WorldWideScience

Sample records for herschel lensing survey

  1. The SPT+Herschel+ALMA+Spitzer Legacy Survey: The stellar content of high redshift strongly lensed systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Joaquin; Ashby, Matt; Carlstrom, John; Chapman, Scott; DeBreuck, Carlos; Fassnacht, Chris; Gonzalez, Anthony; Phadke, Kedar; Marrone, Dan; Malkan, Matt; Reuter, Cassie; Rotermund, Kaja; Spilker, Justin; Weiss, Axel

    2018-05-01

    The South Pole Telescope (SPT) has systematically identified 90 high-redshift strongly gravitationally lensed submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) in a 2500 square-degree cosmological survey of the millimeter (mm) sky. These sources are selected by their extreme mm flux, which is largely independent of redshift and lensing configuration. We are undertaking a comprehensive and systematic followup campaign to use these "cosmic magnifying glasses" to study the infrared background in unprecedented detail, inform the condition of the interstellar medium in starburst galaxies at high redshift, and place limits on dark matter substructure. Here we ask for 115.4 hours of deep Spitzer/IRAC imaging to complete our survey of 90 systems to a uniform depth of 30min integrations at 3.6um and 60min at 4.5um. In our sample of 90 systems, 16 have already been fully observed, 30 have been partially observed, and 44 have not been observed at all. Our immediate goals are to: 1) constrain the specific star formation rates of the background high-redshift submillimeter galaxies by combining these Spitzer observations with our APEX, Herschel, and ALMA data, 2) robustly determine the stellar masses and mass-to-light ratios of all the foreground lensing galaxies in the sample by combining these observations with our VLT and Gemini data, the Dark Energy Survey, and ALMA; and 3) provide complete, deep, and uniform NIR coverage of our entire sample of lensed systems to characterize the environments of high redshift SMGs, maximize the discovery potential for additional spectacular and rare sources, and prepare for JWST. This program will provide the cornerstone data set for two PhD theses: Kedar Phadke at Illinois will lead the analysis of stellar masses for the background SMGs, and Kaja Rotermund at Dalhousie will lead the analysis of stellar masses for the foreground lenses.

  2. ALMA observations of lensed Herschel sources: testing the dark matter halo paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amvrosiadis, A.; Eales, S. A.; Negrello, M.; Marchetti, L.; Smith, M. W. L.; Bourne, N.; Clements, D. L.; De Zotti, G.; Dunne, L.; Dye, S.; Furlanetto, C.; Ivison, R. J.; Maddox, S. J.; Valiante, E.; Baes, M.; Baker, A. J.; Cooray, A.; Crawford, S. M.; Frayer, D.; Harris, A.; Michałowski, M. J.; Nayyeri, H.; Oliver, S.; Riechers, D. A.; Serjeant, S.; Vaccari, M.

    2018-04-01

    With the advent of wide-area submillimetre surveys, a large number of high-redshift gravitationally lensed dusty star-forming galaxies have been revealed. Because of the simplicity of the selection criteria for candidate lensed sources in such surveys, identified as those with S500 μm > 100 mJy, uncertainties associated with the modelling of the selection function are expunged. The combination of these attributes makes submillimetre surveys ideal for the study of strong lens statistics. We carried out a pilot study of the lensing statistics of submillimetre-selected sources by making observations with the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) of a sample of strongly lensed sources selected from surveys carried out with the Herschel Space Observatory. We attempted to reproduce the distribution of image separations for the lensed sources using a halo mass function taken from a numerical simulation that contains both dark matter and baryons. We used three different density distributions, one based on analytical fits to the haloes formed in the EAGLE simulation and two density distributions [Singular Isothermal Sphere (SIS) and SISSA] that have been used before in lensing studies. We found that we could reproduce the observed distribution with all three density distributions, as long as we imposed an upper mass transition of ˜1013 M⊙ for the SIS and SISSA models, above which we assumed that the density distribution could be represented by a Navarro-Frenk-White profile. We show that we would need a sample of ˜500 lensed sources to distinguish between the density distributions, which is practical given the predicted number of lensed sources in the Herschel surveys.

  3. SPITZER IMAGING OF STRONGLY LENSED HERSCHEL-SELECTED DUSTY STAR-FORMING GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Brian; Cooray, Asantha; Calanog, J. A.; Nayyeri, H.; Timmons, N.; Casey, C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Baes, M. [Sterrenkundig Observatorium, Universiteit Gent, Krijgslaan 281 S9, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Chapman, S. [Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, B3H 4R2 (Canada); Dannerbauer, H. [Laboratoire AIM-Paris-Saclay, CEA/DSM/Irfu-CNRS-Université Paris Diderot, CE-Saclay, pt courrier 131, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Da Cunha, E. [Center for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn VIC 3122 (Australia); De Zotti, G. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Dunne, L.; Michałowski, M. J.; Oteo, I. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh, EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Farrah, D. [Department of Physics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Fu, Hai [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa, Van Allen Hall, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Gonzalez-Nuevo, J. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Oviedo C/ Calvo Sotelo, s/n, E-33007 Oviedo (Spain); Magdis, G. [Department of Astrophysics, Denys Wilkinson Building, University of Oxford, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Riechers, D. A. [Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, 220 Space Sciences Building, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Scott, D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); and others

    2015-11-20

    We present the rest-frame optical spectral energy distribution (SED) and stellar masses of six Herschel-selected gravitationally lensed dusty, star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) at 1 < z < 3. These galaxies were first identified with Herschel/SPIRE imaging data from the Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey (H-ATLAS) and the Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey (HerMES). The targets were observed with Spitzer/IRAC at 3.6 and 4.5 μm. Due to the spatial resolution of the IRAC observations at the level of 2″, the lensing features of a background DSFG in the near-infrared are blended with the flux from the foreground lensing galaxy in the IRAC imaging data. We make use of higher resolution Hubble/WFC3 or Keck/NIRC2 Adaptive Optics imaging data to fit light profiles of the foreground lensing galaxy (or galaxies) as a way to model the foreground components, in order to successfully disentangle the foreground lens and background source flux densities in the IRAC images. The flux density measurements at 3.6 and 4.5 μm, once combined with Hubble/WFC3 and Keck/NIRC2 data, provide important constraints on the rest-frame optical SED of the Herschel-selected lensed DSFGs. We model the combined UV- to millimeter-wavelength SEDs to establish the stellar mass, dust mass, star formation rate, visual extinction, and other parameters for each of these Herschel-selected DSFGs. These systems have inferred stellar masses in the range 8 × 10{sup 10}–4 × 10{sup 11} M{sub ⊙} and star formation rates of around 100 M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}. This puts these lensed submillimeter systems well above the SFR-M* relation observed for normal star-forming galaxies at similar redshifts. The high values of SFR inferred for these systems are consistent with a major merger-driven scenario for star formation.

  4. OT2_smalhotr_3: Herschel Extreme Lensing Line Observations (HELLO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, S.

    2011-09-01

    We request 59.8 hours of Herschel time to observe 20 normal star-forming galaxies in the [CII] 158 micron and [OI] 63 micron lines. These galaxies lie at high redshift (1lensing, but have modest star formation rates. Therefore they represent our best chance of studying star formation and the interstellar medium in typical, common galaxies at this epoch. Redshift 1 to 3 spans the peak of both star formation activity and black hole accretion in active galactic nuclei-- a period that was crucial in shaping our modern universe. Most of this redshift range is inaccesible to ground-based observations of [CII], [OI], or both. Herschel offers the unique opportunity to study both lines with high sensitivity throughout this epoch (using HIFI for [CII] and PACS for [OI]). These two lines are the main cooling lines of the atomic medium. By measuring their fluxes, we will measure (1) the cooling efficiency of gas, (2) gas densities and temperatures near starforming regions, and (3) gas pressures, which are important to drive the winds that provide feedback to starformation processes. By combining the proposed observations with existing multiwavelength data on these objects, we will obtain as complete a picture of galaxy-scale star formation and ISM physical conditions at high redshifts as we have at z=0. Then perhaps we can understand why star formation and AGN activity peaked at this epoch. In Herschel cycle OT1, 49 high redshift IR luminous galaxies were approved for spectroscopy, but only two so-called normal galaxies were included. This is an imbalance that should be corrected, to balance Herschel's legacy.

  5. HERSCHEL-ATLAS: TOWARD A SAMPLE OF {approx}1000 STRONGLY LENSED GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Lapi, A.; Bressan, S.; Danese, L.; De Zotti, G.; Cai, Z.-Y.; Fan, L. [SISSA, Via Bonomea 265, I-34136 Trieste (Italy); Fleuren, S.; Sutherland, W. [School of Mathematical Sciences, Queen Mary, University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Negrello, M. [Department of Physical Sciences, Open University, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Baes, M. [Sterrenkundig Observatorium, Universiteit Gent, Krijgslaan 281 S9, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Baker, A. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 136 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854-8019 (United States); Clements, D. L. [Astrophysics Group, Imperial College, Blackett Lab, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Cooray, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Dannerbauer, H. [Institut fuer Astronomie, Universitaet Wien, Tuerkenschanzstrasse 17, 1180 Wien, Oesterreich (Austria); Dunne, L.; Dye, S. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Eales, S. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, The Parade, Cardiff CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Frayer, D. T. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box 2, Green Bank, WV 24944 (United States); Harris, A. I., E-mail: gnuevo@sissa.it [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); and others

    2012-04-10

    While the selection of strongly lensed galaxies (SLGs) with 500 {mu}m flux density S{sub 500} > 100 mJy has proven to be rather straightforward, for many applications it is important to analyze samples larger than the ones obtained when confining ourselves to such a bright limit. Moreover, only by probing to fainter flux densities is it possible to exploit strong lensing to investigate the bulk of the high-z star-forming galaxy population. We describe HALOS (the Herschel-ATLAS Lensed Objects Selection), a method for efficiently selecting fainter candidate SLGs, reaching a surface density of {approx_equal} 1.5-2 deg{sup -2}, i.e., a factor of about 4-6 higher than that at the 100 mJy flux limit. HALOS will allow the selection of up to {approx}1000 candidate SLGs (with amplifications {mu} {approx}> 2) over the full H-ATLAS survey area. Applying HALOS to the H-ATLAS Science Demonstration Phase field ({approx_equal} 14.4 deg{sup 2}) we find 31 candidate SLGs, whose candidate lenses are identified in the VIKING near-infrared catalog. Using the available information on candidate sources and candidate lenses we tentatively estimate a {approx_equal} 72% purity of the sample. As expected, the purity decreases with decreasing flux density of the sources and with increasing angular separation between candidate sources and lenses. The redshift distribution of the candidate lensed sources is close to that reported for most previous surveys for lensed galaxies, while that of candidate lenses extends to redshifts substantially higher than found in the other surveys. The counts of candidate SLGs are also in good agreement with model predictions. Even though a key ingredient of the method is the deep near-infrared VIKING photometry, we show that H-ATLAS data alone allow the selection of a similarly deep sample of candidate SLGs with an efficiency close to 50%; a slightly lower surface density ({approx_equal} 1.45 deg{sup -2}) can be reached with a {approx}70% efficiency.

  6. Hi-GAL: The Herschel Infrared Galactic Plane Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Molinari, S.; Swinyard, B.; Bally, J.; Barlow, M.; Bernard, J.-P.; Martin, P.; Moore, T.; Noriega-Crespo, A.; Plume, R.; Testi, L.; Zavagno, A.; Abergel, A.; Ali, B.; André, P.; Baluteau, J.-P.

    2010-01-01

    Hi-GAL, the Herschel infrared Galactic Plane Survey, is an Open Time Key Project of the Herschel Space Observatory. It will make an unbiased photometric survey of the inner Galactic plane by mapping a 2° wide strip in the longitude range ∣l∣ < 60° in five wavebands between 70 μm and 500 μm. The aim of Hi-GAL is to detect the earliest phases of the formation of molecular clouds and high-mass stars and to use the optimum combination of Herschel wavelength coverage, sensitivity, mapping strategy...

  7. Cosmology with weak lensing surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munshi, Dipak; Valageas, Patrick; Waerbeke, Ludovic van; Heavens, Alan

    2008-01-01

    Weak gravitational lensing is responsible for the shearing and magnification of the images of high-redshift sources due to the presence of intervening matter. The distortions are due to fluctuations in the gravitational potential, and are directly related to the distribution of matter and to the geometry and dynamics of the Universe. As a consequence, weak gravitational lensing offers unique possibilities for probing the Dark Matter and Dark Energy in the Universe. In this review, we summarise the theoretical and observational state of the subject, focussing on the statistical aspects of weak lensing, and consider the prospects for weak lensing surveys in the future. Weak gravitational lensing surveys are complementary to both galaxy surveys and cosmic microwave background (CMB) observations as they probe the unbiased non-linear matter power spectrum at modest redshifts. Most of the cosmological parameters are accurately estimated from CMB and large-scale galaxy surveys, so the focus of attention is shifting to understanding the nature of Dark Matter and Dark Energy. On the theoretical side, recent advances in the use of 3D information of the sources from photometric redshifts promise greater statistical power, and these are further enhanced by the use of statistics beyond two-point quantities such as the power spectrum. The use of 3D information also alleviates difficulties arising from physical effects such as the intrinsic alignment of galaxies, which can mimic weak lensing to some extent. On the observational side, in the next few years weak lensing surveys such as CFHTLS, VST-KIDS and Pan-STARRS, and the planned Dark Energy Survey, will provide the first weak lensing surveys covering very large sky areas and depth. In the long run even more ambitious programmes such as DUNE, the Supernova Anisotropy Probe (SNAP) and Large-aperture Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) are planned. Weak lensing of diffuse components such as the CMB and 21 cm emission can also

  8. Cosmology with weak lensing surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munshi, Dipak [Institute of Astronomy, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 OHA (United Kingdom); Astrophysics Group, Cavendish Laboratory, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 OHE (United Kingdom)], E-mail: munshi@ast.cam.ac.uk; Valageas, Patrick [Service de Physique Theorique, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Waerbeke, Ludovic van [University of British Columbia, Department of Physics and Astronomy, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Heavens, Alan [SUPA - Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom)

    2008-06-15

    Weak gravitational lensing is responsible for the shearing and magnification of the images of high-redshift sources due to the presence of intervening matter. The distortions are due to fluctuations in the gravitational potential, and are directly related to the distribution of matter and to the geometry and dynamics of the Universe. As a consequence, weak gravitational lensing offers unique possibilities for probing the Dark Matter and Dark Energy in the Universe. In this review, we summarise the theoretical and observational state of the subject, focussing on the statistical aspects of weak lensing, and consider the prospects for weak lensing surveys in the future. Weak gravitational lensing surveys are complementary to both galaxy surveys and cosmic microwave background (CMB) observations as they probe the unbiased non-linear matter power spectrum at modest redshifts. Most of the cosmological parameters are accurately estimated from CMB and large-scale galaxy surveys, so the focus of attention is shifting to understanding the nature of Dark Matter and Dark Energy. On the theoretical side, recent advances in the use of 3D information of the sources from photometric redshifts promise greater statistical power, and these are further enhanced by the use of statistics beyond two-point quantities such as the power spectrum. The use of 3D information also alleviates difficulties arising from physical effects such as the intrinsic alignment of galaxies, which can mimic weak lensing to some extent. On the observational side, in the next few years weak lensing surveys such as CFHTLS, VST-KIDS and Pan-STARRS, and the planned Dark Energy Survey, will provide the first weak lensing surveys covering very large sky areas and depth. In the long run even more ambitious programmes such as DUNE, the Supernova Anisotropy Probe (SNAP) and Large-aperture Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) are planned. Weak lensing of diffuse components such as the CMB and 21 cm emission can also

  9. The new galaxy evolution paradigm revealed by the Herschel surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eales, Stephen; Smith, Dan; Bourne, Nathan; Loveday, Jon; Rowlands, Kate; van der Werf, Paul; Driver, Simon; Dunne, Loretta; Dye, Simon; Furlanetto, Cristina; Ivison, R. J.; Maddox, Steve; Robotham, Aaron; Smith, Matthew W. L.; Taylor, Edward N.; Valiante, Elisabetta; Wright, Angus; Cigan, Philip; De Zotti, Gianfranco; Jarvis, Matt J.; Marchetti, Lucia; Michałowski, Michał J.; Phillipps, Steven; Viaene, Sebastien; Vlahakis, Catherine

    2018-01-01

    The Herschel Space Observatory has revealed a very different galaxyscape from that shown by optical surveys which presents a challenge for galaxy-evolution models. The Herschel surveys reveal (1) that there was rapid galaxy evolution in the very recent past and (2) that galaxies lie on a single Galaxy Sequence (GS) rather than a star-forming 'main sequence' and a separate region of 'passive' or 'red-and-dead' galaxies. The form of the GS is now clearer because far-infrared surveys such as the Herschel ATLAS pick up a population of optically red star-forming galaxies that would have been classified as passive using most optical criteria. The space-density of this population is at least as high as the traditional star-forming population. By stacking spectra of H-ATLAS galaxies over the redshift range 0.001 high stellar masses, high star-formation rates but, even several billion years in the past, old stellar populations - they are thus likely to be relatively recent ancestors of early-type galaxies in the Universe today. The form of the GS is inconsistent with rapid quenching models and neither the analytic bathtub model nor the hydrodynamical EAGLE simulation can reproduce the rapid cosmic evolution. We propose a new gentler model of galaxy evolution that can explain the new Herschel results and other key properties of the galaxy population.

  10. Herschel extreme lensing line observations: Dynamics of two strongly lensed star-forming galaxies near redshift z = 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhoads, James E.; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Allam, Sahar; Carilli, Chris; Combes, Françoise; Finkelstein, Keely; Finkelstein, Steven; Frye, Brenda; Gerin, Maryvonne; Guillard, Pierre; Nesvadba, Nicole; Rigby, Jane; Spaans, Marco; Strauss, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    We report on two regularly rotating galaxies at redshift z ≈ 2, using high-resolution spectra of the bright [C II] 158 μm emission line from the HIFI instrument on the Herschel Space Observatory. Both SDSS090122.37+181432.3 ( S 0901 ) and SDSSJ120602.09+514229.5 ( t he Clone ) are strongly lensed and show the double-horned line profile that is typical of rotating gas disks. Using a parametric disk model to fit the emission line profiles, we find that S0901 has a rotation speed of vsin (i) ≈ 120 ± 7 km s –1 and a gas velocity dispersion of σ g < 23 km s –1 (1σ). The best-fitting model for the Clone is a rotationally supported disk having vsin (i) ≈ 79 ± 11 km s –1 and σ g ≲ 4 km s –1 (1σ). However, the Clone is also consistent with a family of dispersion-dominated models having σ g = 92 ± 20 km s –1 . Our results showcase the potential of the [C II] line as a kinematic probe of high-redshift galaxy dynamics: [C II] is bright, accessible to heterodyne receivers with exquisite velocity resolution, and traces dense star-forming interstellar gas. Future [C II] line observations with ALMA would offer the further advantage of spatial resolution, allowing a clearer separation between rotation and velocity dispersion.

  11. HERSCHEL EXTREME LENSING LINE OBSERVATIONS: [C ii] VARIATIONS IN GALAXIES AT REDSHIFTS z = 1–3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James E.; Yang, Huan; Finkelstein, K.; Finkelstein, Steven; Carilli, Chris; Combes, Françoise; Dassas, Karine; Guillard, Pierre; Nesvadba, Nicole; Frye, Brenda; Gerin, Maryvonne; Rigby, Jane; Shin, Min-Su; Spaans, Marco; Strauss, Michael A.; Papovich, Casey

    2017-01-01

    We observed the [C ii] line in 15 lensed galaxies at redshifts 1 < z < 3 using HIFI on the Herschel Space Observatory and detected 14/15 galaxies at 3 σ or better. High magnifications enable even modestly luminous galaxies to be detected in [C ii] with Herschel . The [C ii] luminosity in this sample ranges from 8 × 10 7 L ⊙ to 3.7 × 10 9 L ⊙ (after correcting for magnification), confirming that [C ii] is a strong tracer of the ISM at high redshifts. The ratio of the [C ii] line to the total far-infrared (FIR) luminosity serves as a measure of the ratio of gas to dust cooling and thus the efficiency of the grain photoelectric heating process. It varies between 3.3% and 0.09%. We compare the [C ii]/FIR ratio to that of galaxies at z = 0 and at high redshifts and find that they follow similar trends. The [C ii]/FIR ratio is lower for galaxies with higher dust temperatures. This is best explained if increased UV intensity leads to higher FIR luminosity and dust temperatures, but gas heating does not rise due to lower photoelectric heating efficiency. The [C ii]/FIR ratio shows weaker correlation with FIR luminosity. At low redshifts highly luminous galaxies tend to have warm dust, so the effects of dust temperature and luminosity are degenerate. Luminous galaxies at high redshifts show a range of dust temperatures, showing that [C ii]/FIR correlates most strongly with dust temperature. The [C ii] to mid-IR ratio for the HELLO sample is similar to the values seen for low-redshift galaxies, indicating that small grains and PAHs dominate the heating in the neutral ISM, although some of the high [CII]/FIR ratios may be due to turbulent heating.

  12. HERSCHEL EXTREME LENSING LINE OBSERVATIONS: [C ii] VARIATIONS IN GALAXIES AT REDSHIFTS z = 1–3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James E.; Yang, Huan [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Finkelstein, K.; Finkelstein, Steven [University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Carilli, Chris [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Socorro, NM (United States); Combes, Françoise [Observatoire de Paris, LERMA, CNRS, 61 Avenue de l’Observatoire, F-75014 Paris (France); Dassas, Karine; Guillard, Pierre; Nesvadba, Nicole [Institut d’Astrophysique Spatiale, Centre Universitaire d’Orsay (France); Frye, Brenda [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Gerin, Maryvonne [LERMA,24 rue Lhomond, F-75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Rigby, Jane [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States); Shin, Min-Su [Oxford University, Oxford, OX1 3PA (United Kingdom); Spaans, Marco [Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Strauss, Michael A. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Peyton Hall, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Papovich, Casey, E-mail: malhotra@asu.edu [George P. and Cynthia W. Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Department of Physics, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States)

    2017-01-20

    We observed the [C ii] line in 15 lensed galaxies at redshifts 1 < z < 3 using HIFI on the Herschel Space Observatory and detected 14/15 galaxies at 3 σ or better. High magnifications enable even modestly luminous galaxies to be detected in [C ii] with Herschel . The [C ii] luminosity in this sample ranges from 8 × 10{sup 7} L {sub ⊙} to 3.7 × 10{sup 9} L {sub ⊙} (after correcting for magnification), confirming that [C ii] is a strong tracer of the ISM at high redshifts. The ratio of the [C ii] line to the total far-infrared (FIR) luminosity serves as a measure of the ratio of gas to dust cooling and thus the efficiency of the grain photoelectric heating process. It varies between 3.3% and 0.09%. We compare the [C ii]/FIR ratio to that of galaxies at z = 0 and at high redshifts and find that they follow similar trends. The [C ii]/FIR ratio is lower for galaxies with higher dust temperatures. This is best explained if increased UV intensity leads to higher FIR luminosity and dust temperatures, but gas heating does not rise due to lower photoelectric heating efficiency. The [C ii]/FIR ratio shows weaker correlation with FIR luminosity. At low redshifts highly luminous galaxies tend to have warm dust, so the effects of dust temperature and luminosity are degenerate. Luminous galaxies at high redshifts show a range of dust temperatures, showing that [C ii]/FIR correlates most strongly with dust temperature. The [C ii] to mid-IR ratio for the HELLO sample is similar to the values seen for low-redshift galaxies, indicating that small grains and PAHs dominate the heating in the neutral ISM, although some of the high [CII]/FIR ratios may be due to turbulent heating.

  13. The Herschel-ATLAS: magnifications and physical sizes of 500-μm-selected strongly lensed galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enia, A.; Negrello, M.; Gurwell, M.; Dye, S.; Rodighiero, G.; Massardi, M.; De Zotti, G.; Franceschini, A.; Cooray, A.; van der Werf, P.; Birkinshaw, M.; Michałowski, M. J.; Oteo, I.

    2018-04-01

    We perform lens modelling and source reconstruction of Sub-millimetre Array (SMA) data for a sample of 12 strongly lensed galaxies selected at 500μm in the Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey (H-ATLAS). A previous analysis of the same data set used a single Sérsic profile to model the light distribution of each background galaxy. Here we model the source brightness distribution with an adaptive pixel scale scheme, extended to work in the Fourier visibility space of interferometry. We also present new SMA observations for seven other candidate lensed galaxies from the H-ATLAS sample. Our derived lens model parameters are in general consistent with previous findings. However, our estimated magnification factors, ranging from 3 to 10, are lower. The discrepancies are observed in particular where the reconstructed source hints at the presence of multiple knots of emission. We define an effective radius of the reconstructed sources based on the area in the source plane where emission is detected above 5σ. We also fit the reconstructed source surface brightness with an elliptical Gaussian model. We derive a median value reff ˜ 1.77 kpc and a median Gaussian full width at half-maximum ˜1.47 kpc. After correction for magnification, our sources have intrinsic star formation rates (SFR) ˜ 900-3500 M⊙ yr-1, resulting in a median SFR surface density ΣSFR ˜ 132 M⊙ yr-1 kpc-2 (or ˜218 M⊙ yr-1 kpc-2 for the Gaussian fit). This is consistent with that observed for other star-forming galaxies at similar redshifts, and is significantly below the Eddington limit for a radiation pressure regulated starburst.

  14. The Herschel-SPIRE Legacy Survey (HSLS): the scientific goals of a shallow and wide submillimeter imaging survey with SPIRE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cooray, Asantha; Eales, Steve; Chapman, Scott; Clements, David L.; Dore, Olivier; Farrah, Duncan; Jarvis, Matt J.; Kaplinghat, Manoj; Negrello, Mattia; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Peiris, Hiranya; Pope, Alexandra; Santos, Mario G.; Serjeant, Stephen; Thompson, Mark; White, Glenn; Amblard, Alexandre; Banerji, Manda; Corasaniti, Pier-Stefano; Das, Sudeep; de Bernardis, Francesco; de Zotti, Gianfranco; Giannantonio, Tommaso; Gonzalez-Nuevo Gonzalez, Joaquin; Khostovan, Ali Ahmad; Mitchell-Wynne, Ketron; Serra, Paolo; Song, Yong-Seon; Vieira, Joaquin; Wang, Lingyu; Zemcov, Michael; Abdalla, Filipe; Afonso, Jose; Aghanim, Nabila; Andreani, Paola; Aretxaga, Itziar; Auld, Robbie; Baes, Maarten; Baker, Andrew; Barkats, Denis; Belen Barreiro, R.; Bartolo, Nicola; Barton, Elizabeth; Barway, Sudhanshu; Stefano Battistelli, Elia; Baugh, Carlton; Holwerda, Benne W.; Koopmans, Leon; Pohlen, Michael; Vegetti, Simona

    2010-01-01

    A large sub-mm survey with Herschel will enable many exciting science opportunities, especially in an era of wide-field optical and radio surveys and high resolution cosmic microwave background experiments. The Herschel-SPIRE Legacy Survey (HSLS), will lead to imaging data over 4000 sq. degrees at

  15. Weak lensing in the Dark Energy Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troxel, Michael

    2016-03-01

    I will present the current status of weak lensing results from the Dark Energy Survey (DES). DES will survey 5000 square degrees in five photometric bands (grizY), and has already provided a competitive weak lensing catalog from Science Verification data covering just 3% of the final survey footprint. I will summarize the status of shear catalog production using observations from the first year of the survey and discuss recent weak lensing science results from DES. Finally, I will report on the outlook for future cosmological analyses in DES including the two-point cosmic shear correlation function and discuss challenges that DES and future surveys will face in achieving a control of systematics that allows us to take full advantage of the available statistical power of our shear catalogs.

  16. Total molecular gas masses of Planck - Herschel selected strongly lensed hyper luminous infrared galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, K. C.; Yun, M. S.; Magnelli, B.; Frayer, D. T.; Karim, A.; Weiß, A.; Riechers, D.; Jiménez-Andrade, E. F.; Berman, D.; Lowenthal, J.; Bertoldi, F.

    2018-03-01

    We report the detection of CO(1-0) line emission from seven Planck and Herschel selected hyper luminous ({L_{IR (8-1000{μ m})} > 10^{13} L_{⊙}) infrared galaxies with the Green Bank Telescope (GBT). CO(1-0) measurements are a vital tool to trace the bulk molecular gas mass across all redshifts. Our results place tight constraints on the total gas content of these most apparently luminous high-z star-forming galaxies (apparent IR luminosities of LIR > 1013 - 14 L⊙), while we confirm their predetermined redshifts measured using the Large Millimeter Telescope, LMT (zCO = 1.33-3.26). The CO(1-0) lines show similar profiles as compared to Jup = 2-4 transitions previously observed with the LMT. We report enhanced infrared to CO line luminosity ratios of = 110 ± 22 L_{⊙} (K km s^{-1} pc^{-2})^{-1} compared to normal star-forming galaxies, yet similar to those of well-studied IR-luminous galaxies at high-z. We find average brightness temperature ratios of 〈 r21〉 = 0.93 (2 sources), 〈 r31〉 = 0.34 (5 sources), and 〈 r41〉 = 0.18 (1 source). The r31 and r41 values are roughly half the average values for SMGs. We estimate the total gas mass content as {μ M_{H2} = (0.9-27.2) × 10^{11} (α _CO/0.8) M_{⊙}, where μ is the magnification factor and αCO is the CO line luminosity to molecular hydrogen gas mass conversion factor. The rapid gas depletion times, = 80} Myr, reveal vigorous starburst activity, and contrast the Gyr depletion time-scales observed in local, normal star-forming galaxies.

  17. Molecular gas in the Herschel-selected strongly lensed submillimeter galaxies at z 2-4 as probed by multi-J CO lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C.; Omont, A.; Beelen, A.; Gao, Y.; van der Werf, P.; Gavazzi, R.; Zhang, Z.-Y.; Ivison, R.; Lehnert, M.; Liu, D.; Oteo, I.; González-Alfonso, E.; Dannerbauer, H.; Cox, P.; Krips, M.; Neri, R.; Riechers, D.; Baker, A. J.; Michałowski, M. J.; Cooray, A.; Smail, I.

    2017-12-01

    We present the IRAM-30 m observations of multiple-J CO (Jup mostly from 3 up to 8) and [C I](3P2 → 3P1) ([C I](2-1) hereafter) line emission in a sample of redshift 2-4 submillimeter galaxies (SMGs). These SMGs are selected among the brightest-lensed galaxies discovered in the Herschel-Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey (H-ATLAS). Forty-seven CO lines and 7 [C I](2-1) lines have been detected in 15 lensed SMGs. A non-negligible effect of differential lensing is found for the CO emission lines, which could have caused significant underestimations of the linewidths, and hence of the dynamical masses. The CO spectral line energy distributions (SLEDs), peaking around Jup 5-7, are found to be similar to those of the local starburst-dominated ultra-luminous infrared galaxies and of the previously studied SMGs. After correcting for lensing amplification, we derived the global properties of the bulk of molecular gas in the SMGs using non-LTE radiative transfer modelling, such as the molecular gas density nH2 102.5-104.1 cm-3 and the kinetic temperature Tk 20-750 K. The gas thermal pressure Pth ranging from 105 K cm-3 to 106 K cm-3 is found to be correlated with star formation efficiency. Further decomposing the CO SLEDs into two excitation components, we find a low-excitation component with nH2 102.8-104.6 cm-3 and Tk 20-30 K, which is less correlated with star formation, and a high-excitation one (nH2 102.7-104.2 cm-3, Tk 60-400 K) which is tightly related to the on-going star-forming activity. Additionally, tight linear correlations between the far-infrared and CO line luminosities have been confirmed for the Jup ≥ 5 CO lines of these SMGs, implying that these CO lines are good tracers of star formation. The [C I](2-1) lines follow the tight linear correlation between the luminosities of the [C I](2-1) and the CO(1-0) line found in local starbursts, indicating that [C I] lines could serve as good total molecular gas mass tracers for high-redshift SMGs as well

  18. The Herschel ATLAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eales, S.; Dunne, L.; Clements, D.; Cooray, A.; De Zotti, G.; Dye, S.; Ivison, R.; Jarvis, M.; Lagache, G.; Maddox, S.; hide

    2010-01-01

    The Herschel ATLAS is the largest open-time key project that will be carried out on the Herschel Space Observatory. It will survey 570 sq deg of the extragalactic sky, 4 times larger than all the other Herschel extragalactic surveys combined, in five far-infrared and submillimeter bands. We describe the survey, the complementary multiwavelength data sets that will be combined with the Herschel data, and the six major science programs we are undertaking. Using new models based on a previous submillimeter survey of galaxies, we present predictions of the properties of the ATLAS sources in other wave bands.

  19. Revealing the ISM in high redshift starburst galaxies: An analysis of Herschel PACS and SPIRE FTS spectroscopic observations of HerMES and H-ATLAS-selected lensed galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooray, Asantha

    In the quest to develop a fundamental understanding of galaxy formation and evolution, observations of dusty star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) promise significant progress this decade. The importance of DSFGs is highlighted by the fact that half of the energy emitted by extragalactic sources emerges as dust-reprocessed light at infrared (IR) to sub millimeter wavelength. In the post-herschel\\ era, we are now at a unique position to tackle some of the key questions on galaxy formation and evolution because of the large area Herschel's Key Project surveys (HerMES and H-ATLAS). In particular those surveys have allowed us to identify a sample of 250 strongly gravitationally lensed DSFGs at z > 1. They give us a unique opportunity to dissect the detailed structures and kinematics of DSFGs. The Herschel Science Archive also contains individual follow up data on 44 and 25 of the brightest sources with SPIRE-FTS and PACS, respectively, in the spectroscopy mode, taking over 250 hours in four open-time programs. Only one of the 44 SPIRE FTS targets has yet to appear in the published literature. One of the four include an open-time 2 PACS spectroscopy program that was led at UCI by a former postdoc from the PI's group. That program was initially approved at Priority 2 in 2011, but was triggered in late 2012 and achieved 100% completion during the last two weeks of Herschel lifetime in May 2013. This archival analysis, interpretation, and modeling program involves two parts: (i) PACS spectroscopy in 50 to 200 microns of 25 lensed galaxies in the fine-structure emission lines [SiII]34, [SIII]33, [OIV]26, [OIII]52, [NIII]57 and [OI]63, and the molecular hydrogen H_2 S(0) and S(1). (ii) SPIRE FTS spectroscopy of 44 lensed galaxies, including above 25, over the wavelength range of 200 to 600 microns targeting [CII]158, [OIII]88, [OI]63/145, and [NI]122. The analysis will lead to a better understanding of the ISM of starbursting galaxies that span 1 research supports Goal 2 of the

  20. An extended Herschel drop-out source in the center of AS1063 : a normal dusty galaxy at z = 6.1 or SZ substructures?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boone, F.; Clément, B.; Richard, J.; Schaerer, D.; Lutz, D.; Weiß, A.; Zemcov, M.; Egami, E.; Rawle, T.; Walth, G.; Kneib, J.; Combes, F.; Smail, I.; Swinbank, A.; Altieri, B.; Blain, A.; Chapman, S.; Dessauges-Zavadsky, M.; Ivison, R.; Knudsen, K.; Omont, A.; Pelló, R.; Pérez-González, P.; Valtchanov, I.; Werf, van der P.P.; Zamojski, M.

    2013-01-01

    In the course of our 870 {$μ$}m APEX/LABOCA follow-up of the Herschel Lensing Survey we have detected a source in AS1063 (RXC J2248.7-4431) that has no counterparts in any of the Herschel PACS/SPIRE bands, it is a Herschel ''drop-out'' with S$_{870}$/S$_{500}$ {ge} 0.5. The 870 {$μ$}m emission is

  1. Herschel observations of extraordinary sources: Analysis of the full Herschel/HIFI molecular line survey of sagittarius B2(N)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neill, Justin L.; Bergin, Edwin A.; Crockett, Nathan R.; Favre, Cécile; Anderson, Dana E.; Burkhardt, Andrew M.; McNeill, Trevor D. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Lis, Dariusz C.; Emprechtinger, Martin; Monje, Raquel R.; Phillips, Thomas G. [California Institute of Technology, Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics 301-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Schilke, Peter; Comito, Claudia; Qin, Sheng-Li [Physikalisches Institut, Universität zu Köln, Zülpicher Str. 77, D-50937 Köln (Germany); Chen, Jo-Hsin [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Harris, Brent J.; Steber, Amanda L.; Vasyunina, Tatiana [Department of Chemistry, University of Virginia, McCormick Road, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Lord, Steven D. [National Herschel Science Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); McGuire, Brett A., E-mail: jneill@umich.edu, E-mail: ebergin@umich.edu [Division of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); and others

    2014-07-01

    A sensitive broadband molecular line survey of the Sagittarius B2(N) star-forming region has been obtained with the Heterodyne Instrument for the Far-Infrared (HIFI) instrument on the Herschel Space Observatory, offering the first high spectral resolution look at this well-studied source in a wavelength region largely inaccessible from the ground (625-157 μm). From the roughly 8000 spectral features in the survey, a total of 72 isotopologues arising from 44 different molecules have been identified, ranging from light hydrides to complex organics, and arising from a variety of environments from cold and diffuse to hot and dense gas. We present a local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) model to the spectral signatures of each molecule, constraining the source sizes for hot core species with complementary Submillimeter Array interferometric observations and assuming that molecules with related functional group composition are cospatial. For each molecule, a single model is given to fit all of the emission and absorption features of that species across the entire 480-1910 GHz spectral range, accounting for multiple temperature and velocity components when needed to describe the spectrum. As with other HIFI surveys toward massive star-forming regions, methanol is found to contribute more integrated line intensity to the spectrum than any other species. We discuss the molecular abundances derived for the hot core where the LTE approximation is generally found to describe the spectrum well, in comparison to abundances derived for the same molecules in the Orion KL region from a similar HIFI survey. Notably, we find significantly higher abundances of amine- and amide-bearing molecules (CH{sub 3}NH{sub 2}, CH{sub 2}NH, and NH{sub 2}CHO) toward Sgr B2(N) than Orion KL and lower abundances of some complex oxygen-bearing molecules (CH{sub 3}OCHO in particular). In addition to information on the chemical composition of the hot core, the strong far-infrared dust continuum allows

  2. LENSING NOISE IN MILLIMETER-WAVE GALAXY CLUSTER SURVEYS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hezaveh, Yashar; Vanderlinde, Keith; Holder, Gilbert; De Haan, Tijmen

    2013-01-01

    We study the effects of gravitational lensing by galaxy clusters of the background of dusty star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) and the cosmic microwave background (CMB), and examine the implications for Sunyaev-Zel'dovich-based (SZ) galaxy cluster surveys. At the locations of galaxy clusters, gravitational lensing modifies the probability distribution of the background flux of the DSFGs as well as the CMB. We find that, in the case of a single-frequency 150 GHz survey, lensing of DSFGs leads both to a slight increase (∼10%) in detected cluster number counts (due to a ∼50% increase in the variance of the DSFG background, and hence an increased Eddington bias) and a rare (occurring in ∼2% of clusters) 'filling-in' of SZ cluster signals by bright strongly lensed background sources. Lensing of the CMB leads to a ∼55% reduction in CMB power at the location of massive galaxy clusters in a spatially matched single-frequency filter, leading to a net decrease in detected cluster number counts. We find that the increase in DSFG power and decrease in CMB power due to lensing at cluster locations largely cancel, such that the net effect on cluster number counts for current SZ surveys is subdominant to Poisson errors

  3. A Comprehensive Study of ULIRGs in the Herschel Very Wide Field Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Haojing

    Extreme starbursting galaxies exist at all redshifts, and most of them are so heavily obscured by dust that they are Ultra-Luminous InfraRed Galaxies (ULIRGs) while being faint in optical to near-IR. The latest example is at record-high z=6.337, approaching the end of the reionization. There have been numerous suggestions that understanding ULIRG is critical in constructing a comprehensive picture of galaxy formation history. These range from the hypothesis three decades ago that the ULIRG phase is the prelude to QSO and large ellipticals, to the recent tentative evidence that ULIRG could make a large (if not dominant) contribution to the global star formation rate density (GSFRD) at z>1. However, the exact nature of ULIRG and their role in galaxy assembly still remain illusive, largely due to the limited sample size and the severe source confusion problem in the far-IR (FIR). The very wide field surveys by Herschel have provided the best opportunity to date to systematically study ULIRG beyond the local universe, most importantly because of their wide coverage and high sensitivity to probe large volumes to high redshifts and the multiple FIR bands that allow for direct measurement of the IR luminosities. We propose to construct the largest possible ULIRG sample in these fields at all redshifts, and to study the evolution of ULIRGs. We will concentrate on the HerMES, the H-ATLAS and the HerS programs whose data are already public. While the confusion problem still persists in these Herschel data, we have demonstrated that it is possible to directly use the position priors from optical images to decompose the candidate contributors to a given Herschel source if its S/N suffices (Yan et al. 2014). This is a significant improvement over previous studies where higher-resolution mid-IR (mostly Spitzer MIPS 24-micron) data had to be used as the proxies to the FIR source locations, because (1) such proxy images also suffer from the blending problem in the first place and

  4. The protostar OMC-2 FIR 4: Results from the CHESS Herschel/HIFI spectral survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kama, Mihkel; Lopez-Sepulcre, Ana; Ceccarelli, Cecilia; Dominik, Carsten; Caux, Emmanuel; Fuente, Asuncion

    2013-07-01

    The intermediate-mass protostar OMC-2 FIR 4 in Orion is the focus of several ongoing studies, including a CHESS key programme Herschel/HIFI spectral survey. In this poster, we review recent CHESS results on this source, including the properties of the central hot core, the presence of a compact outflow, the spatial variation of the chemical composition, and the discovery of a tenuous foreground cloud. The HIFI spectrum of FIR 4 contains 719 lines from 40 species and isotopologs. Cooling by lines detectable with our sensitivity contributes 2% of the total in the 480 to 1900 GHz range. The total line flux is dominated by CO, followed by H2O and CH3OH. Initial comparisons with spectral surveys of other sources will also be presented.

  5. Analysis of the Herschel/Hexos Spectral Survey Toward Orion South: A Massive Protostellar Envelope with Strong External Irradiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tahani, K.; Plume, R.; Bergin, E. A.; Tolls, V.; Phillips, T. G.; Caux, E.; Cabrit, S.; Goicoechea, J. R.; Goldsmith, P. F.; Johnstone, D.; Lis, D. C.; Pagani, L.; Menten, K. M.; Müller, H. S. P.; Ossenkopf-Okada, V.; Pearson, J. C.; van der Tak, F. F. S.

    2016-01-01

    We present results from a comprehensive submillimeter spectral survey toward the source Orion South, based on data obtained with the Heterodyne Instrument for the Far-Infrared instrument on board the Herschel Space Observatory, covering the frequency range of 480 to 1900 GHz. We detect 685 spectral

  6. Probing dark energy with lensing magnification in photometric surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Michael D

    2014-02-14

    I present an estimator for the angular cross correlation of two tracers of the cosmological large-scale structure that utilizes redshift information to isolate separate physical contributions. The estimator is derived by solving the Limber equation for a reweighting of the foreground tracer that nulls either clustering or lensing contributions to the cross correlation function. Applied to future photometric surveys, the estimator can enhance the measurement of gravitational lensing magnification effects to provide a competitive independent constraint on the dark energy equation of state.

  7. The Herschel/HIFI unbiased spectral survey of the solar-mass protostar IRAS16293

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottinelli, S.; Caux, E.; Cecarelli, C.; Kahane, C.

    2012-03-01

    Unbiased spectral surveys are powerful tools to study the chemistry and the physics of star forming regions, because they can provide a complete census of the molecular content and the observed lines probe the physical structure of the source. While unbiased surveys at the millimeter and sub-millimeter wavelengths observable from ground-based telescopes have previously been performed towards several high-mass protostars, very little data exist on low-mass protostars, with only one such ground-based survey carried out towards this kind of object. However, since low-mass protostars are believed to resemble our own Sun's progenitor, the information provided by spectral surveys is crucial in order to uncover the birth mechanisms of low-mass stars and hence of our Sun. To help fill up this gap in our understanding, we carried out an almost complete spectral survey towards the solar-type protostar IRAS16293-2422 with the HIFI instrument onboard Herschel. The observations covered a range of about 700 GHz, in which a few hundreds lines were detected with more than 3σ confidence interval certainty and identified. All the detected lines which were free from obvious blending effects were fitted with Gaussians to estimate their basic kinematic properties. Contrarily to what is observed in the millimeter range, no lines from complex organic molecules have been observed. In this work, we characterize the different components of IRAS16293-2422 (a known binary at least) by analyzing the numerous emission and absorption lines identified.

  8. THE HERSCHEL ORION PROTOSTAR SURVEY: SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS AND FITS USING A GRID OF PROTOSTELLAR MODELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furlan, E. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, 770 S. Wilson Ave., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Fischer, W. J. [Goddard Space Flight Center, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Ali, B. [Space Science Institute, 4750 Walnut Street, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States); Stutz, A. M. [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Stanke, T. [ESO, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany); Tobin, J. J. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Megeath, S. T.; Booker, J. [Ritter Astrophysical Research Center, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, 2801 W. Bancroft Street, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Osorio, M. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía, CSIC, Camino Bajo de Huétor 50, E-18008 Granada (Spain); Hartmann, L.; Calvet, N. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Poteet, C. A. [New York Center for Astrobiology, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 Eighth Street, Troy, NY 12180 (United States); Manoj, P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400005 (India); Watson, D. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States); Allen, L., E-mail: furlan@ipac.caltech.edu [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States)

    2016-05-01

    We present key results from the Herschel Orion Protostar Survey: spectral energy distributions (SEDs) and model fits of 330 young stellar objects, predominantly protostars, in the Orion molecular clouds. This is the largest sample of protostars studied in a single, nearby star formation complex. With near-infrared photometry from 2MASS, mid- and far-infrared data from Spitzer and Herschel , and submillimeter photometry from APEX, our SEDs cover 1.2–870 μ m and sample the peak of the protostellar envelope emission at ∼100 μ m. Using mid-IR spectral indices and bolometric temperatures, we classify our sample into 92 Class 0 protostars, 125 Class I protostars, 102 flat-spectrum sources, and 11 Class II pre-main-sequence stars. We implement a simple protostellar model (including a disk in an infalling envelope with outflow cavities) to generate a grid of 30,400 model SEDs and use it to determine the best-fit model parameters for each protostar. We argue that far-IR data are essential for accurate constraints on protostellar envelope properties. We find that most protostars, and in particular the flat-spectrum sources, are well fit. The median envelope density and median inclination angle decrease from Class 0 to Class I to flat-spectrum protostars, despite the broad range in best-fit parameters in each of the three categories. We also discuss degeneracies in our model parameters. Our results confirm that the different protostellar classes generally correspond to an evolutionary sequence with a decreasing envelope infall rate, but the inclination angle also plays a role in the appearance, and thus interpretation, of the SEDs.

  9. Dust spectral energy distributions of nearby galaxies: an insight from the Herschel Reference Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciesla, L.; Boquien, M.; Boselli, A.; Buat, V.; Cortese, L.; Bendo, G. J.; Heinis, S.; Galametz, M.; Eales, S.; Smith, M. W. L.; Baes, M.; Bianchi, S.; De Looze, I.; di Serego Alighieri, S.; Galliano, F.; Hughes, T. M.; Madden, S. C.; Pierini, D.; Rémy-Ruyer, A.; Spinoglio, L.; Vaccari, M.; Viaene, S.; Vlahakis, C.

    2014-05-01

    Although it accounts only for a small fraction of the baryonic mass, dust has a profound impact on the physical processes at play in galaxies. Thus, to understand the evolution of galaxies, it is essential not only to characterize dust properties per se, but also in relation to global galaxy properties. To do so, we derive the dust properties of galaxies in a volume limited, K-band selected sample, the Herschel Reference Survey (HRS). We gather infrared photometric data from 8 μm to 500 μm from Spitzer, WISE, IRAS, and Herschel for all of the HRS galaxies. Draine & Li (2007, ApJ, 663, 866) models are fit to the data from which the stellar contribution has been carefully removed. We find that our photometric coverage is sufficient to constrain all of the parameters of the Draine & Li models and that a strong constraint on the 20-60 μm range is mandatory to estimate the relative contribution of the photo-dissociation regions to the infrared spectral energy distribution (SED). The SED models tend to systematically underestimate the observed 500 μm flux densities, especially for low-mass systems. We provide the output parameters for all of the galaxies, i.e., the minimum intensity of the interstellar radiation field, the fraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), the relative contribution of PDR and evolved stellar population to the dust heating, the dust mass, and the infrared luminosity. For a subsample of gas-rich galaxies, we analyze the relations between these parameters and the main integrated properties of galaxies, such as stellar mass, star formation rate, infraredluminosity, metallicity, Hα and H-band surface brightness, and the far-ultraviolet attenuation. A good correlation between the fraction of PAH and the metallicity is found, implying a weakening of the PAH emission in galaxies with low metallicities and, thus, low stellar masses. The intensity of the diffuse interstellar radiation field and the H-band and Hα surface brightnesses are

  10. Bayesian galaxy shape measurement for weak lensing surveys - III. Application to the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Lensing Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, L.; Heymans, C.; Kitching, T. D.; van Waerbeke, L.; Erben, T.; Hildebrandt, H.; Hoekstra, H.; Mellier, Y.; Rowe, B. T. P.; Coupon, J.; Dietrich, J. P.; Fu, L.; Harnois-Déraps, J.; Hudson, M. J.; Kilbinger, M.; Kuijken, K.; Schrabback, T.; Semboloni, E.; Vafaei, S.; Velander, M.

    2013-03-01

    A likelihood-based method for measuring weak gravitational lensing shear in deep galaxy surveys is described and applied to the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) Lensing Survey (CFHTLenS). CFHTLenS comprises 154 deg2 of multi-colour optical data from the CFHT Legacy Survey, with lensing measurements being made in the i' band to a depth i'AB noise ratio νSN ≳ 10. The method is based on the lensfit algorithm described in earlier papers, but here we describe a full analysis pipeline that takes into account the properties of real surveys. The method creates pixel-based models of the varying point spread function (PSF) in individual image exposures. It fits PSF-convolved two-component (disc plus bulge) models to measure the ellipticity of each galaxy, with Bayesian marginalization over model nuisance parameters of galaxy position, size, brightness and bulge fraction. The method allows optimal joint measurement of multiple, dithered image exposures, taking into account imaging distortion and the alignment of the multiple measurements. We discuss the effects of noise bias on the likelihood distribution of galaxy ellipticity. Two sets of image simulations that mirror the observed properties of CFHTLenS have been created to establish the method's accuracy and to derive an empirical correction for the effects of noise bias.

  11. The Herschel Virgo Cluster Survey. XVII. SPIRE point-source catalogs and number counts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappalardo, Ciro; Bendo, George J.; Bianchi, Simone; Hunt, Leslie; Zibetti, Stefano; Corbelli, Edvige; di Serego Alighieri, Sperello; Grossi, Marco; Davies, Jonathan; Baes, Maarten; De Looze, Ilse; Fritz, Jacopo; Pohlen, Michael; Smith, Matthew W. L.; Verstappen, Joris; Boquien, Médéric; Boselli, Alessandro; Cortese, Luca; Hughes, Thomas; Viaene, Sebastien; Bizzocchi, Luca; Clemens, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Aims: We present three independent catalogs of point-sources extracted from SPIRE images at 250, 350, and 500 μm, acquired with the Herschel Space Observatory as a part of the Herschel Virgo Cluster Survey (HeViCS). The catalogs have been cross-correlated to consistently extract the photometry at SPIRE wavelengths for each object. Methods: Sources have been detected using an iterative loop. The source positions are determined by estimating the likelihood to be a real source for each peak on the maps, according to the criterion defined in the sourceExtractorSussextractor task. The flux densities are estimated using the sourceExtractorTimeline, a timeline-based point source fitter that also determines the fitting procedure with the width of the Gaussian that best reproduces the source considered. Afterwards, each source is subtracted from the maps, removing a Gaussian function in every position with the full width half maximum equal to that estimated in sourceExtractorTimeline. This procedure improves the robustness of our algorithm in terms of source identification. We calculate the completeness and the flux accuracy by injecting artificial sources in the timeline and estimate the reliability of the catalog using a permutation method. Results: The HeViCS catalogs contain about 52 000, 42 200, and 18 700 sources selected at 250, 350, and 500 μm above 3σ and are ~75%, 62%, and 50% complete at flux densities of 20 mJy at 250, 350, 500 μm, respectively. We then measured source number counts at 250, 350, and 500 μm and compare them with previous data and semi-analytical models. We also cross-correlated the catalogs with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to investigate the redshift distribution of the nearby sources. From this cross-correlation, we select ~2000 sources with reliable fluxes and a high signal-to-noise ratio, finding an average redshift z ~ 0.3 ± 0.22 and 0.25 (16-84 percentile). Conclusions: The number counts at 250, 350, and 500 μm show an increase in

  12. THE INFRARED PROPERTIES OF SOURCES MATCHED IN THE WISE ALL-SKY AND HERSCHEL ATLAS SURVEYS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, Nicholas A.; Benford, Dominic J.; Gardner, Jonathan P. [Cosmology Laboratory (Code 665), NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Amblard, Alexandre [Astrophysics Branch, NASA/Ames Research Center, MS 245-6, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Fleuren, Simone [School of Mathematical Sciences, Queen Mary, University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Blain, Andrew W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Dunne, Loretta; Maddox, Steve J.; Hoyos, Carlos; Bourne, Nathan [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Smith, Daniel J. B.; Bonfield, David [Centre for Astrophysics Research, Science and Technology Research Institute, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, Herts AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Baes, Maarten [Sterrenkundig Observatorium, Universiteit Gent, Krijgslaan 281 S9, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Bridge, Carrie [Division of Physics, Mathematics, and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Buttiglione, Sara; De Zotti, Gianfranco [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Cava, Antonio [Departamento de Astrofisica, Facultad de CC. Fisicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Clements, David [Imperial College, Astrophysics Group, Blackett Lab, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Cooray, Asantha [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Dariush, Ali [Physics Department, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); and others

    2012-05-01

    We describe the infrared properties of sources detected over {approx}36 deg{sup 2} of sky in the GAMA 15 hr equatorial field, using data from both the Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large-Area Survey (H-ATLAS) and Wide-field Infrared Survey (WISE). With 5{sigma} point-source depths of 34 and 0.048 mJy at 250 {mu}m and 3.4 {mu}m, respectively, we are able to identify 50.6% of the H-ATLAS sources in the WISE survey, corresponding to a surface density of {approx}630 deg{sup -2}. Approximately two-thirds of these sources have measured spectroscopic or optical/near-IR photometric redshifts of z < 1. For sources with spectroscopic redshifts at z < 0.3, we find a linear correlation between the infrared luminosity at 3.4 {mu}m and that at 250 {mu}m, with {+-}50% scatter over {approx}1.5 orders of magnitude in luminosity, {approx}10{sup 9}-10{sup 10.5} L{sub Sun }. By contrast, the matched sources without previously measured redshifts (r {approx}> 20.5) have 250-350 {mu}m flux density ratios which suggest either high-redshift galaxies (z {approx}> 1.5) or optically faint low-redshift galaxies with unusually low temperatures (T {approx}< 20). Their small 3.4-250 {mu}m flux ratios favor a high-redshift galaxy population, as only the most actively star-forming galaxies at low redshift (e.g., Arp 220) exhibit comparable flux density ratios. Furthermore, we find a relatively large active galactic nucleus fraction ({approx}30%) in a 12 {mu}m flux-limited subsample of H-ATLAS sources, also consistent with there being a significant population of high-redshift sources in the no-redshift sample.

  13. Gravitational lensing statistics with extragalactic surveys - II. Analysis of the Jodrell Bank-VLA Astrometric Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helbig, P; Marlow, D; Quast, R; Wilkinson, PN; Browne, IWA; Koopmans, LVE

    We present constraints on the cosmological constant lambda(0) from gravitational lensing statistics of the Jodrell Bank-VLA Astrometric Survey (JVAS). Although this is the largest gravitational lens survey which has been analysed, cosmological constraints are only comparable to those from optical

  14. PROBING THE STAR FORMATION HISTORY AND INITIAL MASS FUNCTION OF THE z {approx} 2.5 LENSED GALAXY SMM J163554.2+661225 WITH HERSCHEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finkelstein, Keely D.; Papovich, Casey; Finkelstein, Steven L. [George P. and Cynthia Woods Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-4242 (United States); Willmer, Christopher N. A.; Egami, Eiichi; Rieke, Marcia [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Rigby, Jane R. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 665, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Rudnick, Gregory [Department of Physics and Astronomy, 1251 Wescoe Hall Dr., University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66045-7582 (United States); Smith, J.-D. T. [Ritter Observatory, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, MS 113, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States)

    2011-12-01

    We present the analysis of Herschel Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver far-infrared (FIR) observations of the z = 2.515 lensed galaxy SMM J163554.2+661225. Combining new 250, 350, and 500 {mu}m observations with existing data, we make an improved fit to the FIR spectral energy distribution of this galaxy. We find a total infrared (IR) luminosity of L(8-1000 {mu}m) = 6.9 {+-} 0.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} L{sub Sun }, a factor of three more precise over previous L{sub IR} estimates for this galaxy, and one of the most accurate measurements for any galaxy at these redshifts. This FIR luminosity implies an unlensed star formation rate (SFR) for this galaxy of 119 {+-} 10 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}, which is a factor of 1.9 {+-} 0.35 lower than the SFR derived from the nebular Pa{alpha} emission line (a 2.5{sigma} discrepancy). Both SFR indicators assume an identical Salpeter initial mass function (IMF) with slope {Gamma} = 2.35 over a mass range of 0.1-100 M{sub Sun }; thus this discrepancy suggests that more ionizing photons may be necessary to account for the higher Pa{alpha}-derived SFR. We examine a number of scenarios and find that the observations can be explained with a varying star formation history (SFH) due to an increasing SFR, paired with a slight flattening of the IMF. If the SFR is constant in time, then larger changes need to be made to the IMF by either increasing the upper mass cutoff to {approx}200 M{sub Sun }, or a flattening of the IMF slope to 1.9 {+-} 0.15, or a combination of the two. These scenarios result in up to double the number of stars with masses above 20 M{sub Sun }, which produce the requisite increase in ionizing photons over a Salpeter IMF with a constant SFH.

  15. A survey of the molecular ISM properties of nearby galaxies using the Herschel FTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamenetzky, J. [Also at Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA. (United States); Rangwala, N. [Visiting Scientist, Space Science and Astrobiology Division, NASA Ames Research Center. (United States); Glenn, J.; Maloney, P. R.; Conley, A., E-mail: jkamenetzky@as.arizona.edu [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado at Boulder, 389-UCB, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2014-11-10

    The {sup 12}CO J = 4 → 3 to J = 13 → 12 lines of the interstellar medium from nearby galaxies, newly observable with the Herschel SPIRE Fourier transform spectrometer, offer an opportunity to study warmer, more luminous molecular gas than that traced by {sup 12}CO J = 1 → 0. Here we present a survey of 17 nearby infrared-luminous galaxy systems (21 pointings). In addition to photometric modeling of dust, we modeled full {sup 12}CO spectral line energy distributions from J = 1 → 0 to J = 13 → 12 with two components of warm and cool CO gas, and included LTE analysis of [C I], [C II], [N II], and H{sub 2} lines. CO is emitted from a low-pressure/high-mass component traced by the low-J lines and a high-pressure/low-mass component that dominates the luminosity. We found that, on average, the ratios of the warm/cool pressure, mass, and {sup 12}CO luminosity are 60 ± 30, 0.11 ± 0.02, and 15.6 ± 2.7. The gas-to-dust-mass ratios are <120 throughout the sample. The {sup 12}CO luminosity is dominated by the high-J lines and is 4 × 10{sup –4} L {sub FIR} on average. We discuss systematic effects of single-component and multi-component CO modeling (e.g., single-component J ≤ 3 models overestimate gas pressure by ∼0.5 dex), as well as compare to Galactic star-forming regions. With this comparison, we show the molecular interstellar medium of starburst galaxies is not simply an ensemble of Galactic-type giant molecular clouds. The warm gas emission is likely dominated by regions resembling the warm extended cloud of Sgr B2.

  16. The Herschel Multi-Tiered Extragalactic Survey: SPIRE-mm Photometric Redshifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseboom, I. G.; Ivison, R. J.; Greve, T. R.; Amblard, A.; Arumugam, V.; Auld, R.; Aussel, H.; Bethermin, M.; Blain, A.; Block, J.; hide

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the potential of submm-mm and submm-mm-radio photometric redshifts using a sample of mm-selected sources as seen at 250, 350 and 500 micron by the SPIRE instrument on Herschel. From a sample of 63 previously identified mm sources with reliable radio identifications in the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey North and Lockman Hole North fields, 46 (73 per cent) are found to have detections in at least one SPIRE band. We explore the observed submm/mm color evolution with redshift, finding that the colors of mm sources are adequately described by a modified blackbody with constant optical depth Tau = (Nu/nu(sub 0))(exp Beta), where Beta = +1.8 and nu(sub 0) = c/100 micron. We find a tight correlation between dust temperature and IR luminosity. Using a single model of the dust temperature and IR luminosity relation, we derive photometric redshift estimates for the 46 SPIRE-detected mm sources. Testing against the 22 sources with known spectroscopic or good quality optical/near-IR photometric redshifts, we find submm/mm photometric redshifts offer a redshift accuracy of (absolute value of Delta sub (z))/(1 + z) = 0.16 (absolute value of Delta sub (z)) = 0.51). Including constraints from the radio-far-IR correlation, the accuracy is improved to (absolute value of Delta sub (z))/(1 + z) = 0.14 (((absolute value of Delta sub (z))) = 0.45). We estimate the redshift distribution of mm-selected sources finding a significant excess at Z > 3 when compared to approx 8S0 micron selected samples.

  17. LENS MODELS OF HERSCHEL-SELECTED GALAXIES FROM HIGH-RESOLUTION NEAR-IR OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calanog, J. A.; Cooray, A.; Ma, B.; Casey, C. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Fu, Hai [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa, Van Allen Hall, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Wardlow, J. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Amber, S. [Department of Physical Sciences, The Open University, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Baker, A. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 136 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Baes, M. [1 Sterrenkundig Observatorium, Universiteit Gent, Krijgslaan 281, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Bock, J. [California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bourne, N.; Dye, S. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Bussmann, R. S. [Department of Astronomy, Space Science Building, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853-6801 (United States); Chapman, S. C. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Clements, D. L. [Astrophysics Group, Imperial College London, Blackett Laboratory, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Conley, A. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy 389-UCB, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Dannerbauer, H. [Laboratoire AIM-Paris-Saclay, CEA/DSM/Irfu-CNRS-Université Paris Diderot, CE-Saclay, pt courrier 131, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); De Zotti, G. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell' Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Dunne, L.; Eales, S. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Queens Buildings, The Parade, Cardiff CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); and others

    2014-12-20

    We present Keck-Adaptive Optics and Hubble Space Telescope high resolution near-infrared (IR) imaging for 500 μm bright candidate lensing systems identified by the Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey and Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey. Out of 87 candidates with near-IR imaging, 15 (∼17%) display clear near-IR lensing morphologies. We present near-IR lens models to reconstruct and recover basic rest-frame optical morphological properties of the background galaxies from 12 new systems. Sources with the largest near-IR magnification factors also tend to be the most compact, consistent with the size bias predicted from simulations and previous lensing models for submillimeter galaxies (SMGs). For four new sources that also have high-resolution submillimeter maps, we test for differential lensing between the stellar and dust components and find that the 880 μm magnification factor (μ{sub 880}) is ∼1.5 times higher than the near-IR magnification factor (μ{sub NIR}), on average. We also find that the stellar emission is ∼2 times more extended in size than dust. The rest-frame optical properties of our sample of Herschel-selected lensed SMGs are consistent with those of unlensed SMGs, which suggests that the two populations are similar.

  18. THE HERSCHEL AND JCMT GOULD BELT SURVEYS: CONSTRAINING DUST PROPERTIES IN THE PERSEUS B1 CLUMP WITH PACS, SPIRE, AND SCUBA-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadavoy, S. I.; Di Francesco, J.; Johnstone, D.; Fallscheer, C.; Matthews, B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, P.O. Box 355, STN CSC, Victoria, BC V8W 3P6 (Canada); Currie, M. J.; Jenness, T. [Joint Astronomy Centre, 660 N. A' ohoku Place, University Park, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Drabek, E.; Hatchell, J. [School of Physics, University of Exeter, Stocker Road, Exeter EX4 4QL (United Kingdom); Nutter, D. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Queen' s Buildings, The Parade, Cardiff CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Andre, Ph.; Hennemann, M.; Hill, T.; Koenyves, V. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DSM-CNRS-Universite Paris Diderot, IRFU/Service d' Astrophysique, Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Arzoumanian, D. [IAS, CNRS (UMR 8617), Universite Paris-Sud 11, Batiment 121, F-91400 Orsay (France); Benedettini, M. [Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali, via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Rome (Italy); Bernard, J.-P. [CNRS, IRAP, 9 Av. colonel Roche, BP 44346, F-31028 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Duarte-Cabral, A. [Universite de Bordeaux, LAB, UMR 5804, F-33270 Floirac (France); Friesen, R. [Dunlap Institute, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada); Greaves, J. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St. Andrews, North Haugh, St. Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Collaboration: JCMT and Herschel Gould Belt Survey teams; and others

    2013-04-20

    We present Herschel observations from the Herschel Gould Belt Survey and SCUBA-2 science verification observations from the JCMT Gould Belt Survey of the B1 clump in the Perseus molecular cloud. We determined the dust emissivity index using four different techniques to combine the Herschel PACS+SPIRE data at 160-500 {mu}m with the SCUBA-2 data at 450 {mu}m and 850 {mu}m. Of our four techniques, we found that the most robust method was filtering out the large-scale emission in the Herschel bands to match the spatial scales recovered by the SCUBA-2 reduction pipeline. Using this method, we find {beta} Almost-Equal-To 2 toward the filament region and moderately dense material and lower {beta} values ({beta} {approx}> 1.6) toward the dense protostellar cores, possibly due to dust grain growth. We find that {beta} and temperature are more robust with the inclusion of the SCUBA-2 data, improving estimates from Herschel data alone by factors of {approx}2 for {beta} and by {approx}40% for temperature. Furthermore, we find core mass differences of {approx}< 30% compared to Herschel-only estimates with an adopted {beta} = 2, highlighting the necessity of long-wavelength submillimeter data for deriving accurate masses of prestellar and protostellar cores.

  19. Weak lensing Study in VOICE Survey I: Shear Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Liping; Liu, Dezi; Radovich, Mario; Liu, Xiangkun; Pan, Chuzhong; Fan, Zuhui; Covone, Giovanni; Vaccari, Mattia; Amaro, Valeria; Brescia, Massimo; Capaccioli, Massimo; De Cicco, Demetra; Grado, Aniello; Limatola, Luca; Miller, Lance; Napolitano, Nicola R.; Paolillo, Maurizio; Pignata, Giuliano

    2018-06-01

    The VST Optical Imaging of the CDFS and ES1 Fields (VOICE) Survey is a Guaranteed Time program carried out with the ESO/VST telescope to provide deep optical imaging over two 4 deg2 patches of the sky centred on the CDFS and ES1 pointings. We present the cosmic shear measurement over the 4 deg2 covering the CDFS region in the r-band using LensFit. Each of the four tiles of 1 deg2 has more than one hundred exposures, of which more than 50 exposures passed a series of image quality selection criteria for weak lensing study. The 5σ limiting magnitude in r- band is 26.1 for point sources, which is ≳1 mag deeper than other weak lensing survey in the literature (e.g. the Kilo Degree Survey, KiDS, at VST). The photometric redshifts are estimated using the VOICE u, g, r, i together with near-infrared VIDEO data Y, J, H, Ks. The mean redshift of the shear catalogue is 0.87, considering the shear weight. The effective galaxy number density is 16.35 gal/arcmin2, which is nearly twice the one of KiDS. The performance of LensFit on such a deep dataset was calibrated using VOICE-like mock image simulations. Furthermore, we have analyzed the reliability of the shear catalogue by calculating the star-galaxy cross-correlations, the tomographic shear correlations of two redshift bins and the contaminations of the blended galaxies. As a further sanity check, we have constrained cosmological parameters by exploring the parameter space with Population Monte Carlo sampling. For a flat ΛCDM model we have obtained Σ _8 = σ _8(Ω _m/0.3)^{0.5} = 0.68^{+0.11}_{-0.15}.

  20. A CFH12k lensing survey of X-ray luminous galaxy clusters - II. Weak lensing analysis and global correlations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bardeau, S.; Soucail, G.; Kneib, J.-P.; Czoske, O.; Ebeling, H.; Hudelot, P.; Smail, I.; Smith, G. P.

    Aims. We present a wide-field multi-color survey of a homogeneous sample of eleven clusters of galaxies for which we measure total masses and mass distributions from weak lensing. This sample, spanning a small range in both X-ray luminosity and redshift, is ideally suited to determining the

  1. Gravitational lensing statistics with extragalactic surveys; 2, Analysis of the Jodrell Bank-VLA Astrometric Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helbig, P.; Marlow, D. R.; Quast, R.; Wilkinson, P. N.; Browne, I. W. A.; Koopmans, L. V. E.

    1999-01-01

    Published in: Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 136 (1999) no. 2, pp.297-305 citations recorded in [Science Citation Index] Abstract: We present constraints on the cosmological constant $lambda_{0}$ from gravitational lensing statistics of the Jodrell Bank-VLA Astrometric Survey (JVAS). Although this

  2. Gravitational lensing in the supernova legacy survey (SNLS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronborg, T.; Hardin, D.; Guy, J.; Astier, P.; Balland, C.; Basa, S.; Carlberg, R. G.; Conley, A.; Fouchez, D.; Hook, I. M.; Howell, D. A.; Jönsson, J.; Pain, R.; Pedersen, K.; Perrett, K.; Pritchet, C. J.; Regnault, N.; Rich, J.; Sullivan, M.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V.

    2010-05-01

    Aims: The observed brightness of type Ia supernovae is affected by gravitational lensing caused by the mass distribution along the line of sight, which introduces an additional dispersion into the Hubble diagram. We look for evidence of lensing in the SuperNova Legacy Survey 3-year data set. Methods: We investigate the correlation between the residuals from the Hubble diagram and the gravitational magnification based on a modeling of the mass distribution of foreground galaxies. A deep photometric catalog, photometric redshifts, and well established mass luminosity relations are used. Results: We find evidence of a lensing signal with a 2.3σ significance. The current result is limited by the number of SNe, their redshift distribution, and the other sources of scatter in the Hubble diagram. Separating the galaxy population into a red and a blue sample has a positive impact on the significance of the signal detection. On the other hand, increasing the depth of the galaxy catalog, the precision of photometric redshifts or reducing the scatter in the mass luminosity relations have little effect. We show that for the full SuperNova Legacy Survey sample (~400 spectroscopically confirmed type Ia SNe and ~200 photometrically identified type Ia SNe), there is an 80% probability of detecting the lensing signal with a 3σ significance. Based on observations obtained with MegaPrime/MegaCam, a joint project of CFHT and CEA/DAPNIA, at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) of France, and the University of Hawaii. This work is based in part on data products produced at the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre as part of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey, a collaborative project of NRC and CNRS. Based on observations obtained at the European Southern Observatory using the Very Large Telescope on

  3. Herschel Observations of Extraordinary Sources: Analysis of the HIFI 1.2 THz Wide Spectral Survey toward Orion KL. I. Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crockett, Nathan R.; Bergin, Edwin A.; Neill, Justin L.; Favre, Cécile; Schilke, Peter; Lis, Dariusz C.; Bell, Tom A.; Blake, Geoffrey; Cernicharo, José; Emprechtinger, Martin; Esplugues, Gisela B.; Gupta, Harshal; Kleshcheva, Maria; Lord, Steven; Marcelino, Nuria; McGuire, Brett A.; Pearson, John; Phillips, Thomas G.; Plume, Rene; van der Tak, Floris; Tercero, Belén; Yu, Shanshan

    We present a comprehensive analysis of a broadband spectral line survey of the Orion Kleinmann-Low nebula (Orion KL), one of the most chemically rich regions in the Galaxy, using the HIFI instrument on board the Herschel Space Observatory. This survey spans a frequency range from 480 to 1907 GHz at

  4. CAN DUST EMISSION BE USED TO ESTIMATE THE MASS OF THE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM IN GALAXIES-A PILOT PROJECT WITH THE HERSCHEL REFERENCE SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eales, Stephen; Smith, Matthew W. L.; Auld, Robbie; Davies, Jon; Gear, Walter; Gomez, Haley [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Queens Buildings, The Parade, Cardiff CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Baes, Maarten; De Looze, Ilse; Gentile, Gianfranco; Fritz, Jacopo [Sterrenkundig Observatorium, Universiteit Gent, Krijgslaan 281 S9, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Bendo, George J. [UK ALMA Regional Centre Node, Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Bianchi, Simone [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Boselli, Alessandro; Ciesla, Laure [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseilles, UMR6110 CNRS, 38 rue F. Joliot-Curie, F-1338 Marseilles (France); Clements, David [Astrophysics Group, Imperial College, Blackett Lab, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Cooray, Asantha [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Cortese, Luca [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2 D-85748, Garching bei Munchen (Germany); Galametz, Maud [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Hughes, Tom [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Madden, Suzanne [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DSM-CNRS-Universite Paris Diderot, Irfu/Service d' Astrophysique, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); and others

    2012-12-20

    The standard method for estimating the mass of the interstellar medium (ISM) in a galaxy is to use the 21 cm line to trace the atomic gas and the CO 1-0 line to trace the molecular gas. In this paper, we investigate the alternative technique of using the continuum dust emission to estimate the mass of gas in all phases of the ISM. Using Herschel observations of 10 galaxies from the Herschel Reference Survey and the Herschel Virgo Cluster Survey, we show that the emission detected by Herschel is mostly from dust that has a temperature and emissivity index similar to that of dust in the local ISM in our galaxy, with the temperature generally increasing toward the center of each galaxy. We calibrate the dust method using the CO and 21 cm observations to provide an independent estimate of the mass of hydrogen in each galaxy, solving the problem of the uncertain ''X-factor'' for the CO observations by minimizing the dispersion in the ratio of the masses estimated using the two methods. With the calibration for the dust method and the estimate of the X-factor produced in this way, the dispersion in the ratio of the two gas masses is 25%. The calibration we obtain for the dust method is similar to those obtained from Herschel observations of M31 and from Planck observations of the Milky Way. We discuss the practical problems in using this method.

  5. Dark Energy Survey Year 1 Results: Weak Lensing Shape Catalogues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuntz, J.; et al.

    2017-08-04

    We present two galaxy shape catalogues from the Dark Energy Survey Year 1 data set, covering 1500 square degrees with a median redshift of $0.59$. The catalogues cover two main fields: Stripe 82, and an area overlapping the South Pole Telescope survey region. We describe our data analysis process and in particular our shape measurement using two independent shear measurement pipelines, METACALIBRATION and IM3SHAPE. The METACALIBRATION catalogue uses a Gaussian model with an innovative internal calibration scheme, and was applied to $riz$-bands, yielding 34.8M objects. The IM3SHAPE catalogue uses a maximum-likelihood bulge/disc model calibrated using simulations, and was applied to $r$-band data, yielding 21.9M objects. Both catalogues pass a suite of null tests that demonstrate their fitness for use in weak lensing science. We estimate the 1$\\sigma$ uncertainties in multiplicative shear calibration to be $0.013$ and $0.025$ for the METACALIBRATION and IM3SHAPE catalogues, respectively.

  6. High-J CO survey of low-mass protostars observed with Herschel-HIFI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yıldız, U. A.; Kristensen, L. E.; van Dishoeck, E. F.

    2013-01-01

    with Herschel (WISH) key program. This is the first large spectrally resolved high-J CO survey conducted for these types of sources. Complementary lower J CO maps were observed using ground-based telescopes, such as the JCMT and APEX and convolved to matching beam sizes. Results: The 12CO 10-9 line is detected...... the 13CO and 12CO excitation temperatures, due to lack of UV heating and outflow components in those models. The H2O 110 - 101/CO 10-9 intensity ratio does not change significantly with velocity, in contrast to the H2O/CO 3-2 ratio, indicating that CO 10-9 is the lowest transition for which the line...

