface is required for folia formation. (2) The measured permeability of the folia is too high to trap gas bubbles. Thus, in contrast to what has been proposed in other studies, trapped bubbles of CO2 cannot be invoked as the key factor determining the genesis and morphology of folia in this subaqueous environment.

  17. An analytical perspective on the Fellowship Narrative of Genesis 18:1–15

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahn Sang Keun

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The narrative in Genesis 18:1–15 deals with God’s visit to Abraham at Mamre. The general tendency in the interpretation of this narrative is to focus on Abraham’s hospitality. It is usually interpreted as an example of his righteousness, in line with Hebrews 13:2, or with the test motive of the Greek myth of the birth of Orion. These interpretations, however, seem to be in conflict with the narrator’s own theological views.This study, therefore, attempts to explore the view point of the author of the Fellowship Narrative (Gn 18:1–15 within the context of the larger Abraham narrative (Gn 11:27–25:11. The method used for the investigation is mainly that of narrative criticism. Attention is paid to the narrator’s various literary skills: ‘linking structure with preceding episode’ (Gn 18:1a, the ‘sandwiched structure’ of the larger context (Gn 18:1–21:7, the unique plot sequence, as well as repeated clue words and phrases (such as ‘laugh’, ‘Sarah’ and ‘this time next year’. These literary aspects are used by the narrator to depict the faithfulness of the Lord who fulfils what he promised. The conclusion of this study overturns the traditional interpretations of the Fellowship Narrative.

  18. Genesis Solar Wind Science Canister Components Curated as Potential Solar Wind Collectors and Reference Contamination Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allton, J. H.; Gonzalez, C. P.; Allums, K. K.

    2016-01-01

    The Genesis mission collected solar wind for 27 months at Earth-Sun L1 on both passive and active collectors carried inside of a Science Canister, which was cleaned and assembled in an ISO Class 4 cleanroom prior to launch. The primary passive collectors, 271 individual hexagons and 30 half-hexagons of semiconductor materials, are described in. Since the hard landing reduced the 301 passive collectors to many thousand smaller fragments, characterization and posting in the online catalog remains a work in progress, with about 19% of the total area characterized to date. Other passive collectors, surfaces of opportunity, have been added to the online catalog. For species needing to be concentrated for precise measurement (e.g. oxygen and nitrogen isotopes) an energy-independent parabolic ion mirror focused ions onto a 6.2 cm diameter target. The target materials, as recovered after landing, are described in. The online catalog of these solar wind collectors, a work in progress, can be found at: http://curator.jsc.nasa.gov/gencatalog/index.cfm This paper describes the next step, the cataloging of pieces of the Science Canister, which were surfaces exposed to the solar wind or component materials adjacent to solar wind collectors which may have contributed contamination.

  19. Hebb and Cattell: The genesis of the theory of fluid and crystallized intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard E Brown

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Raymond B. Cattell is credited with the development of the theory of fluid and crystallized intelligence. The genesis of this theory is, however, vague. Cattell, in different papers, stated that it was developed in 1940, 1941 or 1942. Carroll (1984, Multivariate Behavioral Research, 19, 300-306 noted the similarity of Cattell’s theory to Hebb’s notion of two types of intelligence, which was presented at the 1941 APA meeting, but the matter has been left at that. Correspondence between Cattell, Donald Hebb and George Humphrey of Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario, however, indicates that Cattell adopted Hebb’s ideas of intelligence A and B and renamed them. This paper describes Hebb’s two types of intelligence, and shows how Cattell used them to develop his ideas of crystallized and fluid intelligence. Hebb and Cattell exchanged a number of letters before Cattell’s paper was rewritten in such a way that everyone was satisfied. This paper examines the work of Hebb and Cattell on intelligence, their correspondence, the development of the ideas of fluid and crystallized intelligence, and why Cattell (1943, p.179 wrote that Hebb has independently stated very clearly what constitutes two thirds of the present theory.

  20. Hebb and Cattell: The Genesis of the Theory of Fluid and Crystallized Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Richard E

    2016-01-01

    Raymond B. Cattell is credited with the development of the theory of fluid and crystallized intelligence. The genesis of this theory is, however, vague. Cattell, in different papers, stated that it was developed in 1940, 1941 or 1942. Carroll (1984, Multivariate Behavioral Research, 19, 300-306) noted the similarity of Cattell's theory to "Hebb's notion of two types of intelligence," which was presented at the 1941 APA meeting, but the matter has been left at that. Correspondence between Cattell, Donald Hebb and George Humphrey of Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, however, indicates that Cattell adopted Hebb's ideas of intelligence A and B and renamed them. This paper describes Hebb's two types of intelligence, and shows how Cattell used them to develop his ideas of crystallized and fluid intelligence. Hebb and Cattell exchanged a number of letters before Cattell's paper was rewritten in such a way that everyone was satisfied. This paper examines the work of Hebb and Cattell on intelligence, their correspondence, the development of the ideas of fluid and crystallized intelligence, and why Cattell (1943, p. 179) wrote that "Hebb has independently stated very clearly what constitutes two thirds of the present theory."

  1. All the Roads to Patavium: Morphology, Genesis and Development of the Roman Road Network Around Padua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteazzi Michele

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the analysis of the ancient road network around the city of Padua, attempts to reconstruct its morphology and to define its genesis and development between the second Iron Age and Late Antiquity (6th/5th cent. BC to 6th cent. AD. The study follows a methodological approach that today we define as „archaeomorphological“, first proposed by E. Vion in the late 1980s. By applying this methodology to the Paduan territory, it was possible to identify a series of routes of probable ancient origin radially converging toward the center of Roman Patavium, and linking it to other urban centers in the region and to the minor centers located within its ager. The presence of Iron Age settlements along the path of many of these routes suggests that the development of such a road network likely begins in pre-Roman times, which also highlights the ancient strategic importance of Padua and its territory as a fundamental junction between the center and the North-East of the Italian peninsula. On the other hand, the Roman road network somehow survived into the Late Antiqueand Early Medieval times, always influencing the distribution of settlements and the orientation of churches, until it was for the greater part restored by the Commune of Padua over the 13th century.

  2. Ecosystem Composition Controls the Fate of Rare Earth Elements during Incipient Soil Genesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaharescu, Dragos G; Burghelea, Carmen I; Dontsova, Katerina; Presler, Jennifer K; Maier, Raina M; Huxman, Travis; Domanik, Kenneth J; Hunt, Edward A; Amistadi, Mary K; Gaddis, Emily E; Palacios-Menendez, Maria A; Vaquera-Ibarra, Maria O; Chorover, Jon

    2017-02-23

    The rare earth elements (REE) are increasingly important in a variety of science and economic fields, including (bio)geosciences, paleoecology, astrobiology, and mining. However, REE distribution in early rock-microbe-plant systems has remained elusive. We tested the hypothesis that REE mass-partitioning during incipient weathering of basalt, rhyolite, granite and schist depends on the activity of microbes, vascular plants (Buffalo grass), and arbuscular mycorrhiza. Pore-water element abundances revealed a rapid transition from abiotic to biotic signatures of weathering, the latter associated with smaller aqueous loss and larger plant uptake. Abiotic dissolution was 39% of total denudation in plant-microbes-mycorrhiza treatment. Microbes incremented denudation, particularly in rhyolite, and this resulted in decreased bioavailable solid pools in this rock. Total mobilization (aqueous + uptake) was ten times greater in planted compared to abiotic treatments, REE masses in plant generally exceeding those in water. Larger plants increased bioavailable solid pools, consistent with enhanced soil genesis. Mycorrhiza generally had a positive effect on total mobilization. The main mechanism behind incipient REE weathering was carbonation enhanced by biotic respiration, the denudation patterns being largely dictated by mineralogy. A consistent biotic signature was observed in La:phosphate and mobilization: solid pool ratios, and in the pattern of denudation and uptake.

  3. Diet quality of preschool children and maternal perceptions/misperceptions: the GENESIS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourlaba, G; Kondaki, K; Grammatikaki, E; Roma-Giannikou, E; Manios, Y

    2009-11-01

    To quantify maternal perceptions regarding the quality of their child's diet, and to identify factors associated with misperceptions. A representative sample of 2287 children aged 2-5 years from a cross-sectional study (GENESIS study) was used. Maternal perceptions of the quality of their child's diet, child's and mother's anthropometric characteristics, and other characteristics (i.e. socio-demographic and lifestyle) were recorded. The actual quality of each child's diet was estimated using the Healthy Eating Index (HEI) score. Based on the HEI score, 18.3% of participants had a 'poor' diet, 81.5% had a diet which 'needs improvement' and only 0.2% had a 'good' diet. Almost 83% of mothers overestimated the quality of their child's diet. The overestimation rate was 86% among mothers who declared that they choose their child's food based on what they consider to be healthy, and 72% among those who reported that other factors play the predominant role in food choices for their child (Pdiet. The vast majority of mothers overestimate the quality of their child's diet. Given that maternal perceptions regarding the quality of their child's diet are likely to be one of the predominant factors determining the child's food intake, health professionals should make mothers aware of the existence of particular dietary recommendations that their children should meet in order to eat a healthy diet.

  4. A minimal model of the Atlantic Multidecadal Variability: its genesis and predictability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ou, Hsien-Wang [Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University, Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Palisades, NY (United States)

    2012-02-15

    Through a box model of the subpolar North Atlantic, we examine the genesis and predictability of the Atlantic Multidecadal Variability (AMV), posited as a linear perturbation sustained by the stochastic atmosphere. Postulating a density-dependent thermohaline circulation (THC), the latter would strongly differentiate the thermal and saline damping, and facilitate a negative feedback between the two fields. This negative feedback preferentially suppresses the low-frequency thermal variance to render a broad multidecadal peak bounded by the thermal and saline damping time. We offer this ''differential variance suppression'' as an alternative paradigm of the AMV in place of the ''damped oscillation'' - the latter generally not allowed by the deterministic dynamics and in any event bears no relation to the thermal peak. With the validated dynamics, we then assess the AMV predictability based on the relative entropy - a difference of the forecast and climatological probability distributions, which decays through both error growth and dynamical damping. Since the stochastic forcing is mainly in the surface heat flux, the thermal noise grows rapidly and together with its climatological variance limited by the THC-aided thermal damping, they strongly curtail the thermal predictability. The latter may be prolonged if the initial thermal and saline anomalies are of the same sign, but even rare events of less than 1% chance of occurrence yield a predictable time that is well short of a decade; we contend therefore that the AMV is in effect unpredictable. (orig.)

  5. A numerical study of the role of the vertical structure of vorticity during tropical cyclone genesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkatesh, T N [Flosolver Unit, National Aerospace Laboratories, PO Box 1779, Bangalore 560017 (India); Mathew, Joseph, E-mail: tnv@flosolver.nal.res.i, E-mail: joseph@aero.iisc.ernet.i [Department of Aerospace Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India)

    2010-08-15

    An eight-level axisymmetric model with simple parameterizations for clouds and the atmospheric boundary layer was developed to examine the evolution of vortices that are precursors to tropical cyclones. The effect of vertical distributions of vorticity, especially that arising from a merger of mid-level vortices, was studied by us to provide support for a new vortex-merger theory of tropical cyclone genesis. The basic model was validated with the analytical results available for the spin-down of axisymmetric vortices. With the inclusion of the cloud and boundary layer parameterizations, the evolution of deep vortices into hurricanes and the subsequent decay are simulated quite well. The effects of several parameters such as the initial vortex strength, radius of maximum winds, sea-surface temperature and latitude (Coriolis parameter) on the evolution were examined. A new finding is the manner in which mid-level vortices of the same strength decay and how, on simulated merger of these mid-level vortices, the resulting vortex amplifies to hurricane strength in a realistic time frame. The importance of sea-surface temperature on the evolution of full vortices was studied and explained. Also it was found that the strength of the surface vortex determines the time taken by the deep vortex to amplify to hurricane strength.

  6. Genesis of the Abu Marawat gold deposit, central Eastern Desert of Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoheir, Basem A.; Akawy, Ahmed

    2010-06-01

    Gold mineralisation at the Abu Marawat mine, central Eastern Desert of Egypt, is related to a system of massive and sheared, milky quartz veins cutting a sequence of Neoproterozoic island arc metavolcanic/volcaniclastic rocks and related banded iron formation (BIF). Sulphide-bearing quartz veins and related hydrothermal breccia bodies display a range of textures including sheared, boudinaged and recrystallised quartz, open space filling and microbreccia. These variable textures imply a complex history of crack-seal mechanism characterising the relation between mineral deposition and a major N-S-trending shear zone, during a late brittle-ductile deformation event which affected the area at about 550 Ma. Gold-base metal mineralisation is associated with brecciation and fracturing of the iron ore bands, close to silicified shears and related quartz veins. The auriferous quartz lodes are characterised by the occurrence of visible pyrite-chalcopyrite ± pyrrhotite ± sphalerite ± galena mineralisation. Gold is refractory in pyrite and chalcopyrite, but rare visible gold/electrum and telluride specks were observed in a few samples. Hydrothermal alteration includes pervasive silicification, pyritisation, sericitisation, carbonatisation confined to a delicate set of veins and altered shears, and a more widespread propylitic alteration assemblage (quartz + chlorite + pyrite + calcite ± epidote). Fluid inclusion petrography and microthermometric studies suggest heterogeneous trapping of a low-salinity (1.4-6.7 wt.% eq. NaCl) aqueous solution and a carbonic fluid. Evidence for fluid immiscibility during ore formation includes variable liquid/vapour ratios in inclusions along individual trails and bulk inclusion homogenisation into liquid and occasionally to vapour at comparable temperatures. The trapping conditions of intragranular aqueous-carbonic inclusions approximate 264-378 °C at 700-1300 bar. Similar temperature estimates have been obtained from Al

  7. Heterogenous mismatch-repair status in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joost, Patrick; Veurink, Nynke; Holck, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Immunohistochemical staining for mismatch repair proteins is efficient and widely used to identify mismatch repair defective tumors. The tumors typically show uniform and widespread loss of MMR protein staining. We identified and characterized colorectal cancers with alternative......, heterogenous mismatch repair protein staining in order to delineate expression patterns and underlying mechanisms. METHODS: Heterogenous staining patterns that affected at least one of the mismatch repair proteins MLH1, PMS2, MSH2 and MSH6 were identified in 14 colorectal cancers. Based on alternative....... CONCLUSIONS: Heterogenous mismatch repair status can be demonstrated in colorectal cancer. Though rare, attention to this phenomenon is recommended since it corresponds to differences in mismatch repair status that are relevant for correct classification. VIRTUAL SLIDES: The virtual slide(s) for this article...

  8. The many faces of hematopoietic stem cell heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisan, Mihaela; Dzierzak, Elaine

    2016-12-15

    Not all hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are alike. They differ in their physical characteristics such as cell cycle status and cell surface marker phenotype, they respond to different extrinsic signals, and they have different lineage outputs following transplantation. The growing body of evidence that supports heterogeneity within HSCs, which constitute the most robust cell fraction at the foundation of the adult hematopoietic system, is currently of great interest and raises questions as to why HSC subtypes exist, how they are generated and whether HSC heterogeneity affects leukemogenesis or treatment options. This Review provides a developmental overview of HSC subtypes during embryonic, fetal and adult stages of hematopoiesis and discusses the possible origins and consequences of HSC heterogeneity. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  9. Heterogeneity of glycolysis in cancers and therapeutic opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warmoes, Marc O; Locasale, Jason W

    2014-11-01

    Upregulated glycolysis, both in normoxic and hypoxic environments, is a nearly universal trait of cancer cells. The enormous difference in glucose metabolism offers a target for therapeutic intervention with a potentially low toxicity profile. The past decade has seen a steep rise in the development and clinical assessment of small molecules that target glycolysis. The enzymes in glycolysis have a highly heterogeneous nature that allows for the different bioenergetic, biosynthetic, and signaling demands needed for various tissue functions. In cancers, these properties enable them to respond to the variable requirements of cell survival, proliferation and adaptation to nutrient availability. Heterogeneity in glycolysis occurs through the expression of different isoforms, posttranslational modifications that affect the kinetic and regulatory properties of the enzyme. In this review, we will explore this vast heterogeneity of glycolysis and discuss how this information might be exploited to better target glucose metabolism and offer possibilities for biomarker development. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Sequence heterogeneity accelerates protein search for targets on DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shvets, Alexey A.; Kolomeisky, Anatoly B., E-mail: tolya@rice.edu [Department of Chemistry and Center for Theoretical Biological Physics, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States)

    2015-12-28

    The process of protein search for specific binding sites on DNA is fundamentally important since it marks the beginning of all major biological processes. We present a theoretical investigation that probes the role of DNA sequence symmetry, heterogeneity, and chemical composition in the protein search dynamics. Using a discrete-state stochastic approach with a first-passage events analysis, which takes into account the most relevant physical-chemical processes, a full analytical description of the search dynamics is obtained. It is found that, contrary to existing views, the protein search is generally faster on DNA with more heterogeneous sequences. In addition, the search dynamics might be affected by the chemical composition near the target site. The physical origins of these phenomena are discussed. Our results suggest that biological processes might be effectively regulated by modifying chemical composition, symmetry, and heterogeneity of a genome.

  11. An Adaptive Relocation Strategy for heterogeneous sensor networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salah Abdel-Mageid

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Heterogeneous sensor networks (HSNs have grown to be familiar in recent years due to their capabilities to increase network lifetime and reliability without a significant increase in the cost. Deploying sensor nodes in large-scale applications (i.e., battlefields and environmental monitoring requires decentralized solutions. In this paper, we propose a novel decentralized approach enabling us to consider the heterogeneous characteristics of sensor nodes. In the Adaptive Relocation Strategy, new geometric approaches are designed to perfectly deal with the most heterogeneous sensor characteristics. The simulation results are presented to show that the proposed solution achieves the high coverage performance in few rounds with minimum energy consumption and minimum computations. The performance comparison is also introduced to study how the designed parameters affect the network performance in terms of the network cost, the coverage enhancement, and the total energy consumption measured by the computational complexity and the average moving distance.

