WorldWideScience

Sample records for herpesvirus 4-based vaccine

  1. Advances in development and evaluation of bovine herpesvirus 1 vaccines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oirschot, van J.T.; Kaashoek, M.J.; Rijsewijk, F.A.M.

    1996-01-01

    This review deals with conventional and modern bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV1) vaccines. Conventional vaccines are widely used to prevent clinical signs of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis. The use of conventional vaccines, however, does not appear to have resulted in reduction of the prevalence of

  2. The vaccines for Bovine Herpesvirus Type 1: A review | Zhao ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1) is the pathogen of Infectious Bovine Rhinothracheitis (IBR) disease, causing great economic losses in the livestock industry. Vaccine is a powerful means to control the virus. Here, the review described the currently available knowledge regarding to the advance in the field of BoHV-1 ...

  3. The vaccines for Bovine Herpesvirus Type 1: A review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-05

    Sep 5, 2011 ... disease, causing great economic losses in the livestock industry. Vaccine is a ... virus vaccines. Key words: BoHV-1, vaccine, DIVA, recombinant virus. ... may cause latent infection and immune suppression. (Yates, 1982).

  4. Efficacy of DNA vaccine encoding koi herpesvirus glycoprotein GP-25in common carp juvenile by immersion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soko Nuswantoro

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Koi herpesvirus (KHV is a herpesvirus that particularly infects and causes mass mortality to koi and common carp. Therefore, the protection of common carp from KHV infection is urgently needed. In this study, we developed an application of DNA vaccine encoding KHV glycoprotein-25 by immersion method to increase survival of common carp against KHV infection. A total of 400 common carp juveniles at 30-day-old were immersed in 1-L water containing 1.3×108CFU/mL of the killed Escherichia coli cells carrying DNA vaccine. Three frequencies and three duration of fish immersion were tested, namely: 1×30 minutes, 1×60 minutes, 1× 90 minutes, 2×90 minutes and 3×90 minutes by interval of 24 hours. Reversetranscription polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that DNA vaccine was successfully expressed in the vaccinated fish. Fish at twenty eight days post vaccination were challenged by injecting 10-4 mL of KHV per fish. The result showed that vaccination by 1×30 minutes immersion allowed 61% of fish survived, and this was significantly higher (p<0.05 compared to control (without vaccination, but it was similar among vaccination treatments (p>0.05. The relative percent survival of vaccinated fish were also similar among treatments (p>0.05. DNA vaccination has increased fish survival about two fold higher compared to unvaccinated fish control (26.67%. Thus, DNA vaccination was effectively delivered by immersion for 1×30 minutes, and this technique can be useful to level up the resistance of common carp juveniles against KHV infection. Keywords: DNA vaccine, KHV, glycoprotein, immersion, common carp

  5. Replacement of glycoprotein B in alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 by its ovine herpesvirus 2 homolog: Implications in vaccine development for sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccine development is a top priority in malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) research. In the case of sheep-associated MCF (SA-MCF), caused by ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2), progress towards this objective has been hindered by the absence of methods to attenuate or modify the virus, since it cannot be pr...

  6. Rational development of an attenuated recombinant cyprinid herpesvirus 3 vaccine using prokaryotic mutagenesis and in vivo bioluminescent imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) is causing severe economic losses worldwide in the carp industry, and a safe and efficacious attenuated vaccine compatible with mass vaccination is needed. We produced single deleted recombinants using prokaryotic mutagenesis. When producing a recombinant lacking open...

  7. Feline herpesvirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskell, Rosalind; Dawson, Susan; Radford, Alan; Thiry, Etienne

    2007-01-01

    Feline herpesvirus (FHV-1; felid herpesvirus 1 (FeHV-1)) is an alphaherpesvirus of cats closely related to canine herpesvirus-1 and phocine herpesvirus-1. There is only one serotype of the virus and it is relatively homogenous genetically. FeHV-1 is an important cause of acute upper respiratory tract and ocular disease in cats. In addition, its role in more chronic ocular disease and skin lesions is increasingly being recognised. Epidemiologically, FeHV-1 behaves as a typical alphaherpesvirus whereby clinically recovered cats become latently infected carriers which undergo periodic episodes of virus reactivation, particularly after a stress. The primary site of latency is the trigeminal ganglion. Conventional inactivated and modified-live vaccines are available and protect reasonably well against disease but not infection, although viral shedding may be reduced. Genetically engineered vaccines have also been developed, both for FeHV-1 and as vector vaccines for other pathogens, but none is as yet marketed.

  8. THE IMPACT OF PERSISTENT HERPESVIRUS INFECTION ON IMMUNITY AND VACCINATION RESPONSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volyanskiy AYu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this review we summarize current knowledge on the ability of latent herpesviruses to modulate the immunity and response to vaccination. Nearly all humans are latently infected with multiple herpesviruses but little is known about virus-host interactions. Meanwhile, the study of the immune response to Epshtein-Barr virus (EBV and сytomegalovirus (CMV has revealed significant regulatory effects on the immune system. During the primary infection a human cytomegalovirus is predominately found in peripheral blood monocytes and polymorphonuclear leukocytes. However, the virus can not be replicated in these cells. CMV induces the survival and differentiation of infected monocytes into long-lived macrophages capable of supporting viral replication and the release of virions, which infect CD34+ myeloid progenitor cells. CMV latently persists in myeloid progenitor cells and monocytes and reactivates during their differentiation into macrophages. CMV-infected monocytes exhibit a unique reprogramming of their differentiation and secret both pro-inflammatory M1- and anti-inflammatory M2-associated cytokines. But cytomegalovirus induced macrophage phenotype skewed towards pro-inflammatory M1 type. MV has profound effects on the composition and function of both T cells and NK cells. CMV constantly reactivates during differentiation of monocytes into macrophages. Consequently, persons with latent CMV infection have substantially increased numbers and proportions of CD8+ T cells that lead to exhaustion and an early onset of immunosenescence. Also, it has been shown that the latent CMV virus infection markedly increases the proportion of NK cells expressing the activating NKG2C receptor. So, it has been proposed that CMV alters the composition of T cell and NK cell subsets and accelerates immune aging. Given the capacity of CMV to alter a macrophage, as well as NK and T cell responses it is reasonable to hypothesize that latent infection would alter the

  9. Biological characterization of bovine herpesvirus 1 recombinants possessing the vaccine glycoprotein E negative phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muylkens, Benoît; Meurens, François; Schynts, Frédéric; de Fays, Katalin; Pourchet, Aldo; Thiry, Julien; Vanderplasschen, Alain; Antoine, Nadine; Thiry, Etienne

    2006-03-31

    Intramolecular recombination is a frequent event during the replication cycle of bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1). Recombinant viruses frequently arise and survive in cattle after concomitant nasal infections with two BoHV-1 mutants. The consequences of this process, related to herpesvirus evolution, have to be assessed in the context of large use of live marker vaccines based on glycoprotein E (gE) gene deletion. In natural conditions, double nasal infections by vaccine and wild-type strains are likely to occur. This situation might generate virulent recombinant viruses inducing a serological response indistinguishable from the vaccine one. This question was addressed by generating in vitro BoHV-1 recombinants deleted in the gE gene from seven wild-type BoHV-1 strains and one mutant strain deleted in the genes encoding gC and gE. In vitro growth properties were assessed by virus production, one step growth kinetics and plaque size assay. Heterogeneity in the biological properties was shown among the investigated recombinant viruses. The results demonstrated that some recombinants, in spite of their gE minus phenotype, have biological characteristics close to wild-type BoHV-1.

  10. Protection of puppies against canine herpesvirus by vaccination of the dams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulet, H; Guigal, P M; Soulier, M; Leroy, V; Fayet, G; Minke, J; Chappuis Merial, G

    2001-06-02

    Six bitches free of canine herpesvirus 1 (CHV-1) were vaccinated against the virus; a first injection was given 10 days after the presumed date of mating and a second six weeks later. Six similar bitches were left unvaccinated as controls, and all the pups were challenged oronasally with a virulent strain of CHV-1 at three days of age. All the vaccinated bitches seroconverted and had high antibody titres when the puppies were challenged, but the control bitches remained seronegative. In the control group, 62 per cent (18 of 29) of the pups died of CHV-1-induced disease; most of them showed typical clinical signs and macroscopic lesions, and CHV-1 infection was confirmed by the isolation of the virus or by PCR. None of the puppies in the vaccinated group died of CHV-1 infection. The efficacy of the vaccine was confirmed in CHV-1-positive breeding units. The rate of pregnancy tended to be higher in vaccinated bitches and the mortality of pups before weaning was significantly reduced in the litters born to vaccinated bitches.

  11. Characterization of field isolates of Suid herpesvirus 1 (Aujeszky's disease virus) as derivatives of attenuated vaccine strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Laurids Siig; Medveczky, I.; Strandbygaard, Bertel

    1992-01-01

    Field isolates of suid herpesvirus 1 (Aujeszky's disease virus) from Poland and Hungary were identified by restriction fragment pattern analysis as derivatives of attenuated vaccine strains. The Polish isolates were found to be related to the BUK-TK-900 strain (Suivac A) which is widely used...

  12. Suitability of canine herpesvirus as a vector for oral bait vaccination of foxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reubel, Gerhard H; Wright, John; Pekin, Jenny; French, Nigel; Strive, Tanja

    2006-05-31

    Studies were conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using canine herpesvirus (CHV) as a vaccine vector for bait-delivered oral vaccination of wild foxes. To test the viability of CHV in baits, CHV was freeze-dried, incorporated into different baits, stored, and the remaining viral infectivity tested in cell culture after varying periods of time at different storage temperatures. Experimental baits (mouse carcasses) and commercial baits (FOXOFF and PROBAIT) were prepared with either liquid or freeze-dried CHV and tested in two fox trials for their capacity to induce CHV-specific antibodies following oral baiting. Freeze-drying and storage temperatures below 0 degrees C had a stabilizing effect to virus infectivity. When stored at -20 degrees C, freeze-dried CHV retained its full infectivity for up to 3 months in PROBAIT baits, the remaining infectivity in FOXOFF baits was 100-fold less. Oral baiting with CHV induced antiviral serum antibodies in all vaccinated foxes (20/20). None of the vaccinated foxes became ill or shed infectious virus into the environment although viral DNA was detected in body secretions as evaluated by PCR. The results indicate that CHV can be freeze-dried and stored over extended periods of time without loosing much of its infectivity. This is the first report of CHV being used for oral bait vaccination of foxes. It appears that CHV is well suited for use as a recombinant vector for wild canids.

  13. Clinical protection against caprine herpesvirus 1 genital infection by intranasal administration of a live attenuated glycoprotein E negative bovine herpesvirus 1 vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meurens François

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Caprine herpesvirus 1 (CpHV-1 is responsible of systemic diseases in kids and genital diseases leading to abortions in goats. CpHV-1 is widespread and especially in Mediterranean countries as Greece, Italy and Spain. CpHV-1 is antigenically and genetically closely related to bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1. Taking into account the biological properties shared by these two viruses, we decided in the current study to assess the protection of a live attenuated glycoprotein E (gE negative BoHV-1 vaccine against a genital CpHV-1 infection in goats. Results The vaccine was inoculated intranasally twice three weeks apart followed by a subsequent CpHV-1 intravaginal challenge which is the natural route of infection in three goats. To analyse the safety and the efficacy of this marker vaccine, two groups of three goats served as controls: one immunised with a virulent CpHV-1 and one uninoculated until the challenge. Goats were clinically monitored and all sampling procedures were carried out in a blind manner. The vaccine did not induce any undesirable local or systemic reaction and goats did not excrete gE-negative BoHV-1. After challenge, a significant reduction in disease severity was observed in immunised goats. Moreover, goats immunised with either gE-negative BoHV-1 or CpHV-1 exhibited a significant reduction in the length and the peak of viral excretion. Antibodies neutralising both BoHV-1 and CpHV-1 were raised in immunised goats. Conclusion Intranasal application of a live attenuated gE-negative BoHV-1 vaccine is able to afford a clinical protection and a reduction of virus excretion in goats challenged by a CpHV-1 genital infection.

  14. Development of canine herpesvirus based antifertility vaccines for foxes using bacterial artificial chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strive, Tanja; Hardy, Christopher M; French, Nigel; Wright, John D; Nagaraja, Nitin; Reubel, Gerhard H

    2006-02-13

    Using bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) technology, a canine herpesvirus (CHV)-based recombinant vaccine vector was produced for the development of an antifertility vaccine for foxes. Infectious viruses were recovered following transfection of canid cells with a BAC plasmid carrying the complete CHV genome. In vitro growth characteristics of BAC-derived viruses were similar to that of wildtype (wt)-CHV. Two recombinant antigens, fox zona pellucida protein subunit 3 (fZPC) and enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) as control antigen, were inserted into thymidine kinase (TK) locus of the CHV genome and shown to be efficiently expressed in vitro. Inoculation of foxes with transgenic CHVs induced CHV specific antibodies, but was innocuous and failed to elicit transgene-specific antibody responses. Infectious virus or viral DNA was not detected in mucosal secretions or tissues of vaccinated foxes. The CHV-BAC system proved to be a quick and reliable method to manipulate the CHV genome. It will help to readily apply changes in the vector design in order to improve virus replication in vivo.

  15. A virus vector based on Canine Herpesvirus for vaccine applications in canids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strive, T; Hardy, C M; Wright, J; Reubel, G H

    2007-01-31

    Canine Herpesvirus (CHV) is being developed as a virus vector for the vaccination of European red foxes. However, initial studies using recombinant CHV vaccines in foxes revealed viral attenuation and lack of antibody response to inserted foreign antigens. These findings were attributed both to inactivation of the thymidine kinase (TK) gene and excess foreign genetic material in the recombinant viral genome. In this study, we report an improved CHV-bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) vector system designed to overcome attenuation in foxes. A non-essential region was identified in the CHV genome as an alternative insertion site for foreign genes. Replacement of a guanine/cytosine (GC)-rich intergenic region between UL21 and UL22 of CHV with a marker gene did not change growth behaviour in vitro, showing that this region is not essential for virus growth in cell culture. We subsequently produced a CHV-BAC vector with an intact TK gene in which the bacterial genes and the antigen expression cassette were inserted into this GC-rich locus. Unlike earlier constructs, the new CHV-BAC allowed self-excision of the bacterial genes via homologous recombination after transfection of BACs into cell culture. The BAC-CHV system was used to produce a recombinant virus that constitutively expressed porcine zona pellucida subunit C protein between the UL21 and UL22 genes of CHV. Complete self-excision of the bacterial genes from CHV was achieved within one round of replication whilst retaining antigen gene expression.

  16. Successful Control of Winter Pyrexias Caused by Equine Herpesvirus Type 1 in Japanese Training Centers by Achieving High Vaccination Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mae, Naomi; Ode, Hirotaka; Nemoto, Manabu; Tsujimura, Koji; Yamanaka, Takashi; Kondo, Takashi; Matsumura, Tomio

    2014-01-01

    Equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) is a major cause of winter pyrexia in racehorses in two training centers (Ritto and Miho) in Japan. Until the epizootic period of 2008-2009, a vaccination program using a killed EHV-1 vaccine targeted only susceptible 3-year-old horses with low antibody levels to EHV-1 antigens. However, because the protective effect was not satisfactory, in 2009-2010 the vaccination program was altered to target all 3-year-old horses. To evaluate the vaccine's efficacy, we investigated the number of horses with pyrexia due to EHV-1 or equine herpesvirus type 4 (EHV-4) infection or both and examined the vaccination coverage in the 3-year-old population and in the whole population before and after changes in the program. The mean (± standard deviation [SD]) estimated numbers of horses infected with EHV-1 or EHV-4 or both, among pyretic horses from 1999-2000 to 2008-2009 were 105 ± 47 at Ritto and 66 ± 44 at Miho. Although the estimated number of infected horses did not change greatly in the first period of the current program, it decreased from the second period, with means (±SD) of 21 ± 12 at Ritto and 14 ± 15 at Miho from 2010-2011 to 2012-2013. Vaccination coverage in the 3-year-old population was 99.4% at Ritto and 99.8% at Miho in the first period, and similar values were maintained thereafter. Coverage in the whole population increased more gradually than that in the 3-year-old population. The results suggest that EHV-1 epizootics can be suppressed by maintaining high vaccination coverage, not only in the 3-year-old population but also in the whole population. PMID:24872513

  17. Immune responses to commercial equine vaccines against equine herpesvirus-1, equine influenza virus, eastern equine encephalomyelitis, and tetanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Mark A; Townsend, Hugh G G; Kohler, Andrea K; Hussey, Steve; Breathnach, Cormac; Barnett, Craig; Holland, Robert; Lunn, D P

    2006-05-15

    Horses are commonly vaccinated to protect against pathogens which are responsible for diseases which are endemic within the general horse population, such as equine influenza virus (EIV) and equine herpesvirus-1 (EHV-1), and against a variety of diseases which are less common but which lead to greater morbidity and mortality, such as eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (EEE) and tetanus. This study consisted of two trials which investigated the antigenicity of commercially available vaccines licensed in the USA to protect against EIV, EHV-1 respiratory disease, EHV-1 abortion, EEE and tetanus in horses. Trial I was conducted to compare serological responses to vaccines produced by three manufacturers against EIV, EHV-1 (respiratory disease), EEE, and tetanus given as multivalent preparations or as multiple vaccine courses. Trial II compared vaccines from two manufacturers licensed to protect against EHV-1 abortion, and measured EHV-1-specific interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) mRNA production in addition to serological evidence of antigenicity. In Trial I significant differences were found between the antigenicity of different commercial vaccines that should be considered in product selection. It was difficult to identify vaccines that generate significant immune responses to respiratory viruses. The most dramatic differences in vaccine performance occurred in the case of the tetanus antigen. In Trial II both vaccines generated significant antibody responses and showed evidence of EHV-1-specific IFN-gamma mRNA responses. Overall there were wide variations in vaccine response, and the vaccines with the best responses were not produced by a single manufacturer. Differences in vaccine performance may have resulted from differences in antigen load and adjuvant formulation.

  18. A simple and rapid approach to develop recombinant avian herpesvirus vectored vaccines using CRISPR/Cas9 system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Na; Zhang, Yaoyao; Pedrera, Miriam; Chang, Pengxiang; Baigent, Susan; Moffat, Katy; Shen, Zhiqiang; Nair, Venugopal; Yao, Yongxiu

    2018-01-29

    Herpesvirus of turkeys (HVT) has been successfully used as live vaccine against Marek's disease (MD) worldwide for more than 40 years either alone or in combination with other serotypes. HVT is also widely used as a vector platform for generation of recombinant vaccines against a number of avian diseases such as infectious bursal disease (IBD), Newcastle disease (ND) and avian influenza (AI) using conventional recombination methods or recombineering tools on cloned viral genomes. In the present study, we describe the application of CRISPR/Cas9-based genome editing as a rapid and efficient method of generating HVT recombinants expressing VP2 protein of IBDV. This approach offers an efficient method to introduce other viral antigens into the HVT genome for rapid development of recombinant vaccines. Copyright © 2018 The Pirbright Institute. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Development of Recombinant Vaccine Using Herpesvirus of Turkey (Hvt as Vector for Several Viral Diseases in Poultry Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risza Hartawan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Herpesvirus of turkey (HVT has been utilised as live vaccine against Marek’s disease in poultry industry world-wide for many years. However, the potency of HVT is not limited on the Marek’s disease only. Along with rapid development of recombinant technique, the potency of HVT can be broaden for other diseases. As naturally apathogenic virus, HVT is a suitable candidate as vector vaccine to express important antigens of viral pathogens. Several researches have been dedicated to design HVT recombinant vaccine by inserting gene of important virus, such as Marek’s disease virus (MDV, immuno bursal disease virus (IBDV, Newcastle disease virus (NDV and Avian Influenza virus (AIV. Therefore, the future recombinant of HVT has been expected to be better in performance along with the improvement of recombinant technique.

  20. Rational development of an attenuated recombinant cyprinid herpesvirus 3 vaccine using prokaryotic mutagenesis and in vivo bioluminescent imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutier, Maxime; Ronsmans, Maygane; Ouyang, Ping; Fournier, Guillaume; Reschner, Anca; Rakus, Krzysztof; Wilkie, Gavin S; Farnir, Frédéric; Bayrou, Calixte; Lieffrig, François; Li, Hong; Desmecht, Daniel; Davison, Andrew J; Vanderplasschen, Alain

    2015-02-01

    Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV 3) is causing severe economic losses worldwide in common and koi carp industries, and a safe and efficacious attenuated vaccine compatible with mass vaccination is needed. We produced single deleted recombinants using prokaryotic mutagenesis. When producing a recombinant lacking open reading frame 134 (ORF134), we unexpectedly obtained a clone with additional deletion of ORF56 and ORF57. This triple deleted recombinant replicated efficiently in vitro and expressed an in vivo safety/efficacy profile compatible with use as an attenuated vaccine. To determine the role of the double ORF56-57 deletion in the phenotype and to improve further the quality of the vaccine candidate, a series of deleted recombinants was produced and tested in vivo. These experiments led to the selection of a double deleted recombinant lacking ORF56 and ORF57 as a vaccine candidate. The safety and efficacy of this strain were studied using an in vivo bioluminescent imaging system (IVIS), qPCR, and histopathological examination, which demonstrated that it enters fish via skin infection similar to the wild type strain. However, compared to the parental wild type strain, the vaccine candidate replicated at lower levels and spread less efficiently to secondary sites of infection. Transmission experiments allowing water contamination with or without additional physical contact between fish demonstrated that the vaccine candidate has a reduced ability to spread from vaccinated fish to naïve sentinel cohabitants. Finally, IVIS analyses demonstrated that the vaccine candidate induces a protective mucosal immune response at the portal of entry. Thus, the present study is the first to report the rational development of a recombinant attenuated vaccine against CyHV 3 for mass vaccination of carp. We also demonstrated the relevance of the CyHV 3 carp model for studying alloherpesvirus transmission and mucosal immunity in teleost skin.

  1. Expression of chicken parvovirus VP2 in chicken embryo fibroblasts requires codon optimization for production of naked DNA and vectored Meleagrid herpesvirus type 1 vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meleagrid herpesvirus type 1 (MeHV-1) is an ideal vector for the expression of antigens from pathogenic avian organisms in order to generate vaccines. Chicken parvovirus (ChPV) is a widespread infectious virus that causes serious disease in chickens. It is one of the etiological agents largely suspe...

  2. The vaccine properties of a Brazilian bovine herpesvirus 1 strain with an induced deletion of the gE gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franco, A.C.; Spilki, F.R.; Roehe, P.M.; Rijsewijk, F.A.M.

    2005-01-01

    Aiming at the development of a differential vaccine (DIVA) against infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR), a Brazilian strain of bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV1) with a deletion of the glycoprotein E (gE) gene was constructed (265gE - ). Here we present the experiments performed with this strain in order to evaluate its safety and efficacy as a vaccine virus in cattle. In the first experiment, a group of calves was inoculated with 265gE - and challenged with wild type virus 21 days post-inoculation. Calves immunized with 265gE - virus and challenged with wild type virus developed very mild clinical disease with a significant reduction in the amount of virus excretion and duration. The safety of the 265gE - during pregnancy was assessed using 22 pregnant cows, at different stages of gestation, that were inoculated with the 265gE - virus intramuscularly, with 15 pregnant cows kept as non-vaccinated controls. No abortions, stillbirths or foetal abnormalities were seen after vaccination. The results show that the 265gE - recombinant is attenuated and able to prevent clinical disease upon challenge. This recombinant will be further evaluated as a candidate virus for a BHV1 differential vaccine. (author)

  3. Clinical and immunological assessment of therapeutic immunization with a subunit vaccine for recurrent ocular canine herpesvirus-1 infection in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledbetter, Eric C; Kim, Kay; Dubovi, Edward J; Mohammed, Hussni O; Felippe, M Julia B

    2016-12-25

    Latent canine herpesvirus-1 (CHV-1) infections are common in domestic dogs and reactivation of latent virus may be associated with recurrent ocular disease. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the ability of a subunit CHV-1 vaccine to stimulate peripheral CHV-1 specific immunity and prevent recurrent CHV-1 ocular disease and viral shedding. Mature dogs with experimentally-induced latent CHV-1 infection received a 2-dose CHV-1 vaccine series. Recurrent ocular CHV-1 infection was induced by corticosteroid administration in the prevaccinal, short-term postvaccinal (2 weeks post-vaccination), and long-term postvacccinal (34 weeks post-vaccination) periods. Immunological, virological, and clinical parameters were evaluated during each study period. Quantitative assessment of peripheral immunity included lymphocyte immunophenotyping, proliferation response, and interferon-γ production; and CHV-1 virus neutralizing antibody production. In the present study, vaccination did not prevent development of ocular disease and viral shedding; however, there was a significant decrease in clinical ocular disease scores in the short-term postvaccinal period. Significant alterations in peripheral immunity detected in the dogs during the short-term and long-term postvaccinal periods included increased T and B lymphocyte subpopulation percentage distributions, increased lymphocyte expression of major histocompatibility complex class I and II, increased CHV-1 virus neutralizing antibody titers, decreased lymphocyte proliferation, and decreased interferon-γ production. Vaccination of latently infected mature dogs with the selected subunit CHV-1 vaccine was not effective in preventing recurrent ocular CHV-1 infection and viral shedding induced by corticosteroid administration. The vaccine did induce long-term CHV-1 specific immunity and may decrease the severity of clinical ocular disease in the immediate postvaccinal period. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  4. Probiotics Bacillus toyonensis and Saccharomyces boulardii improve the vaccine immune response to Bovine herpesvirus type 5 in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Talita Bandeira; de Moraes, Carina Martins; Sturbelle, Régis Tuchtenhagen; Dummer, Luana Alves; Fischer, Geferson; Leite, Fábio Pereira Leivas

    2018-04-01

    There have been significant efforts toward the development of more efficient vaccines for animal health. A strategy that may be used to improve vaccine efficacy is the use of probiotics. Bovine herpesvirus 5 (BoHV-5) is an example of an important animal pathogen for which vaccines have provided only limited protection. In this study, we examined the use of the probiotics Bacillus toyonensis and Saccharomyces boulardii as a potential immune modulator to improve vaccine efficiency. Thirty, 5-month-old lambs were randomly grouped in three lots of 10 each and vaccinated at days 0, 21 and 42 of the experiment. They grazed on the same pasture and were fed ad libitum twice a day with commercial sheep feed supplemented with either B. toyonensis (1×10 6 CFU/g of feed) or S. boulardii (1×10 7 CFU/g of feed), or non-supplemented feed. The probiotic supplementation was suspended day 28; thereafter, the next 35days, they were fed with the same commercial feed as control group. Animals supplemented with probiotics showed a significant (p>0.001) increased seroconversions against BoHV-5, and higher neutralizing antibodies titres (p>0.05) to BoHV-5 than non-supplemented animals. At 63days of experiment, splenocytes from the supplemented sheep had higher mRNA transcription levels of cytokines IL-10 and IL-17A. These results suggest that these probiotics could provide a promising means of improving vaccine efficacy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Intraspecific bovine herpesvirus 1 recombinants carrying glycoprotein E deletion as a vaccine marker are virulent in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muylkens, Benoît; Meurens, François; Schynts, Frédéric; Farnir, Frédéric; Pourchet, Aldo; Bardiau, Marjorie; Gogev, Sacha; Thiry, Julien; Cuisenaire, Adeline; Vanderplasschen, Alain; Thiry, Etienne

    2006-08-01

    Vaccines used in control programmes of Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) utilize highly attenuated BoHV-1 strains marked by a deletion of the glycoprotein E (gE) gene. Since BoHV-1 recombinants are obtained at high frequency in experimentally coinfected cattle, the consequences of recombination on the virulence of gE-negative BoHV-1 were investigated. Thus, gE-negative BoHV-1 recombinants were generated in vitro from several virulent BoHV-1 and one mutant BoHV-1 deleted in the gC and gE genes. Four gE-negative recombinants were tested in the natural host. All the recombinants were more virulent than the gE-negative BoHV-1 vaccine and the gC- and gE-negative parental BoHV-1. The gE-negative recombinant isolated from a BoHV-1 field strain induced the highest severe clinical score. Latency and reactivation studies showed that three of the recombinants were reexcreted. Recombination can therefore restore virulence of gE-negative BoHV-1 by introducing the gE deletion into a different virulence background.

  6. Evaluation of a vectored equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) vaccine expressing H3 haemagglutinin in the protection of dogs against canine influenza

    OpenAIRE

    Rosas, Cristina; Van de Walle, Gerlinde R.; Metzger, Stephan M.; Hoelzer, Karin; Dubovi, Edward J.; Kim, Sung G.; Parrish, Colin R.; Osterrieder, Nikolaus

    2008-01-01

    In 2004, canine influenza virus (CIV) was identified as a respiratory pathogen of dogs for the first time and is closely related to H3N8 equine influenza virus (EIV). We generated a recombinant vectored vaccine that expresses H3 of a recent isolate of EIV using equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) as the delivery vehicle. This EHV-1 vectored vaccine exhibited robust and stable EIV H3 expression and induced a strong influenza virus-specific response in both mice and dogs upon intranasal or subcut...

  7. In Ovo Vaccination with Turkey Herpesvirus Hastens Maturation of Chicken Embryo Immune Responses in Specific-Pathogen-Free Chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimeno, Isabel M; Faiz, Nik M; Cortes, Aneg L; Barbosa, Taylor; Villalobos, Tarsicio; Pandiri, Arun R

    2015-09-01

    Administration of Marek's disease (MD) vaccines in ovo has become a common practice for the poultry industry. Efficacy of MD vaccines is very high, even though they are administered to chicken embryos that are immunologically immature. We have recently demonstrated that in ovo vaccination with turkey herpesvirus (HVT) results in increased activation of T cells at hatch. Our previous results suggested that in ovo vaccination with HVT might have a positive impact not only on MD protection but also on the overall maturity of the developing immune system of the chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus). The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of administration of HVT at 18 days of embryonation (ED) on the maturation of the embryo immune system. Four experiments were conducted in Specific-Pathogen-Free Avian Supplies (SPAFAS) chickens to evaluate the effect of administration of HVT at 18 ED on the splenic cell phenotypes at day of age (experiment 1) and on the ability of 1-day-old chickens to respond to various antigens compared with older birds (experiments 2 and 3). In addition, a fourth experiment was conducted to elucidate whether administration of other serotype's MD vaccines (CVI988 and SB-1) at 18 ED had the same effect as HVT on the spleen cell phenotypes at day of age. Our results demonstrated that 1-day-old chickens that had received HVT in ovo (1-day HVT) had higher percentages of CD45+, MHC-I+, CD45+MHC-I+, CD3+, MHC-II+, CD3+MHC-II+, CD4+, CD8+, and CD4+CD8+ cells in the spleen than 1-day-old sham-inoculated chickens (1-day sham). Moreover, spleens of 1-day HVT chickens had greater percentages of CD45+MHC-I+ cells and equal or greater numbers of CD4+CD8- and CD4-CD8+ cells than older unvaccinated chickens. In addition, administration of HVT at 18 ED rendered chicks at hatch more responsive to unrelated antigens such as concavalin A, phytohemagglutinin-L, and keyhole limpet hemocyanin. Administration of MD vaccines of other serotypes had an effect

  8. Evaluation of a vectored equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) vaccine expressing H3 haemagglutinin in the protection of dogs against canine influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas, Cristina; Van de Walle, Gerlinde R; Metzger, Stephan M; Hoelzer, Karin; Dubovi, Edward J; Kim, Sung G; Parrish, Colin R; Osterrieder, Nikolaus

    2008-05-02

    In 2004, canine influenza virus (CIV) was identified as a respiratory pathogen of dogs for the first time and found to be closely related to H3N8 equine influenza virus (EIV). We generated a recombinant vectored vaccine that expresses H3 of a recent isolate of EIV using equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) as the delivery vehicle. This EHV-1 vectored vaccine exhibited robust and stable EIV H3 expression and induced a strong influenza virus-specific response in both mice and dogs upon intranasal or subcutaneous administration. Furthermore, upon challenge with the recent CIV isolate A/canine/PA/10915-07, protection of vaccinated dogs could be demonstrated by a significant reduction in clinical sings, and, more importantly, by a significant reduction in virus shedding. We concluded that the EHV-1/H3 recombinant vector can be a valuable alternative for protection of dogs against clinical disease induced by CIV and can significantly reduce virus spread.

  9. Frequency of antibodies against bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1 in beef cattle not vaccinated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermilton Junio Pereira de Freitas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1, is responsible for clinical manifestations such as infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, abortion, conjunctivitis, infectious pustular vulvovaginitis and balanoposthitis. This virus has been responsible for major losses in different productive and reproductive herds in the country. Thus, the objective of this study was to estimate the frequency of antibodies against BoHV-1 in beef heifers not vaccinated in Microregion of Imperatriz, Maranhao, and identify the age group most affected by the virus, as well as a study of factors associated with virus infection and to evaluate the indirect ELISA using the serum neutralization (SN as a reference standard. The study was conducted in 48 herds, cutting, distributed in 12 counties of Microregion of Imperatriz. The samples were collected from female cattle stratified into three age groups, ? 12 months, between 12 and 36 months and ? 36 months of age. The samples were subjected to two serological tests, ELISA and SN. In each herd, an epidemiological questionnaire was applied in order to obtain information on management and reproductive sanitary, for the study of risk factors. The frequency of antibodies against BoHV-1 in Microregion of Imperatriz was 63.23%, and the municipalities of Açailândia Buritirana showed the highest frequencies, both with 80.44%, the most affected age group, the Microregion, was animals aged ? 36 months (69.65%. Based on the results we can conclude that the frequency of antibodies against BoHV-1 is high, between the age groups most affected were the animals aged ? 36 months were considered risk factors for virus transmission, return to estrus (OR=1.874, recovery of animals from other states / region (OR=1.365 and the creation of goat / sheep associated with bovine (OR=1.348, the indirect ELISA technique showed moderate concordance when compared to SN technique, which is the gold standard technique for diagnosis of BoHV-1.

  10. A caprine herpesvirus 1 vaccine adjuvanted with MF59™ protects against vaginal infection and interferes with the establishment of latency in goats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariarosaria Marinaro

    Full Text Available The immunogenicity and the efficacy of a beta-propiolactone-inactivated caprine herpesvirus 1 (CpHV-1 vaccine adjuvanted with MF59™ were tested in goats. Following two subcutaneous immunizations, goats developed high titers of CpHV-1-specific serum and vaginal IgG and high serum virus neutralization (VN titers. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC stimulated in vitro with inactivated CpHV-1 produced high levels of soluble IFN-gamma and exhibited high frequencies of IFN-gamma producing cells while soluble IL-4 was undetectable. On the other hand, control goats receiving the inactivated CpHV-1 vaccine without adjuvant produced only low serum antibody responses. A vaginal challenge with virulent CpHV-1 was performed in all vaccinated goats and in naïve goats to assess the efficacy of the two vaccines. Vaginal disease was not detected in goats vaccinated with inactivated CpHV-1 plus MF59™ and these animals had undetectable levels of infectious challenge virus in their vaginal washes. Goats vaccinated with inactivated CpHV-1 in the absence of adjuvant exhibited a less severe disease when compared to naïve goats but shed titers of challenge virus that were similar to those of naïve goats. Detection and quantitation of latent CpHV-1 DNA in sacral ganglia in challenged goats revealed that the inactivated CpHV-1 plus MF59™ vaccine was able to significantly reduce the latent viral load when compared either to the naïve goats or to the goats vaccinated with inactivated CpHV-1 in the absence of adjuvant. Thus, a vaccine composed of inactivated CpHV-1 plus MF59™ as adjuvant was strongly immunogenic and induced effective immunity against vaginal CpHV-1 infection in goats.

  11. A Caprine Herpesvirus 1 Vaccine Adjuvanted with MF59™ Protects against Vaginal Infection and Interferes with the Establishment of Latency in Goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinaro, Mariarosaria; Rezza, Giovanni; Del Giudice, Giuseppe; Colao, Valeriana; Tarsitano, Elvira; Camero, Michele; Losurdo, Michele; Buonavoglia, Canio; Tempesta, Maria

    2012-01-01

    The immunogenicity and the efficacy of a beta-propiolactone-inactivated caprine herpesvirus 1 (CpHV-1) vaccine adjuvanted with MF59™ were tested in goats. Following two subcutaneous immunizations, goats developed high titers of CpHV-1-specific serum and vaginal IgG and high serum virus neutralization (VN) titers. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) stimulated in vitro with inactivated CpHV-1 produced high levels of soluble IFN-gamma and exhibited high frequencies of IFN-gamma producing cells while soluble IL-4 was undetectable. On the other hand, control goats receiving the inactivated CpHV-1 vaccine without adjuvant produced only low serum antibody responses. A vaginal challenge with virulent CpHV-1 was performed in all vaccinated goats and in naïve goats to assess the efficacy of the two vaccines. Vaginal disease was not detected in goats vaccinated with inactivated CpHV-1 plus MF59™ and these animals had undetectable levels of infectious challenge virus in their vaginal washes. Goats vaccinated with inactivated CpHV-1 in the absence of adjuvant exhibited a less severe disease when compared to naïve goats but shed titers of challenge virus that were similar to those of naïve goats. Detection and quantitation of latent CpHV-1 DNA in sacral ganglia in challenged goats revealed that the inactivated CpHV-1 plus MF59™ vaccine was able to significantly reduce the latent viral load when compared either to the naïve goats or to the goats vaccinated with inactivated CpHV-1 in the absence of adjuvant. Thus, a vaccine composed of inactivated CpHV-1 plus MF59™ as adjuvant was strongly immunogenic and induced effective immunity against vaginal CpHV-1 infection in goats. PMID:22511971

  12. Protection conferred by recombinant turkey herpesvirus avian influenza (rHVT-H5) vaccine in the rearing period in two commercial layer chicken breeds in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilany, Walid; Dauphin, Gwenaelle; Selim, Abdullah; Tripodi, Astrid; Samy, Mohamed; Sobhy, Heba; VonDobschuetz, Sophie; Safwat, Marwa; Saad, Mona; Erfan, Ahmed; Hassan, Mohamed; Lubroth, Juan; Jobre, Yilma

    2014-01-01

    The effectiveness of recombinant turkey herpesvirus avian influenza (A/swan/Hungary/4999/2006(H5N1)) clade 2.2 virus (rHVT-H5) vaccine was evaluated in two layer chicken breeds (White Bovans [WB] and Brown Shaver [BS]). One dose of rHVT-H5 vaccine was administered at day 1 and birds were monitored serologically (haemagglutination inhibition test) and virologically for 19 weeks. Maternally-derived antibody and post-vaccination H5 antibody titres were measured using the Chinese (A/Goose/Guangdong/1/96(H5N1)) HA and the Egyptian (A/chicken/Egypt/128s/2012(H5N1)) HA as antigens. The challenge was conducted at 19 weeks of age and on six experimental groups: Groups I (WB) and II (BS), both vaccinated and challenged; Groups III (WB) and IV (BS), both vaccinated but not challenged; Groups V and VI, unvaccinated specific pathogen free chickens, serving respectively as positive and negative controls. The challenge virus was the clade 2.2.1 highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 A/chicken/Egypt/128s/2012 at a dose of 10(6) median embryo infective dose. For both breeds, complete maternally-derived antibody waning occurred at the age of 4 weeks. The immune response to rHVT-H5 vaccination was detected from the sixth week. The seroconversion rates for both breeds reached 85.7 to 100% in the eighth week of age. Protection levels of 73.3%, 60% and 0% were respectively recorded in Groups I, II and V. No mortalities occurred in the unchallenged groups. Group I showed superior results for all measured post-challenge parameters. In conclusion, a single rHVT-H5 hatchery vaccination conferred a high level of protection for a relatively extended period. This vaccine could be an important tool for future A/H5N1 prevention/control in endemic countries. Further studies on persistence of immunity beyond 19 weeks, need for booster with inactivated vaccines, breed susceptibility and vaccinal response, and transmissibility are recommended.

  13. A Promising Recombinant Herpesvirus of Turkeys Vaccine Expressing PmpD-N of Chlamydia psittaci Based on Elongation Factor-1 Alpha Promoter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanshan Liu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The obligate intracellular Gram-negative bacterium Chlamydia psittaci often causes avian chlamydiosis and influenza-like symptoms in humans. However, the commercial subunit C. psittaci vaccine could only provide a partial protection against avian chlamydiosis due to poor cellular immune response. In our previous study, a recombinant herpesvirus of turkeys (HVT-delivered vaccine against C. psittaci and Marek’s disease based on human cytomegalovirus (CMV promoter (rHVT-CMV-pmpD was developed and provided an effective protection against C. psittaci disease with less lesions and reduced chlamydial loads. In this study, we developed another recombinant HVT vaccine expressing the N-terminal fragment of PmpD (PmpD-N based on human elongation factor-1 alpha (EF-1α promoter (rHVT-EF-pmpD by modifying the HVT genome within a bacterial artificial chromosome. The related characterization of rHVT-EF-pmpD was evaluated in vitro in comparison with that of rHVT-CMV-pmpD. The expression of PmpD-N was determined by western blot. Under immunofluorescence microscopy, PmpD-N protein of both two recombinant viruses was located in the cytoplasm and on the cell surface. Growth kinetics of rHVT-EF-pmpD was comparable to that of rHVT-CMV-pmpD, and the growth rate of rHVT-EF-pmpD was apparently higher than that of rHVT-CMV-pmpD on 48, 72, and 120 h postinfection. Macrophages activated by rHVT-EF-pmpD could produce more nitric oxide and IL-6 than that activated by rHVT-CMV-pmpD. In this study, a recombinant HVT vaccine expressing PmpD-N based on EF-1α promoter was constructed successfully, and a further research in vivo was needed to analyze the vaccine efficacy.

  14. Herpesvirus systematics☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, Andrew J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper is about the taxonomy and genomics of herpesviruses. Each theme is presented as a digest of current information flanked by commentaries on past activities and future directions. The International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses recently instituted a major update of herpesvirus classification. The former family Herpesviridae was elevated to a new order, the Herpesvirales, which now accommodates 3 families, 3 subfamilies, 17 genera and 90 species. Future developments will include revisiting the herpesvirus species definition and the criteria used for taxonomic assignment, particularly in regard to the possibilities of classifying the large number of herpesviruses detected only as DNA sequences by polymerase chain reaction. Nucleotide sequence accessions in primary databases, such as GenBank, consist of the sequences plus annotations of the genetic features. The quality of these accessions is important because they provide a knowledge base that is used widely by the research community. However, updating the accessions to take account of improved knowledge is essentially reserved to the original depositors, and this activity is rarely undertaken. Thus, the primary databases are likely to become antiquated. In contrast, secondary databases are open to curation by experts other than the original depositors, thus increasing the likelihood that they will remain up to date. One of the most promising secondary databases is RefSeq, which aims to furnish the best available annotations for complete genome sequences. Progress in regard to improving the RefSeq herpesvirus accessions is discussed, and insights into particular aspects of herpesvirus genomics arising from this work are reported. PMID:20346601

  15. Expression of chicken parvovirus VP2 in chicken embryo fibroblasts requires codon optimization for production of naked DNA and vectored meleagrid herpesvirus type 1 vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spatz, Stephen J; Volkening, Jeremy D; Mullis, Robert; Li, Fenglan; Mercado, John; Zsak, Laszlo

    2013-10-01

    Meleagrid herpesvirus type 1 (MeHV-1) is an ideal vector for the expression of antigens from pathogenic avian organisms in order to generate vaccines. Chicken parvovirus (ChPV) is a widespread infectious virus that causes serious disease in chickens. It is one of the etiological agents largely suspected in causing Runting Stunting Syndrome (RSS) in chickens. Initial attempts to express the wild-type gene encoding the capsid protein VP2 of ChPV by insertion into the thymidine kinase gene of MeHV-1 were unsuccessful. However, transient expression of a codon-optimized synthetic VP2 gene cloned into the bicistronic vector pIRES2-Ds-Red2, could be demonstrated by immunocytochemical staining of transfected chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEFs). Red fluorescence could also be detected in these transfected cells since the red fluorescent protein gene is downstream from the internal ribosome entry site (IRES). Strikingly, fluorescence could not be demonstrated in cells transiently transfected with the bicistronic vector containing the wild-type or non-codon-optimized VP2 gene. Immunocytochemical staining of these cells also failed to demonstrate expression of wild-type VP2, indicating that the lack of expression was at the RNA level and the VP2 protein was not toxic to CEFs. Chickens vaccinated with a DNA vaccine consisting of the bicistronic vector containing the codon-optimized VP2 elicited a humoral immune response as measured by a VP2-specific ELISA. This VP2 codon-optimized bicistronic cassette was rescued into the MeHV-1 genome generating a vectored vaccine against ChPV disease.

  16. Intramuscular Immunization of Mice with the Live-Attenuated Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Vaccine Strain VC2 Expressing Equine Herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) Glycoprotein D Generates Anti-EHV-1 Immune Responses in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shiliang A; Stanfield, Brent A; Chouljenko, Vladimir N; Naidu, Shan; Langohr, Ingeborg; Del Piero, Fabio; Ferracone, Jacqueline; Roy, Alma A; Kousoulas, Konstantin G

    2017-06-15

    Vaccination remains the best option to combat equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) infection, and several different strategies of vaccination have been investigated and developed over the past few decades. Herein, we report that the live-attenuated herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) VC2 vaccine strain, which has been shown to be unable to enter into neurons and establish latency in mice, can be utilized as a vector for the heterologous expression of EHV-1 glycoprotein D (gD) and that the intramuscular immunization of mice results in strong antiviral humoral and cellular immune responses. The VC2-EHV-1-gD recombinant virus was constructed by inserting an EHV-1 gD expression cassette under the control of the cytomegalovirus immediate early promoter into the VC2 vector in place of the HSV-1 thymidine kinase (UL23) gene. The vaccines were introduced into mice through intramuscular injection. Vaccination with both the VC2-EHV-1-gD vaccine and the commercially available vaccine Vetera EHV XP 1/4 (Vetera; Boehringer Ingelheim Vetmedica) resulted in the production of neutralizing antibodies, the levels of which were significantly higher in comparison to those in VC2- and mock-vaccinated animals ( P < 0.01 or P < 0.001). Analysis of EHV-1-reactive IgG subtypes demonstrated that vaccination with the VC2-EHV-1-gD vaccine stimulated robust IgG1 and IgG2a antibodies after three vaccinations ( P < 0.001). Interestingly, Vetera-vaccinated mice produced significantly higher levels of IgM than mice in the other groups before and after challenge ( P < 0.01 or P < 0.05). Vaccination with VC2-EHV-1-gD stimulated strong cellular immune responses, characterized by the upregulation of both interferon- and tumor necrosis factor-positive CD4 + T cells and CD8 + T cells. Overall, the data suggest that the HSV-1 VC2 vaccine strain may be used as a viral vector for the vaccination of horses as well as, potentially, for the vaccination of other economically important animals. IMPORTANCE A novel virus

  17. Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus pathogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Sandra; Schulz, Thomas F.

    2017-01-01

    Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV), taxonomical name human gammaherpesvirus 8, is a phylogenetically old human virus that co-evolved with human populations, but is now only common (seroprevalence greater than 10%) in sub-Saharan Africa, around the Mediterranean Sea, parts of South America and in a few ethnic communities. KSHV causes three human malignancies, Kaposi sarcoma, primary effusion lymphoma, and many cases of the plasmablastic form of multicentric Castleman's disease (MCD) as well as occasional cases of plasmablastic lymphoma arising from MCD; it has also been linked to rare cases of bone marrow failure and hepatitis. As it has colonized humans physiologically for many thousand years, cofactors are needed to allow it to unfold its pathogenic potential. In most cases, these include immune defects of genetic, iatrogenic or infectious origin, and inflammation appears to play an important role in disease development. Our much improved understanding of its life cycle and its role in pathogenesis should now allow us to develop new therapeutic strategies directed against key viral proteins or intracellular pathways that are crucial for virus replication or persistence. Likewise, its limited (for a herpesvirus) distribution and transmission should offer an opportunity for the development and use of a vaccine to prevent transmission. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Human oncogenic viruses’. PMID:28893942

  18. The efficacy of a multivalent calicivirus, herpesvirus and parvovirus vaccine and a rabies vaccine is not affected when administered in combination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Wilson

    2015-01-01

    In conclusion, the data show that combining these two separate vaccines in one administration has limited impact on their ability to generate serological responses, and that these responses are still of a magnitude previously demonstrated to be protective.

  19. Experimental and Field Results Regarding Immunity Induced by a Recombinant Turkey Herpesvirus H5 Vector Vaccine Against H5N1 and Other H5 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardin, Yannick; Palya, Vilmos; Dorsey, Kristi Moore; El-Attrache, John; Bonfante, Francesco; Wit, Sjaak de; Kapczynski, Darrell; Kilany, Walid Hamdy; Rauw, Fabienne; Steensels, Mieke; Soejoedono, Retno D

    2016-05-01

    Vaccination against H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (AI) virus (HPAIV) is one of the possible complementary means available for affected countries to control AI when the disease has become, or with a high risk of becoming, endemic. Efficacy of the vaccination against AI relies essentially, but not exclusively, on the capacity of the vaccine to induce immunity against the targeted virus (which is prone to undergo antigenic variations), as well as its capacity to overcome interference with maternal immunity transmitted by immunized breeding hens to their progeny. This property of the vaccine is a prerequisite for its administration at the hatchery, which assures higher and more reliable vaccine coverage of the populations than vaccination at the farm. A recombinant vector vaccine (Vectormune® AI), based on turkey herpesvirus expressing the hemagglutinin gene of an H5N1 HPAIV as an insert, has been used in several experiments conducted in different research laboratories, as well as in controlled field trials. The results have demonstrated a high degree of homologous and cross protection against different genetic clades of the H5N1 HPAIV. Furthermore, vaccine-induced immunity was not impaired by the presence of passive immunity, but on the contrary, cumulated with it for improved early protection. The demonstrated levels of protection against the different challenge viruses exhibited variations in terms of postchallenge mortality, as well as challenge virus shedding. The data presented here highlight the advantages of this vaccine as a useful and reliable tool to complement biosecurity and sanitary policies for better controlling the disease due to HPAIV of H5 subtypes, when the vaccination is applied as a control measure.

  20. Efficacy of a Recombinant Turkey Herpesvirus H5 Vaccine Against Challenge With H5N1 Clades 1.1.2 and 2.3.2.1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses in Domestic Ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantin-Jackwood, Mary J; Kapczynski, Darrell R; DeJesus, Eric; Costa-Hurtado, Mar; Dauphin, Gwenaelle; Tripodi, Astrid; Dunn, John R; Swayne, David E

    2016-03-01

    Domestic ducks are the second most abundant poultry species in many Asian countries and have played a critical role in the epizootiology of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI).In this study, the protective efficacy of a live recombinant vector vaccine based on a turkey herpesvirus (HVT) expressing the H5 gene from a clade 2.2 H5N1 HPAI strain (A/Swan/Hungary/4999/ 2006) (rHVT-H5/2.2), given at 3 days of age, was examined in Pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus). The vaccine was given alone or in combination with an inactivated H5N1 clade 2.3.2.1 reverse genetic (rgGD/2.3.2.1) vaccine given at 16 days of age, either as a single vaccination or in a prime-boost regime. At 30 days of age, ducks were challenged with one of two H5N1 HPAI viruses: A/duck/Vietnam/NCVD-2721/2013 (clade 1.1.2) or A/duck/Vietnam/NCVD-1584/2012 (clade 2.3.2.1.C). These viruses produced 100% mortality in less than 5 days in nonvaccinated control ducks. Ducks vaccinated with the rgGD/2.3.2.1 vaccine, with or without the rHVT-H5/2.2 vaccine, were 90%-100% protected against mortality after challenge with either of the two H5N1 HPAI viruses. The rHVT-H5/2.2 vaccine alone, however, conferred only 30% protection against mortality after challenge with either H5N1 HPAI virus; the surviving ducks from these groups shed higher amount of virus and for longer than the single-vaccinated rgGD/2.3.2.1 group. Despite low protection, ducks vaccinated with the rHVT-H5/2.2 vaccine and challenged with the clade 1.1.2 Vietnam virus had a longer mean death time than nonvaccinated controls (P = 0.02). A booster effect was found on reduction of virus shedding when using both vaccines, with lower oropharyngeal viral titers at 4 days after challenge with either HPAI virus (P study demonstrates the suboptimal protection with the rHVT-H5/2.2 vaccine given alone in Pekin ducks against H5N1 HPAI viruses and only a minor additive effect on virus shedding reduction when used with an inactivated vaccine in a

  1. Herpesviruses that Infect Fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moshe Kotler

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Herpesviruses are host specific pathogens that are widespread among vertebrates. Genome sequence data demonstrate that most herpesviruses of fish and amphibians are grouped together (family Alloherpesviridae and are distantly related to herpesviruses of reptiles, birds and mammals (family Herpesviridae. Yet, many of the biological processes of members of the order Herpesvirales are similar. Among the conserved characteristics are the virion structure, replication process, the ability to establish long term latency and the manipulation of the host immune response. Many of the similar processes may be due to convergent evolution. This overview of identified herpesviruses of fish discusses the diseases that alloherpesviruses cause, the biology of these viruses and the host-pathogen interactions. Much of our knowledge on the biology of Alloherpesvirdae is derived from research with two species: Ictalurid herpesvirus 1 (channel catfish virus and Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (koi herpesvirus.

  2. Herpesviruses that infect fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Larry; Dishon, Arnon; Kotler, Moshe

    2011-11-01

    Herpesviruses are host specific pathogens that are widespread among vertebrates. Genome sequence data demonstrate that most herpesviruses of fish and amphibians are grouped together (family Alloherpesviridae) and are distantly related to herpesviruses of reptiles, birds and mammals (family Herpesviridae). Yet, many of the biological processes of members of the order Herpesvirales are similar. Among the conserved characteristics are the virion structure, replication process, the ability to establish long term latency and the manipulation of the host immune response. Many of the similar processes may be due to convergent evolution. This overview of identified herpesviruses of fish discusses the diseases that alloherpesviruses cause, the biology of these viruses and the host-pathogen interactions. Much of our knowledge on the biology of Alloherpesvirdae is derived from research with two species: Ictalurid herpesvirus 1 (channel catfish virus) and Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (koi herpesvirus).

  3. Herpesviruses that Infect Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Larry; Dishon, Arnon; Kotler, Moshe

    2011-01-01

    Herpesviruses are host specific pathogens that are widespread among vertebrates. Genome sequence data demonstrate that most herpesviruses of fish and amphibians are grouped together (family Alloherpesviridae) and are distantly related to herpesviruses of reptiles, birds and mammals (family Herpesviridae). Yet, many of the biological processes of members of the order Herpesvirales are similar. Among the conserved characteristics are the virion structure, replication process, the ability to establish long term latency and the manipulation of the host immune response. Many of the similar processes may be due to convergent evolution. This overview of identified herpesviruses of fish discusses the diseases that alloherpesviruses cause, the biology of these viruses and the host-pathogen interactions. Much of our knowledge on the biology of Alloherpesvirdae is derived from research with two species: Ictalurid herpesvirus 1 (channel catfish virus) and Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (koi herpesvirus). PMID:22163339

  4. Epidemiological situation of Herpesvirus infections in buffalo herds: Bubaline Herpesvirus1 or Bovine Herpesvirus1?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.L. Autorino

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Information on the distribution and related epidemiological characteristics of herpesvirus infections, and in particular referring to Bovine Herpesvirus 1 (BoHV1 and Bubaline Herpesvirus 1 (BuHV1 in buffaloes, have to date not been reported. Different studies based on serological surveys and viral isolation describe the circulation of both infections in this species. The specific etiological attribution of the infections in sero-surveys can be uncertain because of antigenic cross-reactivity of these ruminant α-herpesvirus and therefore depends on the diagnostic techniques employed. For this , we proceeded in verifying the diffusion of the two infections in a buffalo population of Central Italy. The sample size for the number of herds to test was defined considering an expected prevalence > 20% and the number of heads to be tested within each herd was established using an expected prevalence of > 25% (absolute precision of 5%, with 95% confidence level. The 155 herds to test were those with no IBR vaccination history. A maximum of 15 random blood samples were collected within the >3 year age category. The same sampling criteria was adopted when cows were present on buffalo farms to study the possible role of this species. Through the combined use of gB-gE Elisa tests, we assigned a specific infection status, for the BuHV1 infection status (gB-pos/gE-neg, as confirmed by an experimental infection conducted by us inoculating buffaloes with the BuHV1 “strain Metzler”, and for the BoHV1 status (gBpos/ gE-pos as that observed for the infection in bovines. Prevalence of infection, based on the Elisa status of each animal, were estimated for the whole sample and within each herd. Furthermore, the selected farms were investigated for their numeric consistency, presence of bovines, occurrence of typical clinical herpesvirus disorders occurring during the year prior to sampling. The association of these factors with the infection status was verified

  5. Laser Adjuvant-Assisted Peptide Vaccine Promotes Skin Mobilization of Dendritic Cells and Enhances Protective CD8+ TEM and TRM Cell Responses against Herpesvirus Infection and Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Patricia P; Todorov, George; Pham, Thanh T; Nesburn, Anthony B; Bahraoui, Elmostafa; BenMohamed, Lbachir

    2018-04-15

    There is an urgent need for chemical-free and biological-free safe adjuvants to enhance the immunogenicity of vaccines against widespread viral pathogens, such as herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2), that infect a large proportion of the world human population. In the present study, we investigated the safety, immunogenicity, and protective efficacy of a laser adjuvant-assisted peptide (LAP) vaccine in the B6 mouse model of genital herpes. This LAP vaccine and its laser-free peptide (LFP) vaccine analog contain the immunodominant HSV-2 glycoprotein B CD8 + T cell epitope (HSV-gB 498-505 ) covalently linked with the promiscuous glycoprotein D CD4 + T helper cell epitope (HSV-gD 49-89 ). Prior to intradermal delivery of the LAP vaccine, the lower-flank shaved skin of B6 or CD11c/eYFP transgenic mice received a topical skin treatment with 5% imiquimod cream and then was exposed for 60 s to a laser, using the FDA-approved nonablative diode. Compared to the LFP vaccine, the LAP vaccine (i) triggered mobilization of dendritic cells (DCs) in the skin, which formed small spots along the laser-treated areas, (ii) induced phenotypic and functional maturation of DCs, (iii) stimulated long-lasting HSV-specific effector memory CD8 + T cells (T EM cells) and tissue-resident CD8 + T cells (T RM cells) locally in the vaginal mucocutaneous tissues (VM), and (iv) induced protective immunity against genital herpes infection and disease. As an alternative to currently used conventional adjuvants, the chemical- and biological-free laser adjuvant offers a well-tolerated, simple-to-produce method to enhance mass vaccination for widespread viral infections. IMPORTANCE Herpes simplex viruses 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) infect a large proportion of the world population. There is an urgent need for chemical-free and biological-free safe adjuvants that would advance mass vaccination against the widespread herpes infections. The present study demonstrates that immunization with a laser

  6. Structural Proteomics of Herpesviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, Baptiste; Gillet, Laurent; Vanderplasschen, Alain; Wattiez, Ruddy

    2016-01-01

    Herpesviruses are highly prevalent viruses associated with numerous pathologies both in animal and human populations. Until now, most of the strategies used to prevent or to cure these infections have been unsuccessful because these viruses have developed numerous immune evasion mechanisms. Therefore, a better understanding of their complex lifecycle is needed. In particular, while the genome of numerous herpesviruses has been sequenced, the exact composition of virions remains unknown for most of them. Mass spectrometry has recently emerged as a central method and has permitted fundamental discoveries in virology. Here, we review mass spectrometry-based approaches that have recently allowed a better understanding of the composition of the herpesvirus virion. In particular, we describe strategies commonly used for proper sample preparation and fractionation to allow protein localization inside the particle but also to avoid contamination by nonstructural proteins. A collection of other important data regarding post-translational modifications or the relative abundance of structural proteins is also described. This review also discusses the poorly studied importance of host proteins in herpesvirus structural proteins and the necessity to develop a quantitative workflow to better understand the dynamics of the structural proteome. In the future, we hope that this collaborative effort will assist in the development of new strategies to fight these infections. PMID:26907323

  7. Evaluation of vaccine competition using HVT vector vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkey herpesvirus (HVT) has been widely used as a vaccine for Marek’s disease (MD) since the 1970s. Because HVT is a safe vaccine that is poorly sensitive to interference from maternally derived antibodies, it has seen rising use as a vector for vaccines developed for protection against other comm...

  8. The role of herpesviruses in ocular infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asim V Farooq

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Asim V Farooq1, Arpeet Shah1, Deepak Shukla21Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, 2Department of Microbiology and Immunology, College of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USAAbstract: Ocular infections caused by herpesviruses are an important cause of morbidity. The majority of cases are believed to be associated with herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1, although HSV-2, varicella zoster virus (VZV, cytomegalovirus (CMV and Epstein–Barr virus (EBV are also associated with various ocular diseases. The ability of some herpes viruses to infect various anatomic regions of the eye may be facilitated by entry processes that are cell-type specific, and in many cases may occur more frequently in the immunocompromised. The elimination of the role of herpesviruses in ocular disease remains elusive, as they often develop life-long latency in a large proportion of humans. Experimental vaccines for ocular HSV have shown some benefit in animal models, a result that has not been adequately demonstrated in clinical trials. Meanwhile, ocular involvement in VZV remains unpredictable, and CMV retinitis continues to be an important cause of blindness in those infected by HIV.Keywords: ocular herpes, viral entry, antivirals, epidemiology, seroprevalence, ocular lymphomas, viral vaccine

  9. Herpesviruses and breast milk

    OpenAIRE

    C. Pietrasanta; B. Ghirardi; M.F. Manca; S. Uccella; C. Gualdi; E. Tota; L. Pugni; F. Mosca

    2014-01-01

    Breast milk has always been the best source of nourishment for newborns. However, breast milk can carry a risk of infection, as it can be contaminated with bacterial or viral pathogens. This paper reviews the risk of acquisition of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) and cytomegalovirus (CMV), herpesviruses frequently detected in breastfeeding mothers, via breast milk, focusing on the clinical consequences of this transmission and the possible strategies for preventing it. Maternal VZV infections ar...

  10. HERPESVIRUS INFECTIONS: MYTHS AND REALITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makarenko VD

    2015-04-01

    , immunological and serological methods. It is generally recognized that the treatment of patients with herpes is quite a challenge for practitioners, it requires professional skills in these patients, a differentiated approach depending on the clinical form of the disease, as well as the condition of the patient's immune system. Data of own observations have shown that HVI retains its relevance due to the high infection and morbidity in children (more than 30% of all children referred for advice; the need to use complex laboratory studies; the possibility of persistent currents without clinical manifestations and course of active viral replication, requiring the appointment of antiviral drugs. Conclusions. In order to provide quality health care to patients with HVI requires knowledge of modern principles of diagnosis and therapy. Ability to herpesvirus latency and reactivation of the development of manifest forms of the disease necessitates the development of control strategies for the HVI and more efficient use of suppressive antiviral therapy and vaccine prevention.

  11. Clinical protection of goats against CpHV-1 induced genital disease with a BoHV-4-based vector expressing CpHV-1 gD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano Donofrio

    Full Text Available Caprine herpesvirus type 1 (CpHV-1 is an alphaherpesvirus causing genital disease leading to abortion in adult pregnant goats and a systemic disease with high morbility and mortality in kids. Further, Caprine herpesvirus 1 infection represents a valuable large animal model for human herpesvirus induced genital disease, exploitable for pathogenic studies, new vaccines and antiviral molecules testing. Here, the bovine herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4 based vector derived from an apathogenic isolate of BoHV-4 and expressing the immunodominant CpHV-1 glycoprotein D (BoHV-4-A-gD(cpgD(106ΔTK was constructed and its ability to protect goats against CpHV-1 induced genital disease evaluated. The subcutaneous route of recombinant BoHV-4 administration was first tested in vivo/ex vivo by in vivo image analysis and in vitro by goat skin primary cultures preparation and transduction. Next, an exploratory immunization and safety study in goats was performed with two recombinant BoHV4, BoHV-4-A-gD(cpgD(106ΔTK or BoHV-4-CMV-IgK-gE2gD-TM. In both cases no clinical signs were evident but a good titer of serum neutralizing antibodies was produced in all inoculated animals. When a challenge experiment was performed in a new group of animals using a highly pathogenic dose of CpHV-1, all the vaccinated goats with BoHV-4-A-gD(cpgD(106ΔTK were protected toward CpHV-1 induced genital disease respect to the unvaccinated control which showed typical vaginal lesions with a high grade of clinical score as well as a long lasting viral shedding. In summary, the data acquired in the present study validate BoHV-4-based vector as a safe and effective viral vector for goat vaccination against CpHV-1 induced genital disease and pave the way for further applications.

  12. Two distinct gamma-2 herpesviruses in African green monkeys: a second gamma-2 herpesvirus lineage among old world primates?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greensill, J.; Sheldon, J. A.; Renwick, N. M.; Beer, B. E.; Norley, S.; Goudsmit, J.; Schulz, T. F.

    2000-01-01

    Primate gamma-2 herpesviruses (rhadinoviruses) have so far been found in humans (Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus [KSHV], also called human herpesvirus 8), macaques (Macaca spp.) (rhesus rhadinovirus [RRV] and retroperitoneal fibromatosis herpesvirus [RFHV]), squirrel monkeys (Saimiri

  13. Live recombinant BHV/BRSV vaccine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keil, G.M.; Rijsewijk, F.A.M.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention refers to synthetic Bovine Respiratory Syncytium virus genes. Also the invention relates to live attenuated Bovine Herpesvirus recombinants carrying such synthetic genes. Furthermore, the invention relates to vaccines based on these live attenuated recombinants, for the

  14. [VACCINES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellver Capella, Vincente

    2015-10-01

    Vaccines are an extraordinary instrument of immunization of the population against infectious diseases. Around them there are many ethical issues. One of the most debated is what to do with certain groups opposition to vaccination of their children. States have managed in different ways the conflict between the duty of vaccination and the refusal to use vaccines: some impose the vaccination and others simply promote it. In this article we deal with which of these two approaches is the most suitable from an ethical and legal point of view. We stand up for the second option, which is the current one in Spain, and we propose some measures which should be kept in mind to improve immunization programs.