  7. Herschel/HIFI line surveys: Discovery of interstellar chloronium (H{sub 2}Cl{sup +})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lis, Dariusz C., E-mail: dcl@caltech.edu [California Institute of Technology, Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics MC 301-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2015-01-22

    Prior to the launch of Herschel, HCl was the only chlorine-containing molecule detected in the interstellar medium (ISM). However, chemical models have identified chloronium, H{sub 2}Cl{sup +}, as a relatively abundant species that is potentially detectable. H{sub 2}Cl{sup +} was predicted to be most abundant in the environments where the ultraviolet radiation is strong: in diffuse clouds, or near the surfaces of dense clouds illuminated by nearby O and B stars. The HIFI instrument on Herschel provided the first detection of H{sub 2}Cl{sup +} in the ISM. The 2{sub 12}-1{sub 01} lines of ortho-H{sub 2}{sup 35}Cl{sup +} and ortho-H{sub 2}{sup 37}Cl{sup +} were detected in absorption toward NGC 6334I, and the 1{sub 11}-0{sub 00} transition of para-H{sub 2}{sup 35}Cl{sup +} was detected in absorption toward NGC 6334I and Sgr B2(S). The derived HCl/H{sub 2}Cl{sup +} column density ratios, ∼1-10, are within the range predicted by models of diffuse and dense Photon Dominated Regions (PDRs). However, the observed H{sub 2}Cl{sup +} column densities, in excess of 10{sup 13} cm{sup −2}, are significantly higher than the model predictions. These observations demonstrate the outstanding spectroscopic capabilities of HIFI for detecting new interstellar molecules and providing key constraints for astrochemical models.

  8. ANALYSIS OF THE HERSCHEL /HEXOS SPECTRAL SURVEY TOWARD ORION SOUTH: A MASSIVE PROTOSTELLAR ENVELOPE WITH STRONG EXTERNAL IRRADIATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tahani, K.; Plume, R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB T2N 1N4 (Canada); Bergin, E. A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Tolls, V. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Phillips, T. G.; Lis, D. C. [California Institute of Technology, Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics 301-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Caux, E. [Université de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, F-31028 Toulouse (France); Cabrit, S.; Pagani, L. [LERMA, Observatoire de Paris, PSL Research University, CNRS, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, F-75014, Paris (France); Goicoechea, J. R. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid (ICMM-CSIC). Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz 3, E-28049 Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain); Goldsmith, P. F.; Pearson, J. C. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Johnstone, D. [National Research Council Canada, Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Menten, K. M. [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Müller, H. S. P.; Ossenkopf-Okada, V. [I. Physikalisches Institut, Universität zu Köln, Zülpicher Strasse 77, D-50937 Köln (Germany); Tak, F. F. S. van der, E-mail: ktahani@ucalgary.ca [SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, P.O. Box 800, 9700 AV, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2016-11-20

    We present results from a comprehensive submillimeter spectral survey toward the source Orion South, based on data obtained with the Heterodyne Instrument for the Far-Infrared instrument on board the Herschel Space Observatory , covering the frequency range of 480 to 1900 GHz. We detect 685 spectral lines with signal-to-noise ratios (S/Ns) > 3 σ , originating from 52 different molecular and atomic species. We model each of the detected species assuming conditions of Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium. This analysis provides an estimate of the physical conditions of Orion South (column density, temperature, source size, and V {sub LSR}). We find evidence for three different cloud components: a cool ( T {sub ex} ∼ 20–40 K), spatially extended (>60″), and quiescent (Δ V {sub FWHM} ∼ 4 km s{sup -1}) component; a warmer ( T {sub ex} ∼ 80–100 K), less spatially extended (∼30″), and dynamic (Δ V {sub FWHM} ∼ 8 km s{sup -1}) component, which is likely affected by embedded outflows; and a kinematically distinct region ( T {sub ex} > 100 K; V {sub LSR} ∼ 8 km s{sup -1}), dominated by emission from species that trace ultraviolet irradiation, likely at the surface of the cloud. We find little evidence for the existence of a chemically distinct “hot-core” component, likely due to the small filling factor of the hot core or hot cores within the Herschel beam. We find that the chemical composition of the gas in the cooler, quiescent component of Orion South more closely resembles that of the quiescent ridge in Orion-KL. The gas in the warmer, dynamic component, however, more closely resembles that of the Compact Ridge and Plateau regions of Orion-KL, suggesting that higher temperatures and shocks also have an influence on the overall chemistry of Orion South.

  9. Characterizing interstellar filaments as revealed by the Herschel Gould Belt survey: Insights into the initial conditions for star formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arzoumanian, Doris

    2012-01-01

    This thesis aims to characterize the physical properties of interstellar filaments imaged in nearby molecular clouds with the Herschel Space Observatory as part of the Herschel Gould Belt survey. In order to get insight into the formation and evolution of interstellar filaments I analyzed, during my PhD work, a large sample of filaments detected in various nearby clouds. The observed density profiles of the filaments show a power law behavior at large radii and their dust temperature profiles show a drop towards the center. The filaments are characterized by a narrow distribution of de-convolved inner widths, centered around a typical value of ∼ 0.1 pc, while they span more than three orders of magnitude in central column density. This typical filament width corresponds to the sonic scale below which interstellar turbulence becomes subsonic in diffuse gas, which may suggest that the filaments form as a result of the dissipation of large-scale turbulence. While the turbulent fragmentation picture provides a plausible mechanism for forming interstellar filaments, the fact that pre-stellar cores tend to form in dense, gravitationally unstable filaments suggests that gravity is a major driver in the subsequent evolution of the dense supercritical filaments. The latter hypothesis is supported by molecular line observations with the IRAM 30 m telescope, which show an increase in the non-thermal velocity dispersion of supercritical filaments as a function of their central column density, suggesting that self gravitating filaments grow in mass per unit length by accretion of background material while at the same time fragmenting into star-forming cores. (author) [fr

  10. Herschel/HIFI spectral line survey of the Orion Bar. Temperature and density differentiation near the PDR surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Z.; Choi, Y.; Ossenkopf-Okada, V.; van der Tak, F. F. S.; Bergin, E. A.; Gerin, M.; Joblin, C.; Röllig, M.; Simon, R.; Stutzki, J.

    2017-03-01

    Context. Photon dominated regions (PDRs) are interfaces between the mainly ionized and mainly molecular material around young massive stars. Analysis of the physical and chemical structure of such regions traces the impact of far-ultraviolet radiation of young massive stars on their environment. Aims: We present results on the physical and chemical structure of the prototypical high UV-illumination edge-on Orion Bar PDR from an unbiased spectral line survey with a wide spectral coverage which includes lines of many important gas coolants such as [Cii], [Ci], and CO and other key molecules such as H2CO, H2O, HCN, HCO+, and SO. Methods: A spectral scan from 480-1250 GHz and 1410-1910 GHz at 1.1 MHz resolution was obtained by the HIFI instrument on board the Herschel Space Observatory. We obtained physical parameters for the observed molecules. For molecules with multiple transitions we used rotational diagrams to obtain excitation temperatures and column densities. For species with a single detected transition we used an optically thin LTE approximation. In the case of species with available collisional rates, we also performed a non-LTE analysis to obtain kinetic temperatures, H2 volume densities, and column densities. Results: About 120 lines corresponding to 29 molecules (including isotopologues) have been detected in the Herschel/HIFI line survey, including 11 transitions of CO, 7 transitions of 13CO, 6 transitions of C18O, 10 transitions of H2CO, and 6 transitions of H2O. The rotational temperatures are in the range between 22 and 146 K and the column densities are in the range between 1.8 × 1012 cm-2 and 4.5 × 1017 cm-2. For species with at least three detected transitions and available collisional excitation rates we derived a best fit kinetic temperature and H2 volume density. Most species trace kinetic temperatures in the range between 100 and 150 K and H2 volume densities in the range between 105 and 106 cm-3. The species with temperatures and

  11. The Herschel Multi-Tiered Extragalactic Survey: SPIRE-mm Photometric Redshifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseboom, I. G.; Ivison, R. J.; Greve, T. R.; Amblard, A.; Arumugam, V.; Auld, R.; Aussel, H.; Bethermin, M.; Blain, A.; Bock, J.; hide

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the potential of submm-mm and submm-mm-radio photometric red-shifts using a sample of mm-selected sources as seen at 250, 350 and 500 micrometers by the SPIRE instrument on Herschel. From a sample of 63 previously identified mm-sources with reliable radio identifications in the GOODS-N and Lockman Hole North fields 46 (73 per cent) are found to have detections in at least one SPIRE band. We explore the observed submm/mm colour evolution with redshift, finding that the colours of mm-sources are adequately described by a modified blackbody with constant optical depth Tau = (nu/nu(0))beta where beta = +1.8 and nu(0) = c/100 micrometers. We find a tight correlation between dust temperature and IR luminosity. Using a single model of the dust temperature and IR luminosity relation we derive photometric redshift estimates for the 46 SPIRE detected mm-sources. Testing against the 22 sources with known spectroscopic, or good quality optical/near-IR photometric, redshifts we find submm/mm photometric redshifts offer a redshift accuracy of |delta z|/(1+z) = 0.16 (less than |delta z| greater than = 0.51). Including constraints from the radio-far IR correlation the accuracy is improved to |delta z|/(1 + z) = 0.15 (less than |delta z| greater than = 0.45). We estimate the redshift distribution of mm-selected sources finding a significant excess at z greater than 3 when compared to 850 micrometer selected samples.

  12. THE HERSCHEL COMPREHENSIVE (U)LIRG EMISSION SURVEY (HERCULES): CO LADDERS, FINE STRUCTURE LINES, AND NEUTRAL GAS COOLING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, M. J. F.; Van der Werf, P. P.; Israel, F. P.; Meijerink, R. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Aalto, S. [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, Onsala Observatory, SE-43994 Onsala (Sweden); Armus, L.; Díaz-Santos, T. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, MS 220-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Charmandaris, V. [Institute for Astronomy, Astrophysics, Space Applications and Remote Sensing, National Observatory of Athens, P. Penteli, 15236 Athens (Greece); Evans, A. S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Fischer, J. [Naval Research Laboratory, Remote Sensing Division, 4555 Overlook Ave SW, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Gao, Y. [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), 2 West Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008 (China); González-Alfonso, E. [Departamento de Fsica y Matemáticas, Universidad de Alcalá, Campus Universitario, E-28871 Alcalá de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Greve, T. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Harris, A. I. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Henkel, C. [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 16, Bonn, D-53121 (Germany); Isaak, K. G. [Scientific Support Office, ESTEC/SRE-S, Keplerlaan 1, NL-2201 AZ Noordwijk (Netherlands); Kramer, C., E-mail: rosenberg@strw.leidenuniv.nl [Instituto Radioastronomía Milimétrica (IRAM), Av. Divina Pastora 7, Nucleo Central, E-18012 Granada (Spain); and others

    2015-03-10

    (Ultra) luminous infrared galaxies ((U)LIRGs) are objects characterized by their extreme infrared (8-1000 μm) luminosities (L {sub LIRG} > 10{sup 11} L {sub ☉} and L {sub ULIRG} > 10{sup 12} L {sub ☉}). The Herschel Comprehensive ULIRG Emission Survey (PI: van der Werf) presents a representative flux-limited sample of 29 (U)LIRGs that spans the full luminosity range of these objects (10{sup 11} L {sub ☉} ≤ L {sub IR} ≤ 10{sup 13} L {sub ☉}). With the Herschel Space Observatory, we observe [C II] 157 μm, [O I] 63 μm, and [O I] 145 μm line emission with Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer, CO J = 4-3 through J = 13-12, [C I] 370 μm, and [C I] 609 μm with SPIRE, and low-J CO transitions with ground-based telescopes. The CO ladders of the sample are separated into three classes based on their excitation level. In 13 of the galaxies, the [O I] 63 μm emission line is self absorbed. Comparing the CO excitation to the InfraRed Astronomical Satellite 60/100 μm ratio and to far infrared luminosity, we find that the CO excitation is more correlated to the far infrared colors. We present cooling budgets for the galaxies and find fine-structure line flux deficits in the [C II], [Si II], [O I], and [C I] lines in the objects with the highest far IR fluxes, but do not observe this for CO 4 ≤ J {sub upp} ≤ 13. In order to study the heating of the molecular gas, we present a combination of three diagnostic quantities to help determine the dominant heating source. Using the CO excitation, the CO J = 1-0 linewidth, and the active galactic nucleus (AGN) contribution, we conclude that galaxies with large CO linewidths always have high-excitation CO ladders, and often low AGN contributions, suggesting that mechanical heating is important.

  13. MEASUREMENTS OF CO REDSHIFTS WITH Z-SPEC FOR LENSED SUBMILLIMETER GALAXIES DISCOVERED IN THE H-ATLAS SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lupu, R. E.; Scott, K. S.; Aguirre, J. E.; Aretxaga, I.; Auld, R.; Dariush, A.; Barton, E.; Cooke, J.; Cooray, A.; Beelen, A.; Bertoldi, F.; Bock, J. J.; Bradford, C. M.; Bonfield, D.; Buttiglione, S.; De Zotti, G.; Cava, A.; Clements, D. L.; Dannerbauer, H.; Dunne, L.

    2012-01-01

    We present new observations from Z-Spec, a broadband 185-305 GHz spectrometer, of five submillimeter bright lensed sources selected from the Herschel-Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey science demonstration phase catalog. We construct a redshift-finding algorithm using combinations of the signal to noise of all the lines falling in the Z-Spec bandpass to determine redshifts with high confidence, even in cases where the signal to noise in individual lines is low. We measure the dust continuum in all sources and secure CO redshifts for four out of five (z ∼ 1.5-3). In one source, SDP.17, we tentatively identify two independent redshifts and a water line, confirmed at z = 2.308. Our sources have properties characteristic of dusty starburst galaxies, with magnification-corrected star formation rates of 10 2–3 M ☉ yr –1 . Lower limits for the dust masses (∼ a few 10 8 M ☉ ) and spatial extents (∼1 kpc equivalent radius) are derived from the continuum spectral energy distributions, corresponding to dust temperatures between 54 and 69 K. In the local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) approximation, we derive relatively low CO excitation temperatures (∼< 100 K) and optical depths (τ ∼< 1). Performing a non-LTE excitation analysis using RADEX, we find that the CO lines measured by Z-Spec (from J = 4 → 3 to 10 → 9, depending on the galaxy) localize the best solutions to either a high-temperature/low-density region or a low/temperature/high-density region near the LTE solution, with the optical depth varying accordingly. Observations of additional CO lines, CO(1-0) in particular, are needed to constrain the non-LTE models.

  14. THE HERSCHEL AND IRAM CHESS SPECTRAL SURVEYS OF THE PROTOSTELLAR SHOCK L1157-B1: FOSSIL DEUTERATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Codella, C.; Fontani, F.; Vasta, M.; Ceccarelli, C.; Lefloch, B.; Kahane, C.; Taquet, V.; Wiesenfeld, L.; Busquet, G.; Caselli, P.; Lis, D.; Viti, S.

    2012-01-01

    We present the first study of deuteration toward the protostellar shock L1157-B1, based on spectral surveys performed with the Herschel-HIFI and IRAM 30 m telescopes. The L1157 outflow is driven by a low-mass Class 0 protostar and is considered the prototype of the so-called chemically active outflows. The young (2000 yr), bright blueshifted bow shock, B1, is an ideal laboratory for studying the gas chemically enriched by the release of dust mantles due to the passage of a shock. A total of 12 emission lines (up to E u = 63 K) of CH 2 DOH, HDCO, and DCN are detected. In addition, two lines of NH 2 D and HDO are tentatively reported. To estimate the deuteration, we also extracted from our spectral survey emission lines of non-deuterated isotopologues ( 13 CH 3 OH, H 2 13 CO, H 13 CN, H 2 13 CO, and NH 3 ). We infer higher deuteration fractions for CH 3 OH (D/H = 0.2-2 × 10 –2 ) and H 2 CO (5-8 × 10 –3 ) than for H 2 O (0.4-2 × 10 –3 ), HCN (∼10 –3 ), and ammonia (≤3 × 10 –2 ). The measurement of deuteration of water, formaldehyde, and methanol in L1157-B1 provides a fossil record of the gas before it was shocked by the jet driven by the protostar. A comparison with gas-grain models indicates that the gas passed through a low-density (≤10 3 cm –3 ) phase, during which the bulk of water ices formed, followed by a phase of increasing density, up to 3 × 10 4 cm –3 , during which formaldehyde and methanol ices formed.

  15. EVIDENCE FOR A WIDE RANGE OF ULTRAVIOLET OBSCURATION IN z {approx} 2 DUSTY GALAXIES FROM THE GOODS-HERSCHEL SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penner, Kyle [Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Dickinson, Mark; Dey, Arjun; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Pope, Alexandra [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Magnelli, Benjamin [Max Planck Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, Postfach 1312, D-85741 Garching (Germany); Pannella, Maurilio; Aussel, Herve; Daddi, Emanuele; Elbaz, David [Laboratoire AIM Paris-Saclay, CEA/DSM/Irfu-CNRS-Universite Paris Diderot, CEA-Saclay, pt courrier 131, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Altieri, Bruno; Coia, Daniela [Herschel Science Center, European Space Astronomy Center, Villanueva de la Canada, E-28691 Madrid (Spain); Buat, Veronique [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille, OAMP, Universite Aix-marseille, CNRS, 38 rue Frederic Joliot-Curie, F-13388 Marseille Cedex 13 (France); Bussmann, Shane; Hwang, Ho Seong [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Charmandaris, Vassilis [Department of Physics and Institute of Theoretical and Computational Physics, University of Crete, GR-71003 Heraklion (Greece); Dannerbauer, Helmut [Institut fuer Astronomie, Universitaet Wien, Tuerkenschanzstrasse 17, A-1180 Vienna (Austria); Lin Lihwai [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Magdis, Georgios [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Morrison, Glenn, E-mail: kpenner@as.arizona.edu [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); and others

    2012-11-01

    Dusty galaxies at z {approx} 2 span a wide range of relative brightness between rest-frame mid-infrared (8 {mu}m) and ultraviolet wavelengths. We attempt to determine the physical mechanism responsible for this diversity. Dust-obscured galaxies (DOGs), which have rest-frame mid-IR to UV flux density ratios {approx}> 1000, might be abnormally bright in the mid-IR, perhaps due to prominent emission from active galactic nuclei and/or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, or abnormally faint in the UV. We use far-infrared data from the GOODS-Herschel survey to show that most DOGs with 10{sup 12} L {sub Sun} {approx}< L {sub IR} {approx}< 10{sup 13} L {sub Sun} are not abnormally bright in the mid-IR when compared to other dusty galaxies with similar IR (8-1000 {mu}m) luminosities. We observe a relation between the median IR to UV luminosity ratios and the median UV continuum power-law indices for these galaxies, and we find that only 24% have specific star formation rates that indicate the dominance of compact star-forming regions. This circumstantial evidence supports the idea that the UV- and IR-emitting regions in these galaxies are spatially coincident, which implies a connection between the abnormal UV faintness of DOGs and dust obscuration. We conclude that the range in rest-frame mid-IR to UV flux density ratios spanned by dusty galaxies at z {approx} 2 is due to differing amounts of UV obscuration. Of galaxies with these IR luminosities, DOGs are the most obscured. We attribute differences in UV obscuration to either (1) differences in the degree of alignment between the spatial distributions of dust and massive stars or (2) differences in the total dust content.

  16. Weak lensing magnification in the Dark Energy Survey Science Verification data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Fernandez, M.; Sanchez, E.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Suchyta, E.; Huff, E. M.; Gaztanaga, E.; Aleksić, J.; Ponce, R.; Castander, F. J.; Hoyle, B.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Abdalla, F. B.; Allam, S.; Annis, J.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernstein, G. M.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Burke, D. L.; Carnero Rosell, A.; Carrasco Kind, M.; Carretero, J.; Crocce, M.; Cunha, C. E.; D'Andrea, C. B.; da Costa, L. N.; DePoy, D. L.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Eifler, T. F.; Evrard, A. E.; Fernandez, E.; Flaugher, B.; Fosalba, P.; Frieman, J.; García-Bellido, J.; Gerdes, D. W.; Giannantonio, T.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gschwend, J.; Gutierrez, G.; James, D. J.; Jarvis, M.; Kirk, D.; Krause, E.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lahav, O.; Lima, M.; MacCrann, N.; Maia, M. A. G.; March, M.; Marshall, J. L.; Melchior, P.; Miquel, R.; Mohr, J. J.; Plazas, A. A.; Romer, A. K.; Roodman, A.; Rykoff, E. S.; Scarpine, V.; Schubnell, M.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Tarle, G.; Thomas, D.; Walker, A. R.; Wester, W.; DES Collaboration

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, the effect of weak lensing magnification on galaxy number counts is studied by cross-correlating the positions of two galaxy samples, separated by redshift, using the Dark Energy Survey Science Verification data set. This analysis is carried out for galaxies that are selected only by its photometric redshift. An extensive analysis of the systematic effects, using new methods based on simulations is performed, including a Monte Carlo sampling of the selection function of the survey.

  17. RELICS: Strong Lens Models for Five Galaxy Clusters from the Reionization Lensing Cluster Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerny, Catherine; Sharon, Keren; Andrade-Santos, Felipe; Avila, Roberto J.; Bradač, Maruša; Bradley, Larry D.; Carrasco, Daniela; Coe, Dan; Czakon, Nicole G.; Dawson, William A.; Frye, Brenda L.; Hoag, Austin; Huang, Kuang-Han; Johnson, Traci L.; Jones, Christine; Lam, Daniel; Lovisari, Lorenzo; Mainali, Ramesh; Oesch, Pascal A.; Ogaz, Sara; Past, Matthew; Paterno-Mahler, Rachel; Peterson, Avery; Riess, Adam G.; Rodney, Steven A.; Ryan, Russell E.; Salmon, Brett; Sendra-Server, Irene; Stark, Daniel P.; Strolger, Louis-Gregory; Trenti, Michele; Umetsu, Keiichi; Vulcani, Benedetta; Zitrin, Adi

    2018-06-01

    Strong gravitational lensing by galaxy clusters magnifies background galaxies, enhancing our ability to discover statistically significant samples of galaxies at {\\boldsymbol{z}}> 6, in order to constrain the high-redshift galaxy luminosity functions. Here, we present the first five lens models out of the Reionization Lensing Cluster Survey (RELICS) Hubble Treasury Program, based on new HST WFC3/IR and ACS imaging of the clusters RXC J0142.9+4438, Abell 2537, Abell 2163, RXC J2211.7–0349, and ACT-CLJ0102–49151. The derived lensing magnification is essential for estimating the intrinsic properties of high-redshift galaxy candidates, and properly accounting for the survey volume. We report on new spectroscopic redshifts of multiply imaged lensed galaxies behind these clusters, which are used as constraints, and detail our strategy to reduce systematic uncertainties due to lack of spectroscopic information. In addition, we quantify the uncertainty on the lensing magnification due to statistical and systematic errors related to the lens modeling process, and find that in all but one cluster, the magnification is constrained to better than 20% in at least 80% of the field of view, including statistical and systematic uncertainties. The five clusters presented in this paper span the range of masses and redshifts of the clusters in the RELICS program. We find that they exhibit similar strong lensing efficiencies to the clusters targeted by the Hubble Frontier Fields within the WFC3/IR field of view. Outputs of the lens models are made available to the community through the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes.

  18. Analysis of the Herschel/HIFI 1.2 THz Wide Spectral Survey of the Orion Kleinmann-Low Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockett, Nathan R.

    This dissertation presents a comprehensive analysis of a broad band spectral line survey of the Orion Kleinmann-Low nebula (Orion KL), one of the most chemically rich regions in the Galaxy, using the HIFI instrument on board the Herschel Space Observatory. This survey spans a frequency range from 480 to 1907 GHz at a resolution of 1.1 MHz. These observations thus encompass the largest spectral coverage ever obtained toward this massive star forming region in the sub-mm with high spectral resolution, and include frequencies >1 THz where the Earth's atmosphere prevents observations from the ground. In all, we detect emission from 36 molecules (76 isotopologues). Combining this dataset with ground based mm spectroscopy obtained with the IRAM 30 m telescope, we model the molecular emission assuming local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). Because of the wide frequency coverage, our models are constrained over an unprecedented range in excitation energy, including states at or close to ground up to energies where emission is no longer detected. A χ2 analysis indicates that most of our models reproduce the observed emission well. In particular complex organics, some with thousands of transitions, are well fit by LTE models implying that gas densities are high (>10^6 cm^-3) and excitation temperatures and column densities are well constrained. Molecular abundances are computed using H2 column densities also derived from the HIFI survey. The rotation temperature distribution of molecules detected toward the hot core is much wider relative to the compact ridge, plateau, and extended ridge. We find that complex N-bearing species, cyanides in particular, systematically probe hotter gas than complex O-bearing species. This indicates complex N-bearing molecules may be more difficult to remove from grain surfaces or that hot gas phase formation routes are important for these species. We also present a detailed non-LTE analysis of H2S emission toward the hot core which suggests

  19. Submillimeter H2O and H2O+emission in lensed ultra- and hyper-luminous infrared galaxies at z 2-4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, C.; Omont, A.; Beelen, A.; González-Alfonso, E.; Neri, R.; Gao, Y.; van der Werf, P.; Weiß, A.; Gavazzi, R.; Falstad, N.; Baker, A. J.; Bussmann, R. S.; Cooray, A.; Cox, P.; Dannerbauer, H.; Dye, S.; Guélin, M.; Ivison, R.; Krips, M.; Lehnert, M.; Michałowski, M. J.; Riechers, D. A.; Spaans, M.; Valiante, E.

    2016-01-01

    We report rest-frame submillimeter H2O emission line observations of 11 ultra- or hyper-luminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs or HyLIRGs) at z 2-4 selected among the brightest lensed galaxies discovered in the Herschel-Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey (H-ATLAS). Using the IRAM NOrthern

  20. PACS and SPIRE photometer maps of M33 : First results of the HERschel M33 Extended Survey (HERM33ES)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, C.; Buchbender, C.; Xilouris, E. M.; Boquien, M.; Braine, J.; Calzetti, D.; Lord, S.; Mookerjea, B.; Quintana-Lacaci, G.; Relano, M.; Stacey, G.; Tabatabaei, F. S.; Verley, S.; Aalto, S.; Akras, S.; Albrecht, M.; Anderl, S.; Beck, R.; Bertoldi, F.; Combes, F.; Dumke, M.; Garcia-Burillo, S.; Gonzalez, M.; Gratier, P.; Guesten, R.; Henkel, C.; Israel, F. P.; Koribalski, B.; Lundgren, A.; Martin-Pintado, J.; Roellig, M.; Rosolowsky, E.; Schuster, K. F.; Sheth, K.; Sievers, A.; Stutzki, J.; Tilanus, R.P.J.; van der Tak, F.; Wiedner, M. C.; van der Werf, Paul P.

    Context. Within the framework of the HERM33ES key program, we are studying the star forming interstellar medium in the nearby, metal-poor spiral galaxy M33, exploiting the high resolution and sensitivity of Herschel. Aims. We use PACS and SPIRE maps at 100, 160, 250, 350, and 500 mu m wavelength, to

  1. The Herschel/HIFI spectral survey of OMC-2 FIR 4 (CHESS). An overview of the 480 to 1902 GHz range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kama, M.; López-Sepulcre, A.; Dominik, C.; Ceccarelli, C.; Fuente, A.; Caux, E.; Higgins, R.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Alonso-Albi, T.

    2013-08-01

    Context. Broadband spectral surveys of protostars offer a rich view of the physical, chemical and dynamical structure and evolution of star-forming regions. The Herschel Space Observatory opened up the terahertz regime to such surveys, giving access to the fundamental transitions of many hydrides and to the high-energy transitions of many other species. Aims: A comparative analysis of the chemical inventories and physical processes and properties of protostars of various masses and evolutionary states is the goal of the Herschel CHEmical Surveys of Star forming regions (CHESS) key program. This paper focusses on the intermediate-mass protostar, OMC-2 FIR 4. Methods: We obtained a spectrum of OMC-2 FIR 4 in the 480 to 1902 GHz range with the HIFI spectrometer onboard Herschel and carried out the reduction, line identification, and a broad analysis of the line profile components, excitation, and cooling. Results: We detect 719 spectral lines from 40 species and isotopologs. The line flux is dominated by CO, H2O, and CH3OH. The line profiles are complex and vary with species and upper level energy, but clearly contain signatures from quiescent gas, a broad component likely due to an outflow, and a foreground cloud. Conclusions: We find abundant evidence for warm, dense gas, as well as for an outflow in the field of view. Line flux represents 2% of the 7 L⊙ luminosity detected with HIFI in the 480 to 1250 GHz range. Of the total line flux, 60% is from CO, 13% from H2O and 9% from CH3OH. A comparison with similar HIFI spectra of other sources is set to provide much new insight into star formation regions, a case in point being a difference of two orders of magnitude in the relative contribution of sulphur oxides to the line cooling of Orion KL and OMC-2 FIR 4. Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  2. THE HERSCHEL AND IRAM CHESS SPECTRAL SURVEYS OF THE PROTOSTELLAR SHOCK L1157-B1: FOSSIL DEUTERATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Codella, C.; Fontani, F.; Vasta, M. [INAF, Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo Enrico Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Ceccarelli, C.; Lefloch, B.; Kahane, C.; Taquet, V.; Wiesenfeld, L. [UJF-Grenoble 1/CNRS-INSU, Institut de Planetologie et d' Astrophysique de Grenoble (IPAG) UMR 5274, Grenoble, F-38041 (France); Busquet, G. [INAF - Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali, via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133, Roma (Italy); Caselli, P. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Lis, D. [California Institute of Technology, Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics 301-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Viti, S., E-mail: codella@rcetri.astro.it [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, London (United Kingdom)

    2012-09-20

    We present the first study of deuteration toward the protostellar shock L1157-B1, based on spectral surveys performed with the Herschel-HIFI and IRAM 30 m telescopes. The L1157 outflow is driven by a low-mass Class 0 protostar and is considered the prototype of the so-called chemically active outflows. The young (2000 yr), bright blueshifted bow shock, B1, is an ideal laboratory for studying the gas chemically enriched by the release of dust mantles due to the passage of a shock. A total of 12 emission lines (up to E{sub u} = 63 K) of CH{sub 2}DOH, HDCO, and DCN are detected. In addition, two lines of NH{sub 2}D and HDO are tentatively reported. To estimate the deuteration, we also extracted from our spectral survey emission lines of non-deuterated isotopologues ({sup 13}CH{sub 3}OH, H{sub 2} {sup 13}CO, H{sup 13}CN, H{sub 2} {sup 13}CO, and NH{sub 3}). We infer higher deuteration fractions for CH{sub 3}OH (D/H = 0.2-2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -2}) and H{sub 2}CO (5-8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3}) than for H{sub 2}O (0.4-2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3}), HCN ({approx}10{sup -3}), and ammonia ({<=}3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -2}). The measurement of deuteration of water, formaldehyde, and methanol in L1157-B1 provides a fossil record of the gas before it was shocked by the jet driven by the protostar. A comparison with gas-grain models indicates that the gas passed through a low-density ({<=}10{sup 3} cm{sup -3}) phase, during which the bulk of water ices formed, followed by a phase of increasing density, up to 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} cm{sup -3}, during which formaldehyde and methanol ices formed.

  3. A SEARCH FOR DISK-GALAXY LENSES IN THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feron, Chloe; Hjorth, Jens; Samsing, Johan; McKean, John P.

    2009-01-01

    We present the first automated spectroscopic search for disk-galaxy lenses, using the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) database. We follow up eight gravitational lens candidates, selected among a sample of ∼40,000 candidate massive disk galaxies, using a combination of ground-based imaging and long-slit spectroscopy. We confirm two gravitational lens systems: one probable disk galaxy and one probable S0 galaxy. The remaining systems are four promising disk-galaxy lens candidates, as well as two probable gravitational lenses whose lens galaxy might be an S0 galaxy. The redshifts of the lenses are z lens ∼ 0.1. The redshift range of the background sources is z source ∼ 0.3-0.7. The systems presented here are (confirmed or candidate) galaxy-galaxy lensing systems, that is, systems where the multiple images are faint and extended, allowing an accurate determination of the lens galaxy mass and light distributions without contamination from the background galaxy. Moreover, the low redshift of the (confirmed or candidates) lens galaxies is favorable for measuring rotation points to complement the lensing study. We estimate the rest-frame total mass-to-light ratio within the Einstein radius for the two confirmed lenses: we find M tot /L I = 5.4 ± 1.5 within 3.9 ± 0.9 kpc for SDSS J081230.30+543650.9 and M tot /L I = 1.5 ± 0.9 within 1.4 ± 0.8 kpc for SDSS J145543.55+530441.2 (all in solar units). Hubble Space Telescope or adaptive optics imaging is needed to further study the systems.

  4. First Results from the $Herschel$ and ALMA Spectroscopic Surveys of the SMC: The Relationship Between [CII]-bright Gas and CO-bright Gas at Low Metallicity

    OpenAIRE

    Jameson, Katherine E.; Bolatto, Alberto D.; Wolfire, Mark; Warren, Steven R.; Herrera-Camus, Rodrigo; Croxall, Kevin; Pellegrini, Eric; Smith, John-David; Rubio, Monica; Indebetouw, Remy; Israel, Frank P.; Meixner, Margaret; Roman-Duval, Julia; van Loon, Jacco Th.; Muller, Erik

    2018-01-01

    The Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) provides the only laboratory to study the structure of molecular gas at high resolution and low metallicity. We present results from the Herschel Spectroscopic Survey of the SMC (HS$^{3}$), which mapped the key far-IR cooling lines [CII], [OI], [NII], and [OIII] in five star-forming regions, and new ALMA 7m-array maps of $^{12}$CO and $^{13}$CO $(2-1)$ with coverage overlapping four of the five HS$^{3}$ regions. We detect [CII] and [OI] throughout all of the r...

  5. The Sloan Lens ACS Survey. XIII. Discovery of 40 New Galaxy-scale Strong Lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Yiping; Brownstein, Joel R.; Bolton, Adam S.; Koopmans, Léon V. E.; Treu, Tommaso; Montero-Dorta, Antonio D.; Auger, Matthew W.; Czoske, Oliver; Gavazzi, Raphaël; Marshall, Philip J.; Moustakas, Leonidas A.

    2017-12-01

    We present the full sample of 118 galaxy-scale strong-lens candidates in the Sloan Lens ACS (SLACS) Survey for the Masses (S4TM) Survey, which are spectroscopically selected from the final data release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Follow-up Hubble Space Telescope (HST) imaging observations confirm that 40 candidates are definite strong lenses with multiple lensed images. The foreground-lens galaxies are found to be early-type galaxies (ETGs) at redshifts 0.06–0.44, and background sources are emission-line galaxies at redshifts 0.22–1.29. As an extension of the SLACS Survey, the S4TM Survey is the first attempt to preferentially search for strong-lens systems with relatively lower lens masses than those in the pre-existing strong-lens samples. By fitting HST data with a singular isothermal ellipsoid model, we find that the total projected mass within the Einstein radius of the S4TM strong-lens sample ranges from 3 × 1010 M ⊙ to 2 × 1011 M ⊙. In Shu et al., we have derived the total stellar mass of the S4TM lenses to be 5 × 1010 M ⊙ to 1 × 1012 M ⊙. Both the total enclosed mass and stellar mass of the S4TM lenses are on average almost a factor of 2 smaller than those of the SLACS lenses, which also represent the typical mass scales of the current strong-lens samples. The extended mass coverage provided by the S4TM sample can enable a direct test, with the aid of strong lensing, for transitions in scaling relations, kinematic properties, mass structure, and dark-matter content trends of ETGs at intermediate-mass scales as noted in previous studies. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope (HST), obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by AURA, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with HST program #12210.

  6. Designing future dark energy space missions. II. Photometric redshift of space weak lensing optimized surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouvel, S.; Kneib, J.-P.; Bernstein, G.; Ilbert, O.; Jelinsky, P.; Milliard, B.; Ealet, A.; Schimd, C.; Dahlen, T.; Arnouts, S.

    2011-08-01

    Context. With the discovery of the accelerated expansion of the universe, different observational probes have been proposed to investigate the presence of dark energy, including possible modifications to the gravitation laws by accurately measuring the expansion of the Universe and the growth of structures. We need to optimize the return from future dark energy surveys to obtain the best results from these probes. Aims: A high precision weak-lensing analysis requires not an only accurate measurement of galaxy shapes but also a precise and unbiased measurement of galaxy redshifts. The survey strategy has to be defined following both the photometric redshift and shape measurement accuracy. Methods: We define the key properties of the weak-lensing instrument and compute the effective PSF and the overall throughput and sensitivities. We then investigate the impact of the pixel scale on the sampling of the effective PSF, and place upper limits on the pixel scale. We then define the survey strategy computing the survey area including in particular both the Galactic absorption and Zodiacal light variation accross the sky. Using the Le Phare photometric redshift code and realistic galaxy mock catalog, we investigate the properties of different filter-sets and the importance of the u-band photometry quality to optimize the photometric redshift and the dark energy figure of merit (FoM). Results: Using the predicted photometric redshift quality, simple shape measurement requirements, and a proper sky model, we explore what could be an optimal weak-lensing dark energy mission based on FoM calculation. We find that we can derive the most accurate the photometric redshifts for the bulk of the faint galaxy population when filters have a resolution ℛ ~ 3.2. We show that an optimal mission would survey the sky through eight filters using two cameras (visible and near infrared). Assuming a five-year mission duration, a mirror size of 1.5 m and a 0.5 deg2 FOV with a visible pixel

  7. Galaxy masses in large surveys: Connecting luminous and dark matter with weak lensing and kinematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Reinabelle

    2011-01-01

    Galaxy masses are difficult to determine because light traces stars and gas in a non-trivial way, and does not trace dark matter, which extends well beyond the luminous regions of galaxies. In this thesis, I use the most direct probes of dark matter available---weak gravitational lensing and galaxy kinematics---to trace the total mass in galaxies (and galaxy clusters) in large surveys. In particular, I use the large, homogeneous dataset from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), which provides spectroscopic redshifts for a large sample of galaxies at z ≲ 0.2 and imaging data to a depth of r < 22. By combining complementary probes, I am able to obtain robust observational constraints that cannot be obtained from any single technique alone. First, I use weak lensing of galaxy clusters to derive an optimal optical tracer of cluster mass, which was found to be a combination of cluster richness and the luminosity of the brightest cluster galaxy. Next, I combine weak lensing of luminous red galaxies with redshift distortions and clustering measurements to derive a robust probe of gravity on cosmological scales. Finally, I combine weak lensing with the kinematics of disk galaxies to constrain the total mass profile over several orders of magnitude. I derive a minimal-scatter relation between disk velocity and stellar mass (also known as the Tully-Fisher relation) that can be used, by construction, on a similarly-selected lens sample. Then, I combine this relation with halo mass measurements from weak lensing to place constraints on the ratio of the optical to virial velocities, as well as the ratio of halo to stellar masses, both as a function of stellar mass. These results will serve as inputs to and constraints on disk galaxy formation models, which will be explored in future work.

  8. THE HERSCHEL DIGIT SURVEY OF WEAK-LINE T TAURI STARS: IMPLICATIONS FOR DISK EVOLUTION AND DISSIPATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cieza, Lucas A.; Olofsson, Johan; Henning, Thomas; Harvey, Paul M.; Evans, Neal J. II; Najita, Joan; Merín, Bruno; Liebhart, Armin; Güdel, Manuel; Augereau, Jean-Charles; Pinte, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    As part of the 'Dust, Ice, and Gas In Time (DIGIT)' Herschel Open Time Key Program, we present Herschel photometry (at 70, 160, 250, 350, and 500 μm) of 31 weak-line T Tauri star (WTTS) candidates in order to investigate the evolutionary status of their circumstellar disks. Of the stars in our sample, 13 had circumstellar disks previously known from infrared observations at shorter wavelengths, while 18 of them had no previous evidence for a disk. We detect a total of 15 disks as all previously known disks are detected at one or more Herschel wavelengths and two additional disks are identified for the first time. The spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of our targets seem to trace the dissipation of the primordial disk and the transition to the debris disk regime. Of the 15 disks, 7 appear to be optically thick primordial disks, including 2 objects with SEDs indistinguishable from those of typical Classical T Tauri stars, 4 objects that have significant deficit of excess emission at all IR wavelengths, and 1 'pre-transitional' object with a known gap in the disk. Despite their previous WTTS classification, we find that the seven targets in our sample with optically thick disks show evidence for accretion. The remaining eight disks have weaker IR excesses similar to those of optically thin debris disks. Six of them are warm and show significant 24 μm Spitzer excesses, while the last two are newly identified cold debris-like disks with photospheric 24 μm fluxes, but significant excess emission at longer wavelengths. The Herschel photometry also places strong constraints on the non-detections, where systems with F 70 /F 70,* ∼> 5-15 and L disk /L * ∼> 10 –3 to 10 –4 can be ruled out. We present preliminary models for both the optically thick and optically thin disks and discuss our results in the context of the evolution and dissipation of circumstellar disks.

  9. Dark Energy Survey Year 1 Results: Methodology and Projections for Joint Analysis of Galaxy Clustering, Galaxy Lensing, and CMB Lensing Two-point Functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giannantonio, T.; et al.

    2018-02-14

    Optical imaging surveys measure both the galaxy density and the gravitational lensing-induced shear fields across the sky. Recently, the Dark Energy Survey (DES) collaboration used a joint fit to two-point correlations between these observables to place tight constraints on cosmology (DES Collaboration et al. 2017). In this work, we develop the methodology to extend the DES Collaboration et al. (2017) analysis to include cross-correlations of the optical survey observables with gravitational lensing of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) as measured by the South Pole Telescope (SPT) and Planck. Using simulated analyses, we show how the resulting set of five two-point functions increases the robustness of the cosmological constraints to systematic errors in galaxy lensing shear calibration. Additionally, we show that contamination of the SPT+Planck CMB lensing map by the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect is a potentially large source of systematic error for two-point function analyses, but show that it can be reduced to acceptable levels in our analysis by masking clusters of galaxies and imposing angular scale cuts on the two-point functions. The methodology developed here will be applied to the analysis of data from the DES, the SPT, and Planck in a companion work.

  10. TWO LENSED z ≅ 3 LYMAN BREAK GALAXIES DISCOVERED IN THE SDSS GIANT ARCS SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koester, Benjamin P.; Gladders, Michael D.; Sharon, Keren; Wuyts, Eva; Bayliss, Matthew B.; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Rigby, J. R.; Dahle, Hakon

    2010-01-01

    We report the discovery of two strongly lensed z ∼ 3 Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) discovered as u-band dropouts as part of the SDSS Giant Arcs Survey (SGAS). The first, SGAS J122651.3+215220 at z = 2.9233, is lensed by one of several sub-clusters, SDSS J1226+2152, in a complex massive cluster at z = 0.43. Its (g, r, i) magnitudes are (21.14, 20.60, 20.51) which translate to surface brightnesses, μ g,r,i , of (23.78, 23.11, 22.81). The second, SGAS J152745.1+065219, is an LBG at z = 2.7593 lensed by the foreground SDSS J1527+0652 at z = 0.39, with (g, r, z) = (20.90, 20.52, 20.58) and μ g,r,z = (25.15, 24.52, 24.12). Moderate resolution spectroscopy confirms the redshifts suggested by photometric breaks and shows both absorption and emission features typical of LBGs. Lens mass models derived from combined imaging and spectroscopy reveal that SGAS J122651.3+215220 is a highly magnified source (M ≅ 40), while SGAS J152745.1+065219 is magnified by no more than M ≅ 15. Compared with LBG survey results, the luminosities and lensing-corrected magnitudes suggest that SGAS J122651.3+215220 is among the faintest ≅20% of LBGs in that sample. SGAS J152745.1+065219, on the other hand, has an unlensed r-band apparent magnitude similar to that of the 'Cosmic Eye', which places it near the mean of LBG survey results over similar redshifts.

  11. CMB Polarization B-mode Delensing with SPTpol and Herschel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manzotti, A.; et al.

    2017-01-16

    We present a demonstration of delensing the observed cosmic microwave background (CMB) B-mode polarization anisotropy. This process of reducing the gravitational-lensing generated B-mode component will become increasingly important for improving searches for the B modes produced by primordial gravitational waves. In this work, we delens B-mode maps constructed from multi-frequency SPTpol observations of a 90 deg$^2$ patch of sky by subtracting a B-mode template constructed from two inputs: SPTpol E-mode maps and a lensing potential map estimated from the $\\textit{Herschel}$ $500\\,\\mu m$ map of the CIB. We find that our delensing procedure reduces the measured B-mode power spectrum by 28% in the multipole range $300 < \\ell < 2300$; this is shown to be consistent with expectations from theory and simulations and to be robust against systematics. The null hypothesis of no delensing is rejected at $6.9 \\sigma$. Furthermore, we build and use a suite of realistic simulations to study the general properties of the delensing process and find that the delensing efficiency achieved in this work is limited primarily by the noise in the lensing potential map. We demonstrate the importance of including realistic experimental non-idealities in the delensing forecasts used to inform instrument and survey-strategy planning of upcoming lower-noise experiments, such as CMB-S4.

  12. THE HERSCHEL DIGIT SURVEY OF WEAK-LINE T TAURI STARS: IMPLICATIONS FOR DISK EVOLUTION AND DISSIPATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cieza, Lucas A. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Olofsson, Johan; Henning, Thomas [Max Planck Institute fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Harvey, Paul M.; Evans, Neal J. II [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, 2515 Speedway, Stop C1400, Austin, TX 78712-1205 (United States); Najita, Joan [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 86719 (United States); Merin, Bruno [Herschel Science Centre, European Space Astronomy Centre, ESA, P.O. Box 78, E-28691 Villanueva de la Canada, Madrid (Spain); Liebhart, Armin; Guedel, Manuel [Department of Astronomy, University of Vienna, Tuerkenschanzstr. 17, A-1180 Vienna (Austria); Augereau, Jean-Charles; Pinte, Christophe, E-mail: lcieza@ifa.hawaii.edu [UJF-Grenoble 1/CNRS-INSU, Institut de Planetologie et d' Astrophysique (IPAG) UMR 5274, BP 53, F-38041 Grenoble cedex 9 (France)

    2013-01-10

    As part of the 'Dust, Ice, and Gas In Time (DIGIT)' Herschel Open Time Key Program, we present Herschel photometry (at 70, 160, 250, 350, and 500 {mu}m) of 31 weak-line T Tauri star (WTTS) candidates in order to investigate the evolutionary status of their circumstellar disks. Of the stars in our sample, 13 had circumstellar disks previously known from infrared observations at shorter wavelengths, while 18 of them had no previous evidence for a disk. We detect a total of 15 disks as all previously known disks are detected at one or more Herschel wavelengths and two additional disks are identified for the first time. The spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of our targets seem to trace the dissipation of the primordial disk and the transition to the debris disk regime. Of the 15 disks, 7 appear to be optically thick primordial disks, including 2 objects with SEDs indistinguishable from those of typical Classical T Tauri stars, 4 objects that have significant deficit of excess emission at all IR wavelengths, and 1 'pre-transitional' object with a known gap in the disk. Despite their previous WTTS classification, we find that the seven targets in our sample with optically thick disks show evidence for accretion. The remaining eight disks have weaker IR excesses similar to those of optically thin debris disks. Six of them are warm and show significant 24 {mu}m Spitzer excesses, while the last two are newly identified cold debris-like disks with photospheric 24 {mu}m fluxes, but significant excess emission at longer wavelengths. The Herschel photometry also places strong constraints on the non-detections, where systems with F {sub 70}/F {sub 70,*} {approx}> 5-15 and L {sub disk}/L {sub *} {approx}> 10{sup -3} to 10{sup -4} can be ruled out. We present preliminary models for both the optically thick and optically thin disks and discuss our results in the context of the evolution and dissipation of circumstellar disks.

  13. Golden gravitational lensing systems from the Sloan Lens ACS Survey - II. SDSS J1430+4105: a precise inner total mass profile from lensing alone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichner, Thomas; Seitz, Stella; Bauer, Anne

    2012-12-01

    We study the Sloan Lens ACS (SLACS) survey strong-lensing system SDSS J1430+4105 at zl = 0.285. The lensed source (zs = 0.575) of this system has a complex morphology with several subcomponents. Its subcomponents span a radial range from 4 to 10 kpc in the plane of the lens. Therefore, we can constrain the slope of the total projected mass profile around the Einstein radius from lensing alone. We measure a density profile that is slightly but not significantly shallower than isothermal at the Einstein radius. We decompose the mass of the lensing galaxy into a de Vaucouleurs component to trace the stars and an additional dark component. The spread of multiple-image components over a large radial range also allows us to determine the amplitude of the de Vaucouleurs and dark matter components separately. We get a mass-to-light ratio of M de Vauc LB ≈ (5.5±1.5) M⊙L⊙,B and a dark matter fraction within the Einstein radius of ≈20 to 40 per cent. Modelling the star formation history assuming composite stellar populations at solar metallicity to the galaxy's photometry yields a mass-to-light ratio of M, salp LB ≈ 4.0-1.3+0.6 M⊙L⊙,B and M, chab LB ≈ 2.3-0.8+0.3 M⊙L⊙,B for Salpeter and Chabrier initial mass functions, respectively. Hence, the mass-to-light ratio derived from lensing is more Salpeter like, in agreement with results for massive Coma galaxies and other nearby massive early-type galaxies. We examine the consequences of the galaxy group in which the lensing galaxy is embedded, showing that it has little influence on the mass-to-light ratio obtained for the de Vaucouleurs component of the lensing galaxy. Finally, we decompose the projected, azimuthally averaged 2D density distribution of the de Vaucouleurs and dark matter components of the lensing signal into spherically averaged 3D density profiles. We can show that the 3D dark and luminous matter density within the Einstein radius (REin ≈ 0.6 Reff) of this SLACS galaxy is similar to the

  14. Discovery of three strongly lensed quasars in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, P. R.; Agnello, A.; Treu, T.; Abramson, L. E.; Anguita, T.; Apostolovski, Y.; Chen, G. C.-F.; Fassnacht, C. D.; Hsueh, J. W.; Lemaux, B. C.; Motta, V.; Oldham, L.; Rojas, K.; Rusu, C. E.; Shajib, A. J.; Wang, X.

    2018-06-01

    We present the discovery of three quasar lenses in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, selected using two novel photometry-based selection techniques. The J0941+0518 system, with two point sources separated by 5.46 arcsec on either side of a galaxy, has source and lens redshifts 1.54 and 0.343. Images of J2257+2349 show two point sources separated by 1.67 arcsec on either side of an E/S0 galaxy. The extracted spectra show two images of the same quasar at zs = 2.10. SDSS J1640+1045 has two quasar spectra at zs = 1.70 and fits to the SDSS and Pan-STARRS images confirm the presence of a galaxy between the two point sources. We observed 56 photometrically selected lens candidates in this follow-up campaign, confirming three new lenses, re-discovering one known lens, and ruling out 36 candidates, with 16 still inconclusive. This initial campaign demonstrates the power of purely photometric selection techniques in finding lensed quasars.

  15. Herschel Observations of Extraordinary Sources: Analysi sof the HIFI 1.2 THz Wide Spectral Survey toward Orion KL II. Chemical Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockett, N. R.; Bergin, E. A.; Neill, J. L.; Favre, C.; Blake, G. A.; Herbst, E.; Anderson, D. E.; Hassel, G. E.

    2015-06-01

    We present chemical implications arising from spectral models fit to the Herschel/HIFI spectral survey toward the Orion Kleinmann-Low nebula (Orion KL). We focus our discussion on the eight complex organics detected within the HIFI survey utilizing a novel technique to identify those molecules emitting in the hottest gas. In particular, we find the complex nitrogen bearing species CH3CN, C2H3CN, C2H5CN, and NH2CHO systematically trace hotter gas than the oxygen bearing organics CH3OH, C2H5OH, CH3OCH3, and CH3OCHO, which do not contain nitrogen. If these complex species form predominantly on grain surfaces, this may indicate N-bearing organics are more difficult to remove from grain surfaces than O-bearing species. Another possibility is that hot (Tkin ∼ 300 K) gas phase chemistry naturally produces higher complex cyanide abundances while suppressing the formation of O-bearing complex organics. We compare our derived rotation temperatures and molecular abundances to chemical models, which include gas-phase and grain surface pathways. Abundances for a majority of the detected complex organics can be reproduced over timescales ≳105 years, with several species being underpredicted by less than 3σ. Derived rotation temperatures for most organics, furthermore, agree reasonably well with the predicted temperatures at peak abundance. We also find that sulfur bearing molecules that also contain oxygen (i.e., SO, SO2, and OCS) tend to probe the hottest gas toward Orion KL, indicating the formation pathways for these species are most efficient at high temperatures. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  16. CLUSTER LENSING PROFILES DERIVED FROM A REDSHIFT ENHANCEMENT OF MAGNIFIED BOSS-SURVEY GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coupon, Jean; Umetsu, Keiichi; Broadhurst, Tom

    2013-01-01

    We report the first detection of a redshift-depth enhancement of background galaxies magnified by foreground clusters. Using 300,000 BOSS survey galaxies with accurate spectroscopic redshifts, we measure their mean redshift depth behind four large samples of optically selected clusters from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) surveys, totaling 5000-15,000 clusters. A clear trend of increasing mean redshift toward the cluster centers is found, averaged over each of the four cluster samples. In addition, we find similar but noisier behavior for an independent X-ray sample of 158 clusters lying in the foreground of the current BOSS sky area. By adopting the mass-richness relationships appropriate for each survey, we compare our results with theoretical predictions for each of the four SDSS cluster catalogs. The radial form of this redshift enhancement is well fitted by a richness-to-mass weighted composite Navarro-Frenk-White profile with an effective mass ranging between M 200 ∼ 1.4-1.8 × 10 14 M ☉ for the optically detected cluster samples, and M 200 ∼ 5.0 × 10 14 M ☉ for the X-ray sample. This lensing detection helps to establish the credibility of these SDSS cluster surveys, and provides a normalization for their respective mass-richness relations. In the context of the upcoming bigBOSS, Subaru Prime Focus Spectrograph, and EUCLID-NISP spectroscopic surveys, this method represents an independent means of deriving the masses of cluster samples for examining the cosmological evolution, and provides a relatively clean consistency check of weak-lensing measurements, free from the systematic limitations of shear calibration

  17. A strong-lensing elliptical galaxy in the MaNGA survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Russell J.

    2017-01-01

    I report discovery of a new galaxy-scale gravitational lens system, identified using public data from the Mapping Galaxies at Apache Point Observatory (MaNGA) survey, as part of a systematic search for lensed background line emitters. The lens is SDSS J170124.01+372258.0, a giant elliptical galaxy with velocity dispersion σ = 256 km s-1, at a redshift of zl = 0.122. After modelling and subtracting the target galaxy light, the integral-field data cube reveals [O II], [O III] and Hβ emission lines corresponding to a source at zs = 0.791, forming an identifiable ring around the galaxy centre. If the ring is formed by a single lensed source, then the Einstein radius is REin ≈ 2.3 arcsec, projecting to ˜5 kpc at the distance of the lens. The total projected lensing mass is MEin = (3.6 ± 0.6) × 1011 M⊙, and the total J-band mass-to-light ratio is 3.0 ± 0.7 solar units. Plausible estimates of the likely dark matter content could reconcile this with a Milky Way-like initial mass function (IMF), for which M/L ≈ 1.5 is expected, but heavier IMFs are by no means excluded with the present data. An alternative interpretation of the system, with a more complex source plane, is also discussed. The discovery of this system bodes well for future lens searches based on MaNGA and other integral-field spectroscopic surveys.

  18. A Search for Nontoroidal Topological Lensing in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Quasar Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Hirokazu; Yoshii, Yuzuru

    2013-08-01

    Flat space models with multiply connected topology, which have compact dimensions, are tested against the distribution of high-redshift (z >= 4) quasars of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). When the compact dimensions are smaller in size than the observed universe, topological lensing occurs, in which multiple images of single objects (ghost images) are observed. We improve on the recently introduced method to identify ghost images by means of four-point statistics. Our method is valid for any of the 17 multiply connected flat models, including nontoroidal ones that are compacted by screw motions or glide reflection. Applying the method to the data revealed one possible case of topological lensing caused by sixth-turn screw motion, however, it is consistent with the simply connected model by this test alone. Moreover, simulations suggest that we cannot exclude the other space models despite the absence of their signatures. This uncertainty mainly originates from the patchy coverage of SDSS in the south Galactic cap, and this situation will be improved by future wide-field spectroscopic surveys.

  19. A SEARCH FOR NONTOROIDAL TOPOLOGICAL LENSING IN THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY QUASAR CATALOG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Hirokazu; Yoshii, Yuzuru

    2013-01-01

    Flat space models with multiply connected topology, which have compact dimensions, are tested against the distribution of high-redshift (z ≥ 4) quasars of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). When the compact dimensions are smaller in size than the observed universe, topological lensing occurs, in which multiple images of single objects (ghost images) are observed. We improve on the recently introduced method to identify ghost images by means of four-point statistics. Our method is valid for any of the 17 multiply connected flat models, including nontoroidal ones that are compacted by screw motions or glide reflection. Applying the method to the data revealed one possible case of topological lensing caused by sixth-turn screw motion, however, it is consistent with the simply connected model by this test alone. Moreover, simulations suggest that we cannot exclude the other space models despite the absence of their signatures. This uncertainty mainly originates from the patchy coverage of SDSS in the south Galactic cap, and this situation will be improved by future wide-field spectroscopic surveys

  20. Dark Energy Survey Year 1 Results: Redshift distributions of the weak lensing source galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoyle, B.; et al.

    2017-08-04

    We describe the derivation and validation of redshift distribution estimates and their uncertainties for the galaxies used as weak lensing sources in the Dark Energy Survey (DES) Year 1 cosmological analyses. The Bayesian Photometric Redshift (BPZ) code is used to assign galaxies to four redshift bins between z=0.2 and 1.3, and to produce initial estimates of the lensing-weighted redshift distributions $n^i_{PZ}(z)$ for bin i. Accurate determination of cosmological parameters depends critically on knowledge of $n^i$ but is insensitive to bin assignments or redshift errors for individual galaxies. The cosmological analyses allow for shifts $n^i(z)=n^i_{PZ}(z-\\Delta z^i)$ to correct the mean redshift of $n^i(z)$ for biases in $n^i_{\\rm PZ}$. The $\\Delta z^i$ are constrained by comparison of independently estimated 30-band photometric redshifts of galaxies in the COSMOS field to BPZ estimates made from the DES griz fluxes, for a sample matched in fluxes, pre-seeing size, and lensing weight to the DES weak-lensing sources. In companion papers, the $\\Delta z^i$ are further constrained by the angular clustering of the source galaxies around red galaxies with secure photometric redshifts at 0.15

  1. Dark Energy Survey Year 1 Results: Redshift distributions of the weak lensing source galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyle, B.; Gruen, D.; Bernstein, G. M.; Rau, M. M.; De Vicente, J.; Hartley, W. G.; Gaztanaga, E.; DeRose, J.; Troxel, M. A.; Davis, C.; Alarcon, A.; MacCrann, N.; Prat, J.; Sánchez, C.; Sheldon, E.; Wechsler, R. H.; Asorey, J.; Becker, M. R.; Bonnett, C.; Carnero Rosell, A.; Carollo, D.; Carrasco Kind, M.; Castander, F. J.; Cawthon, R.; Chang, C.; Childress, M.; Davis, T. M.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Gatti, M.; Glazebrook, K.; Gschwend, J.; Hinton, S. R.; Hoormann, J. K.; Kim, A. G.; King, A.; Kuehn, K.; Lewis, G.; Lidman, C.; Lin, H.; Macaulay, E.; Maia, M. A. G.; Martini, P.; Mudd, D.; Möller, A.; Nichol, R. C.; Ogando, R. L. C.; Rollins, R. P.; Roodman, A.; Ross, A. J.; Rozo, E.; Rykoff, E. S.; Samuroff, S.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Sharp, R.; Sommer, N. E.; Tucker, B. E.; Uddin, S. A.; Varga, T. N.; Vielzeuf, P.; Yuan, F.; Zhang, B.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Abdalla, F. B.; Allam, S.; Annis, J.; Bechtol, K.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Burke, D. L.; Busha, M. T.; Capozzi, D.; Carretero, J.; Crocce, M.; D'Andrea, C. B.; da Costa, L. N.; DePoy, D. L.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Doel, P.; Eifler, T. F.; Estrada, J.; Evrard, A. E.; Fernandez, E.; Flaugher, B.; Fosalba, P.; Frieman, J.; García-Bellido, J.; Gerdes, D. W.; Giannantonio, T.; Goldstein, D. A.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gutierrez, G.; Honscheid, K.; James, D. J.; Jarvis, M.; Jeltema, T.; Johnson, M. W. G.; Johnson, M. D.; Kirk, D.; Krause, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lahav, O.; Li, T. S.; Lima, M.; March, M.; Marshall, J. L.; Melchior, P.; Menanteau, F.; Miquel, R.; Nord, B.; O'Neill, C. R.; Plazas, A. A.; Romer, A. K.; Sako, M.; Sanchez, E.; Santiago, B.; Scarpine, V.; Schindler, R.; Schubnell, M.; Smith, M.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Thomas, D.; Tucker, D. L.; Vikram, V.; Walker, A. R.; Weller, J.; Wester, W.; Wolf, R. C.; Yanny, B.; Zuntz, J.; DES Collaboration

    2018-04-01

    We describe the derivation and validation of redshift distribution estimates and their uncertainties for the populations of galaxies used as weak lensing sources in the Dark Energy Survey (DES) Year 1 cosmological analyses. The Bayesian Photometric Redshift (BPZ) code is used to assign galaxies to four redshift bins between z ≈ 0.2 and ≈1.3, and to produce initial estimates of the lensing-weighted redshift distributions n^i_PZ(z)∝ dn^i/dz for members of bin i. Accurate determination of cosmological parameters depends critically on knowledge of ni but is insensitive to bin assignments or redshift errors for individual galaxies. The cosmological analyses allow for shifts n^i(z)=n^i_PZ(z-Δ z^i) to correct the mean redshift of ni(z) for biases in n^i_PZ. The Δzi are constrained by comparison of independently estimated 30-band photometric redshifts of galaxies in the COSMOS field to BPZ estimates made from the DES griz fluxes, for a sample matched in fluxes, pre-seeing size, and lensing weight to the DES weak-lensing sources. In companion papers, the Δzi of the three lowest redshift bins are further constrained by the angular clustering of the source galaxies around red galaxies with secure photometric redshifts at 0.15 < z < 0.9. This paper details the BPZ and COSMOS procedures, and demonstrates that the cosmological inference is insensitive to details of the ni(z) beyond the choice of Δzi. The clustering and COSMOS validation methods produce consistent estimates of Δzi in the bins where both can be applied, with combined uncertainties of σ _{Δ z^i}=0.015, 0.013, 0.011, and 0.022 in the four bins. Repeating the photo-z proceedure instead using the Directional Neighborhood Fitting (DNF) algorithm, or using the ni(z) estimated from the matched sample in COSMOS, yields no discernible difference in cosmological inferences.

  2. KMOS LENsing Survey (KLENS): Morpho-kinematic analysis of star-forming galaxies at z 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, M.; Dessauges-Zavadsky, M.; Schaerer, D.; Cirasuolo, M.; Turner, O. J.; Cava, A.; Rodríguez-Muñoz, L.; Richard, J.; Pérez-González, P. G.

    2018-06-01

    We present results from the KMOS LENsing Survey (KLENS), which is exploiting gravitational lensing to study the kinematics of 24 star-forming galaxies at 1.4 10). We derive a M⋆ - σ0 relation, using the Tully-Fisher relation, which highlights that a different evolution of the velocity dispersion is expected depending on the stellar mass, with lower velocity dispersions for lower masses, and an increase for higher masses, stronger at higher redshift. The observed velocity dispersions from this work and from comparison samples spanning 0 2), where we observe higher velocity dispersions for low masses (log(M⋆/M⊙) 9.6) and lower velocity dispersions for high masses (log(M⋆/M⊙) 10.9) than expected. This discrepancy could, for instance, suggest that galaxies at high redshift do not satisfy the stability criterion, or that the adopted parametrization of the specific star formation rate and molecular properties fail at high redshift. Based on KMOS observations made with the European Southern Observatory VLT/Antu telescope, Paranal, Chile, collected under the program ID No. 095.A-0962(A)+(B).The reduced datacubes (FITS files) are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/613/A72

  3. Source selection for cluster weak lensing measurements in the Hyper Suprime-Cam survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medezinski, Elinor; Oguri, Masamune; Nishizawa, Atsushi J.; Speagle, Joshua S.; Miyatake, Hironao; Umetsu, Keiichi; Leauthaud, Alexie; Murata, Ryoma; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Sifón, Cristóbal; Strauss, Michael A.; Huang, Song; Simet, Melanie; Okabe, Nobuhiro; Tanaka, Masayuki; Komiyama, Yutaka

    2018-03-01

    We present optimized source galaxy selection schemes for measuring cluster weak lensing (WL) mass profiles unaffected by cluster member dilution from the Subaru Hyper Suprime-Cam Strategic Survey Program (HSC-SSP). The ongoing HSC-SSP survey will uncover thousands of galaxy clusters to z ≲ 1.5. In deriving cluster masses via WL, a critical source of systematics is contamination and dilution of the lensing signal by cluster members, and by foreground galaxies whose photometric redshifts are biased. Using the first-year CAMIRA catalog of ˜900 clusters with richness larger than 20 found in ˜140 deg2 of HSC-SSP data, we devise and compare several source selection methods, including selection in color-color space (CC-cut), and selection of robust photometric redshifts by applying constraints on their cumulative probability distribution function (P-cut). We examine the dependence of the contamination on the chosen limits adopted for each method. Using the proper limits, these methods give mass profiles with minimal dilution in agreement with one another. We find that not adopting either the CC-cut or P-cut methods results in an underestimation of the total cluster mass (13% ± 4%) and the concentration of the profile (24% ± 11%). The level of cluster contamination can reach as high as ˜10% at R ≈ 0.24 Mpc/h for low-z clusters without cuts, while employing either the P-cut or CC-cut results in cluster contamination consistent with zero to within the 0.5% uncertainties. Our robust methods yield a ˜60 σ detection of the stacked CAMIRA surface mass density profile, with a mean mass of M200c = [1.67 ± 0.05(stat)] × 1014 M⊙/h.

  4. OBSERVATION AND CONFIRMATION OF SIX STRONG-LENSING SYSTEMS IN THE DARK ENERGY SURVEY SCIENCE VERIFICATION DATA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nord, B.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Lin, H.; Diehl, H. T.; Kuropatkin, N.; Allam, S.; Finley, D. A.; Flaugher, B.; Gaitsch, H.; Merritt, K. W.; Helsby, J.; Amara, A.; Collett, T.; Caminha, G. B.; De Bom, C.; Da Pereira, M. Elidaiana S.; Desai, S.; Dúmet-Montoya, H.; Furlanetto, C.; Gill, M.

    2016-01-01

    We report the observation and confirmation of the first group- and cluster-scale strong gravitational lensing systems found in Dark Energy Survey data. Through visual inspection of data from the Science Verification season, we identified 53 candidate systems. We then obtained spectroscopic follow-up of 21 candidates using the Gemini Multi-object Spectrograph at the Gemini South telescope and the Inamori-Magellan Areal Camera and Spectrograph at the Magellan/Baade telescope. With this follow-up, we confirmed six candidates as gravitational lenses: three of the systems are newly discovered, and the remaining three were previously known. Of the 21 observed candidates, the remaining 15 either were not detected in spectroscopic observations, were observed and did not exhibit continuum emission (or spectral features), or were ruled out as lensing systems. The confirmed sample consists of one group-scale and five galaxy-cluster-scale lenses. The lensed sources range in redshift z ∼ 0.80–3.2 and in i -band surface brightness i SB ∼ 23–25 mag arcsec −2 (2″ aperture). For each of the six systems, we estimate the Einstein radius θ E and the enclosed mass M enc , which have ranges θ E ∼ 5″–9″ and M enc ∼ 8 × 10 12 to 6 × 10 13 M ⊙ , respectively.

  5. OBSERVATION AND CONFIRMATION OF SIX STRONG-LENSING SYSTEMS IN THE DARK ENERGY SURVEY SCIENCE VERIFICATION DATA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nord, B.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Lin, H.; Diehl, H. T.; Kuropatkin, N.; Allam, S.; Finley, D. A.; Flaugher, B.; Gaitsch, H.; Merritt, K. W. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, P.O. Box 500, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Helsby, J. [Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Amara, A. [Department of Physics, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 16, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Collett, T. [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, PO1 3FX (United Kingdom); Caminha, G. B.; De Bom, C.; Da Pereira, M. Elidaiana S. [ICRA, Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas, Rua Dr. Xavier Sigaud 150, CEP 22290-180, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Desai, S. [Excellence Cluster Universe, Boltzmannstrasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Dúmet-Montoya, H. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro—Campus Macaé, Rua Aloísio Gomes da Silva, 50—Granja dos Cavaleiros, Cep: 27930-560, Macaé, RJ (Brazil); Furlanetto, C. [University of Nottingham, School of Physics and Astronomy, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Gill, M., E-mail: nord@fnal.gov [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Collaboration: DES Collaboration; and others

    2016-08-10

    We report the observation and confirmation of the first group- and cluster-scale strong gravitational lensing systems found in Dark Energy Survey data. Through visual inspection of data from the Science Verification season, we identified 53 candidate systems. We then obtained spectroscopic follow-up of 21 candidates using the Gemini Multi-object Spectrograph at the Gemini South telescope and the Inamori-Magellan Areal Camera and Spectrograph at the Magellan/Baade telescope. With this follow-up, we confirmed six candidates as gravitational lenses: three of the systems are newly discovered, and the remaining three were previously known. Of the 21 observed candidates, the remaining 15 either were not detected in spectroscopic observations, were observed and did not exhibit continuum emission (or spectral features), or were ruled out as lensing systems. The confirmed sample consists of one group-scale and five galaxy-cluster-scale lenses. The lensed sources range in redshift z ∼ 0.80–3.2 and in i -band surface brightness i {sub SB} ∼ 23–25 mag arcsec{sup −2} (2″ aperture). For each of the six systems, we estimate the Einstein radius θ {sub E} and the enclosed mass M {sub enc}, which have ranges θ {sub E} ∼ 5″–9″ and M {sub enc} ∼ 8 × 10{sup 12} to 6 × 10{sup 13} M {sub ⊙}, respectively.

  6. THE SLOAN BRIGHT ARCS SURVEY: TEN STRONG GRAVITATIONAL LENSING CLUSTERS AND EVIDENCE OF OVERCONCENTRATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiesner, Matthew P. [Department of Physics, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL 60115 (United States); Lin, Huan; Allam, Sahar S.; Annis, James; Buckley-Geer, Elizabeth J.; Diehl, H. Thomas; Kubik, Donna; Kubo, Jeffrey M.; Tucker, Douglas [Center for Particle Astrophysics, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, P.O. Box 500, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States)

    2012-12-10

    We describe 10 strong lensing galaxy clusters of redshift 0.26 {<=} z {<=} 0.56 that were found in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We present measurements of richness (N{sub 200}), mass (M{sub 200}), and velocity dispersion for the clusters. We find that in order to use the mass-richness relation from Johnston et al., which was established at mean redshift of 0.25, it is necessary to scale measured richness values up by 1.47. Using this scaling, we find richness values for these clusters to be in the range of 22 {<=} N{sub 200} {<=} 317 and mass values to be in the range of 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 14} h {sup -1} M{sub Sun} {<=} M{sub 200} {<=} 30 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 14} h {sup -1} M{sub Sun }. We also present measurements of Einstein radius, mass, and velocity dispersion for the lensing systems. The Einstein radii ({theta}{sub E}) are all relatively small, with 5.''4 {<=} {theta}{sub E} {<=} 13''. Finally, we consider if there is evidence that our clusters are more concentrated than {Lambda}CDM would predict. We find that six of our clusters do not show evidence of overconcentration, while four of our clusters do. We note a correlation between overconcentration and mass, as the four clusters showing evidence of overconcentration are all lower-mass clusters. For the four lowest mass clusters the average value of the concentration parameter c{sub 200} is 11.6, while for the six higher-mass clusters the average value of c{sub 200} is 4.4. {Lambda}CDM would place c{sub 200} between 3.4 and 5.7.

  7. Testing the lognormality of the galaxy and weak lensing convergence distributions from Dark Energy Survey maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clerkin, L.; Kirk, D.; Manera, M.; Lahav, O.; Abdalla, F.

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that the probability distribution function (PDF) of galaxy density contrast is approximately lognormal; whether the PDF of mass fluctuations derived from weak lensing convergence (κWL) is lognormal is less well established. We derive PDFs of the galaxy and projected matter density distributions via the counts-in-cells (CiC) method. We use maps of galaxies and weak lensing convergence produced from the Dark Energy Survey Science Verification data over 139 deg"2. We test whether the underlying density contrast is well described by a lognormal distribution for the galaxies, the convergence and their joint PDF. We confirm that the galaxy density contrast distribution is well modelled by a lognormal PDF convolved with Poisson noise at angular scales from 10 to 40 arcmin (corresponding to physical scales of 3–10 Mpc). We note that as κWL is a weighted sum of the mass fluctuations along the line of sight, its PDF is expected to be only approximately lognormal. We find that the κWL distribution is well modelled by a lognormal PDF convolved with Gaussian shape noise at scales between 10 and 20 arcmin, with a best-fitting χ"2/dof of 1.11 compared to 1.84 for a Gaussian model, corresponding to p-values 0.35 and 0.07, respectively, at a scale of 10 arcmin. Above 20 arcmin a simple Gaussian model is sufficient. The joint PDF is also reasonably fitted by a bivariate lognormal. As a consistency check, we compare the variances derived from the lognormal modelling with those directly measured via CiC. Lastly, our methods are validated against maps from the MICE Grand Challenge N-body simulation.

  8. Gravitational lensing

    CERN Document Server

    Dodelson, Scott

    2017-01-01

    Gravitational lensing is a consequence of general relativity, where the gravitational force due to a massive object bends the paths of light originating from distant objects lying behind it. Using very little general relativity and no higher level mathematics, this text presents the basics of gravitational lensing, focusing on the equations needed to understand the phenomena. It then applies them to a diverse set of topics, including multiply imaged objects, time delays, extrasolar planets, microlensing, cluster masses, galaxy shape measurements, cosmic shear, and lensing of the cosmic microwave background. This approach allows undergraduate students and others to get quickly up to speed on the basics and the important issues. The text will be especially relevant as large surveys such as LSST and Euclid begin to dominate the astronomical landscape. Designed for a one semester course, it is accessible to anyone with two years of undergraduate physics background.

  9. Herschel observations of extraordinary sources: Analysis of the HIFI 1.2 THz wide spectral survey toward orion KL. I. method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crockett, Nathan R.; Bergin, Edwin A.; Neill, Justin L.; Favre, Cécile [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Schilke, Peter [Physikalisches Institut, Universität zu Köln, Zülpicher Str. 77, D-50937 Köln (Germany); Lis, Dariusz C.; Emprechtinger, Martin; Phillips, Thomas G. [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics 301-17, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bell, Tom A.; Cernicharo, José; Esplugues, Gisela B. [Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC/INTA), Laboratiorio de Astrofísica Molecular, Ctra. de Torrejón a Ajalvir, km 4, E-28850 Torrejón de Ardoz, Madrid (Spain); Blake, Geoffrey; Kleshcheva, Maria [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, MS 150-21, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Gupta, Harshal; Pearson, John [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Lord, Steven [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, MS 100-22, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Marcelino, Nuria [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); McGuire, Brett A. [Division of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, California Institute of Technology Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Plume, Rene [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive NW, Calgary, AB T2N 1N4 (Canada); Van der Tak, Floris [SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, P.O. Box 800, 9700 AV Groningen (Netherlands); and others

    2014-06-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of a broadband spectral line survey of the Orion Kleinmann-Low nebula (Orion KL), one of the most chemically rich regions in the Galaxy, using the HIFI instrument on board the Herschel Space Observatory. This survey spans a frequency range from 480 to 1907 GHz at a resolution of 1.1 MHz. These observations thus encompass the largest spectral coverage ever obtained toward this high-mass star-forming region in the submillimeter with high spectral resolution and include frequencies >1 THz, where the Earth's atmosphere prevents observations from the ground. In all, we detect emission from 39 molecules (79 isotopologues). Combining this data set with ground-based millimeter spectroscopy obtained with the IRAM 30 m telescope, we model the molecular emission from the millimeter to the far-IR using the XCLASS program, which assumes local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). Several molecules are also modeled with the MADEX non-LTE code. Because of the wide frequency coverage, our models are constrained by transitions over an unprecedented range in excitation energy. A reduced χ{sup 2} analysis indicates that models for most species reproduce the observed emission well. In particular, most complex organics are well fit by LTE implying gas densities are high (>10{sup 6} cm{sup –3}) and excitation temperatures and column densities are well constrained. Molecular abundances are computed using H{sub 2} column densities also derived from the HIFI survey. The distribution of rotation temperatures, T {sub rot}, for molecules detected toward the hot core is significantly wider than the compact ridge, plateau, and extended ridge T {sub rot} distributions, indicating the hot core has the most complex thermal structure.