  12. How landscape heterogeneity frames optimal diffusivity in searching processes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E P Raposo

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical and empirical investigations of search strategies typically have failed to distinguish the distinct roles played by density versus patchiness of resources. It is well known that motility and diffusivity of organisms often increase in environments with low density of resources, but thus far there has been little progress in understanding the specific role of landscape heterogeneity and disorder on random, non-oriented motility. Here we address the general question of how the landscape heterogeneity affects the efficiency of encounter interactions under global constant density of scarce resources. We unveil the key mechanism coupling the landscape structure with optimal search diffusivity. In particular, our main result leads to an empirically testable prediction: enhanced diffusivity (including superdiffusive searches, with shift in the diffusion exponent, favors the success of target encounters in heterogeneous landscapes.

  13. Affect Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Signe Holm; Poulsen, Stig Bernt; Lunn, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Gergely and colleagues’ state that their Social Biofeedback Theory of Parental Affect Mirroring” can be seen as a kind of operationalization of the classical psychoanalytic concepts of holding, containing and mirroring. This article examines to what extent the social biofeedback theory of parental...... affect mirroring may be understood as a specification of these concepts. It is argued that despite similarities at a descriptive level the concepts are embedded in theories with different ideas of subjectivity. Hence an understanding of the concept of affect regulation as a concretizisation...... and specification of the classical concepts dilutes the complexity of both the concept of affect regulation and of the classical concepts....

  14. Heterogeneous reactions of mineral dust aerosol: implications for tropospheric oxidation capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Mingjin; Huang, Xin; Lu, Keding; Ge, Maofa; Li, Yongjie; Cheng, Peng; Zhu, Tong; Ding, Aijun; Zhang, Yuanhang; Gligorovski, Sasho; Song, Wei; Ding, Xiang; Bi, Xinhui; Wang, Xinming

    2017-10-01

    Heterogeneous reactions of mineral dust aerosol with trace gases in the atmosphere could directly and indirectly affect tropospheric oxidation capacity, in addition to aerosol composition and physicochemical properties. In this article we provide a comprehensive and critical review of laboratory studies of heterogeneous uptake of OH, NO3, O3, and their directly related species as well (including HO2, H2O2, HCHO, HONO, and N2O5) by mineral dust particles. The atmospheric importance of heterogeneous uptake as sinks for these species is assessed (i) by comparing their lifetimes with respect to heterogeneous reactions with mineral dust to lifetimes with respect to other major loss processes and (ii) by discussing relevant field and modeling studies. We have also outlined major open questions and challenges in laboratory studies of heterogeneous uptake by mineral dust and discussed research strategies to address them in order to better understand the effects of heterogeneous reactions with mineral dust on tropospheric oxidation capacity.

  15. Impacts of fluvial sedimentary heterogeneities on CO2 storage performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issautier, B. H.; Viseur, S.; Audigane, P. D.

    2011-12-01

    of some 50 scenarios. The results show that a strong compartmentalization, due to a shaly barrier, may decrease storage capacity by 11 to 25 percent. ? Flow-simulation of an 8-scenario sample extracted from the 50 possible scenarios. In contrast to the static modelling estimated capacities, the preliminary flow-simulation results indicate that capacity remains similar whichever model is applied (A or B). This is because the scale of the heterogeneity is similar to the extent of the CO2 plume, meaning that heterogeneity does not affect the amount of injected CO2 that can be stored in the sedimentary body. Nevertheless, connectivity strongly influences storage capacity, as determined by the 8 scenarios (model A) in which the total amount of CO2 injected ranges between 7 and 12 Mt over a 50-year period. Moreover, heterogeneity significantly increases pressure build-up, and may strongly disrupt the hydrodynamics in the aquifer.

  16. Replikasi Unidirectional pada Heterogen Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendro Nindito

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of diverse database technology in enterprise today can not be avoided. Thus, technology is needed to generate information in real time. The purpose of this research is to discuss a database replication technology that can be applied in heterogeneous database environments. In this study we use Windows-based MS SQL Server database to Linux-based Oracle database as the goal. The research method used is prototyping where development can be done quickly and testing of working models of the interaction process is done through repeated. From this research it is obtained that the database replication technolgy using Oracle Golden Gate can be applied in heterogeneous environments in real time as well.

  17. Heterogenization of alkene epoxidation catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buffon Regina

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This account describes our efforts to heterogenize epoxidation catalysts. Anchored and sol-gel entrapped molybdenum were shown to be very selective, but had a strongly reduced activity. On the other hand, molybdenum silicates were very active and stable as long as no diols were present in the reaction mixture. Heterogenized rhenium catalysts were less active but allowed the use of anhydrous hydrogen peroxide as oxidant. However, the high cost and difficult regeneration prevents the industrial use of these catalysts. During these investigations, we found that alumina alone is active in the epoxidation with anhydrous hydrogen peroxide, giving good conversions to epoxides with high selectivity. More research is needed in order to clarify the nature of the hydroxyl groups responsible for its catalytic activity and thus to produce an appropriate material which would allow the obtention of epoxides with high selectivity under industrial conditions.

  18. Clinical heterogeneity in Fabry disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. N. Salogub

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fabry disease is an X-linked, lysosomal storage disease (OMIM: 301500, caused by α-galactosidase A deficiency, resulting in accumulation of its substrates, glycosphingolipids, primarily – globotriaosylceramide, in the lysosomes of multiple cell types with multi-system clinical manifestations, even within the same family, including abnormalities of the central and peripheral nervous system, kidneys, heart, gastrointestinal tract, lungs, organ of vision. Clinical heterogeneity is often the reason of the delayed diagnosis. Nowadays enzyme replacement therapy has proved its efficiency in the treatment of Fabry disease. Including Fabry disease in the differential diagnosis of a large range of disorders is important because of its wide clinical heterogeneity and the possibility of an earlier intervention with a beneficial treatment.

  19. Numerical Characterization of Concrete Heterogeneity

    OpenAIRE

    Pitangueira, Roque Luiz; Silva, Raul Rosas e

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, a finite element model including both material heterogeneity and size effects is presented. The concrete is considered as a statistical combination of constituent phase with different properties (aggregate, mortar and interface material). The material point response is based on a combination of the random occurrence of the solid phases in the structural volume as well as on the differences of structural response due to the size effect. Such combination allows for higher or lowe...

  20. Heterogeneous Workers, Trade, and Migration

    OpenAIRE

    Heiland, Inga; Kohler, Wilhelm

    2013-01-01

    We argue that the narrative of variety-induced gains from trade in differentiated goods needs revision. If producing differentiated varieties of a good requires differentiated skills and if the work force is heterogeneous in these skills, then firms are likely to have monopsony power. We show that trade then has adverse labor market effects: It increases the monopsony power of firms and worsens the average quality of matches between firms and workers. We also show that international migration...

  1. Genetic heterogeneity of Meckel syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Roume, J; Ma, H W; Le Merrer, M; Cormier-Daire, V; Girlich, D; Genin, E.; Munnich, A

    1997-01-01

    Meckel syndrome (MKS) is a lethal, autosomal recessive condition characterised by an occipital meningoencephalocele, enlarged kidneys with multicystic dysplasia, fibrotic changes of the liver in the portal area with ductal proliferation, and postaxial polydactyly. Recently, a MKS gene has been mapped to chromosome 17q21-q24 in Finnish families, with no evidence of locus heterogeneity in this population. Here, we report the exclusion of chromosome 17q21-q24 in eight typical MKS families of Nor...

  2. Handling preference heterogeneity for river services' adaptation to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreopoulos, Dimitrios; Damigos, Dimitrios; Comiti, Francesco; Fischer, Christian

    2015-09-01

    Climate projection models for the Southern Mediterranean basin indicate a strong drought trend. This pattern is anticipated to affect a range of services derived from river ecosystems and consecutively deteriorate the sectoral outputs and household welfare. This paper aims to evaluate local residents' adaptation preferences for the Piave River basin in Italy. A Discrete Choice Experiment accounting for adaptation scenarios of the Piave River services was conducted and the collected data were econometrically analyzed using Random Parameters Logit, Latent Class and Covariance Heterogeneity models. In terms of policy-relevant outcomes, the analysis indicates that respondents are willing to pay for adaptation plans. This attitude is reflected on the compensating surplus to sustain the current state of the Piave, which corresponds to a monthly contribution of 80€ per household. From an econometric point of view, the results show that it is not sufficient to take solely into account general heterogeneity, provided that distinct treatment of the heterogeneity produces rather different welfare estimates. This implies that analysts should examine a set of criteria when deciding on how to better approach heterogeneity for each empirical data set. Overall, non-market values of environmental services should be considered when formulating cost-effective adaptation measures for river systems undergoing climate change effects and appropriate heterogeneity approximation could render these values unbiased and accurate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Reporting heterogeneity in self-assessed health among elderly Europeans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Self-assessed health (SAH) is a frequently used measure of individuals’ health status. It is also prone to reporting heterogeneity. To control for reporting heterogeneity objective measures of true health need to be included in an analysis. The topic becomes even more complex for cross-country comparisons, as many key variables tend to vary strongly across countries, influenced by cultural and institutional differences. This study aims at exploring the key drivers for reporting heterogeneity in SAH in an international context. To this end, country specific effects are accounted for and the objective health measure is concretized, distinguishing effects of mental and physical health conditions. Methods We use panel data from the SHARE-project which provides a rich dataset on the elderly European population. To obtain distinct indicators for physical and mental health conditions two indices are constructed. Finally, to identify potential reporting heterogeneity in SAH a generalized ordered probit model is estimated. Results We find evidence that in addition to health behaviour, health care utilization, mental and physical health condition as well as country characteristics affect reporting behaviour. We conclude that observed and unobserved heterogeneity play an important role when analysing SAH and have to be taken into account. PMID:23036352

  4. Reporting heterogeneity in self-assessed health among elderly Europeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfarr, Christian; Schmid, Andreas; Schneider, Udo

    2012-10-05

    Self-assessed health (SAH) is a frequently used measure of individuals' health status. It is also prone to reporting heterogeneity. To control for reporting heterogeneity objective measures of true health need to be included in an analysis. The topic becomes even more complex for cross-country comparisons, as many key variables tend to vary strongly across countries, influenced by cultural and institutional differences. This study aims at exploring the key drivers for reporting heterogeneity in SAH in an international context. To this end, country specific effects are accounted for and the objective health measure is concretized, distinguishing effects of mental and physical health conditions. We use panel data from the SHARE-project which provides a rich dataset on the elderly European population. To obtain distinct indicators for physical and mental health conditions two indices are constructed. Finally, to identify potential reporting heterogeneity in SAH a generalized ordered probit model is estimated. We find evidence that in addition to health behaviour, health care utilization, mental and physical health condition as well as country characteristics affect reporting behaviour. We conclude that observed and unobserved heterogeneity play an important role when analysing SAH and have to be taken into account.

  5. Surface fluxes in heterogeneous landscape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bay Hasager, C.

    1997-01-01

    The surface fluxes in homogeneous landscapes are calculated by similarity scaling principles. The methodology is well establish. In heterogeneous landscapes with spatial changes in the micro scale range, i e from 100 m to 10 km, advective effects are significant. The present work focus on these effects in an agricultural countryside typical for the midlatitudes. Meteorological and satellite data from a highly heterogeneous landscape in the Rhine Valley, Germany was collected in the large-scale field experiment TRACT (Transport of pollutants over complex terrain) in 1992. Classified satellite images, Landsat TM and ERS SAR, are used as basis for roughness maps. The roughnesses were measured at meteorological masts in the various cover classes and assigned pixel by pixel to the images. The roughness maps are aggregated, i e spatially averaged, into so-called effective roughness lengths. This calculation is performed by a micro scale aggregation model. The model solves the linearized atmospheric flow equations by a numerical (Fast Fourier Transform) method. This model also calculate maps of friction velocity and momentum flux pixel wise in heterogeneous landscapes. It is indicated how the aggregation methodology can be used to calculate the heat fluxes based on the relevant satellite data i e temperature and soil moisture information. (au) 10 tabs., 49 ills., 223 refs.

  6. NASA GSFC Perspective on Heterogeneous Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Wesley A.

    2016-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of NASA GSFC, our onboard processing applications, the applicability heterogeneous processing to these applications, and necessary developments to enable heterogeneous processing to be infused into our missions.

  7. Heterogeneity in the multiple myeloma tumor clone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guikema, Jeroen E. J.; Hovenga, Sjoerd; Vellenga, Edo; Bos, Nicolaas A.

    2004-01-01

    Multiple Myeloma (MM) is a plasma cell malignancy which is characterized by a very heterogeneous disease outcome. Heterogeneity in plasma cell characteristics, including morphology, maturation status, immunophenotype and genetic abnormalities partly account for the variable disease outcome. Although

  8. Specialization and Bet Hedging in Heterogeneous Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rulands, Steffen; Jahn, David; Frey, Erwin

    2014-09-01

    Phenotypic heterogeneity is a strategy commonly used by bacteria to rapidly adapt to changing environmental conditions. Here, we study the interplay between phenotypic heterogeneity and genetic diversity in spatially extended populations. By analyzing the spatiotemporal dynamics, we show that the level of mobility and the type of competition qualitatively influence the persistence of phenotypic heterogeneity. While direct competition generally promotes persistence of phenotypic heterogeneity, specialization dominates in models with indirect competition irrespective of the degree of mobility.

  9. Transfers in heterogeneous environments; Transferts en milieux heterogenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flesselles, J.M. [Saint-Gobain Recherche, 93 - Aubervilliers (France); Gouesbet, G.; Mees, L.; Roze, C.; Girasole, Th.; Grehan, G. [Laboratoire d' Electromagnetisme et Systemes Particulaires (LESP), UMR CNRS 6614, CORIA. Universite de Rouen et INSA de Rouen, 76 - Saint-Etienne du Rouvray (France); Goyheneche, J.M.; Vignoles, G.; Coindreau, O. [Laboratoire des Composites Thermostructuraux (LCTS), UMR 5801, 33 - Pessac (France); Moyne, Ch. [LEMTA (UMR 7563) CNRS-INPL-UHP, 54 - Vandoeuvre les Nancy (France); Coussy, O. [Institut Navier - ENPC, 77 - Marne-la-Vallee (France); Lassabatere, Th. [Electricite de France Les Renardieres, Dept. Materiaux Mecanique des Composants, 77 - Moret sur Loing (France); Tadrist, L. [IUSTI - UMR 6595, 13 - Marseille (France)

    2004-07-01

    This document gathers the articles and transparencies of the invited talks given at the 2004 French congress of thermal engineering about transfers in heterogeneous environment. Content: transfer phenomena in industrial glass furnaces; simple and multiple scattering diagnosis by femto-second pulsed laser: application to particulate diagnoses; thermal modeling of thermo-structural composites; hybrid mixtures theory, average volumic measurement, periodical or stochastic homogenization: advance in scale change processes; thermo-hydro-chemical-mechanical coupling in porous medium: application to young concrete structures and to clay barriers of disposal facilities; transfers and flows in fluidization: recent advances and future challenges. (J.S.)

  10. Impact of anthropomorphic soil genesis on hydraulic properties: the case of cranberry production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periard, Yann; José Gumiere, Silvio; Rousseau, Alain N.; Caron, Jean; Hallema, Dennis W.

    2014-05-01

    The construction of a cranberry field requires the installation of a drainage system which causes anthropic layering of the natural sequence of soil strata. Over the years, the soil hydraulic properties may change under the influence of irrigation and water table control. In fact, natural consolidation (drainage and recharge cycles), filtration and clogging soil pores by colloidal particle accelerated by water management will alter the hydrodynamic behavior of the soil (Gaillard et al., 2007; Wildenschild and Sheppard, 2013; Bodner et al., 2013). Today, advances in the field of tomography imagery allows the study a number of physicals processes of soils (Wildenschilds and Sheppard, 2013) especially for the transport of colloidal particles (Gaillard et al., 2007) and consolidation (Reed et al, 2006; Pires et al, 2007). Therefore, the main objective of this work is to analyze the temporal evolution of hydrodynamic properties of a sandy soil during repeated drainage and recharge cycles using a medical CT-scan. A soil columns laboratory experiment was setup in fall 2013, pressure head, input and output flow, tracer monitoring (KBr and ZrO2) and tomographic analyses have been used to quantify the temporal variation of the soil hydrodynamic properties of these soil columns. The results showed that the water management (irrigation and drainage) has strong effect on soil genesis and causes significant alteration of soil hydraulic properties, which may reduce soil drainage capacity. Knowledge about the mechanisms responsible of anthropic cranberry soil genesis will allow us to predict soil evolution according to several conditions (soil type, drainage system design, water management) to better anticipate and control their future negative effects on cranberry production. References: Bodner, G., P. Scholl and H.P. Kaul. 2013. Field quantification of wetting-drying cycles to predict temporal changes of soil pore size distribution. Soil and Tillage Research 133: 1-9. doi

  11. The Genesis of tectonically and hydrothermally controlled industry mineral deposits: A geochemical and structural study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wölfler, Anke; Prochaska, Walter; Henjes-Kunst, Friedhelm; Fritz, Harald

    2010-05-01

    The study aims to investigate the role of hydrothermal fluids in the formation of talc and magnesite deposits. These deposits occur in manifold geological and tectonical settings such as stockworks and veins within ultramafite hostrocks and monomineralic lenses within marine platform sediments. Along shear zones talc mineralizations may occur as a result of tectonical and hydrothermal activity. To understand the role of the fluids for the genesis of the mineralization, deposits in different geological and tectonical settings are investigated: Talc mineralization within in magnesite in low-grade palaeozoic nappe complexes (Gemerska Poloma, Slovakia): The magnesite body lies within the Gemer unit of the Inner Carpathians consisting of Middle Triassic metacarbonates and Upper Triassic pelagic limestones and radiolarites. The talc mineralization is bound to crosscutting veins. Two metamorphic events can be distinguished, one during Variscan orogeny and one related to the Alpine orogeny leading to the formation of talc along faults in an Mg carbonate body (Radvanec et al, 2004).The origin of the fluids as well as the tectonic events leading to the mineralization is still widely unknown. Talc mineralization in shearzones within Palaeozoic meta sedimentary rocks (Sa Matta, Sardinia): Variscan granitoids intruded Palaeozoic meta sedimentary rocks and were overprinted be NE striking tectonic structures that host talc mineralizations. The origin of Mg and fluids leading to the mineralization is still not answered satisfactorily (Grillo and Prochaska, 2007) and thus a tectonic model for the genesis of the talc deposit is missing. Talc mineralization within UHP pre-Alpine continental crust (Val Chisone, Italy): The talc deposit forms part of the Dora-Maira Massif. Geologicaly the massif derived from a Variscan basement that includes post-Variscan intrusions. The talc mineralization occurs as a sheetlike, conformable body. A possible tectonic emplacement of talc along shear

  12. Automated calibration of TECAN genesis liquid handling workstation utilizing an online balance and density meter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Iris H; Wang, Michael H; Carpenter, Richard; Wu, Henry Y

    2004-02-01

    With robotics widely used in bioanalytical assays, accurate system performance is essential to ensure the quality and productivity of the robotics. In our lab, an automated calibration procedure has been developed to evaluate the precision and accuracy of the TECAN (Research Triangle Park, NC, U.S.A.) Genesis liquid handling system in a bioanalytical laboratory setting. The calibrations were performed by transferring and weighing the solvents automatically on a microbalance controlled by a Gemini program. From the data acquired, calibration reports were generated using a template. The novel aspect of this approach is the use of an on-line balance and a density meter, both of which combine to make the calibration process simple, efficient, and precise. For quantitative bioanalysis, a variety of solvents, including methanol, water, mixed solvents, and plasma, are typically used to prepare standards and unknown samples. Density information is usually unknown for the mixed solvents, and the density of plasma can vary from species to species. However, with the use of a universal density meter, the density could be obtained in seconds. The issue of solvent evaporation during the calibration process was also addressed. Calibration curves were set up for various liquid classes. Pipetting volumes ranged from 10 microL to 900 microL. Precision and accuracy results obtained from the semiannual performance evaluations showed this procedure to be reliable and user-friendly. Using the automated calibration procedure, the calibration and performance evaluation of the robotic system is considerably more efficient, and the incidence of unacceptable precision and accuracy is greatly reduced.