  15. A neurotropic herpesvirus infecting the gastropod, abalone, shares ancestry with oyster herpesvirus and a herpesvirus associated with the amphioxus genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawbridge Tim

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the exception of the oyster herpesvirus OsHV-1, all herpesviruses characterized thus far infect only vertebrates. Some cause neurological disease in their hosts, while others replicate or become latent in neurological tissues. Recently a new herpesvirus causing ganglioneuritis in abalone, a gastropod, was discovered. Molecular analysis of new herpesviruses, such as this one and others, still to be discovered in invertebrates, will provide insight into the evolution of herpesviruses. Results We sequenced the genome of a neurotropic virus linked to a fatal ganglioneuritis devastating parts of a valuable wild abalone fishery in Australia. We show that the newly identified virus forms part of an ancient clade with its nearest relatives being a herpesvirus infecting bivalves (oyster and, unexpectedly, one we identified, from published data, apparently integrated within the genome of amphioxus, an invertebrate chordate. Predicted protein sequences from the abalone virus genome have significant similarity to several herpesvirus proteins including the DNA packaging ATPase subunit of (putative terminase and DNA polymerase. Conservation of amino acid sequences in the terminase across all herpesviruses and phylogenetic analysis using the DNA polymerase and terminase proteins demonstrate that the herpesviruses infecting the molluscs, oyster and abalone, are distantly related. The terminase and polymerase protein sequences from the putative amphioxus herpesvirus share more sequence similarity with those of the mollusc viruses than with sequences from any of the vertebrate herpesviruses analysed. Conclusions A family of mollusc herpesviruses, Malacoherpesviridae, that was based on a single virus infecting oyster can now be further established by including a distantly related herpesvirus infecting abalone, which, like many vertebrate viruses is neurotropic. The genome of Branchiostoma floridae (amphioxus provides evidence for the

  16. Epidemiology, disease and control of infections in ruminants by herpesviruses - an overview : review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.R. Patel

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available There are at least 16 recognised herpesviruses that naturally infect cattle, sheep, goats and various species of deer and antelopes. Six of the viruses are recognised as distinct alphaherpesviruses and 9 as gammaherpesviruses. Buffalo herpesvirus (BflHV and ovine herpesvirus-1 (OvHV-1 remain officially unclassified. The prevalence of ruminant herpesviruses varies from worldwide to geographically restricted in distribution. Viruses in both subfamilies Alphaherpesvirinae and Gammaherpesvirinae cause mild to moderate and severe disease in respective natural or secondary ruminant hosts. Accordingly, the economic and ecological impact of the viruses is also variable. The molecular characteristics of some members have been investigated in detail. This has led to the identification of virulence-associated genes and construction of deletion mutants and recombinant viruses. Some of the latter have been developed as commercial vaccines. This paper aims to give an overview of the epidemiology and pathogenesis of infection by these viruses, immuno-prophylaxis and mechanisms of recovery from infection. Since there are 128 ruminant species in the family Bovidae, it is likely that some herpesviruses remain undiscovered. We conclude that currently known ruminant alphaherpesviruses occur only in their natural hosts and do not cross stably into other ruminant species. By contrast, gammaherpesviruses have a much broader host range as evidenced by the fact that antibodies reactive to alcelaphine herpesvirus type 1 have been detected in 4 subfamilies in the family Bovidae, namely Alcelaphinae, Hippotraginae, Ovibovinae and Caprinae. New gammaherpesviruses within these subfamilies are likely to be discovered in the future.

  17. Homologous and heterologous antibody responses of mice immunized with purified feline herpesvirus type 1 and canine herpesvirus glycoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limcumpao, J A; Horimoto, T; Xuan, X N; Tohya, Y; Azetaka, M; Takahashi, E; Mikami, T

    1991-06-01

    The three glycoproteins each of feline herpesvirus type 1 (FHV-1) and canine herpesvirus (CHV) were purified by affinity chromatography using glycoprotein-specific monoclonal antibodies and used individually or in combination in immunizing mice to determine their relative immunogenicity. All the glycoproteins induced detectable virus neutralizing antibodies to the homologous virus but FHV-1 gp143/108 and its cross-reacting counterpart, CHV gp145/112, elicited the highest titers not only to the homologous virus but to the heterologous virus as well. The production of ELISA antibodies after glycoprotein immunization was variable, while hemagglutination-inhibiting antibodies were produced by only 1 out of 10 FHV-1 gp60-inoculated mice. In general, the antibody titers induced by CHV glycoproteins were lower than those by FHV-1 glycoproteins. These results indicate that these glycoproteins may be useful as subunit vaccines against FHV-1 and CHV infections.

  18. Herpesviruses and breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrasanta, C; Ghirardi, B; Manca, M F; Uccella, S; Gualdi, C; Tota, E; Pugni, L; Mosca, F

    2014-06-30

    Breast milk has always been the best source of nourishment for newborns. However, breast milk can carry a risk of infection, as it can be contaminated with bacterial or viral pathogens. This paper reviews the risk of acquisition of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) and cytomegalovirus (CMV), herpesviruses frequently detected in breastfeeding mothers, via breast milk, focusing on the clinical consequences of this transmission and the possible strategies for preventing it. Maternal VZV infections are conditions during which breastfeeding may be temporarily contraindicated, but expressed breast milk should always be given to the infant. CMV infection acquired through breast milk rarely causes disease in healthy term newborns; an increased risk of CMV disease has been documented in preterm infants. However, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) does not regard maternal CMV seropositivity as a contraindication to breastfeeding; according to the AAP, in newborns weighing less than 1500 g, the decision should be taken after weighing the benefits of breast milk against the risk of transmission of infection. The real efficacy of the different methods of inactivating CMV in breast milk should be compared in controlled clinical trials, rigorously examining the negative consequences that each of these methods can have on the immunological and nutritional properties of the milk itself, with a view to establish the best risk-benefit ratio of these strategies before they are recommended for use in clinical practice.

  19. Herpesviruses and breast milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Pietrasanta

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Breast milk has always been the best source of nourishment for newborns. However, breast milk can carry a risk of infection, as it can be contaminated with bacterial or viral pathogens. This paper reviews the risk of acquisition of varicella-zoster virus (VZV and cytomegalovirus (CMV, herpesviruses frequently detected in breastfeeding mothers, via breast milk, focusing on the clinical consequences of this transmission and the possible strategies for preventing it. Maternal VZV infections are conditions during which breastfeeding may be temporarily contraindicated, but expressed breast milk should always be given to the infant. CMV infection acquired through breast milk rarely causes disease in healthy term newborns; an increased risk of CMV disease has been documented in preterm infants. However, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP does not regard maternal CMV seropositivity as a contraindication to breastfeeding; according to the AAP, in newborns weighing less than 1500 g, the decision should be taken after weighing the benefits of breast milk against the risk of transmission of infection. The real efficacy of the different methods of inactivating CMV in breast milk should be compared in controlled clinical trials, rigorously examining the negative consequences that each of these methods can have on the immunological and nutritional properties of the milk itself, with a view to establish the best risk-benefit ratio of these strategies before they are recommended for use in clinical practice.

  20. Multiple sclerosis and herpesvirus interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Sciascia do Olival

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis is the most common autoimmune inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system, and its etiology is believed to have both genetic and environmental components. Several viruses have already been implicated as triggers and there are several studies that implicate members of the Herpesviridae family in the pathogenesis of MS. The most important characteristic of these viruses is that they have periods of latency and exacerbations within their biological sanctuary, the central nervous system. The Epstein-Barr, cytomegalovirus, human herpesvirus 6 and human herpesvirus 7 viruses are the members that are most studied as being possible triggers of multiple sclerosis. According to evidence in the literature, the herpesvirus family is strongly involved in the pathogenesis of this disease, but it is unlikely that they are the only component responsible for its development. There are probably multiple triggers and more studies are necessary to investigate and define these interactions.

  1. Herpesvirus of turkeys: microarray analysis of host gene responses to infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karaca, Gamze; Anobile, Jonathan; Downs, Danielle; Burnside, Joan; Schmidt, Carl J.

    2004-01-01

    Herpesvirus of turkeys (HVT) provides an economically important live vaccine for prevention of Marek's disease (MD) of chickens. MD, characterized by both immunosuppression and T-cell lymphoma, is caused by another herpesvirus termed Marek's disease virus (MDV). Microarrays were used to investigate the response of chicken embryonic fibroblasts (CEF) to infection with HVT. Genes responding to HVT infection include several induced by interferon along with others modulating signal transduction, transcription, scaffolding proteins, and the cytoskeleton. Results are compared with earlier studies examining the responses of CEF cells to infection with MDV

  2. Genomic organization of the canine herpesvirus US region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haanes, E J; Tomlinson, C C

    1998-02-01

    Canine herpesvirus (CHV) is an alpha-herpesvirus of limited pathogenicity in healthy adult dogs and infectivity of the virus appears to be largely limited to cells of canine origin. CHV's low virulence and species specificity make it an attractive candidate for a recombinant vaccine vector to protect dogs against a variety of pathogens. As part of the analysis of the CHV genome, the authors determined the complete nucleotide sequence of the CHV US region as well as portions of the flanking inverted repeats. Seven full open reading frames (ORFs) encoding proteins larger than 100 amino acids were identified within, or partially within the CHV US: cUS2, cUS3, cUS4, cUS6, cUS7, cUS8 and cUS9; which are homologs of the herpes simplex virus type-1 US2; protein kinase; gG, gD, gI, gE; and US9 genes, respectively. An eighth ORF was identified in the inverted repeat region, cIR6, a homolog of the equine herpesvirus type-1 IR6 gene. The authors identified and mapped most of the major transcripts for the predicted CHV US ORFs by Northern analysis.

  3. Cryo-gamma radiation inactivation of bovine herpesvirus type-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degiorgi, C. Fernández; Smolko, E. E.; Lombardo, J. H.

    1999-07-01

    The radioresistance of bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1), commonly known as infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (IBRV), suspended in free serum Glasgow-MEM medium and frozen at -78°C was studied. The number of surviving virus at a given dose of gamma-radiation was determined by a plaque assay system. D 10 values were calculated before and after removal of cell debris. The D 10 values obtained were 4.72 kGy and 7.31 kGy before and after removal of cell debris, respectively. Our results indicate that the inactivated viral particles could be used for vaccine preparation or diagnostic reagents.

  4. A protective effect of epidermal powder immunization in a mouse model of equine herpesvirus-1 infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Takashi; McGregor, Martha; Chu, Qili; Chen, Dexiang; Horimoto, Taisuke; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate the protective effect of epidermal powder immunization (EPI) against equine herpesvirus-1 (EHV-1) infection, we prepared a powder vaccine in which formalin-inactivated virions were embedded in water-soluble, sugar-based particles. A PowderJect device was used to immunize mice with the powder vaccine via their abdominal skin. We found that twice-immunized mice were protected against challenge with the wild-type virus. This protective effect was equivalent to or better than that observed in mice immunized with other types of vaccines, including a gene gun-mediated DNA vaccine containing the glycoprotein D (gD) gene or conventional inactivated virus vaccines introduced via intramuscular or intranasal injections. These findings indicate that the powder vaccine is a promising approach for the immunological control of EHV-1 infection, either alone or as a part of prime-boost vaccination strategies

  5. Comparative Genomics of Carp Herpesviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurobe, Tomofumi; Gatherer, Derek; Cunningham, Charles; Korf, Ian; Fukuda, Hideo; Hedrick, Ronald P.; Waltzek, Thomas B.

    2013-01-01

    Three alloherpesviruses are known to cause disease in cyprinid fish: cyprinid herpesviruses 1 and 3 (CyHV1 and CyHV3) in common carp and koi and cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV2) in goldfish. We have determined the genome sequences of CyHV1 and CyHV2 and compared them with the published CyHV3 sequence. The CyHV1 and CyHV2 genomes are 291,144 and 290,304 bp, respectively, in size, and thus the CyHV3 genome, at 295,146 bp, remains the largest recorded among the herpesviruses. Each of the three genomes consists of a unique region flanked at each terminus by a sizeable direct repeat. The CyHV1, CyHV2, and CyHV3 genomes are predicted to contain 137, 150, and 155 unique, functional protein-coding genes, respectively, of which six, four, and eight, respectively, are duplicated in the terminal repeat. The three viruses share 120 orthologous genes in a largely colinear arrangement, of which up to 55 are also conserved in the other member of the genus Cyprinivirus, anguillid herpesvirus 1. Twelve genes are conserved convincingly in all sequenced alloherpesviruses, and two others are conserved marginally. The reference CyHV3 strain has been reported to contain five fragmented genes that are presumably nonfunctional. The CyHV2 strain has two fragmented genes, and the CyHV1 strain has none. CyHV1, CyHV2, and CyHV3 have five, six, and five families of paralogous genes, respectively. One family unique to CyHV1 is related to cellular JUNB, which encodes a transcription factor involved in oncogenesis. To our knowledge, this is the first time that JUNB-related sequences have been reported in a herpesvirus. PMID:23269803

  6. Herpesvirus telomerase RNA (vTR with a mutated template sequence abrogates herpesvirus-induced lymphomagenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedikt B Kaufer

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT and telomerase RNA (TR represent the enzymatically active components of telomerase. In the complex, TR provides the template for the addition of telomeric repeats to telomeres, a protective structure at the end of linear chromosomes. Human TR with a mutation in the template region has been previously shown to inhibit proliferation of cancer cells in vitro. In this report, we examined the effects of a mutation in the template of a virus encoded TR (vTR on herpesvirus-induced tumorigenesis in vivo. For this purpose, we used the oncogenic avian herpesvirus Marek's disease virus (MDV as a natural virus-host model for lymphomagenesis. We generated recombinant MDV in which the vTR template sequence was mutated from AATCCCAATC to ATATATATAT (vAU5 by two-step Red-mediated mutagenesis. Recombinant viruses harboring the template mutation replicated with kinetics comparable to parental and revertant viruses in vitro. However, mutation of the vTR template sequence completely abrogated virus-induced tumor formation in vivo, although the virus was able to undergo low-level lytic replication. To confirm that the absence of tumors was dependent on the presence of mutant vTR in the telomerase complex, a second mutation was introduced in vAU5 that targeted the P6.1 stem loop, a conserved region essential for vTR-TERT interaction. Absence of vTR-AU5 from the telomerase complex restored virus-induced lymphoma formation. To test if the attenuated vAU5 could be used as an effective vaccine against MDV, we performed vaccination-challenge studies and determined that vaccination with vAU5 completely protected chickens from lethal challenge with highly virulent MDV. Taken together, our results demonstrate 1 that mutation of the vTR template sequence can completely abrogate virus-induced tumorigenesis, likely by the inhibition of cancer cell proliferation, and 2 that this strategy could be used to generate novel vaccine candidates

  7. BoHV-4-based vector delivering Ebola virus surface glycoprotein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Rosamilia

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ebola virus (EBOV is a Category A pathogen that is a member of Filoviridae family that causes hemorrhagic fever in humans and non-human primates. Unpredictable and devastating outbreaks of disease have recently occurred in Africa and current immunoprophylaxis and therapies are limited. The main limitation of working with pathogens like EBOV is the need for costly containment. To potentiate further and wider opportunity for EBOV prophylactics and therapies development, innovative approaches are necessary. Methods In the present study, an antigen delivery platform based on a recombinant bovine herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4, delivering a synthetic EBOV glycoprotein (GP gene sequence, BoHV-4-syEBOVgD106ΔTK, was generated. Results EBOV GP was abundantly expressed by BoHV-4-syEBOVgD106ΔTK transduced cells without decreasing viral replication. BoHV-4-syEBOVgD106ΔTK immunized goats produced high titers of anti-EBOV GP antibodies and conferred a long lasting (up to 6 months, detectable antibody response. Furthermore, no evidence of BoHV-4-syEBOVgD106ΔTK viremia and secondary localization was detected in any of the immunized animals. Conclusions The BoHV-4-based vector approach described here, represents: an alternative antigen delivery system for vaccination and a proof of principle study for anti-EBOV antibodies generation in goats for potential immunotherapy applications.

  8. Serological evidence of herpesvirus infection in gibbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratanakorn Parntep

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Herpesviruses are not only infectious agents of worldwide distribution in humans, but have also been demonstrated in various non-human primates as well. Seventy-eight gibbons were subjected to serological tests by ELISA for herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1, herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV and cytomegalovirus (CMV. Results The prevalence of IgG antibodies against HSV-1, HSV-2, EBV and CMV was 28.2%, 28.2%, 14.1% and 17.9%, respectively. Conclusions Antigenic cross-reactivity is expected to exist between the human herpesviruses and gibbon herpesviruses. Gibbons have antibodies to human herpesviruses that may reflect zoonotic infection with human herpesviruses or infection with indigenous gibbon herpesviruses. Therefore, it is difficult to draw concrete conclusions from serological studies alone. Identification should be based on further isolation and molecular characterization of viruses from seropositive animals.

  9. Detection of novel strains of cyprinid herpesvirus closely related to koi herpesvirus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelsma, M.Y.; Way, K.; Dodge, M.J.; Voorbergen-Laarman, H.A.; Panzarin, V.M.; Abbadi, M.; El-Matbouli, M.; Skall, H.F.; Kahns, S.; Stone, D.M.

    2013-01-01

    Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) or koi herpesvirus (KHV) is a devastating virus of carp. Using generic primers for the DNA polymerase and the major capsid protein genes of cyprinid herpesviruses, nucleotide sequences divergent from previously described CyHV-3 were obtained. At least 3 novel groups

  10. Detection of novel strains of cyprinid herpesvirus closely related to koi herpesvirus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelsma, Marc Y.; Way, Keith; Dodge, Melanie J.

    2013-01-01

    Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) or koi herpesvirus (KHV) is a devastating virus of carp. Using generic primers for the DNA polymerase and the major capsid protein genes of cyprinid herpesviruses, nucleotide sequences divergent from previously described CyHV-3 were obtained. At least 3 novel groups...

  11. Investigations on the presence of antibodies against equine herpesvirus-1 in blood serum of foals, prior to and after colostrum intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauš Saša

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The titer of specific antibodies against equine herpesvirus-1 in blood serum was tested in two groups of mares and their foals. The first group consisted of 12 mares, Standardbred and Serbian Trotter breed, who were vaccinated against equine herpesvirus-1 and 4 in the 5th, 7th and 9th month of pregnancy. On the contrary, 12 mares from the second group, of Lipizzaner breed, were not vaccinated. The mares’ blood samples for antibodies titer investigation were taken 30, 15 and 7 days before the expected partus, then immediately after the partus, while their foals’ blood samples were taken immediately after foaling, then just before colostrum intake, and finally 1, 2, 3 and 7 days later. The titer of antibodies against equine herpesvirus-1 was tested by the method of virus - neutralization, on microtiter plates with constant dose of the virus and serial double dilutions of the serum. In unvaccinated mares, titer of antibodies against equine herpesvirus-1 was either low or not present, but on the contrary, in the vaccinated ones the antibodies titer ranged from 1:32 to 1:256. In the foals originating from both vaccinated and unvaccinated there were not found specific antibodies in the serum before colostrum intake. After the colostrum intake, the values of specific antibodies against equine herpesvirus-1 significantly increased in the foals originating from the vaccinated mares, and ranged from 1:8 to 1:32.

  12. Live recombinant BHV/BRSV vaccine

    OpenAIRE

    Keil, G.M.; Rijsewijk, F.A.M.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention refers to synthetic Bovine Respiratory Syncytium virus genes. Also the invention relates to live attenuated Bovine Herpesvirus recombinants carrying such synthetic genes. Furthermore, the invention relates to vaccines based on these live attenuated recombinants, for the protection of cattle against both Bovine herpesvirus infection and against Bovine Respiratory Syncytium virus infection. Also the invention relates to methods for the preparation of such live attenuated r...

  13. Herpesviruses in the Activated Phosphatidylinositol-3-Kinase-δ Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey I. Cohen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K/Akt pathway is important for multiple stages of herpesvirus replication including virus entry, replication, latency, and reactivation. Recently, patients with gain-of-function mutations in the p110δ-catalytic subunit of PI3K or in the p85-regulatory subunit of PI3K have been reported. These patients have constitutively active PI3K with hyperactivation of Akt. They present with lymphoproliferation and often have infections, particularly recurrent respiratory infections and/or severe virus infections. The most frequent virus infections are due to Epstein–Barr virus (EBV and cytomegalovirus (CMV; patients often present with persistent EBV and/or CMV viremia, EBV lymphoproliferative disease, or CMV lymphadenitis. No patients have been reported with CMV pneumonia, colitis, or retinitis. Other herpesvirus infections have included herpes simplex pneumonia, recurrent zoster, and varicella after vaccination with the varicella vaccine. Additional viral infections have included adenovirus viremia, severe warts, and extensive Molluscum contagiosum virus infection. The increased susceptibility to virus infections in these patients is likely due to a reduced number of long-lived memory CD8 T cells and an increased number of terminally differentiated effector CD8 T cells.

  14. Efficacy of a gE-deleted, bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1 inactivated vaccine Eficácia de uma vacina inativada, gE-deletada, contra o herpesvírus bovino tipo 1 (BoHV-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra D. Silva

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1 is recognized as a major cause of economic losses in cattle. Vaccination has been widely applied to minimize losses induced by BoHV-1 infections. We have previously reported the development of a differential BoHV-1 vaccine, based on a recombinant glycoprotein E (gE-deleted virus (265gE-. In present paper the efficacy of such recombinant was evaluated as an inactivated vaccine. Five BoHV-1 seronegative calves were vaccinated intramuscularly on day 0 and boostered 30 days later with an inactivated, oil adjuvanted vaccine containing an antigenic mass equivalent to 10(7.0 fifty per cent cell culture infectious doses (CCID50 of 265gE-. Three calves were kept as non vaccinated controls. On day 60 post vaccination both vaccinated and controls were challenged with the virulent parental strain. No clinical signs or adverse effects were seen after or during vaccination. After challenge, 2/5 vaccinated calves showed mild clinical signs of infection, whereas all non vaccinated controls displayed intense rhinotracheitis and shed virus for longer and to higher titres than vaccinated calves. Serological responses were detected in all vaccinated animals after the second dose of vaccine, but not on control calves. Following corticosteroid administration in attempting to induce reactivation of the latent infection, no clinical signs were observed in vaccinated calves, whereas non vaccinated controls showed clinical signs of respiratory disease. In view of its immunogenicity and protective effect upon challenge with a virulent BoHV-1, the oil adjuvanted preparation with the inactivated 265gE- recombinant was shown to be suitable for use as a vaccine.O Herpesvírus bovino tipo 1 (BoHV-1 é reconhecido como um importante agente de perdas econômicas em bovinos. Vacinação tem sido amplamente empregada para minimizar as perdas conseqüentes a infecções com o BoHV-1. Reportamos previamente o desenvolvimento de uma vacina

  15. PREVALENCE OF INFECTION WITH HUMAN HERPESVIRUS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    human herpesvirus 8 (HHV 8): Distribution of infection in Kaposi's sarcoma risk groups and evidence of sexual transmission. Nat Med 1996; 2: 918-924. 14. Kedes OH, Ganem 0, Ameli N, Bacchetti p. Greenblatt R The prevalence of serum antibody to human herpesvirus 8 (Kaposi sarcoma-associated hepesvirus) among ...

  16. Herpesvirus Evasion of Natural Killer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pelsmaeker, Steffi; Romero, Nicolas; Vitale, Massimo; Favoreel, Herman W

    2018-06-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells play an important role in the host response against viral infections and cancer development. They are able to kill virus-infected and tumor cells, and they produce different important cytokines that stimulate the antiviral and antitumor adaptive immune response, particularly interferon gamma. NK cells are of particular importance in herpesvirus infections, which is illustrated by systemic and life-threatening herpesvirus disease symptoms in patients with deficiencies in NK cell activity and by the myriad of reports describing herpesvirus NK cell evasion strategies. The latter is particularly obvious for cytomegaloviruses, but increasing evidence indicates that most, if not all, members of the herpesvirus family suppress NK cell activity to some extent. This review discusses the different NK cell evasion strategies described for herpesviruses and how this knowledge may translate to clinical applications. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  17. Field evaluation of safety during gestation and horizontal spread of a recombinant differential bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1 vaccine Avaliação a campo da segurança para vacas prenhes e capacidade de disseminação horizontal de uma vacina diferencial recombinante contra o Herpes-vírus Bovino tipo 1 (BoHV-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando R. Spilki

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1 is recognized as a major cause of respiratory, reproductive disease and abortion in cattle. Vaccination is widely applied to minimize losses induced by BoHV-1 infections; however, vaccination of dams during pregnancy with modified live virus (MLV vaccines has been occasionally associated to abortions. We have previously reported the development of a BoHV-1 recombinant virus, constructed with basis on a Brazilian BoHV-1 (Franco et al. 2002a from which the gene coding for glycoprotein E (gE was deleted (gE- by genetic manipulation. Such recombinant has been previously evaluated in its potential as a differential vaccine (gE- vaccine that allows differentiation between vaccinated and infected animals. Here, in the first part of the present study, the safety of the gE- vaccine during pregnancy was evaluated by the intramuscular inoculation of 10(7.4 tissue culture 50 % infective doses (TCID50 of the virus into 22 pregnant dams (14 BoHV-1 seronegative; 8 seropositive, at different stages of gestation. Other 15 pregnant dams were kept as non-vaccinated controls. No abortions, stillbirths or fetal abnormalities were seen after vaccination. Seroconversion was observed in both groups of previously seronegative vaccinated animals. In the second part of the study, the potential of the gE- vaccine virus to spread among beef cattle under field conditions was examined. Four heifers were inoculated intranasally with a larger amount (10(7,6 TCID50 of the gE- vaccine (to increase chances of transmission and mixed with other sixteen animals at the same age and body condition, in the same grazing area, at a population density equal to the average cattle farming density within the region (one cattle head per 10,000 m², for 180 days. All animals were monitored daily for clinical signs. Serum samples were collected on days 0, 30, 60 and 180 post-vaccination. Seroconversion was observed only in vaccinated heifers. These results

  18. Koi herpesvirus disease in carp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremić Svetlana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A disease in the koi carp (Cyprinus carpio koi and the common carp (Cyprinus carpio carpio, caused by the herpesvirus and accompanied by a high mortality rate, has spread across numerous fish ponds all over the world since 1998, resulting in massive mortality and significant financial losses. The herpesvirus-like virus, called the koi herpesvirus (KHV has been isolated and identified from the koi and the common carp in the course of the incidences of massive mortalities. The first appearance of a disease with a high mortality in the common and the koi carp caused by the koi herpesvirus (KHV was described in 1998 in Israel and the United States of America (USA. Since that time, a large number of cases of outbreaks of this disease have been confirmed throughout the world, including the USA, Israel, and a large number of European countries. The deaths occurred seasonally, in late spring or early autumn, when the water temperature was from 18-28ºC. The most important factor of the environment that affects the occurrence and gravity of this disease is the water temperature. This disease is currently considered one of the factors that present the biggest threat to populations of the common and the koi carp. Diseased fish are disoriented, their movements uncoordinated, their breathing rapid, gills swollen, and they have local skin lesions. The virus was isolated from tissue of diseased fish and cultivated on a KF-1 (koi fin cells cell line. Electronic microscopy examinations revealed virus identical viral particles of the Herpesviridae family. Analyses of the virion polypeptide and DNA established differences between the KHV and the previously known herpesvirus of the Cyprinida family, Herpesvirus cyprini (CHV, and the virus of the channel catfish (Channel catfish virus - CCV. In the years 2004 and 2005, high mortality was established among one-year and two-year carp fry on three fish ponds. At two ponds, the deaths occurred among one year and two

  19. CyHV-3: the third cyprinid herpesvirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotesman, Michael; Kattlun, Julia; Bergmann, Sven M; El-Matbouli, Mansour

    2013-07-22

    Common carp (including ornamental koi carp) Cyprinus carpio L. are ecologically and economically important freshwater fish in Europe and Asia. C. carpio have recently been endangered by a third cyprinid herpesvirus, known as cyprinid herpesvirus-3 (CyHV-3), the etiological agent of koi herpesvirus disease (KHVD), which causes significant morbidity and mortality in koi and common carp. Clinical and pathological signs include epidermal abrasions, excess mucus production, necrosis of gill and internal organs, and lethargy. KHVD has decimated major carp populations in Israel, Indonesia, Taiwan, Japan, Germany, Canada, and the USA, and has been listed as a notifiable disease in Germany since 2005, and by the World Organisation for Animal Health since 2007. KHVD is exacerbated in aquaculture because of the relatively high host stocking density, and CyHV-3 may be concentrated by filter-feeding aquatic organisms. CyHV-3 is taxonomically grouped within the family Alloherpesviridae, can be propagated in a number of cell lines, and is active at a temperature range of 15 to 28°C. Three isolates originating from Japan (KHV-J), USA (KHV-U), and Israel (KHV-I) have been sequenced. CyHV-3 has a 295 kb genome with 156 unique open reading frames and replicates in the cell nucleus, and mature viral particles are 170 to 200 nm in diameter. CyHV-3 can be detected by multiple PCR-based methods and by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Several modes of immunization have been developed for KHVD; however, fish immunized with either vaccine or wild-type virus may become carriers for CyHV-3. There is no current treatment for KHVD.

  20. Activation of human herpesvirus replication by apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Alka; Remick, Jill; Zeichner, Steven L

    2013-10-01

    A central feature of herpesvirus biology is the ability of herpesviruses to remain latent within host cells. Classically, exposure to inducing agents, like activating cytokines or phorbol esters that stimulate host cell signal transduction events, and epigenetic agents (e.g., butyrate) was thought to end latency. We recently showed that Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV, or human herpesvirus-8 [HHV-8]) has another, alternative emergency escape replication pathway that is triggered when KSHV's host cell undergoes apoptosis, characterized by the lack of a requirement for the replication and transcription activator (RTA) protein, accelerated late gene kinetics, and production of virus with decreased infectivity. Caspase-3 is necessary and sufficient to initiate the alternative replication program. HSV-1 was also recently shown to initiate replication in response to host cell apoptosis. These observations suggested that an alternative apoptosis-triggered replication program might be a general feature of herpesvirus biology and that apoptosis-initiated herpesvirus replication may have clinical implications, particularly for herpesviruses that almost universally infect humans. To explore whether an alternative apoptosis-initiated replication program is a common feature of herpesvirus biology, we studied cell lines latently infected with Epstein-Barr virus/HHV-4, HHV-6A, HHV-6B, HHV-7, and KSHV. We found that apoptosis triggers replication for each HHV studied, with caspase-3 being necessary and sufficient for HHV replication. An alternative apoptosis-initiated replication program appears to be a common feature of HHV biology. We also found that commonly used cytotoxic chemotherapeutic agents activate HHV replication, which suggests that treatments that promote apoptosis may lead to activation of latent herpesviruses, with potential clinical significance.

  1. The first genome sequence of a metatherian herpesvirus: Macropodid herpesvirus 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Paola K; Mahony, Timothy J; Hartley, Carol A; Fowler, Elizabeth V; Ficorilli, Nino; Lee, Sang W; Gilkerson, James R; Browning, Glenn F; Devlin, Joanne M

    2016-01-22

    While many placental herpesvirus genomes have been fully sequenced, the complete genome of a marsupial herpesvirus has not been described. Here we present the first genome sequence of a metatherian herpesvirus, Macropodid herpesvirus 1 (MaHV-1). The MaHV-1 viral genome was sequenced using an Illumina MiSeq sequencer, de novo assembly was performed and the genome was annotated. The MaHV-1 genome was 140 kbp in length and clustered phylogenetically with the primate simplexviruses, sharing 67% nucleotide sequence identity with Human herpesviruses 1 and 2. The MaHV-1 genome contained 66 predicted open reading frames (ORFs) homologous to those in other herpesvirus genomes, but lacked homologues of UL3, UL4, UL56 and glycoprotein J. This is the first alphaherpesvirus genome that has been found to lack the UL3 and UL4 homologues. We identified six novel ORFs and confirmed their transcription by RT-PCR. This is the first genome sequence of a herpesvirus that infects metatherians, a taxonomically unique mammalian clade. Members of the Simplexvirus genus are remarkably conserved, so the absence of ORFs otherwise retained in eutherian and avian alphaherpesviruses contributes to our understanding of the Alphaherpesvirinae. Further study of metatherian herpesvirus genetics and pathogenesis provides a unique approach to understanding herpesvirus-mammalian interactions.

  2. CYTOKINE DISBALANCE AT HERPESVIRUS MYOCARDITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peremot S. D

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Viral myocarditis is a heterogeneous group of diseases not only by etiologic factors, which belong to different families of Vira kingdom, but is also characterized by a unique mechanism of inflammatory process and cytokine levels specific for each of them. According to numerous researches in сardio-immunology, at herpesvirus infection of the cardiovascular system occur both systemic and localized violations of the immune response. Unfortunately, the accessible literature did not provide the data analysis of complex cardio-immunological research that would take into account the features of herpesvirus myocarditis clinical course. This grounds relevance of immunodiagnosis directed on the exposure of dysimmunities by study of indices of general and local immunity with the estimation of the immune status in patients depending on the stage of exasperation or relapse of chronic herpetic infection in the complex of diagnostic tests. The purpose of our research was to determine features of the state of the immune system with the complex analysis of cytokine profile data, immune and interferon statuses in subacute and chronic forms of herpesvirus myocarditis. Materials and methods. 87 myocarditis patients who were receiving inpatient treatment in medical establishments of Kharkiv were examined. The average age was (M ± m 36 ± 3,46 years old. The diagnosis of myocarditis was established according to the order № 436 by the Ministry of Healthcare of Ukraine from 03.07.2006 of clinical findings protocol. In accordance with the term of myocarditis clinical course, the patients were divided in two sub-groups: 44 patients with subacute (from 2 to 6 months, and 43 patients with chronic (over 6 months clinical course of viral myocarditis. The control group correlated with patients of basic group by age and gender and consisted of 40 practically healthy persons without implications of cardial pathology. Definition of cytokine concentration: IL-2, IL-4, IL-6

  3. Targeting herpesvirus reliance of the chemokine system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkilde, Mette M; Kledal, Thomas N

    2006-01-01

    the infection. However, since both virus and host exist, the organisms struggle must reach an ecological equilibrium. Among the best-studied interactions between viruses and the host immune system are those between herpesviruses and their hosts. Herpesviruses are known to devote a significant part...... of their large genomes on immuno-modulatory genes, some encoding chemokines or chemokine receptors. These genes, which may be dispensable for viral replication in vitro, are highly important for viral growth in vivo, for viral dissemination and disease progression. Indeed, all beta and gamma-herpesviruses have...... chemokine receptors seems to be their constitutive activity. The biological function of the constitutive activity is still unclear, but it has become clear that the receptors are involved in important parts of the viral lifecycle in vivo, and that the receptor signaling is involved in gamma-herpesvirus...

  4. [Research Advances in Cyprinid Herpesvirus 3].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shucheng; Wang, Qing; Li, Yingying; Zeng, Weiwei; Wang, Yingying; Liu, Chun; Liang, Hongru; Shi, Cunbin

    2016-01-01

    Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) is the causative agent of an extremely contagious and aggressive disease afflicting common corp Cyprinus carpio L. termed koi herpesvirus disease (KHVD). Since it was first reported in 1997, the virus has spread worldwide rapidly, leading to enormous financial losses in industries based on common carp and koi carp. This review summarizes recent advances in CyHV-3 research on the etiology, epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, prevention, and control of KHVD.

  5. Persistence of herpesvirus of eel (Herpesvirus anguillae) in farmed European ell (Anguilla anguilla L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwstadt, van A.P.; Dijkstra, S.G.; Haenen, O.L.M.

    2001-01-01

    Herpesvirus of eel Herpesvirus anguillae (HVA) was isolated repeatedly from farmed eel of an outwardly healthy stock, but virus isolation was much greater in an experimental group of fish that were injected with dexamethasone. The results suggest that HVA can establish a latent infection in eel.

  6. BoHV-4-Based Vector Single Heterologous Antigen Delivery Protects STAT1(-/- Mice from Monkeypoxvirus Lethal Challenge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Franceschi

    2015-06-01

    against mortality and morbidity. This work demonstrated the efficacy of BoHV-4 based vectors and the use of BoHV-4 as a vaccine-vector platform.

  7. Characterization of phocid herpesvirus-1 and -2 as putative alpha- and gamma-herpesviruses of North American and European pinnipeds.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.C. Harder (Timm); M. Harder; H. Vos; K. Kulonen; S. Kennedy-Stoskopf; B. Liess; M.J.G. Appel (Max); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractTo study the relationships between herpesvirus recently isolated from different pinniped species, antigenic and genetic analyses were performed. First, herpesviruses isolated from North American harbour seals (Phoca vitulina), a Californian sea lion (Zalophus californianus) and a

  8. Koi herpesvirus represents a third cyprinid herpesvirus (CyHV-3) in the family Herpesviridae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waltzek, Thomas B; Kelley, Garry O; Stone, David M; Way, Keith; Hanson, Larry; Fukuda, Hideo; Hirono, Ikuo; Aoki, Takashi; Davison, Andrew J; Hedrick, Ronald P

    2005-06-01

    The sequences of four complete genes were analysed in order to determine the relatedness of koi herpesvirus (KHV) to three fish viruses in the family Herpesviridae: carp pox herpesvirus (Cyprinid herpesvirus 1, CyHV-1), haematopoietic necrosis herpesvirus of goldfish (Cyprinid herpesvirus 2, CyHV-2) and channel catfish virus (Ictalurid herpesvirus 1, IcHV-1). The genes were predicted to encode a helicase, an intercapsomeric triplex protein, the DNA polymerase and the major capsid protein. The results showed that KHV is related closely to CyHV-1 and CyHV-2, and that the three cyprinid viruses are related, albeit more distantly, to IcHV-1. Twelve KHV isolates from four diverse geographical areas yielded identical sequences for a region of the DNA polymerase gene. These findings, with previously published morphological and biological data, indicate that KHV should join the group of related lower-vertebrate viruses in the family Herpesviridae under the formal designation Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3).

  9. Envelope proteins of bovine herpesvirus 1: immunological and biochemical studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Roque, L.L.

    1986-01-01

    The authors studied immunological and biochemical properties of the bovid herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1) envelope proteins in order to understand the pathogenesis of BHV-1 infection and to provide basic information for the production of effective subunit vaccines against BHV-1. Ten glycoproteins MW 180, 150, 130, 115, 97, 77, 74, 64, 55, and 45 kilodaltons (K), and a single non-glycosylated 108 K protein were quantitatively removed from purified BHV-1 virions by detergent treatment. These glycoproteins were present on the virion envelope and on the surface of BHV-1 infected cells. The quantitative removal from virions by treatment with nonionic detergents and their presence on the surface of infected cells indicate that 180/97, 150/77, and 130/74/55 K are major components of the BHV-1 envelope and are also the targets of virus neutralizing humoral immune response. Envelope glycoproteins of herpes simplex type 1 (HSV-1) bind immunoglobulin by the Fc end and it is suggested this may increase pathogenicity of this virus. They searched for a similar function in BVH-1 by measuring the ability of BHV-1 infected cells and viral envelope proteins to bind radiolabelled rabbit and bovine IgG. Binding activity for rabbit IgG or bovine IgG-Fc could not be demonstrated by BHV-1 infected MDBK cells, whereas, MDBK cells infected with HSV-1 bound rabbit IgG and bovine IgG-Fc. None of the three major envelope proteins of BHV-1 bound to rabbit or bovine IgG. The results of this study indicate that BHV-1, unlike some other herpesviruses, lack Fc binding activity

  10. Major immunogenic proteins of phocid herpes-viruses and their relationships to proteins of canine and feline herpesviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harder, T C; Harder, M; de Swart, R L; Osterhaus, A D; Liess, B

    1998-04-01

    The immunogenic proteins of cells infected with the alpha- or the gamma-herpesvirus of seals, phocid herpesvirus-1 and -2 (PhHV-1, -2), were examined in radioimmunoprecipitation assays as a further step towards the development of a PhHV-1 vaccine. With sera obtained from convalescent seals of different species or murine monoclonal antibodies (Mabs), at least seven virus-induced glycoproteins were detected in lysates of PhHV-1-infected CrFK cells. A presumably disulphide-linked complex composed of glycoproteins of 59, 67 and 113/120 kDa, expressed on the surface of infected cells, was characterized as a major immunogenic infected cell protein of PhHV-1. This glycoprotein complex has previously been identified as the proteolytically cleavable glycoprotein B homologue of PhHV-1 (14). At least three distinct neutralization-relevant epitopes were operationally mapped, by using Mabs, on the glycoprotein B of PhHV-1. Among the infected cell proteins of the antigenically closely related feline and canine herpesvirus, the glycoprotein B equivalent proved to be the most highly conserved glycoprotein. Sera obtained from different seal species from Arctic, Antarctic, and European habitats did not precipitate uniform patterns of infected cell proteins from PhHV-1-infected cell lysates although similar titres of neutralizing antibodies were displayed. Thus, antigenic differences among the alphaherpesvirus species prevalent in the different pinniped populations cannot be excluded. PhHV-2 displayed a different pattern of infected cell proteins and only limited cross-reactivity to PhHV-1 at the protein level was detected, which is in line with its previous classification as a distinct species, based on nucleotide sequence analysis, of the gammaherpesvirus linenge. A Mab raised against PhHV-2 and specific for a major glycoprotein of 117 kDa, cross reacted with the glycoprotein B of PhHV-1. The 117-kDa glycoprotein could represent the uncleaved PhHV-2 glycoprotein B homologue.

  11. Generation and characterization of koi herpesvirus recombinants lacking viral enzymes of nucleotide metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Walter; Fichtner, Dieter; Bergmann, Sven M; Mettenleiter, Thomas C

    2011-06-01

    Koi herpesvirus (KHV) causes a fatal disease in koi and common carp, but no reliable and genetically characterized vaccines are available up to now. Therefore, we generated KHV recombinants possessing deletions within the viral ribonucleotide reductase (RNR), thymidine kinase (TK), dUTPase, or TK and dUTPase genes, and their corresponding rescuants. All KHV mutants were replication competent in cultured cells. Whereas plaque sizes and titers of RNR-negative KHV were reduced, replication of the other mutants was not affected. Experimental infection of carp indicated attenuation of TK- or dUTPase-deleted KHV, and PCR analysis of tissue samples permitted differentiation of mutant from wild-type virus.

  12. Neuroimaging of herpesvirus infections in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baskin, Henry J. [Cincinnati Children' s Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Hedlund, Gary [Primary Children' s Medical Center, Department of Medical Imaging, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2007-10-15

    Six members of the herpesvirus family cause well-described neurologic disease in children: herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1), herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2), varicella-zoster (VZV), Epstein-Barr (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and human herpes virus-6 (HHV-6). When herpesviruses infect the central nervous system (CNS), the clinical presentation is non-specific and often confounding. The clinical urgency is often underscored by progressive neurologic deficits, seizures, or even death, and prompt diagnosis and treatment rely heavily on neuroimaging. This review focuses on the spectrum of cerebral manifestations caused by these viruses, particularly on non-congenital presentations. Recent advances in our understanding of these viruses are discussed, including new polymerase chain reaction techniques that allow parallel detection, which has improved our recognition that the herpesviruses are neurotropic and involve the CNS more often than previously thought. Evolving knowledge has also better elucidated viral neuropathology, particularly the role of VZV vasculitis in the brain, HHV-6 in febrile seizures, and herpesvirus reactivation in immunosuppressed patients. The virology, clinical course, and CNS manifestations of each virus are reviewed, followed by descriptions of neuroimaging findings when these agents infect the brain. Characteristic but often subtle imaging findings are discussed, as well as technical pearls covering appropriate use of MRI and MRI adjuncts to help differentiate viral infection from mimics. (orig.)

  13. Koi herpesvirus disease (khvd) surveillance and diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Way, K.; Bergmann, S. M.; Engelsma, Marc

    together skills and experience on this fish disease from different parts of Europe. In the report of the meeting sent to the commission important issues concerning serology and cyprinid herpesvirus variants were raised. We hope that our recommendations to resolve these issues will be considered...

  14. Neuroimaging of herpesvirus infections in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baskin, Henry J.; Hedlund, Gary

    2007-01-01

    Six members of the herpesvirus family cause well-described neurologic disease in children: herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1), herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2), varicella-zoster (VZV), Epstein-Barr (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and human herpes virus-6 (HHV-6). When herpesviruses infect the central nervous system (CNS), the clinical presentation is non-specific and often confounding. The clinical urgency is often underscored by progressive neurologic deficits, seizures, or even death, and prompt diagnosis and treatment rely heavily on neuroimaging. This review focuses on the spectrum of cerebral manifestations caused by these viruses, particularly on non-congenital presentations. Recent advances in our understanding of these viruses are discussed, including new polymerase chain reaction techniques that allow parallel detection, which has improved our recognition that the herpesviruses are neurotropic and involve the CNS more often than previously thought. Evolving knowledge has also better elucidated viral neuropathology, particularly the role of VZV vasculitis in the brain, HHV-6 in febrile seizures, and herpesvirus reactivation in immunosuppressed patients. The virology, clinical course, and CNS manifestations of each virus are reviewed, followed by descriptions of neuroimaging findings when these agents infect the brain. Characteristic but often subtle imaging findings are discussed, as well as technical pearls covering appropriate use of MRI and MRI adjuncts to help differentiate viral infection from mimics. (orig.)

  15. Immunization of dogs with a canine herpesvirus vector expressing Neospora caninum surface protein, NcSRS2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Y; Ikeda, H; Fukumoto, S; Xuan, X; Nagasawa, H; Otsuka, H; Mikami, T

    2000-10-01

    In order to develop a vaccine against Neospora caninum in dogs, we constructed recombinant canine herpesvirus (CHV) expressing N. caninum surface protein, NcSRS2. Indirect immunofluorescence indicated that the antigenic structure of the recombinant NcSRS2 was similar to the authentic parasite protein. The dogs immunised with recombinant virus produced IgG antibody to N. caninum, and their sera recognised the parasite protein on Western blot. The dogs inoculated with recombinant virus showed no clinical symptoms and infectious CHV was not recovered from the dogs, suggesting that recombinant CHV expressing N. caninum proteins may lead to a vaccine against neosporosis in dogs.

  16. Human exposure to herpesvirus B-seropositive macaques, Bali, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Gregory A; Jones-Engel, Lisa; Schillaci, Michael A; Suaryana, Komang Gde; Putra, Artha; Fuentes, Agustin; Henkel, Richard

    2002-08-01

    Herpesvirus B (Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1) has been implicated as the cause of approximately 40 cases of meningoencephalitis affecting persons in direct or indirect contact with laboratory macaques. However, the threat of herpesvirus B in nonlaboratory settings worldwide remains to be addressed. We investigated the potential for exposure to herpesvirus B in workers at a "monkey forest" (a temple that has become a tourist attraction because of its monkeys) in Bali, Indonesia. In July 2000, 105 workers at the Sangeh Monkey Forest in Central Bali were surveyed about contact with macaques (Macaca fascicularis). Nearly half of those interviewed had either been bitten or scratched by a macaque. Prevalence of injury was higher in those who fed macaques. Serum from 31 of 38 Sangeh macaques contained antibodies to herpesvirus B. We conclude that workers coming into contact with macaques at the Sangeh Monkey Forest are at risk for exposure to herpesvirus B.

  17. Three novel herpesviruses of endangered Clemmys and Glyptemys turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossiboff, Robert J; Raphael, Bonnie L; Ammazzalorso, Alyssa D; Seimon, Tracie A; Newton, Alisa L; Chang, Tylis Y; Zarate, Brian; Whitlock, Alison L; McAloose, Denise

    2015-01-01

    The rich diversity of the world's reptiles is at risk due to significant population declines of broad taxonomic and geographic scope. Significant factors attributed to these declines include habitat loss, pollution, unsustainable collection and infectious disease. To investigate the presence and significance of a potential pathogen on populations of critically endangered bog turtles (Glyptemys muhlenbergii) as well sympatric endangered wood (G. insculpta) and endangered spotted (Clemmys guttata) turtles in the northeastern United States, choanal and cloacal swabs collected from 230 turtles from 19 sites in 5 states were screened for herpesvirus by polymerase chain reaction. We found a high incidence of herpesvirus infection in bog turtles (51.5%; 105/204) and smaller numbers of positive wood (5) and spotted (1) turtles. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis revealed three previously uncharacterized alphaherpesviruses. Glyptemys herpesvirus 1 was the predominant herpesvirus detected and was found exclusively in bog turtles in all states sampled. Glyptemys herpesvirus 2 was found only in wood turtles. Emydid herpesvirus 2 was found in a small number of bog turtles and a single spotted turtle from one state. Based on these findings, Glyptemys herpesvirus 1 appears to be a common infection in the study population, whereas Glyptemys herpesvirus 2 and Emydid herpesvirus 2 were not as frequently detected. Emydid herpesvirus 2 was the only virus detected in more than one species. Herpesviruses are most often associated with subclinical or mild infections in their natural hosts, and no sampled turtles showed overt signs of disease at sampling. However, infection of host-adapted viruses in closely related species can result in significant disease. The pathogenic potential of these viruses, particularly Emydid herpesvirus 2, in sympatric chelonians warrants additional study in order to better understand the relationship of these viruses with their endangered hosts.

  18. The role of DNA repair in herpesvirus pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jay C

    2014-10-01

    In cells latently infected with a herpesvirus, the viral DNA is present in the cell nucleus, but it is not extensively replicated or transcribed. In this suppressed state the virus DNA is vulnerable to mutagenic events that affect the host cell and have the potential to destroy the virus' genetic integrity. Despite the potential for genetic damage, however, herpesvirus sequences are well conserved after reactivation from latency. To account for this apparent paradox, I have tested the idea that host cell-encoded mechanisms of DNA repair are able to control genetic damage to latent herpesviruses. Studies were focused on homologous recombination-dependent DNA repair (HR). Methods of DNA sequence analysis were employed to scan herpesvirus genomes for DNA features able to activate HR. Analyses were carried out with a total of 39 herpesvirus DNA sequences, a group that included viruses from the alpha-, beta- and gamma-subfamilies. The results showed that all 39 genome sequences were enriched in two or more of the eight recombination-initiating features examined. The results were interpreted to indicate that HR can stabilize latent herpesvirus genomes. The results also showed, unexpectedly, that repair-initiating DNA features differed in alpha- compared to gamma-herpesviruses. Whereas inverted and tandem repeats predominated in alpha-herpesviruses, gamma-herpesviruses were enriched in short, GC-rich initiation sequences such as CCCAG and depleted in repeats. In alpha-herpesviruses, repair-initiating repeat sequences were found to be concentrated in a specific region (the S segment) of the genome while repair-initiating short sequences were distributed more uniformly in gamma-herpesviruses. The results suggest that repair pathways are activated differently in alpha- compared to gamma-herpesviruses. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Three Novel Herpesviruses of Endangered Clemmys and Glyptemys Turtles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossiboff, Robert J.; Raphael, Bonnie L.; Ammazzalorso, Alyssa D.; Seimon, Tracie A.; Newton, Alisa L.; Chang, Tylis Y.; Zarate, Brian; Whitlock, Alison L.; McAloose, Denise

    2015-01-01

    The rich diversity of the world’s reptiles is at risk due to significant population declines of broad taxonomic and geographic scope. Significant factors attributed to these declines include habitat loss, pollution, unsustainable collection and infectious disease. To investigate the presence and significance of a potential pathogen on populations of critically endangered bog turtles (Glyptemys muhlenbergii) as well sympatric endangered wood (G. insculpta) and endangered spotted (Clemmys guttata) turtles in the northeastern United States, choanal and cloacal swabs collected from 230 turtles from 19 sites in 5 states were screened for herpesvirus by polymerase chain reaction. We found a high incidence of herpesvirus infection in bog turtles (51.5%; 105/204) and smaller numbers of positive wood (5) and spotted (1) turtles. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis revealed three previously uncharacterized alphaherpesviruses. Glyptemys herpesvirus 1 was the predominant herpesvirus detected and was found exclusively in bog turtles in all states sampled. Glyptemys herpesvirus 2 was found only in wood turtles. Emydid herpesvirus 2 was found in a small number of bog turtles and a single spotted turtle from one state. Based on these findings, Glyptemys herpesvirus 1 appears to be a common infection in the study population, whereas Glyptemys herpesvirus 2 and Emydid herpesvirus 2 were not as frequently detected. Emydid herpesvirus 2 was the only virus detected in more than one species. Herpesviruses are most often associated with subclinical or mild infections in their natural hosts, and no sampled turtles showed overt signs of disease at sampling. However, infection of host-adapted viruses in closely related species can result in significant disease. The pathogenic potential of these viruses, particularly Emydid herpesvirus 2, in sympatric chelonians warrants additional study in order to better understand the relationship of these viruses with their endangered hosts. PMID

  20. Three novel herpesviruses of endangered Clemmys and Glyptemys turtles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J Ossiboff

    Full Text Available The rich diversity of the world's reptiles is at risk due to significant population declines of broad taxonomic and geographic scope. Significant factors attributed to these declines include habitat loss, pollution, unsustainable collection and infectious disease. To investigate the presence and significance of a potential pathogen on populations of critically endangered bog turtles (Glyptemys muhlenbergii as well sympatric endangered wood (G. insculpta and endangered spotted (Clemmys guttata turtles in the northeastern United States, choanal and cloacal swabs collected from 230 turtles from 19 sites in 5 states were screened for herpesvirus by polymerase chain reaction. We found a high incidence of herpesvirus infection in bog turtles (51.5%; 105/204 and smaller numbers of positive wood (5 and spotted (1 turtles. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis revealed three previously uncharacterized alphaherpesviruses. Glyptemys herpesvirus 1 was the predominant herpesvirus detected and was found exclusively in bog turtles in all states sampled. Glyptemys herpesvirus 2 was found only in wood turtles. Emydid herpesvirus 2 was found in a small number of bog turtles and a single spotted turtle from one state. Based on these findings, Glyptemys herpesvirus 1 appears to be a common infection in the study population, whereas Glyptemys herpesvirus 2 and Emydid herpesvirus 2 were not as frequently detected. Emydid herpesvirus 2 was the only virus detected in more than one species. Herpesviruses are most often associated with subclinical or mild infections in their natural hosts, and no sampled turtles showed overt signs of disease at sampling. However, infection of host-adapted viruses in closely related species can result in significant disease. The pathogenic potential of these viruses, particularly Emydid herpesvirus 2, in sympatric chelonians warrants additional study in order to better understand the relationship of these viruses with their endangered hosts.

  1. The complete genome sequence of herpesvirus papio 2 (Cercopithecine herpesvirus 16) shows evidence of recombination events among various progenitor herpesviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Shaun D; Severini, Alberto

    2006-02-01

    We have sequenced the entire genome of herpesvirus papio 2 (HVP-2; Cercopithecine herpesvirus 16) strain X313, a baboon herpesvirus with close homology to other primate alphaherpesviruses, such as SA8, monkey B virus, and herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 and type 2. The genome of HVP-2 is 156,487 bp in length, with an overall GC content of 76.5%. The genome organization is identical to that of the other members of the genus Simplexvirus, with a long and a short unique region, each bordered by inverted repeats which end with an "a" sequence. All of the open reading frames detected in this genome were homologous and colinear with those of SA8 and B virus. The HSV gene RL1 (gamma(1)34.5; neurovirulence factor) is not present in HVP-2, as is the case for SA8 and B virus. The HVP-2 genome is 85% homologous to its closest relative, SA8. However, segment-by-segment bootstrap analysis of the genome revealed at least two regions that display closer homology to the corresponding sequences of B virus. The first region comprises the UL41 to UL44 genes, and the second region is located within the UL36 gene. We hypothesize that this localized and defined shift in homology is due to recombination events between an SA8-like progenitor of HVP-2 and a herpesvirus species more closely related to the B virus. Since some of the genes involved in these putative recombination events are determinants of virulence, a comparative analysis of their function may provide insight into the pathogenic mechanism of simplexviruses.

  2. [Herpesvirus detection in clinically healthy West African mud turtles (Pelusioscastaneus)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschang, R E; Heckers, K O; Heynol, V; Weider, K; Behncke, H

    2015-01-01

    First description of a herpesvirus in West African mud turtles. A herpesvirus was detected in two clinically healthy West African mud turtles (Pelusios castaneus) by PCR during a quarantine exam. The animals had been imported from Togo, West Africa to Germany for the pet trade. Analysis of a portion of the genome of the detected virus showed that it is a previously unknown virus related to other chelonid herpesviruses. The virus was named pelomedusid herpesvirus 1. This case highlights the importance of testing for infectious agents during quarantine, even in clinically healthy animals.

  3. Pityriasis rosea is associated with systemic active infection with both human herpesvirus-7 and human herpesvirus-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Takahiro; Kawamura, Tatsuyoshi; Jacob, Sharon E; Aquilino, Elisabeth A; Orenstein, Jan M; Black, Jodi B; Blauvelt, Andrew

    2002-10-01

    Pityriasis rosea is a common skin disease that has been suspected to have a viral etiology. We performed nested polymerase chain reaction to detect human herpesvirus-7, human herpesvirus-6, and cytomegalovirus DNA in lesional skin, nonlesional skin, peripheral blood mononuclear cells, serum, and saliva samples isolated from 14 pityriasis rosea patients. Viral mRNA expression and virion visualization within lesional skin were studied by in situ hybridization and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. By nested polymerase chain reaction, human herpesvirus-7 DNA was present in lesional skin (93%), nonlesional skin (86%), saliva (100%), peripheral blood mononuclear cells (83%), and serum (100%) samples, whereas human herpesvirus-6 DNA was detected in lesional skin (86%), nonlesional skin (79%), saliva (80%), peripheral blood mononuclear cells (83%), and serum (88%) samples. By contrast, cytomegalovirus DNA was not detected in these tissues. Control samples from 12 healthy volunteers and 10 psoriasis patients demonstrated rare positivity for either human herpesvirus-7 or human herpesvirus-6 DNA in skin or serum. By in situ hybridization, infiltrating mononuclear cells expressing human herpesvirus-7 and human herpesvirus-6 mRNA were identified in perivascular and periappendageal areas in 100% and 75% pityriasis rosea skin lesions, respectively, compared to herpesviral mRNA positivity in only 13% normal skin and psoriasis skin controls. Transmission electron microscopy failed to reveal herpesviral virions in pityriasis rosea lesional skin. Nested polymerase chain reaction and in situ hybridization enabled detection of human herpesvirus-7 and human herpesvirus-6 in skin and other tissues isolated from patients with pityriasis rosea. These results suggest that pityriasis rosea is associated with systemic active infection with both human herpesvirus-7 and human herpesvirus-6.

  4. Nuclear Exodus: Herpesviruses Lead the Way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigalke, Janna M.; Heldwein, Ekaterina E.

    2016-01-01

    Most DNA viruses replicate in the nucleus and exit it either by passing through the nuclear pores or by rupturing the nuclear envelope. Unusually, herpesviruses have evolved a complex mechanism of nuclear escape whereby nascent capsids bud at the inner nuclear membrane to form perinuclear virions that subsequently fuse with the outer nuclear membrane, releasing capsids into the cytosol. Although this general scheme is accepted in the field, the players and their roles are still debated. Recent studies illuminated critical mechanistic features of this enigmatic process and uncovered surprising parallels with a novel cellular nuclear export process. This review summarizes our current understanding of nuclear egress in herpesviruses, examines the experimental evidence and models, and outlines outstanding questions with the goal of stimulating new research in this area. PMID:27482898

  5. Biological and immunogenic properties of rabies virus glycoprotein expressed by canine herpesvirus vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, X; Tuchiya, K; Sato, I; Nishikawa, Y; Onoderaz, Y; Takashima, Y; Yamamoto, A; Katsumata, A; Iwata, A; Ueda, S; Mikami, T; Otsuka, H

    1998-01-01

    In order to evaluate whether canine herpesvirus (CHV) could be used as a live vector for the expression of heterologous immunogenes, we constructed a recombinant canine herpesvirus (CHV) expressing glycoprotein (G protein) of rabies virus (RV). The gene of G protein was inserted within the thymidine kinase gene of CHV YP11mu strain under the control of the human cytomegalovirus immediate early promoter. The G protein expressed by the recombinant CHV was processed and transported to the cell surface as in RV infected cells, and showed the same biological activities such as low pH dependent cell fusion and hemadsorption. The antigenic authenticity of the recombinant G protein was confirmed by a panel of monoclonal antibodies specific for G protein. Dogs inoculated intransally with the recombinant CHV produced higher titres of virus neutralizing antibodies against RV than those inoculated with a commercial, inactivated rabies vaccine. These results suggest that the CHV recombinant expressing G protein can be used as a vaccine to control canine rabies and that CHV may be useful as a vector to develop live recombinant against other infectious diseases in dogs.

  6. Herpesvirus papio 2 encodes a virion host shutoff function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigger, John E; Martin, David W

    2002-12-05

    Infection of baboons with herpesvirus papio 2 (HVP-2) produces a disease that is similar to human infection with herpes simplex viruses (HSV). Molecular characterization of HVP-2 has demonstrated that the virion contains a factor which rapidly shuts off host cell protein synthesis after infection. Reduction of host cell protein synthesis occurs in parallel with the degradation of mRNA species. A homolog of the HSV virion host shutoff (vhs) gene was identified by Southern and DNA sequence analysis. The sequence of the HVP-2 vhs gene homolog had greater than 70% identity with the vhs genes of HSV 1 and 2. Disruption of the HVP-2 vhs open reading frame diminished the ability of the virus to shut off protein synthesis and degrade cellular mRNA, indicating that this gene was responsible for the vhs activity. The HVP-2 model system provides the opportunity to study the biological role of vhs in the context of a natural primate host. Further development of this system will provide a platform for proof-of-concept studies that will test the efficacy of vaccines that utilize vhs-deficient viruses.

  7. Herpesvirus infections in psittacine birds in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, S S; Park, J H; Hirai, K; Itakura, C

    1993-03-01

    Herpesvirus infection was diagnosed histologically and electron microscopically in 21 out of 241 pet birds examined. The infected birds included 14 parakeets (Psittacula krameri manillensis) with respiratory infection and three parrots (Ama-zona aestiva aestiva), two cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus) and two rosellas (Platycercus emimius) with Pacheco's disease. The consistent lesions of respiratory herpesvirus infection were the formation of syncytial cells associated with the presence of intranuclear inclusion bodies, mainly in the lung and air sac. There was lack of an apparent cellular reaction in situ. The agent induced tubular structures containing a clear core in the nuclei of the affected cells. The present study indicated that it was a distinct entity from infectious laryngotracheitis based on tissue tropism, host reaction and morphology of the tubular structures. The striking lesions of Pacheco's disease consisted of syncytial cell formation with intranuclear inclusion bodies in various organs, especially the liver, parathyroid, ovary, bone marrow and intestine. This agent showed similar morphology to that of the respiratory herpesvirus infection, but was larger in size and had no tubular structure formation in the nuclei of affected cells.

  8. Identification of an essential virulence gene of cyprinid herpesvirus 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutier, Maxime; Gao, Yuan; Vancsok, Catherine; Suárez, Nicolás M; Davison, Andrew J; Vanderplasschen, Alain

    2017-09-01

    The genus Cyprinivirus consists of a growing list of phylogenetically related viruses, some of which cause severe economic losses to the aquaculture industry. The archetypal member, cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) causes mass mortalities worldwide in koi and common carp. A CyHV-3 mutant was described previously that is attenuated in vivo by a deletion affecting two genes (ORF56 and ORF57). The relative contributions of ORF56 and ORF57 to the safety and efficacy profile of this vaccine candidate have now been assessed by analysing viruses individually deleted for ORF56 or ORF57. Inoculation of these viruses into carp demonstrated that the absence of ORF56 did not affect virulence, whereas the absence of ORF57 led to an attenuation comparable to, though slightly less than, that of the doubly deleted virus. To demonstrate further the role of ORF57 as a key virulence factor, a mutant retaining the ORF57 region but unable to express the ORF57 protein was produced by inserting multiple in-frame stop codons into the coding region. Analysis of this virus in vivo revealed a safety and efficacy profile comparable to that of the doubly deleted virus. These findings show that ORF57 encodes an essential CyHV-3 virulence factor. They also indicate that ORF57 orthologues in other cypriniviruses may offer promising targets for the rational design of attenuated recombinant vaccines. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Isolation and purification of Gallid herpesvirus 2 strains currently distributed in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machida, Yuka; Murata, Shiro; Matsuyama-Kato, Ayumi; Isezaki, Masayoshi; Taneno, Akira; Sakai, Eishi; Konnai, Satoru; Ohashi, Kazuhiko

    2017-01-20

    Gallid herpesvirus 2 (GaHV-2) causes malignant lymphomas in chickens (Marek's disease, MD). Although MD is controlled through vaccination efforts, field isolates of GaHV-2 have increased in virulence worldwide and even cause MD in vaccinated chickens. GaHV-2 strains are classified into four categories (mild, virulent, very virulent and very virulent +) based on the virulence exhibited in experimental infection in unvaccinated or MD-vaccinated susceptible chickens. Although MD cases are sporadically reported in Japan, the recent field strains of GaHV-2 in Japan have not been characterized. During isolation of recent field strains by using primary chicken kidney cell cultures, a method classically used for GaHV-2 isolation, vaccine strains were simultaneously isolated. Therefore, it is necessary to separate vaccine strains to characterize the virulence and pathogenicity of the GaHV-2 strains currently distributed in Japan. In this study, we prepared cell suspensions from the spleens of MD-symptomatic chickens, inoculated day-old-chicks and isolated GaHV-2 strains by primary chicken kidney cell cultures at 2-3 weeks post inoculation. The isolated strains were passaged several times on chicken embryo fibroblast cells, and PCR analysis revealed that the isolated strains were not contaminated with vaccine strains. Moreover, the contaminant vaccine strains were completely removed by the purification of plaques observed in chicken kidney cells. These procedures are necessary to isolate GaHV-2 field strains from vaccine strains in order to carry out future studies to characterize these strains and glean insights into GaHV-2 virulence and pathogenicity.

  10. T-cell immunity to herpesviruses in immune disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scherrenburg, J.

    2009-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Cytomegalovirus (CMV) are wide-spread herpesviruses, which establish life-long persistence in the host upon primary infection. Primary infection with herpesviruses causes usually only mild symptoms, however in some situations, such as during immunosuppression or human

  11. A SEROLOGIC AND POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION SURVEY OF EQUINE HERPESVIRUS IN BURCHELL'S ZEBRAS (EQUUS QUAGGA), HARTMANN'S MOUNTAIN ZEBRAS (EQUUS ZEBRA HARTMANNAE), AND THOMSON'S GAZELLES (EUDORCAS THOMSONII) IN A MIXED SPECIES SAVANNAH EXHIBIT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Karen M; Fleming, Gregory J; Mylniczenko, Natalie D

    2016-12-01

    Reports of equine herpesvirus (EHV) 1 and EHV-9 causing clinical disease in a wide range of species have been well documented in the literature. It is thought that zebras are the natural hosts of EHV-9 both in the wild and in captive collections. Concerns about potential interspecies transmission of EHV-1 and EHV-9 in a mixed species savannah exhibit prompted serologic and polymerase chain reaction surveys. Eighteen Burchell's zebras ( Equus quagga ), 11 Hartmann's mountain zebras ( Equus zebra hartmannae), and 14 Thomson's gazelles ( Eudorcas thomsonii ) cohabitating the same exhibit were examined for EHV-1 virus neutralization titers, and evidence of virus via EHV 1-5 polymerase chain reactions. None of the animals had previous exposure to vaccination with EHV-1 or EHV-4. All tested zebras had positive EHV-1 titers, ranging from 4 to 384. All zebras and Thomson's gazelles had negative polymerase chain reaction results for all targeted equine herpesviruses. EHV-9-specific assays are not available but EHV-1, EHV-4, and EHV-9 cross-react serologically. Positive serology results indicate a potential latent equine herpesvirus in the zebra population, which prompted initiation of an equine herpesvirus vaccine protocol, changes in pregnant zebra mare management, and equine herpesvirus polymerase chain reaction screening prior to shipment to or from the study site.