  10. Weak lensing magnification in the Dark Energy Survey Science Verification Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Fernandez, M.; et al.

    2016-11-30

    In this paper the effect of weak lensing magnification on galaxy number counts is studied by cross-correlating the positions of two galaxy samples, separated by redshift, using data from the Dark Energy Survey Science Verification dataset. The analysis is carried out for two photometrically-selected galaxy samples, with mean photometric redshifts in the $0.2 < z < 0.4$ and $0.7 < z < 1.0$ ranges, in the riz bands. A signal is detected with a $3.5\\sigma$ significance level in each of the bands tested, and is compatible with the magnification predicted by the $\\Lambda$CDM model. After an extensive analysis, it cannot be attributed to any known systematic effect. The detection of the magnification signal is robust to estimated uncertainties in the outlier rate of the pho- tometric redshifts, but this will be an important issue for use of photometric redshifts in magnification mesurements from larger samples. In addition to the detection of the magnification signal, a method to select the sample with the maximum signal-to-noise is proposed and validated with data.

  11. Wide-Field Lensing Mass Maps from Dark Energy Survey Science Verification Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, C; Vikram, V; Jain, B; Bacon, D; Amara, A; Becker, M R; Bernstein, G; Bonnett, C; Bridle, S; Brout, D; Busha, M; Frieman, J; Gaztanaga, E; Hartley, W; Jarvis, M; Kacprzak, T; Kovács, A; Lahav, O; Lin, H; Melchior, P; Peiris, H; Rozo, E; Rykoff, E; Sánchez, C; Sheldon, E; Troxel, M A; Wechsler, R; Zuntz, J; Abbott, T; Abdalla, F B; Allam, S; Annis, J; Bauer, A H; Benoit-Lévy, A; Brooks, D; Buckley-Geer, E; Burke, D L; Capozzi, D; Carnero Rosell, A; Carrasco Kind, M; Castander, F J; Crocce, M; D'Andrea, C B; Desai, S; Diehl, H T; Dietrich, J P; Doel, P; Eifler, T F; Evrard, A E; Fausti Neto, A; Flaugher, B; Fosalba, P; Gruen, D; Gruendl, R A; Gutierrez, G; Honscheid, K; James, D; Kent, S; Kuehn, K; Kuropatkin, N; Maia, M A G; March, M; Martini, P; Merritt, K W; Miller, C J; Miquel, R; Neilsen, E; Nichol, R C; Ogando, R; Plazas, A A; Romer, A K; Roodman, A; Sako, M; Sanchez, E; Sevilla, I; Smith, R C; Soares-Santos, M; Sobreira, F; Suchyta, E; Tarle, G; Thaler, J; Thomas, D; Tucker, D; Walker, A R

    2015-07-31

    We present a mass map reconstructed from weak gravitational lensing shear measurements over 139  deg2 from the Dark Energy Survey science verification data. The mass map probes both luminous and dark matter, thus providing a tool for studying cosmology. We find good agreement between the mass map and the distribution of massive galaxy clusters identified using a red-sequence cluster finder. Potential candidates for superclusters and voids are identified using these maps. We measure the cross-correlation between the mass map and a magnitude-limited foreground galaxy sample and find a detection at the 6.8σ level with 20 arc min smoothing. These measurements are consistent with simulated galaxy catalogs based on N-body simulations from a cold dark matter model with a cosmological constant. This suggests low systematics uncertainties in the map. We summarize our key findings in this Letter; the detailed methodology and tests for systematics are presented in a companion paper.

  12. Testing a phenomenologically extended DGP model with upcoming weak lensing surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camera, Stefano; Diaferio, Antonaldo [Dipartimento di Fisica Generale ' ' A. Avogadro' ' , Università di Torino, via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Cardone, Vincenzo F., E-mail: camera@ph.unito.it, E-mail: diaferio@ph.unito.it, E-mail: winnyenodrac@gmail.com [Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie per l' Ambiente e il Territorio, Università degli Studi del Molise, Contrada Fonte Lappone, 86090 Pesche (Italy)

    2011-01-01

    A phenomenological extension of the well-known brane-world cosmology of Dvali, Gabadadze and Porrati (eDGP) has recently been proposed. In this model, a cosmological-constant-like term is explicitly present as a non-vanishing tension σ on the brane, and an extra parameter α tunes the cross-over scale r{sub c}, the scale at which higher dimensional gravity effects become non negligible. Since the Hubble parameter in this cosmology reproduces the same ΛCDM expansion history, we study how upcoming weak lensing surveys, such as Euclid and DES (Dark Energy Survey), can confirm or rule out this class of models. We perform Monte Carlo Markov Chain simulations to determine the parameters of the model, using Type Ia Supernovæ, H(z) data, Gamma Ray Bursts and Baryon Acoustic Oscillations. We also fit the power spectrum of the temperature anisotropies of the Cosmic Microwave Background to obtain the correct normalisation for the density perturbation power spectrum. Then, we compute the matter and the cosmic shear power spectra, both in the linear and non-linear régimes. The latter is calculated with the two different approaches of Hu and Sawicki (2007) (HS) and Khoury and Wyman (2009) (KW). With the eDGP parameters coming from the Markov Chains, KW reproduces the ΛCDM matter power spectrum at both linear and non-linear scales and the ΛCDM and eDGP shear signals are degenerate. This result does not hold with the HS prescription. Indeed, Euclid can distinguish the eDGP model from ΛCDM because their expected power spectra roughly differ by the 3σ uncertainty in the angular scale range 700∼

  13. Testing a phenomenologically extended DGP model with upcoming weak lensing surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camera, Stefano; Diaferio, Antonaldo; Cardone, Vincenzo F.

    2011-01-01

    A phenomenological extension of the well-known brane-world cosmology of Dvali, Gabadadze and Porrati (eDGP) has recently been proposed. In this model, a cosmological-constant-like term is explicitly present as a non-vanishing tension σ on the brane, and an extra parameter α tunes the cross-over scale r c , the scale at which higher dimensional gravity effects become non negligible. Since the Hubble parameter in this cosmology reproduces the same ΛCDM expansion history, we study how upcoming weak lensing surveys, such as Euclid and DES (Dark Energy Survey), can confirm or rule out this class of models. We perform Monte Carlo Markov Chain simulations to determine the parameters of the model, using Type Ia Supernovæ, H(z) data, Gamma Ray Bursts and Baryon Acoustic Oscillations. We also fit the power spectrum of the temperature anisotropies of the Cosmic Microwave Background to obtain the correct normalisation for the density perturbation power spectrum. Then, we compute the matter and the cosmic shear power spectra, both in the linear and non-linear régimes. The latter is calculated with the two different approaches of Hu and Sawicki (2007) (HS) and Khoury and Wyman (2009) (KW). With the eDGP parameters coming from the Markov Chains, KW reproduces the ΛCDM matter power spectrum at both linear and non-linear scales and the ΛCDM and eDGP shear signals are degenerate. This result does not hold with the HS prescription. Indeed, Euclid can distinguish the eDGP model from ΛCDM because their expected power spectra roughly differ by the 3σ uncertainty in the angular scale range 700∼< l∼<3000; on the contrary, the two models differ at most by the 1σ uncertainty over the range 500∼< l∼<3000 in the DES experiment and they are virtually indistinguishable

  14. STELLAR MASSES AND STAR FORMATION RATES OF LENSED, DUSTY, STAR-FORMING GALAXIES FROM THE SPT SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Jingzhe; Gonzalez, Anthony H. [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Spilker, J. S.; Marrone, D. P. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Strandet, M. [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69 D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Ashby, M. L. N. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Aravena, M. [Núcleo de Astronomía, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Diego Portales, Av. Ejército 441, Santiago (Chile); Béthermin, M.; Breuck, C. de; Gullberg, B. [European Southern Observatory, Karl Schwarzschild Straße 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Bothwell, M. S. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, JJ Thompson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Brodwin, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, 5110 Rockhill Road, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Chapman, S. C. [Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Fassnacht, C. D. [Department of Physics, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Greve, T. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Hezaveh, Y. [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Malkan, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Saliwanchik, B. R., E-mail: jingzhema@ufl.edu [Department of Physics, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States); and others

    2015-10-10

    To understand cosmic mass assembly in the universe at early epochs, we primarily rely on measurements of the stellar masses and star formation rates (SFRs) of distant galaxies. In this paper, we present stellar masses and SFRs of six high-redshift (2.8 ≤ z ≤ 5.7) dusty, star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) that are strongly gravitationally lensed by foreground galaxies. These sources were first discovered by the South Pole Telescope (SPT) at millimeter wavelengths and all have spectroscopic redshifts and robust lens models derived from Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array observations. We have conducted follow-up observations to obtain multi-wavelength imaging data using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), Spitzer, Herschel, and the Atacama Pathfinder EXperiment. We use the high-resolution HST/Wide Field Camera 3 images to disentangle the background source from the foreground lens in Spitzer/IRAC data. The detections and upper limits provide important constraints on the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for these DSFGs, yielding stellar masses, IR luminosities, and SFRs. The SED fits of six SPT sources show that the intrinsic stellar masses span a range more than one order of magnitude with a median value ∼5 ×10{sup 10} M{sub ⊙}. The intrinsic IR luminosities range from 4 × 10{sup 12} L{sub ⊙} to 4 × 10{sup 13} L{sub ⊙}. They all have prodigious intrinsic SFRs of 510–4800 M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}. Compared to the star-forming main sequence (MS), these six DSFGs have specific SFRs that all lie above the MS, including two galaxies that are a factor of 10 higher than the MS. Our results suggest that we are witnessing ongoing strong starburst events that may be driven by major mergers.

  15. THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY CO-ADD: CROSS-CORRELATION WEAK LENSING AND TOMOGRAPHY OF GALAXY CLUSTERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simet, Melanie; Dodelson, Scott; Kubo, Jeffrey M.; Annis, James T.; Hao Jiangang; Johnston, David; Lin, Huan; Soares-Santos, Marcelle; Reis, Ribamar R. R.; Seo, Hee-Jong

    2012-01-01

    The shapes of distant galaxies are sheared by intervening galaxy clusters. We examine this effect in Stripe 82, a 275 deg 2 region observed multiple times in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and co-added to achieve greater depth. We obtain a mass-richness calibration that is similar to other SDSS analyses, demonstrating that the co-addition process did not adversely affect the lensing signal. We also propose a new parameterization of the effect of tomography on the cluster lensing signal which does not require binning in redshift, and we show that using this parameterization we can detect tomography for stacked clusters at varying redshifts. Finally, due to the sensitivity of the tomographic detection to accurately marginalize over the effect of the cluster mass, we show that tomography at low redshift (where dependence on exact cosmological models is weak) can be used to constrain mass profiles in clusters.

  16. Non-negative Matrix Factorization for Self-calibration of Photometric Redshift Scatter in Weak-lensing Surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Le; Yu, Yu; Zhang, Pengjie, E-mail: lezhang@sjtu.edu.cn [Department of Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, 200240 (China)

    2017-10-10

    Photo- z error is one of the major sources of systematics degrading the accuracy of weak-lensing cosmological inferences. Zhang et al. proposed a self-calibration method combining galaxy–galaxy correlations and galaxy–shear correlations between different photo- z bins. Fisher matrix analysis shows that it can determine the rate of photo- z outliers at a level of 0.01%–1% merely using photometric data and do not rely on any prior knowledge. In this paper, we develop a new algorithm to implement this method by solving a constrained nonlinear optimization problem arising in the self-calibration process. Based on the techniques of fixed-point iteration and non-negative matrix factorization, the proposed algorithm can efficiently and robustly reconstruct the scattering probabilities between the true- z and photo- z bins. The algorithm has been tested extensively by applying it to mock data from simulated stage IV weak-lensing projects. We find that the algorithm provides a successful recovery of the scatter rates at the level of 0.01%–1%, and the true mean redshifts of photo- z bins at the level of 0.001, which may satisfy the requirements in future lensing surveys.

  17. Discovery of two gravitationally lensed quasars with image separations of 3 arcseconds from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oguri, Masamune; Inada, Naohisa; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Richards, Gordon T.; Johnston, David E.; Frieman, Joshua A.; Pindor, Bartosz; Strauss, Michael A.; Brunner, Robert; Becker, Robert H.; Castander, Francisco J.; Gregg, Michael D.; Hall, Patrick B.; Rix, Hans-Walter; Schneider, Donald P.; Bahcall, Neta A.; Brinkmann, Jonathan; York, Donald G.

    2004-11-01

    We report the discovery of two doubly-imaged quasars, SDSS J100128.61+502756.9 and SDSS J120629.65+433217.6, at redshifts of 1.838 and 1.789 and with image separations of 2.86'' and 2.90'', respectively. The objects were selected as lens candidates from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). Based on the identical nature of the spectra of the two quasars in each pair and the identification of the lens galaxies, we conclude that the objects are gravitational lenses. The lenses are complicated; in both systems there are several galaxies in the fields very close to the quasars, in addition to the lens galaxies themselves. The lens modeling implies that these nearby galaxies contribute significantly to the lens potentials. On larger scales, we have detected an enhancement in the galaxy density near SDSS J100128.61+502756.9. The number of lenses with image separation of {approx} 3'' in the SDSS already exceeds the prediction of simple theoretical models based on the standard Lambda-dominated cosmology and observed velocity function of galaxies.

  18. Dark Energy Survey Year 1 Results: Cosmological Constraints from Galaxy Clustering and Weak Lensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbott, T.M.C.; et al.

    2017-08-04

    We present cosmological results from a combined analysis of galaxy clustering and weak gravitational lensing, using 1321 deg$^2$ of $griz$ imaging data from the first year of the Dark Energy Survey (DES Y1). We combine three two-point functions: (i) the cosmic shear correlation function of 26 million source galaxies in four redshift bins, (ii) the galaxy angular autocorrelation function of 650,000 luminous red galaxies in five redshift bins, and (iii) the galaxy-shear cross-correlation of luminous red galaxy positions and source galaxy shears. To demonstrate the robustness of these results, we use independent pairs of galaxy shape, photometric redshift estimation and validation, and likelihood analysis pipelines. To prevent confirmation bias, the bulk of the analysis was carried out while blind to the true results; we describe an extensive suite of systematics checks performed and passed during this blinded phase. The data are modeled in flat $\\Lambda$CDM and $w$CDM cosmologies, marginalizing over 20 nuisance parameters, varying 6 (for $\\Lambda$CDM) or 7 (for $w$CDM) cosmological parameters including the neutrino mass density and including the 457 $\\times$ 457 element analytic covariance matrix. We find consistent cosmological results from these three two-point functions, and from their combination obtain $S_8 \\equiv \\sigma_8 (\\Omega_m/0.3)^{0.5} = 0.783^{+0.021}_{-0.025}$ and $\\Omega_m = 0.264^{+0.032}_{-0.019}$ for $\\Lambda$CDM for $w$CDM, we find $S_8 = 0.794^{+0.029}_{-0.027}$, $\\Omega_m = 0.279^{+0.043}_{-0.022}$, and $w=-0.80^{+0.20}_{-0.22}$ at 68% CL. The precision of these DES Y1 results rivals that from the Planck cosmic microwave background measurements, allowing a comparison of structure in the very early and late Universe on equal terms. Although the DES Y1 best-fit values for $S_8$ and $\\Omega_m$ are lower than the central values from Planck ...

  19. Subaru Weak-Lensing Survey II: Multi-Object Spectroscopy and Cluster Masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamana, Takashi; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Ellis, Richard S.; Massey, Richard J.; Refregier, Alexandre; Taylor, James E.

    2009-08-01

    We present the first results of a multi-object spectroscopic campaign to follow up cluster candidates located via weak lensing. Our main goals are to search for spatial concentrations of galaxies that are plausible optical counterparts of the weak-lensing signals, and to determine the cluster redshifts from those of member galaxies. Around each of 36 targeted cluster candidates, we obtained 15-32 galaxy redshifts. For 28 of these targets, we confirmed a secure cluster identification, with more than five spectroscopic galaxies within a velocity of ±3000km s-1. This includes three cases where two clusters at different redshifts are projected along the same line-of-sight. In 6 of the 8 unconfirmed targets, we found multiple small galaxy concentrations at different redshifts, each containing at least three spectroscopic galaxies. The weak-lensing signal around those systems was thus probably created by the projection of groups or small clusters along the same line-of-sight. In both of the remaining two targets, a single small galaxy concentration was found. In some candidate super-cluster systems, we found additional evidence of filaments connecting the main density peak to an additional nearby structure. For a subsample of our most cleanly measured clusters, we investigated the statistical relation between their weak-lensing mass (MNFW, σSIS) and the velocity dispersion of their member galaxies (σv), comparing our sample with optically and X-ray selected samples from the literature. Our lensing-selected clusters are consistent with σv = σSIS, with a similar scatter to that of optically and X-ray selected clusters. We also derived an empirical relation between the cluster mass and the galaxy velocity dispersion, M200E(z) = 11.0 × 1014 × (σv/1000km s-1)3.0 h-1 Modot, which is in reasonable agreement with predictions of N-body simulations in the Λ CDM cosmology.

  20. "TNOs are Cool": A survey of the trans-Neptunian region. XII. Thermal light curves of Haumea, 2003 VS2 and 2003 AZ84 with Herschel/PACS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Sanz, P.; Lellouch, E.; Groussin, O.; Lacerda, P.; Müller, T. G.; Ortiz, J. L.; Kiss, C.; Vilenius, E.; Stansberry, J.; Duffard, R.; Fornasier, S.; Jorda, L.; Thirouin, A.

    2017-08-01

    Context. Time series observations of the dwarf planet Haumea and the Plutinos 2003 VS2 and 2003 AZ84 with Herschel/PACS are presented in this work. Thermal emission of these trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) were acquired as part of the "TNOs are Cool" Herschel Space Observatory key programme. Aims: We search for the thermal light curves at 100 and 160 μm of Haumea and 2003 AZ84, and at 70 and 160 μm for 2003 VS2 by means of photometric analysis of the PACS data. The goal of this work is to use these thermal light curves to obtain physical and thermophysical properties of these icy Solar System bodies. Methods: When a thermal light curve is detected, it is possible to derive or constrain the object thermal inertia, phase integral and/or surface roughness with thermophysical modeling. Results: Haumea's thermal light curve is clearly detected at 100 and 160 μm. The effect of the reported dark spot is apparent at 100 μm. Different thermophysical models were applied to these light curves, varying the thermophysical properties of the surface within and outside the spot. Although no model gives a perfect fit to the thermal observations, results imply an extremely low thermal inertia (0.73) for Haumea's surface. We note that the dark spot region appears to be only weakly different from the rest of the object, with modest changes in thermal inertia and/or phase integral. The thermal light curve of 2003 VS2 is not firmly detected at 70 μm and at 160 μm but a thermal inertia of (2 ± 0.5) MKS can be derived from these data. The thermal light curve of 2003 AZ84 is not firmly detected at 100 μm. We apply a thermophysical model to the mean thermal fluxes and to all the Herschel/PACS and Spitzer/MIPS thermal data of 2003 AZ84, obtaining a close to pole-on orientation as the most likely for this TNO. Conclusions: For the three TNOs, the thermal inertias derived from light curve analyses or from the thermophysical analysis of the mean thermal fluxes confirm the generally small

  1. Subaru weak-lensing survey of dark matter subhalos in the Coma cluster: Subhalo mass function and statistical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okabe, Nobuhiro; Futamase, Toshifumi; Kuroshima, Risa; Kajisawa, Masaru

    2014-01-01

    We present a 4 deg 2 weak gravitational lensing survey of subhalos in the very nearby Coma cluster using the Subaru/Suprime-Cam. The large apparent size of cluster subhalos allows us to measure the mass of 32 subhalos detected in a model-independent manner, down to the order of 10 –3 of the virial mass of the cluster. Weak-lensing mass measurements of these shear-selected subhalos enable us to investigate subhalo properties and the correlation between subhalo masses and galaxy luminosities for the first time. The mean distortion profiles stacked over subhalos show a sharply truncated feature which is well-fitted by a Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) mass model with the truncation radius, as expected due to tidal destruction by the main cluster. We also found that subhalo masses, truncation radii, and mass-to-light ratios decrease toward the cluster center. The subhalo mass function, dn/dln M sub , in the range of 2 orders of magnitude in mass, is well described by a single power law or a Schechter function. Best-fit power indices of 1.09 −0.32 +0.42 for the former model and 0.99 −0.23 +0.34 for the latter, are in remarkable agreement with slopes of ∼0.9-1.0 predicted by the cold dark matter paradigm. The tangential distortion signals in the radial range of 0.02-2 h –1 Mpc from the cluster center show a complex structure which is well described by a composition of three mass components of subhalos, the NFW mass distribution as a smooth component of the main cluster, and a lensing model from a large scale structure behind the cluster. Although the lensing signals are 1 order of magnitude lower than those for clusters at z ∼ 0.2, the total signal-to-noise ratio, S/N = 13.3, is comparable, or higher, because the enormous number of background source galaxies compensates for the low lensing efficiency of the nearby cluster.

  2. Subaru Weak-lensing Survey of Dark Matter Subhalos in the Coma Cluster: Subhalo Mass Function and Statistical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okabe, Nobuhiro; Futamase, Toshifumi; Kajisawa, Masaru; Kuroshima, Risa

    2014-04-01

    We present a 4 deg2 weak gravitational lensing survey of subhalos in the very nearby Coma cluster using the Subaru/Suprime-Cam. The large apparent size of cluster subhalos allows us to measure the mass of 32 subhalos detected in a model-independent manner, down to the order of 10-3 of the virial mass of the cluster. Weak-lensing mass measurements of these shear-selected subhalos enable us to investigate subhalo properties and the correlation between subhalo masses and galaxy luminosities for the first time. The mean distortion profiles stacked over subhalos show a sharply truncated feature which is well-fitted by a Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) mass model with the truncation radius, as expected due to tidal destruction by the main cluster. We also found that subhalo masses, truncation radii, and mass-to-light ratios decrease toward the cluster center. The subhalo mass function, dn/dln M sub, in the range of 2 orders of magnitude in mass, is well described by a single power law or a Schechter function. Best-fit power indices of 1.09^{+0.42}_{-0.32} for the former model and 0.99_{-0.23}^{+0.34} for the latter, are in remarkable agreement with slopes of ~0.9-1.0 predicted by the cold dark matter paradigm. The tangential distortion signals in the radial range of 0.02-2 h -1 Mpc from the cluster center show a complex structure which is well described by a composition of three mass components of subhalos, the NFW mass distribution as a smooth component of the main cluster, and a lensing model from a large scale structure behind the cluster. Although the lensing signals are 1 order of magnitude lower than those for clusters at z ~ 0.2, the total signal-to-noise ratio, S/N = 13.3, is comparable, or higher, because the enormous number of background source galaxies compensates for the low lensing efficiency of the nearby cluster. Based on data collected from the Subaru Telescope and obtained from SMOKA, operated by the Astronomy Data Center, National Astronomical Observatory of

  3. Joint analysis of galaxy-galaxy lensing and galaxy clustering: Methodology and forecasts for Dark Energy Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Y.; Krause, E.; Dodelson, S.; Jain, B.; Amara, A.

    2016-01-01

    Here, the joint analysis of galaxy-galaxy lensing and galaxy clustering is a promising method for inferring the growth function of large-scale structure. Anticipating a near future application of this analysis to Dark Energy Survey (DES) measurements of galaxy positions and shapes, we develop a practical approach to modeling the assumptions and systematic effects affecting the joint analysis of small-scale galaxy-galaxy lensing and large-scale galaxy clustering. Introducing parameters that characterize the halo occupation distribution (HOD), photometric redshift uncertainties, and shear measurement errors, we study how external priors on different subsets of these parameters affect our growth constraints. Degeneracies within the HOD model, as well as between the HOD and the growth function, are identified as the dominant source of complication, with other systematic effects being subdominant. The impact of HOD parameters and their degeneracies necessitate the detailed joint modeling of the galaxy sample that we employ. We conclude that DES data will provide powerful constraints on the evolution of structure growth in the Universe, conservatively/optimistically constraining the growth function to 7.9%/4.8% with its first-year data that cover over 1000 square degrees, and to 3.9%/2.3% with its full five-year data that will survey 5000 square degrees, including both statistical and systematic uncertainties.

  4. Systematic Biases in Weak Lensing Cosmology with the Dark Energy Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuroff, Simon [Manchester U.

    2017-01-01

    This thesis sets out a practical guide to applying shear measurements as a cosmological tool. We first present one of two science-ready galaxy shape catalogues from Year 1 of the Dark Energy Survey (DES Y1), which covers 1500 square degrees in four bands $griz$, with a median redshift of $0.59$. We describe the shape measurement process implemented by the DES Y1 imshape catalogue, which contains 21.9 million high-quality $r$-band bulge/disc fits. In Chapter 3 a new suite of image simulations, referred to as Hoopoe, are presented. The Hoopoe dataset is tailored to DES Y1 and includes realistic blending, spatial masks and variation in the point spread function. We derive shear corrections, which we show are robust to changes in calibration method, galaxy binning and variance within the simulated dataset. Sources of systematic uncertainty in the simulation-based shear calibration are discussed, leading to a final estimate of the $1\\sigma$ uncertainties in the residual multiplica tive bias after calibration of 0.025. Chapter 4 describes an extension of the analysis on the Hoopoe simulations into a detailed investigation of the impact of galaxy neighbours on shape measurement and shear cosmology. Four mechanisms by which neighbours can have a non-negligible influence on shear measurement are identified. These effects, if ignored, would contribute a net multiplicative bias of $m \\sim 0.03 - 0.09$ in DES Y1, though the precise impact will depend on both the measurement code and the selection cuts applied. We use the cosmological inference pipeline of DES Y1 to explore the cosmological implications of neighbour bias and show that omitting blending from the calibration simulation for DES Y1 would bias the inferred clustering amplitude $S_8 \\equiv \\sigma_8 (\\omegam /0.3)^{0.5}$ by $1.5 \\sigma$ towards low values. Finally, we use the Hoopoe simulations to test the effect of neighbour-induced spatial correlations in the multiplicative bias. We find the cosmo logical

  5. Dark Energy Survey Year 1 results: curved-sky weak lensing mass map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, C.; Pujol, A.; Mawdsley, B.; Bacon, D.; Elvin-Poole, J.; Melchior, P.; Kovács, A.; Jain, B.; Leistedt, B.; Giannantonio, T.; Alarcon, A.; Baxter, E.; Bechtol, K.; Becker, M. R.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernstein, G. M.; Bonnett, C.; Busha, M. T.; Rosell, A. Carnero; Castander, F. J.; Cawthon, R.; da Costa, L. N.; Davis, C.; De Vicente, J.; DeRose, J.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Fosalba, P.; Gatti, M.; Gaztanaga, E.; Gruen, D.; Gschwend, J.; Hartley, W. G.; Hoyle, B.; Huff, E. M.; Jarvis, M.; Jeffrey, N.; Kacprzak, T.; Lin, H.; MacCrann, N.; Maia, M. A. G.; Ogando, R. L. C.; Prat, J.; Rau, M. M.; Rollins, R. P.; Roodman, A.; Rozo, E.; Rykoff, E. S.; Samuroff, S.; Sánchez, C.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Sheldon, E.; Troxel, M. A.; Varga, T. N.; Vielzeuf, P.; Vikram, V.; Wechsler, R. H.; Zuntz, J.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Abdalla, F. B.; Allam, S.; Annis, J.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Burke, D. L.; Kind, M. Carrasco; Carretero, J.; Crocce, M.; Cunha, C. E.; D'Andrea, C. B.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Dietrich, J. P.; Doel, P.; Estrada, J.; Neto, A. Fausti; Fernandez, E.; Flaugher, B.; Frieman, J.; García-Bellido, J.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gutierrez, G.; Honscheid, K.; James, D. J.; Jeltema, T.; Johnson, M. W. G.; Johnson, M. D.; Kent, S.; Kirk, D.; Krause, E.; Kuehn, K.; Kuhlmann, S.; Lahav, O.; Li, T. S.; Lima, M.; March, M.; Martini, P.; Menanteau, F.; Miquel, R.; Mohr, J. J.; Neilsen, E.; Nichol, R. C.; Petravick, D.; Plazas, A. A.; Romer, A. K.; Sako, M.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Schubnell, M.; Smith, M.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Tarle, G.; Thomas, D.; Tucker, D. L.; Walker, A. R.; Wester, W.; Zhang, Y.

    2018-04-01

    We construct the largest curved-sky galaxy weak lensing mass map to date from the DES first-year (DES Y1) data. The map, about 10 times larger than the previous work, is constructed over a contiguous ≈1500 deg2, covering a comoving volume of ≈10 Gpc3. The effects of masking, sampling, and noise are tested using simulations. We generate weak lensing maps from two DES Y1 shear catalogues, METACALIBRATION and IM3SHAPE, with sources at redshift 0.2 < z < 1.3, and in each of four bins in this range. In the highest signal-to-noise map, the ratio between the mean signal to noise in the E-mode map and the B-mode map is ˜1.5 (˜2) when smoothed with a Gaussian filter of σG = 30 (80) arcmin. The second and third moments of the convergence κ in the maps are in agreement with simulations. We also find no significant correlation of κ with maps of potential systematic contaminants. Finally, we demonstrate two applications of the mass maps: (1) cross-correlation

  6. Dark Energy Survey Year 1 Results: Curved-Sky Weak Lensing Mass Map

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, C.; et al.

    2017-08-04

    We construct the largest curved-sky galaxy weak lensing mass map to date from the DES first-year (DES Y1) data. The map, about 10 times larger than previous work, is constructed over a contiguous $\\approx1,500 $deg$^2$, covering a comoving volume of $\\approx10 $Gpc$^3$. The effects of masking, sampling, and noise are tested using simulations. We generate weak lensing maps from two DES Y1 shear catalogs, Metacalibration and Im3shape, with sources at redshift $0.2

  7. Charles Darwin and John Herschel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, B.

    2009-11-01

    The influence of John Herschel on the philosophical thoughts of Charles Darwin, both through the former's book, Natural Philosophy, and through their meeting in 1836 at the Cape of Good Hope, is discussed. With Herschel having himself speculated on evolution just a few months before he met Darwin, it is probable that he stimulated at least the beginnings of the latter's lifelong work on the subject.

  8. THE HAWAII SCUBA-2 LENSING CLUSTER SURVEY: NUMBER COUNTS AND SUBMILLIMETER FLUX RATIOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Li-Yen; Cowie, Lennox L.; Barger, Amy J. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Chen, Chian-Chou [Center for Extragalactic Astronomy, Department of Physics, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Wang, Wei-Hao [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)

    2016-09-20

    We present deep number counts at 450 and 850 μ m using the SCUBA-2 camera on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope. We combine data for six lensing cluster fields and three blank fields to measure the counts over a wide flux range at each wavelength. Thanks to the lensing magnification, our measurements extend to fluxes fainter than 1 mJy and 0.2 mJy at 450 μ m and 850 μ m, respectively. Our combined data highly constrain the faint end of the number counts. Integrating our counts shows that the majority of the extragalactic background light (EBL) at each wavelength is contributed by faint sources with L {sub IR} < 10{sup 12} L {sub ⊙}, corresponding to luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) or normal galaxies. By comparing our result with the 500 μ m stacking of K -selected sources from the literature, we conclude that the K -selected LIRGs and normal galaxies still cannot fully account for the EBL that originates from sources with L {sub IR} < 10{sup 12} L {sub ⊙}. This suggests that many faint submillimeter galaxies may not be included in the UV star formation history. We also explore the submillimeter flux ratio between the two bands for our 450 μ m and 850 μ m selected sources. At 850 μ m, we find a clear relation between the flux ratio and the observed flux. This relation can be explained by a redshift evolution, where galaxies at higher redshifts have higher luminosities and star formation rates. In contrast, at 450 μ m, we do not see a clear relation between the flux ratio and the observed flux.

  9. Herschel HIFI GOT C+ Survey: CII, HI, and CO Emissions in a Sample of Transition Clouds and Star-Forming regions in the Inner Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, Jorge; Velusamy, Thangasamy; Langer, William D.; Goldsmith, Paul; Li, Di; Yorke, Harold

    The GOT C+ a HIFI Herschel Key Project, studies the diffuse ISM throughout the Galactic Plane, using C+ as cloud tracer. The C+ line at 1.9 THz traces a so-far poorly studied stage in ISM cloud evolution -the transitional clouds going from atomic HI to molecular H2. This transition cloud phase, which is difficult to observe in HI and CO alone, may be best characterized via CII emission or absorption. The C+ line is also an excellent tracer of the warm diffuse gas and the warm, dense gas in the Photon Dominated Regions (PDRs). We can, therefore, use the CII emission as a probe to understand the effects of star formation on their interstellar environment. We present our first results on the transition between dense and hot gas (traced by CII) and dense and cold gas (traced by 12CO and 13CO) along a few representative lines of sight in the inner Galaxy from longitude 325 degrees to 25 degrees, taken during the HIFI Priority Science Phase. Comparisons of the high spectral resolution ( 1 km/s) HIFI data on C+ with HI, 12CO, and 13CO spectra allow us to separate out the different ISM components along each line of sight. Our results provide detailed information about the transition of diffuse atomic to molecular gas clouds needed to understand star formation and the lifecycle of the interstellar gas. These observations are being carried out with the Herschel Space Observatory, which is an ESA cornerstone mission, with contributions from NASA. This research was conducted at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. JLP was supported under the NASA Postdoctoral Program at JPL, Caltech, administered by Oak Ridge Associated Universities through a contract with NASA, and is currently supported as a Caltech-JPL Postdoctoral associate.

  10. Weak-lensing mass calibration of redMaPPer galaxy clusters in Dark Energy Survey Science Verification data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melchior, P.; Gruen, D.; McClintock, T.; Varga, T. N.; Sheldon, E.; Rozo, E.; Amara, A.; Becker, M. R.; Benson, B. A.; Bermeo, A.; Bridle, S. L.; Clampitt, J.; Dietrich, J. P.; Hartley, W. G.; Hollowood, D.; Jain, B.; Jarvis, M.; Jeltema, T.; Kacprzak, T.; MacCrann, N.; Rykoff, E. S.; Saro, A.; Suchyta, E.; Troxel, M. A.; Zuntz, J.; Bonnett, C.; Plazas, A. A.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Abdalla, F. B.; Annis, J.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernstein, G. M.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Carnero Rosell, A.; Carrasco Kind, M.; Carretero, J.; Cunha, C. E.; D’Andrea, C. B.; da Costa, L. N.; Desai, S.; Eifler, T. F.; Flaugher, B.; Fosalba, P.; García-Bellido, J.; Gaztanaga, E.; Gerdes, D. W.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gschwend, J.; Gutierrez, G.; Honscheid, K.; James, D. J.; Kirk, D.; Krause, E.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lahav, O.; Lima, M.; Maia, M. A. G.; March, M.; Martini, P.; Menanteau, F.; Miller, C. J.; Miquel, R.; Mohr, J. J.; Nichol, R. C.; Ogando, R.; Romer, A. K.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Thomas, D.; Walker, A. R.; Weller, J.; Zhang, Y.

    2017-05-16

    We use weak-lensing shear measurements to determine the mean mass of optically selected galaxy clusters in Dark Energy Survey Science Verification data. In a blinded analysis, we split the sample of more than 8,000 redMaPPer clusters into 15 subsets, spanning ranges in the richness parameter $5 \\leq \\lambda \\leq 180$ and redshift $0.2 \\leq z \\leq 0.8$, and fit the averaged mass density contrast profiles with a model that accounts for seven distinct sources of systematic uncertainty: shear measurement and photometric redshift errors; cluster-member contamination; miscentering; deviations from the NFW halo profile; halo triaxiality; and line-of-sight projections. We combine the inferred cluster masses to estimate the joint scaling relation between mass, richness and redshift, $\\mathcal{M}(\\lambda,z) \\varpropto M_0 \\lambda^{F} (1+z)^{G}$. We find $M_0 \\equiv \\langle M_{200\\mathrm{m}}\\,|\\,\\lambda=30,z=0.5\\rangle=\\left[ 2.35 \\pm 0.22\\ \\rm{(stat)} \\pm 0.12\\ \\rm{(sys)} \\right] \\cdot 10^{14}\\ M_\\odot$, with $F = 1.12\\,\\pm\\,0.20\\ \\rm{(stat)}\\, \\pm\\, 0.06\\ \\rm{(sys)}$ and $G = 0.18\\,\\pm\\, 0.75\\ \\rm{(stat)}\\, \\pm\\, 0.24\\ \\rm{(sys)}$. The amplitude of the mass-richness relation is in excellent agreement with the weak-lensing calibration of redMaPPer clusters in SDSS by Simet et al. (2016) and with the Saro et al. (2015) calibration based on abundance matching of SPT-detected clusters. Our results extend the redshift range over which the mass-richness relation of redMaPPer clusters has been calibrated with weak lensing from $z\\leq 0.3$ to $z\\leq0.8$. Calibration uncertainties of shear measurements and photometric redshift estimates dominate our systematic error budget and require substantial improvements for forthcoming studies.

  11. SDSS J2222+2745: A GRAVITATIONALLY LENSED SEXTUPLE QUASAR WITH A MAXIMUM IMAGE SEPARATION OF 15.''1 DISCOVERED IN THE SLOAN GIANT ARCS SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahle, H.; Groeneboom, N.; Gladders, M. D.; Abramson, L. E.; Sharon, K.; Bayliss, M. B.; Wuyts, E.; Koester, B. P.; Brinckmann, T. E.; Kristensen, M. T.; Lindholmer, M. O.; Nielsen, A.; Krogager, J.-K.; Fynbo, J. P. U.

    2013-01-01

    We report the discovery of a unique gravitational lens system, SDSS J2222+2745, producing five spectroscopically confirmed images of a z s = 2.82 quasar lensed by a foreground galaxy cluster at z l = 0.49. We also present photometric and spectroscopic evidence for a sixth lensed image of the same quasar. The maximum separation between the quasar images is 15.''1. Both the large image separations and the high image multiplicity are in themselves rare among known lensed quasars, and observing the combination of these two factors is an exceptionally unlikely occurrence in present data sets. This is only the third known case of a quasar lensed by a cluster, and the only one with six images. The lens system was discovered in the course of the Sloan Giant Arcs Survey, in which we identify candidate lenses in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and target these for follow-up and verification with the 2.56 m Nordic Optical Telescope. Multi-band photometry obtained over multiple epochs from 2011 September to 2012 September reveals significant variability at the ∼10%-30% level in some of the quasar images, indicating that measurements of the relative time delay between quasar images will be feasible. In this lens system, we also identify a bright (g = 21.5) giant arc corresponding to a strongly lensed background galaxy at z s = 2.30. We fit parametric models of the lens system, constrained by the redshift and positions of the quasar images and the redshift and position of the giant arc. The predicted time delays between different pairs of quasar images range from ∼100 days to ∼6 yr

  12. Redshift distributions of galaxies in the Dark Energy Survey Science Verification shear catalogue and implications for weak lensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnett, C.; Troxel, M. A.; Hartley, W.; Amara, A.; Leistedt, B.; Becker, M. R.; Bernstein, G. M.; Bridle, S. L.; Bruderer, C.; Busha, M. T.; Carrasco Kind, M.; Childress, M. J.; Castander, F. J.; Chang, C.; Crocce, M.; Davis, T. M.; Eifler, T. F.; Frieman, J.; Gangkofner, C.; Gaztanaga, E.; Glazebrook, K.; Gruen, D.; Kacprzak, T.; King, A.; Kwan, J.; Lahav, O.; Lewis, G.; Lidman, C.; Lin, H.; MacCrann, N.; Miquel, R.; O’Neill, C. R.; Palmese, A.; Peiris, H. V.; Refregier, A.; Rozo, E.; Rykoff, E. S.; Sadeh, I.; Sánchez, C.; Sheldon, E.; Uddin, S.; Wechsler, R. H.; Zuntz, J.; Abbott, T.; Abdalla, F. B.; Allam, S.; Armstrong, R.; Banerji, M.; Bauer, A. H.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Burke, D. L.; Capozzi, D.; Carnero Rosell, A.; Carretero, J.; Cunha, C. E.; D’Andrea, C. B.; da Costa, L. N.; DePoy, D. L.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Dietrich, J. P.; Doel, P.; Fausti Neto, A.; Fernandez, E.; Flaugher, B.; Fosalba, P.; Gerdes, D. W.; Gruendl, R. A.; Honscheid, K.; Jain, B.; James, D. J.; Jarvis, M.; Kim, A. G.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Li, T. S.; Lima, M.; Maia, M. A. G.; March, M.; Marshall, J. L.; Martini, P.; Melchior, P.; Miller, C. J.; Neilsen, E.; Nichol, R. C.; Nord, B.; Ogando, R.; Plazas, A. A.; Reil, K.; Romer, A. K.; Roodman, A.; Sako, M.; Sanchez, E.; Santiago, B.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Thaler, J.; Thomas, D.; Vikram, V.; Walker, A. R.

    2016-08-01

    We present photometric redshift estimates for galaxies used in the weak lensing analysis of the Dark Energy Survey Science Verification (DES SV) data. Four model- or machine learning-based photometric redshift methods { annz2, bpz calibrated against BCC-U fig simulations, skynet, and tpz { are analysed. For training, calibration, and testing of these methods, we also construct a catalogue of spectroscopically confirmed galaxies matched against DES SV data. The performance of the methods is evalu-ated against the matched spectroscopic catalogue, focusing on metrics relevant for weak lensing analyses, with additional validation against COSMOS photo-zs. From the galaxies in the DES SV shear catalogue, which have mean redshift 0.72 ±0.01 over the range 0:3 < z < 1:3, we construct three tomographic bins with means of z = {0.45; 0.67,1.00g}. These bins each have systematic uncertainties δz ≲ 0.05 in the mean of the fiducial skynet photo-z n(z). We propagate the errors in the redshift distributions through to their impact on cosmological parameters estimated with cosmic shear, and find that they cause shifts in the value of σ8 of approx. 3%. This shift is within the one sigma statistical errors on σ8 for the DES SV shear catalog. We also found that further study of the potential impact of systematic differences on the critical surface density, Σcrit, contained levels of bias safely less than the statistical power of DES SV data. We recommend a final Gaussian prior for the photo-z bias in the mean of n(z) of width 0:05 for each of the three tomographic bins, and show that this is a sufficient bias model for the corresponding cosmology analysis.

  13. Galaxy bias from the Dark Energy Survey Science Verification data: combining galaxy density maps and weak lensing maps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, C.; Pujol, A.; Gaztañaga, E.; Amara, A.; Réfrégier, A.; Bacon, D.; Becker, M. R.; Bonnett, C.; Carretero, J.; Castander, F. J.; Crocce, M.; Fosalba, P.; Giannantonio, T.; Hartley, W.; Jarvis, M.; Kacprzak, T.; Ross, A. J.; Sheldon, E.; Troxel, M. A.; Vikram, V.; Zuntz, J.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Abdalla, F. B.; Allam, S.; Annis, J.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Burke, D. L.; Capozzi, D.; Rosell, A. Carnero; Kind, M. Carrasco; Cunha, C. E.; D' Andrea, C. B.; da Costa, L. N.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Dietrich, J. P.; Doel, P.; Eifler, T. F.; Estrada, J.; Evrard, A. E.; Flaugher, B.; Frieman, J.; Goldstein, D. A.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gutierrez, G.; Honscheid, K.; Jain, B.; James, D. J.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lahav, O.; Li, T. S.; Lima, M.; Marshall, J. L.; Martini, P.; Melchior, P.; Miller, C. J.; Miquel, R.; Mohr, J. J.; Nichol, R. C.; Nord, B.; Ogando, R.; Plazas, A. A.; Reil, K.; Romer, A. K.; Roodman, A.; Rykoff, E. S.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Thomas, D.; Walker, A. R.

    2016-04-15

    We measure the redshift evolution of galaxy bias from a magnitude-limited galaxy sample by combining the galaxy density maps and weak lensing shear maps for a $\\sim$116 deg$^{2}$ area of the Dark Energy Survey (DES) Science Verification data. This method was first developed in Amara et al. (2012) and later re-examined in a companion paper (Pujol et al., in prep) with rigorous simulation tests and analytical treatment of tomographic measurements. In this work we apply this method to the DES SV data and measure the galaxy bias for a magnitude-limited galaxy sample. We find the galaxy bias and 1$\\sigma$ error bars in 4 photometric redshift bins to be 1.33$\\pm$0.18 (z=0.2-0.4), 1.19$\\pm$0.23 (z=0.4-0.6), 0.99$\\pm$0.36 ( z=0.6-0.8), and 1.66$\\pm$0.56 (z=0.8-1.0). These measurements are consistent at the 1-2$\\sigma$ level with mea- surements on the same dataset using galaxy clustering and cross-correlation of galaxies with CMB lensing. In addition, our method provides the only $\\sigma_8$-independent constraint among the three. We forward-model the main observational effects using mock galaxy catalogs by including shape noise, photo-z errors and masking effects. We show that our bias measurement from the data is consistent with that expected from simulations. With the forthcoming full DES data set, we expect this method to provide additional constraints on the galaxy bias measurement from more traditional methods. Furthermore, in the process of our measurement, we build up a 3D mass map that allows further exploration of the dark matter distribution and its relation to galaxy evolution.

  14. Type-Ia supernova rates to redshift 2.4 from clash: The cluster lensing and supernova survey with Hubble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graur, O.; Rodney, S. A.; Riess, A. G.; Medezinski, E.; Maoz, D.; Jha, S. W.; Holoien, T. W.-S.; McCully, C.; Patel, B.; Postman, M.; Dahlen, T.; Strolger, L.-G.; Coe, D.; Bradley, L.; Koekemoer, A.; Benítez, N.; Molino, A.; Jouvel, S.; Nonino, M.; Balestra, I.

    2014-01-01

    We present the supernova (SN) sample and Type-Ia SN (SN Ia) rates from the Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble (CLASH). Using the Advanced Camera for Surveys and the Wide Field Camera 3 on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), we have imaged 25 galaxy-cluster fields and parallel fields of non-cluster galaxies. We report a sample of 27 SNe discovered in the parallel fields. Of these SNe, ∼13 are classified as SN Ia candidates, including four SN Ia candidates at redshifts z > 1.2. We measure volumetric SN Ia rates to redshift 1.8 and add the first upper limit on the SN Ia rate in the range 1.8 < z < 2.4. The results are consistent with the rates measured by the HST/GOODS and Subaru Deep Field SN surveys. We model these results together with previous measurements at z < 1 from the literature. The best-fitting SN Ia delay-time distribution (DTD; the distribution of times that elapse between a short burst of star formation and subsequent SN Ia explosions) is a power law with an index of −1.00 −0.06(0.10) +0.06(0.09) (statistical) −0.08 +0.12 (systematic), where the statistical uncertainty is a result of the 68% and 95% (in parentheses) statistical uncertainties reported for the various SN Ia rates (from this work and from the literature), and the systematic uncertainty reflects the range of possible cosmic star-formation histories. We also test DTD models produced by an assortment of published binary population synthesis (BPS) simulations. The shapes of all BPS double-degenerate DTDs are consistent with the volumetric SN Ia measurements, when the DTD models are scaled up by factors of 3-9. In contrast, all BPS single-degenerate DTDs are ruled out by the measurements at >99% significance level.

  15. Type-Ia Supernova Rates to Redshift 2.4 from Clash: The Cluster Lensing and Supernova Survey with Hubble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graur, O.; Rodney, S. A.; Maoz, D.; Riess, A. G.; Jha, S. W.; Postman, M.; Dahlen, T.; Holoien, T. W.-S.; McCully, C.; Patel, B.; hide

    2014-01-01

    We present the supernova (SN) sample and Type-Ia SN (SN Ia) rates from the Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble (CLASH). Using the Advanced Camera for Surveys and the Wide Field Camera 3 on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), we have imaged 25 galaxy-cluster fields and parallel fields of non-cluster galaxies. We report a sample of 27 SNe discovered in the parallel fields. Of these SNe, approximately 13 are classified as SN Ia candidates, including four SN Ia candidates at redshifts z greater than 1.2.We measure volumetric SN Ia rates to redshift 1.8 and add the first upper limit on the SN Ia rate in the range z greater than 1.8 and less than 2.4. The results are consistent with the rates measured by the HST/ GOODS and Subaru Deep Field SN surveys.We model these results together with previous measurements at z less than 1 from the literature. The best-fitting SN Ia delay-time distribution (DTD; the distribution of times that elapse between a short burst of star formation and subsequent SN Ia explosions) is a power law with an index of 1.00 (+0.06(0.09))/(-0.06(0.10)) (statistical) (+0.12/-0.08) (systematic), where the statistical uncertainty is a result of the 68% and 95% (in parentheses) statistical uncertainties reported for the various SN Ia rates (from this work and from the literature), and the systematic uncertainty reflects the range of possible cosmic star-formation histories. We also test DTD models produced by an assortment of published binary population synthesis (BPS) simulations. The shapes of all BPS double-degenerate DTDs are consistent with the volumetric SN Ia measurements, when the DTD models are scaled up by factors of 3-9. In contrast, all BPS single-degenerate DTDs are ruled out by the measurements at greater than 99% significance level.

  16. HERSCHEL/PACS SURVEY OF PROTOPLANETARY DISKS IN TAURUS/AURIGA—OBSERVATIONS OF [O I] AND [C II], AND FAR-INFRARED CONTINUUM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, Christian D.; Sandell, Göran; Vacca, William D.; Duchêne, Gaspard; Mathews, Geoffrey; Augereau, Jean-Charles; Ménard, Francois; Pinte, Christophe; Podio, Linda; Thi, Wing-Fai; Barrado, David; Riviere-Marichalar, Pablo; Dent, William R. F.; Eiroa, Carlos; Meeus, Gwendolyn; Grady, Carol; Roberge, Aki; Kamp, Inga; Vicente, Silvia; Williams, Jonathan P.

    2013-01-01

    The Herschel Space Observatory was used to observe ∼120 pre-main-sequence stars in Taurus as part of the GASPS Open Time Key project. Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer was used to measure the continuum as well as several gas tracers such as [O I] 63 μm, [O I] 145 μm, [C II] 158 μm, OH, H 2 O, and CO. The strongest line seen is [O I] at 63 μm. We find a clear correlation between the strength of the [O I] 63 μm line and the 63 μm continuum for disk sources. In outflow sources, the line emission can be up to 20 times stronger than in disk sources, suggesting that the line emission is dominated by the outflow. The tight correlation seen for disk sources suggests that the emission arises from the inner disk (<50 AU) and lower surface layers of the disk where the gas and dust are coupled. The [O I] 63 μm is fainter in transitional stars than in normal Class II disks. Simple spectral energy distribution models indicate that the dust responsible for the continuum emission is colder in these disks, leading to weaker line emission. [C II] 158 μm emission is only detected in strong outflow sources. The observed line ratios of [O I] 63 μm to [O I] 145 μm are in the regime where we are insensitive to the gas-to-dust ratio, neither can we discriminate between shock or photodissociation region emission. We detect no Class III object in [O I] 63 μm and only three in continuum, at least one of which is a candidate debris disk

  17. Panchromatic spectral energy distributions of Herschel sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berta, S.; Lutz, D.; Santini, P.; Wuyts, S.; Rosario, D.; Brisbin, D.; Cooray, A.; Franceschini, A.; Gruppioni, C.; Hatziminaoglou, E.; Hwang, H. S.; Le Floc'h, E.; Magnelli, B.; Nordon, R.; Oliver, S.; Page, M. J.; Popesso, P.; Pozzetti, L.; Pozzi, F.; Riguccini, L.; Rodighiero, G.; Roseboom, I.; Scott, D.; Symeonidis, M.; Valtchanov, I.; Viero, M.; Wang, L.

    2013-03-01

    Combining far-infrared Herschel photometry from the PACS Evolutionary Probe (PEP) and Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey (HerMES) guaranteed time programs with ancillary datasets in the GOODS-N, GOODS-S, and COSMOS fields, it is possible to sample the 8-500 μm spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of galaxies with at least 7-10 bands. Extending to the UV, optical, and near-infrared, the number of bands increases up to 43. We reproduce the distribution of galaxies in a carefully selected restframe ten colors space, based on this rich data-set, using a superposition of multivariate Gaussian modes. We use this model to classify galaxies and build median SEDs of each class, which are then fitted with a modified version of the magphys code that combines stellar light, emission from dust heated by stars and a possible warm dust contribution heated by an active galactic nucleus (AGN). The color distribution of galaxies in each of the considered fields can be well described with the combination of 6-9 classes, spanning a large range of far- to near-infrared luminosity ratios, as well as different strength of the AGN contribution to bolometric luminosities. The defined Gaussian grouping is used to identify rare or odd sources. The zoology of outliers includes Herschel-detected ellipticals, very blue z ~ 1 Ly-break galaxies, quiescent spirals, and torus-dominated AGN with star formation. Out of these groups and outliers, a new template library is assembled, consisting of 32 SEDs describing the intrinsic scatter in the restframe UV-to-submm colors of infrared galaxies. This library is tested against L(IR) estimates with and without Herschel data included, and compared to eightother popular methods often adopted in the literature. When implementing Herschel photometry, these approaches produce L(IR) values consistent with each other within a median absolute deviation of 10-20%, the scatter being dominated more by fine tuning of the codes, rather than by the choice of

  18. Weak-Lensing Mass Calibration of the Atacama Cosmology Telescope Equatorial Sunyaev-Zeldovich Cluster Sample with the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Stripe 82 Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia, N.; Leauthaud, A.; Miyatake, H.; Hasseleld, M.; Gralla, M. B.; Allison, R.; Bond, J. R.; Calabrese, E.; Crichton, D.; Devlin, M. J.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Mass calibration uncertainty is the largest systematic effect for using clustersof galaxies to constrain cosmological parameters. We present weak lensing mass measurements from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Stripe 82 Survey for galaxy clusters selected through their high signal-to-noise thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich (tSZ) signal measured with the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT). For a sample of 9 ACT clusters with a tSZ signal-to-noise greater than five, the average weak lensing mass is (4.8 plus or minus 0.8) times 10 (sup 14) solar mass, consistent with the tSZ mass estimate of (4.7 plus or minus 1.0) times 10 (sup 14) solar mass, which assumes a universal pressure profile for the cluster gas. Our results are consistent with previous weak-lensing measurements of tSZ-detected clusters from the Planck satellite. When comparing our results, we estimate the Eddington bias correction for the sample intersection of Planck and weak-lensing clusters which was previously excluded.

  19. Weak-lensing mass calibration of the Atacama Cosmology Telescope equatorial Sunyaev-Zeldovich cluster sample with the Canada-France-Hawaii telescope stripe 82 survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battaglia, N.; Miyatake, H.; Hasselfield, M.; Calabrese, E.; Ferrara, S.; Hložek, R. [Dept. of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Leauthaud, A. [Kavli IPMU (WPI), UTIAS, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Gralla, M.B.; Crichton, D. [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Allison, R.; Dunkley, J. [Dept. of Astrophysics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Bond, J.R. [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada); Devlin, M.J. [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Dünner, R. [Dept. de Astronomía y Astrofísica, Facultad de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Erben, T. [Argelander-Institut für Astronomie, University of Bonn, 53121 Bonn (Germany); Halpern, M.; Hincks, A.D. [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z4 (Canada); Hilton, M. [Astrophysics and Cosmology Research Unit, School of Mathematical, Statistics and Computer Science, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, 4041 (South Africa); Hill, J.C. [Dept. of Astronomy, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Huffenberger, K.M., E-mail: nbatta@astro.princeton.edu [Dept. of Physics, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306 (United States); and others

    2016-08-01

    Mass calibration uncertainty is the largest systematic effect for using clusters of galaxies to constrain cosmological parameters. We present weak lensing mass measurements from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Stripe 82 Survey for galaxy clusters selected through their high signal-to-noise thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich (tSZ) signal measured with the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT). For a sample of 9 ACT clusters with a tSZ signal-to-noise greater than five the average weak lensing mass is (4.8±0.8) ×10{sup 14} M{sub ⊙}, consistent with the tSZ mass estimate of (4.70±1.0) ×10{sup 14} M{sub ⊙} which assumes a universal pressure profile for the cluster gas. Our results are consistent with previous weak-lensing measurements of tSZ-detected clusters from the Planck satellite. When comparing our results, we estimate the Eddington bias correction for the sample intersection of Planck and weak-lensing clusters which was previously excluded.

  20. Weak-lensing mass calibration of the Atacama Cosmology Telescope equatorial Sunyaev-Zeldovich cluster sample with the Canada-France-Hawaii telescope stripe 82 survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battaglia, N.; Miyatake, H.; Hasselfield, M.; Calabrese, E.; Ferrara, S.; Hložek, R.; Leauthaud, A.; Gralla, M.B.; Crichton, D.; Allison, R.; Dunkley, J.; Bond, J.R.; Devlin, M.J.; Dünner, R.; Erben, T.; Halpern, M.; Hincks, A.D.; Hilton, M.; Hill, J.C.; Huffenberger, K.M.

    2016-01-01

    Mass calibration uncertainty is the largest systematic effect for using clusters of galaxies to constrain cosmological parameters. We present weak lensing mass measurements from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Stripe 82 Survey for galaxy clusters selected through their high signal-to-noise thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich (tSZ) signal measured with the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT). For a sample of 9 ACT clusters with a tSZ signal-to-noise greater than five the average weak lensing mass is (4.8±0.8) ×10 14 M ⊙ , consistent with the tSZ mass estimate of (4.70±1.0) ×10 14 M ⊙ which assumes a universal pressure profile for the cluster gas. Our results are consistent with previous weak-lensing measurements of tSZ-detected clusters from the Planck satellite. When comparing our results, we estimate the Eddington bias correction for the sample intersection of Planck and weak-lensing clusters which was previously excluded.

  1. Cluster Mass Calibration at High Redshift: HST Weak Lensing Analysis of 13 Distant Galaxy Clusters from the South Pole Telescope Sunyaev-Zel’dovich Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schrabback, T.; Applegate, D.; Dietrich, J. P.; Hoekstra, H.; Bocquet, S.; Gonzalez, A. H.; der Linden, A. von; McDonald, M.; Morrison, C. B.; Raihan, S. F.; Allen, S. W.; Bayliss, M.; Benson, B. A.; Bleem, L. E.; Chiu, I.; Desai, S.; Foley, R. J.; de Haan, T.; High, F. W.; Hilbert, S.; Mantz, A. B.; Massey, R.; Mohr, J.; Reichardt, C. L.; Saro, A.; Simon, P.; Stern, C.; Stubbs, C. W.; Zenteno, A.

    2017-10-14

    We present an HST/Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) weak gravitational lensing analysis of 13 massive high-redshift (z(median) = 0.88) galaxy clusters discovered in the South Pole Telescope (SPT) Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Survey. This study is part of a larger campaign that aims to robustly calibrate mass-observable scaling relations over a wide range in redshift to enable improved cosmological constraints from the SPT cluster sample. We introduce new strategies to ensure that systematics in the lensing analysis do not degrade constraints on cluster scaling relations significantly. First, we efficiently remove cluster members from the source sample by selecting very blue galaxies in V - I colour. Our estimate of the source redshift distribution is based on Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS) data, where we carefully mimic the source selection criteria of the cluster fields. We apply a statistical correction for systematic photometric redshift errors as derived from Hubble Ultra Deep Field data and verified through spatial cross-correlations. We account for the impact of lensing magnification on the source redshift distribution, finding that this is particularly relevant for shallower surveys. Finally, we account for biases in the mass modelling caused by miscentring and uncertainties in the concentration-mass relation using simulations. In combination with temperature estimates from Chandra we constrain the normalization of the mass-temperature scaling relation ln (E(z) M-500c/10(14)M(circle dot)) = A + 1.5ln (kT/7.2 keV) to A = 1.81(-0.14)(+0.24)(stat.)+/- 0.09(sys.), consistent with self-similar redshift evolution when compared to lower redshift samples. Additionally, the lensing data constrain the average concentration of the clusters to c(200c) = 5.6(-1.8)(+3.7).

  2. Cluster mass calibration at high redshift: HST weak lensing analysis of 13 distant galaxy clusters from the South Pole Telescope Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrabback, T.; Applegate, D.; Dietrich, J. P.; Hoekstra, H.; Bocquet, S.; Gonzalez, A. H.; von der Linden, A.; McDonald, M.; Morrison, C. B.; Raihan, S. F.; Allen, S. W.; Bayliss, M.; Benson, B. A.; Bleem, L. E.; Chiu, I.; Desai, S.; Foley, R. J.; de Haan, T.; High, F. W.; Hilbert, S.; Mantz, A. B.; Massey, R.; Mohr, J.; Reichardt, C. L.; Saro, A.; Simon, P.; Stern, C.; Stubbs, C. W.; Zenteno, A.

    2018-02-01

    We present an HST/Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) weak gravitational lensing analysis of 13 massive high-redshift (zmedian = 0.88) galaxy clusters discovered in the South Pole Telescope (SPT) Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Survey. This study is part of a larger campaign that aims to robustly calibrate mass-observable scaling relations over a wide range in redshift to enable improved cosmological constraints from the SPT cluster sample. We introduce new strategies to ensure that systematics in the lensing analysis do not degrade constraints on cluster scaling relations significantly. First, we efficiently remove cluster members from the source sample by selecting very blue galaxies in V - I colour. Our estimate of the source redshift distribution is based on Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS) data, where we carefully mimic the source selection criteria of the cluster fields. We apply a statistical correction for systematic photometric redshift errors as derived from Hubble Ultra Deep Field data and verified through spatial cross-correlations. We account for the impact of lensing magnification on the source redshift distribution, finding that this is particularly relevant for shallower surveys. Finally, we account for biases in the mass modelling caused by miscentring and uncertainties in the concentration-mass relation using simulations. In combination with temperature estimates from Chandra we constrain the normalization of the mass-temperature scaling relation ln (E(z)M500c/1014 M⊙) = A + 1.5ln (kT/7.2 keV) to A=1.81^{+0.24}_{-0.14}(stat.) {± } 0.09(sys.), consistent with self-similar redshift evolution when compared to lower redshift samples. Additionally, the lensing data constrain the average concentration of the clusters to c_200c=5.6^{+3.7}_{-1.8}.

  3. William and Caroline Herschel pioneers in late 18th-century astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Hoskin, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This beautifully structured book presents the essentials of William and Caroline Herschel's pioneering achievements in late 18th-century astronomy. Michael Hoskin shows that William Herschel was the first observational cosmologist and one of the first observers to attack the sidereal universe beyond the solar system:Herschel built instruments far better than any being used at the royal observatory. Aided by his sister Caroline, he commenced a great systematic survey that led to his discovery of Uranus in 1781.Unlike observers before him, whose telescopes did not reveal them as astronomical obj

  4. Cluster Mass Calibration at High Redshift: HST Weak Lensing Analysis of 13 Distant Galaxy Clusters from the South Pole Telescope Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schrabback, T.; et al.

    2016-11-11

    We present an HST/ACS weak gravitational lensing analysis of 13 massive high-redshift (z_median=0.88) galaxy clusters discovered in the South Pole Telescope (SPT) Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Survey. This study is part of a larger campaign that aims to robustly calibrate mass-observable scaling relations over a wide range in redshift to enable improved cosmological constraints from the SPT cluster sample. We introduce new strategies to ensure that systematics in the lensing analysis do not degrade constraints on cluster scaling relations significantly. First, we efficiently remove cluster members from the source sample by selecting very blue galaxies in V-I colour. Our estimate of the source redshift distribution is based on CANDELS data, where we carefully mimic the source selection criteria of the cluster fields. We apply a statistical correction for systematic photometric redshift errors as derived from Hubble Ultra Deep Field data and verified through spatial cross-correlations. We account for the impact of lensing magnification on the source redshift distribution, finding that this is particularly relevant for shallower surveys. Finally, we account for biases in the mass modelling caused by miscentring and uncertainties in the mass-concentration relation using simulations. In combination with temperature estimates from Chandra we constrain the normalisation of the mass-temperature scaling relation ln(E(z) M_500c/10^14 M_sun)=A+1.5 ln(kT/7.2keV) to A=1.81^{+0.24}_{-0.14}(stat.) +/- 0.09(sys.), consistent with self-similar redshift evolution when compared to lower redshift samples. Additionally, the lensing data constrain the average concentration of the clusters to c_200c=5.6^{+3.7}_{-1.8}.

  5. Gabor lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mobley, R.M.; Gamml, G.; Maschke, A.W.

    1979-01-01

    Stable operation of Gabor lenses has been reported by at least three experimental groups. At Brookhaven, several lens designs have been tried since February, 1978 with very good results. The lens concept is simple, operation is less complicated than anticipated, and the focussing strengths attainable make them very attractive alternatives to magnetic focussing for heavy ion beams at low energies. Results obtained with five different configurations are presented. The lenses work well, concern is now with fine details of their beam-optical performance

  6. Gravitational lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, E.L.

    1989-01-01

    The author discusses how gravitational lens studies is becoming a major focus of extragalactic astronomy and cosmology. This review is organized into five parts: an overview of the observational situation, a look at the state of theoretical work on lenses, a detailed look at three recently discovered types of lensing phenomena (luminous arcs, radio rings, quasar-galaxy associations), a review of progress on two old problems in lens studies (deriving unique lens mass distribution models, measurements of differential time delays), and an attempt to look into the future of lens studies

  7. Gravitationally Lensed Quasars in Gaia: II. Discovery of 24 Lensed Quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemon, Cameron A.; Auger, Matthew W.; McMahon, Richard G.; Ostrovski, Fernanda

    2018-04-01

    We report the discovery, spectroscopic confirmation and preliminary characterisation of 24 gravitationally lensed quasars identified using Gaia observations. Candidates were selected in the Pan-STARRS footprint with quasar-like WISE colours or as photometric quasars from SDSS, requiring either multiple detections in Gaia or a single Gaia detection near a morphological galaxy. The Pan-STARRS grizY images were modelled for the most promising candidates and 60 candidate systems were followed up with the William Herschel Telescope. 13 of the lenses were discovered as Gaia multiples and 10 as single Gaia detections near galaxies. We also discover 1 lens identified through a quasar emission line in an SDSS galaxy spectrum. The lenses have median image separation 2.13″ and the source redshifts range from 1.06 to 3.36. 4 systems are quadruply-imaged and 20 are doubly-imaged. Deep CFHT data reveal an Einstein ring in one double system. We also report 12 quasar pairs, 10 of which have components at the same redshift and require further follow-up to rule out the lensing hypothesis. We compare the properties of these lenses and other known lenses recovered by our search method to a complete sample of simulated lenses to show the lenses we are missing are mainly those with small separations and higher source redshifts. The initial Gaia data release only catalogues all images of ˜ 30% of known bright lensed quasars, however the improved completeness of Gaia data release 2 will help find all bright lensed quasars on the sky.

  8. Data processing pipeline for Herschel HIFI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shipman, R. F.; Beaulieu, S. F.; Teyssier, D.; Morris, P.; Rengel, M.; McCoey, C.; Edwards, K.; Kester, D.; Lorenzani, A.; Coeur-Joly, O.; Melchior, M.; Xie, J.; Sanchez, E.; Zaal, P.; Avruch, I.; Borys, C.; Braine, J.; Comito, C.; Delforge, B.; Herpin, F.; Hoac, A.; Kwon, W.; Lord, S. D.; Marston, A.; Mueller, M.; Olberg, M.; Ossenkopf, V.; Puga, E.; Akyilmaz-Yabaci, M.

    2017-01-01

    Context. The HIFI instrument on the Herschel Space Observatory performed over 9100 astronomical observations, almost 900 of which were calibration observations in the course of the nearly four-year Herschel mission. The data from each observation had to be converted from raw telemetry into

  9. The Herschel–ATLAS Data Release 2, Paper I. Submillimeter and Far-infrared Images of the South and North Galactic Poles: The Largest Herschel Survey of the Extragalactic Sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Matthew W. L.; Ibar, Edo; Maddox, Steve J.; Valiante, Elisabetta; Dunne, Loretta; Eales, Stephen; Dye, Simon; Furlanetto, Christina; Bourne, Nathan; Cigan, Phil; Ivison, Rob J.; Gomez, Haley; Smith, Daniel J. B.; Viaene, Sébastien

    2017-12-01

    We present the largest submillimeter images that have been made of the extragalactic sky. The Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey (H-ATLAS) is a survey of 660 deg2 with the PACS and SPIRE cameras in five photometric bands: 100, 160, 250, 350, and 500 μm. In this paper we present the images from our two largest fields, which account for ∼75% of the survey. The first field is 180.1 deg2 in size, centered on the north Galactic pole (NGP), and the second is 317.6 deg2 in size, centered on the south Galactic pole. The NGP field serendipitously contains the Coma cluster. Over most (∼80%) of the images, the pixel noise, including both instrumental noise and confusion noise, is approximately 3.6, and 3.5 mJy pix‑1 at 100 and 160 μm, and 11.0, 11.1 and 12.3 mJy beam‑1 at 250, 350 and 500 μm, respectively, but reaches lower values in some parts of the images. If a matched filter is applied to optimize point-source detection, our total 1σ map sensitivity is 5.7, 6.0, and 7.3 mJy at 250, 350, and 500 μm, respectively. We describe the results of an investigation of the noise properties of the images. We make the most precise estimate of confusion in SPIRE maps to date, finding values of 3.12 ± 0.07, 4.13 ± 0.02, and 4.45 ± 0.04 mJy beam‑1 at 250, 350, and 500 μm in our un-convolved maps. For PACS we find an estimate of the confusion noise in our fast-parallel observations of 4.23 and 4.62 mJy beam‑1 at 100 and 160 μm. Finally, we give recipes for using these images to carry out photometry, both for unresolved and extended sources.

  10. Acoustic lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kittmer, C.A.

    1983-03-01

    Acoustic lenses focus ultrasound to produce pencil-like beams with reduced near fields. When fitted to conventional (flat-faced) transducers, such lenses greatly improve the ability to detect and size defects. This paper describes a program developed to design acoustic lenses for use in immersion or contact inspection, using normal or angle beam mode with flat or curved targets. Lens surfaces are circular in geometry to facilitate machining. For normal beam inspection of flat plate, spherical or cylindrical lenses are used. For angle beam or curved surface inspections, a compound lens is required to correct for the extra induced aberration. Such a lens is aspherical with one radius of curvature in the plane of incidence, and a different radius of curvature in the plane perpendicular to the incident plane. The resultant beam profile (i.e., location of the acoustic focus, beam diameter, 6 dB working range) depends on the degree of focusing and the transducer used. The operating frequency and bandwidth can be affected by the instrumentation used. Theoretical and measured beam profiles are in good agreement. Various applications, from zone focusing used for defect sizing in thick plate, to line focusing for pipe weld inspection, are discussed

  11. 3C 220.3: A radio galaxy lensing a submillimeter galaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haas, Martin; Westhues, Christian; Chini, Rolf [Astronomisches Institut, Ruhr Universität, Bochum (Germany); Leipski, Christian; Klaas, Ulrich; Meisenheimer, Klaus [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Heidelberg (Germany); Barthel, Peter; Koopmans, Léon V. E. [Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen (Netherlands); Wilkes, Belinda J.; Bussmann, R. Shane; Willner, S. P.; Ashby, Matthew L. N.; Kuraszkiewicz, Joanna [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (United States); Vegetti, Simona [Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik, Garching (Germany); Clements, David L. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Fassnacht, Christopher D. [University of California, Davis, CA (United States); Horesh, Assaf [Division of Physics, Mathematics, and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Lagattuta, David J. [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn (Australia); Stern, Daniel; Wylezalek, Dominika, E-mail: haas@astro.rub.de [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States)

    2014-07-20

    Herschel Space Observatory photometry and extensive multiwavelength follow-up have revealed that the powerful radio galaxy (PRG) 3C 220.3 at z = 0.685 acts as a gravitational lens for a background submillimeter galaxy (SMG) at z = 2.221. At an observed wavelength of 1 mm, the SMG is lensed into three distinct images. In the observed near infrared, these images are connected by an arc of ∼1''.8 radius forming an Einstein half-ring centered near the radio galaxy. In visible light, only the arc is apparent. 3C 220.3 is the only known instance of strong galaxy-scale lensing by a PRG not located in a galaxy cluster and therefore it offers the potential to probe the dark matter content of the radio galaxy host. Lens modeling rejects a single lens, but two lenses centered on the radio galaxy host A and a companion B, separated by 1''.5, provide a fit consistent with all data and reveal faint candidates for the predicted fourth and fifth images. The model does not require an extended common dark matter halo, consistent with the absence of extended bright X-ray emission on our Chandra image. The projected dark matter fractions within the Einstein radii of A (1''.02) and B (0''.61) are about 0.4 ± 0.3 and 0.55 ± 0.3. The mass to i-band light ratios of A and B, M/L{sub i}∼8±4 M{sub ⊙} L{sub ⊙}{sup −1}, appear comparable to those of radio-quiet lensing galaxies at the same redshift in the CfA-Arizona Space Telescope LEns Survey, Lenses Structure and Dynamics, and Strong Lenses in the Legacy Survey samples. The lensed SMG is extremely bright with observed f(250 μm) = 440 mJy owing to a magnification factor μ ∼ 10. The SMG spectrum shows luminous, narrow C IV λ1549 Å emission, revealing that the SMG houses a hidden quasar in addition to a violent starburst. Multicolor image reconstruction of the SMG indicates a bipolar morphology of the emitted ultraviolet (UV) light suggestive of cones through which UV light escapes a

  12. A DETAILED GRAVITATIONAL LENS MODEL BASED ON SUBMILLIMETER ARRAY AND KECK ADAPTIVE OPTICS IMAGING OF A HERSCHEL-ATLAS SUBMILLIMETER GALAXY AT z = 4.243 {sup ,} {sup ,}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bussmann, R. S.; Gurwell, M. A. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Fu Hai; Cooray, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Smith, D. J. B.; Bonfield, D.; Dunne, L. [Centre for Astrophysics, Science and Technology Research Institute, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, Herts AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Dye, S.; Eales, S. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Auld, R. [Cardiff University, School of Physics and Astronomy, Queens Buildings, The Parade, Cardiff CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Baes, M.; Fritz, J. [Sterrenkundig Observatorium, Universiteit Gent, Krijgslaan 281 S9, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Baker, A. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, 136 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854-8019 (United States); Cava, A. [Departamento de Astrofisica, Facultad de CC. Fisicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Clements, D. L.; Dariush, A. [Imperial College London, Blackett Laboratory, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Coppin, K. [Department of Physics, McGill University, Ernest Rutherford Building, 3600 Rue University, Montreal, Quebec, H3A 2T8 (Canada); Dannerbauer, H. [Universitaet Wien, Institut fuer Astronomie, Tuerkenschanzstrasse 17, 1180 Wien, Oesterreich (Austria); De Zotti, G. [Universita di Padova, Dipto di Astronomia, Vicolo dell' Osservatorio 2, IT 35122, Padova (Italy); Hopwood, R., E-mail: rbussmann@cfa.harvard.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes, MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); and others

    2012-09-10

    We present high-spatial resolution imaging obtained with the Submillimeter Array (SMA) at 880 {mu}m and the Keck adaptive optics (AO) system at the K{sub S}-band of a gravitationally lensed submillimeter galaxy (SMG) at z = 4.243 discovered in the Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey. The SMA data (angular resolution Almost-Equal-To 0.''6) resolve the dust emission into multiple lensed images, while the Keck AO K{sub S}-band data (angular resolution Almost-Equal-To 0.''1) resolve the lens into a pair of galaxies separated by 0.''3. We present an optical spectrum of the foreground lens obtained with the Gemini-South telescope that provides a lens redshift of z{sub lens} = 0.595 {+-} 0.005. We develop and apply a new lens modeling technique in the visibility plane that shows that the SMG is magnified by a factor of {mu} = 4.1 {+-} 0.2 and has an intrinsic infrared (IR) luminosity of L{sub IR} = (2.1 {+-} 0.2) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 13} L{sub Sun }. We measure a half-light radius of the background source of r{sub s} = 4.4 {+-} 0.5 kpc which implies an IR luminosity surface density of {Sigma}{sub IR} (3.4 {+-} 0.9) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} L{sub Sun} kpc{sup -2}, a value that is typical of z > 2 SMGs but significantly lower than IR luminous galaxies at z {approx} 0. The two lens galaxies are compact (r{sub lens} Almost-Equal-To 0.9 kpc) early-types with Einstein radii of {theta}{sub E1} 0.57 {+-} 0.01 and {theta}{sub E2} = 0.40 {+-} 0.01 that imply masses of M{sub lens1} = (7.4 {+-} 0.5) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} M{sub Sun} and M{sub lens2} = (3.7 {+-} 0.3) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} M{sub Sun }. The two lensing galaxies are likely about to undergo a dissipationless merger, and the mass and size of the resultant system should be similar to other early-type galaxies at z {approx} 0.6. This work highlights the importance of high spatial resolution imaging in developing models of strongly lensed galaxies

  13. Red, redder, reddest: SCUBA-2 imaging of colour-selected Herschel sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duivenvoorden, S.; Oliver, S.; Scudder, J. M.; Greenslade, J.; Riechers, D. A.; Wilkins, S. M.; Buat, V.; Chapman, S. C.; Clements, D. L.; Cooray, A.; Coppin, K. E. K.; Dannerbauer, H.; De Zotti, G.; Dunlop, J. S.; Eales, S. A.; Efstathiou, A.; Farrah, D.; Geach, J. E.; Holland, W. S.; Hurley, P. D.; Ivison, R. J.; Marchetti, L.; Petitpas, G.; Sargent, M. T.; Scott, D.; Symeonidis, M.; Vaccari, M.; Vieira, J. D.; Wang, L.; Wardlow, J.; Zemcov, M.