  13. Role of anxiety and depressive disorders in the genesis of psychosomatic disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Anatolyevich Shatenshtein

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients and methods. The results of clinical and psychodiagnostic examination using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI were analyzed in 210 therapeutic inpatients from 4 groups of psychosomatic diseases (coronary heart disease, hypertensive disease, duodenal ulcer disease, asthma, and bronchitis with an asthmatic component and 3 groups of diseases in whose genesis the psychosomatic mechanisms (pneumonia, gastritis, renal diseases played a lesser role. Healthy individuals (n=38 served as a control group. The correlation coefficients between the first scale reflecting the number of somatic complaints and the magnitude of their hypochondriacal fixation and the second one characterizing the degree of anxiety and depressive disorders were calculated within each disease group. Results. In psychosomatic diseases, the correlation coefficients between the first and second MMPI scales proved to be insignificant and substantially lower than those in the healthy individuals. This suggests that in such patients, a larger number of somatic complaints and their enhanced hypochondriacal fixation alleviate anxiety and depressive disorders, which may be regarded as an indication that there is psychosomatic defense that lessens anxiety due to a somatic disease. In somatic diseases that are not referring to as psychosomatic ones, the correlation coefficient between the first and second scales is highly significant and considerably higher than that in the healthy individuals and particularly higher than in the group of psychosomatic diseases. In the patients of these groups, an increase in anxiety and depression aggravates autonomic dysregulation reflecting in the larger number of hypochondriacal complaints. This direct relationship between autonomic functions and the level of anxiety and depression may be a risk factor for developing these disorders.

  14. The genesis of Hurricane Nate and its interaction with a nearby environment of very dry air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Blake; Dunkerton, Timothy; Montgomery, Michael; Braun, Scott

    2017-09-01

    The interaction of a tropical disturbance with its environment is thought to play an important role in whether a disturbance will develop or not. Most developing disturbances are somewhat protected from the intrusion of environmental dry air at mid-levels. For African easterly wave (AEW) disturbances, the protective boundary is approximated by closed streamlines in the wave-relative frame, and their interior is called the wave pouch. The dynamic and thermodynamic processes of spin-up occur inside the pouch. In this study, we define the kinematic boundaries for a non-AEW disturbance in the Bay of Campeche that originated along a sharp frontal boundary in a confluent region of low pressure. We examine these boundaries during the genesis of Hurricane Nate (2011) to show how a pouch boundary on isobaric levels in the Lagrangian frame may allow for some transport into the pouch along the frontal boundary while still protecting the innermost development region. This result illustrates a generic property of weakly unsteady flows, including the time-dependent critical layer of AEWs, that lateral exchange of air occurs along a segment of the boundary formed by the instantaneous, closed translating streamlines. Transport in the Lagrangian frame is simplest when measured with respect to the stable and unstable manifolds of a hyperbolic trajectory, which are topologically invariant. In this framework, an exact analysis of vorticity transport identifies the primary source as the advection of vorticity through the entrainment and expulsion of bounded material regions called lobes. We also show how these Lagrangian boundaries impact the concentration of moisture, influence convection, and contribute to the pouch vertical structure.

  15. The genesis of the AIDS policy and AIDS Space in Brazil (1981-1989

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Garrido de Barros

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the genesis of the policy for controlling AIDS in Brazil. METHODS Socio-historical study (1981-1989, based on Bordieu’s genetic sociology, by document analysis, bibliographical review, and in-depth interviews. It consisted of a connection between the analysis of the paths of 33 agents involved in the creation of a social space focusing on AIDS-related issues and the historical possibility conditions of the drafting of a specific policy. RESULTS AIDS Space is a gathering point for the paths of agents from several social fields (medical, scientific, political, and bureaucratic fields. A specific space for relationships, which enabled the drafting of a policy for controlling the AIDS epidemic, but also a place where the authority to talk about the meaning of the disease, the methods to prevent and treat it was under dispute. The analysis showed how the various structures (democratic administrations in Sao Paulo and at the national level, with public health officers taking important positions and the lack of a specific therapy contributed to social agents of different ranks and backgrounds to initially set prevention as a priority. CONCLUSIONS The rise of the sanitary movement, the organization of SUS, and the dominance of the medical field at the AIDS Space contributed to foster treatment as a part of the measures to control the epidemic. These conditions allowed drafting a policy based on the integrality of care, by linking prevention and treatment in the following decade, with important participation from state bureaucracy and researchers.

  16. Israel state implementation and the genesis of conflict Israeli/arab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Kneip Zucchi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to demonstrate mainly through historical analysis and international politics, the genesis of the conflict in the middle east between jews and arabs, is embedded within a global context and has its heart in imperialist interests and also the bipolarity emerged after world war ii world, and not in rivalry or hatred between secular people, although the ethnic/religious discourse has often succeeded mask the reality of this antagonism, originating in the twentieth century, which entered the xxi no prospect of resolution. history shows that, on the one hand, jews and arabs had some "conflicting interinsti'', especially at the dawn of islam, on the other hand, lived peacefully and productively for centuries, as the umayyad caliphate in spain and elsewhere. History shows that, on the one hand, Jews and Arabs had some "conflicting Interinsti'', especially at the dawn of Islam, on the other hand, lived peacefully and productively for centuries, as the Umayyad Caliphate in Spain and elsewhere. The proclamation of the State of Israel in 1948, although it had set up a compromise solution to the problem anti/Semitic in Europe, redound, however, and paradoxically, a new strangeness and new conflicts now between Jewish and Arab inhabitants of Palestine and throughout the Middle East. The European powers, in this context, flow into a contradiction that your in the same motion that reiterated their prejudices, transporting them to the Middle East and, worsening noticeably with the Cold War and the confrontation between the United States and Soviet Union, which will make region – rich in essential energy resources to the West – the scene of their confrontation, making worse a situation was already desperate in the extreme.

  17. The genesis of the AIDS policy and AIDS Space in Brazil (1981-1989)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Barros, Sandra Garrido; Vieira-da-Silva, Ligia Maria

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the genesis of the policy for controlling AIDS in Brazil. METHODS Socio-historical study (1981-1989), based on Bordieu’s genetic sociology, by document analysis, bibliographical review, and in-depth interviews. It consisted of a connection between the analysis of the paths of 33 agents involved in the creation of a social space focusing on AIDS-related issues and the historical possibility conditions of the drafting of a specific policy. RESULTS AIDS Space is a gathering point for the paths of agents from several social fields (medical, scientific, political, and bureaucratic fields). A specific space for relationships, which enabled the drafting of a policy for controlling the AIDS epidemic, but also a place where the authority to talk about the meaning of the disease, the methods to prevent and treat it was under dispute. The analysis showed how the various structures (democratic administrations in Sao Paulo and at the national level, with public health officers taking important positions) and the lack of a specific therapy contributed to social agents of different ranks and backgrounds to initially set prevention as a priority. CONCLUSIONS The rise of the sanitary movement, the organization of SUS, and the dominance of the medical field at the AIDS Space contributed to foster treatment as a part of the measures to control the epidemic. These conditions allowed drafting a policy based on the integrality of care, by linking prevention and treatment in the following decade, with important participation from state bureaucracy and researchers. PMID:27463255

  18. Genesis of textural contrasts in subsurface soil horizons in the Northern Pantanal-Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Ferreira do Nascimento

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The Pantanal region can be characterized as a quaternary floodplain with predominant sedimentation in the form of alluvial fans. In the geomorphologic and sedimentary evolution, the avulsion process is inherent to this depositional system and its dynamics, together with surface water floods, influence soil sedimentation on this plain. The knowledge and differentiation of these two events can contribute to a better understanding of the variability of soil properties and distribution under the influence of these sedimentation processes. Therefore, this study investigated the genesis of soils in the Northern Pantanal with textural contrasts in deeper horizons and their relationship with the depositional system dynamics. We analyzed four soil profiles in the region of Barão de Melgaço, Mato Grosso State, Brazil (RPPN SESC Pantanal. Two profiles were sampled near the Rio Cuiabá (AP1 and AP4 and two near the Rio São Lourenço (AP10 and AP11. In AP11, the horizons contrast in particle size between the profile basis and the surface. In AP1, AP4 and AP10, the horizons overlaying the sand layer have similar particle size properties, mainly in terms of sand distribution. In the first case, floods (surface water seem to have originated the horizons and layers with contrasting texture. In the second case, avulsion is the most pronounced process. Therefore, the two modes can form soils with contrasting texture that are discriminable by soil morphology, based on the distinct features associated to the specific sedimentation processes.

  19. Genesis of mammalian prions: from non-infectious amyloid fibrils to a transmissible prion disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarava, Natallia; Kovacs, Gabor G; Savtchenko, Regina; Alexeeva, Irina; Budka, Herbert; Rohwer, Robert G; Baskakov, Ilia V

    2011-12-01

    The transmissible agent of prion disease consists of a prion protein in its abnormal, β-sheet rich state (PrP(Sc)), which is capable of replicating itself according to the template-assisted mechanism. This mechanism postulates that the folding pattern of a newly recruited polypeptide chain accurately reproduces that of a PrP(Sc) template. Here we report that authentic PrP(Sc) and transmissible prion disease can be generated de novo in wild type animals by recombinant PrP (rPrP) amyloid fibrils, which are structurally different from PrP(Sc) and lack any detectable PrP(Sc) particles. When induced by rPrP fibrils, a long silent stage that involved two serial passages preceded development of the clinical disease. Once emerged, the prion disease was characterized by unique clinical, neuropathological, and biochemical features. The long silent stage to the disease was accompanied by significant transformation in neuropathological properties and biochemical features of the proteinase K-resistant PrP material (PrPres) before authentic PrP(Sc) evolved. The current work illustrates that transmissible prion diseases can be induced by PrP structures different from that of authentic PrP(Sc) and suggests that a new mechanism different from the classical templating exists. This new mechanism designated as "deformed templating" postulates that a change in the PrP folding pattern from the one present in rPrP fibrils to an alternative specific for PrP(Sc) can occur. The current work provides important new insight into the mechanisms underlying genesis of the transmissible protein states and has numerous implications for understanding the etiology of neurodegenerative diseases.

  20. Genesis of mammalian prions: from non-infectious amyloid fibrils to a transmissible prion disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natallia Makarava

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The transmissible agent of prion disease consists of a prion protein in its abnormal, β-sheet rich state (PrP(Sc, which is capable of replicating itself according to the template-assisted mechanism. This mechanism postulates that the folding pattern of a newly recruited polypeptide chain accurately reproduces that of a PrP(Sc template. Here we report that authentic PrP(Sc and transmissible prion disease can be generated de novo in wild type animals by recombinant PrP (rPrP amyloid fibrils, which are structurally different from PrP(Sc and lack any detectable PrP(Sc particles. When induced by rPrP fibrils, a long silent stage that involved two serial passages preceded development of the clinical disease. Once emerged, the prion disease was characterized by unique clinical, neuropathological, and biochemical features. The long silent stage to the disease was accompanied by significant transformation in neuropathological properties and biochemical features of the proteinase K-resistant PrP material (PrPres before authentic PrP(Sc evolved. The current work illustrates that transmissible prion diseases can be induced by PrP structures different from that of authentic PrP(Sc and suggests that a new mechanism different from the classical templating exists. This new mechanism designated as "deformed templating" postulates that a change in the PrP folding pattern from the one present in rPrP fibrils to an alternative specific for PrP(Sc can occur. The current work provides important new insight into the mechanisms underlying genesis of the transmissible protein states and has numerous implications for understanding the etiology of neurodegenerative diseases.

  1. [Safety and efficacy of growth hormone treatment: GeNeSIS study in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzuriaga Tomás, C; Oyarzabal Irigoyen, M; Caveda Cepas, E; Vázquez Salvi, L A; García-Pérez, L E

    2016-03-01

    Country-specific information on pediatric GH therapy is available from multi-national studies. A total of 1294 children in Spain enrolled in the observational Genetics and Neuroendocrinology of Short-stature International Study (GeNeSIS). Adverse events were assessed in all GH-treated patients (n=1267) and effectiveness in those with GH deficiency (GHD, 78%). Mean age at time of entry to the study was 9.8 years. GH was initiated at a median (Q1-Q3) 0.22 (0.20-0.25) mg/kg/week and administered for 2.8 (1.6-4.4) years. For 262 patients with GHD and 4-year data, mean (95% CI) height velocity was 4.3 (4.1 - 4.6) cm/year at baseline, 9.0 (8.7 to 9.4) cm/year at 1-year, and 5.5 (5.2 to 5.8) cm/year at 4-years. Height standard deviation score (SDS) was -2.48 (-2.58 to -2.38) at baseline and -1.18 (-1.28 to -1.08) at 4 years. Final height SDS minus target height SDS (n=241) was -0.09 (-0.20 to 0.02). In 1143 GH-treated patients with ≥1 year follow-up, 93 (8.1%) reported treatment-emergent adverse events. Serious events were reported for 7 children, with 2 considered GH-related. These data confirm the benefit of GH replacement therapy on height gain for the patients in Spain. The safety profile was consistent with that already known for GH therapy. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. The genesis of Hurricane Nate and its interaction with a nearby environment of very dry air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Rutherford

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of a tropical disturbance with its environment is thought to play an important role in whether a disturbance will develop or not. Most developing disturbances are somewhat protected from the intrusion of environmental dry air at mid-levels. For African easterly wave (AEW disturbances, the protective boundary is approximated by closed streamlines in the wave-relative frame, and their interior is called the wave pouch. The dynamic and thermodynamic processes of spin-up occur inside the pouch. In this study, we define the kinematic boundaries for a non-AEW disturbance in the Bay of Campeche that originated along a sharp frontal boundary in a confluent region of low pressure. We examine these boundaries during the genesis of Hurricane Nate (2011 to show how a pouch boundary on isobaric levels in the Lagrangian frame may allow for some transport into the pouch along the frontal boundary while still protecting the innermost development region. This result illustrates a generic property of weakly unsteady flows, including the time-dependent critical layer of AEWs, that lateral exchange of air occurs along a segment of the boundary formed by the instantaneous, closed translating streamlines. Transport in the Lagrangian frame is simplest when measured with respect to the stable and unstable manifolds of a hyperbolic trajectory, which are topologically invariant. In this framework, an exact analysis of vorticity transport identifies the primary source as the advection of vorticity through the entrainment and expulsion of bounded material regions called lobes. We also show how these Lagrangian boundaries impact the concentration of moisture, influence convection, and contribute to the pouch vertical structure.

  3. Genesis of the gossan at the Las Cruces Ore Deposit (SW Spain). Groundwater-Rock Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheiber, L.; Ayora, C.; Vázquez-Suñé, E.; Soler, A.

    2016-12-01

    The Las Cruces deposit has sparked an interest in the scientific community due to the exceptional genesis and mineralogical composition. The original gossan formed by goethite and hematite has been replaced by siderite and galena rock. The current gossan composition is as the result of the interaction of groundwater that circulates through the Niebla-Posadas aquifer and a gossan formed by Fe-oxyhydroxides. The groundwater conditions promoted the reductive dissolution of Pb-bearing goethite by the organic matter degradation and the formation of siderite and galena. Hydrochemical and isotopic characteristics of groundwater endorses this hypothesis. Thus, negative Eh values, the existence of H2S and the tendency to light sulfate isotope values show the reducing conditions of groundwater. The key role of the organic matter degradation is marked by the high ammonium, boron and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations together the light δ13C values, both in groundwater and siderite. The siderite precipitation is confirmed by the high pH values (up to 10), the low amount of Fe (minerals involves the release of these metal to groundwater. Then, the groundwater rich in sulfur and an excess of lead produce the galena precipitation. The likeness between the δ34S values, both the gossan and groundwater, reveals that the sulfur of the galena come from the currently groundwater. A reactive transport model confirm that the present day groundwater flux and composition is able to form the siderite rock in less than 1Ma, with no external supply of reactants. The limiting factor of the process is the Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) concentration in groundwater, i.e., higher concentrations would decrease the formation time, whereas the result is not sensitive to flow conditions.