  12. VACCINATION IN RHEUMATOLOGY: CURRENT ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. S. Belov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Infectious diseases still remain a serious social and medical problem. The importance of comorbid infections in rheumatology has increased substantially in recent years, particularly due to the clinical introduction of biologicals. The investigation and active use of different vaccines are one of the ways to solve the above problem. This review considers the issues concerning the use of vaccines against influenza, infections caused by pneumococci, herpesviruses, human papillomavirus, and hepatitis B virus in rheumatology patients. It discusses the safety and immunogenicity of vaccination associated with the prevention of airway infections as the most common cause of a poor outcome in rheumatic diseases. The main areas of future investigations in the problem under consideration are defined.

  13. The Genome of a Tortoise Herpesvirus (Testudinid Herpesvirus 3) Has a Novel Structure and Contains a Large Region That Is Not Required for Replication In Vitro or Virulence In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandar, Frédéric; Wilkie, Gavin S.; Gatherer, Derek; Kerr, Karen; Marlier, Didier; Diez, Marianne; Marschang, Rachel E.; Mast, Jan; Dewals, Benjamin G.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Testudinid herpesvirus 3 (TeHV-3) is the causative agent of a lethal disease affecting several tortoise species. The threat that this virus poses to endangered animals is focusing efforts on characterizing its properties, in order to enable the development of prophylactic methods. We have sequenced the genomes of the two most studied TeHV-3 strains (1976 and 4295). TeHV-3 strain 1976 has a novel genome structure and is most closely related to a turtle herpesvirus, thus supporting its classification into genus Scutavirus, subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae, family Herpesviridae. The sequence of strain 1976 also revealed viral counterparts of cellular interleukin-10 and semaphorin, which have not been described previously in members of subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae. TeHV-3 strain 4295 is a mixture of three forms (m1, m2, and M), in which, in comparison to strain 1976, the genomes exhibit large, partially overlapping deletions of 12.5 to 22.4 kb. Viral subclones representing these forms were isolated by limiting dilution assays, and each replicated in cell culture comparably to strain 1976. With the goal of testing the potential of the three forms as attenuated vaccine candidates, strain 4295 was inoculated intranasally into Hermann's tortoises (Testudo hermanni). All inoculated subjects died, and PCR analyses demonstrated the ability of the m2 and M forms to spread and invade the brain. In contrast, the m1 form was detected in none of the organs tested, suggesting its potential as the basis of an attenuated vaccine candidate. Our findings represent a major step toward characterizing TeHV-3 and developing prophylactic methods against it. IMPORTANCE Testudinid herpesvirus 3 (TeHV-3) causes a lethal disease in tortoises, several species of which are endangered. We have characterized the viral genome and used this information to take steps toward developing an attenuated vaccine. We have sequenced the genomes of two strains (1976 and 4295), compared their growth in

  14. Bioactive activities of natural products against herpesvirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Myoungki; Lee, Minjung; Sung, Gi-Ho; Lee, Taeho; Shin, Yu Su; Cho, Hyosun; Lieberman, Paul M; Kang, Hyojeung

    2013-10-01

    More than 90% of adults have been infected with at least one human herpesvirus, which establish long-term latent infection for the life of the host. While anti-viral drugs exist that limit herpesvirus replication, many of these are ineffective against latent infection. Moreover, drug-resistant strains of herpesvirus emerge following chemotherapeutic treatment. For example, resistance to acyclovir and related nucleoside analogues can occur when mutations arise in either HSV thymidine kinase or DNA polymerases. Thus, there exists an unmet medical need to develop new anti-herpesvirus agents with different mechanisms of action. In this Review, we discuss the promise of anti-herpetic substances derived from natural products including extracts and pure compounds from potential herbal medicines. One example is Glycyrrhizic acid isolated from licorice that shows promising antiviral activity towards human gammaherpesviruses. Secondly, we discuss anti-herpetic mechanisms utilized by several natural products in molecular level. While nucleoside analogues inhibit replicating herpesviruses in lytic replication, some natural products can disrupt the herpesvirus latent infection in the host cell. In addition, natural products can stimulate immune responses against herpesviral infection. These findings suggest that natural products could be one of the best choices for development of new treatments for latent herpesvirus infection, and may provide synergistic anti-viral activity when supplemented with nucleoside analogues. Therefore, it is important to identify which natural products are more efficacious anti-herpetic agents, and to understand the molecular mechanism in detail for further advance in the anti-viral therapies.

  15. Structure of replicating intermediates of human herpesvirus type 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severini, Alberto; Sevenhuysen, Claire; Garbutt, Michael; Tipples, Graham A.

    2003-01-01

    We have studied the structure of the replicative intermediates of human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, partial digestion, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and sedimentation centrifugation. The results show that DNA replication of HHV-6 produces head-to-tail concatemeric intermediates as well as approximately equal amounts of circular monomers or oligomers. Unlike the situation in herpes simplex virus, the intermediates of human herpesvirus 6 replication are not highly branched, suggesting a difference in the mechanism of replication or a lower frequency of homologous recombination in human herpesvirus 6 compared to herpes simplex virus

  16. Polarized DNA Ejection from the Herpesvirus Capsid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomb, William W.; Cockrell, Shelley K.; Homa, Fred L.; Brown, Jay C.

    2009-01-01

    Ejection of DNA from the capsid is an early step in infection by all herpesviruses. Ejection or DNA uncoating occurs after a parental capsid has entered the host cell cytoplasm, migrated to the nucleus and bound to a nuclear pore. DNA exits the capsid through the portal vertex and proceeds by way of the nuclear pore complex into the nucleoplasm where it is transcribed and replicated. Here we describe use of an in vitro uncoating system to determine which genome end exits first from the herpes simplex virus (HSV-1) capsid. Purified DNA-containing capsids were bound to a solid surface and warmed under conditions in which some, but not all, of the DNA was ejected. Restriction endonuclease digestion was then used to identify the genomic origin of the ejected DNA. The results support the view that the S segment end exits the capsid first. Preferential release at the S end demonstrates that herpesvirus DNA uncoating conforms to the paradigm in dsDNA bacteriophage where the last end packaged is the first to be ejected. Release of HSV-1 DNA beginning at the S end causes the first gene to enter the host cell nucleus to be α4, a transcription factor required for expression of early genes. PMID:19631662

  17. Isolation and characterization of a herpesvirus from feral pigeons in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Panpan; Ma, Jian; Guo, Ying; Tian, Li; Guo, Guangyang; Zhang, Kexin; Xing, Mingwei

    2015-12-01

    A herpesvirus was isolated during a diagnostic investigation of severe cases of conjunctivitis in feral pigeons (Columba livia f. domestica). Isolates of the virus were recovered from throat swabs of the pigeons followed by inoculation of the swab samples in chicken embryo fibroblasts. Pigeons inoculated with the isolated virus had similar clinical signs to those observed in naturally infected birds. Transmission electron microscopy revealed viral structures with typical herpesvirus morphology. Polymerase chain reaction amplification, using herpesvirus-identifying primers resulted in an amplicon of the expected size for herpesvirus. Sequencing of these amplicons and database comparisons identified the herpesvirus UL30 homologue. Phylogenetic reconstructions suggested that the isolated herpesvirus belongs to the Mardivirus genus of Alphaherpesvirinae. Using the current herpesvirus nomenclature conventions, the authors propose that the herpesvirus be named Columbid herpesvirus-1 Heilongjiang. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Differential activation of murine herpesvirus 68- and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus-encoded ORF74 G protein-coupled receptors by human and murine chemokines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verzijl, D.; Fitzsimons, C.P.; Van Dijk, M.; Stewart, J.P.; Timmerman, H.; Smit, M.J.; Leurs, R.

    2004-01-01

    Infection of mice with murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV-68) is a well-characterized small animal model for the study of gammaherpesvirus infection. MHV-68 belongs to the same herpesvirus family as herpesvirus saimiri (HVS) of New World squirrel monkeys and human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) (also referred

  19. Characterization of canine herpesvirus glycoprotein C expressed by a recombinant baculovirus in insect cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, X; Maeda, K; Mikami, T; Otsuka, H

    1996-12-01

    The gene encoding the canine herpesvirus (CHV) glycoprotein C (gC) homologue has been identified by sequence homology analyses with other well studied herpesviruses. Previously, we have identified three CHV glycoproteins, gp145/112, gp80 and gp47 using a panel of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). To determine which CHV glycoprotein corresponds to gC, a recombinant baculovirus which contains the putative CHV gC structural gene under the baculovirus polyhedrin promoter was constructed. The recombinant baculovirus expressed gC-related polypeptides (44-62 kDa), which reacted only with MAbs against CHV gp80, indicating that the previously identified CHV gp80 is the translation product of the gC gene. The baculovirus expressed gC was glycosylated and transported to the surface of infected cells. At least seven neutralizing epitopes were conserved on the gC produced in insect cells. It was found that the recombinant baculovirus infected cells adsorbed murine erythrocytes as is the case for CHV-infected cells. The hemadsorption activity was inhibited by heparin, indicating that the CHV gC binds to heparan sulfate on the surface of murine erythrocytes. Mice immunized with the recombinant gC produced strong neutralizing antibodies. Our results suggest that CHV gC produced in insect cells may be useful as a subunit vaccine to control CHV infections.

  20. Prevalence of infection with human herpesvirus 8/Kaposi's sarcoma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    8)/Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHY) and to gain some insight into possible transmission dynamics of this novel virus in South Africa. Methods. Stored, anonymous serum from 50 patients with a ~ sexually transmitted disease (STD), ...

  1. MicroRNAs in large herpesvirus DNA genomes: recent advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorel, Océane; Dewals, Benjamin G

    2016-08-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) that regulate gene expression. They alter mRNA translation through base-pair complementarity, leading to regulation of genes during both physiological and pathological processes. Viruses have evolved mechanisms to take advantage of the host cells to multiply and/or persist over the lifetime of the host. Herpesviridae are a large family of double-stranded DNA viruses that are associated with a number of important diseases, including lymphoproliferative diseases. Herpesviruses establish lifelong latent infections through modulation of the interface between the virus and its host. A number of reports have identified miRNAs in a very large number of human and animal herpesviruses suggesting that these short non-coding transcripts could play essential roles in herpesvirus biology. This review will specifically focus on the recent advances on the functions of herpesvirus miRNAs in infection and pathogenesis.

  2. Human herpesvirus 8 – A novel human pathogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edelman Daniel C

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In 1994, Chang and Moore reported on the latest of the gammaherpesviruses to infect humans, human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8 1. This novel herpesvirus has and continues to present challenges to define its scope of involvement in human disease. In this review, aspects of HHV-8 infection are discussed, such as, the human immune response, viral pathogenesis and transmission, viral disease entities, and the virus's epidemiology with an emphasis on HHV-8 diagnostics.

  3. A Murine Herpesvirus Closely Related to Ubiquitous Human Herpesviruses Causes T-Cell Depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Swapneel J; Zhao, Guoyan; Penna, Vinay R; Park, Eugene; Lauron, Elvin J; Harvey, Ian B; Beatty, Wandy L; Plougastel-Douglas, Beatrice; Poursine-Laurent, Jennifer; Fremont, Daved H; Wang, David; Yokoyama, Wayne M

    2017-05-01

    The human roseoloviruses human herpesvirus 6A (HHV-6A), HHV-6B, and HHV-7 comprise the Roseolovirus genus of the human Betaherpesvirinae subfamily. Infections with these viruses have been implicated in many diseases; however, it has been challenging to establish infections with roseoloviruses as direct drivers of pathology, because they are nearly ubiquitous and display species-specific tropism. Furthermore, controlled study of infection has been hampered by the lack of experimental models, and until now, a mouse roseolovirus has not been identified. Herein we describe a virus that causes severe thymic necrosis in neonatal mice, characterized by a loss of CD4 + T cells. These phenotypes resemble those caused by the previously described mouse thymic virus (MTV), a putative herpesvirus that has not been molecularly characterized. By next-generation sequencing of infected tissue homogenates, we assembled a contiguous 174-kb genome sequence containing 128 unique predicted open reading frames (ORFs), many of which were most closely related to herpesvirus genes. Moreover, the structure of the virus genome and phylogenetic analysis of multiple genes strongly suggested that this virus is a betaherpesvirus more closely related to the roseoloviruses, HHV-6A, HHV-6B, and HHV-7, than to another murine betaherpesvirus, mouse cytomegalovirus (MCMV). As such, we have named this virus murine roseolovirus (MRV) because these data strongly suggest that MRV is a mouse homolog of HHV-6A, HHV-6B, and HHV-7. IMPORTANCE Herein we describe the complete genome sequence of a novel murine herpesvirus. By sequence and phylogenetic analyses, we show that it is a betaherpesvirus most closely related to the roseoloviruses, human herpesviruses 6A, 6B, and 7. These data combined with physiological similarities with human roseoloviruses collectively suggest that this virus is a murine roseolovirus (MRV), the first definitively described rodent roseolovirus, to our knowledge. Many biological and

  4. Fluorescent Protein Approaches in Alpha Herpesvirus Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian B. Hogue

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In the nearly two decades since the popularization of green fluorescent protein (GFP, fluorescent protein-based methodologies have revolutionized molecular and cell biology, allowing us to literally see biological processes as never before. Naturally, this revolution has extended to virology in general, and to the study of alpha herpesviruses in particular. In this review, we provide a compendium of reported fluorescent protein fusions to herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1 and pseudorabies virus (PRV structural proteins, discuss the underappreciated challenges of fluorescent protein-based approaches in the context of a replicating virus, and describe general strategies and best practices for creating new fluorescent fusions. We compare fluorescent protein methods to alternative approaches, and review two instructive examples of the caveats associated with fluorescent protein fusions, including describing several improved fluorescent capsid fusions in PRV. Finally, we present our future perspectives on the types of powerful experiments these tools now offer.

  5. Herpesvirus capsid assembly and DNA packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heming, Jason D.; Conway, James F.; Homa, Fred L.

    2017-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type I (HSV-1) is the causative agent of several pathologies ranging in severity from the common cold sore to life-threatening encephalitic infection. During productive lytic infection, over 80 viral proteins are expressed in a highly regulated manner, resulting in the replication of viral genomes and assembly of progeny virions. The virion of all herpesviruses consists of an external membrane envelope, a proteinaceous layer called the tegument, and an icosahedral capsid containing the double-stranded linear DNA genome. The capsid shell of HSV-1 is built from four structural proteins: a major capsid protein, VP5, which forms the capsomers (hexons and pentons), the triplex consisting of VP19C and VP23 found between the capsomers, and VP26 which binds to VP5 on hexons but not pentons. In addition, the dodecameric pUL6 portal complex occupies one of the 12 capsid vertices, and the capsid vertex specific component (CVSC), a heterotrimer complex of pUL17, pUL25 and pUL36 binds specifically to the triplexes adjacent to each penton. The capsid is assembled in the nucleus where the viral genome is packaged into newly assembled closed capsid shells. Cleavage and packaging of replicated, concatemeric viral DNA requires the seven viral proteins encoded by the UL6, UL15, UL17, UL25, UL28, UL32, and UL33 genes. Considerable advances have been made in understanding the structure of the herpesvirus capsid and the function of several of the DNA packaging proteins by applying biochemical, genetic, and structural techniques. This review is a summary of recent advances with respect to the structure of the HSV-1 virion capsid and what is known about the function of the seven packaging proteins and their interactions with each other and with the capsid shell. PMID:28528442

  6. Identification of a novel herpesvirus in captive Eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Richard R; Norton, Terry M; Bronson, Ellen; Allender, Matthew C; Stedman, Nancy; Childress, April L; Wellehan, James F X

    2015-02-25

    Herpesviruses are significant pathogens of chelonians which most commonly cause upper respiratory tract disease and necrotizing stomatitis. Herpesvirus infection was identified in two populations of captive Eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina) using histopathology and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with DNA sequencing. Necrotizing lesions with eosinophilic to amphophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies were identified in the tissues of one hatch-year individual in January 2013, which was herpesvirus positive by PCR. A separate captive group of adults had an observed herpesvirus prevalence of 58% using PCR in July 2011. In these cases, a novel herpesvirus, Terrapene herpesvirus 1 (TerHV1), was identified and serves as the first herpesvirus sequenced in the genus Terrapene. Similar to the other herpesviruses of the Order Testudines, TerHV1 clusters with the genus Scutavirus of the subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Initial Detection and Molecular Characterization of Namaycush Herpesvirus (Salmonid Herpesvirus 5) in Lake Trout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenney, Gavin W; Barbash, Patricia A; Coll, John A

    2016-03-01

    A novel herpesvirus was found by molecular methods in samples of Lake Trout Salvelinus namaycush from Lake Erie, Pennsylvania, and Lake Ontario, Keuka Lake, and Lake Otsego, New York. Based on PCR amplification and partial sequencing of polymerase, terminase, and glycoprotein genes, a number of isolates were identified as a novel virus, which we have named Namaycush herpesvirus (NamHV) salmonid herpesvirus 5 (SalHV5). Phylogenetic analyses of three NamHV genes indicated strong clustering with other members of the genus Salmonivirus, placing these isolates into family Alloherpesviridae. The NamHV isolates were identical in the three partially sequenced genes; however, they varied from other salmonid herpesviruses in nucleotide sequence identity. In all three of the genes sequenced, NamHV shared the highest sequence identity with Atlantic Salmon papillomatosis virus (ASPV; SalHV4) isolated from Atlantic Salmon Salmo salar in northern Europe, including northwestern Russia. These results lead one to believe that NamHV and ASPV have a common ancestor that may have made a relatively recent host jump from Atlantic Salmon to Lake Trout or vice versa. Partial nucleotide sequence comparisons between NamHV and ASPV for the polymerase and glycoprotein genes differ by >5% and >10%, respectively. Additional nucleotide sequence comparisons between NamHV and epizootic epitheliotropic disease virus (EEDV/SalHV3) in the terminase, glycoprotein, and polymerase genes differ by >5%, >20%, and >10%, respectively. Thus, NamHV and EEDV may be occupying discrete ecological niches in Lake Trout. Even though NamHV shared the highest genetic identity with ASPV, each of these viruses has a separate host species, which also implies speciation. Additionally, NamHV has been detected over the last 4 years in four separate water bodies across two states, which suggests that NamHV is a distinct, naturally replicating lineage. This, in combination with a divergence in nucleotide sequence from EEDV

  8. Vaxvec: The first web-based recombinant vaccine vector database and its data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Shunzhou; Martin, Carly; Patil, Rasika; Zhu, Felix; Zhao, Bin; Xiang, Zuoshuang; He, Yongqun

    2015-01-01

    A recombinant vector vaccine uses an attenuated virus, bacterium, or parasite as the carrier to express a heterologous antigen(s). Many recombinant vaccine vectors and related vaccines have been developed and extensively investigated. To compare and better understand recombinant vectors and vaccines, we have generated Vaxvec (http://www.violinet.org/vaxvec), the first web-based database that stores various recombinant vaccine vectors and those experimentally verified vaccines that use these vectors. Vaxvec has now included 59 vaccine vectors that have been used in 196 recombinant vector vaccines against 66 pathogens and cancers. These vectors are classified to 41 viral vectors, 15 bacterial vectors, 1 parasitic vector, and 1 fungal vector. The most commonly used viral vaccine vectors are double-stranded DNA viruses, including herpesviruses, adenoviruses, and poxviruses. For example, Vaxvec includes 63 poxvirus-based recombinant vaccines for over 20 pathogens and cancers. Vaxvec collects 30 recombinant vector influenza vaccines that use 17 recombinant vectors and were experimentally tested in 7 animal models. In addition, over 60 protective antigens used in recombinant vector vaccines are annotated and analyzed. User-friendly web-interfaces are available for querying various data in Vaxvec. To support data exchange, the information of vaccine vectors, vaccines, and related information is stored in the Vaccine Ontology (VO). Vaxvec is a timely and vital source of vaccine vector database and facilitates efficient vaccine vector research and development. PMID:26403370

  9. Investigation of Koi Herpesvirus Latency in Koi▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eide, Kathleen E.; Miller-Morgan, Tim; Heidel, Jerry R.; Kent, Michael L.; Bildfell, Rob J.; LaPatra, Scott; Watson, Gregory; Jin, Ling

    2011-01-01

    Koi herpesvirus (KHV) has recently been classified as a member of the family of Alloherpesviridae within the order of Herpesvirales. One of the unique features of Herpesviridae is latent infection following a primary infection. However, KHV latency has not been recognized. To determine if latency occurs in clinically normal fish from facilities with a history of KHV infection or exposure, the presence of the KHV genome was investigated in healthy koi by PCR and Southern blotting. KHV DNA, but not infectious virus or mRNAs from lytic infection, was detected in white blood cells from investigated koi. Virus shedding was examined via tissue culture and reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) testing of gill mucus and feces from six koi every other day for 1 month. No infectious virus or KHV DNA was detected in fecal secretion or gill swabs, suggesting that neither acute nor persistent infection was present. To determine if KHV latent infections can be reactivated, six koi were subjected to a temperature stress regime. KHV DNA and infectious virus were detected in both gill and fecal swabs by day 8 following temperature stress. KHV DNA was also detectable in brain, spleen, gills, heart, eye, intestine, kidney, liver, and pancreas in euthanized koi 1 month post-temperature stress. Our study suggests that KHV may become latent in leukocytes and other tissues, that it can be reactivated from latency by temperature stress, and that it may be more widespread in the koi population than previously suspected. PMID:21389134

  10. Human Herpesvirus 6 and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Eymard

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available The cause of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS is still enigmatic. Using indirect immunofluorescence testing for measuring antibody against human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6, this study investigated the association of CFS with infection by HHV-6. Seventeen patients (group A fulfilling the Centers for Disease Control (CDC definition for CFS were compared with eight patients (group B with chronic fatigue but not meeting the CDC criteria. No significant difference was found between the two groups for 30 parameters including sex, age, exposure to children and serology for Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus, and toxoplasma. Univariate analysis showed that patients in group A complained more frequently of a sore throat, headache and of recurrent type of fatigue. These three parameters are discriminant in identifying patients who will meet the CDC case definition of CFS. The titre of antibody against HHV-6 in group A (1:99 was significantly higher than in group B (1:15 (P=0.007. Elevated HHV-6 titres suggests that this virus could be a cofactor in the pathogenesis of CFS.

  11. Vaccines (immunizations) - overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccinations; Immunizations; Immunize; Vaccine shots; Prevention - vaccine ... of the vaccine. VACCINE SCHEDULE The recommended vaccination (immunization) schedule is updated every 12 months by the ...

  12. Proteomic and Functional Analyses of the Virion Transmembrane Proteome of Cyprinid Herpesvirus 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vancsok, Catherine; Peñaranda, M Michelle D; Raj, V Stalin; Leroy, Baptiste; Jazowiecka-Rakus, Joanna; Boutier, Maxime; Gao, Yuan; Wilkie, Gavin S; Suárez, Nicolás M; Wattiez, Ruddy; Gillet, Laurent; Davison, Andrew J; Vanderplasschen, Alain F C

    2017-11-01

    Virion transmembrane proteins (VTPs) mediate key functions in the herpesvirus infectious cycle. Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) is the archetype of fish alloherpesviruses. The present study was devoted to CyHV-3 VTPs. Using mass spectrometry approaches, we identified 16 VTPs of the CyHV-3 FL strain. Mutagenesis experiments demonstrated that eight of these proteins are essential for viral growth in vitro (open reading frame 32 [ORF32], ORF59, ORF81, ORF83, ORF99, ORF106, ORF115, and ORF131), and eight are nonessential (ORF25, ORF64, ORF65, ORF108, ORF132, ORF136, ORF148, and ORF149). Among the nonessential proteins, deletion of ORF25, ORF132, ORF136, ORF148, or ORF149 affects viral replication in vitro , and deletion of ORF25, ORF64, ORF108, ORF132, or ORF149 impacts plaque size. Lack of ORF148 or ORF25 causes attenuation in vivo to a minor or major extent, respectively. The safety and efficacy of a virus lacking ORF25 were compared to those of a previously described vaccine candidate deleted for ORF56 and ORF57 (Δ56-57). Using quantitative PCR, we demonstrated that the ORF25 deleted virus infects fish through skin infection and then spreads to internal organs as reported previously for the wild-type parental virus and the Δ56-57 virus. However, compared to the parental wild-type virus, the replication of the ORF25-deleted virus was reduced in intensity and duration to levels similar to those observed for the Δ56-57 virus. Vaccination of fish with a virus lacking ORF25 was safe but had low efficacy at the doses tested. This characterization of the virion transmembrane proteome of CyHV-3 provides a firm basis for further research on alloherpesvirus VTPs. IMPORTANCE Virion transmembrane proteins play key roles in the biology of herpesviruses. Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) is the archetype of fish alloherpesviruses and the causative agent of major economic losses in common and koi carp worldwide. In this study of the virion transmembrane proteome of CyHV-3, the

  13. Dissecting the host response to a gamma-herpesvirus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doherty, P C; Christensen, Jan Pravsgaard; Belz, G T

    2001-01-01

    The murine gamma-herpesvirus 68 (MHV-68) provides a unique experimental model for dissecting immunity to large DNA viruses that persist in B lymphocytes. The analysis is greatly facilitated by the availability of genetically disrupted (-/-) mice that lack key host-response elements, and by the fact...... cells, which is apparently MHC independent, could represent some sort of 'smoke screen' used by MHV-68 to subvert immunity. Although MHV-68 is neither Epstein-Barr virus nor human herpesvirus-8, the results generated from this system suggest possibilities that may usefully be addressed with these human...

  14. THE POSSIBILITIES OF MODERN DIAGNOSTICS OF HERPESVIRUS INFECTIONS IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Bokovoy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Medical history, clinical and laboratory data were studied in 828 children aged from 2 months to 14 years. All of them had different clinical forms of herpesvirus infections (HVI. The combination of the information allows to form the etiologic diagnosis timely and to evaluate the activity of the current infection. Given the polymorphism of clinical symptoms of HVI, it was very important to determine herpesvirus genomes in three media (blood, saliva, urine by PCR, and high titers of G-antibodies (439 u for CMV and 212.3 u for HHV-6. 

  15. Cloning ORF2 Membrane Protein of Koi Herpesvirus Lake Toba, Indonesian Isolate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MURWANTOKO

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Koi herpesvirus (KHV caused significant morbidity and mortality in koi and common carp. KHV which showed strong antigenic property implied that KHV virion or proteins may be used as antigen to raise antibody or vaccine to increase the resistance. The objectives of this research were to (i clone KHV membrane protein ORF2, (ii analysis on immunogenicity, and (iii genetic tracing. Based on genbank data, one pair of primers was designed to amplify KHV ORF2. The KHV ORF2 can be amplified using infected fish DNA which originally from Toba Lake, Sumatera, Indonesia. The KHV ORF2 composed of 699 nucleotides encoded for 292 amino acids. BLAST analysis showed that KHV ORF2 had 100% homology with KHV-J and KHV0301 strains from Japan; 98 and 91% homology on nucleotides and amino acids respectively with both KHV-U strain from Unites State and KHV-I strain from Israel. KHV in Indonesia was most likely to have originated from Japan via spreading directly or not directly to China or Hongkong. Based on T- and B-cell epitopes prediction, membrane protein ORF2 was proposed has a potency to be used in development vaccine and immunodetection.

  16. Construction of an infectious clone of canine herpesvirus genome as a bacterial artificial chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arii, Jun; Hushur, Orkash; Kato, Kentaro; Kawaguchi, Yasushi; Tohya, Yukinobu; Akashi, Hiroomi

    2006-04-01

    Canine herpesvirus (CHV) is an attractive candidate not only for use as a recombinant vaccine to protect dogs from a variety of canine pathogens but also as a viral vector for gene therapy in domestic animals. However, developments in this area have been impeded by the complicated techniques used for eukaryotic homologous recombination. To overcome these problems, we used bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) to generate infectious BACs. Our findings may be summarized as follows: (i) the CHV genome (pCHV/BAC), in which a BAC flanked by loxP sites was inserted into the thymidine kinase gene, was maintained in Escherichia coli; (ii) transfection of pCHV/BAC into A-72 cells resulted in the production of infectious virus; (iii) the BAC vector sequence was almost perfectly excisable from the genome of the reconstituted virus CHV/BAC by co-infection with CHV/BAC and a recombinant adenovirus that expressed the Cre recombinase; and (iv) a recombinant virus in which the glycoprotein C gene was deleted was generated by lambda recombination followed by Flp recombination, which resulted in a reduction in viral titer compared with that of the wild-type virus. The infectious clone pCHV/BAC is useful for the modification of the CHV genome using bacterial genetics, and CHV/BAC should have multiple applications in the rapid generation of genetically engineered CHV recombinants and the development of CHV vectors for vaccination and gene therapy in domestic animals.

  17. The structures of bovine herpesvirus 1 virion and concatemeric DNA: implications for cleavage and packaging of herpesvirus genomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schynts, Frederic; McVoy, Michael A.; Meurens, Francois; Detry, Bruno; Epstein, Alberto L.; Thiry, Etienne

    2003-01-01

    Herpesvirus genomes are often characterized by the presence of direct and inverted repeats that delineate their grouping into six structural classes. Class D genomes consist of a long (L) segment and a short (S) segment. The latter is flanked by large inverted repeats. DNA replication produces concatemers of head-to-tail linked genomes that are cleaved into unit genomes during the process of packaging DNA into capsids. Packaged class D genomes are an equimolar mixture of two isomers in which S is in either of two orientations, presumably a consequence of homologous recombination between the inverted repeats. The L segment remains predominantly fixed in a prototype (P) orientation; however, low levels of genomes having inverted L (I L ) segments have been reported for some class D herpesviruses. Inefficient formation of class D I L genomes has been attributed to infrequent L segment inversion, but recent detection of frequent inverted L segments in equine herpesvirus 1 concatemers [Virology 229 (1997) 415-420] suggests that the defect may be at the level of cleavage and packaging rather than inversion. In this study, the structures of virion and concatemeric DNA of another class D herpesvirus, bovine herpesvirus 1, were determined. Virion DNA contained low levels of I L genomes, whereas concatemeric DNA contained significant amounts of L segments in both P and I L orientations. However, concatemeric termini exhibited a preponderance of L termini derived from P isomers which was comparable to the preponderance of P genomes found in virion DNA. Thus, the defect in formation of I L genomes appears to lie at the level of concatemer cleavage. These results have important implications for the mechanisms by which herpesvirus DNA cleavage and packaging occur

  18. Seroprevalence and risk factors associated with bovine herpesvirus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) are well known etiological agents of cattle that produce important economic losses due to reproductive failures and calf mortality, as well as enteric and respiratory disease. Tamaulipas is located northeast of Mexico, an important cattle production and ...

  19. The impact of herpesviruses on reproductive performance in horses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulman, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The thesis addresses the largely-undefined influence of the equine herpesviruses (EHVs) and in particular EHV-1 and -4 on reproductive performance in horse-breeding systems. These pathogens cause significant losses to the international equine breeding industry primarily through infectious abortion

  20. Structural and functional analysis of bovine herpesvirus 1 minor glycoproteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baranowski, E.; Keil, G.; Lyaku, J.; Rijsewijk, F.A.M.; Oirschot, van J.T.; Pastoret, P.P.; Thiry, E.

    1996-01-01

    This paper focuses on the structure and functions of bovine herpesvirus 1 minor glycoproteins gH, gE, gG and gp42. It reviews the progress which has been made in their identification and characterization, in the study of their temporal expression and processing in infected cells, and finally in the

  1. Restriction of human herpesvirus 6B replication by p53

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øster, Bodil; Kofod-Olsen, Emil; Bundgaard, Bettina

    2008-01-01

    Human herpesvirus 6B (HHV-6B) induces significant accumulation of p53 in both the nucleus and cytoplasm during infection. Activation of p53 by DNA damage is known to induce either growth arrest or apoptosis; nevertheless, HHV-6B-infected cells are arrested in their cell cycle independently of p53...

  2. A simple method for purification of herpesvirus DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Laurids Siig; Normann, Preben

    1992-01-01

    A rapid and reliable method for purification of herpesvirus DNA from cell cultures is described. The method is based on the isolation of virus particles and/or nucleocapsids by differential centrifugation and exploits the solubilizing and denaturing capabilities of cesium trifluoroacetate during...

  3. Association of human herpesvirus 6 subtypes with symptomatic apical periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernádi, Katinka; Csoma, Eszter; Adám, Balázs; Szalmás, Anita; Gyöngyösi, Eszter; Veress, György; Ildikó-Márton; Kónya, József

    2011-09-01

    The occurrence of human herpesvirus (HHV) 6 subtypes A and B in apical periodontitis was determined. The relationship of HHV-6 subtypes to other disease associated herpesviruses, i.e., Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and human cytomegalovirus, was also investigated. Forty apical periodontitis samples (17 symptomatic and 23 asymptomatic) and 40 healthy pulp control samples were collected. Nested polymerase chain reaction was used to detect HHV-6 DNA. HHV-6 DNA was observed in significantly higher frequencies in apical periodontitis samples than in control samples (20% vs. 2.5%; P = .03). Further classification of apical lesions revealed that subtype B of HHV-6 was significantly associated with large-sized and symptomatic lesions (P apical lesions (77%) harbored ≥1 of the tested herpesviruses: EBV was the most frequent herpesvirus (72.5%) in apical periodontitis, followed by HHV-6 (20%). Our findings suggest that EBV and HHV-6B infections can be associated with symptomatic apical periodontitis. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Antibody response to vaccines for rhinotracheitis, caliciviral disease, panleukopenia, feline leukemia, and rabies in tigers (Panthera tigris) and lions (Panthera leo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risi, Emmanuel; Agoulon, Albert; Allaire, Franck; Le Dréan-Quénec'hdu, Sophie; Martin, Virginie; Mahl, Philippe

    2012-06-01

    This article presents the results of a study of captive tigers (Panthera tigris) and lions (Panthera leo) vaccinated with a recombinant vaccine against feline leukemia virus; an inactivated adjuvanted vaccine against rabies virus; and a multivalent modified live vaccine against feline herpesvirus, calicivirus, and panleukopenia virus. The aim of the study was to assess the immune response and safety of the vaccines and to compare the effects of the administration of single (1 ml) and double (2 ml) doses. The animals were separated into two groups and received either single or double doses of vaccines, followed by blood collection for serologic response for 400 days. No serious adverse event was observed, with the exception of abortion in one lioness, potentially caused by the incorrect use of the feline panleukopenia virus modified live vaccine. There was no significant difference between single and double doses for all vaccines. The recombinant vaccine against feline leukemia virus did not induce any serologic response. The vaccines against rabies and feline herpesvirus induced a significant immune response in the tigers and lions. The vaccine against calicivirus did not induce a significant increase in antibody titers in either tigers or lions. The vaccine against feline panleukopenia virus induced a significant immune response in tigers but not in lions. This report demonstrates the value of antibody titer determination after vaccination of nondomestic felids.

  5. Antibody-independent control of gamma-herpesvirus latency via B cell induction of anti-viral T cell responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly B McClellan

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available B cells can use antibody-dependent mechanisms to control latent viral infections. It is unknown whether this represents the sole function of B cells during chronic viral infection. We report here that hen egg lysozyme (HEL-specific B cells can contribute to the control of murine gamma-herpesvirus 68 (gammaHV68 latency without producing anti-viral antibody. HEL-specific B cells normalized defects in T cell numbers and proliferation observed in B cell-/- mice during the early phase of gammaHV68 latency. HEL-specific B cells also reversed defects in CD8 and CD4 T cell cytokine production observed in B cell-/- mice, generating CD8 and CD4 T cells necessary for control of latency. Furthermore, HEL-specific B cells were able to present virally encoded antigen to CD8 T cells. Therefore, B cells have antibody independent functions, including antigen presentation, that are important for control of gamma-herpesvirus latency. Exploitation of this property of B cells may allow enhanced vaccine responses to chronic virus infection.

  6. Synergistic immune responses induced by endogenous retrovirus and herpesvirus antigens result in increased production of inflammatory cytokines in multiple sclerosis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brudek, Tomasz; Christensen, Tove; Hansen, Hans Jacob

    2008-01-01

    Human endogenous retroviruses (HERV) and herpesviruses are increasingly associated with the pathogenesis of the neurological inflammatory disease multiple sclerosis (MS). Herpesviruses are capable of HERV activation and simultaneous presence of HERV and herpesvirus antigens have a synergistic...

  7. Epidemiology of clinical feline herpesvirus infection in zoo-housed cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, Carmel L; Lamberski, Nadine; Rideout, Bruce A; Vaida, Florin; Citino, Scott B; Barrie, Michael T; Haefele, Holly J; Junge, Randall E; Murray, Suzan; Hungerford, Laura L

    2017-10-15

    OBJECTIVE To determine the incidence of and risk factors for clinical feline herpesvirus (FHV) infection in zoo-housed cheetahs and determine whether dam infection was associated with offspring infection. DESIGN Retrospective cohort study. ANIMALS 144 cheetah cubs born in 6 zoos from 1988 through 2007. PROCEDURES Data were extracted from the health records of cheetahs and their dams to identify incident cases of clinical FHV infection and estimate incidence from birth to 18 months of age. Univariate and multivariable Cox proportional hazards models, controlling for correlations among cheetahs with the same dam, were used to identify risk factors for incident FHV infection. RESULTS Cumulative incidence of FHV infection in cheetah cubs was 35% (50/144). No significant association between dam and offspring infection was identified in any model. Factors identified as significant through multivariable analysis varied by age group. For cheetahs up to 3 months of age, the most important predictor of FHV infection was having a dam that had received a preparturition FHV vaccine regimen that included a modified-live virus vaccine versus a dam that had received no preparturition vaccine. Other risk factors included being from a small litter, being born to a primiparous dam, and male sex. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE This study provided the first population-level characterization of the incidence of and risk factors for FHV infection in cheetahs, and findings confirmed the importance of this disease. Recognition that clinical FHV infection in the dam was not a significant predictor of disease in cubs and identification of other significant factors have implications for disease management.

  8. Equid herpesvirus type 1 activates platelets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy Stokol

    Full Text Available Equid herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1 causes outbreaks of abortion and neurological disease in horses. One of the main causes of these clinical syndromes is thrombosis in placental and spinal cord vessels, however the mechanism for thrombus formation is unknown. Platelets form part of the thrombus and amplify and propagate thrombin generation. Here, we tested the hypothesis that EHV-1 activates platelets. We found that two EHV-1 strains, RacL11 and Ab4 at 0.5 or higher plaque forming unit/cell, activate platelets within 10 minutes, causing α-granule secretion (surface P-selectin expression and platelet microvesiculation (increased small events double positive for CD41 and Annexin V. Microvesiculation was more pronounced with the RacL11 strain. Virus-induced P-selectin expression required plasma and 1.0 mM exogenous calcium. P-selectin expression was abolished and microvesiculation was significantly reduced in factor VII- or X-deficient human plasma. Both P-selectin expression and microvesiculation were re-established in factor VII-deficient human plasma with added purified human factor VIIa (1 nM. A glycoprotein C-deficient mutant of the Ab4 strain activated platelets as effectively as non-mutated Ab4. P-selectin expression was abolished and microvesiculation was significantly reduced by preincubation of virus with a goat polyclonal anti-rabbit tissue factor antibody. Infectious virus could be retrieved from washed EHV-1-exposed platelets, suggesting a direct platelet-virus interaction. Our results indicate that EHV-1 activates equine platelets and that α-granule secretion is a consequence of virus-associated tissue factor triggering factor X activation and thrombin generation. Microvesiculation was only partly tissue factor and thrombin-dependent, suggesting the virus causes microvesiculation through other mechanisms, potentially through direct binding. These findings suggest that EHV-1-induced platelet activation could contribute to the thrombosis

  9. Green revolution vaccines, edible vaccines

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    of development. Food vaccines may also help to suppress autoimmunity disorders such as Type-1. Diabetes. Key words: Edible vaccines, oral vaccines, antigen expression, food vaccines. INTRODUCTION. Vaccination involves the stimulation of the immune system to prepare it for the event of an invasion from a particular ...

  10. Vaccine Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... During Pregnancy Frequently Asked Questions about Vaccine Recalls Historical Vaccine Safety Concerns FAQs about GBS and Menactra ... CISA Resources for Healthcare Professionals Evaluation Current Studies Historical Background 2001-12 Publications Technical Reports Vaccine Safety ...

  11. The genome of herpesvirus papio 2 is closely related to the genomes of human herpes simplex viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigger, John E; Martin, David W

    2003-06-01

    Infection of baboons (Papio species) with herpesvirus papio 2 (HVP-2) produces a disease that is clinically similar to herpes simplex virus (HSV-1 and HSV-2) infection of humans. The development of a primate model of simplexvirus infection based on HVP-2 would provide a powerful resource to study virus biology and test vaccine strategies. In order to characterize the molecular biology of HVP-2 and justify further development of this model system we have constructed a physical map of the HVP-2 genome. The results of these studies have identified the presence of 26 reading frames that closely resemble HSV homologues. Furthermore, the HVP-2 genome shares a collinear arrangement with the genome of HSV. These studies further validate the development of the HVP-2 model as a surrogate system to study the biology of HSV infections.

  12. Aspects of bovine herpesvirus-1 infection in dairy and beef herds in the Republic of Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doherty Michael L

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infection with bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1 causes a wide range of disease manifestations, including respiratory disease and abortion, with world-wide distribution. The primary objective of the present study was to describe aspects of BHV-1 infection and control on Irish farms, including herd-level seroprevalence (based on pooled sera and vaccine usage. Methods The characteristics of a diagnostic indirect BHV-1 antibody ELISA test when used on serum pools were evaluated using laboratory replicates for use in the seroprevalence study. The output from this indirect ELISA was expressed as a percentage positivity (PP value. A proposed cut off (PCO PP was applied in a cross-sectional study of a stratified random sample of 1,175 Irish dairy and beef cattle herds in 2009, using serum pools, to estimate herd seroprevalence. The study was observational, based primarily on the analysis of existing samples, and only aggregated results were reported. For these reasons, ethical approval was not required. Bulk milk samples from a subset of 111 dairy herds were analysed using the same ELISA. Information regarding vaccine usage was determined in a telephone survey. Results A PCO PP of 7.88% was determined to give 97.1% sensitivity and 100% specificity relative to the use of the ELISA on individual sera giving maximization of the prevalence independent Youden's index, on receiver operating characteristics analysis of replicate results. The herd-level BHV-1 seroprevalence was 74.9% (95% CI - 69.9%-79.8%, with no significant difference between dairy and beef herds. 95.5% agreement in herd classification was found between bulk milk and serum pools. Only 1.8 percent of farmers used BHV-1 marker vaccine, 80% of which was live while 75% of vaccinated herds were dairy. A significant association was found between herd size (quartiles and seroprevalence (quartiles. Conclusions The results from this study indicate BHV-1 infection is endemic, although

  13. Detection of testudinid herpesvirus type 4 in a leopard tortoise (Stigmochelys pardalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolesnik, Ekaterina; Mittenzwei, Frank; Marschang, Rachel E

    2016-08-17

    Several animals from a mixed species collection of tortoises in Germany died unexpectedly. Some of the affected leopard tortoises (Stigmochelys pardalis) from this group showed respiratory signs. Samples were collected from one of the ill tortoises, and a Mycoplasma spp. and a herpesvirus were detected by PCR. Sequencing of a portion of the DNA polymerase gene of the herpesvirus showed 99% identity with testudinid herpesvirus 4, previously described only once in a bowsprit tortoise (Chersina angulata) in the United States.

  14. Vaccines.gov

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vaccine Safety Vaccines Work Vaccine Types Vaccine Ingredients Vaccines by Disease Chickenpox ... Typhoid Fever Whooping Cough (Pertussis) Yellow Fever Who and When Infants, Children, and Teens ...

  15. Animal herpesviruses and their zoonotic potential for cross-species infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Woźniakowski

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Herpesviruses of humans and animals cause severe diseases that influence not only the health and epidemiological status but are also economically important in the context of food production. The members of Herpesviridae are host specific agents that also share many properties that potentially make them capable of crossing the species barriers. The objective of presented review paper was to summarize the relationship between herpesviruses of animals and humans and their zoonotic potential. In humans, the most epidemiologically important herpesviruses are represented by Human herepesvirus-1 and Human herpesvirus-2, which are commonly known as herpes simplex virus type 1 and 2, varicella-zooster virus (VZV, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV, Kaposi’s Sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV, cytomegalovirus (CMV, as well as Human herpesviruses: HHV-6A, HHV-6B, and HHV-7. However, in terms of the potential to cross the species barrier, there are a few herpesviruses, including B virus disease (CeHV-1, Marek’s disease virus (MDV, Equid herpesvirus-1 (EHV-1 or pseudorabies virus (PRV, which are potentially able to infect different hosts. To summarize, in advantageous conditions the host specific herpesviruses may pose a threat for public health but also may exert a negative impact on the economical aspects of animal production. The most probable of these are zoonotic infections caused by B virus disease; however, close contact between infected animal hosts and humans may lead to transmission and replication of other Herpesviridae members.

  16. LYMPHOPROLIFERATIVE SYNDROMES ASSOCIATED WITH HUMAN HERPESVIRUS-6A AND HUMAN HERPESVIRUS-6B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Eliassen

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Human herpesvirus 6A and 6B (HHV-6A and HHV-6B have been noted since their discovery for their T-lymphotropism. Although it has proven difficult to determine the extent to which HHV-6A and HHV-6B are involved in the pathogenesis of many diseases, evidence suggests that primary infection and reactivation of both viruses may induce or contribute to the progression of several lymphoproliferative disorders, ranging from benign to malignant and including infectious mononucleosis-like illness, drug induced hypersensitivity syndrome/drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DIHS/DRESS, and nodular sclerosis Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Herein, we discuss the conditions associated with the lymphoproliferative capacity of HHV-6, as well as the potential mechanisms behind them. Continued exploration on this topic may add to our understanding of the interactions between HHV-6 and the immune system and may open the doors to more accurate diagnosis and treatment of certain lymphoproliferative disorders.

  17. Central nervous system disease and genital disease in harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) are associated with different herpesviruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.E. van Elk; M.W.G. van de Bildt (Marco); P.R.W.A. van Run (Peter); De Jong, A. (Anton); S. Getu (Sarah); G.M.G.M. Verjans (George); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); T. Kuiken (Thijs)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractHerpesvirus infection causes disease of variable severity in many species, including cetaceans. However, little is known about herpesvirus infection in harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena), despite being widespread in temperate coastal waters of the Northern Hemisphere. Therefore, we

  18. Dyscoria associated with herpesvirus infection in owl monkeys (Aotus nancymae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gozalo, Alfonso S.; Montoya, Enrique J.; Weller, Richard E.

    2008-08-16

    Abstract Dyscoria was observed in a female owl monkey and her two offspring. A third offspring was found dead with necrohemorrhagic encephalitis. Two males paired with the female died, one of which showed oral ulcers at necropsy. Histologic examination of the oral ulcers revealed syncytia and eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies in epithelial cells. Ocular examination revealed posterior synechia associated with the dyscoria in all three animals. Serum samples from the female and her offspring were positive for Herpesvirus simplex antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The clinical history, gross and microscopic lesions, and serology results suggests a herpesviral etiology, possibly, H. simplex or H. saimiri-1. This report underscores the risks associated with introducing animals into breeding or research colonies that were previously kept as pets or those from unknown origin that could carry asymptomatic pathogenic Herpesvirus infections. In addition, herpesviral infection should be considered among the differential diagnoses if dyscoria is observed in nonhuman primates.

  19. Murid herpesvirus-4 exploits dendritic cells to infect B cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Gaspar

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DCs play a central role in initiating immune responses. Some persistent viruses infect DCs and can disrupt their functions in vitro. However, these viruses remain strongly immunogenic in vivo. Thus what role DC infection plays in the pathogenesis of persistent infections is unclear. Here we show that a persistent, B cell-tropic gamma-herpesvirus, Murid Herpesvirus-4 (MuHV-4, infects DCs early after host entry, before it establishes a substantial infection of B cells. DC-specific virus marking by cre-lox recombination revealed that a significant fraction of the virus latent in B cells had passed through a DC, and a virus attenuated for replication in DCs was impaired in B cell colonization. In vitro MuHV-4 dramatically altered the DC cytoskeleton, suggesting that it manipulates DC migration and shape in order to spread. MuHV-4 therefore uses DCs to colonize B cells.

  20. Herpesvirus glycoproteins undergo multiple antigenic changes before membrane fusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel L Glauser

    Full Text Available Herpesvirus entry is a complicated process involving multiple virion glycoproteins and culminating in membrane fusion. Glycoprotein conformation changes are likely to play key roles. Studies of recombinant glycoproteins have revealed some structural features of the virion fusion machinery. However, how the virion glycoproteins change during infection remains unclear. Here using conformation-specific monoclonal antibodies we show in situ that each component of the Murid Herpesvirus-4 (MuHV-4 entry machinery--gB, gH/gL and gp150--changes in antigenicity before tegument protein release begins. Further changes then occurred upon actual membrane fusion. Thus virions revealed their final fusogenic form only in late endosomes. The substantial antigenic differences between this form and that of extracellular virions suggested that antibodies have only a limited opportunity to block virion membrane fusion.

  1. Kaposi’s Sarcoma-associated herpesvirus microRNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva eGottwein

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Kaposi’s Sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV is a human pathogenic -herpesvirus strongly associated with the development of Kaposi’s Sarcoma and B cell proliferative disorders, including primary effusion lymphoma (PEL. The identification and functional investigation of non-coding RNAs expressed by KSHV is a topic with rapidly emerging importance. KSHV miRNAs derived from 12 stem-loops located in the major latency locus have been the focus of particular attention. Recent studies describing the transcriptome-wide identification of mRNA targets of the KSHV miRNAs suggest that these miRNAs have evolved a highly complex network of interactions with the cellular and viral transcriptomes. Relatively few KSHV miRNA targets, however, have been characterized at a functional level. Here, our current understanding of KSHV miRNA expression, targets and function will be reviewed.

  2. Rotavirus vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang G

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Rotavirus, the most common cause of severe diarrhea and a leading cause of mortality in children, has been a priority target for vaccine development for the past several years. The first rotavirus vaccine licensed in the United States was withdrawn because of an association of the vaccine with intussusception. However, the need for a vaccine is greatest in the developing world, because the benefits of preventing deaths due to rotavirus disease are substantially greater than the risk of intussusception. Early vaccines were based on animal strains. More recently developed and licenced vaccines are either animal-human reassortants or are based on human strains. In India, two candidate vaccines are in the development process, but have not yet reached efficacy trials. Many challenges regarding vaccine efficacy and safety remain. In addition to completing clinical evaluations of vaccines in development in settings with the highest disease burden and virus diversity, there is also a need to consider alternative vaccine development strategies.

  3. Bacterial Artificial Chromosome Clones of Viruses Comprising the Towne Cytomegalovirus Vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong Cui

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC clones have proven invaluable for genetic manipulation of herpesvirus genomes. BAC cloning can also be useful for capturing representative genomes that comprise a viral stock or mixture. The Towne live attenuated cytomegalovirus vaccine was developed in the 1970s by serial passage in cultured fibroblasts. Although its safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy have been evaluated in nearly a thousand human subjects, the vaccine itself has been little studied. Instead, genetic composition and in vitro growth properties have been inferred from studies of laboratory stocks that may not always accurately represent the viruses that comprise the vaccine. Here we describe the use of BAC cloning to define the genotypic and phenotypic properties of viruses from the Towne vaccine. Given the extensive safety history of the Towne vaccine, these BACs provide a logical starting point for the development of next-generation rationally engineered cytomegalovirus vaccines.

  4. Bacterial artificial chromosome clones of viruses comprising the towne cytomegalovirus vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xiaohong; Adler, Stuart P; Davison, Andrew J; Smith, Larry; Habib, El-Sayed E; McVoy, Michael A

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones have proven invaluable for genetic manipulation of herpesvirus genomes. BAC cloning can also be useful for capturing representative genomes that comprise a viral stock or mixture. The Towne live attenuated cytomegalovirus vaccine was developed in the 1970s by serial passage in cultured fibroblasts. Although its safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy have been evaluated in nearly a thousand human subjects, the vaccine itself has been little studied. Instead, genetic composition and in vitro growth properties have been inferred from studies of laboratory stocks that may not always accurately represent the viruses that comprise the vaccine. Here we describe the use of BAC cloning to define the genotypic and phenotypic properties of viruses from the Towne vaccine. Given the extensive safety history of the Towne vaccine, these BACs provide a logical starting point for the development of next-generation rationally engineered cytomegalovirus vaccines.

  5. Development of a recombinant poxvirus expressing bovine herpesvirus-1 glycoprotein D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz Saenz, Julian; Osorio, Jorge E; Vera, Victor J.

    2012-01-01

    Bovine herpesvirus-1 is a DNA virus belonging to the family herpesviridae, which affects cattle, causing a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations and economic losses. The main immunogenic component is its envelope glycoprotein d (GD), which has been characterized and used as immunogen in different expression systems. The aim of this work was to generate a recombinant poxvirus (raccoonpox [RCN]) expressing a truncated version of BHV-1 GD to be used as a vaccine. to do this, it was amplified the gene for a truncated version of GD which subsequently was cloned in transfer plasmid PTK/IRES/TPA which has homology to sites of poxvirus thymidine kinase, an internal site of ribosome entry (IRES) and a secretory signal (TPA), generating the construct PTK/GD/IRES/TPA. to generate the recombinant RCN, we took BSC-1 cells and we infected with a wild type RCN (CDC/v71-i-85a) at a multiplicity of infection of 0.05, then cells were transfected with the construct PTK/GD/IRES/TPA, generating different viral populations with and without the gene of interest. To select recombinant viruses expressing the gene of interest, we performed a selection of recombinant thymidine kinase negative and positive for GD by three rounds of plaque purification on rat-2 cells monolayers which are thymidine kinase null and using bromodeoxyuridine. Recombinant viruses were recovered and confirmed by PCR and nucleotide sequencing and so called RCN-GD.

  6. History of the First-Generation Marek's Disease Vaccines: The Science and Little-Known Facts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schat, Karel A

    2016-12-01

    Shortly after the isolation of Marek's disease (MD) herpesvirus (MDV) in the late 1960s vaccines were developed in England, the United States, and The Netherlands. Biggs and associates at the Houghton Poultry Research Station (HPRS) in England attenuated HPRS-16, the first cell-culture-isolated MDV strain, by passaging HPRS-16 in chick kidney cells. Although HPRS-16/Att was the first commercially available vaccine, it never became widely used and was soon replaced by the FC126 strain of herpesvirus of turkeys (HVT) vaccine developed by Witter and associates at the Regional Poultry Research Laboratory (now Avian Disease and Oncology Laboratory [ADOL]) in East Lansing, MI. Ironically, Kawamura et al. isolated a herpesvirus from kidney cell cultures from turkeys in 1969 but never realized its potential as a vaccine against MD. Rispens of the Central Veterinary Institute (CVI) developed the third vaccine. His associate, Maas, had found commercial flocks of chickens with MDV antibodies but without MD. Subsequently, Rispens isolated a very low pathogenic strain from hen number 988 from his MD antibody-positive flock, which was free of avian leukosis virus and clinical MD. This isolate became the CVI-988 vaccine used mostly in The Netherlands. During the late 1970s, HVT was no longer fully protective against some new emerging field strains. The addition of SB-1, isolated by Schat and Calnek, to HVT improved protection against the emerging very virulent strains. In the 1990s CVI-988 became the worldwide vaccine gold standard. This review will present data from published papers and personal communications providing additional information about the exciting 15-yr period after the isolation of MDV to the development of the different vaccines.

  7. Antiviral activity of exopolysaccharides from Arthrospira platensis against koi herpesvirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, M; Bergmann, S M; Hwang, J; Buchholz, R; Lindenberger, C

    2017-10-01

    Although koi herpesvirus (KHV) has a history of causing severe economic losses in common carp and koi farms, there are still no treatments available on the market. Thus, the aim of this study was to test exopolysaccharides (EPS) for its antiviral activity against KHV, by monitoring inhibition and cytotoxic effects in common carp brain cells. These substances can be easily extracted from extracellular algae supernatant and were identified as groups of sulphated polysaccharides. In order to reach this aim, Arthrospira platensis, which is well known for its antiviral activity of intra- and extracellular compounds towards mammalian herpesviruses, was investigated as standard organism and compared to commercial antiviral drug, ganciclovir, which inhibits the viral DNA polymerization. The antiviral activity of polysaccharides of A. platensis against KHV was confirmed in vitro using qualitative assessment of KHV life cycle genes, and it was found by RT-PCR that EPS, applied at a concentration of >18 μg mL -1 and a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 0.45 of KHV, suppressed the viral replication in common carp brain (CCB) cells even after 22 days post-infection, entirely. Further, this study presents first data indicating an enormous potential using polysaccharides as an additive for aquacultures to lower or hinder the spread of the KHV and koi herpesvirus disease (KHVD) in future. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Hepatitis Vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Ogholikhan, Sina; Schwarz, Kathleen B.

    2016-01-01

    Viral hepatitis is a serious health problem all over the world. However, the reduction of the morbidity and mortality due to vaccinations against hepatitis A and hepatitis B has been a major component in the overall reduction in vaccine preventable diseases. We will discuss the epidemiology, vaccine development, and post-vaccination effects of the hepatitis A and B virus. In addition, we discuss attempts to provide hepatitis D vaccine for the 350 million individuals infected with hepatitis B ...

  9. Prevalence and Clinical Significance of Herpesvirus Infection in Populations of Australian Marsupials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Stalder

    Full Text Available Herpesviruses have been reported in several marsupial species, but molecular classification has been limited to four herpesviruses in macropodids, a gammaherpesvirus in two antechinus species (Antechinus flavipes and Antechinus agilis, a gammaherpesvirus in a potoroid, the eastern bettong (Bettongia gaimardi and two gammaherpesviruses in koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus. In this study we examined a range of Australian marsupials for the presence of herpesviruses using molecular and serological techniques, and also assessed risk factors associated with herpesvirus infection. Our study population included 99 koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus, 96 eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus, 50 Tasmanian devils (Sarcophilus harrisii and 33 common wombats (Vombatus ursinius. In total, six novel herpesviruses (one alphaherpesvirus and five gammaherpesviruses were identified in various host species. The overall prevalence of detection of herpesvirus DNA in our study population was 27.2% (95% confidence interval (CI of 22.6-32.2%, but this varied between species and reached as high as 45.4% (95% CI 28.1-63.7% in common wombats. Serum antibodies to two closely related macropodid herpesviruses (macropodid herpesvirus 1 and 2 were detected in 44.3% (95% CI 33.1-55.9% of animals tested. This also varied between species and was as high as 92% (95% CI 74.0-99.0% in eastern grey kangaroos. A number of epidemiological variables were identified as positive predictors for the presence of herpesvirus DNA in the marsupial samples evaluated. The most striking association was observed in koalas, where the presence of Chlamydia pecorum DNA was strongly associated with the presence of herpesvirus DNA (Odds Ratio = 60, 95% CI 12.1-297.8. Our results demonstrate the common presence of herpesviruses in Australian marsupials and provide directions for future research.

  10. Prevalence and Clinical Significance of Herpesvirus Infection in Populations of Australian Marsupials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalder, Kathryn; Vaz, Paola K; Gilkerson, James R; Baker, Rupert; Whiteley, Pam; Ficorilli, Nino; Tatarczuch, Liliana; Portas, Timothy; Skogvold, Kim; Anderson, Garry A; Devlin, Joanne M

    2015-01-01

    Herpesviruses have been reported in several marsupial species, but molecular classification has been limited to four herpesviruses in macropodids, a gammaherpesvirus in two antechinus species (Antechinus flavipes and Antechinus agilis), a gammaherpesvirus in a potoroid, the eastern bettong (Bettongia gaimardi) and two gammaherpesviruses in koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus). In this study we examined a range of Australian marsupials for the presence of herpesviruses using molecular and serological techniques, and also assessed risk factors associated with herpesvirus infection. Our study population included 99 koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus), 96 eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus), 50 Tasmanian devils (Sarcophilus harrisii) and 33 common wombats (Vombatus ursinius). In total, six novel herpesviruses (one alphaherpesvirus and five gammaherpesviruses) were identified in various host species. The overall prevalence of detection of herpesvirus DNA in our study population was 27.2% (95% confidence interval (CI) of 22.6-32.2%), but this varied between species and reached as high as 45.4% (95% CI 28.1-63.7%) in common wombats. Serum antibodies to two closely related macropodid herpesviruses (macropodid herpesvirus 1 and 2) were detected in 44.3% (95% CI 33.1-55.9%) of animals tested. This also varied between species and was as high as 92% (95% CI 74.0-99.0%) in eastern grey kangaroos. A number of epidemiological variables were identified as positive predictors for the presence of herpesvirus DNA in the marsupial samples evaluated. The most striking association was observed in koalas, where the presence of Chlamydia pecorum DNA was strongly associated with the presence of herpesvirus DNA (Odds Ratio = 60, 95% CI 12.1-297.8). Our results demonstrate the common presence of herpesviruses in Australian marsupials and provide directions for future research.

  11. Prevalence and Clinical Significance of Herpesvirus Infection in Populations of Australian Marsupials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalder, Kathryn; Vaz, Paola K.; Gilkerson, James R.; Baker, Rupert; Whiteley, Pam; Ficorilli, Nino; Tatarczuch, Liliana; Portas, Timothy; Skogvold, Kim; Anderson, Garry A.; Devlin, Joanne M.

    2015-01-01

    Herpesviruses have been reported in several marsupial species, but molecular classification has been limited to four herpesviruses in macropodids, a gammaherpesvirus in two antechinus species (Antechinus flavipes and Antechinus agilis), a gammaherpesvirus in a potoroid, the eastern bettong (Bettongia gaimardi) and two gammaherpesviruses in koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus). In this study we examined a range of Australian marsupials for the presence of herpesviruses using molecular and serological techniques, and also assessed risk factors associated with herpesvirus infection. Our study population included 99 koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus), 96 eastern grey kangaroos (Macropus giganteus), 50 Tasmanian devils (Sarcophilus harrisii) and 33 common wombats (Vombatus ursinius). In total, six novel herpesviruses (one alphaherpesvirus and five gammaherpesviruses) were identified in various host species. The overall prevalence of detection of herpesvirus DNA in our study population was 27.2% (95% confidence interval (CI) of 22.6–32.2%), but this varied between species and reached as high as 45.4% (95% CI 28.1–63.7%) in common wombats. Serum antibodies to two closely related macropodid herpesviruses (macropodid herpesvirus 1 and 2) were detected in 44.3% (95% CI 33.1–55.9%) of animals tested. This also varied between species and was as high as 92% (95% CI 74.0–99.0%) in eastern grey kangaroos. A number of epidemiological variables were identified as positive predictors for the presence of herpesvirus DNA in the marsupial samples evaluated. The most striking association was observed in koalas, where the presence of Chlamydia pecorum DNA was strongly associated with the presence of herpesvirus DNA (Odds Ratio = 60, 95% CI 12.1–297.8). Our results demonstrate the common presence of herpesviruses in Australian marsupials and provide directions for future research. PMID:26222660

  12. The Complete Genome Sequence of Herpesvirus Papio 2 (Cercopithecine Herpesvirus 16) Shows Evidence of Recombination Events among Various Progenitor Herpesviruses†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Shaun D.; Severini, Alberto

    2006-01-01

    We have sequenced the entire genome of herpesvirus papio 2 (HVP-2; Cercopithecine herpesvirus 16) strain X313, a baboon herpesvirus with close homology to other primate alphaherpesviruses, such as SA8, monkey B virus, and herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 and type 2. The genome of HVP-2 is 156,487 bp in length, with an overall GC content of 76.5%. The genome organization is identical to that of the other members of the genus Simplexvirus, with a long and a short unique region, each bordered by inverted repeats which end with an “a” sequence. All of the open reading frames detected in this genome were homologous and colinear with those of SA8 and B virus. The HSV gene RL1 (γ134.5; neurovirulence factor) is not present in HVP-2, as is the case for SA8 and B virus. The HVP-2 genome is 85% homologous to its closest relative, SA8. However, segment-by-segment bootstrap analysis of the genome revealed at least two regions that display closer homology to the corresponding sequences of B virus. The first region comprises the UL41 to UL44 genes, and the second region is located within the UL36 gene. We hypothesize that this localized and defined shift in homology is due to recombination events between an SA8-like progenitor of HVP-2 and a herpesvirus species more closely related to the B virus. Since some of the genes involved in these putative recombination events are determinants of virulence, a comparative analysis of their function may provide insight into the pathogenic mechanism of simplexviruses. PMID:16414998

  13. Recombinant Gallid herpesvirus 2 with interrupted meq genes confers safe and efficacious protection against virulent field strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanping; Liu, Changjun; Yan, Fuhai; Liu, Ailing; Cheng, Yun; Li, Zhijie; Sun, Guorong; Lv, Hongchao; Wang, Xiaomei

    2017-08-24

    Gallid herpesvirus 2 (GaHV-2) continuously evolves, which reduces the effectiveness of existing vaccines. To construct new GaHV-2 candidate vaccines, LMS, which is a virulent GaHV-2 field strain isolated from diseased chicken flocks in Southwest China in 2007, was modified such that both copies of its meq oncogene were partially deleted. The resulting virus, i.e., rMSΔmeq, was characterized using PCR and sequencing. To evaluate the safety and protective efficacy of rMSΔmeq, specific pathogen-free (SPF) chickens were inoculated with 2000 plaque forming units (pfu) and 20,000pfu of rMSΔmeq immediately after hatching. All birds grew well during the experimental period, and none of the challenged chickens developed Marek's disease-associated lymphoma. In addition, the rMSΔmeq- and CVI988/Rispens-vaccinated SPF chickens were challenged with 1000 pfu and 5000 pfu of the representative virulent GaHV-2 Md5 strain and 1000 pfu of the variant GaHV-2 strains LCC or LTS. The results showed that the rMSΔmeq strain provided complete protection, which was similar to that provided by the CVI988/Rispens vaccine (protective index (PI) of 95.5) when challenged with a conventional dose of the Md5 strain. However, rMSΔmeq provided a PI of 90.9 when challenged with 5000 pfu of the Md5 strain, which was significantly higher than that provided by the CVI988/Rispens vaccine (54.5). rMSΔmeq provided a PI of 86.4 against LCC, which was equal to that provided by the CVI988/Rispens vaccine (81.8). In addition, rMSΔmeq provided a PI of 100 against LTS, which was significantly higher than that provided by the CVI988/Rispens vaccine (68.2). Altogether, the rMSΔmeq virus provided efficient protection against representative and variant GaHV-2 strains. In conclusion, the rMSΔmeq virus is a safe and effective vaccine candidate for the prevention of Marek's disease and is effective against the Chinese variant GaHV-2 strains. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Evaluation of metaphylactic RNA interference to prevent equine herpesvirus type 1 infection in experimental herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Gillian A; Van de Walle, Gerlinde R; Pusterla, Nicola; Erb, Hollis N; Osterrieder, Nikolaus

    2013-02-01

    To evaluate metaphylactic RNA interference to prevent equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) infection in experimental herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy in horses and to determine whether horses infected with a neuropathogenic strain of the virus that develop equine herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy (EHM) have differences in viremia. 13 seronegative horses. EHV-1 strain Ab4 was administered intranasally on day 0, and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs [EHV-1 specific siRNAs {n = 7} or an irrelevant siRNA {6}]) were administered intranasally 24 hours before and 12, 24, 36, and 48 hours after infection. Physical and neurologic examinations, nasal swab specimens, and blood samples were collected for virus isolation and quantitative PCR assay. Data from the study were combined with data from a previous study of 14 horses. No significant difference was detected in clinical variables, viremia, or detection of EHV-1 in nasal swab specimens of horses treated with the EHV-1 targeted siRNAs (sigB3-siOri2) versus controls. No significant differences in viremia were detected between horses that developed EHM and those that did not. Administration of siRNAs targeted against EHV-1 around the time of EHV-1 infection was not protective with this experimental design. Horses infected with the neuropathogenic EHV-1 strain Ab4 that developed EHM did not have a more pronounced viremia.