    2018-06-01

    High-redshift, luminous, dusty star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) constrain the extremity of galaxy formation theories. The most extreme are discovered through follow-up on candidates in large area surveys. Here, we present extensive 850 μm SCUBA-2 follow-up observations of 188 red DSFG candidates from the Herschel Multitiered Extragalactic Survey (HerMES) Large Mode Survey, covering 274 deg2. We detected 87 per cent with a signal-to-noise ratio >3 at 850 μm. We introduce a new method for incorporating the confusion noise in our spectral energy distribution fitting by sampling correlated flux density fluctuations from a confusion limited map. The new 850 μm data provide a better constraint on the photometric redshifts of the candidates, with photometric redshift errors decreasing from σz/(1 + z) ≈ 0.21 to 0.15. Comparison spectroscopic redshifts also found little bias ( = 0.08). The mean photometric redshift is found to be 3.6 with a dispersion of 0.4 and we identify 21 DSFGs with a high probability of lying at z > 4. After simulating our selection effects we find number counts are consistent with phenomenological galaxy evolution models. There is a statistically significant excess of WISE-1 and SDSS sources near our red galaxies, giving a strong indication that lensing may explain some of the apparently extreme objects. Nevertheless, our sample includes examples of galaxies with the highest star formation rates in the Universe (≫103 M⊙ yr-1).

  14. WEAVE: the next generation wide-field spectroscopy facility for the William Herschel Telescope : The next generation wide-field spectroscopy facility for the William Herschel Telescope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalton, Gavin; Trager, Scott C.; Abrams, Don Carlos; Carter, David; Bonifacio, Piercarlo; Aguerri, J. Alfonso L.; MacIntosh, Mike; Evans, Chris; Lewis, Ian; Navarro, Ramon; Agocs, Tibor; Dee, Kevin; Rousset, Sophie; Tosh, Ian; Middleton, Kevin; Pragt, Johannes; Terrett, David; Brock, Matthew; Benn, Chris; Verheijen, Marc; Cano Infantes, Diego; Bevil, Craige; Steele, Iain; Mottram, Chris; Bates, Stuart; Gribbin, Francis J.; Rey, Jürg; Rodriguez, Luis Fernando; Delgado, Jose Miguel; Guinouard, Isabelle; Walton, Nic; Irwin, Michael J.; Jagourel, Pascal; Stuik, Remko; Gerlofsma, Gerrit; Roelfsma, Ronald; Skillen, Ian; Ridings, Andy; Balcells, Marc; Daban, Jean-Baptiste; Gouvret, Carole; Venema, Lars; Girard, Paul

    We present the preliminary design of the WEAVE next generation spectroscopy facility for the William Herschel Telescope (WHT), principally targeting optical ground-based follow up of upcoming ground-based (LOFAR) and spacebased (Gaia) surveys. WEAVE is a multi-object and multi-IFU facility utilizing

  15. 3C 220.3: A Radio Galaxy Lensing a Submillimeter Galaxy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haas, Martin; Leipski, Christian; Barthel, Peter; Wilkes, Belinda J.; Vegetti, Simona; Bussmann, R. Shane; Willner, S. P.; Westhues, Christian; Ashby, Matthew L. N.; Chini, Rolf; Clements, David L.; Fassnacht, Christopher D.; Horesh, Assaf; Klaas, Ulrich; Koopmans, Léon V. E.; Kuraszkiewicz, Joanna; Lagattuta, David J.; Meisenheimer, Klaus; Stern, Daniel; Wylezalek, Dominika

    2014-01-01

    Herschel Space Observatory photometry and extensive multiwavelength follow-up have revealed that the powerful radio galaxy (PRG) 3C 220.3 at z = 0.685 acts as a gravitational lens for a background submillimeter galaxy (SMG) at z = 2.221. At an observed wavelength of 1 mm, the SMG is lensed into

  16. Observations of gravitational lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fort, B.

    1990-01-01

    During the last tow years a burst of results has come from radio and optical surveys of ''galaxy lenses'' (where the main deflector is a galaxy). These are reviewed. On the other hand, in September 1985 we pointed out a very strange blue ring-like structure on a Charge-Coupled Device image of the cluster of galaxies Abell 370. This turned out to be Einstein arcs discovery. Following this discovery, new observational results have shown that many rich clusters of galaxies can produce numerous arclets: tangentially distorted images of an extremely faint galaxy population probably located at redshift larger than 1. This new class of gravitational lenses proves to be an important observational topic and this will be discussed in the second part of the paper. (author)

  17. Dark Energy Survey Year 1 Results: Cross-Correlation Redshifts in the DES -- Calibration of the Weak Lensing Source Redshift Distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, C.; et al.

    2017-10-06

    We present the calibration of the Dark Energy Survey Year 1 (DES Y1) weak lensing source galaxy redshift distributions from clustering measurements. By cross-correlating the positions of source galaxies with luminous red galaxies selected by the redMaGiC algorithm we measure the redshift distributions of the source galaxies as placed into different tomographic bins. These measurements constrain any such shifts to an accuracy of $\\sim0.02$ and can be computed even when the clustering measurements do not span the full redshift range. The highest-redshift source bin is not constrained by the clustering measurements because of the minimal redshift overlap with the redMaGiC galaxies. We compare our constraints with those obtained from $\\texttt{COSMOS}$ 30-band photometry and find that our two very different methods produce consistent constraints.

  18. The Herschel objects and how to observe them exploring sir William Herschel's star clusters, nebulae, and galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Mullaney, James

    2007-01-01

    Deep-sky observers are always on the lookout for new observing challenges. "The Herschel Objects, and How to Observe them" offers an exciting opportunity to retrace the footsteps of Sir William Herschel, discoverer of Uranus and arguably the greatest visual observer and celestial explorer that ever lived!Following a biography of Herschel that details his life and the telescopes he used, this practical observer's guide lists all the most impressive of Herschel's star clusters, nebulae and galaxies.More than 600 of the brightest of the objects that Herschel observed are covered, and there are detailed descriptions and images of almost 200 of the very best Herschel objects for amateur astronomers.

  19. On the insignificance of Herschel's sunspot correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Jeffrey J.

    2013-08-01

    We examine William Herschel's hypothesis that solar-cycle variation of the Sun's irradiance has a modulating effect on the Earth's climate and that this is, specifically, manifested as an anticorrelation between sunspot number and the market price of wheat. Since Herschel first proposed his hypothesis in 1801, it has been regarded with both interest and skepticism. Recently, reports have been published that either support Herschel's hypothesis or rely on its validity. As a test of Herschel's hypothesis, we seek to reject a null hypothesis of a statistically random correlation between historical sunspot numbers, wheat prices in London and the United States, and wheat farm yields in the United States. We employ binary-correlation, Pearson-correlation, and frequency-domain methods. We test our methods using a historical geomagnetic activity index, well known to be causally correlated with sunspot number. As expected, the measured correlation between sunspot number and geomagnetic activity would be an unlikely realization of random data; the correlation is "statistically significant." On the other hand, measured correlations between sunspot number and wheat price and wheat yield data would be very likely realizations of random data; these correlations are "insignificant." Therefore, Herschel's hypothesis must be regarded with skepticism. We compare and contrast our results with those of other researchers. We discuss procedures for evaluating hypotheses that are formulated from historical data.

  20. Detection of warm water vapour in Taurus protoplanetary discs by Herschel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riviere-Marichalar, P.; Menard, F.; Thi, W. F.; Kamp, I.; Montesinos, B.; Meeus, G.; Woitke, P.; Howard, C.; Sandell, G.; Podio, L.; Dent, W. R. F.; Mendigutia, I.; Pinte, C.; White, G. J.; Barrado, D.

    Line spectra of 68 Taurus T Tauri stars were obtained with the Herschel-PACS (Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer) instrument as part of the GASPS (GAS evolution in Protoplanetary Systems) survey of protoplanetary discs. A careful examination of the linescans centred on the [OI] 63.18 mu m

  1. The Grism Lens-amplified Survey from Space (GLASS). IV. Mass Reconstruction of the Lensing Cluster Abell 2744 from Frontier Field Imaging and GLASS Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X.; Hoag, A.; Huang, K.-H.; Treu, T.; Bradač, M.; Schmidt, K. B.; Brammer, G. B.; Vulcani, B.; Jones, T. A.; Ryan, R. E., Jr.; Amorín, R.; Castellano, M.; Fontana, A.; Merlin, E.; Trenti, M.

    2015-09-01

    We present a strong and weak lensing reconstruction of the massive cluster Abell 2744, the first cluster for which deep Hubble Frontier Fields (HFF) images and spectroscopy from the Grism Lens-Amplified Survey from Space (GLASS) are available. By performing a targeted search for emission lines in multiply imaged sources using the GLASS spectra, we obtain five high-confidence spectroscopic redshifts and two tentative ones. We confirm one strongly lensed system by detecting the same emission lines in all three multiple images. We also search for additional line emitters blindly and use the full GLASS spectroscopic catalog to test reliability of photometric redshifts for faint line emitters. We see a reasonable agreement between our photometric and spectroscopic redshift measurements, when including nebular emission in photometric redshift estimations. We introduce a stringent procedure to identify only secure multiple image sets based on colors, morphology, and spectroscopy. By combining 7 multiple image systems with secure spectroscopic redshifts (at 5 distinct redshift planes) with 18 multiple image systems with secure photometric redshifts, we reconstruct the gravitational potential of the cluster pixellated on an adaptive grid, using a total of 72 images. The resulting mass map is compared with a stellar mass map obtained from the deep Spitzer Frontier Fields data to study the relative distribution of stars and dark matter in the cluster. We find that the stellar to total mass ratio varies substantially across the cluster field, suggesting that stars do not trace exactly the total mass in this interacting system. The maps of convergence, shear, and magnification are made available in the standard HFF format.

  2. THE GRISM LENS-AMPLIFIED SURVEY FROM SPACE (GLASS). IV. MASS RECONSTRUCTION OF THE LENSING CLUSTER ABELL 2744 FROM FRONTIER FIELD IMAGING AND GLASS SPECTROSCOPY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, X.; Schmidt, K. B.; Jones, T. A. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-9530 (United States); Hoag, A.; Huang, K.-H.; Bradac, M. [Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Treu, T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Brammer, G. B.; Ryan, R. E. Jr. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD, 21218 (United States); Vulcani, B. [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), The University of Tokyo Institutes for Advanced Study (UTIAS), the University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, 277-8582 (Japan); Amorín, R.; Castellano, M.; Fontana, A.; Merlin, E. [INAF—Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma Via Frascati 33, I-00040 Monte Porzio Catone (Italy); Trenti, M., E-mail: xinwang@physics.ucsb.edu [School of Physics, The University of Melbourne, VIC 3010 (Australia)

    2015-09-20

    We present a strong and weak lensing reconstruction of the massive cluster Abell 2744, the first cluster for which deep Hubble Frontier Fields (HFF) images and spectroscopy from the Grism Lens-Amplified Survey from Space (GLASS) are available. By performing a targeted search for emission lines in multiply imaged sources using the GLASS spectra, we obtain five high-confidence spectroscopic redshifts and two tentative ones. We confirm one strongly lensed system by detecting the same emission lines in all three multiple images. We also search for additional line emitters blindly and use the full GLASS spectroscopic catalog to test reliability of photometric redshifts for faint line emitters. We see a reasonable agreement between our photometric and spectroscopic redshift measurements, when including nebular emission in photometric redshift estimations. We introduce a stringent procedure to identify only secure multiple image sets based on colors, morphology, and spectroscopy. By combining 7 multiple image systems with secure spectroscopic redshifts (at 5 distinct redshift planes) with 18 multiple image systems with secure photometric redshifts, we reconstruct the gravitational potential of the cluster pixellated on an adaptive grid, using a total of 72 images. The resulting mass map is compared with a stellar mass map obtained from the deep Spitzer Frontier Fields data to study the relative distribution of stars and dark matter in the cluster. We find that the stellar to total mass ratio varies substantially across the cluster field, suggesting that stars do not trace exactly the total mass in this interacting system. The maps of convergence, shear, and magnification are made available in the standard HFF format.

  3. Weak lensing of the Lyman α forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, Rupert A. C.; Romeo, Alessandro; Metcalf, R. Benton

    2018-06-01

    The angular positions of quasars are deflected by the gravitational lensing effect of foreground matter. The Lyman α (Lyα) forest seen in the spectra of these quasars is therefore also lensed. We propose that the signature of weak gravitational lensing of the Lyα forest could be measured using similar techniques that have been applied to the lensed cosmic microwave background (CMB), and which have also been proposed for application to spectral data from 21-cm radio telescopes. As with 21-cm data, the forest has the advantage of spectral information, potentially yielding many lensed `slices' at different redshifts. We perform an illustrative idealized test, generating a high-resolution angular grid of quasars (of order arcminute separation), and lensing the Lyα forest spectra at redshifts z = 2-3 using a foreground density field. We find that standard quadratic estimators can be used to reconstruct images of the foreground mass distribution at z ˜ 1. There currently exists a wealth of Lyα forest data from quasar and galaxy spectral surveys, with smaller sightline separations expected in the future. Lyα forest lensing is sensitive to the foreground mass distribution at redshifts intermediate between CMB lensing and galaxy shear, and avoids the difficulties of shape measurement associated with the latter. With further refinement and application of mass reconstruction techniques, weak gravitational lensing of the high-redshift Lyα forest may become a useful new cosmological probe.

  4. Infrared astronomy seeing the heat : from William Herschel to the Herschel space observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Clements, David L

    2014-01-01

    Uncover the Secrets of the Universe Hidden at Wavelengths beyond Our Optical GazeWilliam Herschel's discovery of infrared light in 1800 led to the development of astronomy at wavelengths other than the optical. Infrared Astronomy - Seeing the Heat: from William Herschel to the Herschel Space Observatory explores the work in astronomy that relies on observations in the infrared. Author David L. Clements, a distinguished academic and science fiction writer, delves into how the universe works, from the planets in our own Solar System to the universe as a whole. The book first presents the major t

  5. Lensing smoothing of BAO wiggles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dio, Enea Di, E-mail: enea.didio@oats.inaf.it [INAF—Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, Via G.B. Tiepolo 11, I-34143 Trieste (Italy)

    2017-03-01

    We study non-perturbatively the effect of the deflection angle on the BAO wiggles of the matter power spectrum in real space. We show that from redshift z ∼2 this introduces a dispersion of roughly 1 Mpc at BAO scale, which corresponds approximately to a 1% effect. The lensing effect induced by the deflection angle, which is completely geometrical and survey independent, smears out the BAO wiggles. The effect on the power spectrum amplitude at BAO scale is about 0.1 % for z ∼2 and 0.2 % for z ∼4. We compare the smoothing effects induced by the lensing potential and non-linear structure formation, showing that the two effects become comparable at z ∼ 4, while the lensing effect dominates for sources at higher redshifts. We note that this effect is not accounted through BAO reconstruction techniques.

  6. Weak lensing and dark energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huterer, Dragan

    2002-01-01

    We study the power of upcoming weak lensing surveys to probe dark energy. Dark energy modifies the distance-redshift relation as well as the matter power spectrum, both of which affect the weak lensing convergence power spectrum. Some dark-energy models predict additional clustering on very large scales, but this probably cannot be detected by weak lensing alone due to cosmic variance. With reasonable prior information on other cosmological parameters, we find that a survey covering 1000 sq deg down to a limiting magnitude of R=27 can impose constraints comparable to those expected from upcoming type Ia supernova and number-count surveys. This result, however, is contingent on the control of both observational and theoretical systematics. Concentrating on the latter, we find that the nonlinear power spectrum of matter perturbations and the redshift distribution of source galaxies both need to be determined accurately in order for weak lensing to achieve its full potential. Finally, we discuss the sensitivity of the three-point statistics to dark energy

  7. SIMULATIONS OF WIDE-FIELD WEAK-LENSING SURVEYS. II. COVARIANCE MATRIX OF REAL-SPACE CORRELATION FUNCTIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Masanori; Matsubara, Takahiko; Takada, Masahiro; Hamana, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Using 1000 ray-tracing simulations for a Λ-dominated cold dark model in Sato et al., we study the covariance matrix of cosmic shear correlation functions, which is the standard statistics used in previous measurements. The shear correlation function of a particular separation angle is affected by Fourier modes over a wide range of multipoles, even beyond a survey area, which complicates the analysis of the covariance matrix. To overcome such obstacles we first construct Gaussian shear simulations from the 1000 realizations and then use the Gaussian simulations to disentangle the Gaussian covariance contribution to the covariance matrix we measured from the original simulations. We found that an analytical formula of Gaussian covariance overestimates the covariance amplitudes due to an effect of the finite survey area. Furthermore, the clean separation of the Gaussian covariance allows us to examine the non-Gaussian covariance contributions as a function of separation angles and source redshifts. For upcoming surveys with typical source redshifts of z s = 0.6 and 1.0, the non-Gaussian contribution to the diagonal covariance components at 1 arcmin scales is greater than the Gaussian contribution by a factor of 20 and 10, respectively. Predictions based on the halo model qualitatively well reproduce the simulation results, however show a sizable disagreement in the covariance amplitudes. By combining these simulation results we develop a fitting formula to the covariance matrix for a survey with arbitrary area coverage, taking into account effects of the finiteness of survey area on the Gaussian covariance.

  8. Galaxy-galaxy lensing in EAGLE: comparison with data from 180 deg2 of the KiDS and GAMA surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velliscig, Marco; Cacciato, Marcello; Hoekstra, Henk; Schaye, Joop; Heymans, Catherine; Hildebrandt, Hendrik; Loveday, Jon; Norberg, Peder; Sifón, Cristóbal; Schneider, Peter; van Uitert, Edo; Viola, Massimo; Brough, Sarah; Erben, Thomas; Holwerda, Benne W.; Hopkins, Andrew M.; Kuijken, Konrad

    2017-11-01

    We present predictions for the galaxy-galaxy lensing (GGL) profile from the EAGLE hydrodynamical cosmological simulation at redshift z = 0.18, in the spatial range 0.02 < R/(h- 1 Mpc) < 2, and for five logarithmically equispaced stellar mass bins in the range 10.3 < log10(Mstar/ M⊙) < 11.8. We compare these excess surface density profiles to the observed signal from background galaxies imaged by the Kilo Degree Survey around spectroscopically confirmed foreground galaxies from the Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey. Exploiting the GAMA galaxy group catalogue, the profiles of central and satellite galaxies are computed separately for groups with at least five members to minimize contamination. EAGLE predictions are in broad agreement with the observed profiles for both central and satellite galaxies, although the signal is underestimated at R ≈ 0.5-2 h- 1 Mpc for the highest stellar mass bins. When central and satellite galaxies are considered simultaneously, agreement is found only when the selection function of lens galaxies is taken into account in detail. Specifically, in the case of GAMA galaxies, it is crucial to account for the variation of the fraction of satellite galaxies in bins of stellar mass induced by the flux-limited nature of the survey. We report the inferred stellar-to-halo mass relation and we find good agreement with recent published results. We note how the precision of the GGL profiles in the simulation holds the potential to constrain fine-grained aspects of the galaxy-dark matter connection.

  9. The scientific legacy of William Herschel

    CERN Document Server

    2018-01-01

    This book presents a modern scholarly analysis of issues associated with England’s most famous astronomer, William Herschel. The world’s leading experts on Herschel, discoverer of the planet Uranus, here offer their combined wisdom on many aspects of his life and astronomical research. Solar system topics include comets, Earth’s Moon, and the spurious moons of Uranus, all objects whose observation was pioneered by Herschel.  The contributors examine his study of the structure of the Milky Way and an in-depth look at the development of the front view telescopes he built. The popular subject of extraterrestrial life is looked at from the point of view of both William Herschel and his son John, both of whom had an interest in the topic. William’s personal development through the educational system of the late eighteenth-century is also explored, and the wide range of verse and satire in various languages associated with his discoveries is collected here for the first time. Hershel worked at a time of i...

  10. The HERSCHEL/PACS early Data Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieprecht, E.; Wetzstein, M.; Huygen, R.; Vandenbussche, B.; De Meester, W.

    2006-07-01

    ESA's Herschel Space Observatory to be launched in 2007, is the first space observatory covering the full far-infrared and submillimeter wavelength range (60 - 670 microns). The Photodetector Array Camera & Spectrometer (PACS) is one of the three science instruments. It contains two Ge:Ga photoconductor arrays and two bolometer arrays to perform imaging line spectroscopy and imaging photometry in the 60 - 210 micron wavelength band. The HERSCHEL ground segment (Herschel Common Science System - HCSS) is implemented using JAVA technology and written in a common effort by the HERSCHEL Science Center and the three instrument teams. The PACS Common Software System (PCSS) is based on the HCSS and used for the online and offline analysis of PACS data. For telemetry bandwidth reasons PACS science data are partially processed on board, compressed, cut into telemetry packets and transmitted to the ground. These steps are instrument mode dependent. We will present the software model which allows to reverse the discrete on board processing steps and evaluate the data. After decompression and reconstruction the detector data and instrument status information are organized in two main PACS Products. The design of these JAVA classes considers the individual sampling rates, data formats, memory and performance optimization aspects and comfortable user interfaces.

  11. Data processing pipeline for Herschel HIFI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipman, R. F.; Beaulieu, S. F.; Teyssier, D.; Morris, P.; Rengel, M.; McCoey, C.; Edwards, K.; Kester, D.; Lorenzani, A.; Coeur-Joly, O.; Melchior, M.; Xie, J.; Sanchez, E.; Zaal, P.; Avruch, I.; Borys, C.; Braine, J.; Comito, C.; Delforge, B.; Herpin, F.; Hoac, A.; Kwon, W.; Lord, S. D.; Marston, A.; Mueller, M.; Olberg, M.; Ossenkopf, V.; Puga, E.; Akyilmaz-Yabaci, M.

    2017-12-01

    Context. The HIFI instrument on the Herschel Space Observatory performed over 9100 astronomical observations, almost 900 of which were calibration observations in the course of the nearly four-year Herschel mission. The data from each observation had to be converted from raw telemetry into calibrated products and were included in the Herschel Science Archive. Aims: The HIFI pipeline was designed to provide robust conversion from raw telemetry into calibrated data throughout all phases of the HIFI missions. Pre-launch laboratory testing was supported as were routine mission operations. Methods: A modular software design allowed components to be easily added, removed, amended and/or extended as the understanding of the HIFI data developed during and after mission operations. Results: The HIFI pipeline processed data from all HIFI observing modes within the Herschel automated processing environment as well as within an interactive environment. The same software can be used by the general astronomical community to reprocess any standard HIFI observation. The pipeline also recorded the consistency of processing results and provided automated quality reports. Many pipeline modules were in use since the HIFI pre-launch instrument level testing. Conclusions: Processing in steps facilitated data analysis to discover and address instrument artefacts and uncertainties. The availability of the same pipeline components from pre-launch throughout the mission made for well-understood, tested, and stable processing. A smooth transition from one phase to the next significantly enhanced processing reliability and robustness. Herschel was an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  12. Survey mirrors and lenses and their required surface accuracy. Volume 1. Technical report. Final report for September 15, 1978-December 1, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beesing, M. E.; Buchholz, R. L.; Evans, R. A.; Jaminski, R. W.; Mathur, A. K.; Rausch, R. A.; Scarborough, S.; Smith, G. A.; Waldhauer, D. J.

    1980-01-01

    An investigation of the optical performance of a variety of concentrating solar collectors is reported. The study addresses two important issues: the accuracy of reflective or refractive surfaces required to achieve specified performance goals, and the effect of environmental exposure on the performance concentrators. To assess the importance of surface accuracy on optical performance, 11 tracking and nontracking concentrator designs were selected for detailed evaluation. Mathematical models were developed for each design and incorporated into a Monte Carlo ray trace computer program to carry out detailed calculations. Results for the 11 concentrators are presented in graphic form. The models and computer program are provided along with a user's manual. A survey data base was established on the effect of environmental exposure on the optical degradation of mirrors and lenses. Information on environmental and maintenance effects was found to be insufficient to permit specific recommendations for operating and maintenance procedures, but the available information is compiled and reported and does contain procedures that other workers have found useful.

  13. HERSCHEL REVEALS MASSIVE COLD CLUMPS IN NGC 7538

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fallscheer, C.; Di Francesco, J.; Sadavoy, S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, P.O. Box 355, STN CSC, Victoria, BC V8W 3P6 (Canada); Reid, M. A. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada); Martin, P. G.; Nguyen-Luong, Q. [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada); Hill, T.; Hennemann, M.; Motte, F.; Men' shchikov, A.; Andre, Ph.; Konyves, V.; Sauvage, M. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DSM-CNRS-Universite Paris Diderot, IRFU/Service d' Astrophysique, Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Ward-Thompson, D.; Kirk, J. [Jeremiah Horrocks Institute, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, Lancashire, PR1 2HE (United Kingdom); Griffin, M. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Queen' s Buildings, The Parade, Cardiff CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Rygl, K. L. J.; Benedettini, M. [INAF, Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali, Area di Ricerca di Tor Vergata, via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Schneider, N. [Universite de Bordeaux, LAB, UMR 5804, F-33270, Floirac (France); Anderson, L. D. [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille, CNRS/INSU, Universite de Provence, F-13388 Marseille Cedex 13 (France); and others

    2013-08-20

    We present the first overview of the Herschel observations of the nearby high-mass star-forming region NGC 7538, taken as part of the Herschel imaging study of OB young stellar objects (HOBYS) Key Programme. These PACS and SPIRE maps cover an approximate area of one square degree at five submillimeter and far-infrared wavebands. We have identified 780 dense sources and classified 224 of those. With the intention of investigating the existence of cold massive starless or class 0-like clumps that would have the potential to form intermediate- to high-mass stars, we further isolate 13 clumps as the most likely candidates for follow-up studies. These 13 clumps have masses in excess of 40 M{sub Sun} and temperatures below 15 K. They range in size from 0.4 pc to 2.5 pc and have densities between 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 3} cm{sup -3} and 4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} cm{sup -3}. Spectral energy distributions are then used to characterize their energetics and evolutionary state through a luminosity-mass diagram. NGC 7538 has a highly filamentary structure, previously unseen in the dust continuum of existing submillimeter surveys. We report the most complete imaging to date of a large, evacuated ring of material in NGC 7538 which is bordered by many cool sources.

  14. Dark Energy Survey Year 1 results: the impact of galaxy neighbours on weak lensing cosmology with IM3SHAPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuroff, S.; Bridle, S. L.; Zuntz, J.; Troxel, M. A.; Gruen, D.; Rollins, R. P.; Bernstein, G. M.; Eifler, T. F.; Huff, E. M.; Kacprzak, T.; Krause, E.; MacCrann, N.; Abdalla, F. B.; Allam, S.; Annis, J.; Bechtol, K.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Carnero Rosell, A.; Carrasco Kind, M.; Carretero, J.; Crocce, M.; D'Andrea, C. B.; da Costa, L. N.; Davis, C.; Desai, S.; Doel, P.; Fausti Neto, A.; Flaugher, B.; Fosalba, P.; Frieman, J.; García-Bellido, J.; Gerdes, D. W.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gschwend, J.; Gutierrez, G.; Honscheid, K.; James, D. J.; Jarvis, M.; Jeltema, T.; Kirk, D.; Kuehn, K.; Kuhlmann, S.; Li, T. S.; Lima, M.; Maia, M. A. G.; March, M.; Marshall, J. L.; Martini, P.; Melchior, P.; Menanteau, F.; Miquel, R.; Nord, B.; Ogando, R. L. C.; Plazas, A. A.; Roodman, A.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Schindler, R.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Sheldon, E.; Smith, M.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Tarle, G.; Thomas, D.; Tucker, D. L.; DES Collaboration

    2018-04-01

    We use a suite of simulated images based on Year 1 of the Dark Energy Survey to explore the impact of galaxy neighbours on shape measurement and shear cosmology. The HOOPOE image simulations include realistic blending, galaxy positions, and spatial variations in depth and point spread function properties. Using the IM3SHAPE maximum-likelihood shape measurement code, we identify four mechanisms by which neighbours can have a non-negligible influence on shear estimation. These effects, if ignored, would contribute a net multiplicative bias of m ˜ 0.03-0.09 in the Year One of the Dark Energy Survey (DES Y1) IM3SHAPE catalogue, though the precise impact will be dependent on both the measurement code and the selection cuts applied. This can be reduced to percentage level or less by removing objects with close neighbours, at a cost to the effective number density of galaxies neff of 30 per cent. We use the cosmological inference pipeline of DES Y1 to explore the cosmological implications of neighbour bias and show that omitting blending from the calibration simulation for DES Y1 would bias the inferred clustering amplitude S8 ≡ σ8(Ωm/0.3)0.5 by 2σ towards low values. Finally, we use the HOOPOE simulations to test the effect of neighbour-induced spatial correlations in the multiplicative bias. We find the impact on the recovered S8 of ignoring such correlations to be subdominant to statistical error at the current level of precision.

  15. Probing supervoids with weak lensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Yuichi; Inoue, Kaiki Taro

    2018-05-01

    The cosmic microwave background (CMB) has non-Gaussian features in the temperature fluctuations. An anomalous cold spot surrounded with a hot ring, called the Cold Spot, is one of such features. If a large underdense region (supervoid) resides towards the Cold Spot, we would be able to detect a systematic shape distortion in the images of background source galaxies via weak lensing effect. In order to estimate the detectability of such signals, we used the data of N-body simulations to simulate full-sky ray-tracing of source galaxies. We searched for a most prominent underdense region using the simulated convergence maps smoothed at a scale of 20° and obtained tangential shears around it. The lensing signal expected in a concordant Λ cold dark matter model can be detected at a signal-to-noise ratio S/N ˜ 3. If a supervoid with a radius of ˜200 h-1 Mpc and a density contrast δ0 ˜ -0.3 at the centre resides at a redshift z ˜ 0.2, on-going and near-future weak gravitational lensing surveys would detect a lensing signal with S/N ≳ 4 without resorting to stacking. From the tangential shear profile, we can obtain a constraint on the projected mass distribution of the supervoid.

  16. Dark Energy Survey Year 1 Results: The Impact of Galaxy Neighbours on Weak Lensing Cosmology with im3shape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuroff, S.; et al.

    2017-08-04

    We use a suite of simulated images based on Year 1 of the Dark Energy Survey to explore the impact of galaxy neighbours on shape measurement and shear cosmology. The hoopoe image simulations include realistic blending, galaxy positions, and spatial variations in depth and PSF properties. Using the im3shape maximum-likelihood shape measurement code, we identify four mechanisms by which neighbours can have a non-negligible influence on shear estimation. These effects, if ignored, would contribute a net multiplicative bias of $m \\sim 0.03 - 0.09$ in the DES Y1 im3shape catalogue, though the precise impact will be dependent on both the measurement code and the selection cuts applied. This can be reduced to percentage level or less by removing objects with close neighbours, at a cost to the effective number density of galaxies $n_\\mathrm{eff}$ of 30%. We use the cosmological inference pipeline of DES Y1 to explore the cosmological implications of neighbour bias and show that omitting blending from the calibration simulation for DES Y1 would bias the inferred clustering amplitude $S_8\\equiv \\sigma_8 (\\Omega _\\mathrm{m} /0.3)^{0.5}$ by $2 \\sigma$ towards low values. Finally, we use the hoopoe simulations to test the effect of neighbour-induced spatial correlations in the multiplicative bias. We find the impact on the recovered $S_8$ of ignoring such correlations to be subdominant to statistical error at the current level of precision.

  17. The DES Bright Arcs Survey: Hundreds of Candidate Strongly Lensed Galaxy Systems from the Dark Energy Survey Science Verification and Year 1 Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diehl, H. T.; Buckley-Geer, E. J.; Lindgren, K. A.; Nord, B.; Gaitsch, H.; Gaitsch, S.; Lin, H.; Allam, S.; Collett, T. E.; Furlanetto, C.; Gill, M. S. S.; More, A.; Nightingale, J.; Odden, C.; Pellico, A.; Tucker, D. L.; Costa, L. N. da; Neto, A. Fausti; Kuropatkin, N.; Soares-Santos, M.; Welch, B.; Zhang, Y.; Frieman, J. A.; Abdalla, F. B.; Annis, J.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Burke, D. L.; Rosell, A. Carnero; Kind, M. Carrasco; Carretero, J.; Cunha, C. E.; D’Andrea, C. B.; Desai, S.; Dietrich, J. P.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Evrard, A. E.; Finley, D. A.; Flaugher, B.; García-Bellido, J.; Gerdes, D. W.; Goldstein, D. A.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gschwend, J.; Gutierrez, G.; James, D. J.; Kuehn, K.; Kuhlmann, S.; Lahav, O.; Li, T. S.; Lima, M.; Maia, M. A. G.; Marshall, J. L.; Menanteau, F.; Miquel, R.; Nichol, R. C.; Nugent, P.; Ogando, R. L. C.; Plazas, A. A.; Reil, K.; Romer, A. K.; Sako, M.; Sanchez, E.; Santiago, B.; Scarpine, V.; Schindler, R.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Sheldon, E.; Smith, M.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Thomas, D.; Walker, A. R.

    2017-09-01

    We report the results of our searches for strong gravitational lens systems in the Dark Energy Survey (DES) Science Verication and Year 1 observations. The Science Verication data spans approximately 250 sq. deg. with median i

  18. Evidence for gravitational lensing of the cosmic microwave background polarization from cross-correlation with the cosmic infrared background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ade, P A R; Akiba, Y; Anthony, A E; Arnold, K; Atlas, M; Barron, D; Boettger, D; Borrill, J; Borys, C; Chapman, S; Chinone, Y; Dobbs, M; Elleflot, T; Errard, J; Fabbian, G; Feng, C; Flanigan, D; Gilbert, A; Grainger, W; Halverson, N W; Hasegawa, M; Hattori, K; Hazumi, M; Holzapfel, W L; Hori, Y; Howard, J; Hyland, P; Inoue, Y; Jaehnig, G C; Jaffe, A; Keating, B; Kermish, Z; Keskitalo, R; Kisner, T; Le Jeune, M; Lee, A T; Leitch, E M; Linder, E; Lungu, M; Matsuda, F; Matsumura, T; Meng, X; Miller, N J; Morii, H; Moyerman, S; Myers, M J; Navaroli, M; Nishino, H; Paar, H; Peloton, J; Poletti, D; Quealy, E; Rebeiz, G; Reichardt, C L; Richards, P L; Ross, C; Rotermund, K; Schanning, I; Schenck, D E; Sherwin, B D; Shimizu, A; Shimmin, C; Shimon, M; Siritanasak, P; Smecher, G; Spieler, H; Stebor, N; Steinbach, B; Stompor, R; Suzuki, A; Takakura, S; Tikhomirov, A; Tomaru, T; Wilson, B; Yadav, A; Zahn, O

    2014-04-04

    We reconstruct the gravitational lensing convergence signal from cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization data taken by the Polarbear experiment and cross-correlate it with cosmic infrared background maps from the Herschel satellite. From the cross spectra, we obtain evidence for gravitational lensing of the CMB polarization at a statistical significance of 4.0σ and indication of the presence of a lensing B-mode signal at a significance of 2.3σ. We demonstrate that our results are not biased by instrumental and astrophysical systematic errors by performing null tests, checks with simulated and real data, and analytical calculations. This measurement of polarization lensing, made via the robust cross-correlation channel, not only reinforces POLARBEAR auto-correlation measurements, but also represents one of the early steps towards establishing CMB polarization lensing as a powerful new probe of cosmology and astrophysics.

  19. Project overview and update on WEAVE: the next generation wide-field spectroscopy facility for the William Herschel Telescope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalton, Gavin; Trager, Scott; Abrams, Don Carlos; Bonifacio, Piercarlo; López Aguerri, J. Alfonso; Middleton, Kevin; Benn, Chris; Dee, Kevin; Sayède, Frédéric; Lewis, Ian; Pragt, Johan; Pico, Sergio; Walton, Nic; Rey, Juerg; Allende Prieto, Carlos; Peñate, José; Lhome, Emilie; Agócs, Tibor; Alonso, José; Terrett, David; Brock, Matthew; Gilbert, James; Ridings, Andy; Guinouard, Isabelle; Verheijen, Marc A.W.; Tosh, Ian; Rogers, Kevin; Steele, Iain; Stuik, Remko; Tromp, Neils; Jasko, Attila; Kragt, Jan; Lesman, Dirk; Mottram, Chris; Bates, Stuart; Gribbin, Frank; Rodriguez, Luis Fernando; Delgado, José M.; Martin, Carlos; Cano, Diego; Navarro, Ramón; Irwin, Mike; Lewis, Jim; Gonzalez Solares, Eduardo; O'Mahony, Neil; Bianco, Andrea; Zurita, Christina; ter Horst, Rik; Molinari, Emilio; Lodi, Marcello; Guerra, José; Vallenari, Antonella; Baruffolo, Andrea

    We present an overview of and status report on the WEAVE next-generation spectroscopy facility for the William Herschel Telescope (WHT). WEAVE principally targets optical ground-based follow up of upcoming ground-based (LOFAR) and space-based (Gaia) surveys. WEAVE is a multi-object and multi-IFU

  20. EDITORIAL: Focus on Gravitational Lensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Bhuvnesh

    2007-11-01

    Gravitational lensing emerged as an observational field following the 1979 discovery of a doubly imaged quasar lensed by a foreground galaxy. In the 1980s and '90s dozens of other multiply imaged systems were observed, as well as time delay measurements, weak and strong lensing by galaxies and galaxy clusters, and the discovery of microlensing in our galaxy. The rapid pace of advances has continued into the new century. Lensing is currently one of best techniques for finding and mapping dark matter over a wide range of scales, and also addresses broader cosmological questions such as understanding the nature of dark energy. This focus issue of New Journal of Physics presents a snapshot of current research in some of the exciting areas of lensing. It provides an occasion to look back at the advances of the last decade and ahead to the potential of the coming years. Just about a decade ago, microlensing was discovered through the magnification of stars in our galaxy by invisible objects with masses between that of Jupiter and a tenth the mass of the Sun. Thus a new component of the mass of our galaxy, dubbed MACHOs, was established (though a diffuse, cold dark matter-like component is still needed to make up most of the galaxy mass). More recently, microlensing led to another exciting discovery—of extra-solar planets with masses ranging from about five times that of Earth to that of Neptune. We can expect many more planets to be discovered through ongoing surveys. Microlensing is the best technique for finding Earth mass planets, though it is not as productive overall as other methods and does not allow for follow up observations. Beyond planet hunting, microlensing has enabled us to observe previously inaccessible systems, ranging from the surfaces of other stars to the accretion disks around the black holes powering distant quasars. Galaxies and galaxy clusters at cosmological distances can produce dramatic lensing effects: multiple images of background galaxies

  1. HERSCHEL SURVEY OF GALACTIC OH{sup +}, H{sub 2}O{sup +}, AND H{sub 3}O{sup +}: PROBING THE MOLECULAR HYDROGEN FRACTION AND COSMIC-RAY IONIZATION RATE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Indriolo, Nick; Neufeld, D. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Gerin, M.; Falgarone, E. [LERMA, Observatoire de Paris, Ecole Normale Supérieure, PSL Research University, CNRS, UMR8112, F-75014 Paris (France); Schilke, P.; Chambers, E. T.; Ossenkopf, V. [I. Physikalisches Institut der Universität zu Köln, Zülpicher Str. 77, 50937 Köln (Germany); Benz, A. O. [Institute of Astronomy, ETH Zürich (Switzerland); Winkel, B.; Menten, K. M. [MPI für Radioastronomie, Bonn (Germany); Black, John H.; Persson, C. M. [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, Onsala Space Observatory, SE-43992 Onsala (Sweden); Bruderer, S.; Van Dishoeck, E. F. [Max Planck Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik, Garching (Germany); Godard, B.; Lis, D. C. [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, UMR8112, LERMA, F-75005 Paris (France); Goicoechea, J. R. [Instituto de Ciencias de Materiales de Madrid (CSIC), E-28049 Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain); Gupta, H. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Sonnentrucker, P. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Van der Tak, F. F. S. [SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Landleven 12, 9747 AD Groningen (Netherlands); and others

    2015-02-10

    In diffuse interstellar clouds the chemistry that leads to the formation of the oxygen-bearing ions OH{sup +}, H{sub 2}O{sup +}, and H{sub 3}O{sup +} begins with the ionization of atomic hydrogen by cosmic rays, and continues through subsequent hydrogen abstraction reactions involving H{sub 2}. Given these reaction pathways, the observed abundances of these molecules are useful in constraining both the total cosmic-ray ionization rate of atomic hydrogen (ζ{sub H}) and molecular hydrogen fraction (f{sub H{sub 2}}). We present observations targeting transitions of OH{sup +}, H{sub 2}O{sup +}, and H{sub 3}O{sup +} made with the Herschel Space Observatory along 20 Galactic sight lines toward bright submillimeter continuum sources. Both OH{sup +} and H{sub 2}O{sup +} are detected in absorption in multiple velocity components along every sight line, but H{sub 3}O{sup +} is only detected along 7 sight lines. From the molecular abundances we compute f{sub H{sub 2}} in multiple distinct components along each line of sight, and find a Gaussian distribution with mean and standard deviation 0.042 ± 0.018. This confirms previous findings that OH{sup +} and H{sub 2}O{sup +} primarily reside in gas with low H{sub 2} fractions. We also infer ζ{sub H} throughout our sample, and find a lognormal distribution with mean log (ζ{sub H}) = –15.75 (ζ{sub H} = 1.78 × 10{sup –16} s{sup –1}) and standard deviation 0.29 for gas within the Galactic disk, but outside of the Galactic center. This is in good agreement with the mean and distribution of cosmic-ray ionization rates previously inferred from H{sub 3}{sup +} observations. Ionization rates in the Galactic center tend to be 10-100 times larger than found in the Galactic disk, also in accord with prior studies.

  2. One Episode, Two Lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drijvers, Paul; Godino, Juan D.; Font, Vicenc; Trouche, Luc

    2013-01-01

    A deep understanding of students' learning processes is one of the core challenges of research in mathematics education. To achieve this, different theoretical lenses are available. The question is how these different lenses compare and contrast, and how they can be coordinated and combined to provide a more comprehensive view on the topic of…

  3. The DES Bright Arcs Survey: Hundreds of Candidate Strongly Lensed Galaxy Systems from the Dark Energy Survey Science Verification and Year 1 Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diehl, H. T.; Buckley-Geer, E. J.; Lindgren, K. A.; Nord, B.; Gaitsch, H.; Gaitsch, S.; Lin, H.; Allam, S.; Odden, C.; Pellico, A.; Tucker, D. L.; Kuropatkin, N.; Soares-Santos, M. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, P.O. Box 500, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Collett, T. E. [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, PO1 3FX (United Kingdom); Furlanetto, C.; Nightingale, J. [University of Nottingham, School of Physics and Astronomy, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Gill, M. S. S. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); More, A. [Kavli IPMU (WPI), UTIAS, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Costa, L. N. da; Neto, A. Fausti, E-mail: diehl@fnal.gov [Laboratório Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia—LIneA, Rua Gal. José Cristino 77, Rio de Janeiro, RJ—20921-400 (Brazil); Collaboration: DES Collaboration; and others

    2017-09-01

    We report the results of searches for strong gravitational lens systems in the Dark Energy Survey (DES) Science Verification and Year 1 observations. The Science Verification data span approximately 250 sq. deg. with a median i -band limiting magnitude for extended objects (10 σ ) of 23.0. The Year 1 data span approximately 2000 sq. deg. and have an i -band limiting magnitude for extended objects (10 σ ) of 22.9. As these data sets are both wide and deep, they are particularly useful for identifying strong gravitational lens candidates. Potential strong gravitational lens candidate systems were initially identified based on a color and magnitude selection in the DES object catalogs or because the system is at the location of a previously identified galaxy cluster. Cutout images of potential candidates were then visually scanned using an object viewer and numerically ranked according to whether or not we judged them to be likely strong gravitational lens systems. Having scanned nearly 400,000 cutouts, we present 374 candidate strong lens systems, of which 348 are identified for the first time. We provide the R.A. and decl., the magnitudes and photometric properties of the lens and source objects, and the distance (radius) of the source(s) from the lens center for each system.

  4. Precision cosmology with weak gravitational lensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearin, Andrew P.

    In recent years, cosmological science has developed a highly predictive model for the universe on large scales that is in quantitative agreement with a wide range of astronomical observations. While the number and diversity of successes of this model provide great confidence that our general picture of cosmology is correct, numerous puzzles remain. In this dissertation, I analyze the potential of planned and near future galaxy surveys to provide new understanding of several unanswered questions in cosmology, and address some of the leading challenges to this observational program. In particular, I study an emerging technique called cosmic shear, the weak gravitational lensing produced by large scale structure. I focus on developing strategies to optimally use the cosmic shear signal observed in galaxy imaging surveys to uncover the physics of dark energy and the early universe. In chapter 1 I give an overview of a few unsolved mysteries in cosmology and I motivate weak lensing as a cosmological probe. I discuss the use of weak lensing as a test of general relativity in chapter 2 and assess the threat to such tests presented by our uncertainty in the physics of galaxy formation. Interpreting the cosmic shear signal requires knowledge of the redshift distribution of the lensed galaxies. This redshift distribution will be significantly uncertain since it must be determined photometrically. In chapter 3 I investigate the influence of photometric redshift errors on our ability to constrain dark energy models with weak lensing. The ability to study dark energy with cosmic shear is also limited by the imprecision in our understanding of the physics of gravitational collapse. In chapter 4 I present the stringent calibration requirements on this source of uncertainty. I study the potential of weak lensing to resolve a debate over a long-standing anomaly in CMB measurements in chapter 5. Finally, in chapter 6 I summarize my findings and conclude with a brief discussion of my

  5. Probabilistic Cosmological Mass Mapping from Weak Lensing Shear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, M. D.; Dawson, W. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Ng, K. Y. [University of California, Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Marshall, P. J. [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94035 (United States); Meyers, J. E. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Bard, D. J., E-mail: schneider42@llnl.gov, E-mail: dstn@cmu.edu, E-mail: boutigny@in2p3.fr, E-mail: djbard@slac.stanford.edu, E-mail: jmeyers314@stanford.edu [National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720-8150 (United States)

    2017-04-10

    We infer gravitational lensing shear and convergence fields from galaxy ellipticity catalogs under a spatial process prior for the lensing potential. We demonstrate the performance of our algorithm with simulated Gaussian-distributed cosmological lensing shear maps and a reconstruction of the mass distribution of the merging galaxy cluster Abell 781 using galaxy ellipticities measured with the Deep Lens Survey. Given interim posterior samples of lensing shear or convergence fields on the sky, we describe an algorithm to infer cosmological parameters via lens field marginalization. In the most general formulation of our algorithm we make no assumptions about weak shear or Gaussian-distributed shape noise or shears. Because we require solutions and matrix determinants of a linear system of dimension that scales with the number of galaxies, we expect our algorithm to require parallel high-performance computing resources for application to ongoing wide field lensing surveys.

  6. Candidate high-z protoclusters among the Planck compact sources, as revealed by Herschel-SPIRE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, J.; Clements, D. L.; Cheng, T.; De Zotti, G.; Scott, D.; Valiante, E.; Eales, S.; Bremer, M. N.; Dannerbauer, H.; Birkinshaw, M.; Farrah, D.; Harrison, D. L.; Michałowski, M. J.; Valtchanov, I.; Oteo, I.; Baes, M.; Cooray, A.; Negrello, M.; Wang, L.; van der Werf, P.; Dunne, L.; Dye, S.

    2018-05-01

    By determining the nature of all the Planck compact sources within 808.4 deg2 of large Herschel surveys, we have identified 27 candidate protoclusters of dusty star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) that are at least 3σ overdense in either 250, 350, or 500 μm sources. We find roughly half of all the Planck compact sources are resolved by Herschel into multiple discrete objects, with the other half remaining unresolved by Herschel. We find a significant difference between versions of the Planck catalogues, with earlier releases hosting a larger fraction of candidate protoclusters and Galactic cirrus than later releases, which we ascribe to a difference in the filters used in the creation of the three catalogues. We find a surface density of DSFG candidate protoclusters of (3.3 ± 0.7) × 10-2 sources deg-2, in good agreement with previous similar studies. We find that a Planck colour selection of S857/S545 1. Our candidate protoclusters are a factor of 5 times brighter at 353 GHz than expected from simulations, even in the most conservative estimates. Further observations are needed to confirm whether these candidate protoclusters are physical clusters, multiple protoclusters along the line of sight, or chance alignments of unassociated sources.

  7. Gravitational lensing of quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Eigenbrod, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    The universe, in all its richness, diversity and complexity, is populated by a myriad of intriguing celestial objects. Among the most exotic of them are gravitationally lensed quasars. A quasar is an extremely bright nucleus of a galaxy, and when such an object is gravitationally lensed, multiple images of the quasar are produced – this phenomenon of cosmic mirage can provide invaluable insights on burning questions, such as the nature of dark matter and dark energy. After presenting the basics of modern cosmology, the book describes active galactic nuclei, the theory of gravitational lensing, and presents a particular numerical technique to improve the resolution of astronomical data. The book then enters the heart of the subject with the description of important applications of gravitational lensing of quasars, such as the measurement of the famous Hubble constant, the determination of the dark matter distribution in galaxies, and the observation of the mysterious inner parts of quasars with much higher r...

  8. Weakly oval electron lense

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daumenov, T.D.; Alizarovskaya, I.M.; Khizirova, M.A.

    2001-01-01

    The method of the weakly oval electrical field getting generated by the axially-symmetrical field is shown. Such system may be designed with help of the cylindric form coaxial electrodes with the built-in quadrupole duplet. The singularity of the indicated weakly oval lense consists of that it provides the conducting both mechanical and electronic adjustment. Such lense can be useful for elimination of the near-axis astigmatism in the electron-optical system

  9. Using Strong Gravitational Lensing to Identify Fossil Group Progenitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lucas E.; Irwin, Jimmy A.; White, Raymond E., III; Wong, Ka-Wah; Maksym, W. Peter; Dupke, Renato A.; Miller, Eric D.; Carrasco, Eleazar R.

    2018-04-01

    Fossil galaxy systems are classically thought to be the end result of galaxy group/cluster evolution, as galaxies experiencing dynamical friction sink to the center of the group potential and merge into a single, giant elliptical that dominates the rest of the members in both mass and luminosity. Most fossil systems discovered lie within z fossil criteria within the look forward time. Since strong gravitational lensing preferentially selects groups merging along the line of sight, or systems with a high mass concentration like fossil systems, we searched the CASSOWARY survey of strong-lensing events with the goal of determining whether lensing systems have any predisposition to being fossil systems or progenitors. We find that ∼13% of lensing groups are identified as traditional fossils while only ∼3% of nonlensing control groups are. We also find that ∼23% of lensing systems are traditional fossil progenitors compared to ∼17% for the control sample. Our findings show that strong-lensing systems are more likely to be fossil/pre-fossil systems than comparable nonlensing systems. Cumulative galaxy luminosity functions of the lensing and nonlensing groups also indicate a possible, fundamental difference between strong-lensing and nonlensing systems’ galaxy populations, with lensing systems housing a greater number of bright galaxies even in the outskirts of groups.

  10. A COMPREHENSIVE VIEW OF A STRONGLY LENSED PLANCK-ASSOCIATED SUBMILLIMETER GALAXY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu Hai; Cooray, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Jullo, E. [Observatoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille-Provence, 38 rue Frederic Joliot-Curie, F-13388 Marseille (France); Bussmann, R. S. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Ivison, R. J. [UK Astronomy Technology Centre, Royal Observatory, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Perez-Fournon, I. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (IAC), E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Djorgovski, S. G.; Scoville, N.; Yan, L.; Riechers, D. A.; Bradford, M. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Aguirre, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Auld, R. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, The Parade, Cardiff CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Baes, M. [Sterrenkundig Observatorium, Universiteit Gent, Krijgslaan 281 S9, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Baker, A. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 136 Frelinghuysen Rd., Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Cava, A. [Departamento de Astrofisica, Facultad de CC. Fisicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Clements, D. L. [Astrophysics Group, Imperial College London, Blackett Laboratory, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Dannerbauer, H. [Institut fuer Astronomie, Universitaet Wien, Tuerkenschanzstrasse 17, A-1160 Wien (Austria); Dariush, A. [Physics Department, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); De Zotti, G., E-mail: haif@uci.edu [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell' Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); and others

    2012-07-10

    We present high-resolution maps of stars, dust, and molecular gas in a strongly lensed submillimeter galaxy (SMG) at z = 3.259. HATLAS J114637.9-001132 is selected from the Herschel-Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey (H-ATLAS) as a strong lens candidate mainly based on its unusually high 500 {mu}m flux density ({approx}300 mJy). It is the only high-redshift Planck detection in the 130 deg{sup 2} H-ATLAS Phase-I area. Keck Adaptive Optics images reveal a quadruply imaged galaxy in the K band while the Submillimeter Array and the Jansky Very Large Array show doubly imaged 880 {mu}m and CO(1{yields}0) sources, indicating differentiated distributions of the various components in the galaxy. In the source plane, the stars reside in three major kpc-scale clumps extended over {approx}1.6 kpc, the dust in a compact ({approx}1 kpc) region {approx}3 kpc north of the stars, and the cold molecular gas in an extended ({approx}7 kpc) disk {approx}5 kpc northeast of the stars. The emissions from the stars, dust, and gas are magnified by {approx}17, {approx}8, and {approx}7 times, respectively, by four lensing galaxies at z {approx} 1. Intrinsically, the lensed galaxy is a warm (T{sub dust} {approx} 40-65 K), hyper-luminous (L{sub IR} {approx} 1.7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 13} L{sub Sun }; star formation rate (SFR) {approx}2000 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}), gas-rich (M{sub gas}/M{sub baryon} {approx} 70%), young (M{sub stellar}/SFR {approx} 20 Myr), and short-lived (M{sub gas}/SFR {approx} 40 Myr) starburst. With physical properties similar to unlensed z > 2 SMGs, HATLAS J114637.9-001132 offers a detailed view of a typical SMG through a powerful cosmic microscope.

  11. Finding strong lenses in CFHTLS using convolutional neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, C.; Glazebrook, K.; Collett, T.; More, A.; McCarthy, C.

    2017-10-01

    We train and apply convolutional neural networks, a machine learning technique developed to learn from and classify image data, to Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey (CFHTLS) imaging for the identification of potential strong lensing systems. An ensemble of four convolutional neural networks was trained on images of simulated galaxy-galaxy lenses. The training sets consisted of a total of 62 406 simulated lenses and 64 673 non-lens negative examples generated with two different methodologies. An ensemble of trained networks was applied to all of the 171 deg2 of the CFHTLS wide field image data, identifying 18 861 candidates including 63 known and 139 other potential lens candidates. A second search of 1.4 million early-type galaxies selected from the survey catalogue as potential deflectors, identified 2465 candidates including 117 previously known lens candidates, 29 confirmed lenses/high-quality lens candidates, 266 novel probable or potential lenses and 2097 candidates we classify as false positives. For the catalogue-based search we estimate a completeness of 21-28 per cent with respect to detectable lenses and a purity of 15 per cent, with a false-positive rate of 1 in 671 images tested. We predict a human astronomer reviewing candidates produced by the system would identify 20 probable lenses and 100 possible lenses per hour in a sample selected by the robot. Convolutional neural networks are therefore a promising tool for use in the search for lenses in current and forthcoming surveys such as the Dark Energy Survey and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope.

  12. The effect of weak lensing on distance estimates from supernovae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Mathew; Maartens, Roy [Department of Physics, University of the Western Cape, Cape Town 7535 (South Africa); Bacon, David J.; Nichol, Robert C.; Campbell, Heather; D' Andrea, Chris B. [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, PO1 3FX (United Kingdom); Clarkson, Chris [Astrophysics, Cosmology and Gravity Centre (ACGC), Department of Mathematics and Applied Mathematics, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Bassett, Bruce A. [South African Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 9, Observatory 7935 (South Africa); Cinabro, David [Wayne State University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Detroit, MI 48202 (United States); Finley, David A.; Frieman, Joshua A. [Center for Particle Astrophysics, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, P.O. Box 500, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Galbany, Lluis [CENTRA Centro Multidisciplinar de Astrofísica, Instituto Superior Técnico, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Garnavich, Peter M. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Olmstead, Matthew D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Schneider, Donald P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Shapiro, Charles [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, La Canada Flintridge, CA 91109 (United States); Sollerman, Jesper, E-mail: matsmith2@gmail.com [The Oskar Klein Centre, Department of Astronomy, AlbaNova, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2014-01-01

    Using a sample of 608 Type Ia supernovae from the SDSS-II and BOSS surveys, combined with a sample of foreground galaxies from SDSS-II, we estimate the weak lensing convergence for each supernova line of sight. We find that the correlation between this measurement and the Hubble residuals is consistent with the prediction from lensing (at a significance of 1.7σ). Strong correlations are also found between the residuals and supernova nuisance parameters after a linear correction is applied. When these other correlations are taken into account, the lensing signal is detected at 1.4σ. We show, for the first time, that distance estimates from supernovae can be improved when lensing is incorporated, by including a new parameter in the SALT2 methodology for determining distance moduli. The recovered value of the new parameter is consistent with the lensing prediction. Using cosmic microwave background data from WMAP7, H {sub 0} data from Hubble Space Telescope and Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Baryon acoustic oscillations measurements, we find the best-fit value of the new lensing parameter and show that the central values and uncertainties on Ω {sub m} and w are unaffected. The lensing of supernovae, while only seen at marginal significance in this low-redshift sample, will be of vital importance for the next generation of surveys, such as DES and LSST, which will be systematics-dominated.

  13. Complete super-sample lensing covariance in the response approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreira, Alexandre; Krause, Elisabeth; Schmidt, Fabian

    2018-06-01

    We derive the complete super-sample covariance (SSC) of the matter and weak lensing convergence power spectra using the power spectrum response formalism to accurately describe the coupling of super- to sub-survey modes. The SSC term is completely characterized by the survey window function, the nonlinear matter power spectrum and the full first-order nonlinear power spectrum response function, which describes the response to super-survey density and tidal field perturbations. Generalized separate universe simulations can efficiently measure these responses in the nonlinear regime of structure formation, which is necessary for lensing applications. We derive the lensing SSC formulae for two cases: one under the Limber and flat-sky approximations, and a more general one that goes beyond the Limber approximation in the super-survey mode and is valid for curved sky applications. Quantitatively, we find that for sky fractions fsky ≈ 0.3 and a single source redshift at zS=1, the use of the flat-sky and Limber approximation underestimates the total SSC contribution by ≈ 10%. The contribution from super-survey tidal fields to the lensing SSC, which has not been included in cosmological analyses so far, is shown to represent about 5% of the total lensing covariance on multipoles l1,l2 gtrsim 300. The SSC is the dominant off-diagonal contribution to the total lensing covariance, making it appropriate to include these tidal terms and beyond flat-sky/Limber corrections in cosmic shear analyses.

  14. Clouds, filaments and protostars: the Herschel Hi-GAL Milky Way

    OpenAIRE

    Molinari, S.; Swinyard, B.; Bally, J.; Barlow, M.; Bernard, J. P.; Martin, P.; Moore, T.; Noriega-Crespo, A.; Plume, R.; Testi, L.; Zavagno, A.; Abergel, A.; Ali, B.; Anderson, L.; André, P.

    2010-01-01

    We present the first results from the science demonstration phase for the Hi-GAL survey, the Herschel key-project that will map the inner Galactic Plane of the Milky Way in 5 bands. We outline our data reduction strategy and present some science highlights on the two observed 2{\\deg} x 2{\\deg} tiles approximately centered at l=30{\\deg} and l=59{\\deg}. The two regions are extremely rich in intense and highly structured extended emission which shows a widespread organization in filaments. Sourc...

  15. HERschel key program heritage: A far-infrared source catalog for the Magellanic Clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seale, Jonathan P.; Meixner, Margaret; Sewiło, Marta [The Johns Hopkins University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, 366 Bloomberg Center, 3400 N. Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Babler, Brian [Department of Astronomy, 475 North Charter St., University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Engelbracht, Charles W.; Misselt, Karl; Montiel, Edward [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Gordon, Karl; Roman-Duval, Julia [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Hony, Sacha; Okumura, Koryo; Panuzzo, Pasquale; Sauvage, Marc [CEA, Laboratoire AIM, Irfu/SAp, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Boyer, Martha L. [Observational Cosmology Laboratory, Code 665, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Chen, C.-H. Rosie [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Indebetouw, Remy [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Matsuura, Mikako [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Oliveira, Joana M.; Loon, Jacco Th. van [School of Physical and Geographical Sciences, Lennard-Jones Laboratories, Keele University, Staffordshire ST5 5BG (United Kingdom); Srinivasan, Sundar [UPMC-CNRS UMR7095, Institute d' Astrophysique de Paris, F-75014 Paris (France); and others

    2014-12-01

    Observations from the HERschel Inventory of the Agents of Galaxy Evolution (HERITAGE) have been used to identify dusty populations of sources in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds (LMC and SMC). We conducted the study using the HERITAGE catalogs of point sources available from the Herschel Science Center from both the Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer (PACS; 100 and 160 μm) and Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver (SPIRE; 250, 350, and 500 μm) cameras. These catalogs are matched to each other to create a Herschel band-merged catalog and then further matched to archival Spitzer IRAC and MIPS catalogs from the Spitzer Surveying the Agents of Galaxy Evolution (SAGE) and SAGE-SMC surveys to create single mid- to far-infrared (far-IR) point source catalogs that span the wavelength range from 3.6 to 500 μm. There are 35,322 unique sources in the LMC and 7503 in the SMC. To be bright in the FIR, a source must be very dusty, and so the sources in the HERITAGE catalogs represent the dustiest populations of sources. The brightest HERITAGE sources are dominated by young stellar objects (YSOs), and the dimmest by background galaxies. We identify the sources most likely to be background galaxies by first considering their morphology (distant galaxies are point-like at the resolution of Herschel) and then comparing the flux distribution to that of the Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey (ATLAS) survey of galaxies. We find a total of 9745 background galaxy candidates in the LMC HERITAGE images and 5111 in the SMC images, in agreement with the number predicted by extrapolating from the ATLAS flux distribution. The majority of the Magellanic Cloud-residing sources are either very young, embedded forming stars or dusty clumps of the interstellar medium. Using the presence of 24 μm emission as a tracer of star formation, we identify 3518 YSO candidates in the LMC and 663 in the SMC. There are far fewer far-IR bright YSOs in the SMC than the LMC

  16. HERschel key program heritage: A far-infrared source catalog for the Magellanic Clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seale, Jonathan P.; Meixner, Margaret; Sewiło, Marta; Babler, Brian; Engelbracht, Charles W.; Misselt, Karl; Montiel, Edward; Gordon, Karl; Roman-Duval, Julia; Hony, Sacha; Okumura, Koryo; Panuzzo, Pasquale; Sauvage, Marc; Boyer, Martha L.; Chen, C.-H. Rosie; Indebetouw, Remy; Matsuura, Mikako; Oliveira, Joana M.; Loon, Jacco Th. van; Srinivasan, Sundar

    2014-01-01

    Observations from the HERschel Inventory of the Agents of Galaxy Evolution (HERITAGE) have been used to identify dusty populations of sources in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds (LMC and SMC). We conducted the study using the HERITAGE catalogs of point sources available from the Herschel Science Center from both the Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer (PACS; 100 and 160 μm) and Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver (SPIRE; 250, 350, and 500 μm) cameras. These catalogs are matched to each other to create a Herschel band-merged catalog and then further matched to archival Spitzer IRAC and MIPS catalogs from the Spitzer Surveying the Agents of Galaxy Evolution (SAGE) and SAGE-SMC surveys to create single mid- to far-infrared (far-IR) point source catalogs that span the wavelength range from 3.6 to 500 μm. There are 35,322 unique sources in the LMC and 7503 in the SMC. To be bright in the FIR, a source must be very dusty, and so the sources in the HERITAGE catalogs represent the dustiest populations of sources. The brightest HERITAGE sources are dominated by young stellar objects (YSOs), and the dimmest by background galaxies. We identify the sources most likely to be background galaxies by first considering their morphology (distant galaxies are point-like at the resolution of Herschel) and then comparing the flux distribution to that of the Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey (ATLAS) survey of galaxies. We find a total of 9745 background galaxy candidates in the LMC HERITAGE images and 5111 in the SMC images, in agreement with the number predicted by extrapolating from the ATLAS flux distribution. The majority of the Magellanic Cloud-residing sources are either very young, embedded forming stars or dusty clumps of the interstellar medium. Using the presence of 24 μm emission as a tracer of star formation, we identify 3518 YSO candidates in the LMC and 663 in the SMC. There are far fewer far-IR bright YSOs in the SMC than the LMC

  17. Fresnel's Lighthouse Lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    One of the rewards of walking up the scores of steps winding around the inside of the shaft of a lighthouse is turning inward and examining the glass optical system. This arrangement of prisms, lenses, and reflectors is used to project the light from a relatively small source in a beam that can be seen far at sea.

  18. Herschel Spectroscopy of Early-type Galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapham, Ryen Carl; Young, Lisa M. [Physics Department, New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, 801 Leroy Place, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Crocker, Alison, E-mail: ryen.lapham@student.nmt.edu, E-mail: lyoung@physics.nmt.edu, E-mail: crockera@reed.edu [Physics Department, Reed College, Portland, OR 97202 (United States)

    2017-05-01

    We present Herschel spectroscopy of atomic lines arising in photodissociation regions as well as ionization regions of nearby early-type galaxies (ETGs), focusing on the volume-limited Atlas3D sample. Our data include the [C ii], [O i], and [N ii] 122 and 205 μ m lines, along with ancillary data including CO and H i maps. We find that ETGs have [C ii]/FIR ratios slightly lower than spiral galaxies in the KINGFISH sample, and several ETGs have unusually large [N ii] 122/[C ii] ratios. The [N ii] 122/[C ii] ratio is correlated with UV colors and there is a strong anti-correlation of [C ii]/FIR with NUV-K seen in both spirals and ETGs, likely due to a softer radiation field with fewer photons available to ionize carbon and heat the gas. The correlation thus makes a [C ii] deficit in galaxies with redder stellar populations. The high [N ii] 122/[C ii] (and low [C ii]/FIR) line ratios could also be affected by the removal of much of the diffuse, low-density gas, which is consistent with the low H i/H{sub 2} ratios. [C ii] is now being used as a star-formation indicator, and we find that it is just as good for ETGs as in spirals. The [C ii]/CO ratios found are also similar to those found in spiral galaxies. Through the use of the [N ii] 205 μ m line, estimates of the percentage of [C ii] emission arising from ionized gas indicate that a significant portion could arise in ionized regions.

  19. HERSCHEL MEASUREMENTS OF MOLECULAR OXYGEN IN ORION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldsmith, Paul F.; Chen, Jo-Hsin; Li Di; Liseau, Rene; Black, John H.; Bell, Tom A.; Hollenbach, David; Kaufman, Michael J.; Lis, Dariusz C.; Melnick, Gary; Neufeld, David; Pagani, Laurent; Encrenaz, Pierre; Snell, Ronald; Benz, Arnold O.; Bruderer, Simon; Bergin, Edwin; Caselli, Paola; Caux, Emmanuel; Falgarone, Edith

    2011-01-01

    We report observations of three rotational transitions of molecular oxygen (O 2 ) in emission from the H 2 Peak 1 position of vibrationally excited molecular hydrogen in Orion. We observed the 487 GHz, 774 GHz, and 1121 GHz lines using the Heterodyne Instrument for the Far Infrared on the Herschel Space Observatory, having velocities of 11 km s -1 to 12 km s -1 and widths of 3 km s -1 . The beam-averaged column density is N(O 2 ) = 6.5 x 10 16 cm -2 , and assuming that the source has an equal beam-filling factor for all transitions (beam widths 44, 28, and 19''), the relative line intensities imply a kinetic temperature between 65 K and 120 K. The fractional abundance of O 2 relative to H 2 is (0.3-7.3) x 10 -6 . The unusual velocity suggests an association with a ∼5'' diameter source, denoted Peak A, the Western Clump, or MF4. The mass of this source is ∼10 M sun and the dust temperature is ≥150 K. Our preferred explanation of the enhanced O 2 abundance is that dust grains in this region are sufficiently warm (T ≥ 100 K) to desorb water ice and thus keep a significant fraction of elemental oxygen in the gas phase, with a significant fraction as O 2 . For this small source, the line ratios require a temperature ≥180 K. The inferred O 2 column density ≅5 x 10 18 cm -2 can be produced in Peak A, having N(H 2 ) ≅ 4 x 10 24 cm -2 . An alternative mechanism is a low-velocity (10-15 km s -1 ) C-shock, which can produce N(O 2 ) up to 10 17 cm -2 .

  20. Constraints on cosmological models from strong gravitational lensing systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Shuo; Pan, Yu; Zhu, Zong-Hong; Biesiada, Marek; Godlowski, Wlodzimierz

    2012-01-01

    Strong lensing has developed into an important astrophysical tool for probing both cosmology and galaxies (their structure, formation, and evolution). Using the gravitational lensing theory and cluster mass distribution model, we try to collect a relatively complete observational data concerning the Hubble constant independent ratio between two angular diameter distances D ds /D s from various large systematic gravitational lens surveys and lensing by galaxy clusters combined with X-ray observations, and check the possibility to use it in the future as complementary to other cosmological probes. On one hand, strongly gravitationally lensed quasar-galaxy systems create such a new opportunity by combining stellar kinematics (central velocity dispersion measurements) with lensing geometry (Einstein radius determination from position of images). We apply such a method to a combined gravitational lens data set including 70 data points from Sloan Lens ACS (SLACS) and Lens Structure and Dynamics survey (LSD). On the other hand, a new sample of 10 lensing galaxy clusters with redshifts ranging from 0.1 to 0.6 carefully selected from strong gravitational lensing systems with both X-ray satellite observations and optical giant luminous arcs, is also used to constrain three dark energy models (ΛCDM, constant w and CPL) under a flat universe assumption. For the full sample (n = 80) and the restricted sample (n = 46) including 36 two-image lenses and 10 strong lensing arcs, we obtain relatively good fitting values of basic cosmological parameters, which generally agree with the results already known in the literature. This results encourages further development of this method and its use on larger samples obtained in the future

  1. Constraints on cosmological models from strong gravitational lensing systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Shuo; Pan, Yu; Zhu, Zong-Hong [Department of Astronomy, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Biesiada, Marek [Department of Astrophysics and Cosmology, Institute of Physics, University of Silesia, Uniwersytecka 4, 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Godlowski, Wlodzimierz, E-mail: baodingcaoshuo@163.com, E-mail: panyu@cqupt.edu.cn, E-mail: biesiada@us.edu.pl, E-mail: godlowski@uni.opole.pl, E-mail: zhuzh@bnu.edu.cn [Institute of Physics, Opole University, Oleska 48, 45-052 Opole (Poland)

    2012-03-01

    Strong lensing has developed into an important astrophysical tool for probing both cosmology and galaxies (their structure, formation, and evolution). Using the gravitational lensing theory and cluster mass distribution model, we try to collect a relatively complete observational data concerning the Hubble constant independent ratio between two angular diameter distances D{sub ds}/D{sub s} from various large systematic gravitational lens surveys and lensing by galaxy clusters combined with X-ray observations, and check the possibility to use it in the future as complementary to other cosmological probes. On one hand, strongly gravitationally lensed quasar-galaxy systems create such a new opportunity by combining stellar kinematics (central velocity dispersion measurements) with lensing geometry (Einstein radius determination from position of images). We apply such a method to a combined gravitational lens data set including 70 data points from Sloan Lens ACS (SLACS) and Lens Structure and Dynamics survey (LSD). On the other hand, a new sample of 10 lensing galaxy clusters with redshifts ranging from 0.1 to 0.6 carefully selected from strong gravitational lensing systems with both X-ray satellite observations and optical giant luminous arcs, is also used to constrain three dark energy models (ΛCDM, constant w and CPL) under a flat universe assumption. For the full sample (n = 80) and the restricted sample (n = 46) including 36 two-image lenses and 10 strong lensing arcs, we obtain relatively good fitting values of basic cosmological parameters, which generally agree with the results already known in the literature. This results encourages further development of this method and its use on larger samples obtained in the future.

  2. Weak lensing probes of modified gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, Fabian

    2008-01-01

    We study the effect of modifications to general relativity on large-scale weak lensing observables. In particular, we consider three modified gravity scenarios: f(R) gravity, the Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati model, and tensor-vector-scalar theory. Weak lensing is sensitive to the growth of structure and the relation between matter and gravitational potentials, both of which will in general be affected by modified gravity. Restricting ourselves to linear scales, we compare the predictions for galaxy-shear and shear-shear correlations of each modified gravity cosmology to those of an effective dark energy cosmology with the same expansion history. In this way, the effects of modified gravity on the growth of perturbations are separated from the expansion history. We also propose a test which isolates the matter-potential relation from the growth factor and matter power spectrum. For all three modified gravity models, the predictions for galaxy and shear correlations will be discernible from those of dark energy with very high significance in future weak lensing surveys. Furthermore, each model predicts a measurably distinct scale dependence and redshift evolution of galaxy and shear correlations, which can be traced back to the physical foundations of each model. We show that the signal-to-noise for detecting signatures of modified gravity is much higher for weak lensing observables as compared to the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect, measured via the galaxy-cosmic microwave background cross-correlation.

  3. Analysis of the Herschel DEBRIS Sun-like star sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibthorpe, B.; Kennedy, G. M.; Wyatt, M. C.; Lestrade, J.-F.; Greaves, J. S.; Matthews, B. C.; Duchêne, G.

    2018-04-01

    This paper presents a study of circumstellar debris around Sun-like stars using data from the Herschel DEBRIS Key Programme. DEBRIS is an unbiased survey comprising the nearest ˜90 stars of each spectral type A-M. Analysis of the 275 F-K stars shows that excess emission from a debris disc was detected around 47 stars, giving a detection rate of 17.1^{+2.6}_{-2.3} per cent, with lower rates for later spectral types. For each target a blackbody spectrum was fitted to the dust emission to determine its fractional luminosity and temperature. The derived underlying distribution of fractional luminosity versus blackbody radius in the population showed that most detected discs are concentrated at f ˜ 10-5 and at temperatures corresponding to blackbody radii 7-40 au, which scales to ˜40 au for realistic dust properties (similar to the current Kuiper belt). Two outlying populations are also evident; five stars have exceptionally bright emission ( f > 5 × 10-5), and one has unusually hot dust <4 au. The excess emission distributions at all wavelengths were fitted with a steady-state evolution model, showing that these are compatible with all stars being born with a narrow belt that then undergoes collisional grinding. However, the model cannot explain the hot dust systems - likely originating in transient events - and bright emission systems - arising potentially from atypically massive discs or recent stirring. The emission from the present-day Kuiper belt is predicted to be close to the median of the population, suggesting that half of stars have either depleted their Kuiper belts (similar to the Solar system) or had a lower planetesimal formation efficiency.