  4. Genesis of the Permian karstic Pingguo bauxite deposit, western Guangxi, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuefei; Wang, Qingfei; Zhang, Qizuan; Yang, Shujuan; Liang, Yayun; Zhang, Ying; Li, Yan; Guan, Tao

    2017-10-01

    More than 0.5 billion tons of late Permian bauxite overlies the karstic topography of the Maokou Formation of western Guangxi in China. Here, we provide new mineralogical, geochemical, Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic, and pyrite S isotope and trace element compositional data for the Pingguo bauxite deposit, aiming to further our understanding of the genesis of Permian bauxite. The Pingguo bauxite contains three distinct layers: a lower layer dominated by ferric clay or weathered iron ore, a middle layer of cryptocrystalline and oolitic bauxite ore, and an upper layer dominated by argillaceous bauxite. The bauxite ore is mainly diaspore, pyrite, chamosite, and anatase, whereas the argillaceous bauxite contains diaspore, kaolinite, pyrophyllite, pyrite, and anatase. Two types of pyrite have been identified within the bauxite: fine-grained and framboidal pyrite (Py1) occurring in aggregates and coarse-grained and euhedral pyrite (Py2). Py1 is enriched in trace elements and is thought to have a diagenetic origin, whereas Py2 is deficient in trace elements and is considered to have formed by later recrystallization. The S isotopic composition of pyrite (-34.11 to -18.91‰) and visible ovoid microorganisms within the bauxite provide evidences of microbial activity during bauxite formation. The Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic composition of the bauxite indicates that these ores were generated by the weathering of basalts belonging to the Emeishan Large Igneous Province (LIP) and limestones of the Maokou Formation. Microorganisms were likely to have enhanced the dissolution and weathering of the parent rock and facilitated the precipitation of diaspore under near-surface conditions.

  5. Assimilating MODIS Aerosol Optical Depth Observations to Assess the Impact of Saharan Mineral Dust on the Genesis and Evolution of Hurricane Ernesto (2006)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earl, K. S.; Chen, S. H.; Liu, Z.; Lin, H. C.

    2016-12-01

    Mineral dust can impact the atmosphere in two primary ways: (1) by directly absorbing, scattering, and emitting short and longwave radiation (radiative effects), and (2) by acting as cloud condensation or ice nuclei, indirectly affecting cloud optical and physical properties as well as precipitation processes (microphysical effects). During boreal summer, mineral dust plumes from North Africa are advected well into the tropical North Atlantic and can regularly be found in close proximity to tropical cyclones (TCs) or their seed disturbances, particularly in the Atlantic Main Development Region, potentially affecting their development and evolution. Many studies indicate that dust radiative effects within African dust plumes alter vertical and horizontal temperature gradients in such a way that may increase mid-level wind shear and static stability in the tropical Atlantic, possibly altering TC development and/or track. The effects of dust microphysics on TCs, on the other hand, are less certain but an increasing body of research suggests that they depend on TC strength, environmental conditions, and how close dust aerosols are to the storm center. Hurricane Ernesto (2006), whose precursor African Easterly Wave disturbance traveled across the Atlantic in close association with a large, persistent dust plume, is one such storm whose development may have been greatly influenced by dust physical processes. The storm developed only after the eventual dissipation of the plume in the eastern Caribbean. In this study, we examine the impact of mineral dust on the genesis and evolution of Hurricane Ernesto with a series of numerical experiments using a modified, dust-capable version of the WRF model and analyses created by assimilating meteorological and MODIS AOD observations within the GSI 3DVAR software framework. The impacts of MODIS AOD assimilation on the simulated dust distribution and forecasts of Ernesto's development are highlighted.

  6. Mutation screening of MIR146A/B and BRCA1/2 3′-UTRs in the GENESIS study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Amandine I; Buisson, Monique; Damiola, Francesca; Tessereau, Chloé; Barjhoux, Laure; Verny-Pierre, Carole; Sornin, Valérie; Dondon, Marie-Gabrielle; Eon-Marchais, Séverine; Caron, Olivier; Gautier-Villars, Marion; Coupier, Isabelle; Buecher, Bruno; Vennin, Philippe; Belotti, Muriel; Lortholary, Alain; Gesta, Paul; Dugast, Catherine; Noguès, Catherine; Fricker, Jean-Pierre; Faivre, Laurence; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Andrieu, Nadine; Sinilnikova, Olga M; Mazoyer, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Although a wide number of breast cancer susceptibility alleles associated with various levels of risk have been identified to date, about 50% of the heritability is still missing. Although the major BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes are being extensively screened for truncating and missense variants in breast and/or ovarian cancer families, potential regulatory variants affecting their expression remain largely unexplored. In an attempt to identify such variants, we focused our attention on gene regulation mediated by microRNAs (miRs). We screened two genes, MIR146A and MIR146B, producing miR-146a and miR-146b-5p, respectively, that regulate BRCA1, and the 3′- untranslated regions (3′-UTRs) of BRCA1 and BRCA2 in the GENESIS French national case/control study (BRCA1- and BRCA2-negative breast cancer cases with at least one sister with breast cancer and matched controls). We identified one rare variant in MIR146A, four in MIR146B, five in BRCA1 3′-UTR and one in BRCA2 3′-UTR in 716 index cases and 619 controls. Among these 11 rare variants, 7 were identified each in 1 index case. None of the three relevant MIR146A/MIR146B variants affected the pre-miR sequences. The potential causality of the four relevant BRCA1/BRCA2 3′-UTRs variants was evaluated with luciferase reporter assays and co-segregation studies, as well as with bioinformatics analyses to predict miRs-binding sites, RNA secondary structures and RNA accessibility. This is the first study to report the screening of miR genes and of BRCA2 3′-UTR in a large series of familial breast cancer cases. None of the variant identified in this study gave convincing evidence of potential pathogenicity. PMID:26785832

  7. Heterogeneous Causal Effects and Sample Selection Bias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breen, Richard; Choi, Seongsoo; Holm, Anders

    2015-01-01

    causal effects might vary over individuals or groups. In this paper we point out one of the under-appreciated hazards of seeking to estimate heterogeneous causal effects: conventional selection bias (that is, selection on baseline differences) can easily be mistaken for heterogeneity of causal effects....... This might lead us to find heterogeneous effects when the true effect is homogenous, or to wrongly estimate not only the magnitude but also the sign of heterogeneous effects. We apply a test for the robustness of heterogeneous causal effects in the face of varying degrees and patterns of selection bias...

  8. Genetic heterogeneity of DLBCL, not otherwise specified.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karube, Kennosuke

    2017-01-01

    Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), not otherwise specified, is the most common malignant lymphoma in the world. The recent progress of molecular techniques has proved its heterogeneity. Gene expression profiling for DLBCL, recently achieved using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples, has identified two molecular subtypes, according to their cell of origin correlated with prognosis. Genomic abnormalities are roughly divided into translocations, amplifications/deletions, and mutations. Translocations involving MYC and BCL2 frequently co-occur in 5%-10% of DLBCL and are associated with aggressive clinical behavior with poor outcomes. Array CGH has identified some genetic alterations including deletions of tumor suppressor genes, such as CDKN2A, and amplifications of several genes involved in oncogenic pathway, such as NFκB. The next generation sequence identified numerous somatic gene mutations in DLBCL. Mutations of epigenome-associated genes, tumor suppressor genes, and NFκB-associated genes have been identified in cases of DLBCL. These mutations affect the function of gene products and play important roles in lymphomagenesis or the progression of DLBCL. This fact suggested that these mutations may affect clinicopathological findings, particularly prognosis. In this study, the most recent advances in genetic alterations and their association with clinicopathological findings of DLBCL were introduced and reviewed.

  9. Kinetics of heterogeneous catalytic reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Boudart, Michel

    2014-01-01

    This book is a critical account of the principles of the kinetics of heterogeneous catalytic reactions in the light of recent developments in surface science and catalysis science. Originally published in 1984. The Princeton Legacy Library uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These paperback editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase acc

  10. Fundamental concepts in heterogeneous catalysis

    CERN Document Server

    Norskov, Jens K; Abild-Pedersen, Frank; Bligaard, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    This book is based on a graduate course and suitable as a primer for any newcomer to the field, this book is a detailed introduction to the experimental and computational methods that are used to study how solid surfaces act as catalysts.   Features include:First comprehensive description of modern theory of heterogeneous catalysisBasis for understanding and designing experiments in the field   Allows reader to understand catalyst design principlesIntroduction to important elements of energy transformation technologyTest driven at Stanford University over several semesters

  11. A Heterogeneous Medium Analytical Benchmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganapol, B.D.

    1999-09-27

    A benchmark, called benchmark BLUE, has been developed for one-group neutral particle (neutron or photon) transport in a one-dimensional sub-critical heterogeneous plane parallel medium with surface illumination. General anisotropic scattering is accommodated through the Green's Function Method (GFM). Numerical Fourier transform inversion is used to generate the required Green's functions which are kernels to coupled integral equations that give the exiting angular fluxes. The interior scalar flux is then obtained through quadrature. A compound iterative procedure for quadrature order and slab surface source convergence provides highly accurate benchmark qualities (4- to 5- places of accuracy) results.

  12. Heterogeneity in magnetic complex oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenholz, Elke

    Heterogeneity of quantum materials on the nanoscale can result from the spontaneous formation of regions with distinct atomic, electronic and/or magnetic order, and indicates coexistence of competing quantum phases. In complex oxides, the subtle interplay of lattice, charge, orbital, and spin degrees of freedom gives rise to especially rich phase diagrams. For example, coexisting conducting and insulating phases can occur near metal-insulator transitions, colossal magnetoresistance can emerge where ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic domains compete, and charge-ordered and superconducting regions are present simultaneously in materials exhibiting high-temperature superconductivity. Additionally, externally applied fields (electric, magnetic, or strain) or other external excitations (light or heat) can tip the energy balance towards one phase, or support heterogeneity and phase coexistence and provide the means to perturb and tailor quantum heterogeneity at the nanoscale. Engineering nanomaterials, with structural, electronic and magnetic characteristics beyond what is found in bulk materials, is possible today through the technique of thin film epitaxy, effectively a method of `spray painting' atoms on single crystalline substrates to create precisely customized layered structures with atomic arrangements defined by the underlying substrate. Charge transfer and spin polarization across interfaces as well as imprinting nanoscale heterogeneity between adjacent layers lead to intriguing and important new phenomena testing our understanding of basic physics and creating new functionalities. Moreover, the abrupt change of orientation of an order parameter between nanoscale domains can lead to unique phases that are localized at domain walls, including conducting domain walls in insulating ferroelectrics, and ferromagnetic domain walls in antiferromagnets. Here we present our recent results on tailoring the electronic anisotropy of multiferroic heterostructures by

  13. The evolution of immiscible silicate and fluoride melts: Implications for REE ore-genesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasyukova, O.; Williams-Jones, A. E.

    2016-01-01

    The Mid-Proterozoic peralkaline Strange Lake pluton (Québec-Labrador, Canada) exhibits extreme enrichment in high field strength elements (HFSE), including the rare earth elements (REE), particularly in pegmatites. On the basis of a study of melt inclusions, we proposed recently that fluoride-silicate melt immiscibility played an important and perhaps dominant role in concentrating the REE within the pluton. Here we present further evidence for silicate-fluoride immiscibility at Strange Lake from a sample of the hypersolvus granite, which contains an inclusion composed largely of REE and HFSE minerals. The inclusion (∼5 cm in diameter) comprises a narrow rim containing chevkinite-(Ce) and zircon in a fluorite matrix, a core of fluorbritholite-(Ce) and bastnäsite-(Ce) and a transition zone between the rim and the core consisting of a fine-grained intergrowth of bastnäsite-(Ce), gagarinite-(Y) and fluorite. We propose that the inclusion formed as a result of silicate-fluoride immiscibility, which occurred early in the emplacement history of the Strange Lake pluton, and that it represents the fluoride melt. After separation of the two melts, the boundary between them acted as a locus of crystallisation, where crystals formed repeatedly due to heterogeneous (surface catalysed) nucleation. Zircon crystallised shortly after melt phase separation, and was followed by the growth of perthite together with arfvedsonite and quartz. As a result, the silicate melt surrounding the fluoride inclusion became enriched in volatiles that facilitated crystallisation of progressively larger crystals in the inclusion; large crystals of arfvedsonite and perthite were succeeded by even larger crystals of quartz. Massive crystallisation of chevkinite-(Ce) followed, forming the rim of the inclusion. The fluoride melt, which constituted the matrix to the silicate minerals and chevkinite-(Ce), crystallised after chevkinite-(Ce), forming fluorbritholite-(Ce) and fluorite. Aqueous fluid

  14. Person Heterogeneity of the BDI-II-C and Its Effects on Dimensionality and Construct Validity: Using Mixture Item Response Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Pei-Chen; Huang, Tsai-Wei

    2010-01-01

    This study was to apply the mixed Rasch model to investigate person heterogeneity of Beck Depression Inventory-II-Chinese version (BDI-II-C) and its effects on dimensionality and construct validity. Person heterogeneity was reflected by two latent classes that differ qualitatively. Additionally, person heterogeneity adversely affected the…

  15. Early warning of freshwater salinization due to upward brine displacement by species transport simulations combined with a hydrochemical genesis model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Maria; Kühn, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Shallow groundwater resources could be possibly affected by intruding brines, which are displaced along hydraulically conductive faults as result of subsurface activities like CO2 injection. To avoid salinization of potable freshwater aquifers an early detection of intruding saline water is necessary, especially in regions where an initial geogenic salinization already exists. Our study is based on work of Tillner et al. [1] and Langer et al. [2] who investigated the influence of permeable fault systems on brine displacement for the prospective storage site Beeskow-Birkholz in the Northeast German Basin. With a 3D regional scale model considering the deep groundwater system, they demonstrated that the existence of hydraulically conductive faults is not necessarily an exclusion criterion for potential injection sites, because salinization of shallower aquifers strongly depends on the effective damage zone volume, the initial salinity distribution and overlying reservoirs [2], while permeability of fault zones does not influence salinization of shallower aquifers significantly [1]. Here we extracted a 2D cross section regarding the upper 220 m of the study area mainly represented by shallow freshwater aquifers, but also considering an initial geogenic salinization [3]. We took flow rates of the intruding brines from the previous studies [2] and implemented species transport simulations with the program code SHEMAT [4]. Results are investigated and interpreted with the hydrochemical genesis model GEBAH [5] which has been already applied as early warning of saltwater intrusions into freshwater aquifers and surface water [6]. GEBAH allows a categorization of groundwater by the ion ratios of the dissolved components and offers a first indicative determination for an existence and the intensity of saline water intrusion in shallow groundwater aquifer, independent of the concentration of the solution. With our model we investigated the migration of saline water through a

  16. Molecular landscape of arthrofibrosis: Microarray and bioinformatic analysis of the temporal expression of 380 genes during contracture genesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrey, Mark E; Abdel, Matthew P; Riester, Scott M; Dudakovic, Amel; van Wijnen, Andre J; Morrey, Bernard F; Sanchez-Sotelo, Joaquin

    2017-04-30

    Inflammatory changes are suspected in the pathophysiology of arthrofibrosis formation and require early molecular examination. Here, we assessed the hypothesis that early inflammatory genes are related to arthrofibrosis by ascertaining gene expression during the early stages of contracture genesis in an animal model. Joint trauma was incited surgically in a cohort of rabbits (n=36) knees followed by immobilization in a model of contracture. Six groups of 6 rabbits were sacrificed at multiple time points (0, 6, 12, 24, 72h and 2weeks). Microarray expression and RT-qPCR profiling were performed to determine genes that are significantly up or downregulated. Bioinformatic analysis was carried out to understand which biological programs and functional groups of genes are modulated in arthrofibrosis. Gene expression profiling revealed a large number biologically relevant genes (>100) that are either upregulated or downregulated by at least a 1.5 fold (log2) during the first two weeks after joint injury during contracture development. Gene ontology analysis identified molecular pathways and programs that act during the course of fibrosis and joint contracture. Our main finding is that the development of contractures occur concomitant with modulation of genes mediating inflammatory responses, ECM remodeling and the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. The genesis of joint contracture reflects an imbalance between pro- and anti-fibrotic expression. Our study indicates that inflammatory genes may be involved in the process of contracture genesis and initiated at relatively early stages. Our findings also may inform clinical practice in the future by suggesting potential therapeutic targets in preventing the long-term development of arthrofibrosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Immunophenotype Heterogeneity in Nasal Glomangiopericytoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Handra-Luca

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nasal glomangiopericytoma is rare. The immunophenotype is heterogeneous, more frequently smooth-muscle-actin and CD34-positive. We report expression patterns for several vascular-related proteins such as CD99, CD146, Bcl2, and WT1 as well as for treatment-related proteins such as mTOR and EGFR in a nasal glomangiopericytoma. The patient (woman, 86 years presented with a left nasal tumefaction. The resected specimen (1.5-cm showed a glomangiopericytoma. Tumor cells expressed smooth-muscle-actin, CD31, CD34, and progesterone receptor. They also expressed the vascular-cell-related proteins Bcl2, CD99, CD146, and WT1, as well as mTOR and EGFR. Nasal glomangiopericytomas show immunohistochemical heterogeneity for vascular-related markers, suggesting a possible extensive pericytic differentiation. The expression of potential targets for drug treatments such as mTOR and EGFR may impact on the clinical follow-up of these tumors occurring at advanced ages, which may require complex surgery.