  15. Rotavirus vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Catherine; Tate, Jacqueline E; Hyde, Terri B; Cortese, Margaret M; Lopman, Benjamin A; Jiang, Baoming; Glass, Roger I; Parashar, Umesh D

    2014-01-01

    Rotavirus is the leading cause of severe diarrhea among children rotavirus vaccines have been efficacious and effective, with many countries reporting substantial declines in diarrheal and rotavirus-specific morbidity and mortality. However, the full public health impact of these vaccines has not been realized. Most countries, including those with the highest disease burden, have not yet introduced rotavirus vaccines into their national immunization programs. Research activities that may help inform vaccine introduction decisions include (1) establishing effectiveness, impact, and safety for rotavirus vaccines in low-income settings; (2) identifying potential strategies to improve performance of oral rotavirus vaccines in developing countries, such as zinc supplementation; and (3) pursuing alternate approaches to oral vaccines, such as parenteral immunization. Policy- and program-level barriers, such as financial implications of new vaccine introductions, should be addressed to ensure that countries are able to make informed decisions regarding rotavirus vaccine introduction. PMID:24755452

  16. Prolonged persistence of bovine herpesvirus in small cattle herds: a model-based analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mollema, E.; Jong, de M.C.M.; Boven, van R.M.

    2005-01-01

    Herpesviruses can remain dormant in once-infected hosts and, upon reactivation, cause such hosts to become infectious. This phenomenon of latency and reactivation may enable herpesviruses to persist for a long time in small host populations. To quantify the effect of reactivation on persistence, the

  17. Identification and localization of the structural proteins of anguillid herpesvirus 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beurden, van S.J.; Leroy, B.; Wattiez, R.; Haenen, O.L.M.; Boeren, S.; Vervoort, J.J.M.; Peeters, B.P.H.; Rottier, P.J.M.; Engelsma, M.Y.; Vanderplasschen, A.F.

    2011-01-01

    Many of the known fish herpesviruses have important aquaculture species as their natural host, and may cause serious disease and mortality. Anguillid herpesvirus 1 (AngHV-1) causes a hemorrhagic disease in European eel, Anguilla anguilla. Despite their importance, fundamental molecular knowledge on

  18. Crystal Structure of the Herpesvirus Nuclear Egress Complex Provides Insights into Inner Nuclear Membrane Remodeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeev-Ben-Mordehai, Tzviya; Weberruss, Marion; Lorenz, Michael; Cheleski, Juliana; Hellberg, Teresa; Whittle, Cathy; El Omari, Kamel; Vasishtan, Daven; Dent, Kyle C.; Harlos, Karl; Franzke, Kati; Hagen, Christoph; Klupp, Barbara G.; Antonin, Wolfram; Mettenleiter, Thomas C.; Gruenewald, Kay

    2015-01-01

    Although nucleo-cytoplasmic transport is typically mediated through nuclear pore complexes, herpesvirus capsids exit the nucleus via a unique vesicular pathway. Together, the conserved herpesvirus proteins pUL31 and pUL34 form the heterodimeric nuclear egress complex (NEC), which, in turn, mediates

  19. Reactivation of Herpesvirus in Patients With Hepatitis C Treated With Direct-Acting Antiviral Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perelló M, Christie; Fernández-Carrillo, Carlos; Londoño, María-Carlota; Arias-Loste, Teresa; Hernández-Conde, Marta; Llerena, Susana; Crespo, Javier; Forns, Xavier; Calleja, José Luis

    2016-11-01

    We performed a case-series analysis of reactivation of herpesvirus in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection treated with direct-acting antiviral (DAA) agents. We collected data from 576 patients with HCV infection treated with DAA combinations at 3 hospitals in Spain, from November 2014 through November 2015. We also collected data from a control population (230 HCV-infected patients, matched for sex and age; 23 untreated and 213 treated with interferon-based regimens). Herpesvirus was reactivated in 10 patients who received DAA therapy (7 patients had cirrhosis and 3 patients had received liver transplants), a median of 8 weeks after the therapy was initiated. None of the controls had herpesvirus reactivation. Patients with herpesvirus reactivation were receiving the DAA agents sofosbuvir with ledipasvir (with or without ribavirin, 7/10), ombitasvir with paritaprevir and ritonavir plus dasabuvir (with or without ribavirin, 2/10), or sofosbuvir with simeprevir plus ribavirin (1/10). Two of the 10 patients developed postherpetic neuralgia and 1 patient developed kerato-uveitis. All 10 patients with herpesvirus reactivation achieved a sustained virologic response. Immune changes that follow clearance of HCV might lead to reactivation of other viruses, such as herpesvirus. Patients with HCV infection suspected of having herpesvirus infection should be treated immediately. Some groups also might be screened for herpesvirus infection. Copyright © 2016 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Putative periodontopathic bacteria and herpesviruses in pregnant women: a case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Haixia; Zhu, Ce; Li, Fei; Xu, Wei; Tao, Danying; Feng, Xiping

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about herpesvirus and putative periodontopathic bacteria in maternal chronic periodontitis. The present case-control study aimed to explore the potential relationship between putative periodontopathic bacteria and herpesviruses in maternal chronic periodontitis.Saliva samples were collected from 36 pregnant women with chronic periodontitis (cases) and 36 pregnant women with healthy periodontal status (controls). Six putative periodontopathic bacteria (Porphyromonas gingivalis ...

  1. Vaccine Hesitancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Robert M; St Sauver, Jennifer L; Finney Rutten, Lila J

    2015-11-01

    Vaccine refusal received a lot of press with the 2015 Disneyland measles outbreak, but vaccine refusal is only a fraction of a much larger problem of vaccine delay and hesitancy. Opposition to vaccination dates back to the 1800 s, Edward Jenner, and the first vaccine ever. It has never gone away despite the public's growing scientific sophistication. A variety of factors contribute to modern vaccine hesitancy, including the layperson's heuristic thinking when it comes to balancing risks and benefits as well as a number of other features of vaccination, including falling victim to its own success. Vaccine hesitancy is pervasive, affecting a quarter to a third of US parents. Clinicians report that they routinely receive requests to delay vaccines and that they routinely acquiesce. Vaccine rates vary by state and locale and by specific vaccine, and vaccine hesitancy results in personal risk and in the failure to achieve or sustain herd immunity to protect others who have contraindications to the vaccine or fail to generate immunity to the vaccine. Clinicians should adopt a variety of practices to combat vaccine hesitancy, including a variety of population health management approaches that go beyond the usual call to educate patients, clinicians, and the public. Strategies include using every visit to vaccinate, the creation of standing orders or nursing protocols to provide vaccination without clinical encounters, and adopting the practice of stating clear recommendations. Up-to-date, trusted resources exist to support clinicians' efforts in adopting these approaches to reduce vaccine hesitancy and its impact. Copyright © 2015 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Association between human herpesvirus infections and dementia or mild cognitive impairment: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren-Gash, Charlotte; Forbes, Harriet; Breuer, Judith; Hayward, Andrew C; Mavrodaris, Angelique; Ridha, Basil H; Rossor, Martin; Thomas, Sara L; Smeeth, Liam

    2017-06-23

    Persisting neurotropic viruses are proposed to increase the risk of dementia, but evidence of association from robust, adequately powered population studies is lacking. This is essential to inform clinical trials of targeted preventive interventions. We will carry out a comprehensive systematic review of published and grey literature of the association between infection with, reactivation of, vaccination against or treatment of any of the eight human herpesviruses and dementia or mild cognitive impairment. We will search the Cochrane Library, Embase, Global Health, Medline, PsycINFO, Scopus, Web of Science, clinical trials registers, the New York Academy of Medicine Grey Literature Report, Electronic Theses Online Service through the British Library and the ISI Conference Proceedings Citation Index for randomised controlled trials, cohort, caseâ€"control, case crossover or self-controlled case series studies reported in any language up to January 2017. Titles, abstracts and full-text screening will be conducted by two researchers independently. Data will be extracted systematically from eligible studies using a piloted template. We will assess risk of bias of individual studies in line with the Cochrane Collaboration tool. We will conduct a narrative synthesis, grouping studies by exposure and outcome definitions, and will describe any differences by population subgroups and dementia subtypes. We will consider performing meta-analyses if there are adequate numbers of sufficiently homogeneous studies. The overall quality of cumulative evidence will be assessed using selected Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluations criteria. As this is a review of existing studies, no ethical approval is required. Results will be disseminated through a peer-reviewed publication and at national and international conferences. We anticipate the review will clarify the current extent and quality of evidence for a link between herpesviruses and dementia

  3. Human herpesvirus-6A/B binds to spermatozoa acrosome and is the most prevalent herpesvirus in semen from sperm donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaspersen, Maja Døvling; Larsen, Peter B.; Kofod-Olsen, Emil

    2012-01-01

    An analysis of all known human herpesviruses has not previously been reported on sperm from normal donors. Using an array-based detection method, we determined the cross-sectional frequency of human herpesviruses in semen from 198 Danish sperm donors. Fifty-five of the donors had at least one...... ejaculate that was positive for one or more human herpesvirus. Of these 27.3% (n = 15) had a double herpesvirus infection. If corrected for the presence of multiple ejaculates from some donors, the adjusted frequency of herpesviruses in semen was 27.2% with HSV-1 in 0.4%; HSV-2 in 0.1%; EBV in 6.3%; HCMV...... not necessarily remain positive over time. For the most frequently found herpesvirus, HHV-6A/B, we examined its association with sperm. For HHV-6A/B PCR-positive semen samples, HHV-6A/B could be detected on the sperm by flow cytometry. Conversely, PCR-negative semen samples were negative by flow cytometry. HHV-6B...

  4. DHEC: Vaccinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data, Maps - SC Public Health Diseases and Conditions Flu Tuberculosis STD/HIV and Viral Hepatitis Zika Illnesses E. coli Listeriosis Salmonella Hepatitis A Shellfish Monitoring and Regulation Certified Shippers Vaccines Teen and Preteen Vaccines Vaccines Needed for School Admission Related Topics Perinatal Hepatitis

  5. Laboratory and Clinical Aspects of Human Herpesvirus 6 Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnafous, Pascale; Gautheret-Dejean, Agnès

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) is a widespread betaherpesvirus which is genetically related to human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and now encompasses two different species: HHV-6A and HHV-6B. HHV-6 exhibits a wide cell tropism in vivo and, like other herpesviruses, induces a lifelong latent infection in humans. As a noticeable difference with respect to other human herpesviruses, genomic HHV-6 DNA is covalently integrated into the subtelomeric region of cell chromosomes (ciHHV-6) in about 1% of the general population. Although it is infrequent, this may be a confounding factor for the diagnosis of active viral infection. The diagnosis of HHV-6 infection is performed by both serologic and direct methods. The most prominent technique is the quantification of viral DNA in blood, other body fluids, and organs by means of real-time PCR. Many active HHV-6 infections, corresponding to primary infections, reactivations, or exogenous reinfections, are asymptomatic. However, the virus may be the cause of serious diseases, particularly in immunocompromised individuals. As emblematic examples of HHV-6 pathogenicity, exanthema subitum, a benign disease of infancy, is associated with primary infection, whereas further virus reactivations can induce severe encephalitis cases, particularly in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. Generally speaking, the formal demonstration of the causative role of HHV-6 in many acute and chronic human diseases is difficult due to the ubiquitous nature of the virus, chronicity of infection, existence of two distinct species, and limitations of current investigational tools. The antiviral compounds ganciclovir, foscarnet, and cidofovir are effective against active HHV-6 infections, but the indications for treatment, as well as the conditions of drug administration, are not formally approved to date. There are still numerous pending questions about HHV-6 which should stimulate future research works on the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and

  6. Incidence of elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus in Asian elephants in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, Nagendra N; Choudhury, Bhaskar; Kumar, Vishnu; Koul, Monika; Gogoi, Sophia M; Khatoon, Elina; Chakroborty, A; Basumatary, P; Barua, B; Rahman, T; Das, S K; Kumar, Sachin

    2017-09-01

    Elephant endotheliotropic herpesviruses (EEHVs) are the cause of acute hemorrhagic disease in endangered Asian and African elephants. In the present study, we report the incidence of EEHV infection and associated mortality in the captive elephant of Assam, India. Our result showed the gross morphology and histopathological changes of EEHV infection in the elephant. Moreover, the phylogenetic analysis of the polymerase, helicase, and GPCR genes from the infected tissue samples suggested the presence of EEHV1A virus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Herpesvirus canino 1: agente etiológico y enfermedad

    OpenAIRE

    Galosi, Cecilia Mónica

    2007-01-01

    El herpesvirus canino 1 es un alphaherpesvirus del cual se describe un solo serotipo. Este virus fue aislado en varios paises y en Europa es enzoótico en la población canina. Es uno de los principales agentes infecciosos relacionados a lesiones vesiculares en mucosas genitales y es causante de desórdenes reproductivos en caninos tales como reabsorciones fetales, abortos y muertes perinatales. Participa ocasionalmente como causante de la denominada Tos de las Perreras. Epidemiológicamente revi...

  8. The expression and serological reactivity of recombinant canine herpesvirus 1 glycoprotein D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MarkéŽta Vaňkov‡á

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to express recombinant glycoprotein D of canine herpesvirus 1 in bacterial cells and to evaluate its diagnostic sensitivity and specificity when compared to traditional serological methods. The gene fragment coding glycoprotein D of canine herpesvirus 1 was amplified by polymerase chain reaction, cloned into plasmid vector and expressed in Escherichia coli cells. Recombinant protein was then purified and used as an antigen in immunoblot for a detection of canine herpesvirus 1 specific antibodies. Antibody testing was performed on the panel of 100 canine sera by immunoblot with recombinant glycoprotein D as antigen and compared with indirect immunofluorescence assay. Serum samples were collected from 83 dogs with no history of canine herpesvirus 1 or reproductive disorders, and from 17 dogs from breeding kennels with a history of canine herpesvirus 1 related reproductive disorders. Sensitivity of glycoprotein D based immunoblot was 89.2% and specificity was 93%. Kappa value was calculated to be 0.8 between immunoblot and indirect immunofluorescence assay. Antibodies against canine herpesvirus 1 infection were detected in 33% of samples by immunoblot assay. Our study confirms that recombinant glycoprotein D expressed in bacterial cells could be used as a suitable and sensitive antigen for immunological tests and that herpesvirus infection seems to be common among the canine population in the Czech Republic.

  9. Coordinated and sequential transcription of the cyprinid herpesvirus-3 annotated genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilouze, Maya; Dishon, Arnon; Kotler, Moshe

    2012-10-01

    Cyprinid herpesvirus-3 (CyHV-3) is the cause of a fatal disease in carp and koi fish. The disease is seasonal and appears when water temperatures range from 18 to 28°C. CyHV-3 is a member of the Alloherpesviridae, a family in the Herpesvirales order that encompasses mammalian, avian and reptilian viruses. CyHV-3 is a large double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) herpesvirus with a genome of approximately 295kbp, divergent from other mammalian, avian and reptilian herpesviruses, but bearing several genes similar to cyprinid herpesvirus-1 (CyHV-1), CyHV-2, anguillid herpesvirus-1 (AngHV-1), ictalurid herpesvirus-1 (IcHV-1) and ranid herpes virus-1 (RaHV-1). Here we show that viral DNA synthesis commences 4-8h post-infection (p.i.), and is completely inhibited by pre-treatment with cytosine β-d-arabinofuranoside (Ara-C). Transcription of CyHV-3 genes initiates after infection as early as 1-2h p.i., and precedes viral DNA synthesis. All 156 annotated open reading frames (ORFs) of the CyHV-3 genome are transcribed into RNAs, most of which can be classified into immediate early (IE or α), early (E or β) and late (L or γ) classes, similar to all other herpesviruses. Several ORFs belonging to these groups are clustered along the viral genome. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Anti-herpesvirus agents: a patent and literature review (2003 to present).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoreński, Marcin; Sieńczyk, Marcin

    2014-08-01

    The standard therapy used to treat herpesvirus infections is based on the application of DNA polymerase inhibitors such as ganciclovir or aciclovir. Unfortunately, all of these compounds exhibit relatively high toxicity and the mutation of herpesviruses results in the appearance of new drug-resistant strains. Consequently, there is a great need for the development of new, effective and safe anti-herpesvirus agents that employ different patterns of therapeutic action at various stages of the virus life cycle. Patents and patent applications concerning the development of anti-herpesvirus agents displaying different mechanisms of action that have been published since 2003 are reviewed. In addition, major discoveries in this field that have been published in academic papers have also been included. Among all the anti-herpesvirus agents described in this article, the inhibitors of viral serine protease seem to present one of the most effective/promising therapeutics. Unfortunately, the practical application of these antiviral agents has not yet been proven in any clinical trials. Nevertheless, the dynamic and extensive work on this subject gives hope that a new class of anti-herpesvirus agents aimed at the enzymatic activity of herpesvirus serine protease may be developed.

  11. Impacts of Genome-Wide Analyses on Our Understanding of Human Herpesvirus Diversity and Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, Daniel W; Szpara, Moriah L

    2018-01-01

    Until fairly recently, genome-wide evolutionary dynamics and within-host diversity were more commonly examined in the context of small viruses than in the context of large double-stranded DNA viruses such as herpesviruses. The high mutation rates and more compact genomes of RNA viruses have inspired the investigation of population dynamics for these species, and recent data now suggest that herpesviruses might also be considered candidates for population modeling. High-throughput sequencing (HTS) and bioinformatics have expanded our understanding of herpesviruses through genome-wide comparisons of sequence diversity, recombination, allele frequency, and selective pressures. Here we discuss recent data on the mechanisms that generate herpesvirus genomic diversity and underlie the evolution of these virus families. We focus on human herpesviruses, with key insights drawn from veterinary herpesviruses and other large DNA virus families. We consider the impacts of cell culture on herpesvirus genomes and how to accurately describe the viral populations under study. The need for a strong foundation of high-quality genomes is also discussed, since it underlies all secondary genomic analyses such as RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq), chromatin immunoprecipitation, and ribosome profiling. Areas where we foresee future progress, such as the linking of viral genetic differences to phenotypic or clinical outcomes, are highlighted as well. Copyright © 2017 Renner and Szpara.

  12. Impacts of Genome-Wide Analyses on Our Understanding of Human Herpesvirus Diversity and Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, Daniel W.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Until fairly recently, genome-wide evolutionary dynamics and within-host diversity were more commonly examined in the context of small viruses than in the context of large double-stranded DNA viruses such as herpesviruses. The high mutation rates and more compact genomes of RNA viruses have inspired the investigation of population dynamics for these species, and recent data now suggest that herpesviruses might also be considered candidates for population modeling. High-throughput sequencing (HTS) and bioinformatics have expanded our understanding of herpesviruses through genome-wide comparisons of sequence diversity, recombination, allele frequency, and selective pressures. Here we discuss recent data on the mechanisms that generate herpesvirus genomic diversity and underlie the evolution of these virus families. We focus on human herpesviruses, with key insights drawn from veterinary herpesviruses and other large DNA virus families. We consider the impacts of cell culture on herpesvirus genomes and how to accurately describe the viral populations under study. The need for a strong foundation of high-quality genomes is also discussed, since it underlies all secondary genomic analyses such as RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq), chromatin immunoprecipitation, and ribosome profiling. Areas where we foresee future progress, such as the linking of viral genetic differences to phenotypic or clinical outcomes, are highlighted as well. PMID:29046445

  13. FLU VACCINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated may go to the Infirmary (ground-floor, bldg. 57), with their vaccine, without a prior appointment. The vaccine can be reimbursed directly by Uniqa providing you attach the receipt and the prescription that you will receive from the Medical Service the day of your injection at the infirmary. Ideally, the vaccination should take place between 1st October and 30th November 2007 (preferably between 14:00 and 16:00). CERN staff aged 50 or over are recommended to have influenza vaccinations. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and those convalescing from serious medical problems or after serious surgical operations. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines for family members or retired staff members, who must contact their normal family doctor. Medical Service

  14. Delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol (THC inhibits lytic replication of gamma oncogenic herpesviruses in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedman Herman

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The major psychoactive cannabinoid compound of marijuana, delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol (THC, has been shown to modulate immune responses and lymphocyte function. After primary infection the viral DNA genome of gamma herpesviruses persists in lymphoid cell nuclei in a latent episomal circular form. In response to extracellular signals, the latent virus can be activated, which leads to production of infectious virus progeny. Therefore, we evaluated the potential effects of THC on gamma herpesvirus replication. Methods Tissue cultures infected with various gamma herpesviruses were cultured in the presence of increasing concentrations of THC and the amount of viral DNA or infectious virus yield was compared to those of control cultures. The effect of THC on Kaposi's Sarcoma Associated Herpesvirus (KSHV and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV replication was measured by the Gardella method and replication of herpesvirus saimiri (HVS of monkeys, murine gamma herpesvirus 68 (MHV 68, and herpes simplex type 1 (HSV-1 was measured by yield reduction assays. Inhibition of the immediate early ORF 50 gene promoter activity was measured by the dual luciferase method. Results Micromolar concentrations of THC inhibit KSHV and EBV reactivation in virus infected/immortalized B cells. THC also strongly inhibits lytic replication of MHV 68 and HVS in vitro. Importantly, concentrations of THC that inhibit virus replication of gamma herpesviruses have no effect on cell growth or HSV-1 replication, indicating selectivity. THC was shown to selectively inhibit the immediate early ORF 50 gene promoter of KSHV and MHV 68. Conclusions THC specifically targets viral and/or cellular mechanisms required for replication and possibly shared by these gamma herpesviruses, and the endocannabinoid system is possibly involved in regulating gamma herpesvirus latency and lytic replication. The immediate early gene ORF 50 promoter activity was specifically inhibited by THC

  15. Delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) inhibits lytic replication of gamma oncogenic herpesviruses in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medveczky, Maria M; Sherwood, Tracy A; Klein, Thomas W; Friedman, Herman; Medveczky, Peter G

    2004-09-15

    The major psychoactive cannabinoid compound of marijuana, delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), has been shown to modulate immune responses and lymphocyte function. After primary infection the viral DNA genome of gamma herpesviruses persists in lymphoid cell nuclei in a latent episomal circular form. In response to extracellular signals, the latent virus can be activated, which leads to production of infectious virus progeny. Therefore, we evaluated the potential effects of THC on gamma herpesvirus replication. Tissue cultures infected with various gamma herpesviruses were cultured in the presence of increasing concentrations of THC and the amount of viral DNA or infectious virus yield was compared to those of control cultures. The effect of THC on Kaposi's Sarcoma Associated Herpesvirus (KSHV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) replication was measured by the Gardella method and replication of herpesvirus saimiri (HVS) of monkeys, murine gamma herpesvirus 68 (MHV 68), and herpes simplex type 1 (HSV-1) was measured by yield reduction assays. Inhibition of the immediate early ORF 50 gene promoter activity was measured by the dual luciferase method. Micromolar concentrations of THC inhibit KSHV and EBV reactivation in virus infected/immortalized B cells. THC also strongly inhibits lytic replication of MHV 68 and HVS in vitro. Importantly, concentrations of THC that inhibit virus replication of gamma herpesviruses have no effect on cell growth or HSV-1 replication, indicating selectivity. THC was shown to selectively inhibit the immediate early ORF 50 gene promoter of KSHV and MHV 68. THC specifically targets viral and/or cellular mechanisms required for replication and possibly shared by these gamma herpesviruses, and the endocannabinoid system is possibly involved in regulating gamma herpesvirus latency and lytic replication. The immediate early gene ORF 50 promoter activity was specifically inhibited by THC. These studies may also provide the foundation for the development

  16. Respiratory herpesvirus infection in two Indian Ringneck parakeets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazic, Tatjana; Ackermann, Mark R; Drahos, Jo M; Stasko, Judith; Haynes, Joseph S

    2008-03-01

    A flock of Indian Ringneck parakeets (Psittacula krameri manillensis) was imported to the United States from Australia. Soon after, 1 parakeet suddenly died, and a second parakeet died after a 2-day course of illness, which consisted of anorexia, lethargy, emaciation, and dyspnea. At necropsy, the affected birds had diffuse consolidation and red discoloration of the lungs, as well as thickened, congested air sacs. The microscopic examination revealed multifocal, necrotizing bronchitis, parabronchitis, and interstitial pneumonia. The lumen of the affected airways contained numerous, large syncytial cells with up to 15 nuclei. The nuclei of these syncytial cells often contained large, eosinophilic inclusion bodies, consistent with herpesvirus. The epithelium of the trachea and air sacs was hypertrophied and contained syncytial cells with intranuclear inclusion bodies similar to the bronchi. In addition, a few intranuclear inclusion bodies were also present in the epithelial cells that line the air capillaries. On ultrastructural examination, the nuclei of degenerating epithelial cells contained clusters of viral nucleocapsid proteins and unenveloped, icosahedral, viral particles that were approximately 90 nm in diameter. In addition, some epithelial cells contained clusters of enveloped viral particles approximately 105 nm in diameter, within the cytocavitary network. These lesions are characteristic of those caused by respiratory herpesvirus of parakeets.

  17. An Epstein–Barr-related herpesvirus from marmoset lymphomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Young-Gyu; Ramer, Jan; Rivailler, Pierre; Quink, Carol; Garber, Richard L.; Beier, David R.; Wang, Fred

    2001-01-01

    Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) is implicated in the development of human B cell lymphomas and carcinomas. Although related oncogenic herpesviruses were believed to be endemic only in Old World primate species, we now find these viruses to be endemic in New World primates. We have isolated a transforming, EBV-related virus from spontaneous B cell lymphomas of common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus). Sequencing of two-thirds of the genome reveals considerable divergence from the genomes of EBV and Old World primate EBV-related viruses, including differences in genes important for virus-induced cell growth transformation and pathogenesis. DNA related to the C. jacchus herpesvirus is frequently detected in squirrel monkey peripheral blood lymphocytes, indicating that persistent infection with EBV-related viruses is prevalent in both New World primate families. Understanding how these more divergent EBV-related viruses achieve similar biologic outcomes in their natural host is likely to provide important insights into EBV infection, B cell growth transformation, and oncogenesis. PMID:11158621

  18. Drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome with human herpesvirus-6 reactivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najeeba Riyaz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 45-year-old man, on carbamazepine for the past 3 months, was referred as a case of atypical measles. On examination, he had high-grade fever, generalized itchy rash, cough, vomiting and jaundice. A provisional diagnosis of drug hypersensitivity syndrome to carbamazepine was made with a differential diagnosis of viral exanthema with systemic complications. Laboratory investigations revealed leukocytosis with eosnophilia and elevated liver enzymes. Real-time multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR on throat swab and blood was suggestive of human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6. Measles was ruled out by PCR and serology. The diagnosis of drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome (DIHS was confirmed, which could explain all the features manifested by the patient. HHV-6 infects almost all humans by age 2 years. It infects and replicates in CD4 T lymphocytes and establishes latency in human peripheral blood monocytes or macrophages and early bone marrow progenitors. In DIHS, allergic reaction to the causative drug stimulates T cells, which leads to reactivation of the herpesvirus genome. DIHS is treated by withdrawal of the culprit drug and administration of systemic steroids. Our patient responded well to steroids and HHV-6 was negative on repeat real-time multiplex PCR at the end of treatment.

  19. The haemagglutination activity of equine herpesvirus type 1 glycoprotein C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andoh, Kiyohiko; Hattori, Shiho; Mahmoud, Hassan Y A H; Takasugi, Maaya; Shimoda, Hiroshi; Bannai, Hiroshi; Tsujimura, Koji; Matsumura, Tomio; Kondo, Takashi; Kirisawa, Rikio; Mochizuki, Masami; Maeda, Ken

    2015-01-02

    Equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) has haemagglutination (HA) activity toward equine red blood cells (RBCs), but the identity of its haemagglutinin is unknown. To identify the haemagglutinin of EHV-1, the major glycoproteins of EHV-1 were expressed in 293T cells, and the cells or cell lysates were mixed with equine RBCs. The results showed that only EHV-1 glycoprotein C (gC)-producing cells adsorbed equine RBCs, and that the lysate of EHV-1 gC-expressing cells agglutinated equine RBCs. EHV-1 lacking gC did not show HA activity. HA activity was inhibited by monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific for gC, but not by antibodies directed against other glycoproteins. In addition, HA activity was not inhibited by the addition of heparin. These results indicate that EHV-1 gC can bind equine RBCs irrespective of heparin, in contrast to other herpesvirus gC proteins. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Phenotypic complementation of genetic immunodeficiency by chronic herpesvirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDuff, Donna A; Reese, Tiffany A; Kimmey, Jacqueline M; Weiss, Leslie A; Song, Christina; Zhang, Xin; Kambal, Amal; Duan, Erning; Carrero, Javier A; Boisson, Bertrand; Laplantine, Emmanuel; Israel, Alain; Picard, Capucine; Colonna, Marco; Edelson, Brian T; Sibley, L David; Stallings, Christina L; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Iwai, Kazuhiro; Virgin, Herbert W

    2015-01-20

    Variation in the presentation of hereditary immunodeficiencies may be explained by genetic or environmental factors. Patients with mutations in HOIL1 (RBCK1) present with amylopectinosis-associated myopathy with or without hyper-inflammation and immunodeficiency. We report that barrier-raised HOIL-1-deficient mice exhibit amylopectin-like deposits in the myocardium but show minimal signs of hyper-inflammation. However, they show immunodeficiency upon acute infection with Listeria monocytogenes, Toxoplasma gondii or Citrobacter rodentium. Increased susceptibility to Listeria was due to HOIL-1 function in hematopoietic cells and macrophages in production of protective cytokines. In contrast, HOIL-1-deficient mice showed enhanced control of chronic Mycobacterium tuberculosis or murine γ-herpesvirus 68 (MHV68), and these infections conferred a hyper-inflammatory phenotype. Surprisingly, chronic infection with MHV68 complemented the immunodeficiency of HOIL-1, IL-6, Caspase-1 and Caspase-1;Caspase-11-deficient mice following Listeria infection. Thus chronic herpesvirus infection generates signs of auto-inflammation and complements genetic immunodeficiency in mutant mice, highlighting the importance of accounting for the virome in genotype-phenotype studies.

  1. Proteomic characterization of murid herpesvirus 4 extracellular virions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Vidick

    Full Text Available Gammaherpesvirinae, such as the human Epstein-Barr virus (EBV and the Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV are highly prevalent pathogens that have been associated with several neoplastic diseases. As EBV and KSHV are host-range specific and replicate poorly in vitro, animal counterparts such as Murid herpesvirus-4 (MuHV-4 have been widely used as models. In this study, we used MuHV-4 in order to improve the knowledge about proteins that compose gammaherpesviruses virions. To this end, MuHV-4 extracellular virions were isolated and structural proteins were identified using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry-based proteomic approaches. These analyses allowed the identification of 31 structural proteins encoded by the MuHV-4 genome which were classified as capsid (8, envelope (9, tegument (13 and unclassified (1 structural proteins. In addition, we estimated the relative abundance of the identified proteins in MuHV-4 virions by using exponentially modified protein abundance index analyses. In parallel, several host proteins were found in purified MuHV-4 virions including Annexin A2. Although Annexin A2 has previously been detected in different virions from various families, its role in the virion remains controversial. Interestingly, despite its relatively high abundance in virions, Annexin A2 was not essential for the growth of MuHV-4 in vitro. Altogether, these results extend previous work aimed at determining the composition of gammaherpesvirus virions and provide novel insights for understanding MuHV-4 biology.

  2. Hepatitis Vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina Ogholikhan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Viral hepatitis is a serious health problem all over the world. However, the reduction of the morbidity and mortality due to vaccinations against hepatitis A and hepatitis B has been a major component in the overall reduction in vaccine preventable diseases. We will discuss the epidemiology, vaccine development, and post-vaccination effects of the hepatitis A and B virus. In addition, we discuss attempts to provide hepatitis D vaccine for the 350 million individuals infected with hepatitis B globally. Given the lack of a hepatitis C vaccine, the many challenges facing the production of a hepatitis C vaccine will be shown, along with current and former vaccination trials. As there is no current FDA-approved hepatitis E vaccine, we will present vaccination data that is available in the rest of the world. Finally, we will discuss the existing challenges and questions facing future endeavors for each of the hepatitis viruses, with efforts continuing to focus on dramatically reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with these serious infections of the liver.

  3. Hepatitis Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogholikhan, Sina; Schwarz, Kathleen B.

    2016-01-01

    Viral hepatitis is a serious health problem all over the world. However, the reduction of the morbidity and mortality due to vaccinations against hepatitis A and hepatitis B has been a major component in the overall reduction in vaccine preventable diseases. We will discuss the epidemiology, vaccine development, and post-vaccination effects of the hepatitis A and B virus. In addition, we discuss attempts to provide hepatitis D vaccine for the 350 million individuals infected with hepatitis B globally. Given the lack of a hepatitis C vaccine, the many challenges facing the production of a hepatitis C vaccine will be shown, along with current and former vaccination trials. As there is no current FDA-approved hepatitis E vaccine, we will present vaccination data that is available in the rest of the world. Finally, we will discuss the existing challenges and questions facing future endeavors for each of the hepatitis viruses, with efforts continuing to focus on dramatically reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with these serious infections of the liver. PMID:26978406

  4. Molecular and in vitro Characterization of Field Isolates of Bovine Herpesvirus-1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Julian Ruiz-Saenz; Jairo Jaime; Gloria Ramirez; Victor Vera

    2012-01-01

    Bovine Herpesvirus-1 (BoHV-1) is distributed worldwide and is a major pathogen in cattle,being the causal agent of a variety of clinical syndromes.The aim of this study was to isolate and to characterize (molecular and biological characterization) BoHV- 1 from 29 immunosuppressed animals.It was possible to obtain 18 isolates,each from a different animal,such as from the respiratory and reproductive tracts.In some cases the cytopathic effect was visible 12 hours post-inoculation,and became characteristic after 36-48 hours.Biological characteristics were evaluated and compared with Iowa and Colorado-1 reference strains,and differences were found in plaque size,virus titer measured by TCID50 and PFU/mL,and one step virus curves.These results showed that some isolates had a highly virulent-like behavior in vitro,compared to the reference strains,with shorter eclipse periods,faster release of virus into the supematants,and higher burst size and viral titer.There were no differences in glycoprotein expression of BoHV-1 isolates,measured by Western blot on monolayers.Moreover,using restriction endonucleases analysis,most of the viruses were confirmed as BoHV-1.1 and just one of them was confirmed as BoHV-1.2a subtype.These findings suggest that some wild-type BoHV-1 isolates could be useful as seeds to develop new monovalent vaccines.

  5. Contributions of neurotropic human herpesviruses herpes simplex virus 1 and human herpesvirus 6 to neurodegenerative disease pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica M Hogestyn

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Human herpesviruses (HVs have developed ingenious mechanisms that enable them to traverse the defenses of the central nervous system (CNS. The ability of HVs to enter a state of latency, a defining characteristic of this viral family, allows them to persist in the human host indefinitely. As such, HVs represent the most frequently detected pathogens in the brain. Under constant immune pressure, these infections are largely asymptomatic in healthy hosts. However, many neurotropic HVs have been directly connected with CNS pathology in the context of other stressors and genetic risk factors. In this review, we discuss the potential mechanisms by which neurotropic HVs contribute to neurodegenerative disease (NDD pathology by highlighting two prominent members of the HV family, herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1 and human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6. We (i introduce the infectious pathways and replicative cycles of HSV-1 and HHV-6 and then (ii review the clinical evidence supporting associations between these viruses and the NDDs Alzheimer's disease (AD and multiple sclerosis (MS, respectively. We then (iii highlight and discuss potential mechanisms by which these viruses exert negative effects on neurons and glia. Finally, we (iv discuss how these viruses could interact with other disease-modifying factors to contribute to the initiation and/or progression of NDDs.

  6. Flu Vaccination

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated against influenza may go to the Medical Service (ground floor, Bldg. 57) without an appointment (preferably between 14:00 and 16:00), PROVIDED THAT THEY BRING THEIR OWN VACCINE WITH THEM. Ideally, vaccination should take place between 1st October and 30th November 2006. The influenza vaccine is recommended for CERN staff aged 50 and over. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and for those convalescing from serious medical problems or major surgery. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines to family members or retired staff members, who must contact their family doctor. CERN Medical Service

  7. Flu vaccination

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Medical Service

    2006-01-01

    People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated against influenza may go to the Medical Service (ground floor, Bldg. 57) without an appointment (preferably between 14:00 and 16:00), PROVIDED THAT THEY BRING THEIR OWN VACCINE WITH THEM. Ideally, vaccination should take place between 1st October and 30th November 2006. The influenza vaccine is recommended for CERN staff aged 50 and over. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and for those convalescing from serious medical problems or major surgery. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines to family members or retired staff members, who must contact their family doctor.CERN Medical Service

  8. FLU VACCINATION

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated against influenza may go to the Medical Service (ground floor, Bldg. 57) without an appointment (preferably between 14:00 and 16:00), PROVIDED THAT THEY BRING THEIR OWN VACCINE WITH THEM. Ideally, vaccination should take place between 1st October and 30th November 2006. The influenza vaccine is recommended for CERN staff aged 50 and over. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and for those convalescing from serious medical problems or major surgery. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines to family members or retired staff members, who must contact their family doctor. CERN Medical Service

  9. Flu Vaccination

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    People working on the CERN site who wish to be vaccinated against influenza may go to the Medical Service (ground floor, Bldg. 57) without an appointment (preferably between 14:00 and 16:00), PROVIDED THAT THEY BRING THEIR OWN VACCINE WITH THEM. Ideally, vaccination should take place between 1st October and 30th November 2006. The influenza vaccine is recommended for CERN staff aged 50 and over. Vaccination is particularly important for those suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney problems, for diabetics and for those convalescing from serious medical problems or major surgery. The Medical Service will not administer vaccines to family members or retired staff members, who must contact their family doctor. CERN Medical service

  10. Herpesvirus infections in immunocompromised patients : treatment, treatment failure and antiviral resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, Martha Trijntje van der

    2012-01-01

    The research described in this thesis aims to study determinants of the course and outcome of treatment of herpesvirus infections in immunocompromised patients. Both viral factors, such as antiviral resistance, and patient factors, including immunological parameters, were investigated. Techniques to

  11. First identification of Herpesvirus infections among endemic and exotic psittacines in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Turral Ramírez, Ma. Montserrat; Córdova Ponce, Rodolfo; González Ruíz, Cynthia; Castañeda Aceves, Graciela; Marín Flamand, Ernesto; Garrido Fariña, Germán; Ramírez Álvarez, Hugo

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: The illegal trafficking of exotic birds such as parrots is now the third most lucrative business in the world and has been a problem for several years. As a result of this trafficking, there has been an increase in the emergence of exotic diseases. Herpesvirus is a pathogen of psittacines that has not been identified in Mexico to date. Through the use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays and pathological analyses, the present study demonstrates the presence of herpesvirus in en...

  12. Recent advances in understanding Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan J. Dissinger

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS-associated herpesvirus (KSHV is an oncogenic human herpesvirus. KSHV is associated with three cancers in the human population: KS, primary effusion lymphoma (PEL, and multicentric Castleman’s disease (MCD. KS is the leading cause of cancer in HIV-infected individuals. In this review, we discuss the most recent discoveries behind the mechanisms of KSHV latency maintenance and lytic replication. We also review current therapies for KSHV-associated cancers.

  13. Herpesvirus in a captive Australian Krefft's river turtle (Emydura macquarii krefftii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, M L; Raidal, S R; Peters, A

    2015-01-01

    A mature, captive Krefft's river turtle (Emydura macquarii krefftii) was presented with severe proliferative and ulcerative lesions of the skin and shell. The areas were biopsied and histopathological examination demonstrated orthokeratotic hyperkeratosis with keratinocytes containing eosinophilic intranuclear inclusions. Molecular diagnostics confirmed the presence of a herpesvirus in the affected tissues. This is the first recorded case of herpesvirus infection in an Australian freshwater turtle species. © 2015 Australian Veterinary Association.

  14. Herpesvirus-associated central nervous system diseases after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Meiqing; Huang, Fen; Jiang, Xinmiao; Fan, Zhiping; Zhou, Hongsheng; Liu, Can; Jiang, Qianli; Zhang, Yu; Zhao, Ke; Xuan, Li; Zhai, Xiao; Zhang, Fuhua; Yin, Changxin; Sun, Jing; Feng, Ru; Liu, Qifa

    2013-01-01

    Herpesvirus infections of the central nervous system (CNS) are associated with encephalitis/myelitis and lymphoproliferative diseases in immunocompromised individuals. As of now, data of herpesvirus-associated CNS diseases in transplant recipients is limited. Hence, in this prospective study, we investigated the incidence of herpesvirus-associated CNS diseases and explored the diagnosis of these diseases in 281 allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) recipients. Herpesvirus-DNA and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cells were sampled from 58 recipients with herpesvirus-associated diseases or with unexplainable CNS manifestations. Results showed that 23 patients were diagnosed as herpesvirus-associated CNS diseases, including 15 Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated diseases (4 encephalitis and 11 lymphoproliferative diseases), 5 herpes simplex virus type 1 encephalitis, 2 cytomegalovirus encephalitis/myelitis and 1 varicella zoster virus encephalitis. The median time of diseases onset was 65 (range 22-542) days post-transplantation. The 3-year cumulative incidence of herpesvirus-associated encephalitis/myelitis and post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) was 6.3% ± 1.9% and 4.1% ± 1.2%, respectively. Of the evaluable cases, CSF cells mainly consisted of CD19(+)CD20(+) B cells (7/11) and had clonal rearrangement of immunoglobulin genes (3/11) in patients with CNS-PTLD. On the contrary, in patients with encephalitis/myelitis, CSF cells were comprised of different cell populations and none of the gene rearrangement was detected. Herpesvirus-associated CNS diseases are common in the early stages of allo-HSCT, wherein EBV is the most frequent causative virus. The immunophenotypic and clonal analysis of CSF cells might be helpful in the differential diagnosis between encephalitis and lymphoproliferative diseases.

  15. Sequence analysis of malacoherpesvirus proteins: Pan-herpesvirus capsid module and replication enzymes with an ancient connection to "Megavirales".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushegian, Arcady; Karin, Eli Levy; Pupko, Tal

    2018-01-01

    The order Herpesvirales includes animal viruses with large double-strand DNA genomes replicating in the nucleus. The main capsid protein in the best-studied family Herpesviridae contains a domain with HK97-like fold related to bacteriophage head proteins, and several virion maturation factors are also homologous between phages and herpesviruses. The origin of herpesvirus DNA replication proteins is less well understood. While analyzing the genomes of herpesviruses in the family Malacohepresviridae, we identified nearly 30 families of proteins conserved in other herpesviruses, including several phage-related domains in morphogenetic proteins. Herpesvirus DNA replication factors have complex evolutionary history: some are related to cellular proteins, but others are closer to homologs from large nucleocytoplasmic DNA viruses. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that the core replication machinery of herpesviruses may have been recruited from the same pool as in the case of other large DNA viruses of eukaryotes. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Human herpesviruses respiratory infections in patients with acute respiratory distress (ARDS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonizzoli, Manuela; Arvia, Rosaria; di Valvasone, Simona; Liotta, Francesco; Zakrzewska, Krystyna; Azzi, Alberta; Peris, Adriano

    2016-08-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is today a leading cause of hospitalization in intensive care unit (ICU). ARDS and pneumonia are closely related to critically ill patients; however, the etiologic agent is not always identified. The presence of human herpes simplex virus 1, human cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus in respiratory samples of critically ill patients is increasingly reported even without canonical immunosuppression. The main aim of this study was to better understand the significance of herpesviruses finding in lower respiratory tract of ARDS patients hospitalized in ICU. The presence of this group of herpesviruses, in addition to the research of influenza viruses and other common respiratory viruses, was investigated in respiratory samples from 54 patients hospitalized in ICU, without a known microbiological causative agent. Moreover, the immunophenotype of each patient was analyzed. Herpesviruses DNA presence in the lower respiratory tract seemed not attributable to an impaired immunophenotype, whereas a significant correlation was observed between herpesviruses positivity and influenza virus infection. A higher ICU mortality was significantly related to the presence of herpesvirus infection in the lower respiratory tract as well as to impaired immunophenotype, as patients with poor outcome showed severe lymphopenia, affecting in particular T (CD3+) cells, since the first days of ICU hospitalization. In conclusion, these results indicate that herpesviruses lower respiratory tract infection, which occurs more frequently following influenza virus infection, can be a negative prognostic marker. An independent risk factor for ICU patients with ARDS is an impaired immunophenotype.

  17. Identification of a novel herpesvirus associated with a penile proliferative lesion in a beluga (Delphinapterus leucas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellehumeur, Christian; Lair, Stéphane; Romero, Carlos H; Provost, Chantale; Nielsen, Ole; Gagnon, Carl A

    2015-01-01

    The carcass of an adult male beluga (Delphinapterus leucas) was found beach cast in 2008 on the shore of the St. Lawrence Estuary at Rivière-Ouelle, Quebec, Canada. The carcass was transported to the Faculté de médecine vétérinaire of the Université de Montréal for postmortem examination. Aspiration pneumonia was the probable cause of death. Necropsy revealed a focal papilloma-like penile lesion, characterized by focal mucosal thickening with disorganization of the epithelial layers and lymphoplasmacytic infiltration. A pan-herpesvirus nested PCR assay on frozen tissue from the penile lesion was positive. The PCR product sequencing revealed a partial herpesvirus DNA polymerase (DPOL) gene sequence of 600 nucleotides. Its nearest nucleotide identity was with the partial DPOL gene of an alphaherpesvirus, bovine herpesvirus 5 (79.5% identity). It also shared high identity with several other marine mammal herpesviruses (50.2 to 77.3% identity). This new herpesvirus was tentatively named beluga whale herpesvirus (BWHV). Virus isolation was unsuccessful. The pathogenic potential of BWHV is unknown, but the evaluation of archived tissues suggests that the virus is endemic in the St. Lawrence Estuary beluga population.

  18. Ranid Herpesvirus 3 and Proliferative Dermatitis in Free-Ranging Wild Common Frogs (Rana Temporaria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Origgi, F C; Schmidt, B R; Lohmann, P; Otten, P; Akdesir, E; Gaschen, V; Aguilar-Bultet, L; Wahli, T; Sattler, U; Stoffel, M H

    2017-07-01

    Amphibian pathogens are of current interest as contributors to the global decline of amphibians. However, compared with chytrid fungi and ranaviruses, herpesviruses have received relatively little attention. Two ranid herpesviruses have been described: namely, Ranid herpesvirus 1 (RHV1) and Ranid herpesvirus 2 (RHV2). This article describes the discovery and partial characterization of a novel virus tentatively named Ranid herpesvirus 3 (RHV3), a candidate member of the genus Batrachovirus in the family Alloherpesviridae. RHV3 infection in wild common frogs (Rana temporaria) was associated with severe multifocal epidermal hyperplasia, dermal edema, a minor inflammatory response, and variable mucous gland degeneration. Intranuclear inclusions were numerous in the affected epidermis together with unique extracellular aggregates of herpesvirus-like particles. The RHV3-associated skin disease has features similar to those of a condition recognized in European frogs for the last 20 years and whose cause has remained elusive. The genome of RHV3 shares most of the features of the Alloherpesviruses. The characterization of this presumptive pathogen may be of value for amphibian conservation and for a better understanding of the biology of Alloherpesviruses.

  19. Mechanisms of Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Latency and Reactivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengchun Ye

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The life cycle of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV consists of latent and lytic replication phases. During latent infection, only a limited number of KSHV genes are expressed. However, this phase of replication is essential for persistent infection, evasion of host immune response, and induction of KSHV-related malignancies. KSHV reactivation from latency produces a wide range of viral products and infectious virions. The resulting de novo infection and viral lytic products modulate diverse cellular pathways and stromal microenvironment, which promote the development of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS. The mechanisms controlling KSHV latency and reactivation are complex, involving both viral and host factors, and are modulated by diverse environmental factors. Here, we review the cellular and molecular basis of KSHV latency and reactivation with a focus on the most recent advancements in the field.

  20. Esophagitis and enteritis caused by herpesvirus in pigeons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egobol, L.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The pigeon squabs, aged 5-26 day-old, showed clinical signs of dullness, anorexia, indigestion, reten-tion of feed in crop, progressive emaciation then died. The morbidity rate and mortality rate were 7.14% (50/700. The adult pigeons did not show any signs of disease. From pathological finding, pharyngitis, esophagitis were found with diphtheritic membrane covering necrotic ulcers on the mucosa of pharynx, esophagus and crop. From histopathological findings, esophagitis with epithelial hyperplasia and sloughed, lamina propria mucosa edema with lymphoid cells infiltration were found in duodenum and jejunum. The intranuclear inclusion body, Cowdry type A, was found in epithelial mucosa of esophagus, enterocyte of jejunum and lymphoid cells in spleen. FA test to duck virus enteritis and inoculation to ducklings showed negative results. Electron microscopic study revealed electron dense core sized 146-167 nm., which was identified as herpesvirus.

  1. Coagulation parameters following equine herpesvirus type 1 infection in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, M E; Holz, C L; Kopec, A K; Dau, J J; Luyendyk, J P; Soboll Hussey, G

    2018-04-15

    Equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) is the cause of respiratory disease, abortion storms, and outbreaks of herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy (EHM). Infection of the spinal cord is characterised by multifocal regions of virally infected vascular endothelium, associated with vasculitis, thrombosis and haemorrhage that result in ischaemia and organ dysfunction. However, the mechanism of thrombosis in affected horses is unknown. To evaluate tissue factor (TF) procoagulant activity and thrombin-antithrombin complex (TAT) levels in horses following infection with EHV-1. In vitro and in vivo studies following experimental EHV-1 infection. Horses were infected with EHV-1 and levels of peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC)-associated TF activity; plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-derived microvesicle (MV)-associated TF activity and TAT complexes in plasma were examined. EHV-1 infection increased PBMC TF procoagulant activity in vitro and in vivo. In infected horses, this increase was observed during the acute infection and was most marked at the onset and end of viraemia. However, no significant differences were observed between the horses that showed signs of EHM and the horses that did not develop EHM. Significant changes in MV-associated TF procoagulant activity and TAT complexes were not observed in infected horses. A small number of horses typically exhibit clinical EHM following experimental infection. The results indicate that EHV-1 infection increases PBMC-associated TF procoagulant activity in vivo and in vitro. Additional in vivo studies are needed to better understand the role of TF-dependent coagulation during EHM pathogenesis in horses. © 2018 EVJ Ltd.

  2. The development of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for rapid and sensitive detection of abalone herpesvirus DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M H; Kuo, S T; Renault, T; Chang, P H

    2014-02-01

    A loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay was developed for the detection of abalone herpesvirus DNA. Two pairs of primers were designed, based on the sequence of the DNA polymerase gene of abalone herpesvirus. The reaction temperature and time were optimized to 63°C and 60min, respectively. LAMP amplicons were analyzed by 2% agarose gel electrophoresis or by visual inspection of a colour change emitted by fluorescent dye. The method developed was specific for the detection of abalone herpesvirus, without cross-reactions with other tested herpesviruses including ostreid herpesvirus 1 (OsHV-1), European eel herpesvirus, koi herpesvirus (KHV) and an avian herpesvirus. The LAMP assay was 100 folds more sensitive than a conventional PCR and 10 folds less sensitive than a SYBR Green PCR. These results indicate that the developed LAMP assay is a simple, rapid, sensitive, specific and reliable technique for the detection of abalone herpesvirus. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. DNA Vaccines

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    diseases. Keywords. DNA vaccine, immune response, antibodies, infectious diseases. GENERAL .... tein vaccines require expensive virus/protein purification tech- niques as ... sphere continue to remain major health hazards in developing nations. ... significance since it can be produced at a very low cost and can be stored ...

  4. Vaccination Policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, M.F.

    2013-01-01

    Vaccination involves priming the immune system with an antigenic agent that mimics a virus or bacterium, which results in immunity against the “real” microorganism. Collective vaccination policies have played an important role in the control of infectious disease worldwide. They can serve the

  5. TUMOUR VACCINE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagner, Ernst; Kircheis, Ralf; Crommelin, D.; Van Slooten, Maaike; Storm, Gert

    1999-01-01

    The invention relates to a tumour vaccine with a tumour antigen base. In addition to a source of tumour antigens, the vaccine contains a release system for the delayed release of the active agent IFN- gamma , the active dose of IFN- gamma being 50 ng to 5 mu g. The IFN- gamma is released over a

  6. Rotavirus Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Why get vaccinated?Rotavirus is a virus that causes diarrhea, mostly in babies and young children. The diarrhea can be severe, and lead ... and fever are also common in babies with rotavirus.Before rotavirus vaccine, rotavirus disease was a common ...

  7. Designing an effective vaccine to prevent Epstein-Barr virus-associated diseases: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasari, Vijayendra; Bhatt, Kunal H; Smith, Corey; Khanna, Rajiv

    2017-04-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a ubiquitous herpesvirus associated with a number of clinical manifestations. Primary EBV infection in young adolescents often manifests as acute infectious mononucleosis and latent infection is associated with multiple lymphoid and epithelial cancers and autoimmune disorders, particularly multiple sclerosis. Areas covered: Over the last decade, our understanding of pathogenesis and immune regulation of EBV-associated diseases has provided an important platform for the development of novel vaccine formulations. In this review, we discuss developmental strategies for prophylactic and therapeutic EBV vaccines which have been assessed in preclinical and clinical settings. Expert commentary: Major roadblocks in EBV vaccine development include no precise understanding of the clinical correlates of protection, uncertainty about adjuvant selection and the unavailability of appropriate animal models. Recent development of new EBV vaccine formulations provides exciting opportunities for the formal clinical assessment of novel formulations.

  8. Seroprevalence and factors associated with equine herpesvirus type 1 and 4 in Spanish Purebred horses in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, F; Fores, P; Mughini-Gras, L; Ireland, J; Moreno, M A; Newton, J R

    2016-04-16

    Equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) and type 4 (EHV-4) have a worldwide distribution and cause respiratory disease, abortion, neonatal death and myeloencephalopathy in susceptible horses. Given the scarcity of serological EHV-1/EHV-4 data in Spain, the objective of this cross-sectional study was to estimate the seroprevalence of EHV-1/EHV-4 and to identify potential horse-level and stud farm-level factors associated with EHV-1/EHV-4 in the breeding Spanish Purebred (SP) horse population in central Spain. Serum samples from 334 SP unvaccinated horses, collected between September 2011 and November 2013 at 30 stud farms, were tested using a commercially available EHV-1/EHV-4 antibody ELISA and seroneutralisation as the World Organisation for Animal Health reference confirmation test. Data on factors putatively associated with seropositivity to EHV-1/EHV-4 were collected via a questionnaire and examined using logistic regression analysis. EHV-1/EHV-4 seroprevalence in the SP breeding population in central Spain, standardised for the sex distribution of the reference horse population, was 53.9 per cent (95 per cent confidence interval 44.0 per cent to 63.8 per cent). Increasing age, southern location of the stud farm, temperate climate during the summer, and a smaller surface area used for breeding activities in the farm were associated with increased odds for EHV-1/EHV-4 seropositivity, whereas EHV-1/EHV-4 vaccination of other resident horses and separation of breeding mares from youngsters were protective factors. British Veterinary Association.

  9. Prevalence of Circulating Antibodies to Bovine Herpesvirus 1 in Yaks (Bos grunniens) on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhaoqing; Gao, Jianfeng; Li, Kun; Shahzad, Muhammad; Nabi, Fazul; Zhang, Ding; Li, Jiakui; Liu, Zhengfei

    2016-01-01

    Bovine Herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) causes infections with many clinical signs, including rhinotracheitis, encephalitis, and genital lesions. The virus occurs worldwide in bovines, and in recent years, it has been reported in yaks (Bos grunniens) inhabiting the Tibetan Plateau in China. However, there is little epidemiologic data describing BoHV-1 infections in China's yak herds. We conducted a cross-sectional study on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) in China July 2011-July 2012 to estimate the prevalence of BoHV-1 antibody in yak herds. We collected 1,840 serum samples from yaks on the QTP, in Tibet (988 yaks), Qinghai (475 yaks), and Sichuan (377 yaks) Provinces. Using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, we found that 381 (38.6%) of the Tibetan samples, 212 (44.6%) of the Qinghai samples, and 105 (27.9%) of the Sichuan samples had detectable antibodies to BoHV-1. Given that this high prevalence of infection in yaks could result in heavy economic losses, we suggest that an effective management program, including vaccination and strategies for infection control, be developed.

  10. Analysis of canine herpesvirus gB, gC and gD expressed by a recombinant vaccinia virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, X; Kojima, A; Murata, T; Mikami, T; Otsuka, H

    1997-01-01

    The genes encoding the canine herpesvirus (CHV) glycoprotein B (gB), gC and gD homologues have been reported already. However, products of these genes have not been identified yet. Previously, we have identified three CHV glycoproteins, gp 145/112, gp80 and gp47 using a panel of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). To determine which CHV glycoprotein corresponds to gB, gC or gD, the putative genes of gB, gC, and gD of CHV were inserted into the thymidine kinase gene of vaccinia virus LC16mO strain under the control of the early-late promoter for the vaccinia virus 7.5-kilodalton polypeptide. We demonstrated here that gp145/112, gp80 and gp47 were the translation products of the CHV gB, gC and gD genes, respectively. The antigenic authenticity of recombinant gB, gC and gD were confirmed by a panel of MAbs specific for each glycoprotein produced in CHV-infected cells. Immunization of mice with these recombinants produced high titers of neutralizing antibodies against CHV. These results suggest that recombinant vaccinia viruses expressing CHV gB, gC and gD may be useful to develop a vaccine to control CHV infection.

  11. Development and validation of a real-time PCR assay for specific and sensitive detection of canid herpesvirus 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decaro, Nicola; Amorisco, Francesca; Desario, Costantina; Lorusso, Eleonora; Camero, Michele; Bellacicco, Anna Lucia; Sciarretta, Rossana; Lucente, Maria Stella; Martella, Vito; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2010-10-01

    A TaqMan-based real-time PCR assay targeting the glycoprotein B-encoding gene was developed for diagnosis of canid herpesvirus 1 (CHV-1) infection. The established assay was highly specific, since no cross-reactions were observed with other canine DNA viruses, including canine parvovirus type 2, canine minute virus, or canine adenovirus types 1 and 2. The detection limit was 10(1) and 1.20 x 10(1) DNA copies per 10 microl(-1) of template for standard DNA and a CHV-1-positive kidney sample, respectively: about 1-log higher than a gel-based PCR assay targeting the thymidine kinase gene. The assay was also reproducible, as shown by satisfactory low intra-assay and inter-assay coefficients of variation. CHV-1 isolates of different geographical origins were recognised by the TaqMan assay. Tissues and clinical samples collected from three pups which died of CHV-1 neonatal infection were also tested, displaying a wide distribution of CHV-l DNA in their organs. Unlike other CHV-1-specific diagnostic methods, this quantitative assay permits simultaneous detection and quantitation of CHV-1 DNA in a wide range of canine tissues and body fluids, thus providing a useful tool for confirmation of a clinical diagnosis, for the study of viral pathogenesis and for evaluation of the efficacy of vaccines and antiviral drugs. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. [Studies on the novel association of human herpesvirus-7 with skin diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vág, Tibor; Sonkoly, Enikó; Kemény, Béla; Kárpáti, Sarolta; Horváth, Attila; Ongrádi, József

    2003-08-17

    Human herpesvirus 7 in pityriasis rosea, this and other viruses in papular-purpuric gloves-and-socks syndrome have been implicated, but their primary or recurrent infections are still in question. In one available blood sample, therefore, IgM, IgG and its high avidity fraction characteristic for recurrent infections were quantitated by indirect immunofluorescence. Peripheral lymphocytes were subjected to nested polymerase chain reaction to detect viral DNA, or cocultivated with several cell cultures. One third of 33 pityriasis rosea patients had elevated IgM, another third had elevated IgG without high avidity molecules to human herpesvirus 7 suggesting primary infection. Thirty percent of controls, more than half of the patients had virtual DNA in their lymphocytes, but only one in 5 skin biopsy specimens were PCR positive. All three co-cultivation attempts yielded viruses extremely rapidly, verified by electron microscopy, polymerase chain reaction and monoclonal antibodies as human herpesvirus 7. These are the first isolates in the geographical regions of Hungary. These data suggest that pityriasis rosea is the consequence of a primary human herpesvirus 7 infection in seronegative adults, and only occasionally is due to virus reactivation. One patient with gloves-and-socks syndrome had an acute, another patient had a persistent coinfection with human herpesvirus 7 and parvovirus B19, two others had a primary herpesvirus 7 infection. Interestingly, this disease might be elicited by both viruses individually or in synergism. Neither human herpesvirus 7 nor parvovirus B19 infect skin cells, but both can be detected in the infiltrating lymphocytes of skin eruptions, in which they induce an altered mediator production, that might be responsible for the general and local symptoms.

  13. Whither vaccines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Charlene M C; Pinto, Marta V; Sadarangani, Manish; Plotkin, Stanley A

    2017-06-01

    Currently used vaccines have had major effects on eliminating common infections, largely by duplicating the immune responses induced by natural infections. Now vaccinology faces more complex problems, such as waning antibody, immunosenescence, evasion of immunity by the pathogen, deviation of immunity by the microbiome, induction of inhibitory responses, and complexity of the antigens required for protection. Fortunately, vaccine development is now incorporating knowledge from immunology, structural biology, systems biology and synthetic chemistry to meet these challenges. In addition, international organisations are developing new funding and licensing pathways for vaccines aimed at pathogens with epidemic potential that emerge from tropical areas. © 2017 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Influenza vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerhus, Sven Frederick

    2015-01-01

    The Cochrane Library was systematically searched for meta-analyses regarding influenza vaccination of various populations, both healthy and sick. An effect in reducing the number of cases of influenza, influenza-like illness or complications to influenza was found in some studies, but, generally......, the quality of the studies was low, and several studies lacked hard clinical endpoints. Data on adverse effects were scarce. More randomised controlled trials investigating the effects of influenza vaccination are warranted....

  15. Flu Vaccine Safety Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Flu Vaccine Safety Information Questions & Answers Language: English (US) ... safety of flu vaccines monitored? Egg Allergy Are flu vaccines safe? Flu vaccines have good safety record. ...

  16. Thimerosal in Flu Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Thimerosal in Flu Vaccine Questions & Answers Language: English (US) Español Recommend ... and/or fungi from contaminating the vaccine. Do flu vaccines contain thimerosal? Flu vaccines in multi-dose ...

  17. Ear Infection and Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an ENT Doctor Near You Ear Infection and Vaccines Ear Infection and Vaccines Patient Health Information News ... or may need reinsertion over time. What about vaccines? A vaccine is a preparation administered to stimulate ...