  4. Searching the stars the story of Caroline Herschel

    CERN Document Server

    Ogilvie, Marilyn B

    2011-01-01

    Caroline Herschel is best known as the less significant sister of the astronomer William Herschel. Yet the romantic notion of her tirelessly working for her brother while he made his studies of the heavens, documenting his discoveries so he could achieve greatness in the scientific world, couldn't be further from the truth. When Caroline wasn't working as her brother's assistant, she was sweeping the stars with her own small telescope given to her by William. Not only did she unearth three important nebulae, but she discovered no fewer than eight comets in her own right. When William beca

  5. Galaxy–Galaxy Weak-lensing Measurements from SDSS. I. Image Processing and Lensing Signals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Wentao [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Nandan Road 80, Shanghai 200030 (China); Yang, Xiaohu; Zhang, Jun; Tweed, Dylan [Department of Physics, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Fu, Liping; Shu, Chenggang [Shanghai Key Lab for Astrophysics, Shanghai Normal University, 100 Guilin Road, 200234, Shanghai (China); Mo, H. J. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003-9305 (United States); Bosch, Frank C. van den [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, P.O. Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520-8101 (United States); Li, Ran [Key Laboratory for Computational Astrophysics, Partner Group of the Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100012 (China); Li, Nan [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Liu, Xiangkun; Pan, Chuzhong [Department of Astronomy, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Wang, Yiran [Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1002 W. Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Radovich, Mario, E-mail: walt@shao.ac.cn, E-mail: xyang@sjtu.edu.cn [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Napoli, via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Napoli (Italy)

    2017-02-10

    We present our image processing pipeline that corrects the systematics introduced by the point-spread function (PSF). Using this pipeline, we processed Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) DR7 imaging data in r band and generated a galaxy catalog containing the shape information. Based on our shape measurements of the galaxy images from SDSS DR7, we extract the galaxy–galaxy (GG) lensing signals around foreground spectroscopic galaxies binned in different luminosities and stellar masses. We estimated the systematics, e.g., selection bias, PSF reconstruction bias, PSF dilution bias, shear responsivity bias, and noise rectification bias, which in total is between −9.1% and 20.8% at 2 σ levels. The overall GG lensing signals we measured are in good agreement with Mandelbaum et al. The reduced χ {sup 2} between the two measurements in different luminosity bins are from 0.43 to 0.83. Larger reduced χ {sup 2} from 0.60 to 1.87 are seen for different stellar mass bins, which is mainly caused by the different stellar mass estimator. The results in this paper with higher signal-to-noise ratio are due to the larger survey area than SDSS DR4, confirming that more luminous/massive galaxies bear stronger GG lensing signals. We divide the foreground galaxies into red/blue and star-forming/quenched subsamples and measure their GG lensing signals. We find that, at a specific stellar mass/luminosity, the red/quenched galaxies have stronger GG lensing signals than their counterparts, especially at large radii. These GG lensing signals can be used to probe the galaxy–halo mass relations and their environmental dependences in the halo occupation or conditional luminosity function framework.

  6. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Herschel FIR spectra of GOALS galaxies (Diaz-Santos+, 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Santos, T.; Armus, L.; Charmandaris, V.; Lu, N.; Stierwalt, S.; Stacey, G.; Malhotra, S.; van der Werf, P. P.; Howell, J. H.; Privon, G. C.; Mazzarella, J. M.; Goldsmith, P. F.; Murphy, E. J.; Barcos-Munoz, L.; Linden, S. T.; Inami, H.; Larson, K. L.; Evans, A. S.; Appleton, P.; Iwasawa, K.; Lord, S.; Sanders, D. B.; Surace, J. A.

    2018-04-01

    We have obtained FIR spectroscopic observations for 200 luminous infrared galaxies (LIRG) systems from the Great Observatories All-Sky LIRG Survey (GOALS; Armus+ 2009PASP..121..559A) using the Integral Field Spectrometer (IFS) of the PACS instrument on board Herschel. Since some targets contain multiple components, there are 241 individual galaxies with available spectra in at least one emission line. Most of the data were collected as part of our OT1 and OT2 programs (OT1larmus1, OT2larmus1; P.I.: L. Armus), accounting for more than 200hr of observing time in total. Additional observations that are publicly available in the Herschel archive were included from various projects. The main programs from where these complementary data were gathered are KPGTesturm1 (P.I.: E. Sturm), KPOTpvanderw1 (PI: P. van der Werf), and OT1dweedman1 (P.I.: D. Weedman). The IFS on PACS is able to perform simultaneous spectroscopy in the 51-73 or 70-105um and the 102-210um ranges. In addition to the PACS/IFS spectra, we obtained observations of the [NII]205 emission line using the SPIRE FTS for 121 galaxies in the GOALS sample (Lu+ 2017, J/ApJS/230/1 ; OT1nlu1; P.I.: N. Lu). As part of the Spitzer GOALS legacy program, all galaxies observed with Herschel/PACS have available Spitzer/IRS low-resolution, R~60-120 (SL module: 5.2-14.5um; LL module: 14-38um), and medium-resolution, R~600 (SH module: 9.9-19.6um; LH module: 18.7-37.2um), slit spectroscopy. (3 data files).

  7. The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS). Gravity test from the combination of redshift-space distortions and galaxy-galaxy lensing at 0.5 < z < 1.2

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Torre, S.; Jullo, E.; Giocoli, C.; Pezzotta, A.; Bel, J.; Granett, B. R.; Guzzo, L.; Garilli, B.; Scodeggio, M.; Bolzonella, M.; Abbas, U.; Adami, C.; Bottini, D.; Cappi, A.; Cucciati, O.; Davidzon, I.; Franzetti, P.; Fritz, A.; Iovino, A.; Krywult, J.; Le Brun, V.; Le Fèvre, O.; Maccagni, D.; Małek, K.; Marulli, F.; Polletta, M.; Pollo, A.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Tojeiro, R.; Vergani, D.; Zanichelli, A.; Arnouts, S.; Branchini, E.; Coupon, J.; De Lucia, G.; Ilbert, O.; Moutard, T.; Moscardini, L.; Peacock, J. A.; Metcalf, R. B.; Prada, F.; Yepes, G.

    2017-12-01

    We carry out a joint analysis of redshift-space distortions and galaxy-galaxy lensing, with the aim of measuring the growth rate of structure; this is a key quantity for understanding the nature of gravity on cosmological scales and late-time cosmic acceleration. We make use of the final VIPERS redshift survey dataset, which maps a portion of the Universe at a redshift of z ≃ 0.8, and the lensing data from the CFHTLenS survey over the same area of the sky. We build a consistent theoretical model that combines non-linear galaxy biasing and redshift-space distortion models, and confront it with observations. The two probes are combined in a Bayesian maximum likelihood analysis to determine the growth rate of structure at two redshifts z = 0.6 and z = 0.86. We obtain measurements of fσ8(0.6) = 0.48 ± 0.12 and fσ8(0.86) = 0.48 ± 0.10. The additional galaxy-galaxy lensing constraint alleviates galaxy bias and σ8 degeneracies, providing direct measurements of f and σ8: [f(0.6),σ8(0.6)] = [0.93 ± 0.22,0.52 ± 0.06] and [f(0.86),σ8(0.86)] = [0.99 ± 0.19,0.48 ± 0.04]. These measurements are statistically consistent with a Universe where the gravitational interactions can be described by General Relativity, although they are not yet accurate enough to rule out some commonly considered alternatives. Finally, as a complementary test we measure the gravitational slip parameter, EG, for the first time at z > 0.6. We find values of E̅G(0.6) = 0.16±0.09 and E̅G(0.86) = 0.09±0.07, when EG is averaged over scales above 3 h-1 Mpc. We find that our EG measurements exhibit slightly lower values than expected for standard relativistic gravity in a ΛCDM background, although the results are consistent within 1-2σ. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Cerro Paranal, Chile, using the Very Large Telescope under programmes 182.A-0886 and partly 070.A-9007. Also based on observations obtained with MegaPrime/MegaCam, a joint project of CFHT

  8. The SDSS Discovery of a Strongly Lensed Post-Starburst Galaxy at z=0.766

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Min-Su; Strauss, Michael A.; Oguri, Masamune; Inada, Naohisa; Falco, Emilio E.; Broadhurst, Tom; Gunn, James E.

    2008-09-30

    We present the first result of a survey for strong galaxy-galaxy lenses in Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) images. SDSS J082728.70+223256.4 was selected as a lensing candidate using selection criteria based on the color and positions of objects in the SDSS photometric catalog. Follow-up imaging and spectroscopy showed this object to be a lensing system. The lensing galaxy is an elliptical at z = 0.349 in a galaxy cluster. The lensed galaxy has the spectrum of a post-starburst galaxy at z = 0.766. The lensing galaxy has an estimated mass of {approx} 1.2 x 10{sup 12} M{sub {circle_dot}} and the corresponding mass to light ratio in the B-band is {approx} 26 M{sub {circle_dot}}/L{sub {circle_dot}} inside 1.1 effective radii of the lensing galaxy. Our study shows how catalogs drawn from multi-band surveys can be used to find strong galaxy-galaxy lenses having multiple lens images. Our strong lensing candidate selection based on photometry-only catalogs will be useful in future multi-band imaging surveys such as SNAP and LSST.

  9. Contact lenses purchased over the internet place individuals potentially at risk for harmful eye care practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Joshua; Zidile, Chaya

    2008-01-01

    Individuals are increasingly purchasing contact lenses over the Internet. No studies exist regarding Internet purchase of contact lenses and eye care health practices. One hundred fifty-one college students were surveyed regarding contact lenses purchase category (doctor's office, store, Internet). Pearson chi-square analyses compared purchase category with responses regarding U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommendations for purchasing contact lenses online. Analysis of variance compared contact lenses purchase category with the Time Pressure Scale (TPS). Also, correlation analyses compared the TPS with Internet eye-health statements. Contact lens purchase categories included doctor's office (43.0%), store (55.0%), and Internet (22.5%), with individuals purchasing at multiple venues. With regard to the FDA recommendations, those who purchased contact lenses at a doctor's office more often adhered to the recommendations, whereas those who purchased contact lenses at a store or the Internet did so less often. Those who purchased contact lenses over the Internet had significantly higher TPS scores. In addition, higher TPS scores were significantly correlated with various statements regarding the Internet. Those who purchase contact lenses via the Internet or store do not follow a number of FDA contact lenses recommendations. Also, those with higher TPS scores trust possible non-evidence-based contact lenses Internet information. Implications with regard to the Fairness to Contact Lens Consumers Act are discussed.

  10. Detections of Planets in Binaries Through the Channel of Chang–Refsdal Gravitational Lensing Events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Cheongho [Department of Physics, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, In-Gu; Jung, Youn Kil [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Chang–Refsdal (C–R) lensing, which refers to the gravitational lensing of a point mass perturbed by a constant external shear, provides a good approximation in describing lensing behaviors of either a very wide or a very close binary lens. C–R lensing events, which are identified by short-term anomalies near the peak of high-magnification lensing light curves, are routinely detected from lensing surveys, but not much attention is paid to them. In this paper, we point out that C–R lensing events provide an important channel to detect planets in binaries, both in close and wide binary systems. Detecting planets through the C–R lensing event channel is possible because the planet-induced perturbation occurs in the same region of the C–R lensing-induced anomaly and thus the existence of the planet can be identified by the additional deviation in the central perturbation. By presenting the analysis of the actually observed C–R lensing event OGLE-2015-BLG-1319, we demonstrate that dense and high-precision coverage of a C–R lensing-induced perturbation can provide a strong constraint on the existence of a planet in a wide range of planet parameters. The sample of an increased number of microlensing planets in binary systems will provide important observational constraints in giving shape to the details of planet formation, which have been restricted to the case of single stars to date.

  11. Herschel-ATLAS : Planck sources in the phase 1 fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herranz, D.; González-Nuevo, J.; Clements, D.; De, Zotti G.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Lapi, A.; Rodighiero, G.; Danese, L.; Fu, H.; Cooray, A.; Baes, M.; Bendo, G.; Bonavera, L.; Carrera, F.; Dole, H.; Eales, S.; Ivison, R.; Jarvis, M.; Lagache, G.; Massardi, M.; Michalowski, M.; Negrello, M.; Rigby, E.E.; Scott, D.; Valiante, E.; Valtchanov, I.; Werf, van der P.P.; Auld, R.; Buttiglione, S.; Dariush, A.; Dunne, L.; Hopwood, R.; Hoyos, C.; Ibar, E.; Maddox, S.

    2013-01-01

    We present the results of a cross-correlation of the Planck Early Release Compact Source catalogue (ERCSC) with the catalogue of Herschel-ATLAS sources detected in the phase 1 fields, covering 134.55{deg}$^{2}$. There are 28 ERCSC sources detected by Planck at 857 GHz in this area. As many as 16 of

  12. Footprint Database and web services for the Herschel space observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verebélyi, Erika; Dobos, László; Kiss, Csaba

    2015-08-01

    Using all telemetry and observational meta-data, we created a searchable database of Herschel observation footprints. Data from the Herschel space observatory is freely available for everyone but no uniformly processed catalog of all observations has been published yet. As a first step, we unified the data model for all three Herschel instruments in all observation modes and compiled a database of sky coverage information. As opposed to methods using a pixellation of the sphere, in our database, sky coverage is stored in exact geometric form allowing for precise area calculations. Indexing of the footprints allows for very fast search among observations based on pointing, time, sky coverage overlap and meta-data. This enables us, for example, to find moving objects easily in Herschel fields. The database is accessible via a web site and also as a set of REST web service functions which makes it usable from program clients like Python or IDL scripts. Data is available in various formats including Virtual Observatory standards.

  13. First results of Herschel-PACS observations of Neptune

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lellouch, E.; Hartogh, P.; Feuchtgruber, H.; Vandenbussche, B.; de Graauw, Th.; Moreno, R.; Jarchow, C.; Cavalie, T.; Orton, G.; Banaszkiewicz, M.; Blecka, M. I.; Bockelee-Morvan, D.; Crovisier, J.; Encrenaz, T.; Fulton, T.; Kueppers, M.; Lara, L. M.; Lis, D. C.; Medvedev, A. S.; Rengel, M.; Sagawa, H.; Swinyard, B.; Szutowicz, S.; Bensch, F.; Bergin, E.; Billebaud, F.; Biver, N.; Blake, G. A.; Blommaert, J. A. D. L.; Cernicharo, J.; Courtin, R.; Davis, G. R.; Decin, L.; Encrenaz, P.; Gonzalez, A.; Jehin, E.; Kidger, M.; Naylor, D.; Portyankina, G.; Schieder, R.; Sidher, S.; Thomas, N.; de Val-Borro, M.; Verdugo, E.; Waelkens, C.; Aarts, H.; Comito, C.; Kawamura, J. H.; Maestrini, A.; Peacocke, T.; Teipen, R.; Tils, T.; Wildeman, K.; Walker, H.; Blake, G.A.

    2010-01-01

    We report on the initial analysis of a Herschel-PACS full range spectrum of Neptune, covering the 51-220 mu m range with a mean resolving power of similar to 3000, and complemented by a dedicated observation of CH(4) at 120 mu m. Numerous spectral features due to HD (R(0) and R(1)), H(2)O, CH(4),

  14. The first results from the Herschel-HIFI mission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Tak, Floris

    2012-01-01

    This paper contains a summary of the results from the first years of observations with the HIFI instrument onboard ESA's Herschel space observatory. The paper starts by outlining the goals and possibilities of far-infrared and submillimeter astronomy, the limitations of the Earth's atmosphere, and

  15. Who Invented the Word Asteroid: William Herschel or Stephen Weston?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Clifford J.; Orchiston, Wayne

    2011-11-01

    William Herschel made the first serious study of 1 Ceres and 2 Pallas in the year 1802. He was moved by their dissimilarities to the other planets to coin a new term to distinguish them. For this purpose he enlisted the aid of his good friends William Watson and Sir Joseph Banks. Watson gave him a long list of possible names, which Herschel rejected. With a lifetime of experience classifying and naming newly found objects in nature, Banks became the man both Erasmus Darwin (in 1781) and William Herschel (in 1802) turned to for sage advice in developing a new descriptive language. In the case of Ceres and Pallas, Banks turned the task over to his friend, the noted philologist Stephen Weston, FRS. It has recently been stated by a noted British historian that it was Weston - not Herschel - who coined the term 'asteroid' to collectively describe Ceres and Pallas. This claim is investigated, and parallels are drawn in the use of neologism in astronomy and botany.

  16. Additive manufacturing of tunable lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlichting, Katja; Novak, Tobias; Heinrich, Andreas

    2017-02-01

    Individual additive manufacturing of optical systems based on 3D Printing offers varied possibilities in design and usage. In addition to the additive manufacturing procedure, the usage of tunable lenses allows further advantages for intelligent optical systems. Our goal is to bring the advantages of additive manufacturing together with the huge potential of tunable lenses. We produced tunable lenses as a bundle without any further processing steps, like polishing. The lenses were designed and directly printed with a 3D Printer as a package. The design contains the membrane as an optical part as well as the mechanical parts of the lens, like the attachments for the sleeves which contain the oil. The dynamic optical lenses were filled with an oil. The focal length of the lenses changes due to a change of the radius of curvature. This change is caused by changing the pressure in the inside of the lens. In addition to that, we designed lenses with special structures to obtain different areas with an individual optical power. We want to discuss the huge potential of this technology for several applications. Further, an appropriate controlling system is needed. Wéll show the possibilities to control and regulate the optical power of the lenses. The lenses could be used for illumination tasks, and in the future, for individual measurement tasks. The main advantage is the individuality and the possibility to create an individual design which completely fulfills the requirements for any specific application.

  17. QUANTIFYING THE BIASES OF SPECTROSCOPICALLY SELECTED GRAVITATIONAL LENSES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arneson, Ryan A.; Brownstein, Joel R.; Bolton, Adam S.

    2012-01-01

    Spectroscopic selection has been the most productive technique for the selection of galaxy-scale strong gravitational lens systems with known redshifts. Statistically significant samples of strong lenses provide a powerful method for measuring the mass-density parameters of the lensing population, but results can only be generalized to the parent population if the lensing selection biases are sufficiently understood. We perform controlled Monte Carlo simulations of spectroscopic lens surveys in order to quantify the bias of lenses relative to parent galaxies in velocity dispersion, mass axis ratio, and mass-density profile. For parameters typical of the SLACS and BELLS surveys, we find (1) no significant mass axis ratio detection bias of lenses relative to parent galaxies; (2) a very small detection bias toward shallow mass-density profiles, which is likely negligible compared to other sources of uncertainty in this parameter; (3) a detection bias toward smaller Einstein radius for systems drawn from parent populations with group- and cluster-scale lensing masses; and (4) a lens-modeling bias toward larger velocity dispersions for systems drawn from parent samples with sub-arcsecond mean Einstein radii. This last finding indicates that the incorporation of velocity-dispersion upper limits of non-lenses is an important ingredient for unbiased analyses of spectroscopically selected lens samples. In general, we find that the completeness of spectroscopic lens surveys in the plane of Einstein radius and mass-density profile power-law index is quite uniform, up to a sharp drop in the region of large Einstein radius and steep mass-density profile, and hence that such surveys are ideally suited to the study of massive field galaxies.

  18. A Herschel-Resolved Debris Disk Around the Nearby G Star HIP 32480

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapelfeldt, K.

    2011-01-01

    The Herschel Space Observatory is providing unprecedented sensitivity and angular resolution in the far-infrared. The DUNES Key Project (DUst around NEarby Stars, PI Carlos Eiroa) has finished its survey of 133 FGK stars within 25 pc of the Sun using the PACS photometer at 100 and 160 microns. We report the detection of a resolved debris ring around HIP 32480, a G0 star 16.5 parsecs distant. The ring is almost 300 AU in diameter and inclined 30 degrees from edge-on. We present a thermal emission model for the system that fits the Spitzer spectroscopy and Herschel images of the system. We find a minimum grainsize of approximately 4 microns in the main ring and a distinct warm dust population interior to it. Faint detached emission features just outside the ring may trace a separate, more distant ring in the system. The non-detection of the ring in archival HST/ACS coronagraphic images limits the dust grain albedo in the ring to be no more than 10%.

  19. "Heart" of Herschel to be presented to media

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    The Herschel mission, equipped with the largest telescope ever launched in space (3.5 m diameter), will give astronomers their best capability yet to explore the universe at far-infrared and sub-millimetre wavelengths. By measuring the light at these wavelengths, scientists see the ‘cold’ universe. Herschel will give them an unprecedented view, allowing them to see deep into star forming regions, galactic centres and planetary systems. In order to achieve its objectives and to be able to detect the faint radiation coming from the coolest objects in the cosmos, otherwise ‘invisible’, Herschel’s detectors must operate at very low and stable temperatures. The spacecraft is equipped so as to cool them close to absolute zero (-273.15 ºC), ranging from -271 ºC to only a few tenths of a degree above absolute zero. To have achieved this particular feature alone is a remarkable accomplishment for European industry and science. The final integration of the various components of the Herschel spacecraft - payload module, cryostat, service module, telescope and solar arrays - will be completed in the next few months. This phase will be followed by a series of tests to get the spacecraft ready for launch at the end of July 2008. Herschel will be launched into space on an Ariane 5 ECA rocket. The launch is shared with Planck, ESA’s mission to study relic radiation from the Big Bang. Media interested to attend the press event are invited to fill in the reply form below. Note for editors The Prime Contractor for the Herschel spacecraft is Thales Alenia Space (Cannes, France). It leads a consortium of industrial partners with Astrium (Germany) responsible for the Extended Payload Module (EPLM, including the Herschel cryostat), Astrium (France) responsible for the telescope, and the Thales Alenia Space industry branch of Torino, Italy, responsible for the Service Module (SVM). There is also a host of subcontractors spread throughout Europe. The three Herschel

  20. HerMES: The rest-frame UV emission and a lensing model for the z = 6.34 luminous dusty starburst galaxy HFLS3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooray, Asantha; Calanog, Jae; Casey, C. M.; Ma, Brian; Osage, W. A.; Wardlow, Julie L.; Bock, J.; Bridge, C.; Burgarella, D.; Bussmann, R. S.; Clements, D.; Conley, A.; Farrah, D.; Fu, H.; Gavazzi, R.; Ivison, R. J.; La Porte, N.; Lo Faro, B.; Magdis, G.; Oliver, S. J.

    2014-01-01

    We discuss the rest-frame ultraviolet emission from the starbursting galaxy HFLS3 at a redshift of 6.34. The galaxy was discovered in Herschel/SPIRE data due to its red color in the submillimeter wavelengths from 250 to 500 μm. Keck/NIRC2 K s -band adaptive optics imaging data showed two potential near-IR counterparts near HFLS3. Previously, the northern galaxy was taken to be in the foreground at z = 2.1, while the southern galaxy was assumed to be HFLS3's near-IR counterpart. The recently acquired Hubble/WFC3 and Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) imaging data show conclusively that both optically bright galaxies are in the foreground at z < 6. A new lensing model based on the Hubble imaging data and the millimeter-wave continuum emission yields a magnification factor of 2.2 ± 0.3, with a 95% confidence upper limit on the magnification of 3.5. When corrected for lensing, the instantaneous star formation rate is 1320 M ☉ yr –1 , with the 95% confidence lower limit around 830 M ☉ yr –1 . The dust and stellar masses of HFLS3 from the same spectral energy distribution (SED) models are at the level of 3 × 10 8 M ☉ and ∼5 × 10 10 M ☉ , respectively, with large systematic uncertainties on assumptions related to the SED model. With Hubble/WFC3 images, we also find diffuse near-IR emission about 0.5 arcsec (∼3 kpc) to the southwest of HFLS3 that remains undetected in the ACS imaging data. The emission has a photometric redshift consistent with either z ∼ 6 or a dusty galaxy template at z ∼ 2.

  1. RHIC electron lenses upgrades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, X. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Altinbas, Z. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Bruno, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Binello, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Costanzo, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Drees, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Fischer, W. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Gassner, D. M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Hock, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Hock, K. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Harvey, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Luo, Y. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Marusic, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Mi, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Mernick, K. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Minty, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Michnoff, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Miller, T. A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Pikin, A. I. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Robert-Demolaize, G. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Samms, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Shrey, T. C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Schoefer, V. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Tan, Y. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Than, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Thieberger, P. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; White, S. M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.

    2015-05-03

    In the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) 100 GeV polarized proton run in 2015, two electron lenses were used to partially compensate for the head-on beam-beam effect for the first time. Here, we describe the design of the current electron lens, detailing the hardware modifications made after the 2014 commissioning run with heavy ions. A new electron gun with 15-mm diameter cathode is characterized. The electron beam transverse profile was measured using a YAG screen and fitted with a Gaussian distribution. During operation, the overlap of the electron and proton beams was achieved using the electron backscattering detector in conjunction with an automated orbit control program.

  2. A COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND LENSING MASS MAP AND ITS CORRELATION WITH THE COSMIC INFRARED BACKGROUND

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holder, G. P.; De Haan, T.; Dobbs, M. A.; Dudley, J. [Department of Physics, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 2T8 (Canada); Viero, M. P.; Bock, J. [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Zahn, O. [Berkeley Center for Cosmological Physics, Department of Physics, University of California, and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Aird, K. A. [University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Benson, B. A.; Bhattacharya, S.; Bleem, L. E.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chang, C. L.; Crawford, T. M.; Crites, A. T. [Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Brodwin, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Cho, H-M. [NIST Quantum Devices Group, Boulder, CO 80305 (United States); Conley, A. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); George, E. M. [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Halverson, N. W. [Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences and Department of Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); and others

    2013-07-01

    We use a temperature map of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) obtained using the South Pole Telescope at 150 GHz to construct a map of the gravitational convergence to z {approx} 1100, revealing the fluctuations in the projected mass density. This map shows individual features that are significant at the {approx}4{sigma} level, providing the first image of CMB lensing convergence. We cross-correlate this map with Herschel/SPIRE maps covering 90 deg{sup 2} at wavelengths of 500, 350, and 250 {mu}m. We show that these submillimeter (submm) wavelength maps are strongly correlated with the lensing convergence map, with detection significances in each of the three submm bands ranging from 6.7{sigma} to 8.8{sigma}. We fit the measurement of the cross power spectrum assuming a simple constant bias model and infer bias factors of b = 1.3-1.8, with a statistical uncertainty of 15%, depending on the assumed model for the redshift distribution of the dusty galaxies that are contributing to the Herschel/SPIRE maps.

  3. Magnetic electron lenses

    CERN Document Server

    1982-01-01

    No single volume has been entirely devoted to the properties of magnetic lenses, so far as I am aware, although of course all the numerous textbooks on electron optics devote space to them. The absence of such a volume, bringing together in­ formation about the theory and practical design of these lenses, is surprising, for their introduction some fifty years ago has created an entirely new family of commercial instruments, ranging from the now traditional transmission electron microscope, through the reflection and transmission scanning microscopes, to co­ lumns for micromachining and microlithography, not to mention the host of experi­ mental devices not available commercially. It therefore seemed useful to prepare an account of the various aspects of mag­ netic lens studies. These divide naturally into the five chapters of this book: the theoretical background, in which the optical behaviour is described and formu­ lae given for the various aberration coefficients; numerical methods for calculat­ ing...

  4. Gravitational lenses and cosmological evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peacock, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of gravitational lensing on the apparent cosmological evolution of extragalactic radio sources is investigated. Models for a lens population consisting of galaxies and clusters of galaxies are constructed and used to calculate the distribution of amplification factors caused by lensing. Although many objects at high redshifts are predicted to have flux densities altered by 10 to 20 per cent relative to a homogeneous universe, flux conservation implies that de-amplification is as common as amplification. The effects on cosmological evolution as inferred from source counts and redshift data are thus relatively small; the slope of the counts is not large enough for intrinsically rare lensing events of high amplitude to corrupt observed samples. Lensing effects may be of greater importance for optically selected quasars, where lenses of mass as low as approximately 10 -4 solar mass can cause large amplifications. (author)

  5. Evidence of lensing of the cosmic microwave background by dark matter halos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhavacheril, Mathew; Sehgal, Neelima; Allison, Rupert; Battaglia, Nick; Bond, J Richard; Calabrese, Erminia; Caligiuri, Jerod; Coughlin, Kevin; Crichton, Devin; Datta, Rahul; Devlin, Mark J; Dunkley, Joanna; Dünner, Rolando; Fogarty, Kevin; Grace, Emily; Hajian, Amir; Hasselfield, Matthew; Hill, J Colin; Hilton, Matt; Hincks, Adam D; Hlozek, Renée; Hughes, John P; Kosowsky, Arthur; Louis, Thibaut; Lungu, Marius; McMahon, Jeff; Moodley, Kavilan; Munson, Charles; Naess, Sigurd; Nati, Federico; Newburgh, Laura; Niemack, Michael D; Page, Lyman A; Partridge, Bruce; Schmitt, Benjamin; Sherwin, Blake D; Sievers, Jon; Spergel, David N; Staggs, Suzanne T; Thornton, Robert; Van Engelen, Alexander; Ward, Jonathan T; Wollack, Edward J

    2015-04-17

    We present evidence of the gravitational lensing of the cosmic microwave background by 10(13) solar mass dark matter halos. Lensing convergence maps from the Atacama Cosmology Telescope Polarimeter (ACTPol) are stacked at the positions of around 12 000 optically selected CMASS galaxies from the SDSS-III/BOSS survey. The mean lensing signal is consistent with simulated dark matter halo profiles and is favored over a null signal at 3.2σ significance. This result demonstrates the potential of microwave background lensing to probe the dark matter distribution in galaxy group and galaxy cluster halos.

  6. Subaru Weak Lensing Measurements of Four Strong Lensing Clusters: Are Lensing Clusters Over-Concentrated?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oguri, Masamune; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Gladders, Michael D.; Dahle, Haakon; Natarajan, Priyamvada; Dalal, Neal; Koester, Benjamin P.; Sharon, Keren; Bayliss, Matthew

    2009-01-29

    We derive radial mass profiles of four strong lensing selected clusters which show prominent giant arcs (Abell 1703, SDSS J1446+3032, SDSS J1531+3414, and SDSS J2111-0115), by combining detailed strong lens modeling with weak lensing shear measured from deep Subaru Suprime-cam images. Weak lensing signals are detected at high significance for all four clusters, whose redshifts range from z = 0.28 to 0.64. We demonstrate that adding strong lensing information with known arc redshifts significantly improves constraints on the mass density profile, compared to those obtained from weak lensing alone. While the mass profiles are well fitted by the universal form predicted in N-body simulations of the {Lambda}-dominated cold dark matter model, all four clusters appear to be slightly more centrally concentrated (the concentration parameters c{sub vir} {approx} 8) than theoretical predictions, even after accounting for the bias toward higher concentrations inherent in lensing selected samples. Our results are consistent with previous studies which similarly detected a concentration excess, and increases the total number of clusters studied with the combined strong and weak lensing technique to ten. Combining our sample with previous work, we find that clusters with larger Einstein radii are more anomalously concentrated. We also present a detailed model of the lensing cluster Abell 1703 with constraints from multiple image families, and find the dark matter inner density profile to be cuspy with the slope consistent with -1, in agreement with expectations.

  7. Separating intrinsic alignment and galaxy-galaxy lensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blazek, Jonathan; Seljak, Uroš; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Nakajima, Reiko

    2012-01-01

    The coherent physical alignment of galaxies is an important systematic for gravitational lensing studies as well as a probe of the physical mechanisms involved in galaxy formation and evolution. We develop a formalism for treating this intrinsic alignment (IA) in the context of galaxy-galaxy lensing and present an improved method for measuring IA contamination, which can arise when sources physically associated with the lens are placed behind the lens due to photometric redshift scatter. We apply the technique to recent Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) measurements of Luminous Red Galaxy lenses and typical ( ∼ L * ) source galaxies with photometric redshifts selected from the SDSS imaging data. Compared to previous measurements, this method has the advantage of being fully self-consistent in its treatment of the IA and lensing signals, solving for the two simultaneously. We find an IA signal consistent with zero, placing tight constraints on both the magnitude of the IA effect and its potential contamination to the lensing signal. While these constraints depend on source selection and redshift quality, the method can be applied to any measurement that uses photometric redshifts. We obtain a model-independent upper-limit of roughly 10% IA contamination for projected separations of r p ≈ 0.1–10 h −1 Mpc. With more stringent photo-z cuts and reasonable assumptions about the physics of intrinsic alignments, this upper limit is reduced to 1–2%. These limits are well below the statistical error of the current lensing measurements. Our results suggest that IA will not present intractable challenges to the next generation of galaxy-galaxy lensing experiments, and the methods presented here should continue to aid in our understanding of alignment processes and in the removal of IA from the lensing signal

  8. Gravitational lensing of gravitational waves: a statistical perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shun-Sheng; Mao, Shude; Zhao, Yuetong; Lu, Youjun

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we study the strong gravitational lensing of gravitational waves (GWs) from a statistical perspective, with particular focus on the high frequency GWs from stellar binary black hole coalescences. These are most promising targets for ground-based detectors such as Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (aLIGO) and the proposed Einstein Telescope (ET) and can be safely treated under the geometrical optics limit for GW propagation. We perform a thorough calculation of the lensing rate, by taking account of effects caused by the ellipticity of lensing galaxies, lens environments, and magnification bias. We find that in certain GW source rate scenarios, we should be able to observe strongly lensed GW events once per year (˜1 yr-1) in the aLIGO survey at its design sensitivity; for the proposed ET survey, the rate could be as high as ˜80 yr-1. These results depend on the estimate of GW source abundance, and hence can be correspondingly modified with an improvement in our understanding of the merger rate of stellar binary black holes. We also compute the fraction of four-image lens systems in each survey, predicting it to be ˜30 per cent for the aLIGO survey and ˜6 per cent for the ET survey. Finally, we evaluate the possibility of missing some images due to the finite survey duration, by presenting the probability distribution of lensing time delays. We predict that this selection bias will be insignificant in future GW surveys, as most of the lens systems ({˜ } 90{per cent}) will have time delays less than ˜1 month, which will be far shorter than survey durations.

  9. SPITZER ULTRA FAINT SURVEY PROGRAM (SURFS UP). II. IRAC-DETECTED LYMAN-BREAK GALAXIES AT 6 ≲ z ≲ 10 BEHIND STRONG-LENSING CLUSTERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Kuang-Han; Bradač, Maruša; Hoag, Austin; Cain, Benjamin; Lubin, L. M.; Knight, Robert I. [University of California Davis, 1 Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Lemaux, Brian C. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Ryan, R. E. Jr.; Brammer, Gabriel B. [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, F-13388 Marseille (France); Castellano, Marco; Amorin, Ricardo; Fontana, Adriano; Merlin, Emiliano [INAF—Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma Via Frascati 33, I-00040 Monte Porzio Catone (Italy); Schmidt, Kasper B. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Schrabback, Tim [Argelander-Institut für Astronomie, Auf Dem Hügel 71, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Treu, Tommaso [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Gonzalez, Anthony H. [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, 211 Bryant Space Science Center, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Linden, Anja von der, E-mail: khhuang@ucdavis.edu, E-mail: astrokuang@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Stanford University, 382 Via Pueblo Mall, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2016-01-20

    We study the stellar population properties of the IRAC-detected 6 ≲ z ≲ 10 galaxy candidates from the Spitzer UltRa Faint SUrvey Program. Using the Lyman Break selection technique, we find a total of 17 galaxy candidates at 6 ≲ z ≲ 10 from Hubble Space Telescope images (including the full-depth images from the Hubble Frontier Fields program for MACS 1149 and MACS 0717) that have detections at signal-to-noise ratios  ≥ 3 in at least one of the IRAC 3.6 and 4.5 μm channels. According to the best mass models available for the surveyed galaxy clusters, these IRAC-detected galaxy candidates are magnified by factors of ∼1.2–5.5. Due to the magnification of the foreground galaxy clusters, the rest-frame UV absolute magnitudes M{sub 1600} are between −21.2 and −18.9 mag, while their intrinsic stellar masses are between 2 × 10{sup 8}M{sub ⊙} and 2.9 × 10{sup 9}M{sub ⊙}. We identify two Lyα emitters in our sample from the Keck DEIMOS spectra, one at z{sub Lyα} = 6.76 (in RXJ 1347) and one at z{sub Lyα} = 6.32 (in MACS 0454). We find that 4 out of 17 z ≳ 6 galaxy candidates are favored by z ≲ 1 solutions when IRAC fluxes are included in photometric redshift fitting. We also show that IRAC [3.6]–[4.5] color, when combined with photometric redshift, can be used to identify galaxies which likely have strong nebular emission lines or obscured active galactic nucleus contributions within certain redshift windows.

  10. Calibration of the Herschel SPIRE Fourier Transform Spectrometer

    OpenAIRE

    Swinyard, Bruce; Polehampton, E. T.; Hopwood, R.; Valtchanov, I.; Lu, N.; Fulton, T.; Benielli, D.; Imhof, P.; Marchili, N.; Baluteau, J.- P.; Bendo, G. J.; Ferlet, M.; Griffin, Matthew Jason; Lim, T. L.; Makiwa, G.

    2014-01-01

    The Herschel Spectral and Photometric REceiver (SPIRE) instrument consists of an imaging photometric camera and an imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS), both operating over a frequency range of ∼450–1550 GHz. In this paper, we briefly review the FTS design, operation, and data reduction, and describe in detail the approach taken to relative calibration (removal of instrument signatures) and absolute calibration against standard astronomical sources. The calibration scheme assumes a sp...

  11. Continued monitoring of aeolian activity within Herschel Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinale, Marco; Pozzobon, Riccardo; Michaels, Timothy; Bourke, Mary C.; Okubo, Chris H.; Chiara Tangari, Anna; Marinangeli, Lucia

    2017-04-01

    In this work, we study a dark dune field on the western side of Herschel crater, a 300 km diameter impact basin located near the Martian equator (14.4°S, 130°E), where the ripple and dune motion reflects the actual atmospheric wind conditions. We develop an integrated analysis using (1) automated ripple mapping that yields ripple orientations and evaluates the spatial variation of actual atmospheric wind conditions within the dunes, (2) an optical cross-correlation that allows us to quantify an average ripple migration rate of 0.42 m per Mars year, and (3) mesoscale climate modeling with which we compare the observed aeolian changes with modeled wind stresses and directions. Our observations are consistent with previous work [1] [2] that detected aeolian activity in the western part of the crater. It also demonstrates that not only are the westerly Herschel dunes movable, but that predominant winds from the north are able to keep the ripples and dunes active within most (if not all) of Herschel crater in the current atmospheric conditions. References: [1] Cardinale, M., Silvestro, S., Vaz, D.A., Michaels, T., Bourke, M.C., Komatsu, G., Marinangeli, L., 2016. Present-day aeolian activity in Herschel Crater, Mars. Icarus 265, 139-148. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2015.10.022. [2] Runyon, K.D., Bridges, N.T., Ayoub, F., Newman, C.E. and Quade, J.J., 2017. An integrated model for dune morphology and sand fluxes on Mars. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 457, pp.204-212.

  12. Simbol-X: Synergies with JWST, ALMA and Herschel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiolino, R.

    2009-05-01

    I discuss the synergies between Simbol-X and three among the major astronomical facilities that, in the next decade, will be operative in the infrared-millimeter spectral range, namely JWST, Herschel and ALMA. I first provide a brief overview of the main features and observing capabilities offered by these facilities. Then I will discuss a few research fields (mostly extragalactic) that will geatly benefit of the joint exploitation of Simbol-X and these IR-mm observatories.

  13. The Initial Mass Function in the Nearest Strong Lenses from SNELLS: Assessing the Consistency of Lensing, Dynamical, and Spectroscopic Constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman, Andrew B. [The Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, Pasadena, CA (United States); Smith, Russell J. [Centre for Extragalactic Astronomy, University of Durham, South Road, Durham (United Kingdom); Conroy, Charlie [Department of Astronomy, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA (United States); Villaume, Alexa [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Van Dokkum, Pieter, E-mail: anewman@obs.carnegiescience.edu [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Yale University, New Haven, CT (United States)

    2017-08-20

    We present new observations of the three nearest early-type galaxy (ETG) strong lenses discovered in the SINFONI Nearby Elliptical Lens Locator Survey (SNELLS). Based on their lensing masses, these ETGs were inferred to have a stellar initial mass function (IMF) consistent with that of the Milky Way, not the bottom-heavy IMF that has been reported as typical for high- σ ETGs based on lensing, dynamical, and stellar population synthesis techniques. We use these unique systems to test the consistency of IMF estimates derived from different methods. We first estimate the stellar M {sub *}/ L using lensing and stellar dynamics. We then fit high-quality optical spectra of the lenses using an updated version of the stellar population synthesis models developed by Conroy and van Dokkum. When examined individually, we find good agreement among these methods for one galaxy. The other two galaxies show 2–3 σ tension with lensing estimates, depending on the dark matter contribution, when considering IMFs that extend to 0.08 M {sub ⊙}. Allowing a variable low-mass cutoff or a nonparametric form of the IMF reduces the tension among the IMF estimates to <2 σ . There is moderate evidence for a reduced number of low-mass stars in the SNELLS spectra, but no such evidence in a composite spectrum of matched- σ ETGs drawn from the SDSS. Such variation in the form of the IMF at low stellar masses ( m ≲ 0.3 M {sub ⊙}), if present, could reconcile lensing/dynamical and spectroscopic IMF estimates for the SNELLS lenses and account for their lighter M {sub *}/ L relative to the mean matched- σ ETG. We provide the spectra used in this study to facilitate future comparisons.

  14. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Herschel FIR observations of NGC3603 (Di Cecco+, 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Cecco, A.; Faustini, F.; Paresce, F.; Correnti, M.; Calzoletti, L.

    2015-06-01

    The cloud complex surrounding NGC 3603 YC was observed by Herschel SPIRE/PACS during the Hi-GAL Survey (Molinari et al. 2010A&A...518L.100M, 2010PASP..122..314M), a Key Programme that mapped the Galactic plane in five photometric bands (70, 160, 250, 350, and 500um). The MSX (Egan et al. 2003AAS...203.5708E) images were taken at (wavelengths) 8.3, 12.1, 14.7, and 21.3um using the scan observing mode, and the WISE (Wright et al. 2010AJ....140.1868W) images were acquired in freeze-frame scan mode at 3.4, 4.6, 12, and 22um. (2 data files).

  15. Spurious Shear in Weak Lensing with LSST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, C.; Kahn, S.M.; Jernigan, J.G.; Peterson, J.R.; AlSayyad, Y.; Ahmad, Z.; Bankert, J.; Bard, D.; Connolly, A.; Gibson, R.R.; Gilmore, K.; Grace, E.; Hannel, M.; Hodge, M.A.; Jee, M.J.; Jones, L.; Krughoff, S.; Lorenz, S.; Marshall, P.J.; Marshall, S.; Meert, A.

    2012-09-19

    The complete 10-year survey from the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will image {approx} 20,000 square degrees of sky in six filter bands every few nights, bringing the final survey depth to r {approx} 27.5, with over 4 billion well measured galaxies. To take full advantage of this unprecedented statistical power, the systematic errors associated with weak lensing measurements need to be controlled to a level similar to the statistical errors. This work is the first attempt to quantitatively estimate the absolute level and statistical properties of the systematic errors on weak lensing shear measurements due to the most important physical effects in the LSST system via high fidelity ray-tracing simulations. We identify and isolate the different sources of algorithm-independent, additive systematic errors on shear measurements for LSST and predict their impact on the final cosmic shear measurements using conventional weak lensing analysis techniques. We find that the main source of the errors comes from an inability to adequately characterise the atmospheric point spread function (PSF) due to its high frequency spatial variation on angular scales smaller than {approx} 10{prime} in the single short exposures, which propagates into a spurious shear correlation function at the 10{sup -4}-10{sup -3} level on these scales. With the large multi-epoch dataset that will be acquired by LSST, the stochastic errors average out, bringing the final spurious shear correlation function to a level very close to the statistical errors. Our results imply that the cosmological constraints from LSST will not be severely limited by these algorithm-independent, additive systematic effects.

  16. CMB lensing and giant rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathaus, Ben; Itzhaki, Nissan, E-mail: nitzhaki@post.tau.ac.il, E-mail: ben.rathaus@gmail.com [Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel-Aviv University, Ramat-Aviv, 69978 (Israel)

    2012-05-01

    We study the CMB lensing signature of a pre-inationary particle (PIP), assuming it is responsible for the giant rings anomaly that was found recently in the WMAP data. Simulating Planck-like data we find that generically the CMB lensing signal to noise ratio associated with such a PIP is quite small and it would be difficult to cross correlate the temperature giant rings with the CMB lensing signal. However, if the pre-inationary particle is also responsible for the bulk flow measured from the local large scale structure, which happens to point roughly at the same direction as the giant rings, then the CMB lensing signal to noise ratio is fairly significant.

  17. KINOFORM LENSES - TOWARD NANOMETER RESOLUTION.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    STEIN, A.; EVANS-LUTTERODT, K.; TAYLOR, A.

    2004-10-23

    While hard x-rays have wavelengths in the nanometer and sub-nanometer range, the ability to focus them is limited by the quality of sources and optics, and not by the wavelength. A few options, including reflective (mirrors), diffractive (zone plates) and refractive (CRL's) are available, each with their own limitations. Here we present our work with kinoform lenses which are refractive lenses with all material causing redundant 2{pi} phase shifts removed to reduce the absorption problems inherently limiting the resolution of refractive lenses. By stacking kinoform lenses together, the effective numerical aperture, and thus the focusing resolution, can be increased. The present status of kinoform lens fabrication and testing at Brookhaven is presented as well as future plans toward achieving nanometer resolution.

  18. Astrophysical Applications of Gravitational Lensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mediavilla, Evencio; Muñoz, Jose A.; Garzón, Francisco; Mahoney, Terence J.

    2016-10-01

    Contributors; Participants; Preface; Acknowledgements; 1. Lensing basics Sherry H. Suyu; 2. Exoplanet microlensing Andrew Gould; 3. Case studies of microlensing Veronica Motta and Emilio Falco; 4. Microlensing of quasars and AGN Joachim Wambsganss; 5. DM in clusters and large-scale structure Peter Schneider; 6. The future of strong lensing Chris Fassnacht; 7. Methods for strong lens modelling Charles Keeton; 8. Tutorial on inverse ray shooting Jorge Jimenez-Vicente.

  19. Weak lensing: Dark Matter, Dark Energy and Dark Gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heavens, Alan

    2009-01-01

    In this non-specialist review I look at how weak lensing can provide information on the dark sector of the Universe. The review concentrates on what can be learned about Dark Matter, Dark Energy and Dark Gravity, and why. On Dark Matter, results on the confrontation of theoretical profiles with observation are reviewed, and measurements of neutrino masses discussed. On Dark Energy, the interest is whether this could be Einstein's cosmological constant, and prospects for high-precision studies of the equation of state are considered. On Dark Gravity, we consider the exciting prospects for future weak lensing surveys to distinguish General Relativity from extra-dimensional or other gravity theories.

  20. Noise estimates for measurements of weak lensing from the Ly α forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalf, R. Benton; Croft, Rupert A. C.; Romeo, Alessandro

    2018-06-01

    Lensing changes the apparent separation between pixels in the Ly α forest of separate quasars or high-redshift objects by changing their observed positions on the sky. This changes the implied correlations in the absorption and in particular makes the Ly α forest correlation function, or power spectrum, locally anisotropic in the plane of the sky. We have proposed a method for measuring weak lensing using this effect. Here, we estimate the noise expected in weak lensing maps and power spectra for different sets of observational parameters. We find that surveys of the size and quality of the ones being done today and ones planned for the future will be able to measure the lensing power spectrum at a source redshift of z ≃ 2.5 with high precision and even be able to image the distribution of foreground matter with high fidelity on degree scales. For example, we predict that Ly α forest lensing measurements from the DESI and WEAVE surveys should yield the mass fluctuation amplitude with a statistical error of ˜3 per cent, eBOSS ˜6 per cent. and the proposed MSE survey less than 1 per cent. By dividing the redshift range into multiple bins, some tomographic lensing information should be accessible as well. This would allow for cosmological lensing measurements at higher redshift than are accessible with galaxy shear surveys and correspondingly better constraints on the evolution of dark energy at relatively early times.

  1. A HERSCHEL AND APEX CENSUS OF THE REDDEST SOURCES IN ORION: SEARCHING FOR THE YOUNGEST PROTOSTARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stutz, Amelia M.; Robitaille, Thomas; Henning, Thomas; Krause, Oliver [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Tobin, John J. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Stanke, Thomas [ESO, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching bei Muenchen (Germany); Megeath, S. Thomas; Fischer, William J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, 2801 W. Bancroft Street, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Ali, Babar; Furlan, Elise [NHSC/IPAC/Caltech, 770 S. Wilson Avenue, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Di Francesco, James [National Research Council of Canada, Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Hartmann, Lee [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 830 Dennison Building, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Osorio, Mayra [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia, CSIC, Camino Bajo de Huetor 50, E-18008 Granada (Spain); Wilson, Thomas L. [Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Avenue SW, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Allen, Lori [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Manoj, P., E-mail: stutz@mpia.de [Department of Physics and Astronomy, 500 Wilson Boulevard, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States)

    2013-04-10

    We perform a census of the reddest, and potentially youngest, protostars in the Orion molecular clouds using data obtained with the PACS instrument on board the Herschel Space Observatory and the LABOCA and SABOCA instruments on APEX as part of the Herschel Orion Protostar Survey (HOPS). A total of 55 new protostar candidates are detected at 70 {mu}m and 160 {mu}m that are either too faint (m{sub 24} > 7 mag) to be reliably classified as protostars or undetected in the Spitzer/MIPS 24 {mu}m band. We find that the 11 reddest protostar candidates with log {lambda}F{sub {lambda}}70/{lambda}F{sub {lambda}}24 > 1.65 are free of contamination and can thus be reliably explained as protostars. The remaining 44 sources have less extreme 70/24 colors, fainter 70 {mu}m fluxes, and higher levels of contamination. Taking the previously known sample of Spitzer protostars and the new sample together, we find 18 sources that have log {lambda}F{sub {lambda}}70/{lambda}F{sub {lambda}}24 > 1.65; we name these sources 'PACS Bright Red sources', or PBRs. Our analysis reveals that the PBR sample is composed of Class 0 like sources characterized by very red spectral energy distributions (SEDs; T{sub bol} < 45 K) and large values of sub-millimeter fluxes (L{sub smm}/L{sub bol} > 0.6%). Modified blackbody fits to the SEDs provide lower limits to the envelope masses of 0.2-2 M{sub Sun} and luminosities of 0.7-10 L{sub Sun }. Based on these properties, and a comparison of the SEDs with radiative transfer models of protostars, we conclude that the PBRs are most likely extreme Class 0 objects distinguished by higher than typical envelope densities and hence, high mass infall rates.

  2. AN ANALYSIS OF THE ENVIRONMENTS OF FU ORIONIS OBJECTS WITH HERSCHEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Joel D.; Evans, Neal J. II; Merello, Manuel [Department of Astronomy, The University of Texas at Austin, 2515 Speedway, Stop C1400, Austin, TX 78712-1205 (United States); Kospal, Agnes [European Space Agency (ESA/ESTEC), Keplerlaan 1, 2200-AG Noordwijk (Netherlands); Herczeg, Gregory [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Quanz, Sascha P. [Institute for Astronomy, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Henning, Thomas; Bouwman, Jeroen [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Van Kempen, Tim A. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300-RA Leiden (Netherlands); Lee, Jeong-Eun [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Kyung Hee University, Gyeonggi 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Dunham, Michael M. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT (United States); Meeus, Gwendolyn [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Campus Cantoblanco (Spain); Chen, Jo-hsin [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA (United States); Guedel, Manuel; Liebhart, Armin [Department of Astrophysics, University of Vienna (Austria); Skinner, Stephen L., E-mail: joel@astro.as.utexas.edu [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy (CASA), University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309-0389 (United States)

    2013-08-01

    We present Herschel-HIFI, SPIRE, and PACS 50-670 {mu}m imaging and spectroscopy of six FU Orionis-type objects and candidates (FU Orionis, V1735 Cyg, V1515 Cyg, V1057 Cyg, V1331 Cyg, and HBC 722), ranging in outburst date from 1936 to 2010, from the 'FOOSH' (FU Orionis Objects Surveyed with Herschel) program, as well as ancillary results from Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph and the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory. In their system properties (L{sub bol}, T{sub bol}, and line emission), we find that FUors are in a variety of evolutionary states. Additionally, some FUors have features of both Class I and II sources: warm continuum consistent with Class II sources, but rotational line emission typical of Class I, far higher than Class II sources of similar mass/luminosity. Combining several classification techniques, we find an evolutionary sequence consistent with previous mid-IR indicators. We detect [O I] in every source at luminosities consistent with Class 0/I protostars, much greater than in Class II disks. We detect transitions of {sup 13}CO (J{sub up} of 5-8) around two sources (V1735 Cyg and HBC 722) but attribute them to nearby protostars. Of the remaining sources, three (FU Ori, V1515 Cyg, and V1331 Cyg) exhibit only low-lying CO, but one (V1057 Cyg) shows CO up to J = 23 {yields} 22 and evidence for H{sub 2}O and OH emission, at strengths typical of protostars rather than T Tauri stars. Rotational temperatures for 'cool' CO components range from 20 to 81 K, for {approx} 10{sup 50} total CO molecules. We detect [C I] and [N II] primarily as diffuse emission.

  3. Spitzer Imaging of Planck-Herschel Dusty Proto-Clusters at z=2-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooray, Asantha; Ma, Jingzhe; Greenslade, Joshua; Kubo, Mariko; Nayyeri, Hooshang; Clements, David; Cheng, Tai-An

    2018-05-01

    We have recently introduced a new proto-cluster selection technique by combing Herschel/SPIRE imaging data and Planck/HFIk all-sky survey point source catalog. These sources are identified as Planck point sources with clumps of Herschel source over-densities with far-IR colors comparable to z=0 ULIRGS redshifted to z=2 to 3. The selection is sensitive to dusty starbursts and obscured QSOs and we have recovered couple of the known proto-clusters and close to 30 new proto-clusters. The candidate proto-clusters selected from this technique have far-IR flux densities several times higher than those that are optically selected, such as using LBG selection, implying that the member galaxies are in a special phase of heightened dusty starburst and dusty QSO activity. This far-IR luminous phase may be short but likely to be necessary piece to understand the whole stellar mass assembly history of clusters. Moreover, our photo-clusters are missed in optical selections, suggesting that optically selected proto-clusters alone do not provide adequate statistics and a comparison of the far-IR and optical selected clusters may reveal the importance of the dusty stellar mass assembly. Here, we propose IRAC observations of six of the highest priority new proto-clusters, to establish the validity of the technique and to determine the total stellar mass through SED models. For a modest observing time the science program will have a substantial impact on an upcoming science topic in cosmology with implications for observations with JWST and WFIRST to understand the mass assembly in the universe.

  4. Comparison of star formation rates from Hα and infrared luminosity as seen by Herschel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez Sánchez, H.; Mignoli, M.; Pozzi, F.; Calura, F.; Cimatti, A.; Gruppioni, C.; Cepa, J.; Sánchez Portal, M.; Zamorani, G.; Berta, S.; Elbaz, D.; Le Floc'h, E.; Granato, G. L.; Lutz, D.; Maiolino, R.; Matteucci, F.; Nair, P.; Nordon, R.; Pozzetti, L.; Silva, L.; Silverman, J.; Wuyts, S.; Carollo, C. M.; Contini, T.; Kneib, J.-P.; Le Fèvre, O.; Lilly, S. J.; Mainieri, V.; Renzini, A.; Scodeggio, M.; Bardelli, S.; Bolzonella, M.; Bongiorno, A.; Caputi, K.; Coppa, G.; Cucciati, O.; de la Torre, S.; de Ravel, L.; Franzetti, P.; Garilli, B.; Iovino, A.; Kampczyk, P.; Knobel, C.; Kovač, K.; Lamareille, F.; Le Borgne, J.-F.; Le Brun, V.; Maier, C.; Magnelli, B.; Pelló, R.; Peng, Y.; Perez-Montero, E.; Ricciardelli, E.; Riguccini, L.; Tanaka, M.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Tresse, L.; Vergani, D.; Zucca, E.

    2012-10-01

    We empirically MD test the relation between the SFR(LIR) derived from the infrared luminosity, LIR, and the SFR(Hα) derived from the Hα emission line luminosity using simple conversion relations. We use a sample of 474 galaxies at z = 0.06-0.46 with both Hα detection [from 20k redshift Cosmological Evolution (zCOSMOS) survey] and new far-IR Herschel data (100 and 160 μm). We derive SFR(Hα) from the Hα extinction corrected emission line luminosity. We find a very clear trend between E(B - V) and LIR that allows us to estimate extinction values for each galaxy even if the Hβ emission line measurement is not reliable. We calculate the LIR by integrating from 8 up to 1000 μm the spectral energy distribution (SED) that is best fitting our data. We compare the SFR(Hα) with the SFR(LIR). We find a very good agreement between the two star formation rate (SFR) estimates, with a slope of m = 1.01 ± 0.03 in the log SFR(LIR) versus log SFR(Hα) diagram, a normalization constant of a = -0.08 ± 0.03 and a dispersion of σ = 0.28 dex. We study the effect of some intrinsic properties of the galaxies in the SFR(LIR)-SFR(Hα) relation, such as the redshift, the mass, the specific star formation rate (SSFR) or the metallicity. The metallicity is the parameter that affects most the SFR comparison. The mean ratio of the two SFR estimators log[SFR(LIR)/SFR(Hα)] varies by ˜0.6 dex from metal-poor to metal-rich galaxies [8.1 statistics of this sub-sample. Herschel is a European Space Agency (ESA) space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  5. THE MICROLENSING PROPERTIES OF A SAMPLE OF 87 LENSED QUASARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosquera, A. M.; Kochanek, C. S.

    2011-01-01

    Gravitational microlensing is a powerful tool for probing the physical properties of quasar accretion disks and properties of the lens galaxy such as its dark matter fraction and mean stellar mass. Unfortunately, the number of lensed quasars (∼90) exceeds our monitoring capabilities. Thus, estimating their microlensing properties is important for identifying good microlensing candidates as well as for the expectations of future surveys. In this work, we estimate the microlensing properties of a sample of 87 lensed quasars. While the median Einstein radius crossing timescale is 20.6 years, the median source crossing timescale is 7.3 months. Broadly speaking, this means that on ∼10 year timescales roughly half the lenses will be quiescent, with the source in a broad demagnified valley, and roughly half will be active with the source lying in the caustic ridges. We also found that the location of the lens system relative to the cosmic microwave background dipole has a modest effect on microlensing timescales, and in theory microlensing could be used to confirm the kinematic origin of the dipole. As a corollary of our study we analyzed the accretion rate parameters in a sub-sample of 32 lensed quasars. At fixed black hole mass, it is possible to sample a broad range of luminosities (i.e., Eddington factors) if it becomes feasible to monitor fainter lenses.

  6. Do the Herschel cold clouds in the Galactic halo embody its dark matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuizen, T.M.; van Heusden, E.F.G.; Liska, M.T.P.

    2012-01-01

    Recent Herschel/SPIRE (Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver) maps of the Small and Large Magellanic Clouds (SMC, LMC) exhibit, in each, thousands of clouds. Observed at 250 μm, they must be cold, T ~ 15 K, hence the name 'Herschel cold clouds' (HCCs). From the observed rotational velocity

  7. Discoverers of the universe William and Caroline Herschel

    CERN Document Server

    Hoskin, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Discoverers of the Universe tells the gripping story of William Herschel, the brilliant, fiercely ambitious, emotionally complex musician and composer who became court astronomer to Britain's King George III, and of William's sister, Caroline, who assisted him in his observations of the night sky and became an accomplished astronomer in her own right. Together, they transformed our view of the universe from the unchanging, mechanical creation of Newton's clockmaker god to the ever-evolving, incredibly dynamic cosmos that it truly is. William was in his forties when his amateur observations usi

  8. Statistics of gravitational lenses. III. Astrophysical consequences of quasar lensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostriker, J.P.; Vietri, M.

    1986-01-01

    The method of Schmidt and Green (1983) for calculating the luminosity function of quasars is combined with gravitational-lensing theory to compute expected properties of lensed systems. Multiple quasar images produced by galaxies are of order 0.001 of the observed quasars, with the numbers over the whole sky calculated to be (0.86, 120, 1600) to limiting B magnitudes of (16, 19, 22). The amount of false evolution is small except for an interesting subset of apparently bright, large-redshift objects for which minilensing by starlike objects may be important. Some of the BL Lac objects may be in this category, with the galaxy identified as the parent object really a foreground object within which stars have lensed a background optically violent variable quasar. 24 references

  9. Magnified Weak Lensing Cross Correlation Tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulmer, Melville P., Clowe, Douglas I.

    2010-11-30

    This project carried out a weak lensing tomography (WLT) measurement around rich clusters of galaxies. This project used ground based photometric redshift data combined with HST archived cluster images that provide the WLT and cluster mass modeling. The technique has already produced interesting results (Guennou et al, 2010,Astronomy & Astrophysics Vol 523, page 21, and Clowe et al, 2011 to be submitted). Guennou et al have validated that the necessary accuracy can be achieved with photometric redshifts for our purposes. Clowe et al titled "The DAFT/FADA survey. II. Tomographic weak lensing signal from 10 high redshift clusters," have shown that for the **first time** via this purely geometrical technique, which does not assume a standard rod or candle, that a cosmological constant is **required** for flat cosmologies. The intent of this project is not to produce the best constraint on the value of the dark energy equation of state, w. Rather, this project is to carry out a sustained effort of weak lensing tomography that will naturally feed into the near term Dark Energy Survey (DES) and to provide invaluable mass calibration for that project. These results will greatly advance a key cosmological method which will be applied to the top-rated ground-based project in the Astro2020 decadal survey, LSST. Weak lensing tomography is one of the key science drivers behind LSST. CO-I Clowe is on the weak lensing LSST committee, and senior scientist on this project, at FNAL James Annis, plays a leading role in the DES. This project has built on successful proposals to obtain ground-based imaging for the cluster sample. By 1 Jan, it is anticipated the project will have accumulated complete 5-color photometry on 30 (or about 1/3) of the targeted cluster sample (public webpage for the survey is available at http://cencos.oamp.fr/DAFT/ and has a current summary of the observational status of various clusters). In all, the project has now been awarded the equivalent of over 60

  10. A comparison of cosmological models using time delay lenses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Jun-Jie; Wu, Xue-Feng; Melia, Fulvio, E-mail: jjwei@pmo.ac.cn, E-mail: xfwu@pmo.ac.cn, E-mail: fmelia@email.arizona.edu [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China)

    2014-06-20

    The use of time-delay gravitational lenses to examine the cosmological expansion introduces a new standard ruler with which to test theoretical models. The sample suitable for this kind of work now includes 12 lens systems, which have thus far been used solely for optimizing the parameters of ΛCDM. In this paper, we broaden the base of support for this new, important cosmic probe by using these observations to carry out a one-on-one comparison between competing models. The currently available sample indicates a likelihood of ∼70%-80% that the R {sub h} = ct universe is the correct cosmology versus ∼20%-30% for the standard model. This possibly interesting result reinforces the need to greatly expand the sample of time-delay lenses, e.g., with the successful implementation of the Dark Energy Survey, the VST ATLAS survey, and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope. In anticipation of a greatly expanded catalog of time-delay lenses identified with these surveys, we have produced synthetic samples to estimate how large they would have to be in order to rule out either model at a ∼99.7% confidence level. We find that if the real cosmology is ΛCDM, a sample of ∼150 time-delay lenses would be sufficient to rule out R {sub h} = ct at this level of accuracy, while ∼1000 time-delay lenses would be required to rule out ΛCDM if the real universe is instead R {sub h} = ct. This difference in required sample size reflects the greater number of free parameters available to fit the data with ΛCDM.

  11. A comparison of cosmological models using time delay lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Jun-Jie; Wu, Xue-Feng; Melia, Fulvio

    2014-01-01

    The use of time-delay gravitational lenses to examine the cosmological expansion introduces a new standard ruler with which to test theoretical models. The sample suitable for this kind of work now includes 12 lens systems, which have thus far been used solely for optimizing the parameters of ΛCDM. In this paper, we broaden the base of support for this new, important cosmic probe by using these observations to carry out a one-on-one comparison between competing models. The currently available sample indicates a likelihood of ∼70%-80% that the R h = ct universe is the correct cosmology versus ∼20%-30% for the standard model. This possibly interesting result reinforces the need to greatly expand the sample of time-delay lenses, e.g., with the successful implementation of the Dark Energy Survey, the VST ATLAS survey, and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope. In anticipation of a greatly expanded catalog of time-delay lenses identified with these surveys, we have produced synthetic samples to estimate how large they would have to be in order to rule out either model at a ∼99.7% confidence level. We find that if the real cosmology is ΛCDM, a sample of ∼150 time-delay lenses would be sufficient to rule out R h = ct at this level of accuracy, while ∼1000 time-delay lenses would be required to rule out ΛCDM if the real universe is instead R h = ct. This difference in required sample size reflects the greater number of free parameters available to fit the data with ΛCDM.

  12. Constraints on the dark matter and dark energy interactions from weak lensing bispectrum tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Rui [School of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Feng, Chang [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Wang, Bin, E-mail: an_rui@sjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: chang.feng@uci.edu, E-mail: wang_b@sjtu.edu.cn [Center for Gravitation and Cosmology, College of Physical Science and Technology, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225009 (China)

    2017-10-01

    We estimate uncertainties of cosmological parameters for phenomenological interacting dark energy models using weak lensing convergence power spectrum and bispectrum. We focus on the bispectrum tomography and examine how well the weak lensing bispectrum with tomography can constrain the interactions between dark sectors, as well as other cosmological parameters. Employing the Fisher matrix analysis, we forecast parameter uncertainties derived from weak lensing bispectra with a two-bin tomography and place upper bounds on strength of the interactions between the dark sectors. The cosmic shear will be measured from upcoming weak lensing surveys with high sensitivity, thus it enables us to use the higher order correlation functions of weak lensing to constrain the interaction between dark sectors and will potentially provide more stringent results with other observations combined.

  13. Herschel Studies of the Evolution and Environs of Young Stars in the DIGIT, WISH, and FOOSH Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Joel D.; DIGIT OT Key Project Team; WISH GT Key Project Team; FOOSH OT1 Team

    2012-01-01

    The Herschel Space Observatory has enabled us to probe the physical conditions of outer disks, envelopes, and outflows of young stellar objects, including embedded objects, Herbig Ae/Be disks, and T Tauri disks. We will report on results from three projects, DIGIT, WISH, and FOOSH. The DIGIT (Dust, Ice, and Gas in Time) program (PI: Neal Evans) utilizes the full spectral range of the PACS instrument to explore simultaneously the solid and gas-phase chemistry around sources in all of these stages. WISH (Water in Star Forming Regions with Herschel, PI Ewine van Dishoeck) focuses on observations of key lines with HIFI and line scans of selected spectral regions with PACS. FOOSH (FU Orionis Objects Surveyed with Herschel, PI Joel Green) studies FU Orionis objects with full range PACS and SPIRE scans. DIGIT includes examples of low luminosity protostars, while FOOSH studies the high luminosity objects during outburst states. Rotational ladders of highly excited CO and OH emission are detected in both disks and protostars. The highly excited lines are more commonly seen in the embedded phases, where there appear to be two temperature components. Intriguingly, water is frequently detected in spectra of embedded sources, but not in the disk spectra. In addition to gas features, we explore the extent of the newly detected 69 um forsterite dust feature in both T Tauri and Herbig Ae/Be stars. When analyzed along with the Spitzer-detected dust features, these provide constraints on a population of colder crystalline material. We will present some models of individual sources, as well as some broad statistics of the emission from these stages of star and planet formation.

  14. The effect of Limber and flat-sky approximations on galaxy weak lensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemos, Pablo; Challinor, Anthony; Efstathiou, George, E-mail: pl411@cam.ac.uk, E-mail: a.d.challinor@ast.cam.ac.uk, E-mail: gpe@ast.cam.ac.uk [Institute of Astronomy and Kavli Institute for Cosmology, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 OHA (United Kingdom)

    2017-05-01

    We review the effect of the commonly-used Limber and flat-sky approximations on the calculation of shear power spectra and correlation functions for galaxy weak lensing. These approximations are accurate at small scales, but it has been claimed recently that their impact on low multipoles could lead to an increase in the amplitude of the mass fluctuations inferred from surveys such as CFHTLenS, reducing the tension between galaxy weak lensing and the amplitude determined by Planck from observations of the cosmic microwave background. Here, we explore the impact of these approximations on cosmological parameters derived from weak lensing surveys, using the CFHTLenS data as a test case. We conclude that the use of small-angle approximations for cosmological parameter estimation is negligible for current data, and does not contribute to the tension between current weak lensing surveys and Planck.

  15. The Strong Lensing Time Delay Challenge (2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Kai; Dobler, G.; Fassnacht, C. D.; Treu, T.; Marshall, P. J.; Rumbaugh, N.; Linder, E.; Hojjati, A.

    2014-01-01

    Time delays between multiple images in strong lensing systems are a powerful probe of cosmology. At the moment the application of this technique is limited by the number of lensed quasars with measured time delays. However, the number of such systems is expected to increase dramatically in the next few years. Hundred such systems are expected within this decade, while the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) is expected to deliver of order 1000 time delays in the 2020 decade. In order to exploit this bounty of lenses we needed to make sure the time delay determination algorithms have sufficiently high precision and accuracy. As a first step to test current algorithms and identify potential areas for improvement we have started a "Time Delay Challenge" (TDC). An "evil" team has created realistic simulated light curves, to be analyzed blindly by "good" teams. The challenge is open to all interested parties. The initial challenge consists of two steps (TDC0 and TDC1). TDC0 consists of a small number of datasets to be used as a training template. The non-mandatory deadline is December 1 2013. The "good" teams that complete TDC0 will be given access to TDC1. TDC1 consists of thousands of lightcurves, a number sufficient to test precision and accuracy at the subpercent level, necessary for time-delay cosmography. The deadline for responding to TDC1 is July 1 2014. Submissions will be analyzed and compared in terms of predefined metrics to establish the goodness-of-fit, efficiency, precision and accuracy of current algorithms. This poster describes the challenge in detail and gives instructions for participation.

  16. Contact Lenses for Color Blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawy, Abdel-Rahman; Hassan, Muhammad Umair; Elsherif, Mohamed; Ahmed, Zubair; Yetisen, Ali K; Butt, Haider

    2018-06-01

    Color vision deficiency (color blindness) is an inherited genetic ocular disorder. While no cure for this disorder currently exists, several methods can be used to increase the color perception of those affected. One such method is the use of color filtering glasses which are based on Bragg filters. While these glasses are effective, they are high cost, bulky, and incompatible with other vision correction eyeglasses. In this work, a rhodamine derivative is incorporated in commercial contact lenses to filter out the specific wavelength bands (≈545-575 nm) to correct color vision blindness. The biocompatibility assessment of the dyed contact lenses in human corneal fibroblasts and human corneal epithelial cells shows no toxicity and cell viability remains at 99% after 72 h. This study demonstrates the potential of the dyed contact lenses in wavelength filtering and color vision deficiency management. © 2018 The Authors. Published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. The unforgotten sisters female astronomers and scientists before Caroline Herschel

    CERN Document Server

    Bernardi, Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    Taking inspiration from Siv Cedering’s poem in the form of a fictional letter from Caroline Herschel that refers to “my long, lost sisters, forgotten in the books that record our science”, this book tells the lives of twenty-five female scientists, with specific attention to astronomers and mathematicians. Each of the presented biographies is organized as a kind of "personal file" which sets the biographee’s life in its historical context, documents her main works, highlights some curious facts, and records citations about her. The selected figures are among the most representative of this neglected world, including such luminaries as Hypatia of Alexandra, Hildegard of Bingen, Elisabetha Hevelius, and Maria Gaetana Agnesi. They span a period of about 4000 years, from En HeduAnna, the Akkadian princess, who was one of the first recognized female astronomers, to the dawn of the era of modern astronomy with Caroline Herschel and Mary Somerville. The book will be of interest to all who wish to learn more ...

  18. Spray Formation of Herschel-Bulkley Fluids using Impinging Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Neil; Gao, Jian; Chen, Jun; Sojka, Paul E.

    2015-11-01

    The impinging jet spray formation of two non-Newtonian, shear-thinning, Herschel-Bulkley fluids was investigated in this work. The water-based gelled solutions used were 1.0 wt.-% agar and 1.0 wt.-% kappa carrageenan. A rotational rheometer and a capillary viscometer were used to measure the strain-rate dependency of viscosity and the Herschel-Bulkley Extended (HBE) rheological model was used to characterize the shear-thinning behavior. A generalized HBE jet Reynolds number Rej , gen - HBE was used as the primary parameter to characterize the spray formation. A like-on-like impinging jet doublet was used to produce atomization. Shadowgraphs were captured in the plane of the sheet formed by the two jets using a CCD camera with an Nd:YAG laser beam providing the back-illumination. Typical behavior for impinging jet atomization using Newtonian liquids was not generally observed due to the non-Newtonian, viscous properties of the agar and kappa carrageenan gels. Instead various spray patterns were observed depending on Rej , gen - HBE. Spray characteristics of maximum instability wavelength and sheet breakup length were extracted from the shadowgraphs. Multi-University Research Initiative Grant Number W911NF-08-1-0171.

  19. Aspheric lenses for terahertz imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Yat Hei; Leonhardt, Rainer

    2008-09-29

    We present novel designs for aspheric lenses used in terahertz (THz) imaging. As different surfaces result in different beam shaping properties and in different losses from reflection and absorption, the resultant imaging resolution (i.e. the focal spot size) depends critically on the design approach. We evaluate the different lens designs using Kirchhoff's scalar diffraction theory, and test the predictions experimentally. We also show that our lenses can achieve sub-wavelength resolution. While our lens designs are tested with THz radiation, the design considerations are applicable also to other regions of the electro-magnetic spectrum.

  20. MAGNIFICENT MAGNIFICATION: EXPLOITING THE OTHER HALF OF THE LENSING SIGNAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huff, Eric M. [Center for Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, OH 43210 (United States); Graves, Genevieve J. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2014-01-10

    We describe a new method for measuring galaxy magnification due to weak gravitational lensing. Our method makes use of a tight scaling relation between galaxy properties that are modified by gravitational lensing, such as apparent size, and other properties that are not, such as surface brightness. In particular, we use a version of the well-known fundamental plane relation for early-type galaxies. This modified ''photometric fundamental plane'' uses only photometric galaxy properties, eliminating the need for spectroscopic data. We present the first detection of magnification using this method by applying it to photometric catalogs from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. This analysis shows that the derived magnification signal is within a factor of three of that available from conventional methods using gravitational shear. We suppress the dominant sources of systematic error and discuss modest improvements that may further enhance the lensing signal-to-noise available with this method. Moreover, some of the dominant sources of systematic error are substantially different from those of shear-based techniques. With this new technique, magnification becomes a useful measurement tool for the coming era of large ground-based surveys intending to measure gravitational lensing.

  1. Gravitational lensing by spinning and radially moving lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sereno, M.

    2002-01-01

    The effect of currents of mass on bending of light rays is considered in the weak field regime. Following Fermat's principle and the standard theory of gravitational lensing, we derive the gravito-magnetic correction to time delay function and deflection angle caused by a geometrically-thin lens. The cases of both rotating and shifting deflectors are discussed

  2. Using CO as a Physical Probe of the SF Activity in the Planck-Herschel Selected Hyper Luminous Infrared Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Kevin

    2018-01-01

    Multi-J CO line studies are essential for quantifying the physical properties of the star-forming ISM, yet it is observationally expensive to detect those faint CO emission lines at high redshift. Our eight Planck-Herschel selected galaxies, with apparent LIR > 1013‑14 L⊙, serve as the best laboratories to conduct such a CO spectral line energy distribution analysis at high-z. Using our GBT and LMT (Jup = 1-3) measurements, we trace the bulk molecular gas mass, finding relatively large star formation efficiencies (as traced by the LIR-to-L’CO(1‑0) ratio) consistent with a starburst mode of activity. With our mid-J (Jup = 4-8) CO line measurements, obtained with the IRAM 30m telescope, we find gas excitation conditions ranging from sub-thermal SMGs to highly excited local starbursts out to Jup = 5-8. The consistently high velocity-integrated line intensities at Jup = 5-8 indicates the presence a warm/dense component responsible for exciting the higher-J CO lines, therefore we use coupled non-LTE large velocity gradient and dust radiative transfer models to begin characterising the two-component molecular ISM in these strongly lensed systems.