  18. Heterogeneous Glasses and Sustainable Cement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Gado, Emanuela

    2015-03-01

    Calcium-silicate hydrate (C-S-H) is the main binding agent in cement and concrete. It forms at the beginning of cement hydration, it progressively densifies as cement hardens and is ultimately responsible for the performances of concrete. This hydration product is a cohesive nano-scale heterogeneous glass, whose structure and mechanics are still poorly understood, in spite of its practical importance. I will review some of the open questions for this fascinating material and discuss a statistical physics approach recently developed, which allows us to investigate the structural arrest and solidification under the out-of-equilibrium conditions typical of cement hydration and the role of the nano-scale structure in C-S-H mechanics upon hardening. Our approach unveils how some distinctive features of the kinetics of cement hydration can be related to changes in the morphology of this glassy material and elucidates the role of nano-scale mechanical heterogeneities in the hardened C-S-H.

  19. Socially Aware Heterogeneous Wireless Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmides, Pavlos; Adamopoulou, Evgenia; Demestichas, Konstantinos; Theologou, Michael; Anagnostou, Miltiades; Rouskas, Angelos

    2015-06-11

    The development of smart cities has been the epicentre of many researchers' efforts during the past decade. One of the key requirements for smart city networks is mobility and this is the reason stable, reliable and high-quality wireless communications are needed in order to connect people and devices. Most research efforts so far, have used different kinds of wireless and sensor networks, making interoperability rather difficult to accomplish in smart cities. One common solution proposed in the recent literature is the use of software defined networks (SDNs), in order to enhance interoperability among the various heterogeneous wireless networks. In addition, SDNs can take advantage of the data retrieved from available sensors and use them as part of the intelligent decision making process contacted during the resource allocation procedure. In this paper, we propose an architecture combining heterogeneous wireless networks with social networks using SDNs. Specifically, we exploit the information retrieved from location based social networks regarding users' locations and we attempt to predict areas that will be crowded by using specially-designed machine learning techniques. By recognizing possible crowded areas, we can provide mobile operators with recommendations about areas requiring datacell activation or deactivation.

  20. Dynamic heterogeneity and life histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuljapurkar, Shripad; Steiner, Ulrich K

    2010-08-01

    Biodemography is increasingly focused on the large and persistent differences between individuals within populations in fitness components (age at death, reproductive success) and fitness-related components (health, biomarkers) in humans and other species. To study such variation we propose the use of dynamic models of observable phenotypes of individuals. Phenotypic change in turn determines variation among individuals in their fitness components over the life course. We refer to this dynamic accumulation of fitness differences as dynamic heterogeneity and illustrate it for an animal population in which longitudinal data are studied using multistate capture-mark-recapture models. Although our approach can be applied to any characteristic, for our empirical example we use reproduction as the phenotypic character to define stages. We indicate how our stage-structured model describes the nature of the variation among individual characteristics that is generated by dynamic heterogeneity. We conclude by discussing our ongoing and planned work on animals and humans. We also discuss the connections between our work and recent work on human mortality, disability and health, and life course theory.

  1. Numerical simulation of hydraulic fracture propagation in heterogeneous unconventional reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chunting; Li, Mingzhong; Hao, Lihua; Hu, Hang

    2017-10-01

    The distribution of the unconventional reservoir fracture network is influenced by many factors. For the natural fracture undeveloped reservoir, the reservoir heterogeneity, construction factors (fracturing fluid flow rate, fluid viscosity, perforation clusters spacing), horizontal stress difference and stress different coefficient are the main factors that affect the fracture propagation. In the study, first, calculate the reservoir physics mechanics parameters that affect the fracture propagation on the base of the logging date from one actual horizontal well. Set the formation parameters according to the calculation that used to simulate the reservoir heterogeneity. Then, using damage mechanics method, the 2D fracture propagation model with seepage-stress-damage coupling of multi-fracture tight sand reservoir was established. Study the influences of different fracturing ways (open whole fracturing and oriented perforation fracturing) and the position of the perforation clusters to the fracture propagation for heterogeneity reservoir. Analyze the effects of flow rate, fracturing fluid viscosity, perforation clusters spacing, horizontal stress difference and stress different coefficient to fracture morphology for the heterogeneity reservoir and contrast with the homogeneous reservoir. The simulation results show that: the fracture morphology is more complexity formed by oriented perforation crack than open whole crack; For natural fracture undeveloped reservoir, as the flow rate or the fracturing fluid viscosity increases within a certain range, the fracture network tends to be more complexity and the effect is more obvious to heterogeneous reservoir than homogeneous reservoir; As the perforation clusters spacing decreases, the interaction of each fracture will increase, it tends to form more complexity fracture network but with short major fracture; If the horizontal stress difference and stress different coefficient is large (The stress different coefficient >0

  2. I «cinque giganti» e la genesi del welfare state in Europa tra le due guerre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Rapini

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The essay reconstructs the genesis of the welfare state during the early forties of the twentieth century. The welfare state is situated inside the European crisis caused by the Wall Street crash of 1929, by the fascisms and by the second world war. The essay focuses on the social policies of Fascism and Nazism, underlining their genetic connection with the war. The democracies decide to oppose the welfare state to warfare state of the fascisms to win not only the war, but, especially, to win the peace.

  3. ToF-SIMS Investigation of the Effectiveness of Acid-Cleaning procedures for Genesis Solar Wind Collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goreva, Y. S.; Humanyun, M.; Burnett, D. S.; Jurewicz, A. J.; Gonzalez, C. P.

    2014-01-01

    ToF-SIMS images of Genesis sample surfaces contain an incredible amount of important information, but they also show that the crash-derived surface contamination has many components, presenting a challenge to cleaning. Within the variability, we have shown that there are some samples which appear to be clean to begin with, e.g. 60471, and some are more contaminated. Samples 60493 and 60500 are a part of a focused study of the effectiveness of aqua regia and/or sulfuric acid cleaning of small flight Si implanted with Li-6 using ToF-SIMS.

  4. Affective Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Jodi Dean

    2010-01-01

    This article sets out the idea of affective networks as a constitutive feature of communicative capitalism. It explores the circulation of intensities in contemporary information and communication networks, arguing that this circulation should be theorized in terms of the psychoanalytic notion of the drive. The article includes critical engagements with theorists such as Guy Debord, Jacques Lacan, Tiziana Terranova, and Slavoj Zizek.

  5. Affective Urbanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Kristine

    Urban design and architecture are increasingly used as material and affective strategies for setting the scene, for manipulation and the production of urban life: The orchestration of atmospheres, the framing and staging of urban actions, the programming for contemplation, involvement, play...

  6. Magmatic controls on the genesis of porphyry Cu-Mo-Au deposits: The Bingham Canyon example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grondahl, Carter; Zajacz, Zoltán

    2017-12-01

    Bingham Canyon is one of the world's largest porphyry Cu-Mo-Au deposits and was previously used as an example to emphasize the role of magma mixing and magmatic sulphide saturation in the enhancement of ore fertility of magmatic systems. We analyzed whole rocks, minerals, and silicate melt inclusions (SMI) from the co-genetic, ore-contemporaneous volcanic package (∼38 Ma). As opposed to previous propositions, whole-rock trace element signatures preclude shoshonite-latite genesis via mixing of melanephelinite and trachyte or rhyolite, whereas core to rim compositional profiles of large clinopyroxene phenocrysts suggests the amalgamation of the ore-related magma reservoir by episodic recharge of shoshonitic to latitic magmas with various degrees of differentiation. Major and trace element and Sr and Nd isotopic signatures indicate that the ore-related shoshonite-latite series were generated by low-degree partial melting of an ancient metasomatized mantle source yielding volatile and ore metal rich magmas. Latite and SMI compositions can be reproduced by MELTS modeling assuming 2-step lower and upper crustal fractionation of a primary shoshonite with minimal country rock assimilation. High oxygen fugacities (≈ NNO + 1) are prevalent as evidenced by olivine-spinel oxybarometry, high SO3 in apatite, and anhydrite saturation. The magma could therefore carry significantly more S than would have been possible at more reducing conditions, and the extent of ore metal sequestration by magmatic sulphide saturation was minimal. The SMI data show that the latites were Cu rich, with Cu concentrations in the silicate melt reaching up to 300-400 ppm at about 60 wt% SiO2. The Au and Ag concentrations are also high (1.5-4 and 50-200 ppb, respectively), but show less variation with SiO2. A sudden drop in Cu and S concentrations in the silicate melt at around 65 wt% SiO2 in the presence of high Cl, Mo, Ag, and Au shows that the onset of effective metal extraction by fluid

  7. Seismic imaging of slab metamorphism and genesis of intermediate-depth intraslab earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Akira; Nakajima, Junichi

    2017-12-01

    We review studies of intermediate-depth seismicity and seismic imaging of the interior of subducting slabs in relation to slab metamorphism and their implications for the genesis of intermediate-depth earthquakes. Intermediate-depth events form a double seismic zone in the depth range of c. 40-180 km, which occur only at locations where hydrous minerals are present, and are particularly concentrated along dehydration reaction boundaries. Recent studies have revealed detailed spatial distributions of these events and a close relationship with slab metamorphism. Pressure-temperature paths of the crust for cold slabs encounter facies boundaries with large H2O production rates and positive total volume change, which are expected to cause highly active seismicity near the facies boundaries. A belt of upper-plane seismicity in the crust nearly parallel to 80-90 km depth contours of the slab surface has been detected in the cold Pacific slab beneath eastern Japan, and is probably caused by slab crust dehydration with a large H2O production rate. A seismic low-velocity layer in the slab crust persists down to the depth of this upper-plane seismic belt, which provides evidence for phase transformation of dehydration at this depth. Similar low-velocity subducting crust closely related with intraslab seismicity has been detected in several other subduction zones. Seismic tomography studies in NE Japan and northern Chile also revealed the presence of a P-wave low-velocity layer along the lower plane of a double seismic zone. However, in contrast to predictions based on the serpentinized mantle, S-wave velocity along this layer is not low. Seismic anisotropy and pore aspect ratio may play a role in generating this unique structure. Although further validation is required, observations of these distinct low P-wave velocities along the lower seismic plane suggest the presence of hydrated rocks or fluids within that layer. These observations support the hypothesis that dehydration

  8. The giant Bayan Obo REE-Nb-Fe deposit, China: Controversy and ore genesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Rui Fan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Bayan Obo ore deposit is the largest rare-earth element (REE resource, and the second largest niobium (Nb resource in the world. Due to the complicated element/mineral compositions and involving several geological events, the REE enrichment mechanism and genesis of this giant deposit still remains intense debated. The deposit is hosted in the massive dolomite, and nearly one hundred carbonatite dykes occur in the vicinity of the deposit. The carbonatite dykes can be divided into three types from early to late: dolomite, co-existing dolomite-calcite and calcite type, corresponding to different evolutionary stages of carbonatite magmatism based on the REE and trace element data. The latter always has higher REE content. The origin of the ore-hosting dolomite at Bayan Obo has been addressed in various models, ranging from a normal sedimentary carbonate rocks to volcano-sedimentary sequence, and a large carbonatitic intrusion. More geochemical evidences show that the coarse-grained dolomite represents a Mesoproterozoic carbonatite pluton and the fine-grained dolomite resulted from the extensive REE mineralization and modification of the coarse-grained variety. The ore bodies, distributed along an E–W striking belt, occur as large lenses and underwent more intense fluoritization and fenitization. The first episode mineralization is characterized by disseminated mineralization in the dolomite. The second or main-episode is banded and/or massive mineralization, cut by the third episode consisting of aegirine-rich veins. Various dating methods gave different mineralization ages at Bayan Obo, resulting in long and hot debates. Compilation of available data suggests that the mineralization is rather variable with two peaks at ∼1400 and 440 Ma. The early mineralization peak closes in time to the intrusion of the carbonatite dykes. A significant thermal event at ca. 440 Ma resulted in the formation of late-stage veins with coarse crystals of REE

  9. Genesis and Classification of Soils Containing Carbonates in a Toposequence of the Bambuí Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deyvid Diego Carvalho Maranhão

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The Bambuí Group, formed from siliciclastic sediments deposited on an extensive epicontinental platform at the end of the Neoproterozoic era, is characterized by limestones with fine to very fine texture. Limestone-derived soils in the southeast of Tocantins state, Brazil, are less notorious than similar soils in other regions of Brazil and their characterization could contribute to the Brazilian System for Soil Classification (SiBCS. Given that little is known of these soils, despitetheir agricultural potential, the objective of this study was to characterize their properties and the processes leading to soil of genesis, and also contribute to developing the Brazilian System of Soil Classification (SiBCS. Soils profiles were located on the summit (P1, shoulder (P2, backslope (P3, and footslope (P4 of a toposequence in the municipality of Lavandeira, Tocantins. Morphological, physical, chemical, and mineralogical properties of the profiles were determined. The soils were classified as: P1 - Chernossolo Rêndzico Lítico típico (Lithic Haplustolls; P2 - Cambissolo Háplico Ta Eutrófico léptico hipocarbonático (Lithic Haplustolls; P3 - Cambissolo Háplico Carbonático léptico (Lithic Haplustepts; and P4 - Luvissolo Háplico Órtico típico (Typic Rhodustalfs. All the profiles showed high contents of silt, calcium, and magnesium, which resulted in high pH and low exchangeable aluminum content. Base saturation and calcium carbonate equivalent contents were also high, and the horizons showed dark colors due to high organic matter content, which contained humin as the dominant fraction. Mineralogical analysis of the clay fraction indicated predominance of hydroxy-interlayered vermiculite, followed by illite, kaolinite, and quartz, whereas the sand fraction exhibited reflections characteristic of the quartz mineral. Given P4 contents of calcium carbonate equivalent above 50 g kg-1 and the relevance of this feature for agriculture, we

  10. Interannual variability of the South Pacific Convergence Zone and implications for tropical cyclone genesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vincent, Emmanuel M. [IRD/UPMC/CNRS/MNHN, Laboratoire d' Oceanographie et du Climat: Experimentation et Approches Numeriques (LOCEAN), Paris (France); UPMC, LOCEAN/IPSL, Paris Cedex 05 (France); Lengaigne, Matthieu [IRD/UPMC/CNRS/MNHN, Laboratoire d' Oceanographie et du Climat: Experimentation et Approches Numeriques (LOCEAN), Paris (France); National Institute of Oceanography, Goa (India); Menkes, Christophe E. [IRD/UPMC/CNRS/MNHN, Laboratoire d' Oceanographie et du Climat: Experimentation et Approches Numeriques (LOCEAN), Paris (France); Institut de Recherche pour le Developpement, Noumea (New Caledonia); Jourdain, Nicolas C. [Institut de Recherche pour le Developpement, Noumea (New Caledonia); Marchesiello, Patrick [Institut de Recherche pour le Developpement, Noumea (New Caledonia); CNES/CNRS/UPS/IRD, Laboratoire d' Etudes en Geophysique et Oceanographie Spatiale (LEGOS), Toulouse (France); Madec, Gurvan [IRD/UPMC/CNRS/MNHN, Laboratoire d' Oceanographie et du Climat: Experimentation et Approches Numeriques (LOCEAN), Paris (France); National Oceanographic Centre, Southampton (United Kingdom)

    2011-05-15

    The interannual variability of the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ) and its influence on tropical cyclone (TC) genesis in the South Pacific are investigated using observations and ERA40 reanalysis over the 1979-2002 period. In austral summer, the SPCZ displays four typical structures at interannual timescales. The first three are characterized by a diagonal orientation of the SPCZ and account for 85% of the summer seasons. One is close to climatology and the other two exhibit a 3 northward or southward departure from the SPCZ climatological position. In contrast, the fourth one, that only encompasses three austral summer seasons (the extreme 1982/1983 and 1997/1998 El Nino events and the moderate 1991/1992 El Nino event), displays very peculiar behaviour where the SPCZ largely departs from its climatological position and is zonally oriented. Variability of the western/central Pacific equatorial sea surface temperature (SST) is shown to modulate moisture transport south of the equator, thereby strongly constraining the location of the SPCZ. The SPCZ location is also shown to strongly modulate the atmospheric circulation variability in the South Pacific with specific patterns for each class. However, independently of its wide year-to-year excursions, the SPCZ is always collocated with the zero relative vorticity at low levels while the maximum vorticity axis lies 6 to the south of the SPCZ position. This coherent atmospheric organisation in the SPCZ region is shown to constrain tropical cyclogenesis to occur preferentially within 10 south of the SPCZ location as this region combines all the large-scale atmospheric conditions that favour the breeding of TCs. This analysis also reveals that cyclogenesis in the central Pacific (in the vicinity of French Polynesia) only occurs when the SPCZ displays a zonal orientation while this observation was previously attributed to El Nino years in general. Different characteristics of El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO

  11. Copper Isotope Constraints on the Genesis of the Keweenaw Peninsula Native Copper District, Michigan, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodore J. Bornhorst

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Keweenaw Peninsula native copper district of Michigan, USA is the largest concentration of native copper in the world. The copper isotopic composition of native copper was measured from stratabound and vein deposits, hosted by multiple rift-filling basalt-dominated stratigraphic horizons over 110 km of strike length. The δ65Cu of the native copper has an overall mean of +0.28‰ and a range of −0.32‰ to +0.80‰ (excluding one anomalous value. The data appear to be normally distributed and unimodal with no substantial differences between the native copper isotopic composition from the wide spread of deposits studied here. This suggests a common regional and relatively uniform process of derivation and precipitation of the copper in these deposits. Several published studies indicate that the ore-forming hydrothermal fluids carried copper as Cu1+, which is reduced to Cu0 during the precipitation of native copper. The δ65Cu of copper in the ore-forming fluids is thereby constrained to +0.80‰ or higher in order to yield the measured native copper values by reductive precipitation. The currently accepted hypothesis for the genesis of native copper relies on the leaching of copper from the rift-filling basalt-dominated stratigraphic section at a depth below the deposits during burial metamorphism. Oxidative dissolution of copper from magmatic source rocks with magmatic δ65Cu of 0‰ ± 0.3‰ is needed to obtain the copper isotopic composition of the metamorphogenic ore-forming hydrothermal fluids. In order to accommodate oxidative dissolution of copper from the rift-filling basalt source rocks, the copper needs to have been sited in native copper. Magmatic native copper in basalt is likely stable when the magma is low in sulfur. Low sulfur is predicted by the lack of sulfide minerals in the ore deposits and in the rift-filling basalt-dominated section, which are source rocks, the same rocks through which the ore fluids moved upwards, and

  12. Composition and genesis of ferromanganese deposits from the northern South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yi; Chen, Zhong; González, Francisco Javier; Hein, James R.; Zheng, Xufeng; Li, Gang; Luo, Yun; Mo, Aibin; Tian, Yuhang; Wang, Shuhong

    2017-05-01

    , hydrogenetic growth of Fe-Mn nodules and crusts in the central basin may have been enhanced by volcanic processes. Our data provide new insights into the genesis and province characteristics of the Fe-Mn nodules and crusts of the northern SCS.