  18. Antipneumococcal vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Vincenzo Zuccotti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP is a gram-positive bacterium with more than 90 known serotypes causing around 11% of all deaths worldwide in children aged 1-59 months. A new era in prevention of SP-related diseases started in at the beginning of 2000s when a 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7 was recommended as the vaccine of choice in pediatric age. PCV7 dramatically reduced invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPD among children with indirect effects noted among other age groups as well. However, thanks to a strict surveillance network, an increase in non-vaccine serotypes (NVTs causing IPD was noted worldwide and in late 2000s a new second generation vaccine (13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine-PCV13 with an expanded serotype coverage was licensed. Due to the lack of solid effectiveness data, up to know it is difficult to predict how the composition of NVTs will change after the large-scale introduction of PCV13 or whether the characteristics of the serotypes will change. Long-term surveillance of both IPD, pneumonia, acute otitis media and carriage will be crucial to ascertain whether these second generation vaccines are having the desired effect of reducing the incidence of diseases in the long term. Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 23rd-26th, 2013 · Learned lessons, changing practice and cutting-edge research

  19. Epidemiology and molecular detection of equine herpesviruses in western Algeria in 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laabassi, F; Hue, E; Fortier, C; Morilland, E; Legrand, L; Hans, A; Pronost, S

    2017-08-01

    An episode of acute equine respiratory infection was reported in western Algeria (Tiaret province) between February and March 2011, affecting a large population of horses. Nasal swabs (n=100) were taken from horses aged between 1 and 27 years, presenting with cough and mucopurulent nasal discharge. The prevalence of equine respiratory virus infections was examined using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). One, or more, of four equine respiratory viruses were detected in the nasal swabs of 90 of 100 horses (90%) and the detection rate of equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1), equine herpesvirus type 4 (EHV-4), equine herpesvirus type 2 (EHV-2) and equine herpesvirus type 5 (EHV-5) were 2%, 14%, 90% and 75%, respectively. Equine influenza virus and equine arteritis virus were not detected in any samples. Among the 90 infected horses, 70 were co-infected with EHV-2 and EHV-5 and 14 others were co-infected with EHV-4, EHV-2 and EHV-5. The present study shows a positivity rate of 97.3% for EHV-5 in young horses aged equine herpesviruses 1, 2, 4 and 5 are endemic in horse populations from Algeria as detected for the first time by qPCR. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The recombinant EHV-1 vector producing CDV hemagglutinin as potential vaccine against canine distemper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Zihao; Liu, Jin; Ma, Jiale; Jin, Qiuli; Yao, Huochun; Osterrieder, Nikolaus

    2017-10-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV), is a pantropic agent of morbillivirus that causes fetal disease in dogs. Base on a broad host rang of CDV, the continued vaccines inoculation is unavoidable to pose gene recombination risk in vaccine virus and wild virus. The current study presents the construction of novel vectors, using equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) expressing the canine distemper virus (CDV). The recent field strain hemagglutinin protein and nucleoprotein were used for the construction of the viral vector vaccines. Based on the Bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) genomes of EHV-1 RacH strain, the recombinant EHV-1 vaccine virus encoding CDV hemagglutinin protein (EHV-H) or CDV nucleoprotein (EHV-N) was constructed separately. The constructed BACs were rescued after 72 h post infection, and the expression of H or N in the recombinant viruses was confirmed by western-blotting. Furthermore, high levels of neutralizing antibodies were induced persistently following vaccination in the groups EHV-H&EHV-N and EHV-H, but the EHV-N group. The groups of vaccinated EHV-H and EHV-H&EHV-N pups were monitored for clinical signs, whereas the vaccinated EHV-N group developed moderate symptoms. The present study demonstrated that EHV-1 based recombinant virus carrying CDV H could be a promising vaccine candidate against canine distemper. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. A serological study of canine herpesvirus-1 infection in a population of breeding bitches in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Canine herpesvirus-1 (CHV1) causes a fatal hemorrhagic disease in neonatal puppies and is associated with infertility in female dogs. This study was conducted to assess the status of CHV1 infection in bitches in proestrus or estrus and to investigate possible risk factors by a detailed questionnaire. Blood samples were collected from healthy bitches (n = 193) not vaccinated against CHV1, aged one year or older and admitted for estrus control to the Canine Reproductive Clinical Unit, Norwegian School of Veterinary Science. The serum samples were analysed by immunoperoxidase monolayer assay and serum titers were recorded as the reciprocal value of the highest dilution producing specific cell staining. Results Altogether, 85.5% of the dogs had CHV1 titers ≥ 80 and were classified as positive. Mean age for dogs included in the study was 4.2 years (95% CI 4.0-4.5), and there was no difference in age between seronegative dogs vs seropositive dogs. When grouping the seropositive dogs into three categories according to the magnitude of the titer, a total of 38.8% of the bitches displayed a weakly positive titer of 80, 44.8% had moderately positive titers of 160 or 320 and 16.4% of the dogs fell into the strongly positive category with titer of ≥640. No association was demonstrated when comparing CHV1 antibody titers to fertility parameters such as previous matings, pregnancies, whelpings, puppies born or condition of puppies. Further, there was no difference in seroprevalence between bitches that had been abroad for a period of time and dogs only living within a Norwegian environment. Samples from dogs collected in summer and fall displayed moderate to high antibody titers indicating recent infection with CHV1. Season, previous birth, and participation in competitions/shows explained 67-78% of the variation in antibody titer. Conclusions This study demonstrates that CHV1 infection is common in breeding bitches in the eastern part of Norway

  2. Prevalence of human herpesvirus 8 infection in systemic lupus erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Shipeng

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For decades, scientists have tried to understand the environmental factors involved in the development of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, in which viral infections was included. Previous studies have identified Epstein-Barr virus (EBV to incite SLE. Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8, another member of the gammaherpesvirus family, shares a lot in common with EBV. The characteristics of HHV-8 make it a well-suited candidate to trigger SLE. Results In the present study, serum samples from patients (n = 108 with diagnosed SLE and matched controls (n = 122 were collected, and the prevalence of HHV-8 was compared by a virus-specific nested PCR and a whole virus enzyme-linked immunoassay (EIA. There was significant difference in the prevalence of HHV-8 DNA between SLE patients and healthy controls (11 of 107 vs 1 of 122, p = 0.001; significant difference was also found in the detection of HHV-8 antibodies (19 of 107 vs 2 of 122, p We also detected the antibodies to Epstein-Barr virus viral capsid antigen (EBV-VCA and Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen-1 (EBNA-1. Both patients and controls showed high seroprevalence with no significant difference (106 of 107 vs 119 of 122, p = 0.625. Conclusion Our finding indicated that there might be an association between HHV-8 and the development of SLE.

  3. Cyprinid Herpesvirus 3: An Archetype of Fish Alloherpesviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutier, Maxime; Ronsmans, Maygane; Rakus, Krzysztof; Jazowiecka-Rakus, Joanna; Vancsok, Catherine; Morvan, Léa; Peñaranda, Ma Michelle D; Stone, David M; Way, Keith; van Beurden, Steven J; Davison, Andrew J; Vanderplasschen, Alain

    2015-01-01

    The order Herpesvirales encompasses viruses that share structural, genetic, and biological properties. However, members of this order infect hosts ranging from molluscs to humans. It is currently divided into three phylogenetically related families. The Alloherpesviridae family contains viruses infecting fish and amphibians. There are 12 alloherpesviruses described to date, 10 of which infect fish. Over the last decade, cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) infecting common and koi carp has emerged as the archetype of fish alloherpesviruses. Since its first description in the late 1990s, this virus has induced important economic losses in common and koi carp worldwide. It has also had negative environmental implications by affecting wild carp populations. These negative impacts and the importance of the host species have stimulated studies aimed at developing diagnostic and prophylactic tools. Unexpectedly, the data generated by these applied studies have stimulated interest in CyHV-3 as a model for fundamental research. This review intends to provide a complete overview of the knowledge currently available on CyHV-3. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Genotypic characterization of psittacid herpesvirus isolates from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luppi, Marcela Miranda; Luiz, Ana Paula Moreira Franco; Coelho, Fabiana Magalhães; Ecco, Roselene; da Fonseca, Flávio Guimarães; Resende, Mauricio

    2016-01-01

    Thirty-six isolates of psittacid herpesvirus (PsHV), obtained from 12 different species of psittacids in Brazil, were genotypically characterized by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis and PCR amplification. RFLP analysis with the PstI enzyme revealed four distinct restriction patterns (A1, X, W and Y), of which only A1 (corresponding to PsHV-1) had previously been described. To study PCR amplification patterns, six pairs of primers were used. Using this method, six variants were identified, of which, variants 10, 8, and 9 (in this order) were most prevalent, followed by variants 1, 4, and 5. It was not possible to correlate the PCR and RFLP patterns. Twenty-nine of the 36 isolates were shown to contain a 419bp fragment of the UL16 gene, displaying high similarity to the PsHV-1 sequences available in GenBank. Comparison of the results with the literature data suggests that the 36 Brazilian isolates from this study belong to genotype 1 and serotype 1. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  5. Novel heparan sulfate-binding peptides for blocking herpesvirus entry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranay Dogra

    Full Text Available Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV infection can lead to congenital hearing loss and mental retardation. Upon immune suppression, reactivation of latent HCMV or primary infection increases morbidity in cancer, transplantation, and late stage AIDS patients. Current treatments include nucleoside analogues, which have significant toxicities limiting their usefulness. In this study we screened a panel of synthetic heparin-binding peptides for their ability to prevent CMV infection in vitro. A peptide designated, p5+14 exhibited ~ 90% reduction in murine CMV (MCMV infection. Because negatively charged, cell-surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs, serve as the attachment receptor during the adsorption phase of the CMV infection cycle, we hypothesized that p5+14 effectively competes for CMV adsorption to the cell surface resulting in the reduction in infection. Positively charged Lys residues were required for peptide binding to cell-surface HSPGs and reducing viral infection. We show that this inhibition was not due to a direct neutralizing effect on the virus itself and that the peptide blocked adsorption of the virus. The peptide also inhibited infection of other herpesviruses: HCMV and herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 in vitro, demonstrating it has broad-spectrum antiviral activity. Therefore, this peptide may offer an adjunct therapy for the treatment of herpes viral infections and other viruses that use HSPGs for entry.

  6. Nationwide Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 contamination in natural rivers of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamoto, Toshifumi; Honjo, Mie N; Yamanaka, Hiroki; Uchii, Kimiko; Kawabata, Zen'ichiro

    2012-08-01

    Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) disease is a significant threat for common and koi carp cultivators and for freshwater ecosystems. To determine the prevalence of CyHV-3 in Japanese rivers, a nationwide survey of all national class-A rivers was undertaken in the Summer of 2008. The virus was concentrated from river water samples using the cation-coated filter method. CyHV-3 DNA was detected in 90 rivers, representing 90% of 103 successfully analysed rivers. More than 100,000 copies of CyHV-3 DNA per litre of sample were detected in four rivers, higher than that reported during the Yura River outbreak in 2007. For CyHV-3-positive rivers, the log CyHV-3 density was negatively correlated with the water temperature on the sampling date and positively correlated with the suspended solids and dissolved oxygen, which are annually averaged for each river. Our results demonstrate that virus detection using molecular biology techniques is a powerful tool for monitoring the presence of CyHV-3 in natural environments. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Association of classic lichen planus with human herpesvirus-7 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahidi, Yalda; Tayyebi Meibodi, Naser; Ghazvini, Kiarash; Esmaily, Habibollah; Esmaeelzadeh, Maryam

    2017-01-01

    Lichen planus is a mucocutaneous papulosquamous itchy disease with unknown etiology. A number of factors such as immune mechanisms, viral agents, and drugs have been implicated in pathogenesis of lichen planus. In recent years, several studies have indicated the role of viral agents in this disease, including human herpesvirus-7 (HHV-7). Studies have given contradictory results, which is why we decided to study the possible association between lichen planus with HHV-7. In this case-control study, which was conducted on 60 cutaneous classic lichen planus samples as well as 60 healthy control skin samples after matching the two groups in terms of gender and age, tissue samples of patients and controls were studied by real time polymerase chain reaction to detect for HHV-7. According to this study, HHV-7 DNA was found in 18 samples of the case group (30.0%) and in six (10.0%) of the control group (P = 0.006). The results of this study support the likely role of HHV-7 in pathogenesis of lichen planus. As an exogenous antigen, this virus may be involved in cellular immune-mediated destruction of keratinocytes. © 2016 The International Society of Dermatology.

  8. Columbid herpesvirus-1 in two Cooper's hawks (Accipiter cooperii) with fatal inclusion body disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkerton, Marie E; Wellehan, James F X; Johnson, April J; Childress, April L; Fitzgerald, Scott D; Kinsel, Michael J

    2008-07-01

    We report two separate naturally occurring cases of fatal herpesviral disease in Cooper's Hawks (Accipiter cooperii). Gross lesions included splenomegaly and hepatomegaly, with diffuse pale mottling or scattered small white foci. Histologic lesions included splenic and hepatic necrosis associated with eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies characteristic of herpesvirus. In one case, necrosis and inclusions were also noted in bone marrow, thymus, bursa of Fabricius, thyroid gland, parathyroid gland, ceca, and the enteric system. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrated viral particles typical of herpesvirus within hepatocyte nuclei and budding from the nuclear membrane. Herpesviral DNA was amplified via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of paraffin-embedded liver and spleen, and sequence data were consistent with columbid herpesvirus-1, an alphaherpesvirus of Rock Pigeons (Columba livia). PCR results provide evidence that this disease is transmitted to raptors via Rock Pigeons, most likely through ingestion of Rock Pigeons as prey.

  9. Prevalence of asinine herpesvirus type 5 (AsHV-5) infection in clinically normal Lipizzaner horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushton, James Oliver; Kolodziejek, Jolanta; Nell, Barbara; Nowotny, Norbert

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the extent of asinine herpesvirus (AsHV) type 5 infection in 'closed' populations of clinically normal Lipizzaner horses. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells plus nasal and conjunctival swabs were obtained on four occasions over an 18 month period from 266 animals as part of a health surveillance programme. Sequence analysis of samples that were positive by nested consensus herpesvirus PCR but negative using quantified equid herpesvirus (EHV) type 2 and 5 PCR, revealed a total of 51 samples from 39 horses positive for AsHV-5. No statistically significant association between animal age, gender or geographical location and infection status was identified. The findings suggest sub-clinical AsHV-5 infection may be encountered more frequently than previously reported. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Subclinical herpesvirus shedding among HIV-1-infected men on antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agudelo-Hernandez, Arcadio; Chen, Yue; Bullotta, Arlene; Buchanan, William G; Klamar-Blain, Cynthia R; Borowski, Luann; Riddler, Sharon A; Rinaldo, Charles R; Macatangay, Bernard J C

    2017-09-24

    We evaluated the subclinical shedding of six different herpesviruses in antiretroviral drug-treated HIV-positive [HIV(+)] MSM, and determined how this is associated with markers of inflammation and immune activation. We obtained blood, semen, throat washing, urine, and stool from 15 antiretroviral-treated HIV-1-infected MSM with CD4 T-cell reconstitution, and 12 age-matched HIV-negative [HIV (-)] MSM from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study at four timepoints over 24 weeks to measure DNA levels of cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), herpes simplex virus 1 and 2, human herpesvirus 6 (HHV6), and HHV8. T-cell activation and plasma levels of soluble markers of inflammation and activation were also measured at the corresponding timepoints. HIV(+) participants had a trend for higher total herpesvirus shedding rate. HIV(+) participants also had a significantly higher rate of shedding EBV and CMV compared with the HIV(-) group. Herpesvirus shedding was mostly seen in throat washings. In the HIV(+) group, herpesvirus shedding rate inversely correlated with plasma levels of interferon γ-induced protein 10 and soluble CD163. CMV DNA levels negatively correlated with levels of T-cell activation. There was a trend for a positive correlation between EBV shedding rate and plasma soluble CD14. HHV6 shedding rate negatively correlated with plasma levels of interleukin-6, soluble CD163, and interferon gamma-induced protein 10. Correlations were not observed among HIV(-) individuals. Among treated HIV-infected MSM, there are higher subclinical shedding rates of some herpesviruses that occur in different body compartments and negatively correlate with levels of inflammation and immune activation.

  11. A highly selective CCR2 chemokine agonist encoded by human herpesvirus 6

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lüttichau, Hans R; Clark-Lewis, Ian; Jensen, Peter Østrup

    2003-01-01

    The chemokine-like, secreted protein product of the U83 gene from human herpesvirus 6, here named vCCL4, was chemically synthesized to be characterized in a complete library of the 18 known human chemokine receptors expressed individually in stably transfected cell lines. vCCL4 was found to cause...... being equally or more efficacious in causing cell migration than CCL2 and CCL7 and considerably more efficacious than CCL8 and CCL13. It is concluded that human herpesvirus 6 encodes a highly selective and efficacious CCR2 agonist, which will attract CCR2 expressing cells, for example macrophages...

  12. Global distribution of Chelonid fibropapilloma-associated herpesvirus among clinically healthy sea turtles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alfaro Nuñez, Luis Alonso; Bertelsen, Mads Frost; Bojesen, Anders Miki

    2014-01-01

    BackgroundFibropapillomatosis (FP) is a neoplastic disease characterized by cutaneous tumours that has been documented to infect all sea turtle species. Chelonid fibropapilloma-associated herpesvirus (CFPHV) is believed to be the aetiological agent of FP, based principally on consistent PCR......-based detection of herpesvirus DNA sequences from FP tumours. We used a recently described PCR-based assay that targets 3 conserved CFPHV genes, to survey 208 green turtles (Chelonia mydas). This included both FP tumour exhibiting and clinically healthy individuals. An additional 129 globally distributed...

  13. Prevalence of antibodies to human herpesvirus-8 in populations with and without risk for infection in São Paulo State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza V.A.U.F.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8 is a newly described herpesvirus that is etiologically associated with all forms of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS. Seroepidemiological studies have shown high prevalence rates of HHV-8 antibodies among men who have sex with men (MSM and AIDS patients, African children, Brazilian Amerindians, and elderly individuals in certain regions of Europe. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of HHV-8 antibodies in healthy children and young adults from different cities in São Paulo State, and in a population at high risk for HHV-8 infection: HIV-negative MSM, and AIDS patients with and without KS. Antibodies to HHV-8 latency-associated nuclear antigen and lytic-phase antigens were detected by immunofluorescence assays. In 643 healthy children and young adults from the general population attending a vaccination program for yellow fever in ten different cities in São Paulo State, the prevalence of HHV-8 antibodies detected by the presence of latent or lytic antigens ranged from 1.0 to 4.1% in the different age groups (mean = 2.5%. In the MSM group, the prevalence was 31/95 (32.6%. In the group of patients with AIDS, the prevalence was 39.2% (51/130 for non-KS patients and 98.7% (77/78 for AIDS patients with the diagnosis of KS confirmed by histopathological examination. We conclude that HHV-8 has a restricted circulation among healthy children and young adults in the general population of São Paulo State and a high prevalence among MSM and AIDS patients.

  14. Characterisation of immune responses in healthy foals when a multivalent vaccine protocol was initiated at age 90 or 180 days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, E G; Bello, N M; Bryan, A J; Hankins, K; Wilkerson, M

    2015-11-01

    Protection from infectious disease requires antigen-specific immunity. In foals, most vaccine protocols are delayed until 6 months to avoid maternal antibody interference. Susceptibility to disease may exist prior to administration of vaccination at age 4-6 months. The aim of this investigation was to characterise immune activation among healthy foals in response to a multivalent vaccine protocol and compare immune responses when foals were vaccinated at age either 90 or 180 days. Randomised block design. Twelve healthy foals with colostral transfer were blocked for age and randomly assigned to vaccination at age 90 days (treatment) or at age 180 days (control). Vaccination protocols included a 3-dose series and booster vaccine administered at age 11 months. Immune response following vaccination at age 90 or 180 days was comparable for several measures of cellular immunity. Antigen specific CD4+ and CD8+ expression of interleukin-4, interferon-γ and granzyme B to eastern equine encephalomyelitis, western equine encephalomyelitis, West Nile virus, tetanus toxoid, equine influenza and equine herpesvirus-1/4 antigens were evident for both groups 30 days after initial vaccine and at age 344 days. Both groups showed a significant increase in antigen-specific immunoglobulin G expression following booster vaccine at age 11 months, thereby indicating memory immune responses. The data presented in this report demonstrate that young foals are capable of immune activation following a 3-dose series with a multivalent vaccine, despite presence of maternal antibodies. Although immune activation does not automatically confer protection, several of the immune indicators measured showed comparable expression in foals vaccinated at 3 months relative to control foals vaccinated at age 6 months. In high-risk situations where immunity may be required earlier than following a conventional vaccine series, our data provide evidence that foals respond to immunisation initiated at 3 months

  15. Use of a vectored vaccine against infectious bursal disease of chickens in the face of high-titred maternally derived antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bublot, M; Pritchard, N; Le Gros, F-X; Goutebroze, S

    2007-07-01

    Interference by maternally derived antibody (MDA) is a major problem for the vaccination of young chickens against infectious bursal disease (IBD). The choice of the timing of vaccination and of the type (degree of attenuation) of modified-live vaccine (MLV) to use is often difficult. An IBD vectored vaccine (vHVT13), in which turkey herpesvirus (HVT) is used as the vector, was recently developed. This vaccine is administered once at the hatchery, either in ovo or by the subcutaneous route, to 1-day-old chicks at a time when MDA is maximal. In terms of safety, the vHVT13 vaccine had negligible impact on the bursa of Fabricius when compared with classical IBD MLV. Vaccination and challenge studies demonstrated that this vaccine is able to protect chickens against various IBD virus (IBDV) challenge strains including very virulent, classical, and USA variant IBDV, despite the presence of high-titred IBD MDA at the time of vaccination. These data show that the vector vaccine combines a safety and efficacy profile that cannot be achieved with classical IBD vaccines.

  16. Green revolution vaccines, edible vaccines | Tripurani | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Edible vaccines are sub-unit vaccines where the selected genes are introduced into the plants and the transgenic plant is then induced to manufacture the encoded protein. Edible vaccines are mucosal-targeted vaccines where stimulation of both systematic and mucosal immune network takes place. Foods under study ...

  17. Molecular characterization of Marek's disease herpesvirus B antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isfort, R.J.; Sithole, I.; Kung, H.J.; Velicer, L.F.

    1986-01-01

    The Marek's disease herpesvirus (MDHV) B antigen (MDHV-B) was identified and molecularly characterized as a set of three glycoproteins of 100,000, 60,000, and 49,000 apparent molecular weight (gp100, gp60, and gp49, respectively) by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) after immunoprecipitation from [ 35 S]methionine-labeled infected cells by specific rabbit antiserum directed against MDHV-B (RαB), as previously determined by immunodiffusion. Further identification was accomplished by blocking this immunoprecipitation with highly purified MDHV-B. The same set of three polypeptides was also immunoprecipitated from [ 35 S] methionine- and 14 C-labeled infected cells into two other sera shown to have anti-B activity. These data serve to clarify the molecular identification of the polypeptides found in common between MDHV and HVT by linking them to MDHV-B. Collectively, the data presented here and by others support the conclusion that all three glycoproteins now identified as gp100, gp60, and gp49 have MDHV-B determinants. Finally, detection of the same three polypeptides with well-absorbed RαPM, which was directed against purified infected-cell plasma membranes, suggests that at least one component of the B-antigen complex has a plasma membrane location in the infected cell. These preliminary data point to the future membrane biochemistry and membrane immunology experiments needed to understand the MDHV system, and they may explain the high level of immunogenicity of MDHV-B in the infected chicken, as shown by its immunoprecipitation with immune chicken serum

  18. Linkage map of the fragments of herpesvirus papio DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y S; Tanaka, A; Lau, R Y; Nonoyama, M; Rabin, H

    1981-01-01

    Herpesvirus papio (HVP), an Epstein-Barr-like virus, causes lymphoblastoid disease in baboons. The physical map of HVP DNA was constructed for the fragments produced by cleavage of HVP DNA with restriction endonucleases EcoRI, HindIII, SalI, and PvuI, which produced 12, 12, 10, and 4 fragments, respectively. The total molecular size of HVP DNA was calculated as close to 110 megadaltons. The following methods were used for construction of the map; (i) fragments near the ends of HVP DNA were identified by treating viral DNA with lambda exonuclease before restriction enzyme digestion; (ii) fragments containing nucleotide sequences in common with fragments from the second enzyme digest of HVP DNA were examined by Southern blot hybridization; and (iii) the location of some fragments was determined by isolating individual fragments from agarose gels and redigesting the isolated fragments with a second restriction enzyme. Terminal heterogeneity and internal repeats were found to be unique features of HVP DNA molecule. One to five repeats of 0.8 megadaltons were found at both terminal ends. Although the repeats of both ends shared a certain degree of homology, it was not determined whether they were identical repeats. The internal repeat sequence of HVP DNA was found in the EcoRI-C region, which extended from 8.4 to 23 megadaltons from the left end of the molecule. The average number of the repeats was calculated to be seven, and the molecular size was determined to be 1.8 megadaltons. Similar unique features have been reported in EBV DNA (D. Given and E. Kieff, J. Virol. 28:524-542, 1978). Images PMID:6261015

  19. Psittacid herpesviruses associated with mucosal papillomas in neotropical parrots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Styles, Darrel K.; Tomaszewski, Elizabeth K.; Jaeger, Laurie A.; Phalen, David N.

    2004-01-01

    Mucosal papillomas are relatively common lesions in several species of captive neotropical parrots. They cause considerable morbidity and in some cases, result in mortality. Previous efforts to identify papillomavirus DNA and proteins in these lesions have been largely unsuccessful. In contrast, increasing evidence suggests that mucosal papillomas may contain psittacid herpesviruses (PsHVs). In this study, 41 papillomas from 30 neotropical parrots were examined by PCR with PsHV-specific primers. All 41 papillomas were found to contain PsHV DNA. This 100% prevalence of PsHV infection in the papilloma population was found to be significantly higher than PsHV infection prevalence observed in other surveys of captive parrots. PsHV genotypes 1, 2, and 3, but not 4 were found in these lesions. Psittacus erithacus papillomavirus DNA and finch papillomavirus DNA were not found in the papillomas. A papilloma from a hyacinth macaw (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus) was found to contain cells that had immunoreactivity to antiserum made to the common antigenic region of human papillomavirus (HPV) L1 major capsid protein. However, four other mucosal papillomas were negative for this immunoreactivity, and negative control tissues from a parrot embryo showed a similar staining pattern to that seen in the cloaca papilloma of the hyacinth macaw, strongly suggesting that the staining seen in hyacinth macaw papilloma was nonspecific. Based on these findings, it was concluded that specific genotypes of PsHV play a direct role in the development of mucosal papillomas of neotropical parrots and there is no evidence to suggest the concurrent presence of a papillomavirus in these lesions

  20. Herpesviruses in asymptomatic apical periodontitis lesions: an immunohistochemical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saboia-Dantas, C J; Coutrin de Toledo, L F; Sampaio-Filho, H R; Siqueira, J F

    2007-10-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) have been recently detected in samples from apical periodontitis lesions by means of molecular biology techniques and a role in the pathogenesis of this disease has been suggested. The present study was designed to survey asymptomatic primary apical periodontitis lesions for the presence of HCMV- and/or EBV-infected cells by means of immunohistochemistry. Apical periodontitis lesions were obtained from 35 patients [26 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) -seronegative patients and nine HIV-seropositive patients] after tooth extraction and subjected to immunohistochemical analysis using monoclonal antibodies specific for HCMV and EBV. Fifteen of the 35 apical periodontitis lesions were positive for the target herpesviruses. Overall, EBV was found in 31% of the samples and HCMV in 23%, with 14% of the lesions showing EBV and HCMV dual infection. No association was found between HCMV or EBV with any particular histopathological type of apical periodontitis (P > 0.05). HCMV was significantly more frequent in apical periodontitis lesions from HIV-positive patients (67%) than in lesions from HIV-negative patients (8%) (P = 0.001). EBV was detected in 44% of lesions from HIV-positive patients and in 27% of lesions from HIV-negative patients, but this difference was not significant (P = 0.91). Our results showed that cells infected by HCMV and EBV can be found in apical periodontitis lesions, with a higher prevalence in HIV-positive patients. The specific role that these viruses play in the pathogenesis of apical periodontitis remains to be described.

  1. Association of anticonvulsant hypersensitivity syndrome with Herpesvirus 6, 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oskay, Tuğba; Karademir, Asli; Ertürk, Ozcan I

    2006-07-01

    Anticonvulsant hypersensitivity syndrome (AHS) is one of the most severe forms of drug eruption with potentially lethal, and multiorgan involvement. Recently, it has been suggested that Human Herpesvirus (HHV) infection has been involved in this syndrome, although the pathogenesis of this syndrome remains still unclear. The objective of this study was to determine the clinical characteristics of AHS and the possible role of viral infection as a co-factor. We prospectively analyzed clinical, laboratory and virological findings for 23 cases of AHS. A viral study including viral serology and a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed. The most common anticonvulsant was carbamazepine (12) followed by phenytoin (6), phenobarbital (4) and gabapentin (1). All patients met fulfill the clinical criteria of AHS. Even though internal organ involvement such as liver (52%), kidney (34%), and lung (13%) has been observed, involvement of heart, lung, thyroid, muscle, pancreas, spleen, and brain was less frequent. We also noted two patients who died due to multiorgan failure. No association with viral infection including HSV, VZV, HHV-8, CMV, EBV, measles, rubella and parvovirus B19 was detected in the current series. Increased serum anti-HHV-6 IgG and HHV-7 titers and presence of HHV-6 and -7 DNA in serum, revealed by PCR analysis, suggested reactivation of HHV-6. In contrast to the control groups, DNA for HHV-6 was detected in serum in 5 out of the 23 patients while HHV-7 was seen in two patients. We found an evidence to link reactivation of HHV-6 or HHV-7 in the development of only carbamazepine-induced AHS. We propose that some cases of AHS are accompanied by reactivation of not only HHV-6 but also HHV-7. HHV infection may contribute to the severity, prolongation, or relapse of AHS and may possibly have fatal consequences in some susceptible individuals receiving the anticonvulsants.

  2. Varicella zoster virus vaccines: potential complications and possible improvements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Benjamin; Zhu, Hua

    2014-10-01

    Varicella zoster virus (VZV) is the causative agent of varicella (chicken pox) and herpes zoster (shingles). After primary infection, the virus remains latent in sensory ganglia, and reactivates upon weakening of the cellular immune system due to various conditions, erupting from sensory neurons and infecting the corresponding skin tissue. The current varicella vaccine (v-Oka) is highly attenuated in the skin, yet retains its neurovirulence and may reactivate and damage sensory neurons. The reactivation is sometimes associated with postherpetic neuralgia (PHN), a severe pain along the affected sensory nerves that can linger for years, even after the herpetic rash resolves. In addition to the older population that develops a secondary infection resulting in herpes zoster, childhood breakthrough herpes zoster affects a small population of vaccinated children. There is a great need for a neuro-attenuated vaccine that would prevent not only the varicella manifestation, but, more importantly, any establishment of latency, and therefore herpes zoster. The development of a genetically-defined live-attenuated VZV vaccine that prevents neuronal and latent infection, in addition to primary varicella, is imperative for eventual eradication of VZV, and, if fully understood, has vast implications for many related herpesviruses and other viruses with similar pathogenic mechanisms.

  3. Valuing vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bärnighausen, Till; Bloom, David E; Cafiero-Fonseca, Elizabeth T; O'Brien, Jennifer Carroll

    2014-08-26

    Vaccination has led to remarkable health gains over the last century. However, large coverage gaps remain, which will require significant financial resources and political will to address. In recent years, a compelling line of inquiry has established the economic benefits of health, at both the individual and aggregate levels. Most existing economic evaluations of particular health interventions fail to account for this new research, leading to potentially sizable undervaluation of those interventions. In line with this new research, we set forth a framework for conceptualizing the full benefits of vaccination, including avoided medical care costs, outcome-related productivity gains, behavior-related productivity gains, community health externalities, community economic externalities, and the value of risk reduction and pure health gains. We also review literature highlighting the magnitude of these sources of benefit for different vaccinations. Finally, we outline the steps that need to be taken to implement a broad-approach economic evaluation and discuss the implications of this work for research, policy, and resource allocation for vaccine development and delivery.

  4. Frequency and persistency of DNA vaccine encoding GP25 by oral on common carp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Nuryati

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Koi herpesvirus (KHV is a major viral pathogen that infects common carp and koi. KHV disease outbreak is happened in almost all centre of common carp culture in Indonesia and caused mass mortality. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA vaccination method is one of ways to cope with KHV infection. Vaccines were commonly given by injection. The aim of this research was to get frequency and persistency of DNA vaccine encoding GP25 given by oral delivery method in common carp. This research would like to determine dose, frequency of vaccination, persistency of DNA vaccine and culture medium for the bacterial host. DNA vaccine persistency test was done by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR method with the specific primer for GP25 gene. The results showed that level of DNA vaccine that could be detected in feed was 7.56 ng (equal to 1.598×1010 copies. Efficient culture medium for Escherichia coli DH5α carrying DNA vaccine was LB triptone. Feeding fish with diet supplemented with 1 mL E. coli DH5α containing DNA vaccine for each fish and two times a week allowed persistence of DNA vaccine in kindney and spleen. Keywords: common carp, KHV, DNA vaccine, GP25, persistance  ABSTRAK Koi herpesvirus (KHV adalah virus patogen utama yang menginfeksi ikan mas dan ikan koi. Wabah penyakit KHV terjadi di hampir semua sentra budidaya ikan mas di Indonesia dan menyebabkan kematian massal ikan. Metode vaksinasi DNA merupakan salah satu cara yang dapat dilakukan untuk menanggulangi serangan KHV. Pemberian vaksin umumnya dilakukan dengan cara injeksi. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menguji frekuensi dan persistensi vaksin DNA GP25 antivirus KHV yang diberikan melalui oral pada ikan mas. Pada penelitian ini dilakukan uji dosis, frekuensi pemberian vaksin, persistensi vaksin DNA, dan media kultur bakteri inang. Persistensi vaksin DNA dianalisis menggunakan metode PCR dengan primer spesifik gen GP25. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa dosis vaksin DNA yang

  5. Phylogenetic characterization of a novel herpesvirus found in the liver and lungs of a Chilean flamingo (Phoenicopterus chilensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coverdill, Christopher C; Barnes, Julie A; Garner, Michael M; Hinton, Kevin L; Childress, April L; Wellehan, James F X

    2016-05-01

    A novel herpesvirus was detected in a 17-day-old Chilean flamingo (Phoenicopterus chilensis) with pneumonia, hepatopathy, and severe anemia that was housed in California. Postmortem examination identified a pale, enlarged liver, mildly increased fluid in the lungs, and red foci in the spleen. Histologic examination revealed marked hepatic necrosis with syncytia, splenic necrosis, and interstitial pneumonia with eosinophilic intranuclear inclusions within hepatocytes and in unidentified cells of the lung. Transmission electron microscopy identified virions consistent with a herpesvirus in the nucleus and cytoplasm of degenerative hepatocytes. Nested consensus PCR, sequencing, and phylogenetic analysis identified a novel herpesvirus within the genus Iltovirus in the subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae. © 2016 The Author(s).

  6. Green propolis phenolic compounds act as vaccine adjuvants, improving humoral and cellular responses in mice inoculated with inactivated vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geferson Fischer

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Adjuvants play an important role in vaccine formulations by increasing their immunogenicity. In this study, the phenolic compound-rich J fraction (JFR of a Brazilian green propolis methanolic extract stimulated cellular and humoral immune responses when co-administered with an inactivated vaccine against swine herpesvirus type 1 (SuHV-1. When compared to control vaccines that used aluminium hydroxide as an adjuvant, the use of 10 mg/dose of JFR significantly increased (p < 0.05 neutralizing antibody titres against SuHV-1, as well as the percentage of protected animals following SuHV-1 challenge (p < 0.01. Furthermore, addition of phenolic compounds potentiated the performance of the control vaccine, leading to increased cellular and humoral immune responses and enhanced protection of animals after SuHV-1 challenge (p < 0.05. Prenylated compounds such as Artepillin C that are found in large quantities in JFR are likely to be the substances that are responsible for the adjuvant activity.

  7. Seroconversion for human herpesvirus 8 during HIV infection is highly predictive of Kaposi's sarcoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renwick, N.; Halaby, T.; Weverling, G. J.; Dukers, N. H.; Simpson, G. R.; Coutinho, R. A.; Lange, J. M.; Schulz, T. F.; Goudsmit, J.

    1998-01-01

    The finding of antibodies against human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) is associated with the occurrence of Kaposi's sarcoma in persons infected with HIV. However, the predictive value of HHV-8 antibodies for Kaposi's sarcoma in HIV infection is unknown. The Amsterdam Cohort Studies on HIV infection and AIDS

  8. Virulence and genotype of a bovine herpesvirus 1 isolate from semen of a subclinically infected bull

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oirschot, van J.T.; Rijsewijk, F.A.M.; Straver, P.J.; Ruuls, R.C.; Quak, J.; Davidse, A.; Westenbrink, E.; Gielkens, A.L.J.; Dijk, van J.E.; Moerman, A.

    1995-01-01

    A bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1) isolate from the semen of a subclinically infected bull was administered to cattle by various routes to assess its virulence. Cattle that were artificially inseminated or inoculated intrapreputially did not develop clinical signs, but did transmit the virus to contact

  9. High frequency intergenomic recombination of suid herpesvirus 1 (SHV-1, Aujeszkys-disease virus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Laurids Siig; Lomniczi, B.

    1993-01-01

    Examples are given of observations made with field isolates of suid herpesvirus 1 (SHV-1) which indicate that intergenomic recombination is a common phenomenon associated with the virus. This was further confirmed by experimental co-infection of a pig with 2 virus strains with different, stable...

  10. The genomic diversity and stability of field strains of Suid herpesvirus 1 (Aujeszky's disease virus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Laurids Siig; Sørensen, K. J.

    1991-01-01

    The genomic diversity among isolates of suid herpesvirus 1 (SHV-1) collected in the same herd and among clones from the same isolate was studied by restriction fragment pattern (RFP) analysis using BamHI. Tentatively defining a field strain as a transmissible entity, it was concluded that strains...

  11. Sequencing of bovine herpesvirus 4 v.test strain reveals important genome features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillet Laurent

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4 is a useful model for the human pathogenic gammaherpesviruses Epstein-Barr virus and Kaposi's Sarcoma-associated Herpesvirus. Although genome manipulations of this virus have been greatly facilitated by the cloning of the BoHV-4 V.test strain as a Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC, the lack of a complete genome sequence for this strain limits its experimental use. Methods In this study, we have determined the complete sequence of BoHV-4 V.test strain by a pyrosequencing approach. Results The long unique coding region (LUR consists of 108,241 bp encoding at least 79 open reading frames and is flanked by several polyrepetitive DNA units (prDNA. As previously suggested, we showed that the prDNA unit located at the left prDNA-LUR junction (prDNA-G differs from the other prDNA units (prDNA-inner. Namely, the prDNA-G unit lacks the conserved pac-2 cleavage and packaging signal in its right terminal region. Based on the mechanisms of cleavage and packaging of herpesvirus genomes, this feature implies that only genomes bearing left and right end prDNA units are encapsulated into virions. Conclusions In this study, we have determined the complete genome sequence of the BAC-cloned BoHV-4 V.test strain and identified genome organization features that could be important in other herpesviruses.

  12. Human herpesvirus 6B inhibits cell proliferation by a p53-independent pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øster, Bodil; Kaspersen, M.D.; Kofod-Olsen, Emil

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Various forms of cellular stress can activate the tumour suppressor protein p53, an important regulator of cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and cellular senescence. Cells infected by human herpesvirus 6B (HHV-6B) accumulate aberrant amounts of p53. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study...

  13. Emydid herpesvirus 1 infection in northern map turtles (Graptemys geographica) and painted turtles (Chrysemys picta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossiboff, Robert J; Newton, Alisa L; Seimon, Tracie A; Moore, Robert P; McAloose, Denise

    2015-05-01

    A captive, juvenile, female northern map turtle (Graptemys geographica) was found dead following a brief period of weakness and nasal discharge. Postmortem examination identified pneumonia with necrosis and numerous epithelial, intranuclear viral inclusion bodies, consistent with herpesviral pneumonia. Similar intranuclear inclusions were also associated with foci of hepatocellular and splenic necrosis. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) screening of fresh, frozen liver for the herpesviral DNA-dependent DNA polymerase gene yielded an amplicon with 99.2% similarity to recently described emydid herpesvirus 1 (EmyHV-1). Molecular screening of turtles housed in enclosures that shared a common circulation system with the affected map turtle identified 4 asymptomatic, EmyHV-1 PCR-positive painted turtles (Chrysemys picta) and 1 asymptomatic northern map turtle. Herpesvirus transmission between painted and map turtles has been previously suggested, and our report provides the molecular characterization of a herpesvirus in asymptomatic painted turtles that can cause fatal herpesvirus-associated disease in northern map turtles. © 2015 The Author(s).

  14. Complexities in human herpesvirus-6A and -6B binding to host cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Simon Metz; Höllsberg, Per

    2006-01-01

    Human herpesvirus-6A and -6B uses the cellular receptor CD46 for fusion and infection of the host cell. The viral glycoprotein complex gH-gL from HHV-6A binds to the short consensus repeat 2 and 3 in CD46. Although all the major isoforms of CD46 bind the virus, certain isoforms may have higher...

  15. Induction of cell-cell fusion from without by human herpesvirus 6B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Simon Metz; Øster, Bodil; Bundgaard, Bettina

    2006-01-01

    Human herpesvirus (HHV) 6A induce fusion from without (FFWO), whereas HHV-6B is believed to be ineffective in this process. Here, we demonstrate that HHV-6B induces rapid fusion in both epithelial cells and lymphocytes. The fusion was identified 1 h postinfection, could be inhibited by antibodies...

  16. Further evidence of Chelonid herpesvirus 5 (ChHV5) latency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alfaro Nuñez, Luis Alonso; Bojesen, Anders Miki; Bertelsen, Mads Frost

    2016-01-01

    The Chelonid herpesvirus 5 (ChHV5) has been consistently associated with fibropapillomatosis (FP), a transmissible neoplastic disease of marine turtles. Whether ChHV5 plays a causal role remains debated, partly because while FP tumours have been clearly documented to contain high concentrations...

  17. The coinfection between herpesviruses and periodontopathic microbiota in increasing severity of chronic periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mukhit Abdul Gaffar Kazi

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: Coinfection helps in the increasing severity of chronic periodontitis when a particular combination of herpesviruses and periodontopathic microbiota is detected from the cases of chronic periodontitis. Herpes simplex virus-2 and P. gingivalis seem to play a crucial role in the increasing severity of chronic periodontitis as compared to other coinfection combinations in the studied populations.

  18. Simultaneous intramammary and intranasal inoculation of lactating cows with bovine herpesvirus 4 induce subclinical mastitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, G.J.; Bruschke, C.J.M.; Wisselink, H.J.; Barkema, H.W.; Oirschot, van J.T.

    2002-01-01

    In this study, we examined whether an experimental bovine herpesvirus 4 (BHV4) infection can induce bovine mastitis, or can enhance bovine mastitis induced by Streptococcus uberis (S. uberis). Four lactating cows were inoculated intramammarily and intranasally with BHV4, and four lactating control

  19. The isolation and partial characterization of a highly pathogenic herpesvirus from the harbor seal (Phoca vitulina).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); H. Yang (Hong); H.E.M. Spijkers (Ine); J. Groen (Jan); J.S. Teppema; G. van Steenis (Bert)

    1985-01-01

    textabstractThis report describes the first isolation and partial characterization of a herpesvirus from the harbor seal (Phoca vitulina). The virus was isolated during a disease outbreak in a group of young seals nursed in a seal orphanage in The Netherlands. Almost half of the seals died with

  20. Equine herpesvirus 1 and/or 4 in working equids: se- roprevalence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EHV-1 and EHV-4 were found to be prevalent in working equids in central. Ethiopia ..... and Equine Herpesvirus-1/-4 in the Spanish Purebred horse population in central. Spain: Risk factors and association with reproductive problems. PHD Thesis. Fac- ultad De Veterinaria. Universidad Complutense De Madrid, Madrid.

  1. Equine Herpesvirus Type 1 Enhances Viral Replication in CD172a+ Monocytic Cells upon Adhesion to Endothelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laval, Kathlyn; Favoreel, Herman W; Poelaert, Katrien C K; Van Cleemput, Jolien; Nauwynck, Hans J

    2015-11-01

    Equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) is a main cause of respiratory disease, abortion, and encephalomyelopathy in horses. Monocytic cells (CD172a(+)) are the main carrier cells of EHV-1 during primary infection and are proposed to serve as a "Trojan horse" to facilitate the dissemination of EHV-1 to target organs. However, the mechanism by which EHV-1 is transferred from CD172a(+) cells to endothelial cells (EC) remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate EHV-1 transmission between these two cell types. We hypothesized that EHV-1 employs specific strategies to promote the adhesion of infected CD172a(+) cells to EC to facilitate EHV-1 spread. Here, we demonstrated that EHV-1 infection of CD172a(+) cells resulted in a 3- to 5-fold increase in adhesion to EC. Antibody blocking experiments indicated that α4β1, αLβ2, and αVβ3 integrins mediated adhesion of infected CD172a(+) cells to EC. We showed that integrin-mediated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and ERK/MAPK signaling pathways were involved in EHV-1-induced CD172a(+) cell adhesion at early times of infection. EHV-1 replication was enhanced in adherent CD172a(+) cells, which correlates with the production of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). In the presence of neutralizing antibodies, approximately 20% of infected CD172a(+) cells transferred cytoplasmic material to uninfected EC and 0.01% of infected CD172a(+) cells transmitted infectious virus to neighboring cells. Our results demonstrated that EHV-1 infection induces adhesion of CD172a(+) cells to EC, which enhances viral replication, but that transfer of viral material from CD172a(+) cells to EC is a very specific and rare event. These findings give new insights into the complex pathogenesis of EHV-1. Equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) is a highly prevalent pathogen worldwide, causing frequent outbreaks of abortion and myeloencephalopathy, even in vaccinated horses. After primary replication in the respiratory tract, EHV-1 disseminates

  2. Genetic characterization of complete open reading frame of glycoprotein C gene of bovine herpesvirus 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Majumder

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To characterize one of the major glycoprotein genes viz., glycoprotein C (gC; UL44, unique long region 44 of bovineherpesvirus 1(BoHV1 of Indian origin at genetic and phylogenetic level.Materials and Methods: A bovine herpesvirus 1 isolate viz., (BoHV1/IBR 216 II/ 1976/ India maintained at Division ofVirology, IVRI, Mukteswar was used for the current study. The DNA was extracted using commercial kit and the completeORF of gC gene was amplified, cloned, and sequenced by conventional Sanger sequencing method. The sequence wasgenetically and phylogenetically analysed using various bioinformatic tools. The sequence was submitted in the Genbankwith accession number Kc756965.Results: The complete ORF of gC gene was amplified and sequenced. It showed 100% sequence homology with referencecooper strain of BoHV1 and divergence varied from 0% to 2.7% with other isolates of BoHV1. The isolate under study haddivergence of 9.2%, 13%, 26.6%, and 9.2% with BoHV5 (Bovine herpesvirus 5, CvHV1 (Cervid herpesvirus 1, CpHV1(Caprine herpesvirus 1, and BuHV1 (Bubaline herpesvirus 1, respectively.Conclusion: This is the first genetic characterization of complete open reading frame (ORF of glycoprotein C gene (UL44 ofIndian isolate of BoHV1. The gC gene of BoHV1 is highly conserved among all BoHV1 isolates and it can be used as a targetfor designing diagnostic primers for the specific detection of BoHV1.

  3. Vaccines and Thimerosal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... During Pregnancy Frequently Asked Questions about Vaccine Recalls Historical Vaccine Safety Concerns FAQs about GBS and Menactra ... CISA Resources for Healthcare Professionals Evaluation Current Studies Historical Background 2001-12 Publications Technical Reports Vaccine Safety ...

  4. Vaccine Adverse Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Biologics Evaluation & Research Vaccine Adverse Events Vaccine Adverse Events Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... in the primary immunization series in infants Report Adverse Event Report a Vaccine Adverse Event Contact FDA ( ...

  5. Vaccination in Fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chettri, Jiwan Kumar

    vaccines have reduced the need for usage of antibiotics with more than 99 % since the 1980s. Fish can be vaccinated by three different administration routes: injection, immersion and oral vaccination. Injection vaccination (intraperitoneal injection of vaccine) is the most time consuming and labor...... intensive method, which however, provides the best protection of the fish. Immersion vaccination is used for immunization of a high number of small fish is cost-efficient and fast (30 sec immersion into vaccine). Oral vaccination (vaccine in feed) is the least efficient. As in higher vertebrates fish...... respond to vaccination by increasing the specific antibody titer and by activating the cellular responses. My talk will cover vaccination methods in fish, immune responses and some adverse effect of oil-adjuvanted vaccines in fish with reference to our work in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss....

  6. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Why get vaccinated?HPV vaccine prevents infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) types that are associated with cause ... at http://www.cdc.gov/hpv. HPV Vaccine (Human Papillomavirus) Information Statement. U.S. Department of Health and ...

  7. The genome of Chelonid herpesvirus 5 harbors atypical genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, Mathias; Koriabine, Maxim; Hartmann-Fritsch, Fabienne; de Jong, Pieter J.; Lewis, Teresa D.; Schetle, Nelli; Work, Thierry M.; Dagenais, Julie; Balazs, George H.; Leong, Jo-Ann C.

    2012-01-01

    The Chelonid fibropapilloma-associated herpesvirus (CFPHV; ChHV5) is believed to be the causative agent of fibropapillomatosis (FP), a neoplastic disease of marine turtles. While clinical signs and pathology of FP are well known, research on ChHV5 has been impeded because no cell culture system for its propagation exists. We have cloned a BAC containing ChHV5 in pTARBAC2.1 and determined its nucleotide sequence. Accordingly, ChHV5 has a type D genome and its predominant gene order is typical for the varicellovirus genus within thealphaherpesvirinae. However, at least four genes that are atypical for an alphaherpesvirus genome were also detected, i.e. two members of the C-type lectin-like domain superfamily (F-lec1, F-lec2), an orthologue to the mouse cytomegalovirus M04 (F-M04) and a viral sialyltransferase (F-sial). Four lines of evidence suggest that these atypical genes are truly part of the ChHV5 genome: (1) the pTARBAC insertion interrupted the UL52 ORF, leaving parts of the gene to either side of the insertion and suggesting that an intact molecule had been cloned. (2) Using FP-associated UL52 (F-UL52) as an anchor and the BAC-derived sequences as a means to generate primers, overlapping PCR was performed with tumor-derived DNA as template, which confirmed the presence of the same stretch of “atypical” DNA in independent FP cases. (3) Pyrosequencing of DNA from independent tumors did not reveal previously undetected viral sequences, suggesting that no apparent loss of viral sequence had happened due to the cloning strategy. (4) The simultaneous presence of previously known ChHV5 sequences and F-sial as well as F-M04 sequences was also confirmed in geographically distinct Australian cases of FP. Finally, transcripts of F-sial and F-M04 but not transcripts of lytic viral genes were detected in tumors from Hawaiian FP-cases. Therefore, we suggest that F-sial and F-M04 may play a role in FP pathogenesis

  8. CYTOKINES AND HERPESVIRUSES IN CHILDREN WITH MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. F. Zheleznikova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It was determined earlier (G.P. Ivanova, 2012 that a chronic course of leukoencephalitis in teenagers caused by inadequate response of cytokine system to the combination of two herpesviruses (HV — EBV and HHV-6, leads to the development of multiple sclerosis (MS in 44% of cases. The research objective was to characterize the cytokine response in children with MS with simultaneous screening of the presence of active HV infections. 39 children with the diagnosis “MS” were under observation, 34 of them had relapsing-remitting (RR MS, and 5 children had a progressing course of MS (PMS. Concentration of cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IFNα, IFNγ, and IL-4 was identified in blood serum and cerebrospinal liquid (CSF by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, HV DNA was revealed by PCR. Cytokine status in children with MS had some differences depending on the phase of the disease, clinical severity of the relapse and the course of MS. The relapse phase of RRMS was associated with the accumulation of IL-8, IL-10, and IL-6 in the blood, and index IFNγ/IL-4 modulations in accordance with the clinical severity of the relapse. A severe aggravation of the disease in children with PMS was accompanied by the increase of IL-8 system response. HV DNA was revealed in 27 patients from 39 ones (69% in blood and in 17 patients (44% in CSF with the predominance of EBV (93%, frequently in combination with HHV-6. During an acute period the frequency of HV DNA identification increased 2–3 times to compare with the remission period. Unlike children with RRMS, a mixed-infection of 3–4 herpes viruses was revealed in all 5 patients with PMS. According to the results summary it is possible to make a conclusion that HV-infection has an important role in MS pathogenesis in teenagers, taking part in the aggravation and progression of the disease by its effect on the cytokine system response. EBV-infection dominates among HV, however the risk of MS development

  9. [Poliovirus vaccine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Hiroyuki

    2012-06-01

    To avoid the risk of vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP) and polio outbreaks due to circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses, an inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) was introduced for routine immunization in a number of countries with a low risk of polio outbreaks. Currently, production and marketing of a standalone conventional IPV and two diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus-IPV (Sabin-derived IPV; sIPV) products have been submitted, and it is expected that the IPV products will be introduced in Japan in the autumn of 2012. At the same time, a decline in the OPV immunization rate became apparent in Japan due to serious public concerns about a remaining risk of VAPP and introduction of IPV in the near future. Therefore, the recent development of polio immunity gaps should be carefully monitored, and surveillance of suspected polio cases and laboratory diagnosis of polioviruses have to be intensified for the transition period from OPV to IPV in Japan. The development of sIPV is one of the most realistic options to introduce affordable IPV to developing countries. In this regard, further clinical studies on its efficacy, safety, and interchangeability of sIPV will be needed after the introduction of the sIPV products, which will be licensed in Japan for the first time in the world.

  10. Hepatitis B Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a combination product containing Haemophilus influenzae type b, Hepatitis B Vaccine) ... combination product containing Diphtheria, Tetanus Toxoids, Acellular Pertussis, Hepatitis B, Polio Vaccine)

  11. Lysine supplementation is not effective for the prevention or treatment of feline herpesvirus 1 infection in cats: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bol, Sebastiaan; Bunnik, Evelien M

    2015-11-16

    Feline herpesvirus 1 is a highly contagious virus that affects many cats. Virus infection presents with flu-like signs and irritation of ocular and nasal regions. While cats can recover from active infections without medical treatment, examination by a veterinarian is recommended. Lysine supplementation appears to be a popular intervention (recommended by > 90 % of veterinarians in cat hospitals). We investigated the scientific merit of lysine supplementation by systematically reviewing all relevant literature. NCBI's PubMed database was used to search for published work on lysine and feline herpesvirus 1, as well as lysine and human herpesvirus 1. Seven studies on lysine and feline herpesvirus 1 (two in vitro studies and 5 studies with cats), and 10 publications on lysine and human herpesvirus 1 (three in vitro studies and 7 clinical trials) were included for qualitative analysis. There is evidence at multiple levels that lysine supplementation is not effective for the prevention or treatment of feline herpesvirus 1 infection in cats. Lysine does not have any antiviral properties, but is believed to act by lowering arginine levels. However, lysine does not antagonize arginine in cats, and evidence that low intracellular arginine concentrations would inhibit viral replication is lacking. Furthermore, lowering arginine levels is highly undesirable since cats cannot synthesize this amino acid themselves. Arginine deficiency will result in hyperammonemia, which may be fatal. In vitro studies with feline herpesvirus 1 showed that lysine has no effect on the replication kinetics of the virus. Finally, and most importantly, several clinical studies with cats have shown that lysine is not effective for the prevention or the treatment of feline herpesvirus 1 infection, and some even reported increased infection frequency and disease severity in cats receiving lysine supplementation. We recommend an immediate stop of lysine supplementation because of the complete lack of

  12. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: human herpesvirus 1 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term human herpesvirus 1 名詞 一般 * * * * 単純ヘルペスウイルス1型 タンジュンヘルペスウイ...ルス1ガタ タンジュンヘルペスーイルスイチガタ Thesaurus2015 200906015205132965 C LS07 UNKNOWN_2 human herpesvirus 1

  13. Vaccine protection of chickens against antigenically diverse H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza isolates with a live HVT vector vaccine expressing the influenza hemagglutinin gene derived from a clade 2.2 avian influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapczynski, Darrell R; Esaki, Motoyuki; Dorsey, Kristi M; Jiang, Haijun; Jackwood, Mark; Moraes, Mauro; Gardin, Yannick

    2015-02-25

    Vaccination is an important tool in the protection of poultry against avian influenza (AI). For field use, the overwhelming majority of AI vaccines produced are inactivated whole virus formulated into an oil emulsion. However, recombinant vectored vaccines are gaining use for their ability to induce protection against heterologous isolates and ability to overcome maternal antibody interference. In these studies, we compared protection of chickens provided by a turkey herpesvirus (HVT) vector vaccine expressing the hemagglutinin (HA) gene from a clade 2.2 H5N1 strain (A/swan/Hungary/4999/2006) against homologous H5N1 as well as heterologous H5N1 and H5N2 highly pathogenic (HP) AI challenge. The results demonstrated all vaccinated birds were protected from clinical signs of disease and mortality following homologous challenge. In addition, oral and cloacal swabs taken from challenged birds demonstrated that vaccinated birds had lower incidence and titers of viral shedding compared to sham-vaccinated birds. Following heterologous H5N1 or H5N2 HPAI challenge, 80-95% of birds receiving the HVT vector AI vaccine at day of age survived challenge with fewer birds shedding virus after challenge than sham vaccinated birds. In vitro cytotoxicity analysis demonstrated that splenic T lymphocytes from HVT-vector-AI vaccinated chickens recognized MHC-matched target cells infected with H5, as well as H6, H7, or H9 AI virus. Taken together, these studies provide support for the use of HVT vector vaccines expressing HA to protect poultry against multiple lineages of HPAI, and that both humoral and cellular immunity induced by live vaccines likely contributes to protection. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Synergistic immune responses induced by endogenous retrovirus and herpesvirus antigens result in increased production of inflammatory cytokines in multiple sclerosis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brudek, T; Christensen, T; Hansen, H J

    2008-01-01

    Human endogenous retroviruses (HERV) and herpesviruses are increasingly associated with the pathogenesis of the neurological inflammatory disease multiple sclerosis (MS). Herpesviruses are capable of HERV activation and simultaneous presence of HERV and herpesvirus antigens have a synergistic...... effect on cell-mediated immune responses, which tend to be higher in MS patients in comparison with healthy individuals. Here, we investigate whether these synergistic immune responses are reflected in changes in the production of proinflammatory cytokines. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays...

  15. Optimizing Memory Usage in L4-Based Microkernel

    OpenAIRE

    Petre Eftime; Lucian Mogoşanu; Mihai Carabaş; Răzvan Deaconescu; Laura Gheorghe; Valentin Gabriel Voiculescu

    2017-01-01

    Memory allocation is a critical aspect of any modern operating system kernel because it must run continuously for long periods of time, therefore memory leaks and inefficiency must be eliminated. This paper presents different memory management algorithms and their aplicability to an L4-based microkernel. We aim to reduce memory usage and increase the performance of allocation and deallocation of memory.

  16. Dried influenza vaccines : Over the counter vaccines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saluja, Vinay; Hinrichs, Wouter L. J.; Frijlink, Henderik W.

    2010-01-01

    Since last year influenza pandemic has struck again after 40 years, this is the right moment to discuss the different available formulation options for influenza vaccine. Looking back to the last 4 decades, most vaccines are still formulated as liquid solution. These vaccines have shown a poor

  17. Vaccines and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... high or when infection would pose a high risk to the mother or baby, vaccination with a live vaccine is discussed. If there ... and benefits. For some diseases the benefit of vaccination outweighs any risks that may be associated with the vaccine. What ...

  18. History of vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotkin, Stanley

    2014-08-26

    Vaccines have a history that started late in the 18th century. From the late 19th century, vaccines could be developed in the laboratory. However, in the 20th century, it became possible to develop vaccines based on immunologic markers. In the 21st century, molecular biology permits vaccine development that was not possible before.

  19. History of vaccination

    OpenAIRE

    Plotkin, Stanley

    2014-01-01

    Vaccines have a history that started late in the 18th century. From the late 19th century, vaccines could be developed in the laboratory. However, in the 20th century, it became possible to develop vaccines based on immunologic markers. In the 21st century, molecular biology permits vaccine development that was not possible before.

  20. Investigation of latent infections caused by cyprinid herpesvirus 3 in koi ( Cyprinus carpio) in southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shucheng; Wang, Qing; Bergmann, Sven M; Li, Yingying; Zeng, Weiwei; Wang, Yingying; Liu, Chun; Shi, Cunbin

    2017-05-01

    Although herpesviruses such as cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) can establish lifelong latent infections, little is known about latency conditions in farmed koi populations in China. We used nested polymerase chain reaction targeting the TK gene and an indirect antibody ELISA to screen asymptomatic fish obtained from southern China for evidence of CyHV-3 infection. CyHV-3 DNA could be detected either in peripheral blood leukocytes or from gills of asymptomatic koi. Most koi sera did not contain anti-CyHV-3 antibodies; however, 5 samples were ELISA positive, providing evidence of prior CyHV-3 infections. These findings suggest that koi may survive CyHV-3 infections and become virus carriers.

  1. Psittacid herpesvirus 3 infection in the eclectus parrot (Eclectus roratus) in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabor, M; Gabor, L J; Peacock, L; Srivastava, M; Rosenwax, A; Phalen, D

    2013-11-01

    Psittacid herpesvirus 3 (PsHV-3) has recently been implicated as the cause of a severe respiratory disease in Bourke's parrots (Neopsephotus bourkii) in the United States. In this report, the clinical manifestations and gross and microscopic lesions of PsHV-3 infection in 2 eclectus parrots (Eclectus roratus) in Australia are described. The presence of a PsHV-3 infection was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction amplification and sequencing of PsHV-3 DNA using degenerate and PsHV-3 primers. Electron microscopy of infected cells demonstrated the assembly of herpesvirus virions as well as intranuclear tubular structures. The detection of PsHV-3 in Australia in 2 eclectus parrots broadens the list of known affected species and confirms the presence of this virus in Australia.

  2. The prevalence of ovine herpesvirus-2 in 4 sheep breeds from different regions in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.W. Bremer

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available About 90% of bovine malignant catarrhal fever (BMCF PCR-positive cases in South Africa are caused by alcelaphine herpesvirus-1 (AlHV-1 and the other 10 % by ovine herpesvirus-2 (OvHV-2. The prevalence of OvHV-2 in different sheep breeds in South Africa was determined in order to investigate whether the lower incidence of BMCF caused by OvHV-2 in comparison with AlHV-1 can be ascribed to a low incidence of the virus in sheep. A single-tube hemi-nested PCR was developed, evaluated and applied to detect OvHV-2 DNA. The prevalence of the virus in 4 sheep breeds from various regions in South Africa was shown to be 77 %. No statistically significant difference was found amongst the sheep breeds tested.

  3. Genetic and biochemical characterization of the thymidine kinase gene from herpesvirus of turkeys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, S.L.; Aparisio, D.I.; Bandyopadhyay, P.K.

    1989-01-01

    The thymidine kinase gene encoded by herpesvirus of turkeys has been identified and characterized. A viral mutant (ATR 0 ) resistant to 1-β-D-arabinofuranosylthymine was isolated. This mutant was also resistant to 1-(2-fluoro-2-deoxy-β-D-arabinofuronosyl)-5-methyluracil and was unable to incorporate [ 125 I]deoxycytidine into DNA. The mutant phenotype was rescued by a cloned region of the turkey herpesvirus genome whose DNA sequence was found to contain an open reading frame similar to that for known thymidine kinases from other viruses. When expressed in Escherichia coli, this open reading frame complemented a thymidine kinase-deficient strain and resulted in thymidine kinase activity in extracts assayed in vitro

  4. Complete genome sequence and architecture of crucian carp Carassius auratus herpesvirus (CaHV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiao-Tao; Chen, Zhong-Yuan; Deng, Yuan-Sheng; Gui, Jian-Fang; Zhang, Qi-Ya

    2016-12-01

    Crucian carp Carassius auratus herpesvirus (CaHV) was isolated from diseased crucian carp with acute gill hemorrhages and high mortality. The CaHV genome was sequenced and analyzed. The data showed that it consists of 275,348 bp and contains 150 predicted ORFs. The architecture of the CaHV genome differs from those of four cyprinid herpesviruses (CyHV1, CyHV2, SY-C1, CyHV3), with insertions, deletions and the absence of a terminal direct repeat. Phylogenetic analysis of the DNA polymerase sequences of 17 strains of Herpesvirales members, and the concatenated 12 core ORFs from 10 strains of alloherpesviruses showed that CaHV clustered together with members of the genus Cyprinivirus, family Alloherpesviridae.

  5. Mexico introduces pentavalent vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-08-01

    Combination vaccines have been introduced in Mexico. The national immunization program has incorporated the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccines in 1998, and the pentavalent vaccine in 1999. The two categories of antigen composition in combination vaccines are: 1) multiple different antigenic types of a single pathogen, such as the 23 valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine, and 2) antigens from different pathogens causing different diseases, such as the DPT and MMR vaccines. Pentavalent vaccines are included in the second category. The vaccine protects against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, hepatitis B, and other diseases produced by Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib). Combined diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, hepatitis B, and Haemophilus influenza type b (DTP-HB/Hib) vaccine has been distributed to 87% of Mexican children under 1 year of age. Over 800,000 doses of pentavalent vaccine have been administered.

  6. Vaccines today, vaccines tomorrow: a perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loucq, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Vaccines are considered as one of the major contributions of the 20th century and one of the most cost effective public health interventions. The International Vaccine Institute has as a mission to discover, develop and deliver new and improved vaccines against infectious diseases that affects developing nations. If Louis Pasteur is known across the globe, vaccinologists like Maurice Hilleman, Jonas Salk and Charles Mérieux are known among experts only despite their contribution to global health. Thanks to a vaccine, smallpox has been eradicated, polio has nearly disappeared, Haemophilus influenzae B, measles and more recently meningitis A are controlled in many countries. While a malaria vaccine is undergoing phase 3, International Vaccine Institute, in collaboration with an Indian manufacturer has brought an oral inactivated cholera vaccine to pre-qualification. The field of vaccinology has undergone major changes thanks to philanthropists such as Bill and Melinda Gates, initiatives like the Decade of Vaccines and public private partnerships. Current researches on vaccines have more challenging targets like the dengue viruses, malaria, human immunodeficiency virus, the respiratory syncytial virus and nosocomial diseases. Exciting research is taking place on new adjuvants, nanoparticles, virus like particles and new route of administration. An overcrowded infant immunization program, anti-vaccine groups, immunizing a growing number of elderlies and delivering vaccines to difficult places are among challenges faced by vaccinologists and global health experts.

  7. Immunofluorescent staining of nuclear antigen in lymphoid cells transformed by Herpesvirus papio (HVP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, H

    1981-01-01

    An improved fixation method for antigen detection in lymphoblastoid cells is described. Herpesvirus papio nuclear antigen (HUPNA) could be stained in several transformed lymphoid cell lines by anti-complement immunofluorescence (ACIF). Antibody to HUPNA was detected in many human sera containing antibodies to Epstein-Barr virus capsid and nuclear antigen (EBNA). Rheumatoid arthritis sera showed a high incidence of both anti-EBNA and anti-HUPNA antibodies.

  8. Oncogenic Herpesvirus Utilizes Stress-Induced Cell Cycle Checkpoints for Efficient Lytic Replication

    OpenAIRE

    Balistreri, Giuseppe; Viiliainen, Johanna; Turunen, Mikko; Diaz, Raquel; Lyly, Lauri; Pekkonen, Pirita; Rantala, Juha; Ojala, Krista; Sarek, Grzegorz; Teesalu, Mari; Denisova, Oxana; Peltonen, Karita; Julkunen, Ilkka; Varjosalo, Markku; Kainov, Denis

    2016-01-01

    Kaposi?s sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV) causes Kaposi?s sarcoma and certain lymphoproliferative malignancies. Latent infection is established in the majority of tumor cells, whereas lytic replication is reactivated in a small fraction of cells, which is important for both virus spread and disease progression. A siRNA screen for novel regulators of KSHV reactivation identified the E3 ubiquitin ligase MDM2 as a negative regulator of viral reactivation. Depletion of MDM2, a repressor of p53, favored...

  9. Oral vaccination of fish

    OpenAIRE

    Embregts, Carmen W.E.; Forlenza, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The limited number of oral vaccines currently approved for use in humans and veterinary species clearly illustrates that development of efficacious and safe oral vaccines has been a challenge not only for fish immunologists. The insufficient efficacy of oral vaccines is partly due to antigen breakdown in the harsh gastric environment, but also to the high tolerogenic gut environment and to inadequate vaccine design. In this review we discuss current approaches used to develop oral vaccines fo...

  10. The CXC chemokine receptor encoded by herpesvirus saimiri, ECRF3, shows ligand-regulated signaling through Gi, Gq, and G12/13 proteins but constitutive signaling only through Gi and G12/13 proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkilde, Mette M; McLean, Katherine A; Holst, Peter J

    2004-01-01

    Open reading frame 74 (ORF74) of many gamma(2)-herpesviruses encodes a CXC chemokine receptor. The molecular pharmacological profile of ORF74 from herpesvirus saimiri, ECRF3, is characterized here and compared with that of the well known ORF74 from human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8). The ECRF3 receptor...... ligand selectivity of ECRF3 among ORF74 receptors could reflect differences in the cellular tropism of the gamma(2)-herpesviruses....