  3. Globules and pillars in Cygnus X. I. Herschel far-infrared imaging of the Cygnus OB2 environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, N.; Bontemps, S.; Motte, F.; Blazere, A.; André, Ph.; Anderson, L. D.; Arzoumanian, D.; Comerón, F.; Didelon, P.; Di Francesco, J.; Duarte-Cabral, A.; Guarcello, M. G.; Hennemann, M.; Hill, T.; Könyves, V.; Marston, A.; Minier, V.; Rygl, K. L. J.; Röllig, M.; Roy, A.; Spinoglio, L.; Tremblin, P.; White, G. J.; Wright, N. J.

    2016-06-01

    The radiative feedback of massive stars on molecular clouds creates pillars, globules and other features at the interface between the H II region and molecular cloud. Optical and near-infrared observations from the ground as well as with the Hubble or Spitzer satellites have revealed numerous examples of such cloud structures. We present here Herschel far-infrared observations between 70 μm and 500 μm of the immediate environment of the rich Cygnus OB2 association, performed within the Herschel imaging survey of OB Young Stellar objects (HOBYS) program. All of the observed irradiated structures were detected based on their appearance at 70 μm, and have been classified as pillars, globules, evaporating gasous globules (EGGs), proplyd-like objects, and condensations. From the 70 μm and 160 μm flux maps, we derive the local far-ultraviolet (FUV) field on the photon dominated surfaces. In parallel, we use a census of the O-stars to estimate the overall FUV-field, that is 103-104 G0 (Habing field) close to the central OB cluster (within 10 pc) and decreases down to a few tens G0, in a distance of 50 pc. From a spectral energy distribution (SED) fit to the four longest Herschel wavelengths, we determine column density and temperature maps and derive masses, volume densities and surface densities for these structures. We find that the morphological classification corresponds to distinct physical properties. Pillars and globules are massive (~500 M⊙) and large (equivalent radius r ~ 0.6 pc) structures, corresponding to what is defined as "clumps" for molecular clouds. EGGs and proplyd-likeobjects are smaller (r ~ 0.1 and 0.2 pc) and less massive (~10 and ~30 M⊙). Cloud condensations are small (~0.1 pc), have an average mass of 35 M⊙, are dense (~6 × 104 cm-3), and can thus be described as molecular cloud "cores". All pillars and globules are oriented toward the Cyg OB2 association center and have the longest estimated photoevaporation lifetimes, a few million

  4. DYNAMIC SPECTRAL MAPPING OF INTERSTELLAR PLASMA LENSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuntsov, Artem V.; Walker, Mark A. [Manly Astrophysics, 3/22 Cliff Street, Manly 2095 (Australia); Koopmans, Leon V. E. [Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen, P.O. Box 800, NL-9700 AV Groningen (Netherlands); Bannister, Keith W.; Stevens, Jamie; Johnston, Simon [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, P.O. Box 76, Epping NSW 1710 (Australia); Reynolds, Cormac; Bignall, Hayley E., E-mail: Artem.Tuntsov@manlyastrophysics.org, E-mail: Mark.Walker@manlyastrophysics.org, E-mail: koopmans@astro.rug.nl [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research—Curtin University, Perth (Australia)

    2016-02-01

    Compact radio sources sometimes exhibit intervals of large, rapid changes in their flux density, due to lensing by interstellar plasma crossing the line of sight. A novel survey program has made it possible to discover these “Extreme Scattering Events” (ESEs) in real time, resulting in a high-quality dynamic spectrum of an ESE observed in PKS 1939–315. Here we present a method for determining the column-density profile of a plasma lens, given only the dynamic radio spectrum of the lensed source, under the assumption that the lens is either axisymmetric or totally anisotropic. Our technique relies on the known, strong frequency dependence of the plasma refractive index in order to determine how points in the dynamic spectrum map to positions on the lens. We apply our method to high-frequency (4.2–10.8 GHz) data from the Australia Telescope Compact Array of the PKS 1939–315 ESE. The derived electron column-density profiles are very similar for the two geometries we consider, and both yield a good visual match to the data. However, the fit residuals are substantially above the noise level, and deficiencies are evident when we compare the predictions of our model to lower-frequency (1.6–3.1 GHz) data on the same ESE, thus motivating future development of more sophisticated inversion techniques.

  5. Optics Demonstrations Using Cylindrical Lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Dragia; Nikolov, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we consider the main properties of cylindrical lenses and propose several demonstrational experiments that can be performed with them. Specifically we use simple glasses full of water to demonstrate some basic geometrical optics principles and phenomena. We also present some less standard experiments that can be performed with such…

  6. Scientific visualization of gravitational lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magallon, M.

    1999-01-01

    Concepts related to gravitational lenses are discussed and applied to develop an interactive visualization tool that allow us to investigate them. Optimization strategies were performed to elaborate the tool. Some results obtained from the application of the tool are shown [es

  7. Achromatic X-ray lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umbach, Marion

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents first results on the development of achromatic refractive X-ray lenses which can be used for scientific experiments at synchrotron sources. First of all the different requirements for achromatic X-ray lenses have been worked out. There are different types of lenses, one type can be used for monochromatized sources when the energy is scanned while the spot size should be constant. The other type can be used at beamlines providing a broad energy band. By a combination of focusing and defocusing elements we have developed a lens system that strongly reduces the chromatic aberration of a refractive lens in a given energy range. The great challenge in the X-ray case - in contrast to the visible range - the complex refractive index, which is very similar for the possible materials in the X-ray spectrum. For precise studies a numerical code has been developed, which calculates the different rays on their way through the lenses to the detector plane via raytracing. In this numerical code the intensity distribution in the detector plane has been analyzed for a chromatic and the corresponding achromatic system. By optimization routines for the two different fields of applications specific parameter combinations were found. For the experimental verification an achromatic system has been developed, consisting of biconcave SU-8 lenses and biconvex Nickel Fresnel lenses. Their fabrication was based on the LIGA-process, including a further innovative development, namely the fabrication of two different materials on one wafer. In the experiment at the synchrotron source ANKA the energy was varied in a specific energy range in steps of 0.1 keV. The intensity distribution for the different energies was detected at a certain focal length. For the achromatic system a reduction of the chromatic aberration could be clearly shown. Achromatic refractive X-ray lenses, especially for the use at synchrotron sources, have not been developed so far. As a consequence of the

  8. Measures of star formation rates from infrared (Herschel) and UV (GALEX) emissions of galaxies in the HerMES fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buat, V.; Giovannoli, E.; Burgarella, D.; Altieri, B.; Amblard, A.; Arumugam, V.; Aussel, H.; Babbedge, T.; Blain, A.; Bock, J.; Boselli, A.; Castro-Rodríguez, N.; Cava, A.; Chanial, P.; Clements, D. L.; Conley, A.; Conversi, L.; Cooray, A.; Dowell, C. D.; Dwek, E.; Eales, S.; Elbaz, D.; Fox, M.; Franceschini, A.; Gear, W.; Glenn, J.; Griffin, M.; Halpern, M.; Hatziminaoglou, E.; Heinis, S.; Ibar, E.; Isaak, K.; Ivison, R. J.; Lagache, G.; Levenson, L.; Lonsdale, C. J.; Lu, N.; Madden, S.; Maffei, B.; Magdis, G.; Mainetti, G.; Marchetti, L.; Morrison, G. E.; Nguyen, H. T.; O'Halloran, B.; Oliver, S. J.; Omont, A.; Owen, F. N.; Page, M. J.; Pannella, M.; Panuzzo, P.; Papageorgiou, A.; Pearson, C. P.; Pérez-Fournon, I.; Pohlen, M.; Rigopoulou, D.; Rizzo, D.; Roseboom, I. G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Sánchez Portal, M.; Schulz, B.; Seymour, N.; Shupe, D. L.; Smith, A. J.; Stevens, J. A.; Strazzullo, V.; Symeonidis, M.; Trichas, M.; Tugwell, K. E.; Vaccari, M.; Valiante, E.; Valtchanov, I.; Vigroux, L.; Wang, L.; Ward, R.; Wright, G.; Xu, C. K.; Zemcov, M.

    2010-11-01

    The reliability of infrared (IR) and ultraviolet (UV) emissions to measure star formation rates (SFRs) in galaxies is investigated for a large sample of galaxies observed with the Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver (SPIRE) and the Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer (PACS) instruments on Herschel as part of the Herschel Multi-Tiered Extragalactic Survey (HerMES) project. We build flux-limited 250-μm samples of sources at redshift z 500 μm. Dust attenuation is discussed on the basis of commonly used diagnostics: the LIR/LUV ratio and the slope, β, of the UV continuum. A mean dust attenuation AUV of mag is measured in the samples. LIR/LUV is found to correlate with LIR. Galaxies with and 0.5 recipe commonly applied to local starbursts is found to overestimate the dust attenuation correction in our galaxy sample by a factor of ~2-3. The SFRs deduced from LIR are found to account for about 90 per cent of the total SFR; this percentage drops to 71 per cent for galaxies with (or ). For these faint objects, one needs to combine UV and IR emissions to obtain an accurate measure of the SFR.

  9. A closer look at the quadruply lensed quasar PSOJ0147: spectroscopic redshifts and microlensing effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chien-Hsiu

    2018-04-01

    I present a timely spectroscopic follow-up of the newly discovered, quadruply lensed quasar PSOJ0147 from the Pan-STARRS 1 survey. The newly acquired optical spectra with GMOS onboard the Gemini North Telescope allow us to pin down the redshifts of both the foreground lensing galaxy and the background lensed quasar to be z = 0.572 and 2.341, providing a firm basis for cosmography with future high-cadence photometric monitoring. I also inspect difference spectra from two of the quasar images, revealing the microlensing effect. Long-term spectroscopic follow-ups will shed lights on the structure of the active galactic nucleus and its environment.

  10. A Measurement of CMB Cluster Lensing with SPT and DES Year 1 Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, E.J.; et al.

    2017-08-03

    Clusters of galaxies gravitationally lens the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation, resulting in a distinct imprint in the CMB on arcminute scales. Measurement of this effect offers a promising way to constrain the masses of galaxy clusters, particularly those at high redshift. We use CMB maps from the South Pole Telescope Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) survey to measure the CMB lensing signal around galaxy clusters identified in optical imaging from first year observations of the Dark Energy Survey. We detect lensing of the CMB by the galaxy clusters at 6.5$\\sigma$ significance. Using the measured lensing signal, we constrain the amplitude of the relation between cluster mass and optical richness to roughly $20\\%$ precision, finding good agreement with recent constraints obtained with galaxy lensing. The error budget is dominated by statistical noise but includes significant contributions from systematic biases due to the thermal SZ effect and cluster miscentering.

  11. GEMINI/GMOS SPECTROSCOPY OF 26 STRONG-LENSING-SELECTED GALAXY CLUSTER CORES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayliss, Matthew B.; Gladders, Michael D.; Koester, Benjamin P.; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Sharon, Keren; Dahle, Haakon; Oguri, Masamune

    2011-01-01

    We present results from a spectroscopic program targeting 26 strong-lensing cluster cores that were visually identified in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and the Second Red-Sequence Cluster Survey (RCS-2). The 26 galaxy cluster lenses span a redshift range of 0.2 Vir = 7.84 x 10 14 M sun h -1 0.7 , which is somewhat higher than predictions for strong-lensing-selected clusters in simulations. The disagreement is not significant considering the large uncertainty in our dynamical data, systematic uncertainties in the velocity dispersion calibration, and limitations of the theoretical modeling. Nevertheless our study represents an important first step toward characterizing large samples of clusters that are identified in a systematic way as systems exhibiting dramatic strong-lensing features.

  12. Water in star-forming regions with Herschel (WISH)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    E. Kristensen, L.; F. van Dishoeck, E.; A. Bergin, E.

    2012-01-01

    was observed in the ground-state transition at 557 GHz with HIFI on Herschel in 29 embedded Class 0 and I protostars. Complementary far-IR and sub-mm continuum data (including PACS data from our program) are used to constrain the spectral energy distribution of each source. H2O intensities are compared...... sources, increasing from 10^-3 at 10^-1 at >10 km/s. The H2O abundance in the outer envelope is low, ~10^-10. The different H2O profile components show a clear evolutionary trend: in the Class 0 sources, emission is dominated by outflow components originating inside an infalling envelope. When the infall...

  13. Weak lensing cosmology beyond ΛCDM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Sudeep; Linder, Eric V.; Nakajima, Reiko; Putter, Roland de

    2012-01-01

    Weak gravitational lensing is one of the key probes of the cosmological model, dark energy, and dark matter, providing insight into both the cosmic expansion history and large scale structure growth history. Taking into account a broad spectrum of physics affecting growth — dynamical dark energy, extended gravity, neutrino masses, and spatial curvature — we analyze the cosmological constraints. Similarly we consider the effects of a range of systematic uncertainties, in shear measurement, photometric redshifts, intrinsic alignments, and the nonlinear power spectrum, on cosmological parameter extraction. We also investigate, and provide fitting formulas for, the influence of survey parameters such as redshift depth, galaxy number densities, and sky area on the cosmological constraints in the beyond-ΛCDM parameter space. Finally, we examine the robustness of results for different fiducial cosmologies

  14. Discovery of four gravitational lensing systems by clusters in the SDSS DR6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Zhonglue; Han Jinlin; Xu Xiangyang; Jiang Yunying; Guo Zhiqing; Wang Pengfei; Liu Fengshan

    2009-01-01

    We report the discovery of 4 strong gravitational lensing systems by visual inspections of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey images of galaxy clusters in Data Release 6 (SDSS DR6). Two of the four systems show Einstein rings while the others show tangential giant arcs. These arcs or rings have large angular separations (> 8) from the bright central galaxies and show bluer color compared with the red cluster galaxies. In addition, we found 5 probable and 4 possible lenses by galaxy clusters. (letters)

  15. Weak gravitational lensing towards high-precision cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berge, Joel

    2007-01-01

    This thesis aims at studying weak gravitational lensing as a tool for high-precision cosmology. We first present the development and validation of a precise and accurate tool for measuring gravitational shear, based on the shapelets formalism. We then use shapelets on real images for the first time, we analyze CFHTLS images, and combine them with XMM-LSS data. We measure the normalisation of the density fluctuations power spectrum σ 8 , and the one of the mass-temperature relation for galaxy clusters. The analysis of the Hubble space telescope COSMOS field confirms our σ 8 measurement and introduces tomography. Finally, aiming at optimizing future surveys, we compare the individual and combined merits of cluster counts and power spectrum tomography. Our results demonstrate that next generation surveys will allow weak lensing to yield its full potential in the high-precision cosmology era. (author) [fr

  16. Photometric redshift requirements for lens galaxies in galaxy-galaxy lensing analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, R.; Mandelbaum, R.; Seljak, U.; Cohn, J. D.; Reyes, R.; Cool, R.

    2012-03-01

    Weak gravitational lensing is a valuable probe of galaxy formation and cosmology. Here we quantify the effects of using photometric redshifts (photo-z) in galaxy-galaxy lensing, for both sources and lenses, both for the immediate goal of using galaxies with photo-z as lenses in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and as a demonstration of methodology for large, upcoming weak lensing surveys that will by necessity be dominated by lens samples with photo-z. We calculate the bias in the lensing mass calibration as well as consequences for absolute magnitude (i.e. k-corrections) and stellar mass estimates for a large sample of SDSS Data Release 8 (DR8) galaxies. The redshifts are obtained with the template-based photo-z code ZEBRA on the SDSS DR8 ugriz photometry. We assemble and characterize the calibration samples (˜9000 spectroscopic redshifts from four surveys) to obtain photometric redshift errors and lensing biases corresponding to our full SDSS DR8 lens and source catalogues. Our tests of the calibration sample also highlight the impact of observing conditions in the imaging survey when the spectroscopic calibration covers a small fraction of its footprint; atypical imaging conditions in calibration fields can lead to incorrect conclusions regarding the photo-z of the full survey. For the SDSS DR8 catalogue, we find σΔz/(1+z)= 0.096 and 0.113 for the lens and source catalogues, with flux limits of r= 21 and 21.8, respectively. The photo-z bias and scatter is a function of photo-z and template types, which we exploit to apply photo-z quality cuts. By using photo-z rather than spectroscopy for lenses, dim blue galaxies and L* galaxies up to z˜ 0.4 can be used as lenses, thus expanding into unexplored areas of parameter space. We also explore the systematic uncertainty in the lensing signal calibration when using source photo-z, and both lens and source photo-z; given the size of existing training samples, we can constrain the lensing signal calibration (and

  17. Weak Lensing by Galaxy Troughs in DES Science Verification Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruen, D. [Ludwig Maximilian Univ., Munich (Germany); Max Planck Inst. for Extraterrestrial Physics, Garching (Germany). et al.

    2015-09-29

    We measure the weak lensing shear around galaxy troughs, i.e. the radial alignment of background galaxies relative to underdensities in projections of the foreground galaxy field over a wide range of redshift in Science Verification data from the Dark Energy Survey. Our detection of the shear signal is highly significant (10σ–15σ for the smallest angular scales) for troughs with the redshift range z ϵ [0.2, 0.5] of the projected galaxy field and angular diameters of 10 arcmin…1°. These measurements probe the connection between the galaxy, matter density, and convergence fields. By assuming galaxies are biased tracers of the matter density with Poissonian noise, we find agreement of our measurements with predictions in a fiducial Λ cold dark matter model. Furthermore, the prediction for the lensing signal on large trough scales is virtually independent of the details of the underlying model for the connection of galaxies and matter. Our comparison of the shear around troughs with that around cylinders with large galaxy counts is consistent with a symmetry between galaxy and matter over- and underdensities. In addition, we measure the two-point angular correlation of troughs with galaxies which, in contrast to the lensing signal, is sensitive to galaxy bias on all scales. Finally, the lensing signal of troughs and their clustering with galaxies is therefore a promising probe of the statistical properties of matter underdensities and their connection to the galaxy field.

  18. Galaxy-galaxy lensing estimators and their covariance properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sukhdeep; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Seljak, Uroš; Slosar, Anže; Vazquez Gonzalez, Jose

    2017-11-01

    We study the covariance properties of real space correlation function estimators - primarily galaxy-shear correlations, or galaxy-galaxy lensing - using SDSS data for both shear catalogues and lenses (specifically the BOSS LOWZ sample). Using mock catalogues of lenses and sources, we disentangle the various contributions to the covariance matrix and compare them with a simple analytical model. We show that not subtracting the lensing measurement around random points from the measurement around the lens sample is equivalent to performing the measurement using the lens density field instead of the lens overdensity field. While the measurement using the lens density field is unbiased (in the absence of systematics), its error is significantly larger due to an additional term in the covariance. Therefore, this subtraction should be performed regardless of its beneficial effects on systematics. Comparing the error estimates from data and mocks for estimators that involve the overdensity, we find that the errors are dominated by the shape noise and lens clustering, which empirically estimated covariances (jackknife and standard deviation across mocks) that are consistent with theoretical estimates, and that both the connected parts of the four-point function and the supersample covariance can be neglected for the current levels of noise. While the trade-off between different terms in the covariance depends on the survey configuration (area, source number density), the diagnostics that we use in this work should be useful for future works to test their empirically determined covariances.

  19. Galaxy–galaxy lensing estimators and their covariance properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Sukhdeep; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Seljak, Uros; Slosar, Anze; Gonzalez, Jose Vazquez

    2017-01-01

    Here, we study the covariance properties of real space correlation function estimators – primarily galaxy–shear correlations, or galaxy–galaxy lensing – using SDSS data for both shear catalogues and lenses (specifically the BOSS LOWZ sample). Using mock catalogues of lenses and sources, we disentangle the various contributions to the covariance matrix and compare them with a simple analytical model. We show that not subtracting the lensing measurement around random points from the measurement around the lens sample is equivalent to performing the measurement using the lens density field instead of the lens overdensity field. While the measurement using the lens density field is unbiased (in the absence of systematics), its error is significantly larger due to an additional term in the covariance. Therefore, this subtraction should be performed regardless of its beneficial effects on systematics. Comparing the error estimates from data and mocks for estimators that involve the overdensity, we find that the errors are dominated by the shape noise and lens clustering, which empirically estimated covariances (jackknife and standard deviation across mocks) that are consistent with theoretical estimates, and that both the connected parts of the four-point function and the supersample covariance can be neglected for the current levels of noise. While the trade-off between different terms in the covariance depends on the survey configuration (area, source number density), the diagnostics that we use in this work should be useful for future works to test their empirically determined covariances.

  20. A 'private adventure'? John Herschel's Cape voyage and the production of the 'Cape Results'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruskin, Steven William

    2002-07-01

    This dissertation considers the life of John Herschel (1792 1871) from the years 1833 to 1847. In 1833 Herschel sailed from London to Cape Town, southern Africa, to undertake (at his own expense) an astronomical exploration of the southern heavens, as well as a terrestrial exploration of the area around Cape Town. After his return to England in 1838, he was highly esteemed and became Britain's most recognized scientist. In 1847 his southern hemisphere astronomical observations were published as the Cape Results. The main argument of this dissertation is that Herschel's voyage, and the publication of the Cape Results, in addition to their contemporary scientific importance, were also significant for nineteenth-century politics and culture. This dissertation is a two-part dissertation. The first part is entitled “John Herschel's Cape Voyage: Private Science, Public Imagination, and the Ambitions of Empire”; and the second part, “The Production of the Cape Results.” In the first part it is demonstrated that the reason for Herschel's cultural renown was the popular notion that his voyage to the Cape was a project aligned with the imperial ambitions of the British government. By leaving England for one of its colonies, and pursuing there a significant scientific project, Herschel was seen in the same light as other British men of science who had also undertaken voyages of exploration and discovery. It is then demonstrated, in the second part of this work, that the production of the Cape Results, in part because of Herschel's status as Britain's scientific figurehead, was a significant political and cultural event. In addition to the narrow area of Herschel scholarship, this dissertation touches on other areas of research in the history of science as well: science and culture, science and empire, science and politics, and what has been called the “new” history of scientific books.

  1. New case of gravitational lensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surdej, J.; Swings, J.-P.; Magain, P.; Borgeest, U.; Kayser, R.; Refsdal, S.; Courvoisier, T.J.-L.; Kellermann, K.I.; Kuehr, H.

    1987-10-22

    The authors report a brief description of a gravitational lens system UM673 = Q0142 - 100 = PHL3703. It consists of two images, A and B, separated by 2.2 arc s at a redshift zsub(q) = 2.719. The lensing galaxy has also been found. It lies very near the line connecting the two QSO (quasi-stellar objects) images, approx. 0.8 arc s from the fainter one. Application of gravitational optometry to this system leads to a value Msub(o) or approx. = 2.4 x 10/sup 11/ M solar masses for the mass of the lensing galaxy and to ..delta..t approx. 7 weeks for the most likely travel-time difference between the two light paths to the QSO.

  2. A system of catoptric lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFarland, P.J.; Rambauske, W.R.

    1973-01-01

    Description is given of a system of catoptric lenses for combining energies provided by a certain number of sources, e.g. optical energies provided by a certain number of lasers. This system comprises sets of mirrors the reflecting surfaces of which have their focuses spaced from a common axis. The mirrors of all these sets are arranged on a common frame, which makes aperture-locking impossible. This can be applied to thermonuclear fusion [fr

  3. DARK MATTER SUBSTRUCTURE DETECTION USING SPATIALLY RESOLVED SPECTROSCOPY OF LENSED DUSTY GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hezaveh, Yashar; Holder, Gilbert; Dalal, Neal; Kuhlen, Michael; Marrone, Daniel; Murray, Norman; Vieira, Joaquin

    2013-01-01

    We investigate how strong lensing of dusty, star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) by foreground galaxies can be used as a probe of dark matter halo substructure. We find that spatially resolved spectroscopy of lensed sources allows dramatic improvements to measurements of lens parameters. In particular, we find that modeling of the full, three-dimensional (angular position and radial velocity) data can significantly facilitate substructure detection, increasing the sensitivity of observables to lower mass subhalos. We carry out simulations of lensed dusty sources observed by early ALMA (Cycle 1) and use a Fisher matrix analysis to study the parameter degeneracies and mass detection limits of this method. We find that even with conservative assumptions, it is possible to detect galactic dark matter subhalos of ∼10 8 M ☉ with high significance in most lensed DSFGs. Specifically, we find that in typical DSFG lenses, there is a ∼55% probability of detecting a substructure with M > 10 8 M ☉ with more than 5σ detection significance in each lens, if the abundance of substructure is consistent with previous lensing results. The full ALMA array, with its significantly enhanced sensitivity and resolution, should improve these estimates considerably. Given the sample of ∼100 lenses provided by surveys such as the South Pole Telescope, our understanding of dark matter substructure in typical galaxy halos is poised to improve dramatically over the next few years.

  4. DARK MATTER SUBSTRUCTURE DETECTION USING SPATIALLY RESOLVED SPECTROSCOPY OF LENSED DUSTY GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hezaveh, Yashar; Holder, Gilbert [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 Rue University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 2T8 (Canada); Dalal, Neal [Astronomy Department, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1002 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Kuhlen, Michael [Theoretical Astrophysics Center, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Marrone, Daniel [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Murray, Norman [CITA, University of Toronto, 60 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada); Vieira, Joaquin [California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Blvd, MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2013-04-10

    We investigate how strong lensing of dusty, star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) by foreground galaxies can be used as a probe of dark matter halo substructure. We find that spatially resolved spectroscopy of lensed sources allows dramatic improvements to measurements of lens parameters. In particular, we find that modeling of the full, three-dimensional (angular position and radial velocity) data can significantly facilitate substructure detection, increasing the sensitivity of observables to lower mass subhalos. We carry out simulations of lensed dusty sources observed by early ALMA (Cycle 1) and use a Fisher matrix analysis to study the parameter degeneracies and mass detection limits of this method. We find that even with conservative assumptions, it is possible to detect galactic dark matter subhalos of {approx}10{sup 8} M{sub Sun} with high significance in most lensed DSFGs. Specifically, we find that in typical DSFG lenses, there is a {approx}55% probability of detecting a substructure with M > 10{sup 8} M{sub Sun} with more than 5{sigma} detection significance in each lens, if the abundance of substructure is consistent with previous lensing results. The full ALMA array, with its significantly enhanced sensitivity and resolution, should improve these estimates considerably. Given the sample of {approx}100 lenses provided by surveys such as the South Pole Telescope, our understanding of dark matter substructure in typical galaxy halos is poised to improve dramatically over the next few years.

  5. Gravitational lensing in plasmic medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisnovatyi-Kogan, G. S., E-mail: gkogan@iki.rssi.ru; Tsupko, O. Yu., E-mail: tsupko@iki.rssi.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Space Research Institute (Russian Federation)

    2015-07-15

    The influence of plasma on different effects of gravitational lensing is reviewed. Using the Hamiltonian approach for geometrical optics in a medium in the presence of gravity, an exact formula for the photon deflection angle by a black hole (or another body with a Schwarzschild metric) embedded in plasma with a spherically symmetric density distribution is derived. The deflection angle in this case is determined by the mutual combination of different factors: gravity, dispersion, and refraction. While the effects of deflection by the gravity in vacuum and the refractive deflection in a nonhomogeneous medium are well known, the new effect is that, in the case of a homogeneous plasma, in the absence of refractive deflection, the gravitational deflection differs from the vacuum deflection and depends on the photon frequency. In the presence of a plasma nonhomogeneity, the chromatic refractive deflection also occurs, so the presence of plasma always makes gravitational lensing chromatic. In particular, the presence of plasma leads to different angular positions of the same image if it is observed at different wavelengths. It is discussed in detail how to apply the presented formulas for the calculation of the deflection angle in different situations. Gravitational lensing in plasma beyond the weak deflection approximation is also considered.

  6. Herschel-ATLAS: A Binary HyLIRG Pinpointing a Cluster of Starbursting Protoellipticals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivison, R.J.; Swinbank, A.M.; Smail, Ian; Harris, A. I.; Bussmann, R. S.; Cooray, A.; Cox, P.; Fu, H.; Kovacs, A.; Krips, M.; hide

    2013-01-01

    Panchromatic observations of the best candidate hyperluminous infrared galaxies from the widest Herschel extragalactic imaging survey have led to the discovery of at least four intrinsically luminous z = 2.41 galaxies across an ˜100 kpc region-a cluster of starbursting protoellipticals. Via subarcsecond interferometric imaging we have measured accurate gas and star formation surface densities. The two brightest galaxies span 3 kpc FWHM in submillimeter/radio continuum and CO J = 4-3, and double that in CO J = 1-0. The broad CO line is due partly to the multitude of constituent galaxies and partly to large rotational velocities in two counter-rotating gas disks-a scenario predicted to lead to the most intense starbursts, which will therefore come in pairs. The disks have Mdyn of several ×10(sup 11) solar Mass, and gas fractions of 40%. Velocity dispersions are modest so the disks are unstable, potentially on scales commensurate with their radii: these galaxies are undergoing extreme bursts of star formation, not confined to their nuclei, at close to the Eddington limit. Their specific star formation rates place them greater than or approx. equal to 5 × above the main sequence, which supposedly comprises large gas disks like these. Their high star formation efficiencies are difficult to reconcile with a simple volumetric star formation law. N-body and dark matter simulations suggest that this system is the progenitor of a B(inary)-type ˜10(sup 14.6) -solar mass cluster.

  7. Remnant radio-loud AGN in the Herschel-ATLAS field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahatma, V. H.; Hardcastle, M. J.; Williams, W. L.; Brienza, M.; Brüggen, M.; Croston, J. H.; Gurkan, G.; Harwood, J. J.; Kunert-Bajraszewska, M.; Morganti, R.; Röttgering, H. J. A.; Shimwell, T. W.; Tasse, C.

    2018-04-01

    Only a small fraction of observed active galactic nuclei (AGN) display large-scale radio emission associated with jets, yet these radio-loud AGN have become increasingly important in models of galaxy evolution. In determining the dynamics and energetics of the radio sources over cosmic time, a key question concerns what happens when their jets switch off. The resulting `remnant' radio-loud AGN have been surprisingly evasive in past radio surveys, and therefore statistical information on the population of radio-loud AGN in their dying phase is limited. In this paper, with the recent developments of Low-Frequency Array (LOFAR) and the Very Large Array, we are able to provide a systematically selected sample of remnant radio-loud AGN in the Herschel-ATLAS field. Using a simple core-detection method, we constrain the upper limit on the fraction of remnants in our radio-loud AGN sample to 9 per cent, implying that the extended lobe emission fades rapidly once the core/jets turn off. We also find that our remnant sample has a wide range of spectral indices (-1.5≤slant α ^{1400}_{150}≤slant -0.5), confirming that the lobes of some remnants may possess flat spectra at low frequencies just as active sources do. We suggest that, even with the unprecedented sensitivity of LOFAR, our sample may still only contain the youngest of the remnant population.

  8. The Bright and Dark Sides of High-redshift Starburst Galaxies from Herschel and Subaru Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puglisi, A.; Rodighiero, G.; Rodríguez-Muñoz, L.; Mancini, C.; Franceschini, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Padova, vicolo dell’Osservatorio 2, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Daddi, E.; Valentino, F.; Calabrò, A.; Jin, S. [Laboratoire AIM-Paris-Saclay, CEA/DSM-CNRS-Université Paris Diderot, IRFU/Service d’Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Renzini, A. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio, 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Silverman, J. D. [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), Todai Institutes for for Advanced Study, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa 277-8583 (Japan); Kashino, D. [Institute for Astronomy, Department of Physics, ETH Zürich, Wolfgang-Pauli-strasse 27, CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland); Mainieri, V.; Man, A. [ESO, Karl-Schwarschild-Straße 2, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany); Darvish, B. [Cahill Center for Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, 1216 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Maier, C. [University of Vienna, Department of Astrophysics, Tuerkenschanzstrasse 17, A-1180 Vienna (Austria); Kartaltepe, J. S. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Sanders, D. B. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2017-04-01

    We present rest-frame optical spectra from the FMOS-COSMOS survey of 12 z ∼ 1.6 Herschel starburst galaxies, with star formation rate (SFR) elevated by ×8, on average, above the star-forming main sequence (MS). Comparing the H α to IR luminosity ratio and the Balmer decrement, we find that the optically thin regions of the sources contain on average only ∼10% of the total SFR, whereas ∼90% come from an extremely obscured component that is revealed only by far-IR observations and is optically thick even in H α . We measure the [N ii]{sub 6583}/H α ratio, suggesting that the less obscured regions have a metal content similar to that of the MS population at the same stellar masses and redshifts. However, our objects appear to be metal-rich outliers from the metallicity–SFR anticorrelation observed at fixed stellar mass for the MS population. The [S ii]{sub 6732}/[S ii]{sub 6717} ratio from the average spectrum indicates an electron density n {sub e} ∼ 1100 cm{sup −3} , larger than what was estimated for MS galaxies but only at the 1.5 σ level. Our results provide supporting evidence that high- z MS outliers are analogous of local ULIRGs and are consistent with a major-merger origin for the starburst event.

  9. Blind decomposition of Herschel-HIFI spectral maps of the NGC 7023 nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berné, O.; Joblin, C.; Deville, Y.; Pilleri, P.; Pety, J.; Teyssier, D.; Gerin, M.; Fuente, A.

    2012-12-01

    Large spatial-spectral surveys are more and more common in astronomy. This calls for the need of new methods to analyze such mega- to giga-pixel data-cubes. In this paper we present a method to decompose such observations into a limited and comprehensive set of components. The original data can then be interpreted in terms of linear combinations of these components. The method uses non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) to extract latent spectral end-members in the data. The number of needed end-members is estimated based on the level of noise in the data. A Monte-Carlo scheme is adopted to estimate the optimal end-members, and their standard deviations. Finally, the maps of linear coefficients are reconstructed using non-negative least squares. We apply this method to a set of hyperspectral data of the NGC 7023 nebula, obtained recently with the HIFI instrument onboard the Herschel space observatory, and provide a first interpretation of the results in terms of 3-dimensional dynamical structure of the region.

  10. Modeling CMB lensing cross correlations with CLEFT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Modi, Chirag; White, Martin [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Vlah, Zvonimir, E-mail: modichirag@berkeley.edu, E-mail: mwhite@berkeley.edu, E-mail: zvlah@stanford.edu [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94306 (United States)

    2017-08-01

    A new generation of surveys will soon map large fractions of sky to ever greater depths and their science goals can be enhanced by exploiting cross correlations between them. In this paper we study cross correlations between the lensing of the CMB and biased tracers of large-scale structure at high z . We motivate the need for more sophisticated bias models for modeling increasingly biased tracers at these redshifts and propose the use of perturbation theories, specifically Convolution Lagrangian Effective Field Theory (CLEFT). Since such signals reside at large scales and redshifts, they can be well described by perturbative approaches. We compare our model with the current approach of using scale independent bias coupled with fitting functions for non-linear matter power spectra, showing that the latter will not be sufficient for upcoming surveys. We illustrate our ideas by estimating σ{sub 8} from the auto- and cross-spectra of mock surveys, finding that CLEFT returns accurate and unbiased results at high z . We discuss uncertainties due to the redshift distribution of the tracers, and several avenues for future development.

  11. 30 CFR 18.30 - Windows and lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Windows and lenses. 18.30 Section 18.30 Mineral... § 18.30 Windows and lenses. (a) MSHA may waive testing of materials for windows or lenses except headlight lenses. When tested, material for windows or lenses shall meet the test requirements prescribed in...

  12. Planck 2015 results. XV. Gravitational lensing

    CERN Document Server

    Ade, P.A.R.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartlett, J.G.; Bartolo, N.; Basak, S.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bock, J.J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Boulanger, F.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Church, S.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Combet, C.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Désert, F.-X.; Diego, J.M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dunkley, J.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Fergusson, J.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A.A.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J.E.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.L.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T.S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C.R.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Levrier, F.; Lewis, A.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Macías-Pérez, J.F.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Maris, M.; Martin, P.G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; McGehee, P.; Meinhold, P.R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J.A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Popa, L.; Pratt, G.W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J.P.; Reach, W.T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubiño-Martín, J.A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Spencer, L.D.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J.A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; Wehus, I.K.; White, M.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.

    2016-01-01

    We present the most significant measurement of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) lensing potential to date (at a level of 40 sigma), using temperature and polarization data from the Planck 2015 full-mission release. Using a polarization-only estimator we detect lensing at a significance of 5 sigma. We cross-check the accuracy of our measurement using the wide frequency coverage and complementarity of the temperature and polarization measurements. Public products based on this measurement include an estimate of the lensing potential over approximately 70% of the sky, an estimate of the lensing potential power spectrum in bandpowers for the multipole range 40lensing potential power spectrum and that found in the best-fitting LCDM model based on the Planck temperature and polarization power spectra. Using the lensing likelihood alone we obtain a percent-level measurement of ...

  13. Instrumental systematics and weak gravitational lensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandelbaum, R.

    2015-01-01

    We present a pedagogical review of the weak gravitational lensing measurement process and its connection to major scientific questions such as dark matter and dark energy. Then we describe common ways of parametrizing systematic errors and understanding how they affect weak lensing measurements. Finally, we discuss several instrumental systematics and how they fit into this context, and conclude with some future perspective on how progress can be made in understanding the impact of instrumental systematics on weak lensing measurements

  14. Factors influencing bacterial adhesion to contact lenses

    OpenAIRE

    Dutta, Debarun; Cole, Nerida; Willcox, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The process of any contact lens related keratitis generally starts with the adhesion of opportunistic pathogens to contact lens surface. This article focuses on identifying the factors which have been reported to affect bacterial adhesion to contact lenses. Adhesion to lenses differs between various genera/species/strains of bacteria. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which is the predominant causative organism, adheres in the highest numbers to both hydrogel and silicone hydrogel lenses in vitro. The ...

  15. The JVAS/CLASS search for 6-arcsec to 15-arcsec image separation lensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phillips, PM; Browne, IWA; Jackson, NJ; Wilkinson, PN; Mao, S; Rusin, D; Marlow, DR; Snellen, [No Value; Neeser, M

    2001-01-01

    The Jodrell Bank-VLA Astrometric Survey (JVAS) and the Cosmic Lens All Sky Survey (CLASS) have been systematically searched for multiple gravitational imaging of sources with image separations between 6 arcsec and 15 arcsec, associated with galaxy group and cluster lensing masses. The radio and

  16. Constraints on early dark energy from CMB lensing and weak lensing tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollenstein, Lukas; Crittenden, Robert; Sapone, Domenico; Schäfer, Björn Malte

    2009-01-01

    Dark energy can be studied by its influence on the expansion of the Universe as well as on the growth history of the large-scale structure. In this paper, we follow the growth of the cosmic density field in early dark energy cosmologies by combining observations of the primary CMB temperature and polarisation power spectra at high redshift, of the CMB lensing deflection field at intermediate redshift and of weak cosmic shear at low redshifts for constraining the allowed amount of early dark energy. We present these forecasts using the Fisher matrix formalism and consider the combination of Planck data with the weak lensing survey of Euclid. We find that combining these data sets gives powerful constraints on early dark energy and is able to break degeneracies in the parameter set inherent to the various observational channels. The derived statistical 1σ-bound on the early dark energy density parameter is σ(Ω e d ) = 0.0022 which suggests that early dark energy models can be well examined in our approach. In addition, we derive the dark energy figure of merit for the considered dark energy parameterisation and comment on the applicability of the growth index to early dark energy cosmologies

  17. The Footprint Database and Web Services of the Herschel Space Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobos, László; Varga-Verebélyi, Erika; Verdugo, Eva; Teyssier, David; Exter, Katrina; Valtchanov, Ivan; Budavári, Tamás; Kiss, Csaba

    2016-10-01

    Data from the Herschel Space Observatory is freely available to the public but no uniformly processed catalogue of the observations has been published so far. To date, the Herschel Science Archive does not contain the exact sky coverage (footprint) of individual observations and supports search for measurements based on bounding circles only. Drawing on previous experience in implementing footprint databases, we built the Herschel Footprint Database and Web Services for the Herschel Space Observatory to provide efficient search capabilities for typical astronomical queries. The database was designed with the following main goals in mind: (a) provide a unified data model for meta-data of all instruments and observational modes, (b) quickly find observations covering a selected object and its neighbourhood, (c) quickly find every observation in a larger area of the sky, (d) allow for finding solar system objects crossing observation fields. As a first step, we developed a unified data model of observations of all three Herschel instruments for all pointing and instrument modes. Then, using telescope pointing information and observational meta-data, we compiled a database of footprints. As opposed to methods using pixellation of the sphere, we represent sky coverage in an exact geometric form allowing for precise area calculations. For easier handling of Herschel observation footprints with rather complex shapes, two algorithms were implemented to reduce the outline. Furthermore, a new visualisation tool to plot footprints with various spherical projections was developed. Indexing of the footprints using Hierarchical Triangular Mesh makes it possible to quickly find observations based on sky coverage, time and meta-data. The database is accessible via a web site http://herschel.vo.elte.hu and also as a set of REST web service functions, which makes it readily usable from programming environments such as Python or IDL. The web service allows downloading footprint data

  18. Photometry of High-Redshift Gravitationally Lensed Type Ia Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynie, Annastasia

    2018-01-01

    Out of more than 1100 well-identified Type Ia Supernovae, only roughly 10 of them are at z> 1.5. High redshift supernovae are hard to detect but this is made easier by taking advantage of the effects of gravitational lensing, which magnifies objects in the background field of massive galaxy clusters. Supernova Nebra (z= ~1.8), among others, was discovered during observations taken as part of the RELICS survey, which focused on fields of view that experience strong gravitational lensing effects. SN Nebra, which sits behind galaxy cluster Abell 1763, is magnified and therefore appears closer and easier to see than with HST alone. Studying high-redshift supernovae like SN Nebra is an important step towards creating cosmological models that accurately describe the behavior of dark energy in the early Universe. Recent efforts have been focused on improving photometry and the building and fitting of preliminary light curves.

  19. Microscopic processes controlling the Herschel-Bulkley exponent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jie; Wyart, Matthieu

    2018-01-01

    The flow curve of various yield stress materials is singular as the strain rate vanishes and can be characterized by the so-called Herschel-Bulkley exponent n =1 /β . A mean-field approximation due to Hebraud and Lequeux (HL) assumes mechanical noise to be Gaussian and leads to β =2 in rather good agreement with observations. Here we prove that the improved mean-field model where the mechanical noise has fat tails instead leads to β =1 with logarithmic correction. This result supports that HL is not a suitable explanation for the value of β , which is instead significantly affected by finite-dimensional effects. From considerations on elastoplastic models and on the limitation of speed at which avalanches of plasticity can propagate, we argue that β =1 +1 /(d -df) , where df is the fractal dimension of avalanches and d the spatial dimension. Measurements of df then supports that β ≈2.1 and β ≈1.7 in two and three dimensions, respectively. We discuss theoretical arguments leading to approximations of β in finite dimensions.

  20. The Scales of Gravitational Lensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco De Paolis

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available After exactly a century since the formulation of the general theory of relativity, the phenomenon of gravitational lensing is still an extremely powerful method for investigating in astrophysics and cosmology. Indeed, it is adopted to study the distribution of the stellar component in the Milky Way, to study dark matter and dark energy on very large scales and even to discover exoplanets. Moreover, thanks to technological developments, it will allow the measure of the physical parameters (mass, angular momentum and electric charge of supermassive black holes in the center of ours and nearby galaxies.

  1. Cross-correlation of gravitational lensing from DES Science Verification data with SPT and Planck lensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirk, D.; Omori, Y.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Cawthon, R.; Chang, C.; Larsen, P.; Amara, A.; Bacon, D.; Crawford, T. M.; Dodelson, S.; Fosalba, P.; Giannantonio, T.; Holder, G.; Jain, B.; Kacprzak, T.; Lahav, O.; MacCrann, N.; Nicola, A.; Refregier, A.; Sheldon, E.; Story, K. T.; Troxel, M. A.; Vieira, J. D.; Vikram, V.; Zuntz, J.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Abdalla, F. B.; Becker, M. R.; Benson, B. A.; Bernstein, G. M.; Bernstein, R. A.; Bleem, L. E.; Bonnett, C.; Bridle, S. L.; Brooks, D.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Burke, D. L.; Capozzi, D.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Rosell, A. Carnero; Kind, M. Carrasco; Carretero, J.; Crocce, M.; Cunha, C. E.; D' Andrea, C. B.; da Costa, L. N.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Dietrich, J. P.; Doel, P.; Eifler, T. F.; Evrard, A. E.; Flaugher, B.; Frieman, J.; Gerdes, D. W.; Goldstein, D. A.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R. A.; Honscheid, K.; James, D. J.; Jarvis, M.; Kent, S.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lima, M.; March, M.; Martini, P.; Melchior, P.; Miller, C. J.; Miquel, R.; Nichol, R. C.; Ogando, R.; Plazas, A. A.; Reichardt, C. L.; Roodman, A.; Rozo, E.; Rykoff, E. S.; Sako, M.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Simard, G.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Thomas, D.; Wechsler, R. H.; Weller, J.

    2016-03-10

    We measure the cross-correlation between weak lensing of galaxy images and of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). The effects of gravitational lensing on different sources will be correlated if the lensing is caused by the same mass fluctuations. We use galaxy shape measurements from 139 deg$^{2}$ of the Dark Energy Survey (DES) Science Verification data and overlapping CMB lensing from the South Pole Telescope (SPT) and Planck. The DES source galaxies have a median redshift of $z_{\\rm med} {\\sim} 0.7$, while the CMB lensing kernel is broad and peaks at $z{\\sim}2$. The resulting cross-correlation is maximally sensitive to mass fluctuations at $z{\\sim}0.44$. Assuming the Planck 2015 best-fit cosmology, the amplitude of the DES$\\times$SPT cross-power is found to be $A = 0.88 \\pm 0.30$ and that from DES$\\times$Planck to be $A = 0.86 \\pm 0.39$, where $A=1$ corresponds to the theoretical prediction. These are consistent with the expected signal and correspond to significances of $2.9 \\sigma$ and $2.2 \\sigma$ respectively. We demonstrate that our results are robust to a number of important systematic effects including the shear measurement method, estimator choice, photometric redshift uncertainty and CMB lensing systematics. Significant intrinsic alignment of galaxy shapes would increase the cross-correlation signal inferred from the data; we calculate a value of $A = 1.08 \\pm 0.36$ for DES$\\times$SPT when we correct the observations with a simple IA model. With three measurements of this cross-correlation now existing in the literature, there is not yet reliable evidence for any deviation from the expected LCDM level of cross-correlation, given the size of the statistical uncertainties and the significant impact of systematic errors, particularly IAs. We provide forecasts for the expected signal-to-noise of the combination of the five-year DES survey and SPT-3G.

  2. Characterization of sand lenses embedded in tills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessler, Timo Christian; Klint, K.E.S.; Nilsson, B.

    2012-01-01

    Tills dominate large parts of the superficial sediments on the Northern hemisphere. These glacial diamictons are extremely heterogeneous and riddled with fractures and lenses of sand or gravel. The frequency and geometry of sand lenses within tills are strongly linked to glaciodynamic processes...

  3. Planck 2015 results: XV. Gravitational lensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ade, P. A R; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.

    2016-01-01

    We present the most significant measurement of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) lensing potential to date (at a level of 40σ), using temperature and polarization data from the Planck 2015 full-mission release. Using a polarization-only estimator, we detect lensing at a significance of 5σ. We...

  4. Lenses and Perception: Investigations with Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akcay, Hakan

    2005-01-01

    The main goals of these activities are to help students learn how a convex lens can serve as a magnifying lens and how light travels and creates images. These explorations will introduce middle school students to different types of lenses and how they work. Students will observe and describe how lenses bend light that passes through them and how…

  5. BAYESIAN INFERENCE OF CMB GRAVITATIONAL LENSING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderes, Ethan [Department of Statistics, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Wandelt, Benjamin D.; Lavaux, Guilhem [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06 and CNRS, UMR7095, Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris, F-75014, Paris (France)

    2015-08-01

    The Planck satellite, along with several ground-based telescopes, has mapped the cosmic microwave background (CMB) at sufficient resolution and signal-to-noise so as to allow a detection of the subtle distortions due to the gravitational influence of the intervening matter distribution. A natural modeling approach is to write a Bayesian hierarchical model for the lensed CMB in terms of the unlensed CMB and the lensing potential. So far there has been no feasible algorithm for inferring the posterior distribution of the lensing potential from the lensed CMB map. We propose a solution that allows efficient Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling from the joint posterior of the lensing potential and the unlensed CMB map using the Hamiltonian Monte Carlo technique. The main conceptual step in the solution is a re-parameterization of CMB lensing in terms of the lensed CMB and the “inverse lensing” potential. We demonstrate a fast implementation on simulated data, including noise and a sky cut, that uses a further acceleration based on a very mild approximation of the inverse lensing potential. We find that the resulting Markov Chain has short correlation lengths and excellent convergence properties, making it promising for applications to high-resolution CMB data sets in the future.

  6. Electron beams, lenses, and optics. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Kareh, A.B.; El-Kareh, J.C.J.

    1970-01-01

    This book treats the ideal case where all lenses are assumed to be free from errors. It presents a thorough mathematical analysis of the electrostatic immersion lens, both symmetrical and asymetrical, and covers the einzel lens and the symmetrical magnetic lens in detail. The authors have obtained data on these lenses by means of a digital computer and present them in tabular form

  7. 'Land-marks of the universe': John Herschel against the background of positional astronomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    John Herschel (1792-1871) was the leading British natural philosopher of the nineteenth century, widely known and regarded for his work in philosophy, optics and chemistry as well as his important research and popular publications on astronomy. To date, however, there exists no extended treatment of his astronomical career. This paper, part of a larger study exploring Herschel's contributions to astronomy, examines his work in the context of positional astronomy, the dominant form of astronomical practice throughout his lifetime. Herschel, who did not himself practice positional astronomy and who was known for his non-meridional observations of specific stellar objects, was nonetheless a strong advocate for positional astronomy-but for very different reasons than the terrestrial applications to which it was most often put. For Herschel, the star catalogues of positional astronomy were the necessary observational foundation upon which information about the stars as physical objects could be constructed. Positional astronomy practiced in the great national observatories was not about navigation or timekeeping; it was a way to standardize stellar observations and make them useful data for constructing theories of the stars themselves. For Herschel, the seeds of the new astronomy emerged from the practices of the old.

  8. Serendipitous discovery of a strong-lensed galaxy in integral field spectroscopy from MUSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbany, Lluís; Collett, Thomas E.; Méndez-Abreu, Jairo; Sánchez, Sebastián F.; Anderson, Joseph P.; Kuncarayakti, Hanindyo

    2018-06-01

    2MASX J04035024-0239275 is a bright red elliptical galaxy at redshift 0.0661 that presents two extended sources at 2″ to the north-east and 1″ to the south-west. The sizes and surface brightnesses of the two blue sources are consistent with a gravitationally-lensed background galaxy. In this paper we present MUSE observations of this galaxy from the All-weather MUse Supernova Integral-field Nearby Galaxies (AMUSING) survey, and report the discovery of a background lensed galaxy at redshift 0.1915, together with other 15 background galaxies at redshifts ranging from 0.09 to 0.9, that are not multiply imaged. We have extracted aperture spectra of the lens and all the sources and fit the stellar continuum with STARLIGHT to estimate their stellar and emission line properties. A trace of past merger and active nucleus activity is found in the lensing galaxy, while the background lensed galaxy is found to be star-forming. Modeling the lensing potential with a singular isothermal ellipsoid, we find an Einstein radius of 1."45±0."04, which corresponds to 1.9 kpc at the redshift of the lens and it is much smaller than its effective radius (reff ˜ 9″"). Comparing the Einstein mass and the STARLIGHT stellar mass within the same aperture yields a dark matter fraction of 18% ± 8 % within the Einstein radius. The advent of large surveys such as the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will discover a number of strong-lensed systems, and here we demonstrate how wide-field integral field spectroscopy offers an excellent approach to study them and to precisely model lensing effects.

  9. Cross-correlation of weak lensing and gamma rays: implications for the nature of dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tröster, Tilman; Camera, Stefano; Fornasa, Mattia; Regis, Marco; van Waerbeke, Ludovic; Harnois-Déraps, Joachim; Ando, Shin'ichiro; Bilicki, Maciej; Erben, Thomas; Fornengo, Nicolao; Heymans, Catherine; Hildebrandt, Hendrik; Hoekstra, Henk; Kuijken, Konrad; Viola, Massimo

    2017-05-01

    We measure the cross-correlation between Fermi gamma-ray photons and over 1000 deg2 of weak lensing data from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Lensing Survey (CFHTLenS), the Red Cluster Sequence Lensing Survey (RCSLenS), and the Kilo Degree Survey (KiDS). We present the first measurement of tomographic weak lensing cross-correlations and the first application of spectral binning to cross-correlations between gamma rays and weak lensing. The measurements are performed using an angular power spectrum estimator while the covariance is estimated using an analytical prescription. We verify the accuracy of our covariance estimate by comparing it to two internal covariance estimators. Based on the non-detection of a cross-correlation signal, we derive constraints on weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP) dark matter. We compute exclusion limits on the dark matter annihilation cross-section , decay rate Γdec and particle mass mDM. We find that in the absence of a cross-correlation signal, tomography does not significantly improve the constraining power of the analysis. Assuming a strong contribution to the gamma-ray flux due to small-scale clustering of dark matter and accounting for known astrophysical sources of gamma rays, we exclude the thermal relic cross-section for particle masses of mDM ≲ 20 GeV.

  10. Strongly lensed neutral hydrogen emission: detection predictions with current and future radio interferometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deane, R. P.; Obreschkow, D.; Heywood, I.

    2015-09-01

    Strong gravitational lensing provides some of the deepest views of the Universe, enabling studies of high-redshift galaxies only possible with next-generation facilities without the lensing phenomenon. To date, 21-cm radio emission from neutral hydrogen has only been detected directly out to z ˜ 0.2, limited by the sensitivity and instantaneous bandwidth of current radio telescopes. We discuss how current and future radio interferometers such as the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) will detect lensed H I emission in individual galaxies at high redshift. Our calculations rely on a semi-analytic galaxy simulation with realistic H I discs (by size, density profile and rotation), in a cosmological context, combined with general relativistic ray tracing. Wide-field, blind H I surveys with the SKA are predicted to be efficient at discovering lensed H I systems, increasingly so at z ≳ 2. This will be enabled by the combination of the magnification boosts, the steepness of the H I luminosity function at the high-mass end, and the fact that the H I spectral line is relatively isolated in frequency. These surveys will simultaneously provide a new technique for foreground lens selection and yield the highest redshift H I emission detections. More near term (and existing) cm-wave facilities will push the high-redshift H I envelope through targeted surveys of known lenses.

  11. Solutions for care of silicone hydrogel lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willcox, Mark D P

    2013-01-01

    During wear of contact lenses on a daily wear basis, it is necessary to disinfect the lens overnight before reinserting the lens the next day. The ability of the solutions used for this to disinfect lenses and lens cases is important for safe lens wear. The literature on the disinfecting ability of multipurpose disinfecting solutions (MPDS) commonly used with silicone hydrogel lenses reported during the period 2000 to 2012 is reviewed, as this is the period of time during which these lenses have been commercially available. Particular emphasis is placed on the ability of disinfecting solutions to control colonization of lens cases by microbes and changes in composition and use of the solutions. In addition, the literature is reviewed on ways of minimizing lens case microbial contamination. Maintaining the hygiene of contact lenses and lens cases is important in minimizing various forms of corneal infiltrative events that occur during lens wear. Although lens case contamination is not associated with different lenses, it is determined by use of different MPDS. MPDS that allow more frequent or heavy contamination of cases by Gram-negative bacteria are associated with a higher incidence of corneal infiltrative events. MPDS are now available that contain dual disinfectants. Wiping lens cases with tissues or using lens cases that incorporate silver are associated with reductions in contamination in clinical trials. Similarly, using MPDS to rub and rinse lenses before disinfection may reduce levels of microbes on lenses. The MPDS also contain surfactants that help reduce deposition and denaturation of proteins on lenses. Improvements in MPDS formulations and hygiene practices may help to reduce the incidence of adverse events that are seen during use with silicone hydrogel lenses.

  12. On Using a Space Telescope to Detect Weak-lensing Shear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Nathan; Wright, Edward

    2017-11-01

    Ignoring redshift dependence, the statistical performance of a weak-lensing survey is set by two numbers: the effective shape noise of the sources, which includes the intrinsic ellipticity dispersion and the measurement noise, and the density of sources that are useful for weak-lensing measurements. In this paper, we provide some general guidance for weak-lensing shear measurements from a “generic” space telescope by looking for the optimum wavelength bands to maximize the galaxy flux signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) and minimize ellipticity measurement error. We also calculate an effective galaxy number per square degree across different wavelength bands, taking into account the density of sources that are useful for weak-lensing measurements and the effective shape noise of sources. Galaxy data collected from the ultra-deep UltraVISTA Ks-selected and R-selected photometric catalogs (Muzzin et al. 2013) are fitted to radially symmetric Sérsic galaxy light profiles. The Sérsic galaxy profiles are then stretched to impose an artificial weak-lensing shear, and then convolved with a pure Airy Disk PSF to simulate imaging of weak gravitationally lensed galaxies from a hypothetical diffraction-limited space telescope. For our model calculations and sets of galaxies, our results show that the peak in the average galaxy flux S/N, the minimum average ellipticity measurement error, and the highest effective galaxy number counts all lie around the K-band near 2.2 μm.

  13. Detecting Gravitational Lensing of the Cosmic Microwave Background by Galaxy Clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, Eric Jones [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Clusters of galaxies gravitationally lens the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) leading to a distinct signal in the CMB on arcminute scales. Measurement of the cluster lensing effect offers the exciting possibility of constraining the masses of galaxy clusters using CMB data alone. Improved constraints on cluster masses are in turn essential to the use of clusters as cosmological probes: uncertainties in cluster masses are currently the dominant systematic affecting cluster abundance constraints on cosmology. To date, however, the CMB cluster lensing signal remains undetected because of its small magnitude and angular size. In this thesis, we develop a maximum likelihood approach to extracting the signal from CMB temperature data. We validate the technique by applying it to mock data designed to replicate as closely as possible real data from the South Pole Telescope’s (SPT) Sunyaev-Zel’dovich (SZ) survey: the effects of the SPT beam, transfer function, instrumental noise and cluster selection are incorporated. We consider the effects of foreground emission on the analysis and show that uncertainty in amount of foreground lensing results in a small systematic error on the lensing constraints. Additionally, we show that if unaccounted for, the SZ effect leads to unacceptably large biases on the lensing constraints and develop an approach for removing SZ contamination. The results of the mock analysis presented here suggest that a 4σ first detection of the cluster lensing effect can be achieved with current SPT-SZ data.

  14. HERSCHEL/SPIRE SUBMILLIMETER SPECTRA OF LOCAL ACTIVE GALAXIES {sup ,}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira-Santaella, Miguel; Spinoglio, Luigi; Busquet, Gemma [Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali, INAF, Via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Wilson, Christine D.; Schirm, Maximilien R. P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, L8S 4M1 (Canada); Glenn, Jason; Kamenetzky, Julia; Rangwala, Naseem [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, 389-UCB, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States); Isaak, Kate G. [ESA Astrophysics Missions Division, ESTEC, P.O. Box 299, 2200 AG Noordwijk (Netherlands); Baes, Maarten [Sterrenkundig Observatorium, Universiteit Gent, Krijgslaan 281 S9, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Barlow, Michael J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Boselli, Alessandro [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille (LAM), Universite d' Aix-Marseille and CNRS, UMR7326, 38 rue F. Joliot-Curie, F-13388 Marseille Cedex 13 (France); Cooray, Asantha [Center for Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Cormier, Diane, E-mail: miguel.pereira@ifsi-roma.inaf.it [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DSM-CNRS-Universite Paris Diderot, Irfu/Service d' Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2013-05-01

    We present the submillimeter spectra from 450 to 1550 GHz of 11 nearby active galaxies observed with the SPIRE Fourier Transform Spectrometer (SPIRE/FTS) on board Herschel. We detect CO transitions from J{sub up} = 4 to 12, as well as the two [C I] fine structure lines at 492 and 809 GHz and the [N II]1461 GHz line. We used radiative transfer models to analyze the observed CO spectral line energy distributions. The FTS CO data were complemented with ground-based observations of the low-J CO lines. We found that the warm molecular gas traced by the mid-J CO transitions has similar physical conditions (n{sub H{sub 2}}{approx} 10{sup 3.2}-10{sup 3.9} cm{sup -3} and T{sub kin} {approx} 300-800 K) in most of our galaxies. Furthermore, we found that this warm gas is likely producing the mid-IR rotational H{sub 2} emission. We could not determine the specific heating mechanism of the warm gas, however, it is possibly related to the star formation activity in these galaxies. Our modeling of the [C I] emission suggests that it is produced in cold (T{sub kin} < 30 K) and dense (n{sub H{sub 2}}>10{sup 3} cm{sup -3}) molecular gas. Transitions of other molecules are often detected in our SPIRE/FTS spectra. The HF J = 1-0 transition at 1232 GHz is detected in absorption in UGC 05101 and in emission in NGC 7130. In the latter, near-infrared pumping, chemical pumping, or collisional excitation with electrons are plausible excitation mechanisms likely related to the active galactic nucleus of this galaxy. In some galaxies, few H{sub 2}O emission lines are present. Additionally, three OH{sup +} lines at 909, 971, and 1033 GHz are identified in NGC 7130.

  15. HERSCHEL SPECTROSCOPIC OBSERVATIONS OF LITTLE THINGS DWARF GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cigan, Phil; Young, Lisa; Cormier, Diane; Lebouteiller, Vianney; Madden, Suzanne; Hunter, Deidre; Brinks, Elias; Elmegreen, Bruce; Schruba, Andreas; Heesen, Volker

    2016-01-01

    We present far-infrared (FIR) spectral line observations of five galaxies from the Little Things sample: DDO 69, DDO 70, DDO 75, DDO 155, and WLM. While most studies of dwarfs focus on bright systems or starbursts due to observational constraints, our data extend the observed parameter space into the regime of low surface brightness dwarf galaxies with low metallicities and moderate star formation rates. Our targets were observed with Herschel at the [C ii] 158 μm, [O i] 63 μm, [O iii] 88 μm, and [N ii] 122 μm emission lines using the PACS Spectrometer. These high-resolution maps allow us for the first time to study the FIR properties of these systems on the scales of larger star-forming complexes. The spatial resolution in our maps, in combination with star formation tracers, allows us to identify separate photodissociation regions (PDRs) in some of the regions we observed. Our systems have widespread [C ii] emission that is bright relative to continuum, averaging near 0.5% of the total infrared (TIR) budget—higher than in solar-metallicity galaxies of other types. [N ii] is weak, suggesting that the [C ii] emission in our galaxies comes mostly from PDRs instead of the diffuse ionized interstellar medium (ISM). These systems exhibit efficient cooling at low dust temperatures, as shown by ([O i]+[C ii])/TIR in relation to 60 μm/100 μm, and low [O i]/[C ii] ratios which indicate that [C ii] is the dominant coolant of the ISM. We observe [O iii]/[C ii] ratios in our galaxies that are lower than those published for other dwarfs, but similar to levels noted in spirals

  16. HERSCHEL/HIFI DISCOVERY OF HCL+ IN THE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Luca, M.; Gerin, M.; Falgarone, E.; Gupta, H.; Drouin, B. J.; Pearson, J. C.; Neufeld, D.; Teyssier, D.; Lis, D. C.; Monje, R.; Phillips, T. G.; Goicoechea, J. R.; Godard, B.; Bell, T. A.; Coutens, A.

    2012-01-01

    The radical ion HCl + , a key intermediate in the chlorine chemistry of the interstellar gas, has been identified for the first time in the interstellar medium with the Herschel Space Observatory's Heterodyne Instrument for the Far-Infrared. The ground-state rotational transition of H 35 Cl + , 2 Π 3/2 J = 5/2-3/2, showing Λ-doubling and hyperfine structure, is detected in absorption toward the Galactic star-forming regions W31C (G10.6-0.4) and W49N. The complex interstellar absorption features are modeled by convolving in velocity space the opacity profiles of other molecular tracers toward the same sources with the fine and hyperfine structure of HCl + . This structure is derived from a combined analysis of optical data from the literature and new laboratory measurements of pure rotational transitions, reported in the accompanying Letter by Gupta et al. The models reproduce well the interstellar absorption, and the frequencies inferred from the astronomical observations are in exact agreement with those calculated using spectroscopic constants derived from the laboratory data. The detection of H 37 Cl + toward W31C, with a column density consistent with the expected 35 Cl/ 37 Cl isotopic ratio, provides additional evidence for the identification. A comparison with the chemically related molecules HCl and H 2 Cl + yields an abundance ratio of unity with both species (HCl + : H 2 Cl + : HCl ∼ 1). These observations also yield the unexpected result that HCl + accounts for 3%-5% of the gas-phase chlorine toward W49N and W31C, values several times larger than the maximum fraction (∼1%) predicted by chemical models.

  17. HERSCHEL SPECTROSCOPIC OBSERVATIONS OF LITTLE THINGS DWARF GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cigan, Phil; Young, Lisa [Physics Department, New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Cormier, Diane [Institut für Theoretische Astrophysik, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Albert-Ueberle Str. 2, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Lebouteiller, Vianney; Madden, Suzanne [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DSM—CNRS—Université Paris Diderot, Irfu/Service d’Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Hunter, Deidre [Lowell Observatory, 1400 West Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Brinks, Elias [Centre for Astrophysics Research, University of Hertfordshire, College Lane, Hatfield, AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Elmegreen, Bruce [IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, 1101 Kitchawan Road, Yorktown Hts., NY 10598 (United States); Schruba, Andreas [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Heesen, Volker, E-mail: pcigan@alumni.nmt.edu [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Collaboration: LITTLE THINGS Team

    2016-01-15

    We present far-infrared (FIR) spectral line observations of five galaxies from the Little Things sample: DDO 69, DDO 70, DDO 75, DDO 155, and WLM. While most studies of dwarfs focus on bright systems or starbursts due to observational constraints, our data extend the observed parameter space into the regime of low surface brightness dwarf galaxies with low metallicities and moderate star formation rates. Our targets were observed with Herschel at the [C ii] 158 μm, [O i] 63 μm, [O iii] 88 μm, and [N ii] 122 μm emission lines using the PACS Spectrometer. These high-resolution maps allow us for the first time to study the FIR properties of these systems on the scales of larger star-forming complexes. The spatial resolution in our maps, in combination with star formation tracers, allows us to identify separate photodissociation regions (PDRs) in some of the regions we observed. Our systems have widespread [C ii] emission that is bright relative to continuum, averaging near 0.5% of the total infrared (TIR) budget—higher than in solar-metallicity galaxies of other types. [N ii] is weak, suggesting that the [C ii] emission in our galaxies comes mostly from PDRs instead of the diffuse ionized interstellar medium (ISM). These systems exhibit efficient cooling at low dust temperatures, as shown by ([O i]+[C ii])/TIR in relation to 60 μm/100 μm, and low [O i]/[C ii] ratios which indicate that [C ii] is the dominant coolant of the ISM. We observe [O iii]/[C ii] ratios in our galaxies that are lower than those published for other dwarfs, but similar to levels noted in spirals.

  18. HERSCHEL OBSERVATIONS REVEAL ANOMALOUS MOLECULAR ABUNDANCES TOWARD THE GALACTIC CENTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonnentrucker, P. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Neufeld, D. A.; Indriolo, N. [Physics and Astronomy Department, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Gerin, M.; De Luca, M. [LERMA-LRA, UMR 8112 du CNRS, Observatoire de Paris, Ecole Normale Superieure, UPMC and UCP, 24 rue Lhomond, F-75231, Paris Cedex 05 (France); Lis, D. C. [Astronomy Department, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Goicoechea, J. R., E-mail: sonnentr@stsci.edu [Centro de Astrobiologia, CSIC/INTA, E-28850, Madrid (Spain)

    2013-01-20

    We report the Herschel detections of hydrogen fluoride (HF) and para-water (p-H{sub 2}O) in gas intercepting the sight lines to two well-studied molecular clouds in the vicinity of the Sgr A complex: G-0.02-0.07 (the {sup +}50 km s{sup -1} cloud{sup )} and G-0.13-0.08 (the {sup +}20 km s{sup -1} cloud{sup )}. Toward both sight lines, HF and water absorption components are detected over a wide range of velocities covering {approx}250 km s{sup -1}. For all velocity components with V{sub LSR} > -85 km s{sup -1}, we find that the HF and water abundances are consistent with those measured toward other sight lines probing the Galactic disk gas. The velocity components with V{sub LSR} {<=} -85 km s{sup -1}, which are known to trace gas residing within {approx}200 pc of the Galactic center, however, exhibit water vapor abundances with respect to HF at least a factor three higher than those found in the Galactic disk gas. Comparison with CH data indicates that our observations are consistent with a picture where HF and a fraction of the H{sub 2}O absorption arise in diffuse molecular clouds showing Galactic disk-like abundances while the bulk of the water absorption arises in warmer (T {>=} 400 K) diffuse molecular gas for V{sub LSR} {<=} -85 km s{sup -1}. This diffuse Interstellar Medium (ISM) phase has also been recently revealed through observations of CO, HF, H{sup +}{sub 3}, and H{sub 3}O{sup +} absorption toward other sight lines probing the Galactic center inner region.

  19. Combining Galaxy-Galaxy Lensing and Galaxy Clustering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Youngsoo [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Krause, Elisabeth [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Dodelson, Scott [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Jain, Bhuvnesh [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Amara, Adam [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Becker, Matt [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Bridle, Sarah [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Clampitt, Joseph [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Crocce, Martin [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Honscheid, Klaus [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Gaztanaga, Enrique [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Sanchez, Carles [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Wechsler, Risa [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Combining galaxy-galaxy lensing and galaxy clustering is a promising method for inferring the growth rate of large scale structure, a quantity that will shed light on the mechanism driving the acceleration of the Universe. The Dark Energy Survey (DES) is a prime candidate for such an analysis, with its measurements of both the distribution of galaxies on the sky and the tangential shears of background galaxies induced by these foreground lenses. By constructing an end-to-end analysis that combines large-scale galaxy clustering and small-scale galaxy-galaxy lensing, we also forecast the potential of a combined probes analysis on DES datasets. In particular, we develop a practical approach to a DES combined probes analysis by jointly modeling the assumptions and systematics affecting the different components of the data vector, employing a shared halo model, HOD parametrization, photometric redshift errors, and shear measurement errors. Furthermore, we study the effect of external priors on different subsets of these parameters. We conclude that DES data will provide powerful constraints on the evolution of structure growth in the universe, conservatively/ optimistically constraining the growth function to 8%/4.9% with its first-year data covering 1000 square degrees, and to 4%/2.3% with its full five-year data covering 5000 square degrees.

  20. Constraining dark sector perturbations I: cosmic shear and CMB lensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battye, Richard A.; Moss, Adam; Pearson, Jonathan A.

    2015-01-01

    We present current and future constraints on equations of state for dark sector perturbations. The equations of state considered are those corresponding to a generalized scalar field model and time-diffeomorphism invariant L(g) theories that are equivalent to models of a relativistic elastic medium and also Lorentz violating massive gravity. We develop a theoretical understanding of the observable impact of these models. In order to constrain these models we use CMB temperature data from Planck, BAO measurements, CMB lensing data from Planck and the South Pole Telescope, and weak galaxy lensing data from CFHTLenS. We find non-trivial exclusions on the range of parameters, although the data remains compatible with w=−1. We gauge how future experiments will help to constrain the parameters. This is done via a likelihood analysis for CMB experiments such as CoRE and PRISM, and tomographic galaxy weak lensing surveys, focussing in on the potential discriminatory power of Euclid on mildly non-linear scales

  1. Constraining dark sector perturbations I: cosmic shear and CMB lensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battye, Richard A.; Moss, Adam; Pearson, Jonathan A.

    2015-04-01

    We present current and future constraints on equations of state for dark sector perturbations. The equations of state considered are those corresponding to a generalized scalar field model and time-diffeomorphism invariant Script L(g) theories that are equivalent to models of a relativistic elastic medium and also Lorentz violating massive gravity. We develop a theoretical understanding of the observable impact of these models. In order to constrain these models we use CMB temperature data from Planck, BAO measurements, CMB lensing data from Planck and the South Pole Telescope, and weak galaxy lensing data from CFHTLenS. We find non-trivial exclusions on the range of parameters, although the data remains compatible with w=-1. We gauge how future experiments will help to constrain the parameters. This is done via a likelihood analysis for CMB experiments such as CoRE and PRISM, and tomographic galaxy weak lensing surveys, focussing in on the potential discriminatory power of Euclid on mildly non-linear scales.

  2. THE THIRD GRAVITATIONAL LENSING ACCURACY TESTING (GREAT3) CHALLENGE HANDBOOK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandelbaum, Rachel; Kannawadi, Arun; Simet, Melanie; Rowe, Barnaby; Kacprzak, Tomasz; Bosch, James; Miyatake, Hironao; Chang, Chihway; Gill, Mandeep; Courbin, Frederic; Jarvis, Mike; Armstrong, Bob; Lackner, Claire; Leauthaud, Alexie; Nakajima, Reiko; Rhodes, Jason; Zuntz, Joe; Bridle, Sarah; Coupon, Jean; Dietrich, Jörg P.

    2014-01-01

    The GRavitational lEnsing Accuracy Testing 3 (GREAT3) challenge is the third in a series of image analysis challenges, with a goal of testing and facilitating the development of methods for analyzing astronomical images that will be used to measure weak gravitational lensing. This measurement requires extremely precise estimation of very small galaxy shape distortions, in the presence of far larger intrinsic galaxy shapes and distortions due to the blurring kernel caused by the atmosphere, telescope optics, and instrumental effects. The GREAT3 challenge is posed to the astronomy, machine learning, and statistics communities, and includes tests of three specific effects that are of immediate relevance to upcoming weak lensing surveys, two of which have never been tested in a community challenge before. These effects include many novel aspects including realistically complex galaxy models based on high-resolution imaging from space; a spatially varying, physically motivated blurring kernel; and a combination of multiple different exposures. To facilitate entry by people new to the field, and for use as a diagnostic tool, the simulation software for the challenge is publicly available, though the exact parameters used for the challenge are blinded. Sample scripts to analyze the challenge data using existing methods will also be provided. See http://great3challenge.info and http://great3.projects.phys.ucl.ac.uk/leaderboard/ for more information

  3. A-type Stellar Abundances: A Corollary to Herschel Observations of Debris Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, Zachary H.; Matthews, Brenda; Venn, Kim; Lambert, David; Kennedy, Grant; Sitnova, Tatyana

    2018-04-01

    In order to assess the relationship between metallicity and exoplanetary systems, we compare the abundances of AF-type main-sequence stars with debris disk properties assessed using Herschel observations of an unbiased survey of nearby stars. Hot stars are not as commonly observed, given their unique constraints in data reduction, lack of metal lines, and “astrophysical noise” from rotation speed. Here, we address that deficiency using new and archival spectra of 83 AF-type stars. We measure the abundances of a few species in addition to Fe in order to classify the stars with Ap/Am or Lambda Boo signatures. Lambda Boo stars have a chemical signature of solar-abundant volatile species and sub-solar refractory abundances that is hypothesized to be altered by the pollution of volatiles. Overall, we see no correlation between debris disks and metallicity, primarily because the sample size is cut significantly when using only reliable fits to the spectroscopic data. The abundance measured from the Mg II 4481 blend is a useful diagnostic because it can be reliably measured at large v·sin(i) and is found to be lower around stars with bright debris disks. We find that Lambda Boo stars have brighter debris disks compared to a bias-free sample of AF stars. The trend with disk brightness and Mg abundances suggests pollution effects can be significant and used as a marker for the stability of planetary systems. We explore trends with other species, such as with the C/O ratios, but are significantly limited by the low number of reliable detections.