  13. Mosquito population regulation and larval source management in heterogeneous environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L Smith

    Full Text Available An important question for mosquito population dynamics, mosquito-borne pathogen transmission and vector control is how mosquito populations are regulated. Here we develop simple models with heterogeneity in egg laying patterns and in the responses of larval populations to crowding in aquatic habitats. We use the models to evaluate how such heterogeneity affects mosquito population regulation and the effects of larval source management (LSM. We revisit the notion of a carrying capacity and show how heterogeneity changes our understanding of density dependence and the outcome of LSM. Crowding in and productivity of aquatic habitats is highly uneven unless egg-laying distributions are fine-tuned to match the distribution of habitats' carrying capacities. LSM reduces mosquito population density linearly with coverage if adult mosquitoes avoid laying eggs in treated habitats, but quadratically if eggs are laid in treated habitats and the effort is therefore wasted (i.e., treating 50% of habitat reduces mosquito density by approximately 75%. Unsurprisingly, targeting (i.e. treating a subset of the most productive pools gives much larger reductions for similar coverage, but with poor targeting, increasing coverage could increase adult mosquito population densities if eggs are laid in higher capacity habitats. Our analysis suggests that, in some contexts, LSM models that accounts for heterogeneity in production of adult mosquitoes provide theoretical support for pursuing mosquito-borne disease prevention through strategic and repeated application of modern larvicides.

  14. Biotic Drivers of Spatial Heterogeneity and Implications for River Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohl, Ellen

    2017-04-01

    Rivers throughout the northern hemisphere have been simplified and homogenized by the removal of beavers and instream wood, along with numerous forms of channel engineering and flow regulation. Loss of spatial heterogeneity in river corridors - channels and floodplains - affects downstream fluxes of water, sediment, organic matter, and nutrients, as well as stream metabolism, biomass, and biodiversity. Recent work in streams of the Colorado Rocky Mountains illustrates how the presence of beavers and instream wood can facilitate spatial heterogeneity by creating stable, persistent, multithread channel planform and high channel-floodplain and channel-hyporheic zone connectivity. This spatial heterogeneity facilitates retention of water in pools, floodplain wetlands, and hyporheic storage. Suspended sediment, particulate organic matter (POM), and solutes are also more likely to be retained in these stream segments than in more uniform stream segments with greater downstream conveyance. Retention of POM and solutes equates to greater volumes of organic carbon storage per unit valley length and greater rates of nitrogen uptake. Spatially heterogeneous stream segments also exhibit greater biomass and biodiversity of aquatic macroinvertebrates, salmonid fish, and riparian spiders than do more uniform stream segments. These significant differences in stream form and function are unlikely to be unique to this field area and can provide a conceptual model for understanding and restoring ecosystem functions in other rivers.

  15. A heterogeneous algorithm for PDT dose optimization for prostate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altschuler, Martin D.; Zhu, Timothy C.; Hu, Yida; Finlay, Jarod C.; Dimofte, Andreea; Wang, Ken; Li, Jun; Cengel, Keith; Malkowicz, S.B.; Hahn, Stephen M.

    2015-01-01

    The object of this study is to develop optimization procedures that account for both the optical heterogeneity as well as photosensitizer (PS) drug distribution of the patient prostate and thereby enable delivery of uniform photodynamic dose to that gland. We use the heterogeneous optical properties measured for a patient prostate to calculate a light fluence kernel (table). PS distribution is then multiplied with the light fluence kernel to form the PDT dose kernel. The Cimmino feasibility algorithm, which is fast, linear, and always converges reliably, is applied as a search tool to choose the weights of the light sources to optimize PDT dose. Maximum and minimum PDT dose limits chosen for sample points in the prostate constrain the solution for the source strengths of the cylindrical diffuser fibers (CDF). We tested the Cimmino optimization procedures using the light fluence kernel generated for heterogeneous optical properties, and compared the optimized treatment plans with those obtained using homogeneous optical properties. To study how different photosensitizer distributions in the prostate affect optimization, comparisons of light fluence rate and PDT dose distributions were made with three distributions of photosensitizer: uniform, linear spatial distribution, and the measured PS distribution. The study shows that optimization of individual light source positions and intensities are feasible for the heterogeneous prostate during PDT. PMID:25914793

  16. Intertumoral Heterogeneity within Medulloblastoma Subgroups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalli, Florence M G; Remke, Marc; Rampasek, Ladislav; Peacock, John; Shih, David J H; Luu, Betty; Garzia, Livia; Torchia, Jonathon; Nor, Carolina; Morrissy, A Sorana; Agnihotri, Sameer; Thompson, Yuan Yao; Kuzan-Fischer, Claudia M; Farooq, Hamza; Isaev, Keren; Daniels, Craig; Cho, Byung-Kyu; Kim, Seung-Ki; Wang, Kyu-Chang; Lee, Ji Yeoun; Grajkowska, Wieslawa A; Perek-Polnik, Marta; Vasiljevic, Alexandre; Faure-Conter, Cecile; Jouvet, Anne; Giannini, Caterina; Nageswara Rao, Amulya A; Li, Kay Ka Wai; Ng, Ho-Keung; Eberhart, Charles G; Pollack, Ian F; Hamilton, Ronald L; Gillespie, G Yancey; Olson, James M; Leary, Sarah; Weiss, William A; Lach, Boleslaw; Chambless, Lola B; Thompson, Reid C; Cooper, Michael K; Vibhakar, Rajeev; Hauser, Peter; van Veelen, Marie-Lise C; Kros, Johan M; French, Pim J; Ra, Young Shin; Kumabe, Toshihiro; López-Aguilar, Enrique; Zitterbart, Karel; Sterba, Jaroslav; Finocchiaro, Gaetano; Massimino, Maura; Van Meir, Erwin G; Osuka, Satoru; Shofuda, Tomoko; Klekner, Almos; Zollo, Massimo; Leonard, Jeffrey R; Rubin, Joshua B; Jabado, Nada; Albrecht, Steffen; Mora, Jaume; Van Meter, Timothy E; Jung, Shin; Moore, Andrew S; Hallahan, Andrew R; Chan, Jennifer A; Tirapelli, Daniela P C; Carlotti, Carlos G; Fouladi, Maryam; Pimentel, José; Faria, Claudia C; Saad, Ali G; Massimi, Luca; Liau, Linda M; Wheeler, Helen; Nakamura, Hideo; Elbabaa, Samer K; Perezpeña-Diazconti, Mario; Chico Ponce de León, Fernando; Robinson, Shenandoah; Zapotocky, Michal; Lassaletta, Alvaro; Huang, Annie; Hawkins, Cynthia E; Tabori, Uri; Bouffet, Eric; Bartels, Ute; Dirks, Peter B; Rutka, James T; Bader, Gary D; Reimand, Jüri; Goldenberg, Anna; Ramaswamy, Vijay; Taylor, Michael D

    2017-06-12

    While molecular subgrouping has revolutionized medulloblastoma classification, the extent of heterogeneity within subgroups is unknown. Similarity network fusion (SNF) applied to genome-wide DNA methylation and gene expression data across 763 primary samples identifies very homogeneous clusters of patients, supporting the presence of medulloblastoma subtypes. After integration of somatic copy-number alterations, and clinical features specific to each cluster, we identify 12 different subtypes of medulloblastoma. Integrative analysis using SNF further delineates group 3 from group 4 medulloblastoma, which is not as readily apparent through analyses of individual data types. Two clear subtypes of infants with Sonic Hedgehog medulloblastoma with disparate outcomes and biology are identified. Medulloblastoma subtypes identified through integrative clustering have important implications for stratification of future clinical trials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Operando research in heterogeneous catalysis

    CERN Document Server

    Groot, Irene

    2017-01-01

    This book is devoted to the emerging field of techniques for visualizing atomic-scale properties of active catalysts under actual working conditions, i.e. high gas pressures and high temperatures. It explains how to understand these observations in terms of the surface structures and dynamics and their detailed interplay with the gas phase. This provides an important new link between fundamental surface physics and chemistry, and applied catalysis. The book explains the motivation and the necessity of operando studies, and positions these with respect to the more traditional low-pressure investigations on the one hand and the reality of industrial catalysis on the other. The last decade has witnessed a rapid development of new experimental and theoretical tools for operando studies of heterogeneous catalysis. The book has a strong emphasis on the new techniques and illustrates how the challenges introduced by the harsh, operando conditions are faced for each of these new tools. Therefore, one can also read th...

  18. Genetic heterogeneity of multiple exostoses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legeai-Mallet, L.; Munnich, A.; Le Merrer, M. [Inserm U393 Hopital des Enfants-Malades, Paris (France)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Hereditary multiple exostoses (EXT, MIM 133700) is an autosomal dominant bony disorder characterized by the formation of cartilage-capped juxta-epiphyseal prominences on the long bones. Three disease genes, mapping to chromosomes 8q24 and 11 have been recently localized, supporting genetic heterogeneity of this condition. We have refined the genetic mapping of the chromosome 19p locus using a series of six families unlinked to chromosomes 8 or 11. Several genes expressed during cartilage growth and located in this region have been tested as candidate genes, namely zinc finger proteins, protein kinases, JunD and JunB. Hitherto no major rearrangement of these genes has been detected in EXT families linked to chromosome 19p.

  19. Genetic heterogeneity of hepatocellular carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unsal, H.; Isselbacher, K.J. (Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center, Charlestown, MA (United States)); Yakicier, C.; Marcais, C.; Ozturk, M. (Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale, Lyon (France)); Kew, M. (Univ. of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa)); Volkmann, M. (Univ. of Heidelberg (Germany)); Zentgraf, H. (Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Heidelberg (Germany))

    1994-01-18

    The authors studied 80 hepatocellular carcinomas from three continents for p53 gene (TP53) mutations and hepatitis B virus (HBV) sequences. p53 mutations were frequent in tumors from Mozambique but not in tumors from South Africa, China, and Germany. Independent of geographic origin, most tumors were positive for HBV sequences. X gene coding sequences of HBV were detected in 78% of tumors, whereas viral sequences in the surface antigen- and core antigen-encoding regions were present in less than 35% of tumors. These observations indicate that hepatocellular carcinomas are genetically heterogeneous. Mozambican-types of hepatocellular carcinomas are characterized by a high incidence of p53 mutations related to aflatoxins. In other tumors, the rarity of p53 mutations combined with the frequent presence of viral X gene coding sequences suggests a possible interference of HBV with the wild-type p53 function.

  20. The added value of biomarker analysis to the genesis of Plaggic Anthrosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Mourik, Jan; Jansen, Boris

    2015-04-01

    Coversands (chemical poor Late-glacial aeolian sand deposits) dominate the surface geology of an extensive area in northwestern Europe. Plaggic Anthrosols occur in cultural landscapes, developed on coversands. They are the characteristic soils that developed on ancient fertilized arable fields. Plaggic Anthrosols have a complex genesis. They are records of aspects environmental and agricultural history. In previous studies information of the soil records was unlocked by application of pollen analysis, 14C and OSL dating. In this study we applied biomarker analysis to unlock additional information about the applied organic sources in the production of plaggic manure. Radiocarbon dating suggested the start of sedentary agriculture (after a period, characterized by shifting cultivation and Celtic fields) between 3000 and 2000 BP. In previous studies is assumed that farmers applied organic sods, dug on forest soils and heath to produce organic stable manure to fertilize the fields. The mineral fraction of the sods was supposed to be responsible for the development of the plaggic horizon and the raise of the land surface. Optically stimulated Luminescence dating however suggested that plaggic deposition on the fields started relatively late, in the 18th century. The use of ectorganic matter from the forest soils must have been ended in the 10th-12th century, due to commercial forest clear cuttings as recorded in archived documents. These deforestations resulted in the first extension of sand drifting and famers had to protect the valuable heath against this ' environmental catastrophe' . The use of heath for sheep grazing and other purposes as honey production could continue till the 18th century, as recorded in archived documents. In the course of the 18th century, the population growth resulted in increasing demand for food. The deep stable economy was introduced and the booming demand for manure resulted in intensive sod digging on the heath. This caused heath

  1. Influence of Different Patellofemoral Design Variations Based on Genesis II Total Knee Endoprosthesis on Patellofemoral Pressure and Kinematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leichtle, Ulf G; Lange, Barbara; Herzog, Yvonne; Schnauffer, Peter; Leichtle, Carmen I; Wülker, Nikolaus; Lorenz, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    In total knee arthroplasty (TKA), patellofemoral groove design varies greatly and likely has a distinct influence on patellofemoral biomechanics. To analyse the selective influence, five patellofemoral design variations were developed based on Genesis II total knee endoprosthesis (original design, being completely flat, being laterally elevated, being medially elevated, and both sides elevated) and made from polyamide using rapid prototyping. Muscle-loaded knee flexion was simulated on 10 human knee specimens using a custom-made knee simulator, measuring the patellofemoral pressure distribution and tibiofemoral and patellofemoral kinematics. The measurements were carried out in the native knee as well as after TKA with the 5 design prototypes. The overall influence of the different designs on the patellofemoral kinematics was small, but we found detectable effects for mediolateral tilt (p < 0.05 for 35°-80° flexion) and translation of the patella (p < 0.045 for 20°-65° and 75°-90°), especially for the completely flat design. Considering patellofemoral pressures, major interindividual differences were seen between the designs, which, on average, largely cancelled each other out. These results suggest that the elevation of the lateral margin of the patellofemoral groove is essential for providing mediolateral guidance, but smooth contouring as with original Genesis II design seems to be sufficient. The pronounced interindividual differences identify a need for more patellofemoral design options in TKA.

  2. Antipsychotics promote GABAergic interneuron genesis in the adult rat brain: Role of heat-shock protein production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneta, Hiroo; Ukai, Wataru; Tsujino, Hanako; Furuse, Kengo; Kigawa, Yoshiyasu; Tayama, Masaya; Ishii, Takao; Hashimoto, Eri; Kawanishi, Chiaki

    2017-09-01

    Current antipsychotics reduce positive symptoms and reverse negative symptoms in conjunction with cognitive behavioral issues with the goal of restoring impaired occupational and social functioning. However, limited information is available on their influence on gliogenesis or their neurogenic properties in adult schizophrenia brains, particularly on GABAergic interneuron production. In the present study, we used young adult subventricular zone (SVZ)-derived progenitor cells expressing proteoglycan NG2 cultures to examine the oligodendrocyte and GABAergic interneuron genesis effects of several kinds of antipsychotics on changes in differentiation function induced by exposure to the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801. We herein demonstrated that antipsychotics promoted or restored changes in the oligodendrocyte/GABAergic interneuron differentiation functions of NG2(+) cells induced by the exposure to MK-801, which was considered to be one of the drug-induced schizophrenia model. We also demonstrated that antipsychotics restored heat-shock protein (HSP) production in NG2(+) cells with differentiation impairment. The antipsychotics olanzapine, aripiprazole, and blonanserin, but not haloperidol increased HSP90 levels, which were reduced by the exposure to MK-801. Our results showed that antipsychotics, particularly those recently synthesized, exerted similar GABAergic interneuron genesis effects on NG2(+) neuronal/glial progenitor cells in the adult rat brain by increasing cellular HSP production, and also suggest that HSP90 may play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and is a key target for next drug development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. [Mineralogy and genesis of mixed-layer clay minerals in the Jiujiang net-like red soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Ke; Hong, Han-Lie; Li, Rong-Biao; Han, Wen; Wu, Yu; Gao, Wen-Peng; Jia, Jin-Sheng

    2012-10-01

    Mineralogy and genesis were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier infrared absorption spectroscopy (FTIR) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) to understand the mineralogy and its genesis significance of mixed-layer clay minerals in Jiujiang red soil section. XRD and FTIR results show that the net-like red soil sediments are composed of illite, kaolinite, minor smectite and mixed-layer illite-smectite and minor mixed-layer kaolinite-smectite. HRTEM observation indicates that some smectite layers have transformed into kaolinite layers in net-like red soil. Mixed-layer illite-smectite is a transition phase of illite transforming into smectite, and mixed-layer kaolinite-smectite is a transitional product relative to kaolinite and smectite. The occurrence of two mixed-layer clay species suggests that the weathering sequence of clay minerals in net-like red soil traversed from illite to mixed-layer illite-smectite to smectite to mixed-layer kaolinite-smectite to kaolinite, which indicates that net-like red soil formed under a warm and humid climate with strengthening of weathering.

  4. Programmatically Optimized SEM Image Acquisition for Measurement of Contamination on Molybdenum Coated Foils from the NASA Genesis Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, A.