  11. Isolation and serological differentiation of a herpesvirus from bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus, L. 1758).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaleta, E F; Marschall, H J; Glünder, G; Stiburek, B

    1980-01-01

    An infectious agent was isolated from the liver of bobwhite quails (Colinus virginianus, L. 1758). The agent was sensitive to chloroform and its multiplication was inhibited by 5-iodine-2-deoxy-uridine. It passed filters with a pore diameter of 220 nm and more but not 100 nm filters. Electron microscopic examination revealed numerous nucleocapsids with hollow capsomeres and few enveloped particles in the supernatant fluids of infected cultures. The nucleocapsids were calculated to have 162 capsomeres on their surface. Using the plaque reduction method for neutralization tests no serological cross reactions could be detected between the quail isolate and sera against Marek's disease virus, turkey herpes-virus (HV), duck enteritis HV, infectious laryngotracheitis HV, amazon parrot HV, great horned owl HV, eagle owl HV, snowy owl HV, falcon HV, pigeon HV, Lake Victoria Cormorant HV, and stork HV. The isolate from bobwhite quail did only cross-react with antiserum against crane HV. It is concluded that the isolated virus is a member of the avian herpesvirus group and it is proposed to tentatively term it herpesvirus colinum (from Colinus virginianus = bobwhite quail).

  12. Systematic identification of cellular signals reactivating Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuqu Yu

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The herpesvirus life cycle has two distinct phases: latency and lytic replication. The balance between these two phases is critical for viral pathogenesis. It is believed that cellular signals regulate the switch from latency to lytic replication. To systematically evaluate the cellular signals regulating this reactivation process in Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus, the effects of 26,000 full-length cDNA expression constructs on viral reactivation were individually assessed in primary effusion lymphoma-derived cells that harbor the latent virus. A group of diverse cellular signaling proteins were identified and validated in their effect of inducing viral lytic gene expression from the latent viral genome. The results suggest that multiple cellular signaling pathways can reactivate the virus in a genetically homogeneous cell population. Further analysis revealed that the Raf/MEK/ERK/Ets-1 pathway mediates Ras-induced reactivation. The same pathway also mediates spontaneous reactivation, which sets the first example to our knowledge of a specific cellular pathway being studied in the spontaneous reactivation process. Our study provides a functional genomic approach to systematically identify the cellular signals regulating the herpesvirus life cycle, thus facilitating better understanding of a fundamental issue in virology and identifying novel therapeutic targets.

  13. Herpesvirus-like respiratory infection in African penguins Spheniscus demersus admitted to a rehabilitation centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Nola J; Gous, Tertius A; van Wilpe, Erna; Strauss, Venessa; Vanstreels, Ralph Eric

    2015-10-16

    Rehabilitation is an important strategy for the conservation of the Endangered African penguin Spheniscus demersus, and disease has been raised as a concern in the management of the species, both in the wild and in rehabilitation centres. We report 8 cases of herpesvirus-like respiratory infection in African penguin chicks undergoing rehabilitation between 2010 and 2013 at a facility in Cape Town, South Africa. Infection was confirmed through the identification of viral inclusions in the tracheal epithelium and demonstration of particles consistent with herpesvirus by electron microscopy, whereas virus isolation in eggs, serology and PCR testing failed to detect the virus. Only penguin chicks were affected; they were in poor body condition, and in 2 cases infection occurred prior to admission to the rehabilitation centre. The role played by the herpesvirus-like infection in the overall respiratory disease syndrome is uncertain, due to identification of lesions in only a small proportion of the chicks as well as to the occurrence of other concurrent pathological processes. Further studies are advised to characterise the specific virus involved through the development of sensitive diagnostic methods and to clarify the epidemiology and significance of these infections in wild African penguins.

  14. Simultaneous radioimmunoassay for specific antibodies to members of the human herpesvirus group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehle, W.D.; Smith, K.O.; Fuccillo, D.A.; Perry, A.; Andrese, A.P.

    1979-01-01

    A method is described for the simultaneous radioimmunoassay (RIA) for antibody to members of the human herpesvirus group. The RIA is compared with some of the conventional serologic techniques used to quantitate antibody to these viruses (Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus, herpesvirus type 1 and varicella-zoster virus). Color-coded beads, each coated with the antigens of a different herpesvirus, were simultaneously placed in a well which contained a human serum to be assayed for antibody to each of these 4 viruses. The results of this test were compared with the results obtained when the serum was assayed for antibody to the 4 viruses in 4 separate tests. We conclude that the antigen-antibody reactions do not significantly interfere with each other when a serum is assayed for antibody to the 4 viruses simultaneously. A comparison of the RIA with conventional serologic techniques shows excellent correlation in the antibody titers obtained. Features of the solid-phase RIA allow significant savings of time, reagents and space, and thus make it feasible for the small laboratory to screen large numbers of sera for antibody to a variety of antigens. (Auth.)

  15. Characteristics of cyprinid herpesvirus 3 in different phases of infection: implications for disease transmission and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunarto, Agus; McColl, Kenneth A; Crane, Mark St J; Schat, Karel A; Slobedman, Barry; Barnes, Andrew C; Walker, Peter J

    2014-08-08

    Koi herpesvirus disease (KHVD) is an emerging and highly contagious viral disease of koi and common carp (Cyprinus carpio), causing mass mortalities and huge economic losses to the carp aquaculture industry. The disease has spread rapidly to 28 countries worldwide. However, mechanisms of koi herpesvirus (species Cyprinid herpesvirus 3; CyHV-3) transmission remain unclear. A potential experimental model of CyHV-3 infection in carp was used to characterise CyHV-3 in different phases of infection and to demonstrate that CyHV-3 persists in survivor fish and has the capacity to reactivate and transmit the disease to healthy fish. During acute infection, which occurred when fish were maintained at 22°C, viral genes were abundantly expressed and infectious virus was produced in association with tissue damage, clinical disease and mortality. In fish maintained at a lower temperature (11°C), viral DNA was present but viral gene expression was absent or greatly restricted, infectious virus was not recovered and there was no evidence of disease. Productive replication was re-initiated following an increase in water temperature to 22°C, resulting in 45% mortality. Shedding of reactivated virus killed 75% of cohabitating naïve fish, suggesting a potential risk for disease transmission. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Equid herpesvirus 9 (EHV-9) isolates from zebras in Ontario, Canada, 1989 to 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebelo, Ana Rita; Carman, Susy; Shapiro, Jan; van Dreumel, Tony; Hazlett, Murray; Nagy, Éva

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to identify and partially characterize 3 equid herpesviruses that were isolated postmortem from zebras in Ontario, Canada in 1989, 2002, and 2007. These 3 virus isolates were characterized by plaque morphology, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of their genomic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay, and sequence analyses of the full length of the glycoprotein G (gG) gene (ORF70) and a portion of the DNA polymerase gene (ORF30). The isolates were also compared to 3 reference strains of equid herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1). Using rabbit kidney cells, the plaques for the isolates from the zebras were found to be much larger in size than the EHV-1 reference strains. The RFLP patterns of the zebra viruses differed among each other and from those of the EHV-1 reference strains. Real-time PCR and sequence analysis of a portion of the DNA polymerase gene determined that the herpesvirus isolates from the zebras contained a G at nucleotide 2254 and a corresponding N at amino acid position 752, which suggested that they could be neuropathogenic EHV-1 strains. However, subsequent phylogenetic analysis of the gG gene suggested that they were EHV-9 and not EHV-1.

  17. Absence of frequent herpesvirus transmission in a nonhuman primate predator-prey system in the wild.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Sripriya; Couacy-Hymann, Emmanuel; Metzger, Sonja; Nowak, Kathrin; De Nys, Helene; Boesch, Christophe; Wittig, Roman; Jarvis, Michael A; Leendertz, Fabian H; Ehlers, Bernhard

    2013-10-01

    Emergence of viruses into the human population by transmission from nonhuman primates (NHPs) represents a serious potential threat to human health that is primarily associated with the increased bushmeat trade. Transmission of RNA viruses across primate species appears to be relatively frequent. In contrast, DNA viruses appear to be largely host specific, suggesting low transmission potential. Herein, we use a primate predator-prey system to study the risk of herpesvirus transmission between different primate species in the wild. The system was comprised of western chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) and their primary (western red colobus, Piliocolobus badius badius) and secondary (black-and-white colobus, Colobus polykomos) prey monkey species. NHP species were frequently observed to be coinfected with multiple beta- and gammaherpesviruses (including new cytomegalo- and rhadinoviruses). However, despite frequent exposure of chimpanzees to blood, organs, and bones of their herpesvirus-infected monkey prey, there was no evidence for cross-species herpesvirus transmission. These findings suggest that interspecies transmission of NHP beta- and gammaherpesviruses is, at most, a rare event in the wild.

  18. Putative periodontopathic bacteria and herpesviruses in pregnant women: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Haixia; Zhu, Ce; Li, Fei; Xu, Wei; Tao, Danying; Feng, Xiping

    2016-06-15

    Little is known about herpesvirus and putative periodontopathic bacteria in maternal chronic periodontitis. The present case-control study aimed to explore the potential relationship between putative periodontopathic bacteria and herpesviruses in maternal chronic periodontitis.Saliva samples were collected from 36 pregnant women with chronic periodontitis (cases) and 36 pregnant women with healthy periodontal status (controls). Six putative periodontopathic bacteria (Porphyromonas gingivalis [Pg], Aggregatibacer actinomycetemcomitans [Aa], Fusobacterium nucleatum [Fn], Prevotella intermedia [Pi], Tannerella forsythia [Tf], and Treponema denticola [Td]) and three herpesviruses (Epstein-Barr virus [EBV], human cytomegalovirus [HCMV], and herpes simplex virus [HSV]) were detected. Socio-demographic data and oral health related behaviors, and salivary estradiol and progesterone levels were also collected. The results showed no significant differences in socio-demographic background, oral health related behaviors, and salivary estradiol and progesterone levels between the two groups (all P > 0.05). The detection rates of included periodontopathic microorganisms were not significantly different between the two groups (all P > 0.05), but the coinfection rate of EBV and Pg was significantly higher in the case group than in the control group (P = 0.028). EBV and Pg coinfection may promote the development of chronic periodontitis among pregnant women.

  19. A bovine herpesvirus 5 recombinant defective in the thymidine kinase (TK gene and a double mutant lacking TK and the glycoprotein E gene are fully attenuated for rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.C. Silva

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Bovine herpesvirus 5 (BoHV-5, the agent of herpetic meningoencephalitis in cattle, is an important pathogen of cattle in South America and several efforts have been made to produce safer and more effective vaccines. In the present study, we investigated in rabbits the virulence of three recombinant viruses constructed from a neurovirulent Brazilian BoHV-5 strain (SV507/99. The recombinants are defective in glycoprotein E (BoHV-5gEΔ, thymidine kinase (BoHV-5TKΔ and both proteins (BoHV-5gEΔTKΔ. Rabbits inoculated with the parental virus (N = 8 developed neurological disease and died or were euthanized in extremis between days 7 and 13 post-infection (pi. Infectivity was detected in several areas of their brains. Three of 8 rabbits inoculated with the recombinant BoHV-5gEΔ developed neurological signs between days 10 and 15 pi and were also euthanized. A more restricted virus distribution was detected in the brain of these animals. Rabbits inoculated with the recombinants BoHV-5TKΔ (N = 8 or BoHV-5gEΔTKΔ (N = 8 remained healthy throughout the experiment in spite of variable levels of virus replication in the nose. Dexamethasone (Dx administration to rabbits inoculated with the three recombinants at day 42 pi did not result in viral reactivation, as demonstrated by absence of virus shedding and/or increase in virus neutralizing titers. Nevertheless, viral DNA was detected in the trigeminal ganglia or olfactory bulbs of all animals at day 28 post-Dx, demonstrating they were latently infected. These results show that recombinants BoHV-5TKΔ and BoHV-5gEΔTKΔ are attenuated for rabbits and constitute potential vaccine candidates upon the confirmation of this phenotype in cattle.

  20. Analyses of Tissue Culture Adaptation of Human Herpesvirus-6A by Whole Genome Deep Sequencing Redefines the Reference Sequence and Identifies Virus Entry Complex Changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tweedy, Joshua G; Escriva, Eric; Topf, Maya; Gompels, Ursula A

    2017-12-31

    Tissue-culture adaptation of viruses can modulate infection. Laboratory passage and bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)mid cloning of human cytomegalovirus, HCMV, resulted in genomic deletions and rearrangements altering genes encoding the virus entry complex, which affected cellular tropism, virulence, and vaccine development. Here, we analyse these effects on the reference genome for related betaherpesviruses, Roseolovirus, human herpesvirus 6A (HHV-6A) strain U1102. This virus is also naturally "cloned" by germline subtelomeric chromosomal-integration in approximately 1% of human populations, and accurate references are key to understanding pathological relationships between exogenous and endogenous virus. Using whole genome next-generation deep-sequencing Illumina-based methods, we compared the original isolate to tissue-culture passaged and the BACmid-cloned virus. This re-defined the reference genome showing 32 corrections and 5 polymorphisms. Furthermore, minor variant analyses of passaged and BACmid virus identified emerging populations of a further 32 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 10 loci, half non-synonymous indicating cell-culture selection. Analyses of the BAC-virus genome showed deletion of the BAC cassette via loxP recombination removing green fluorescent protein (GFP)-based selection. As shown for HCMV culture effects, select HHV-6A SNPs mapped to genes encoding mediators of virus cellular entry, including virus envelope glycoprotein genes gB and the gH/gL complex. Comparative models suggest stabilisation of the post-fusion conformation. These SNPs are essential to consider in vaccine-design, antimicrobial-resistance, and pathogenesis.

  1. Isolation and characterization of an atypical Siberian sturgeon herpesvirus strain in Russia: novel North American Acipenserid herpesvirus 2 strain in Europe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doszpoly, A; Kalabekov, I M; Breyta, R; Shchelkunov, I S

    2017-10-01

    Siberian sturgeon herpesvirus (SbSHV) was isolated in Russia for the first time in 2006. Nine SbSHV isolates were recovered from different fish hatcheries producing the same cytopathic effect in cell cultures, the same clinical signs and mortality kinetics in virus-infected fish and the same virus neutralization pattern and shared identical nucleotide sequences. In 2011, a new isolate was recovered from juvenile sturgeon, which caused completely different cytopathic effect. That isolate was not readily neutralized by Siberian sturgeon hyperimmune antisera, and its DNA was not recognized by the routine PCR developed for SbSHV detection. Molecular study of the novel isolate revealed that it was more closely related to North American Acipenserid herpesvirus 2 (AciHV-2) isolates from white sturgeon, while the genome sequences of the former SbSHV isolates showed high similarity to the AciHV-2 isolated from shortnose sturgeon. While clinical signs and mortality caused by the novel isolate in infected Siberian sturgeon were similar to those of the formerly described SbSHV isolates, the incubation period and mean time to death produced by the novel isolate were twice as long. The differences between the former isolates and the recent one suggest that a novel SbSHV strain emerged in Europe and the molecular findings imply its North American origin. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. A wide extent of inter-strain diversity in virulent and vaccine strains of alphaherpesviruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moriah L Szpara

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Alphaherpesviruses are widespread in the human population, and include herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1 and 2, and varicella zoster virus (VZV. These viral pathogens cause epithelial lesions, and then infect the nervous system to cause lifelong latency, reactivation, and spread. A related veterinary herpesvirus, pseudorabies (PRV, causes similar disease in livestock that result in significant economic losses. Vaccines developed for VZV and PRV serve as useful models for the development of an HSV-1 vaccine. We present full genome sequence comparisons of the PRV vaccine strain Bartha, and two virulent PRV isolates, Kaplan and Becker. These genome sequences were determined by high-throughput sequencing and assembly, and present new insights into the attenuation of a mammalian alphaherpesvirus vaccine strain. We find many previously unknown coding differences between PRV Bartha and the virulent strains, including changes to the fusion proteins gH and gB, and over forty other viral proteins. Inter-strain variation in PRV protein sequences is much closer to levels previously observed for HSV-1 than for the highly stable VZV proteome. Almost 20% of the PRV genome contains tandem short sequence repeats (SSRs, a class of nucleic acids motifs whose length-variation has been associated with changes in DNA binding site efficiency, transcriptional regulation, and protein interactions. We find SSRs throughout the herpesvirus family, and provide the first global characterization of SSRs in viruses, both within and between strains. We find SSR length variation between different isolates of PRV and HSV-1, which may provide a new mechanism for phenotypic variation between strains. Finally, we detected a small number of polymorphic bases within each plaque-purified PRV strain, and we characterize the effect of passage and plaque-purification on these polymorphisms. These data add to growing evidence that even plaque-purified stocks of stable DNA viruses exhibit

  3. A wide extent of inter-strain diversity in virulent and vaccine strains of alphaherpesviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szpara, Moriah L; Tafuri, Yolanda R; Parsons, Lance; Shamim, S Rafi; Verstrepen, Kevin J; Legendre, Matthieu; Enquist, L W

    2011-10-01

    Alphaherpesviruses are widespread in the human population, and include herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) and 2, and varicella zoster virus (VZV). These viral pathogens cause epithelial lesions, and then infect the nervous system to cause lifelong latency, reactivation, and spread. A related veterinary herpesvirus, pseudorabies (PRV), causes similar disease in livestock that result in significant economic losses. Vaccines developed for VZV and PRV serve as useful models for the development of an HSV-1 vaccine. We present full genome sequence comparisons of the PRV vaccine strain Bartha, and two virulent PRV isolates, Kaplan and Becker. These genome sequences were determined by high-throughput sequencing and assembly, and present new insights into the attenuation of a mammalian alphaherpesvirus vaccine strain. We find many previously unknown coding differences between PRV Bartha and the virulent strains, including changes to the fusion proteins gH and gB, and over forty other viral proteins. Inter-strain variation in PRV protein sequences is much closer to levels previously observed for HSV-1 than for the highly stable VZV proteome. Almost 20% of the PRV genome contains tandem short sequence repeats (SSRs), a class of nucleic acids motifs whose length-variation has been associated with changes in DNA binding site efficiency, transcriptional regulation, and protein interactions. We find SSRs throughout the herpesvirus family, and provide the first global characterization of SSRs in viruses, both within and between strains. We find SSR length variation between different isolates of PRV and HSV-1, which may provide a new mechanism for phenotypic variation between strains. Finally, we detected a small number of polymorphic bases within each plaque-purified PRV strain, and we characterize the effect of passage and plaque-purification on these polymorphisms. These data add to growing evidence that even plaque-purified stocks of stable DNA viruses exhibit limited sequence

  4. Typhoid fever vaccination strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Date, Kashmira A; Bentsi-Enchill, Adwoa; Marks, Florian; Fox, Kimberley

    2015-06-19

    Typhoid vaccination is an important component of typhoid fever prevention and control, and is recommended for public health programmatic use in both endemic and outbreak settings. We reviewed experiences with various vaccination strategies using the currently available typhoid vaccines (injectable Vi polysaccharide vaccine [ViPS], oral Ty21a vaccine, and injectable typhoid conjugate vaccine [TCV]). We assessed the rationale, acceptability, effectiveness, impact and implementation lessons of these strategies to inform effective typhoid vaccination strategies for the future. Vaccination strategies were categorized by vaccine disease control strategy (preemptive use for endemic disease or to prevent an outbreak, and reactive use for outbreak control) and vaccine delivery strategy (community-based routine, community-based campaign and school-based). Almost all public health typhoid vaccination programs used ViPS vaccine and have been in countries of Asia, with one example in the Pacific and one experience using the Ty21a vaccine in South America. All vaccination strategies were found to be acceptable, feasible and effective in the settings evaluated; evidence of impact, where available, was strongest in endemic settings and in the short- to medium-term. Vaccination was cost-effective in high-incidence but not low-incidence settings. Experience in disaster and outbreak settings remains limited. TCVs have recently become available and none are WHO-prequalified yet; no program experience with TCVs was found in published literature. Despite the demonstrated success of several typhoid vaccination strategies, typhoid vaccines remain underused. Implementation lessons should be applied to design optimal vaccination strategies using TCVs which have several anticipated advantages, such as potential for use in infant immunization programs and longer duration of protection, over the ViPS and Ty21a vaccines for typhoid prevention and control. Copyright © 2015. Published by

  5. Application of new vaccine technologies for the control of transboundary diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swayne, D E

    2004-01-01

    Vaccines have played an important role in the control of diseases of livestock and poultry, including Transboundary Diseases. In the future, vaccines will play a greater role in controlling these diseases. Historically, inactivated whole viruses in various adjuvant systems have been used and will continue to be used in the near future. For the future, emerging technologies will allow targeted use of only the protective antigens of the pathogen and will provide the opportunity for differentiating between vaccinated and field-exposed animals. Furthermore, the expression of cytokines by vaccines will afford earlier or greater enhancement of protection than can be achieved by the protective response elicited by the antigenic epitopes of the pathogen alone. Avian influenza (AI) is a good case for studying future trends in vaccine design and use. Inactivated AI virus (AIV) vaccines will continue as the primary vaccines used over the next 10 years. These vaccines will use homologous haemagglutinin sub-types, either from the use of field strains or the generation of new strains through the use of infectious clones produced in the laboratory. The latter will allow creation of high growth reassortants, which will provide consistent high yields of antigen and result in potent vaccines. New viral and bacterial vectors with inserts of AIV haemagglutinin gene will be developed and potentially used in the field. Such new vectors will include herpesvirus-turkey, infectious laryngotracheitis virus, adenoviruses, various types of paramyxoviruses and Salmonella sp. In addition, there is a theoretical possibility of gene-deleted mutants that would allow the use of live AIV vaccines, but the application of such vaccines has inherent dangers for gene reassortment with field viruses in the generation of disease-causing strains. Subunit haemagglutinin protein and DNA haemagglutinin gene vaccines are possible, but with current technologies, the cost is prohibitive. In the future, effective

  6. Association between Herpesviruses and Chronic Periodontitis: A Meta-Analysis Based on Case-Control Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ce; Li, Fei; Wong, May Chun Mei; Feng, Xi-Ping; Lu, Hai-Xia; Xu, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have investigated the associations between herpesviruses and chronic periodontitis; however, the results remain controversial. To derive a more precise estimation, a meta-analysis on all available studies was performed to identify the association between herpesviruses and chronic periodontitis. A computerized literature search was conducted in December 2014 to identify eligible case-control studies from the PUBMED and EMBASE databases according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. Data were extracted and pooled odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were used to assess the association between herpesviruses and risk of chronic periodontitis. A fixed or random effects model was determined based on a heterogeneity test. Sensitivity analysis was conducted to investigate stability and reliability. Publication bias was investigated using the Begg rank correlation test and Egger's funnel plot. Ten eligible studies were included to investigate the association between Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and chronic periodontitis. The results showed that EBV has a significant association with chronic periodontitis compared with periodontally healthy group (OR = 5.74, 95% CI = 2.53-13.00, Pchronic periodontitis was analyzed in 10 studies. The pooled result showed that HCMV also has a significant association with chronic periodontitis (OR = 3.59, 95% CI = 1.41-9.16, P = 0.007). Similar results were found in the sensitivity analyses. No significant publication bias was observed. Two eligible studies were included to investigate the association between herpes simplex virus (HSV) and chronic periodontitis risk. The association between HSV and chronic periodontitis was inconclusive (OR = 2.81 95% CI = 0.95-8.27, P = 0.06). Only one included study investigated the association between human herpesvirus 7 (HHV-7) and chronic periodontitis risk (OR = 1.00, 95% CI = 0.21-4.86). The findings of this meta-analysis suggest that two members of the herpesvirus family, EBV

  7. Vaccines: an ongoing promise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsahli, M; Farrell, R J; Michetti, P

    2001-01-01

    Over the past decade, intensive research has focused on developing a vaccine therapy for Helicobacter pylori. Substantial unresolved questions cloud the current approach, and the development of a vaccine against this unique organism has proved very challenging. Many candidate vaccines have been tested in animal models. The immunogenicity and the safety of some vaccine formulations have been recently evaluated through clinical trials, and the efficacy of these vaccine therapies in humans will be determined in the near future. This article will provide an overview of the current knowledge of natural and vaccine-induced immune responses to H. pylori infection. It will also review past vaccine successes and failures in animal models and the limited experience to date in using vaccine therapy in humans. Several obstacles to H. pylori vaccine development efforts along with the future direction of these efforts will be discussed. Copyright 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

  8. Neurologic complications of vaccinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miravalle, Augusto A; Schreiner, Teri

    2014-01-01

    This chapter reviews the most common neurologic disorders associated with common vaccines, evaluates the data linking the disorder with the vaccine, and discusses the potential mechanism of disease. A literature search was conducted in PubMed using a combination of the following terms: vaccines, vaccination, immunization, and neurologic complications. Data were also gathered from publications of the American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Infectious Diseases, the World Health Organization, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System. Neurologic complications of vaccination are rare. Many associations have been asserted without objective data to support a causal relationship. Rarely, patients with a neurologic complication will have a poor outcome. However, most patients recover fully from the neurologic complication. Vaccinations have altered the landscape of infectious disease. However, perception of risk associated with vaccinations has limited the success of disease eradication measures. Neurologic complications can be severe, and can provoke fear in potential vaccines. Evaluating whether there is causal link between neurologic disorders and vaccinations, not just temporal association, is critical to addressing public misperception of risk of vaccination. Among the vaccines available today, the cost-benefit analysis of vaccinations and complications strongly argues in favor of vaccination. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Current Vaccine Shortages and Delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hepatitis A vaccine supply in the US. Updated Mar 2018 Note 2 : Pediatric hepatitis B vaccine: Merck ... Submitted, Licensed, and Recommended Vaccines & Biologics Red Book® Online Influenza Vaccination Recommendations Childhood & Adolescent Immunization Schedules Adult ...

  10. Vaccine-Preventable Disease Photos

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Work Importance of Vaccines Paying for Vaccines State Immunization Programs Tips for Finding Vaccine Records Trusted Sources of ... efficacy, and use of vaccines within the broad immunization community of patients, parents, healthcare organizations, and government health agencies.

  11. Vaccines against poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLennan, Calman A.; Saul, Allan

    2014-01-01

    With the 2010s declared the Decade of Vaccines, and Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5 focused on reducing diseases that are potentially vaccine preventable, now is an exciting time for vaccines against poverty, that is, vaccines against diseases that disproportionately affect low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 has helped better understand which vaccines are most needed. In 2012, US$1.3 billion was spent on research and development for new vaccines for neglected infectious diseases. However, the majority of this went to three diseases: HIV/AIDS, malaria, and tuberculosis, and not neglected diseases. Much of it went to basic research rather than development, with an ongoing decline in funding for product development partnerships. Further investment in vaccines against diarrheal diseases, hepatitis C, and group A Streptococcus could lead to a major health impact in LMICs, along with vaccines to prevent sepsis, particularly among mothers and neonates. The Advanced Market Commitment strategy of the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunisation (GAVI) Alliance is helping to implement vaccines against rotavirus and pneumococcus in LMICs, and the roll out of the MenAfriVac meningococcal A vaccine in the African Meningitis Belt represents a paradigm shift in vaccines against poverty: the development of a vaccine primarily targeted at LMICs. Global health vaccine institutes and increasing capacity of vaccine manufacturers in emerging economies are helping drive forward new vaccines for LMICs. Above all, partnership is needed between those developing and manufacturing LMIC vaccines and the scientists, health care professionals, and policy makers in LMICs where such vaccines will be implemented. PMID:25136089

  12. Herpesviruses dUTPases: A New Family of Pathogen-Associated Molecular Pattern (PAMP Proteins with Implications for Human Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marshall V. Williams

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The human herpesviruses are ubiquitous viruses and have a prevalence of over 90% in the adult population. Following a primary infection they establish latency and can be reactivated over a person’s lifetime. While it is well accepted that human herpesviruses are implicated in numerous diseases ranging from dermatological and autoimmune disease to cancer, the role of lytic proteins in the pathophysiology of herpesvirus-associated diseases remains largely understudies. Only recently have we begun to appreciate the importance of lytic proteins produced during reactivation of the virus, in particular the deoxyuridine triphosphate nucleotidohydrolases (dUTPase, as key modulators of the host innate and adaptive immune responses. In this review, we provide evidence from animal and human studies of the Epstein–Barr virus as a prototype, supporting the notion that herpesviruses dUTPases are a family of proteins with unique immunoregulatory functions that can alter the inflammatory microenvironment and thus exacerbate the immune pathology of herpesvirus-related diseases including myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome, autoimmune diseases, and cancer.

  13. Single tube multiplex real-time PCR for the rapid detection of herpesvirus infections of the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankuntaw, Nipaporn; Sukprasert, Saovaluk; Engchanil, Chulapan; Kaewkes, Wanlop; Chantratita, Wasun; Pairoj, Vantanit; Lulitanond, Viraphong

    2011-01-01

    Human herpesvirus infection of immunocompromised hosts may lead to central nervous system (CNS) infection and diseases. In this study, a single tube multiplex real-time PCR was developed for the detection of five herpesviruses (HSV-1, HSV-2, VZV, EBV and CMV) in clinical cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens. Two primer pairs specific for the herpesvirus polymerase gene and five hybridization probe pairs for the specific identification of the herpesvirus types were used in a LightCycler multiplex real-time PCR. A singleplex real-time PCR was first optimized and then applied to the multiplex real-time PCR. The singleplex and multiplex real-time PCRs showed no cross-reactivity. The sensitivity of the singleplex real-time PCR was 1 copy per reaction for each herpesvirus, while that of the multiplex real-time PCR was 1 copy per reaction for HSV-1 and VZV and 10 copies per reaction for HSV-2, EBV and CMV. Intra and inter-assay variations of the single tube multiplex assay were in the range of 0.02%-3.67% and 0.79%-4.35%, respectively. The assay was evaluated by testing 62 clinical CSF samples and was found to have equivalent sensitivity, specificity and agreement as the routine real-time PCR, but reducing time, cost and amount of used sample. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Vaccine Associated Myocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Francis

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Most of the cases of vaccine associated myocarditis have been following small pox vaccination. Reports have also been there after streptococcal pneumonia vaccine and influenza vaccine. In some cases, autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants (ASIA used in the vaccine have been implicated. Exclusion of other causes is very important in the diagnostic process, especially that of acute coronary syndrome. Management is similar to that of other etiologies of myocarditis. These rare instances of myocarditis should not preclude one from taking necessary immunization for vaccine preventable diseases.

  15. Vaccines and Immunization Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogue, Michael D; Meador, Anna E

    2016-03-01

    Vaccines are among most cost-effective public health strategies. Despite effective vaccines for many bacterial and viral illnesses, tens of thousands of adults and hundreds of children die each year in the United States from vaccine-preventable diseases. Underutilization of vaccines requires rethinking the approach to incorporating vaccines into practice. Arguably, immunizations could be a part all health care encounters. Shared responsibility is paramount if deaths are to be reduced. This article reviews the available vaccines in the US market, as well as practice recommendations of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Vaccines today, vaccines tomorrow: a perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Loucq, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Vaccines are considered as one of the major contributions of the 20th century and one of the most cost effective public health interventions. The International Vaccine Institute has as a mission to discover, develop and deliver new and improved vaccines against infectious diseases that affects developing nations. If Louis Pasteur is known across the globe, vaccinologists like Maurice Hilleman, Jonas Salk and Charles M?rieux are known among experts only despite their contribution to global hea...

  17. FR4-Based Electromagnetic Scanning Micromirror Integrated with Angle Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjie Lei

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a flame retardant 4 (FR4-based electromagnetic scanning micromirror, which aims to overcome the limitations of conventional microelectromechanical systems (MEMS micromirrors for the large-aperture and low-frequency scanning applications. This micromirror is fabricated through a commercial printed circuit board (PCB technology at a low cost and with a short process cycle, before an aluminum-coated silicon mirror plate with a large aperture is bonded on the FR4 platform to provide a high surface quality. In particular, an electromagnetic angle sensor is integrated to monitor the motion of the micromirror in real time. A prototype has been assembled and tested. The results show that the micromirror can reach the optical scan angle of 11.2 ∘ with a low driving voltage of only 425 mV at resonance (361.8 Hz. At the same time, the signal of the integrated angle sensor also shows good signal-to-noise ratio, linearity and sensitivity. Finally, the reliability of the FR4 based micro-mirror has been tested. The prototype successfully passes both shock and vibration tests. Furthermore, the results of the long-term mechanical cycling test (50 million cycles suggest that the maximum variations of resonant frequency and scan angle are less than 0.3% and 6%, respectively. Therefore, this simple and robust micromirror has great potential in being useful in a number of optical microsystems, especially when large-aperture or low-frequency is required.

  18. CXCL10/CXCR3-Dependent Mobilization of Herpes Simplex Virus-Specific CD8+ TEM and CD8+ TRM Cells within Infected Tissues Allows Efficient Protection against Recurrent Herpesvirus Infection and Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Ruchi; Khan, Arif A; Chilukuri, Sravya; Syed, Sabrina A; Tran, Tien T; Furness, Julie; Bahraoui, Elmostafa; BenMohamed, Lbachir

    2017-07-15

    infection and disease. Using a well-established murine model, in which HSV-1 reactivation in latently infected trigeminal ganglia was induced by UV-B light, we demonstrated that lack of either CXCL10 chemokine or its CXCR3 receptor compromised the mobilization of functional CD8 + T EM and CD8 + T RM cells within latently infected trigeminal ganglia following virus reactivation. This lack of T cell mobilization was associated with an increase in recurrent ocular herpesvirus infection and disease. Inversely, augmenting the amount of CXCL10 in trigeminal ganglia of latently infected CXCL10-deficient mice significantly restored the number of local antiviral CD8 + T EM and CD8 + T RM cells associated with protection against recurrent ocular herpes. Based on these findings, a novel "prime/pull" therapeutic ocular herpes vaccine strategy is proposed and discussed. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  19. Role of one N-linked oligosaccharide chain on canine herpesvirus gD in its biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, K; Yokoyama, N; Fujita, K; Xuan, X; Mikami, T

    1997-12-01

    The YP11mu strain of a plaque-selected canine herpesvirus (CHV) encoded a smaller molecular weight (MW) of gD than those of other strains including YP2 strain (Xuan et al., 1990). When nucleotide sequence of the mutated gD of YP11mu strain (gD(YP11mu)) was compared with that of gDs of other CHV strains, gD(YP11mu) lacked 12 nucleotides encoding 4 amino acids, NKTI, including one predicted potential N-linked glycosylation site and no other change was found in other regions. When the gD(YP11mu) and gD of YP2 strain (gD(YP2)) expressed in COS-7 and insect (Spodoptera frugiperda; Sf9) cells were compared each other, both gDs reacted with a panel of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against CHV gD by indirect immunofluorescence analysis and the gD(YP11mu) possessed an MW of approximately 47-51 and 39-44 kDa in COS-7 and Sf9 cells, respectively, which were smaller than the expressed gD(YP2) (approximately 51-55 and 41-46 kDa, respectively) by immunoblot analysis. After treatment with tunicamycin, the MW of both gDs in Sf9 cells became approximately 37 kDa. When hemagglutination (HA) test using canine red blood cells (RBC) were carried out, lysates of Sf9 cells expressing CHV gDs agglutinated canine RBC. Serum from mice inoculated with lysates of Sf9 cells expressing the gDs possessed a high titer of virus-neutralizing (VN) activities against CHV. These results indicated that the deletion of 4 amino acids possessing approximately 4 kDa of glyco-chain from gD of CHV in mammalian cells does not affect HA activity and VN antibody-inducing activity and that this deletion of gD(YP11mu) might be a good selective marker for development of recombinant viruses as a live vaccine.

  20. MMR Vaccine (Measles, Mumps, and Rubella)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumpsvax® Mumps Vaccine ... Biavax® II (as a combination product containing Mumps Vaccine, Rubella Vaccine) ... II (as a combination product containing Measles Vaccine, Mumps Vaccine, Rubella Vaccine)

  1. What is a Preventive HIV Vaccine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Entire Series Related Content AIDSource | Vaccine Research HIV Vaccines History of HIV Vaccine Research Need Help? Call 1- ... Entire Series Related Content AIDSource | Vaccine Research HIV Vaccines History of HIV Vaccine Research Need Help? Call 1- ...

  2. Ethical and legal challenges of vaccines and vaccination: Reflections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesani, Amar; Johari, Veena

    2017-01-01

    Vaccines and vaccination have emerged as key medical scientific tools for prevention of certain diseases. Documentation of the history of vaccination shows that the initial popular resistance to universal vaccination was based on false assumptions and eventually gave way to acceptance of vaccines and trust in their ability to save lives. The successes of the global eradication of smallpox, and now of polio, have only strengthened the premier position occupied by vaccines in disease prevention. However, the success of vaccines and public trust in their ability to eradicate disease are now under challenge, as increasing numbers of people refuse vaccination, questioning the effectiveness of vaccines and the need to vaccinate.

  3. The Murid Herpesvirus-4 gL regulates an entry-associated conformation change in gH.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Gillet

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The glycoprotein H (gH/gL heterodimer is crucial for herpesvirus membrane fusion. Yet how it functions is not well understood. The Murid Herpesvirus-4 gH, like that of other herpesviruses, adopts its normal virion conformation by associating with gL. However, gH switched back to a gL-independent conformation after virion endocytosis. This switch coincided with a conformation switch in gB and with capsid release. Virions lacking gL constitutively expressed the down-stream form of gH, prematurely switched gB to its down-stream form, and showed premature capsid release with poor infectivity. These data argue that gL plays a key role in regulating a gH and gB functional switch from cell binding to membrane fusion.

  4. Laser facilitates vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of novel vaccine deliveries and vaccine adjuvants is of great importance to address the dilemma that the vaccine field faces: to improve vaccine efficacy without compromising safety. Harnessing the specific effects of laser on biological systems, a number of novel concepts have been proposed and proved in recent years to facilitate vaccination in a safer and more efficient way. The key advantage of using laser technology in vaccine delivery and adjuvantation is that all processes are initiated by physical effects with no foreign chemicals administered into the body. Here, we review the recent advances in using laser technology to facilitate vaccine delivery and augment vaccine efficacy as well as the underlying mechanisms.

  5. Vaccine Safety Datalink

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Vaccine Safety Datalink is part of the National Immunization Program within the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and was started in recognition of gaps in the scientific knowledge of rare vaccine side effects.

  6. The HPV Vaccination Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Following the release of a consensus statement from the NCI-Designated Cancer Centers urging HPV vaccination in the United States, Dr. Noel Brewer discusses the country’s low vaccination rates and how clinicians can help to improve them.

  7. Your child's first vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... term seizures, coma, lowered consciousness, and permanent brain damage have been reported following DTaP vaccination. These reports are extremely rare. Pneumococcal Vaccine Mild Problems: drowsiness or temporary loss of appetite ( ...

  8. Your Baby's First Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... term seizures, coma, lowered consciousness, and permanent brain damage have been reported following DTaP vaccination. These reports are extremely rare. Pneumococcal Vaccine Mild Problems: Drowsiness or temporary loss of appetite ( ...

  9. Vaccines in Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Eric M L; Chahin, Salim; Berger, Joseph R

    2016-04-01

    Vaccinations help prevent communicable disease. To be valuable, a vaccine's ability to prevent disease must exceed the risk of adverse effects from administration. Many vaccines present no risk of infection as they are comprised of killed or non-infectious components while other vaccines consist of live attenuated microorganisms which carry a potential risk of infection-particularly, in patients with compromised immunity. There are several unique considerations with respect to vaccination in the multiple sclerosis (MS) population. First, there has been concern that vaccination may trigger or aggravate the disease. Second, disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) employed in the treatment of MS may increase the risk of infectious complications from vaccines or alter their efficacy. Lastly, in some cases, vaccination strategies may be part of the treatment paradigm in attempts to avoid complications of therapy.

  10. Vaccines and immunization

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof Ezechukwu

    vaccines for malaria and HIV infection. Despite the ... decades, effective vaccines against the major causes of ... challenge antibodies, specific helper and effector T lymphocytes ... materials to produced immunity to a disease. It was originally ...

  11. Pneumococcal Vaccines (PCV, PPSV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Educators Search English Español Your Child's Immunizations: Pneumococcal Vaccines (PCV, PPSV) KidsHealth / For Parents / Your Child's Immunizations: ... cochlear implants. Why Are the PCV and PPSV Vaccines Recommended? Children younger than 2 years old, adults ...

  12. Contribution of herpesvirus specific CD8 T cells to anti-viral T cell response in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Sandalova

    Full Text Available Herpesviruses infect most humans. Their infections can be associated with pathological conditions and significant changes in T cell repertoire but evidences of symbiotic effects of herpesvirus latency have never been demonstrated. We tested the hypothesis that HCMV and EBV-specific CD8 T cells contribute to the heterologous anti-viral immune response. Volume of activated/proliferating virus-specific and total CD8 T cells was evaluated in 50 patients with acute viral infections: 20 with HBV, 12 with Dengue, 12 with Influenza, 3 with Adenovirus infection and 3 with fevers of unknown etiology. Virus-specific (EBV, HCMV, Influenza pentamer+ and total CD8 T cells were analyzed for activation (CD38/HLA-DR, proliferation (Ki-67/Bcl-2(low and cytokine production. We observed that all acute viral infections trigger an expansion of activated/proliferating CD8 T cells, which differs in size depending on the infection but is invariably inflated by CD8 T cells specific for persistent herpesviruses (HCMV/EBV. CD8 T cells specific for other non-related non persistent viral infection (i.e. Influenza were not activated. IL-15, which is produced during acute viral infections, is the likely contributing mechanism driving the selective activation of herpesvirus specific CD8 T cells. In addition we were able to show that herpesvirus specific CD8 T cells displayed an increased ability to produce the anti-viral cytokine interferon-gamma during the acute phase of heterologous viral infection. Taken together, these data demonstrated that activated herpesvirus specific CD8 T cells inflate the activated/proliferating CD8 T cells population present during acute viral infections in human and can contribute to the heterologous anti-viral T cell response.

  13. [Mumps vaccine virus transmission].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otrashevskaia, E V; Kulak, M V; Otrashevskaia, A V; Karpov, I A; Fisenko, E G; Ignat'ev, G M

    2013-01-01

    In this work we report the mumps vaccine virus shedding based on the laboratory confirmed cases of the mumps virus (MuV) infection. The likely epidemiological sources of the transmitted mumps virus were children who were recently vaccinated with the mumps vaccine containing Leningrad-Zagreb or Leningrad-3 MuV. The etiology of the described cases of the horizontal transmission of both mumps vaccine viruses was confirmed by PCR with the sequential restriction analysis.

  14. Rotavirus vaccines: an overview.

    OpenAIRE

    Midthun, K; Kapikian, A Z

    1996-01-01

    Rotavirus vaccine development has focused on the delivery of live attenuated rotavirus strains by the oral route. The initial "Jennerian" approach involving bovine (RIT4237, WC3) or rhesus (RRV) rotavirus vaccine candidates showed that these vaccines were safe, well tolerated, and immunogenic but induced highly variable rates of protection against rotavirus diarrhea. The goal of a rotavirus vaccine is to prevent severe illness that can lead to dehydration in infants and young children in both...

  15. Vaccination: problems and perspectives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Kharit

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Massive vaccination had proved its effective morbidity reduction. Today it is necessary to extend vaccination schedule, creation of selective, regional schedules based on epidemiological, clinical, economical substantiation. Development of vaccination needs the profound scientific research, modernization of adverse reaction observing system, betterment training system and awareness of population.

  16. Oral vaccination of fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Embregts, Carmen W.E.; Forlenza, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The limited number of oral vaccines currently approved for use in humans and veterinary species clearly illustrates that development of efficacious and safe oral vaccines has been a challenge not only for fish immunologists. The insufficient efficacy of oral vaccines is partly due to antigen

  17. Meningococcal Vaccine (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... previous dose of meningococcal vaccine, to the DTaP vaccine , or to latex If your child has a history of Guillain-Barré syndrome (a disease of the nervous system that causes progressive weakness), talk to your doctor about whether the vaccines are a good idea. Caring for Your Child ...

  18. Hepatitis A Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twinrix® (as a combination product containing Hepatitis A Vaccine, Hepatitis B Vaccine) ... Why get vaccinated against hepatitis A?Hepatitis A is a serious liver disease. It is caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV). HAV is spread from ...

  19. Pneumonia in calves produced with aerosols of Pasteurella multocida alone and in combination with bovine herpesvirus 1.

    OpenAIRE

    Jericho, K W; Carter, G R

    1985-01-01

    Pathological changes in respiratory tracts were studied in 30 calves following exposure to aerosols of Pasteurella multocida or to bovine herpesvirus 1 and P. multocida. Two groups of five calves were exposed to aerosols of one of two types of P. multocida only, which produced lobar pneumonia in one calf of each group. Another five groups of four calves were exposed to aerosols of bovine herpesvirus 1 and four to seven days later to one of the two types or one sub-type of P. multocida. Extens...

  20. Interference with the Autophagic Process as a Viral Strategy to Escape from the Immune Control: Lesson from Gamma Herpesviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Santarelli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We summarized the most recent findings on the role of autophagy in antiviral immune response. We described how viruses have developed strategies to subvert the autophagic process. A particular attention has been given to Epstein-Barr and Kaposi’s sarcoma associated Herpesvirus, viruses studied for many years in our laboratory. These two viruses belong to γ-Herpesvirus subfamily and are associated with several human cancers. Besides the effects on the immune response, we have described how autophagy subversion by viruses may also concur to the enhancement of their replication and to viral tumorigenesis.

  1. Identification of herpesvirus proteins that contribute to G1/S arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paladino, Patrick; Marcon, Edyta; Greenblatt, Jack; Frappier, Lori

    2014-04-01

    Lytic infection by herpesviruses induces cell cycle arrest at the G1/S transition. This appears to be a function of multiple herpesvirus proteins, but only a minority of herpesvirus proteins have been examined for cell cycle effects. To gain a more comprehensive understanding of the viral proteins that contribute to G1/S arrest, we screened a library of over 200 proteins from herpes simplex virus type 1, human cytomegalovirus, and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) for effects on the G1/S interface, using HeLa fluorescent, ubiquitination-based cell cycle indicator (Fucci) cells in which G1/S can be detected colorimetrically. Proteins from each virus were identified that induce accumulation of G1/S cells, predominantly tegument, early, and capsid proteins. The identification of several capsid proteins in this screen suggests that incoming viral capsids may function to modulate cellular processes. The cell cycle effects of selected EBV proteins were further verified and examined for effects on p53 and p21 as regulators of the G1/S transition. Two EBV replication proteins (BORF2 and BMRF1) were found to induce p53 but not p21, while a previously uncharacterized tegument protein (BGLF2) was found to induce p21 protein levels in a p53-independent manner. Proteomic analyses of BGLF2-interacting proteins identified interactions with the NIMA-related protein kinase (NEK9) and GEM-interacting protein (GMIP). Silencing of either NEK9 or GMIP induced p21 without affecting p53 and abrogated the ability of BGLF2 to further induce p21. Collectively, these results suggest multiple viral proteins contribute to G1/S arrest, including BGLF2, which induces p21 levels likely by interfering with the functions of NEK9 and GMIP. Most people are infected with multiple herpesviruses, whose proteins alter the infected cells in several ways. During lytic infection, the viral proteins block cell proliferation just before the cellular DNA replicates. We used a novel screening method to identify proteins

  2. Immunization with a dicistronic plasmid expressing a truncated form of bovine herpesvirus-1 glycoprotein D and the amino-terminal subunit of glycoprotein B results in reduced gB-specific immune responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manoj, Sharmila; Babiuk, Lorne A.; Drunen Littel van-Hurk, Sylvia van den

    2003-01-01

    As an approach to create a divalent DNA vaccine, a truncated secreted version of bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) glycoprotein D (tgD) and the amino-terminal subunit of glycoprotein B (gBb) were expressed from a dicistronic plasmid, designated pSLIAtgD-IRES-gBb. Intradermal immunization of mice with pSLIAtgD-IRES-gBb or a mixture of plasmids encoding tgD (pSLIAtgD) and gBb (pSLIAgBb) by needle injection or gene gun elicited strong tgD-specific immune responses. However, a significant reduction in gBb-specific immune responses was observed upon immunization of mice with pSLIAtgD-IRES-gBb or a mixture of pSLIAtgD and pSLIAgBb in comparison to immunization with pSLIAgBb alone. This reduction in gBb-specific immune responses induced by pSLIAtgD-IRES-gBb was due to production of low amounts of gBb from pSLIAtgD-IRES-gBb, inefficient processing and transport of gBb, and possibly competition for antigen-presenting cells by tgD and gBb. These results indicate that, although divalent plasmids may be used to express different antigens, the efficacy of vaccination with such plasmids may be influenced by the plasmid design and the characteristics of the expressed antigens

  3. Two Different Macaviruses, ovine herpesvirus-2 and caprine herpesvirus-2, behave differently in water buffaloes than in cattle or in their respective reservoir species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anina B J Stahel

    Full Text Available The ongoing global spread of "exotic" farm animals, such as water buffaloes, which carry their native sets of viruses, may bear unknown risks for the animals, into whose ecological niches the former are introduced and vice versa. Here, we report on the occurrence of malignant catarrhal fever (MCF on Swiss farms, where "exotic" water buffaloes were kept together with "native" animals, i.e. cattle, sheep, and goats. In the first farm with 56 water buffaloes, eight cases of MCF due to ovine herpesvirus-2 (OvHV-2 were noted, whereas additional ten water buffaloes were subclinically infected with either OvHV-2 or caprine herpesvirus-2 (CpHV-2. On the second farm, 13 water buffaloes were infected with CpHV-2 and two of those succumbed to MCF. In neither farm, any of the two viruses were detected in cattle, but the Macaviruses were present at high prevalence among their original host species, sheep and goats, respectively. On the third farm, sheep were kept well separated from water buffaloes and OvHV-2 was not transmitted to the buffaloes, despite of high prevalence of the virus among the sheep. Macavirus DNA was frequently detected in the nasal secretions of virus-positive animals and in one instance OvHV-2 was transmitted vertically to an unborn water buffalo calf. Thus, water buffaloes seem to be more susceptible than cattle to infection with either Macavirus; however, MCF did not develop as frequently. Therefore, water buffaloes seem to represent an interesting intermediate-type host for Macaviruses. Consequently, water buffaloes in their native, tropic environments may be vulnerable and endangered to viruses that originate from seemingly healthy, imported sheep and goats.

  4. Equid herpesvirus 8: Complete genome sequence and association with abortion in mares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvey, Marie; Suárez, Nicolás M.; Kerr, Karen; Hector, Ralph; Moloney-Quinn, Laura; Arkins, Sean; Davison, Andrew J.

    2018-01-01

    Equid herpesvirus 8 (EHV-8), formerly known as asinine herpesvirus 3, is an alphaherpesvirus that is closely related to equid herpesviruses 1 and 9 (EHV-1 and EHV-9). The pathogenesis of EHV-8 is relatively little studied and to date has only been associated with respiratory disease in donkeys in Australia and horses in China. A single EHV-8 genome sequence has been generated for strain Wh in China, but is apparently incomplete and contains frameshifts in two genes. In this study, the complete genome sequences of four EHV-8 strains isolated in Ireland between 2003 and 2015 were determined by Illumina sequencing. Two of these strains were isolated from cases of abortion in horses, and were misdiagnosed initially as EHV-1, and two were isolated from donkeys, one with neurological disease. The four genome sequences are very similar to each other, exhibiting greater than 98.4% nucleotide identity, and their phylogenetic clustering together demonstrated that genomic diversity is not dependent on the host. Comparative genomic analysis revealed 24 of the 76 predicted protein sequences are completely conserved among the Irish EHV-8 strains. Evolutionary comparisons indicate that EHV-8 is phylogenetically closer to EHV-9 than it is to EHV-1. In summary, the first complete genome sequences of EHV-8 isolates from two host species over a twelve year period are reported. The current study suggests that EHV-8 can cause abortion in horses. The potential threat of EHV-8 to the horse industry and the possibility that donkeys may act as reservoirs of infection warrant further investigation. PMID:29414990

  5. Prevalence of herpesviruses in gingivitis and chronic periodontitis: relationship to clinical parameters and effect of treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rucha Shah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Assess the prevalence of herpesviruses in healthy subjects, gingivitis, and chronic periodontitis patients, to assess the relationship between the prevalence of herpesviruses and periodontal clinical parameters, and to evaluate the effect of phase-I therapy on the level of viral detection. Materials and Methods: Hundred patients consisting of 20 healthy subjects, 40 gingivitis, and 40 chronic periodontitis were included in the study. Clinical parameters recorded included plaque index, gingival index, sulcus bleeding index, probing depth, and clinical attachment level. The gingivitis and chronic periodontitis patients received phase-I periodontal therapy including oral hygiene instructions, full mouth scaling for gingivitis patients and scaling and root planing for chronic periodontitis patients. Gingival crevicular fluid (GCF was collected, and the presence of herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1, HSV-2, cytomegalovirus, and Epstein–Barr virus (EBV was analyzed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Recording of periodontal parameters as well as GCF collection was performed at baseline and 6 weeks postphase-I therapy. Results: At baseline, the levels of HSV-1 and EBV detection were lower in healthy controls as compared to gingivitis (P < 0.05 and chronic periodontitis cases (P < 0.001. Phase-I therapy led to reduction in the amount of HSV-1 and EBV in gingivitis patients (P < 0.05 and for HSV-1, human cytomegalovirus and EBV in chronic periodontitis patients (P < 0.05 in comparison to baseline. The prevalence of EBV in chronic periodontitis patients was positively associated with increased gingival index, probing depth and loss of clinical attachment (P < 0.05. Conclusions: Higher prevalence of HSV-1 and EBV viruses in GCF of gingivitis and chronic periodontitis suggests a strong association between these viruses and periodontal diseases and periodontal therapy can lead to a reduction in herpesviruses at infected sites.

  6. Sustainable vaccine development: a vaccine manufacturer's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappuoli, Rino; Hanon, Emmanuel

    2018-05-08

    Vaccination remains the most cost-effective public health intervention after clean water, and the benefits impressively outweigh the costs. The efforts needed to fulfill the steadily growing demands for next-generation and novel vaccines designed for emerging pathogens and new indications are only realizable in a sustainable business model. Vaccine development can be fast-tracked through strengthening international collaborations, and the continuous innovation of technologies to accelerate their design, development, and manufacturing. However, these processes should be supported by a balanced project portfolio, and by managing sustainable vaccine procurement strategies for different types of markets. Collectively this will allow a gradual shift to a more streamlined and profitable vaccine production, which can significantly contribute to the worldwide effort to shape global health. Copyright © 2018 GlaxoSmithKine Biologicals SA. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Integrity of the Linker of Nucleoskeleton and Cytoskeleton Is Required for Efficient Herpesvirus Nuclear Egress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klupp, Barbara G; Hellberg, Teresa; Granzow, Harald; Franzke, Kati; Dominguez Gonzalez, Beatriz; Goodchild, Rose E; Mettenleiter, Thomas C

    2017-10-01

    Herpesvirus capsids assemble in the nucleus, while final virion maturation proceeds in the cytoplasm. This requires that newly formed nucleocapsids cross the nuclear envelope (NE), which occurs by budding at the inner nuclear membrane (INM), release of the primary enveloped virion into the perinuclear space (PNS), and subsequent rapid fusion with the outer nuclear membrane (ONM). During this process, the NE remains intact, even at late stages of infection. In addition, the spacing between the INM and ONM is maintained, as is that between the primary virion envelope and nuclear membranes. The linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton (LINC) complex consists of INM proteins with a luminal SUN (Sad1/UNC-84 homology) domain connected to ONM proteins with a KASH (Klarsicht, ANC-1, SYNE homology) domain and is thought to be responsible for spacing the nuclear membranes. To investigate the role of the LINC complex during herpesvirus infection, we generated cell lines constitutively expressing dominant negative (dn) forms of SUN1 and SUN2. Ultrastructural analyses revealed a significant expansion of the PNS and the contiguous intracytoplasmic lumen, most likely representing endoplasmic reticulum (ER), especially in cells expressing dn-SUN2. After infection, primary virions accumulated in these expanded luminal regions, also very distant from the nucleus. The importance of the LINC complex was also confirmed by reduced progeny virus titers in cells expressing dn-SUN2. These data show that the intact LINC complex is required for efficient nuclear egress of herpesviruses, likely acting to promote fusion of primary enveloped virions with the ONM. IMPORTANCE While the viral factors for primary envelopment of nucleocapsids at the inner nuclear membrane are known to the point of high-resolution structures, the roles of cellular components and regulators remain enigmatic. Furthermore, the machinery responsible for fusion with the outer nuclear membrane is unsolved. We show here

  8. Inhibition of herpesvirus and influenza virus replication by blocking polymerase subunit interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palù, Giorgio; Loregian, Arianna

    2013-09-01

    Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) play a key role in many biological processes, including virus replication in the host cell. Since most of the PPIs are functionally essential, a possible strategy to inhibit virus replication is based on the disruption of viral protein complexes by peptides or small molecules that interfere with subunit interactions. In particular, an attractive target for antiviral drugs is the binding between the subunits of essential viral enzymes. This review describes the development of new antiviral compounds that inhibit herpesvirus and influenza virus replication by blocking interactions between subunit proteins of their polymerase complexes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Immune System Dysregulation and Herpesvirus Reactivation Persist During Long-Duration Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crucian, B. E.; Mehta, S.; Stowe, R. P.; Uchakin, P.; Quiriarte, H.; Pierson, D.; Sams, C. F.

    2011-01-01

    This poster presentation reviews a study that is designed to address immune system dysregulation and the risk to crewmembers in long duration exploration class missions. This study will address these objectives: (1) Determine the status of adaptive immunity physiological stress, viral immunity, latent herpesvirus reactivation in astronauts during 6 month missions to the International Space Station; (2) determine the clinical risk related to immune dysregulation for exploration class spaceflight; and (3) determine an appropriate monitoring strategy for spaceflight-associated immune dysfunction that could be used for the evaluation of countermeasures. The study anticipates 17 subjects, and for this presentation, (midpoint study data) 10 subjects are reviewed.

  10. Identification of B cells as a major site for cyprinid herpesvirus 3 latency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Aimee N; Izume, Satoko; Dolan, Brian P; LaPatra, Scott; Kent, Michael; Dong, Jing; Jin, Ling

    2014-08-01

    Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3), commonly known as koi herpesvirus (KHV), is a member of the Alloherpesviridae, and is a recently discovered emerging herpesvirus that is highly pathogenic for koi and common carp. Our previous study demonstrated that CyHV-3 becomes latent in peripheral white blood cells (WBC). In this study, CyHV-3 latency was further investigated in IgM(+) WBC. The presence of the CyHV-3 genome in IgM(+) WBC was about 20-fold greater than in IgM(-) WBC. To determine whether CyHV-3 expressed genes during latency, transcription from all eight open reading frames (ORFs) in the terminal repeat was investigated in IgM(+) WBC from koi with latent CyHV-3 infection. Only a spliced ORF6 transcript was found to be abundantly expressed in IgM(+) WBC from CyHV-3 latently infected koi. The spliced ORF6 transcript was also detected in vitro during productive infection as early as 1 day postinfection. The ORF6 transcript from in vitro infection begins at -127 bp upstream of the ATG codon and ends +188 bp downstream of the stop codon, +20 bp downstream of the polyadenylation signal. The hypothetical protein of ORF6 contains a consensus sequence with homology to a conserved domain of EBNA-3B and ICP4 from Epstein-Barr virus and herpes simplex virus 1, respectively, both members of the Herpesviridae. This is the first report of latent CyHV-3 in B cells and identification of gene transcription during latency for a member of the Alloherpesviridae. This is the first demonstration that a member of the Alloherpesviridae, cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3), establishes a latent infection in the B cells of its host, Cyprinus carpio. In addition, this is the first report of identification of gene transcription during latency for a member of Herpesvirales outside Herpesviridae. This is also the first report that the hypothetical protein of latent transcript of CyHV-3 contains a consensus sequence with homology to a conserved domain of EBNA-3B from Epstein-Barr virus and ICP4

  11. Predominant CD4 T-lymphocyte tropism of human herpesvirus 6-related virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Takahashi, K; Sonoda, S; Higashi, K; Kondo, T; Takahashi, H; Takahashi, M; Yamanishi, K

    1989-01-01

    Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6)-related virus was isolated from CD4+ CD8- and CD3+ CD4+ mature T lymphocytes but could not be isolated from CD4- CD8+, CD4- CD8-, and CD3- T cells in the peripheral blood of exanthem subitum patients. HHV-6-related virus predominantly infected CD4+ CD8+, CD4+ CD8-, and CD3+ CD4+ cells with mature phenotypes and rarely infected CD4- CD8+ cells from cord blood mononuclear cells, which suggested predominant CD4 mature T-lymphocyte tropism of HHV-6-related virus.

  12. No increased sperm DNA fragmentation index in semen containing human papillomavirus or herpesvirus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaspersen, Maja Døvling; Bungum, Mona; Fedder, Jens

    2013-01-01

    It remains unknown whether human papillomaviruses (HPVs) or human herpesviruses (HHVs) in semen affect sperm DNA integrity. We investigated whether the presence of these viruses in semen was associated with an elevated sperm DNA fragmentation index. Semen from 76 sperm donors was examined by a PCR......-based hybridization array that identifies all HHVs and 35 of the most common HPVs. Sperm DNA integrity was determined by the sperm chromatin structure assay. HPVs or HHVs, or both, were found in 57% of semen samples; however, sperm DNA fragmentation index was not increased in semen containing these viruses....

  13. Subclinical infection of a young captive Asian elephant with elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azab, Walid; Damiani, Armando Mario; Ochs, Andreas; Osterrieder, Nikolaus

    2018-02-01

    Elephant endotheliotropic herpesviruses (EEHVs) are a continuous threat for young Asian elephants. We report a laboratory-confirmed infection of a 5-year-old female Asian elephant (AZ_2016) in the Berlin Zoologischer Garten. Initially, high EEHV-1 loads were detected in trunk swabs obtained from the young elephant during routine screening. The animal showed no clinical signs except for slight irritability. EEHV-1 was continuously shed for almost one year, with fluctuations in viral load from time to time. Our investigations highlight the continuous threat of EEHV-1 to young captive Asian elephants and stress the importance of routine monitoring of captive elephants to allow early detection of infection.

  14. Detection of human herpesvirus 8 by quantitative polymerase chain reaction: development and standardisation of methods

    OpenAIRE

    Speicher, David J; Johnson, Newell W

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8), the aetiological agent of Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS), multicentric Castleman’s disease (MCD), and primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is rare in Australia, but endemic in Sub-Saharan Africa, parts of South-east Asia and Oceania. While the treatment of external KS lesions can be monitored by clinical observation, the internal lesions of KS, MCD and PEL require extensive and expensive internal imaging, or autopsy. In patients with MCD and PEL, if HHV-8 vi...

  15. Genome-wide host responses against infectious laryngotracheitis virus vaccine infection in chicken embryo lung cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Jeongyoon

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV; gallid herpesvirus 1 infection causes high mortality and huge economic losses in the poultry industry. To protect chickens against ILTV infection, chicken-embryo origin (CEO and tissue-culture origin (TCO vaccines have been used. However, the transmission of vaccine ILTV from vaccinated- to unvaccinated chickens can cause severe respiratory disease. Previously, host cell responses against virulent ILTV infections were determined by microarray analysis. In this study, a microarray analysis was performed to understand host-vaccine ILTV interactions at the host gene transcription level. Results The 44 K chicken oligo microarrays were used, and the results were compared to those found in virulent ILTV infection. Total RNAs extracted from vaccine ILTV infected chicken embryo lung cells at 1, 2, 3 and 4 days post infection (dpi, compared to 0 dpi, were subjected to microarray assay using the two color hybridization method. Data analysis using JMP Genomics 5.0 and the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA program showed that 213 differentially expressed genes could be grouped into a number of functional categories including tissue development, cellular growth and proliferation, cellular movement, and inflammatory responses. Moreover, 10 possible gene networks were created by the IPA program to show intermolecular connections. Interestingly, of 213 differentially expressed genes, BMP2, C8orf79, F10, and NPY were expressed distinctly in vaccine ILTV infection when compared to virulent ILTV infection. Conclusions Comprehensive knowledge of gene expression and biological functionalities of host factors during vaccine ILTV infection can provide insight into host cellular defense mechanisms compared to those of virulent ILTV.

  16. Peptide Vaccines for Leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rory C. F. De Brito

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Due to an increase in the incidence of leishmaniases worldwide, the development of new strategies such as prophylactic vaccines to prevent infection and decrease the disease have become a high priority. Classic vaccines against leishmaniases were based on live or attenuated parasites or their subunits. Nevertheless, the use of whole parasite or their subunits for vaccine production has numerous disadvantages. Therefore, the use of Leishmania peptides to design more specific vaccines against leishmaniases seems promising. Moreover, peptides have several benefits in comparison with other kinds of antigens, for instance, good stability, absence of potentially damaging materials, antigen low complexity, and low-cost to scale up. By contrast, peptides are poor immunogenic alone, and they need to be delivered correctly. In this context, several approaches described in this review are useful to solve these drawbacks. Approaches, such as, peptides in combination with potent adjuvants, cellular vaccinations, adenovirus, polyepitopes, or DNA vaccines have been used to develop peptide-based vaccines. Recent advancements in peptide vaccine design, chimeric, or polypeptide vaccines and nanovaccines based on particles attached or formulated with antigenic components or peptides have been increasingly employed to drive a specific immune response. In this review, we briefly summarize the old, current, and future stands on peptide-based vaccines, describing the disadvantages and benefits associated with them. We also propose possible approaches to overcome the related weaknesses of synthetic vaccines and suggest future guidelines for their development.

  17. Peptide Vaccines for Leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Brito, Rory C F; Cardoso, Jamille M De O; Reis, Levi E S; Vieira, Joao F; Mathias, Fernando A S; Roatt, Bruno M; Aguiar-Soares, Rodrigo Dian D O; Ruiz, Jeronimo C; Resende, Daniela de M; Reis, Alexandre B

    2018-01-01

    Due to an increase in the incidence of leishmaniases worldwide, the development of new strategies such as prophylactic vaccines to prevent infection and decrease the disease have become a high priority. Classic vaccines against leishmaniases were based on live or attenuated parasites or their subunits. Nevertheless, the use of whole parasite or their subunits for vaccine production has numerous disadvantages. Therefore, the use of Leishmania peptides to design more specific vaccines against leishmaniases seems promising. Moreover, peptides have several benefits in comparison with other kinds of antigens, for instance, good stability, absence of potentially damaging materials, antigen low complexity, and low-cost to scale up. By contrast, peptides are poor immunogenic alone, and they need to be delivered correctly. In this context, several approaches described in this review are useful to solve these drawbacks. Approaches, such as, peptides in combination with potent adjuvants, cellular vaccinations, adenovirus, polyepitopes, or DNA vaccines have been used to develop peptide-based vaccines. Recent advancements in peptide vaccine design, chimeric, or polypeptide vaccines and nanovaccines based on particles attached or formulated with antigenic components or peptides have been increasingly employed to drive a specific immune response. In this review, we briefly summarize the old, current, and future stands on peptide-based vaccines, describing the disadvantages and benefits associated with them. We also propose possible approaches to overcome the related weaknesses of synthetic vaccines and suggest future guidelines for their development.