  4. SPITZER AND HERSCHEL MULTIWAVELENGTH CHARACTERIZATION OF THE DUST CONTENT OF EVOLVED H II REGIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paladini, R. [NASA Herschel Science Center, California Institute of Technology, 1200, East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Umana, G. [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, Via S. Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Veneziani, M.; Noriega-Crespo, A. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, 1200, East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Anderson, L. D. [Department of Physics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Piacentini, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma La Sapienza, I-00185 Roma (Italy); Pinheiro Goncalves, D. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto 50 George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada); Paradis, D.; Bernard, J.-P. [Centre d' Etude Spatiale des Rayonnements, 9 Avenue du Colonel Roche, F-31028 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Tibbs, C. T. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, 1200, East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Natoli, P., E-mail: paladini@ipac.caltech.edu [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione Ferrara, I-44100 Ferrara (Italy)

    2012-12-01

    We have analyzed a uniform sample of 16 evolved H II regions located in a 2 Degree-Sign Multiplication-Sign 2 Degree-Sign Galactic field centered at (l,b) = (30 Degree-Sign , 0 Degree-Sign ) and observed as part of the Herschel Hi-GAL survey. The evolutionary stage of these H II regions was established using ancillary radio-continuum data. By combining Hi-GAL PACS (70 {mu}m, 160 {mu}m) and SPIRE (250 {mu}m, 350 {mu}m, and 500 {mu}m) measurements with MIPSGAL 24 {mu}m data, we built spectral energy distributions of the sources and showed that a two-component gray-body model is a good representation of the data. In particular, wavelengths >70 {mu}m appear to trace a cold dust component, for which we estimated an equilibrium temperature of the big grains (BGs) in the range 20-30 K, while for {lambda} < 70 {mu}m, the data indicate the presence of a warm dust component at temperatures of the order of 50-90 K. This analysis also revealed that dust is present in the interior of H II regions, although likely not in a large amount. In addition, the data seem to corroborate the hypothesis that the main mechanism responsible for the (partial) depletion of dust in H II regions is radiation-pressure-driven drift. In this framework, we speculated that the 24 {mu}m emission that spatially correlates with ionized gas might be associated with either very small grain or BG replenishment, as recently proposed for the case of wind-blown bubbles. Finally, we found that evolved H II regions are characterized by distinctive far-IR and submillimeter colors, which can be used as diagnostics for their identification in unresolved Galactic and extragalactic regions.

  5. GOT C+: A Herschel Space Observatory Key Program to Study the Diffuse ISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, William; Velusamy, T.; Goldsmith, P. F.; Li, D.; Pineda, J.; Yorke, H.

    2010-01-01

    Star formation activity is regulated by pressures in the interstellar medium, which in turn depend on heating and cooling rates, modulated by the gravitational potential, and shock and turbulent pressures. To understand these processes we need information about the diffuse atomic and diffuse molecular gas cloud properties. The ionized carbon CII fine structure line at 1.9 THz is an important tracer of the atomic gas in the diffuse regions and the atomic to molecular cloud transformation. Furthermore, C+ is a major ISM coolant, the Galaxy's strongest emission line, with a total luminosity about a 1000 times that of CO J=1-0. Galactic Observations of the Terahertz C+ Line (GOT C+) is a Herschel Space Observatory Open Time Key Program to study the diffuse interstellar medium by sampling CII line emission throughout the Galactic disk. GOT C+ will obtain high spectral resolution CII using the Heterodyne Instrument for the Far Infrared (HIFI) instrument. It employees deep integrations, wide velocity coverage (350 km s-1) with 0.22 km s-1 resolution, and systematic sparse sampling of the Galactic disk together with observations of selected targets, of over 900 lines of sight. It will be a resource of the atomic gas properties, in the (a) Galactic disk, (b) Galaxy's central 300pc, (c) Galactic warp, (d) high latitude HI clouds, and (e) Photon Dominated Regions (PDRs). Along with HI, CO isotopes, and CI spectra, our C+ data will provide the astronomical community with a rich statistical database of diffuse cloud properties, for understanding the role of barometric pressure and turbulence in cloud evolution in the Galactic ISM and, by extension, other galaxies. The GOT C+ project will provide a template for future even larger-scale CII surveys. This research was conducted at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology and is supported by a NASA grant.

  6. Herschel SPIRE FTS spectral line source calibrators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hopwood, Rosalind; Polehampton, Edward; Valtchanov, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    We present a summary of the Herschel SPIRE/FTS calibration programme to monitor the repeatability of spectral lines. Observations of planetary nebulae and post-AGB stars are used to assess repeatability and model the asymmetry of the instrument line shape.......We present a summary of the Herschel SPIRE/FTS calibration programme to monitor the repeatability of spectral lines. Observations of planetary nebulae and post-AGB stars are used to assess repeatability and model the asymmetry of the instrument line shape....

  7. Resolving the structure of the Galactic foreground using Herschel measurements and the Kriging technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinter, S.; Bagoly, Z.; Balázs, L. G.; Horvath, I.; Racz, I. I.; Zahorecz, S.; Tóth, L. V.

    2018-05-01

    Investigating the distant extragalactic Universe requires a subtraction of the Galactic foreground. One of the major difficulties deriving the fine structure of the galactic foreground is the embedded foreground and background point sources appearing in the given fields. It is especially so in the infrared. We report our study subtracting point sources from Herschel images with Kriging, an interpolation method where the interpolated values are modelled by a Gaussian process governed by prior covariances. Using the Kriging method on Herschel multi-wavelength observations the structure of the Galactic foreground can be studied with much higher resolution than previously, leading to a better foreground subtraction at the end.

  8. Adherence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to contact lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, M.J.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examined the interactions of P. aeruginosa with hydrogel contact lenses and other substrata, and characterize adherence to lenses under various physiological and physicochemical conditions. Isolates adhered to polystyrene, glass, and hydrogel lenses. With certain lens types, radiolabeled cells showed decreased adherence with increasing water content of the lenses, however, this correlation with not found for all lenses. Adherence to rigid gas permeable lenses was markedly greater than adherence to hydrogels. Best adherence occurred near pH 7 and at a sodium chloride concentration of 50 mM. Passive adhesion of heat-killed cells to hydrogels was lower than the adherence obtained of viable cells. Adherence to hydrogels was enhanced by mucin, lactoferrin, lysozyme, IgA, bovine serum albumin, and a mixture of these macromolecules. Adherence to coated and uncoated lenses was greater with a daily-wear hydrogel when compared with an extended-wear hydrogel of similar polymer composition. Greater adherence was attributed to a higher concentration of adsorbed macromolecules on the 45% water-content lens in comparison to the 55% water-content lens

  9. Investigations of Galaxy Clusters Using Gravitational Lensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiesner, Matthew P. [Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb, IL (United States)

    2014-08-01

    In this dissertation, we discuss the properties of galaxy clusters that have been determined using strong and weak gravitational lensing. A galaxy cluster is a collection of galaxies that are bound together by the force of gravity, while gravitational lensing is the bending of light by gravity. Strong lensing is the formation of arcs or rings of light surrounding clusters and weak lensing is a change in the apparent shapes of many galaxies. In this work we examine the properties of several samples of galaxy clusters using gravitational lensing. In Chapter 1 we introduce astrophysical theory of galaxy clusters and gravitational lensing. In Chapter 2 we examine evidence from our data that galaxy clusters are more concentrated than cosmology would predict. In Chapter 3 we investigate whether our assumptions about the number of galaxies in our clusters was valid by examining new data. In Chapter 4 we describe a determination of a relationship between mass and number of galaxies in a cluster at higher redshift than has been found before. In Chapter 5 we describe a model of the mass distribution in one of the ten lensing systems discovered by our group at Fermilab. Finally in Chapter 6 we summarize our conclusions.

  10. Simulations for 21 cm radiation lensing at EoR redshifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, Alessandro; Metcalf, Robert Benton; Pourtsidou, Alkistis

    2018-02-01

    We introduce simulations aimed at assessing how well weak gravitational lensing of 21cm radiation from the Epoch of Reionization (z ˜ 8) can be measured by a Square Kilometre Array (SKA)-like radio telescope. A simulation pipeline has been implemented to study the performance of lensing reconstruction techniques. We show how well the lensing signal can be reconstructed using the 3D quadratic lensing estimator in Fourier space assuming different survey strategies. The numerical code introduced in this work is capable of dealing with issues that cannot be treated analytically such as the discreteness of visibility measurements and the inclusion of a realistic model for the antennas distribution. This paves the way for future numerical studies implementing more realistic re-ionization models, foreground subtraction schemes, and testing the performance of lensing estimators that take into account the non-Gaussian distribution of HI after re-ionization. If multiple frequency channels covering z ˜ 7-11.6 are combined, Phase 1 of SKA-Low should be able to obtain good quality images of the lensing potential with a total resolution of ˜1.6 arcmin. The SKA-Low Phase 2 should be capable of providing images with high fidelity even using data from z ˜ 7.7 to 8.3. We perform tests aimed at evaluating the numerical implementation of the mapping reconstruction. We also discuss the possibility of measuring an accurate lensing power spectrum. Combining data from z ˜ 7 to 11.6 using the SKA2-Low telescope model, we find constraints comparable to sample variance in the range L < 1000, even for survey areas as small as 25 deg2.

  11. HOW TO FIND GRAVITATIONALLY LENSED TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstein, Daniel A.; Nugent, Peter E.

    2017-01-01

    Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) that are multiply imaged by gravitational lensing can extend the SN Ia Hubble diagram to very high redshifts ( z ≳ 2), probe potential SN Ia evolution, and deliver high-precision constraints on H _0, w , and Ω_m via time delays. However, only one, iPTF16geu, has been found to date, and many more are needed to achieve these goals. To increase the multiply imaged SN Ia discovery rate, we present a simple algorithm for identifying gravitationally lensed SN Ia candidates in cadenced, wide-field optical imaging surveys. The technique is to look for supernovae that appear to be hosted by elliptical galaxies, but that have absolute magnitudes implied by the apparent hosts’ photometric redshifts that are far brighter than the absolute magnitudes of normal SNe Ia (the brightest type of supernovae found in elliptical galaxies). Importantly, this purely photometric method does not require the ability to resolve the lensed images for discovery. Active galactic nuclei, the primary sources of contamination that affect the method, can be controlled using catalog cross-matches and color cuts. Highly magnified core-collapse SNe will also be discovered as a byproduct of the method. Using a Monte Carlo simulation, we forecast that the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope can discover up to 500 multiply imaged SNe Ia using this technique in a 10 year z -band search, more than an order of magnitude improvement over previous estimates. We also predict that the Zwicky Transient Facility should find up to 10 multiply imaged SNe Ia using this technique in a 3 year R -band search—despite the fact that this survey will not resolve a single system.

  12. HOW TO FIND GRAVITATIONALLY LENSED TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, Daniel A.; Nugent, Peter E. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) that are multiply imaged by gravitational lensing can extend the SN Ia Hubble diagram to very high redshifts ( z ≳ 2), probe potential SN Ia evolution, and deliver high-precision constraints on H {sub 0}, w , and Ω{sub m} via time delays. However, only one, iPTF16geu, has been found to date, and many more are needed to achieve these goals. To increase the multiply imaged SN Ia discovery rate, we present a simple algorithm for identifying gravitationally lensed SN Ia candidates in cadenced, wide-field optical imaging surveys. The technique is to look for supernovae that appear to be hosted by elliptical galaxies, but that have absolute magnitudes implied by the apparent hosts’ photometric redshifts that are far brighter than the absolute magnitudes of normal SNe Ia (the brightest type of supernovae found in elliptical galaxies). Importantly, this purely photometric method does not require the ability to resolve the lensed images for discovery. Active galactic nuclei, the primary sources of contamination that affect the method, can be controlled using catalog cross-matches and color cuts. Highly magnified core-collapse SNe will also be discovered as a byproduct of the method. Using a Monte Carlo simulation, we forecast that the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope can discover up to 500 multiply imaged SNe Ia using this technique in a 10 year z -band search, more than an order of magnitude improvement over previous estimates. We also predict that the Zwicky Transient Facility should find up to 10 multiply imaged SNe Ia using this technique in a 3 year R -band search—despite the fact that this survey will not resolve a single system.

  13. Nanofocusing refractive X-ray lenses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boye, Pit

    2010-02-05

    This thesis is concerned with the optimization and development of the production of nanofocusing refractive X-ray lenses. These optics made of either silicon or diamond are well-suited for high resolution X-ray microscopy. The goal of this work is the design of a reproducible manufacturing process which allows the production of silicon lenses with high precision, high quality and high piece number. Furthermore a process for the production of diamond lenses is to be developed and established. In this work, the theoretical basics of X-rays and their interaction with matter are described. Especially, aspects of synchrotron radiation are emphasized. Important in X-ray microscopy are the different optics. The details, advantages and disadvantages, in particular those of refractive lenses are given. To achieve small X-ray beams well beyond the 100 nm range a small focal length is required. This is achieved in refractive lenses by moving to a compact lens design where several single lenses are stacked behind each other. The, so-called nanofocusing refractive lenses (NFLs) have a parabolic cylindrical shape with lateral structure sizes in the micrometer range. NFLs are produced by using micro-machining techniques. These micro-fabrication processes and technologies are introduced. The results of the optimization and the final fabrication process for silicon lenses are presented. Subsequently, two experiments that are exemplary for the use of NFLs, are introduced. The rst one employs a high-resolution scanning fluorescence mapping of a geological sample, and the second one is a coherent x-ray diffraction imaging (CXDI) experiment. CXDI is able to reconstruct the illuminated object from recorded coherent diffraction patterns. In a scanning mode, referred to as ptychography, this method is even able to reconstruct the illumination and the object simultaneously. Especially the reconstructed illumination and the possibility of computed propagation of the wave field along the

  14. Nanofocusing refractive X-ray lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boye, Pit

    2010-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with the optimization and development of the production of nanofocusing refractive X-ray lenses. These optics made of either silicon or diamond are well-suited for high resolution X-ray microscopy. The goal of this work is the design of a reproducible manufacturing process which allows the production of silicon lenses with high precision, high quality and high piece number. Furthermore a process for the production of diamond lenses is to be developed and established. In this work, the theoretical basics of X-rays and their interaction with matter are described. Especially, aspects of synchrotron radiation are emphasized. Important in X-ray microscopy are the different optics. The details, advantages and disadvantages, in particular those of refractive lenses are given. To achieve small X-ray beams well beyond the 100 nm range a small focal length is required. This is achieved in refractive lenses by moving to a compact lens design where several single lenses are stacked behind each other. The, so-called nanofocusing refractive lenses (NFLs) have a parabolic cylindrical shape with lateral structure sizes in the micrometer range. NFLs are produced by using micro-machining techniques. These micro-fabrication processes and technologies are introduced. The results of the optimization and the final fabrication process for silicon lenses are presented. Subsequently, two experiments that are exemplary for the use of NFLs, are introduced. The rst one employs a high-resolution scanning fluorescence mapping of a geological sample, and the second one is a coherent x-ray diffraction imaging (CXDI) experiment. CXDI is able to reconstruct the illuminated object from recorded coherent diffraction patterns. In a scanning mode, referred to as ptychography, this method is even able to reconstruct the illumination and the object simultaneously. Especially the reconstructed illumination and the possibility of computed propagation of the wave field along the

  15. The second Herschel-ATLAS Data Release - III. Optical and near-infrared counterparts in the North Galactic Plane field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlanetto, C.; Dye, S.; Bourne, N.; Maddox, S.; Dunne, L.; Eales, S.; Valiante, E.; Smith, M. W.; Smith, D. J. B.; Ivison, R. J.; Ibar, E.

    2018-05-01

    This paper forms part of the second major public data release of the Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey (H-ATLAS). In this work, we describe the identification of optical and near-infrared counterparts to the submillimetre detected sources in the 177 deg2 North Galactic Plane (NGP) field. We used the likelihood ratio method to identify counterparts in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and in the United Kingdom InfraRed Telescope Imaging Deep Sky Survey within a search radius of 10 arcsec of the H-ATLAS sources with a 4σ detection at 250 μm. We obtained reliable (R ≥ 0.8) optical counterparts with r performance of the likelihood ratio method to identify optical and near-infrared counterparts taking into account the depth and area of both input catalogues. Using catalogues with the same surface density of objects in the overlapping ˜25 deg2 area, we obtained that the reliable fraction in the near-infrared (54.8 per cent) is significantly higher than in the optical (36.4 per cent). Finally, using deep radio data which covers a small region of the NGP field, we found that 80-90 per cent of our reliable identifications are correct.

  16. Gravitational corrections to light propagation in a perturbed FLRW universe and corresponding weak-lensing spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuesta-Lazaro, Carolina; Quera-Bofarull, Arnau; Reischke, Robert; Schäfer, Björn Malte

    2018-06-01

    When the gravitational lensing of the large-scale structure is calculated from a cosmological model a few assumptions enter: (i) one assumes that the photons follow unperturbed background geodesics, which is usually referred to as the Born approximation, (ii) the lenses move slowly, (iii) the source-redshift distribution is evaluated relative to the background quantities, and (iv) the lensing effect is linear in the gravitational potential. Even though these approximations are small individually they could sum up, especially since they include local effects such as the Sachs-Wolfe and peculiar motion, but also non-local ones like the Born approximation and the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect. In this work, we will address all points mentioned and perturbatively calculate the effect on a tomographic cosmic shear power spectrum of each effect individually as well as all cross-correlations. Our findings show that each effect is at least 4-5 orders of magnitude below the leading order lensing signal. Finally, we sum up all effects to estimate the overall impact on parameter estimation by a future cosmological weak-lensing survey such as Euclid in a wcold dark matter cosmology with parametrization Ωm, σ8, ns, h, w0, and wa, using five tomographic bins. We consistently find a parameter bias of 10-5, which is therefore completely negligible for all practical purposes, confirming that other effects such as intrinsic alignments, magnification bias and uncertainties in the redshift distribution will be the dominant systematic source in future surveys.

  17. MUSE spectroscopy and deep observations of a unique compact JWST target, lensing cluster CLIO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Alex; Conselice, Christopher J.; Alpaslan, Mehmet; Frye, Brenda L.; Diego, Jose M.; Zitrin, Adi; Yan, Haojing; Ma, Zhiyuan; Barone-Nugent, Robert; Bhatawdekar, Rachana; Driver, Simon P.; Robotham, Aaron S. G.; Windhorst, Rogier A.; Wyithe, J. Stuart B.

    2018-04-01

    We present the results of a VLT MUSE/FORS2 and Spitzer survey of a unique compact lensing cluster CLIO at z = 0.42, discovered through the GAMA survey using spectroscopic redshifts. Compact and massive clusters such as this are understudied, but provide a unique prospective on dark matter distributions and for finding background lensed high-z galaxies. The CLIO cluster was identified for follow-up observations due to its almost unique combination of high-mass and dark matter halo concentration, as well as having observed lensing arcs from ground-based images. Using dual band optical and infra-red imaging from FORS2 and Spitzer, in combination with MUSE optical spectroscopy we identify 89 cluster members and find background sources out to z = 6.49. We describe the physical state of this cluster, finding a strong correlation between environment and galaxy spectral type. Under the assumption of an NFW profile, we measure the total mass of CLIO to be M200 = (4.49 ± 0.25) × 1014 M⊙. We build and present an initial strong-lensing model for this cluster, and measure a relatively low intracluster light (ICL) fraction of 7.21 ± 1.53 per cent through galaxy profile fitting. Due to its strong potential for lensing background galaxies and its low ICL, the CLIO cluster will be a target for our 110 h James Webb Space Telescope `Webb Medium-Deep Field' (WMDF) GTO program.

  18. Molecular gas properties of a lensed star-forming galaxy at z 3.6: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessauges-Zavadsky, M.; Zamojski, M.; Rujopakarn, W.; Richard, J.; Sklias, P.; Schaerer, D.; Combes, F.; Ebeling, H.; Rawle, T. D.; Egami, E.; Boone, F.; Clément, B.; Kneib, J.-P.; Nyland, K.; Walth, G.

    2017-09-01

    We report on the galaxy MACSJ0032-arc at zCO = 3.6314 discovered during the Herschel Lensing snapshot Survey of massive galaxy clusters, and strongly lensed by the cluster MACS J0032.1+1808. The successful detections of its rest-frame ultraviolet (UV), optical, far-infrared (FIR), millimeter, and radio continua, and of its CO emission enable us to characterize, for the first time at such a high redshift, the stellar, dust, and molecular gas properties of a compact star-forming galaxy with a size smaller than 2.5 kpc, a fairly low stellar mass of 4.8+ 0.5-1.0 × 109M⊙, and a moderate IR luminosity of 4.8+ 1.2-0.6 × 1011L⊙. By combining the stretching effect of the lens with the high angular resolution imaging of the CO(1-0) line emission and the radio continuum at 5 GHz, we find that the bulk of the molecular gas mass and star formation seems to be spatially decoupled from the rest-frame UV emission. About 90% of the total star formation rate is undetected at rest-frame UV wavelengths because of severe obscuration by dust, but is seen through the thermal FIR dust emission and the radio synchrotron radiation. The observed CO(4-3) and CO(6-5) lines demonstrate that high-J transitions, at least up to J = 6, remain excited in this galaxy, whose CO spectral line energy distribution resembles that of high-redshift submm galaxies, even though the IR luminosity of MACSJ0032-arc is ten times lower. This high CO excitation is possibly due to the compactness of the galaxy. We find evidence that this high CO excitation has to be considered in the balance when estimating the CO-to-H2 conversion factor. Indeed, the respective CO-to-H2 conversion factors as derived from the correlation with metallicity and the FIR dust continuum can only be reconciled if excitation is accounted for. The inferred depletion time of the molecular gas in MACSJ0032-arc supports the decrease in the gas depletion timescale of galaxies with redshift, although to a lesser degree than predicted by

  19. Practitioner Perceptions of Patients Wearing Decorative Contact Lenses Purchased Through Unauthorized Sellers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaiser, Hilary; Ho, Connie; Janier, Nicole; Wee, Amy; Johnson, Catherine; Watanabe, Ronald

    2017-03-01

    To describe practitioner experiences regarding ocular complications in patients wearing decorative contact lenses, and to investigate the compliance of unauthorized distributors of decorative contact lenses to current Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and Federal Trade Commission (FTC) regulations. Also, to provide data to support a more targeted public health approach to reducing the incidence of illegal contact lens sales and associated ocular complications. An institutional review board-approved online survey was distributed through mass email to a list of 98 optometrists in the Boston, MA area. Concurrently, an empirical evaluation of independent, online decorative contact lens sellers who were not associated with FDA-approved contact lens manufacturers was performed to determine their adherence to FDA and FTC guidelines. The first 18 noncoincidental websites that resulted from a Google search for "costume contact lens sellers" and "cosmetic contact lens sellers" were examined as to the brands and parameters of lenses being sold, whether or not a valid prescription was required or verified, and if consumer education was provided. Twenty-two optometrists completed the online survey. Seventy-seven percent of respondents reported having patients with complications from decorative contact lenses that were purchased both legally and illegally. The most common age group for complications was 18 to 25 years (61%). One third of complications were seen in first-time lens wearers, half of whom never received proper care instructions or were unaware that care instructions existed. One quarter of the lenses were purchased illegally with unlicensed stores being the most common place of purchase. Of the 18 online sites examined, 72% of sellers failed to adhere to FTC and FDA regulations. A significant number of individuals who obtain contact lenses illegally from unauthorized sources are young adults. Most unauthorized sellers reviewed did not adhere to the proper protocol

  20. Nanofocusing Parabolic Refractive X-Ray Lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroer, C.G.; Kuhlmann, M.; Hunger, U.T.; Guenzler, T.F.; Kurapova, O.; Feste, S.; Lengeler, B.; Drakopoulos, M.; Somogyi, A.; Simionovici, A. S.; Snigirev, A.; Snigireva, I.

    2004-01-01

    Parabolic refractive x-ray lenses with short focal distance can generate intensive hard x-ray microbeams with lateral extensions in the 100nm range even at short distance from a synchrotron radiation source. We have fabricated planar parabolic lenses made of silicon that have a focal distance in the range of a few millimeters at hard x-ray energies. In a crossed geometry, two lenses were used to generate a microbeam with a lateral size of 330nm by 110nm at 25keV in a distance of 41.8m from the synchrotron radiation source. First microdiffraction and fluorescence microtomography experiments were carried out with these lenses. Using diamond as lens material, microbeams with lateral size down to 20nm and below are conceivable in the energy range from 10 to 100keV

  1. Weak lensing and CMB: Parameter forecasts including a running spectral index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishak, Mustapha; Hirata, Christopher M.; McDonald, Patrick; Seljak, Uros

    2004-01-01

    We use statistical inference theory to explore the constraints from future galaxy weak lensing (cosmic shear) surveys combined with the current CMB constraints on cosmological parameters, focusing particularly on the running of the spectral index of the primordial scalar power spectrum, α s . Recent papers have drawn attention to the possibility of measuring α s by combining the CMB with galaxy clustering and/or the Lyman-α forest. Weak lensing combined with the CMB provides an alternative probe of the primordial power spectrum. We run a series of simulations with variable runnings and compare them to semianalytic nonlinear mappings to test their validity for our calculations. We find that a 'reference' cosmic shear survey with f sky =0.01 and 6.6x10 8 galaxies per steradian can reduce the uncertainty on n s and α s by roughly a factor of 2 relative to the CMB alone. We investigate the effect of shear calibration biases on lensing by including the calibration factor as a parameter, and show that for our reference survey, the precision of cosmological parameter determination is only slightly degraded even if the amplitude calibration is uncertain by as much as 5%. We conclude that in the near future weak lensing surveys can supplement the CMB observations to constrain the primordial power spectrum

  2. Revised Unfilling Procedure for Solid Lithium Lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leveling, A.

    2003-01-01

    A procedure for unfilling used lithium lenses to has been described in Pbar Note 664. To date, the procedure has been used to disassemble lenses 20, 21, 17, 18, and 16. As a result of this work, some parts of the original procedure were found to be time consuming and ineffective. Modifications to the original procedure have been made to streamline the process and are discussed in this note. The revised procedure is included in this note.

  3. Microbial adherence to cosmetic contact lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ka Yin; Cho, Pauline; Boost, Maureen

    2014-08-01

    To investigate whether cosmetic contact lenses (CCL) with surface pigments affect microbial adherence. Fifteen brands of CCL were purchased from optical, non-optical retail outlets, and via the Internet. A standardized rub-off test was performed on each CCL (five lenses per brand) to confirm the location of the pigments. The rub-off test comprised gentle rubbing on the surfaces of each CCL with wetted cotton buds for a maximum of 20 rubs per surface. A new set of CCL (five lenses per brand) were incubated in Pseudomonas aeruginosa overnight. Viable counts of adhered bacteria were determined by the number of colony-forming units (CFU) on agar media on each lens. The adherence of P. aeruginosa as well as Staphylococcus aureus and Serratia marcescens to three brands of CCL (A-C) (five lenses per brand) were also compared to their adherences on their clear counterparts. Only two of the 15 brands of CCL tested (brands B and C) had pigments that did not detach with the rub-off test. The remaining 13 brands of CCL all failed the rub-off test and these lenses showed higher P. aeruginosa adherence (8.7 × 10(5)-1.9 × 10(6) CFU/lens). Brands B and C lenses showed at least six times less bacterial adhesion than the other 13 brands. Compared to their clear counterparts, bacterial adherence to brands B and C lenses did not differ significantly, whereas brand A lenses showed significantly higher adherence. Surface pigments on CCL resulted in significantly higher bacterial adherence. Copyright © 2013 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Comments on the Gravitational lensing Magnification

    OpenAIRE

    Takashi, HAMANA; Astronomical Institute, Tohoku University

    1998-01-01

    We rederive a relation between gravitational lensing magnification relative to the standard Friedmann distance and one relative to the Dyer-Roeder distance by investigating the null geodesic deviation equation. We show that the relation comes from a natural consequence of the definition of the lensing magnification matrices and is not based on the averaging of the magnifications, which has conventionally been used to derive it. We therefore conclude that the relation is true for each individu...

  5. Comments on the gravitational lensing magnification

    OpenAIRE

    Hamana, Takashi

    1998-01-01

    We rederive a relation between gravitational lensing magnification relative to the standard Friedmann distance and one relative to the Dyer-Roeder distance by investigating the null geodesic deviation equation. We show that the relation comes from a natural consequence of the definition of the lensing magnification matrices and is not based on the averaging of the magnifications, which has conventionally been used to derive it. We therefore conclude that the relation is true for each individu...

  6. Herschel images of Fomalhaut: an extrasolar Kuiper belt at the height of its dynamical activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acke, B.; Min, M.; Dominik, C.; Vandenbussche, B.; Sibthorpe, B.; Waelkens, C.; Olofsson, G.; Degroote, P.; Smolders, K.; Pantin, E.; Barlow, M.J.; Blommaert, J.A.D.L.; Brandeker, A.; De Meester, W.; Dent, W.R.F.; Exter, K.; Di Francesco, J.; Fridlund, M.; Gear, W.K.; Glauser, A.M.; Greaves, J.S.; Harvey, P.M.; Henning, T.; Hogerheijde, M.; Holland, W.S.; Huygen, R.; Ivison, R.J.; Jean, C.; Liseau, R.; Naylor, D.A.; Pilbratt, G.L.; Polehampton, E.T.; Regibo, S.; Royer, P.; Sicilia-Aguilar, A.; Swinyard, B.M.

    2012-01-01

    Context. Fomalhaut is a young (2 ± 1 × 108 years), nearby (7.7 pc), 2 M⊙ star that is suspected to harbor an infant planetary system, interspersed with one or more belts of dusty debris. Aims. We present far-infrared images obtained with the Herschel Space Observatory with an angular resolution

  7. Herschel CHESS discovery of the fossil cloud that gave birth to the Trapezium and Orion KL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    López-Sepulcre, A.; Kama, M.; Ceccarelli, C.; Dominik, C.; Caux, E.; Fuente, A.; Alonso-Albi, T.

    2013-01-01

    Context. The Orion A molecular complex is a nearby (420 pc), very well studied stellar nursery that is believed to contain examples of triggered star formation. Aims. As part of the Herschel guaranteed time key programme CHESS, we present the discovery of a diffuse gas component in the foreground of

  8. Herschel/HIFI observations of CO, H2O and NH3 in Monoceros R2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pilleri, P.; Fuente, A.; Cernicharo, J.; Ossenkopf, V.; Berne, O.; Gerin, M.; Pety, J.; Goicoechea, J. R.; Rizzo, J. R.; Montillaud, J.; Gonzalez-Garcia, M.; Joblin, C.; Le Bourlot, J.; Le Petit, F.; Kramer, C.

    Context. Mon R2, at a distance of 830 pc, is the only ultracompact H II region (UCH II) where the associated photon-dominated region (PDR) can be resolved with Herschel. Owing to its brightness and proximity, it is one of the best-suited sources for investigating the chemistry and physics of highly

  9. Herschel/SPIRE observations of the dusty disk of NGC 4244

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holwerda, B. W.; Bianchi, S.; Boker, T.; Radburn-Smith, D.; de Jong, R. S.; Baes, M.; van der Kruit, P. C.; Xilouris, M.; Gordon, K. D.; Dalcanton, J. J.

    We present Herschel/SPIRE images at 250, 350, and 500 mu m of NGC 4244, a typical low-mass, disk-only and edge-on spiral galaxy. The dust disk is clumpy and shows signs of truncation at the break radius of the stellar disk. This disk coincides with the densest part of the Hi disk. We compare the

  10. How bright planets became dim stars: planetary speculations in John Herschel's double star astronomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Stephen

    2014-03-01

    Previous research on the origins of double star astronomy in the early nineteenth century emphasized the role mathematical methods and instrumentation played in motivating early observations of these objects. The work of the British astronomer John Herschel, however, shows that questions regarding the physical nature of double stars were also important. In particular, an analysis of John Herschel's early work on double stars illustrates the way in which speculations regarding these objects were shaped by assumptions of the properties of stars themselves. For Herschel, a major consideration in double star astronomy was distinguishing between types of double stars. Optical doubles were useful in determining parallax while binary doubles were not. In practice, classification of a specific double star pair into one of these categories was based on the assumption that stars were of approximately the same luminosity and thus differences in relative brightness between stars were caused by difference in distances. Such assumptions, though ultimately abandoned, would lead Herschel in the 1830s to advance the possibility that the dim companion stars in certain double star pairs were not stars at all but in fact planets. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Herschel Observations of Gas and Dust in the Unusual 49 Ceti Debris Disk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roberge, A.; Kamp, I.; Montesinos, B.; Dent, W. R. F.; Meeus, G.; Donaldson, J. K.; Olofsson, J.; Moor, A.; Augereau, J. -C.; Howard, C.; Eiroa, C.; Thi, W. -F.; Ardila, D. R.; Sandell, G.; Woitke, P.

    2013-01-01

    We present far-IR/sub-mm imaging and spectroscopy of 49 Ceti, an unusual circumstellar disk around a nearby young A1V star. The system is famous for showing the dust properties of a debris disk, but the gas properties of a low-mass protoplanetary disk. The data were acquired with the Herschel Space

  12. Water in low-mass star-forming regions with Herschel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, L. E.; Visser, R.; Van Dishoeck, E. F.

    2010-01-01

    "Water In Star-forming regions with Herschel" (WISH) is a key programme dedicated to studying the role of water and related species during the star-formation process and constraining the physical and chemical properties of young stellar objects. The Heterodyne Instrument for the Far-Infrared (HIF...

  13. Developments in fiber-positioning technology for the WEAVE instrument at the William Herschel Telescope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schallig, Ellen; Lewis, Ian J.; Gilbert, James; Dalton, Gavin; Brock, Matthew; Abrams, Don Carlos; Middleton, Kevin; Aguerri, J. Alfonso L.; Bonifacio, Piercarlo; Carrasco, Esperanza; Trager, Scott C.; Vallenari, Antonella

    2016-01-01

    WEAVE is the next-generation wide-field optical spectroscopy facility for the William Herschel Telescope (WHT) on La Palma in the Canary Islands, Spain. It is a multi-object "pick-and-place" fibre-fed spectrograph with a 1000 fibre multiplex behind a new dedicated 2° prime focus corrector. The WEAVE

  14. Neutral and Ionized Hydrides in Star-forming Regions. Observations with Herschel/HIFI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O. Benz, Arnold; Bruderer, Simon; F. van Dishoeck, Ewine

    2013-01-01

    of OH, CH, NH, SH and their ions OH+, CH+, NH+, SH+, H2O+, and H3O+ were observed in star-forming regions by the HIFI spectrometer onboard the Herschel Space Observatory. Molecular column densities are derived from observed ground-state lines, models, or rotational diagrams. We report here on two...

  15. TNOs are Cool: Thermophysical modeling of a sample of 20 classical KBOs using Herschel/PACS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vilenius, E.; Müller, T.; Pal, A.; Santos-Sanz, P.; Rengel, M.; Hartogh, P.; Protopapa, S.; Mueller, M.; Mommert, M.; Stansberry, J.; Lellouch, E.; Böhnhardt, H.; Ortiz, J. L.; Thirouin, A.; Henry, F.; Delsanti, A.; Fornasier, S.; Hestroffer, D.; Dotto, E.

    2011-01-01

    We determine the sizes and albedos of 20 classical Kuiper belt objects. Our observations with the PACS instrument on-board Herschel Space Observatory cover the wavelength range where the thermal emission from trans-Neptunian objects has its maximum. We use a consistent method for data reduction and

  16. Biorheological Model on Flow of Herschel-Bulkley Fluid through a Tapered Arterial Stenosis with Dilatation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyadharshini, S; Ponalagusamy, R

    2015-01-01

    An analysis of blood flow through a tapered artery with stenosis and dilatation has been carried out where the blood is treated as incompressible Herschel-Bulkley fluid. A comparison between numerical values and analytical values of pressure gradient at the midpoint of stenotic region shows that the analytical expression for pressure gradient works well for the values of yield stress till 2.4. The wall shear stress and flow resistance increase significantly with axial distance and the increase is more in the case of converging tapered artery. A comparison study of velocity profiles, wall shear stress, and flow resistance for Newtonian, power law, Bingham-plastic, and Herschel-Bulkley fluids shows that the variation is greater for Herschel-Bulkley fluid than the other fluids. The obtained velocity profiles have been compared with the experimental data and it is observed that blood behaves like a Herschel-Bulkley fluid rather than power law, Bingham, and Newtonian fluids. It is observed that, in the case of a tapered stenosed tube, the streamline pattern follows a convex pattern when we move from r/R = 0 to r/R = 1 and it follows a concave pattern when we move from r/R = 0 to r/R = -1. Further, it is of opposite behaviour in the case of a tapered dilatation tube which forms new information that is, for the first time, added to the literature.

  17. Biorheological Model on Flow of Herschel-Bulkley Fluid through a Tapered Arterial Stenosis with Dilatation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Priyadharshini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of blood flow through a tapered artery with stenosis and dilatation has been carried out where the blood is treated as incompressible Herschel-Bulkley fluid. A comparison between numerical values and analytical values of pressure gradient at the midpoint of stenotic region shows that the analytical expression for pressure gradient works well for the values of yield stress till 2.4. The wall shear stress and flow resistance increase significantly with axial distance and the increase is more in the case of converging tapered artery. A comparison study of velocity profiles, wall shear stress, and flow resistance for Newtonian, power law, Bingham-plastic, and Herschel-Bulkley fluids shows that the variation is greater for Herschel-Bulkley fluid than the other fluids. The obtained velocity profiles have been compared with the experimental data and it is observed that blood behaves like a Herschel-Bulkley fluid rather than power law, Bingham, and Newtonian fluids. It is observed that, in the case of a tapered stenosed tube, the streamline pattern follows a convex pattern when we move from r/R=0 to r/R=1 and it follows a concave pattern when we move from r/R=0 to r/R=-1. Further, it is of opposite behaviour in the case of a tapered dilatation tube which forms new information that is, for the first time, added to the literature.

  18. Discovery of water vapour in the carbon star V Cygni from observations with Herschel/HIFI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neufeld, D. A.; Gonzalez-Alfonso, E.; Melnick, G.; Pulecka, M.; Schmidt, M.; Szczerba, R.; Bujarrabal, V.; Alcolea, J.; Cernicharo, J.; Decin, L.; Dominik, C.; Justtanont, K.; de Koter, A.; Marston, A. P.; Menten, K.; Olofsson, H.; Planesas, P.; Schoier, F. L.; Teyssier, D.; Waters, L. B. F. M.; Edwards, K.; McCoey, C.; Shipman, R.; Jellema, W.; de Graauw, T.; Ossenkopf, V.; Schieder, R.; Philipp, S.

    2010-01-01

    We report the discovery of water vapour toward the carbon star V Cygni. We have used Herschel's HIFI instrument, in dual beam switch mode, to observe the 1(11)-0(00) para-water transition at 1113.3430 GHz in the upper sideband of the Band 4b receiver. The observed spectral line profile is nearly

  19. Factors influencing bacterial adhesion to contact lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Debarun; Cole, Nerida; Willcox, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The process of any contact lens related keratitis generally starts with the adhesion of opportunistic pathogens to contact lens surface. This article focuses on identifying the factors which have been reported to affect bacterial adhesion to contact lenses. Adhesion to lenses differs between various genera/species/strains of bacteria. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which is the predominant causative organism, adheres in the highest numbers to both hydrogel and silicone hydrogel lenses in vitro. The adhesion of this strain reaches maximum numbers within 1h in most in vitro studies and a biofilm has generally formed within 24 h of cells adhering to the lens surface. Physical and chemical properties of contact lens material affect bacterial adhesion. The water content of hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA)-based lenses and their iconicity affect the ability of bacteria to adhere. The higher hydrophobicity of silicone hydrogel lenses compared to HEMA-based lenses has been implicated in the higher numbers of bacteria that can adhere to their surfaces. Lens wear has different effects on bacterial adhesion, partly due to differences between wearers, responses of bacterial strains and the ability of certain tear film proteins when bound to a lens surface to kill certain types of bacteria.

  20. Predicting gravitational lensing by stellar remnants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Alexander J.; Stefano, R. Di; Lépine, S.; Urama, J.; Pham, D.; Baker, C.

    2018-03-01

    Gravitational lensing provides a means to measure mass that does not rely on detecting and analysing light from the lens itself. Compact objects are ideal gravitational lenses, because they have relatively large masses and are dim. In this paper, we describe the prospects for predicting lensing events generated by the local population of compact objects, consisting of 250 neutron stars, five black holes, and ≈35 000 white dwarfs. By focusing on a population of nearby compact objects with measured proper motions and known distances from us, we can measure their masses by studying the characteristics of any lensing event they generate. Here, we concentrate on shifts in the position of a background source due to lensing by a foreground compact object. With Hubble Space Telescope, JWST, and Gaia, measurable centroid shifts caused by lensing are relatively frequent occurrences. We find that 30-50 detectable events per decade are expected for white dwarfs. Because relatively few neutron stars and black holes have measured distances and proper motions, it is more difficult to compute realistic rates for them. However, we show that at least one isolated neutron star has likely produced detectable events during the past several decades. This work is particularly relevant to the upcoming data releases by the Gaia mission and also to data that will be collected by JWST. Monitoring predicted microlensing events will not only help to determine the masses of compact objects, but will also potentially discover dim companions to these stellar remnants, including orbiting exoplanets.

  1. Near-IR search for lensed supernovae behind galaxy clusters. II. First detection and future prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Goobar, A.; Paech, K.; Stanishev, V.; Amanullah, R.; Dahlén, T.; Jönsson, J.; Kneib, J. P.; Lidman, C.; Limousin, M.; Mörtsell, E.; Nobili, S.; Richard, J.; Riehm, T.; von Strauss, M.

    2009-01-01

    Aims. Powerful gravitational telescopes in the form of massive galaxy clusters can be used to enhance the light collecting power over a limited field of view by about an order of magnitude in flux. This effect is exploited here to increase the depth of a survey for lensed supernovae at near-IR wavelengths. Methods. We present a pilot supernova search programme conducted with the ISAAC camera at VLT. Lensed galaxies behind the massive clusters A1689, A1835, and AC114 were observed for a tot...

  2. Weak-lensing magnification as a probe for the dark Universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García Fernández, Manuel [Autonomous Univ. of Madrid (Spain)

    2017-06-01

    This Thesis is devoted to the analysis of weak-lensing magnification on the Dark Energy Survey. Two analysis with different goals each are made on different data-sets: the Science Verification (DES-SV) and the Year 1 (DES-Y1). The DES-SV analysis aims the development of techniques to detect the weak-lensing number count magnification signal and the mitigation of systematic errors. The DES-Y1 analysis employs the methods used with the DES-SV data to measure the convergence profile of the emptiest regions of the Universe –voids and troughs–to use them as a new cosmological probe.

  3. HERSCHEL -RESOLVED OUTER BELTS OF TWO-BELT DEBRIS DISKS—EVIDENCE OF ICY GRAINS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales, F. Y.; Bryden, G.; Werner, M. W.; Stapelfeldt, K. R., E-mail: Farisa@jpl.nasa.gov [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2016-11-01

    We present dual-band Herschel /PACS imaging for 59 main-sequence stars with known warm dust ( T {sub warm} ∼ 200 K), characterized by Spitzer . Of 57 debris disks detected at Herschel wavelengths (70 and/or 100 and 160 μ m), about half have spectral energy distributions (SEDs) that suggest two-ring disk architectures mirroring that of the asteroid–Kuiper Belt geometry; the rest are consistent with single belts of warm, asteroidal material. Herschel observations spatially resolve the outer/cold dust component around 14 A-type and 4 solar-type stars with two-belt systems, 15 of which for the first time. Resolved disks are typically observed with radii >100 AU, larger than expected from a simple blackbody fit. Despite the absence of narrow spectral features for ice, we find that the shape of the continuum, combined with resolved outer/cold dust locations, can help constrain the grain size distribution and hint at the dust’s composition for each resolved system. Based on the combined Spitzer /IRS+Multiband Imaging Photometer (5-to-70 μ m) and Herschel /PACS (70-to-160 μ m) data set, and under the assumption of idealized spherical grains, we find that over half of resolved outer/cold belts are best fit with a mixed ice/rock composition. Minimum grain sizes are most often equal to the expected radiative blowout limit, regardless of composition. Three of four resolved systems around the solar-type stars, however, tend to have larger minimum grains compared to expectation from blowout ( f {sub MB} = a {sub min}/ a {sub BOS} ∼ 5). We also probe the disk architecture of 39 Herschel -unresolved systems by modeling their SEDs uniformly, and find them to be consistent with 31 single- and 8 two-belt debris systems.

  4. On the Contribution of Large-Scale Structure to Strong Gravitational Lensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faure, C.; Kneib, J.-P.; Hilbert, S.; Massey, R.; Covone, G.; Finoguenov, A.; Leauthaud, A.; Taylor, J. E.; Pires, S.; Scoville, N.; Koekemoer, Anton M.

    2009-04-01

    We study the correlation between the locations of galaxy-galaxy strong-lensing candidates and tracers of large-scale structure from both weak lensing (WL) or X-ray emission. The Cosmological Evolution Survey (COSMOS) is a unique data set, combining deep, high resolution and contiguous imaging in which strong lenses have been discovered, plus unparalleled multiwavelength coverage. To help interpret the COSMOS data, we have also produced mock COSMOS strong- and WL observations, based on ray-tracing through the Millennium Simulation. In agreement with the simulations, we find that strongly lensed images with the largest angular separations are found in the densest regions of the COSMOS field. This is explained by a prevalence among the lens population in dense environments of elliptical galaxies with high total-to-stellar mass ratios, which can deflect light through larger angles. However, we also find that the overall fraction of elliptical galaxies with strong gravitational lensing is independent of the local mass density; this observation is not true of the simulations, which predict an increasing fraction of strong lenses in dense environments. The discrepancy may be a real effect, but could also be explained by various limitations of our analysis. For example, our visual search of strong lens systems could be incomplete and suffer from selection bias; the luminosity function of elliptical galaxies may differ between our real and simulated data; or the simplifying assumptions and approximations used in our lensing simulations may be inadequate. Work is therefore ongoing. Automated searches for strong lens systems will be particularly important in better constraining the selection function.

  5. The ellipticity of galaxy cluster haloes from satellite galaxies and weak lensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Tae-hyeon; Clampitt, Joseph; Jain, Bhuvnesh; Bernstein, Gary; Neil, Andrew; Rozo, Eduardo; Rykoff, Eli

    2018-04-01

    We study the ellipticity of galaxy cluster haloes as characterized by the distribution of cluster galaxies and as measured with weak lensing. We use Monte Carlo simulations of elliptical cluster density profiles to estimate and correct for Poisson noise bias, edge bias and projection effects. We apply our methodology to 10 428 Sloan Digital Sky Survey clusters identified by the redMaPPer algorithm with richness above 20. We find a mean ellipticity =0.271 ± 0.002 (stat) ±0.031 (sys) corresponding to an axis ratio = 0.573 ± 0.002 (stat) ±0.039 (sys). We compare this ellipticity of the satellites to the halo shape, through a stacked lensing measurement using optimal estimators of the lensing quadrupole based on Clampitt and Jain (2016). We find a best-fitting axis ratio of 0.56 ± 0.09 (stat) ±0.03 (sys), consistent with the ellipticity of the satellite distribution. Thus, cluster galaxies trace the shape of the dark matter halo to within our estimated uncertainties. Finally, we restack the satellite and lensing ellipticity measurements along the major axis of the cluster central galaxy's light distribution. From the lensing measurements, we infer a misalignment angle with an root-mean-square of 30° ± 10° when stacking on the central galaxy. We discuss applications of halo shape measurements to test the effects of the baryonic gas and active galactic nucleus feedback, as well as dark matter and gravity. The major improvements in signal-to-noise ratio expected with the ongoing Dark Energy Survey and future surveys from Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, Euclid, and Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope will make halo shapes a useful probe of these effects.

  6. Adhesion of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to orthokeratology and alignment lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Jennifer D; Holden, Brien A; Papas, Eric B; Willcox, Mark D P

    2009-02-01

    To determine whether contact lenses designed for orthokeratology (OK) are colonized by greater numbers of bacteria compared with standard (alignment fitted) design rigid gas permeable lenses before and after lens wear. Eighteen 1-year-old cats were randomly fitted with an OK lens in one eye and an alignment fitted (AF) lens in the other eye. Both lenses were made in the same diameter and central thickness and of the same material. Two separate wearing periods of 2 weeks and 6 weeks were used. After each wearing period, lenses were soaked in Pseudomonas aeruginosa (6294 or 6206) for 10 min. The lenses were then reinserted onto their respective corneas for a wearing period of 16 hours after which lenses were collected and remaining adhered bacteria quantified. Unworn control lenses were also soaked and bacteria enumerated for comparison. There were no significant differences in the number of bacteria adherent to unworn AF and OK lenses. Analysis of lenses after wear showed OK lenses retained significantly higher numbers of viable bacteria than AF lenses in all studies. OK lenses retain more bacteria than AF rigid gas permeable lenses after bacteria-loaded overnight lens wear. This may increase the risk for an infection in OK patients should suitable conditions be present. Specific education on the cleaning of OK lenses is essential.

  7. Mass Models and Environment of the New Quadruply Lensed Quasar SDSS J1330+1810

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oguri, Masamune; Inada, Naohisa; Blackburne, Jeffrey A.; Shin, Min-Su; Kayo, Issha; Strauss, Michael A.; Schneider, Donald P.; York, Donald G.

    2008-09-09

    We present the discovery of a new quadruply lensed quasar. The lens system, SDSS J1330+1810 at z{sub s} = 1.393, was identified as a lens candidate from the spectroscopic sample of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Optical and near-infrared images clearly show four quasar images with a maximum image separation of 1.76 inch, as well as a bright lensing galaxy. We measure a redshift of the lensing galaxy of z{sub 1} = 0.373 from absorption features in the spectrum. We find a foreground group of galaxies at z = 0.31 centred {approx} 120 inch southwest of the lens system. Simple mass models fit the data quite well, including the flux ratios between images, although the lens galaxy appears to be {approx} 1 mag brighter than expected by the Faber-Jackson relation. Our mass modeling suggests that shear from nearby structure is affecting the lens potential.

  8. The Weak Lensing Masses of Filaments between Luminous Red Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epps, Seth D.; Hudson, Michael J.

    2017-07-01

    In the standard model of non-linear structure formation, a cosmic web of dark-matter-dominated filaments connects dark matter haloes. In this paper, we stack the weak lensing signal of an ensemble of filaments between groups and clusters of galaxies. Specifically, we detect the weak lensing signal, using CFHTLenS galaxy ellipticities, from stacked filaments between Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS)-III/Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey luminous red galaxies (LRGs). As a control, we compare the physical LRG pairs with projected LRG pairs that are more widely separated in redshift space. We detect the excess filament mass density in the projected pairs at the 5σ level, finding a mass of (1.6 ± 0.3) × 1013 M⊙ for a stacked filament region 7.1 h-1 Mpc long and 2.5 h-1 Mpc wide. This filament signal is compared with a model based on the three-point galaxy-galaxy-convergence correlation function, as developed in Clampitt et al., yielding reasonable agreement.

  9. RELICS: A Candidate Galaxy Arc at z~10 and Other Brightly Lensed z>6 Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Brett; Coe, Dan; Bradley, Larry; Bradac, Marusa; Huang, Kuang-Han; Oesch, Pascal; Brammer, Gabriel; Stark, Daniel P.; Sharon, Keren; Trenti, Michele; Avila, Roberto J.; Ogaz, Sara; Acebron, Ana; Andrade-Santos, Felipe; Carrasco, Daniela; Cerny, Catherine; Cibirka, Nathália; Dawson, William; Frye, Brenda; Hoag, Austin; Jones, Christine; Mainali, Ramesh; Ouchi, Masami; Paterno-Mahler, Rachel; Rodney, Steven; Umetsu, Keiichi; Zitrin, Adi; RELICS

    2018-01-01

    Massive foreground galaxy clusters magnify and distort the light of objects behind them, permitting a view into both the extremely distant and intrinsically faint galaxy populations. We present here some of the most brightly lensed z>6 galaxy candidates known from the Reionization Lensing Cluster Survey (RELICS) and the discovery of a particularly fortuitous z~10 galaxy candidate which has been arced by the effects of strong gravitational lensing. The z~10 candidate has a lensed H-band magnitude of 25.8 AB mag and a high lensing magnification (~4-7). The inferred upper limits on the stellar mass (log [M_star /M_Sun]=9.5) and star formation rate (log [SFR/(M_Sun/yr)]=1.5) indicate that this candidate is a typical star-forming galaxy on the z>6 SFR-M_star relation. We rule out the only low-z solution as unphysical based on the required stellar mass, dust attenuation, size, and [OIII] EW needed for a z~2 SED to match the data. Finally, we reconstruct the source-plane image and estimate the candidate's physical size at z~10, finding a half-light radius of r_e 9 candidates. While the James Webb Space Telescope will detect z>10 with ease, this rare candidate offers the potential for unprecedented spatial resolution less than 500 Myr after the Big Bang.

  10. The skewed weak lensing likelihood: why biases arise, despite data and theory being sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellentin, Elena; Heymans, Catherine; Harnois-Déraps, Joachim

    2018-04-01

    We derive the essentials of the skewed weak lensing likelihood via a simple Hierarchical Forward Model. Our likelihood passes four objective and cosmology-independent tests which a standard Gaussian likelihood fails. We demonstrate that sound weak lensing data are naturally biased low, since they are drawn from a skewed distribution. This occurs already in the framework of ΛCDM. Mathematically, the biases arise because noisy two-point functions follow skewed distributions. This form of bias is already known from CMB analyses, where the low multipoles have asymmetric error bars. Weak lensing is more strongly affected by this asymmetry as galaxies form a discrete set of shear tracer particles, in contrast to a smooth shear field. We demonstrate that the biases can be up to 30% of the standard deviation per data point, dependent on the properties of the weak lensing survey and the employed filter function. Our likelihood provides a versatile framework with which to address this bias in future weak lensing analyses.

  11. Weak gravitational lensing as a method to constrain unstable dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Meiyu; Zentner, Andrew R.

    2010-01-01

    The nature of the dark matter remains a mystery. The possibility of an unstable dark matter particle decaying to invisible daughter particles has been explored many times in the past few decades. Meanwhile, weak gravitational lensing shear has gained a lot of attention as a probe of dark energy, though it was previously considered a dark matter probe. Weak lensing is a useful tool for constraining the stability of the dark matter. In the coming decade a number of large galaxy imaging surveys will be undertaken and will measure the statistics of cosmological weak lensing with unprecedented precision. Weak lensing statistics are sensitive to unstable dark matter in at least two ways. Dark matter decays alter the matter power spectrum and change the angular diameter distance-redshift relation. We show how measurements of weak lensing shear correlations may provide the most restrictive, model-independent constraints on the lifetime of unstable dark matter. Our results rely on assumptions regarding nonlinear evolution of density fluctuations in scenarios of unstable dark matter and one of our aims is to stimulate interest in theoretical work on nonlinear structure growth in unstable dark matter models.

  12. Data mining for gravitationally lensed quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnello, Adriano; Kelly, Brandon C.; Treu, Tommaso; Marshall, Philip J.

    2015-04-01

    Gravitationally lensed quasars are brighter than their unlensed counterparts and produce images with distinctive morphological signatures. Past searches and target-selection algorithms, in particular the Sloan Quasar Lens Search (SQLS), have relied on basic morphological criteria, which were applied to samples of bright, spectroscopically confirmed quasars. The SQLS techniques are not sufficient for searching into new surveys (e.g. DES, PS1, LSST), because spectroscopic information is not readily available and the large data volume requires higher purity in target/candidate selection. We carry out a systematic exploration of machine-learning techniques and demonstrate that a two-step strategy can be highly effective. In the first step, we use catalogue-level information (griz+WISE magnitudes, second moments) to pre-select targets, using artificial neural networks. The accepted targets are then inspected with pixel-by-pixel pattern recognition algorithms (gradient-boosted trees), to form a final set of candidates. The results from this procedure can be used to further refine the simpler SQLS algorithms, with a twofold (or threefold) gain in purity and the same (or 80 per cent) completeness at target-selection stage, or a purity of 70 per cent and a completeness of 60 per cent after the candidate-selection step. Simpler photometric searches in griz+WISE based on colour cuts would provide samples with 7 per cent purity or less. Our technique is extremely fast, as a list of candidates can be obtained from a Stage III experiment (e.g. DES catalogue/data base) in a few CPU hours. The techniques are easily extendable to Stage IV experiments like LSST with the addition of time domain information.

  13. A 2500 deg2 CMB Lensing Map from Combined South Pole Telescope and Planck Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omori, Y.; Chown, R.; Simard, G.; Story, K. T.; University of Chicago, IL

    2017-01-01

    Here, we present a cosmic microwave background (CMB) lensing map produced from a linear combination of South Pole Telescope (SPT) and Planck temperature data. The 150 GHz temperature data from the 2500 deg 2 SPT-SZ survey is combined with the Planck 143 GHz data in harmonic space to obtain a temperature map that has a broader ℓ coverage and less noise than either individual map. Using a quadratic estimator technique on this combined temperature map, we produce a map of the gravitational lensing potential projected along the line of sight. We measure the auto-spectrum of the lensing potential C L ϕϕ , and compare it to the theoretical prediction for a ΛCDM cosmology consistent with the Planck 2015 data set, finding a best-fit amplitude of 0.95 −0.06 +0.06 (stat.) −0.01 +0.01 (sys.). The null hypothesis of no lensing is rejected at a significance of 24σ. One important use of such a lensing potential map is in cross-correlations with other dark matter tracers. We demonstrate this cross-correlation in practice by calculating the cross-spectrum, C L ϕG , between the SPT+Planck lensing map and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) galaxies. We fit C L ϕG to a power law of the form p L =a(L/L 0 ) −b with a, L 0, and b fixed, and find η ϕG =C L ϕG /p L =0.94 −0.04 +0.04 , which is marginally lower, but in good agreement with η ϕG =1.00 −0.01 +0.02 , the best-fit amplitude for the cross-correlation of Planck-2015 CMB lensing and WISE galaxies over ~67% of the sky. Finally, the lensing potential map presented here will be used for cross-correlation studies with the Dark Energy Survey, whose footprint nearly completely covers the SPT 2500 deg 2 field.

  14. Constraining cosmological parameters with observational data including weak lensing effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Hong [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, PO Box 918-4, Beijing 100049 (China); Theoretical Physics Center for Science Facilities (TPCSF), Chinese Academy of Science (China)], E-mail: hongli@mail.ihep.ac.cn; Liu Jie [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, PO Box 918-4, Beijing 100049 (China); Xia Junqing [Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati, Via Beirut 2-4, I-34014 Trieste (Italy); Sun Lei; Fan Zuhui [Department of Astronomy, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Tao Charling; Tilquin, Andre [Centre de Physique des Particules de Marseille, CNRS/IN2P3-Luminy and Universite de la Mediterranee, Case 907, F-13288 Marseille Cedex 9 (France); Zhang Xinmin [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, PO Box 918-4, Beijing 100049 (China); Theoretical Physics Center for Science Facilities (TPCSF), Chinese Academy of Science (China)

    2009-05-11

    In this Letter, we study the cosmological implications of the 100 square degree Weak Lensing survey (the CFHTLS-Wide, RCS, VIRMOS-DESCART and GaBoDS surveys). We combine these weak lensing data with the cosmic microwave background (CMB) measurements from the WMAP5, BOOMERanG, CBI, VSA, ACBAR, the SDSS LRG matter power spectrum and the Type Ia Supernoave (SNIa) data with the 'Union' compilation (307 sample), using the Markov Chain Monte Carlo method to determine the cosmological parameters, such as the equation-of-state (EoS) of dark energy w, the density fluctuation amplitude {sigma}{sub 8}, the total neutrino mass {sigma}m{sub {nu}} and the parameters associated with the power spectrum of the primordial fluctuations. Our results show that the {lambda}CDM model remains a good fit to all of these data. In a flat universe, we obtain a tight limit on the constant EoS of dark energy, w=-0.97{+-}0.041 (1{sigma}). For the dynamical dark energy model with time evolving EoS parameterized as w{sub de}(a)=w{sub 0}+w{sub a}(1-a), we find that the best-fit values are w{sub 0}=-1.064 and w{sub a}=0.375, implying the mildly preference of Quintom model whose EoS gets across the cosmological constant boundary during evolution. Regarding the total neutrino mass limit, we obtain the upper limit, {sigma}m{sub {nu}}<0.471 eV (95% C.L.) within the framework of the flat {lambda}CDM model. Due to the obvious degeneracies between the neutrino mass and the EoS of dark energy model, this upper limit will be relaxed by a factor of 2 in the framework of dynamical dark energy models. Assuming that the primordial fluctuations are adiabatic with a power law spectrum, within the {lambda}CDM model, we find that the upper limit on the ratio of the tensor to scalar is r<0.35 (95% C.L.) and the inflationary models with the slope n{sub s}{>=}1 are excluded at more than 2{sigma} confidence level. In this Letter we pay particular attention to the contribution from the weak lensing data and

  15. Relative radiosensitivity of rat lenses as a function of age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merriam, G.R. Jr.; Szechter, A.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of age on the development of radiation cataracts in rat lenses has been investigated using the Columbia--Sherman rat as an experiment model. A detailed pattern of age dependence was obtained at several different dose levels. In general at dose levels from 200 to 300 rads the lens changes occurred sooner and progressed faster in the adult lenses than in young lenses. In the dose range from 300 rads to 900 rads opacities developed sooner in the young lenses but progression was faster and severe opacities developed sooner in adult lenses. Above 900 rads opacities developed sooner and progressed faster in the young lenses. (U.S.)

  16. A Nonlinear Model for Designing Herschel-Quincke Waveguide Arrays to Attenuate Shock Waves from Transonic Turbofan Engines, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Techsburg is teaming with the Vibration and Acoustics Laboratory of Virginia Tech to propose a non-linear analytical tool for designing Herschel-Quincke (HQ)...

  17. DESIGN OF THE MULTIORDER INTRAOCULAR LENSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Kolobrodov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Intraocular lenses (IOLs are used to replace the natural crystalline lens of the eye. Just few basic designs of IOLs are used clinically. Multiorder diffractive lenses (MODL which operate simultaneously in several diffractive orders were proposed to decrease the chromatic aberration. Properties analysis of MODL showed a possibility to use them to develop new designs of IOLs. The purpose of this paper was to develop a new method of designing of multiorder intraocular lenses with decreased chromatic aberration. The theoretical research of the lens properties was carried out. The diffraction efficiency dependence with the change of wavelength was studied. A computer simulation of MODL in a schematic model of the human eye was carried out. It is found the capability of the multiorder diffractive lenses to focus polychromatic light into a segment on the optical axis with high diffraction efficiency. At each point of the segment is present each component of the spectral range, which will build a color image in combination. The paper describes the new design method of intraocular lenses with reduced chromaticism and with endless adaptation. An optical system of an eye with an intraocular lens that provides sharp vision of objects located at a distance of 700 mm to infinity is modeled.

  18. Plasma lenses for focusing relativistic electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Govil, R.; Wheeler, S.; Leemans, W.

    1997-01-01

    The next generation of colliders require tightly focused beams with high luminosity. To focus charged particle beams for such applications, a plasma focusing scheme has been proposed. Plasma lenses can be overdense (plasma density, n p much greater than electron beam density, n b ) or underdense (n p less than 2 n b ). In overdense lenses the space-charge force of the electron beam is canceled by the plasma and the remaining magnetic force causes the electron beam to self-pinch. The focusing gradient is nonlinear, resulting in spherical aberrations. In underdense lenses, the self-forces of the electron beam cancel, allowing the plasma ions to focus the beam. Although for a given beam density, a uniform underdense lens produces smaller focusing gradients than an overdense lens, it produces better beam quality since the focusing is done by plasma ions. The underdense lens can be improved by tapering the density of the plasma for optimal focusing. The underdense lens performance can be enhanced further by producing adiabatic plasma lenses to avoid the Oide limit on spot size due to synchrotron radiation by the electron beam. The plasma lens experiment at the Beam Test Facility (BTF) is designed to study the properties of plasma lenses in both overdense and underdense regimes. In particular, important issues such as electron beam matching, time response of the lens, lens aberrations and shot-to-shot reproducibility are being investigated

  19. Weak lensing in generalized gravity theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acquaviva, Viviana; Baccigalupi, Carlo; Perrotta, Francesca

    2004-01-01

    We extend the theory of weak gravitational lensing to cosmologies with generalized gravity, described in the Lagrangian by a generic function depending on the Ricci scalar and a nonminimal coupled scalar field. We work out the generalized Poisson equations relating the dynamics of the fluctuating components to the two gauge-invariant scalar gravitational potentials, fixing the contributions from the modified background expansion and fluctuations. We show how the lensing equation gets modified by the cosmic expansion as well as by the presence of anisotropic stress, which is non-null at the linear level both in scalar-tensor gravity and in theories where the gravitational Lagrangian term features a nonminimal dependence on the Ricci scalar. Starting from the geodesic deviation, we derive the generalized expressions for the shear tensor and projected lensing potential, encoding the spacetime variation of the effective gravitational constant and isolating the contribution of the anisotropic stress, which introduces a correction due to the spatial correlation between the gravitational potentials. Finally, we work out the expressions of the lensing convergence power spectrum as well as the correlation between the lensing potential and the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect affecting cosmic microwave background total intensity and polarization anisotropies. To illustrate phenomenologically the effects, we work out approximate expressions for the quantities above in extended quintessence scenarios where the scalar field coupled to gravity plays the role of the dark energy

  20. Stationary nonimaging lenses for solar concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsidas, Panagiotis; Chatzi, Eleni; Modi, Vijay

    2010-09-20

    A novel approach for the design of refractive lenses is presented, where the lens is mounted on a stationary aperture and the Sun is tracked by a moving solar cell. The purpose of this work is to design a quasi-stationary concentrator by replacing the two-axis tracking of the Sun with internal motion of the miniaturized solar cell inside the module. Families of lenses are designed with a variation of the simultaneous multiple surface technique in which the sawtooth genetic algorithm is implemented to optimize the geometric variables of the optic in order to produce high fluxes for a range of incidence angles. Finally, we show examples of the technique for lenses with 60° and 30° acceptance half-angles, with low to medium attainable concentrations.

  1. Gravitational Lensing from a Spacetime Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perlick Volker

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The theory of gravitational lensing is reviewed from a spacetime perspective, without quasi-Newtonian approximations. More precisely, the review covers all aspects of gravitational lensing where light propagation is described in terms of lightlike geodesics of a metric of Lorentzian signature. It includes the basic equations and the relevant techniques for calculating the position, the shape, and the brightness of images in an arbitrary general-relativistic spacetime. It also includes general theorems on the classification of caustics, on criteria for multiple imaging, and on the possible number of images. The general results are illustrated with examples of spacetimes where the lensing features can be explicitly calculated, including the Schwarzschild spacetime, the Kerr spacetime, the spacetime of a straight string, plane gravitational waves, and others.

  2. Aberration characteristics of immersion lenses for LVSEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khursheed, Anjam

    2002-01-01

    This paper investigates the on-axis aberration characteristics of various immersion objective lenses for low voltage scanning electron microscopy (LVSEM). A simple aperture lens model is used to generate smooth axial field distributions. The simulation results show that mixed field electric-magnetic immersion lenses are predicted to have between 1.5 and 2 times smaller aberration limited probe diameters than their pure-field counterparts. At a landing energy of 1 keV, mixed field immersion lenses operating at the vacuum electrical field breakdown limit are predicted to have on-axis aberration coefficients between 50 and 60 μm, yielding an ultimate image resolution of below 1 nm. These aberrations lie in the same range as those for LVSEM systems that employ aberration correctors

  3. Nanofocusing parabolic refractive x-ray lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroer, C.G.; Kuhlmann, M.; Hunger, U.T.; Guenzler, T.F.; Kurapova, O.; Feste, S.; Frehse, F.; Lengeler, B.; Drakopoulos, M.; Somogyi, A.; Simionovici, A.S.; Snigirev, A.; Snigireva, I.; Schug, C.; Schroeder, W.H.

    2003-01-01

    Parabolic refractive x-ray lenses with short focal distance can generate intensive hard x-ray microbeams with lateral extensions in the 100 nm range even at a short distance from a synchrotron radiation source. We have fabricated planar parabolic lenses made of silicon that have a focal distance in the range of a few millimeters at hard x-ray energies. In a crossed geometry, two lenses were used to generate a microbeam with a lateral size of 380 nm by 210 nm at 25 keV in a distance of 42 m from the synchrotron radiation source. Using diamond as the lens material, microbeams with a lateral size down to 20 nm and below are conceivable in the energy range from 10 to 100 keV

  4. Soft-contact-lenses-induced complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvajac Gordana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Soft contact lenses occupy significant place in ophthalmology, both in the correction of refraction anomalies and in the treatment of many eye diseases. The number of patients that wear soft contact lenses for the purpose of correcting ametropia is constantly increasing. Due to the increasing number of wearers, the percentage of complications that can lead to serious eye damage and serious vision loss is also increasing. The aim of this study was to point out the most common complications related to soft contact lens use. Methods. In the period from 1995−2004 this prospective study included 510 patients wearing soft contact lenses for correcting ametropia. None of the patients wore contact lenses before and none suffered from any system or local diseases that could affected the development of eventual complications. The study took seven years with the patients who wore conventional lenses and three years with those who wore replacement contact lenses. All the necessary ophthalmologic examinations were done (visual acuity, refractokeratometry, the quantity of tear film, biomicroscopic examination of anterior eye segment. All the complications were filmed by video camera. Results. Of all the patients, 19 had blepharitis, 73 suffered from “dry eye”, 57 had conjunctival hyperemia, 12 had conjunctivitis, 34 had gigantopapillary conjunctivitis (GPC, 93 had punctiform epitheliopathy, 20 had corneal infiltration, one patient had keratitis, 91 had corneal vascularisation, and 95 patients had corneal deposits. Conclusion. Both the type and frequency of complications related to soft contact lens use in our group of patients, proved to be significant. Some of this complications (keratitis can significantly damage vision and lead to loss of vision and sometimes can require operative treatment.

  5. TWO MASS DISTRIBUTIONS IN THE L 1641 MOLECULAR CLOUDS: THE HERSCHEL CONNECTION OF DENSE CORES AND FILAMENTS IN ORION A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polychroni, D.; Schisano, E.; Elia, D.; Molinari, S.; Turrini, D.; Rygl, K. L. J.; Benedettini, M.; Busquet, G.; Di Giorgio, A. M.; Pestalozzi, M.; Pezzuto, S.; Roy, A.; André, Ph.; Hennemann, M.; Hill, T.; Könyves, V.; Martin, P.; Di Francesco, J.; Arzoumanian, D.; Bontemps, S.

    2013-01-01

    We present Herschel survey maps of the L 1641 molecular clouds in Orion A. We extracted both the filaments and dense cores in the region. We identified which of the dense sources are proto- or pre-stellar, and studied their association with the identified filaments. We find that although most (71%) of the pre-stellar sources are located on filaments there, is still a significant fraction of sources not associated with such structures. We find that these two populations (on and off the identified filaments) have distinctly different mass distributions. The mass distribution of the sources on the filaments is found to peak at 4 M ☉ and drives the shape of the core mass function (CMF) at higher masses, which we fit with a power law of the form dN/dlogM∝M –1.4±0.4 . The mass distribution of the sources off the filaments, on the other hand, peaks at 0.8 M ☉ and leads to a flattening of the CMF at masses lower than ∼4 M ☉ . We postulate that this difference between the mass distributions is due to the higher proportion of gas that is available in the filaments, rather than in the diffuse cloud

  6. TWO MASS DISTRIBUTIONS IN THE L 1641 MOLECULAR CLOUDS: THE HERSCHEL CONNECTION OF DENSE CORES AND FILAMENTS IN ORION A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polychroni, D. [Department of Astrophysics, University of Athens, Astronomy and Mechanics, Faculty of Physics, Panepistimiopolis, 15784 Zografos, Athens (Greece); Schisano, E.; Elia, D.; Molinari, S.; Turrini, D.; Rygl, K. L. J.; Benedettini, M.; Busquet, G.; Di Giorgio, A. M.; Pestalozzi, M.; Pezzuto, S. [Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali (INAF-IAPS), via del Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Roy, A.; André, Ph.; Hennemann, M.; Hill, T.; Könyves, V. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/IRFU CNRS/INSU Université Paris Diderot, Paris-Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Martin, P. [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 60 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada); Di Francesco, J. [National Research Council Canada, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Arzoumanian, D. [IAS, CNRS (UMR 8617), Université Paris-Sud, Bâtiment 121, F-91400 Orsay (France); Bontemps, S., E-mail: dpolychroni@phys.uoa.gr [Université de Bordeaux, Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Bordeaux, CNRS/INSU, UMR 5804, BP 89, F-33271, Floirac Cedex (France); and others

    2013-11-10

    We present Herschel survey maps of the L 1641 molecular clouds in Orion A. We extracted both the filaments and dense cores in the region. We identified which of the dense sources are proto- or pre-stellar, and studied their association with the identified filaments. We find that although most (71%) of the pre-stellar sources are located on filaments there, is still a significant fraction of sources not associated with such structures. We find that these two populations (on and off the identified filaments) have distinctly different mass distributions. The mass distribution of the sources on the filaments is found to peak at 4 M {sub ☉} and drives the shape of the core mass function (CMF) at higher masses, which we fit with a power law of the form dN/dlogM∝M {sup –1.4±0.4}. The mass distribution of the sources off the filaments, on the other hand, peaks at 0.8 M {sub ☉} and leads to a flattening of the CMF at masses lower than ∼4 M {sub ☉}. We postulate that this difference between the mass distributions is due to the higher proportion of gas that is available in the filaments, rather than in the diffuse cloud.

  7. USING COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND LENSING TO CONSTRAIN THE MULTIPLICATIVE BIAS OF COSMIC SHEAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallinotto, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Weak gravitational lensing is one of the key probes of cosmology. Cosmic shear surveys aimed at measuring the distribution of matter in the universe are currently being carried out (Pan-STARRS) or planned for the coming decade (DES, LSST, EUCLID, WFIRST). Crucial to the success of these surveys is the control of systematics. In this work, a new method to constrain one such family of systematics, known as multiplicative bias, is proposed. This method exploits the cross-correlation between weak-lensing measurements from galaxy surveys and the ones obtained from high-resolution cosmic microwave background experiments. This cross-correlation is shown to have the power to break the degeneracy between the normalization of the matter power spectrum and the multiplicative bias of cosmic shear and to be able to constrain the latter to a few percent.

  8. An Occupation for an Independent Gentleman - Astronomy in the Life of Herschel, John

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Allan

    Sir John Frederick William Herschel occupies a pivotal position in the history of British astronomy (1). He formed the living link between two styles or traditions of science by being the last major specimen of one breed, and the inspiration and intellectual role model for the generation that would follow. For John Herschel was perhaps the last significant figure to devote himself wholly and full-time to fundamental research in astronomy and its related sciences on the strength of a private fortune. And while the stature that he enjoyed did much to stimulate the concept of the 'professional' astronomer in Britain, so many of these men of the rising generation who admired his thorough-going dedication to science were themselves more obviously professional in the respect that they earned their livings through academic science. One sees in him, therefore, an eclectic blend of attitudes towards what science was, how it should be pursued, and how it should be paid for.

  9. Inventing a space mission the story of the Herschel space observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Minier, Vincent; Bontems, Vincent; de Graauw, Thijs; Griffin, Matt; Helmich, Frank; Pilbratt, Göran; Volonte, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    This book describes prominent technological achievements within a very successful space science mission: the Herschel space observatory. Focusing on the various processes of innovation it offers an analysis and discussion of the social, technological and scientific context of the mission that paved the way to its development. It addresses the key question raised by these processes in our modern society, i.e.: how knowledge management of innovation set the conditions for inventing the future? In that respect the book is based on a transdisciplinary analysis of the programmatic complexity of Herschel, with inputs from space scientists, managers, philosophers, and engineers. This book is addressed to decision makers, not only in space science, but also in other industries and sciences using or building large machines. It is also addressed to space engineers and scientists as well as students in science and management.

  10. The Formation of Massive Stars: from Herschel to Near-Infrared

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Persi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We have studied a number of selected high mass star forming regions, including high resolution near-infrared broad- and narrow-band imaging, Herschel (70, 160, 250, 350 and 500 μm and Spitzer (3.6, 4.5, 5.8 and 8.0 m images. The preliminary results of one of this region, IRAS 19388+2357(MOL110 are discussed. In this region a dense core has been detected in the far-infrared, and a young stellar cluster has been found around this core. Combining near-IR data with Spitzer and Herschel photometry we have derived the spectral energy distribution of Mol110. Finally comparing our H2 and Kc narrow-band images, we have found an H2 jet in this region.

  11. The Mathematical Theory of Multifocal Lenses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jacob RUBINSTEIN

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the fundamental optical concepts of designing multifocal ophthalmic lenses and the mathematical methods associated with them.In particular,it is shown that the design methodology is heavily based on differential geometric ideas such as Willmore surfaces.A key role is played by Hamilton's eikonal functions.It is shown that these functions capture all the information on the local blur and distortion created by the lenses.Along the way,formulas for computing the eikonal functions are derived.Finally,the author lists a few intriguing mathematical problems and novel concepts in optics as future projects.

  12. Achromatic Cooling Channel with Li Lenses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balbekov, V. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2002-04-29

    A linear cooling channel with Li lenses, solenoids, and 201 MHz RF cavities is considered. A special lattice design is used to minimize chromatic aberrations by suppression of several betatron resonances. Transverse emittance of muon beam decreases from 2 mm to 0.5 mm at the channel of about 110 m length. Longitudinal heating is modest, therefore transmission of the channel is rather high: 96% without decay and 90% with decay. Minimal beam emittance achievable by similar channel estimated as about 0.25 mm at surface field of Li lenses 10 T.