    2016-12-01

    The NASA Genesis Mission flew high-purity collector materials on a satellite from 2001-2004 to collect a sample of the solar wind. Upon return to Earth, a spacecraft malfunction caused the onboard sample materials to be severely contaminated during the crash landing in the Utah desert. As part of an ongoing effort to decontaminate the collector materials, they are being scanned with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) to determine the amount of dirt and spacecraft debris contaminating the collectors. This effort is underway currently, but we have identified an opportunity to improve the quality of the SEM data collected. At present, many small images are acquired and stitched together to form larger images of Genesis collector pieces, which are then analyzed. The collectors are physically distorted, however, and the imaging method presently used doesn't allow imaging parameters to be adjusted between images to correct for this distortion. In order to improve the quality of the collected imaging, we are developing a program to acquire a focus map of each sample prior to image collection. The program then uses this data to adjust the position of the sample in the SEM to image all sections in focus and at a constant focal length. This is accomplished using the Python programming language, and the programmatic interface built into our Tescan VEGA Scanning Electron Microscope. Our approach, progress to date, and challenges are discussed.

  5. The Characteristic and Genesis of Volcanic Ash Soil in the North Slope Toposequence of Kawi Mountain in Malang Regency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.N. Putra

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The volcanic ash soil in Kawi Mountain is composed by the amorphous materials consist of allophane, imogolite and ferrihydrite. Results of previous study showed that the phosphate retention in all soil profiles of northern slope toposequence of Kawimountain was less than 85%, yet the phosphate retention of volcanic ash soils is usually > 85 %. This raised a question that there is a different characteristics of soil in the northern slope tosequence of the Kawi Mountain compared to the other places. This research was conducted to study soil characteristics, mineral contents, and genesis processessoccuring in soil on the northern slope toposequence of Kawi Mountain. 5 pedons between high elevation and low elevation (P1, P2, P3, P4 and P5 to identified the soil characteristics. The Al, Fe, and Si extracted by acid oxalate, natrium pyrophosphate, and dithionite citrate to calculate the amorphous mineral content. The results show that. The results showed that there is a different in terms of the thickness of the A horizon, the C organic content and the soil acidity level that mainly found in P3 and P4 profiles. The most important soil genesis processess in the formation of the volcanic ash soils were likely clay illuviation (P5, melanization and braunification (P3, littering (P1 and the reduction of andic soil properties from the upper slope (P1 profile up to the lower slope (P5 profile.

  6. Affective Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodi Dean

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This article sets out the idea of affective networks as a constitutive feature of communicative capitalism. It explores the circulation of intensities in contemporary information and communication networks, arguing that this circulation should be theorized in terms of the psychoanalytic notion of the drive. The article includes critical engagements with theorists such as Guy Debord, Jacques Lacan, Tiziana Terranova, and Slavoj Zizek.

  7. Evaluation of clinical efficacy of a combined analgetic drug "Fanigan" for symptomatic treatment of patients with pain syndrome of various genesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamchur V.Y.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The authors studied the efficacy of combined drug Fanigan (paracetamol 500 mg and diclofenac sodium 50 mg (production of "Kusum Pharm" (Ukraine or "Kusum Heltker PVT. LTD" (India in tablets for symptomatic treatment of patients with pain syndrome. A pronounced clinical efficiency of its application in patients with pain syndrome of various genesis in a daily dose from 2 to 3 tablets for 3 to 7 days was established. The obtained data on the clinical efficacy of the drug. Fanigan in the treatment of patients with pain syndrome of various genesis allow to recommend it for application in wide clinical practice.

  8. CONTRIBUTION TO THE GENESIS OF THERMAL WATER OF THE NORTH-EAST PERIMETER OF THE ZENICA-SARAJEVO BASIN, BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferid Skopljak

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The phenomena of thermal waters in the northeastern periphery of the Zenica-Sarajevo basin is caused by the geological structure, structural-tectonic and hydrogeological characteristics of the terrain. The genesis had not been fully addressed before. This paper presents the study of the genesis of thermal waters based on the geological structure, structural-tectonic and hydrogeological characteristics of the terrain, and physiochemical and isotopic composition of water. The results provide a new contribution to the structure of this part of the Zenica-Sarajevo basin and create a more realistic foundation for the future research of thermal water in this area.

  9. In-situ characterization of heterogeneous catalysts

    CERN Document Server

    Rodriguez, Jose A; Chupas, Peter J

    2013-01-01

    Helps researchers develop new catalysts for sustainable fuel and chemical production Reviewing the latest developments in the field, this book explores the in-situ characterization of heterogeneous catalysts, enabling readers to take full advantage of the sophisticated techniques used to study heterogeneous catalysts and reaction mechanisms. In using these techniques, readers can learn to improve the selectivity and the performance of catalysts and how to prepare catalysts as efficiently as possible, with minimum waste. In-situ Characterization of Heterogeneous Catalysts feat

  10. Phenotypic heterogeneity in fungi: importance and methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Hewitt, Sarah K.; Foster, David S.; Dyer, Paul S.; Avery, Simon V.

    2016-01-01

    Phenotypic heterogeneity describes the variation that exists between individual cells, spores or other biological entities within genetically-uniform populations of fungi or other organisms. Studies over the last 10–-15 years have successfully used laboratory- and modelling-based approaches to demonstrate the prevalence of phenotypic heterogeneity and characterise the molecular bases of the phenomenon (primarily centred around heterogeneous gene expression). In contrast to progress in these a...

  11. Applicable or non-applicable: investigations of clinical heterogeneity in systematic reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura E. Chess

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical heterogeneity can be defined as differences in participant characteristics, types or timing of outcome measurements and intervention characteristics. Clinical heterogeneity in systematic reviews has the possibility to significantly affect statistical heterogeneity leading to inaccurate conclusions and misled decision making. The aim of this study is to identify to what extent investigators are assessing clinical heterogeneity in both Cochrane and non-Cochrane systematic reviews. Methods The most recent 100 systematic reviews from the top five journals in medicine—JAMA, Archives of Internal Medicine, British Medical Journal, The Lancet, and PLOS Medicine—and the 100 most recently published and/or updated systematic reviews from Cochrane were collected. Various defined items of clinical heterogeneity were extracted from the included reviews. Investigators used chi-squared tests, logarithmic modeling and linear regressions to determine if the presence of such items served as a predictor for clinical heterogeneity when comparing Cochrane to non-Cochrane reviews. Extracted variables include number of studies, number of participants, presence of quantitative synthesis, exploration of clinical heterogeneity, heterogeneous characteristics explored, basis and methods used for investigating clinical heterogeneity, plotting/visual aids, author contact, inferences from clinical heterogeneity investigation, reporting assessment, and the presence of a priori or post-hoc analysis. Results A total of 317 systematic reviews were considered, of which 199 were in the final analysis. A total of 81 % of Cochrane reviews and 90 % of non-Cochrane reviews explored characteristics that are considered aspects of clinical heterogeneity and also described the methods they planned to use to investigate the influence of those characteristics. Only 1 % of non-Cochrane reviews and 8 % of Cochrane reviews explored the clinical

  12. Applicable or non-applicable: investigations of clinical heterogeneity in systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chess, Laura E; Gagnier, Joel J

    2016-02-17

    Clinical heterogeneity can be defined as differences in participant characteristics, types or timing of outcome measurements and intervention characteristics. Clinical heterogeneity in systematic reviews has the possibility to significantly affect statistical heterogeneity leading to inaccurate conclusions and misled decision making. The aim of this study is to identify to what extent investigators are assessing clinical heterogeneity in both Cochrane and non-Cochrane systematic reviews. The most recent 100 systematic reviews from the top five journals in medicine-JAMA, Archives of Internal Medicine, British Medical Journal, The Lancet, and PLOS Medicine-and the 100 most recently published and/or updated systematic reviews from Cochrane were collected. Various defined items of clinical heterogeneity were extracted from the included reviews. Investigators used chi-squared tests, logarithmic modeling and linear regressions to determine if the presence of such items served as a predictor for clinical heterogeneity when comparing Cochrane to non-Cochrane reviews. Extracted variables include number of studies, number of participants, presence of quantitative synthesis, exploration of clinical heterogeneity, heterogeneous characteristics explored, basis and methods used for investigating clinical heterogeneity, plotting/visual aids, author contact, inferences from clinical heterogeneity investigation, reporting assessment, and the presence of a priori or post-hoc analysis. A total of 317 systematic reviews were considered, of which 199 were in the final analysis. A total of 81% of Cochrane reviews and 90% of non-Cochrane reviews explored characteristics that are considered aspects of clinical heterogeneity and also described the methods they planned to use to investigate the influence of those characteristics. Only 1% of non-Cochrane reviews and 8% of Cochrane reviews explored the clinical characteristics they initially chose as potential for clinical heterogeneity. Very

  13. Tenoumer impact crater, Mauritania: Impact melt genesis from a lithologically diverse target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultze, Dina Simona; Jourdan, Fred; Hecht, Lutz; Reimold, Wolf Uwe; Schmitt, Ralf-Thomas

    2016-02-01

    Impact melt rocks from the 1.9 km diameter, simple bowl-shaped Tenoumer impact crater in Mauritania have been analyzed chemically and petrologically. They are heterogeneous and can be subdivided into three types based on melt matrix color, occurrence of lithic clast components, amount of vesiculation (melt degassing), different proportions of carbonate melt mingled into silicate melt, and bulk rock chemical composition. These heterogeneities have two main causes (1) due to the small size of the impact crater, there was probably no coherent melt pool where a homogeneous mixture of melts, derived from different target lithologies, could be created; and (2) melt rock heterogeneity occurring at the thin section scale is due to fast cooling during and after the dynamic ejection and emplacement process. The overall period of crystal growth from these diverse melts was extremely short, which provides a further indication that complete chemical equilibration of the phases could not be achieved in such short time. Melt mixing processes involved in the generation of impact melts are, thus, recorded in nonequilibrium growth features. Variable mixing processes between chemically different melt phases and the formation of hybrid melts can be observed even at millimeter scales. Due to extreme cooling rates, different mixing and mingling stages are preserved in the varied parageneses of matrix minerals and in the mineral chemistry of microlites. 40Ar39Ar step-heating chronology on specimens from three melt rock samples yielded five concordant inverse isochron ages. The inverse isochron plots show that minute amounts of inherited 40Ar* are present in the system. We calculated a weighted mean age of 1.57 ± 0.14 Ma for these new results. This preferred age represents a refinement from the previous range of 21 ka to 2.5 Ma ages based on K/Ar and fission track dating.

  14. Fixed export cost heterogeneity, trade and welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jan Guldager; Schröder, Philipp J.H.

    2008-01-01

    Recent literature on the workhorse model of intra-industry trade has explored heterogeneous cost structures at the firm level. These approaches have proven to add realism and predictive power. This paper presents a new and simple heterogeneous-firms specification. We develop a symmetric two......-country intra-industry trade model where firms are of two different marginal costs types and where fixed export costs are heterogeneous across firms. This model traces many of the stylized facts of international trade. However, we find that with heterogeneous fixed export costs there exists a positive bilateral...

  15. Targeting population heterogeneity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae batch fermentation for optimal cell factories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heins, Anna-Lena; Lencastre Fernandes, Rita; Lundin, L.

    and affect their metabolism and consequently affect the heterogeneity level of the population. To further investigate these phenomena and gain a deeper understanding of population heterogeneity, Saccharomyces cerevisiae growth reporter strains based on the expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) were...... constructed which enabled us to perform single cell level analysis, and thereby created the possibility to map population heterogeneity. A factorial design with pH, glucose concentration and oxygen level was performed in batch cultivations using the growth reporter strains to evaluate the effect of those...... environmental factors on heterogeneity level and amount of living cells. A highly dynamic behavior with regard to subpopulation distribution during the different growth stages was seen for the batch cultivations. Moreover, it could be demonstrated that the glucose concentration had a clear influence...

  16. Inferring Molecular Processes Heterogeneity from Transcriptional Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogolewski, Krzysztof; Wronowska, Weronika; Lech, Agnieszka; Lesyng, Bogdan; Gambin, Anna

    2017-01-01

    RNA microarrays and RNA-seq are nowadays standard technologies to study the transcriptional activity of cells. Most studies focus on tracking transcriptional changes caused by specific experimental conditions. Information referring to genes up- and downregulation is evaluated analyzing the behaviour of relatively large population of cells by averaging its properties. However, even assuming perfect sample homogeneity, different subpopulations of cells can exhibit diverse transcriptomic profiles, as they may follow different regulatory/signaling pathways. The purpose of this study is to provide a novel methodological scheme to account for possible internal, functional heterogeneity in homogeneous cell lines, including cancer ones. We propose a novel computational method to infer the proportion between subpopulations of cells that manifest various functional behaviour in a given sample. Our method was validated using two datasets from RNA microarray experiments. Both experiments aimed to examine cell viability in specific experimental conditions. The presented methodology can be easily extended to RNA-seq data as well as other molecular processes. Moreover, it complements standard tools to indicate most important networks from transcriptomic data and in particular could be useful in the analysis of cancer cell lines affected by biologically active compounds or drugs.

  17. How host heterogeneity governs tuberculosis reinfection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, M Gabriela M; Aguas, Ricardo; Lopes, João S; Nunes, Marta C; Rebelo, Carlota; Rodrigues, Paula; Struchiner, Claudio J

    2012-06-22

    Recurrent episodes of tuberculosis (TB) can be due to relapse of latent infection or exogenous reinfection, and discrimination is crucial for control planning. Molecular genotyping of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates offers concrete opportunities to measure the relative contribution of reinfection in recurrent disease. Here, a mathematical model of TB transmission is fitted to data from 14 molecular epidemiology studies, enabling the estimation of relevant epidemiological parameters. Meta-analysis reveals that rates of reinfection after successful treatment are higher than rates of new TB, raising an important question about the underlying mechanism. We formulate two alternative mechanisms within our model framework: (i) infection increases susceptibility to reinfection or (ii) infection affects individuals differentially, thereby recruiting high-risk individuals to the group at risk for reinfection. The second mechanism is better supported by the fittings to the data, suggesting that reinfection rates are inflated through a population phenomenon that occurs in the presence of heterogeneity in individual risk of infection. As a result, rates of reinfection are higher when measured at the population level even though they might be lower at the individual level. Finally, differential host recruitment is modulated by transmission intensity, being less pronounced when incidence is high.

  18. Dysmorphic disorders: clinical and nosological heterogeneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. E. Medvedev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The clinical picture of dysmorphophobia (DMP (dysmorphia, DM has been inadequately investigated; its descriptions are contradictory.Objective: to study the clinical structure of DMP (DM on a sample of plastic or cosmetic surgery patients.Patients and methods. An examination was made in of 103 patients, including 81 (78.6% women (mean age, 35.8±4.9 years and 22 (21.4% men (mean age, 30.9±5.7 years, who had gone to a clinic of cosmetic or plastic surgery with complaints of objectively unverified appearance defects and DM signs and given consent to take part in the investigation. All the patients underwent clinical and psychopathological examination; in so doing the follow-up data in the past 1-3 tears were borne in mind. Their somatic condition was analyzed on the basis of the data available in the medical documents and the results of laboratory, clinical, and instrumental studies.Results. The dysmorphic syndrome has been found to have overvalued, hypochondriacal, obsessive-compulsive, depressive, and delusional forms. It has been established that DM can manifest within schizophrenia, personality disorders, affective disorders, and organic mental diseases. Differential diagnostic criteria for different types of DM in heterogeneous psychopathological disorders are given.

  19. Uncoding the genetic heterogeneity of myelodysplastic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsley, R Coleman

    2017-12-08

    Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is a clinically heterogeneous disease characterized by functional impairment of hematopoiesis and abnormal bone marrow morphology. The type and severity of hematopoietic dysfunction in MDS are highly variable, and the kinetics of disease progression are difficult to predict. Genomic studies have shown that MDS is typically driven by a multistep somatic genetic process affecting a core set of genes. By definition, recurrent MDS driver mutations all drive clonal dominance, although they can have stereotyped positions in the clonal hierarchy or patterns of comutation association and exclusivity. Furthermore, environmental context, such as exposures to cytotoxic chemotherapy or the presence of germ-line predisposition, can influence disease pathogenesis and clinical outcomes. This review will address how an enhanced understanding of MDS genetics may enable refinement of current diagnostic schema, improve understanding of the pathogenesis of therapy-related MDS, and identify germ-line predispositions to development of MDS that are more common than recognized by standard clinical evaluation. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology. All rights reserved.

  20. Genetic heterogeneity in multiple epiphyseal dysplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deere, M.; Hecht, J.T. [Univ. of Texas Medical School, Houston (United States); Blanton, S.H. [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Scott, C.I. [A.I. Dupont Institute, Wilmington, DE (United States); Langer, L.O. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Pauli, R.M. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Multiple epiphyseal dysplasia (MED) comprises a group of hereditary chondrodysplasias in which there are major anatomic abnormalities of the long tubular bones. The Fairbank and Ribbing types are the most frequently cited types of MED. They are primarily defined radiographically and are autosomal dominant conditions. Recently, MED in one family was shown to map to the pericentromeric region of chromosome 19 and is probably allelic to pseudoachondroplasa. We have tested linkage with six short tandem repeat markers from chromosome 19 to autosomal dominant MED in one four-generation family and to MED in a unique family with three of seven siblings affected and with unaffected parents. Autosomal dominant MED in family 1 was linked with a maximum LOD score, at D19S212, of 3.22 at a recombination fraction ({theta}) of .00. Linkage to chromosome 19 was excluded with MED in the other family, under both autosomal recessive and autosomal dominant, with either reduced-penetrance or germ line-mosaicism models. Linkage to candidate genes COL9A1, COL9A2, and COL11A2 was tested and excluded for both genetic models in this family. COL11A1 was excluded under a recessive model. We have confirmed linkage of autosomal dominant Fairbank MED to chromosome 19 and have demonstrated that MED is genetically heterogeneous. 16 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Genetic heterogeneity in multiple epiphyseal dysplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deere, M. [Univ. of Texas, Houston (United States); Blanton, S.H. [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottsville (United States); Scott, C.I. [A.I. Dupont Institute, Wilmington, DE (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Multiple epiphyseal dysplasia (MED) is generally an autosomal dominant hereditary chondrodystrophy characterized by abnormal epiphyseal centers of the long bones. There are at least two clinical and radiographical MED phenotypes, Fairbank and Ribbing forms, with the former having been better characterized. While less frequent, there are also reports of an autosomal recessive type which does not differ radiographically from the autosomal dominant type. Recently, a family with MED has been shown to map to the pericentromeric region of chromosome 19. We have tested linkage to six short tandem repeat markers from chromosome 19 in three multigenerational families with Fairbank MED and another MED family in which there were three of seven affected siblings with unaffected parents. The three families with autosomal dominant MED were linked to D19S215 with a maximum lod score of 3.82 at {theta} = 0.0. Linkage to chromosome 19 was excluded in the fourth family under autosomal recessive and autosomal dominant models with either reduced penetrance or germline mosaicism. Lod scores were -{infinity} and -2.37 at {theta} = 0.0 for D19S215, respectively. Linkage to candidate genes, Col9A1, Col9A2, and Col11A1 was tested and excluded for both models in this family. Col11A1 was excluded under a recessive model. We have confirmed linkage of MED, Fairbank, to chromosome 19 and demonstrated that MED is genetically heterogeneous.