  18. Vaccines as Epidemic Insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauly, Mark V

    2017-10-27

    This paper explores the relationship between the research for and development of vaccines against global pandemics and insurance. It shows that development in advance of pandemics of a portfolio of effective and government-approved vaccines does have some insurance properties: it requires incurring costs that are certain (the costs of discovering, developing, and testing vaccines) in return for protection against large losses (if a pandemic treatable with one of the vaccines occurs) but also with the possibility of no benefit (from a vaccine against a disease that never reaches the pandemic stage). It then argues that insurance against the latter event might usefully be offered to organizations developing vaccines, and explores the benefits of insurance payments to or on behalf of countries who suffer from unpredictable pandemics. These ideas are then related to recent government, industry, and philanthropic efforts to develop better policies to make vaccines against pandemics available on a timely basis.

  19. Vaccines as Epidemic Insurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark V. Pauly

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the relationship between the research for and development of vaccines against global pandemics and insurance. It shows that development in advance of pandemics of a portfolio of effective and government-approved vaccines does have some insurance properties: it requires incurring costs that are certain (the costs of discovering, developing, and testing vaccines in return for protection against large losses (if a pandemic treatable with one of the vaccines occurs but also with the possibility of no benefit (from a vaccine against a disease that never reaches the pandemic stage. It then argues that insurance against the latter event might usefully be offered to organizations developing vaccines, and explores the benefits of insurance payments to or on behalf of countries who suffer from unpredictable pandemics. These ideas are then related to recent government, industry, and philanthropic efforts to develop better policies to make vaccines against pandemics available on a timely basis.

  20. 42 CFR 410.57 - Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. 410.57 Section 410.57 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... § 410.57 Pneumococcal vaccine and flu vaccine. (a) Medicare Part B pays for pneumococcal vaccine and its...

  1. vaccination with newcastle disease vaccines strain i2 and lasota

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UP Employee

    mash feed as vaccine carriers was conducted. Newcastle disease vaccine strain I2 and. NDV La Sota vaccines provided protection to commercial and local chickens vaccinated through i/o, i/m or dw. No significant difference (P≤0.05) was observed in the antibody titre of commercial or local chickens vaccinated with either ...

  2. Elephant Endotheliotropic Herpesviruses EEHV1A, EEHV1B, and EEHV2 from Cases of Hemorrhagic Disease Are Highly Diverged from Other Mammalian Herpesviruses and May Form a New Subfamily

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Laura K.; Zong, Jian-Chao; Latimer, Erin M.; Lock, Justin; Fleischer, Robert C.; Heaggans, Sarah Y.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT A family of novel endotheliotropic herpesviruses (EEHVs) assigned to the genus Proboscivirus have been identified as the cause of fatal hemorrhagic disease in 70 young Asian elephants worldwide. Although EEHV cannot be grown in cell culture, we have determined a total of 378 kb of viral genomic DNA sequence directly from clinical tissue samples from six lethal cases and two survivors. Overall, the data obtained encompass 57 genes, including orthologues of 32 core genes common to all herpesviruses, 14 genes found in some other herpesviruses, plus 10 novel genes, including a single large putative transcriptional regulatory protein (ORF-L). On the basis of differences in gene content and organization plus phylogenetic analyses of conserved core proteins that have just 20% to 50% or less identity to orthologues in other herpesviruses, we propose that EEHV1A, EEHV1B, and EEHV2 could be considered a new Deltaherpesvirinae subfamily of mammalian herpesviruses that evolved as an intermediate branch between the Betaherpesvirinae and Gammaherpesvirinae. Unlike cytomegaloviruses, EEHV genomes encode ribonucleotide kinase B subunit (RRB), thymidine kinase (TK), and UL9-like origin binding protein (OBP) proteins and have an alphaherpesvirus-like dyad symmetry Ori-Lyt domain. They also differ from all known betaherpesviruses by having a 40-kb large-scale inversion of core gene blocks I, II, and III. EEHV1 and EEHV2 DNA differ uniformly by more than 25%, but EEHV1 clusters into two major subgroups designated EEHV1A and EEHV1B with ancient partially chimeric features. Whereas large segments are nearly identical, three nonadjacent loci totaling 15 kb diverge by between 21 and 37%. One strain of EEHV1B analyzed is interpreted to be a modern partial recombinant with EEHV1A. IMPORTANCE Asian elephants are an endangered species whose survival is under extreme pressure in wild range countries and whose captive breeding populations in zoos are not self-sustaining. In 1999, a

  3. Utility of a Multiplex PCR Assay for Detecting Herpesvirus DNA in Clinical Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druce, Julian; Catton, Mike; Chibo, Doris; Minerds, Kirsty; Tyssen, David; Kostecki, Renata; Maskill, Bill; Leong-Shaw, Wendy; Gerrard, Marie; Birch, Chris

    2002-01-01

    A multiplex PCR was designed to amplify herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2, cytomegalovirus, and varicella-zoster virus DNA present in a diverse range of clinical material. The susceptibility of these viruses to in vivo inhibition by at least one antiviral drug was an important consideration in their inclusion in the multiplex detection system. An aliquot of equine herpesvirus was introduced into each specimen prior to extraction and served as an indicator of potential inhibitors of the PCR and a detector of suboptimal PCR conditions. Compared to virus isolation and immunofluorescence-based antigen detection, the multiplex assay yielded higher detection rates for all viruses represented in the assay. The turnaround time for performance of the assay was markedly reduced compared to those for the other techniques used to identify these viruses. More than 21,000 tests have been performed using the assay. Overall, the multiplex PCR enabled the detection of substantially increased numbers of herpesviruses, in some cases in specimens or anatomical sites where previously they were rarely if ever identified using traditional detection methods. PMID:11980951

  4. Crystal structure of the conserved herpesvirus fusion regulator complex gH—gL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chowdary, Tirumala K.; Cairns, Tina M.; Atanasiu, Doina; Cohen, Gary H.; Eisenberg, Roselyn J.; Heldwein, Ekaterina E. [UPENN; (Tufts-MED)

    2015-02-09

    Herpesviruses, which cause many incurable diseases, infect cells by fusing viral and cellular membranes. Whereas most other enveloped viruses use a single viral catalyst called a fusogen, herpesviruses, inexplicably, require two conserved fusion-machinery components, gB and the heterodimer gH–gL, plus other nonconserved components. gB is a class III viral fusogen, but unlike other members of its class, it does not function alone. We determined the crystal structure of the gH ectodomain bound to gL from herpes simplex virus 2. gH–gL is an unusually tight complex with a unique architecture that, unexpectedly, does not resemble any known viral fusogen. Instead, we propose that gH–gL activates gB for fusion, possibly through direct binding. Formation of a gB–gH–gL complex is critical for fusion and is inhibited by a neutralizing antibody, making the gB–gH–gL interface a promising antiviral target.

  5. CD1d expression and invariant NKT cell responses in herpesvirus infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusung eTan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Invariant natural killer T (iNKT cells are a highly conserved subset of unconventional T lymphocytes that express a canonical, semi-invariant T cell receptor (TCR and surface markers shared with the natural killer cell lineage. iNKT cells recognize exogenous and endogenous glycolipid antigens restricted by non-polymorphic CD1d molecules, and are highly responsive to the prototypical agonist, α-galactosylceramide. Upon activation, iNKT cells rapidly coordinate signaling between innate and adaptive immune cells through the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines, leading to the maturation of antigen-presenting cells and expansion of antigen-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Because of their potent immunoregulatory properties, iNKT cells have been extensively studied and are known to play a pivotal role in mediating immune responses against microbial pathogens including viruses. Here, we review evidence that herpesviruses manipulate CD1d expression to escape iNKT cell surveillance and establish lifelong latency in humans. Collectively, published findings suggest that iNKT cells play critical roles in anti-herpesvirus immune responses and could be harnessed therapeutically to limit viral infection and viral-associated disease.

  6. Naturally transmitted herpesvirus papio-2 infection in a black and white colobus monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troan, Brigid V; Perelygina, Ludmila; Patrusheva, Irina; Wettere, Arnaud J van; Hilliard, Julia K; Loomis, Michael R; Voe, Ryan S De

    2007-12-15

    A 6.5-year-old female eastern black and white colobus monkey (Colobus guereza) was evaluated after acute onset of ataxia and inappetence. The monkey was ataxic and lethargic, but no other abnormalities were detected via physical examination, radiography, or clinicopathologic analyses. During the next 2 days, the monkey's clinical condition deteriorated, and its WBC count decreased dramatically. Cytologic examination of a CSF sample revealed marked lymphohistiocytic inflammation. Despite supportive care, the monkey became apneic; after 20 hours of mechanical ventilation, fatal cardiac arrest occurred. At necropsy, numerous petechiae were detected within the white matter tracts of the brain; microscopic lesions of multifocal necrosis and hemorrhage with intranuclear inclusions identified in the brain and adrenal glands were consistent with an acute herpesvirus infection. A specific diagnosis of herpesvirus papio-2 (HVP-2) infection was made on the basis of results of serologic testing; PCR assay of tissue specimens; live virus isolation from the lungs; and immunohistochemical identification of the virus within brain, spinal cord, and adrenal gland lesions. Via phylogenetic tree analysis, the colobus HVP-2 isolate was grouped with neuroinvasive strains of the virus. The virus was most likely transmitted to the colobus monkey through toys shared with a nearby colony of baboons (the natural host of HVP-2). To the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported case of natural transmission of HVP-2 to a nonhost species. Infection with HVP-2 should be a differential diagnosis for acute encephalopathy in primate monkeys and humans, particularly following exposure to baboons.

  7. Concomitant infection of Neospora caninum and Bovine Herpesvirus type 5 in spontaneous bovine abortions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maia S. Marin

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Bovine Herpesvirus type 5 (BoHV-5 has not been conclusively demonstrated to cause bovine abortion. Brain lesions produced by Neospora caninum and Bovine Herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1 exhibit common features. Therefore, careful microscopic evaluation and additional diagnostic procedures are required to achieve an accurate final etiological diagnosis. The aim of the present work was to investigate the occurrence of infections due to BoHV-1, BoHV-5 and N. caninum in 68 cases of spontaneous bovine abortions which showed microscopic lesions in the fetal central nervous system. This study allowed the identification of 4 (5.9% fetuses with dual infection by BoHV-5 and N. caninum and 33 (48.5% cases in which N. caninum was the sole pathogen identified. All cases were negative to BoHV-1. The results of this study provide evidence that dual infection by BoHV-5 and N. caninum occur during pregnancy in cattle; however, the role of BoHV-5 as a primary cause of bovine abortion needs further research. Molecular diagnosis of BoHV-5 and N. caninum confirmed the importance of applying complementary assays to improve the sensitivity of diagnosing bovine abortion.

  8. Prevention of equine herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy - Is heparin a novel option? A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Jasmin; Seeh, Christoph; Fey, Kerstin; Bleul, Ulrich; Osterrieder, Nikolaus

    2016-10-12

    Equine herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy (EHM) is a severe manifestation of equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) infection. Prevention and treatment of EHM during EHV-1 outbreaks is critical, but no reliable and tested specific medication is available. Due to the thromboischemic nature of EHM and due to the fact that EHV-1 entry in cells is blocked by heparin, it was hypothesized that this compound may be useful in reduction of EHM incidence and severity. Therefore, during an acute EHV-1 outbreak with the neuropathogenic G 2254 /D 752 Pol variant, metaphylactic treatment with heparin to prevent EHM was initiated. Clinical signs were present in 61 horses (fever n = 55; EHM n = 8; abortion n = 6). Heparin (25000 IU subcutaneously twice daily for 3 days) was given to 31 febrile horses from day 10 of the outbreak, while the first 30 horses exhibiting fever remained untreated. Treatment outcome was analyzed retrospectively. Heparin-treated horses showed a lower EHM incidence (1/31; 3.2%) than untreated horses (7/30; 23.3%; p = 0.03). Results indicate that heparin may be useful for prevention of EHM during an EHV-1 outbreak. These promising data highlight the need for randomized and possibly blinded studies for the use of heparin in EHV-1 outbreaks.

  9. Ulcerative dermatitis caused by feline herpesvirus type 1 in a domestic cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Froner Argenta

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A case of ulcerative dermatitis caused by feline herpesvirus type 1 (FeHV-1 in an adult male domestic shorthair cat is reported. The cat was rescued from the streets and presented with ulcerative lesions at the nasal planum and tongue in addition to a history of occasional sneezing. Thirty days after of the first clinical evaluation, the cat died as a result of acute myeloid leukemia. During necropsy, ulcerative lesions were found on the superior lip, the skin of the nasal planum, and at the periorbital region. Ulcerations were also noted on the tongue and hard palate. Histological examination revealed extensive epidermal necrosis, which involved the subjacent dermis and adnexal structures; the inflammatory infiltrate consisted of neutrophils, mast cells, and lymphocytes. Amphophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies were occasionally observed in intact epithelial cells. In the immunohistochemical evaluation, positive intracytoplasmic immunolabeling was detected in the sebaceous and follicular epithelial cells as well as in the bronchiolar epithelial cells. Samples of lymphoid tissue tested positive for the presence of feline leukemia virus and feline immunodeficiency virus by immunohistochemistry. Pulmonary tissue fragments were immunolabeled for feline calicivirus. Samples obtained from a cutaneous lesion were subjected to virus isolation in a cellular culture, which revealed the cytopathic effects characteristic of herpesvirus. FeHV-1 was detected in the samples by polymerase chain reaction.

  10. Isolation of caprine herpesvirus 1 from a major outbreak of infectious pustular vulvovaginitis in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, K L; Fitzgerald, C J; Ficorilli, N; Studdert, M J

    2008-04-01

    We describe an outbreak of infectious pustular vulvovaginitis caused by Caprine herpesvirus 1 (CpHV1) in a group of approximately 200, 8 month old virgin does that were imported to Victoria from New Zealand. CpHV1 was isolated in cell cultures from vaginal swabs from three of three affected does but not from two bucks that had been with the does. The identity of the virus as a herpesvirus was confirmed by negative stain electron microscopy. Restriction endonuclease DNA fingerprint analysis showed that the DNA fingerprints were similar, but not identical, to previously described CpHV1 isolates made in New Zealand, New South Wales, and in other parts of the world. Acute and convalescent phase sera from selected does supported the diagnosis of CpHV1 infection. It is most likely that the disease was initiated by reactivation of latent virus in at least one of four bucks that served the does, since each was positive for CpHV neutralising antibody when first tested. This is the first report of CpHV infectious pustular vulvovaginitis in goats in Victoria and to our knowledge appears to be one of the largest outbreaks recorded anywhere.

  11. Crystal Structure of the Herpesvirus Nuclear Egress Complex Provides Insights into Inner Nuclear Membrane Remodeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzviya Zeev-Ben-Mordehai

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Although nucleo-cytoplasmic transport is typically mediated through nuclear pore complexes, herpesvirus capsids exit the nucleus via a unique vesicular pathway. Together, the conserved herpesvirus proteins pUL31 and pUL34 form the heterodimeric nuclear egress complex (NEC, which, in turn, mediates the formation of tight-fitting membrane vesicles around capsids at the inner nuclear membrane. Here, we present the crystal structure of the pseudorabies virus NEC. The structure revealed that a zinc finger motif in pUL31 and an extensive interaction network between the two proteins stabilize the complex. Comprehensive mutational analyses, characterized both in situ and in vitro, indicated that the interaction network is not redundant but rather complementary. Fitting of the NEC crystal structure into the recently determined cryoEM-derived hexagonal lattice, formed in situ by pUL31 and pUL34, provided details on the molecular basis of NEC coat formation and inner nuclear membrane remodeling.

  12. Lack of association between human herpesvirus and vestibular schwannoma: analysis of 121 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhimrao, Sanjiv K; Maguire, John; Garnis, Cathie; Tang, Patrick; Lea, Jane; Akagami, Ryojo; Westerberg, Brian D

    2015-03-01

    To assess for the presence of human herpesvirus (HHV) using immunohistochemical and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay in surgically excised vestibular schwannoma (VS) samples. Cross-sectional study. A retrospective laboratory-based study of tumors from patients with vestibular schwannoma. Tissue microarrays (TMAs) representing sporadic and NF2-associated VS from 121 patients, as well as appropriate positive and negative controls, were studied. TMA sections were immunostained using antibodies directed against HHV-1, HHV-2, HHV-3, HHV-4, HHV-5, and HHV-8. PCR was used for the detection of all 8 known human herpesviruses. There was no detectable HHV (HHV-1, HHV-2, HHV-3, HHV-4, HHV-5, HHV-8) by immunohistochemistry in any of the 121 cases of sporadic and NF2 cases analyzed. These data were further validated by DNA sequence analyses using PCR in a subset of the VS samples, all of which were found to be negative for all HHV. The data offer no support for an association between HHV and the development of sporadic or NF2-associated VS in humans. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  13. Identification of proteins specific for human herpesvirus 6-infected human T cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balachandran, N.; Amelse, R.E.; Zhou, W.W.; Chang, C.K.

    1989-01-01

    Proteins specific for human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6)-infected human T cells (HSB-2) were examined by using polyclonal rabbit antibodies and monoclonal antibodies against HHV-6-infected cells and human sera. More than 20 proteins and six glycoproteins specific for HHV-6-infected cells were identified from [ 35 S]methionine- and [ 3 H]glucosamine-labeled total-cell extracts. Polyclonal rabbit antibodies immunoprecipitated 33 [ 35 S]methionine-labeled HHV-6-specific polypeptides with approximate molecular weights ranging from 180,000 to 31,000. In immunoprecipitation and Western immunoblot reactions, a patient's serum also recognized more than 30 HHV-6-specific proteins and seven glycoproteins. In contrast, sera from individuals with high-titered antibodies against other human herpesviruses reacted with fewer HHV-6-infected cell proteins, and only a 135,000-M r polypeptide was prominent. Monoclonal antibodies to HHV-6-infected cells reacted with single and multiple polypeptides specific for virus-infected cells and immunoprecipitated three distinct sets of glycoproteins, which were designated gp105k and gp82k, gp116k, gp64k, and gp54k, and gp102k

  14. Multiplexed colorimetric detection of Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus and Bartonella DNA using gold and silver nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancuso, Matthew; Jiang, Li; Cesarman, Ethel; Erickson, David

    2013-01-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is an infectious cancer occurring most commonly in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive patients and in endemic regions, such as Sub-Saharan Africa, where KS is among the top four most prevalent cancers. The cause of KS is the Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV, also called HHV-8), an oncogenic herpesvirus that while routinely diagnosed in developed nations, provides challenges to developing world medical providers and point-of-care detection. A major challenge in the diagnosis of KS is the existence of a number of other diseases with similar clinical presentation and histopathological features, requiring the detection of KSHV in a biopsy sample. In this work we develop an answer to this challenge by creating a multiplexed one-pot detection system for KSHV DNA and DNA from a frequently confounding disease, bacillary angiomatosis. Gold and silver nanoparticle aggregation reactions are tuned for each target and a multi-color change system is developed capable of detecting both targets down to levels between 1 nM and 2 nM. The system developed here could later be integrated with microfluidic sample processing to create a final device capable of solving the two major challenges in point-of-care KS detection.

  15. Development of a PCR assay to detect cyprinid herpesvirus 1 in koi and common carp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viadanna, Pedro H O; Miller-Morgan, Tim; Peterson, Trace; Way, Keith; Stone, David M; Marty, Gary D; Pilarski, Fabiana; Hedrick, Ronald P; Waltzek, Thomas B

    2017-02-08

    Cyprinid herpesvirus 1 (CyHV1) infects all scaled and color varieties of common carp Cyprinus carpio, including koi. While it is most often associated with unsightly growths known as 'carp pox,' the underlying lesion (epidermal hyperplasia) can arise from a variety of disease processes. CyHV1-induced epidermal hyperplasia may occur transiently in response to water temperature, and thus histopathology cannot be used in isolation to assess CyHV1 infection status. To address this problem, here we describe a PCR assay targeted to the putative thymidine kinase gene of CyHV1. The PCR assay generates a 141 bp amplicon and reliably detects down to 10 copies of control plasmid DNA sequence (analytic sensitivity). The PCR does not cross-detect genomic DNA from cyprinid herpesvirus 2 and 3 (analytic specificity). The CyHV1 PCR effectively detected viral DNA in koi and common carp sampled from various locations in the UK, USA, Brazil, and Japan. Viral DNA was detected in both normal appearing and grossly affected epidermal tissues from koi experiencing natural epizootics. The new CyHV1 PCR provides an additional approach to histopathology for the rapid detection of CyHV1. Analysis of the thymidine kinase gene sequences determined for 7 PCR-positive carp originating from disparate geographical regions identified 3 sequence types, with 1 type occurring in both koi and common carp.

  16. Molecular characterisation and prevalence of a new genotype of Cyprinid herpesvirus 2 in mainland China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lijuan; Luo, Yangzhi; Gao, Zexia; Huang, Jian; Zheng, Xianghai; Nie, Huihui; Zhang, Junmei; Lin, Li; Yuan, Junfa

    2015-06-01

    Cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2, species Cyprinid herpesvirus 2) has been confirmed as a causative agent of the acute haematopoietic necrosis disease outbreak in farmed goldfish (Carassius auratus L.) and gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio Bloch). In this study, we present the genomic characteristics of a variant CyHV-2 strain (SY-C1) isolated from farmed gibel carp in mainland China and its comparative genomics analysis with the CyHV-2 reference strain ST-J1. Overall, the full-length genome of SY-C1 shares 98.8% homology with that of ST-J1. Sequence comparisons between SY-C1 and ST-J1 indicate that the variations include single-nucleotide mutations, insertions, deletions, and rearrangements, which suggested that SY-C1 is different from ST-J1 and represents a new genotype. Therefore, we propose that the identified CyHV-2 can be divided into 2 different genotypes and be named China genotype (C genotype) and Japan genotype (J genotype) according to their isolation loci. Furthermore, epidemiological surveys indicate that the dominant genotype of CyHV-2 circulating in mainland China is closer to the China genotype than the Japan genotype.

  17. Potency of Garlic Extract Against Koi Herpesvirus (KHV in Common Carp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Nuryati

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Prevention of koi herpesvirus (KHV infection using chemicals or medicines was ineffective way.  In this study garlic extract was used to prevent KHV infection.  Virus suspension of 0.1 ml and garlic extract of 0.1 ml in different dosage, i.e., 100, 200 and 300 ppt, was injected into common carp body.  Hemoglobin concentration, red and white blood cell numbers, and leukocyte number were counted.  The results of study showed that administration of 300 ppt of garlic extract could produce higher survival rate (67.5%, good blood parameters and clinical symptoms compared to other treatments. Keywords: garlic, KHV, common carp   ABSTRAK Upaya penanggulangan wabah Koi Herpesvirus (KHV menggunakan bahan-bahan kimia atau obat-obatan adalah tidak efektif. Pada penelitian ini dilakukan pemberian ekstrak bawang putih untuk menanggulangi infeksi KHV.  Suspensi virus sebanyak 0,1 ml ditambahkan dengan 0,1 ml ekstrak bawang putih dengan berbagai konsentrasi, yaitu 100, 200 dan 300 ppt, disuntikkan ke dalam tubuh ikan mas.  Kadar hemoglobin, jumlah sel darah merah dan sel darah putih jenis dan jumlah leukosit diamati. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pemberian ekstrak bawang putih sebanyak 300 ppt menghasilkan kelangsungan hidup (67,5% yang lebih baik dibandingkan dengan perlakuan lainnya, dan begitu pula dengan gambaran darah serta gejala klinisnya.   Kata kunci: bawang putih, KHV, ikan mas

  18. Oncogenic Herpesvirus Utilizes Stress-Induced Cell Cycle Checkpoints for Efficient Lytic Replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Balistreri

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV causes Kaposi's sarcoma and certain lymphoproliferative malignancies. Latent infection is established in the majority of tumor cells, whereas lytic replication is reactivated in a small fraction of cells, which is important for both virus spread and disease progression. A siRNA screen for novel regulators of KSHV reactivation identified the E3 ubiquitin ligase MDM2 as a negative regulator of viral reactivation. Depletion of MDM2, a repressor of p53, favored efficient activation of the viral lytic transcription program and viral reactivation. During lytic replication cells activated a p53 response, accumulated DNA damage and arrested at G2-phase. Depletion of p21, a p53 target gene, restored cell cycle progression and thereby impaired the virus reactivation cascade delaying the onset of virus replication induced cytopathic effect. Herpesviruses are known to reactivate in response to different kinds of stress, and our study now highlights the molecular events in the stressed host cell that KSHV has evolved to utilize to ensure efficient viral lytic replication.

  19. Cloning of Bovine herpesvirus type 1 and type 5 as infectious bacterial artifical chromosomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ackermann Mathias

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine herpesviruses type 1 (BoHV1 and type 5 (BoHV5 are two closely related pathogens of cattle. The identity of the two viruses on the amino acid level averages 82%. Despite their high antigenetic similarities the two pathogens induce distinctive clinical signs. BoHV1 causes respiratory and genital tract infections while BoHV5 leads to severe encephalitis in calves. Findings The viral genomes of BoHV1 and BoHV5 were cloned as infectious bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs. First, recombinant viruses carrying the genetic elements for propagation in bacteria were generated. Second, DNA from these recombinant viruses were transferred into prokaryotic cells. Third, DNA from these bacteria were transferred into eukaryotic cells. Progeny viruses from BAC transfections showed similar kinetics as their corresponding wild types. Conclusion The two viral genomes of BoHV1 and BoHV5 cloned as BACs are accessible to the tools of bacterial genetics. The ability to easily manipulate the viral genomes on a molecular level in future experiments will lead to a better understanding of the difference in pathogenesis induced by these two closely related bovine herpesviruses.

  20. Epstein-Barr virus and human herpesvirus type 8 infections of the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpi, Antonio

    2004-06-01

    In developing guidelines for the improved management of herpesvirus infections of the central nervous system (CNS), the International Herpes Management Forum (IHMF) has studied Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and human herpesvirus type 8 (HHV-8)- related diseases. EBV has been associated with numerous CNS diseases including meningitis, encephalitis and post transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD). The pathogenesis of EBV-associated CNS disorders is not completely understood but may be due to direct virus invasion of the CNS. Alternatively, damage may be immunologically mediated by infiltration of cytotoxic CD8+ lymphocytes into neural tissue or deposition of antibody-antigen complexes. The IHMF recommends that diagnosis of EBV infections of the CNS may involve polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) for EBV DNA but the sensitivity and specificity of the technique remains to be determined. Furthermore, the value of PCR in this context may be limited as EBV DNA is often detected in patients without neurological symptoms. Antiviral therapy has not demonstrated clinical efficacy in the treatment of EBV-related CNS disorders. CNS complications of HHV-8 infection are rare, but the virus has been associated with AIDS-dementia complex, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and primary CNS lymphoma; however these links remain to be proven.

  1. Equine herpesvirus 2 (EHV-2 infection in thoroughbred horses in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández Fernando M

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Equine herpesvirus 2 is a gamma-herpesvirus that infects horses worldwide. Although EHV-2 has been implicated in immunosuppression in foals, upper respiratory tract disease, conjunctivitis, general malaise and poor performance, its precise role as a pathogen remains uncertain. The purpose of the present study was to analyse the incidence of EHV-2 in an Argentinean horse population and correlate it with age and clinical status of the animals. Results A serological study on 153 thoroughbred racing horses confirmed the presence of EHV-2 in the Argentinean equine population. A virus neutralization test showed a total of 79.7 % animals were sero-positive for EHV-2. An increase in antibodies titre with age as well as infection at earlier ages were observed. EHV-2 was isolated from 2 out of 22 nasal swabs from horses showing respiratory symptoms. The virus grew slowly and showed characteristic cytopathic effect after several blind passages on RK13 cells. The identity of the isolates was confirmed by nested PCR and restriction enzyme assay (REA. Conclusion This is the first report on the presence of EHV-2 in Argentina and adds new data to the virus distribution map. Though EHV-2 was isolated from foals showing respiratory symptoms, further studies are needed to unequivocally associate this virus with clinical symptoms.

  2. Human herpesvirus-6 and -7 DNA in cerebrospinal fluid of facial palsy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanerva, Mervi; Jääskeläinen, Anne J; Suvela, Minna; Piiparinen, Heli; Vaheri, Antti; Pitkäranta, Anne

    2008-04-01

    Finding human herpesvirus (HHV)-7 and dual HHV-6A and -6B DNA in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of two facial palsy (FP) patients is intriguing but does not allow etiologic conclusions as such. HHV-6 or -7 DNA was revealed in 10% of the CSF samples tested from 70 immunocompetent adolescents and adults; a highly unusual result. How these findings are associated with the diseases they accompany remains to be defined. To determine whether herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 and -2, varicella-zoster virus (VZV), HHV-6A, -6B, and -7, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA could be found in CSF of FP patients or controls. In all, 33 peripheral FP patients (26 idiopathic, 5 with herpesvirus infection, 1 puerperal, 1 Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome) (34 CSF samples) and 36 controls (16 nonidiopathic FP, 7 hearing loss, 6 vertigo, 5 headache, 2 other) previously tested for HSV-1, VZV, and HHV-6 DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were tested with highly sensitive multiplex-PCR and an oligonucleotide microarray method. One FP patient had HHV-7 DNA and another had HHV-6A and -6B DNA simultaneously. In the control group, one HHV-7, one HHV-6A, and three HHV-6B DNA-positive specimens were found.

  3. Construction and characterization of a glycoprotein E deletion mutant of bovine herpesvirus type 1.2 strain isolated in Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franco, A.C.; Rijsewijk, F.A.M.; Flores, E.F.; Weiblen, R.; Roehe, P.M.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the construction and characterization of a Brazilian strain of bovine herpesvirus type 1.2a (BoHV-1.2a) with a deletion of the glycoprotein E (gE) gene. The deletion was introduced by co-transfection of a deletion fragment containing the 5´and 3´gE flanking regions and genomic

  4. Experimental infection of calves with a gI, gE, US9 negative bovine herpesvirus type 5

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hubner, S.O.; Oliveira, A.P.; Franco, A.C.; Rijsewijk, F.A.M.; Roehe, P.M.

    2005-01-01

    In this work, a role for the genes encoding glycoproteins I (gI) and E (gE) and the US9 protein of bovine herpesvirus type 5 (BHV-5) in neuropathogenicity and reactivation of latent infections was examined. Calves infected intranasally with a gI/gE/US9 deleted recombinant shed up to 102.85 TCID50/ml

  5. High seroprevalence of human herpesviruses in HIV-infected individuals attending primary healthcare facilities in rural South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Schaftenaar (Willem); G.M.G.M. Verjans (George); S. Getu (Sarah); J.A. McIntyre (James); H.E. Struthers (Helen); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); R.P.H. Peters (Remco)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractSeroprevalence data of human herpesviruses (HHVs) are limited for sub-Saharan Africa. These are important to provide an indication of potential burden of HHV-related disease, in particular in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals who are known to be at increased risk of

  6. Detection of bovine herpesvirus 4 glycoprotein B and thymidine kinase DNA by PCR assays in bovine milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, G.J.; Verstraten, E.; Belak, S.; Verschuren, S.B.E.; Rijsewijk, F.A.M.; Peshev, R.; Oirschot, van J.T.

    2001-01-01

    A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed to detect bovine herpesvirus 4 (BHV4) glycoprotein B (gB) DNA, and a nested-PCR assay was modified for the detection of BHV4 thymidine kinase (TK) DNA in bovine milk samples. To identify false-negative PCR results, internal control templates were

  7. Detection of Cyprinid herpesvirus 2 in association with an Aeromonas sobria infection of Carassius carassius (L.), in Italy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fichi, G.; Cardeti, G.; Cocumelli, C.

    2013-01-01

    herpesvirus‐like particles, subsequently identified as Cyprinid herpesvirus‐2 (CyHV‐2) with a nested PCR protocol. Although it was not possible to attribute a pathogenic role to CyHV‐2 in this mortality event, the identification of this herpesvirus in crucian carp increases the concern about its potential...

  8. Restriction Fragment Pattern (RFP) analysis of genomes from Danish isolates of Suid herpesvirus 1 (Aujeszky's disease virus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Laurids Siig; Sørensen, K. J.; Lei, J. C.

    1987-01-01

    Purified DNA from 42 isolates of Suid herpesvirus 1 (SHV-1) collected during 1985 from clinical outbreaks of Aujezsky's disease on Danish farms was compared by restriction fragment pattern (RFP) analysis. The BamHI generated RFPs were found to be distinguishable, thus confirming RFP analysis...

  9. Similar activation of signal transduction pathways by the herpesvirus-encoded chemokine receptors US28 and ORF74

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLean, Katherine A; Holst, Peter J; Martini, Lene

    2004-01-01

    The virally encoded chemokine receptors US28 from human cytomegalovirus and ORF74 from human herpesvirus 8 are both constitutively active. We show that both receptors constitutively activate the transcription factors nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) and cAMP response element binding...

  10. Selective elimination of high constitutive activity or chemokine binding in the human herpesvirus 8 encoded seven transmembrane oncogene ORF74

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkilde, M M; Kledal, T N; Holst, Peter Johannes

    2000-01-01

    Open reading frame 74 (ORF74) encoded by human herpesvirus 8 is a highly constitutively active seven transmembrane (7TM) receptor stimulated by angiogenic chemokines, e.g. growth-related oncogene-alpha, and inhibited by angiostatic chemokines e.g. interferon-gamma-inducible protein. Transgenic mice...

  11. Fatal elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus-1 and -4 co-infection in a juvenile Asian elephant in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seilern-Moy, Katharina; Bertelsen, Mads Frost; Leifsson, Páll S.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus-1 (EEHV-1) is one of the major causes of fatality in juvenile Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). On occasions, other EEHV genotypes, i.e. EEHV-3, -4 and -5, have also been reported as the cause of Asian elephant deaths. In this case report we...

  12. Structural map of Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus RNA provides clues to molecular interactions | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scientists from CCR have generated a comprehensive structural map of Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus polyadenylated nuclear (PAN) RNA, a long non-coding RNA that helps the virus evade detection by its host’s immune system. The findings open new oppportunites to study the life cycle of this cancer-causing virus.  Learn more...

  13. Adenovirus and Herpesvirus Diversity in Free-Ranging Great Apes in the Sangha Region of the Republic of Congo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seimon, Tracie A.; Olson, Sarah H.; Lee, Kerry Jo; Rosen, Gail; Ondzie, Alain; Cameron, Kenneth; Reed, Patricia; Anthony, Simon J.; Joly, Damien O.; McAloose, Denise; Lipkin, W. Ian

    2015-01-01

    Infectious diseases have caused die-offs in both free-ranging gorillas and chimpanzees. Understanding pathogen diversity and disease ecology is therefore critical for conserving these endangered animals. To determine viral diversity in free-ranging, non-habituated gorillas and chimpanzees in the Republic of Congo, genetic testing was performed on great-ape fecal samples collected near Odzala-Kokoua National Park. Samples were analyzed to determine ape species, identify individuals in the population, and to test for the presence of herpesviruses, adenoviruses, poxviruses, bocaviruses, flaviviruses, paramyxoviruses, coronaviruses, filoviruses, and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). We identified 19 DNA viruses representing two viral families, Herpesviridae and Adenoviridae, of which three herpesviruses had not been previously described. Co-detections of multiple herpesviruses and/or adenoviruses were present in both gorillas and chimpanzees. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) and lymphocryptovirus (LCV) were found primarily in the context of co-association with each other and adenoviruses. Using viral discovery curves for herpesviruses and adenoviruses, the total viral richness in the sample population of gorillas and chimpanzees was estimated to be a minimum of 23 viruses, corresponding to a detection rate of 83%. These findings represent the first description of DNA viral diversity in feces from free-ranging gorillas and chimpanzees in or near the Odzala-Kokoua National Park and form a basis for understanding the types of viruses circulating among great apes in this region. PMID:25781992

  14. Tracing the Co-evolutionary History of the Chelonid Fibropapilloma-associated Herpesvirus and Its Host Sea Turtles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alfaro Nuñez, Luis Alonso

    This thesis describes various aspects of marine turtle (Testudines) evolution and tackles a well-described and controversial disease of these animals, fibropapillomatosis (FP), which is believed to be caused by the Chelonid fibropapilloma-associated herpesvirus (CFPHV). A large dataset of samples...

  15. Validation of a sensitive PCR assay for the detection of Chelonid fibropapilloma-associated herpesvirus in latent turtle infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alfaro Nuñez, Luis Alonso; Gilbert, M Thomas P

    2014-01-01

    The Chelonid fibropapilloma-associated herpesvirus (CFPHV) is hypothesized to be the causative agent of fibropapillomatosis, a neoplastic disease in sea turtles, given its consistent detection by PCR in fibropapilloma tumours. CFPHV has also been detected recently by PCR in tissue samples from...

  16. Agonists and inverse agonists for the herpesvirus 8-encoded constitutively active seven-transmembrane oncogene product, ORF-74

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkilde, M M; Kledal, T N; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans

    1999-01-01

    A number of CXC chemokines competed with similar, nanomolar affinity against 125I-interleukin-8 (IL-8) binding to ORF-74, a constitutively active seven-transmembrane receptor encoded by human herpesvirus 8. However, in competition against 125I-labeled growth-related oncogene (GRO)-alpha, the ORF-74...

  17. Influenza-associated encephalopathy: no evidence for neuroinvasion by influenza virus nor for reactivation of human herpesvirus 6 or 7.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zeijl, J.H.; Bakkers, J.; Wilbrink, B.; Melchers, W.J.; Mullaart, R.A.; Galama, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    During 2 consecutive influenza seasons we investigated the presence of influenza virus, human herpesvirus (HHV) type 6, and HHV-7 in cerebrospinal fluid samples from 9 white children suffering from influenza-associated encephalopathy. We conclude that it is unlikely that neuroinvasion by influenza

  18. Current Ebola vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoenen, Thomas; Groseth, Allison; Feldmann, Heinz

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Ebolaviruses cause severe viral hemorrhagic fever in humans and non-human primates, with case fatality rates of up to 90%. Currently, neither a specific treatment nor a vaccine licensed for use in humans is available. However, a number of vaccine candidates have been developed in the last decade that are highly protective in non-human primates, the gold standard animal model for Ebola hemorrhagic fever. Areas covered This review analyzes a number of scenarios for the use of ebolavirus vaccines, discusses the requirements for ebolavirus vaccines in these scenarios, and describes current ebolavirus vaccines. Among these vaccines are recombinant Adenoviruses, recombinant Vesicular Stomatitis viruses, recombinant Human Parainfluenza viruses and virus-like particles. Interestingly, one of these vaccine platforms, based on recombinant Vesicular Stomatitis viruses, has also demonstrated post-exposure protection in non-human primates. Expert opinion The most pressing remaining challenge is now to move these vaccine candidates forward into human trials and towards licensure. In order to achieve this, it will be necessary to establish the mechanisms and correlates of protection for these vaccines, and to continue to demonstrate their safety, particularly in potentially immunocompromised populations. However, already now there is sufficient evidence that, from a scientific perspective, a vaccine protective against ebolaviruses is possible. PMID:22559078

  19. Vaccines in a hurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søborg, Christian; Mølbak, Kåre; Doherty, T Mark; Ulleryd, Peter; Brooks, Tim; Coenen, Claudine; van der Zeijst, Ben

    2009-05-26

    Preparing populations for health threats, including threats from new or re-emerging infectious diseases is recognised as an important public health priority. The development, production and application of emergency vaccinations are the important measures against such threats. Vaccines are cost-effective tools to prevent disease, and emergency vaccines may be the only means to prevent a true disaster for global society in the event of a new pandemic with potential to cause morbidity and mortality comparable to the Spanish flu, the polio epidemics in the 1950s, or the SARS outbreak in 2003 if its spread had not been contained in time. Given the early recognition of a new threat, and given the advances of biotechnology, vaccinology and information systems, it is not an unrealistic goal to have promising prototype vaccine candidates available in a short time span following the identification of a new infectious agent; this is based on the assumption that the emerging infection is followed by natural immunity. However, major bottlenecks for the deployment of emergency vaccine are lack of established systems for fast-track regulatory approval of such candidates and limited international vaccine production capacity. In the present discussion paper, we propose mechanisms to facilitate development of emergency vaccines in Europe by focusing on public-private scientific partnerships, fast-track approval of emergency vaccine by regulatory agencies and proposing incentives for emergency vaccine production in private vaccine companies.

  20. Distinct herpesvirus resistances and immune responses of three gynogenetic clones of gibel carp revealed by comprehensive transcriptomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fan-Xiang; Wang, Yang; Zhang, Qi-Ya; Mou, Cheng-Yan; Li, Zhi; Deng, Yuan-Sheng; Zhou, Li; Gui, Jian-Fang

    2017-07-24

    Gibel carp is an important aquaculture species in China, and a herpesvirus, called as Carassius auratus herpesvirus (CaHV), has hampered the aquaculture development. Diverse gynogenetic clones of gibel carp have been identified or created, and some of them have been used as aquaculture varieties, but their resistances to herpesvirus and the underlying mechanism remain unknown. To reveal their susceptibility differences, we firstly performed herpesvirus challenge experiments in three gynogenetic clones of gibel carp, including the leading variety clone A + , candidate variety clone F and wild clone H. Three clones showed distinct resistances to CaHV. Moreover, 8772, 8679 and 10,982 differentially expressed unigenes (DEUs) were identified from comparative transcriptomes between diseased individuals and control individuals of clone A + , F and H, respectively. Comprehensive analysis of the shared DEUs in all three clones displayed common defense pathways to the herpesvirus infection, activating IFN system and suppressing complements. KEGG pathway analysis of specifically changed DEUs in respective clones revealed distinct immune responses to the herpesvirus infection. The DEU numbers identified from clone H in KEGG immune-related pathways, such as "chemokine signaling pathway", "Toll-like receptor signaling pathway" and others, were remarkably much more than those from clone A + and F. Several IFN-related genes, including Mx1, viperin, PKR and others, showed higher increases in the resistant clone H than that in the others. IFNphi3, IFI44-like and Gig2 displayed the highest expression in clone F and IRF1 uniquely increased in susceptible clone A + . In contrast to strong immune defense in resistant clone H, susceptible clone A + showed remarkable up-regulation of genes related to apoptosis or death, indicating that clone A + failed to resist virus offensive and evidently induced apoptosis or death. Our study is the first attempt to screen distinct resistances and

  1. Vaccine strategies: Optimising outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardt, Karin; Bonanni, Paolo; King, Susan; Santos, Jose Ignacio; El-Hodhod, Mostafa; Zimet, Gregory D; Preiss, Scott

    2016-12-20

    Successful immunisation programmes generally result from high vaccine effectiveness and adequate uptake of vaccines. In the development of new vaccination strategies, the structure and strength of the local healthcare system is a key consideration. In high income countries, existing infrastructures are usually used, while in less developed countries, the capacity for introducing new vaccines may need to be strengthened, particularly for vaccines administered beyond early childhood, such as the measles or human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine. Reliable immunisation service funding is another important factor and low income countries often need external supplementary sources of finance. Many regions also obtain support in generating an evidence base for vaccination via initiatives created by organisations including World Health Organization (WHO), the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), the Agence de Médecine Préventive and the Sabin Vaccine Institute. Strong monitoring and surveillance mechanisms are also required. An example is the efficient and low-cost approaches for measuring the impact of the hepatitis B control initiative and evaluating achievement of goals that have been established in the WHO Western Pacific region. A review of implementation strategies reveals differing degrees of success. For example, in the Americas, PAHO advanced a measles-mumps-rubella vaccine strategy, targeting different population groups in mass, catch-up and follow-up vaccination campaigns. This has had much success but coverage data from some parts of the region suggest that children are still not receiving all appropriate vaccines, highlighting problems with local service infrastructures. Stark differences in coverage levels are also observed among high income countries, as is the case with HPV vaccine implementation in the USA versus the UK and Australia, reflecting differences in delivery settings. Experience and research have shown which vaccine strategies work well and the

  2. The Meningitis Vaccine Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaForce, F Marc; Konde, Kader; Viviani, Simonetta; Préziosi, Marie-Pierre

    2007-09-03

    Epidemic meningococcal meningitis is an important public health problem in sub-Saharan Africa. Current control measures rely on reactive immunizations with polysaccharide (PS) vaccines that do not induce herd immunity and are of limited effectiveness in those under 2 years of age. Conversely, polysaccharide conjugate vaccines are effective in infants and have consistently shown an important effect on decreasing carriage, two characteristics that facilitate disease control. In 2001 the Meningitis Vaccine Project (MVP) was created as a partnership between PATH and the World Health Organization (WHO) with the goal of eliminating meningococcal epidemics in Africa through the development, licensure, introduction, and widespread use of conjugate meningococcal vaccines. Since group A Neisseria meningitidis (N. meningitidis) is the dominant pathogen causing epidemic meningitis in Africa MVP is developing an affordable (US$ 0.40 per dose) meningococcal A (Men A) conjugate vaccine through an innovative international partnership that saw transfer of a conjugation and fermentation technology to a developing country vaccine manufacturer. A Phase 1 study of the vaccine in India has shown that the product is safe and immunogenic. Phase 2 studies have begun in Africa, and a large demonstration study of the conjugate vaccine is envisioned for 2008-2009. After extensive consultations with African public health officials a vaccine introduction plan has been developed that includes introduction of the Men A conjugate vaccine into standard Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) schedules but also emphasizes mass vaccination of 1-29 years old to induce herd immunity, a strategy that has been shown to be highly effective when the meningococcal C (Men C) conjugate vaccine was introduced in several European countries. The MVP model is a clear example of the usefulness of a "push mechanism" to finance the development of a needed vaccine for the developing world.

  3. 75 FR 48706 - Proposed Vaccine Information Materials for Rotavirus Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-11

    ... Vaccine Information Materials for Rotavirus Vaccine AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention... information materials for rotavirus vaccine. DATES: Written comments are invited and must be received on or... (chickenpox), pneumococcal conjugate, rotavirus, hepatitis A, meningococcal, human papillomavirus (HPV), and...

  4. Protection of White Leghorn chickens by U.S. emergency H5 vaccination against clade 2.3.4.4 H5N2 high pathogenicity avian influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertran, Kateri; Balzli, Charles; Lee, Dong-Hun; Suarez, David L; Kapczynski, Darrell R; Swayne, David E

    2017-11-01

    During December 2014-June 2015, the U.S. experienced a high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) outbreak caused by clade 2.3.4.4 H5Nx Goose/Guangdong lineage viruses with devastating consequences for the poultry industry. Three vaccines, developed based on updating existing registered vaccines or currently licensed technologies, were evaluated for possible use: an inactivated reverse genetics H5N1 vaccine (rgH5N1) and an RNA particle vaccine (RP-H5), both containing the hemagglutinin gene of clade 2.3.4.4 strain, and a recombinant herpesvirus turkey vectored vaccine (rHVT-H5) containing the hemagglutinin gene of clade 2.2 strain. The efficacy of the three vaccines, alone or in combination, was assessed in White Leghorn chickens against clade 2.3.4.4 H5N2 HPAI virus challenge. In Study 1, single (rHVT-H5) and prime-boost (rHVT-H5+rgH5N1 or rHVT-H5+RP-H5) vaccination strategies protected chickens with high levels of protective immunity and significantly reduced virus shedding. In Study 2, single vaccination with either rgH5N1 or RP-H5 vaccines provided clinical protection in adult chickens and significantly reduced virus shedding. In Study 3, double rgH5N1 vaccination protected adult chickens from clinical signs and mortality when challenged 20weeks post-boost, with high levels of long-lasting protective immunity and significantly reduced virus shedding. These studies support the use of genetically related vaccines, possibly in combination with a broad protective priming vaccine, for emergency vaccination programs against clade 2.3.4.4 H5Nx HPAI virus in young and adult layer chickens. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Construction and growth properties of bovine herpesvirus type 5 recombinants defective in the glycoprotein E or thymidine kinase gene or both

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C.S. Brum

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Bovine herpesvirus type 5 (BoHV-5 is an important pathogen of cattle in South America. We describe here the construction and characterization of deletion mutants defective in the glycoprotein E (gE or thymidine kinase (TK gene or both (gE/TK from a highly neurovirulent and well-characterized Brazilian BoHV-5 strain (SV507/99. A gE-deleted recombinant virus (BoHV-5 gE∆ was first generated in which the entire gE open reading frame was replaced with a chimeric green fluorescent protein gene. A TK-deleted recombinant virus (BoHV-5 TK∆ was then generated in which most of the TK open reading frame sequences were deleted and replaced with a chimeric β-galactosidase gene. Subsequently, using the BoHV-5 gE∆ virus as backbone, a double gene-deleted (TK plus gE BoHV-5 recombinant (BoHV-5 gE/TK∆ was generated. The deletion of the gE and TK genes was confirmed by immunoblotting and PCR, respectively. In Madin Darby bovine kidney (MDBK cells, the mutants lacking gE (BoHV-5 gE∆ and TK + gE (BoHV-5 gE/TK∆ produced small plaques while the TK-deleted BoHV-5 produced wild-type-sized plaques. The growth kinetics and virus yields in MDBK cells for all three recombinants (BoHV-5 gE∆, BoHV-5 TK∆ and BoHV-5 gE/TK∆ were similar to those of the parental virus. It is our belief that the dual gene-deleted recombinant (BoHV-5 gE/TK∆ produced on the background of a highly neurovirulent Brazilian BoHV-5 strain may have potential application in a vaccine against BoHV-5.

  6. The dynamics of herpesvirus reactivations during and after severe drug eruptions: their relation to the clinical phenotype and therapeutic outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, T; Kano, Y; Mizukawa, Y; Shiohara, T

    2014-06-01

    Drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome/drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DIHS/DRESS) and Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS)/toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) represent contrasting poles of severe drug eruptions, and sequential reactivations of several herpesviruses have exclusively been demonstrated in the former. No previous studies, however, were extended beyond the acute stage. We sought to investigate whether herpesvirus reactivations could also be observed in SJS/TEN and beyond the acute stage of both diseases. Patients with SJS (n = 16), SJS/TEN overlap (n = 2), TEN (n = 10), and DIHS/DRESS (n = 34) were enrolled. We performed a retrospective analysis of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6), and cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA loads sequentially determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction during a 2-year period after onset. Persistently increased EBV loads were detected in SJS during the acute stage and long after resolution, but not in others. In contrast, high HHV-6 loads were exclusively detected in DIHS/DRESS during the acute stage. The dynamics of herpesvirus reactivation varied in DIHS/DRESS according to the use of systemic corticosteroids: While EBV loads were higher in patients not receiving systemic corticosteroids, CMV and HHV-6 loads were higher in those receiving them. Distinct patterns of herpesvirus reactivation according to the pathological phenotype and to the use of systemic corticosteroids were observed during the acute stage and follow-up period, which may contribute, at least in part, to the difference in the clinical manifestations and long-term outcomes. Systemic corticosteroids during the acute stage may improve the outcomes in DIHS/DRESS. © 2014 The Authors. Allergy Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. The First Endogenous Herpesvirus, Identified in the Tarsier Genome, and Novel Sequences from Primate Rhadinoviruses and Lymphocryptoviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aswad, Amr; Katzourakis, Aris

    2014-01-01

    Herpesviridae is a diverse family of large and complex pathogens whose genomes are extremely difficult to sequence. This is particularly true for clinical samples, and if the virus, host, or both genomes are being sequenced for the first time. Although herpesviruses are known to occasionally integrate in host genomes, and can also be inherited in a Mendelian fashion, they are notably absent from the genomic fossil record comprised of endogenous viral elements (EVEs). Here, we combine paleovirological and metagenomic approaches to both explore the constituent viral diversity of mammalian genomes and search for endogenous herpesviruses. We describe the first endogenous herpesvirus from the genome of the Philippine tarsier, belonging to the Roseolovirus genus, and characterize its highly defective genome that is integrated and flanked by unambiguous host DNA. From a draft assembly of the aye-aye genome, we use bioinformatic tools to reveal over 100,000 bp of a novel rhadinovirus that is the first lemur gammaherpesvirus, closely related to Kaposi's sarcoma-associated virus. We also identify 58 genes of Pan paniscus lymphocryptovirus 1, the bonobo equivalent of human Epstein-Barr virus. For each of the viruses, we postulate gene function via comparative analysis to known viral relatives. Most notably, the evidence from gene content and phylogenetics suggests that the aye-aye sequences represent the most basal known rhadinovirus, and indicates that tumorigenic herpesviruses have been infecting primates since their emergence in the late Cretaceous. Overall, these data show that a genomic fossil record of herpesviruses exists despite their extremely large genomes, and expands the known diversity of Herpesviridae, which will aid the characterization of pathogenesis. Our analytical approach illustrates the benefit of intersecting evolutionary approaches with metagenomics, genetics and paleovirology. PMID:24945689

  8. Vaccine process technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josefsberg, Jessica O; Buckland, Barry

    2012-06-01

    The evolution of vaccines (e.g., live attenuated, recombinant) and vaccine production methods (e.g., in ovo, cell culture) are intimately tied to each other. As vaccine technology has advanced, the methods to produce the vaccine have advanced and new vaccine opportunities have been created. These technologies will continue to evolve as we strive for safer and more immunogenic vaccines and as our understanding of biology improves. The evolution of vaccine process technology has occurred in parallel to the remarkable growth in the development of therapeutic proteins as products; therefore, recent vaccine innovations can leverage the progress made in the broader biotechnology industry. Numerous important legacy vaccines are still in use today despite their traditional manufacturing processes, with further development focusing on improving stability (e.g., novel excipients) and updating formulation (e.g., combination vaccines) and delivery methods (e.g., skin patches). Modern vaccine development is currently exploiting a wide array of novel technologies to create safer and more efficacious vaccines including: viral vectors produced in animal cells, virus-like particles produced in yeast or insect cells, polysaccharide conjugation to carrier proteins, DNA plasmids produced in E. coli, and therapeutic cancer vaccines created by in vitro activation of patient leukocytes. Purification advances (e.g., membrane adsorption, precipitation) are increasing efficiency, while innovative analytical methods (e.g., microsphere-based multiplex assays, RNA microarrays) are improving process understanding. Novel adjuvants such as monophosphoryl lipid A, which acts on antigen presenting cell toll-like receptors, are expanding the previously conservative list of widely accepted vaccine adjuvants. As in other areas of biotechnology, process characterization by sophisticated analysis is critical not only to improve yields, but also to determine the final product quality. From a regulatory

  9. Vaccination against seasonal flu

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    The Medical Service once again recommends you to get your annual flu vaccination for the year.   Vaccination is the most effective way of avoiding the illness and any serious consequences and protecting those around you. The flu can have especially serious consequences for people with chronic conditions (diabetes, cardio-vascular disease, etc.), pregnant women, infants, and people over 65 years of age. Remember, anyone working on the CERN site who wishes to be vaccinated against seasonal flu should go to the Infirmary (Building 57, ground floor) with their vaccine. The Medical Service will issue a prescription on the day of the vaccination for the purposes of reimbursement by UNIQA. NB: The Medical Service cannot provide this vaccination service for family members or retired members of the personnel. For more information: • The "Seasonal flu" flyer by the Medical Service • Recommendations of the Swiss Federal Office of Public...

  10. Prophylactic Hepatitis E Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Zhao, Qinjian; Xia, Ningshao

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis E has been increasingly recognized as an underestimated global disease burden in recent years. Subpopulations with more serious infection-associated damage or death include pregnant women, patients with basic liver diseases, and elderly persons. Vaccine would be the most effective means for prevention of HEV infection. The lack of an efficient cell culture system for HEV makes the development of classic inactive or attenuated vaccine infeasible. Hence, the recombinant vaccine approaches are explored deeply. The neutralizing sites are located almost exclusively in the capsid protein, pORF2, of the virion. Based on pORF2, many vaccine candidates showed potential of protecting primate animals; two of them were tested in human and evidenced to be well tolerated in adults and highly efficacious in preventing hepatitis E. The world's first hepatitis E vaccine, Hecolin ® (HEV 239 vaccine), was licensed in China and launched in 2012.

  11. Vaccination and neurological disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Gkampeta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Active immunization of children has been proven very effective in elimination of life threatening complications of many infectious diseases in developed countries. However, as vaccination-preventable infectious diseases and their complications have become rare, the interest focuses on immunization-related adverse reactions. Unfortunately, fear of vaccination-related adverse effects can led to decreased vaccination coverage and subsequent epidemics of infectious diseases. This review includes reports about possible side effects following vaccinations in children with neurological disorders and also published recommendations about vaccinating children with neurological disorders. From all international published data anyone can conclude that vaccines are safer than ever before, but the challenge remains to convey this message to society.

  12. Vaccines and Kawasaki disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Susanna; Bianchini, Sonia; Dellepiane, Rosa Maria; Principi, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    The distinctive immune system characteristics of children with Kawasaki disease (KD) could suggest that they respond in a particular way to all antigenic stimulations, including those due to vaccines. Moreover, treatment of KD is mainly based on immunomodulatory therapy. These factors suggest that vaccines and KD may interact in several ways. These interactions could be of clinical relevance because KD is a disease of younger children who receive most of the vaccines recommended for infectious disease prevention. This paper shows that available evidence does not support an association between KD development and vaccine administration. Moreover, it highlights that administration of routine vaccines is mandatory even in children with KD and all efforts must be made to ensure the highest degree of protection against vaccine-preventable diseases for these patients. However, studies are needed to clarify currently unsolved issues, especially issues related to immunologic interference induced by intravenous immunoglobulin and biological drugs.

  13. Vaccine development for syphilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lithgow, Karen V; Cameron, Caroline E

    2017-01-01

    Syphilis, caused by the spirochete Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum, continues to be a globally prevalent disease despite remaining susceptible to penicillin treatment. Syphilis vaccine development is a viable preventative approach that will serve to complement public health-oriented syphilis prevention, screening and treatment initiatives to deliver a two-pronged approach to stemming disease spread worldwide. Areas covered: This article provides an overview of the need for development of a syphilis vaccine, summarizes significant information that has been garnered from prior syphilis vaccine studies, discusses the critical aspects of infection that would have to be targeted by a syphilis vaccine, and presents the current understanding within the field of the correlates of protection needed to be achieved through vaccination. Expert commentary: Syphilis vaccine development should be considered a priority by industry, regulatory and funding agencies, and should be appropriately promoted and supported.

  14. The Latest in Vaccine Policies: Selected Issues in School Vaccinations, Healthcare Worker Vaccinations, and Pharmacist Vaccination Authority Laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraza, Leila; Schmit, Cason; Hoss, Aila

    2017-03-01

    This paper discusses recent changes to state legal frameworks for mandatory vaccination in the context of school and healthcare worker vaccination. It then discusses state laws that allow pharmacists the authority to vaccinate.

  15. Needle-free influenza vaccination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amorij, Jean-Pierre; Hinrichs, Wouter L.J.; Frijlink, Henderik W.; Wilschut, Jan C.; Huckriede, Anke

    2010-01-01

    Vaccination is the cornerstone of influenza control in epidemic and pandemic situations. Influenza vaccines are typically given by intramuscular injection. However, needle-free vaccinations could offer several distinct advantages over intramuscular injections: they are pain-free, easier to

  16. What Vaccines Do You Need?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recommendations Why Immunize? Vaccines: The Basics The Adult Vaccine Quiz Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Vaccines are recommended for adults based on age, health ...

  17. Recommended Vaccines for Healthcare Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vaccination Resources for Healthcare Professionals Recommended Vaccines for Healthcare Workers Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... for More Information Resources for Those Vaccinating HCWs Healthcare workers (HCWs) are at risk for exposure to ...

  18. Rotavirus vaccines and vaccination in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linhares Alexandre C.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, rotaviruses account for more than 125 million cases of infantile gastroenteritis and nearly 1 million deaths per year, mainly in developing countries. Rather than other control measures, vaccination is most likely to have a major impact on rotavirus disease incidence. The peak incidence of rotavirus diarrhea occurs between 6 and 24 months of age. In developing countries, however, cases are not uncommon among children younger than 6 months. G serotypes 1 to 4 are responsible for most disease, but there are indications that in Brazil that G type 5 is of emerging epidemiological importance. Both homotypic and heterotypic responses are elicited during natural rotavirus infection, and the immunological response at the intestinal mucosal surface is probably the more consistent predictor of clinical immunity. With the primary objective of protecting children against life-threatening dehydrating diarrhea, many approaches to rotavirus vaccine development have been attempted. One vaccine, the tetravalent rhesus-human reassortant rotavirus vaccine (RRV-TV, was given licensing approval in the United States of America, introduced to the market, and later withdrawn. A number of studies have found better efficacy of RRV-TV in developed countries than in developing ones. Field trials with a 4 X 10(4 plaque-forming units (PFU preparation of RRV-TV have been carried out in two countries in Latin America, Brazil and Peru. Those trials yielded protective efficacy rates against all rotavirus diarrhea ranging from 18% to 35%. Data from a large catchment trial in Venezuela with a higher RRV-TV dose, of 4 X 10(5 PFU/dose, indicated an efficacy rate of 48% against all rotavirus diarrhea and 88% against severe rotavirus diarrhea. It appears that breast-feeding does not compromise the efficacy of RRV-TV if three doses of the vaccine are administered. Similarly, possible interference of oral poliovirus vaccine with the "take" of the rotavirus vaccine can be

  19. Rotavirus vaccines and vaccination in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre C. Linhares

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, rotaviruses account for more than 125 million cases of infantile gastroenteritis and nearly 1 million deaths per year, mainly in developing countries. Rather than other control measures, vaccination is most likely to have a major impact on rotavirus disease incidence. The peak incidence of rotavirus diarrhea occurs between 6 and 24 months of age. In developing countries, however, cases are not uncommon among children younger than 6 months. G serotypes 1 to 4 are responsible for most disease, but there are indications that in Brazil that G type 5 is of emerging epidemiological importance. Both homotypic and heterotypic responses are elicited during natural rotavirus infection, and the immunological response at the intestinal mucosal surface is probably the more consistent predictor of clinical immunity. With the primary objective of protecting children against life-threatening dehydrating diarrhea, many approaches to rotavirus vaccine development have been attempted. One vaccine, the tetravalent rhesus-human reassortant rotavirus vaccine (RRV-TV, was given licensing approval in the United States of America, introduced to the market, and later withdrawn. A number of studies have found better efficacy of RRV-TV in developed countries than in developing ones. Field trials with a 4 X 10(4 plaque-forming units (PFU preparation of RRV-TV have been carried out in two countries in Latin America, Brazil and Peru. Those trials yielded protective efficacy rates against all rotavirus diarrhea ranging from 18% to 35%. Data from a large catchment trial in Venezuela with a higher RRV-TV dose, of 4 X 10(5 PFU/dose, indicated an efficacy rate of 48% against all rotavirus diarrhea and 88% against severe rotavirus diarrhea. It appears that breast-feeding does not compromise the efficacy of RRV-TV if three doses of the vaccine are administered. Similarly, possible interference of oral poliovirus vaccine with the "take" of the rotavirus vaccine can be

  20. Pricing of new vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Bruce Y; McGlone, Sarah M

    2010-01-01

    New vaccine pricing is a complicated process that could have substantial long-standing scientific, medical and public health ramifications. Pricing can have a considerable impact on new vaccine adoption and, thereby, either culminate or thwart years of research and development and public health efforts. Typically, pricing strategy consists of the following eleven components: (1) Conduct a target population analysis; (2) Map potential competitors and alternatives; (3) Construct a vaccine targe...

  1. Underutilization of Influenza Vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marshall K. Cheney

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Yearly influenza vaccination continues to be underutilized by those who would most benefit from it. The Health Belief Model was used to explain differences in beliefs about influenza vaccination among at-risk individuals resistant to influenza vaccination. Survey data were collected from 74 members of at-risk groups who were not vaccinated for influenza during the previous flu season. Accepting individuals were more likely to perceive flu as a threat to health and perceive access barriers, and cues to action were the most important influence on whether they plan to get vaccinated. In comparison, resistant individuals did not feel threatened by the flu, access barriers were not a problem, and they did not respond favorably to cues to action. Perceived threat, perceived access barriers, and cues to action were significantly associated with plans to be vaccinated for influenza in the next flu season. Participants who saw influenza as a threat to their health had 5.4 times the odds of planning to be vaccinated than those who did not. Participants reporting barriers to accessing influenza vaccination had 7.5 times the odds of reporting plans to be vaccinated. Those responding positively to cues to action had 12.2 times the odds of planning to be vaccinated in the next flu season than those who did not. Accepting and resistant individuals have significant differences in their beliefs, which require different intervention strategies to increase vaccination rates. These findings provide important information to researchers and practitioners working to increase influenza vaccination rates.

  2. Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Dudas, Robert A.; Karron, Ruth A.

    1998-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most important cause of viral lower respiratory tract illness (LRI) in infants and children worldwide and causes significant LRI in the elderly and in immunocompromised patients. The goal of RSV vaccination is to prevent serious RSV-associated LRI. There are several obstacles to the development of successful RSV vaccines, including the need to immunize very young infants, who may respond inadequately to vaccination; the existence of two antigenically d...

  3. Vaccines, our shared responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliusi, Sonia; Jain, Rishabh; Suri, Rajinder Kumar

    2015-05-05

    The Developing Countries Vaccine Manufacturers' Network (DCVMN) held its fifteenth annual meeting from October 27-29, 2014, New Delhi, India. The DCVMN, together with the co-organizing institution Panacea Biotec, welcomed over 240 delegates representing high-profile governmental and nongovernmental global health organizations from 36 countries. Over the three-day meeting, attendees exchanged information about their efforts to achieve their shared goal of preventing death and disability from known and emerging infectious diseases. Special praise was extended to all stakeholders involved in the success of polio eradication in South East Asia and highlighted challenges in vaccine supply for measles-rubella immunization over the coming decades. Innovative vaccines and vaccine delivery technologies indicated creative solutions for achieving global immunization goals. Discussions were focused on three major themes including regulatory challenges for developing countries that may be overcome with better communication; global collaborations and partnerships for leveraging investments and enable uninterrupted supply of affordable and suitable vaccines; and leading innovation in vaccines difficult to develop, such as dengue, Chikungunya, typhoid-conjugated and EV71, and needle-free technologies that may speed up vaccine delivery. Moving further into the Decade of Vaccines, participants renewed their commitment to shared responsibility toward a world free of vaccine-preventable diseases. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Vaccines: Shaping global health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliusi, Sonia; Ting, Ching-Chia; Lobos, Fernando

    2017-03-14

    The Developing Countries Vaccine Manufacturers' Network (DCVMN) gathered leaders in immunization programs, vaccine manufacturing, representatives of the Argentinean Health Authorities and Pan American Health Organization, among other global health stakeholders, for its 17th Annual General Meeting in Buenos Aires, to reflect on how vaccines are shaping global health. Polio eradication and elimination of measles and rubella from the Americas is a result of successful collaboration, made possible by timely supply of affordable vaccines. After decades of intense competition for high-value markets, collaboration with developing countries has become critical, and involvement of multiple manufacturers as well as public- and private-sector investments are essential, for developing new vaccines against emerging infectious diseases. The recent Zika virus outbreak and the accelerated Ebola vaccine development exemplify the need for international partnerships to combat infectious diseases. A new player, Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI) has made its entrance in the global health community, aiming to stimulate research preparedness against emerging infections. Face-to-face panel discussions facilitated the dialogue around challenges, such as risks of viability to vaccine development and regulatory convergence, to improve access to sustainable vaccine supply. It was discussed that joint efforts to optimizing regulatory pathways in developing countries, reducing registration time by up to 50%, are required. Outbreaks of emerging infections and the global Polio eradication and containment challenges are reminders of the importance of vaccines' access, and of the importance of new public-private partnerships. Copyright © 2017.