  13. Fundamental physics from future weak-lensing calibrated Sunyaev-Zel'dovich galaxy cluster counts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhavacheril, Mathew S.; Battaglia, Nicholas; Miyatake, Hironao

    2017-11-01

    Future high-resolution measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) will produce catalogs of tens of thousands of galaxy clusters through the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (tSZ) effect. We forecast how well different configurations of a CMB Stage-4 experiment can constrain cosmological parameters, in particular, the amplitude of structure as a function of redshift σ8(z ) , the sum of neutrino masses Σ mν, and the dark energy equation of state w (z ). A key element of this effort is calibrating the tSZ scaling relation by measuring the lensing signal around clusters. We examine how the mass calibration from future optical surveys like the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) compares with a purely internal calibration using lensing of the CMB itself. We find that, due to its high-redshift leverage, internal calibration gives constraints on cosmological parameters comparable to the optical calibration, and can be used as a cross-check of systematics in the optical measurement. We also show that in contrast to the constraints using the CMB lensing power spectrum, lensing-calibrated tSZ cluster counts can detect a minimal Σ mν at the 3 - 5 σ level even when the dark energy equation of state is freed up.

  14. A measurement of CMB cluster lensing with SPT and DES year 1 data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, E. J.; Raghunathan, S.; Crawford, T. M.; Fosalba, P.; Hou, Z.; Holder, G. P.; Omori, Y.; Patil, S.; Rozo, E.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Annis, J.; Aylor, K.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Benson, B. A.; Bertin, E.; Bleem, L.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Burke, D. L.; Carlstrom, J.; Carnero Rosell, A.; Carrasco Kind, M.; Carretero, J.; Chang, C. L.; Cho, H.-M.; Crites, A. T.; Crocce, M.; Cunha, C. E.; da Costa, L. N.; D'Andrea, C. B.; Davis, C.; de Haan, T.; Desai, S.; Dietrich, J. P.; Dobbs, M. A.; Dodelson, S.; Doel, P.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Estrada, J.; Everett, W. B.; Fausti Neto, A.; Flaugher, B.; Frieman, J.; García-Bellido, J.; George, E. M.; Gaztanaga, E.; Giannantonio, T.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gschwend, J.; Gutierrez, G.; Halverson, N. W.; Harrington, N. L.; Hartley, W. G.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Honscheid, K.; Hrubes, J. D.; Jain, B.; James, D. J.; Jarvis, M.; Jeltema, T.; Knox, L.; Krause, E.; Kuehn, K.; Kuhlmann, S.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lahav, O.; Lee, A. T.; Leitch, E. M.; Li, T. S.; Lima, M.; Luong-Van, D.; Manzotti, A.; March, M.; Marrone, D. P.; Marshall, J. L.; Martini, P.; McMahon, J. J.; Melchior, P.; Menanteau, F.; Meyer, S. S.; Miller, C. J.; Miquel, R.; Mocanu, L. M.; Mohr, J. J.; Natoli, T.; Nord, B.; Ogando, R. L. C.; Padin, S.; Plazas, A. A.; Pryke, C.; Rapetti, D.; Reichardt, C. L.; Romer, A. K.; Roodman, A.; Ruhl, J. E.; Rykoff, E.; Sako, M.; Sanchez, E.; Sayre, J. T.; Scarpine, V.; Schaffer, K. K.; Schindler, R.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Shirokoff, E.; Smith, M.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Staniszewski, Z.; Stark, A.; Story, K.; Suchyta, E.; Tarle, G.; Thomas, D.; Troxel, M. A.; Vanderlinde, K.; Vieira, J. D.; Walker, A. R.; Williamson, R.; Zhang, Y.; Zuntz, J.

    2018-05-01

    Clusters of galaxies gravitationally lens the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation, resulting in a distinct imprint in the CMB on arcminute scales. Measurement of this effect offers a promising way to constrain the masses of galaxy clusters, particularly those at high redshift. We use CMB maps from the South Pole Telescope Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) survey to measure the CMB lensing signal around galaxy clusters identified in optical imaging from first year observations of the Dark Energy Survey. The cluster catalogue used in this analysis contains 3697 members with mean redshift of \\bar{z} = 0.45. We detect lensing of the CMB by the galaxy clusters at 8.1σ significance. Using the measured lensing signal, we constrain the amplitude of the relation between cluster mass and optical richness to roughly 17 {per cent} precision, finding good agreement with recent constraints obtained with galaxy lensing. The error budget is dominated by statistical noise but includes significant contributions from systematic biases due to the thermal SZ effect and cluster miscentring.

  15. The weak lensing analysis of the CFHTLS and NGVS RedGOLD galaxy clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parroni, C.; Mei, S.; Erben, T.; Van Waerbeke, L.; Raichoor, A.; Ford, J.; Licitra, R.; Meneghetti, M.; Hildebrandt, H.; Miller, L.; Côté, P.; Covone, G.; Cuillandre, J.-C.; Duc, P.-A.; Ferrarese, L.; Gwyn, S. D. J.; Puzia, T. H.

    2017-12-01

    An accurate estimation of galaxy cluster masses is essential for their use in cosmological and astrophysical studies. We studied the accuracy of the optical richness obtained by our RedGOLD cluster detection algorithm tep{licitra2016a, licitra2016b} as a mass proxy, using weak lensing and X-ray mass measurements. We measured stacked weak lensing cluster masses for a sample of 1323 galaxy clusters in the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey W1 and the Next Generation Virgo Cluster Survey at 0.2z<0.5, in the optical richness range 10-70. We tested different weak lensing mass models that account for miscentering, non-weak shear, the two-halo term, the contribution of the Brightest Cluster Galaxy, and the intrinsic scatter in the mass-richness relation. We calculated the coefficients of the mass-richness relation, and of the scaling relations between the lensing mass and X-ray mass proxies.

  16. High-speed optical signal processing using time lenses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galili, Michael; Hu, Hao; Guan, Pengyu

    2015-01-01

    This paper will discuss time lenses and their broad range of applications. A number of recent demonstrations of complex high-speed optical signal processing using time lenses will be outlined with focus on the operating principle.......This paper will discuss time lenses and their broad range of applications. A number of recent demonstrations of complex high-speed optical signal processing using time lenses will be outlined with focus on the operating principle....

  17. Dynamics of Fermat potentials in nonperturbative gravitational lensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frittelli, Simonetta; Newman, Ezra T.

    2002-01-01

    We present a framework, based on the null-surface formulation of general relativity, for discussing the dynamics of Fermat potentials for gravitational lensing in a generic situation without approximations of any kind. Additionally, we derive two lens equations: one for the case of thick compact lenses and the other one for lensing by gravitational waves. These equations in principle generalize the astrophysical scheme for lensing by removing the thin-lens approximation while retaining the weak fields

  18. A COOL DUST FACTORY IN THE CRAB NEBULA: A HERSCHEL STUDY OF THE FILAMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, H. L.; Clark, C. J. R.; Gomez, E. L.; Gear, W. K. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, The Parade, Cardiff CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Krause, O.; Besel, M.-A.; Bouwman, J.; Henning, Th. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Barlow, M. J.; Swinyard, B. M.; Owen, P. J.; Matsuura, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Rho, J. [SOFIA Science Center, Universities Space Research Association, NASA Ames Research Center, MS 232, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Ivison, R. J.; Sibthorpe, B. [UK Astronomy Technology Centre, Royal Observatory Edinburgh, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Polehampton, E. T. [Space Science and Technology Department, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Oxfordshire, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)

    2012-11-20

    Whether supernovae are major sources of dust in galaxies is a long-standing debate. We present infrared and submillimeter photometry and spectroscopy from the Herschel Space Observatory of the Crab Nebula between 51 and 670 {mu}m as part of the Mass Loss from Evolved StarS program. We compare the emission detected with Herschel with multiwavelength data including millimeter, radio, mid-infrared, and archive optical images. We carefully remove the synchrotron component using the Herschel and Planck fluxes measured in the same epoch. The contribution from line emission is removed using Herschel spectroscopy combined with Infrared Space Observatory archive data. Several forbidden lines of carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen are detected where multiple velocity components are resolved, deduced to be from the nitrogen-depleted, carbon-rich ejecta. No spectral lines are detected in the SPIRE wavebands; in the PACS bands, the line contribution is 5% and 10% at 70 and 100 {mu}m and negligible at 160 {mu}m. After subtracting the synchrotron and line emission, the remaining far-infrared continuum can be fit with two dust components. Assuming standard interstellar silicates, the mass of the cooler component is 0.24{sup +0.32} {sub -0.08} M {sub Sun} for T = 28.1{sup +5.5} {sub -3.2} K. Amorphous carbon grains require 0.11 {+-} 0.01 M {sub Sun} of dust with T = 33.8{sup +2.3} {sub -1.8} K. A single temperature modified blackbody with 0.14 M {sub Sun} and 0.08 M {sub Sun} for silicate and carbon dust, respectively, provides an adequate fit to the far-infrared region of the spectral energy distribution but is a poor fit at 24-500 {mu}m. The Crab Nebula has condensed most of the relevant refractory elements into dust, suggesting the formation of dust in core-collapse supernova ejecta is efficient.

  19. Simulation-based marginal likelihood for cluster strong lensing cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killedar, M.; Borgani, S.; Fabjan, D.; Dolag, K.; Granato, G.; Meneghetti, M.; Planelles, S.; Ragone-Figueroa, C.

    2018-01-01

    Comparisons between observed and predicted strong lensing properties of galaxy clusters have been routinely used to claim either tension or consistency with Λ cold dark matter cosmology. However, standard approaches to such cosmological tests are unable to quantify the preference for one cosmology over another. We advocate approximating the relevant Bayes factor using a marginal likelihood that is based on the following summary statistic: the posterior probability distribution function for the parameters of the scaling relation between Einstein radii and cluster mass, α and β. We demonstrate, for the first time, a method of estimating the marginal likelihood using the X-ray selected z > 0.5 Massive Cluster Survey clusters as a case in point and employing both N-body and hydrodynamic simulations of clusters. We investigate the uncertainty in this estimate and consequential ability to compare competing cosmologies, which arises from incomplete descriptions of baryonic processes, discrepancies in cluster selection criteria, redshift distribution and dynamical state. The relation between triaxial cluster masses at various overdensities provides a promising alternative to the strong lensing test.

  20. Thermal/vacuum measurements of the Herschel space telescope by close-range photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parian, J. Amiri; Cozzani, A.; Appolloni, M.; Casarosa, G.

    2017-11-01

    In the frame of the development of a videogrammetric system to be used in thermal vacuum chambers at the European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESTEC) and other sites across Europe, the design of a network using micro-cameras was specified by the European Space agency (ESA)-ESTEC. The selected test set-up is the photogrammetric test of the Herschel Satellite Flight Model in the ESTEC Large Space Simulator. The photogrammetric system will be used to verify the Herschel Telescope alignment and Telescope positioning with respect to the Cryostat Vacuum Vessel (CVV) inside the Large Space Simulator during Thermal-Vacuum/Thermal-Balance test phases. We designed a close-range photogrammetric network by heuristic simulation and a videogrammetric system with an overall accuracy of 1:100,000. A semi-automated image acquisition system, which is able to work at low temperatures (-170°C) in order to acquire images according to the designed network has been constructed by ESA-ESTEC. In this paper we will present the videogrammetric system and sub-systems and the results of real measurements with a representative setup similar to the set-up of Herschel spacecraft which was realized in ESTEC Test Centre.

  1. Calibration of a novel type of bolometer arrays for the Herschel space observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billot, Nicolas

    2007-01-01

    The Herschel mission is a major project at the core of the European Space Agency (ESA) scientific program. The space telescope will perform observations of the universes in the far-infrared regime of the electromagnetic spectrum, which still remains little-known today. Among the many research institutes involved in the development and exploitation of this challenging observatory, the CEA designed a novel type of bolometric detectors to equip the photometer of the PACS instrument on-board the Herschel satellite. During my thesis, my task was twofold, I developed a characterisation procedure that takes advantage of unique features of CEA filled bolometer arrays and I applied it to calibrate the PACS photometer and optimize its performances in the various observing modes open to the scientific community. In this manuscript, I present the basics of infrared astronomy from its very beginning in 1800 to the European Space Agency's Herschel Space Observatory. Then, I describe past and present developments in cryogenic bolometers, emphasising new concepts introduced by CEA. I follow with an explanation of the working principles of CEA bolometer arrays, a prerequisite to grasp the strategy of the characterisation procedure that we developed. Then I expose and analyse thoroughly the results that we obtained during the calibration campaign of the PACS photometer. Finally, I express detector performances in terms of 'observational' performances that future PACS users can comprehend. (author) [fr

  2. HERSCHEL PACS OBSERVATIONS AND MODELING OF DEBRIS DISKS IN THE TUCANA-HOROLOGIUM ASSOCIATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donaldson, J. K. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Roberge, A. [Exoplanets and Stellar Astrophysics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 667, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Chen, C. H. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Dr., Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Augereau, J.-C.; Menard, F. [UJF - Grenoble 1/CNRS-INSU, Institut de Planetologie et d' Astrophysique de Grenoble (IPAG) UMR 5274, Grenoble, F-38041 (France); Dent, W. R. F. [ALMA, Avda Apoquindo 3846, Piso 19, Edificio Alsacia, Las Condes, Santiago (Chile); Eiroa, C.; Meeus, G. [Dpt. Fisica Teorica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Krivov, A. V. [Astrophysikalishes Institut, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena, Schillergaesschen 2-3, 07745 Jena (Germany); Mathews, G. S. [Institute for Astronomy (IfA), University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Dr., Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Riviere-Marichalar, P. [Centro de Astrobiologia Depto. Astrofisica (CSIC-INTA), POB 78, 28691 Villanueva de la Canada (Spain); Sandell, G., E-mail: jessd@astro.umd.edu [SOFIA-USRA, NASA Ames Research Center, Building N232, Rm. 146, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States)

    2012-07-10

    We present Herschel PACS photometry of 17 B- to M-type stars in the 30 Myr old Tucana-Horologium Association. This work is part of the Herschel Open Time Key Programme 'Gas in Protoplanetary Systems'. 6 of the 17 targets were found to have infrared excesses significantly greater than the expected stellar IR fluxes, including a previously unknown disk around HD30051. These six debris disks were fitted with single-temperature blackbody models to estimate the temperatures and abundances of the dust in the systems. For the five stars that show excess emission in the Herschel PACS photometry and also have Spitzer IRS spectra, we fit the data with models of optically thin debris disks with realistic grain properties in order to better estimate the disk parameters. The model is determined by a set of six parameters: surface density index, grain size distribution index, minimum and maximum grain sizes, and the inner and outer radii of the disk. The best-fitting parameters give us constraints on the geometry of the dust in these systems, as well as lower limits to the total dust masses. The HD105 disk was further constrained by fitting marginally resolved PACS 70 {mu}m imaging.

  3. Report of Some Comets: The Discovery of Uranus and Comets by William, Caroline, and John Herschel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.; Olson, R. J. M.

    2011-01-01

    We report on the discovery and drawings of comets by William, Caroline, and John Herschel. The first discovery, by William Herschel, in 1781 from Bath, published in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society with the title "Report of a Comet," turned out to be Uranus, the first planet ever discovered, Mercury through Saturn having been known since antiquity. William's sister Caroline was given duties of sweeping the skies and turned out to be a discoverer of 8 comets in her own right, in addition to keeping William's notes. Caroline's comets were discovered from Slough between 1786 and 1797. In the process, we also discuss original documents from the archives of the Royal Society and of the Royal Astronomical Society. We conclude by showing comet drawings that we have recently attributed to John Herschel, including Halley's Comet from 1836, recently located in the Ransom Center of the University of Texas at Austin. Acknowledgments: Planetary astronomy at Williams College is supported in part by grant NNX08AO50G from NASA Planetary Astronomy. We thank Peter Hingley of the Royal Astronomical Society and Richard Oram of the Harry Ransom Center of The University of Texas at Austin for their assistance.

  4. Analysis of luminosity distributions of strong lensing galaxies: subtraction of diffuse lensed signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biernaux, J.; Magain, P.; Hauret, C.

    2017-08-01

    Context. Strong gravitational lensing gives access to the total mass distribution of galaxies. It can unveil a great deal of information about the lenses' dark matter content when combined with the study of the lenses' light profile. However, gravitational lensing galaxies, by definition, appear surrounded by lensed signal, both point-like and diffuse, that is irrelevant to the lens flux. Therefore, the observer is most often restricted to studying the innermost portions of the galaxy, where classical fitting methods show some instabilities. Aims: We aim at subtracting that lensed signal and at characterising some lenses' light profile by computing their shape parameters (half-light radius, ellipticity, and position angle). Our objective is to evaluate the total integrated flux in an aperture the size of the Einstein ring in order to obtain a robust estimate of the quantity of ordinary (luminous) matter in each system. Methods: We are expanding the work we started in a previous paper that consisted in subtracting point-like lensed images and in independently measuring each shape parameter. We improve it by designing a subtraction of the diffuse lensed signal, based only on one simple hypothesis of symmetry. We apply it to the cases where it proves to be necessary. This extra step improves our study of the shape parameters and we refine it even more by upgrading our half-light radius measurement method. We also calculate the impact of our specific image processing on the error bars. Results: The diffuse lensed signal subtraction makes it possible to study a larger portion of relevant galactic flux, as the radius of the fitting region increases by on average 17%. We retrieve new half-light radii values that are on average 11% smaller than in our previous work, although the uncertainties overlap in most cases. This shows that not taking the diffuse lensed signal into account may lead to a significant overestimate of the half-light radius. We are also able to measure

  5. Cosmological applications of strong gravitational lensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paraficz, Danuta

    value of the energy density of the two above components, together with measuring the Hubble constant that determines the age of the Universe, is a major goal of modern astrophysics. An interesting method for estimating these parameters is strong gravitational lensing of quasars (QSOs). As shown...

  6. A gravitationally lensed quasar discovered in OGLE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostrzewa-Rutkowska, Zuzanna; Kozłowski, Szymon; Lemon, Cameron; Anguita, T.; Greiner, J.; Auger, M. W.; Wyrzykowski, Ł.; Apostolovski, Y.; Bolmer, J.; Udalski, A.; Szymański, M. K.; Soszyński, I.; Poleski, R.; Pietrukowicz, P.; Skowron, J.; Mróz, P.; Ulaczyk, K.; Pawlak, M.

    2018-05-01

    We report the discovery of a new gravitationally lensed quasar (double) from the Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment (OGLE) identified inside the ˜670deg2 area encompassing the Magellanic Clouds. The source was selected as one of ˜60 `red W1 - W2' mid-infrared objects from WISE and having a significant amount of variability in OGLE for both two (or more) nearby sources. This is the first detection of a gravitational lens, where the discovery is made `the other way around', meaning we first measured the time delay between the two lensed quasar images of -132 Technology Telescope spectra. The spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting with the fixed source redshift provided the estimate of the lensing galaxy redshift of z ≈ 0.9 ± 0.2 (90 per cent CL), while its type is more likely to be elliptical (the SED-inferred and lens-model stellar mass is more likely present in ellipticals) than spiral (preferred redshift by the lens model).

  7. Electron Lenses for the Large Hadron Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stancari, Giulio [Fermilab; Valishev, Alexander [Fermilab; Bruce, Roderik [CERN; Redaelli, Stefano [CERN; Rossi, Adriana [CERN; Salvachua, Belen [CERN

    2014-07-01

    Electron lenses are pulsed, magnetically confined electron beams whose current-density profile is shaped to obtain the desired effect on the circulating beam. Electron lenses were used in the Fermilab Tevatron collider for bunch-by-bunch compensation of long-range beam-beam tune shifts, for removal of uncaptured particles in the abort gap, for preliminary experiments on head-on beam-beam compensation, and for the demonstration of halo scraping with hollow electron beams. Electron lenses for beam-beam compensation are being commissioned in RHIC at BNL. Within the US LHC Accelerator Research Program and the European HiLumi LHC Design Study, hollow electron beam collimation was studied as an option to complement the collimation system for the LHC upgrades. This project is moving towards a technical design in 2014, with the goal to build the devices in 2015-2017, after resuming LHC operations and re-assessing needs and requirements at 6.5 TeV. Because of their electric charge and the absence of materials close to the proton beam, electron lenses may also provide an alternative to wires for long-range beam-beam compensation in LHC luminosity upgrade scenarios with small crossing angles.

  8. Strong gravitational lensing by Sgr A*

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bin-Nun, Amitai Y

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing recognition of the potential to use the galactic center as a probe of general relativity in the strong field. There is almost certainly a black hole at Sgr A* in the galactic center, and this would allow us to have the opportunity to probe dynamics near the exterior of the black hole. In the last decade, there has been theoretical research into extreme gravitational lensing in the galactic center. Unlike in most applications of gravitational lensing, where the bending angle is of the order of, at most, an arc minute, very large bending angles are possible for light that closely approaches a black hole. Photons may even loop multiple times around a black hole before reaching the observer. There have been many proposals to use light's close approach to the black hole as a probe of the black hole metric. Of particular interest are the properties of images formed from the light of S stars orbiting in the galactic center. This paper will review some of the attempts made to study extreme lensing as well as extend the analysis of S star lensing. In particular, we are interested in the effect of a Reissner-Nordstrom like 1/r 2 term in the metric and how this would affect the properties of relativistic images.

  9. Electron beams, lenses, and optics. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Kareh, A.B.; El-Kareh, J.C.J.

    1970-01-01

    This volume presents a systematic coverage of aberrations. It analyzes the geometrical aberrations and treats the spherical and chromatic aberrations in great detail. The coefficients of spherical and chromatic aberration have been computed for a series of electrostatic and magnetic lenses and are listed in table form. The book also covers space charge and its effect on highly focused electron beams

  10. Quantum Spin Lenses in Atomic Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. W. Glaetzle

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We propose and discuss quantum spin lenses, where quantum states of delocalized spin excitations in an atomic medium are focused in space in a coherent quantum process down to (essentially single atoms. These can be employed to create controlled interactions in a quantum light-matter interface, where photonic qubits stored in an atomic ensemble are mapped to a quantum register represented by single atoms. We propose Hamiltonians for quantum spin lenses as inhomogeneous spin models on lattices, which can be realized with Rydberg atoms in 1D, 2D, and 3D, and with strings of trapped ions. We discuss both linear and nonlinear quantum spin lenses: in a nonlinear lens, repulsive spin-spin interactions lead to focusing dynamics conditional to the number of spin excitations. This allows the mapping of quantum superpositions of delocalized spin excitations to superpositions of spatial spin patterns, which can be addressed by light fields and manipulated. Finally, we propose multifocal quantum spin lenses as a way to generate and distribute entanglement between distant atoms in an atomic lattice array.

  11. Software for Fermat's Principle and Lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihas, Pavlos

    2012-01-01

    Fermat's principle is considered as a unifying concept. It is usually presented erroneously as a "least time principle". In this paper we present some software that shows cases of maxima and minima and the application of Fermat's principle to the problem of focusing in lenses. (Contains 12 figures.)

  12. Studying dark matter haloes with weak lensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velander, Malin Barbro Margareta

    2012-01-01

    Our Universe is comprised not only of normal matter but also of unknown components: dark matter and dark energy. This Thesis recounts studies of dark matter haloes, using a technique known as weak gravitational lensing, in order to learn more about the nature of these dark components. The haloes

  13. Tear exchange and contact lenses: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntz, Alex; Subbaraman, Lakshman N; Sorbara, Luigina; Jones, Lyndon

    2015-01-01

    Tear exchange beneath a contact lens facilitates ongoing fluid replenishment between the ocular surface and the lens. This exchange is considerably lower during the wear of soft lenses compared with rigid lenses. As a result, the accumulation of tear film debris and metabolic by-products between the cornea and a soft contact lens increases, potentially leading to complications. Lens design innovations have been proposed, but no substantial improvement in soft lens tear exchange has been reported. Researchers have determined post-lens tear exchange using several methods, notably fluorophotometry. However, due to technological limitations, little remains known about tear hydrodynamics around the lens and, to-date, true tear exchange with contact lenses has not been shown. Further knowledge regarding tear exchange could be vital in aiding better contact lens design, with the prospect of alleviating certain adverse ocular responses. This article reviews the literature to-date on the significance, implications and measurement of tear exchange with contact lenses. Copyright © 2014 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Multiply imaged Transient Events in Cluster Lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimha, Delampady

    2018-04-01

    ARIES had a successful gravitational microlens project during 1998-2002. A similar monitor for Transient Events in galaxies at high redshift lensed by rich galaxy-clusters provides a challenging possibility with important cosmological implications. Rich galaxy-clusters at intermediate redshifts are powerful gravitational lenses which produce multiple images, in the shape of giant arcs of 5-20" extent, of distant background galaxies in their field. Weak lens shear of the background galaxy distribution can reliably trace the lens mass profile. Multiple images of supernovae or GRBs in the background galaxies can be recorded in a systematic monitor of the system. An unlensed high redshift supernova might not be observable, but when lensed by a galaxy-cluster, it will stand out because the point event brightens relative to the host. The color profile of a high redshift lensed point event will be much more reliable than an unlensed one due to much less host contamination. An estimate of the time delay enables observation of the full light curve of the subsequent images of the event. ARIES can have outside collaboration for multiband simultaneous lightcurves of other images. The measured time delay and position of images of the transient event provide better cosmological constraints including distance scale of the Universe. The Devasthal telescope can detect one or more events by monitoring half a dozen cluster fields over three years time.

  15. Coatings and Tints of Spectacle Lenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Zeki Büyükyıldız

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Spectacle lenses are made of mineral or organic (plastic materials. Various coatings and tints are applied to the spectacle lenses according to the characteristic of the lens material, and for the personal needs and cosmetic purpose. The coatings may be classified in seven groups: 1 Anti-reflection coatings, 2 Hard coatings, 3 Clean coat, 4 Mirror coatings, 5 Color tint coating (one of coloring processes, 6 Photochromic coating (one of photochromic processes, and 7 Anti-fog coatings. Anti-reflection coatings reduce unwanted reflections from the lens surfaces and increase light transmission. Hard coatings are applied for preventing the plastic lens surface from scratches and abrasion. Hard coatings are not required for the mineral lenses due to their hardness. Clean coat makes the lens surface smooth and hydrophobic. Thus, it prevents the adherence of dust, tarnish, and dirt particles on the lens surface. Mirror coatings are applied onto the sunglasses for cosmetic purpose. Color tinted and photochromic lenses are used for sun protection and absorption of the harmful UV radiations. Anti-fog coatings make the lens surface hydrophilic and prevent the coalescence of tiny water droplets on the lens surface that reduces light transmission. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2012; 42: 359-69

  16. Teaching the Theory of Real Lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, A.

    1996-01-01

    Presents an approach to the study of real lenses that would not contradict Fermat's principle. Shows how the rudiments of the correct theory can be incorporated into courses to provide students a clearer notion of what they can expect in laboratory situations. (DDR)

  17. Precision cosmology with time delay lenses: high resolution imaging requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Xiao-Lei; Liao, Kai [Department of Astronomy, Beijing Normal University, 19 Xinjiekouwai Street, Beijing, 100875 (China); Treu, Tommaso; Agnello, Adriano [Department of Physics, University of California, Broida Hall, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Auger, Matthew W. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Marshall, Philip J., E-mail: xlmeng919@gmail.com, E-mail: tt@astro.ucla.edu, E-mail: aagnello@physics.ucsb.edu, E-mail: mauger@ast.cam.ac.uk, E-mail: liaokai@mail.bnu.edu.cn, E-mail: dr.phil.marshall@gmail.com [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, 452 Lomita Mall, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Lens time delays are a powerful probe of cosmology, provided that the gravitational potential of the main deflector can be modeled with sufficient precision. Recent work has shown that this can be achieved by detailed modeling of the host galaxies of lensed quasars, which appear as ''Einstein Rings'' in high resolution images. The distortion of these arcs and counter-arcs, as measured over a large number of pixels, provides tight constraints on the difference between the gravitational potential between the quasar image positions, and thus on cosmology in combination with the measured time delay. We carry out a systematic exploration of the high resolution imaging required to exploit the thousands of lensed quasars that will be discovered by current and upcoming surveys with the next decade. Specifically, we simulate realistic lens systems as imaged by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), and ground based adaptive optics images taken with Keck or the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT). We compare the performance of these pointed observations with that of images taken by the Euclid (VIS), Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) and Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) surveys. We use as our metric the precision with which the slope γ' of the total mass density profile ρ{sub tot}∝ r{sup −γ'} for the main deflector can be measured. Ideally, we require that the statistical error on γ' be less than 0.02, such that it is subdominant to other sources of random and systematic uncertainties. We find that survey data will likely have sufficient depth and resolution to meet the target only for the brighter gravitational lens systems, comparable to those discovered by the SDSS survey. For fainter systems, that will be discovered by current and future surveys, targeted follow-up will be required. However, the exposure time required with upcoming facilitites such as JWST, the Keck Next Generation

  18. Precision cosmology with time delay lenses: High resolution imaging requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Xiao -Lei [Beijing Normal Univ., Beijing (China); Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Treu, Tommaso [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Agnello, Adriano [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Auger, Matthew W. [Univ. of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Liao, Kai [Beijing Normal Univ., Beijing (China); Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Marshall, Philip J. [Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States)

    2015-09-28

    Lens time delays are a powerful probe of cosmology, provided that the gravitational potential of the main deflector can be modeled with sufficient precision. Recent work has shown that this can be achieved by detailed modeling of the host galaxies of lensed quasars, which appear as ``Einstein Rings'' in high resolution images. The distortion of these arcs and counter-arcs, as measured over a large number of pixels, provides tight constraints on the difference between the gravitational potential between the quasar image positions, and thus on cosmology in combination with the measured time delay. We carry out a systematic exploration of the high resolution imaging required to exploit the thousands of lensed quasars that will be discovered by current and upcoming surveys with the next decade. Specifically, we simulate realistic lens systems as imaged by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), and ground based adaptive optics images taken with Keck or the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT). We compare the performance of these pointed observations with that of images taken by the Euclid (VIS), Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) and Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) surveys. We use as our metric the precision with which the slope γ' of the total mass density profile ρtot∝ r–γ' for the main deflector can be measured. Ideally, we require that the statistical error on γ' be less than 0.02, such that it is subdominant to other sources of random and systematic uncertainties. We find that survey data will likely have sufficient depth and resolution to meet the target only for the brighter gravitational lens systems, comparable to those discovered by the SDSS survey. For fainter systems, that will be discovered by current and future surveys, targeted follow-up will be required. Furthermore, the exposure time required with upcoming facilitites such as JWST, the Keck Next Generation Adaptive

  19. Far-infrared photometry of OJ 287 with the Herschel Space Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidger, Mark; Zola, Staszek; Valtonen, Mauri; Lähteenmäki, Anne; Järvelä, Emilia; Tornikoski, Merja; Tammi, Joni; Liakos, Alexis; Poyner, Gary

    2018-03-01

    Context. The blazar OJ 287 has shown a ≈12 year quasi-periodicity over more than a century, in addition to the common properties of violent variability in all frequency ranges. It is the strongest known candidate to have a binary singularity in its central engine. Aim. We aim to better understand the different emission components by searching for correlated variability in the flux over four decades of frequency measurements. Methods: We combined data at frequencies from the millimetric to the visible to characterise the multifrequency light curve in April and May 2010. This includes the only photometric observations of OJ 287 made with the Herschel Space Observatory: five epochs of data obtained over 33 days at 250, 350, and 500 μm with Herschel-SPIRE. Results: Although we find that the variability at 37 GHz on timescales of a few weeks correlates with the visible to near-IR spectral energy distribution, there is a small degree of reddening in the continuum at lower flux levels that is revealed by the decreasing rate of decline in the light curve at lower frequencies. However, we see no clear evidence that a rapid flare detected in the light curve during our monitoring in the visible to near-IR light curve is seen either in the Herschel data or at 37 GHz, suggesting a low-frequency cut-off in the spectrum of such flares. Conclusions.We see only marginal evidence of variability in the observations with Herschel over a month, although this may be principally due to the poor sampling. The spectral energy distribution between 37 GHz and the visible can be characterised by two components of approximately constant spectral index: a visible to far-IR component of spectral index α = -0.95, and a far-IR to millimetric spectral index of α = -0.43. There is no evidence of an excess of emission that would be consistent with the 60 μmdust bump found in many active galactic nuclei. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European

  20. Are Disposable and Standard Gonioscopy Lenses Comparable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bonny; Szirth, Bernard C; Fechtner, Robert D; Khouri, Albert S

    2017-04-01

    Gonioscopy is important in the evaluation and treatment of glaucoma. With increased scrutiny of acceptable sterilization processes for health care instruments, disposable gonioscopy lenses have recently been introduced. Single-time use lenses are theorized to decrease infection risk and eliminate the issue of wear and tear seen on standard, reusable lenses. However, patient care would be compromised if the quality of images produced by the disposable lens were inferior to those produced by the reusable lens. The purpose of this study was to compare the quality of images produced by disposable versus standard gonioscopy lenses. A disposable single mirror lens (Sensor Medical Technology) and a standard Volk G-1 gonioscopy lens were used to image 21 volunteers who were prospectively recruited for the study. Images of the inferior and temporal angles of each subject's left eye were acquired using a slit-lamp camera through the disposable and standard gonioscopy lens. In total, 74 images were graded using the Spaeth gonioscopic system and for clarity and quality. Clarity was scored as 1 or 2 and defined as either (1) all structures perceived or (2) all structures not perceived. Quality was scored as 1, 2, or 3, and defined as (1) all angle landmarks clear and well focused, (2) some angle landmarks clear, others blurred, or (3) angle landmarks could not be ascertained. The 74 images were divided into images taken with the disposable single mirror lens and images taken with the standard Volk G-1 gonioscopy lens. The clarity and quality scores for each of these 2 image groups were averaged and P-values were calculated. Average quality of images produced with the standard lens was 1.46±0.56 compared with 1.54±0.61 for those produced with the disposable lens (P=0.55). Average clarity of images produced with the standard lens was 1.47±0.51 compared with 1.49±0.51 (P=0.90) with the disposable lens. We conclude that there is no significant difference in quality of images

  1. X-ray lenses with large aperture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, Markus

    2010-01-01

    Up to now, most X-ray imaging setups are based on absorption contrast imaging. There is a demand for focused X-rays in many X-ray analysis applications, either to increase the resolution of an imaging system, or, to reduce the time effort of an experiment through higher photon flux. For photon energies higher than 15 keV refractive X-ray optics are more efficient in comparison to non-refractive X-ray optics. The aim of this work was to develop X-ray lenses with large apertures and high transparency. By increasing the number of refracting surfaces while removing unnecessary lens material such lenses have been developed. Utilizing this approach the overall beam deflection angle is large with respect to the lens material it propagates through and so the transparency of the lens is increased. Within this work, X-ray lenses consisting of several thousands of prisms with an edge length in the range of micrometers have been developed and fabricated by deep X-ray lithography. Deep X-ray lithography enables high precision microstrucures with smooth sidewalls and large aspect ratios. The aperture of high-transparency X-ray lenses made this way is greater than 1 mm. They are suitable for photon energies in the range of 8 keV to 24 keV and offer a focal width of smaller than 10 μm at a transparency of around 40%. Furthermore, rolled X-ray lenses have been developed, that are made out of a microstructured polyimide film, which is cut according to the requirements regarding focal length and photon energy. The microstructured film is fabricated by molding, using an anisotropically etched silicon wafer as molding tool. Its mean roughness is in the range of nanometers. The film features prismatic structures, its surface topology is similar to an asparagus field. The measured diameter of the point focus was 18 μm to 31 μm, the calculated opticla efficiency was 37%. Future work will concentrate on increasing the aspect ratio of Prism Lenses and on increasing the rolling accuracy

  2. Weak Lensing by Galaxy Clusters: from Pixels to Cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruen, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    2248.7--4431 our lensing analysis constrains mass and concentration of the cluster halo and we confirm the large mass predicted by X-ray and Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) observations. The study of cluster members shows the relation of galaxy morphology to luminosity and environment. (ii) Our lensing mass measurements for 12 clusters are consistent with X-ray masses derived under the assumption of hydrostatic equilibrium of the intra-cluster gas. We confirm the MORs derived by the South Pole Telescope collaboration for the detection significance of the cluster SZ signal in their survey. We find discrepancies, however, with the Planck SZ MOR. We hypothesize that these are related either to a shallower slope of the MOR or a size-, redshift- or noise-dependent bias in SZ signal extraction. (iii) Finally, using a combination of simulations and theoretical models for the variation of cluster profiles at fixed mass, we find that the latter is a significant contribution to the uncertainty of cluster lensing mass measurements. A cosmic variance model, such as the one we develop, is necessary for MOR constraints to be accurate at the level required for future surveys.

  3. Weak Lensing by Galaxy Clusters: from Pixels to Cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruen, Daniel [Ludwig Maximilian Univ., Munich (Germany)

    2015-03-11

    2248.7--4431 our lensing analysis constrains mass and concentration of the cluster halo and we confirm the large mass predicted by X-ray and Sunyaev-Zel’dovich (SZ) observations. The study of cluster members shows the relation of galaxy morphology to luminosity and environment. (ii) Our lensing mass measurements for 12 clusters are consistent with X-ray masses derived under the assumption of hydrostatic equilibrium of the intra-cluster gas. We confirm the MORs derived by the South Pole Telescope collaboration for the detection significance of the cluster SZ signal in their survey. We find discrepancies, however, with the Planck SZ MOR. We hypothesize that these are related either to a shallower slope of the MOR or a size-, redshift- or noise-dependent bias in SZ signal extraction. (iii) Finally, using a combination of simulations and theoretical models for the variation of cluster profiles at fixed mass, we find that the latter is a significant contribution to the uncertainty of cluster lensing mass measurements. A cosmic variance model, such as the one we develop, is necessary for MOR constraints to be accurate at the level required for future surveys.

  4. Feedback from deeply embedded low- and high-mass protostars. Surveying hot molecular gas with Herschel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karska, Agata

    2014-01-01

    Protostars interact violently with their natal cocoons within dense molecular clouds. Characterizing this feedback is key to understanding the efficiency of the star formation process and the chemical processing of material that will be available for planet formation. In this thesis, the imprints

  5. Comparison of halo detection from noisy weak lensing convergence maps with Gaussian smoothing and MRLens treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiao Yangxiu; Shan Huanyuan; Fan Zuhui

    2011-01-01

    Taking into account the noise from intrinsic ellipticities of source galaxies, we study the efficiency and completeness of halo detections from weak lensing convergence maps. Particularly, with numerical simulations, we compare the Gaussian filter with the so called MRLens treatment based on the modification of the Maximum Entropy Method. For a pure noise field without lensing signals, a Gaussian smoothing results in a residual noise field that is approximately Gaussian in terms of statistics if a large enough number of galaxies are included in the smoothing window. On the other hand, the noise field after the MRLens treatment is significantly non-Gaussian, resulting in complications in characterizing the noise effects. Considering weak-lensing cluster detections, although the MRLens treatment effectively deletes false peaks arising from noise, it removes the real peaks heavily due to its inability to distinguish real signals with relatively low amplitudes from noise in its restoration process. The higher the noise level is, the larger the removal effects are for the real peaks. For a survey with a source density n g ∼ 30 arcmin -2 , the number of peaks found in an area of 3 x 3 deg 2 after MRLens filtering is only ∼ 50 for the detection threshold κ = 0.02, while the number of halos with M > 5 x 10 13 M circleddot and with redshift z ≤ 2 in the same area is expected to be ∼ 530. For the Gaussian smoothing treatment, the number of detections is ∼ 260, much larger than that of the MRLens. The Gaussianity of the noise statistics in the Gaussian smoothing case adds further advantages for this method to circumvent the problem of the relatively low efficiency in weak-lensing cluster detections. Therefore, in studies aiming to construct large cluster samples from weak-lensing surveys, the Gaussian smoothing method performs significantly better than the MRLens treatment.

  6. Detection of gravitational lensing in the cosmic microwave background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Kendrick M.; Zahn, Oliver; Dore, Olivier

    2007-01-01

    Gravitational lensing of the cosmic microwave background (CMB), a long-standing prediction of the standard cosmological model, is ultimately expected to be an important source of cosmological information, but first detection has not been achieved to date. We report a 3.4σ detection, by applying quadratic estimator techniques to all sky maps from the Wilkinson microwave anisotropy probe (WMAP) satellite, and correlating the result with radio galaxy counts from the NRAO VLA sky survey (NVSS). We present our methodology including a detailed discussion of potential contaminants. Our error estimates include systematic uncertainties from density gradients in NVSS, beam effects in WMAP, galactic microwave foregrounds, resolved and unresolved CMB point sources, and the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect

  7. A KiDS weak lensing analysis of assembly bias in GAMA galaxy groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvornik, Andrej; Cacciato, Marcello; Kuijken, Konrad; Viola, Massimo; Hoekstra, Henk; Nakajima, Reiko; van Uitert, Edo; Brouwer, Margot; Choi, Ami; Erben, Thomas; Fenech Conti, Ian; Farrow, Daniel J.; Herbonnet, Ricardo; Heymans, Catherine; Hildebrandt, Hendrik; Hopkins, Andrew M.; McFarland, John; Norberg, Peder; Schneider, Peter; Sifón, Cristóbal; Valentijn, Edwin; Wang, Lingyu

    2017-07-01

    We investigate possible signatures of halo assembly bias for spectroscopically selected galaxy groups from the Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey using weak lensing measurements from the spatially overlapping regions of the deeper, high-imaging-quality photometric Kilo-Degree Survey. We use GAMA groups with an apparent richness larger than 4 to identify samples with comparable mean host halo masses but with a different radial distribution of satellite galaxies, which is a proxy for the formation time of the haloes. We measure the weak lensing signal for groups with a steeper than average and with a shallower than average satellite distribution and find no sign of halo assembly bias, with the bias ratio of 0.85^{+0.37}_{-0.25}, which is consistent with the Λ cold dark matter prediction. Our galaxy groups have typical masses of 1013 M⊙ h-1, naturally complementing previous studies of halo assembly bias on galaxy cluster scales.

  8. GOODS-Herschel: identification of the individual galaxies responsible for the 80-290 μm cosmic infrared background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiton, R.; Elbaz, D.; Okumura, K.; Hwang, H. S.; Magdis, G.; Magnelli, B.; Valtchanov, I.; Dickinson, M.; Béthermin, M.; Schreiber, C.; Charmandaris, V.; Dole, H.; Juneau, S.; Le Borgne, D.; Pannella, M.; Pope, A.; Popesso, P.

    2015-07-01

    Aims: We propose a new method of pushing Herschel to its faintest detection limits using universal trends in the redshift evolution of the far infrared over 24 μm colours in the well-sampled GOODS-North field. An extension to other fields with less multi-wavelength information is presented. This method is applied here to raise the contribution of individually detected Herschel sources to the cosmic infrared background (CIRB) by a factor 5 close to its peak at 250 μm and more than 3 in the 350 and 500 μm bands. Methods: We produce realistic mock Herschel images of the deep PACS and SPIRE images of the GOODS-North field from the GOODS-Herschel key program and use them to quantify the confusion noise at the position of individual sources, i.e., estimate a "local confusion noise". Two methods are used to identify sources with reliable photometric accuracy extracted using 24 μm prior positions. The clean index (CI), previously defined but validated here with simulations, which measures the presence of bright 24 μm neighbours and the photometric accuracy index (PAI) directly extracted from the mock Herschel images. Results: Both methods converge to comparable depths and fractions of the CIRB resolved into sources individually detected with Herschel. After correction for completeness, thanks to our mock Herschel images, individually detected sources make up as much as 54% and 60% of the CIRB in the PACS bands down to 1.1 mJy at 100 μm and 2.2 mJy at 160 μm and 55, 33, and 13% of the CIRB in the SPIRE bands down to 2.5, 5, and 9 mJy at 250 μm, 350 μm, and 500 μm, respectively. The latter depths improve the detection limits of Herschel by factors of 5 at 250 μm, and 3 at 350 μm and 500 μm as compared to the standard confusion limit. Interestingly, the dominant contributors to the CIRB in all Herschel bands appear to be distant siblings of the Milky Way (z ~ 0.96 for λ< 300 μm) with a stellar mass of M⋆ ~ 9 × 1010M⊙.

  9. [Profile of medical students from the Universidade Estadual Paulista-UNESP--Botucatu, who wear contact lenses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidotti, Vanessa Gonçalves; Kamegasawa, Amélia

    2006-01-01

    To analyze the ametropy, way of acquisition, the care and complications related to contact lens wear among medical students from Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu da Universidade Estadual Paulista-UNESP--Botucatu (SP). Questionnaire applied to students from the 1st to the 6th year of the Medical school of the Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu da Universidade Estadual Paulista-UNESP--Botucatu (SP), forming an analytical cross-sectional survey. 27.4% of the students use contact lenses, and among them 94.8% use soft contact lenses and 98% have negative degree. 46.9% discard their contact lens monthly. 63.9% have an average daily use of 14 hours, 14.1% acquire the contact lenses from optician stores or at pharmacies and 46.5% of the students clean their contact lenses when they put them on and take them off. Regarding complications, 51.0% reported ocular redness; 44.5%, blurred vision; and 42.6%, foreign body sensation, whereas only 4 students reported "keratitis". We concluded that the inadequate adaptation that occurs even in users knowledgeable about this issue such as medical students, has increased the risk of complications. This fact indicates that more attention must be paid to contact lens care in order to prevent permanent visual deficit.

  10. The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: Cross-Correlation of Cosmic Microwave Background Lensing and Quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwin, Blake D; Das, Sudeep; Haijian, Amir; Addison, Graeme; Bond, Richard; Crichton, Devin; Devlin, Mark J.; Dunkley, Joanna; Gralla, Megan B.; Halpern, Mark; hide

    2012-01-01

    We measure the cross-correlation of Atacama cosmology telescope cosmic microwave background (CMB) lensing convergence maps with quasar maps made from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR8 SDSS-XDQSO photometric catalog. The CMB lensing quasar cross-power spectrum is detected for the first time at a significance of 3.8 sigma, which directly confirms that the quasar distribution traces the mass distribution at high redshifts z > 1. Our detection passes a number of null tests and systematic checks. Using this cross-power spectrum, we measure the amplitude of the linear quasar bias assuming a template for its redshift dependence, and find the amplitude to be consistent with an earlier measurement from clustering; at redshift z ap 1.4, the peak of the distribution of quasars in our maps, our measurement corresponds to a bias of b = 2.5 +/- 0.6. With the signal-to-noise ratio on CMB lensing measurements likely to improve by an order of magnitude over the next few years, our results demonstrate the potential of CMB lensing crosscorrelations to probe astrophysics at high redshifts.

  11. KiDS-450: tomographic cross-correlation of galaxy shear with Planck lensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnois-Déraps, Joachim; Tröster, Tilman; Chisari, Nora Elisa; Heymans, Catherine; van Waerbeke, Ludovic; Asgari, Marika; Bilicki, Maciej; Choi, Ami; Erben, Thomas; Hildebrandt, Hendrik; Hoekstra, Henk; Joudaki, Shahab; Kuijken, Konrad; Merten, Julian; Miller, Lance; Robertson, Naomi; Schneider, Peter; Viola, Massimo

    2017-10-01

    We present the tomographic cross-correlation between galaxy lensing measured in the Kilo Degree Survey (KiDS-450) with overlapping lensing measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB), as detected by Planck 2015. We compare our joint probe measurement to the theoretical expectation for a flat Λ cold dark matter cosmology, assuming the best-fitting cosmological parameters from the KiDS-450 cosmic shear and Planck CMB analyses. We find that our results are consistent within 1σ with the KiDS-450 cosmology, with an amplitude re-scaling parameter AKiDS = 0.86 ± 0.19. Adopting a Planck cosmology, we find our results are consistent within 2σ, with APlanck = 0.68 ± 0.15. We show that the agreement is improved in both cases when the contamination to the signal by intrinsic galaxy alignments is accounted for, increasing A by ∼0.1. This is the first tomographic analysis of the galaxy lensing - CMB lensing cross-correlation signal, and is based on five photometric redshift bins. We use this measurement as an independent validation of the multiplicative shear calibration and of the calibrated source redshift distribution at high redshifts. We find that constraints on these two quantities are strongly correlated when obtained from this technique, which should therefore not be considered as a stand-alone competitive calibration tool.

  12. THROES: a caTalogue of HeRschel Observations of Evolved Stars. I. PACS range spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Medina, J.; Sánchez Contreras, C.; García-Lario, P.; Rodrigo, C.; da Silva Santos, J.; Solano, E.

    2018-03-01

    This is the first of a series of papers presenting the THROES (A caTalogue of HeRschel Observations of Evolved Stars) project, intended to provide a comprehensive overview of the spectroscopic results obtained in the far-infrared (55-670 μm) with the Herschel space observatory on low-to-intermediate mass evolved stars in our Galaxy. Here we introduce the catalogue of interactively reprocessed Photoconductor Array Camera and Spectrometer (PACS) spectra covering the 55-200 μm range for 114 stars in this category for which PACS range spectroscopic data is available in the Herschel Science Archive (HSA). Our sample includes objects spanning a range of evolutionary stages, from the asymptotic giant branch to the planetary nebula phase, displaying a wide variety of chemical and physical properties. The THROES/PACS catalogue is accessible via a dedicated web-based interface and includes not only the science-ready Herschel spectroscopic data for each source, but also complementary photometric and spectroscopic data from other infrared observatories, namely IRAS, ISO, or AKARI, at overlapping wavelengths. Our goal is to create a legacy-value Herschel dataset that can be used by the scientific community in the future to deepen our knowledge and understanding of these latest stages of the evolution of low-to-intermediate mass stars. The THROES/PACS catalogue is accessible at http://https://throes.cab.inta-csic.es/

  13. AUTOMATED DETECTION OF GALAXY-SCALE GRAVITATIONAL LENSES IN HIGH-RESOLUTION IMAGING DATA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, Philip J.; Bradac, Marusa; Hogg, David W.; Moustakas, Leonidas A.; Fassnacht, Christopher D.; Schrabback, Tim; Blandford, Roger D.

    2009-01-01

    We expect direct lens modeling to be the key to successful and meaningful automated strong galaxy-scale gravitational lens detection. We have implemented a lens-modeling 'robot' that treats every bright red galaxy (BRG) in a large imaging survey as a potential gravitational lens system. Having optimized a simple model for 'typical' galaxy-scale gravitational lenses, we generate four assessments of model quality that are then used in an automated classification. The robot infers from these four data the lens classification parameter H that a human would have assigned; the inference is performed using a probability distribution generated from a human-classified training set of candidates, including realistic simulated lenses and known false positives drawn from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Extended Groth Strip (EGS) survey. We compute the expected purity, completeness, and rejection rate, and find that these statistics can be optimized for a particular application by changing the prior probability distribution for H; this is equivalent to defining the robot's 'character'. Adopting a realistic prior based on expectations for the abundance of lenses, we find that a lens sample may be generated that is ∼100% pure, but only ∼20% complete. This shortfall is due primarily to the oversimplicity of the model of both the lens light and mass. With a more optimistic robot, ∼90% completeness can be achieved while rejecting ∼90% of the candidate objects. The remaining candidates must be classified by human inspectors. Displaying the images used and produced by the robot on a custom 'one-click' web interface, we are able to inspect and classify lens candidates at a rate of a few seconds per system, suggesting that a future 1000 deg. 2 imaging survey containing 10 7 BRGs, and some 10 4 lenses, could be successfully, and reproducibly, searched in a modest amount of time. We have verified our projected survey statistics, albeit at low significance, using the HST EGS data

  14. Constraints on early-type galaxy structure from spectroscopically selected gravitational lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Adam Stallard

    2005-11-01

    This thesis describes all aspects of a unique spectroscopic survey for strong galaxy-galaxy gravitational lenses: motivation, candidate selection, ground- based spectroscopic follow-up, Hubble Space Telescope imaging, data analysis, and results on the radial density profile of the lens galaxies. The lens candidates are selected from within the spectroscopic database of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) based on the appearance of two significantly different redshifts along the same line of sight, and lenses are confirmed within the candidate sample by follow-up imaging and spectroscopy. The sample of [approximate]20 early-type lenses presented in this thesis represents the largest single strong-lens galaxy sample discovered and published to date. These lenses probe the mass of the lens galaxies on scales roughly equal to one-half effective radius. We find a dynamical normalization between isothermal lens-model velocity dispersions and aperture-corrected SDSS stellar velocity dispersions of f = s lens /s stars = 0.95 +/- 0.03. By combining lens-model Einstein radii and de Vaucouleurs effective radii with stellar velocity dispersions through the Jeans equation, we find that the logarithmic slope [Special characters omitted.] of the density profile in our lens galaxies (r 0 ( [Special characters omitted.] ) is on average slightly steeper than isothermal ([Special characters omitted.] = 2) with a modest intrinsic scatter. Parameterizing the intrinsic distribution in [Special characters omitted.] as Gaussian, we find a maximum-likelihood mean of [Special characters omitted. ] and standard deviation of s[Special characters omitted.] = [Special characters omitted.] (68% confidence, for isotropic velocity-dispersion models). Our results rule out a single universal logarithmic density slope at >99.995% confidence. The success of this spectroscopic lens survey suggests that similar projects should be considered as an explicit science goal of future redshift surveys. (Copies

  15. MEASURING PRIMORDIAL NON-GAUSSIANITY THROUGH WEAK-LENSING PEAK COUNTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marian, Laura; Hilbert, Stefan; Smith, Robert E.; Schneider, Peter; Desjacques, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    We explore the possibility of detecting primordial non-Gaussianity of the local type using weak-lensing peak counts. We measure the peak abundance in sets of simulated weak-lensing maps corresponding to three models f NL = 0, - 100, and 100. Using survey specifications similar to those of EUCLID and without assuming any knowledge of the lens and source redshifts, we find the peak functions of the non-Gaussian models with f NL = ±100 to differ by up to 15% from the Gaussian peak function at the high-mass end. For the assumed survey parameters, the probability of fitting an f NL = 0 peak function to the f NL = ±100 peak functions is less than 0.1%. Assuming the other cosmological parameters are known, f NL can be measured with an error Δf NL ∼ 13. It is therefore possible that future weak-lensing surveys like EUCLID and LSST may detect primordial non-Gaussianity from the abundance of peak counts, and provide information complementary to that obtained from the cosmic microwave background.

  16. Plasma surface modification of rigid contact lenses decreases bacterial adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yingming; Qian, Xuefeng; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Xia, Wei; Zhong, Lei; Sun, Zhengtai; Xia, Jing

    2013-11-01

    Contact lens safety is an important topic in clinical studies. Corneal infections usually occur because of the use of bacteria-carrying contact lenses. The current study investigated the impact of plasma surface modification on bacterial adherence to rigid contact lenses made of fluorosilicone acrylate materials. Boston XO and XO2 contact lenses were modified using plasma technology (XO-P and XO2-P groups). Untreated lenses were used as controls. Plasma-treated and control lenses were incubated in solutions containing Staphylococcus aureus or Pseudomonas aeruginosa. MTT colorimetry, colony-forming unit counting method, and scanning electron microscopy were used to measure bacterial adhesion. MTT colorimetry measurements showed that the optical density (OD) values of XO-P and XO2-P were significantly lower than those of XO and XO2, respectively, after incubation with S. aureus (P lenses and to the XO2-P versus XO2 lenses incubated with S. aureus (P lenses incubated with P. aeruginosa (P lenses. Plasma surface modification can significantly decrease bacterial adhesion to fluorosilicone acrylate contact lenses. This study provides important evidence of a unique benefit of plasma technology in contact lens surface modification.

  17. A new case of gravitational lensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surdej, J.; Swings, J.-P.; Borgeest, U.; Kayser, R.; Refsdal, S.; Courvoisier, T.J.-L.; Kellermann, K.I.; Kuehr, H.

    1987-01-01

    The authors report a brief description of a gravitational lens system UM673 = Q0142 - 100 = PHL3703. It consists of two images, A and B, separated by 2.2 arc s at a redshift zsub(q) = 2.719. The lensing galaxy has also been found. It lies very near the line connecting the two QSO (quasi-stellar objects) images, approx. 0.8 arc s from the fainter one. Application of gravitational optometry to this system leads to a value Msub(o) or approx. = 2.4 x 10 11 M solar masses for the mass of the lensing galaxy and to Δt approx. 7 weeks for the most likely travel-time difference between the two light paths to the QSO. (author)

  18. Nulling tomography with weak gravitational lensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huterer, Dragan; White, Martin

    2005-01-01

    We explore several strategies of eliminating (or nulling) the small-scale information in weak lensing convergence power spectrum measurements in order to protect against undesirable effects, for example, the effects of baryonic cooling and pressure forces on the distribution of large-scale structures. We selectively throw out the small-scale information in the convergence power spectrum that is most sensitive to the unwanted bias, while trying to retain most of the sensitivity to cosmological parameters. The strategies are effective in the difficult but realistic situations when we are able to guess the form of the contaminating effect only approximately. However, we also find that the simplest scheme of simply not using information from the largest multipoles works about as well as the proposed techniques in most, although not all, realistic cases. We advocate further exploration of nulling techniques and believe that they will find important applications in the weak lensing data mining

  19. Poisson equation for weak gravitational lensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kling, Thomas P.; Campbell, Bryan

    2008-01-01

    Using the Newman and Penrose [E. T. Newman and R. Penrose, J. Math. Phys. (N.Y.) 3, 566 (1962).] spin-coefficient formalism, we examine the full Bianchi identities of general relativity in the context of gravitational lensing, where the matter and space-time curvature are projected into a lens plane perpendicular to the line of sight. From one component of the Bianchi identity, we provide a rigorous, new derivation of a Poisson equation for the projected matter density where the source term involves second derivatives of the observed weak gravitational lensing shear. We also show that the other components of the Bianchi identity reveal no new results. Numerical integration of the Poisson equation in test cases shows an accurate mass map can be constructed from the combination of a ground-based, wide-field image and a Hubble Space Telescope image of the same system

  20. Astrophysical observations: lensing and eclipsing Einstein's theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Charles L

    2005-02-11

    Albert Einstein postulated the equivalence of energy and mass, developed the theory of special relativity, explained the photoelectric effect, and described Brownian motion in five papers, all published in 1905, 100 years ago. With these papers, Einstein provided the framework for understanding modern astrophysical phenomena. Conversely, astrophysical observations provide one of the most effective means for testing Einstein's theories. Here, I review astrophysical advances precipitated by Einstein's insights, including gravitational redshifts, gravitational lensing, gravitational waves, the Lense-Thirring effect, and modern cosmology. A complete understanding of cosmology, from the earliest moments to the ultimate fate of the universe, will require developments in physics beyond Einstein, to a unified theory of gravity and quantum physics.

  1. Calibration of fisheye lenses for hemispherical photography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaci, J.; Kolar, U.

    2000-01-01

    Hemispherical photography represents one of the most appropriate methods of estimating averages of solar radiation over extended periods of time. This method is based upon the use of extremely wide-angle fisheye lenses, which produce large projection distortion. To correctly interpret hemispherical photography we have to know the projection characteristics of the fisheye lens in combination with a camera body. This can be achieved through lens calibration. The first part of the article explains in detail the calibration method for fisheye lenses which are used to assess the solar radiation in forest ecology research. In the second part the results of calibration for fisheye lens Sigma 8 mm, f/4 (MF, N) are presented. The lens was used on a Nikon F50 camera body

  2. Antifouling leaching technique for optical lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strahle, William J.; Perez, C. L.; Martini, Marinna A.

    1994-01-01

    The effectiveness of optical lenses deployed in water less than 100 m deep is significantly reduced by biofouling caused by the settlement of macrofauna, such as barnacles, hydroids, and tunicates. However, machineable porous plastic rings can be used to dispense antifoulant into the water in front of the lens to retard macrofaunal growth without obstructing the light path. Unlike coatings which can degrade the optical performance, antifouling rings do not interfere with the instrument optics. The authors have designed plastic, reusable cup-like antifouling rings to slip over the optical lenses of a transmissometer. These rings have been used for several deployments on shallow moorings in Massachusetts Bay, MA and have increased the time before fouling degrades optical characteristics

  3. Microbial adhesion to silicone hydrogel lenses: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willcox, Mark D P

    2013-01-01

    Microbial adhesion to contact lenses is believed to be one of the initiating events in the formation of many corneal infiltrative events, including microbial keratitis, that occur during contact lens wear. The advent of silicone hydrogel lenses has not reduced the incidence of these events. This may partly be related to the ability of microbes to adhere to these lenses. The aim of this study was to review the published literature on microbial adhesion to contact lenses, focusing on adhesion to silicone hydrogel lenses. The literature on microbial adhesion to contact lenses was searched, along with associated literature on adverse events that occur during contact lens wear. Particular reference was paid to the years 1995 through 2012 because this encompasses the time when the first clinical trials of silicone hydrogel lenses were reported, and their commercial availability and the publication of epidemiology studies on adverse events were studied. In vitro studies of bacterial adhesion to unworn silicone hydrogel lens have shown that generally, bacteria adhere to these lenses in greater numbers than to the hydroxyethyl methacrylate-based soft lenses. Lens wear has different effects on microbial adhesion, and this is dependent on the type of lens and microbial species/genera that is studied. Biofilms that can be formed on any lens type tend to protect the bacteria and fungi from the effects on disinfectants. Fungal hyphae can penetrate the surface of most types of lenses. Acanthamoeba adhere in greater numbers to first-generation silicone hydrogel lenses compared with the second-generation or hydroxyethyl methacrylate-based soft lenses. Microbial adhesion to silicone hydrogel lenses occurs and is associated with the production of corneal infiltrative events during lens wear.

  4. Gravitational lensing by a Horndeski black hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badia, Javier [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio (IAFE, CONICET-UBA), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Eiroa, Ernesto F. [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio (IAFE, CONICET-UBA), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria Pabellon I, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2017-11-15

    In this article we study gravitational lensing by non-rotating and asymptotically flat black holes in Horndeski theory. By adopting the strong deflection limit, we calculate the deflection angle, from which we obtain the positions and the magnifications of the relativistic images. We compare our results with those corresponding to black holes in General Relativity. We analyze the astrophysical consequences in the case of the nearest supermassive black holes. (orig.)

  5. Gravitational lensing by a Horndeski black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badia, Javier; Eiroa, Ernesto F.

    2017-01-01

    In this article we study gravitational lensing by non-rotating and asymptotically flat black holes in Horndeski theory. By adopting the strong deflection limit, we calculate the deflection angle, from which we obtain the positions and the magnifications of the relativistic images. We compare our results with those corresponding to black holes in General Relativity. We analyze the astrophysical consequences in the case of the nearest supermassive black holes. (orig.)

  6. Automatic centring and bonding of lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krey, Stefan; Heinisch, J.; Dumitrescu, E.

    2007-05-01

    We present an automatic bonding station which is able to center and bond individual lenses or doublets to a barrel with sub micron centring accuracy. The complete manufacturing cycle includes the glue dispensing and UV curing. During the process the state of centring is continuously controlled by the vision software, and the final result is recorded to a file for process statistics. Simple pass or fail results are displayed to the operator at the end of the process.

  7. Gravitational lensing in metric theories of gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sereno, Mauro

    2003-01-01

    Gravitational lensing in metric theories of gravity is discussed. I introduce a generalized approximate metric element, inclusive of both post-post-Newtonian contributions and a gravitomagnetic field. Following Fermat's principle and standard hypotheses, I derive the time delay function and deflection angle caused by an isolated mass distribution. Several astrophysical systems are considered. In most of the cases, the gravitomagnetic correction offers the best perspectives for an observational detection. Actual measurements distinguish only marginally different metric theories from each other

  8. FAR-INFRARED LINE SPECTRA OF SEYFERT GALAXIES FROM THE HERSCHEL-PACS SPECTROMETER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinoglio, Luigi; Pereira-Santaella, Miguel; Busquet, Gemma; Dasyra, Kalliopi M.; Calzoletti, Luca; Malkan, Matthew A.; Tommasin, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    We observed the far-IR fine-structure lines of 26 Seyfert galaxies with the Herschel-PACS spectrometer. These observations are complemented with Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph and Herschel SPIRE spectroscopy. We used the ionic lines to determine electron densities in the ionized gas and the [C I] lines, observed with SPIRE, to measure the neutral gas densities, while the [O I] lines measure the gas temperature, at densities below ∼10 4  cm –3 . Using the [O I]145 μm/63 μm and [S III]33/18 μm line ratios, we find an anti-correlation of the temperature with the gas density. Various fine-structure line ratios show density stratifications in these active galaxies. On average, electron densities increase with the ionization potential of the ions. The infrared lines arise partly in the narrow line region, photoionized by the active galactic nucleus (AGN), partly in H II regions photoionized by hot stars, and partly in photo-dissociated regions. We attempt to separate the contributions to the line emission produced in these different regions by comparing our observed emission line ratios to theoretical values. In particular, we tried to separate the contribution of AGNs and star formation by using a combination of Spitzer and Herschel lines, and we found that besides the well-known mid-IR line ratios, the line ratio of [O III]88 μm/[O IV]26 μm can reliably discriminate the two emission regions, while the far-IR line ratio of [C II]157 μm/[O I]63 μm is only able to mildly separate the two regimes. By comparing the observed [C II]157 μm/[N II]205 μm ratio with photoionization models, we also found that most of the [C II] emission in the galaxies we examined is due to photodissociation regions

  9. HERSCHEL OBSERVATIONS AND UPDATED SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS OF FIVE SUNLIKE STARS WITH DEBRIS DISKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodson-Robinson, Sarah E.; Su, Kate Y. L.; Bryden, Geoff; Harvey, Paul; Green, Joel D.

    2016-01-01

    Observations from the Herschel Space Observatory have more than doubled the number of wide debris disks orbiting Sunlike stars to include over 30 systems with R  > 100 AU. Here, we present new Herschel PACS and reanalyzed Spitzer MIPS photometry of five Sunlike stars with wide debris disks, from Kuiper Belt size to R  > 150 AU. The disk surrounding HD 105211 is well resolved, with an angular extent of >14″ along the major axis, and the disks of HD 33636, HD 50554, and HD 52265 are extended beyond the PACS point-spread function size (50% of energy enclosed within radius 4.″23). HD 105211 also has a 24 μ m infrared excess, which was previously overlooked, because of a poorly constrained photospheric model. Archival Spitzer IRS observations indicate that the disks have small grains of minimum radius a min  ∼ 3 μ m, although a min is larger than the radiation-pressure blowout size in all systems. If modeled as single-temperature blackbodies, the disk temperatures would all be <60 K. Our radiative transfer models predict actual disk radii approximately twice the radius of a model blackbody disk. We find that the Herschel photometry traces dust near the source population of planetesimals. The disk luminosities are in the range 2 × 10 −5  ⩽  L / L ⊙  ⩽ 2 × 10 −4 , consistent with collisions in icy planetesimal belts stirred by Pluto-size dwarf planets.

  10. HERSCHEL OBSERVATIONS AND UPDATED SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS OF FIVE SUNLIKE STARS WITH DEBRIS DISKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodson-Robinson, Sarah E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, 217 Sharp Lab, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Su, Kate Y. L. [Steward Observatory, Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Bryden, Geoff [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Harvey, Paul; Green, Joel D., E-mail: sdr@udel.edu [Astronomy Department, University of Texas, 2515 Speedway Drive C1400, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)

    2016-12-20

    Observations from the Herschel Space Observatory have more than doubled the number of wide debris disks orbiting Sunlike stars to include over 30 systems with R  > 100 AU. Here, we present new Herschel PACS and reanalyzed Spitzer MIPS photometry of five Sunlike stars with wide debris disks, from Kuiper Belt size to R  > 150 AU. The disk surrounding HD 105211 is well resolved, with an angular extent of >14″ along the major axis, and the disks of HD 33636, HD 50554, and HD 52265 are extended beyond the PACS point-spread function size (50% of energy enclosed within radius 4.″23). HD 105211 also has a 24 μ m infrared excess, which was previously overlooked, because of a poorly constrained photospheric model. Archival Spitzer IRS observations indicate that the disks have small grains of minimum radius a {sub min} ∼ 3 μ m, although a {sub min} is larger than the radiation-pressure blowout size in all systems. If modeled as single-temperature blackbodies, the disk temperatures would all be <60 K. Our radiative transfer models predict actual disk radii approximately twice the radius of a model blackbody disk. We find that the Herschel photometry traces dust near the source population of planetesimals. The disk luminosities are in the range 2 × 10{sup −5} ⩽  L / L {sub ⊙} ⩽ 2 × 10{sup −4}, consistent with collisions in icy planetesimal belts stirred by Pluto-size dwarf planets.

  11. Fine structure of Galactic foreground ISM towards high-redshift AGN - utilizing Herschel PACS and SPIRE data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perger, K.; Pinter, S.; Frey, S.; Tóth, L. V.

    2018-05-01

    One of the most certain ways to determine star formation rate in galaxies is based on far infrared (FIR) measurements. To decide the origin of the observed FIR emission, subtracting the Galactic foreground is a crucial step. We utilized Herschel photometric data to determine the hydrogen column densities in three galactic latitude regions, at b = 27°, 50° and -80°. We applied a pixel-by-pixel fit to the spectral energy distribution (SED) for the images aquired from parallel PACS-SPIRE observations in all three sky areas. We determined the column densities with resolutions 45'' and 6', and compared the results with values estimated from the IRAS dust maps. Column densities at 27° and 50° galactic latitudes determined from the Herschel data are in a good agreement with the literature values. However, at the highest galactic latitude we found that the column densities from the Herschel data exceed those derived from the IRAS dust map.

  12. Automation Enhancement of Multilayer Laue Lenses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauer K. R.; Conley R.

    2010-12-01

    X-ray optics fabrication at Brookhaven National Laboratory has been facilitated by a new, state of the art magnetron sputtering physical deposition system. With its nine magnetron sputtering cathodes and substrate carrier that moves on a linear rail via a UHV brushless linear servo motor, the system is capable of accurately depositing the many thousands of layers necessary for multilayer Laue lenses. I have engineered a versatile and automated control program from scratch for the base system and many subsystems. Its main features include a custom scripting language, a fully customizable graphical user interface, wireless and remote control, and a terminal-based interface. This control system has already been successfully used in the creation of many types of x-ray optics, including several thousand layer multilayer Laue lenses.Before reaching the point at which a deposition can be run, stencil-like masks for the sputtering cathodes must be created to ensure the proper distribution of sputtered atoms. Quality of multilayer Laue lenses can also be difficult to measure, given the size of the thin film layers. I employ my knowledge of software and algorithms to further ease these previously painstaking processes with custom programs. Additionally, I will give an overview of an x-ray optic simulator package I helped develop during the summer of 2010. In the interest of keeping my software free and open, I have worked mostly with the multiplatform Python and the PyQt application framework, utilizing C and C++ where necessary.

  13. Gravitational lensing of the SNLS supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kronborg, T.

    2011-01-01

    Type Ia supernovae have become an essential tool of modern observational cosmology. By studying the distance-redshift relation of a large number of supernovae, the nature of dark energy can be unveiled. Distances to Type Ia SNe are however affected by gravitational lensing which can induce systematic effects in the measurement of cosmology. The majority of the supernovae is slightly de-magnified whereas a small fraction is significantly magnified due to the mass distribution along the line of sight. This causes naturally an additional dispersion in the observed magnitudes. There are two different ways to estimate the magnification of a supernova. A first method consists in comparing the supernova luminosity, which is measured to about 15% precision, to the mean SN luminosity at the same redshift. Another estimate can be obtained from predicting the magnification induced by the foreground matter density modeled from the measurements of the luminosity of the galaxies with an initial prior on the mass-luminosity relation of the galaxies. A correlation between these 2 estimates will make it possible to tune the initially used mass-luminosity relation resulting in an independent measurement of the dark matter clustering based on the luminosity of SNe Ia. Evidently, this measurement depends crucially on the detection of this correlation also referred to as the lensing signal. This thesis is dedicated to the measurement of the lensing signal in the SNLS 3-year sample. (author)

  14. Primordial black holes survive SN lensing constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Bellido, Juan; Clesse, Sébastien; Fleury, Pierre

    2018-06-01

    It has been claimed in [arxiv:1712.02240] that massive primordial black holes (PBH) cannot constitute all of the dark matter (DM), because their gravitational-lensing imprint on the Hubble diagram of type Ia supernovae (SN) would be incompatible with present observations. In this note, we critically review those constraints and find several caveats on the analysis. First of all, the constraints on the fraction α of PBH in matter seem to be driven by a very restrictive choice of priors on the cosmological parameters. In particular, the degeneracy between Ωm and α was ignored and thus, by fixing Ωm, transferred the constraining power of SN magnitudes to α. Furthermore, by considering more realistic physical sizes for the type-Ia supernovae, we find an effect on the SN lensing magnification distribution that leads to significantly looser constraints. Moreover, considering a wide mass spectrum of PBH, such as a lognormal distribution, further softens the constraints from SN lensing. Finally, we find that the fraction of PBH that could constitute DM today is bounded by fPBH < 1 . 09(1 . 38) , for JLA (Union 2.1) catalogs, and thus it is perfectly compatible with an all-PBH dark matter scenario in the LIGO band.

  15. Electron lenses for the large hadron collider

    CERN Document Server

    Stancari†, G; Bruce, R; Redaelli, S; Rossi, A; Salvachua Ferrando, B

    2014-01-01

    Electron lenses are pulsed, magnetically confined electron beamswhose current-density profile is shaped to obtain the desired effect on the circulating beam. Electron lenses were used in the Fermilab Tevatron collider for bunch-bybunch compensation of long-range beam-beam tune shifts, for removal of uncaptured particles in the abort gap, for preliminary experiments on head-on beam-beamcompensation, and for the demonstration of halo scrapingwith hollow electron beams. Electron lenses for beam-beam compensation are being commissioned in RHIC at BNL. Within the US LHC Accelerator Research Program and the European HiLumi LHC Design Study, hollow electron beam collimation was studied as an option to complement the collimation system for the LHC upgrades. A conceptual design was recently completed, and the project is moving towards a technical design in 2014–2015 for construction in 2015–2017, if needed, after resuming LHC operations and re-assessing collimation needs and requirements at 6.5 TeV. Because of the...

  16. Beryllium parabolic refractive x-ray lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lengeler, B.; Schroer, C.G.; Kuhlmann, M.; Benner, B.; Guenzler, T.F.; Kurapova, O.; Somogyi, A.; Snigirev, A.; Snigireva, I.

    2004-01-01

    Parabolic refractive x-ray lenses are novel optical components for the hard x-ray range from about 5 keV to about 120 keV. They focus in both directions. They are compact, robust, and easy to align and to operate. They can be used like glass lenses are used for visible light, the main difference being that the numerical aperture N.A. is much smaller than 1 (of order 10-4 to 10-3). Their main applications are in micro- and nanofocusing, in imaging by absorption and phase contrast and in fluorescence mode. In combination with tomography they allow for 3-dimensional imaging of opaque media with submicrometer resolution. Finally, they can be used in speckle spectroscopy by means of coherent x-ray scattering. Beryllium as lens material strongly enhances the transmission and the field of view as compared to aluminium. With increased N.A. the lateral resolution is also considerably improved with Be lenses. References to a number of applications are given

  17. HERSCHEL OBSERVATIONS OF THE T CHA TRANSITION DISK: CONSTRAINING THE OUTER DISK PROPERTIES

    OpenAIRE

    Cieza, Lucas A.; Olofsson, Johan; Harvey, Paul M.; Pinte, Christophe; Merin, Bruno; Augereau, Jean-Charles; Evans, Neal J., II; Najita, Joan; Henning, Thomas; Menard, Francois

    2011-01-01

    T Cha is a nearby (d = 100 pc) transition disk known to have an optically thin gap separating optically thick inner and outer disk components. Huelamo et al. (2011) recently reported the presence of a low-mass object candidate within the gap of the T Cha disk, giving credence to the suspected planetary origin of this gap. Here we present the Herschel photometry (70, 160, 250, 350, and 500 micron) of T Cha from the "Dust, Ice, and Gas in Time" (DIGIT) Key Program, which bridges the wavelength ...

  18. Fast Molecular Outflows in Luminous Galaxy Mergers: Evidence for Quasar Feedback from Herschel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veilleux, S.; Melendez, M.; Sturm, E.; Garcia-Carpio, J.; Fischer, J.; Gonzalez-Alfonso, E.; Contursi, A.; Lutz, D.; Poglitsch, A.; Davies, R.; hide