  2. Molecular dynamics study on mechanism of preformed particle gel transporting through nanopores: Surface chemistry and heterogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Peng; Zhang, Heng; Ma, Ying; Hao, Qingquan; Liu, Gang; Sun, Jichao; Yuan, Shiling

    2017-10-01

    The translocation behavior of preformed particle gel (PPG) in porous media is crucial for its application in enhanced oil recovery. By means of non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulation, the translocation mechanism of PPG confined in different silica nanopores were investigated. The influence of surface chemistry and chemical heterogeneity of silica nanopore on the translocation process was revealed. As the degree of surface hydroxylation increases and the heterogeneity decreases, the pulling force needed to drive PPG decreases. We infer that the nanopore's surface (i.e. surface chemistry and heterogeneity) affects the translocation of PPG indirectly by forming different hydration layers.

  3. The Dark Side of Leadership: An Experiment on Religious Heterogeneity and Cooperation in India.

    OpenAIRE

    Keuschnigg, Marc; Schikora, Jan

    2014-01-01

    We investigate voluntary contribution to public goods in culturally heterogeneous groups with a laboratory experiment conducted among 432 Hindu and Muslim subjects in India. With our specification of 'Leading by example' we test for an interaction effect between leadership and religious heterogeneity in a high stake environment. While cultural diversity does not affect contributions in the standard linear Public Goods Game, it reduces cooperation in the presence of a leader. Furthermore, we s...

  4. Biodiesel forming reactions using heterogeneous catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yijun

    Biodiesel synthesis from biomass provides a means for utilizing effectively renewable resources, a way to convert waste vegetable oils and animal fats to a useful product, a way to recycle carbon dioxide for a combustion fuel, and production of a fuel that is biodegradable, non-toxic, and has a lower emission profile than petroleum-diesel. Free fatty acid (FFA) esterification and triglyceride (TG) transesterification with low molecular weight alcohols constitute the synthetic routes to prepare biodiesel from lipid feedstocks. This project was aimed at developing a better understanding of important fundamental issues involved in heterogeneous catalyzed biodiesel forming reactions using mainly model compounds, representing part of on-going efforts to build up a rational base for assay, design, and performance optimization of solid acids/bases in biodiesel synthesis. As FFA esterification proceeds, water is continuously formed as a byproduct and affects reaction rates in a negative manner. Using sulfuric acid (as a catalyst) and acetic acid (as a model compound for FFA), the impact of increasing concentrations of water on acid catalysis was investigated. The order of the water effect on reaction rate was determined to be -0.83. Sulfuric acid lost up to 90% activity as the amount of water present increased. The nature of the negative effect of water on esterification was found to go beyond the scope of reverse hydrolysis and was associated with the diminished acid strength of sulfuric acid as a result of the preferential solvation by water molecules of its catalytic protons. The results indicate that as esterification progresses and byproduct water is produced, deactivation of a Bronsted acid catalyst like H2SO4 occurs. Using a solid composite acid (SAC-13) as an example of heterogeneous catalysts and sulfuric acid as a homogeneous reference, similar reaction inhibition by water was demonstrated for homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis. This similarity together with

  5. Measuring and predicting reservoir heterogeneity in complex deposystems. The fluvial-deltaic Big Injun Sandstone in West Virginia. Final report, September 20, 1991--October 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohn, M.E.; Patchen, D.G.; Heald, M.; Aminian, K.; Donaldson, A.; Shumaker, R.; Wilson, T.

    1994-05-01

    Non-uniform composition and permeability of a reservoir, commonly referred to as reservoir heterogeneity, is recognized as a major factor in the efficient recovery of oil during primary production and enhanced recovery operations. Heterogeneities are present at various scales and are caused by various factors, including folding and faulting, fractures, diagenesis and depositional environments. Thus, a reservoir consists of a complex flow system, or series of flow systems, dependent on lithology, sandstone genesis, and structural and thermal history. Ultimately, however, fundamental flow units are controlled by the distribution and type of depositional environments. Reservoir heterogeneity is difficult to measure and predict, especially in more complex reservoirs such as fluvial-deltaic sandstones. The Appalachian Oil and Natural Gas Research Consortium (AONGRC), a partnership of Appalachian basin state geological surveys in Kentucky, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia, and West Virginia University, studied the Lower Mississippian Big Injun sandstone in West Virginia. The Big Injun research was multidisciplinary and designed to measure and map heterogeneity in existing fields and undrilled areas. The main goal was to develop an understanding of the reservoir sufficient to predict, in a given reservoir, optimum drilling locations versus high-risk locations for infill, outpost, or deeper-pool tests.

  6. HER2 genetic heterogeneity in breast carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlschlegel, Christian; Zahel, Katharina; Kradolfer, Doris; Hell, Margreth; Jochum, Wolfram

    2011-12-01

    To determine the frequency of HER2 genetic heterogeneity according to the recent American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) and College of American Pathologists (CAP) definition (2009) in invasive breast carcinoma, and to identify clinicopathological features that characterise breast carcinomas with HER2 genetic heterogeneity. 530 invasive breast carcinomas were retrospectively analysed for HER2 genetic heterogeneity, and investigated for a potential association of HER2 genetic heterogeneity with other HER2 FISH findings, clinicopathological parameters, oestrogen/progesterone receptor expression and DNA cytometric parameters in breast carcinomas with an equivocal (2+) HER2 immunohistochemical score. The overall frequency of HER2 genetic heterogeneity was 14.7% in a cohort of 218 consecutive breast carcinomas. HER2 genetic heterogeneity was most frequent in invasive breast carcinomas with an equivocal (2+) HER2 immunohistochemical score. Among the 151 carcinomas lacking HER2 amplification, 16.1% showed HER2 genetic heterogeneity. In an extended cohort of 345 carcinomas with a (2+) HER2 score, the frequency of HER2 genetic heterogeneity was 41%, and was associated with the absence of HER2 gene clusters, chromosome 17 polysomy, histological tumour grade, DNA ploidy category and 5c exceeding rate. HER2 genetic heterogeneity according to the ASCO/CAP definition is frequent in breast carcinoma, and is most often present in carcinomas with an equivocal (2+) HER2 score. Many carcinomas with HER2 genetic heterogeneity have a negative HER2 amplification status, although they contain a significant number of tumour cells with HER2 gene amplification. Single cell scoring of the HER2/17 centromeric probe (CEP17) ratio is necessary to identify carcinomas with HER2 genetic heterogeneity, because they lack specific clinicopathological characteristics.

  7. Resource management for heterogeneous networks in LTE systems

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Rose Qingyang

    2014-01-01

    This SpringerBrief provides an in-depth look at the key issues that affect the performance of heterogeneous networks and presents schemes that can effectively tackle these issues. In particular, this book discusses unbalanced traffic load among the macro and micro Base Stations (BSs) caused by the transmit power disparity, and a load-balancing based mobile association scheme to balance the traffic load among the macro and micro BSs. This book also introduces a fractional frequency reuse (FFR) scheme with proper power control to help reduce interference at the UEs which are most vulnerable to such intra-cell interference. The last section investigates radio resource allocation issues for heterogeneous networks with cooperative relays, and proposes a resource allocation framework that could achieve proportional fairness among the UEs. Numerical results are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed solutions in tackling the problem and improving network performance. Resource Management for Hetero...

  8. Glassiness and Heterogeneous Dynamics in Dense Solutions of Ring Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michieletto, Davide; Nahali, Negar; Rosa, Angelo

    2017-11-01

    Understanding how topological constraints affect the dynamics of polymers in solution is at the basis of any polymer theory and it is particularly needed for melts of rings. These polymers fold as crumpled and space-filling objects and, yet, they display a large number of topological constraints. To understand their role, here we systematically probe the response of solutions of rings at various densities to "random pinning" perturbations. We show that these perturbations trigger non-Gaussian and heterogeneous dynamics, eventually leading to nonergodic and glassy behavior. We then derive universal scaling relations for the values of solution density and polymer length marking the onset of vitrification in unperturbed solutions. Finally, we directly connect the heterogeneous dynamics of the rings with their spatial organization and mutual interpenetration. Our results suggest that deviations from the typical behavior observed in systems of linear polymers may originate from architecture-specific (threading) topological constraints.

  9. Effects of host heterogeneity on pathogen diversity and evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleming-Davies, Arietta E; Dukic, Vanja; Andreasen, Viggo

    2015-01-01

    strategy for the pathogen: a low-transmission, low-variability type can coexist with the high-transmission type favoured by classical non-heterogeneity models. In addition, this tradeoff can help explain the extensive phenotypic variation we observed in field-collected pathogen isolates, in traits...... affecting virus fitness including transmission and environmental persistence. Similar heterogeneity tradeoffs might be a general mechanism promoting phenotypic variation in any pathogen for which hosts vary continuously in susceptibility.......Phenotypic variation is common in most pathogens, yet the mechanisms that maintain this diversity are still poorly understood. We asked whether continuous host variation in susceptibility helps maintain phenotypic variation, using experiments conducted with a baculovirus that infects gypsy moth...

  10. Passive ventricular remodeling in cardiac disease: Focus on heterogeneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise L Kessler

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Passive ventricular remodeling is defined by the process of molecular ventricular adaptation to different forms of cardiac pathophysiology. It includes changes in tissue architecture, such as hypertrophy, fiber disarray, alterations in cell size and fibrosis. Besides that, it also includes molecular remodeling of gap junctions, especially those composed by Connexin43 proteins (Cx43 in the ventricles that affect cell-to-cell propagation of the electrical impulse, and changes in the sodium channels that modify excitability. All those alterations appear mainly in a heterogeneous manner, creating irregular and inhomogeneous electrical and mechanical coupling throughout the heart. This can predispose to reentry arrhythmias and adds to a further deterioration into heart failure. In this review, passive ventricular remodeling is described in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM, Dilated Cardiomyopathy (DCM, Ischemic Cardiomyopathy (ICM, and Arrhythmogenic Cardiomyopathy (ACM, with a main focus on the heterogeneity of those alterations mentioned above.

  11. Rapid heterogeneous oxidation of organic coatings on submicron aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, C. Y.; Browne, E. C.; Sugrue, R. A.; Kroll, J. H.

    2017-03-01

    Laboratory studies have found that heterogeneous oxidation can affect the composition and loading of atmospheric organic aerosol particles over time scales of several days, but most studies have examined pure organic particles only. In this study, in order to probe the reactivity of organic species confined near the particle surface, the rates and products of the OH-initiated oxidation of pure squalane particles are compared to oxidation of thin coatings of squalane on ammonium sulfate particles. The squalane reaction rate constant shows a linear dependence on the organic surface area-to-volume ratio, with rate constants for coated particles up to 10 times larger than for pure particles. Changes in the carbon oxidation state and fraction of particulate carbon remaining show similar enhancements, implying that heterogeneous oxidation may exhibit a stronger effect on the loadings and properties of organic aerosol than previously estimated from laboratory studies.

  12. Genesis Hypotheses Concerning Putative Rootless Cone Groups in Isidis Planitia, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pithawala, T. M.; Ghent, R. R.

    2008-09-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction Isidis Planitia is one of the many areas on Mars containing thumbprint terrain (TPT), a term coined to reflect the resemblance in Viking images to fingerprints. Other instances occur in Argyre, Hellas, Arcadia Planitia, and Utopia Planitia. The terrain is found where Greeley and Guest (1987) have defined the Hesperian Ridged Plains (Hvr) unit. However, landforms comprising the TPT in Isidis are markedly different in morphology from those in the northern plains. The purpose of this study is to conduct a systematic examination of the TPT in Isidis Planitia using high-resolution imagery, and to propose a hypothesis for its genesis. Northern Plains TPT Morphology: TPT landforms include branching troughs and medial ridges forming whorled lobes and mounds, most with basal scarps or terraces. TPT has been described as consisting of parallel, en echelon, or nested sets of regularly spaced curvilinear ridges or aligned hills [1]. The ridges were estimated to be 0.5-2.5 km wide and 1-40 km long, with a characteristic spacing of 2-6 km. Whorled lobes of TPT are 75-150 km wide, with heights ranging from 10-200 m. Previous work identified 22 areas of TPT, covering 3000- 420,000 km2 in the Northern Plains at elevations between 0 and -2 km. In Utopia, TPT includes branching troughs and medial ridges [5], and TPT is closely associated with troughs in at least 9 other Northern Plains areas [1]. Northern Plains TPT Origin: MOLA topography supports the hypothesis that TPT and associated trough systems in Utopia and Arcadia Planitae are glacial features [1,2,3]. Possible mechanisms include formation of ridges as moraines and troughs as eskers formed by wet-based continental glaciers. The absence of drumlin fields suggests that the glaciers responsible for forming the topography may have been cold-based and thus did not deform the substrate so as to form drumlins [4]. A puzzling characteristic of Mars alleged glacial landscapes is that they are morphologically

  13. Genetic heterogeneity in juvenile NCL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, Y.M.; Andermann, E.; Mitchison, H.M. [Montreal Neurological Institute and Hospital, Quebec (Canada)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    The neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCL) are a group of related lysosomal storage diseases classified according to the age of onset, clinical syndrome, and pathology. The clinical syndromes include myoclonus, visual failure, progressive dementia, ataxia and generalized tonic clonic seizures in varying combinations depending on the age of onset and pathology. The mode of inheritance is autosomal recessive in most cases, except for several families with the adult form (Kufs` disease) which have autosomal dominant inheritance. Linkage for the infantile (Halatia-Santavuori) form (CLN1), characterized ultrastructurally by lysosomal granular osmiophilic deposits (GROD), has been demonstrated with markers on chromosome lp, while the gene for the typical juvenile (Spielmeyer-Vogt) form (CLN3), characterized by fingerprint-profile inclusions, has been linked to chromosome 16p. The gene locations of the late infantile (Jansky-Bielschowsky) and adult (Kufs` disease) forms are unknown, although it has recently been shown that the late infantile form does not link to chromosome 16p. We describe three siblings, including a pair of monozygotic twins, with juvenile onset NCL with GROD in whom linkage to the CLN3 region of chromsome 16p has been excluded. This would suggest that there is genetic heterogeneity not only among the different clinical syndromes, but also among identical clinical syndromes with different ultrastructural characteristics. Preliminary studies of linkage to chromosome 1p employing the microsatellite marker HY-TM1 have been uninformative. Further studies with other chromosome 1 markers are underway.

  14. An estimating function approach to linkage heterogeneity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Testing linkage heterogeneity between two loci is an important issue in genetics. Currently, there are four methods (K-test, A-test, B-test and D-test) for testing linkage heterogeneity in linkage analysis, which are based on the likelihood-ratio test. Among them, the commonly used methods are the K-test and A-test.

  15. Monetary policy, banking and heterogeneous agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolski, M.

    2012-01-01

    The influence of heterogeneous expectations on monetary policy performance has gained a lot of attention in the recent years. It proved to be an important factor that, under some circumstances, may even destabilize the economy (Massaro, 2012). This paper investigates the phenomenon of heterogeneous

  16. Hybrid Interconnect Design for Heterogeneous Hardware Accelerators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham-Quoc Cuong, P.

    2015-01-01

    Heterogeneous multicore systems are becoming increasingly important as the need for computation power grows, especially when we are entering into the big data era. As one of the main trends in heterogeneous multicore, hardware accelerator systems provide application specific hardware circuits and

  17. Heterogeneity of Human Capital and the Return

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Strøjer

    2014-01-01

    . However, the quality of education varies a lot across universities and business schools as well as across student within an education institution. The high variations in grades among students reflect the heterogeneity in human capital among students and this study verify how this heterogeneity...

  18. Functional Heterogeneity and Senior Management Team Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoliel, Pascale; Somech, Anit

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: There has been an increasing trend toward the creation of senior management teams (SMTs) which are characterized by a high degree of functional heterogeneity. Although such teams may create better linkages to information, along with the benefits of functional heterogeneity comes the potential for conflicts that stem from the value…

  19. Understanding the Executive Functioning Heterogeneity in Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffard, Stephane; Bayard, Sophie

    2012-01-01

    Schizophrenia is characterized by heterogeneous brain abnormalities involving cerebral regions implied in the executive functioning. The dysexecutive syndrome is one of the most prominent and functionally cognitive features of schizophrenia. Nevertheless, it is not clear to what extend executive deficits are heterogeneous in schizophrenia…

  20. Styles in Heterogeneous Modelling With UML

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bujorianu, M.C.; Bujorianu, L.M.

    2008-01-01

    Software development is becoming increasingly heterogeneous, and therefore the formal approaches to heterogeneity are geting very important but, unacceptable extremely complex. We propose a type theoretic approach based on the concept of style, as an attempt to simplify the complex interaction of