  5. Tetanus, Diphtheria, Pertussis (Tdap) Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adacel® (as a combination product containing Diphtheria, Tetanus Toxoids, Acellular Pertussis Vaccine) ... Boostrix® (as a combination product containing Diphtheria, Tetanus Toxoids, Acellular Pertussis Vaccine)

  6. The Neutralizing Linear Epitope of Human Herpesvirus 6A Glycoprotein B Does Not Affect Virus Infectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakata, Aika; Kanemoto, Satoshi; Tang, Huamin; Kawabata, Akiko; Nishimura, Mitsuhiro; Jasirwan, Chyntia; Mahmoud, Nora Fahmy; Mori, Yasuko

    2018-03-01

    Human herpesvirus 6A (HHV-6A) glycoprotein B (gB) is a glycoprotein consisting of 830 amino acids and is essential for the growth of the virus. Previously, we reported that a neutralizing monoclonal antibody (MAb) called 87-y-13 specifically reacts with HHV-6A gB, and we identified its epitope residue at asparagine (Asn) 347 on gB. In this study, we examined whether the epitope recognized by the neutralizing MAb is essential for HHV-6A infection. We constructed HHV-6A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) genomes harboring substitutions at Asn347, namely, HHV-6A BACgB(N347K) and HHV-6A BACgB(N347A). These mutant viruses could be reconstituted and propagated in the same manner as the wild type and their revertants, and MAb 87-y-13 could not inhibit infection by either mutant. In a cell-cell fusion assay, Asn at position 347 on gB was found to be nonessential for cell-cell fusion. In addition, in building an HHV-6A gB homology model, we found that the epitope of the neutralizing MAb is located on domain II of gB and is accessible to solvents. These results indicate that Asn at position 347, the linear epitope of the neutralizing MAb, does not affect HHV-6A infectivity. IMPORTANCE Glycoprotein B (gB) is one of the most conserved glycoproteins among all herpesviruses and is a key factor for virus entry. Therefore, antibodies targeted to gB may neutralize virus entry. Human herpesvirus 6A (HHV-6A) encodes gB, which is translated to a protein of about 830 amino acids (aa). Using a monoclonal antibody (MAb) for HHV-6A gB, which has a neutralizing linear epitope, we analyzed the role of its epitope residue, N347, in HHV-6A infectivity. Interestingly, this gB linear epitope residue, N347, was not essential for HHV-6A growth. By constructing a homology model of HHV-6A gB, we found that N347 was located in the region corresponding to domain II. Therefore, with regard to its neutralizing activity against HHV-6A infection, the epitope on gB might be exposed to solvents

  7. Clinical development of Ebola vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, Saranya

    2015-01-01

    The ongoing outbreak of Ebola virus disease in West Africa highlighted the lack of a licensed drug or vaccine to combat the disease and has renewed the urgency to develop a pipeline of Ebola vaccines. A number of different vaccine platforms are being developed by assessing preclinical efficacy in animal models and expediting clinical development. Over 15 different vaccines are in preclinical development and 8 vaccines are now in different stages of clinical evaluation. These vaccines include DNA vaccines, virus-like particles and viral vectors such as live replicating vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV), human and chimpanzee adenovirus, and vaccinia virus. Recently, in preliminary results reported from the first phase III trial of an Ebola vaccine, the rVSV-vectored vaccine showed promising efficacy. This review charts this rapidly advancing area of research focusing on vaccines in clinical development and discusses the future opportunities and challenges faced in the licensure and deployment of Ebola vaccines. PMID:26668751

  8. Cytomegalovirus and immunotherapy: opportunistic pathogen, novel target for cancer and a promising vaccine vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Michael; Erkes, Dan A; Snyder, Christopher M

    2016-02-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a β-herpesvirus that infects most people in the world and is almost always asymptomatic in the healthy host. However, CMV persists for life, requiring continuous immune surveillance to prevent disease and thus, CMV is a frequent complication in immune compromised patients. Many groups have been exploring the potential for adoptive T-cell therapies to control CMV reactivation as well as the progression of solid tumors harboring CMV. In addition, CMV itself is being explored as a vaccine vector for eliciting potent T-cell responses. This review will discuss key features of the basic biology of CMV-specific T cells as well as highlighting unanswered questions and ongoing work in the development of T-cell-based immunotherapies to target CMV.

  9. Molecular phylogeny of equine herpesvirus 1 isolates from onager, zebra and Thomson's gazelle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanem, Y M; Fukushi, H; Ibrahim, E S M; Ohya, K; Yamaguchi, T; Kennedy, M

    2008-01-01

    Viruses related to equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) were isolated from an aborted fetus of an onager (Equus hemionus) in 1984, an aborted fetus of Grevy's zebra (Equus grevyi) in 1984 and a Thomson's gazelle (Gazella thomsoni) with nonsuppurative encephalitis in 1996, all in the USA. The mother of the onager fetus and the gazelle were kept near plains zebras (Equus burchelli). In phylogenetic trees based on the nucleotide sequences of the genes for glycoproteins B (gB), I (gI), and E (gE), and teguments including ORF8 (UL51), ORF15 (UL45), and ORF68 (US2), the onager, Grevy's zebra and gazelle isolates formed a genetic group that was different from several horse EHV-1 isolates. Within this group, the onager and gazelle isolates were closely related, while the Grevy's zebra isolate was distantly related to these two isolates. The epizootiological origin of the viruses is discussed.

  10. Prevalence of Bovine Herpesvirus-1 in cattle and buffaloes in Punjab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurpreet Kaur

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the present study was to identify the prevalence of Bovine Herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1 in cattle and buffaloes in the Punjab using PCR as diagnostic tool. Materials and Methods: A total of 63 samples (Semen- 57, placental cotyledons-1, vaginal secretions-1, foetal stomach contents-1 and tracheal swabs-3 from cattle and buffaloes were processed for identification of BHV-1 using PCR. Results: From January 2007 to December 2010 (Semen- 57, placental cotyledons-1, vaginal secretions-1, foetal stomach contents-1 and tracheal swabs-3 from cattle and buffaloes were collected. The DNA was extracted from a total of 63 samples and subjected to PCR revealed that none of the sample positive for the BHV-1 infection. Conclusion: From the study it was concluded that the farms screened were free from BHV-1 infection. [Vet World 2013; 6(6.000: 343-345

  11. Parasite infection is associated with Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV in Ugandan women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ndibazza Juliet

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Immune modulation by parasites may influence susceptibility to bacteria and viruses. We examined the association between current parasite infections, HIV and syphilis (measured in blood or stool samples using standard methods and antibodies against Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV, measured by ELISA, in 1915 stored plasma samples from pregnant women in Entebbe, Uganda. Results Seroprevalence of KSHV was higher in women with malaria parasitaemia (73% vs 60% p = 0.01, hookworm (67% vs 56% p = 0.001 and Mansonella perstans (69% vs 59% p = 0.05; seroprevalence increased with increasing intensity of hookworm infection (p Conclusions Specific parasite infections are associated with presence of antibodies against KSHV, perhaps mediated via their effect on immune function.

  12. [Bovine herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4): general aspects of the biology and status in Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morán, Pedro E; Pérez, Sandra E; Odeón, Anselmo C; Verna, Andrea E

    2015-01-01

    Bovine herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4) has been isolated from cattle with respiratory infections, vulvovaginitis, mastitis, abortions, endometritis and from apparently healthy animals throughout the world. Although it has not yet been established as causal agent of a specific disease entity, it is primarily associated with reproductive disorders of cattle. This virus can infect a wide range of species, either in vivo or in vitro. Two groups of prototype strains were originated from the first isolates: the DN599-type strains (American group) and the Movar-type strains (European group). In Argentina, BoHV-4 was isolated and characterized in 2007 from vaginal discharge samples taken from cows that had aborted. So far, more than 40 isolates, mainly associated with aborting bovine females have been registered in our country. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Human herpesvirus-8 positive iatrogenic Kaposi's sarcoma in the setting of refractory ulcerative colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duh, Erica; Fine, Sean

    2017-12-16

    Although Kaposi sarcoma (KS) has been more traditionally considered an AIDS-defining illness, it may also be seen in individuals on immunosuppresive therapy. We report a case of a patient who presented to the hospital in the setting of increasingly refractory ulcerative colitis. Computed tomography scan of the abdomen was consistent with sigmoid diverticulititis and blood cultures were positive for Klebsiella. After a course of antibiotics with resolution of infection, a colonoscopy was performed to evaluate his diverticulitis and incidentally revealed a new rectal tumor. Immunohistochemistry showed the tumor was consistent with KS, with cells staining strongly positive for human herpesvirus-8. This case not only illustrates a rare case of KS found in an HIV-negative individual, but it also highlights the importance of considering an alternative diagnosis in a patient refractory to medical treatment. We discuss the management and care of an ulcerative colitis patient diagnosed with KS on immunosuppressive therapy.

  14. Endocrine pancreatic insufficiency secondary to chronic herpesvirus pancreatitis in a cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phalen, David N; Falcon, Michelle; Tomaszewski, Elizabeth K

    2007-06-01

    A cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus) examined because of weight loss, polydipsia, and polyuria was diagnosed with diabetes mellitus based on the presence of glucosuria and marked hyperglycemia. Medical attempts to manage the diabetes mellitus were unsuccessful, and the bird was euthanatized. Histopathologic examination of the pancreas revealed a chronic active pancreatitis with herpesviral inclusions in many of the pancreatic acinar and duct cells. Psittacid herpesvirus-1 (PsHV-1) DNA was amplified from the lesion by polymerase chain reaction. Sequencing of the amplicon showed it to be the genotype 1 variant, which is most commonly associated with Pacheco's disease, an acute rapidly fatal systemic infection. The findings in this case suggest that the PsHV-1 genotype may also cause a localized disease of the pancreas. Infection with this virus should be considered as a differential diagnosis in birds with pancreatitis with or without diabetes mellitus.

  15. Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus-Related Solid Lymphoma Involving the Heart and Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason R. Andrews

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Since its discovery in 1994, Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV has been associated with lymphoproliferative disorders, particularly in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. The disorders most strongly linked to KSHV are multicentric Castleman's Disease (MCD, primary effusion lymphoma, and diffuse large B-cell lymphomas. We report an unusual case of KSHV-associated lymphoma in an HIV-infected patient manifesting with myocardial and central nervous system involvement. We discuss this case in the context of increasing array of KSHV-associated lymphomas. In the HIV-infected patient with a mass lesion, a history of cutaneous Kaposi's sarcoma and prolonged immunosuppression should alert clinicians as to the possibility of KSHV-associated lymphoproliferative disorders, in order to establish a timely diagnosis.

  16. Cyprinid herpesvirus 3: an interesting virus for applied and fundamental research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3), a member of the family Alloherpesviridae is the causative agent of a lethal, highly contagious and notifiable disease in common and koi carp. The economic importance of common and koi carp industries together with the rapid spread of CyHV-3 worldwide, explain why this virus became soon after its isolation in the 1990s a subject of applied research. In addition to its economic importance, an increasing number of fundamental studies demonstrated that CyHV-3 is an original and interesting subject for fundamental research. In this review, we summarized recent advances in CyHV-3 research with a special interest for studies related to host-virus interactions. PMID:24073814

  17. CLINICAL INFECTION OF TWO CAPTIVE ASIAN ELEPHANTS (ELEPHAS MAXIMUS) WITH ELEPHANT ENDOTHELIOTROPIC HERPESVIRUS 1B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuery, Angela; Tan, Jie; Peng, RongSheng; Flanagan, Joseph P; Tocidlowski, Maryanne E; Howard, Lauren L; Ling, Paul D

    2016-03-01

    The ability of prior infection from one elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV) type to protect against clinical or lethal infection from others remains an important question. This report describes viremia and subsequent shedding of EEHV1B in two juvenile 4-yr-old Asian elephants within 3 wk or 2 mo following significant infections caused by the rarely seen EEHV4. High levels of EEHV1B shedding were detected in the first elephant prior to emergence of infection and viremia in the second animal. The EEHV1B virus associated with both infections was identical to the strain causing infection in two herd mates previously. High EEHV viremia correlated with leukopenia and thrombocytopenia, which was followed by leukocytosis and thrombocytosis when clinical signs started to resolve. The observations from these cases should be beneficial for helping other institutions monitor and treat elephants infected with EEHV1, the most common virus associated with lethal hemorrhagic disease.

  18. Comparison of genomes of malignant catarrhal fever-associated herpesviruses by restriction endonuclease analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, L M; Zee, Y C; Castro, A E

    1989-01-01

    The restriction endonuclease DNA cleavage patterns of eight isolates of malignant catarrhal fever-associated herpesviruses were examined using the restriction endonucleases HindIII and EcoRI. The eight viruses could be assigned to two distinct groups. Virus isolates from a blue wildebeest, a sika deer and an ibex had restriction endonuclease DNA cleavage patterns that were in general similar to each other. The restriction pattern of these three viruses was distinct from the other five. Of these five, four were isolated from a greater kudu, a white tailed wildebeest, a white bearded wildebeest, and a cape hartebeest. The fifth isolate C500, was isolated from a domestic cow with malignant catarrhal fever. These five viruses had similar DNA cleavage patterns.

  19. ISOLASI KOI HERPESVIRUS (KHV DARI BEBERAPA ORGAN TARGET DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN KULTUR SEL KT-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuti Sumiati

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Kasus kematian massal pada ikan mas dan koi (Cyprinus carpio yang disebabkan oleh koi herpesvirus (KHV terjadi sejak tahun 2002 dan masih berlangsung hingga sekarang. Pemilihan sampel yang tepat sangat penting untuk mendeteksi dan mengidentifikasi penyakit KHV tersebut. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui jaringan yang menjadi target infeksi KHV dengan cara isolasi virus menggunakan kultur sel KT-2. Kultur sel diinokulasi dengan ekstrak jaringan organ target (otak, mata, insang, ginjal, limfa, hati, jantung, dan usus, serta gabungan insang, ginjal, dan limfa dan diinkubasi pada suhu 25oC selama 14 hari. Kerusakan sel terjadi pada kultur sel yang diinokulasi dengan ekstrak dari jaringan insang, ginjal dan gabungan organ insang, ginjal, dan limfa. Uji PCR dari media kultur dan sel yang mengalami CPE menunjukkan bahwa CPE disebabkan oleh KHV.

  20. Structural similarities in DNA packaging and delivery apparatuses in Herpesvirus and dsDNA bacteriophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rixon, Frazer J; Schmid, Michael F

    2014-04-01

    Structural information can inform our understanding of virus origins and evolution. The herpesviruses and tailed bacteriophages constitute two large families of dsDNA viruses which infect vertebrates and prokaryotes respectively. A relationship between these disparate groups was initially suggested by similarities in their capsid assembly and DNA packaging strategies. This relationship has now been confirmed by a range of studies that have revealed common structural features in their capsid proteins, and similar organizations and sequence conservation in their DNA packaging machinery and maturational proteases. This concentration of conserved traits in proteins involved in essential and primordial capsid/packaging functions is evidence that these structures are derived from an ancient, common ancestor and is in sharp contrast to the lack of such evidence for other virus functions. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. [Human herpesvirus-6 pneumonitis following autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitoh, Yuu; Gotoh, Moritaka; Yoshizawa, Seiichiro; Akahane, Daigo; Fujimoto, Hiroaki; Ito, Yoshikazu; Ohyashiki, Kazuma

    2018-01-01

    A-46-year-old man was diagnosed with peripheral T cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified. He achieved a complete remission after pirarubicin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and prednisolone (THP-COP) therapy and successful autologous peripheral blood stem-cell transplantation (AutoSCT). However, 6 months post AutoSCT, he complained of fever. Chest computed tomography of the patient displayed bilateral interstitial pneumonitis. Human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) DNA was detected in his bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Therefore, the patient was confirmed for HHV-6 pneumonitis. The treatment with foscarnet was effective, and no relapse was noticed in the patient. Besides, we have experienced pneumonitis of unknown origin in some patients after autologous or allogeneic stem-cell transplantations. Moreover, most of the above patients were clinically diagnosed using serum or plasma markers. Therefore, examining respiratory symptoms after AutoSCT would enable a more accurate diagnosis as well as treatment of patients with HHV-6 pneumonitis.

  2. A Genomic Approach to Unravel Host-Pathogen Interaction in Chelonians: The Example of Testudinid Herpesvirus 3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco C Origgi

    Full Text Available We report the first de novo sequence assembly and analysis of the genome of Testudinid herpesvirus 3 (TeHV3, one of the most pathogenic chelonian herpesviruses. The genome of TeHV3 is at least 150,080 nucleotides long, is arranged in a type D configuration and comprises at least 102 open reading frames extensively co-linear with those of Human herpesvirus 1. Consistently, the phylogenetic analysis positions TeHV3 among the Alphaherpesvirinae, closely associated with Chelonid herpesvirus 5, a Scutavirus. To date, there has been limited genetic characterization of TeHVs and a resolution beyond the genotype was not feasible because of the lack of informative DNA sequences. To exemplify the potential benefits of the novel genomic information provided by this first whole genome analysis, we selected the glycoprotein B (gB gene, for detailed comparison among different TeHV3 isolates. The rationale for selecting gB is that it encodes for a well-conserved protein among herpesviruses but is coupled with a relevant antigenicity and is consequently prone to accumulate single nucleotide polymorphisms. These features were considered critical for an ideal phylogenetic marker to investigate the potential existence of distinct TeHV3 genogroups and their associated pathology. Fifteen captive tortoises presumptively diagnosed to be infected with TeHVs or carrying compatible lesions on the basis of either the presence of intranuclear inclusions (presumptively infected and/or diphtheronecrotic stomatitis-glossitis or pneumonia (compatible lesions were selected for the study. Viral isolation, TeHV identification, phylogenetic analysis and pathological characterization of the associated lesions, were performed. Our results revealed 1 the existence of at least two distinct TeHV3 genogroups apparently associated with different pathologies in tortoises and 2 the first evidence for a putative homologous recombination event having occurred in a chelonian herpesvirus. This

  3. A Genomic Approach to Unravel Host-Pathogen Interaction in Chelonians: The Example of Testudinid Herpesvirus 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Origgi, Francesco C.; Tecilla, Marco; Pilo, Paola; Aloisio, Fabio; Otten, Patricia; Aguilar-Bultet, Lisandra; Sattler, Ursula; Roccabianca, Paola; Romero, Carlos H.; Bloom, David C.; Jacobson, Elliott R.

    2015-01-01

    We report the first de novo sequence assembly and analysis of the genome of Testudinid herpesvirus 3 (TeHV3), one of the most pathogenic chelonian herpesviruses. The genome of TeHV3 is at least 150,080 nucleotides long, is arranged in a type D configuration and comprises at least 102 open reading frames extensively co-linear with those of Human herpesvirus 1. Consistently, the phylogenetic analysis positions TeHV3 among the Alphaherpesvirinae, closely associated with Chelonid herpesvirus 5, a Scutavirus. To date, there has been limited genetic characterization of TeHVs and a resolution beyond the genotype was not feasible because of the lack of informative DNA sequences. To exemplify the potential benefits of the novel genomic information provided by this first whole genome analysis, we selected the glycoprotein B (gB) gene, for detailed comparison among different TeHV3 isolates. The rationale for selecting gB is that it encodes for a well-conserved protein among herpesviruses but is coupled with a relevant antigenicity and is consequently prone to accumulate single nucleotide polymorphisms. These features were considered critical for an ideal phylogenetic marker to investigate the potential existence of distinct TeHV3 genogroups and their associated pathology. Fifteen captive tortoises presumptively diagnosed to be infected with TeHVs or carrying compatible lesions on the basis of either the presence of intranuclear inclusions (presumptively infected) and/or diphtheronecrotic stomatitis-glossitis or pneumonia (compatible lesions) were selected for the study. Viral isolation, TeHV identification, phylogenetic analysis and pathological characterization of the associated lesions, were performed. Our results revealed 1) the existence of at least two distinct TeHV3 genogroups apparently associated with different pathologies in tortoises and 2) the first evidence for a putative homologous recombination event having occurred in a chelonian herpesvirus. This novel

  4. Isolation and characterisation of a ruminant alphaherpesvirus closely related to bovine herpesvirus 1 in a free-ranging red deer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belák Sándor

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genus Varicellovirus of the Herpesviridae subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae includes a cluster of viruses antigenically and genetically related to bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1: namely bovine herpesvirus 5 (BoHV-5, bubaline herpesvirus 1 (BuHV-1, caprine herpesvirus 1 (CpHV-1, cervid herpesviruses 1 (CvHV-1 and 2 (CvHV-2 and elk herpesvirus 1 (ElkHV-1. Considering the serological relationship between these ruminant alphaherpesviruses, several surveys have studied the occurrence of BoHV-1 related virus infection in wild and domestic ruminant species. In this way, a recent investigation has indicated, in Belgium, a high increase in the serological prevalence of BoHV-1 related virus infection in free-ranging red deer population. In this context, it has been decided to investigate the presence of an alphaherpesvirus spreading in the Belgian free-ranging red deer population. Results The current study reports the first isolation in a free-ranging red deer of a BoHV-1 closely related virus. The isolate was antigenically, genomically and genetically characterised by comparison with several ruminant alphaherpesvirus. Immunofluorescence assays revealed the isolate was antigenically distinct from bovine and caprine alphaherpesviruses. Similarly, BamHI and BstEII restriction analyses demonstrated the genomic difference between the isolate and the other ruminant alphaherpesviruses. Next, the sequencing of selected parts of UL27 and US8 genes showed a high degree of homologies between each BoHV-1 related ruminant alphaherpesvirus and the isolate. Besides the close relationship between all ruminant alphaherpesviruses, the phylogenetic analysis revealed that the isolate clustered with CvHV-1. Conclusion The first isolation of a virus closely related to BoHV-1 in a free-ranging red deer is reported. Data demonstrate that a CvHV-1 strain, named Anlier, circulates in wild red deer in continental Europe. Anlier strain show consistent differences

  5. The Human Hookworm Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotez, Peter J; Diemert, David; Bacon, Kristina M; Beaumier, Coreen; Bethony, Jeffrey M; Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Brooker, Simon; Couto, Artur Roberto; Freire, Marcos da Silva; Homma, Akira; Lee, Bruce Y; Loukas, Alex; Loblack, Marva; Morel, Carlos Medicis; Oliveira, Rodrigo Correa; Russell, Philip K

    2013-04-18

    Hookworm infection is one of the world's most common neglected tropical diseases and a leading cause of iron deficiency anemia in low- and middle-income countries. A Human Hookworm Vaccine is currently being developed by the Sabin Vaccine Institute and is in phase 1 clinical testing. The candidate vaccine is comprised of two recombinant antigens known as Na-GST-1 and Na-APR-1, each of which is an important parasite enzyme required for hookworms to successfully utilize host blood as a source of energy. The recombinant proteins are formulated on Alhydrogel(®) and are being tested in combination with a synthetic Toll-like receptor 4 agonist. The aim of the vaccine is to induce anti-enzyme antibodies that will reduce both host blood loss and the number of hookworms attached to the gut. Transfer of the manufacturing technology to the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (FIOCRUZ)/Bio-Manguinhos (a Brazilian public sector developing country vaccine manufacturer) is planned, with a clinical development plan that could lead to registration of the vaccine in Brazil. The vaccine would also need to be introduced in the poorest regions of Africa and Asia, where hookworm infection is highly endemic. Ultimately, the vaccine could become an essential tool for achieving hookworm control and elimination, a key target in the 2012 London Declaration on Neglected Tropical Diseases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Pricing of new vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bruce Y; McGlone, Sarah M

    2010-08-01

    New vaccine pricing is a complicated process that could have substantial long-standing scientific, medical, and public health ramifications. Pricing can have a considerable impact on new vaccine adoption and, thereby, either culminate or thwart years of research and development and public health efforts. Typically, pricing strategy consists of the following ten components: 1. Conduct a target population analysis; 2. Map potential competitors and alternatives; 3. Construct a vaccine target product profile (TPP) and compare it to projected or actual TPPs of competing vaccines; 4. Quantify the incremental value of the new vaccine's characteristics; 5. Determine vaccine positioning in the marketplace; 6. Estimate the vaccine price-demand curve; 7. Calculate vaccine costs (including those of manufacturing, distribution, and research and development); 8. Account for various legal, regulatory, third party payer, and competitor factors; 9. Consider the overall product portfolio; 10. Set pricing objectives; 11. Select pricing and pricing structure. While the biomedical literature contains some studies that have addressed these components, there is still considerable room for more extensive evaluation of this important area.

  7. Pricing of new vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlone, Sarah M

    2010-01-01

    New vaccine pricing is a complicated process that could have substantial long-standing scientific, medical and public health ramifications. Pricing can have a considerable impact on new vaccine adoption and, thereby, either culminate or thwart years of research and development and public health efforts. Typically, pricing strategy consists of the following eleven components: (1) Conduct a target population analysis; (2) Map potential competitors and alternatives; (3) Construct a vaccine target product profile (TPP) and compare it to projected or actual TPPs of competing vaccines; (4) Quantify the incremental value of the new vaccine's characteristics; (5) Determine vaccine positioning in the marketplace; (6) Estimate the vaccine price-demand curve; (7) Calculate vaccine costs (including those of manufacturing, distribution, and research and development); (8) Account for various legal, regulatory, third party payer and competitor factors; (9) Consider the overall product portfolio; (10) Set pricing objectives; (11) Select pricing and pricing structure. While the biomedical literature contains some studies that have addressed these components, there is still considerable room for more extensive evaluation of this important area. PMID:20861678

  8. Acceptance of vaccination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehmann, B.; Eilers, R.; Donken, R.; Barug, D.; Swillens, J.; Vriend, C. de; Weerdenburg, S.; Pot, M.; Keulen, H. van; Paulussen, T.; Vermey, K.; Alberts, N.; Marra, E.; Melker, H.E. de; Mollema, L.

    2016-01-01

    Both in 2013 and 2015 the mean intention of parents to vaccinate their child was high. Only 21% of parents reported making an informed decision about childhood vaccinations included in the NIP. Mass media attention on the use of allegedly inferior needles, which was later refuted, appeared to have a

  9. Vaccines Stop Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the disease no longer exists. If we keep vaccinating now, parents in the future may be able to trust that diseases like polio and meningitis won't infect, cripple, or kill children. Vaccine Safety In light of recent questions about ...

  10. Chimeric Pestivirus Experimental Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimann, Ilona; Blome, Sandra; Beer, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Chimeric pestiviruses have shown great potential as marker vaccine candidates against pestiviral infections. Exemplarily, we describe here the construction and testing of the most promising classical swine fever vaccine candidate "CP7_E2alf" in detail. The description is focused on classical cloning technologies in combination with reverse genetics.

  11. Vaccination Perceptions of College Students: With and without Vaccination Waiver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhav, Emmanuel D; Winkler, Danielle L; Anderson, Billie S

    2018-01-01

    The resurgence of vaccine preventable diseases occurs more often among intentionally unvaccinated individuals, placing at direct risk young adults not caught up on vaccinations. The objectives of this study were to characterize the sociodemographic characteristics of young adults with and without vaccination waivers and identify their perceived benefits, barriers, and influencers of vaccination. Young adults ( n  = 964) from a Midwestern rural university responded to a survey (fall 2015-spring 2016) designed to identify their perception toward vaccination. Instrument consistency was measured using the Cronbach α-scores. The Chi-square test was used to test any sociodemographic differences and Mann-Whitney U -tests results for differences between exempt and non-exempt students. Analysis occurred in spring 2017. A little over one-third of young adults with a vaccination waiver were not up to date on their vaccinations, and think that vaccinations can cause autism. The biggest identifiable benefit was effective control against disease. The surveyed young adults ranked the out of pocket cost associated with vaccination as the most important barrier and safe and easy to use vaccines as the most important influencer of vaccination. Young adults who have had a vaccination waiver appear to not be up to date on their vaccinations. Vaccine administration programs, such as university campus clinics, would benefit from addressing perceptions unique to young adults with and without a vaccine waiver. This would subsequently better provide young adults a second shot for getting appropriately caught up on vaccinations.

  12. The epigenetic landscape of latent Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Günther

    Full Text Available Herpesvirus latency is generally thought to be governed by epigenetic modifications, but the dynamics of viral chromatin at early timepoints of latent infection are poorly understood. Here, we report a comprehensive spatial and temporal analysis of DNA methylation and histone modifications during latent infection with Kaposi Sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV, the etiologic agent of Kaposi Sarcoma and primary effusion lymphoma (PEL. By use of high resolution tiling microarrays in conjunction with immunoprecipitation of methylated DNA (MeDIP or modified histones (chromatin IP, ChIP, our study revealed highly distinct landscapes of epigenetic modifications associated with latent KSHV infection in several tumor-derived cell lines as well as de novo infected endothelial cells. We find that KSHV genomes are subject to profound methylation at CpG dinucleotides, leading to the establishment of characteristic global DNA methylation patterns. However, such patterns evolve slowly and thus are unlikely to control early latency. In contrast, we observed that latency-specific histone modification patterns were rapidly established upon a de novo infection. Our analysis furthermore demonstrates that such patterns are not characterized by the absence of activating histone modifications, as H3K9/K14-ac and H3K4-me3 marks were prominently detected at several loci, including the promoter of the lytic cycle transactivator Rta. While these regions were furthermore largely devoid of the constitutive heterochromatin marker H3K9-me3, we observed rapid and widespread deposition of H3K27-me3 across latent KSHV genomes, a bivalent modification which is able to repress transcription in spite of the simultaneous presence of activating marks. Our findings suggest that the modification patterns identified here induce a poised state of repression during viral latency, which can be rapidly reversed once the lytic cycle is induced.

  13. Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus infection and Kaposi's sarcoma in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ramos-da-Silva

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Kaposi's sarcoma (KS became a critical health issue with the emergence of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS in the 1980s. Four clinical-epidemiological forms of KS have been described: classical KS, endemic KS, iatrogenic KS, and AIDS-associated KS. In 1994, Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV or human herpesvirus type 8 was identified by Chang and colleagues, and has been detected worldwide at frequencies ranging from 80 to 100%. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the frequency of KSHV infection in KS lesions from HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients in Brazil, as well as to review the current knowledge about KS transmission and detection. For these purposes, DNA from 51 cases of KS was assessed by PCR: 20 (39.2% cases of classical KS, 29 (56.9% of AIDS-associated KS and 2 (3.9% of iatrogenic KS. Most patients were males (7.5:1, M/F, and mean age was 47.9 years (SD = ± 18.7 years. As expected, HIV-positive KS patients were younger than patients with classical KS. On the other hand, patients with AIDS-associated KS have early lesions (patch and plaque compared to classical KS patients (predominantly nodular lesions. This is assumed to be the result of the early diagnose of KS in the HIV-positive setting. KSHV infection was detected by PCR in almost all cases (48/51; 94.1%, irrespectively of the clinical-epidemiological form of KS. These results show that KSHV is associated with all forms of KS in Brazilian patients, a fact that supports the role of this virus in KS pathogenesis.

  14. Critical role of the lipid rafts in caprine herpesvirus type 1 infection in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratelli, Annamaria; Colao, Valeriana

    2016-01-04

    The fusion machinery for herpesvirus entry in the host cells involves the interactions of viral glycoproteins with cellular receptors, although additional viral and cellular domains are required. Extensive areas of the plasma membrane surface consist of lipid rafts organized into cholesterol-rich microdomains involved in signal transduction, protein sorting, membrane transport and in many processes of viruses infection. Because of the extraction of cholesterol leads to disorganization of lipid microdomains and to dissociation of proteins bound to the lipid rafts, we investigated the effect of cholesterol depletion by methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD) on caprine herpesvirus 1 (CpHV.1) in three important phases of virus infection such as binding, entry and post-entry. MβCD treatment did not prejudice virus binding to cells, while a dose-dependent reduction of the virus yield was observed at the virus entry stage, and 30 mM MβCD reduced infectivity evidently. Treatment of MDBK after virus entry revealed a moderate inhibitory effect suggesting that cholesterol is mainly required during virus entry rather than during the post-entry stage. Alteration of the envelope lipid composition affected virus entry and a noticeable reduction in virus infectivity was detected in the presence of 15 mM MβCD. Considering that the recognition of a host cell receptor is a crucial step in the start-up phase of infection, these data are essential for the study of CpHV.1 pathogenesis. To date virus receptors for CpHV.1 have not yet been identified and further investigations are required to state that MβCD treatment affects the expression of the viral receptors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Diagnostic validation of three test methods for detection of cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clouthier, Sharon C; McClure, Carol; Schroeder, Tamara; Desai, Megan; Hawley, Laura; Khatkar, Sunita; Lindsay, Melissa; Lowe, Geoff; Richard, Jon; Anderson, Eric D

    2017-03-06

    Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) is the aetiological agent of koi herpesvirus disease in koi and common carp. The disease is notifiable to the World Organisation for Animal Health. Three tests-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), conventional PCR (cPCR) and virus isolation by cell culture (VI)-were validated to assess their fitness as diagnostic tools for detection of CyHV-3. Test performance metrics of diagnostic accuracy were sensitivity (DSe) and specificity (DSp). Repeatability and reproducibility were measured to assess diagnostic precision. Estimates of test accuracy, in the absence of a gold standard reference test, were generated using latent class models. Test samples originated from wild common carp naturally exposed to CyHV-3 or domesticated koi either virus free or experimentally infected with the virus. Three laboratories in Canada participated in the precision study. Moderate to high repeatability (81 to 99%) and reproducibility (72 to 97%) were observed for the qPCR and cPCR tests. The lack of agreement observed between some of the PCR test pair results was attributed to cross-contamination of samples with CyHV-3 nucleic acid. Accuracy estimates for the PCR tests were 99% for DSe and 93% for DSp. Poor precision was observed for the VI test (4 to 95%). Accuracy estimates for VI/qPCR were 90% for DSe and 88% for DSp. Collectively, the results show that the CyHV-3 qPCR test is a suitable tool for surveillance, presumptive diagnosis and certification of individuals or populations as CyHV-3 free.

  16. The Role of microRNAs in the Pathogenesis of Herpesvirus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piedade, Diogo; Azevedo-Pereira, José Miguel

    2016-06-02

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs important in gene regulation. They are able to regulate mRNA translation through base-pair complementarity. Cellular miRNAs have been involved in the regulation of nearly all cellular pathways, and their deregulation has been associated with several diseases such as cancer. Given the importance of microRNAs to cell homeostasis, it is no surprise that viruses have evolved to take advantage of this cellular pathway. Viruses have been reported to be able to encode and express functional viral microRNAs that target both viral and cellular transcripts. Moreover, viral inhibition of key proteins from the microRNA pathway and important changes in cellular microRNA pool have been reported upon viral infection. In addition, viruses have developed multiple mechanisms to avoid being targeted by cellular microRNAs. This complex interaction between host and viruses to control the microRNA pathway usually favors viral infection and persistence by either reducing immune detection, avoiding apoptosis, promoting cell growth, or promoting lytic or latent infection. One of the best examples of this virus-host-microRNA interplay emanates from members of the Herperviridae family, namely the herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2), human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8), and the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). In this review, we will focus on the general functions of microRNAs and the interactions between herpesviruses, human hosts, and microRNAs and will delve into the related mechanisms that contribute to infection and pathogenesis.

  17. Genetic variation and dynamics of infections of equid herpesvirus 5 in individual horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, Helena; Ullman, Karin; Leijon, Mikael; Söderlund, Robert; Penell, Johanna; Ståhl, Karl; Pringle, John; Valarcher, Jean-François

    2016-01-01

    Equid herpesvirus 5 (EHV-5) is related to the human Epstein-Barr virus (human herpesvirus 4) and has frequently been observed in equine populations worldwide. EHV-5 was previously assumed to be low to non-pathogenic; however, studies have also related the virus to the severe lung disease equine multinodular pulmonary fibrosis (EMPF). Genetic information of EHV-5 is scanty: the whole genome was recently described and only limited nucleotide sequences are available. In this study, samples were taken twice 1 year apart from eight healthy horses at the same professional training yard and samples from a ninth horse that was diagnosed with EMPF with samples taken pre- and post-mortem to analyse partial glycoprotein B (gB) gene of EHV-5 by using next-generation sequencing. The analysis resulted in 27 partial gB gene sequences, 11 unique sequence types and five amino acid sequences. These sequences could be classified within four genotypes (I-IV) of the EHV-5 gB gene based on the degree of similarity of the nucleotide and amino acid sequences, and in this work horses were shown to be identified with up to three different genotypes simultaneously. The observations showed a range of interactions between EHV-5 and the host over time, where the same virus persists in some horses, whereas others have a more dynamic infection pattern including strains from different genotypes. This study provides insight into the genetic variation and dynamics of EHV-5, and highlights that further work is needed to understand the EHV-5 interaction with its host.

  18. Meningoencefalite por herpesvírus bovino-5 Meningoencephalitis by bovine herpesvirus-5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel R. Rissi

    2007-07-01

    testar sorologicamente os bovinos a serem introduzidos nos rebanhos, minimizar situações de estresse, sobretudo no desmame, e isolamento dos bovinos afetados.Meningoencephalitis caused by bovine herpesvirus-5 (BoHV-5 is an often fatal, acute or subacute infectious disease that affects mainly young cattle under stressing conditions. The disease has been recognized in several Brazilian regions and in other parts of the world. BoHV-5 is a double stranded DNA virus member of the Herpesviridae family and subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae. The virus is characterized by rapid and lytic replication in cell cultures and by the ability to establish lifelong latent infection in sensory nerve ganglia of the host. BoHV-5 is transmitted mainly by direct and indirect contact and replicates acutely in the oral, nasal, oropharingeal or ocular mucosae. After primary replication, the virus invades nerve endings and is transported to the neuron cell bodies of the sensory ganglia where it replicates actively and/or establishes latency. Viral invasion of the brain may result in massive virus replication and production of neurological disease. Virtually all cattle developing neurological disease die of meningoencephalitis; yet the infection may be subclinical in some animals. These animals recover and become latently infected. Viral dissemination within a herd is facilitated by conditions such as crowding, introduction of cattle from other herds and weaning of calves in ages that coincide with decrease of passive immunity. Certain natural or induced conditions may reactivate the latent virus and favor its transmission and dissemination to other susceptible individuals. The disease may occur as outbreaks or as sporadic cases, with morbidity rates ranging of 0.05%-5%; lethality is almost always 100%. Clinical signs include depression, nasal and ocular discharge, grinding of teeth, circling, blindness, fever, paddling movements, disphagia, abdominal pain, nystagmus, muscle tremors, drooling

  19. DNA fusion gene vaccines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Peter Johannes; Bassi, Maria Rosaria; Thomsen, Allan Randrup

    2010-01-01

    DNA vaccines are versatile and safe, but limited immunogenicity has prevented their use in the clinical setting. Experimentally, immunogenicity may be enhanced by the use of new delivery technologies, by coadministration of cytokines and pathogen-associated molecular patterns, or by fusion...... of antigens into molecular domains that enhance antigen presentation. More specifically, the immunogenicity of DNA vaccines may benefit from increased protein synthesis, increased T-cell help and MHC class I presentation, and the addition of a range of specific cytokines and pathogen-associated molecular...... with viral-vectored vaccines, various synergistic components may need to be incorporated into DNA vaccines. From the perspective of the future clinical use of DNA vaccines, it has been suggested that antigen presentation should be improved and cytokine coadministration attempted. However, even...

  20. Financing children's vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, E Anthony S; Sack, David; Wolfson, Lara; Walker, Damian G; Seng, Lim Fong; Steele, Duncan

    2009-11-20

    A 2006 Commonwealth Association of Paediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition workshop on financing children's vaccines highlighted the potential for vaccines to control diarrhoea and other diseases as well as spur economic development through better health. Clear communication of vaccination value to decision-makers is required, together with sustainable funding mechanisms. GAVI and partners have made great progress providing funding for vaccines for children in the poorest countries but other solutions may be required to achieve the same gains in middle- and high-income countries. World Health Organization has a wealth of freely available country-level data on immunisation that academics and advocates can use to communicate the economic and health benefits of vaccines to decision-makers.

  1. Next generation vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedmann, Eva M

    2011-07-01

    In February this year, about 100 delegates gathered for three days in Vienna (Austria) for the Next Generation Vaccines conference. The meeting held in the Vienna Hilton Hotel from 23rd-25th February 2011 had a strong focus on biotech and industry. The conference organizer Jacob Fleming managed to put together a versatile program ranging from the future generation of vaccines to manufacturing, vaccine distribution and delivery, to regulatory and public health issues. Carefully selected top industry experts presented first-hand experience and shared solutions for overcoming the latest challenges in the field of vaccinology. The program also included several case study presentations on novel vaccine candidates in different stages of development. An interactive pre-conference workshop as well as interactive panel discussions during the meeting allowed all delegates to gain new knowledge and become involved in lively discussions on timely, interesting and sometimes controversial topics related to vaccines.

  2. HIV vaccines: new frontiers in vaccine development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerr, Ann; Wasserheit, Judith N; Corey, Lawrence

    2006-08-15

    A human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) vaccine is the most promising and feasible strategy to prevent the events during acute infection that simultaneously set the course of the epidemic in the community and the course of the disease for the individual. Because safety concerns limit the use of live, attenuated HIV and inactivated HIV, a variety of alternate approaches is being investigated. Traditional antibody-mediated approaches using recombinant HIV envelope proteins have shown no efficacy in 2 phase III trials. Current HIV vaccine trials are focusing primarily on cytotoxic T lymphocyte-mediated products that use viral vectors, either alone or as boosts to DNA plasmids that contain viral genes. The most immunogenic of these products appear to be the recombinant adenovirus vector vaccines, 2 of which are now in advanced clinical development.

  3. Laser vaccine adjuvants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashiwagi, Satoshi; Brauns, Timothy; Gelfand, Jeffrey; Poznansky, Mark C

    2014-01-01

    Immunologic adjuvants are essential for current vaccines to maximize their efficacy. Unfortunately, few have been found to be sufficiently effective and safe for regulatory authorities to permit their use in vaccines for humans and none have been approved for use with intradermal vaccines. The development of new adjuvants with the potential to be both efficacious and safe constitutes a significant need in modern vaccine practice. The use of non-damaging laser light represents a markedly different approach to enhancing immune responses to a vaccine antigen, particularly with intradermal vaccination. This approach, which was initially explored in Russia and further developed in the US, appears to significantly improve responses to both prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines administered to the laser-exposed tissue, particularly the skin. Although different types of lasers have been used for this purpose and the precise molecular mechanism(s) of action remain unknown, several approaches appear to modulate dendritic cell trafficking and/or activation at the irradiation site via the release of specific signaling molecules from epithelial cells. The most recent study, performed by the authors of this review, utilized a continuous wave near-infrared laser that may open the path for the development of a safe, effective, low-cost, simple-to-use laser vaccine adjuvant that could be used in lieu of conventional adjuvants, particularly with intradermal vaccines. In this review, we summarize the initial Russian studies that have given rise to this approach and comment upon recent advances in the use of non-tissue damaging lasers as novel physical adjuvants for vaccines. PMID:25424797

  4. Vaccines for canine leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarisa B. Palatnik-De-Sousa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is the third most important vector-borne disease worldwide. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL is a severe and frequently lethal protozoan disease of increasing incidence and severity due to infected human and dog migration, new geographical distribution of the insect due to global-warming, co-infection with immunosuppressive diseases and poverty. The disease is an anthroponosis in India and Central Africa and a canid zoonosis (ZVL in the Americas, the Middle East, Central Asia, China and the Mediterranean. The ZVL epidemic has been controlled by one or more measures including the culling of infected dogs, treatment of human cases and insecticidal treatment of homes and dogs. However, the use of vaccines is considered the most cost-effective control tool for human and canine disease. Since the severity of the disease is related to the generation of T-cell immunosuppression, effective vaccines should be capable of sustaining or enhancing the T-cell immunity. In this review we summarize the clinical and parasitological characteristics of ZVL with special focus on the cellular and humoral canine immune response and review state-of-the-art vaccine development against human and canine visceral leishmaniasis. Experimental vaccination against leishmaniasis has evolved from the practice of leishmanization with living parasites to vaccination with crude lysates, native parasite extracts to recombinant and DNA vaccination. Although more than 30 defined vaccines have been studied in laboratory models no human formulation has been licensed so far; however three second-generation canine vaccines have already been registered. As expected for a zoonotic disease, the recent preventive vaccination of dogs in Brazil has led to a reduction in the incidence of canine and human disease. The recent identification of several Leishmania proteins with T-cell epitopes anticipates development of a multiprotein vaccine that will be capable of protecting both humans

  5. Vaccination in food allergic patients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most people do not react to vaccination and the incidence of vaccine anaphylaxis is estimated to be <1/million for all vaccines.[1] Most anaphylactic reactions occur in non-food allergic children. It is strongly recommended that anyone admin- istering vaccines has resuscitation equipment available to manage potential ...

  6. Parental knowledge of paediatric vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borràs Eva

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although routine vaccination is a major tool in the primary prevention of some infectious diseases, there is some reluctance in a proportion of the population. Negative parental perceptions of vaccination are an important barrier to paediatric vaccination. The aim of this study was to investigate parental knowledge of paediatric vaccines and vaccination in Catalonia. Methods A retrospective, cross-sectional study was carried out in children aged Results An association was observed between greater vaccination coverage of the 4:4:4:3:1 schedule (defined as: 4 DTPa/w doses, 4 Hib doses, 4 OPV doses, 3 MenC doses and 1 MMR dose and maternal age >30 years (OR: 2.30; 95% CI: 1.20–4.43 and with a knowledge of vaccination score greater than the mean (OR: 0.45; 95% CI: 0.28–0.72. The score increased with maternal educational level and in parents of vaccinated children. A total of 20.47% of parents stated that vaccines could have undesirable consequences for their children. Of these, 23.26% had no specific information and 17.83% stated that vaccines can cause adverse reactions and the same percentage stated that vaccines cause allergies and asthma. Conclusion Higher vaccination coverage is associated with older maternal age and greater knowledge of vaccination. Vaccination coverage could be raised by improving information on vaccines and vaccination.

  7. Bioinformatics analysis of Brucella vaccines and vaccine targets using VIOLIN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yongqun; Xiang, Zuoshuang

    2010-09-27

    Brucella spp. are Gram-negative, facultative intracellular bacteria that cause brucellosis, one of the commonest zoonotic diseases found worldwide in humans and a variety of animal species. While several animal vaccines are available, there is no effective and safe vaccine for prevention of brucellosis in humans. VIOLIN (http://www.violinet.org) is a web-based vaccine database and analysis system that curates, stores, and analyzes published data of commercialized vaccines, and vaccines in clinical trials or in research. VIOLIN contains information for 454 vaccines or vaccine candidates for 73 pathogens. VIOLIN also contains many bioinformatics tools for vaccine data analysis, data integration, and vaccine target prediction. To demonstrate the applicability of VIOLIN for vaccine research, VIOLIN was used for bioinformatics analysis of existing Brucella vaccines and prediction of new Brucella vaccine targets. VIOLIN contains many literature mining programs (e.g., Vaxmesh) that provide in-depth analysis of Brucella vaccine literature. As a result of manual literature curation, VIOLIN contains information for 38 Brucella vaccines or vaccine candidates, 14 protective Brucella antigens, and 68 host response studies to Brucella vaccines from 97 peer-reviewed articles. These Brucella vaccines are classified in the Vaccine Ontology (VO) system and used for different ontological applications. The web-based VIOLIN vaccine target prediction program Vaxign was used to predict new Brucella vaccine targets. Vaxign identified 14 outer membrane proteins that are conserved in six virulent strains from B. abortus, B. melitensis, and B. suis that are pathogenic in humans. Of the 14 membrane proteins, two proteins (Omp2b and Omp31-1) are not present in B. ovis, a Brucella species that is not pathogenic in humans. Brucella vaccine data stored in VIOLIN were compared and analyzed using the VIOLIN query system. Bioinformatics curation and ontological representation of Brucella vaccines

  8. A rabies vaccine adjuvanted with saponins from leaves of the soap tree (Quillaja brasiliensis) induces specific immune responses and protects against lethal challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yendo, Anna Carolina A; de Costa, Fernanda; Cibulski, Samuel P; Teixeira, Thais F; Colling, Luana C; Mastrogiovanni, Mauricio; Soulé, Silvia; Roehe, Paulo M; Gosmann, Grace; Ferreira, Fernando A; Fett-Neto, Arthur G

    2016-04-29

    Quillaja brasiliensis (Quillajaceae) is a saponin producing species native from southern Brazil and Uruguay. Its saponins are remarkably similar to those of Q. saponaria, which provides most of the saponins used as immunoadjuvants in vaccines. The immunostimulating capacities of aqueous extract (AE) and purified saponin fraction (QB-90) obtained from leaves of Q. brasiliensis were favorably comparable to those of a commercial saponin-based adjuvant preparation (Quil-A) in experimental vaccines against bovine herpesvirus type 1 and 5, poliovirus and bovine viral diarrhea virus in mice model. Herein, the immunogenicity and protection efficacy of rabies vaccines adjuvanted with Q. brasiliensis AE and its saponin fractions were compared with vaccines adjuvanted with either commercial Quil-A or Alum. Mice were vaccinated with one or two doses (on days 0 and 14) of one of the different vaccines and serum levels of total IgG, IgG1 and IgG2a were quantified over time. A challenge experiment with a lethal dose of rabies virus was carried out with the formulations. Viral RNA detection in the brain of mice was performed by qPCR, and RNA copy-numbers were quantified using a standard curve of in vitro transcribed RNA. All Q. brasiliensis saponin-adjuvanted vaccines significantly enhanced levels of specific IgG isotypes when compared with the no adjuvant group (P ≤ 0.05). Overall, one or two doses of saponin-based vaccine were efficient to protect against the lethal rabies exposure. Both AE and saponin fractions from Q. brasiliensis leaves proved potent immunological adjuvants in vaccines against a lethal challenge with a major livestock pathogen, hence confirming their value as competitive or complementary sustainable alternatives to saponins of Q. saponaria. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. [Current events in vaccination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubert, M; Aumaître, H; Beytout, J; Bloch, K; Bouhour, D; Callamand, P; Chave, C; Cheymol, J; Combadière, B; Dahlab, A; Denis, F; De Pontual, L; Dodet, B; Dommergues, M-A; Dufour, V; Gagneur, A; Gaillat, J; Gaudelus, J; Gavazzi, G; Gillet, Y; Gras-le-Guen, C; Haas, H; Hanslik, T; Hau-Rainsard, I; Larnaudie, S; Launay, O; Lorrot, M; Loulergue, P; Malvy, D; Marchand, S; Picherot, G; Pinquier, D; Pulcini, C; Rabaud, C; Regnier, F; Reinert, P; Sana, C; Savagner, C; Soubeyrand, B; Stephan, J-L; Strady, C

    2011-11-01

    The annual meeting of the Infectious Disease Society of America (IDSA) ; which brought together nearly 5000 participants from over 80 countries in Vancouver, Canada, October 21 to 24, 2010 ; provided a review of the influenza (H1N1) 2009 pandemic, evaluated vaccination programmes and presented new vaccines under development. With 12,500 deaths in the United States in 2009-2010, the influenza (H1N1) 2009 pandemic was actually less deadly than the seasonal flu. But it essentially hit the young, and the toll calculated in years of life lost is high. The monovalent vaccines, whether live attenuated or inactivated with or without adjuvants, were well tolerated in toddlers, children, adults and pregnant women. In order to protect infants against pertussis, family members are urged to get their booster shots. The introduction of the 13-valent Pneumococcal conjugated vaccine in the beginning of 2010 may solve - but for how long ? - the problem of serotype replacement, responsible for the re-increasing incidence of invasive Pneumococcal infections observed in countries that had introduced the 7-valent vaccine. The efficacy of a rotavirus vaccine has been confirmed, with a reduction in hospitalization in the United States and a reduction in gastroenteritis-related deaths in Mexico. In the United States, vaccination of pre-adolescents against human papillomavirus (HPV) has not resulted in any specific undesirable effects. Routine vaccination against chicken pox, recommended since 1995, has not had an impact on the evolution of the incidence of shingles. Vaccination against shingles, recommended in the United States for subjects 60 years and over, shows an effectiveness of 55 %, according to a cohort study (Kaiser Permanente, Southern California). Although some propose the development of personalized vaccines according to individual genetic characteristics, the priority remains with increasing vaccine coverage, not only in infants but also in adults and the elderly. Vaccine

  10. Technical Transformation of Biodefense Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shan; Wang, Shixia

    2013-01-01

    Biodefense vaccines are developed against a diverse group of pathogens. Vaccines were developed for some of these pathogens a long time ago but they are facing new challenges to move beyond the old manufacturing technologies. New vaccines to be developed against other pathogens have to determine whether to follow traditional vaccination strategies or to seek new approaches. Advances in basic immunology and recombinant DNA technology have fundamentally transformed the process of formulating a vaccine concept, optimizing protective antigens, and selecting the most effective vaccine delivery approach for candidate biodefense vaccines. PMID:19837293

  11. Broad target cell selectivity of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus glycoprotein-mediated cell fusion and virion entry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaleeba, Johnan A.R.; Berger, Edward A.

    2006-01-01

    The molecular mechanism of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV, human herpesvirus 8) entry is poorly understood. We tested a broad variety of cell types of diverse species and tissue origin for their ability to function as targets in a quantitative reporter gene assay for KSHV-glycoprotein-mediated cell fusion. Several human, non-human primate, and rabbit cell lines were efficient targets, whereas rodent and all human lymphoblastoid cell lines were weak targets. Parallel findings were obtained with a virion entry assay using a recombinant KSHV encoding a reporter gene. No correlation was observed between target cell activity and surface expression of α3β1 integrin, a proposed KSHV receptor. We hypothesize that target cell permissiveness in both the cell fusion and virion entry assays reflects the presence of a putative KSHV fusion-entry receptor

  12. Development of a quantitative PCR assay for measurement of trichechid herpesvirus 1 load in the Florida manatee ( Trichechus manatus latirostris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrante, Jason A; Cortés-Hinojosa, Galaxia; Archer, Linda L; Wellehan, James F X

    2017-07-01

    Trichechid herpesvirus 1 (TrHV-1) is currently the only known herpesvirus in any sirenian. We hypothesized that stress may lead to recrudescence of TrHV-1 in manatees, thus making TrHV-1 a potential biomarker of stress. We optimized and validated a TrHV-1 real-time quantitative probe hybridization PCR (qPCR) assay that was used to quantify TrHV-1 in manatee peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Average baseline TrHV-1 loads in a clinically healthy wild Florida manatee ( Trichechus manatus latirostris) population ( n = 42) were 40.9 ± SD 21.2 copies/100 ng DNA; 19 of 42 manatees were positive. TrHV-1 loads were significantly different between the 2 field seasons ( p < 0.025). This optimized and validated qPCR assay may be used as a tool for further research into TrHV-1 in Florida manatees.

  13. Chromosomally Integrated Human Herpesvirus 6: Models of Viral Genome Release from the Telomere and Impacts on Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Michael L; Royle, Nicola J

    2017-07-12

    Human herpesvirus 6A and 6B, alongside some other herpesviruses, have the striking capacity to integrate into telomeres, the terminal repeated regions of chromosomes. The chromosomally integrated forms, ciHHV-6A and ciHHV-6B, are proposed to be a state of latency and it has been shown that they can both be inherited if integration occurs in the germ line. The first step in full viral reactivation must be the release of the integrated viral genome from the telomere and here we propose various models of this release involving transcription of the viral genome, replication fork collapse, and t-circle mediated release. In this review, we also discuss the relationship between ciHHV-6 and the telomere carrying the insertion, particularly how the presence and subsequent partial or complete release of the ciHHV-6 genome may affect telomere dynamics and the risk of disease.

  14. Progress towards a Leishmania vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabbara, Khaled S

    2006-07-01

    Leishmaniasis is a vector-born protozoan disease. Approximately 12 million individuals are affected worldwide with an estimated annual incidence of 1.5-2 million. Two clinical manifestations are recognized, cutaneous, and visceral, both of which are common in the Middle East. In both forms, infection is chronic, with potential deformities, persistence following cure, and lifelong risk of reactivation. Attempts to develop an effective human Leishmania vaccine have not yet succeeded. Leishmanization, a crude form of live vaccination historically originated in this part of the world. Experimental vaccination has been extensively studied in model animals in the past 2 decades. In this review, major human killed vaccine trials are surveyed, and modern trends in Leishmania vaccine development, including subunit vaccines, naked DNA vaccines, and transmission blocking vaccines are explored. Recent findings of a link between persistence of live parasites, and maintenance of long-term immunity suggest live vaccination with attenuated strains, as a future vaccination strategy.

  15. ELEPHANT ENDOTHELIOTROPIC HERPESVIRUS 5, A NEWLY RECOGNIZED ELEPHANT HERPESVIRUS ASSOCIATED WITH CLINICAL AND SUBCLINICAL INFECTIONS IN CAPTIVE ASIAN ELEPHANTS (ELEPHAS MAXIMUS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Lisa; Zong, Jian-Chao; Tan, Jie; Mejia, Alicia; Heaggans, Sarah Y.; Nofs, Sally A.; Stanton, Jeffrey J.; Flanagan, Joseph P.; Howard, Lauren; Latimer, Erin; Stevens, Martina R.; Hoffman, Daryl S.; Hayward, Gary S.; Ling, Paul D.

    2013-01-01

    Elephant endotheliotropic herpesviruses (EEHVs) can cause acute hemorrhagic disease with high mortality rates in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). Recently, a new EEHV type known as EEHV5 has been described, but its prevalence and clinical significance remain unknown. In this report, an outbreak of EEHV5 infection in a herd of captive Asian elephants in a zoo was characterized. In February 2011, a 42-yr-old wild-born female Asian elephant presented with bilaterally swollen temporal glands, oral mucosal hyperemia, vesicles on the tongue, and generalized lethargy. The elephant had a leukopenia and thrombocytopenia. She was treated with flunixin meglumine, famciclovir, and fluids. Clinical signs of illness resolved gradually over 2 wk, and the white blood cell count and platelets rebounded to higher-than-normal values. EEHV5 viremia was detectable starting 1 wk before presentation and peaked at the onset of clinical illness. EEHV5 shedding in trunk secretions peaked after viremia resolved and continued for more than 2 mo. EEHV5 trunk shedding from a female herd mate without any detectable viremia was detected prior to onset of clinical disease in the 42-yr-old elephant, indicating reactivation rather than primary infection in this elephant. Subsequent EEHV5 viremia and trunk shedding was documented in the other five elephants in the herd, who remained asymptomatic, except for 1 day of temporal gland swelling in an otherwise-healthy 1-yr-old calf. Unexpectedly, the two elephants most recently introduced into the herd 40 mo previously shed a distinctive EEHV5 strain from that seen in the other five elephants. This is the first report to document the kinetics of EEHV5 infection in captive Asian elephants and to provide evidence that this virus can cause illness in some animals. PMID:23505714

  16. Herpesvirus pan encodes a functional homologue of BHRF1, the Epstein-Barr virus v-Bcl-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Tracey

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epstein-Barr virus (EBV latently infects about 90% of the human population and is associated with benign and malignant diseases of lymphoid and epithelial origin. BHRF1, an early lytic cycle antigen, is an apoptosis suppressing member of the Bcl-2 family. In vitro studies imply that BHRF1 is dispensable for both virus replication and transformation. However, the fact that BHRF1 is highly conserved not only in all EBV isolates studied to date but also in the analogous viruses Herpesvirus papio and Herpesvirus pan that infect baboons and chimpanzees respectively, suggests BHRF1 may play an important role in vivo. Results Herpesvirus papio BHRF1 has been shown to function in an analogous manner to EBV BHRF1 in response to DNA damaging agents in human keratinocytes. In this study we show that the heterologous expression of the previously uncharacterised Herpesvirus pan BHRF1 in the human Burkitt's lymphoma cell line Ramos-BL provides similar anti-apoptotic functions to that of EBV BHRF1 in response to apoptosis triggered by serum withdrawal, etoposide treatment and ultraviolet (UV radiation. We also map the amino acid changes onto the recently solved structure of the EBV BHRF1 and reveal that these changes are unlikely to alter the 3D structure of the protein. Conclusions These findings show that the functional conservation of BHRF1 extends to a lymphoid background, suggesting that the primate virus proteins interact with cellular proteins that are themselves highly conserved across the higher primates. Further weight is added to this suggestion when we show that the difference in amino acid sequences map to regions on the 3D structure of EBV BHRF1 that are unlikely to change the conformation of the protein.

  17. Cloning of the koi herpesvirus (KHV gene encoding thymidine kinase and its use for a highly sensitive PCR based diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilad Oren

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Outbreaks with mass mortality among common carp Cyprinus carpio carpio and koi Cyprinus carpio koi have occurred worldwide since 1998. The herpes-like virus isolated from diseased fish is different from Herpesvirus cyprini and channel catfish virus and was accordingly designated koi herpesvirus (KHV. Diagnosis of KHV infection based on viral isolation and current PCR assays has a limited sensitivity and therefore new tools for the diagnosis of KHV infections are necessary. Results A robust and sensitive PCR assay based on a defined gene sequence of KHV was developed to improve the diagnosis of KHV infection. From a KHV genomic library, a hypothetical thymidine kinase gene (TK was identified, subcloned and expressed as a recombinant protein. Preliminary characterization of the recombinant TK showed that it has a kinase activity using dTTP but not dCTP as a substrate. A PCR assay based on primers selected from the defined DNA sequence of the TK gene was developed and resulted in a 409 bp amplified fragment. The TK based PCR assay did not amplify the DNAs of other fish herpesviruses such as Herpesvirus cyprini (CHV and the channel catfish virus (CCV. The TK based PCR assay was specific for the detection of KHV and was able to detect as little as 10 fentograms of KHV DNA corresponding to 30 virions. The TK based PCR was compared to previously described PCR assays and to viral culture in diseased fish and was shown to be the most sensitive method of diagnosis of KHV infection. Conclusion The TK based PCR assay developed in this work was shown to be specific for the detection of KHV. The TK based PCR assay was more sensitive for the detection of KHV than previously described PCR assays; it was as sensitive as virus isolation which is the golden standard method for KHV diagnosis and was able to detect as little as 10 fentograms of KHV DNA corresponding to 30 virions.

  18. Dynamics of virus shedding and in situ confirmation of chelonid herpesvirus 5 in Hawaiian green turtles with Fibropapillomatosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, Thierry M.; Dagenais, Julie; Balazs, George H.; Schettle, Nelli; Ackermann, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    Cancers in humans and animals can be caused by viruses, but virus-induced tumors are considered to be poor sites for replication of intact virions (lytic replication). Fibropapillomatosis (FP) is a neoplastic disease associated with a herpesvirus, chelonid herpesvirus 5 (ChHV5), that affects green turtles globally. ChHV5 probably replicates in epidermal cells of tumors, because epidermal intranuclear inclusions (EIIs) contain herpesvirus-like particles. However, although EIIs are a sign of herpesvirus replication, they have not yet been firmly linked to ChHV5. Moreover, the dynamics of viral shedding in turtles are unknown, and there are no serological reagents to confirm actual presence of the specific ChHV5 virus in tissues. The investigators analyzed 381 FP tumors for the presence of EIIs and found that overall, about 35% of green turtles had lytic replication in skin tumors with 7% of tumors showing lytic replication. A few (11%) turtles accounted for more than 30% cases having lytic viral replication, and lytic replication was more likely in smaller tumors. To confirm that turtles were actively replicating ChHV5, a prerequisite for shedding, the investigators used antiserum raised against F-VP26, a predicted capsid protein of ChHV5 that localizes to the host cell nucleus during viral replication. This antiserum revealed F-VP26 in EIIs of tumors, thus confirming the presence of replicating ChHV5. In this light, it is proposed that unlike other virus-induced neoplastic diseases, FP is a disease that may depend on superspreaders, a few highly infectious individuals growing numerous small tumors permissive to viral production, for transmission of ChHV5.

  19. Dynamics of Virus Shedding and In Situ Confirmation of Chelonid Herpesvirus 5 in Hawaiian Green Turtles With Fibropapillomatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, T M; Dagenais, J; Balazs, G H; Schettle, N; Ackermann, M

    2015-11-01

    Cancers in humans and animals can be caused by viruses, but virus-induced tumors are considered to be poor sites for replication of intact virions (lytic replication). Fibropapillomatosis (FP) is a neoplastic disease associated with a herpesvirus, chelonid herpesvirus 5 (ChHV5), that affects green turtles globally. ChHV5 probably replicates in epidermal cells of tumors, because epidermal intranuclear inclusions (EIIs) contain herpesvirus-like particles. However, although EIIs are a sign of herpesvirus replication, they have not yet been firmly linked to ChHV5. Moreover, the dynamics of viral shedding in turtles are unknown, and there are no serological reagents to confirm actual presence of the specific ChHV5 virus in tissues. The investigators analyzed 381 FP tumors for the presence of EIIs and found that overall, about 35% of green turtles had lytic replication in skin tumors with 7% of tumors showing lytic replication. A few (11%) turtles accounted for more than 30% cases having lytic viral replication, and lytic replication was more likely in smaller tumors. To confirm that turtles were actively replicating ChHV5, a prerequisite for shedding, the investigators used antiserum raised against F-VP26, a predicted capsid protein of ChHV5 that localizes to the host cell nucleus during viral replication. This antiserum revealed F-VP26 in EIIs of tumors, thus confirming the presence of replicating ChHV5. In this light, it is proposed that unlike other virus-induced neoplastic diseases, FP is a disease that may depend on superspreaders, a few highly infectious individuals growing numerous small tumors permissive to viral production, for transmission of ChHV5. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. [Development of current smallpox vaccines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksiutov, R A; Gavrilova, E V; Shchelkunov, S N

    2011-01-01

    The review gives data on the history of smallpox vaccination and shows the high topicality of designing the current safe vaccines against orthopoxviruses. Four generations of live smallpox, protein subunit, and DNA vaccines are considered. Analysis of the data published leads to the conclusion that it is promising to use the up-to-date generations of safe smallpox subunit or DNA vaccines for mass primary immunization with possible further revaccination with classical live vaccine.